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Sample records for calculating childhood body

  1. An approach to calculating childhood body burdens of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans which accounts for age-dependent biological half lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paustenbach, D. [ChemRisk, San Francisco, CA (United States); Leung, H.W. [Leung, H.W. Private Consultant, Danbury, CT (United States); Scott, P. [ChemRisk, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kerger, B. [HSRI, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to apply an age-dependent half life model to examine the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens that correspond to selected exposure scenarios involving background dietary and environmental doses of dioxins. The scenarios examined include breast-fed and nonbreast- fed infants feeding for 6 months, other dioxin uptake from foods through age 7, and exposures to urban residential soils at 1 ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). These body burden estimates in children are then compared to the adult body burden estimates corresponding to the range of tolerable daily intakes (1 to 4 pg TEQ/kg-day) proposed by some U.S. and international regulatory/advisory groups.

  2. Effects of childhood body size on breast cancer tumour characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Eriksson, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although a role of childhood body size in postmenopausal breast cancer risk has been established, less is known about its influence on tumour characteristics. Methods We studied the relationships between childhood body size and tumour characteristics in a Swedish population-based case-control study consisting of 2,818 breast cancer cases and 3,111 controls. Our classification of childhood body size was derived from a nine-level somatotype. Relative risks were estimated by odds ra...

  3. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Anisimova, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Khomyakova, I. A.; Konovalova, M. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Vashura, A. Yu

    2012-12-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition - 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  4. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition – 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  5. Calculating body frame size (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... boned category. Determining frame size: To determine the body frame size, measure the wrist with a tape measure and use the following chart to determine whether the person is small, medium, or large boned. Women: Height under 5'2" Small = wrist size less ...

  6. Childhood cognitive ability and body composition in adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpulainen, S M; Heinonen, K; Salonen, M K; Andersson, S; Wolke, D; Kajantie, E; Eriksson, J G; Raikkonen, K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood cognitive ability has been identified as a novel risk factor for adulthood overweight and obesity as assessed by adult body mass index (BMI). BMI does not, however, distinguish fat-free and metabolically harmful fat tissue. Hence, we examined the associations between childhood cognitive abilities and body fat percentage (BF%) in young adulthood. Methods: Participants of the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study (n=816) underwent tests of general reasoning, visuomotor integration, verbal competence and language comprehension (M=100; s.d.=15) at the age of 56 months. At the age of 25 years, they underwent a clinical examination, including measurements of BF% by the InBody 3.0 eight-polar tactile electrode system, weight and height from which BMI (kg m−2) was calculated and waist circumference (cm). Results: After adjustments for sex, age and BMI-for-age s.d. score at 56 months, lower general reasoning and visuomotor integration in childhood predicted higher BMI (kg m−2) increase per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.32, 95% confidence interval −0.60,−0.05; −0.45, −0.75,−0.14, respectively) and waist circumference (cm) increase per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.84, −1.56,−0.11; −1.07,−1.88,−0.26, respectively) in adulthood. In addition, lower visuomotor integration predicted higher BF% per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.62,−1.14,−0.09). Associations between general reasoning and BMI/waist were attenuated when adjusted for smoking, alcohol consumption, intake of fruits and vegetables and physical activity in adulthood, and all associations, except for visuomotor integration and BMI, were attenuated when adjusted for parental and/or own attained education and/or birth weight. Conclusions: Of the measured childhood cognitive abilities, only lower visuomotor integration was associated with BF% in adulthood. This challenges the view that cognitive ability, at least when measured in

  7. Childhood Abuse and Neglect in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didie, Elizabeth R.; Tortolani, Christina C.; Pope, Courtney G.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: No published studies have examined childhood abuse and neglect in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). This study examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of abuse and neglect in individuals with this disorder. Methods: Seventy-five subjects (69.3% female, mean age = 35.4 +/- 12.0) with DSM-IV BDD completed the Childhood Trauma…

  8. Childhood Abuse, Body Image Disturbance, and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…

  9. Particulate matter and early childhood body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjeong; Park, Hyesook; Park, Eun Ae; Hong, Yun-Chul; Ha, Mina; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2016-09-01

    Concerns over adverse effects of air pollution on children's health have been rapidly rising. However, the effects of air pollution on childhood growth remain to be poorly studied. We investigated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to PM10 and children's weight from birth to 60months of age. This birth cohort study evaluated 1129 mother-child pairs in South Korea. Children's weight was measured at birth and at six, 12, 24, 36, and 60months. The average levels of children's exposure to particulate matter up to 10μm in diameter (PM10) were estimated during pregnancy and during the period between each visit until 60months of age. Exposure to PM10 during pregnancy lowered children's weight at 12months. PM10 exposure from seven to 12months negatively affected weight at 12, 36, and 60months. Repeated measures of PM10 and weight from 12 to 60months revealed a negative association between postnatal exposure to PM10 and children's weight. Children continuously exposed to a high level of PM10 (>50μg/m(3)) from pregnancy to 24months of age had weight z-scores of 60 that were 0.44 times lower than in children constantly exposed to a lower level of PM10 (≤50μg/m(3)) for the same period. Furthermore, growth was more vulnerable to PM10 exposure in children with birth weight 3.3kg. Air pollution may delay growth in early childhood and exposure to air pollution may be more harmful to children when their birth weight is low. PMID:27344372

  10. The metabolic syndrome and body composition in childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Chung

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Long-term survivors of childhood cancer appear to have an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome, subsequent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood compared to healthy children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of the metabolic syndrome and associated factors in childhood cancer survivors at a single center in Korea. Methods : We performed a retrospective review of medical records of 98 childhood cancer survivors who were diagnosed and completed anticancer treatment at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea between Jan. 1996 and Dec. 2007. Parameters of metabolic syndrome were evaluated between Jan. 2008 and Dec. 2009. Clinical and biochemical findings including body fat percentage were analyzed. Results : A total of 19 (19.4% patients had the metabolic syndrome. The median body fat percentage was 31.5%. The body mass index and waist circumference were positively correlated with the cranial irradiation dose (r=0.38, P<0.001 and r=0.44, P<0.00, respectively. Sixty-one (62.2% patients had at least one abnormal lipid value. The triglyceride showed significant positive correlation with the body fat percentage (r=0.26, P=0.03. The high density lipoprotein cholesterol showed significant negative correlation with the percent body fat (r=- 0.26, P=0.03. Conclusion : Childhood cancer survivors should have thorough metabolic evaluation including measurement of body fat percentage even if they are not obese. A better understanding of the determinants of the metabolic syndrome during adolescence might provide preventive interventions for improving health outcomes in adulthood.

  11. Relativistic Few-Body Hadronic Physics Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzou, Wayne [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2016-06-20

    The goal of this research proposal was to use ``few-body'' methods to understand the structure and reactions of systems of interacting hadrons (neutrons, protons, mesons, quarks) over a broad range of energy scales. Realistic mathematical models of few-hadron systems have the advantage that they are sufficiently simple that they can be solved with mathematically controlled errors. These systems are also simple enough that it is possible to perform complete accurate experimental measurements on these systems. Comparison between theory and experiment puts strong constraints on the structure of the models. Even though these systems are ``simple'', both the experiments and computations push the limits of technology. The important property of ``few-body'' systems is that the ``cluster property'' implies that the interactions that appear in few-body systems are identical to the interactions that appear in complicated many-body systems. Of particular interest are models that correctly describe physics at distance scales that are sensitive to the internal structure of the individual nucleons. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle implies that in order to be sensitive to physics on distance scales that are a fraction of the proton or neutron radius, a relativistic treatment of quantum mechanics is necessary. The research supported by this grant involved 30 years of effort devoted to studying all aspects of interacting two and three-body systems. Realistic interactions were used to compute bound states of two- and three-nucleon, and two- and three-quark systems. Scattering observables for these systems were computed for a broad range of energies - from zero energy scattering to few GeV scattering, where experimental evidence of sub-nucleon degrees of freedom is beginning to appear. Benchmark calculations were produced, which when compared with calculations of other groups provided an essential check on these complicated calculations. In

  12. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felix, Janine F; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Monnereau, Claire;

    2016-01-01

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We...

  13. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Felix (Janine); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); C. Monnereau; R.J.P. van der Valk (Ralf); E. Stergiakouli (Evie); A. Chesi (Alessandra); R. Gaillard (Romy); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); E. Thiering (Elisabeth); E. Kreiner-Møller (Eskil); A. Mahajan (Anubha); Niina Pitkänen; R. Joro (Raimo); A. Cavadino (Alana); V. Huikari (Ville); S. Franks (Steve); M. Groen-Blokhuis (Maria); D.L. Cousminer (Diana); J.A. Marsh (Julie); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); J.A. Curtin (John); J. Vioque (Jesus); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); R. Myhre (Ronny); T.S. Price (Thomas); Natalia Vilor-Tejedor; L. Yengo (Loic); N. Grarup (Niels); I. Ntalla (Ioanna); W.Q. Ang (Wei); M. Atalay (Mustafa); H. Bisgaard (Hans); A.I.F. Blakemore (Alexandra); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); L. Carstensen (Lisbeth); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); C. Flexeder (Claudia); L. Franke (Lude); F. Geller (Frank); M. Geserick (Mandy); A.L. Hartikainen; C.M.A. Haworth (Claire M.); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel N.); A. Hofman (Albert); J.-C. Holm (Jens-Christian); M. Horikoshi (Momoko); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); J. Huang (Jian); H.N. Kadarmideen (Haja N.); M. Kähönen (Mika); W. Kiess (Wieland); T.A. Lakka (Timo); T.A. Lakka (Timo); A. Lewin (Alex); L. Liang (Liming); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); B. Ma (Baoshan); P. Magnus (Per); S.E. McCormack (Shana E.); G. Mcmahon (George); F.D. Mentch (Frank); C.M. Middeldorp (Christel); C.S. Murray (Clare S.); K. Pahkala (Katja); T.H. Pers (Tune); R. Pfäffle (Roland); D.S. Postma (Dirkje); C. Power (Christine); A. Simpson (Angela); V. Sengpiel (Verena); C. Tiesler (Carla); M. Torrent (Maties); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); R. Vinding (Rebecca); J. Waage (Johannes); J. Wardle (Jane); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); B.S. Zemel (Babette S.); G.V. Dedoussis (George); O. Pedersen (Oluf); P. Froguel (Philippe); J. Sunyer (Jordi); R. Plomin (Robert); B. Jacobsson (Bo); T. Hansen (Torben); J.R. Gonzalez (Juan R.); A. Custovic; O.T. Raitakari (Olli T.); C.E. Pennell (Craig); Elisabeth Widén; D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); G.H. Koppelman (Gerard); S. Sebert (Sylvain); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); E. Hypponen (Elina); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); V. Lindi (Virpi); N. Harri (Niinikoski); A. Körner (Antje); K. Bønnelykke (Klaus); J. Heinrich (Joachim); M. Melbye (Mads); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); S.M. Ring (Susan); G.D. Smith; T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild I.A.); N. Timpson (Nicholas); S.F. Grant; V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent W. V.); H.J. Kalkwarf (Heidi J.); J.M. Lappe (Joan M.); V. Gilsanz (Vicente); S.E. Oberfield (Sharon E.); J.A. Shepherd (John A.); A. Kelly (Andrea)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractA large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown.We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation sc

  14. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, Janine F; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Monnereau, Claire; van der Valk, Ralf J P; Stergiakouli, Evie; Chesi, Alessandra; Gaillard, Romy; Feenstra, Bjarke; Thiering, Elisabeth; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Mahajan, Anubha; Pitkänen, Niina; Joro, Raimo; Cavadino, Alana; Huikari, Ville; Franks, Steve; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Cousminer, Diana L; Marsh, Julie A; Lehtimäki, Terho; Curtin, John A; Vioque, Jesus; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Myhre, Ronny; Price, Thomas S; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Yengo, Loïc; Grarup, Niels; Ntalla, Ioanna; Ang, Wei; Atalay, Mustafa; Bisgaard, Hans; Blakemore, Alexandra I; Bonnefond, Amelie; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Eriksson, Johan; Flexeder, Claudia; Franke, Lude; Geller, Frank; Geserick, Mandy; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Haworth, Claire M A; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Holm, Jens-Christian; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Huang, Jinyan; Kadarmideen, Haja N; Kähönen, Mika; Kiess, Wieland; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria; Lakka, Timo A; Lewin, Alexandra M; Liang, Liming; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Ma, Baoshan; Magnus, Per; McCormack, Shana E; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D; Middeldorp, Christel M; Murray, Clare S; Pahkala, Katja; Pers, Tune H; Pfäffle, Roland; Postma, Dirkje S; Power, Christine; Simpson, Angela; Sengpiel, Verena; Tiesler, Carla M T; Torrent, Maties; Uitterlinden, André G; van Meurs, Joyce B; Vinding, Rebecca; Waage, Johannes; Wardle, Jane; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zemel, Babette S; Dedoussis, George V; Pedersen, Oluf; Froguel, Philippe; Sunyer, Jordi; Plomin, Robert; Jacobsson, Bo; Hansen, Torben; Gonzalez, Juan R; Custovic, Adnan; Raitakari, Olli T; Pennell, Craig E; Widén, Elisabeth; Boomsma, Dorret I; Koppelman, Gerard H; Sebert, Sylvain; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hyppönen, Elina; McCarthy, Mark I; Lindi, Virpi; Harri, Niinikoski; Körner, Antje; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Heinrich, Joachim; Melbye, Mads; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ring, Susan M; Smith, George Davey; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Grant, Struan F A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2015-01-01

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We in

  15. Childhood Gender Nonconformity and Body Dissatisfaction in Gay and Heterosexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Scott M.; Singh, Devendra; Randall, Patrick K.

    2000-01-01

    Employed a measure of recalled childhood gender nonconformity to examine gender role behaviors in association with body dissatisfaction among ethnically diverse, homosexual and heterosexual, predominantly college-aged males. Gay males reported more body dissatisfaction and recalled more childhood gender atypical behaviors. Group differences in…

  16. Associations between childhood body size, composition, blood pressure and adult cardiac structure: the Fels Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy T Sabo

    Full Text Available To determine whether childhood body size, composition and blood pressure are associated with adult cardiac structure by estimating childhood "age of divergence."385 female and 312 male participants in the Fels Longitudinal Study had echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular mass, relative wall thickness, and interventricular septal thickness. Also available were anthropometric measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, percentage body fat, fat free mass, total body fat, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures, taken in both childhood and adulthood. The age of divergence is estimated as the lowest age at which childhood measurements are significantly different between patients with low and high measurements of adult cardiac structure.Childhood body mass index is significantly associated with adult left ventricular mass (indexed by height in men and women (ages of divergence: 7.5 years and 11.5 years, respectively, and with adult interventricular septal thickness in boys (age of divergence: 9 years. Childhood waist circumference indexed by height is associated with left ventricular mass (indexed by height in boys (age of divergence: 8 years. Cardiac structure was in general not associated with childhood body composition and blood pressure.Though results are affected by adult body size, composition and blood pressure, some aspects of adult cardiac structure may have their genesis in childhood body size.

  17. Body fat throughout childhood in 2647 healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Winther, K.;

    2014-01-01

    to 14 years) and DXA %BF (8-14 years). Age- and sex-specific Z-scores for body mass index (BMI), WC and SF %BF were compared. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for agreement of WC, SF %BF and BMI with DXA %BF to identify obese children (>+1 s.d.). RESULTS: %BF differed with age, sex, pubertal...

  18. Childhood body mass index and multiple sclerosis risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munger, Kassandra L; Bentzen, Joan; Laursen, Bjarne;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity in late adolescence has been associated with an increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS); however, it is not known if body size in childhood is associated with MS risk. METHODS: Using a prospective design we examined whether body mass index (BMI) at ages 7-13 years......). RESULTS: Among girls, at each age 7-13 years, a one-unit increase in BMI z-score was associated with an increased risk of MS (HRage 7=1.20, 95% CI: 1.10-1.30; HRage 13=1.18, 95% CI: 1.08-1.28). Girls who were ≥95(th) percentile for BMI had a 1.61-1.95-fold increased risk of MS as compared to girls...... was associated with MS risk among 302,043 individuals in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR). Linking the CSHRR with the Danish MS registry yielded 774 MS cases (501 girls, 273 boys). We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs...

  19. The metabolic syndrome and body composition in childhood cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Hoon Chung; Ki Woong Sung; Keon hee Yoo; Soo Hyun Lee; Sung-Yoon Cho; Se-Hwa Kim; Sung Won Park; Su Jin Kim; Young Bae Sohn; Hong Hoe Koo; Dong-Kyu Jin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose : Long-term survivors of childhood cancer appear to have an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome, subsequent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood compared to healthy children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of the metabolic syndrome and associated factors in childhood cancer survivors at a single center in Korea. Methods : We performed a retrospective review of medical records of 98 childhood cancer survivors who were diagnosed and c...

  20. Measurement and Interpretation of Body Mass Index during Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Susan Kohl; Zemel, Babette S.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of childhood health and disease has changed over the past century, and school nurses are now in a unique position to address the conditions that lead to chronic disease, such as obesity. Measuring body mass index (BMI) during childhood and adolescence is the recommended method for screening and/or monitoring obesity in school…

  1. Birth weight, childhood body mass index, and height in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Bihrmann, Kristine;

    2014-01-01

    High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight......, childhood body mass index (BMI), and height with the risk of breast cancer....

  2. Diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of three-body systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Meng-Jiao; REN Zhong-Zhou; LIN Qi-Hu

    2012-01-01

    The application of the diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm in three-body systems is studied.We develop a program and use it to calculate the property of various three-body systems.Regular Coulomb systems such as atoms,molecules,and ions are investigated.The calculation is then extended to exotic systems where electrons are replaced by muons.Some nuclei with neutron halos are also calculated as three-body systems consisting of a core and two external nucleons.Our results agree well with experiments and others' work.

  3. Atlas3bgeneral: Three-body resonance calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Tabaré

    2016-07-01

    For a massless test particle and given a planetary system, atlas3bgeneral calculates all three body resonances in a given range of semimajor axes with all the planets taken by pairs. Planets are assumed in fixed circular and coplanar orbits and the test particle with arbitrary orbit. A sample input data file to calculate the three-body resonances is available for use with the Fortran77 source code.

  4. Efficiency of whole-body counter for various body size calculated by MCNP5 software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of a whole-body counter for 137Cs and 40K was calculated using the MCNP5 code. The ORNL phantoms of a human body of different body sizes were applied in a sitting position in front of a detector. The aim was to investigate the dependence of efficiency on the body size (age) and the detector position with respect to the body and to estimate the accuracy of real measurements. The calculation work presented here is related to the NaI detector, which is available in the Serbian Whole-body Counter facility in Vinca Inst.. (authors)

  5. Numeric calculation of celestial bodies with spreadsheet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The motion of the planets and moons in our solar system can easily be calculated for any time by the Kepler laws of planetary motion. The Kepler laws are a special case of the gravitational law of Newton, especially if you consider more than two celestial bodies. Therefore it is more basic to calculate the motion by using the gravitational law. But the problem is, that by gravitational law it is not possible to calculate the state of motion with only one step of calculation. The motion has to be numerical calculated for many time intervalls. For this reason, spreadsheet analysis is helpful for students. Skills in programmes like Excel, Calc or Gnumeric are important in professional life and can easily be learnt by students. These programmes can help to calculate the complex motions with many intervalls. The more intervalls are used, the more exact are the calculated orbits. The sutdents will first get a quick course in Excel. After that they calculate with instructions the 2-D-coordinates of the orbits of Moon and Mars. Step by step the students are coding the formulae for calculating physical parameters like coordinates, force, acceleration and velocity. The project is limited to 4 weeks or 8 lessons. So the calcualtion will only include the calculation of one body around the central mass like Earth or Sun. The three-body problem can only be shortly discussed at the end of the project.

  6. Calculating few-body resonances using an oscillator trap

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorov, D V; Thogersen, M

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of calculating the parameters of few-body resonances using the oscillator trap boundary conditions. We place the few-body system in an oscillator trap and calculate the energy spectrum and the strength function of a suitably chosen transition. Broader resonances are identified as Lorentzian peaks in the strength function. Narrower resonances are identified through the pattern of avoided crossings in the spectrum of the system as function of the trap size. As an example we calculate 0+ resonances in 12C within the 3-alpha model.

  7. Childhood body mass index in relation to future risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, M B; Freedman, N D; Gamborg, M;

    2015-01-01

    oesophageal adenocarcinoma in a cohort from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. Analyses included 255 053 children born during 1930-1971. Danish Cancer Registry linkage provided outcomes. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards regression......BACKGROUND: Middle-aged obese adults are at substantially elevated risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. It is unclear whether this risk originates earlier in life. METHODS: We assessed associations between childhood body mass index (BMI) and height-measured annually between ages 7 and 13-with adult....... RESULTS: During 5.4 million person-years of follow-up, 254 (216 males) incident oesophageal adenocarcinomas occurred. At each examined age, cancer risk increased linearly per unit BMI z-score, although associations were only statistically significant for ages 9-13. The HR for the age of 13 years was 1...

  8. Childhood body mass index and the risk of prostate cancer in adult men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI...... to the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 3355 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Body mass index during childhood was positively associated with adult prostate cancer. The hazard ratio of prostate cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.......01-1.10) per BMI z-score at age 7, and 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01-1.10) per BMI z-score at age 13. Estimates were similar and significant at all other ages. However, adjustment for childhood height attenuated the associations at all but the youngest ages as most estimates became nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS...

  9. Planetary3br: Three massive body resonance calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Tabaré

    2016-07-01

    Given two planets P1 and P2 with arbitrary orbits, planetary3br calculates all possible semimajor axes that a third planet P0 can have in order for the system to be in a three body resonance; these are identified by the combination k0*P0 + k1*P1 + k2*P2. P1 and P2 are assumed to be not in an exact two-body resonance. The program also calculates three "strengths" of the resonance, one for each planet, which are only indicators of the dynamical relevance of the resonance on each planet. Sample input data are available along with the Fortran77 source code.

  10. The influence of body mass on calculation of power during lower-body resistance exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McBride, Jeffrey M; McCaulley, Grant O

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine the influence of body mass in the calculation of power and the subsequent effect on the load-power relationship in the jump squat, squat, and power clean. Twelve Division I male athletes were evaluated on their performance across various intensities in all the 3 lifts. Power output was calculated using 3 separate techniques: (a) including the contribution of body mass in force output (IBM), (b) including the contribution of the mass of body less the mass of the shanks and feet in force output (IBMS), and (c) excluding the contribution of body mass in force output (EBM). Peak power, peak power relative to body mass, and peak force calculated using EBM were significantly (p power curve was affected when derived via the EBM method as a result of the underrepresentation of power output at light loads. This was due to the majority of the load being neglected when the mass of the body was removed from the system mass used in the calculation of force. This study indicates that not only is the actual power output significantly lower when body mass is excluded from the force output of a lower body movement, but the load-power relationship is altered as well. Therefore, it is imperative that the mass of the individual being tested is incorporated into the calculation of force used to determine power output during lower-body movements. PMID:18076268

  11. A genome-wide association study of body mass index across early life and childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole M Warrington; Howe, Laura D; Paternoster, Lavinia; Kaakinen, Marika; Herrala, Sauli; Huikari, Ville; Wu, Yan Yan; Kemp, John P.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Pourcain, Beate St; Davey Smith, George; Tilling, Kate; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Pennell, Craig E.; Evans, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have investigated the effect of known adult body mass index (BMI) associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on BMI in childhood. There has been no genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BMI trajectories over childhood. Methods: We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of BMI trajectories from 1 to 17 years of age in 9377 children (77 967 measurements) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Ra...

  12. A genome-wide association study of body mass index across early life and childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Warrington, N.; Howe, L; Paternoster, L.; Kaakinen, M.; Herrala, S. (Sauli); Huikari, V.; Wu, Y.; Kemp, J.; Timpson, N.; St Pourcain, B.; Smith, G.; Tilling, K; Jarvelin, M; Pennell, C; Evans, D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have investigated the effect of known adult body mass index (BMI) associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on BMI in childhood. There has been no genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BMI trajectories over childhood. Methods: We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of BMI trajectories from 1 to 17 years of age in 9377 children (77 967 measurements) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Ra...

  13. Body drop into a fluid tank and dynamic loads calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarov Aleksandr Andreevich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The theory of a body striking a fluid began intensively developing due to the tasks of hydroplanes landing. For the recent years the study of a stroke and submersion of bodies into fluid became even more current. We face them in the process of strength calculation of ship hulls and other structures in modern technology. These tasks solution represents great mathematical difficulty even in case of the mentioned simplifications. These difficulties emerge due to the unsteady character of fluid motion in case of body submersion, and also jet and spray phenomena, which lead to discontinuous motions. On the basis of G.V. Logvinovich’s concept the problem of loads determination with consideration for air gap is solved for both a body and reservoir enclosing structures when a body falls into a fluid. Numerical method is based on the decay of an arbitrary discontinuity.

  14. Atlas2bgeneral: Two-body resonance calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Tabaré

    2016-07-01

    For a massless test particle and given a planetary system, Atlas2bgeneral calculates all resonances in a given range of semimajor axes with all the planets taken one by one. Planets are assumed in fixed circular and coplanar orbits and the test particle with arbitrary orbit. A sample input data file to calculate the two-body resonances is available for use with the Fortran77 source code.

  15. Development and validation of parenting measures for body image and eating patterns in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M.; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based parenting interventions are important in assisting parents to help their children develop healthy body image and eating patterns. To adequately assess the impact of parenting interventions, valid parent measures are required. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the validity and reliability of two new parent measures, the Parenting Intentions for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Parenting Intentions BEC) and the Knowledge Test for Body image an...

  16. Calculation of electromagnetic observables in few-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An introduction to the calculation of electromagnetic observables in few-body systems is given by studying two examples in the trinucleon system: (1) the elastic electron scattering charge form factor in configuration space and momentum space and (2) the two-body photodisintegration of 3H leading to a neutron-deuteron final state in a separable potential formalism. In the discussion of charge form factor calculations, a number of related topics are touched upon: the relation of structure in Psi to the properties of simple NN forces, the Faddeev and Schroedinger solution to the harmonic oscillator problem, the Rosenbluth formula for electron scattering from a spin-1/2 nuclear target (e.g., the proton or 3H), and the charge density operator. Formulae for 3He and 3H charge form factors in a central force approximation are given in configuration and momentum space. The physics of these form factors is discussed in light of results from realistic nucleon-nucleon potential model calculations, including the effects of two-pion-exchange three-body force models. Topics covered are the rms charge densities, and the Coulomb energy of 3He. In the discussion of the 3H photodisintegration, the Siegert form of the electric dipole operator (in the long wave length limit) is derived as are the separable potential equations which describe the off-shell transition amplitudes which connect nucleon-plus-corrected-pair states. Expressions for the Born amplitudes required to complete the two-body photodisintegration amplitude calculation are given. Numerical results for a model central force problem are discussed and compared with an approximate calculation. Comparisons with 3H(γ,n)d and 3He(γ,p)d data are made, and the significant features of the exact theoretical calculation are outlined. 61 refs., 26 figs

  17. Hyperspherical Three-Body Calculation for Exotic Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground state energies of atomic three-body systems like negatively charged hydrogen, normal helium, positively charged-lithium, beryllium, carbon, oxygen, neon and negatively charged exotic-muonium and positronium atoms have been calculated adopting hyperspherical harmonics expansion method. Calculation of matrix elements of two body interactions needed in the hyperspherical harmonics expansion method for a three body system is greatly simplified by expanding the bra-and ket-vector states in the hyperspherical harmonics (HH) basis states appropriate for the partition corresponding to the interacting pair. This involves the Raynal-Revai coefficients (RRC), which are the transformation coefficients between the HH bases corresponding to the two partitions. Use of RRC become particularly essential for the numerical solution of three-body Schroedinger equation where the two-body potentials are other than Coulomb or harmonic. However in the present work the technique is used for two electron atoms 1H-(p+e-e-), D-(d+e-e-), Mu-(μ+e-e-), 4He(4He2+e-e-), 6Li(6Li3+e-e-), 10Be( 10Be4+e-e-), 12C(12C6+e-e-), 16O(16O8+e-e-) etc. and the exotic positronium negative ion Ps-(e+e-e-) where the interactions are purely Coulomb. The relative convergence in ground state binding energy with increasing Kmax for 20Ne has been demonstrated as a representative case. The calculated energies at Kmax = 28 using RRC's have been compared with those obtained by a straight forward manner in some representative cases to demonstrate the appropriateness of the use of RRC. The extrapolated energies have also been compared with those found in the literature. The calculated binding energies agree within the computational error. (author)

  18. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, HM; Geskus, Ronald B; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J H; Caron, Hubert N; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights. Th

  19. Effects of Childhood Stress Can Accumulate in the Body. Science Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This brief presents the findings of a study that examined the effects of "allostatic load" on children in poverty at age 9 and 13. "Allostatic load" refers to the measurement of the cumulative wear and tear on the body that results from experiencing stress. Research shows that high allostatic load in childhood is associated with long-term…

  20. Three-body calculation of Be double- hypernuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hossein Sadeghi; Hassan Khalili; Shahla Nahidinejad

    2014-09-01

    Energy levels and bond energy of the double- hypernucleus are calculated by considering two- and three-cluster interactions. Interactions between constituent particles are contact interactions for reproducing the low binding energy of nuclei. The effective action is constructed to involve three-body forces. In this paper, we also compare the obtained binding energy result with experimental and other cluster and shell models. The results of all schemes agree very well showing the high accuracy of our method to calculate the other many-body hyperonic nuclei using three-cluster interactions. The experimental values of $B_{}$(${}^{10}_{}$ Be) = (11.90 ± 0.13) MeV, $B_{}$(${}^{11}_{}$Be) = (20.49 ± 1.15) MeV and $B_{}$(${}^{12}_{}$Be) = (22.23 ± 1.15) MeV seem to be more compatible with our calculated value of $B_{}$(${}^{10}_{}$Be) = 14.04 MeV, $B_{}$(${}^{11}_{}$Be) = 19.31 MeV and $B_{}$(${}^{12}_{}$Be) = 21.45 MeV in comparison with the other calculated results by Hiyama et al, Gal et al and Guleria et al.

  1. The contribution of physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence to adult women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of both past and current physical activity and media use on women's body image. A sample of 144 female undergraduate students completed measures of current physical activity, media use and body image, as well as providing retrospective reports of their physical activity participation and media usage during childhood and adolescence. Regression analyses showed that childhood experiences of physical activity and media use predicted adult body-image concerns more strongly than current activities. It was concluded that early experiences of both physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence play an important role in the development of adult women's body image.

  2. [Childhood body mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, L.W.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    The severity of the long term consequences of the current childhood obesity epidemic on coronary heart disease is unknown. Therefore we investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) at ages 7-13 years and heart disease in adulthood among 276,835 Danish schoolchildren. We found...... that higher BMI during this period of childhood is associated with an increased risk of any, non-fatal and fatal heart disease in adulthood. Worldwide, as children are becoming heavier, our findings suggest that greater numbers of children are at risk of having coronary heart disease in adulthood...

  3. Childhood social circumstances and body mass index in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne-Mette; Lund, Rikke; Kriegbaum, Margit;

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether father's social class was associated with body mass index (BMI) at age 20 and 50 years in a cohort of men born in 1953 and to explore the role of birth weight, cognitive function (IQ), and educational status in these relationships.......To examine whether father's social class was associated with body mass index (BMI) at age 20 and 50 years in a cohort of men born in 1953 and to explore the role of birth weight, cognitive function (IQ), and educational status in these relationships....

  4. Body mass index trajectory classes and incident asthma in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzehak, Peter; Wijga, Alet H; Keil, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    The causal link between body mass index (BMI) or obesity and asthma in children is still being debated. Analyses of large longitudinal studies with a sufficient number of incident cases and in which the time-dependent processes of both excess weight and asthma development can be validly analyzed...

  5. Childhood Height and Body Mass Index Were Associated with Risk of Adult Thyroid Cancer in a Large Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Berrington de González, Amy;

    2014-01-01

    Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7...... to 13 years with risk of thyroid cancer in later life. The study population included 321,085 children from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born between 1930 and 1989 in Copenhagen, Denmark, with measurements of height and weight from 7 to 13 years of age. These data were linked...... with the Danish Cancer Registry to identify incident thyroid cancer cases (1968-2010). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for age- and sex-specific height and BMI SD scores (SDS) using proportional hazards models stratified by birth cohort and sex. During follow-up (median = 38...

  6. Growth in Body Mass Index from Childhood into Adolescence: The Role of Sleep Duration and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Bagley, Erika J.; Keiley, Margaret K.; Erath, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relations between sleep and body mass index (BMI) from late childhood ([X-bar] age = 9.44 at T1) to early adolescence ([X-bar] age = 11.36 at T3) with a relatively large (n = 273 at T1) and diverse (35% African Americans) sample. Sleep was assessed with actigraphy-based sleep minutes and self-reported sleep…

  7. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnhoven, Trudy M.A.; van Raaij, Joop M.A.; Agneta Sjöberg; Nazih Eldin; Agneta Yngve; Marie Kunešová; Gregor Starc; Rito, Ana I.; Vesselka Duleva; Maria Hassapidou; Éva Martos; Iveta Pudule; Ausra Petrauskiene; Victoria Farrugia Sant'Angelo; Ragnhild Hovengen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School perso...

  8. Bone markers after total body irradiation in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto-Silva, A-C; Trivin, C; Espérou, H; Michon, J; Baruchel, A; Souberbielle, J-C; Brauner, R

    2010-03-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) can cause short stature because of decreased growth hormone (GH) and skeletal abnormalities. To evaluate the plasma concentrations of markers of bone formation (osteocalcin and procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide, P1NP) and resorption (carboxy-terminal telopeptide, CTX), in patients (n=65) who had been given TBI at 6.6+/-0.4 years were evaluated at 9.8+/-0.4 years. Patients given single 10 Gy or fractionated 12 Gy TBI had similar characteristics, except that plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) was lower in those given a single 10 Gy. Seven had lower osteocalcin and two had higher CTX than controls. Bone markers (as zs) were positively correlated (osteocalcin with P1NP, rho=0.42, P=0.0007; osteocalcin with CTX, rho=0.3, Pirradiated when young (P=0.0002) or given single TBI lost more height between TBI and adult height. Most TBI patients had normal bone formation and resorption markers. Thus, impaired bone turnover is probably not the cause of their short stature and poor response to GH.

  9. Unitary three-body calculation of nucleon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering phase parameters based on a unitary, relativistic, pion-exchange model. The results are highly dependent on the off-shell amplitudes of πN scattering. The isobar-dominated model for the P33 interaction leads to too small pion production rates owing to its strong suppression of off-shell pions. We propose to expand the idea of the Δ-isobar model in such a manner as to incorporate a background (non-pole) interaction. The two-potential model, which was first applied to the P11 partial wave by Mizutani and Koltun, is applied also to the P33 wave. Our phenomenological model for πN interaction in the P33 partial wave differs from the conventional model only in its off-shell extrapolation, and has two different variants for the πN → Δ vertex. The three-body approach of Kloet and Silbar is extended such that the background interactions can be included straightfowardly. We make detailed comparisons of the new model with the conventional one and find that our model adequately reproduces the 1D2 phase parameters as well as those of peripheral partial waves. We also find that the longitudinal total cross section difference ΔσL(pp → NNπ) comes closer to the data compared to Kloet and Silbar. We discuss about the backward pion propagation in the three-body calculation, and the Pauli-principle violating states for the background P11 interaction. (author)

  10. Few-body calculations of η-nuclear quasibound states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Barnea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on precise hyperspherical-basis calculations of ηNN and ηNNN quasibound states, using energy dependent ηN interaction potentials derived from coupled-channel models of the S11 N⁎(1535 nucleon resonance. The ηN attraction generated in these models is too weak to generate a two-body bound state. No ηNN bound-state solution was found in our calculations in models where ReaηN≲1 fm, with aηN the ηN scattering length, covering thereby the majority of N⁎(1535 resonance models. A near-threshold ηNNN bound-state solution, with η separation energy of less than 1 MeV and width of about 15 MeV, was obtained in the 2005 Green–Wycech model where Re aηN≈1 fm. The role of handling self consistently the subthreshold ηN interaction is carefully studied.

  11. Association of a body mass index genetic risk score with growth throughout childhood and adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Warrington

    Full Text Available While the number of established genetic variants associated with adult body mass index (BMI is growing, the relationships between these variants and growth during childhood are yet to be fully characterised. We examined the association between validated adult BMI associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and growth trajectories across childhood. We investigated the timing of onset of the genetic effect and whether it was sex specific.Children from the ALSPAC and Raine birth cohorts were used for analysis (n = 9,328. Genotype data from 32 adult BMI associated SNPs were investigated individually and as an allelic score. Linear mixed effects models with smoothing splines were used for longitudinal modelling of the growth parameters and measures of adiposity peak and rebound were derived.The allelic score was associated with BMI growth throughout childhood, explaining 0.58% of the total variance in BMI in females and 0.44% in males. The allelic score was associated with higher BMI at the adiposity peak (females  =  0.0163 kg/m(2 per allele, males  =  0.0123 kg/m(2 per allele and earlier age (-0.0362 years per allele in males and females and higher BMI (0.0332 kg/m(2 per allele in females and 0.0364 kg/m(2 per allele in males at the adiposity rebound. No gene:sex interactions were detected for BMI growth.This study suggests that known adult genetic determinants of BMI have observable effects on growth from early childhood, and is consistent with the hypothesis that genetic determinants of adult susceptibility to obesity act from early childhood and develop over the life course.

  12. Body mass index in childhood and adult risk of primary liver cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Gamborg, Michael; Holst, Claus;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Childhood overweight increases the risk of early development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which may predispose to carcinogenesis. We investigated if childhood body size during school ages was associated with the risk of primary liver cancer in adults. METHODS: A cohort......-specific reference. Information on liver cancer was obtained from the National Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of liver cancer were estimated by Cox regression. RESULTS: During 6,963,105 person-years of follow-up, 438 cases of primary liver cancer were recorded. The hazard ratio...... (95% CI) of adult liver cancer was 1.20 (1.07-1.33) and 1.30 (1.16-1.46) per 1-unit BMI z-score at 7 years and 13 years of age, respectively. Similar associations were found in boys and girls, for hepatocellular carcinoma only, across years of birth, and after accounting for diagnoses of viral...

  13. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudy M.A. Wijnhoven

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively. School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children’s weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children’s BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%-95% of schools and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30-0.93. Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70 countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20-1.02, indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the

  14. Final height and gonad function after total body irradiation during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto-Silva, A-C; Trivin, C; Esperou, H; Michon, J; Baruchel, A; Lemaire, P; Brauner, R

    2006-09-01

    Short stature and gonad failure can be a side effect of total body irradiation (TBI). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the factors influencing final height and gonad function after TBI. Fifty young adults given TBI during childhood were included. Twenty-seven had been treated with growth hormone (GH). Those given single 10 Grays (Gy) or fractionated 12 Gy TBI had similar characteristics, GH peaks, final heights and gonad function. After the end of GH treatment, 11/20 patients evaluated had GH peak >10 microg/l. Final height was irradiated (Pirradiation, taking into account the GH peak. The plasma FSH and inhibin B concentrations may predict sperm function.

  15. Body Mass Index: Calculator for Child and Teen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sample Link BMI Percentile Calculator for Child and Teen English Version Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Accurately At Home BMI Calculator for Child and Teen ( English | Metric ) 1. Birth Date : Month: Day: Year: ...

  16. DNA methylation patterns in cord blood DNA and body size in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L Relton

    Full Text Available Epigenetic markings acquired in early life may have phenotypic consequences later in development through their role in transcriptional regulation with relevance to the developmental origins of diseases including obesity. The goal of this study was to investigate whether DNA methylation levels at birth are associated with body size later in childhood.A study design involving two birth cohorts was used to conduct transcription profiling followed by DNA methylation analysis in peripheral blood. Gene expression analysis was undertaken in 24 individuals whose biological samples and clinical data were collected at a mean ± standard deviation (SD age of 12.35 (0.95 years, the upper and lower tertiles of body mass index (BMI were compared with a mean (SD BMI difference of 9.86 (2.37 kg/m(2. This generated a panel of differentially expressed genes for DNA methylation analysis which was then undertaken in cord blood DNA in 178 individuals with body composition data prospectively collected at a mean (SD age of 9.83 (0.23 years. Twenty-nine differentially expressed genes (>1.2-fold and p<10(-4 were analysed to determine DNA methylation levels at 1-3 sites per gene. Five genes were unmethylated and DNA methylation in the remaining 24 genes was analysed using linear regression with bootstrapping. Methylation in 9 of the 24 (37.5% genes studied was associated with at least one index of body composition (BMI, fat mass, lean mass, height at age 9 years, although only one of these associations remained after correction for multiple testing (ALPL with height, p(Corrected = 0.017.DNA methylation patterns in cord blood show some association with altered gene expression, body size and composition in childhood. The observed relationship is correlative and despite suggestion of a mechanistic epigenetic link between in utero life and later phenotype, further investigation is required to establish causality.

  17. A Mathematica program for the calculation of five-body Moshinsky brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuyuan; Mu, Xueli; Liu, Tingting; Chen, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Five-body Moshinsky brackets that relate harmonic oscillator wavefunctions in two different sets of Jacobi coordinates make it straightforward to calculate some matrix elements in the variational calculations of five-body systems. The analytical expression of these transformation coefficients and the computer code written in the Mathematica language are presented here for accurate calculations.

  18. A Population-Based Study of Childhood Cancer Survivors’ Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echo L. Warner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Population-based studies are needed to estimate the prevalence of underweight or overweight/obese childhood cancer survivors. Procedure. Adult survivors (diagnosed ≤20 years were identified from the linked Utah Cancer Registry and Utah Population Database. We included survivors currently aged ≥20 years and ≥5 years from diagnosis (N=1060, and a comparison cohort selected on birth year and sex (N=5410. BMI was calculated from driver license data available from 2000 to 2010. Multivariable generalized linear regression models were used to calculate prevalence relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI of BMI outcomes for survivors and the comparison cohort. Results. Average time since diagnosis was 18.5 years (SD=7.8, and mean age at BMI for both groups was 30.5 (survivors SD=7.7, comparison SD=8.0. Considering all diagnoses, survivors were not at higher risk for being underweight or overweight/obese than the comparison. Male central nervous system tumor survivors were overweight (RR=1.12, 95% CI 1.01–1.23 more often than the comparison. Female survivors, who were diagnosed at age 10 and under, had a 10% higher risk of being obese than survivors diagnosed at ages 16–20 (P<0.05. Conclusion. While certain groups of childhood cancer survivors are at risk for being overweight/obese, in general they do not differ from population estimates.

  19. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher body mass index in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether different types of childhood adversity are associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, we studied 147 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 41% of whom reported exposure to at least one adversity (maltreatment, abuse, peer victimization, or witness to community or domestic violence). We examined associations between adversity type and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores using linear regression and overweight and obese status using logistic regression. We adjusted for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounders and tested for effect modification by gender. Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or peer victimization did not have significantly different BMI z-scores than those without exposure (p>0.05 for all comparisons). BMI z-scores were higher in adolescents who had experienced physical abuse (β=0.50, 95% CI 0.12-0.91) or witnessed domestic violence (β=0.85, 95% CI 0.30-1.40). Participants who witnessed domestic violence had almost 6 times the odds of being overweight or obese (95% CI: 1.09-30.7), even after adjustment for potential confounders. No gender-by-adversity interactions were found. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher adolescent BMI. This finding highlights the importance of screening for violence in pediatric practice and providing obesity prevention counseling for youth. PMID:26303827

  20. Factorization in large-scale many-body calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Calvin W.; Ormand, W. Erich; Krastev, Plamen G.

    2013-01-01

    One approach for solving interacting many-fermion systems is the configuration-interaction method, also sometimes called the interacting shell model, where one finds eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian in a many-body basis of Slater determinants (antisymmeterized products of single-particle wavefunctions). The resulting Hamiltonian matrix is typically very sparse, but for large systems the nonzero matrix elements can nonetheless require terabytes or more of storage. An alternate algorithm, applica...

  1. Effects of body size and change in body size from infancy through childhood on body mass index in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, L G; Rasmussen, K M; Michaelsen, K F;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight and weight gain throughout infancy are related to later obesity, but whether the strength of the associations varies during the infancy period is uncertain.Aims:Our aims were to identify the period of infancy when change in body weight has the strongest association with adult b...... first month of life.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 19 June 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.108....

  2. Salivary latent trait cortisol (LTC): Relation to lipids, blood pressure, and body composition in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ellen W; Place, Rebecca; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Visich, Paul; Hoffman, Eric; Walker, Sheila O; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-09-01

    Adversity experienced early in life has the potential to influence physical health later in life. The stress-health relation may be partially explained by stress-related effects on cardiovascular risk factors. This study explored links between individual differences in trait-like variation in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with cardiovascular risk factors in children. 474 children (M age=9.22years; 54% female; 83% Caucasian) were included in this study, in which cardiovascular risk was assessed using the following indices - triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), glucose (Glu); resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, and % fat. Saliva samples were measured 3 times a day (waking, 30min post-waking and bedtime) over 3days (later assayed for cortisol). A latent trait cortisol (LTC) factor explained 43% of the variance in cortisol levels within and across days. Confirmatory factor analysis identified three cardiovascular risk factors: lipids (i.e., TG and HDL-C), blood pressure (i.e., systolic and diastolic), and body composition (i.e., BMI, Waist-to-hip ratio, and % fat). Lower salivary LTC was associated with higher lipids, higher blood pressure, and higher body composition. The findings further support the internal and external validity of the LTC construct, and may also advance our understanding of the link between interindividual differences in HPA axis activity and cardiovascular risk in middle childhood. PMID:27262343

  3. Lattice location of dopant atoms: An -body model calculation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N K Deepak

    2010-03-01

    The channelling and scattering yields of 1 MeV -particles in the $\\langle 1 0 0 \\rangle$, $\\langle 1 1 0 \\rangle and $\\langle 1 1 1 \\rangle$ directions of silicon implanted with bismuth and ytterbium have been simulated using -body model. The close encounter yield from dopant atoms in silicon is determined from the flux density, using the Bontemps and Fontenille method. All previous works reported in literature so far have been done with computer programmes using a statistical analytical expression or by a binary collision model or a continuum model. These results at the best gave only the transverse displacement of the lattice site from the concerned channelling direction. Here we applied the superior -body model to study the yield from bismuth in silicon. The finding that bismuth atom occupies a position close to the silicon substitutional site is new. The transverse displacement of the suggested lattice site from the channelling direction is consistent with the experimental results. The above model is also applied to determine the location of ytterbium in silicon. The present values show good agreement with the experimental results.

  4. Body issues, sexual satisfaction, and relationship status satisfaction in long-term childhood cancer survivors and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Fults, Marci; Olshefski, Randal S.; Sanderman, Robbert; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveResearch on body image and sexual satisfaction after adult onset cancer has shown significant and lasting impairments regarding survivors' sexuality and romantic relationships. However, knowledge about these topics and their associations in adult survivors of childhood cancer is largely lac

  5. The Relationship of Severe Early Childhood Caries and Body Mass Index in a Group of 3- to 6-year-old Children in Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edalat A.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: Early childhood caries can cause pain, discomfort and also inability to have a healthy nutrition .Malnutrition can be characterized when there is a weight, height, and body mass index (BMI deficiency. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the severe early childhood caries (based on the dmft index and BMI in pre-school children in Shiraz. Materials and Method: A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was enrolled on 202 healthy preschool children with the age range of 3-6 years recruited from the kin-dergartens of different socio- economical parts of Shiraz, Iran. The Anthropometric measurements, weight and height were evaluated. The Z-scores were calculated em-ploying WHO Anthro software (www.who.int/childgrowth/software/en/ index.html to elucidate the subject’s status on the age- and sex-specific growth chart. Every Child who has received two Z-scores under the normal value (< -2 was considered as ab-normal. The relationship between dmft index and BMI was then investigated. Results: The mean of dmft was 4.13. From children with severe early childhood caries, 12.5%were under weight, 5% had height deficiency and 19.5% had BMI deficiency, however, there was no significant relationship between increasing dmft and the height, weight and BMI deficiency. Conclusion: There was not a linear correlation between severe early childhood caries and BMI, height, and weight deficiency. An incidence of 55% was yielded for severe early childhood caries which was an additional finding of this study.

  6. Temporal Relationship Between Childhood Body Mass Index and Insulin and Its Impact on Adult Hypertension: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Huijie; Li, Ying; Sun, Dianjianyi; Li, Shengxu; Fernandez, Camilo; Qi, Lu; Harville, Emily; Bazzano, Lydia; He, Jiang; Xue, Fuzhong; Chen, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Although obesity and insulin resistance are closely correlated, their temporal sequences in early life and influence on adult hypertension are largely unknown. This study aims to delineate the temporal relationship patterns between body mass index (BMI) and insulin in childhood and their impact on adult hypertension. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 990 adults (630 whites and 360 blacks) who had BMI and fasting insulin measured twice 5.4 years apart in childhood (mean age, 10.5 years at baseline and 15.9 years at follow-up) and blood pressure measured 14.7 years later in adulthood (mean age, 30.5 years). Cross-lagged panel and mediation analysis models were used to examine the temporal relationship between childhood BMI and insulin and its impact on adult hypertension. After adjusting for age, race, sex, and follow-up years, the cross-lagged path coefficient (β=0.33; P0.05) from baseline insulin to follow-up BMI in childhood with Pchildhood insulin on the childhood BMI-adult hypertension association was estimated at 21.1% (Pchildhood, and this 1-directional relation plays a role in the development of hypertension. PMID:27432860

  7. Nuclear matter with three-body forces from self-consistent spectral calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Soma, Vittorio; Bozek, Piotr

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the equation of state of nuclear matter in the self-consistent T-matrix scheme including three-body nuclear interactions. We study the effect of the three-body force on the self-energies and spectral functions of nucleons in medium.

  8. Childhood body-mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The worldwide epidemic of childhood obesity is progressing at an alarming rate. Risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) are already identifiable in overweight children. The severity of the long-term effects of excess childhood weight on CHD, however, remains unknown. METHODS: We...

  9. Methods for calculating phase angle from measured whole body bioimpedance modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbotten, Bernt J.; Martinsen, Ørjan G.; Grimnes, Sverre

    2010-04-01

    Assuming the Cole equation we have developed a method to calculate the Cole parameters (R0, R∞, α, τZ) and the phase angle from four frequency measurements of impedance modulus values. The values obtained compare well with impedance measurements obtained using the Solatron 1294/1260 as obtained when making whole body measurements on five persons. We have also performed calculations using an algorithm based on the Kramers-Kronig approach. The results which are presented show that it is possible to obtain complete body impedance data combining relatively simple measurements with advanced calculation using a laptop. This extends the potential of portable equipment, since the measurements will require less instrumentation.

  10. Comparison of classical and quantal calculations of helium three-body recombination

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Wang, Jia; Greene, Chris H

    2013-01-01

    A general method to study classical scattering in $n$-dimension is developed. Through classical trajectory calculations, the three-body recombination is computed as a function of the collision energy for helium atoms, as an example. Quantum calculations are also performed for the $J^{\\Pi}$ = $0^{+}$ symmetry of the three-body recombination rate in order to compare with the classical results, yielding good agreement for $E\\gtrsim$ 1 K. The classical threshold law is derived and numerically confirmed for the Newtonian three-body recombination rate. Finally, a relationship is found between the quantum and classical three-body hard hypersphere elastic cross sections which is analogous to the well-known shadow scattering in two-body collisions.

  11. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya;

    2011-01-01

    occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...... sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation....... Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...

  12. Chondrosarcoma arising within a radiation-induced osteochondroma several years following childhood total body irradiation: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Shuji [Kurume University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Fukuoka (Japan); Shen, Robert K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Laack, Nadia N. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rochester, MN (United States); Inwards, Carrie Y. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Pathology, Rochester, MN (United States); Wenger, Doris E.; Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Malignant degeneration arising in radiation-induced osteochondromas is extremely rare. We report a case of a 34-year-old man with a chondrosarcoma arising from an osteochondroma of the left posterior eighth rib that developed following total body irradiation received as part of the conditioning regimen prior to bone marrow transplantation at age 8. To our knowledge, this is only the fourth reported case of a chondrosarcoma arising within a radiation-induced osteochondroma and the first case occurring following childhood total body irradiation. (orig.)

  13. Ab initio calculations of many-body interactions for compressed solid argon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chunling; Liu, Fusheng; Cai, Lingcang; Yuan, Hongkuan; Chen, Hong; Zhong, Mingmin

    2015-11-01

    An investigation on many-body effects of solid argon at high pressure was conducted based on a many-body expansion of interaction energy. The three- and four-body terms in the expansion were calculated using the coupled-cluster method with single, double, and noniterative triple theory and incremental method, in which the configurations of argon trimers and tetramers were chosen as the same as those in the actual lattice. The four-body interactions in compressed solid argon were estimated for the first time, and the three-body interaction ab initio calculations were extended to a small distance. It shows that the four-body contribution is repulsive at high densities and effectively cancels the three-body lattice energy. The dimer potential plus three-body interaction can well reproduce the measurements of equation of state at pressure approximately lower than ∼60 GPa, when including the four-body effects extends the agreement up to the maximum experimental pressure of 114 GPa. PMID:26547175

  14. Early Childhood Caries and Body Mass Index in Young Children from Low Income Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti Queiroz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between early childhood caries (ECC and obesity is controversial. This cross-sectional survey investigated this association in children from low-income families in Goiania, Goias, Brazil and considered the role of several social determinants. A questionnaire examining the characteristics of the children and their families was administered to the primary caregiver during home visits. In addition, children (approximately 6 years of age had their height, weight, and tooth condition assessed. The primary ECC outcome was categorized as one of the following: caries experience (decayed, missing, filled tooth: “dmft” index > 0, active ECC (decayed teeth > 0, or active severe ECC (decayed teeth ≥ 6. Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The participants in the current study consisted of 269 caregiver-child dyads, 88.5% of whom were included in the Family Health Program. Caregivers were mostly mothers (67.7%, were 35.3 ± 10.0 years old on average and had 9.8 ± 3.1 years of formal education. The mean family income was 2.3 ± 1.5 times greater than the Brazilian minimum wage. On average, the children in the current study were 68.7 ± 3.8 months old. Of these, 51.7% were boys, 23.4% were overweight or obese, 45.0% had active ECC, and 17.1% had severe ECC. The average body mass index (BMI of the children was 15.9 ± 2.2, and their dmft index was 2.5 ± 3.2. BMI was not associated with any of the three categories of dental caries (p > 0.05. In contrast, higher family incomes were significantly associated with the lack of caries experience in children (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.01–1.50, but the mother’s level of education was not significantly associated with ECC.

  15. The Masquerades of a Childhood Ciliary Body Medulloepithelioma: A Case of Chronic Uveitis, Cataract, and Secondary Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Chua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ciliary body medulloepitheliomas in childhood often masquerade other intraocular conditions due to its insidious nature as well as its secondary effects on proximal intraocular tissues in the anterior chamber. We report a case where a ciliary body medulloepithelioma in a two-year-old boy presents with chronic uveitis, cataract, and an uncontrolled secondary glaucoma after an innocuous blunt ocular trauma. The diagnosis was only made after the occurrence of a ciliary body mass. We discuss the clinical features of ciliary body medulloepitheliomas, the implications of a delayed diagnosis and treatment as well as the concern of periorbital tumor seeding with the use of an aqueous shunt implant in this case.

  16. Many-body theory calculations of positron binding to negative ions

    OpenAIRE

    Ludlow, J. A.; Gribakin, G. F.

    2010-01-01

    A many-body theory approach developed by the authors [Phys. Rev. A 70, 032720 (2004)] is applied to positron bound states and annihilation rates in atomic systems. Within the formalism, full account of virtual positronium (Ps) formation is made by summing the electron-positron ladder diagram series, thus enabling the theory to include all important many-body correlation effects in the positron problem. Numerical calculations have been performed for positron bound states with the hydrogen and ...

  17. Calculation of 8-methoxypsoralen dose according to body surface area in PUVA treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuntabhai, A.; Farr, P.M. [Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Dermatology; Diffey, B.L. [Dryburn Hospital, Durham (United Kingdom). Regional Medical Physics Department

    1995-12-01

    In 41 patients about to start PUVA, the dose of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) was calculated conventionally according to body weight (0.6 mg/kg), or according to body surface area (25 mg/m{sup 2}) predicted from height and weight measurements. The two different methods of dosing were used on consecutive treatment days and the plasma 8-MOP concentration was measured on each occasion 2 h after ingestion of the crystalline form of 8-MOP, given to the nearest 10 mg. Body weight calculated doses ranged from 30 to 60 mg with a significant difference in the plasma 8-MOP concentration between the dose groups, indicating a systematic variation according to the weight of the patient. When calculated according to body surface area, only two doses were used (40 or 50 mg), and there was no significant difference in plasma 8-MOP concentration between the groups. Calculation of the dose of 8-MOP using body surface area may be performed quickly and simply provided the height and weight of individual patients is known. We provide evidence that this method of dosing will improve the therapeutic effect of PUVA in psoriasis. (Author).

  18. Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations on Au64+ - Au69+ ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2006-03-31

    Many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) calculations are an adequate tool for the description of the structure of highly charged multi-electron ions and for the analysis of their spectra. They demonstrate this by way of a re-investigation of n=3, {Delta}n=0 transitions in the EUV spectra of Na-, Mg-, Al-like, and Si-like ions of Au that have been obtained previously by heavy-ion accelerator based beam-foil spectroscopy. They discuss the evidence and propose several revisions on the basis of the multi-reference many-body perturbation theory calculations of Ne- through P-like ions of Au.

  19. Obesity is underestimated using body mass index and waist-hip ratio in long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Blijdorp

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obesity, represented by high body mass index (BMI, is a major complication after treatment for childhood cancer. However, it has been shown that high total fat percentage and low lean body mass are more reliable predictors of cardiovascular morbidity. In this study longitudinal changes of BMI and body composition, as well as the value of BMI and waist-hip ratio representing obesity, were evaluated in adult childhood cancer survivors. METHODS: Data from 410 survivors who had visited the late effects clinic twice were analyzed. Median follow-up time was 16 years (interquartile range 11-21 and time between visits was 3.2 years (2.9-3.6. BMI was measured and body composition was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar Prodigy; available twice in 182 survivors. Data were compared with healthy Dutch references and calculated as standard deviation scores (SDS. BMI, waist-hip ratio and total fat percentage were evaluated cross-sectionally in 422 survivors, in who at least one DXA scan was assessed. RESULTS: BMI was significantly higher in women, without significant change over time. In men BMI changed significantly with time (ΔSDS = 0.19, P<0.001. Percentage fat was significantly higher than references in all survivors, with the highest SDS after cranial radiotherapy (CRT (mean SDS 1.73 in men, 1.48 in women, P<0.001. Only in men, increase in total fat percentage was significantly higher than references (ΔSDS = 0.22, P<0.001. Using total fat percentage as the gold standard, 65% of female and 42% of male survivors were misclassified as non-obese using BMI. Misclassification of obesity using waist-hip ratio was 40% in women and 24% in men. CONCLUSIONS: Sixteen years after treatment for childhood cancer, the increase in BMI and total fat percentage was significantly greater than expected, especially after CRT. This is important as we could show that obesity was grossly underestimated using BMI and waist-hip ratio.

  20. Optimizing dose prescription in stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung tumours using Monte Carlo dose calculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widder, Joachim; Hollander, Miranda; Ubbels, Jan F.; Bolt, Rene A.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To define a method of dose prescription employing Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumours aiming at a dose as low as possible outside of the PTV. Methods and materials: Six typical T1 lung tumours - three small, three large - were construc

  1. A Prospective Study of Height and Body Mass Index in Childhood, Birth Weight, and Risk of Adult Glioma Over 40 Years of Follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Rajaraman, Preetha;

    2014-01-01

    Greater attained height and greater body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) in young adulthood have been associated with glioma risk, but few studies have investigated the association with body size at birth or during childhood, when the brain undergoes rapid cell growth and differentiat...

  2. Childhood and family influences on body mass index in early adulthood: findings from the Ontario Child Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Andrea

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are steadily increasing worldwide with the greatest prevalence occurring in high-income countries. Many factors influence body mass index (BMI; however multiple influences assessed in families and individuals are rarely studied together in a prospective design. Our objective was to model the impact of multiple influences at the child (low birth weight, history of maltreatment, a history of childhood mental and physical conditions, and school difficulties and family level (parental income and education, parental mental and physical health, and family functioning on BMI in early adulthood. Methods We used data from the Ontario Child Health Study, a prospective, population-based study of 3,294 children (ages 4–16 years enrolled in 1983 and followed up in 2001 (N = 1,928; ages 21–35 years. Using multilevel models, we tested the association between family and child-level variables and adult BMI after controlling for sociodemographic variables and health status in early adulthood. Results At the child level, presence of psychiatric disorder and school difficulties were related to higher BMI in early adulthood. At the family level, receipt of social assistance was associated with higher BMI, whereas family functioning, having immigrant parents and higher levels of parental education were associated with lower BMI. We found that gender moderated the effect of two risk factors on BMI: receipt of social assistance and presence of a medical condition in childhood. In females, but not in males, the presence of these risk factors was associated with higher BMI in early adulthood. Conclusion Overall, these findings indicate that childhood risk factors associated with higher BMI in early adulthood are multi-faceted and long-lasting. These findings highlight the need for preventive interventions to be implemented at the family level in childhood.

  3. Depictions of Human Bodies in the Illustrations of Early Childhood Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bello, Vladimir E.; Martínez-Bello, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    In many Ibero-American countries children in the early childhood education (ECE) system have the opportunity to interact with textbooks on a regular basis. The powerful social function of textbooks in socializing children in primary and secondary school, and in legitimizing what counts as cultural norms and officially sanctioned values and…

  4. Body Satisfaction, Eating Disorders and Suicide Ideation in an Internet Sample of Self-harmers Reporting and Not Reporting Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Craig; MacDonald, Sophie; Fox, Jezz

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined differences between self-harmers who had and who had not been sexually abused in childhood with regards to other risk factors and associated behaviours commonly identified in the research literature as being related to self-harm. Methods: Participants (N=113, Mean age=19.92 years) were recruited via self-harm internet discussion groups and message boards, and completed a web questionnaire assessing measures of body satisfaction, eating disorders, childhood trau...

  5. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. ... blood cells help your body fight infection. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  6. Longitudinal Changes in Body Mass and Composition in Survivors of Childhood Hematologic Malignancies After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hiroto; Yang, Jie; Kaste, Sue C.; Hartford, Christine M.; Motosue, Megan S.; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Triplett, Brandon M.; Shook, David R.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Leung, Wing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To measure longitudinal changes in body mass and composition in survivors of childhood hematologic malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Patients and Methods Body mass index (BMI) was analyzed in 179 survivors by category (underweight, healthy-weight, overweight, and obese) and by z score. Fat and lean body mass measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was analyzed as z scores. Results Over a median 6.6 years of follow-up, BMI z scores diminished significantly (0.32 pre-HSCT v −0.60 at 10 years post-HSCT; P < .001). Mean z scores for fat mass stayed within population norms, but those for lean mass remained below normal levels and diminished significantly over time (P = .018). Pre-HSCT BMI category and/or z score were strongly predictive of post-HSCT BMI (P < .001) and of fat and lean mass z scores (both P < .001). Survivors with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease were more likely than others to have low BMI (P = .004) and low lean mass (P < .001) post-HSCT. Older age at HSCT (P = .015) and T-cell–depleted graft (P = .018) were predictive of lower post-HSCT BMI. Female patients had higher body fat (P = .002) and lower lean mass (P = .013) z scores than male patients, and black patients had higher fat mass z scores than white patients (P = .026). Conclusion BMI declines significantly after allogeneic HSCT for childhood hematologic malignancies, reflecting primarily a substantial decrease in lean mass but not fat mass. Monitoring and preservation of BMI and lean mass are vital, especially in those with the identified risk factors. PMID:23032628

  7. Technique of Heat Capacity Calculation of Solid Body Lattice Using Interatomic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Gaisha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid body lattice heat capacity calculation technique is proposed. Lattice energy is determined using the one-atom energy, which is calculated as a sum of potential energies of atom interactions with its neighbors (more than 30 coordination spheres are taken into account. Considering heat expansion, there is a dependence of the lattice distance (and so the potential energy on the temperature. Based on this the heat capacity was determined, and its value corresponds better to the experimental data than other all-known dependences.

  8. Three-body calculation of triple-alpha reaction at low energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Souichi

    2011-09-01

    The reaction rate of the triple-alpha (3α) process at low temperatures, where resonant reaction is not dominant, is calculated through the inverse process, the photodisintegration of a 12C nucleus. For this, Schrödinger equations in a three-alpha (3-α) model of 12C are directly solved by a Faddeev method, which has been successfully applied to three-nucleon problem so far. The nuclear Hamiltonian consists of an α-α potential, which reproduces the 8Be resonance state, together with three-body potentials to reproduce 12C properties. Our results of the 3α reaction rate are about 103 times larger at low temperature (T = 107 K) than a standard rate from the Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of Reaction Rates (NACRE), which means our results are remarkably smaller than recent results of quantum-mechanical three-body calculations by Ogata et al.

  9. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out

  10. Third-order many-body perturbation theory calculations for the beryllium and magnesium isoelectronic sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, H C; Blundell, S A; Safronova, M S

    2006-01-01

    Relativistic third-order MBPT is applied to obtain energies of ions with two valence electrons in the no virtual-pair approximation (NVPA). A total of 302 third-order Goldstone diagrams are organized into 12 one-body and 23 two-body terms. Only third-order two-body terms and diagrams are presented here, owing to the fact that the one-body terms are identical to the previously studied third-order terms in monovalent ions. Dominant classes of diagrams are identified. The model potential is a Dirac-Hartree-Fock $V^{N-2}$ potential, and B-spline basis functions in a cavity of finite radius are employed in the numerical calculations. The Breit interaction is taken into account through second order of perturbation theory and the lowest-order Lamb shift is also evaluated. Sample calculations are performed for berylliumlike ions with Z = 4--7, and for the magnesiumlike ion P IV. The third-order energies are in excellent agreement with measurement with an accuracy at 0.2% level for the cases considered. Comparisons ar...

  11. Dose calculation method with 60-cobalt gamma rays in total body irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Scaff, L A M

    2001-01-01

    Physical factors associated to total body irradiation using sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma rays beams, were studied in order to develop a calculation method of the dose distribution that could be reproduced in any radiotherapy center with good precision. The method is based on considering total body irradiation as a large and irregular field with heterogeneities. To calculate doses, or doses rates, of each area of interest (head, thorax, thigh, etc.), scattered radiation is determined. It was observed that if dismagnified fields were considered to calculate the scattered radiation, the resulting values could be applied on a projection to the real size to obtain the values for dose rate calculations. In a parallel work it was determined the variation of the dose rate in the air, for the distance of treatment, and for points out of the central axis. This confirm that the use of the inverse square law is not valid. An attenuation curve for a broad beam was also determined in order to allow the use of absorbers. In this wo...

  12. Calculation of the electric field resulting from human body rotation in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of recent studies have shown that the electric field and current density induced in the human body by movement in and around magnetic resonance imaging installations can exceed regulatory levels. Although it is possible to measure the induced electric fields at the surface of the body, it is usually more convenient to use numerical models to predict likely exposure under well-defined movement conditions. Whilst the accuracy of these models is not in doubt, this paper shows that modelling of particular rotational movements should be treated with care. In particular, we show that v  ×  B rather than −(v  ·  ∇)A should be used as the driving term in potential-based modelling of induced fields. Although for translational motion the two driving terms are equivalent, specific examples of rotational rigid-body motion are given where incorrect results are obtained when −(v  ·  ∇)A is employed. In addition, we show that it is important to take into account the space charge which can be generated by rotations and we also consider particular cases where neglecting the space charge generates erroneous results. Along with analytic calculations based on simple models, boundary-element-based numerical calculations are used to illustrate these findings. (paper)

  13. Childhood body mass index and risk of schizophrenia in relation to childhood age, sex and age of first contact with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H J; Gamborg, M; Sørensen, T I A;

    2016-01-01

    with Cox regression models. RESULTS: Childhood BMI was significantly inversely associated with risk of schizophrenia, however with different patterns among boys and girls. In boys, childhood BMI had an inverse non-linear association with schizophrenia risk dependent on age at diagnosis; in particular......UNLABELLED: Childhood leanness is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia, but the effects of gender, age at anthropometric measurements and age at first diagnosis on this relationship are unclear. The present study aimed at elucidating these associations. METHODS: Population......-based cohort study with childhood anthropometric measures obtained annually from the age of 7 to 13 years in 253,353 Danes born 1930-1976 and followed to 31 December 2010. During this period, 4936 were registered with schizophrenia. The associations of childhood BMI with risk of schizophrenia were estimated...

  14. Birth weight, childhood body mass index and risk of coronary heart disease in adults: combined historical cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Geisler Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight and high childhood body mass index (BMI is each associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD in adult life. We studied individual and combined associations of birth weight and childhood BMI with the risk of CHD in adulthood. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Birth weight and BMI at age seven years were available in 216,771 Danish and Finnish individuals born 1924-1976. Linkage to national registers for hospitalization and causes of death identified 8,805 CHD events during up to 33 years of follow-up (median = 24 years after age 25 years. Analyses were conducted with Cox regression based on restricted cubic splines. Using median birth weight of 3.4 kg as reference, a non-linear relation between birth weight and CHD was found. It was not significantly different between cohorts, or between men and women, nor was the association altered by childhood BMI. For birth weights below 3.4 kg, the risk of CHD increased linearly and reached 1.28 (95% confidence limits: 1.13 to 1.44 at 2 kg. Above 3.4 kg the association weakened, and from about 4 kg there was virtually no association. BMI at age seven years was strongly positively associated with the risk of CHD and the relation was not altered by birth weight. The excess risk in individuals with a birth weight of 2.5 kg and a BMI of 17.7 kg/m(2 at age seven years was 44% (95% CI: 30% to 59% compared with individuals with median values of birth weight (3.4 kg and BMI (15.3 kg/m(2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Birth weight and BMI at age seven years appeared independently associated with the risk of CHD in adulthood. From a public health perspective we suggest that particular attention should be paid to children with a birth weight below the average in combination with excess relative weight in childhood.

  15. No Core CI calculations for light nuclei with chiral 2- and 3-body forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, Pieter; Metin Aktulga, H.; Binder, Sven; Calci, Angelo; Çatalyürek, Ümit V.; Langhammer, Joachim; Ng, Esmond; Saule, Erik; Roth, Robert; Vary, James P.; Yang, Chao

    2013-08-01

    The atomic nucleus is a self-bound system of strongly interacting nucleons. In No-Core Configuration Interaction calculations, the nuclear wavefunction is expanded in Slater determinants of single-nucleon wavefunctions (Configurations), and the many-body Schrödinger equation becomes a large sparse matrix problem. The challenge is to reach numerical convergence to within quantified numerical uncertainties for physical observables using finite truncations of the infinite-dimensional basis space. We discuss strategies for constructing and solving the resulting large sparse matrices for a set of low-lying eigenvalues and eigenvectors on current multicore computer architectures. Several of these strategies have been implemented in the code MFDn, a hybrid MPI/OpenMP Fortran code for ab initio nuclear structure calculations that scales well to over 200,000 cores. We discuss how the similarity renormalization group can be used to improve the numerical convergence. We present results for excitation energies and other selected observables for 8Be and 12C using realistic 2- and 3-body forces obtained from chiral perturbation theory. Finally, we demonstrate that collective phenomena such as rotational band structures can emerge from these microscopic calculations.

  16. Trends in Parent-Child Correlations of Childhood Body Mass Index during the Development of the Obesity Epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa A; Ängquist, Lars; Silventoinen, Karri;

    2014-01-01

    .001), whereas the increase in father-daughter correlations were insignificant both at ages 7-7 (0.001/year, p = 0.37) and at ages 13-7 years (0.001/year, p = 0.18). CONCLUSION: During the obesity epidemics development, the intergenerational resemblance with mothers remained stable, whereas the father-child BMI......BACKGROUND: The intergenerational resemblance in body mass index may have increased during the development of the obesity epidemic due to changes in environment and/or expression of genetic predisposition. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates trends in intergenerational correlations of childhood...... of child birth years (1952-1989) separately by sex. Trends in these correlations were examined. Whereas the mother-child correlations reflected the biological relationship, a likely decline in the assignment of non-biological fathers through the registration system across time must be considered when...

  17. Many-body theory calculations of positron binding to negative ions

    CERN Document Server

    Ludlow, J A

    2010-01-01

    A many-body theory approach developed by the authors [Phys. Rev. A 70, 032720 (2004)] is applied to positron bound states and annihilation rates in atomic systems. Within the formalism, full account of virtual positronium (Ps) formation is made by summing the electron-positron ladder diagram series, thus enabling the theory to include all important many-body correlation effects in the positron problem. Numerical calculations have been performed for positron bound states with the hydrogen and halogen negative ions, also known as Ps hydride and Ps halides. The Ps binding energies of 1.118, 2.718, 2.245, 1.873 and 1.393 eV and annihilation rates of 2.544, 2.482, 1.984, 1.913 and 1.809 ns$^{-1}$, have been obtained for PsH, PsF, PsCl, PsBr and PsI, respectively.

  18. Bound state calculations using separable expansion of the two-body t-matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that a separable expansion of local potentials (i.e., square well and Maltfliet-Tjon) using a method introduced by Adhikari and Sloan gives an efficient, exact numerically, method of solving three-body bound state. Contrary to the momentum-space basis functions in the work of Adhikari and Sloan, Y. Koike develops basis functions in configuration space since many two-nucleon potentials are given in that space. Legendre and Laguerre polynomials have been used respectively as base functions in this work. Following Koike's approach, the authors' three-body calculations, with the above potentials, are stable to four significant figures. Such convergence is obtained with only five terms in the expansion

  19. Prenatal parental separation and body weight, including development of overweight and obesity later in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Hohwü

    Full Text Available Early parental separation may be a stress factor causing a long-term alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity possibly impacting on the susceptibility to develop overweight and obesity in offspring. We aimed to examine the body mass index (BMI and the risk of overweight and obesity in children whose parents lived separately before the child was born.A follow-up study was conducted using data from the Aarhus Birth Cohort in Denmark and included 2876 children with measurements of height and weight at 9-11-years-of-age, and self-reported information on parental cohabitation status at child birth and at 9-11-years-of-age. Quantile regression was used to estimate the difference in median BMI between children whose parents lived separately (n = 124 or together (n = 2752 before the birth. We used multiple logistic regression to calculate odds ratio (OR for overweight and obesity, adjusted for gender, parity, breast feeding status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, age and educational level at child birth; with and without possible intermediate factors birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Due to a limited number of obese children, OR for obesity was adjusted for the a priori confounder maternal pre-pregnancy BMI only.The difference in median BMI was 0.54 kg/m2 (95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.10; 0.98 between children whose parents lived separately before birth and children whose parents lived together. The risk of overweight and obesity was statistically significantly increased in children whose parents lived separately before the birth of the child; OR 2.29 (95% CI: 1.18; 4.45 and OR 2.81 (95% CI: 1.05; 7.51, respectively. Additional, adjustment for possible intermediate factors did not substantially change the estimates.Parental separation before child birth was associated with higher BMI, and increased risk of overweight and obesity in 9-11-year-old children; this may suggest a fetal

  20. Relativistic many-body calculations of energies for n=3 states in aluminiumlike ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, U.I.; Namba, C. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Johnson, W.R.; Safronova, M.S. [Department of Physics, Univ. of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Energies of the 148 (3l3l'3l'') states for aluminiumlike ions with Z =14-100 are evaluated to second order in relativistic many-body perturbation theory. Second-order Coulomb and Breit-Coulomb interactions are included. Corrections are made to lowest order for the frequency-dependent Breit interaction and for the Lamb shift. A detailed discussion of the various contributions to the energy levels is given for aluminiumlike germanium (Z=32). Comparisons of the calculated energy levels with available experimental data are made for the entire sequence. (author)

  1. Three-body model calculations of Nucleon-Delta and Delta-Delta dibaryon resonances

    OpenAIRE

    Gal, Avraham; Garcilazo, Humberto

    2014-01-01

    Three-body hadronic models with separable pairwise interactions are formulated and solved to calculate resonance masses and widths of L=0 N-Delta and Delta-Delta dibaryons using relativistic kinematics. For N-Delta, I(JP)=1(2+) and 2(1+) resonances slightly below threshold are found by solving pi-N-N Faddeev equations. For Delta-Delta, several resonances below threshold are found by solving pi-N-Delta Faddeev equations in which the N-Delta interaction is dominated by the 1(2+) and 2(1+) reson...

  2. Semen quality and reproductive hormones according to birthweight and body mass index in childhood and adult life: two decades of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Hansen, Maj; Jensen, Cecilie Rutkjaer;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between childhood body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and adulthood BMI, and adult semen quality and level of reproductive hormones. DESIGN: Follow-up study. SETTING: From a pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987. PATIENT(S): 347 out of 5,109 sons wer...

  3. Childhood Obesity, Gender, Actual-Ideal Body Image Discrepancies, and Physical Self-Concept in Hong Kong Children: Cultural Differences in the Value of Moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Hau, K. T.; Sung, R. Y. T.; Yu, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasingly prevalent in Western and non-Western societies. The authors related multiple dimensions of physical self-concept to body composition for 763 Chinese children aged 8 to 15 and compared the results with Western research. Compared with Western research, gender differences favoring boys were generally much smaller for…

  4. An universal algorithm of calculating terms of atomic many-body perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dzuba, V A

    2007-01-01

    An algorithm, based on numerical description of the terms of many-body perturbation theory (Goldstone diagrams), is presented. The algorithm assumes a basis set of orthogonal single-electron orbitals supplied by the user. These orbitals are the eigenstates of the Dirac operator in the spherically-symmetric case. Apart from this the algorithm is practically free from any limitations and can be used for calculating of wide range of atomic properties in any order of the perturbation theory and with any external field applied to the atom. The use of the algorithm is illustrated by calculating of the second and third order correlation corrections to the ground state energies of sodium, copper and gallium.

  5. Coupled-rearrangement-channels calculation of the three-body system under the absorbing boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwasaki M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We formulate the absorbing boundary condition (ABC in the coupled rearrangement-channels variational method (CRCVM for the three-body problem. The absorbing potential is introduced in the system of the identical three-bosons, on which the boson symmetry is explicitly imposed by considering the rearrangement channels. The resonance parameters and the strength of the monopole breakup are calculated by the CRCVM + ABC method, and the results are compared with the complex scaling method (CSM. We have found that the results of the ABC method are consistent with the CSM results. The effect of the boson symmetry, which is often neglected in the calculation of the triple α reactions, is also discussed.

  6. Three-body calculations for the K ‑ pp system within potential models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezerashvili, R. Ya; Tsiklauri, S. M.; Filikhin, I.; Suslov, V. M.; Vlahovic, B.

    2016-06-01

    We present three-body nonrelativistic calculations within the framework of a potential model for the kaonic cluster K ‑ pp using two methods: the method of hyperspherical harmonics in the momentum representation and the method of Faddeev equations in configuration space. To perform numerical calculations, different NN and antikaon–nucleon interactions are applied. The results of the calculations for the ground-state energy for the K ‑ pp system obtained by both methods are in reasonable agreement. Although the ground-state energy is not sensitive to the pp interaction, it shows very strong dependence on the K ‑ p potential. We show that the dominant clustering of the {K}-{pp} system in the configuration Λ (1405) + p allows us to calculate the binding energy to good accuracy within a simple cluster approach for the differential Faddeev equations. The theoretical discrepancies in the binding energy and width for the K ‑ pp system related to the different pp and K ‑ p interactions are addressed.

  7. Body-Related Emotions in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Anne S; Feldmann, Robert E; Borgmann, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic experiences are associated with emotions such as anxiety, shame, guilt, disgust, and anger. For patients who have experienced child sexual abuse, these emotions might be triggered by perceptions of their own body. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of the association of the body to traumatic experiences and to discern the emotions linked to trauma-associated body areas. Ninety-seven female participants were assigned to four groups: post-traumatic stress disorder following child sexual abuse with co-occurring borderline personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder following child sexual abuse without co-occurring borderline personality disorder, borderline personality disorder without post-traumatic stress disorder, and healthy controls. Participants rated 26 body areas regarding their association with trauma and 7 emotions. Emotions were assessed by questionnaires. Results suggest that specific areas of the body are associated with trauma and linked to highly aversive emotions. In post-traumatic stress disorder patients, the areas associated with highly negative emotions were the pubic region and inner thighs. Thus, the patient's body may act as a trigger for traumatic memories. PMID:26340071

  8. The effect of perturbing body segment parameters on calculated joint moments and muscle forces during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Mariska; de Groote, Friedl; Jonkers, Ilse

    2014-01-22

    This study examined the effect of body segment parameter (BSP) perturbations on joint moments calculated using an inverse dynamics procedure and muscle forces calculated using computed muscle control (CMC) during gait. BSP (i.e. segment mass, center of mass location (com) and inertia tensor) of the left thigh, shank and foot of a scaled musculoskeletal model were perturbed. These perturbations started from their nominal value and were adjusted to ±40% in steps of 10%, for both individual as well as combined perturbations in BSP. For all perturbations, an inverse dynamics procedure calculated the ankle, knee and hip moments based on an identical inverse kinematics solution. Furthermore, the effect of applying a residual reduction algorithm (RRA) was investigated. Muscle excitations and resulting muscle forces were calculated using CMC. The results show only a limited effect of an individual parameter perturbation on the calculated moments, where the largest effect is found when perturbing the shank com (MS(com,shank), the ratio of absolute difference in torque and relative parameter perturbation, is maximally -7.81 N m for hip flexion moment). The additional influence of perturbing two parameters simultaneously is small (MS(mass+com,thigh) is maximally 15.2 N m for hip flexion moment). RRA made small changes to the model to increase the dynamic consistency of the simulation (after RRA MS(com,shank) is maximally 5.01 N m). CMC results show large differences in muscle forces when BSP are perturbed. These result from the underlying forward integration of the dynamic equations.

  9. Statistical and Multidimensional Body Composition Parameter Analysis in Young Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topczewska Magdalena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the problem of assessing selected body compo- sition parameters after completion of antitumor therapy and comparing them with the same parameters of healthy children. A high percentage of overweight and obesity, as well as abnormal fat distribution in convalescents with cancer shows a significant adverse effect of therapy on body composition and suggests the need for early intervention in terms of diet and exercise, which would help patients to quickly achieve the proper parameters of body composition. Two main problems will be mentioned during the presented data analysis. Firstly, in each group there was a small number of observations. Because of this, the real differences between examined subgroups may have been omitted. Secondarily, many variables are correlated and are not normally distributed. Therefore, be- side the standard statistical tests to compare two groups, principal component analysis was applied to reduce the dimensions of the attribute space and to attempt to classify two groups of patients.

  10. Spectra for the A = 6 reactions calculated from a three-body resonance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paris Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a resonance model of the transition matrix for three-body breakup reactions of the A = 6 system and present calculations for the nucleon observed spectra, which are important for inertial confinement fusion and Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN. The model is motivated by the Faddeev approach where the form of the T matrix is written as a sum of the distinct Jacobi coordinate systems corresponding to particle configurations (α, n-n and (n; n-α to describe the final state. The structure in the spectra comes from the resonances of the two-body subsystems of the three-body final state, namely the singlet (T = 1 nucleon-nucleon (NN anti-bound resonance, and the Nα resonances designated the ground state (Jπ = 3−2${{{3^ - }} \\over 2}$ and first excited state (Jπ = 1−2${{{1^ - }} \\over 2}$ of the A = 5 systems 5He and 5Li. These resonances are described in terms of single-level, single-channel R-matrix parameters that are taken from analyses of NN and Nα scattering data. While the resonance parameters are approximately charge symmetric, external charge-dependent effects are included in the penetrabilities, shifts, and hard-sphere phases, and in the level energies to account for internal Coulomb differences. The shapes of the resonance contributions to the spectrum are fixed by other, two-body data and the only adjustable parameters in the model are the combinatorial amplitudes for the compound system. These are adjusted to reproduce the observed nucleon spectra from measurements at the Omega and NIF facilities. We perform a simultaneous, least-squares fit of the tt neutron spectra and the 3He3He proton spectra. Using these amplitudes we make a prediction of the α spectra for both reactions at low energies. Significant differences in the tt and 3He3He spectra are due to Coulomb effects.

  11. Spectra for the A = 6 reactions calculated from a three-body resonance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Mark W.; Hale, Gerald M.

    2016-06-01

    We develop a resonance model of the transition matrix for three-body breakup reactions of the A = 6 system and present calculations for the nucleon observed spectra, which are important for inertial confinement fusion and Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The model is motivated by the Faddeev approach where the form of the T matrix is written as a sum of the distinct Jacobi coordinate systems corresponding to particle configurations (α, n-n) and (n; n-α) to describe the final state. The structure in the spectra comes from the resonances of the two-body subsystems of the three-body final state, namely the singlet (T = 1) nucleon-nucleon (NN) anti-bound resonance, and the Nα resonances designated the ground state (Jπ = {{{3^ - }} over 2}) and first excited state (Jπ = {{{1^ - }} over 2}) of the A = 5 systems 5He and 5Li. These resonances are described in terms of single-level, single-channel R-matrix parameters that are taken from analyses of NN and Nα scattering data. While the resonance parameters are approximately charge symmetric, external charge-dependent effects are included in the penetrabilities, shifts, and hard-sphere phases, and in the level energies to account for internal Coulomb differences. The shapes of the resonance contributions to the spectrum are fixed by other, two-body data and the only adjustable parameters in the model are the combinatorial amplitudes for the compound system. These are adjusted to reproduce the observed nucleon spectra from measurements at the Omega and NIF facilities. We perform a simultaneous, least-squares fit of the tt neutron spectra and the 3He3He proton spectra. Using these amplitudes we make a prediction of the α spectra for both reactions at low energies. Significant differences in the tt and 3He3He spectra are due to Coulomb effects.

  12. Relationship between Chronic Short Sleep Duration and Childhood Body Mass Index: A School-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pileggi

    Full Text Available To assess relationship between obesity and chronic shorter sleep duration in children and to determine if lack of sleep represents an independent determinant of childhood Body Mass Index.This cross-sectional study was conducted in all children enrolled in the fifth class (approximately 10 years of age of all public primary schools in Catanzaro (Southern Italy. The overall response rate was 62% resulting in 542 participating children. Parents completed a questionnaire with information on their demographics and socio-economic characteristics, their health status, characteristics of their child birth and health status. The sleeping habits were investigated in the 3 months preceding the consultation and parents were asked to indicate hours of bedtime and wake-up of their children. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to examine the association between child BMI and chronic lack of sleep.36.7% of the children surveyed were overweight or obese. A quarter of children did not routinely play sports and many of them spent more than an hour a day watching TV (60.7% and using videogames or computer (51.1%. Widespread dietary habits were inadequate, especially concerning vegetables and fruit intake with more than 95% of children who consumed insufficient amounts. The average duration of sleep was equal to 9.4 (SD = ±0.6 hours, and the short-sleepers accounted for 38.9% of the total sample. The results of multivariate analysis showed a significant 0.77 Kg/m(2 increase of BMI for children classified as short compared to normal sleepers (95%CI = 0.16-1.38, p = 0.01.Chronic lack of sleep appears to be associated to higher BMI even in middle childhood and strongly suggests that public health strategies, focused on promoting healthy lifestyles should include an innovative approach to ensure an adequate duration of sleep at night especially in children, alongside more traditional approaches.

  13. Childhood Risk Factors for Thin Body Preoccupation and Social Pressure to Be Thin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agras, W. Stewart; Bryson, Susan; Hammer, Lawrence D.; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Thin body preoccupation and social pressure to be thin (TBPSP) in adolescence are risk factors for the development of full and partial bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. This study examined precursors of these potent risk factors. Method: A prospective study followed 134 children from birth to 11.0 years and their parents.…

  14. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, T.M.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Sjöberg, A.; Eldin, N.; Yngve, A.; Kunesova, M.; Stare, G.; Rito, A.I.; Duleva, V.; Hassapidou, M.; Martos, E.; Pudule, I.; Petrauskiene, A.; Farrugia Sant Angelo, V.; Hovengen, R.; Breda, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Meth

  15. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Lauritzen, Lotte; Brasholt, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate...... the relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast milk, body composition, and timing of adiposity rebound in children....

  16. Calculation of the Two-body T-matrix in Configuration Space

    CERN Document Server

    Rawitscher, George

    2007-01-01

    A spectral integral method (IEM) for solving the two-body Schroedinger equation in configuration space is generalized to the calculation of the corresponding T-matrix. It is found that the desirable features of the IEM, such as the economy of mesh-points for a given required accuracy, are carried over also to the solution of the T-matrix. However the algorithm is considerably more complex, because the T-matrix is a function of two variables r and r', rather than only one variable r, and has a slope discontinuity at r=r'. For a simple exponential potential an accuracy of 7 significant figures is achieved, with the number N of Chebyshev support points in each partition equal to 17. For a potential with a large repulsive core, such as the potential between two He atoms, the accuracy decreases to 4 significant figures, but is restored to 7 if N is increased to 65.

  17. Three-Body Model Calculation of Spin Distribution in Two-Nucleon Transfer Reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ogata, Kazuyuki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    The differential cross sections of two-nucleon transfer reactions 238U(18O,16O)240U around 10 MeV per nucleon are calculated by one-step Born-approximation with a 16O+2n+238U three-body model. The three-body wave function in the initial channel is obtained with the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method, and that in the final channel is evaluated with adiabatic approximation. The resulting cross sections have a peak around the grazing angle, and the spin distribution, i.e., the cross section at the peak as a function of the transferred spin, is investigated. The shape of the spin distribution is found not sensitive to the incident energies, optical potentials, and treatment of the breakup channels both in the initial and final states, while it depends on the excitation energy of the residual nucleus 240U. The peak of the spin distribution moves to the large-spin direction as the excitation energy increases. To fulfill the condition that the peak position should not exceeds 10 hbar, which is necessary f...

  18. Post-traumatic stress symptoms and childhood abuse categories in a national representative sample for a specific age group: associations to body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidsel H. Karsberg

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of specific groups such as military veterans have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is linked to adverse health outcomes including unhealthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between PTSD symptoms, experiences of childhood trauma and weight in a community sample. Methods: A stratified random probability survey was conducted in Denmark by the Danish National Centre for Social Research between 2008 and 2009 with 2,981 participants born in 1984, achieving a response rate of 67%. The participants were interviewed with a structured interview with questions pertaining PTSD symptomatology, exposure to childhood abuse, exposure to potentially traumatizing events, height, and weight. Underweight was defined by a body mass index (BMI <18.5, overweight was defined by a BMI ≥25 and <30 and obesity was defined by a BMI ≥30. Results: PTSD symptomatology and childhood abuse were significantly associated with both underweight and overweight/obesity. Childhood emotional abuse was especially associated with underweight, whereas sexual abuse and overall abuse were particularly associated with overweight/obesity. Conclusion: These findings indicate that health care professionals may benefit from assessing PTSD and childhood abuse in the treatment of both overweight and underweight individuals.

  19. Height and Body Size in Childhood, Adolescence, and Young Adulthood and Breast Cancer Risk According to Molecular Subtype in the Nurses' Health Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Erica T; Hu, Rong; Collins, Laura C; Beck, Andrew H; Schnitt, Stuart; Rosner, Bernard; Eliassen, A Heather; Michels, Karin B; Willett, Walter C; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2016-09-01

    Height and body size in childhood and young adulthood have been consistently associated with breast cancer risk; whether associations differ across molecular subtypes is unclear. In a pooled analysis of the Nurses' Health Studies, we prospectively examined the association of four exposures: height, body mass index (BMI) at the age of 18 years, childhood and adolescent somatotypes, with breast cancer risk according to molecular subtypes defined by immunohistochemical markers. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We identified 2,983 luminal A, 1,281 luminal B, 318 HER2-enriched, 408 basal-like, and 128 unclassified tumors. Height was positively associated with all subtypes (Pheterogeneity = 0.78). BMI at the age of 18 (Pheterogeneity = 0.001), childhood (Pheterogeneity = 0.51), and adolescent somatotype (Pheterogeneity = 0.046) were inversely associated, but with differences in magnitude of association. BMI at the age of 18 of ≥25 kg/m(2) (compared with 20-21.9 kg/m(2)) was associated with a 52% decreased risk of HER2-enriched (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.26-0.91; Ptrend molecular subtypes. BMI at 18 years and childhood and adolescent were inversely associated with risk of most breast cancer molecular subtypes with somewhat stronger associations with HER2-enriched and basal-like subtypes. Cancer Prev Res; 9(9); 732-8. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27590596

  20. Prenatal parental separation and body weight, including development of overweight and obesity later in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwü, Lena; Zhu, Jin Liang; Graversen, Lise;

    2015-01-01

    ) for overweight and obesity, adjusted for gender, parity, breast feeding status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, age and educational level at child birth; with and without possible intermediate factors birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Due to a limited number...... of obese children, OR for obesity was adjusted for the a priori confounder maternal pre-pregnancy BMI only. RESULTS: The difference in median BMI was 0.54 kg/m2 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.10; 0.98) between children whose parents lived separately before birth and children whose parents lived together......BACKGROUND: Early parental separation may be a stress factor causing a long-term alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity possibly impacting on the susceptibility to develop overweight and obesity in offspring. We aimed to examine the body mass index (BMI) and the risk...

  1. Body Mass Transitions Through Childhood and Early Adolescence: A Multistate Life Table Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Melanie K; Krueger, Patrick M; McCormick, Emily; Davidson, Arthur; Main, Deborah S

    2016-04-01

    The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is well documented, but prevalence estimates offer little insight into rates of transition to higher or lower body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) categories. We estimated the expected numbers of years children would live as normal weight, overweight, and obese by race/ethnicity and sex, given rates of transition across BMI status levels. We used multistate life table methods and transition rates estimated from prospective cohort data (2007-2013) for Denver, Colorado, public schoolchildren aged 3-15 years. At age 3 years, normal-weight children could expect to live 11.1 of the following 13 years with normal weight status, and obese children could expect to live 9.8 years with obese status. At age 3 years, overweight children could expect to live 4.5 of the following 13 years with normal weight status, 5.1 years with overweight status, and 3.4 years with obese status. Whites and Asians lived more years at lower BMI status levels than did blacks or Hispanics; sex differences varied by race/ethnicity. Children who were normal weight or obese at age 3 years were relatively unlikely to move into a different BMI category by age 15 years. Overweight children are relatively likely to transition to normal weight or obese status.

  2. Ab initio many-body calculations of nucleon-nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Quaglioni, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    We develop a new ab initio many-body approach capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei, by combining the resonating-group method with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters. This approach preserves translational symmetry and Pauli principle. We outline technical details and present phase shift results for neutron scattering on 3H, 4He and 10Be and proton scattering on 3He and 4He, using realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials. Our A=4 scattering results are compared to earlier ab initio calculations. We find that the CD-Bonn NN potential in particular provides an excellent description of nucleon-4He S-wave phase shifts. On the contrary, the experimental nucleon-4He P-wave phase shifts are not well reproduced by any NN potential we use. We demonstrate that a proper treatment of the coupling to the n-10Be continuum is successful in explaining the parity-inverted ground state in 11Be.

  3. Optimal softening for force calculations in collisionless N-body simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Athanassoula, E; Lambert, J C; Bosma, A

    1999-01-01

    In N-body simulations the force calculated between particles representing a given mass distribution is usually softened, to diminish the effect of graininess. In this paper we study the effect of such a smoothing, with the aim of finding an optimal value of the softening parameter. As already shown by Merritt (1996), for too small a softening the estimates of the forces will be too noisy, while for too large a softening the force estimates are systematically misrepresented. In between there is an optimal softening, for which the forces in the configuration approach best the true forces. The value of this optimal softening depends both on the mass distribution and on the number of particles used to represent it. For higher number of particles the optimal softening is smaller. More concentrated mass distributions necessitate smaller softening, but the softened forces are never as good an approximation of the true forces as for not centrally concentrated configurations. We give good estimates of the optimal soft...

  4. Calculation of midplane dose for total body irradiation from entrance and exit dose MOSFET measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satory, P R

    2012-03-01

    This work is the development of a MOSFET based surface in vivo dosimetry system for total body irradiation patients treated with bilateral extended SSD beams using PMMA missing tissue compensators adjacent to the patient. An empirical formula to calculate midplane dose from MOSFET measured entrance and exit doses has been derived. The dependency of surface dose on the air-gap between the spoiler and the surface was investigated by suspending a spoiler above a water phantom, and taking percentage depth dose measurements (PDD). Exit and entrances doses were measured with MOSFETs in conjunction with midplane doses measured with an ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were combined using an exponential attenuation formula to give an estimate of midplane dose and were compared to the midplane ion chamber measurement for a range of phantom thicknesses. Having a maximum PDD at the surface simplifies the prediction of midplane dose, which is achieved by ensuring that the air gap between the compensator and the surface is less than 10 cm. The comparison of estimated midplane dose and measured midplane dose showed no dependence on phantom thickness and an average correction factor of 0.88 was found. If the missing tissue compensators are kept within 10 cm of the patient then MOSFET measurements of entrance and exit dose can predict the midplane dose for the patient. PMID:22298238

  5. Effect of Parental Migration Background on Childhood Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Besharat Pour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Poor nutrition, lack of physical activity, and obesity in children have important public health implications but, to date, their effects have not been studied in the growing population of children in Sweden with immigrant parents. Methods. We estimated the association between parental migration background and nutrition, physical activity, and weight in 8-year-old children born in Stockholm between 1994 and 1996 of immigrants and Swedish parents (n=2589. Data were collected through clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by parents. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Children of immigrants complied more closely with Nordic Nutrition Recommendations compared with those of Swedes (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.11–1.64. They had higher intake of dietary fibre, vitamins C, B6, and E, folic acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6 reflecting higher consumption of foods of plant origin, but lower intake of vitamins A and D, calcium, and iron reflecting lower consumption of dairy products. Children of immigrants had higher intake of sucrose reflecting higher consumption of sugar and sweets. Furthermore, these children had a higher risk of having low physical activity (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.06–1.62 and being overweight (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.06–1.65 compared with children of Swedish parents. The odds of having low physical activity and being overweight were even higher in children whose parents were both immigrants. A low level of parental education was associated with increased risk of low physical activity regardless of immigration background. Conclusions. Culturally appropriate tools to capture the diverse range of ethnic foods and other lifestyle habits are needed. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the low levels of physical activity, increased weight, and lack of consumption of some important vitamins among children of

  6. Poesia e infância: o corpo em viva voz Poetry and childhood: the body in live voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Fronckowiak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo busco problematizar a possibilidade desafiadora, colocada à escola da infância, de perceber o vínculo da leitura de poemas com sua potência enquanto experiência poética que pode ser conquistada em viva voz por um corpo que sente. No momento em que, no cenário educacional brasileiro, discute-se o currículo das escolas de Educação Infantil, o texto defende, a partir dos aportes teóricos da imaginação criadora em Gaston Bachelard; da pedagogia poética em Georges Jean; da performance vocal em Paul Zumthor; e da experiência em Walter Benjamin, a abordagem da literatura não como área do conhecimento ou campo disciplinar, mas como linguagem que emerge da corporeidade.This article seeks to discuss the challenging possibility, placed to the childhood school, of perceiving the bond of the poems reading with its strength as a poetic experience that can be conquered in live voice by a body that feels. At the moment in which, at the Brazilian educational scenario, the organization of the elementary schools curriculum has been discussed, the text defends, based onthe theoretical framework of Gaston Bachelard's creative imagination; on the poetic pedagogy in Georges Jean; on Paul Zumthor's vocal performance and on Walter Benjamin's experience, the approach to literature not as a knowledge area or a subject matter, but as language that emerges from corporeality.

  7. The effect of three-body cluster energy on LOCV calculation for hot nuclear and neutron matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two-body correlation functions, obtained in a lowest-order constrained variational calculation for hot nuclear and neutron matter, with the Reid potential and the explicit inclusion of Δ(1234), are state averaged and used to calculate the three-body cluster energy. The three-body cluster energy is found to vary between about 1 and 2 MeV through and beyond twice the nuclear-matter saturation density for temperatures between 5 and 20 MeV. However, the inclusion of a three-body cluster reduces the nuclear-matter flashing and critical temperatures. A critical temperature of 15.8 MeV and a critical exponent of 0.35 is found. The results of entropy calculations are in good agreement with experimental prediction and other theoretical results. Finally it is shown that by allowing an explicit Δ(1234) degree of freedom through the Reid potential up to and including the three-body clusters, the lowest-constrained variational calculation yields other nuclear- and neutron-matter properties close to the available semi-empirical and experimental data at zero and finite temperatures. (author)

  8. Non-relativistic many-body problem perturbation theory calculation: toward relativistic many-body problem perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-relativistic many-body perturbation theory is discussed. Methods and results in the solution of inhomogeneous 1- and 2-particle equations are presented. B. Similar programs for the Dirac equation are considered. The 1-particle equation is equivalent to the relativistic random phase approximation (work by A.-M. Martensson-Pendrill), and the 2-particle equation is under study. C. Matrix diagonalization of the Dirac equation is being explored as a method of isolating positive energy solutions. For a weak external field, the upper components of the diagonal equation correspond to positive energy solutions

  9. Comparison of two approaches for calculation of the geometric and inertial characteristics of the human body of the Bulgarian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Gergana; Toshev, Yuli

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of a representative anthropological investigation of 5290 individuals (2435 males and 2855 females) of the Bulgarian population at the age of 30-40 years (Yordanov et al. [1]) we proposed a 3D biomechanical model of human body of the average Bulgarian male and female and compared two different possible approaches to calculate analytically and to evaluate numerically the corresponding geometric and inertial characteristics of all the segments of the body. In the framework of the first approach, we calculated the positions of the centres of mass of the segments of human body as well as their inertial characteristics merely by using the initial original anthropometrical data, while in the second approach we adjusted the data by using the method based on regression equations. Wherever possible, we presented a comparison of our data with those available in the literature on other Caucasians and determined in which cases the use of which approach is more reliable.

  10. Calculation of the radiation doses occurring in the human body for inadvertent ingestion of soil and other soil exposure pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, F.; Okumuolu, N.

    2003-11-01

    We estimate the radiation doses in the human body, in the Gudalore region in India, following the inadvertent ingestion of soil and exposure to other soil pathways by measuring Th-232, U-238, and K-40. We estimate the equivalent dose in eleven different organs and the absorbed dose calculations for the whole body. The annual effective doses are calculated, the lowest is in Kariyasolai at 7.8 x 10(-3) mSv whereas the highest is in Ponnur at 8.9 x 10(-2) mSv. In all regions, the lowest equivalent doses through inadvertent soil ingestion are calculated in the kidney and thyroid whereas the highest doses are in the red marrow and on the bone surface.

  11. Calculation of effective dose in whole body in dependence of angle of collimator for photon fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuenzalida, M. [Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco (Chile). Programa de Magister en Fisica Medica; Varon, C.; Piriz, G.; Banguero, Y.; Lozano, E.; Mancilla, C., E-mail: fisicamedica@incancer.c [Instituto Nacional del Cancer, Santiago (Chile). Unidad de Fisica Medica

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain quantifiable data of whole body effective dose for photons fields of 6 MV and 18 MV in function of the collimator angle of a Varian Clinac 21EX lineal accelerator. It has been made a variety of studies which investigate the form to reduce the dose in whole body with photons fields, specially over the potential risks and the influence of the collimator angle, as performed Stanthakis et al. [1] with the Monte Carlo method. As a result of this work, the values of whole body effective doses are higher with a 0 deg collimator than with a 90 deg collimator, and as the field size increases, the effective doses difference in whole body, between 0 deg and 90 deg collimator angle, for both energies, becomes smaller. (author)

  12. Calculation of wave resistance and elevation of arbitrarily shaped bodies using the boundary integral element method

    OpenAIRE

    Pai, Ravindra

    1991-01-01

    A numerical method has been developed for computing the steady state flow about arbitrary shaped three dimensional bodies on or below the free surface using a Boundary Integral Element Method ( Panel Method). The method uses a singularity distribution over the body surface and the free surface. The method can solve for the potential distribution as well as the source density distribution. In this study a constant source distribution is assumed on each panel. The free surface bo...

  13. Childhood and Adolescent Body Fat and Its Relationship with Health Outcome in 50 Year Old Males and Females: The Wroclaw Growth Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kozieł, Sławomir; Lipowicz, Anna; Hulanicka, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the association between relative weight in childhood and adolescence and its relationship with adult health outcome. Longitudinal data of the body mass index (BMI) from the Wroc³aw Growth Study (WGS) covering ages 8 to 18 and then a follow-up at 50 were used. At the age of 50, 124 males and 139 females in the longitudinal study underwent medical examination. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), total cholesterol (TCH), high density...

  14. A method for calculating the spatial distribution of radioactivity measured by a whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear medical research and diagnosis it is often important to be able to localize small amounts of radioactivity in the human body. A complete representation of the distribution of a radioisotope in a region of the body would require a three-dimensional portrayal, but most scanning devices are limited to plane portrayal. Thus, scans in two orthogonal planes are necessary. In some cases, a single representation will suffice or an alternative technique may be used to obtain information concerning the distribution in the third dimension

  15. Two- and three-body calculations within the dominantly orbital state method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dominantly orbital state method allows a semiclassical description of quantum systems. At the origin, it was developed for two-body relativistic systems. Here, the method is extended to treat two-body Hamiltonians and systems with three identical particles, in D⩾2 dimensions, with arbitrary kinetic energy and potential. This method is very easy to implement and can be used in a large variety of fields. Results are expected to be reliable for large values of the orbital angular momentum and small radial excitations, but information about the whole spectrum can also be obtained in some very specific cases.

  16. Evaluation of algorithms for calculating bioimpedance phase angle values from measured whole-body impedance modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the problem of calculating the bioimpedance phase angle from measurements of impedance modulus. A complete impedance measurement was performed on altogether 20 healthy persons using a Solatron 1260/1294 system. The obtained impedance modulus (absolute impedance value) values were used to calculate the Cole parameters and from them the phase angles. In addition, the phase angles were also calculated using a Kramers–Kronig approach. A correlation analysis for all subjects at each frequency (5, 50, 100 and 200 kHz) for both methods gave R2 values ranging from 0.7 to 0.96 for the Cole approach and from 0.83 to 0.96 for the Kramers–Kronig approach; thus, both methods gave good results compared with the complete measurement results. From further statistical significance testing of the absolute value of the difference between measured and calculated phase angles, it was found that the Cole equation method gave significantly better agreement for the 50 and 100 kHz frequencies. In addition, the Cole equation method gives the four Cole parameters (R0, R∞, τz and α) using measurements at frequencies up to 200 kHz while the Kramers–Kronig method used frequencies up to 500 kHz to reduce the effect of truncation on the calculated results. Both methods gave results that can be used for further bioimpedance calculations, thus improving the application potential of bioimpedance measurement results obtained using relatively inexpensive and portable measurement equipment

  17. Time domain method for calculating free field motion of a layered half-space subjected to obliquely incident body waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shanyou; Zhu Haiyan; Gao Shufang

    2007-01-01

    In numerical simulation of wave scattering under oblique incident body waves using the finite element method, the free field motion at the incident lateral boundary induced by the background layered half-space complicates the computational area. In order to replace the complex frequency domain method, a time-domain method to calculate the free field motion of a layered half-space subjected to oblique incident body waves is developed in this paper. The new method decouples the equations of motion used in the finite element method and offers an interpolation formula of the free field motion. This formula is based on the fact that the apparent horizontal velocity of the free field motion is constant and can be calculated exactly. Both the theoretical analysis and numerical results demonstrate that the proposed method offers a high degree of accuracy.

  18. Three- and Four-Body Scattering Calculations including the Coulomb Force

    OpenAIRE

    Deltuva, A

    2009-01-01

    The method of screening and renormalization for including the Coulomb interaction in the framework of momentum-space integral equations is applied to the three- and four-body nuclear reactions. The Coulomb effect on the observables and the ability of the present nuclear potential models to describe the experimental data is discussed.

  19. Escaping the correction for body surface area when calculating glomerular filtration rate in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, Amy; Tondeur, Marianne [CHU St. Pierre, Department of Radioisotopes, Brussels (Belgium); Ham, Hamphrey [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-09-15

    {sup 51}Cr ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid ({sup 51}Cr EDTA) clearance is nowadays considered as an accurate and reproducible method for measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. Normal values in function of age, corrected for body surface area, have been recently updated. However, much criticism has been expressed about the validity of body surface area correction. The aim of the present paper was to present the normal GFR values, not corrected for body surface area, with the associated percentile curves. For that purpose, the same patients as in the previous paper were selected, namely those with no recent urinary tract infection, having a normal left to right {sup 99m}Tc MAG3 uptake ratio and a normal kidney morphology on the early parenchymal images. A single blood sample method was used for {sup 51}Cr EDTA clearance measurement. Clearance values, not corrected for body surface area, increased progressively up to the adolescence. The percentile curves were determined and allow, for a single patient, to estimate accurately the level of non-corrected clearance and the evolution with time, whatever the age. (orig.)

  20. Angular velocity direct measurement and moment of inertia calculation of a rigid body using a smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinopoulos, Matthaios; Kefalis, Chrysovalantis

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we focus on smartphones as experimental tools; specifically we use the gyroscope sensor of a smartphone to study the turning motion of a rigid body. Taking into consideration recent work concerning that topic, we try to use the gyroscope sensor in studying the complex motion of a rolling cylinder on a slope.

  1. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative 2008: weight, height and body mass index in 6-9-year-old children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wijnhoven, T M A

    2012-09-21

    What is already known about this subject Overweight and obesity prevalence estimates among children based on International Obesity Task Force definitions are substantially lower than estimates based on World Health Organization definitions. Presence of a north-south gradient with the highest level of overweight found in southern European countries. Intercountry comparisons of overweight and obesity in primary-school children in Europe based on measured data lack a similar data collection protocol. What this study adds Unique dataset on overweight and obesity based on measured weights and heights in 6-9-year-old children from 12 European countries using a harmonized surveillance methodology. Because of the use of a consistent data collection protocol, it is possible to perform valid multiple comparisons between countries. It demonstrates wide variations in overweight and obesity prevalence estimates among primary-school children between European countries and regions. BACKGROUND: Nutritional surveillance in school-age children, using measured weight and height, is not common in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). The WHO Regional Office for Europe has therefore initiated the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. OBJECTIVE: To present the anthropometric results of data collected in 2007\\/2008 and to investigate whether there exist differences across countries and between the sexes. METHODS: Weight and height were measured in 6-9-year-old children in 12 countries. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, stunting, thinness and underweight as well as mean Z-scores of anthropometric indices of height, weight and body mass index were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 168 832 children were included in the analyses and a school participation rate of more than 95% was obtained in 8 out of 12 countries. Stunting, underweight and thinness were rarely prevalent. However, 19.3-49.0% of boys and 18.4-42.5% of girls were overweight (including

  2. The statistical distributed source boundary point method to calculate the acoustic radiation from the random vibrating body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXiufeng; CHENXinzhao; LIUZhao

    2003-01-01

    The statistical distributed source boundary point method (SDSBPM) put forward is applied to calculate the acoustic radiation from the random vibrating body. A detailed description of this method is presented. A test for the SDSBPM is carried out through the random vibrating sphere and the random vibrating cuboid. An experiment on the exterior acoustic radiation of a random vibrating simulation axial box of the lathe tool is performed in a semi-anechoic chamber.

  3. Report on childhood obesity in China (5) Body weight, body dissatisfaction, and depression symptoms of Chinese children aged 9-10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.P.; Ma, G.S.; Schouten, E.G.; Hu, X.Q.; Cui, Z.H.; Wang, D.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between body weight, body dissatisfaction and depression symptoms among Chinese children. METHODS: The fasting body weight and height of the third and fourth grade students (n = 3886, aged 9 or 10 years) from 20 schools in Beijing, China, were measured, and the studen

  4. $\\it{Ab}$ $\\it{initio}$ nuclear many-body perturbation calculations in the Hartree-Fock basis

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Baishan; Sun, Zhonghao; Vary, James P; Li, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Starting from realistic nuclear forces, the chiral N$^3$LO and JISP16, we have applied many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) to the structure of closed-shell nuclei, $^4$He and $^{16}$O. The two-body N$^3$LO interaction is softened by a similarity renormalization group transformation while JISP16 is adopted without renormalization. The MBPT calculations are performed within the Hartree-Fock (HF) bases. The angular momentum coupled scheme is used, which can reduce the computational task. Corrections up to the third order in energy and up to the second order in radius are evaluated. Higher-order corrections in the HF basis are small relative to the leading-order perturbative result. Using the anti-symmetrized Goldstone diagram expansions of the wave function, we directly correct the one-body density for the calculation of the radius, rather than calculate corrections to the occupation propabilities of single-particle orbits as found in other treatments. We compare our results with other methods where available a...

  5. Many-body effects on graphene conductivity: Quantum Monte Carlo calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyda, D. L.; Braguta, V. V.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Ulybyshev, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    Optical conductivity of graphene is studied using quantum Monte Carlo calculations. We start from a Euclidean current-current correlator and extract σ (ω ) from Green-Kubo relations using the Backus-Gilbert method. Calculations were performed both for long-range interactions and taking into account only the contact term. In both cases we vary interaction strength and study its influence on optical conductivity. We compare our results with previous theoretical calculations choosing ω ≈κ , thus working in the region of the plateau in σ (ω ) which corresponds to optical conductivity of Dirac quasiparticles. No dependence of optical conductivity on interaction strength is observed unless we approach the antiferromagnetic phase transition in the case of an artificially enhanced contact term. Our results strongly support previous theoretical studies that claimed very weak regularization of graphene conductivity.

  6. Quantum three-body calculation of the nonresonant triple-\\alpha reaction rate at low temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Ogata, Kazuyuki; Kamimura, Masayasu

    2009-01-01

    The triple-\\alpha reaction rate is re-evaluated by directly solving the three-body Schroedinger equation. The resonant and nonresonant processes are treated on the same footing using the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method for three-body scattering. Accurate description of the \\alpha-\\alpha nonresonant states significantly quenches the Coulomb barrier between the two-\\alpha's and the third \\alpha particle. Consequently, the \\alpha-\\alpha nonresonant continuum states below the resonance at 92.04 keV, i.e., the ground state of 8Be, give markedly larger contribution at low temperatures than in foregoing studies. We find about 20 orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the triple-\\alpha reaction rate around 10^7 K compared to the rate of the NACRE compilation.

  7. The coupled-cluster approach to non-relativistic and relativistic many-body calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the atomic many-body theory in the coupled-cluster approach or exponential-Ansatz formulation. Explicit equations and corresponding graphical representations are given in the pair-approximation, where the one- and two-body parts of the cluster (exponent) operator are considered. Also the effect of a small, additional perturbation is considered. The technique of evaluating diagrams by means of one- and two-particle functions, satisfying inhomogeneous differential equations, is reviewed. Illustrative numerical results are given for the electron correlation energy, electron binding energy, hyperfine separation and specific mass shift of simple atomic systems. The extension of the non-relativistic procedure to the relativistic regime is discussed by considering the effect of the exchange of one and two virtual, transverse photons between the electrons. In lowest order this leads to the ''no-virtual-pair approximation''. (orig.)

  8. Substituting sugar-sweetened beverages with water or milk is inversely associated with body fatness development from childhood to adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Olsen, Nanna Julie;

    2015-01-01

    participated in the Danish part of the European Youth Heart Study was followed for development of body fatness over 6 y. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the associations between beverage intake at baseline and change in body fatness (body mass index z score [BMIz]), waist circumference (WC...... with water or milk, but not 100% fruit juice, is inversely associated with body fatness development....

  9. Many-body electronic structure calculations of Eu-doped ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorke, M.; Frauenheim, T.; da Rosa, A. L.

    2016-03-01

    The formation energies and electronic structure of europium-doped zinc oxide has been determined using DFT and many-body G W methods. In the absence of intrisic defects, we find that the europium-f states are located in the ZnO band gap with europium possessing a formal charge of 2+. On the other hand, the presence of intrinsic defects in ZnO allows intraband f -f transitions otherwise forbidden in atomic europium. This result corroborates with recently observed photoluminescence in the visible red region S. Geburt et al. [Nano Lett. 14, 4523 (2014), 10.1021/nl5015553].

  10. A Method for Calculation of Low-Frequency Slow Drift Motions Based on NURBS for Floating Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-xi; REN Hui-long

    2009-01-01

    Through a higher-order boundary element method based on NURBS (Non-uniform Rational B-splines), the calcula-tion of second-order low-frequency forces and slow drift motions is conducted for floating bodies. In the floating body's in-ner domain, an auxiliary equation is obtained by applying a Green function which satisfies the solid surface condition. Then, the auxiliary equation and the velocity potential equation are combined in the fluid domain to remove the solid an-gle coefficient and the singularity of the double layer potentials in the integral equation. Thus, a new velocity potential in-tegral equation is obtained. The new equation is extended to the inner domain to relieve the irregular frequency effects; on the basis of the order analysis, the comparison is made about the contribution of all integral terms with the result in the second-order low-frequency problem; the higher-order boundary element method based on NURBS is applied to calculate the geometric position and velocity potentials; the slow drift motions are calculated by the spectrum analysis method. Re-moving the solid angle coefficient can apply NURBS technology to the hydrodyynaic calculation of floating bodies with complex surfaces, and the extended boundary integral method can reduce the irregular frequency effects. Order analysis shows that free surface integral can be neglected, and the numerical results can also prove the correctness of order analy-sis. The results of second-order low-frequency forces and slow drift motions and the comparison with the results from ref-erences show that the application of the NURBS technology to the second-order low-frequeney problem is of high efficiency and credible results.

  11. Radiobiological impact of dose calculation algorithms on biologically optimized IMRT lung stereotactic body radiation therapy plans

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, X.; Penagaricano, J.; Zheng, D.; Morrill, S.; Zhang, X; Corry, P.; Griffin, R. J.; Han, E. Y.; Hardee, M.; Ratanatharathom, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the radiobiological impact of Acuros XB (AXB) vs. Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA) dose calculation algorithms in combined dose-volume and biological optimized IMRT plans of SBRT treatments for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods Twenty eight patients with NSCLC previously treated SBRT were re-planned using Varian Eclipse (V11) with combined dose-volume and biological optimization IMRT sliding window technique. The total dos...

  12. Excitonic effects in GeC hybrid: Many-body Green's function calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drissi, L. B.; Ramadan, F. Z.

    2015-11-01

    Many-body effects on the electronic and optical absorption properties of a GeC sheet are studied by means of first principle many-body Green's function and Bethe-Salpeter equation formalism. The absence of soft modes in the phonon-spectrum indicates the stability of the system. The inclusion of quasiparticle corrections increases significantly the band gap. The local field effects induce significant change in the absorption spectra for the out-plane polarization rendering the GeC monolayer transparent below 7 eV. The excitonic effects are significant on the optical absorption properties. A detailed analysis of the spectrum shows a strong binding energy of 1.82 eV assigned to the lowest-energy bound excitons that is characterized by an effective mass of 1.68m0 and a Bohr radius of 2 Å. The results of this study hold the promise for potential applications of the GeC hybrid in optoelectronics.

  13. Model of horizontal stress in the Aigion10 well (Corinth) calculated from acoustic body waves

    CERN Document Server

    Rousseau, A

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we try to deduce the in situ stresses from the monopole acoustic waves of the well AIG10 between 689 and 1004 meters in depth (Corinth Golf). This borehole crosses competent sedimentary formations (mainly limestone), and the active Aigion fault between 769 and 780 meters in depth. This study is the application of two methods previously described by the author who shows the relationships between in situ horizontal stresses, and (i) the presence or absence of double body waves, (ii) the amplitude ratios between S and P waves (Rousseau, 2005a,b). The full waveforms of this well exhibit two distinct domains separated by the Aigion fault. Within the upper area the three typical waves (P, S and Stoneley) may appear, but the S waves are not numerous, and there is no double body wave, whereas within the lower area there are sometimes double P waves, but no S waves. From those observations, we conclude that the stress domain is isotropic above the Aigion fault, and anisotropic below, which is consistent ...

  14. 3He(d,p)4He reaction calculation with three-body Faddeev equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the 3He-n-p system as a three-body problem, we have formulated 3He-n and 3H-p effective potentials using both a microscopic treatment and a phenomenological approach. In the microscopic treatment, potentials are generated by means of the resonating group method (RGM) based on the Minnesota nucleon-nucleon potential. These potentials are converted into separable form by means of the microscopic Pauli correct (MPC) method. The MPC potentials are properly formulated to avoid Pauli forbidden states. The phenomenological potentials are obtained by modifying parameters of the EST approximation to the Paris nucleon-nucleon potential, such that they fit the low-energy 3He-n, 3H-p, and 3He-p phase shifts. Therefore, they describe the 3He-n differential cross section, the polarization observables, and the energy levels of 4He. The 3He-n-p Faddeev equations are solved numerically. We reproduce correctly the ground state and the first excited state of 5Li. Furthermore, the Paris-type potential is used to investigate the 3He(d,p)4He reaction at a deuteron bombarding energy of 270 MeV, where the system is treated as a three-body problem. Results for the polarized and unpolarized differential cross sections demonstrate convergence of the Born series. (orig.)

  15. Ab initio geometry and bright excitation of carotenoids: Quantum Monte Carlo and Many Body Green's Function Theory calculations on peridinin

    CERN Document Server

    Coccia, Emanuele; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In this letter we report the singlet ground state structure of the full carotenoid peridinin by means of variational Monte Carlo (VMC) calculations. The VMC relaxed geometry has an average bond length alternation of 0.1165(10) {\\AA}, larger than the values obtained by DFT (PBE, B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP) and shorter than that calculated at the Hartree-Fock (HF) level. TDDFT and EOM-CCSD calculations on a reduced peridinin model confirm the HOMO-LUMO major contribution of the Bu+-like (S2) bright excited state. Many Body Green's Function Theory (MBGFT) calculations of the vertical excitation energy of the Bu+-like state for the VMC structure (VMC/MBGFT) provide excitation energy of 2.62 eV, in agreement with experimental results in n-hexane (2.72 eV). The dependence of the excitation energy on the bond length alternation in the MBGFT and TDDFT calculations with different functionals is discussed.

  16. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of neutron matter with chiral three-body forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tews, I.; Gandolfi, S.; Gezerlis, A.; Schwenk, A.

    2016-02-01

    Chiral effective field theory (EFT) enables a systematic description of low-energy hadronic interactions with controlled theoretical uncertainties. For strongly interacting systems, quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods provide some of the most accurate solutions, but they require as input local potentials. We have recently constructed local chiral nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions up to next-to-next-to-leading order (N2LO ). Chiral EFT naturally predicts consistent many-body forces. In this paper, we consider the leading chiral three-nucleon (3N) interactions in local form. These are included in auxiliary field diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) simulations. We present results for the equation of state of neutron matter and for the energies and radii of neutron drops. In particular, we study the regulator dependence at the Hartree-Fock level and in AFDMC and find that present local regulators lead to less repulsion from 3N forces compared to the usual nonlocal regulators.

  17. Childhood vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Palit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo is often encountered in dermatological practice. When present in infancy or early childhood, various nevoid and hereditary disorders are to be differentiated. In many cases, familial aggregation of the disease is seen and other autoimmune disorders may be associated. Segmental presentation is more common, and limited body surface area involvement is usual in this age group. Children with vitiligo often suffer from anxiety and depression because of their unusual appearance. Management of vitiligo in children is difficult as therapeutic options are restricted when compared to that in adult patients. Selection of treatment should be careful in these patients with the aim to achieve best results with minimal side effects as well as relieving patients′ and parents′ anxiety.

  18. Effects of parent-only childhood obesity prevention programs on BMIz and body image in rural preteens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Galen; Paul, Lynn; Bailey, Sandra J; Ashe, Carrie Benke; Martz, Jill; Lynch, Wesley

    2016-03-01

    This experiment compared body image (BI) and BMI changes resulting from two parent-only obesity prevention interventions aimed at 8-12 year olds. Parents in the experimental intervention attended ten face-to-face educational sessions, while parents in the minimal (control) intervention received similar mailed information. Parent-child dyads (N=150) were semi-randomly assigned to intervention groups. Children were assessed before, after, and 6 months following the interventions; children did not attend experimental intervention sessions. Child BI assessments included weight and size perception, weight management goals, body esteem, and appearance attitudes. Significant effects included small decreases in BMIz scores and overweight dissatisfaction, as well as improvements in aspects of body esteem and appearance attitudes. Some BI effects were gender-specific. Decreases in overweight dissatisfaction were greater following the experimental treatment. Neither treatment reduced body size misperception. Thus, parent-only obesity prevention interventions can reduce body weight and body image concerns among rural preteens. PMID:26851605

  19. Maternal anthropometry and feeding behavior toward preschool children: association with childhood body mass index in an observational study of Chilean families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corvalán Camila

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the link between eating behavior and maternal feeding practices with childhood and maternal weight status is of great interest. Objective To assess the association between childhood anthropometric measures with mothers' Body Mass Index (BMI and their feeding practices toward preschool children in Chile. Methods 1029 children (504 boys, 4.3 ± 0.3 years and their mothers were selected from public nurseries located in low income neighborhoods in Santiago. Mothers' BMI, children's BMI and waist-to-height ratios were registered. Maternal feeding practices towards their children's nutritional habits were measured using an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ. Results We found a direct correlation (p Conclusion Mothers' BMI and children's BMI z-scores are highly correlated. We found significant associations between mothers' behaviour subscales and children's BMI z-score. It is not possible to establish a causal link between mother's CFQ scores and children's nutritional status, given the cross-sectional nature of this study and the bidirectional influences that exist between mothers and their children.

  20. Radiobiological impact of dose calculation algorithms on biologically optimized IMRT lung stereotactic body radiation therapy plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the radiobiological impact of Acuros XB (AXB) vs. Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA) dose calculation algorithms in combined dose-volume and biological optimized IMRT plans of SBRT treatments for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Twenty eight patients with NSCLC previously treated SBRT were re-planned using Varian Eclipse (V11) with combined dose-volume and biological optimization IMRT sliding window technique. The total dose prescribed to the PTV was 60 Gy with 12 Gy per fraction. The plans were initially optimized using AAA algorithm, and then were recomputed using AXB using the same MUs and MLC files to compare with the dose distribution of the original plans and assess the radiobiological as well as dosimetric impact of the two different dose algorithms. The Poisson Linear-Quadatric (PLQ) and Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) models were used for estimating the tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), respectively. The influence of the model parameter uncertainties on the TCP differences and the NTCP differences between AAA and AXB plans were studied by applying different sets of published model parameters. Patients were grouped into peripheral and centrally-located tumors to evaluate the impact of tumor location. PTV dose was lower in the re-calculated AXB plans, as compared to AAA plans. The median differences of PTV(D95%) were 1.7 Gy (range: 0.3, 6.5 Gy) and 1.0 Gy (range: 0.6, 4.4 Gy) for peripheral tumors and centrally-located tumors, respectively. The median differences of PTV(mean) were 0.4 Gy (range: 0.0, 1.9 Gy) and 0.9 Gy (range: 0.0, 4.3 Gy) for peripheral tumors and centrally-located tumors, respectively. TCP was also found lower in AXB-recalculated plans compared with the AAA plans. The median (range) of the TCP differences for 30 month local control were 1.6 % (0.3 %, 5.8 %) for peripheral tumors and 1.3 % (0.5 %, 3.4 %) for centrally located tumors. The lower TCP

  1. Relativistic Many-body Moller-Plesset Perturbation Theory Calculations of the Energy Levels and Transition Probabilities in Na- to P-like Xe Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2007-03-27

    Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations have been performed on Xe{sup 43+}-Xe{sup 39+} ions, resulting in energy levels, electric dipole transition probabilities, and level lifetimes. The second-order many-body perturbation theory calculation of energy levels included mass shifts, frequency-dependent Breit correction and Lamb shifts. The calculated transition energies and E1 transition rates are used to present synthetic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet range for some of the Xe ions.

  2. Calculation of Elastic Constants of Ag/Pd Superlattice Thin Films by Molecular Dynamics with Many-Body Potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ning; LAI Wen-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ The calculation of elastic constants of Ag/Pd superlattice thin films by molecular dynamics simulations with many-body potentials is presented. It reveals that the elastic constants C11 and C55 increase with decreasing modulation wavelength A of the films, which is consistent with experiments. However, the change of C11 and C55 with A is found to be around the values determined by a rule of mixture using bulk elastic constants of metals.No supermodulus effect is observed and it is due to cancellation between enhanced and reduced contributions to elastic constants from Ag and Pd layers subjected to compressive and tensile strains, respectively.

  3. Three-body calculation of the $1s$ level shift in kaonic deuterium with realistic $\\bar{K}N$ potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Révai, János

    2016-01-01

    The $1s$ level shift in kaonic deuterium was calculated using Coulomb Sturmian expansion of Faddeev equations. The convergence of the method yields an $\\sim\\ 1\\ eV$ accuracy for the level shifts. We used three different, realistic, multichannel $\\bar{K}N$ interactions reproducing all known experimental two-body $\\bar{K}N$ data. The different results suggest, that the level shift should be in the range $\\Delta E\\sim(800\\pm30)-(480\\pm20){\\rm i}\\ \\ eV$. The (almost) exact level shifts were compared with values, given by the commonly used approximations.

  4. Simultaneous description of conductance and thermopower in single-molecule junctions from many-body ab initio calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Chengjun; Markussen, Troels; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the electronic conductance and thermopower of a single-molecule junction consisting of bis-(4-aminophenyl) acetylene (B4APA) connected to gold electrodes. We use nonequilibrium Green's function methods in combination with density-functional theory (DFT) and the many-body GW...... approximation. To simulate recent break junction experiments, we calculate the transport properties of the junction as it is pulled apart. For all junction configurations, DFT with a standard semilocal functional overestimates the conductance by almost an order of magnitude, while the thermopower...

  5. QCD sum rule calculation of quark-gluon three-body components in the B-meson wave function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2011-10-01

    We discuss the QCD sum rule calculation of the heavy-quark effective theory parameters λE and λH, which represent quark-gluon three-body components in the B-meson wave function. We update the sum rules for λE,H calculating the new higher-order contributions to the operator product expansion for the corresponding correlator, i.e., the order αs radiative corrections to the Wilson coefficients associated with the dimension-5 quark-gluon mixed condensate, and the power corrections due to the dimension-6 vacuum condensates. We find that the new radiative corrections significantly improve stability of the corresponding Borel sum rules, modifying the values of λE,H.

  6. Mathematical model of a phantom developed for use in calculations of radiation dose to the body and major internal organs of a Japanese adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical model of a phantom simulating the body and major internal organs of a Japanese adult has been developed for use in computer calculations of radiation dose. The total body height of the mathematical phantom is 162 cm, and the total body mass is 55 kg based on densities of 0.3, 1.4, and 1.0 g/cm3 for the lung, skeleton, and bulk tissues of the body, respectively

  7. Ab initio many-body calculations of nucleon-4He scattering with three-nucleon forces

    CERN Document Server

    Hupin, Guillaume; Navrátil, Petr; Quaglioni, Sofia; Calci, Angelo; Roth, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We extend the ab initio no-core shell model/resonating-group method to include three-nucleon (3N) interactions for the description of nucleon-nucleus collisions. We outline the formalism, give algebraic expressions for the 3N-force integration kernels, and discuss computational aspects of two alternative implementations. The extended theoretical framework is then applied to nucleon-4He scattering using similarity-renormalization-group (SRG) evolved nucleon-nucleon plus three-nucleon potentials derived from chiral effective field theory. We analyze the convergence properties of the calculated phase shifts and explore their dependence upon the SRG evolution parameter. We include up to six excited states of the 4He target and find significant effects from the inclusion of the chiral 3N force, e.g., it enhances the spin-orbit splitting between the 3/2- and 1/2- resonances and leads to an improved agreement with the phase shifts obtained from an accurate R-matrix analysis of the five-nucleon experimental data. We ...

  8. Calculation of Flows Over Underwater Bodies with Hull, Sail and Appendages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive study has been made for the hydrodynamic analysis of the submarine DARPA 2. The analysis was first performed for hull, then hull with sail on top and then for the complete submarine including hull, sail and appendages. A comparison of tangential velocity and pressure distribution for hull is accomplished using CFD flow solvers and published data. Further, the pressure distribution over the hull with sail is also analyzed. Finally, pressure distribution, forces and moments were calculated over the complete submarine including hull, sail and appendages. Comparison 01 pressure distribution and tangential velocity for the hull show a good agreement with published data. Pressure coefficient comparison for the hull with sail shows the good CFD-CFD agreement. Comparison of Normal force and pitching moment of complete submarine having hull, sail and appendages shows a reasonable agreement with the experimental results of DARPA 2. Both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the complete submarine estimates the required design force and moment at different angles of attack and also demonstrate the flow visualization. (author)

  9. Electronic structure and metallization of cubic GdH3 under pressure: Ab initio many-body GW calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Bo; Zhang, Yachao

    2016-07-01

    The electronic structures of the cubic GdH3 are extensively investigated using the ab initio many-body GW calculations treating the Gd 4f electrons either in the core (4f-core) or in the valence states (4f-val). Different degrees of quasiparticle (QP) self-consistent calculations with the different starting points are used to correct the failures of the GGA/GGA + U/HSE03 calculations. In the 4f-core case, GGA + G0W0 calculations give a fundamental band gap of 1.72 eV, while GGA+ GW0 or GGA + GW calculations present a larger band gap. In the 4f-val case, the nonlocal exchange-correlation (xc) functional HSE03 can account much better for the strong localization of the 4f states than the semilocal or Hubbard U corrected xc functional in the Kohn-Sham equation. We show that the fundamental gap of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) or ferromagnetic (FM) GdH3 can be opened up by solving the QP equation with improved starting point of eigenvalues and wave functions given by HSE03. The HSE03 + G0W0 calculations present a fundamental band gap of 2.73 eV in the AFM configuration, and the results of the corresponding GW0 and GW calculations are 2.89 and 3.03 eV, respectively. In general, for the cubic structure, the fundamental gap from G0W0 calculations in the 4f-core case is the closest to the real result. By G0W0 calculations in the 4f-core case, we find that H or Gd defects can strongly affect the band structure, especially the H defects. We explain the mechanism in terms of the possible electron correlation on the hydrogen site. Under compression, the insulator-to-metal transition in the cubic GdH3 occurs around 40 GPa, which might be a satisfied prediction.

  10. Recommendations for dose calculations of lung cancer treatment plans treated with stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devpura, S.; Siddiqui, M. S.; Chen, D.; Liu, D.; Li, H.; Kumar, S.; Gordon, J.; Ajlouni, M.; Movsas, B.; Chetty, I. J.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate dose distributions computed with 5 different dose algorithms for patients with lung cancers treated using stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR). Treatment plans for 133 lung cancer patients, initially computed with a 1D-pencil beam (equivalent-path-length, EPL-1D) algorithm, were recalculated with 4 other algorithms commissioned for treatment planning, including 3-D pencil-beam (EPL-3D), anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), collapsed cone convolution superposition (CCC), and Monte Carlo (MC). The plan prescription dose was 48 Gy in 4 fractions normalized to the 95% isodose line. Tumors were classified according to location: peripheral tumors surrounded by lung (lung-island, N=39), peripheral tumors attached to the rib-cage or chest wall (lung-wall, N=44), and centrally-located tumors (lung-central, N=50). Relative to the EPL-1D algorithm, PTV D95 and mean dose values computed with the other 4 algorithms were lowest for "lung-island" tumors with smallest field sizes (3-5 cm). On the other hand, the smallest differences were noted for lung-central tumors treated with largest field widths (7-10 cm). Amongst all locations, dose distribution differences were most strongly correlated with tumor size for lung-island tumors. For most cases, convolution/superposition and MC algorithms were in good agreement. Mean lung dose (MLD) values computed with the EPL-1D algorithm were highly correlated with that of the other algorithms (correlation coefficient =0.99). The MLD values were found to be ~10% lower for small lung-island tumors with the model-based (conv/superposition and MC) vs. the correction-based (pencil-beam) algorithms with the model-based algorithms predicting greater low dose spread within the lungs. This study suggests that pencil beam algorithms should be avoided for lung SABR planning. For the most challenging cases, small tumors surrounded entirely by lung tissue (lung-island type), a Monte

  11. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (5) Body Weight, Body Dissatisfaction, and Depression Symptoms of Chinese Children Aged 9-10 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN-PING LI; GUAN-SHENG MA; EVERT G. SCHOUTEN; XIAO-QI HU; ZHAO-HUI CUI; DONG WANG; FRANS J. KOK

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between body weight, body dissatisfaction and depression symptoms among Chinese children. Methods The fasting body weight and height of the third and fourth grade students (n=3886, aged 9 or 10years) from 20 schools in Beijing, China, were measured, and the students were asked to choose the figures of body image and to complete the self-reported children's depression inventory (CDI) questionnaire. Results The CDI Cronbach's alpha was 0.81. The total CDI score was 9.60±7.50, 13.2% of children (boys 16.7% vs girls 9.5%) were at risk of developing depression symptoms. Overweight girls, but not boys, had significantly higher total CDI score than their normal weight counteparts. Both obese girls and boys showed a higher negative self-esteem score. More than one fifth underweight girls still wanted to be thinner while more than one third obese boys still wanted to be heavier. Children who wanted to be thinner showed slightly higher scores of ineffectiveness and negative self-esteem. After introducing the body dissatisfaction into the model, overweight was still associated with total CDI score among girls and obesity was still associated with negative self-esteem among both boys and girls. Conclusion Overweight girls show a significantly higher depression symptom score than their normal weight counterparts, which maybe partially explained by body dissatisfaction. Obese boys and girls are both more likely to suffer from low self-esteem, which is partially explained by body dissatisfaction.

  12. The limited screening value of insulin-like growth factor-i as a marker for alterations in body composition in very long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blijdorp (Karin); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry); R. Pieters (Rob); A.M. Boot (Annemieke); J.P. Sluimer (Johanna); A. van der Lelij (Allegonda); S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The clinical relevance of low IGF-I levels, caused by cranial radiotherapy, in adult childhood cancer survivors has not been studied extensively. We evaluated whether IGF-I is a useful marker for altered body composition and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in this group. Proc

  13. The limited screening value of insulin-like growth factor-i as a marker for alterations in body composition in very long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijdorp, Karin; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry; Pieters, Rob; Boot, Annemieke; Sluimer, Johanna; van der Lelij, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Background The clinical relevance of low IGF-I levels, caused by cranial radiotherapy, in adult childhood cancer survivors has not been studied extensively. We evaluated whether IGF-I is a useful marker for altered body composition and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in this group. Procedure We anal

  14. A general procedure to evaluate many-body spin operator amplitudes from periodic calculations: application to cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Iberio de P R [Departament de Quimica Fisica and Institut de Quimica Teorica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona and Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, C/ MartI i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Calzado, Carmen J [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, C/ Prof. GarcIa Gonzalez s/n, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Malrieu, Jean-Paul [IRSAMC, Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse-Cedex (France); Illas, Francesc [Departament de Quimica Fisica and Institut de Quimica Teorica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona and Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, C/ MartI i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    A general procedure is presented which permits the form of an extended spin Hamiltonian to be established for a given magnetic solid and the magnitude of its terms to be evaluated from spin polarized, Hartree-Fock or density functional calculations carried out for periodic models. The computational strategy makes use of a general mapping between the energy of pertinent broken-symmetry solutions and the diagonal terms of the spin Hamiltonian in a local representation. From this mapping it is possible to determine not only the amplitude of the well-known two-body magnetic coupling constants between near-neighbor sites, but also the amplitudes of four-body cyclic exchange terms. A scrutiny of the on-site spin densities provides additional information and control of the many broken-symmetry solutions which can be found. The procedure is applied to the La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}, Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}F{sub 2}, Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} square lattices and the SrCu{sub 2}O{sub 3} ladder compound. It is shown that a proper description of the magnetic structure of these compounds requires that two- and four-body terms are explicitly included in the spin Hamiltonian. The implications for the interpretation of recent experiments are discussed.

  15. HFOLD - A program package for calculating two-body MSSM Higgs decays at full one-loop level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, W; Eberl, H; Hluchá, H

    2011-10-01

    HFOLD (Higgs Full One Loop Decays) is a Fortran program package for calculating all MSSM Higgs two-body decay widths and the corresponding branching ratios at full one-loop level. The package is done in the SUSY Parameter Analysis convention and supports the SUSY Les Houches Accord input and output format. PROGRAM SUMMARY: Program title: HFOLD Catalogue identifier: AEJG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJG_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 340 621 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 760 051 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer: Workstation, PC Operating system: Linux RAM: 524 288 000 Bytes Classification: 11.1 External routines: LoopTools 2.2 (http://www.feynarts.de/looptools/), SLHALib 2.2 (http://www.feynarts.de/slha/). The LoopTools code is included in the distribution package. Nature of problem: A future high-energy e+e- linear collider will be the best environment for the precise measurements of masses, cross sections, branching ratios, etc. Experimental accuracies are expected at the per-cent down to the per-mile level. These must be matched from the theoretical side. Therefore higher order calculations are mandatory. Solution method: This program package calculates all MSSM Higgs two-body decay widths and the corresponding branching ratios at full one-loop level. The renormalization is done in the DR scheme following the SUSY Parameter Analysis convention. The program supports the SUSY Les Houches Accord input and output format. Running time: The example provided takes only a few seconds to run.

  16. Changes in ponderal index and body mass index across childhood and their associations with fat mass and cardiovascular risk factors at age 15

    OpenAIRE

    Laura D Howe; Kate Tilling; Li Benfield; Jennifer Logue; Naveed Sattar; Ness, Andy R; George Davey Smith; Debbie A Lawlor

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about whether associations between childhood adiposity and later adverse cardiovascular health outcomes are driven by tracking of overweight from childhood to adulthood and/or by vascular and metabolic changes from childhood overweight that persist into adulthood. Our objective is to characterise associations between trajectories of adiposity across childhood and a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors measured in adolescence, and explore the extent to which th...

  17. Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wefstaedt Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS- model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. Methods The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT- and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI- data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. Results and Discussion As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. Conclusion In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in

  18. BOUNDARY-LAYER SIMILAR SOLUTIONS FOR EQUILIBRIUM DISSOCIATED AIR AND APPLICATION TO THE CALCULATION OF LAMINAR HEATTRANSFER DISTRIBUTION ON BLUNT BODIES IN HIGH-SPEED FLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, I. E.; Cohen, N. B.

    1963-01-01

    Flat plate and stagnation flow heat transfer coefficients, similarity solutions of the laminar boundary layer for air in dissociation equilibrium and calculation of laminar heat-transfer distribution on blunt three-dimensional bodies in high speed flow

  19. Dose calculation of Acuros XB and Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm in lung stereotactic body radiotherapy treatment with flattening filter free beams and the potential role of calculation grid size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aimed to appraise the dose differences between Acuros XB (AXB) and Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA) in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment for lung cancer with flattening filter free (FFF) beams. Additionally, the potential role of the calculation grid size (CGS) on the dose differences between the two algorithms was also investigated. SBRT plans with 6X and 10X FFF beams produced from the CT scan data of 10 patients suffering from stage I lung cancer were enrolled in this study. Clinically acceptable treatment plans with AAA were recalculated using AXB with the same monitor units (MU) and identical multileaf collimator (MLC) settings. Furthermore, different CGS (2.5 mm and 1 mm) in the two algorithms was also employed to investigate their dosimetric impact. Dose to planning target volumes (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) between the two algorithms were compared. PTV was separated into PTV-soft (density in soft-tissue range) and PTV-lung (density in lung range) for comparison. The dose to PTV-lung predicted by AXB was found to be 1.33 ± 1.12% (6XFFF beam with 2.5 mm CGS), 2.33 ± 1.37% (6XFFF beam with 1 mm CGS), 2.81 ± 2.33% (10XFFF beam with 2.5 mm CGS) and 3.34 ± 1.76% (10XFFF beam with 1 mm CGS) lower compared with that by AAA, respectively. However, the dose directed to PTV-soft was comparable. For OARs, AXB predicted a slightly lower dose to the aorta, chest wall, spinal cord and esophagus, regardless of whether the 6XFFF or 10XFFF beam was utilized. Exceptionally, dose to the ipsilateral lung was significantly higher with AXB. AXB principally predicts lower dose to PTV-lung compared to AAA and the CGS contributes to the relative dose difference between the two algorithms

  20. Avoiding the 4-index transformation in one-body reduced density matrix functional calculations for separable functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbertz, Klaas J H

    2016-08-01

    One of the major computational bottlenecks in one-body reduced density matrix (1RDM) functional theory is the evaluation of approximate 1RDM functionals and their derivatives. The reason is that more advanced approximate functionals are almost exclusively defined in the natural orbital basis, so a 4-index transformation of the two-electron integrals appears to be unavoidable. I will show that this is not the case and that so-called separable functionals can be evaluated much more efficiently, i.e. only at cubic cost in the basis size. Since most approximate functionals are actually separable, this new algorithm is an important development to make 1RDM functional theory calculations feasible for large electronic systems. PMID:26908059

  1. Automatic 2D scintillation camera and computed tomography whole-body image registration to perform dosimetry calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cismondi, Federico; Mosconi, Sergio L [Fundacion Escuela de Medicina Nuclear, Mendoza (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    In this paper we present a software tool that has been developed to allow automatic registrations of 2D Scintillation Camera (SC) and Computed Tomography (CT) images. This tool, used with a dosimetric software with Integrated Activity or Residence Time as input data, allows the user to assess physicians about effects of radiodiagnostic or radioterapeutic practices. Images are registered locally and globally, maximizing Mutual Information coefficient between regions been registered. In the regional case whole-body images are segmented into five regions: head, thorax, pelvis, left and right legs. Each region has its own registration parameters, which are optimized through Powell-Brent minimization method that 'maximizes' Mutual Information coefficient. This software tool allows the user to draw ROIs, input isotope characteristics and finally calculate Integrated Activity or Residence Time in one or many specific organ. These last values can be introduced in many dosimetric softwares to finally obtain Absorbed Dose values.

  2. Trabalho corporal na educação infantil: afinal, quem deve realizá-lo? Body work in early childhood education: finally who should actually achieve it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Jorge Saad Guirra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A educação infantil constitui-se no momento em que as crianças internalizam importantes conhecimentos que as auxiliarão para o resto de suas vidas, influenciando na sua formação e em suas práticas. O presente artigo reflete sobre o professor generalista, responsável pelo trabalho corporal, na educação infantil, de quais conhecimentos dispõe para desenvolver tal tarefa e como vê a importância desse trabalho para as crianças; aborda, ainda, segundo pesquisa realizada, a possível necessidade de um professor especialista na área para trabalhar o movimento e faz um questionamento sobre a preparação desse profissional para lidar com crianças de educação infantil. Conclui o presente, dialogando com essas questões e abrindo uma discussão sobre a possibilidade de um trabalho desses dois profissionais, em parceria, no sentido de garantir à criança, uma educação mais específica e que auxilie no seu desenvolvimento integral,Early childhood education is at the moment that the children internalize important knowledge that help the rest of their lives, influencing its formation and its practices. This article reflects on the teacher generalist, responsible for working on body movement with the children in early childhood education, which has expertise to develop such a task and sees the importance of this work for children, also discusses the second survey conducted, the possible need for a specialist teacher to work in the movement and is a question on the preparation of this work to deal with children in early childhood education. This article concludes the dialogue with these issues and open a discussion about the possibility of these two professionals work in partnership to ensure the child a more specific education and to help in its full development.

  3. Efficient calculation of current densities in the human body induced by arbitrarily shaped, low-frequency magnetic field sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchanski, Andreas; Clemens, Markus; De Gersem, Herbert; Weiland, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we extend the scalar-potential finite-difference (SPFD) approach in order to consider arbitrarily shaped time-harmonic field sources. The SPFD approach is commonly used to compute the currents induced by an externally applied magnetic field in regions with weak, heterogeneous conductivities such as, e.g., the human body. We present the extended scalar-potential finite-difference (Ex-SPFD) approach as a two step algorithm. In the first step, the excitation is computed by solving the magnetoquasistatic curl-curl equation on a coarse grid that is well adapted for the field sources. In the second step, the magnetic vector potential is prolongated onto a finer grid and a divergence correction inside the conductor is applied. Using the Maxwell-grid-equations (MGEs) of the finite integration technique, a geometric discretization scheme for Maxwell's equations, this new approach has been implemented in a parallel environment in order to account for the memory-demanding high-resolution anatomy models used for the calculation of induced currents inside the human body. We demonstrate the validity and the improved numerical performance of the new approach for a test case. Finally, an application example of a human exposed to a realistic electromagnetic field source is presented.

  4. Socio-Cognitive and Nutritional Factors Associated with Body Mass Index in Children and Adolescents: Possibilities for Childhood Obesity Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Wilson, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    A large national study of schoolchildren aged 6-18 years was conducted to assess nutritional and socio-cognitive factors associated with body mass index (BMI). A questionnaire was used to assess nutritional quality of breakfast, importance of physical activity and food variety score, among 4441 students from randomly selected schools in all states…

  5. Stress and Obesity in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Felix-Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious health problem and prevalence increases dramatically around the world, including Sweden. The aim of the current thesis was to examine parents’ and children’s stress in relation to childhood obesity. Parenting stress, social support, parental worries, and serious life events, as well as children’s temperament, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, saliva cortisol, weight and height were measured to estimate stress and the relation between stress and childhood obesit...

  6. Nonfatal suicidal behavior among women prisoners: the predictive roles of childhood victimization, childhood neglect, and childhood positive support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, Stephen J; Onifade, Eyitayo; Pettus-Davis, Carrie

    2014-04-01

    Women entering prison report high rates of childhood victimization. Women in prison also report higher rates of nonfatal suicidal behavior (self-reported suicide attempts) than women in the general population and similar rates to their male counterparts despite having significantly lower suicide rates than males in the general population. Yet, there is a dearth of research that addresses the relationship between childhood victimization and suicidality for women prisoners in the United States. The purpose of this study is (a) to assess the relationship between childhood victimization and nonfatal suicidal behavior for a random sample of women prisoners; (b) to investigate predictive differences between childhood physical victimization, childhood sexual victimization, childhood neglect, and childhood support; and (c) to determine whether women prisoners with higher frequencies of childhood victimization and neglect are more likely to have attempted suicide than women prisoners with lower frequencies. Results indicate that childhood victimization, neglect, and lack of support are all significantly associated with nonfatal suicidal behavior among women prisoners. Frequency of childhood neglect had a larger effect size than frequency of childhood physical victimization, childhood sexual victimization, and lack of support. The results of this study add to the growing body of literature on childhood victimization and suicidality in general, and nonfatal suicidal behavior for prisoner populations in particular. The article ends with a discussion on clinical implications; particularly the finding that frequency of childhood victimization, childhood neglect, and lack of childhood support matters when determining the risk of suicidality. PMID:23315427

  7. Mendelian Randomisation Study of Childhood BMI and Early Menarche

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah S. Mumby; Elks, Cathy E; Shengxu Li; Sharp, Stephen J.; Kay-Tee Khaw; Luben, Robert N; Wareham, Nicholas J; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Ken K Ong

    2011-01-01

    To infer the causal association between childhood BMI and age at menarche, we performed a mendelian randomisation analysis using twelve established “BMI-increasing” genetic variants as an instrumental variable (IV) for higher BMI. In 8,156 women of European descent from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort, height was measured at age 39–77 years; age at menarche was self-recalled, as was body weight at age 20 years, and BMI at 20 was calculated as a proxy for childhood BMI. DNA was genotyped for twelve BM...

  8. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: body mass index and level of overweight among 6-9-year-old children from school year 2007/2008 to school year 2009/2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wijnhoven, Trudy Ma

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has established the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) to monitor changes in overweight in primary-school children. The aims of this paper are to present the anthropometric results of COSI Round 2 (2009\\/2010) and to explore changes in body mass index (BMI) and overweight among children within and across nine countries from school years 2007\\/2008 to 2009\\/2010.

  9. Increased health care utilization by survivors of childhood lymphoblastic leukemia is confined to those treated with cranial or total body irradiation: a case cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have indicated that survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have an increased morbidity measured in terms of health care utilization. However, earlier studies have several potentially important limitations. To overcome some of these, we investigated hospital contact rates, and predictors thereof, among 5-year survivors of ALL in a population-based setting, and compared them to a control cohort regarding outcome measures from a comprehensive nation-wide health register. All individuals diagnosed with ALL before the age of 18 in Southern Sweden during 1970–1999 and alive January 2007 (n = 213; male = 107) were identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Each subject was matched to fifty controls, identified in the Swedish Population Register. All study subjects were linked to the National Hospital Register and detailed information was obtained on all hospital contacts (hospital admissions and outpatients visits) starting five years after cancer diagnosis, and the corresponding date for the controls, until 2009. The median follow-up among the 5-year survivors of ALL was 16 years (range 5–33), accruing a total of 3,527 person-years. Of the 213 5-year survivors, 105 (49.3%) had at least one hospital contact compared to 3,634 (34.1%) of the controls (p < 0.001). Survivors had more hospital contacts (3 [1–6] vs. 2 [1–4] contacts, p < 0.001) and more total days in hospital (6 [2–18] vs. 3 [1–7] days, p < 0.001) than the controls during the study period. Logistic regression analysis showed that survivors treated with cranial irradiation and/or total body irradiation (45% and 7%, respectively) had an increased risk of at least one hospital contact (OR 2.3, 95%CI; 1.5–3.6 and OR 11.0, 95%CI; 3.2–50.7, respectively), while there was no significant difference between the non-irradiated survivors and controls. We show that irradiated survivors of childhood ALL have an increased morbidity measured in terms of hospital

  10. Body composition in early childhood : Parental, fetal, postnata and genetic determinants of fat, lean and bone mass. The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Ay (Lamise)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTh e prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased dramatically in developed countries over the past two decades. Childhood obesity is associated with short-term morbidity such as asthma and psychological problems and with an increased risk for chronic morbidity and mortal

  11. The effect of total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation during childhood and adolescence on growth and endocrine function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen children with acute leukaemia and myeloproliferative disorders were investigated for growth and endocrine dysfunction. All had undergone bone marrow transplantation prepared with cyclophosphamide and single fraction total body irradiation (900-1000 cGy) between 1.5 and 3.8 (mean 2.2) years previously. The majority exhibited growth failure, of multiple aetiology. Ten patients, of whom eight had had previous prophylactic cranial irradiation, had evidence of growth hormone deficiency based on reduced growth hormone reponse to insulin induced hypoglycaemia. Three had evidence of hypothalamic damage. Gonadal failure was common. All four girls of adolescent age (10.6-14.1 years) had ovarian failure requiring sex steroid replacement. Of eight boys of adolescent age (12.3-18.3 years), two had testicular failure requiring sex steroid supplements. Both had had previous testicular irradiation. Five others had compensated gonadal failure; one had normal Leydig cell function. Abnormalities of the TSH response to TRH occurred in 10 patients but only three had overt hypothyroidism. Unlike growth hormone deficiency, gonadal and thyroid dysfunction showed no correlation with previous cranial radiotherapy. (author)

  12. FDTD calculation of whole-body average SAR in adult and child models for frequencies from 30 MHz to 3 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the difficulty of the specific absorption rate (SAR) measurement in an actual human body for electromagnetic radio-frequency (RF) exposure, in various compliance assessment procedures the incident electric field or power density is being used as a reference level, which should never yield a larger whole-body average SAR than the basic safety limit. The relationship between the reference level and the whole-body average SAR, however, was established mainly based on numerical calculations for highly simplified human modelling dozens of years ago. Its validity is being questioned by the latest calculation results. In verifying the validity of the reference level with respect to the basic SAR limit for RF exposure, it is essential to have a high accuracy of human modelling and numerical code. In this study, we made a detailed error analysis in the whole-body average SAR calculation for the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in conjunction with the perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundaries. We derived a basic rule for the PML employment based on a dielectric sphere and the Mie theory solution. We then attempted to clarify to what extent the whole-body average SAR may reach using an anatomically based Japanese adult model and a scaled child model. The results show that the whole-body average SAR under the ICNIRP reference level exceeds the basic safety limit nearly 30% for the child model both in the resonance frequency and 2 GHz band

  13. CALCULATION OF FIELDS IN A COMBINED INDUCTOR SYSTEM AS A TOOLS OF STRAIGHTENING OF METAL COATING OF CAR BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Voloncevich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper construction of combined inductor system realizing the principle of superposition of circular and plane-parallel magnetic fields is proposed. This inductor system is the instrument of external straightening of dents in the metal coating of car body. The use of low-frequency plane-parallel magnetic field instead of a high-frequency magnetic field to create conditions for the transformation of the natural repulsion to attraction of sheet conductor is suggested. The low-frequency field is generated by inductor system by dint of flat circular turn. The plane-parallel magnetic field is generated by a rectangular turn. The low-frequency field penetrates the sheet workpiece in the construct. The theory and experiment indicate that plane-parallel magnetic field doesn’t diffuse almost. Conclusion calculated ratios to analyze the processes of magnetic pulse attraction in the system based on the solution of Maxwell's equations for non-zero intensity components of the electromagnetic field. The Maxwell's equations are transformed by Laplace zero initial conditions. In this case the integral sinus-transformation Fourier are applied. The problem is solved in the plane-wave approximation. Valid for plane waves directly proportional relationship between the tangent vector components of the electromagnetic field on the surface of conductor. For the analysis of processes in combined inductor system for a magnetic-pulsed «pulling» a predetermined part of the metal sheet were obtained the population of calculated expressions. The magnetic pressure on the metal sheet is caused by force action on the part of the excited fields. It is determined solely amplitude of penetrate field and is directed towards the working surface of the inductor. Finally, there is a predetermined part of the attraction of the sheet metal. The operating frequency of the plane-parallel field can be quite small. This choice doesn’t influence the diffusion processes in the

  14. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Stress KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Stress Print A A ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  15. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  16. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Cancer Print A A A Text Size What's ... in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...

  17. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  18. Introduction on background medium theory about celestial body motion orbit and foundation of fractional-dimension calculus about self-similar fractal measure calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, by discussing the basic hypotheses about the continuous orbit and discrete orbit in two research directions of the background medium theory for celestial body motion, the concrete equation forms and their summary of the theoretic frame of celestial body motion are introduced. Future more, by discussing the general form of Binet's equation of celestial body motion orbit and it's solution of the advance of the perihelion of planets, the relations and differences between the continuous orbit theory and Newton's gravitation theory and Einstein's general relativity are given. And by discussing the fractional-dimension expanded equation for the celestial body motion orbits, the concrete equations and the prophesy data of discrete orbit or stable orbits of celestial bodies which included the planets in the Solar system, satellites in the Uranian system, satellites in the Earth system and satellites obtaining the Moon obtaining from discrete orbit theory are given too. Especially, as the preliminary exploration and inference to the gravitation curve of celestial bodies in broadly range, the concept for the ideal black hole with trend to infinite in mass density difficult to be formed by gravitation only is explored. By discussing the position hypothesis of fractional-dimension derivative about general function and the formula form the hypothesis of fractional-dimension derivative about power function, the concrete equation formulas of fractional-dimension derivative, differential and integral are described distinctly further, and the difference between the fractional-dimension derivative and the fractional-order derivative are given too. Subsequently, the concrete forms of measure calculation equations of self-similar fractal obtaining by based on the definition of form in fractional-dimension calculus about general fractal measure are discussed again, and the differences with Hausdorff measure method or the covering method at present are given. By applying

  19. Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations on F-, Ne-, Na-, Mg-, Al-, Si-, and P-like xenon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2005-12-22

    Many-Body Perturbation Theory (MBPT) has been employed to calculate with high wavelength accuracy the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra of F-like to P-like Xe ions. They discuss the reliability of the new calculations using the example of EUV beam-foil spectra of Xe, in which n = 3, {Delta}n = 0 transitions of Na-, Mg-, Al-like, and Si-like ions have been found to dominate. A further comparison is made with spectra from an electron beam ion trap, that is, from a device with a very different (low density) excitation balance.

  20. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Ahmet; Koca, Fahrettin; Fıçıcıoğlu, Can; Çam, Halit; Mıkla, Şerare

    1995-01-01

    Management of childhood obesity and its early and late complications are among the most difficult problems confronted by pediatricians and practitioners The purpose of this review is to provide information for the evaluation and treatment of childhood obesity Key nbsp;words: nbsp;Child Obesity Etiology Management Complications

  1. Relativistic many-body calculations of excitation energy and radiative transition probabilities for many-electron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy levels, line strengths, oscillator strengths, and transition rates are calculated for electric dipole nl1nl2[LSJ]-nl3nl4[L'S'J'] transition in Be- (n=2), Mg- (n=3), Zn- (n=4) and Sm- (n=5) like ions with nuclear charges ranging from Z=N to 100 where N is number of electron in system. (author)

  2. Three-body calculation of the Delta-Delta dibaryon candidate D(03) at 2.37 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Gal, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    The I(JP)=0(3+) D(03) dibaryon candidate observed as resonance at 2.37 GeV in pion-production pn collisions by WASA@COSY is relegated within a dynamical pion-nucleon-Delta three-body model to a Delta-Delta (upper) pion-D(12) (lower) coupled-channel quasi-bound dibaryon state, where D(12) is the dibaryon observed in the 1D2 partial wave of pp scattering at 2.15 GeV

  3. Relativistic many-body calculations of excitation energy and radiative transition probabilities for many-electron ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, U.I.; Johnson, W.R. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Energy levels, line strengths, oscillator strengths, and transition rates are calculated for electric dipole nl{sub 1}nl{sub 2}[LSJ]-nl{sub 3}nl{sub 4}[L'S'J'] transition in Be- (n=2), Mg- (n=3), Zn- (n=4) and Sm- (n=5) like ions with nuclear charges ranging from Z=N to 100 where N is number of electron in system. (author)

  4. Tumor control probability and the utility of 4D vs 3D dose calculations for stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes, Gilmer, E-mail: gilmer.valdes@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Robinson, Clifford [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States); Lee, Percy [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Morel, Delphine [Department of Biomedical Engineering, AIX Marseille 2 University, Marseille (France); Department of Medical Physics, Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble (France); Low, Daniel; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Lamb, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Four-dimensional (4D) dose calculations for lung cancer radiotherapy have been technically feasible for a number of years but have not become standard clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to determine if clinically significant differences in tumor control probability (TCP) exist between 3D and 4D dose calculations so as to inform the decision whether 4D dose calculations should be used routinely for treatment planning. Radiotherapy plans for Stage I-II lung cancer were created for 8 patients. Clinically acceptable treatment plans were created with dose calculated on the end-exhale 4D computed tomography (CT) phase using a Monte Carlo algorithm. Dose was then projected onto the remaining 9 phases of 4D-CT using the Monte Carlo algorithm and accumulated onto the end-exhale phase using commercially available deformable registration software. The resulting dose-volume histograms (DVH) of the gross tumor volume (GTV), planning tumor volume (PTV), and PTV{sub setup} were compared according to target coverage and dose. The PTV{sub setup} was defined as a volume including the GTV and a margin for setup uncertainties but not for respiratory motion. TCPs resulting from these DVHs were estimated using a wide range of alphas, betas, and tumor cell densities. Differences of up to 5 Gy were observed between 3D and 4D calculations for a PTV with highly irregular shape. When the TCP was calculated using the resulting DVHs for fractionation schedules typically used in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), the TCP differed at most by 5% between 4D and 3D cases, and in most cases, it was by less than 1%. We conclude that 4D dose calculations are not necessary for most cases treated with SBRT, but they might be valuable for irregularly shaped target volumes. If 4D calculations are used, 4D DVHs should be evaluated on volumes that include margin for setup uncertainty but not respiratory motion.

  5. Relativistic three-body calculations of a Y=1, I=3/2 , J{sup P}=2{sup +}{pi}{Lambda}N-{pi}{Sigma}N dibaryon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcilazo, H., E-mail: humberto@esfm.ipn.mx [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gal, A., E-mail: avragal@savion.huji.ac.il [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2013-01-02

    The {pi}{Lambda}N-{pi}{Sigma}N coupled-channel system with quantum numbers (Y,I,J{sup P})=(1,3/2 ,2{sup +}) is studied in a relativistic three-body model, using two-body separable interactions in the dominant p-wave pion-baryon and {sup 3}S{sub 1}YN channels. Three-body equations are solved in the complex energy plane to search for quasibound state and resonance poles, producing a robust narrow {pi}{Lambda}N resonance about 10-20 MeV below the {pi}{Sigma}N threshold. Viewed as a dibaryon, it is a {sup 5}S{sub 2} quasibound state consisting of {Sigma}(1385)N and {Delta}(1232)Y components. Comparison is made between the present relativistic model calculation and a previous, outdated nonrelativistic calculation which resulted in a {pi}{Lambda}N bound state. Effects of adding a K{sup Macron }NN channel are studied and found insignificant. Possible production and decay reactions of this (Y,I,J{sup P})=(1,3/2 ,2{sup +}) dibaryon are discussed.

  6. Post-traumatic stress symptoms and childhood abuse categories in a national representative sample for a specific age group: associations to body mass index

    OpenAIRE

    Roenholdt, Stine; Beck, Nina N.; Karsberg, Sidsel H.; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies of specific groups such as military veterans have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is linked to adverse health outcomes including unhealthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between PTSD symptoms, experiences of childhood trauma and weight in a community sample. Methods: A stratified random probability survey was conducted in Denmark by the Danish National Centre for Social Research between 2008 and 2009 with 2,981 participants bo...

  7. Relativistic many-body calculations of van der Waals coefficients for Yb-Li and Yb-Rb dimers

    CERN Document Server

    Porsev, S G; Derevianko, A; Clark, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    We derive the relativistic formulas for the van der Waals coefficients of Yb-alkali dimers that correlate to ground and excited separated-atom limits. We calculate $C_6$ and $C_8$ coefficients of particular experimental interest. We also derive a semi-empirical formula that expresses the $C_8$ coefficient of heteronuclear $A+B$ dimers in terms of the $C_6$ and $C_8$ coefficients of homonuclear dimers and the static dipole and quadrupole polarizabilities of the atomic states $A$ and $B$. We report results of calculation of the $C_6$ coefficients for the Yb-Rb $^3/!P_1^o+5s\\, ^2/!S_{1/2}$ and $^1/!S_0+5p\\, ^2/!P^o_{1/2}$ dimers, and the $C_8$ coefficients for the Yb-Li $^1/!S_0+2s\\, ^2/!S_{1/2}$ and Yb-Rb $^1/!S_0+5s\\, ^2/!S_{1/2}$ dimers. Uncertainties are estimated for all predicted properties.

  8. Relativistic many-body calculation of energies, lifetimes, polarizabilities, blackbody radiative shift and hyperfine constants in Lu2+

    CERN Document Server

    Safronova, U I; Johnson, W R

    2016-01-01

    Energy levels of 30 low-lying states of Lu2+ and allowed electric-dipole matrix elements between these states are evaluated using a relativistic all-order method in which all single, double and partial triple excitations of Dirac-Fock wave functions are included to all orders of perturbation theory. Matrix elements are critically evaluated for their accuracy and recommended values of the matrix elements are given together with uncertainty estimates. Line strengths, transition rates and lifetimes of the metastable 5d(3/2) and 5d(5/2) states are calculated. Recommended values are given for static polarizabilities of the 6s, 5d and 6p states and tensor polarizabilities of the 5d and 6p(3/2) states. Uncertainties of the polarizability values are estimated in all cases. The blackbody radiation shift of the 6s(1/2)-5d(5/2) transition frequency of the Lu2+ ion is calculated with the aid of the recommended scalar polarizabilities of the 6s(1/2) and 5d(5/2) states. Finally, A and B hyperfine constants are determined f...

  9. Relativistic many-body calculation of energies, lifetimes, polarizabilities, blackbody radiative shift, and hyperfine constants in Lu2 +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, M. S.; Johnson, W. R.

    2016-09-01

    Energy levels of 30 low-lying states of Lu2 + and allowed electric-dipole matrix elements between these states are evaluated using a relativistic all-order method in which all single, double, and partial triple excitations of Dirac-Fock wave functions are included to all orders of perturbation theory. Matrix elements are critically evaluated for their accuracy and recommended values of the matrix elements are given together with uncertainty estimates. Line strengths, transition rates, and lifetimes of the metastable 5 d3 /2 and 5 d5 /2 states are calculated. Recommended values are given for static polarizabilities of the 6 s , 5 d , and 6 p states and tensor polarizabilities of the 5 d and 6 p3 /2 states. Uncertainties of the polarizability values are estimated in all cases. The blackbody radiation shift of the 6 s1 /2-5 d5 /2 transition frequency of the Lu2 + ion is calculated with the aid of the recommended scalar polarizabilities of the 6 s1 /2 and 5 d5 /2 states. Finally, A and B hyperfine constants are determined for states of 2+175Lu with n ≤9 . This work provides recommended values of transition matrix elements, polarizabilities, and hyperfine constants of Lu2 +, critically evaluated for accuracy, for benchmark tests of high-precision theoretical methodology and planning of future experiments.

  10. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining if the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on self-regulation, academic motivation, and internalized compliance/internalization of standards. Based on the accumulated body of evidence, we conclude that self...

  11. Diagrammatic many-body perturbation expansion for atoms and molecules: VI Experiments in vector processing and parallel processing for second-order energy calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieff, David; Baker, David J.; Wilson, Stephen

    1989-08-01

    The efficient evaluation of the second-order expression in the many-body perturbation theory expansion for the correlation energy on vector processing and parallel processing computers is discussed. It is argued that the linked diagram theorem not only leads to the well known theoretical advantages of the many-body perturbation theory approach which allows the calculation of correlation energies for large (i.e. extended molecules or species containing heavy atoms) systems but also decouples the many-electron problem allowing efficient implementation on parallel processing machines. Furthermore, the computation associated with each of the resulting subproblems is very well suited to vector processing machines. Timing tests are reported for the CRAY 1 and CDC Cyber 205 vector processors, for a 1 processor implementation on the CRAY X-MP/48 and the ETA-10E, and for a 4 processor implementation on the Cray X-MP/48.

  12. Calculation of the two-body scattering K-matrix in configuration space by an adaptive spectral method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectral integral method (IEM) for solving the two-body, one-variable Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the wavefunction in configuration space is generalized to the case of the two-variable scattering K-matrix. The main difficulty is that in this case the driving term of the integral equation is discontinuous. It is found that the desirable features of the IEM, such as the economy of mesh points for a given required accuracy, are carried over also to this case even though the result is also discontinuous. The main innovation is a judicious choice of the partitions in coordinate space, plus a new recursion relation forward and backward to the point of discontinuity. For a simple exponential potential an accuracy of 7 significant figures is achieved for the K-matrix, with the number N of Chebyshev support points in each partition equal to 17. For a potential with a large repulsive core, such as the potential between two He atoms, an accuracy of 7 significant figures requires that N is increased to 65 support points per partition

  13. Three-body model calculations for N=Z odd-odd nuclei with T=0 and T=1 pairing correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Tanimura, Y; Hagino, K

    2013-01-01

    We study the interplay between the isoscalar (T=0) and isovector (T=1) pairing correlations in N=Z odd-odd nuclei from 14N to 58Cu by using three-body model calculations. The strong spin-triplet T=0 pairing correlation dominates in the ground state of 14N, 18F, 30P, and 58Cu with the spin-parity J^{\\pi}=1+, which can be well reproduced by the present calculations. The magnetic dipole and Gamow-Teller transitions are found to be strong in 18F and 42Sc as a manifestation of SU(4) symmetry in the spin-isospin space. We also discuss the spin-quadrupole transitions in these nuclei.

  14. First-principles calculations of (Y, Ti, O) cluster formation in body centred cubic iron-chromium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claisse, Antoine; Olsson, Pär

    2013-05-01

    In the present work, the ab initio parametrization necessary for a Monte Carlo study of the (Y, Ti, O) clusters in a FeCr matrix is done. The cohesive, binding and migration energies of all the solutes have been calculated in the dilute limit in the framework of density functional theory. The special case of the strong interaction between an Y atom and a vacancy has been considered. In the dilute limit, Cr is transparent with respect to Y, Ti, O or vacancies. On the contrary, Y binds O strongly in 2NN configuration while not in 1NN. Ti binds O in 1NN and 2NN configurations. A vacancy binds strongly with Y and O in 1NN position which is resulting in a low diffusion coefficient for Y. The peculiar case of the binding attraction between two interstitial oxygen atoms has been studied and is believed to be the main reason for the planar (2D) symmetry of the cluster nuclei. A preferential cluster shape is determined for the early nucleation stage, up to 12 atoms.

  15. Endocrinopathies in Survivors of Childhood Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLE S BARNES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in cancer treatments have increased the number of childhood cancer survivors. Endocrinopathies are common complications following cancer therapy and may occur decades later. The objective of the review is to address the main endocrine abnormalities detected in childhood cancer survivors including disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thyroid, puberty, gonads, bone, body composition, and glucose metabolism.

  16. Hepatic arterial phase and portal venous phase computed tomography for dose calculation of stereotactic body radiation therapy plans in liver cancer: a dosimetric comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effect of computed tomography (CT) using hepatic arterial phase (HAP) and portal venous phase (PVP) contrast on dose calculation of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for liver cancer. Twenty-one patients with liver cancer were studied. HAP, PVP and non-enhanced CTs were performed on subjects scanned in identical positions under active breathing control (ABC). SBRT plans were generated using seven-field three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (7 F-3D-CRT), seven-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (7 F-IMRT) and single-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) based on the PVP CT. Plans were copied to the HAP and non-enhanced CTs. Radiation doses calculated from the three phases of CTs were compared with respect to the planning target volume (PTV) and the organs at risk (OAR) using the Friedman test and the Wilcoxon signed ranks test. SBRT plans calculated from either PVP or HAP CT, including 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT plans, demonstrated significantly lower (p <0.05) minimum absorbed doses covering 98%, 95%, 50% and 2% of PTV (D98%, D95%, D50% and D2%) than those calculated from non-enhanced CT. The mean differences between PVP or HAP CT and non-enhanced CT were less than 2% and 1% respectively. All mean dose differences between the three phases of CTs for OARs were less than 2%. Our data indicate that though the differences in dose calculation between contrast phases are not clinically relevant, dose underestimation (IE, delivery of higher-than-intended doses) resulting from CT using PVP contrast is larger than that resulting from CT using HAP contrast when compared against doses based upon non-contrast CT in SBRT treatment of liver cancer using VMAT, IMRT or 3D-CRT

  17. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar Wittner Bynner...

  18. Contemporary Childhood in Bagamoyo : A Child-focused Study on Perceptions and Experiences of Childhood in Coastal Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Smørdal, Gro Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Through international agencies and non-governmental organisations building their work on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, childhood has become increasingly homogenised as an idea. A ‘global model’ of childhood is promoted all over the world, but this is a model who fails in recognising the diverse realities of children’s lives. The diversity of childhood is on the other hand demonstrated through a growing body of literature on local childhood experiences, also in the ...

  19. Trends of childhood obesity in China and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guiju; Jia, Genmei; Peng, Honglei; Dickerman, Barbra; Compher, Charlene; Liu, Jianghong

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity is worsening at dramatic rates and has become a public health crisis. This study investigated these trends in childhood obesity and examined parental factors that may contribute to overweight and obesity. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from height and weight measurements taken annually from 2004 to 2007 in a subsample of 136 children (2-4 years old), from the Jintan Child Health Project in China. Parental factors were assessed through a self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity rose from 6.6% and 2.2% in 2004 to 15.4% and 6.6% in 2007 (p working mothers, on the nutritional benefits of home-cooked meals. PMID:23823460

  20. Ab Initio Many-Body Calculations of n-3H, n-4He, p-{3,4}He, and n-10Be Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Quaglioni, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    We develop a new ab initio many-body approach capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei, by combining the resonating-group method with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters. This approach preserves translational symmetry and Pauli principle. We present phase shifts for neutron scattering on 3H, 4He and 10Be and proton scattering on {3,4}He, using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. Our A=4 scattering results are compared to earlier ab initio calculations. We demonstrate that a proper treatment of the coupling to the n-10Be continuum is essential to explain the parity-inverted ground state in 11Be.

  1. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  2. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  3. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children are obese. Twin and adoption studies demonstrate a large genetic component to obesity, especially in adults. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity over the last 20 years can only be explained by environmental factors. In most obese individuals, no measurable differences in metabolism can be detected. Few children engage in regular physical activity. Obese children and adults uniformly underreport the amount of food they eat. Obesity is particularly related to increased consumption of high-fat foods. BMI is a quick and easy way to screen for childhood obesity. Treating childhood obesity relies on positive family support and lifestyle changes involving the whole family. Food preferences are influenced early by parental eating habits, and when developed in childhood, they tend to remain fairly constant into adulthood. Children learn to be active or inactive from their parents. In addition, physical activity (or more commonly, physical inactivity) habits that are established in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Weight loss is usually followed by changes in appetite and metabolism, predisposing individuals to regain their weight. However, when the right family dynamics exist--a motivated child with supportive parents--long-term success is possible.

  4. Childhood Vestibular Disorders: A Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Zarin; Stakiw, Daria B.

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that childhood disorders affecting the vestibular system, although rare, do exist. Describing symptoms associated with the vestibular mechanism for children may be difficult, resulting in misdiagnosing or under-diagnosing these conditions. The pathophysiology, symptoms, and management options of the more common…

  5. A computer program to calculate the resistivity and induced polarization response for a three-dimensional body in the presence of buried electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Jeffrey J.

    1977-01-01

    Three-dimensional induced polarization and resistivity modeling for buried electrode configurations can be achieved by adapting surface integral techniques for surface electrode configurations to buried electrodes. Modification of. the surface technique is accomplished by considering the additional mathematical terms required to express-the changes in the electrical potential and geometry caused by placing the source and receiver electrodes below the surface. This report presents a listing of a computer program to calculate the resistivity and induced polarization response from a three-dimensional body for buried electrode configurations. The program is designed to calculate the response for the following electrode configurations: (1) hole-to-surface array with a buried bipole source and a surface bipole receiver, (2) hole-to-surface array with a buried pole source and a surface bipole receiver, (3) hole-to-hole array with a buried, fixed pole source and a moving bipole receiver, (4) surface-to-hole array with a fixed pole source on the surface and a moving bipole receiver in the borehole, (5) hole-to-hole array with a buried, fixed bipole source and a buried, moving bipole receiver, (6) hole-to-hole array with a buried, moving bipole source and a buried, moving bipole receiver, and (7) single-hole, buried bipole-bipole array. Input and output examples are given for each of the arrays.

  6. Childhood psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Dogra Sunil; Kaur Inderjeet

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexu...

  7. Childhood pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uretsky, G; Goldschmiedt, M; James, K

    1999-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare finding in childhood but probably more common than is generally realized. This condition should be considered in the evaluation of children with vomiting and abdominal pain, because it can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Clinical suspicion is required to make the diagnosis, especially when the serum amylase concentration is normal. Recurrent pancreatitis may be familial as a result of inherited biochemical or anatomic abnormalities. Patients with hereditary pancreatitis are at high risk for pancreatic cancer.

  8. Childhood Traumatic Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Resources for Kids and Teens Childhood Traumatic Grief What is Childhood Traumatic Grief? Children grieve in their own way following the ... child may have a condition called Childhood Traumatic Grief (CTG). Thinking about the person who died—even ...

  9. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shop With CureSearch Blog Donate Now Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Understanding Children’s Cancer > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses ...

  10. Ultrasonographically supported removal of foreign bodies of the eye lid and parapharyngeal space in a 13-year-old boy subjected to shot injuries in early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, Reinhard E

    2013-01-01

    Background: B-scan ultrasonography is widely used in diagnostics of head and neck pathologies. Ultrasonography can be applied intraoperatively to identify foreign materials. Case report: This case report describes the ultrasonographic identification of foreign bodies of the eye lid and parapharyngeal space in an adolescent who was injured several years ago, obviously a victim of domestic violence. B-scan ultrasonography (small part transducer, emission frequency: 7.5 MHz) proved to be a relia...

  11. Relationship between body mass index changes and blood pressure changes from childhood to adulthood in a general Chinese population: a 26 year cohort follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man; Chu, Chao; Mu, Jianjun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) in a Chinese population with 26 year follow-up. The study included 4211 schoolchildren aged 6-17 years in Hanzhong, Shaanxi Province, China. Body weight, height, waist circumference, and BP were measured in 1987, 1989, 1992, 1995 and 2013. Cox proportional hazards model were fitted to examine the effect of BMI on BP. At the 26 year follow-up, 6.93% of male and 3.43% of female subjects had high SBP, and 12.8% of male and 4.56% of female had high DBP. The average age of subjects with high SBP was 40.3 years in males and 41.4 years in females; while the average age with high DBP was 38.1 years in males and 38.9 years in females. Obese subjects were 2.96 times and 2.88 times more likely to have high SBP and high DBP than normal weight counterparts, respectively; while overweight subjects were 1.81 times and 2.03 times more likely to have high SBP and high DBP, respectively. These findings underscore the urgent need to prevent increasing body weight. Targeting intervention in adolescence may be a critical method for preventing high BP in later life. PMID:27138219

  12. Ultrasonographically supported removal of foreign bodies of the eye lid and parapharyngeal space in a 13-year-old boy subjected to shot injuries in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich, Reinhard E.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: B-scan ultrasonography is widely used in diagnostics of head and neck pathologies. Ultrasonography can be applied intraoperatively to identify foreign materials. Case report: This case report describes the ultrasonographic identification of foreign bodies of the eye lid and parapharyngeal space in an adolescent who was injured several years ago, obviously a victim of domestic violence. B-scan ultrasonography (small part transducer, emission frequency: 7.5 MHz proved to be a reliable tool to locate the foreign bodies. Ultrasound imaging facilitated the decision-making of the surgical approach and thus reduced the surgical exploration time. Discussion: B-scan ultrasonography is a valuable tool in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The use of B-scan ultrasonography in the head neck region requires the capacity of the surgeon to fuse the ultrasonographic picture with the topography of the head and neck. The advantages and limitations of B-scan ultrasonography in the head and neck region concerning foreign body identification are briefly discussed.

  13. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (1) Body Mass Index Reference for Screening Overweight and Obesity in Chinese School-age Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGYE JI; COOPERATIVE STUDY ON CHILDHOOD OBESITY, WORKING GR

    2005-01-01

    Purpose To establish and propose a national body mass index (BMI) reference for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese school-age children and adolescents. Methods 2000 CNSSCH (Chinese National Survey on Students Constitution and Health) data, including 216 620 primary and secondary school students aged 7 to 18 years old, were used as a reference population. Compared with those of the NCHS internatioanl reference, three temporary sets of cut-off BMI were proposed by testing different combinations of P8s, P9o, and P95. When physiological and biochemical measures between and among "obesity","overweight", and "normal weight" groups were taken into consideration, set Ⅱ was selected to be the most appropriate one.The sex-age-specific curves were then plotted and smoothed by using B-spline method. Results Based on the samples from costal developed metropolis, the BMI curves successfully overcame the shortcomings of lower and level-off tendency of the Chinese total population. Temporary set Ⅱ, composed by cut-offs of P85 for overweight and P95 for obesity, was finally selected by its sensitivity and peculiarity. BMI 24 and 28 were used as cut-offs for overweight and obesity for both males and females aged 18 years old. These cut-offs, consistent with Chinese Adult's Reference, was proposed as the Body mass index reference for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese school-age children and adolescents. Conclusion The new reference clearly showed its superiorty in both prospectivity and actuality. The proposed reference minimized the gaps of the BMI curve between Chinese adolescents and the international reference. Most importantly was that it was consistent with the Eastern Asia ethnic characteristics of body fatness growth. It was therefore proposed by the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) to use it as an nationwide reference for screening overweight and obesity of school-age children and adolescents in China.

  14. The relationship between early life modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity, ethnicity and body mass index at age 3 years: findings from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Fairley, Lesley; Santorelli, Gillian; Debbie A Lawlor; Bryant, Maria; Bhopal, Raj; Petherick, Emily S.; Sahota, Pinki; Greenwood, Darren C; Hill, Andrew J.; Cameron, Noel; Ball, Helen; Barber, Sally; Wright, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Many modifiable risk factors in early infancy have been shown to be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. These risk factors have not been studied within children of South Asian origin in the UK. The aims of this paper are to describe differences in the prevalence of modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity between children of White British and Pakistani origin and investigate the association between these risk factors and childhood BMI measured at age 3 years. We ...

  15. Prenatal irradiation and childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter addresses a technical question in connection with the recent paper by Knox et al. In particular, it concerns a correction to the estimate of childhood cancer risk following obstetric radiography, based on the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC). One of us (CRM) enquired about the centring values for variables used in the analysis and particularly about the formulae used to calculate the higher order interactions of the radiation risk with birth year and age at diagnosis. These centring values and formulae are given in Table 1. This letter arises from that enquiry. (author)

  16. Childhood psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexural involvement is common and guttate type is the characteristic presentation. Whether onset in childhood predicts a more severe form of psoriasis is a matter of controversy, it may cause significant morbidity particularly if it keeps relapsing. Most children have mild form of psoriasis which can be generally treated effectively with topical agents such as emollients, coal tar, corticosteroids, dithranol, calcipotriol etc. according to age and the sites affected. Narrow band UVB is the preferred form of phototherapy in children for moderate to severe disease or in patients not responding to topical therapy alone. Systemic therapies are reserved for more severe and extensive cases that cannot be controlled with topical treatment and/or phototherapy such as severe plaque type, unstable forms like erythrodermic and generalized pustular psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. There are no controlled trials of systemic therapies in this age group, most experience being with retinoids and methotrexate with favorable results. Cyclosporine can be used as a short-term intermittent crisis management drug. There is an early promising experience with the use of biologics (etanercept and infliximab in childhood psoriasis. Systemic treatments as well as phototherapy have limited use in children due to cumulative dose effects of drugs, low acceptance, and risk of gonadal toxicity. More evidence-based data is needed about the effectiveness and long-term safety of topical

  17. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: Impact of Type of Clothing Worn during Anthropometric Measurements and Timing of the Survey on Weight and Body Mass Index Outcome Measures in 6–9-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudy M. A. Wijnhoven

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The World Health Organization European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI conducted examinations in 6–9-year-old children from 16 countries in the first two rounds of data collection. Allowing participating countries to adhere to their local legal requirements or adapt to other circumstances required developing a flexible protocol for anthropometric procedures. Objectives. (1 Review intercountry variation in types of clothing worn by children during weight and height measurements, clothes weight adjustments applied, timing of the survey, and duration of data collection; (2 assess the impact of the observed variation in these practices on the children’s weight or body mass index (BMI outcome measures. Results. The relative difference between countries’ unadjusted and clothes-adjusted prevalence estimates for overweight was 0.3–11.5%; this figure was 1.4–33.3% for BMI-for-age Z-score values. Monthly fluctuations in mean BMI-for-age Z-score values did not show a systematic seasonal effect. The majority of the monthly BMI-for-age Z-score values did not differ statistically within a country; only 1–3 monthly values were statistically different within some countries. Conclusions. The findings of the present study suggest that the built-in flexibility in the COSI protocol concerning the data collection practices addressed in the paper can be kept and thus do not necessitate a revision of the COSI protocol.

  18. Following Watery Relations in Early Childhood Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica; Clark, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Working methodologically and theoretically with the hydro-logics of bodies of water, this article addresses the limitations of humanistic perspectives on water play in early childhood classrooms, and proposes pedagogies of watery relations. The article traces the fluid, murky, surging, creative, unpredictable specificities of bodies of water that…

  19. Childhood psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, E M; Nall, L

    1999-11-01

    Psoriasis is a common skin disease in infants, children, and adolescents. A review of the clinical, epidemiologic, genetic, and therapeutic aspects of childhood psoriasis is presented. Population studies indicate that the first signs of psoriatic lesions occur in the pediatric age group, birth to 18 years of age, and that both genetic and environmental factors interact to precipitate the development of psoriasis. Koebner reactions are the result of external or internal triggering factors, such as physical injury to the skin, low humidity, and certain drugs. The most frequently observed variant to psoriasis is the plaque type, followed by guttate psoriasis, and juvenile psoriatic arthritis. Pustular psoriasis and erythrodermic psoriasis are rare forms of the disease, but are seen in children from infancy to adolescence. The scalp is the most frequently affected site of involvement in pediatric psoriasis, followed by the appearance of lesions on the extensor surfaces of the extremities, trunk, and nails. Although not common in adult psoriasis, the face and ears are often involved. Topical medications such as corticosteroids, calcipotriol, coal tar preparations, anthralin formulations, and ultraviolet B are recommended in monotherapy or in combination therapy, whereas psoralen plus ultraviolet A, methotrexate, and retinoids should only be administered in crisis situations. The treatment objectives in childhood psoriasis are to preserve skin surfaces, to afford physical relief from the disease, and to employ treatments that do not endanger the health or future development of the child.

  20. Childhood beauty pageant contestants: associations with adult disordered eating and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonderlich, Anna L; Ackard, Diann M; Henderson, Judith B

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the association between childhood beauty pageants and adult disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, depression, and self-esteem. Eleven women who participated in childhood beauty pageants were matched on age and BMI with 11 non-participating women. Childhood pageant participants scored higher on body dissatisfaction, interpersonal distrust, and impulse dysregulation than non-participants, and showed a trend toward greater ineffectiveness. There were no significant differences between groups on measures of bulimia, body perception, depression, and self-esteem. These findings suggest childhood beauty pageant participation may influence adult body dissatisfaction, interpersonal distrust, and impulse dysregulation, but not bulimic behaviors, body perception, depression, and self-esteem. PMID:16864534

  1. Maternal immunoglobulin E and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeffrey S; Buffler, Patricia A; Metayer, Catherine; Chokkalingam, Anand P; Patoka, Joe; Kronish, Daniel; Wiemels, Joseph L

    2009-08-01

    Childhood leukemia, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has long been hypothesized to be affected by abnormal immune responses to microbial challenges stemming from a lack of immune modulation in early childhood. Studies of allergies suggest that a child's immune development may be modulated by maternal immune status. We conducted a study to explore the relationship between maternal immunoglobulin E (IgE) and childhood leukemia and to investigate whether maternal immune status can influence childhood leukemia risk. Serum total and specific IgE (respiratory and food) were measured in biological mothers of 352 children (193 healthy controls and 159 leukemia cases, including 139 ALL cases) ages <8 years who were enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study. Odds ratios associated with maternal IgE were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for child's age, sex, race/ethnicity, and annual household income. A positive association between childhood leukemia or ALL and elevated levels of maternal serum total IgE was observed, especially among Hispanics. In addition, a positive association was observed between childhood leukemia or ALL and maternal respiratory or food IgE status. These results suggest that maternal immune function may play a crucial role in the etiology of childhood leukemia, although additional studies need to be conducted to confirm the results of this study and provide a perspective on mechanisms. PMID:19622720

  2. Singleton status and childhood obesity: Investigating effects and mechanisms Status :

    OpenAIRE

    Maoyong Fan; Yanhong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Over the past four decades, paralleling the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, the share of families with only one child has been rising steadily. Using three waves of the National Survey of Children's Health, we examine the effect of being the only child in a family on childhood obesity and the mechanisms through which singleton status might affect childhood obesity. We find gender-specific and age-dependent singleton effects. That is, singletons have a higher level of body mass ind...

  3. Adiponectin in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Alison N; Murphy, Michael J; Metcalf, Brad S; Hosking, Joanne; Voss, Linda D; English, Patrick; Sattar, Naveed; Wilkin, Terence J

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin, a hormone produced and secreted by adipocytes, is present in circulation in high circulating concentrations, suggesting an important physiological role. An indirect regulator of glucose metabolism, adiponectin increases insulin sensitivity, improves glucose tolerance and inhibits inflammation. Plasma adiponectin relates inversely to adiposity and, importantly, reflects the sequelae of accumulation of excess adiposity. The role of adiponectin in adults has been explored in detail. Studies in children are now available and, given the increasing rates of childhood obesity, it is important to establish the role of adiponectin in mediating insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in this age group. This paper reviews the regulation of adiponectin, its effect on body mass, glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk in infants, children and adolescents. It demonstrates clear links between adiponectin and features of the metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents. However, adiponectin's role as a predictor of metabolic dysfunction in healthy, normal-weight youngsters is less clear. PMID:19086185

  4. Calculation Technique of the Equilibrium Distance in Two-Particle Interatomic Potential Based on the Analysis of Solid Body Lattice Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Gaisha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Calculation technique of the equilibrium distance between two interacting atoms, which is one of three parameters of the Morse potential, is proposed in the work. Dependence of the lattice energy (energy of one atom in it on the parameter value is obtained, and the function extreme is determined. Energy of an atom is calculated as a sum of potential energies of atom interaction with its neighbors (more than 15 coordination spheres are taken into account, the energy calculation error is less than 0,01%. Calculation is carried out for 12 chemical elements.

  5. Parental Perceptions of the Schools' Role in Addressing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Maureen; Polivka, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    As childhood obesity has increased, schools have struggled with their role in this epidemic. Parents with a school-age child in a suburban latchkey program were surveyed regarding their perceptions of childhood obesity, body mass index, and the school's role in prevention and treatment of obesity. More than 80% of participants identified…

  6. Childhood medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimino, Maura; Biassoni, Veronica; Gandola, Lorenza; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Gatta, Gemma; Giangaspero, Felice; Poggi, Geraldina; Rutkowski, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Medulloblastoma accounts for 15-20% of childhood nervous system tumours. The risk of dying was reduced by 30% in the last twenty years. Patients are divided in risk strata according to post-surgical disease, dissemination, histology and some molecular features such as WNT subgroup and MYC status. Sixty to 70% of patients older than 3 years are assigned to the average-risk group. High-risk patients include those with disseminated and/or residual disease, large cell and/or anaplastic histotypes, MYC genes amplification. Current and currently planned clinical trials will: (1) evaluate the feasibility of reducing both the dose of craniospinal irradiation and the volume of the posterior fossa radiotherapy (RT) for those patients at low biologic risk, commonly identified as those having a medulloblastoma of the WNT subgroup; (2) determine whether intensification of chemotherapy (CT) or irradiation can improve outcome in patients with high-risk disease; (3) find target therapies allowing tailored therapies especially for relapsing patients and those with higher biological risk. PMID:27375228

  7. Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause less damage to healthy tissue in the brain and other parts of the body. Proton radiation is different from x-ray radiation. Surgery with cyst drainage Surgery may be done to drain tumors that are mostly fluid-filled cysts. This ...

  8. Body dysmorphic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Veale, D

    2004-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is defined as a preoccupation with an "imagined" defect in one's appearance. Alternatively, where there is a slight physical anomaly, then the person's concern is markedly excessive. The preoccupation is associated with many time consuming rituals such as mirror gazing or constant comparing. BDD patients have a distorted body image, which may be associated with bullying or abuse during childhood or adolescence. Such patients have a poor quality of life, are soci...

  9. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood Obesity Facts The prevalence of obesity among low-income children aged 2 through 4 years, by state ... Obesity now affects 1 in 6 children and adolescents in the United States. Childhood Obesity Facts How ...

  10. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  11. Suicide among childhood cancer survivors in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Čižek Sajko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Suicide is one of the causes of late mortality among childhood cancer survivors. The aim of our study was to analyse the risk of suicide among childhood cancer survivors compared with that ofthe general population of Slovenia. Patients and methods. This retrospective study included patients with childhood cancer registeredat the Cancer Registry of Slovenia between 1978-2008, with an observation period of 1978-2010. Childhood cancer patients and controlsubjects from the general population of Slovenia were matched by sex,year and age at the beginning of follow-up and time of follow-up inyears. Data on the general population of Slovenia were obtained fromthe Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. Results. A total of 1647 patients were recorded in the Cancer Registry as having cancerduring childhood, with 3 patients committing suicide. All three weremale. Their age at diagnosis of cancer was 12, 13 and 2 years old; their age at suicide was 19, 32 and 28 years old. The mechanism of death was asphyxiation in all three deaths. The calculation of the expected number of suicides in the group of individuals with childhood cancer from the general Slovene population revealed the number of 3.16persons. Conclusion. The comparison of the observed and expectedprobability showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the suicide rate between childhood cancer survivors and the general population of Slovenia.

  12. Relativistic many-body calculations of energy levels, hyperfine constants, electric-dipole matrix elements and static polarizabilities for alkali-metal atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Safronova, M S; Derevianko, S A

    1999-01-01

    Removal energies and hyperfine constants of the lowest four $ns, np_{1/2}$ and $np_{3/2}$ states in Na, K, Rb and Cs are calculated; removal energies of the n=7--10 states and hyperfine constants of the n=7 and 8 states in Fr are also calculated. The calculations are based on the relativistic single-double (SD) approximation in which single and double excitations of Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) wave functions are included to all-orders in perturbation theory. Using SD wave functions, accurate values of removal energies, electric-dipole matrix elements and static polarizabilities are obtained, however, SD wave functions give poor values of magnetic-dipole hyperfine constants for heavy atoms. To obtain accurate values of hyperfine constants for heavy atoms, we include triple excitations partially in the wave functions. The present calculations provide the basis for reevaluating PNC amplitudes in Cs and Fr.

  13. Childhood obesity: pathophysiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klish, W J

    1995-02-01

    Childhood obesity is among the most difficult problems which pediatricians treat. It is frequently ignored by the pediatrician or viewed as a form of social deviancy, and blame for treatment failure placed on the patients or their families. The definition of obesity is difficult. Using total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) technology, total body fat ranges between 12% and 30% of total body weight in normal children and adolescents. This is influenced not only by age, but also by physical fitness. Anthropometry is the easiest way to define obesity. Children whose weight exceeds 120% of that expected for their height are considered overweight. Skinfold thickness and body mass index are indices of obesity that are more difficult to apply to the child. Childhood obesity is associated with obese parents, a higher socioeconomic status, increased parental education, small family size and a sedentary lifestyle. Genetics also clearly plays a role. Studies have demonstrated that obese and non-obese individuals have similar energy intakes implying that obesity results from very small imbalances of energy intake and expenditure. An excess intake of only 418 kJ per day can result in about 4.5 kg of excess weight gain per year. Small differences in basal metabolic rate or the thermic effects of food may also account for the difference in energy balance between the obese and non-obese. In the Prader Willi Syndrome, there appears to be a link between appetite and body fatness. When placed on growth hormone, lean body mass increases, body fat decreases, sometimes to normal, and appetite becomes more normal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Childhood proptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proptosis in children is a hallmark of orbital diseases which can present a diagnostic challenge requiring thoughtful investigation. The aim of this review is to provide the reader an overview of the subject of childhood proptosis with an emphasis on the systematic and practical approach for the work-up of proptosis in children. Use of proper imaging studies is essential for the correct diagnosis. Computed tomography is a good screening test for any space occupying lesion of the orbit. Proptosis describes eye prominence due to space occupying orbital lesions. Congenital lesions usually present in the first decade of life. Acquired orbital lesions such as lymphangiomas, orbital varix, rhabdomyosarcoma and neural tumors may present at the end of the first decade of life. Metastatic tumors to the orbit, adenocarcinoma of lacrimal gland and rapidly growing masses may present with proptosis associated with pain. Visual loss can be the presenting symptoms in the patients with optic nerve (ON) gliomas, orbital meningiomas and posteriorly located tumors. Cystic lesions of the orbit may be congenital or acquired, dermoid cysts being the most common congenital orbital lesions. Some of the vascular lesions of the orbit include capillary hemangiomas, lymphangiomas, orbital varix, and arteriovenous malformations. Inflammatory process of the orbit in children include cellulitis and pseudotumor. Neural tumors such as neurofibromas, ON gilomas and meningiomas are less common causes of proptosis in children. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common primary orbital malignancy in children which can present with acute proptosis and is one of the few life-threatening diseases seen initially by an ophthalmologist. Secondary orbital tumors invade the orbit from adjacent sinuses, cranium or extended from the eye itself. The most common distant metastases in children include neuroblastoma and Ewing's sarcoma. Although many orbital processes can be diagnosed based on history, clinical

  15. Junk Food in Schools and Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite limited empirical evidence, there is growing concern that junk food availability in schools has contributed to the childhood obesity epidemic. In this paper, we estimate the effects of junk food availability on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and related outcomes among a national sample of fifth graders. Unlike previous studies, we address…

  16. 基于AMESim的人体固有频率计算%The Calculation of the Natural Frequency of the Human Body Based on AMESim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万馨; 芮延年

    2014-01-01

    使用商用软件AMESim(Advanced Modeling Environment for Simulation of engineering)模拟人体的振动现象,通过建立人体振动生物力学模型获得人体各部位的固有频率,从而避免或降低人类在运动环境中由于共振产生的器官损伤,同时,通过对振动的了解,利用声音治愈部分器官的疾病。比较而言,AMESim软件是一款较易获得人体器官固有频率的软件,为研究人体振动力学模型提供了一种新的计算方法。%In the paper, AMESim soft is used to set model of human body vibration. AMESim stands for Ad-vanced Modeling Environment for Simulation of engineering. It is an important tool to settle complex non-lin-ear vibration of human biomechanical modeling. The model by using AMESim soft can directly attain the nat-ural frequency of human body, and it offers a better precise the natural frequency to avoid vibration harm. Absolutely, vibration therapy is widely applied to cure some difficult cases. in the paper it is easy to attain the natural frequency of the part of the human body by using AMESim soft. Comparatively, it is a trial manner to attain the natural frequency AMESim soft is better soft to attain the natural frequency of the part of human body.

  17. Application of instruments of nuclear physics to the calculation of theoretical dose distributions in various organs of the human body for beams used in hadrontherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliszewska Weronika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The area of interests of nuclear physics are studies of reactions, wherein atomic nuclei of projectile collide with target nuclei. An amount of energy lost by projectile nucleus during its passing through the target is a major issue – it is important to know how charged particles interact with matter. It is possible to afford this knowledge by using theoretical programs that calculate energy loss applying the Bethe-Bloch equation. Hadrontherapy, which is a field of still growing interest, is based on the interactions of charged particles with matter. Therefore, there exists a need of creating a simple model that could be used to the calculation of dose distributions in biological matter. Two programs (SRIM, Xeloss, used to the calculation of energy loss by nuclear physicist, have been adapted to determine the dose distributions in analogues of human tissues. Results of the calculations with those programs for beams used in hadrontherapy (e.g. 1H, 12C will be compared with experimental data available in references.

  18. Age-related consequences of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Megan M; Zaepfel, Alysia; Bjornstad, Petter; Nadeau, Kristen J

    2014-01-01

    The severity and frequency of childhood obesity has increased significantly over the past three to four decades. The health effects of increased body mass index as a child may significantly impact obese youth as they age. However, many of the long-term outcomes of childhood obesity have yet to be studied. This article examines the currently available longitudinal data evaluating the effects of childhood obesity on adult outcomes. Consequences of obesity include an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and its associated retinal and renal complications, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, asthma, orthopedic complications, psychiatric disease, and increased rates of cancer, among others. These disorders can start as early as childhood, and such early onset increases the likelihood of early morbidity and mortality. Being obese as a child also increases the likelihood of being obese as an adult, and obesity in adulthood also leads to obesity-related complications. This review outlines the evidence for childhood obesity as a predictor of adult obesity and obesity-related disorders, thereby emphasizing the importance of early intervention to prevent the onset of obesity in childhood. PMID:24434909

  19. Relativistic many-body calculations of transition probabilities for the 2l12l2[LSJ]-2l32l4[L'S'J'] lines in Be-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduced matrix elements, oscillator strengths, and transition rates are calculated for all allowed and forbidden 2s-2p electric dipole transitions in berylliumlike ions with nuclear charges ranging from Z = 4 to 100. Many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), including the Breit interaction, is used to evaluate retarded E1 matrix elements in length and velocity forms. The calculations start with a 1s2 Dirac-Fock potential and include all possible n = 2 configurations, leading to 4 odd-parity and 6 even-parity states. First-order perturbation theory is used to obtain intermediate coupling coefficients. Second-order MBPT is used to determine the matrix elements, which are evaluated for the 16 possible E1 transitions. The transition energies used in the calculation of oscillator strengths and transition rates are evaluated using second-order MBPT. The importance of virtual electron-positron pair (negative energy) contributions to the transition amplitudes is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Optical to ultraviolet spectra of sandwiches of benzene and transition metal atoms: Time dependent density functional theory and many-body calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Lopez, M. J.;

    2010-01-01

    The optical spectra of sandwich clusters formed by transition metal atoms (titanium, vanadium, and chromium) intercalated between parallel benzene molecules have been studied by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and many-body perturbation theory. Sandwiches with different number...... the optical properties according to specific functionality targets. The differences in the spectra could be used to identify relative abundances of isomers with different spins in experimental studies. As a salient feature, this theoretical spectroscopic analysis predicts the metallization of the infinite (Ti...

  1. Application of instruments of nuclear physics to the calculation of theoretical dose distributions in various organs of the human body for beams used in hadrontherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Maliszewska Weronika; Sękowski Przemysław; Skwira-Chalot Izabela

    2016-01-01

    The area of interests of nuclear physics are studies of reactions, wherein atomic nuclei of projectile collide with target nuclei. An amount of energy lost by projectile nucleus during its passing through the target is a major issue – it is important to know how charged particles interact with matter. It is possible to afford this knowledge by using theoretical programs that calculate energy loss applying the Bethe-Bloch equation. Hadrontherapy, which is a field of still growing interest, is ...

  2. 罐车罐体的容积精确计算与尺寸反求方法研究%Method of capacity accurate calculation and dimension reverse of tank body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚都; 常智勇; 莫蓉; 窦杨柳

    2012-01-01

    为计算罐车罐体的容积和在已知容积的情况下确定罐体的设计尺寸,基于UG NX软件的内空间分析器(Space Finder)以及实体体积计算和优化功能,提出了两种罐体容积计算和尺寸反求方法.一种快捷的方法是利用Space Finder 计算容积,并在此基础上对设计尺寸进行反求计算;另一种精确的方法是利用关联性复制,将装配环境中的模型保持装配关系转换到零件环境中,运用布尔运算和抽取面以及修剪体,得到罐体内空间的实体表示,然后利用实体体积计算功能得到罐体的容积,再利用实体优化功能,在得到内空间实体表示的基础上,根据给定的容积迭代反求出设计尺寸.通过UG/Open二次开发,编写出专用工具.最后,通过对某型号罐车罐体的容积计算与尺寸反求,对该方法进行验证,证明该方法的准确性和有效性.%To calculate the tank body' s capacity and determine the design dimensions of the tank body given the capacity,two tank body' s capacity calculation and dimension reverse methods were proposed based on the NX Space Finder and the entity volume calculation and optimization function. An efficient method is using Space Finder to calculate the capacity and design the dimension reverse algorithm based on it. The other accurate method is using relevance duplication to transform models from assembly environment to part environment based on keeping the assembly relationship. Get the entity representation of tank body's inner space through using of Boolean operation,extraction surfaces and trim body. Then use the entity volume calculation function to get capacity of the tank body. Use the entity optimization function to obtain design dimensions according to the given capacity on die basis of getting the entity representation of inner space. Write special tools through the LG/Open second development. Finally , a case study of volume calculation and dimension reverse of a certain tank

  3. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  4. Endocrine sequelae of irradiation in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogilvy-Stuart, A.L.

    1993-12-01

    This thesis explores some of the endocrine sequelae following irradiation and cytotoxic chemotherapy in childhood which to date have not been clearly defined. Greater understanding of these sequelae will aid the management of survivors of childhood malignancy, who by virtue of improved management of the primary disease are increasing in number and complexity. The majority of this thesis involves children who have received cranial irradiation for a brain tumour distant from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, but endocrine sequelae in children who have undergone total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation for haematological malignancies have also been studied. (author).

  5. Relationship between mean body temperature calculated by two- or three-compartment models and active cutaneous vasodilation in humans: a comparison between cool and warm environments during leg exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demachi, Koichi; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Tsuneoka, Hideyuki

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the three-compartment model of mean body temperature (Tb3) calculated from the esophageal temperature (Tes), temperature in deep tissue of exercising muscle (Tdt), and mean skin temperature (Tsk) has the potential to provide a better match with the thermoregulatory responses than the two-component model of mean body temperature (Tb2) calculated from Tes and Tsk. Seven male subjects performed 40 min of a prolonged cycling exercise at 30% maximal oxygen uptake at 21°C or 31°C (50% relative humidity). Throughout the experiment, Tsk, Tb2, Tb3, and Tdt were significantly (P temperature conditions, while Tes was similar under both conditions. During exercise, an increase in cutaneous vascular conductance (skin blood flow / mean arterial pressure) over the chest (%CVCc) was observed at both 21°C and 31°C, while no increase was observed at the forearm at 21°C. Furthermore, the Tb3 and Tdt threshold for the onset of the increase in %CVCc was similar, but the Tes and Tb2 threshold differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the conditions tested. These results suggest that active cutaneous vasodilation at the chest is related more closely to Tb3 or Tdt than that measured by Tes or Tb2 calculated by Tes and Tsk during exercise at both 21°C and 31°C.

  6. Childhood as a value

    OpenAIRE

    EWELINA PIECUCH

    2011-01-01

    The article encompasses the problems of childhood and its influence on the rest of one's life. I have concentrated on this crucial and specific time in life. It is demonstrated by biology, medicine, psychology, and psychoanalysis that human habits are formed in childhood. Health, hygiene and aesthetic behaviour determine one's further fate and influence life in its entirety. It is that phase of human life that determines the rest of it. In childhood children manifest their cogn...

  7. Calculations of long-range three-body interactions for Li($2\\,^2S$)-Li($2\\,^2S$)-Li($2\\,^2P$)

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Pei-Gen; Yan, Zong-Chao; Babb, James F

    2016-01-01

    General formulas for calculating the several leading long-range interactions among three identical atoms where two atoms are in identical $S$ states and the other atom is in a $P$ state are obtained using perturbation theory for the energies up to second order. The first order (dipolar) interactions depend on the geometrical configurations of the three atoms. In second order, additive and nonadditive dispersion interactions are obtained. The nonadditive interactions depend on the geometrical configurations in marked contrast to the case where all three atoms are in identical $S$ states, for which the nonadditive (also known as triple-dipole or as Axilrod-Muto-Teller) dispersion interactions appear at the third order. The formalism is demonstrated by the calculation of the coefficients for the Li($2\\,^2S$)-Li($2\\,^2S$)-Li($2\\,^{2}P$) system using variationally-generated atomic lithium wave functions in Hylleraas coordinates. The present dipolar coefficients and additive and nonadditive dispersion coefficients ...

  8. Calculation of the static and dynamical correlation energy of pseudo-one-dimensional beryllium systems via a many-body expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, D; Paulus, B

    2016-01-01

    Low-dimensional beryllium systems constitute interesting case studies for the test of correlation methods because of the importance of both static and dynamical correlation in the formation of the bond. Aiming to describe the whole dissociation curve of extended Be systems we chose to apply the method of increments (MoI) in its multireference (MR) formalism. However, in order to do so an insight into the wave function was necessary. Therefore we started by focusing on the description of small Be chains via standard quantum chemical methods and gave a brief analysis of the main characteristics of their wave functions. We then applied the MoI to larger beryllium systems, starting from the Be6 ring. First, the complete active space formalism (CAS-MoI) was employed and the results were used as reference for local MR calculations of the whole dissociation curve. Despite this approach is well established for the calculation of systems with limited multireference character, its application to the description of whol...

  9. Calculations of long-range three-body interactions for Li (2 2S)-Li (2 2S)-Li (2 2P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Pei-Gen; Tang, Li-Yan; Yan, Zong-Chao; Babb, James F.

    2016-08-01

    General formulas for calculating the several leading long-range interactions among three identical atoms where two atoms are in identical S states and the other atom is in a P state are obtained using perturbation theory for the energies up to second order. The first-order (dipolar) interactions depend on the geometrical configurations of the three atoms. In second order, additive and nonadditive dispersion interactions are obtained. The nonadditive interactions depend on the geometrical configurations in marked contrast to the case where all three atoms are in identical S states, for which the nonadditive (also known as triple-dipole or as Axilrod-Muto-Teller) dispersion interactions appear at the third order. The formalism is demonstrated by the calculation of the coefficients for the Li (2 2S)-Li (2 2S)-Li (2 2P) system using variationally generated atomic lithium wave functions in Hylleraas coordinates. The present dipolar coefficients and additive and nonadditive dispersion coefficients may be useful in constructing precise potential energy surfaces for this three lithium atom system.

  10. Coverage and costs of childhood immunizations in Cameroon.

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, Hugh R.; Dougherty, Leanne; Tegang, Simon-Pierre; Van Tran, Nhan; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Long, Kanya; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Donald S Burke

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between household-level and provider-level determinants and childhood immunization rates in Cameroon while also calculating the cost of childhood immunizations. METHODS: This study uses multilevel regression analysis to calculate these relationships. The 1998 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey and the 2000 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey are the main sources of household-level data. These surveys are supplemented by data from a 2002 survey of healt...

  11. Calculation of Large Rigid Body Pose and Multi-axis Synchronous Coordinating Control%大刚体姿态计算及多轴同步协调控制技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈稳太; 应蓓华; 董凤莲

    2014-01-01

    Calculation of large rigid body pose and its high precision control was studied herein .Ai‐ming at the 6-DOF large rigid body pose alignment system ,a fast calculation approach to the pose and a high precision multi-axis coordinating control system was presented .Firstly ,mathematic models of large rigid body pose calculation were established respectively on a global frame which was found on the basic platform and a body-fixed frame system which was found on the center of the large rigid body .By detecting the initial positions and the final positions of four marks on the large rigid body ,the displacement increments of three coordinates of the four supports could be easily calculated .Then ,a compensation of synchronization error integration technology was proposed for the large rigid body pose alignment system .By the technology ,the precision and speed of large rigid pose alignment could be improved significantly .The simulation results show that the proposed approach is rapid and effec‐tive ,the control algorithm has guiding significance for engineering applications of large rigid body pose alignment .%大刚体的姿态计算及其高精度控制是飞机、舰船等大型机器总装生产线的关键技术。针对一种六自由度的大刚体的姿态控制系统提出一种快速的姿态计算方法和高精度的多轴协调控制方法。以基础平台建立固定坐标系,以大刚体的中心建立连体坐标系,在此基础上建立大刚体姿态计算数学模型,通过测量大刚体上4个靶标的初始位置和目标位置,就可计算出大刚体4个支撑柱的三坐标的位移增量;在多轴同步控制技术中,引入同步误差积分补偿方法(CSEI),通过同步误差在相反方向的控制作用,可显著提高大刚体姿态调整的速度和精度。仿真表明,所提出的姿态计算方法和 CSEI 控制方法快速有效,对工程应用具有指导意义。

  12. The Impact of Teasing on Children's Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanski, Marion; Gullone, Eleonora

    2007-01-01

    Being teased about one's physical appearance in childhood has been found to have a strong impact on the way in which adolescent and adult women perceive their bodies. Teasing is also strongly related to self-esteem in children. However, little is known about the impact of teasing on the development of body image in childhood. Through a…

  13. CDC Vital Signs: Progress on Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... niños: [PODCAST - 1:15 minutes] Childhood Overweight and Obesity Child and Teen BMI Calculator About BMI for Children ... and Support Winnable Battles: Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity On Other Web Sites Let’s Move! Let’s Move! Child Care We Can! ChooseMyPlate.gov The Community Guide: ...

  14. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Research Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview In 2016, it ... Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer .) The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study ( CCSS ), funded by the National ...

  15. Extended relativistic configuration interaction and many-body perturbation calculations of spectroscopic data for the $n \\leq 6$ configurationsin ne-like ions between Cr XV and Kr XXVII

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Kai; Si, Ran; Jönsson, Per; Ekman, Jörgen; Guo, Xue Lin; Li, Shuang; Long, Fei Yun; Dang, Wei; Zhao, Xiao Hui; Hutton, Roger; Chen, Chong Yang; Yan, Jan; Yang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Level energies, wavelengths, electric dipole, magnetic dipole, electric quadrupole, and magnetic quadrupole transition rates, oscillator strengths, and line strengths from combined relativistic configuration interaction and many-body perturbation calculations are reported for the 201 fine-structure states of the $2s^2 2p^6$, $2s^2 2p^5 3l$, $2s 2p^6 3l$, $2s^2 2p^5 4l$, $2s 2p^6 4l$, $2s^2 2p^5 5l$, and $2s^2 2p^5 6l$ configurations in all Ne-like ions between Cr XV and Kr XXVII. Calculated level energies and transition data are compared with experiments from the NIST and CHIANTI databases, and other recent benchmark calculations. The mean energy difference with the NIST experiments is only 0.05%. The present calculations significantly increase the amount of accurate spectroscopic data for the $n >3$ states in a number of Ne-like ions of astrophysics interest. A complete dataset should be helpful in analyzing new observations from the solar and other astrophysical sources, and is also likely to be useful for ...

  16. Extended Relativistic Configuration Interaction and Many-body Perturbation Calculations of Spectroscopic Data for the N ≤ 6 Configurations in Ne-like Ions between Cr xv and Kr xxvii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Chen, Z. B.; Si, R.; Jönsson, P.; Ekman, J.; Guo, X. L.; Li, S.; Long, F. Y.; Dang, W.; Zhao, X. H.; Hutton, R.; Chen, C. Y.; Yan, J.; Yang, X.

    2016-10-01

    Level energies, wavelengths, electric dipole, magnetic dipole, electric quadrupole, and magnetic quadrupole transition rates, oscillator strengths, and line strengths from combined relativistic configuration interaction and many-body perturbation calculations are reported for the 201 fine-structure states of the 2{s}22{p}6, 2{s}22{p}53l, 2s2{p}63l, 2{s}22{p}54l, 2s2{p}64l, 2{s}22{p}55l, and 2{s}22{p}56l configurations in all Ne-like ions between Cr xv and Kr xxvii. Calculated level energies and transition data are compared with experiments from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and CHIANTI databases, and other recent benchmark calculations. The mean energy difference with the NIST experiments is only 0.05%. The present calculations significantly increase the amount of accurate spectroscopic data for the n > 3 states in a number of Ne-like ions of astrophysical interest. A complete data set should be helpful for analyzing new observations from solar and other astrophysical sources, and is also likely to be useful for modeling and diagnosing a variety of plasmas, including astronomical and fusion plasma.

  17. Obesity and growth during childhood and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Growth during childhood and adolescence occurs at different rates and is influenced by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Nutritional status plays an important role in regulating growth, and excess body weight early in life can influence growth patterns. Childhood obesity is a growing and alarming problem, associated with several short-term and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In addition, there is evidence suggesting that excess adiposity during childhood influences growth patterns and pubertal development. Several studies have shown that during prepubertal years obese children have higher height velocity and accelerated bone age compared to lean subjects. However, this prepubertal advantage in growth tends to gradually decrease during puberty, when obese children show a reduced growth spurt compared with lean subjects. Growth hormone (GH) secretion in obese children is reduced, therefore suggesting that increased growth is GH independent. Factors which have been implicated in the accelerated growth in obese children include increased leptin and insulin levels, adrenal androgens, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-binding protein-1 and GH-binding proteins. Excess body weight during childhood can also influence pubertal development, through an effect on timing of pubertal onset and levels of pubertal hormonal levels. There is clear evidence indicating that obesity leads to early appearance of pubertal signs in girls. In addition, obese girls are also at increased risk of hyperandrogenism. In boys, excess adiposity has been associated with advanced puberty in some studies, whereas others have reported a delay in pubertal onset. The existing evidence on the association between childhood and adolescence obesity underlines a further reason for fighting the epidemics of childhood obesity; that is preventing abnormal growth and pubertal patterns.

  18. Childhood Obesity. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Liane M.

    In this discussion of childhood obesity, the medical and psychological problems associated with the condition are noted. Childhood obesity most likely results from an interaction of nutritional, psychological, familial, and physiological factors. Three factors--the family, low-energy expenditure, and heredity--are briefly examined. Early…

  19. 恶性肿瘤患者体表面积计算方法的比较%Comparison of methods for calculating human body surface area in cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小优; 吴剑秋; 汤唯艳; 张琰; 刘宇飞; 冯继锋

    2012-01-01

    Objective To extend the method for calculating human body surface area in cancer patients with different BMI ranges. Methods The actual body weight and the height of cancer patients were measured at admission, the second day and before chemotherapy to get the average value. The subjects were divided into magensuchl group, normal quality group, overweight group and obesity group according to BMI( ≤18. 6kg/m2, 18.6-23.9kg/m2, 24-27.9kg/m2 and ≥28kg/m2). Ideal body weight, ideal surface area and actual surface area were formulated and analyzed. Results The actual body surface area and ideal body surface area were 1.590m2 and 1. 584 m2 in normal quality group (P >0.05). The actual body surface area and ideal body surface area were 1.523m2 and 1.641m2,1.724m2 and 1. 590m2, 1. 813m2 and 1.570m2 in magersucht group, overweight group and obesity group( P < 0. 05). Conclusion There are significant differences between actual body surface area and ideal body surface area of patients according to BMI classification. The ideal body surface area based on ideal body weight could get more precise drug dose and avoid otiose therapeutic risk.%目的 探讨不同体重指数(BMI)的恶性肿瘤患者体表面积的计算方法.方法 对227例恶性肿瘤患者在住院当天、第2天和化疗前各测量1次空腹时的身高和实际体重,计算其平均值.按照不同BMI值(≤18.6kg/m2、18.6~23.9kg/m2、24~27.9kg/m2和≥28kg/m2)将患者分为消瘦组(17例)、正常体重组(107例)、超重组(82例)和肥胖组(21例);计算各组患者的实际和理想体表面积,比较两者间差异.结果 正常体重组患者的实际和理想体表面积分别为1.590m2和1.584m2,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);消瘦组患者的实际和理想体表面积分别为1.523m2和1.641m2(P<0.05);超重组患者的实际和理想体表面积分别为1.724m2和1.590m2(P<0.05);肥胖组患者的实际和理想体表面积分别为1.813m2和1.570m2(P<0.05).结论

  20. Domestic Radon and Childhood Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, Helle P.;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Higher incidence rates of childhood cancer and particularly leukemia have been observed in regions with higher radon levels, but case-control studies have given inconsistent results. We tested the hypothesis that domestic radon exposure increases the risk for childhood cancer. Methods......: We identified 2400 incident cases of leukemia, central nervous system tumor, and malignant lymphoma diagnosed in children between 1968 and 1994 in the Danish Cancer Registry. Control children (n = 6697) were selected from the Danish Central Population Registry. Radon levels in residences of children...... and the cumulated exposure of each child were calculated as the product of exposure level and time, for each address occupied during childhood. Results: Cumulative radon exposure was associated with risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), with rate ratios of 1.21 (95% confidence interval = 0...

  1. Childhood adversities as a predictor of disability retirement

    OpenAIRE

    Harkonmäki, K.; Korkeila, K.; Vahtera, J; Kivimäki, M; Suominen, S; Sillanmäki, L.; Koskenvuo, M

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a large body of research on adulthood risk factors for retirement due to disability, but studies on the effect of adverse childhood experiences are scarce. AIM: To examine whether adverse childhood experiences predict disability retirement. METHODS: Data were derived from the Health and Social Support Study. The information was gathered from postal surveys in 1998 (baseline) and in 2003 (follow-up questionnaire). The analysed data consisted of 8817 non-retired respondents...

  2. Interrelationships between anthropometric variables and overweight in childhood and adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Brannsether-Ellingsen, Bente; Eide, Geir Egil; Roelants, Mathieu; Bjerknes, Robert; Júlíusson, Pétur Benedikt

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To answer the questions: how does body mass index (BMI) correlate to five overweight related anthropometric variables during different ages in childhood, and which anthropometric variables contribute most to variation in BMI during childhood? Methods Data on BMI, height (H), sitting height (SH), waist circumference (WC), waist to height ratio (WHtR), waist to sitting height ratio (WSHtR), subscapular skinfold (SSF), and triceps skinfold (TSF), from 4,576 Norwegian children 4.00&...

  3. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; [...

    2015-01-01

    Background Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim of...

  4. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim o...

  5. Epidemiology of childhood stroke in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesaar, Rael; Kolk, Anneli; Uustalu, Ulle; Ilves, Pilvi; Tomberg, Tiiu; Talvik, Inga; Köbas, Kristel; Sander, Valentin; Talvik, Tiina

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the incidence and 30-day case-fatality of childhood stroke in Estonia, and clinical signs and risk factors of childhood stroke. A retrospective (1995-2003) and prospective study (2004-2006) of childhood stroke (arterial ischemic, hemorrhagic, and sinovenous thrombosis) and transient ischemic attack was conducted. Stroke-incidence calculation was based on the prospective study. Clinical diagnoses of stroke were confirmed by neuroradiology. The incidence rate of childhood stroke in Estonia was 2.73/100,000 person-years for children aged 30 days to 18 years: 1.61/100,000 for arterial ischemic stroke, 0.87/100,000 for hemorrhagic stroke, 0.25/100,000 for sinovenous thrombosis, and 0.37/100,000 for transient ischemic attack. No arterial ischemic stroke patients died within 30 days, but case-fatality for intracerebral hemorrhage was 46%. Focal signs occurred in 100% of arterial ischemic strokes and 64% of intracerebral hemorrhage cases. Risk factors were identified in 35/48 (73%) children with cerebrovascular attacks. Six children with arterial ischemic stroke (6/24, 25%) manifested more than one risk factor. The incidence rate of childhood stroke in Estonia is similar to that in earlier data.

  6. Disorders of childhood growth and development: childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Robert; Grissom, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity in the United States is estimated at 17%, or 12 million children ages 2 to 19 years. Obesity is a multifactorial condition with syndromic and nonsyndromic variants. Genetic, social, ethnic, endocrinologic, and behavioral issues are all potential etiologic factors. Preventive efforts should begin with monitoring from birth and include breastfeeding until age 6 months, avoiding juices, and promoting fruit and vegetable consumption and adequate exercise. Childhood obesity is diagnosed based on body mass index; a child is considered overweight at the 85th to 95th percentiles and obese at or above the 95th percentile. After obesity is diagnosed, testing should include blood pressure levels, fasting lipid profile, diabetes screening, and liver function tests. The physician should obtain a detailed history of the physical activity level and food intake and assess possible complications of obesity, including depression and hypertension, annually. Lifestyle interventions with family involvement are the mainstay of management, with pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery considered for adolescents only if intensive lifestyle modifications have failed and in the presence of comorbidities. Intervention by multiple disciplines (ie, medicine, nutrition, psychology) is recommended, and family physicians are encouraged to become more involved in encouraging physical activity and improved nutrition for children.

  7. Childhood obesity: medical, cultural and psychological factors

    OpenAIRE

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was associated with age and sex standardized body mass index (Z-BMI), impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, high total cholesterol, high LDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides. There wer...

  8. Childhood cataract in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Courtright, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Investment by organizations and agencies has led to a growing body of evidence and information to assist ophthalmologists and others to meet the needs of children with cataract in Africa. The geographic distribution of research, training, and programme development across Africa has been uneven; investment has been greatest in eastern and southern Africa. Population based surveys (using key informants) suggest that 15–35% of childhood blindness is due to congenital or developmental cataract. T...

  9. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  10. Childhood vitiligo: Treatment paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrinder Jit Kanwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo differs from the adults by showing a higher incidence in females, segmental vitiligo being more common and less frequent association with other systemic autoimmune and endocrine disorders.Childhood vitiligo is often associated with a marked psychosocial and long lasting effect on the self-esteem of the affected children and their parents, hence an adequate treatment is very essential. Treatment of vitiligo is indeed a tough challenge for the dermatologists′ more so in the background of childhood vitiligo. Although multiple therapeutic modalities are available in the therapeutic armamentarium, not all can be used in children. This brief report updates regarding various therapies available in the treatment of childhood vitiligo.

  11. Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This childhood illness can result in long-term heart complications. Learn the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for Kawasaki disease. Rheumatic Fever This inflammatory infection can occur after strep ...

  12. Childhood Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get the ... See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of age ...

  13. Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashita, Yumiko; Kitamura, Masayasu; Saito, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC) is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional ...

  14. Stress and childhood epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Campen, J.S. van

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, characterized by the enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Children with epilepsy and their parents often report seizures precipitated by stress. In order to increase our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of stress on seizures in childhood epilepsy, we performed a variety of studies, which are described in this thesis. In part I we evaluate the extent of stress sensitivi...

  15. Childhood Ovarian Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadik, Kalpana; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2014-01-01

    Objective of this article is to appraise diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities in childhood ovarian tumor in background of available evidence. Literature search on Pubmed revealed various aspects of epidemiology, histopathological diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric ovarian tumor. 85 % of childhood tumors are germ cell tumors. The varied histopathological picture in germ cell tumors poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Immunohistochemistry and newer genetic markers like SALL4...

  16. Early childhood aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...

  17. Pesticides and childhood cancers.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, J L; Olshan, A.F.; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. ...

  18. Oxidative Stress Status in Childhood Obesity: A Potential Risk Predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Elif; Özer, Ömer Faruk; Erek, Aybala Toprak; Erman, Hayriye; Torun, Emel; Ayhan, Sıddıka Kesgin; Caglar, Hifa Gülru; Selek, Sahbettin; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity characterized by excessive fat in the body is one of the most serious health problems worldwide due to the social, medical, and physiological complications. Obesity and associated diseases are triggering factors for oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between childhood obesity and inflammatory and oxidative status. Material/Methods Thirty-seven obese children and 37 healthy controls selected from among children admitted to BLIND University Paediatrics Department were included in the study. Anthropometric measurements were performed using standard methods. Glucose, lipid parameters, CRP, insulin, total oxidant status (TOS), total anti-oxidant status (TAS) levels, and total thiol levels (TTL) were measured in serum. HOMA index (HOMA-IR) were calculated. The differences between the groups were evaluated statistically using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results Body mass index was significantly higher in the obese group (median: 28.31(pLDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the obese group (p<0.001). TAS (med: 2.5 μmol Trolox eq/L (1.7–3.3)) and TOS (med: 49.1 μmol H2O2 eq/L (34.5–78.8)) levels and TTL (med: 0.22 mmol/L (0.16–0.26)) were significantly higher in the obese group (p=0.001). CRP levels showed positive correlation with TOS and negative correlation with TTL levels (p=0.005, r=0.473; p=0.01, r=−0.417; respectively). TTL levels exhibited negative correlation with TOS levels (p=0.03, r=−0.347). Conclusions In conclusion, obese children were exposed to more oxidative burden than children with normal weight. Increased systemic oxidative stress induced by childhood obesity can cause development of obesity-related complications and diseases. Widely focussed studies are required on the use of oxidative parameters as early prognostic parameters in detection of obesity-related complications. PMID:27733746

  19. 中性碳原子基态关联效应的多体理论计算%Many-body calculation on the ground state correlation effects of neutral Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐利强; 易有根; 袁建民; 高永毅; 周并举

    2001-01-01

    应用原子多体理论对开壳层原子中电子关联效应的有效哈密顿量及波算符的Goldston图进行了分析,在此基础上得到了计算有效哈密顿量的简单方法;以HFS模型为零级近似对中性碳原子基态的关联效应进行了计算并通过与实验结果及其他文献基于HF模型进行的计算相比较,得到了令人满意的结论。%Applying atomic many-body theory to analyse the Goldston diagrams of effective Hamiltonian and wave operator about electron-electron correlation for open shell atoms, we use a simple method to evaluate the effective Hamiltonian and calculate the correlation effectes of Corbon with HFS model as a zeroth order approximation. Making contrasts with the experiment and the calculation based on HF model we get pleased results.

  20. Body mass index in school-aged children and the risk of routinely diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Gamborg, Michael; Holst, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The relation between childhood overweight and adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is largely unknown. We investigated if weight and weight gain in childhood increases the risk of being diagnosed with NAFLD in routine clinical settings in adulthood. PARTICIPANTS: We studied...... 244,464 boys and girls, born between 1930 and 1989, who attended school in Copenhagen, Denmark. Their heights and weights were measured by physicians or nurses at mandatory school health examinations at ages 7-13 years. Body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated from an internal age...... an effect on adult NAFLD irrespective of either the initial or the attained BMI. Taken together, our results suggest that BMI gain in childhood, rather than the level of BMI per se, is important in the development of adult NAFLD....

  1. Relativistic many-body calculations of electric-dipole lifetimes, rates, and oscillator strengths of Delta(n) = 0 transitions between 3l^-1 4l' states in Ni-like ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, U I; Safronova, A S; Beiersdorfer, P

    2007-01-05

    Transition rates, oscillator strengths, and line strengths are calculated for electric-dipole (E1) transitions between odd-parity 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6}3d{sup 9}4{ell}{sub 2}, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5}3d{sup 10}4{ell}{sub 2}, and 3s3p{sup 6}3d{sup 10}4{ell}{sub 1} states and even-parity 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6}3d{sup 9}4{ell}{sub 2}, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5}3d{sup 10}4{ell}{sub 1}, and 3s3p{sup 6}3d{sup 10}4{ell}{sub 2} (with 4{ell}{sub 1} = 4p; 4f and 4{ell}{sub 2} = 4s; 4d) in Ni-like ions with the nuclear charges ranging from Z = 34 to 100. Relativistic many-body perturbation theory (RMBPT), including the Breit interaction, is used to evaluate retarded E1 matrix elements in length and velocity forms. The calculations start from a 1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 6}3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6}3d{sup 10} Dirac-Fock potential. First-order RMBPT is used to obtain intermediate coupling coefficients and second-order RMBPT is used to calculate transition matrix elements. Contributions from negative-energy states are included in the second-order E1 matrix elements to ensure the gauge independence of transition amplitudes. Transition energies used in the calculation of oscillator strengths and transition rates are from second-order RMBPT. Lifetimes of the 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6}3d{sup 9}4d levels are given for Z = 34-100. Transition rates, line strengths, and oscillator strengths are compared with critically evaluated experimental values and with results from other recent calculations. These atomic data are important in modeling of M-shell radiation spectra of heavy ions generated in electron beam ion trap experiments and in M-shell diagnostics of plasmas.

  2. Promoting High Quality Early Childhood Education and Care Services: Beyond Risk Management, Performative Constructions of Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Marianne; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Whilst regulation is utilized by governments in Australia and internationally as a means of promoting quality standards in early childhood education and care (ECEC) services, a growing body of literature is critical of the detrimental effect of this regulation. Drawing on our investigation into early childhood teachers' perceptions of the impact…

  3. Matters of Size: Obesity as a Diversity Issue in the Field of Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    1999-01-01

    Notes that obesity is the primary reason for peer rejection in America; examines effects of obesity on wellness, self-esteem, peer relationships, and social status of children/families and early childhood teachers. Suggests that early childhood educators: (1) educate all stakeholders about nutrition and body size issues; (2) speak out against…

  4. Ethnic Differences in Parental Attitudes and Beliefs about Being Overweight in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, J.; Watson, P. M.; Murphy, R. C.; Stratton, G.; Cable, N. T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between ethnic background and parental views of healthy body size, concerns surrounding overweight and attitudes to perceived causes of overweight in childhood. Method: A self-report questionnaire was designed to explore parental attitudes towards childhood weight. Sampling deliberately…

  5. Parental and Early Childhood Influences on Adolescent Obesity: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Paola; Parker, Helen; Bulsara, Max; Beilin, Lawrence; Hands, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The influence of parental and early childhood factors on adolescent obesity was investigated using a longitudinal model of body mass index (BMI) from birth to 14 years. Trajectories of BMI using linear mixed model (LMM) analysis were used to investigate the influence of early parental and childhood factors on BMI at 14 years in the Raine birth…

  6. Contributions of built environment to childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Tamanna; Cushing, Rachel A; Jackson, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    As childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, it is critical to devise interventions that target the root causes of obesity and its risk factors. The two main components of childhood obesity are physical inactivity and improper nutrition, and it is becoming increasingly evident that the built environment can determine the level of exposure to these risk factors. Through a multidisciplinary literature review, we investigated the association between various built environment attributes and childhood obesity. We found that neighborhood features such as walkability/bikeability, mixed land use, accessible destinations, and transit increase resident physical activity; also that access to high-caloric foods and convenience stores increases risk of overweight and obesity, whereas the presence of neighborhood supermarkets and farmers' markets is associated with lower childhood body mass index and overweight status. It is evident that a child's built environment impacts his access to nutritious foods and physical activity. In order for children, as well as adults, to prevent onset of overweight or obesity, they need safe places to be active and local markets that offer affordable, healthy food options. Interventions that are designed to provide safe, walkable neighborhoods with access to necessary destinations will be effective in combating the epidemic of obesity. PMID:21259262

  7. Maternal parity, fetal and childhood growth, and cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Romy; Rurangirwa, Akashi A; Williams, Michelle A; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P; Franco, Oscar H; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2014-08-01

    We examined the associations of maternal parity with fetal and childhood growth characteristics and childhood cardiometabolic risk factors in a population-based prospective cohort study among 9031 mothers and their children. Fetal and childhood growth were repeatedly measured. We measured childhood anthropometrics, body fat distribution, left ventricular mass, blood pressure, blood lipids, and insulin levels at the age of 6 years. Compared with nulliparous mothers, multiparous mothers had children with higher third trimester fetal head circumference, length and weight growth, and lower risks of preterm birth and small-size-for-gestational-age at birth but a higher risk of large-size-for-gestational-age at birth (Pbody mass index, total fat mass percentage, and total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than children of nulliparous mothers (Pratio, 0.75 [95% confidence interval, 0.63–0.88]). The risk of childhood clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors was not statistically significantly different (odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.64–1.05). Among children from multiparous mothers only, we observed consistent trends toward a lower risk of childhood overweight and lower cholesterol levels with increasing parity (P<0.05). In conclusion, offspring from nulliparous mothers have lower fetal but higher infant growth rates and higher risks of childhood overweight and adverse metabolic profile. Maternal nulliparity may have persistent cardiometabolic consequences for the offspring. PMID:24866145

  8. Measured parental weight status and familial socio-economic status correlates with childhood overweight and obesity at age 9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimear Keane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parental obesity is a predominant risk factor for childhood obesity. Family factors including socio-economic status (SES play a role in determining parent weight. It is essential to unpick how shared family factors impact on child weight. This study aims to investigate the association between measured parent weight status, familial socio-economic factors and the risk of childhood obesity at age 9. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross sectional analysis of the first wave (2008 of the Growing Up in Ireland (GUI study. GUI is a nationally representative study of 9-year-old children (N = 8,568. Schools were selected from the national total (response rate 82% and age eligible children (response rate 57% were invited to participate. Children and their parents had height and weight measurements taken using standard methods. Data were reweighted to account for the sampling design. Childhood overweight and obesity prevalence were calculated using International Obesity Taskforce definitions. Multinomial logistic regression examined the association between parent weight status, indicators of SES and child weight. Overall, 25% of children were either overweight (19.3% or obese (6.6%. Parental obesity was a significant predictor of child obesity. Of children with normal weight parents, 14.4% were overweight or obese whereas 46.2% of children with obese parents were overweight or obese. Maternal education and household class were more consistently associated with a child being in a higher body mass index category than household income. Adjusted regression indicated that female gender, one parent family type, lower maternal education, lower household class and a heavier parent weight status significantly increased the odds of childhood obesity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Parental weight appears to be the most influential factor driving the childhood obesity epidemic in Ireland and is an independent predictor of child obesity across SES groups. Due

  9. Influences of Childhood Experiences on Early Childhood Education Students

    OpenAIRE

    Strekalova-Hughes, Ekaterina; Maarouf, Saoussan; Keskin, Burhanettin

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined whether or not childhood experiences of the early childhood education students affected their present personal beliefs and pedagogies. A digital survey was filled out by 58 students majoring in Early Childhood Education program. The participants were asked to identify and reflect on their impactful early experiences. The follow-up interviews with two participants were conducted to deepen the reflections on childhood experiences and explore their effects on the ...

  10. Childhood obesity: a simple equation with complex variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Gregory A; Cottrell, Erika R; Abang, Anthony E; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Hannon, Tamara S

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is rising rapidly, as are the associated medical complications, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. This has significant medical and socioeconomic implications. The definition of obesity in adults is based on body mass index (BMI), which has been correlated with morbidity and mortality. Similarly, the definition of childhood obesity is currently based on BMI; however, there are currently no data to relate morbidity and mortality to BMI values in children. The known and potential causes of childhood obesity are many, but they can be categorized as genetic, endocrine, prenatal/early life, physical activity, diet, and socioeconomic. These factors influence the basic equation: energy input = energy output. Imbalances in this equation can result in obesity. Here we present a review of recent literature and highlight the etiologies, certain complications, and potential prevention and treatment strategies of childhood obesity.

  11. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things College Students Should Do For Their Eyes Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions Nov. 01, 2013 The ... cataract or eye disorder that needs treatment. Common Childhood Eye Diseases & Conditions When the following diseases are ...

  12. General Information about Childhood Ependymoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... without radiation therapy . Childhood ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma Treatment of newly diagnosed childhood ... Grade II), anaplastic ependymoma (WHO Grade III), or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma is: Surgery . After surgery, the ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Ependymoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... without radiation therapy . Childhood ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma Treatment of newly diagnosed childhood ... Grade II), anaplastic ependymoma (WHO Grade III), or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma is: Surgery . After surgery, the ...

  14. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, S; Gallagher, P.; Dougall, D.; R Porter; Moncrieff, J.; Ferrier, I. N.; Young, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Methods: Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipo...

  15. Discovering the Culture of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We often filter our interactions with children through the lens of adulthood. View the culture of childhood through a whole new lens. Identify age-based bias and expand your outlook on and understanding of early childhood as a culture. Examine various elements of childhood culture: language, the power of believing, artistic expressions, and social…

  16. Reconceptualizing the "Nature" of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Affrica

    2011-01-01

    This interdisciplinary article draws upon human geography to bring fresh new perspectives to the relationship between two commonly conflated concepts: "childhood" and "nature". Childhood studies scholars have gone a long way towards retheorizing childhood beyond the "natural" and the "universal" by pointing to its historical and cultural…

  17. Direct route drag calculation and shape optimization of Myring shape axisymmetric revolution body%Myring型回转体直航阻力计算及艇型优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞永杰; 王亚兴; 杨卓懿; 高婷

    2014-01-01

    When main dimensions and cruising speed have been predefined, how to get an axisymmetric revolution body with minimal drag force at the conceptual design stage of autonomous underwater vehicles ( AUVs) has been a problem. This paper analyzed drag force of Myring shaped axisymmetric revolution body moving underwater in a di-rect route, at constant speed, by CFD method and compared with the experiment value to check the veracity. 2D or 3D mesh, standard or enhanced wall treatment function was adopted respectively to figure out the accuracy and effi-ciency. And on this basis, the change law of drag when changing merely length and shape of the nose or tail was discussed. Based on multi-island and genetic algorithm ( MIGA ) , an optimization platform was constructed with EXCEL, ICEM and FLUENT to search for the best axisymmetric revolution body with minimal drag force at differ-ent speed when volume is predefined. This is a good reference for calculating and minimizing total drag of AUVs.%在水下智能机器人( AUV)方案设计阶段,针对如何在主尺度和巡航速度确定的前提下得到直航阻力最小的回转体形状这个问题,以Myring型回转体为研究对象,利用计算流体力学( CFD)方法计算其在水中做匀速直航运动时的阻力并与试验值比较以验证准确性。分别对二维和三维2种网格形式,标准和加强2种壁面函数的计算精度和计算效率进行了对比,并在此基础上探讨单独改变艏部或艉部形状时阻力的变化规律。再利用EXCEL、ICEM、FLUENT建立优化平台,基于多岛遗传算法在限制条件范围内对Myring型回转体参数进行全局寻优,寻找不同流速时阻力最小的Myring型回转体,为AUV设计阶段的阻力性能预报和艇型优化提供参考。

  18. Joint effects of child temperament and maternal sensitivity on the development of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Dixon, Wallace E; Dalton, William T; Tudiver, Fred; Liu, Xuefeng

    2011-05-01

    The interplay between child characteristics and parenting is increasingly implicated as crucial to child health outcomes. This study assessed the joint effects of children's temperamental characteristics and maternal sensitivity on children's weight status. Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were utilized. Infant temperament, assessed at child's age of 6 months by maternal report, was categorized into three types: easy, average, and difficult. Maternal sensitivity, assessed at child's age of 6 months by observing maternal behaviors during mother-child semi-structured interaction, was categorized into two groups: sensitive and insensitive. Children's height and weight were measured longitudinally from age 2 years to Grade 6, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. BMI percentile was obtained based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's BMI charts. Children, who had a BMI ≥ the 85th percentile, were defined as overweight-or-obese. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. The proportions of children overweight-or-obese increased with age, 15.58% at 2 years old to 34.34% by Grade 6. The joint effects of children's temperament and maternal sensitivity on a child's body mass status depended on the child's age. For instance, children with difficult temperament and insensitive mothers had significantly higher risks for being overweight-or-obese during the school age phase but not during early childhood. Specific combinations of child temperament and maternal sensitivity were associated with the development of obesity during childhood. Findings may hold implications for childhood obesity prevention/intervention programs targeting parents.

  19. Childhood myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tathagata; Choudhry, V P

    2013-09-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) comprises of a heterogeneous group of bone marrow disorders resulting from a clonal stem cell defect characterised by cytopenias despite a relatively hypercellular marrow, ineffective hematopoiesis, morphological dysplasia in the marrow elements, no response to hematinics such as iron, B12 or folic acid and risk of progression to leukemia. Myelodysplastic syndrome in childhood is extremely rare and accounts for less than 5% of all hematopoietic neoplasms in children below the age of 14 y. The primary MDS in children, also known as de novo MDS differs from secondary MDS which generally follows congenital or acquired bone marrow (BM) failure syndromes as well as from therapy related MDS, commonly resulting from cytotoxic therapy. MDS associated with Down syndrome which accounts for approximately one-fourth of cases of childhood MDS is now considered a unique biologic entity synonymous with Down syndrome-related myeloid leukemia and is biologically distinct from other cases of childhood MDS. Refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC) is the commonest type of MDS. Genetic changes predisposing to MDS in childhood remain largely obscure. Monosomy 7 is by-far the commonest cytogenetic abnormality associated with childhood MDS; however most cases of RCC show a normal karyotype. Complex cytogenetic abnormalities and trisomy 8 and trisomy 21 are also occasionally observed. The most effective and curative treatment is Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and this is particularly effective in children with the monosomy 7 genetic defect as well as those displaying complex karyotype abnormalities provided it is instituted early in the course of the disease.

  20. A Tewo Tibetan Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rdo rje tshe brtan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rdo rje tshe brtan (b. 1986 describes his childhood in Dredze Village, Yiwa Township, Tewo County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province, China, as well as being a student in Xining City, Qinghai Province. Topics covered include his family, childhood injuries and illnesses, education, Terang (malicious household deities, mountain deities and associated rituals and sacrifices, death, conflict with other locals, collecting local plants, a birth in the village, stealing fruit, a wedding, plowing, a visit to a hot spring, a lost yak, slaughtering pigs, government confiscation of fields, and slaughtering pigs. Photos provide additional detail.

  1. The microbiome and probiotics in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Michael Harrison

    2014-01-01

    Infants, from the moment of birth, are colonized by large numbers of microbes. This colonization continues throughout childhood and from preliminary studies seems to be a highly dynamic process, even during the usual physiologic state we refer to as health. In this context, the persistence of bacterial and fungal species in and on the human body likely confers various benefits to the host. One specific approach to modulate such beneficial effects is the administration of probiotics, also known as beneficial microbes. Herein, we outline the highest level evidence in regard to the evolution of the microbiome during childhood and its manipulation by probiotics for genitourinary, enteric, and allergic and atopic disorders. Thus, probiotic approaches are promising alternatives and adjuvants to traditional vaccines and antibiotics. This may usher in a new age in which vaccine and antibiotic side effects and antibiotic resistance are minimal issues in the setting of maintaining children's health and prevention of disease.

  2. Childhood trauma exposure and toxic stress: what the PNP needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Trauma exposure in childhood is a major public health problem that can result in lifelong mental and physical health consequences. Pediatric nurse practitioners must improve their skills in the identification of trauma exposure in children and their interventions with these children. This continuing education article will describe childhood trauma exposure (adverse childhood experiences) and toxic stress and their effects on the developing brain and body. Adverse childhood experiences include a unique set of trauma exposures. The adverse childhood experiences or trauma discussed in this continuing education offering will include childhood exposure to emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, domestic violence, household substance abuse, household mental illness, parental separation or divorce, and a criminal household member. Thorough and efficient methods of screening for trauma exposure will be discussed. Appropriate intervention after identification of trauma exposure will be explored. PMID:25697767

  3. Interbirth interval is associated with childhood type 1 diabetes risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Svensson, Jannet; Waldhoer, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    of childhood type 1 diabetes has not been investigated. A secondary analysis of 14 published observational studies of perinatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes was conducted. Risk estimates of diabetes by category of interbirth interval were calculated for each study. Random effects models were used...... to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and investigate heterogeneity between studies. Overall, 2,787 children with type 1 diabetes were included. There was a reduction in the risk of childhood type 1 diabetes in children born to mothers after interbirth intervals...

  4. Esophageal Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal foreign body aspiration is a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For that reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threateining complications. Children most often ingest coins and toys whereas adults commonly tend to have problems with meat and bones. Esophageal foreign bodies are located at the cricopharyngeus muscle level in 70%, the thoracic esophagus in 15% and the gastroesophageal junction in the remaining 15%. Symptoms can vary according to the shape and structure of the ingested object, type of location, patient%u2019s age and complications caused by the foreign body. Delay in treatment, esophageal perforation and an underlying esophageal disease are poor prognostic factors. In treatment, observation, foley catheter, rigid or flexible esophagoscopy and removing the foreign body with a Magill forceps, pushing the foreign body into the stomach, giving intravenous glucagon and surgical treatment methods can be used. Rigid esophagoscopy is an effective and safe procedure for foreign body diagnosis and removal. Improved endoscopic experience and clinical management of thoracic surgeons led to reduced morbidity and mortality in recent years. Most of those emergencies of childhood are preventable. Family education is very important.

  5. Childhood height increases the risk of prostate cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult body size is positively associated with aggressive and fatal prostate cancers. It is unknown whether these associations originate in early life. Therefore, we investigated if childhood height, body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and growth are associated with prostate cancer-specific......BACKGROUND: Adult body size is positively associated with aggressive and fatal prostate cancers. It is unknown whether these associations originate in early life. Therefore, we investigated if childhood height, body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and growth are associated with prostate cancer......-specific mortality and survival. METHODS: Subjects were 125,208 men from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born 1930-1969 with height and weight measurements at ages 7-13years. Linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry and the Register of Causes of Death enabled identification of incident and fatal prostate...

  6. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  7. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Yang, Jun J; Hunger, Stephen P;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the impact of collaborative studies on advances in the biology and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adolescents. METHODS: A review of English literature on childhood ALL focusing on collaborative studies was performed. The resulting article was re...

  8. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2003-01-01

    are sometimes associated with this disorder, but contrary to earlier belief this is not typical. Interest in childhood disintegrative disorder has increased markedly in recent years and in this review attention is given to more recently published cases based on ICD-9, ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic systems...

  9. Managing childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has steadily increased over the last decades, with approximately 35% of children aged 6-19 classified as overweight or obese. Recently, a plateau in the increasing rates of obesity has been observed. Despite this leveling off, overweight and obese children are hea...

  10. Atopic endotype in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt;

    2016-01-01

    with asthma through early childhood (0-6 years) when analyzed as any sensitization (odds ratio [OR] range, 0.78-1.29; P ≥ .48). However, at 13 years of age, any sensitization was associated with asthma (OR range, 4.02-5.94; all P contrast, any sensitization was associated with eczema at ½, 1...

  11. Early Childhood Education 193.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polis, Gloria Owens

    This module adapts the content of an on-campus early childhood education program to a competency-based set of self-paced learning activities for use in largely self-directed, supervised instruction of student child caretakers employed at such settings as a day care center or Head Start agency. Addressed in the individual sections of the module are…

  12. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on…

  13. Childhood environment and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  14. Childhood microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah G Al Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Children with suspected microbial keratitis require comprehensive evaluation and management. Early recognition, identifying the predisposing factors and etiological microbial organisms, and instituting appropriate treatment measures have a crucial role in outcome. Ocular trauma was the leading cause of childhood microbial keratitis in our study.

  15. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results show

  16. The Circadian Variation of Cortisol Secretion in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa in Childhood and Adolescence after Recovery of Body Weight by Treatment Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry in Selected Ion Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Homma, Keiko; Sato, Akihiro; Watanabe, Hisako; Hasegawa, Tomonobu

    2007-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic psychiatric disorder which is characterized by patient-induced weight loss. Complications in many organ systems can be seen in AN such as cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and endocrine system including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, even after recovery of body weight by treatment. Urinary steroid profile analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) has been reported to be useful for the diagnosis of abno...

  17. Differences in gestational weight gain between pregnancies before and after maternal bariatric surgery correlate with differences in birth weight but not with scores on the body mass index in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglind, D; Willmer, M; Näslund, E;

    2013-01-01

    Large maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with increased birth weight and increased risk of obesity in offspring, but these associations may be confounded by genetic and environmental factors. The aim was to investigate the effects of differences in GWG in all three trimesters on...... on differences in birth weight and in body mass index (BMI) scores at 4 and 6 years of age, within siblings born before and after bariatric surgery....

  18. Child Care and Cortisol across Early Childhood: Context Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Daniel; Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Wiloughy, Michael; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Veron-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable body of literature suggests that children's child-care experiences may impact adrenocortical functioning in early childhood. Yet emerging findings also suggest that the magnitude and sometimes the direction of child-care effects on development may be markedly different for children from higher risk contexts. Using data from a…

  19. Determinants of childhood overweight and obesity in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li Yanping,; Zhai, F.; Yang, X.; Schouten, E.G.; Hu, X.; He, Y.; Luan, D.; Ma, Guansheng

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the determinants of childhood overweight and obesity in China, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) was compared according to different dietary and physical activity patterns and parental body weight status. A total of 6826 children aged 7-17 years from the 2002 C

  20. MEMS Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access)   This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.

  1. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...... complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested....

  2. Optimal set of grid size and angular increment for practical dose calculation using the dynamic conformal arc technique: a systematic evaluation of the dosimetric effects in lung stereotactic body radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To recommend the optimal plan parameter set of grid size and angular increment for dose calculations in treatment planning for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using dynamic conformal arc therapy (DCAT) considering both accuracy and computational efficiency. Dose variations with varying grid sizes (2, 3, and 4 mm) and angular increments (2°, 4°, 6°, and 10°) were analyzed in a thorax phantom for 3 spherical target volumes and in 9 patient cases. A 2-mm grid size and 2° angular increment are assumed sufficient to serve as reference values. The dosimetric effect was evaluated using dose–volume histograms, monitor units (MUs), and dose to organs at risk (OARs) for a definite volume corresponding to the dose–volume constraint in lung SBRT. The times required for dose calculations using each parameter set were compared for clinical practicality. Larger grid sizes caused a dose increase to the structures and required higher MUs to achieve the target coverage. The discrete beam arrangements at each angular increment led to over- and under-estimated OARs doses due to the undulating dose distribution. When a 2° angular increment was used in both studies, a 4-mm grid size changed the dose variation by up to 3–4% (50 cGy) for the heart and the spinal cord, while a 3-mm grid size produced a dose difference of <1% (12 cGy) in all tested OARs. When a 3-mm grid size was employed, angular increments of 6° and 10° caused maximum dose variations of 3% (23 cGy) and 10% (61 cGy) in the spinal cord, respectively, while a 4° increment resulted in a dose difference of <1% (8 cGy) in all cases except for that of one patient. The 3-mm grid size and 4° angular increment enabled a 78% savings in computation time without making any critical sacrifices to dose accuracy. A parameter set with a 3-mm grid size and a 4° angular increment is found to be appropriate for predicting patient dose distributions with a dose difference below 1% while reducing the

  3. Relationship between body composition and BMI in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Toshiro; Demura, Shinichi; Fujii, Katsunori

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. Obesity is a state in which body fat accumulates to an abnormal degree, and detailed information about body composition is necessary to investigate the problems of obesity in children. In the present study, we measured body composition using equipment based on the multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis method to measure lean body mass and the quantity of fat. We evaluated differences in body co...

  4. Childhood obesity: a role for gut microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Marina; Panahi, Shirin; Tremblay, Angelo

    2014-12-23

    Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota.

  5. Childhood Obesity: A Role for Gut Microbiota?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sanchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota.

  6. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in south asian children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Joan L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls. BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size. The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99 and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31, adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity. Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96 and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67. Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in

  7. Foodscapes and Children’s Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Brembeck

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses children, food and body, and introduces a Deleuzian and Childhood Studies-inspired use of the concept of foodscape. The data draws on a transdisciplinary project on children as co-researchers of foodscapes. In this arti-cle we do not discuss the method or the children’s research results, which we have done elsewhere. Instead, our aim is to present a theoretically inspired analysis of our own fieldwork observations during this project in order to discuss the per-formance of children’s bodies, food and eating. Departing from the concept of foodscape, we present an analysis of some food events that illustrate the complex-ity of children’s foodscapes concerning the interaction between spaces, bodies, foodstuffs, values and rules. In encountering food and eating at various places, different child becomings emerge. We distinguish three powerful performances of what Stuart Aitken (2008 calls “I-dos”: First, the seemingly obedient pupil, who pretends to do what he or she is told, but who more or less imperceptibly escapes from adult supervi-sion. Second, the child who makes use of the stereotyped and possibly cute “food monster” designation, and turns it into a threatening subject, who disturbs the or-der and challenges adults’ power. Third, the knowledgeable scientist who, with the help of a research project, adult experts, nutritional calculation programs and ingredients, seizes the definition of the body as a site for growing stronger, health-ier and more capable. The foodscapes we met held many “striated spaces” (Deleuze & Guattari 1987, where the children had few alternatives to adhering to the adults’ designated “I-ams”. But we also entered smooth spots where children had the opportunity to experiment with “I-dos” that would not have occurred to us had we not followed them, and there are certainly many more that appear in the children’s everyday encounters with food.

  8. The Influence of Familial Predisposition to Cardiovascular Complications upon Childhood Obesity Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise A; Bøjsøe, Christine; Kloppenborg, Julie T;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim was to investigate whether a familial predisposition to obesity related cardiovascular complications was associated with the degree of obesity at baseline and/or changes in the degree of obesity during a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program. METHODS: The study...... included 1421 obese children (634 boys) with a median age of 11.5 years (range 3.1-17.9 years), enrolled in treatment for 0.04 to 5.90 years (median 1.3 years) at the Children's Obesity Clinic, Denmark. At baseline, weight and height were measured, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS......) calculated, and self-reported information on familial predisposition to obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), thromboembolic events, and dyslipidaemia were obtained. A familial predisposition included events in biological parents, siblings, grandparents, uncles, and aunts. The treatment...

  9. Chile Successfully Halts Rise in Childhood Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America has become a cause for concern. The IAEA has worked closely with the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA) at the University of Chile since 1997 to address the problem of malnutrition in the country. In Santiago, the Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Stable Isotopes was established in 1998 with the help of the IAEA to provide an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and training in the use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition, infant feeding practices and total daily energy expenditure

  10. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  11. Childhood Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dayal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common condition in childhood and can result insevere complications if left untreated. It is showing a rising trend in India. A significantassociation with obesity has been observed; however, some children with enlargedtonsils and/or adenoids may even be underweight. The patient usually presents withsnoring and other respiratory problems like mouth breathing, choking and gaspingepisodes in night. Poor school performance and neurocognitive deficits have beenreported. Pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale are seen in severe cases. Besidesthe history and clinical examination, for definitive diagnosis an overnightpolysomnographic evaluation is the gold standard. In all cases, the specific treatmentranges from simple lifestyle modifications and medications to surgeries likeadenotonsillectomy. Early diagnosis is vital.Key words: Childhood OSA, Obesity, adenotonsillar hypertrophy

  12. Genetics of Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.

  13. Tibetan Nomad Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karma Dondrub

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A Tibetan Nomad Childhood by Kar+ma don 'grub. Kar+ma's life begins on the boundless Tibetan grassland in 1983 in Yushu (Yul shul Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sgnon (Qinghai Province. Living in a black yak hair tent, Kar+ma begins tending his family's yak calves as soon as he can walk, in a grassland so barren that he is startled upon first seeing a tree at the age of eight. Charlatan livestock-stealing monks, anthrax, death, birth, happiness, and encounters with modern education create a powerful, unparalleled account of Tibetan nomad childhood in the late twentieth century - a way of life that will soon be forever gone.

  14. Nomadic Research Practices in Early Childhood: Interrupting Racisms and Colonialisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Pacini-Ketchabaw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers how research practices on racialization in early childhood education might be reconceptualized when racialization is placed within relational intricacies and affects in multiple encounters. By foregrounding race and its emergence in multifarious, unpredictable ways in everyday encounters between human and non-human bodies, space, and discourse, the paper investigates how a movement toward research analyses that engage with both the materiality of race and its systemic and discursive formations might be used to constantly seek new ethical ways of responding to and acting against racisms and colonialism in early childhood.

  15. Brain Development in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Although human brain development continues throughout childhood and adolescence, it is a non-linear process both structurally and functionally. Here we review studies of brain development in healthy children from the viewpoint of structure and the perfusion of gray and white matter. Gray matter volume increases and then decreases with age, with the developmental time of the peak volume differing among brain regions in the first and second decades of life. On the other hand, white matter volum...

  16. Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bakilana, Anne; Moucheraud, Corrina; McConnell, Christin; HASAN, Rifat

    2016-01-01

    Teenage pregnancies have potential negative consequences on the next generation. Children born to adolescent mothers are particularly at risk in terms of health, nutrition, cognitive and socio-emotional development. Evidence shows that the early years – especially the first 1,000 days – are crucially important for lifetime health, learning, and productivity. Particularly for the most vulnerable children and families, early childhood development (ECD) is a high return investment. This polic...

  17. Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    HASAN, Rifat; Moucheraud, Corrina; Bakilana, Anne; Nadeau, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Teenage pregnancies have potential negative consequences on the next generation. Children born to adolescent mothers are particularly at risk in terms of health, nutrition, cognitive and socio-emotional development. Evidence shows that the early years – especially the first 1,000 days – are crucially important for lifetime health, learning, and productivity. Particularly for the most vulnerable children and families, early childhood development (ECD) is a high return investment. This polic...

  18. Childhood lymphoma in Yorkshire.

    OpenAIRE

    Davison, A. M.; McKinney, P A; Bailey, C C; Lewis, I.; Cartwright, R A; O'Brien, C.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: A histopathological review of 43 cases of childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in an attempt to identify histological variables of prognostic importance. METHOD: Each case was reclassified according to the Working Formulation and an attempt made to allocate an immunophenotype using a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Results were correlated with clinical data on site and survival. RESULTS: Of the 43 cases, 30 were males and 13 females. There were 17 cases of lymphoblastic lymphoma, 15 c...

  19. Fatty liver in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Ozturk,Yesim; Soylu, Ozlem Bekem

    2014-01-01

    Fatty liver is a growing health problem worldwide. It might evolve to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and cause hepatocellular carcinoma. This disease, which has increased because of eating habits, changes in food content and lifestyle, affects people from childhood. The most important risk factors are obesity and insulin resistance. Besides these factors, gender, ethnicity, genetic predisposition and some medical problems are also important. Cirrhosis in children is rare but is repor...

  20. Childhood ovarian malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadik, Kalpana; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2014-04-01

    Objective of this article is to appraise diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities in childhood ovarian tumor in background of available evidence. Literature search on Pubmed revealed various aspects of epidemiology, histopathological diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric ovarian tumor. 85 % of childhood tumors are germ cell tumors. The varied histopathological picture in germ cell tumors poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Immunohistochemistry and newer genetic markers like SALL4 and karyopherin-2 (KPNA2) have been helpful in differentiating ovarian yolk sac tumor from dysgerminoma, teratomas, and other pictures of hepatoid, endometrioid, clear cell carcinomatous, and adenocarcinomatous tissues with varied malignant potential. Before platinum therapy, these tumors were almost fatal in children. Fertility-conserving surgery with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin has dramatically changed the survival rates in these patients. This modality gives cancer cure with healthy offspring to female patients with childhood ovarian tumor. Evidence also supports this protocol resulting in successful pregnancy rates and safety of cytotoxic drugs in children born to these patients. PMID:24757335

  1. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice UYSAL; Çağlayan DİNÇER

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  2. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Sagar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2):9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequen...

  3. Investigation of Childhood Abuse Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    AYDIN, Oktay

    2013-01-01

    In this study childhood abuse experiences between 18-25 years old males wasinvestigated according to some variables. The sample consist of 308 male. ChildhoodTrauma Questionnaire was applied to sample group to determine their childhood abuseexperiences. In addition to this, to determine some of demographical characteristics of thesubjects, a questionnaire was used. ANOVA and Pearson Moment Correlation CoefficentTechniques were used on the obtained results.At the and of the research;- People u...

  4. Childhood obesity and prevention approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Yildiz; Berna Eren Fidanci; Derya Suluhan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short and long term health problems associated with obesity. Being overweight or obese may increase the rate of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It may contribute to shortening life expectancy and adversely affects the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to prevent childhood obe...

  5. Physical activity as an important determinant in developing childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukara-Radujković Gordana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between physical activity and sedentary life style was investigated as a determinant of the body mass index in children and adolescents in Banjaluka region. The study involved 1204 children and adolescents, 6-17 years old, 578 boys, 626 girls. BMI was calculated from their height and weight using standard formula. Each child, together with their parents answered the questions considering their level of involvement in physical versus sedentary activities. Physical activity was defined as involvement in sports activities, while sedentary life style was defined as time spent on computer, games, video, and TV. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 12.2% and 6.1% in our study group. Increased physical activity showed strong positive correlation with normal, lower BMI in boys (p<0,05, and girls (p<0.001. Sedentary lifestyle, prolonged TV watching was strongly associated with increased BMI only in girls (p<0.05. However, computer use for 2 hours/day was strongly associated with increased BMI (p<0.05 only in boys, although computer use for more than 3 hours/day was associated with lower BMI in boys. Physical activity and sedentary lifestyle are significant determinants of BMI and risk factors in developing overweight and obesity in childhood, as shown in our study.

  6. International Field Experience as an Impetus for Personal and Professional Transformation: Through the Lens of Early Childhood Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnett, Tina Heather

    2015-01-01

    Research exploring preservice postsecondary students' experiences participating in an international field placement is a relatively new area of study in the domains of Early Childhood Education (ECE) and Early Childhood Leadership (ECL). While there is a growing body of literature offering merit to the profound transformations that can occur for…

  7. Configuration space Faddeev calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detailed study of few-body systems provides one of the most effective means for studying nuclear physics at subnucleon distance scales. For few-body systems the model equations can be solved numerically with errors less than the experimental uncertainties. We have used such systems to investigate the size of relativistic effects, the role of meson-exchange currents, and the importance of quark degrees of freedom in the nucleus. Complete calculations for momentum-dependent potentials have been performed, and the properties of the three-body bound state for these potentials have been studied. Few-body calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron and pion have been carried out using a front-form formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics. The decomposition of the operators transforming convariantly under the Poincare group into kinematical and dynamical parts has been studies. New ways for constructing interactions between particles, as well as interactions which lead to the production of particles, have been constructed in the context of a relativistic quantum mechanics. To compute scattering amplitudes in a nonperturbative way, classes of operators have been generated out of which the phase operator may be constructed. Finally, we have worked out procedures for computing Clebsch-Gordan and Racah coefficients on a computer, as well as giving procedures for dealing with the multiplicity problem

  8. Calculation of wing-body junction flow using Gao-Yong turbulence equations%使用Gao-Yong湍流方程计算翼体角偶流动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高歌; 江立军; 高琳

    2012-01-01

    The derivation of Gao-Yong turbulence equations was based on a partial statistical average scheme proposed in the past by the first author in an attempt to capture the drift flow, a first-order statistical moment of turbulent fluctuations. Continuity and momentum equations of turbulent fluctuations were obtained as a result of this valuable first statistical information. Orthotropic turbulence and momentum transfer chain were formulated in the modeling of correlation terms, eventually, led to a complete set of equations of turbu- lent flow with no empirical coefficients and wall functions. Numerical simulations in the past preliminarily veri- fied the adaptability of Gao-Yong equations to a wide range of complex benchmark turbulent flows. In order to further application of these equations to engineering flows, the Gao-Yong turbulence equations were implemen- ted into OpenFOAM and applied to the calculation of wing-body junction flow. The wing-body junction flow in- volves very complex feathers, such as a 3-D separation and a horseshoe vortex. The results of numerical simu- lation of this flow compared to experimental data show that all these main characteristics have been captured, both qualitatively and quantitatively.%Gao—Yong湍流方程基于侧偏统计平均方法保留了湍流脉动量的一阶统计信息,并引入加权漂移速度对称性及正交各向异性,导出漂移流连续方程、动量方程和机械能方程,最后依据湍流物理的唯象论,使用动量传输链概念模化封闭了整个方程组.大量算例验证了此方程对广泛范围的复杂湍流问题的适定性.为了进一步的工程应用,将其加入开源计算流体力学软件OpenFOAM(OpenFieldOperationandManipulation)中,并就翼体角偶流动进行了数值模拟.翼体角偶流动具有三维分离、马蹄涡等十分复杂的流动特征,通过与实验测量结果的对比研究表明,Gao—Yong湍流方程不论在定性还是定

  9. Effects of a Family-Based Childhood Obesity Treatment Program on Parental Weight Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, Cæcilie; Dahl, Maria; Stjernholm, Theresa; Nielsen, Tenna R. H.; Bøjsøe, Christine; Fonvig, Cilius E.; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment and to evaluate changes in the parents’ weight statuses during their child’s treatment. Methods The study included parents of 1,125 children and adolescents aged 3–22 years, who were enrolled in a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program. At baseline, weight and height of the parents were obtained by self-reported information and parental body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Weight and height of the children were measured in the clinic and BMI standard deviation scores were calculated. Furthermore, anthropometric data from parents of 664 children were obtained by telephone interview after a mean of 2.5 years of treatment (ranging 16 days to 7 years), and changes in parental BMI were analyzed. Results Data on changes in BMI were available in 606 mothers and 479 fathers. At baseline, the median BMI of the mothers was 28.1 kg/m2 (range: 16.9–66.6), and the median BMI of the fathers was 28.9 kg/m2 (range: 17.2–48.1). Seventy percent of the mothers and 80% of the fathers were overweight or obese at the time of their child’s treatment initiation. Both the mothers and fathers lost weight during their child’s treatment with a mean decrease in BMI in the mothers of 0.5 (95% CI: 0.2–0.8, p = 0.0006) and in the fathers of 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2–0.6, p = 0.0007). Of the overweight/obese parents, 60% of the mothers and 58% of the fathers lost weight during their child’s treatment. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment. Family-based childhood obesity treatment with a focus on the child has a positive effect on parental BMI with both mothers and fathers losing weight. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00928473 PMID:27560141

  10. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Childhood Autobiographical Memory Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W.; Anda, Robert F.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between childhood autobiographical memory disturbance (CAMD) and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) which are defined as common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors. Methods: We use the ACE score (an integer count of eight different categories of ACEs) as a measure of cumulative exposure…

  11. Burnout calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviewed is the effect of heat flux of different system parameters on critical density in order to give an initial view on the value of several parameters. A thorough analysis of different equations is carried out to calculate burnout is steam-water flows in uniformly heated tubes, annular, and rectangular channels and rod bundles. Effect of heat flux density distribution and flux twisting on burnout and storage determination according to burnout are commended

  12. [Childhood obesity: definition, consequences, and prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiolero, A; Lasserre, A M; Paccaud, F; Bovet, P

    2007-05-16

    Since the 1980s, an epidemic of obesity is occurring worldwide among adults and children. The body mass index (BMI) is useful to determine whether a child is overweight or obese because BMI relates strongly to body fat mass. However, contrary to adults, BMI changes with sex and age in children. Sex- and age-specific norms for BMI of the International obesity task force (IOTF) are now widely used. Approximately 15-20% of schoolchildren in Switzerland are currently overweight (or obese) and 2-5% are obese. Obesity is a major public health challenge. It is associated with numerous short and long term health hazards (in particular cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, e.g. diabetes) and it tracks form childhood throughout adulthood. This emphasizes the need for programs and polices aimed at preventing paediatric obesity.

  13. Neonatal anthropometrics and correlation to childhood obesity--data from the Danish Children's Obesity Clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Bille, Dorthe Sadowa; Nässlund, Ida;

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Recent evidence has demonstrated the prenatal initiation of childhood obesity as epidemiological studies and animal studies have illustrated the effect of the intrauterine milieu for subsequent development of childhood obesity. This study investigates the relationship between severe...... childhood obesity and the preceding in utero conditions expressed by birth weight and birth length, birth-weight-for-gestational-age and neonatal ponderal index in a Danish cohort of 1,171 severely obese children (median age 11.48 years, range 3.13 to 17.98 years) with a mean body mass index...... that the prenatal period can be considered as a potential window of opportunity for prevention of childhood overweight and obesity and anthropological measurements may in theory be used to help identify neonates at high risk for developing childhood obesity....

  14. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  15. Teachers in Early Childhood Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilderry, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher accountability and authority in early childhood policy. It reports on data from a study that investigated the influences affecting early childhood teacher decision-making at the preschool level in Victoria, Australia. Using a question raised by Ball "Where are the teachers in all this [policy]?" provided a…

  16. Markets and Childhood Obesity Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John

    2006-01-01

    In examining the childhood obesity epidemic from the perspective of economics, John Cawley looks at both possible causes and possible policy solutions that work through markets. The operation of markets, says Cawley, has contributed to the recent increase in childhood overweight in three main ways. First, the real price of food fell. In…

  17. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  18. Combined dyslipidemia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavey, Rae-Ellen W

    2015-01-01

    Combined dyslipidemia (CD) is now the predominant dyslipidemic pattern in childhood, characterized by moderate-to-severe elevation in triglycerides and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), minimal elevation in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and reduced HDL-C. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that the CD pattern is represented at the lipid subpopulation level as an increase in small, dense LDL and in overall LDL particle number plus a reduction in total HDL-C and large HDL particles, a highly atherogenic pattern. In youth, CD occurs almost exclusively with obesity and is highly prevalent, seen in more than 40% of obese adolescents. CD in childhood predicts pathologic evidence of atherosclerosis and vascular dysfunction in adolescence and young adulthood, and early clinical cardiovascular events in adult life. There is a tight connection between CD, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the metabolic syndrome, suggesting an integrated pathophysiological response to excessive weight gain. Weight loss, changes in dietary composition, and increases in physical activity have all been shown to improve CD significantly in children and adolescents in short-term studies. Most importantly, even small amounts of weight loss are associated with significant decreases in triglyceride levels and increases in HDL-C levels with improvement in lipid subpopulations. Diet change focused on limitation of simple carbohydrate intake with specific elimination of all sugar-sweetened beverages is very effective. Evidence-based recommendations for initiating diet and activity change are provided. Rarely, drug therapy is needed, and the evidence for drug treatment of CD in childhood is reviewed. PMID:26343211

  19. Childhood environments and cytomegalovirus serostatus and reactivation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Doyle, William J; Marsland, Anna L; Bosch, Jos

    2014-08-01

    Childhood adversity, defined in terms of material hardship or physical or emotional maltreatment has been associated with risk for infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) among children and adolescents, and with CMV reactivation in children and adults. The present study examined whether different dimensions of childhood experience-those pertaining to socioeconomic status (SES), physical environment, or family relationships-relate differentially to CMV serostatus and reactivation during adulthood. Participants were 140 healthy adults, aged 18-55years (41% female; 64% white). Childhood environments were assessed retrospectively and included family SES (parental housing tenure); childhood neighborhood environment (urban residence; physical conditions; safety; and social atmosphere); residential exposures (parental smoking and physical condition of home); and family relationships (parental divorce; warmth; harmony; dysfunction; parental bonding). Approximately 39% (n=53) of participants were CMV+. In individual analyses controlling for age, sex, race, body mass, current adult SES and smoking status, fewer years of parental home ownership, having a parent who smoked, and living in a poorly maintained or unsafe neighborhood each were associated with greater odds of infection with CMV. By comparison, in individual analyses limited to CMV+ participants, less family warmth, less harmony, greater dysfunction, and suboptimal parental bonding each were related to higher antibody levels, independent of the aforementioned covariates. Findings were not attributable to current adult perceptions of psychological stress or relative levels of emotional stability. These results suggest that different types of childhood adversity may be associated with differential effects on CMV infection and latency.

  20. Childhood environments and cytomegalovirus serostatus and reactivation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Doyle, William J; Marsland, Anna L; Bosch, Jos

    2014-08-01

    Childhood adversity, defined in terms of material hardship or physical or emotional maltreatment has been associated with risk for infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) among children and adolescents, and with CMV reactivation in children and adults. The present study examined whether different dimensions of childhood experience-those pertaining to socioeconomic status (SES), physical environment, or family relationships-relate differentially to CMV serostatus and reactivation during adulthood. Participants were 140 healthy adults, aged 18-55years (41% female; 64% white). Childhood environments were assessed retrospectively and included family SES (parental housing tenure); childhood neighborhood environment (urban residence; physical conditions; safety; and social atmosphere); residential exposures (parental smoking and physical condition of home); and family relationships (parental divorce; warmth; harmony; dysfunction; parental bonding). Approximately 39% (n=53) of participants were CMV+. In individual analyses controlling for age, sex, race, body mass, current adult SES and smoking status, fewer years of parental home ownership, having a parent who smoked, and living in a poorly maintained or unsafe neighborhood each were associated with greater odds of infection with CMV. By comparison, in individual analyses limited to CMV+ participants, less family warmth, less harmony, greater dysfunction, and suboptimal parental bonding each were related to higher antibody levels, independent of the aforementioned covariates. Findings were not attributable to current adult perceptions of psychological stress or relative levels of emotional stability. These results suggest that different types of childhood adversity may be associated with differential effects on CMV infection and latency. PMID:24675032

  1. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in association with a normal total or free thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). It is frequently encountered in both neonatology and general paediatric practice; however, its clinical significance is widely debated. Currently there is no broad consensus on the investigation and treatment of these patients; specifically who to treat and what cut-off level of TSH should be used. This paper reviews the available evidence regarding investigation, treatments and outcomes reported for childhood SH.

  2. Increasing Childhood Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Lin, Chyongchiou J.; Hannibal, Kristin; Reis, Evelyn C.; Gallik, Gregory; Moehling, Krissy K.; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Allred, Norma J.; Wolfson, David H.; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the 2008 inception of universal childhood influenza vaccination, national rates have risen more dramatically among younger children than older children and reported rates across racial/ethnic groups are inconsistent. Interventions may be needed to address age and racial disparities to achieve the recommended childhood influenza vaccination target of 70%. Purpose To evaluate an intervention to increase childhood influenza vaccination across age and racial groups. Methods In 2011–2012, 20 primary care practices treating children were randomly assigned to Intervention and Control arms of a cluster randomized controlled trial to increase childhood influenza vaccination uptake using a toolkit and other strategies including early delivery of donated vaccine, in-service staff meetings, and publicity. Results The average vaccination differences from pre-intervention to the intervention year were significantly larger in the Intervention arm (n=10 practices) than the Control arm (n=10 practices), for children aged 2–8 years (10.2 percentage points (pct pts) Intervention vs 3.6 pct pts Control) and 9–18 years (11.1 pct pts Intervention vs 4.3 pct pts Control, p<0.05), for non-white children (16.7 pct pts Intervention vs 4.6 pct pts Control, p<0.001), and overall (9.9 pct pts Intervention vs 4.2 pct pts Control, p<0.01). In multi-level modeling that accounted for person- and practice-level variables and the interactions among age, race and intervention, the likelihood of vaccination increased with younger age group (6–23 months), white race, commercial insurance, the practice’s pre-intervention vaccination rate, and being in the Intervention arm. Estimates of the interaction terms indicated that the intervention increased the likelihood of vaccination for non-white children in all age groups and white children aged 9–18 years. Conclusions A multi-strategy intervention that includes a practice improvement toolkit can significantly improve influenza

  3. Stroke in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Serap Teber; Gülhis Deda

    2011-01-01

    Stroke in childhood is one of the most common causes of death or severe impairment worldwide, with annual incidence estimated from 1,3 to 13 cases/100.000 population. The definition of stroke consists both of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) and hemorrhagic stroke. The incidence of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in children is approximately the same, in contrast to adults, while the incidence is higher in boys than it is in girls. Risks factors for pediatric stroke differ from those for adults...

  4. Migraine and lifestyle in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casucci, Gerardo; Villani, Veronica; d'Onofrio, Florindo; Russo, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Migraine is one of the most frequently reported somatic complaints in childhood, with a negative impact on health-related quality of life. The incidence of migraine in childhood has substantially increased over the past 30 years, probably due to both increased awareness of the disease and lifestyle changes in this age group. Indeed, several conditions have been identified as risk factors for migraine in childhood. Amongst these, dysfunctional family situation, the regular consumption of alcohol, caffeine ingestion, low level of physical activity, physical or emotional abuse, bullying by peers, unfair treatment in school and insufficient leisure time seem to play a critical role. Nevertheless, there are only few studies about the association between migraine and lifestyle in childhood, due to previous observations specifically focused on "headache" in children. In this brief review, we will concentrate upon recent studies aimed to explore migraine and lifestyle risk factors in childhood. PMID:26017522

  5. Body integrity identity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne M Blom

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal cord in order to become paralyzed. Aim of the study is to broaden the knowledge of BIID amongst medical professionals, by describing all who deal with BIID. METHODS: Somatic, psychiatric and BIID characteristic data were collected from 54 BIID individuals using a detailed questionnaire. Subsequently, data of different subtypes of BIID (i.e. wish for amputation or paralyzation were evaluated. Finally, disruption in work, social and family life due to BIID in subjects with and without amputation were compared. RESULTS: Based on the subjects' reports we found that BIID has an onset in early childhood. The main rationale given for their desire for body modification is to feel complete or to feel satisfied inside. Somatic and severe psychiatric co-morbidity is unusual, but depressive symptoms and mood disorders can be present, possibly secondary to the enormous distress BIID puts upon a person. Amputation and paralyzation variant do not differ in any clinical variable. Surgery is found helpful in all subjects who underwent amputation and those subjects score significantly lower on a disability scale than BIID subjects without body modification. CONCLUSIONS: The amputation variant and paralyzation variant of BIID are to be considered as one of the same condition. Amputation of the healthy body part appears to result in remission of BIID and an impressive improvement of quality of life. Knowledge of and respect for the desires of BIID individuals are the first steps in providing care and may decrease the huge burden they experience.

  6. Calculator calculus

    CERN Document Server

    McCarty, George

    1982-01-01

    How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en­ couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...

  7. Reliability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  8. Timing of motor milestones achievement and development of overweight in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Due, P;

    2014-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: The risk of childhood obesity is influenced by a number of pre- and post-natal factors. The risk of childhood obesity is correlated with body weight during infancy, which might be related to the psychomotor development of the child. The previous literature...... on motor milestones and childhood overweight is limited and results are inconsistent. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: Weight status in early life and timing of achievement of gross motor milestones (the ability to sit and walk) are largely independent of each other. Timing of achievement of motor milestones in early...... life does not predict overweight or increased BMI later in childhood. BACKGROUND: Overweight may hinder achievement of gross motor milestones and delayed achievement of milestones may increase the risk of later overweight for reasons involving physical activity and the building of lean body mass...

  9. Proceedings of the 3. Muenster symposium on late effects after tumor therapy in childhood and adolescence. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willich, Normann; Boelling, Tobias (eds.) [Univ. Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2009-08-15

    The volume on the 3rd Muenster Symposion on late effects after tumor therapy in childhood and adolescence contains 7 contributions: Evaluation of side effects after radiotherapy in childhood and adolescence; from retrospective case reports to a perspective, multicentric and transnational approach; late effects surveillance system after childhood cancer in Germany, Austria and parts of Switzerland - update 2009; second malignant neoplasm after childhood cancer in Germany - results from the long-term follow-up of the German childhood cancer registry; secondary neoplasm after Wilm's tumor in Germany; second cancer after total-body irradiation (TBI) in childhood; late toxicity in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with TBI-containing conditioning regimens for hematological malignancies; radiation toxicity following busulfan/melphalan high-dose chemotherapy in the EURO-EWING-99-trials: review of GPOH data.

  10. Perinatal factors associated with blood pressure during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergel, E; Haelterman, E; Belizán, J; Villar, J; Carroli, G

    2000-03-15

    This study aims to determine whether variables reflecting an adverse intrauterine environment are associated with childhood blood pressure. The authors conducted a secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort of children born to healthy, nulliparous women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. A total of 518 children were traced in 1995-1996 from 614 eligible children born in a clinic in Rosario, Argentina. The outcome was systolic blood pressure at 5-9 years. Hemoglobin during pregnancy was positively associated with children's pressure. Other maternal characteristics during pregnancy (blood pressure, smoking, weight gain, weight at 20 weeks' gestation, and glycemia) and size at birth (birth weight, ponderal index, head circumference/length ratio, and small for gestational age) were not associated with children's pressure. Among children in the upper quartile of body mass index, there was a weak inverse correlation between birth weight and systolic pressure, and systolic pressure was 14.8 mmHg (95 percent confidence interval: 3.3, 26.4) higher in low birth weight children than in others. The main predictors of childhood pressure were childhood body mass index and maternal pressure outside pregnancy. In this healthy population, the authors found weak support for an association between variables reflecting an adverse fetal environment and childhood blood pressure. Low birth weight was a risk factor for high blood pressure only in overweight children. PMID:10733041

  11. Acute hemiplegia in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Takehiko; Takao, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Nakano, Shozo (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1983-04-01

    The results of CT in 100 patients with acute hemiplegia in childhood are reported here. The etiology was various: 2 patients had infratentorial brain tumors, 56 had cerebral vascular diseases, 3 had head injuries, 16 had intracranial infectious diseases, one had postinfectious encephalomyelitis, one had multiple sclerosis, 2 had epilepsy, and the diagnosis of 19 were unknown. Eleven patients had a normal CT and a good prognosis. As for the type of onset, there were patients of type 1 with fever and 42 with convulsions and unconsciousness; those of type 2 with convulsions and unconsciousness were 12, and those of type 3 without fever and convulsions were 46. This classification is assumed to be useful, as the type of onset is characteristic of the etiology. Six patients were diagnosed correctly by repeated examinations, although the first CT did not reveal any remarkable findings. Capsular infarction, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery in acute hemiplegia in childhood, abnormal findings of the internal capsule, thalamus, and midbrain in a patient with postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and a diffuse low density in the CT of the unilateral hemisphere in the patients with acute encephalopathy and acute hemiplegia of an obscure origin have been found after the introduction of computerized tomography.

  12. Body Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Diaper-Changing Steps for Childcare Settings Body Hygiene Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Facial Cleanliness Fish Pedicures and ... spread of hygiene-related diseases . Topics for Body Hygiene Facial Cleanliness Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Fish Pedicures and Fish Spas ...

  13. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help your child have a healthy body image Cosmetic surgery Breast surgery Botox Liposuction Varicose or spider veins Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa Binge eating ... nervosa Cosmetics and your health Depression during and after pregnancy ...

  14. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  15. The relationship of childhood bullying and paranoid thinking in a clinical population: the role of mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry, Khadija

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of research evidence has been accumulating over the last two decades, highlighting the association of childhood trauma and psychosis. The literature review evaluates empirical evidence and builds upon the previous literature reviews in this area. In addition, the literature review examines the theoretical bases and the underlying psychological factors that contribute to the relationship between childhood trauma and psychosis. It concluded that despite a large body of literature on th...

  16. Explaining the birth order effect: The role of prenatal and early childhood investments

    OpenAIRE

    Jee-Yeon K. Lehmann; Nuevo-Chiquero, Ana; Vidal-Fernández, Marian

    2012-01-01

    The critical role of prenatal and early childhood conditions on adult outcomes has been the focus of a rich body of research. In this paper, we examine various pre- and postnatal investments as possible sources behind the "birth order effect" – significant differences in the educational and labor market outcomes across children of varying birth orders. Taking advantage of a rich set of information on in utero and early childhood conditions in the Children of the NLSY79, we find that, within t...

  17. The role of childhood traumatization in the development of borderline personality disorder in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Katalin Merza; Gábor Papp; Ildikó Kuritárné Szabó

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: There is a growing body of evidence suggesting the role of childhood abuse in the etiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Studies found that complex traumatization related to BPD include emotional/physical/sexual abuse and neglect. This study examines self-reported experiences of childhood traumatization in Hungarian inpatients with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder and reveal which etiological factors are most strongly associated with the de...

  18. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse History and Leukocyte Telomere Length among Women in Middle Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Susan M.; Jennifer Prescott; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Immaculata DeVivo; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2015-01-01

    Objective Abuse victimization in childhood is associated with a variety of age-related cardiometabolic diseases, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Telomeres, which form the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes, have been proposed as measures of biological age, and a growing body of research suggests that telomere attrition may help to explain relationships between stress and cardiometabolic degradation. We examined the association between childhood abuse victimization and leukocyte tel...

  19. Social Factors in Childhood and Adulthood Associated with Adult Obesity in African American and White Women

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Milda R.; Kalycia Trishana Watson; Hyo Jung Tak

    2012-01-01

    Background. Few studies have examined how individual and neighborhood poverty in childhood and adulthood influence the likelihood of adult obesity. We used a longitudinal cohort to examine these associations. Methods. Our cohort consisted of children born in Baltimore, MD, USA with followup as adults from ages 27 to 33. We used logistic regression to examine the multivariate association between individual and neighborhood poverty in childhood and adulthood and adult obesity, (body mass index ...

  20. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NNR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Medicina. Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Departamento de Saúde Materno Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH], “child” (MeSH, and "childhood depression" (keyword. Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children's quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs

  1. Body embellishment

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The exhibition Body Embellishment explores the most innovative artistic expression in the 21st-century international arenas of body extension, augmentation, and modification, focusing on jewelry, tattoos, nail arts, and fashion. The areas of focus are jewelry, tattoos, nail arts, and fashion. Avant-garde jewelry consciously engages the body by intersecting and expanding the planes of the human form. Tattoos are at once on and in the body. Nail art, from manicures to pedicures, has humble ...

  2. Body Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2000-01-01

    Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.

  3. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category......, they translate such measurements and recommendations in meaningful ways to fit their everyday life. Conclusions : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people are concerned with their body size and continuously monitor it. Future health promotion work should consider the kind of practices already established...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...

  4. Childhood emotional problems and self-perceptions predict weight gain in a longitudinal regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collier David

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and weight gain are correlated with psychological ill health. We predicted that childhood emotional problems and self-perceptions predict weight gain into adulthood. Methods Data on around 6,500 individuals was taken from the 1970 Birth Cohort Study. This sample was a representative sample of individuals born in the UK in one week in 1970. Body mass index was measured by a trained nurse at the age of 10 years, and self-reported at age 30 years. Childhood emotional problems were indexed using the Rutter B scale and self-report. Self-esteem was measured using the LAWSEQ questionnaire, whilst the CARALOC scale was used to measure locus of control. Results Controlling for childhood body mass index, parental body mass index, and social class, childhood emotional problems as measured by the Rutter scale predicted weight gain in women only (least squares regression N = 3,359; coefficient 0.004; P = 0.032. Using the same methods, childhood self-esteem predicted weight gain in both men and women (N = 6,526; coefficient 0.023; P N = 6,522; coefficient 0.022; P Conclusion Emotional problems, low self-esteem and an external locus of control in childhood predict weight gain into adulthood. This has important clinical implications as it highlights a direction for early intervention strategies that may contribute to efforts to combat the current obesity epidemic.

  5. Relationship between body composition and blood pressure in Bahraini adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sendi, Aneesa M; Shetty, Prakash; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Myatt, Mark

    2003-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between body composition and blood pressure (BP) in Bahraini adolescents. A sample of 504 Bahraini schoolchildren aged 12-17 years (249 boys and 255 girls) was selected using a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure. BP measurements were performed on the students. Anthropometric data including weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and triceps, subscapular and medial calf skinfold thicknesses were also collected. BMI, percentage body fat, waist:hip (WHR), and subscapular:triceps skinfold ratio were calculated. Mean systolic BP and mean diastolic BP were higher in males than in females. Weight and height in boys and weight only in girls were significantly associated with systolic BP independent of age or percentage fat. Nearly 14 % of the adolescents were classified as having high BP. BMI and percentage body fat were significantly and positively associated with the risk of having high BP in the boys and girls. Adolescents with high WHR or WC, as indicators for central obesity, tended to have higher BP values. The results from the present study indicate that obesity influences the BP of Bahraini adolescents and that simple anthropometric measurements such as WHR and WC are useful in identifying children at risk of developing high BP. These findings together with the known tracking of BP from adolescence into adulthood underline the importance of establishing intervention programmes in order to prevent the development of childhood and adolescent obesity.

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  7. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice UYSAL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done before and after peer bullying.

  8. A Pilot Study of Parent Mentors for Early Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Byron A.; Aquino, Christian A.; Mario Gil; Gelfond, Jonathan A. L.; Hale, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the feasibility of a parent mentor model of intervention for early childhood obesity using positive deviance-based methods to inform the intervention. Methods. In this pilot, randomized clinical trial, parent-child dyads (age: 2–5) with children whose body mass index (BMI) was ≥95th percentile were randomized to parent mentor intervention or community health worker comparison. The child’s height and weight were measured at baseline, after the six-month intervention, and s...

  9. A Pilot Study of Parent Mentors for Early Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Byron A.; Aquino, Christian A.; Gil, Mario; Gelfond, Jonathan A. L.; Hale, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the feasibility of a parent mentor model of intervention for early childhood obesity using positive deviance-based methods to inform the intervention. Methods. In this pilot, randomized clinical trial, parent-child dyads (age: 2–5) with children whose body mass index (BMI) was ≥95th percentile were randomized to parent mentor intervention or community health worker comparison. The child's height and weight were measured at baseline, after the six-month intervention, and s...

  10. Parenthood—A Contributing Factor to Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Huffman, Fatma G; Sankarabharan Kanikireddy; Manthan Patel

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of childhood obesity and its complications have increased world-wide. Parental status may be associated with children’s health outcomes including their eating habits, body weight and blood cholesterol. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1988–1994, provided a unique opportunity for matching parents to children enabling analyses of joint demographics, racial differences and health indicators. Specifically, the NHANES III data, 1988–1994, of 21...

  11. Childhood obesity: prevention is better than cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandita A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aakash Pandita,1 Deepak Sharma,2 Dharti Pandita,3 Smita Pawar,4 Mir Tariq,5 Avinash Kaul6 1Department of Pediatrics, SMGS Hospital Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India; 2Department of Pediatrics, Pt Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India; 3Department of Microbiology Jammu University, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India; 4Department of OBG Fernandez Hospital, Hyderabad,Telangana, India; 5Department of Orthopedics, Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai, India; 6Department of Surgery, Acharya Shri Chander College of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India Abstract: Obesity and its associated comorbidities have emerged as a major health problem garnering interests from both public health agencies and mainstream media consumers. With increasing awareness on its impact on health, finances, and community at large, it has come to the forefront for scientific research and development of health plans. The need for better strategies and novel interventions to manage obesity is now being recognized by the entire health care system. Obesity and overweight is now the fifth leading global risk factor for mortality. Strategic investment is thus urgently needed to implement population-based childhood obesity prevention programmes which are effective and also culturally appropriate. Population-based prevention is crucial to stem this rising tide of childhood obesity which is fast reaching epidemic proportions. Obesity has its onset very early in life; therefore, children constitute a major group of this disease. It is thus imperative to lay utmost importance on prevention of obesity in children and herald its progress, if present already. Furthermore, treatment is still in preliminary stage, so early prevention holds better than treatment at later stages. This article is an attempt to lay emphasis on childhood obesity as a problem that needs to be recognized early and measures for its

  12. Brain Development in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Although human brain development continues throughout childhood and adolescence, it is a non-linear process both structurally and functionally. Here we review studies of brain development in healthy children from the viewpoint of structure and the perfusion of gray and white matter. Gray matter volume increases and then decreases with age, with the developmental time of the peak volume differing among brain regions in the first and second decades of life. On the other hand, white matter volume increase is mostly linear during those periods. As regards fractional anisotropy, most regions show an exponential trajectory with aging. In addition, cerebral blood flow and gray matter volume are proportional at similar developmental ages. Moreover, we show that several lifestyle choices, such as sleeping habits and breakfast staple, affect gray matter volume in healthy children. There are a number of uninvestigated important issues that require future study. PMID:23166579

  13. Childhood Short Stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Ray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood short stature comprises Varity of endocrinal, systemic, Skeletal & genetic disorders of pediatrics and is not just confined for endocrinal disorder only. A systemic approach often reduces the need for test which is often expensive &unnecessary. Use growth chart & asses bone age during evaluation. Short & heavy child are generally due to Endocrine causes, Short & thin are due to systemic disease, Short with normal velocity are may be due to Constitutional delay in growth &puberty or Familial short stature, differentiation can be done by Bone Age. In Girls Turner syndrome has to be kept in mind. Purpose of evaluation to find out the child who does not need treatment, who cannot be treated & the child who can be benefited from treatment.

  14. Monitoring asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C. Lødrup Carlsen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. However, to date there is limited evidence on how to monitor patients with asthma. Childhood asthma introduces specific challenges in terms of deciding what, when, how often, by whom and in whom different assessments of asthma should be performed. The age of the child, the fluctuating course of asthma severity, variability in clinical presentation, exacerbations, comorbidities, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and environmental exposures may all influence disease activity and, hence, monitoring strategies. These factors will be addressed in herein. We identified large knowledge gaps in the effects of different monitoring strategies in children with asthma. Studies into monitoring strategies are urgently needed, preferably in collaborative paediatric studies across countries and healthcare systems.

  15. Fatty liver in childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yesim; Ozturk; Ozlem; Bekem; Soylu

    2014-01-01

    Fatty liver is a growing health problem worldwide. It might evolve to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and cause hepatocellular carcinoma. This disease, which has increased because of eating habits, changes in food content and lifestyle, affects people from childhood. The most important risk factors are obesity and insulin resistance. Besides these factors, gender, ethnicity, genetic predisposition and some medical problems are also important. Cirrhosis in children is rare but is reported. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) has no specific symptoms or signs but should be considered in obese children. NAFLD does not have a proven treatment. Weight loss with family based treatments is the most acceptable management. Exercise and an applicable diet with low glycemic index and appropriate calorie intake are preferred. Drugs are promising but not sufficient in children for today.

  16. [Food allergy in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence. PMID:27207693

  17. [Prevention strategies of childhood obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, H; Rolland-Cachera, M F

    2003-12-01

    Considering the high prevalence and the increasing trends, obesity is now considered as a public health problem in numerous countries. The main aim of the National Program of Nutrition and Health is to stop the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity. In this frame work, a group of experts has established a new presentation of the corpulence curves, adapted for clinical practice, to define normal weight and obesity. Weight status is now currently assessed on the basis of weight and height measurements, after computing the Quetelet index or body mass index (BMI) corresponding to weight (m) divided by square of height (weight/height2). As body proportion varies during growth, age must be taken into account. Various curves were published. In 1982, based on the French sample of the international growth study, BMI curves were published. They were revised in 1991. The third and 97th centiles define the normal weight range. Overweight is defined by BMI values greater than the 97th centile. In the year 2000, a new international definition was established. Two centiles were constructed to define overweight and obesity. The new BMI charts adapted for clinical practice, proposed by the French National program of nutrition and health, include the French reference curves plus the centile defining obesity in the international definition. Thus, in the new French charts, the area above the 97th centile is split in two levels (degree 1 obesity and degree 2 obesity). Drawing the BMI curve for each child, like drawing weight and height curves, is a simple act which can be done routinely. The age at adiposity rebound (an indicator predicting the risk of adult obesity) can be read from the curve. It allows to identify an early phase of obesity development, even at the time when overweight is not yet clinically visible. When obesity appears clearly, the identification is easy. The use of BMI curves is particularly useful in two situations: (1) in very young overweight children, the

  18. 106例儿童孤独症的临床特征分析%Clinical Analysis for 106 Cases of Childhood Autism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新波; 柯晓燕; 罗硕军; 林节

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features of childhood autism. Methods Clinical analysis for 106 casesof clildhood autism by Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) .Results Onset age on0~ 11 month's autism are severe than11 ~ 23 month and 24 ~ 36 month, especially on human relatedness, use of body, relation to objects, visual responsiveness,auditory responsiveness, verbal sommunication and global impression. Cocnclusion The chnical features of childhood autismrelate to onset age.

  19. MedlinePlus: Childhood Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention publishes a schedule for childhood vaccines. Although some of ... and Caregivers (08/11/2016, Food and Drug Administration) Malaria Vaccine Protection Short-Lived in Young Children ( ...

  20. [The impact of childhood caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Carlos; Abarca, Marcelo; Bouferrache, Kahina; Gehri, Mario; Bodenmann, Patrick; Pop, Sabina

    2012-04-01

    The early childhood caries affect primary dentition before the eruption of the permanent teeth. It is set to extended use of a bottle containing fermentable carbohydrates. The early childhood caries is not only a dental disease: it is a social, cultural and behavioral condition that reflects the practices and beliefs around the child. Swiss data indicate that in aged 2 children, one of for could be affected by this devastating oral disease, mainly in vulnerable populations. The primary care physician has an important role in the screening of preschool children, in determining the risk level of the child for early childhood caries. Physicians can advise families, especially pregnant women, about preventive measures and behavior, leading to a dramatic drop of early childhood caries prevalence. PMID:22545498

  1. Leydig cell tumours in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, W; Knorr, D

    1983-01-01

    Two cases of Leydig cell tumours in childhood are presented. In one case, delayed diagnosis and operation led to pubertas praecox vera whereas in the other case normal growth and development occurred after early diagnosis and operation. PMID:6878724

  2. Childhood Deaths from Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Mohd. Sham; and Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data presented include ethnic origins, age, causes of death, identity of perpetrators, and marital situation of parents. (DB)

  3. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  4. Cranial nerve palsies in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, C J; Godoy, F; ALQahtani, E

    2015-01-01

    We review ocular motor cranial nerve palsies in childhood and highlight many of the features that differentiate these from their occurrence in adulthood. The clinical characteristics of cranial nerve palsies in childhood are affected by the child's impressive ability to repair and regenerate after injury. Thus, aberrant regeneration is very common after congenital III palsy; Duane syndrome, the result of early repair after congenital VI palsy, is invariably associated with retraction of the g...

  5. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  6. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with m...

  7. CHILDHOOD OBESITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMCALS

    OpenAIRE

    La Merrill, Michele; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent rates of obesity and overweight are continuing to increase in much of the world. Risk factors such as diet composition, excess caloric intake, decreased exercise, genetics, and the built environment are active areas of etiologic research. The obesogen hypothesis, which postulates that pre- and peri- natal chemical exposure can contribute to risk of childhood and adolescent obesity, remains relatively under-examined. This review surveys numerous classes of chemicals fo...

  8. Childhood cardiometabolic outcomes of maternal obesity during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Romy; Steegers, Eric A P; Duijts, Liesbeth; Felix, Janine F; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2014-04-01

    Maternal prepregnancy obesity is associated with impaired cardiometabolic health in offspring. Whether these associations reflect direct intrauterine causal mechanisms remains unclear. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 4871 mothers, fathers, and their children, we examined the associations of both maternal and paternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) with childhood body fat distribution and cardiometabolic outcomes and explored whether any association was explained by pregnancy, birth, and childhood factors. We measured childhood BMI, total body and abdominal fat distribution, blood pressure, and blood levels of lipids, insulin, and C-peptide at the age of 6 years. We observed that higher maternal and paternal prepregnancy BMI were associated with higher childhood BMI, total body and abdominal fat mass measures, systolic blood pressure, and insulin levels and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (Pobese mothers had increased risks of childhood overweight (odds ratio, 3.84 [95% confidence interval, 3.01-4.90]) and clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors (odds ratio, 3.00 [95% confidence interval, 2.09-4.34]). Smaller effect estimates for these outcomes were observed for paternal obesity. In conclusion, higher maternal and paternal prepregnancy BMI were associated with an adverse cardiometabolic profile in offspring, with stronger associations present for maternal prepregnancy BMI. These findings suggest that maternal prepregnancy BMI may influence the cardiometabolic health of offspring through direct intrauterine mechanisms.

  9. The calculation of pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation guidelines of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Druckbehaelter (task group for pressure vessels) have been revised with the following objective: conversion to international standards (SI), adaption to the latest state of guidelines for production and testing, revision of the contents of individual regulations. Another target of the cooperating interest groups of producers, operators, and supervisory bodies was a harmonization of the approaches for calculation with other German guidelines, in particular the Technische Regeln fuer Dampfkessel (technical regulations for steam boilers). (orig./RW)

  10. Averaged Propulsive Body Acceleration (APBA) Can Be Calculated from Biologging Tags That Incorporate Gyroscopes and Accelerometers to Estimate Swimming Speed, Hydrodynamic Drag and Energy Expenditure for Steller Sea Lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Colin; Trites, Andrew W; Rosen, David A S; Potvin, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Forces due to propulsion should approximate forces due to hydrodynamic drag for animals horizontally swimming at a constant speed with negligible buoyancy forces. Propulsive forces should also correlate with energy expenditures associated with locomotion-an important cost of foraging. As such, biologging tags containing accelerometers are being used to generate proxies for animal energy expenditures despite being unable to distinguish rotational movements from linear movements. However, recent miniaturizations of gyroscopes offer the possibility of resolving this shortcoming and obtaining better estimates of body accelerations of swimming animals. We derived accelerations using gyroscope data for swimming Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), and determined how well the measured accelerations correlated with actual swimming speeds and with theoretical drag. We also compared dive averaged dynamic body acceleration estimates that incorporate gyroscope data, with the widely used Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration (ODBA) metric, which does not use gyroscope data. Four Steller sea lions equipped with biologging tags were trained to swim alongside a boat cruising at steady speeds in the range of 4 to 10 kph. At each speed, and for each dive, we computed a measure called Gyro-Informed Dynamic Acceleration (GIDA) using a method incorporating gyroscope data with accelerometer data. We derived a new metric-Averaged Propulsive Body Acceleration (APBA), which is the average gain in speed per flipper stroke divided by mean stroke cycle duration. Our results show that the gyro-based measure (APBA) is a better predictor of speed than ODBA. We also found that APBA can estimate average thrust production during a single stroke-glide cycle, and can be used to estimate energy expended during swimming. The gyroscope-derived methods we describe should be generally applicable in swimming animals where propulsive accelerations can be clearly identified in the signal-and they should also

  11. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukheris, Houda [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel S. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stratton, Kayla L. [Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hammond, Sue [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mertens, Ann C. [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L. [Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Inskip, Peter D., E-mail: inskippe@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  12. A Meta-Analysis for Association of Maternal Smoking with Childhood Refractive Error and Amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Li Li; Ya Qi; Wei Shi; Yuan Wang; Wen Liu; Man Hu

    2016-01-01

    Background. We aimed to evaluate the association between maternal smoking and the occurrence of childhood refractive error and amblyopia. Methods. Relevant articles were identified from PubMed and EMBASE up to May 2015. Combined odds ratio (OR) corresponding with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to evaluate the influence of maternal smoking on childhood refractive error and amblyopia. The heterogeneity was evaluated with the Chi-square-based Q statistic and the I 2 test. Potent...

  13. Efficient many-body calculations for two-dimensional materials using exact limits for the screened potential: Band gaps of MoS2, h-BN, and phosphorene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Filip Anselm; Schmidt, Per Simmendefeldt; Winther, Kirsten Trøstrup;

    2016-01-01

    Calculating the quasiparticle (QP) band structure of two-dimensional (2D) materials within the GW self-energy approximation has proven to be a rather demanding computational task. The main reason is the strong q dependence of the 2D dielectric function around q = 0 that calls for a much denser...

  14. SU-E-T-541: Measurement of CT Density Model Variations and the Impact On the Accuracy of Monte Carlo (MC) Dose Calculation in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, H [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Li, B; Behrman, R [Department of Radiology, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Russo, G; Kachnic, L [Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Lu, H [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Fernando, H [Department of Surgery, Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To measure the CT density model variations between different CT scanners used for treatment planning and impact on the accuracy of MC dose calculation in lung SBRT. Methods: A Gammex electron density phantom (RMI 465) was scanned on two 64-slice CT scanners (GE LightSpeed VCT64) and a 16-slice CT (Philips Brilliance Big Bore CT). All three scanners had been used to acquire CT for CyberKnife lung SBRT treatment planning. To minimize the influences of beam hardening and scatter for improving reproducibility, three scans were acquired with the phantom rotated 120° between scans. The mean CT HU of each density insert, averaged over the three scans, was used to build the CT density models. For 14 patient plans, repeat MC dose calculations were performed by using the scanner-specific CT density models and compared to a baseline CT density model in the base plans. All dose re-calculations were done using the same plan beam configurations and MUs. Comparisons of dosimetric parameters included PTV volume covered by prescription dose, mean PTV dose, V5 and V20 for lungs, and the maximum dose to the closest critical organ. Results: Up to 50.7 HU variations in CT density models were observed over the baseline CT density model. For 14 patient plans examined, maximum differences in MC dose re-calculations were less than 2% in 71.4% of the cases, less than 5% in 85.7% of the cases, and 5–10% for 14.3% of the cases. As all the base plans well exceeded the clinical objectives of target coverage and OAR sparing, none of the observed differences led to clinically significant concerns. Conclusion: Marked variations of CT density models were observed for three different CT scanners. Though the differences can cause up to 5–10% differences in MC dose calculations, it was found that they caused no clinically significant concerns.

  15. Trauma radiology in infancy and childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this review article is to familiarise the reader with the specific paediatric conditions in trauma radiology. The article briefly describes the major pathophysiologic differences in childhood and the consecutive altered injury pattern. The standard radiological imaging protocol for various involved body regions and different trauma settings/varying queries is described, with suggestion for standardised diagnostic flowcharts in some typical settings. Special regard is given to radiation protection and the potential of newer imaging modalities such as ultrasound, multi-detector- and spiral CT as well as MRI in paediatric trauma patients. As such the paper hopefully provides some basic guidelines for general radiologists in peripheral hospitals who less often have to deal with paediatric queries. (orig.)

  16. Addressing Childhood Obesity: Opportunities for Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Callie L; Halvorson, Elizabeth E; Cohen, Gail M; Lazorick, Suzanne; Skelton, Joseph A

    2015-10-01

    The overweight and obesity epidemic among children and adolescents in the United States continues to worsen, with notable racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities. Risk factors for pediatric obesity include genetics; environmental and neighborhood factors; increased intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast-food, and processed snacks; decreased physical activity; shorter sleep duration; and increased personal, prenatal, or family stress. Pediatricians can help prevent obesity by measuring body mass index at least yearly and providing age- and development-appropriate anticipatory guidance to families. Public policies and environmental interventions aim to make it easier for children to make healthy nutrition and physical activity choices. Interventions focused on family habits and parenting strategies have also been successful at preventing or treating childhood obesity. PMID:26318950

  17. From Sleep Duration to Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Hense, Sabrina; Ahrens, Wolfgang;

    2012-01-01

    Sleep duration has been identified as risk factor for obesity already in children. Besides investigating the role of fat mass (FM), this study addressed the question whether endocrine mechanisms act as intermediates in the association between sleep duration and overweight/obesity. Within......-specific measure of sleep duration was derived to account for alteration in sleep duration during childhood/period of growth. Multivariate linear regression and quantile regression models confirmed an inverse relationship between sleep duration and measures of overweight/obesity. The estimate for the association...... of sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) was approximately halved after adjustment for FM, but remained significant. The strength of this association was also markedly attenuated when adjusting for insulin mainly for the upper BMI quantiles (Q80, β = −0.36 vs. β = −0.26; Q95, β = −0.87 vs. β = −0...

  18. Risk for childhood leukemia associated with maternal and paternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Thomopoulos, Thomas P; Gialamas, Spyros P; Karalexi, Maria A; Biniaris-Georgallis, Stylianos-Iason; Kontogeorgi, Evangelia; Papathoma, Paraskevi; Tsilimidos, Gerasimos; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Iliadou, Anastasia N; Petridou, Eleni T

    2015-12-01

    The role of reproductive factors, such as parental age, in the pathogenesis of childhood leukemias is being intensively examined; the results of individual studies are controversial. This meta-analysis aims to quantitatively synthesize the published data on the association between parental age and risk of two major distinct childhood leukemia types in the offspring. Eligible studies were identified and pooled relative risk (RR) estimates were calculated using random-effects models, separately for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Subgroup analyses were performed by study design, geographical region, adjustment factors; sensitivity analyses and meta-regression analyses were also undertaken. 77 studies (69 case-control and eight cohort) were deemed eligible. Older maternal and paternal age were associated with increased risk for childhood ALL (pooled RR = 1.05, 95 % CI 1.01-1.10; pooled RR = 1.04, 95 % CI 1.00-1.08, per 5 year increments, respectively). The association between maternal age and risk of childhood AML showed a U-shaped pattern, with symmetrically associated increased risk in the oldest (pooled RR = 1.23, 95 % CI 1.06-1.43) and the youngest (pooled RR = 1.23, 95 % CI 1.07-1.40) extremes. Lastly, only younger fathers were at increased risk of having a child with AML (pooled RR = 1.28, 95 % CI 1.04-1.59). In conclusion, maternal and paternal age represents a meaningful risk factor for childhood leukemia, albeit of different effect size by leukemia subtype. Genetic and socio-economic factors may underlie the observed associations. Well-adjusted studies, scheduled by large consortia, are anticipated to satisfactorily address methodological issues, whereas the potential underlying genetic mechanisms should be elucidated by basic research studies.

  19. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...... with an analysis of the embodied meaning of men‘s bodybuilding....

  20. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along with an...... analysis of the embodied meaning of men‘s bodybuilding....

  1. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JosephDeVeto

    2004-01-01

    When we speak,we use much more than just words. We also communicate with our face. our hands,and even our own body. This Kind of communication ean be called “body language” or “non-verbal eommunieation”. Non-verbal

  2. Body weight/image perceptions and prevalence of obesity among adolescents-Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity can be seen as the first wave of a defined cluster of non communicable diseases called "New World Syndrome" creating an enormous socioeconomic and public health burden in poorer countries. The rising prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity cannot be addressed by a single etiology. Multiple factors plays role and among them perception on body weight and image plays vital role in adolescents. So the objective of this study was to know the perceptions of adolescents on their body weight and body image. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of high schools of Thiruvananthapuram city corporation, Kerala, India. The sample size of this study was 1718 and the technique adopted is multistage and stratified random sampling. Data was collected using pre designed and pretested semi-structured questionnaire which is self-administered. Body mass index was calculated based on physical measurements such as height and weight using standard methods. Results: This study revealed that 67.3% of study subjects underestimated their body weight and 15.5% over estimated their body weight. The prevalence of overweight/obesity is high among those who underestimated their body weight (18.7% compared to subjects who overestimated (6.7% but the prevalence of underweight is high among the subjects who overestimated their body weight (60.8% compared to subjects who underestimated (22%. Conclusion: Schools are probably the ideal medium of intervention as they are central to children′s lives and information can be relatively quickly dissipated through this channel and Helping adolescents to attain a realistic, positive perception of their body weight and image through health education.

  3. Body Weight and Body Image

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane Traci; Olmsted Marion P

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs...

  4. Parental neglect during childhood and increased risk of obesity in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I

    1994-01-01

    reported on the child's general hygiene. 756 (86%) of the 881 eligible participants were followed up 10 years later. The influence of family factors in childhood on the risk of obesity (body-mass index > 95th centile) in young adulthood was estimated by odds ratios with control for age and body-mass index...... children had a much greater risk of adult obesity than averagely groomed children (9.8 [3.5-28.2]). However, being an only child, receiving overprotective parental support, or being well-groomed had no effect. Parental neglect during childhood predicts a great risk of obesity in young adulthood...

  5. Indian Childhood Cirrhosis: Case Report and Pediatric Diagnostic Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaivinder Yadav

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indian childhood cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease usually seen in paediatric age group and is unique to the Indian subcontinent. The definitive causative factor for the disease is not found till now but excess copper ingestion has been associated with it.Case presentation: An Indian origin one and half year old premorbidly normal male child presented with history of gradual distension of abdomen for 6 months and jaundice, generalized body swelling, high colour urine for 20 days. There was no history of any bleeding or feature suggestive of hepatic encephalopathy. On physical examination child was icteric, pale and had anasarca, massive hepatosplenomegaly and ascites. The child was evaluated for various causes of hepatic failure in pediatric age group including infective, metabolic and autoimmune etiologies. Unfortunately the child succumbed to the illness. The post-mortem liver biopsy and copper estimation cleared the air, revealing Indian childhood cirrhosis as the underlying etiology.Conclusion: Though Indian childhood cirrhosis is a rare entity and reported less frequently in literature, the treating pediatrician should keep this as a differential in case of pediatric hepatic failure. The liver biopsy and hepatic copper estimation are the gold standard diagnostic tests for diagnosing Indian Childhood cirrhosis.

  6. Mental Health, Wellness, and Childhood Overweight/Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Russell-Mayhew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a growing concern, and while progress has been made to understand the association between multiple biological factors (i.e., genetics, nutrition, exercise etc., little is known about the relationship between mental health and childhood obesity. In this paper, we offer a review of current evidence about the association between mental health and childhood obesity. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed, English-language studies published between January 2000 and January 2011 was undertaken and resulted in 759 unique records, of which 345 full-text articles were retrieved and 131 articles were included. A theoretical model is proposed to organize the paper and reflect the current state of the literature and includes psychological factors (i.e., depression and anxiety, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disordered symptoms, and emotional problems; psychosocial mediating variables (i.e., weight-based teasing and concern about weight and shape, and wellness factors (i.e., quality of life and resiliency/protective factors. We conclude with a number of recommendations to support the creation of solutions to the rise in childhood obesity rates that do not further marginalize overweight and obese children and youth and that can potentially improve the well-being of all children and youth regardless of their weight status.

  7. Mental health, wellness, and childhood overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; McVey, Gail; Bardick, Angela; Ireland, Alana

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing concern, and while progress has been made to understand the association between multiple biological factors (i.e., genetics, nutrition, exercise etc.), little is known about the relationship between mental health and childhood obesity. In this paper, we offer a review of current evidence about the association between mental health and childhood obesity. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed, English-language studies published between January 2000 and January 2011 was undertaken and resulted in 759 unique records, of which 345 full-text articles were retrieved and 131 articles were included. A theoretical model is proposed to organize the paper and reflect the current state of the literature and includes psychological factors (i.e., depression and anxiety, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disordered symptoms, and emotional problems); psychosocial mediating variables (i.e., weight-based teasing and concern about weight and shape), and wellness factors (i.e., quality of life and resiliency/protective factors). We conclude with a number of recommendations to support the creation of solutions to the rise in childhood obesity rates that do not further marginalize overweight and obese children and youth and that can potentially improve the well-being of all children and youth regardless of their weight status. PMID:22778915

  8. Risk factors associated with childhood asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the risk factors associated with childhood asthma, in children attending Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad. The study included 398 age-matched children (200 asthmatic and 198 non-asthmatic). Information was collected concerning their familial history of atopy, birth weight, environment, breastfeeding, disease and treatment history. Odds ratio was calculated for determining the risk. The children were aged between 12 months and 8 years and 60% were male. The asthmatic children were hospitalized more frequently than the non-asthmatic children (p < 0.0001). Most of the asthmatic children lived in the urban areas of Hyderabad (odd ratio (OR) 16.7, 95% CI = 3.1-14.6, p < 0.0001), had a parental history of asthma (OR 26.8, 95% CI = 10.8-68.2, p < 0.0001) or allergic rhinitis (OR 4, 95% CI 1.2-13.4, p= 0.01), 38.5% had at least one person who smoked, and were weaned earlier than the non-asthmatic children (OR =12.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.4, p < 0.01). Childhood asthma was strongly associated with a family history of asthma and allergic rhinitis, the urban place of residence, having smokers as parents and early weaning from maternal breast milk. The results highlight the need to educate the parents about the risk of smoking and early weaning in the development of asthma. (author)

  9. Comparison of Different Internationally Accepted Reference Standards to Measure Childhood Adiposity Rates in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupča Sarmīte

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adiposity is increasingly affecting developed and developing countries alike. Body Mass Index (BMI is a good first approximation of body weight, but interpretation in specific patient populations may be inconsistent. The aim of this study was to compare adiposity rates using three internationally accepted weight reference standards – World Health Organisation (WHO, International Obesity Task Force (IOTF, and US Centers for Disease Control (CDC, plus a local national scale (LV, evaluating 465, 6-to-9-year old school children in Latvia. After obtaining height and weight, BMI was calculated, and the four scales were individually applied by gender and age. Highly significant differences between LV and CDC, LV and IOTF, LV and WHO were found in all age groups (P < 0.01, and between WHO and IOTF reference standards (P < 0.01 in 7- and 8-year olds. We conclude that reference standards should be used with great caution. Reference standards for local ethnic populations are needed to avoid disagreements between scales, as this can lead to incorrect choice of therapy; reliance on any single reference standard may not consider a patient's unique set of circumstances that have resulted in excess weight and information that is vital for a good clinical outcome.

  10. Asthma in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Benedictis, Fernando Maria; Attanasi, Marina

    2016-03-01

    Several topics on childhood asthma were addressed in the Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress. With regard to the relationship between lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, it emerges that is the number of respiratory episodes in the first years of life, but not the particular viral trigger, to be associated with later asthma development. Understanding which characteristics of individual patients are associated with an increased risk for asthma exacerbation is a critical step to implement strategies preventing these seasonal events. Recent data suggest the possibility that exhaled volatile organic compounds may qualify as biomarkers in detecting early signs of asthma. Adding information of exhaled volatile organic compounds and expression of inflammation genes to a clinical tool significantly improves asthma prediction in preschool wheezy children. Personal communication with children and adolescents is likely more important than the tools actually used for monitoring asthma. Systemic corticosteroids do not affect the long-term prognosis in children with first viral-induced wheezing episode and should be used cautiously during acute episodes. Finally, stress and a polymorphism upstream of a specific gene are both associated with reduced bronchodilator response in children with asthma.

  11. Asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Maria de Benedictis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several topics on childhood asthma were addressed in the Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress. With regard to the relationship between lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, it emerges that is the number of respiratory episodes in the first years of life, but not the particular viral trigger, to be associated with later asthma development. Understanding which characteristics of individual patients are associated with an increased risk for asthma exacerbation is a critical step to implement strategies preventing these seasonal events. Recent data suggest the possibility that exhaled volatile organic compounds may qualify as biomarkers in detecting early signs of asthma. Adding information of exhaled volatile organic compounds and expression of inflammation genes to a clinical tool significantly improves asthma prediction in preschool wheezy children. Personal communication with children and adolescents is likely more important than the tools actually used for monitoring asthma. Systemic corticosteroids do not affect the long-term prognosis in children with first viral-induced wheezing episode and should be used cautiously during acute episodes. Finally, stress and a polymorphism upstream of a specific gene are both associated with reduced bronchodilator response in children with asthma.

  12. Brain SPECT in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modalities and the indications of perfusion and neurotransmission SPECT in childhood are presented. The perfusion as well as neurotransmission tracers have not yet authorization for use in children; they have to be used by prescription of magistral preparation or in research protocols. The radioprotection rules have to be strictly respected. The most frequent indication of perfusion SPECT is pharmacologically resistant epilepsy; the ictal SPECT before surgery allows the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Other indications are relevant in the prognosis of neonatal anoxia and encephalitis. In psychiatric disorders, especially in autism, the interest is the physiopathological approach of the brain dysfunctions. The neurotransmission SPECT is emerging as a consequence of the development of new radiotracer, as the dopaminergic system ligands. The decrease of the dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum can be imaged and quantified in the neonate. The lesions of dopamine system seem to be a consequence of the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and it is predictive of motor sequelae. Brain SPECT should become a routine examination in child neurologic and psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  13. Childhood drowning in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hss, Amar-Singh; Tan, Pui San; Hashim, Lina

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to collate data on childhood drowning in Malaysia and review existing drowning prevention measures. This study used secondary data from governmental and non-governmental agencies. All reported fatal drownings from 2000 to 2007 and all reported non-fatal drownings from 2000 to 2008 were included. Data were analysed to provide understanding of the epidemiology of drowning incidents, risk factors and available preventive efforts. On average 286 (range 248-344) children died yearly due to drowning with a death rate of 3.05 per 100,000 annually. An additional average of 207 children drowned but survived annually (1.99 per 100,000). The estimated burden of drowning in children (death and non-death) is 5 per 100,000. There was no reduction in annual drowning fatalities over time. Most drowning took place in east coast regions during the annual monsoon season. It was 3.52 (2.80-4.41) times more common in boys and most prevalent among 10-14 years. Most prevalent sites of all-age drowning were seas and rivers. Limited water safety regulations are currently available in the country. This is the first comprehensive national study in Malaysia on paediatric drowning and highlights the magnitude of the problem. It calls for concerted effort to devise effective national drowning prevention measures. PMID:23651461

  14. Test rig for body components under corrosion conditions used for validation of CAE calculation results in early state of car development; Modularer Bauteilepruefstand mit Korrosion zur Validierung numerischer Simulation und zur Betriebsfestigkeitspruefung von Karosseriekomponenten im fruehen Stadium der Fahrzeugentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dittmann, K.J.; Schaub, N. [DaimlerChrysler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Based on the durability development process of the car body of the new C-class the actual methods are explained and compared with future methods. A central position of the future development process is going to adopt the MBK, a test rig for body components under corrosion conditions in the durability development. The basics of the new MBK and the realisation of the first rig in support of a shorter development process are the main points of these remarks. (orig.) [German] Am Beispiel des Entwicklungsablaufes fuer die Betriebsfestigkeit der neuen C-Klasse werden nachfolgend die aktuellen Methoden und Ablaeufe mit denen der Zukunft verglichen. Alle hier angefuehrten Ablaeufe und Entwicklungsmethoden beziehen sich auf die Funktionsfreigabe Betriebsfestigkeit fuer die Karosserie. Eine zentrale Rolle in den zukuenftigen Entwicklungsablaeufen hat ein Pruefstand der als MBK bezeichnet wird. Die grundsaetzlichen Ueberlegungen, die zum Modularen Bauteilpruefstand mit Korrosion (MBK) gefuehrt haben und deren Umsetzung sind Gegenstand der weiteren Ausfuehrungen zur Bewaeltigung der Anforderungen in einem verkuerzten Entwicklungsablauf. (orig.)

  15. Euler's Three-Body Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Walter J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the simplest three-body problem, known as Euler's problem. The article, intended for students in the undergraduate mathematics and physics curricula, shows how the complex equations for a specific three-body problem can be solved on a small calculator. (HM)

  16. ``Hit and Run Research'' with ``Hit and Miss'' Results in Early Childhood Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn; Robbins, Jill

    2003-08-01

    Constructivism has provided us with a useful pedagogy and a powerful methodological framework for over twenty years. We now know a great deal about children's thinking. Can this research paradigm take us any further? Are we locked into a particular perspective about data gathering and categorising children's thinking? Have we tended to fit early childhood data into the 'accepted science education paradigm'? As early childhood researchers, we have found the wealth of research in science education research unable to provide solutions to some fundamental challenges we face when working with young children. This paper seeks to examine the established body of literature in science education research with a view to seeking out a more inclusive research approach to support early childhood science education. Examples of early childhood data within a range of contexts are presented to illustrate some of the challenges. Some of the issues that are raised may well be helpful to the field as a whole.

  17. Stages of Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause less damage to healthy tissue in the brain and other parts of the body. Proton radiation is different from x-ray radiation. Surgery with cyst drainage Surgery may be done to drain tumors that are mostly fluid-filled cysts. This ...

  18. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma...... and shrink, leading to potential pitfalls in paleopathological diagnostics. Bog bodies have in several instances been crucial in determining the last meal, as gut contents may be preserved, and thus augment our knowledge on pre-historic diet by adding to, for example, stable isotope analyses. This article...

  19. Childhood leukemia and residential proximity to industrial and urban sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Pérez, Javier, E-mail: jgarcia@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); López-Abente, Gonzalo, E-mail: glabente@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Gómez-Barroso, Diana, E-mail: dgomez@externos.isciii.es [CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Morales-Piga, Antonio, E-mail: amorales@isciii.es [Rare Disease Research Institute (IIER), Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Consortium for Biomedical Research in Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Madrid (Spain); Pardo Romaguera, Elena, E-mail: elena.pardo@uv.es [Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors (RETI-SEHOP), University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Tamayo, Ibon, E-mail: ibontama@gmail.com [Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, BIODonostia Research Institute, Department of Health of the Regional Government of the Basque Country, Donostia (Spain); Fernández-Navarro, Pablo, E-mail: pfernandezn@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); and others

    2015-07-15

    Background: Few risk factors for the childhood leukemia are well established. While a small fraction of cases of childhood leukemia might be partially attributable to some diseases or ionizing radiation exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. Objectives: To ascertain the possible effect of residential proximity to both industrial and urban areas on childhood leukemia, taking into account industrial groups and toxic substances released. Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study of childhood leukemia in Spain, covering 638 incident cases gathered from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors and for those Autonomous Regions with 100% coverage (period 1990-2011), and 13,188 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence. Distances were computed from the respective subject’s residences to the 1068 industries and the 157 urban areas with ≥10,000 inhabitants, located in the study area. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to industrial and urban pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for matching variables. Results: Excess risk of childhood leukemia was observed for children living near (≤2.5 km) industries (OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.03–1.67) – particularly glass and mineral fibers (OR=2.42; 95%CI=1.49–3.92), surface treatment using organic solvents (OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.24–2.83), galvanization (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.07–3.21), production and processing of metals (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.22–2.34), and surface treatment of metals (OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.22–2.15) – , and urban areas (OR=1.36; 95%CI=1.02–1.80). Conclusions: Our study furnishes some evidence that living in the proximity of industrial and urban sites may be a risk factor for childhood leukemia. - Highlights: • We studied proximity to both industrial and urban sites on childhood leukemia. • We conducted a case–control study in

  20. Childhood leukemia and residential proximity to industrial and urban sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Few risk factors for the childhood leukemia are well established. While a small fraction of cases of childhood leukemia might be partially attributable to some diseases or ionizing radiation exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. Objectives: To ascertain the possible effect of residential proximity to both industrial and urban areas on childhood leukemia, taking into account industrial groups and toxic substances released. Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study of childhood leukemia in Spain, covering 638 incident cases gathered from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors and for those Autonomous Regions with 100% coverage (period 1990-2011), and 13,188 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence. Distances were computed from the respective subject’s residences to the 1068 industries and the 157 urban areas with ≥10,000 inhabitants, located in the study area. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to industrial and urban pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for matching variables. Results: Excess risk of childhood leukemia was observed for children living near (≤2.5 km) industries (OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.03–1.67) – particularly glass and mineral fibers (OR=2.42; 95%CI=1.49–3.92), surface treatment using organic solvents (OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.24–2.83), galvanization (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.07–3.21), production and processing of metals (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.22–2.34), and surface treatment of metals (OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.22–2.15) – , and urban areas (OR=1.36; 95%CI=1.02–1.80). Conclusions: Our study furnishes some evidence that living in the proximity of industrial and urban sites may be a risk factor for childhood leukemia. - Highlights: • We studied proximity to both industrial and urban sites on childhood leukemia. • We conducted a case–control study in

  1. Body surface area determined by whole-body CT scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Primeau, Charlotte; Hesse, Ulrik;

    2016-01-01

    Calculation of the estimated body surface area (BSA) by body height and weight has been a challenge in the past centuries due to lack of a well-documented gold standard. More recently, available techniques such as 3D laser surface scanning and CT scanning may be expected to quantify the BSA...... in an easier and more accurate way. This study provides the first comparison between BSA obtained from post-mortem whole-body CT scans and BSA calculated by nine predictive formulae. The sample consisted of 54 male cadavers ranging from 20 to 87 years old. 3D reconstructions were generated from CT scans using...

  2. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Childhood Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... childhood maltreatment. In particular, for women, emotional and sexual abuse during childhood was associated with a greater risk ... risk for chronic fatigue syndrome: results from a population-based study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Nov;63( ...

  3. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted;

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  4. Childhood Diseases - What Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Diseases - What Parents Need to Know Past Issues / ... centers is continuing to improve the outlook for childhood diseases every day. Photo: iStock When the Eunice ...

  5. Clinical evaluation of X-ray voxel Monte Carlo versus pencil beam-based dose calculation in stereotactic body radiotherapy of lung cancer under normal and deep inspiration breath hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoni, V; Borzì, G R; Strolin, S; Bruzzaniti, V; Soriani, A; D'Alessio, D; Ambesi, F; Di Grazia, A M; Strigari, L

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the differences between dose distributions calculated with the pencil beam (PB) and X-ray voxel Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms for patients with lung cancer using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or HybridArc techniques. The 2 algorithms were compared in terms of dose-volume histograms, under normal and deep inspiration breath hold, and in terms of the tumor control probability (TCP). The dependence of the differences in tumor volume and location was investigated. Dosimetric validation was performed using Gafchromic EBT3 (International Specialty Products, ISP, Wayne, NJ). Forty-five Computed Tomography (CT) data sets were used for this study; 40 Gy at 8 Gy/fraction was prescribed with 5 noncoplanar 6-MV IMRT beams or 3 to 4 dynamic conformal arcs with 3 to 5 IMRT beams distributed per arc. The plans were first calculated with PB and then recalculated with MC. The difference between the mean tumor doses was approximately 10% ± 4%; these differences were even larger under deep inspiration breath hold. Differences between the mean tumor dose correlated with tumor volume and path length of the beams. The TCP values changed from 99.87% ± 0.24% to 96.78% ± 4.81% for both PB- and MC-calculated plans (P = .009). When a fraction of hypoxic cells was considered, the mean TCP values changed from 76.01% ± 5.83% to 34.78% ± 18.06% for the differently calculated plans (P < .0001). When the plans were renormalized to the same mean dose at the tumor, the mean TCP for oxic cells was 99.05% ± 1.59% and for hypoxic cells was 60.20% ± 9.53%. This study confirms that the MC algorithm adequately accounts for inhomogeneities. The inclusion of the MC in the process of IMRT optimization could represent a further step in the complex problem of determining the optimal treatment plan. PMID:25223324

  6. 基于多体动力学和有限元分析的汽油机连杆疲劳强度计算%Strength and Fatigue Calculation of a Gasoline Engine Connecting Rod Based on Multi-body Dynamic and Finite-Element Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马戎; 周发

    2012-01-01

    Based on the software of AVL Excite Power Unit, Muhi-body dynamic method is used to calculate the connecting rod small end force of one cycle. Then Abaqus is used to finite element analysis of connecting rod, where three-dimensional stress distribution can be got. Finally import the results of multi-body dynamic calculation and finite-element analysis to MSC.Fatigue software to calculate the fatigue safety factor of connecting-rod. These all may establish a basis to optimize the design of engine connecting-rod.%基于AVL公司的Excite Power Unit软件进行连杆的多体动力学计算,得到连杆小头在发动机一个循环下的一维受力曲线,然后采用Abaqus软件进行连杆的有限元分析,得到连杆的三维应力分布,最后利用MSC.Fatigue软件导入多体动力学计算结果和有限元应力分布结果进行疲劳安全系数计算,得到疲劳安全系数的分布,从而为发动机连杆的优化设计建立基础。

  7. Metabolic effects of exercise on childhood obesity: a current view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Tavares Paes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature concerning the effects of physical exercise on several metabolic variables related to childhood obesity. DATA SOURCE: A search was performed in Pubmed/MEDLINE and Web of Science databases. The keywords used were as follows: Obesity, Children Obesity, Childhood Obesity, Exercise and Physical Activity. The online search was based on studies published in English, from April 2010 to December 2013. DATA SYNTHESIS: Search queries returned 88,393 studies based on the aforementioned keywords; 4,561 studies were selected by crossing chosen keywords. After applying inclusion criteria, four studies were selected from 182 eligible titles. Most studies found that aerobic and resistance training improves body composition, lipid profile and metabolic and inflammatory status of obese children and adolescents; however, the magnitude of these effects is associated with the type, intensity and duration of practice. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the type, physical exercise promotes positive adaptations to childhood obesity, mainly acting to restore cellular and cardiovascular homeostasis, to improve body composition, and to activate metabolism; therefore, physical exercise acts as a co-factor in fighting obesity.

  8. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2008-01-01

    @@ For Teachers: The Wordless Language Spoken by Everyone by Pamela Osment An old saying goes:"Actions speak louder than words."That's true according to communication experts.Some studies show that up to 90 percent of communication is nonverbal.Though you might say one thing,your body movements may indicate something entirely different.This nonverbal way of communicating is called body language.The Universal(通用的)Language

  9. Health lifestyles in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula

    2014-12-01

    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted.

  10. Health lifestyles in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula

    2014-12-01

    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted. PMID:25413801

  11. Treatment of intracranial foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadas, Sevdegul; Dursun, Recep; Kiymaz, Nejmi

    2014-07-01

    Craniospinal penetrating foreign body (FB) injuries are interesting, but rarely observed, cases. They are important in terms of the complications that they may cause. The etiologies of craniospinal penetrating injuries and intracranial FB are also different. Though a sewing needle is more rarely seen in an intracranial FB, it may occur as atttempted infanticide or as a result of an accident especially in early childhood before the closure of fontanels. We detected an intracranial sewing needle in the head radiograph of a case admitted to the emergency department for another reason. We present this case since this is a rare injury and the etiologies of craniospinal penetrating foreign body have different characteristics. PMID:25255596

  12. Early Childhood Education 295. Special Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polis, Gloria Owens

    This module, part of a series of early childhood education instructional materials, is intended to assist teachers in adapting an on-campus early childhood education program for use by students desiring self-paced instruction in early childhood education. The course consists of individualized study of a topic chosen by the student or approved work…

  13. [New perspectives on childhood obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Miklós; Sófi, Gyula

    2013-08-11

    From preventional point of view, childhood obesity is very important, since proliferation of extra fatty tissue in childhood contribute metabolic processes favoring the development of type 2 diabetes, as well as it can accelerate cardiovascular complications. Anyone who is overweight in his or her life is likely to be confronted by such social stigma that could ultimately have a negative impact on self-esteem. The cornerstone of prevention is a healthy diet and age-adjusted physical training which may result in a physiological energy balance. PMID:23916906

  14. [New perspectives on childhood obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Miklós; Sófi, Gyula

    2013-08-11

    From preventional point of view, childhood obesity is very important, since proliferation of extra fatty tissue in childhood contribute metabolic processes favoring the development of type 2 diabetes, as well as it can accelerate cardiovascular complications. Anyone who is overweight in his or her life is likely to be confronted by such social stigma that could ultimately have a negative impact on self-esteem. The cornerstone of prevention is a healthy diet and age-adjusted physical training which may result in a physiological energy balance.

  15. An Un-American Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Flor Christine

    2014-01-01

    An Un-American Childhood is my memoir about growing up unconventionally in a religious sex cult with my parents and eleven siblings until I was a teenager. We lived in Thailand because Father David, our leader, didn't want us in the west when the world ended in 1993. When Father David died suddenly, the cult broke apart, and we found ourselves alone in the world with no money, food, very little clothing, and no direction. An Un-American Childhood takes the reader on a journey from the Childr...

  16. Children, playing and childhood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Medeiros Veiga Ramires Monteiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will address the ideas of authors of Childhood Studies, who question the strict concepts society has of children as being passive and immature; and the issue of play as being an instrument for the purposes of educational learning, or simply of recreation. The aim is to bring the issue of play closer to the concept of childhood cultures, accounting for and sustaining the importance of listening to the points of view of the actual subjects of research with children about this important and complex way of creating and experiencing their cultures, which cannot be reduced to adult-centered purposes.

  17. Evo-devo of Child Growth: The Role of Weaning in the Transition from Infancy to Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoul, Ron; Tiosano, Dov; Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2016-01-01

    Homo sapiens are unique in having a life history phase of childhood, which follows infancy, as defined by breastfeeding. This review uses evolutionary life history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies for transition from infancy to childhood. We have previously shown that a delayed infancy-childhood transition has a lifelong impact on stature. Feeding practices during infancy are fundamental elements of nutrition as they program for future growth and body composition. A relationship between the duration of breastfeeding and the nature of weaning has been suggested as a possible cause for later obesity and growth patterns. This review highlights the role that breast milk feeding and variations in the weaning age have on transition to childhood, growth, and body composition.

  18. Evo-devo of Child Growth: The Role of Weaning in the Transition from Infancy to Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoul, Ron; Tiosano, Dov; Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2016-04-25

    Homo sapiens are unique in having a life history phase of childhood, which follows infancy, as defined by breastfeeding. This review uses evolutionary life history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies for transition from infancy to childhood. We have previously shown that a delayed infancy-childhood transition has a lifelong impact on stature. Feeding practices during infancy are fundamental elements of nutrition as they program for future growth and body composition. A relationship between the duration of breastfeeding and the nature of weaning has been suggested as a possible cause for later obesity and growth patterns. This review highlights the role that breast milk feeding and variations in the weaning age have on transition to childhood, growth, and body composition. PMID:26017813

  19. Childhood overweight dependence on mother-child relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The causes of childhood overweight are numerous and inter-related. The mother-child relationship is of great significance for the child’s health. Previous studies have found patterns of dysfunctional interaction in families with obese children. Therefore, development of childhood overweight could...... overweight and 149 non-overweight seven to nine year old children and their mothers. Weight status was determined according to the International Obesity Task Force reference for children Body Mass Index, age and gender adjusted. An interviewer- administered questionnaire was used to categorize the mother-child...... be due to the mother-child relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate how, and to what degree, the mother-child relationship, assessed by the mothers, was related to overweight among children aged seven to nine years. The study was a cross sectional casecontrolled one. It included 111...

  20. Parental care in Childhood and Obesity in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vámosi, Marianne; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal;

    2011-01-01

    care and neglect questionnaire, by Bifulco et al, was used to assess perceived parental antipathy and neglect. Data were analyzed by means of intra-pair comparisons. Our results showed that recalled maternal antipathy (p = 0.04) and maternal neglect (p= 0.01) were both associated with adult obesity......Abstract The purpose of the study was to examine if parental antipathy and neglect during childhood were associated with obesity in adulthood. From the Danish Twin Registry 146 adult same-sexed twin pairs discordant for Body Mass Index (BMI) were identified. Criteria for being discordant were....... Paternal neglect and antipathy were not related with adult obesity. The study demonstrates that experience in childhood maternal antipathy and neglect may contribute to the development of obesity at age 20 and later in adulthood....

  1. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    ­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based...... on the Dance Therapy Form Dansergia. The author, who is a practi­tioner-researcher, is methodologically inspir­ed by phenomenology, performative methods and a narrative and auto-ethnographic approach. The project will be presented in an organic, cre­at­ive and performative way. Through a moving dia......Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...

  2. [Evaluation of an education intervention for childhood obesity prevention in basic schools in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos Fernández, Luz Lorena; Leyton Dinamarca, Bárbara; Kain Bercovich, Juliana; Vio del Río, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a comprehensive intervention in nutrition education and physical activity to prevent childhood obesity in primary school children of low socioeconomic status in Macul county in Chile, with a two year follow-up (2008 and 2009) of the children. The intervention consisted in teacher nutrition training in healthy eating and the implementation of educational material based on Chilean dietary guidelines. In addition, there was an increase in physical education classes to 3-4 hours per week and physical education teachers were recruited for that purpose. Weight, height and six minutes walk test (6MWT) were measured and body mass index (BMI), BMI Z score, prevalence of normal, overweight and obese children were calculated with WHO 2007reference. Changes between baseline and BMI Z in each period and 6MWT/height, and changes in nutrition knowledge through questionnaires were measured. There was no significant difference in BMI Z score between the initial and final periods and in the evolution of the nutritional status of children. Nutrition knowledge improved significantly between the two measurements. There was a significant increase in 6MWT/height (10 meters between baseline and follow-up, p < 0.001). We conclude that although there was an improvement in nutrition knowledge and physical fitness of children, there was a stabilization of BMI Z score in the period of the study. New educational interventions are required according to the reality of each community to obtain a positive impact to prevent childhood obesity in primary schools.

  3. JS-50拖拉机后桥箱体镗孔工艺方案中定位误差的计算%Calculation of position error in housing bore hole process for JS-50 tractor rear body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佃菊

    2014-01-01

    以拖拉机后桥箱体加工工艺中的镗孔工序为例,分析零件的工艺结构特点、尺寸精度及加工技术要求,拟定了镗孔工序的工艺方案,并对该方案的定位误差进行分析计算。结果表明,一面两销定位方案难以满足所镗孔的精度要求,提出了采用消除间隙的方法,以提高定位精度。%This article takes the tractor rear body bore processing craft as the example, the analysis compo-nents craft unique feature, the size precision and the processing specification, drew up bored the working procedure craft.And carries on the analysis computation to this plan position error,finally indicated, the lo-calization way of one plane and two sells is difficulty in precision,pointed to increase the position precision by eliminationing gap.

  4. Childhood sarcoidosis: Louisiana experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedalia, Abraham; Khan, Tahir A; Shetty, Avinash K; Dimitriades, Victoria R; Espinoza, Luis R

    2016-07-01

    A retrospective chart review was conducted to detect patients with sarcoidosis seen by pediatric rheumatology service from the period of 1992 to 2013 at Children's hospital of New Orleans. Twenty-seven patients were identified. The average duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 5 (range 1-120) months. Five patients had onset before the age of 5 years and were diagnosed with early-onset sarcoidosis. The most common manifestations at presentation were constitutional symptoms (62 %) followed by ocular (38 %). During the course of illness, 19/27 (70 %) had multiorgan involvement. Common manifestations included uveitis/iritis (77 %), fever (50 %), hilar adenopathy (42 %), arthritis (31 %), peripheral lympadenopathy (31 %), hepatosplenomegaly (31 %), parenchymal lung disease (27 %), and skin rash (19 %). Unusual manifestations included granulomatous bone marrow disease (3 cases), hypertension (2), abdominal aortic aneurysm (large vessel vasculitis; 1), granulomatous hepatitis (1), nephrocalcinosis (1), membranous nephropathy (1), refractory granulomatous interstitial nephritis with recurrence in transplanted kidney (1), CNS involvement (2), parotid gland enlargement (1), and sensorineural hearing loss (1). Biopsy specimen was obtained in 21/27 (77 %) patients, and demonstration of noncaseating granuloma associated with negative stains for mycobacteria and fungi was seen in 18 patients. Elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme level was seen in 74 % of patients. Treatment with oral prednisone was initiated in symptomatic patients with significant clinical improvement. Low-dose methotrexate (MTX) 10-15 mg/m(2)/week orally, as steroid-sparing agent, was administered in 14 patients. Other immunomodulators included cyclophosphamide (2 patients), etanercept (2), infliximab (2), mycophenolate mofetil (1), and tacrolimus (1). Childhood sarcoidosis is prevalent in Louisiana. Most of the affected children present with a multisystem disease associated with

  5. Body Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  6. Body Rainbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Phubu did not know how long hehad walked after leaving Baxoi, buthe did know that he was halfwaybetween home and Lhasa. Feelingthe weight of the sack containingPhumo's body on his back, Fhubuhad calmed down from the grief anddesperation. He had just one wish:to carry Phumo to Lhasa. He knewthat Phumo had gone, and her soulwas no longer in this body. But hewas determined to finish the trip, notonly because he had promised so, butalso that he believed that it would beredemption for him.

  7. Is there any interaction between domestic radon exposure and air pollution from traffic in relation to childhood leukemia risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, E.V.; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, H.P.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: In a recent population-based case-control study using 2,400 cases of childhood cancer, we found a statistically significant association between residential radon and acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk. Hypothesis: Traffic exhaust in the air enhances the risk association between radon...... and childhood leukemia. Methods: We included 985 cases of childhood leukemia and 1,969 control children. We used validated models to calculate residential radon and street NOx concentrations for each home. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the effect of radon on childhood leukemia...... risk within different strata of air pollution and traffic density. Results: The relative risk for childhood leukemia in association with a 103 Bq/m3-years increase in radon was 1.77 (1.11, 2.82) among those exposed to high levels of NOx and 1.23 (0.79, 1.91) for those exposed to low levels of NOx...

  8. Is there any interaction between domestic radon exposure and air pollution from traffic in relation to childhood leukemia risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, Helle P.;

    2010-01-01

    In a recent population-based case-control study using 2,400 cases of childhood cancer, we found a statistically significant association between residential radon and acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk. Traffic exhaust in the air enhances the risk association between radon and childhood leukemia. We...... included 985 cases of childhood leukemia and 1,969 control children. We used validated models to calculate residential radon and street NOx concentrations for each home. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the effect of radon on childhood leukemia risk within different strata...... of air pollution and traffic density. The relative risk for childhood leukemia in association with a 10(3) Bq/m(3)-years increase in radon was 1.77 (1.11, 2.82) among those exposed to high levels of NOx and 1.23 (0.79, 1.91) for those exposed to low levels of NOx (p (interaction,) 0.17). Analyses...

  9. Relationship Between Body Mass Index at Age 3 Years and Body Composition at Age 11 Years Among Japanese Children: The Shizuoka Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Background A few studies reported an association between body weight during early childhood and body composition in later life, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); however, none of those studies investigated an East Asian population. In a Japanese population, we examined the association between body weight at age 3 years and body composition at age 11 years, as measured using DXA. Methods The source population was 726 fifth-grade school children enrolled at 3 public schools...

  10. THE CONCEPT OF CHILDHOOD IN LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Igorevna KRUPENINA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the nature, types, characteristics of the phenomenon of childhood as a social phenomenon of our time. The author notes the complexity of the definition of “childhood” and its different interpretations. The author also notes that social “construction” considers not childhood itself in its entirety but childhood through the "prism of adulthood". Childhood is often seen as something natural through which goes everyone and something that everybody must have as a result of education and development. At the same time, is lost the understanding of childhood as a valuable phenomenon in itself. The author draws attention to different ways of studying childhood in psychology, literature and history and correlates concepts of childhood in psychology, history and culturology. The author considers the childhood concept by Philippe Aries in correlation with the image of childhood in the novels by Charles Dickens. This choice is determined by specific periodizations of childhood in history and culture what makes the specific development of the world of childhood dependent on the evolution of the world of grown-ups and its culture. 

  11. Vegetarian diets and childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Joan; Wien, Michelle

    2010-05-01

    The increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is not unique to industrialized societies; dramatic increases are occurring in urbanized areas of developing countries. In light of the consensus that obesity is a significant public health concern and that many weight-loss interventions have been unsuccessful in the long term, an exploration of food patterns that are beneficial in the primary prevention of obesity is warranted. The focus of this article is to review the relation between vegetarian diets and obesity, particularly as they relate to childhood obesity. Epidemiologic studies indicate that vegetarian diets are associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) and a lower prevalence of obesity in adults and children. A meta-analysis of adult vegetarian diet studies estimated a reduced weight difference of 7.6 kg for men and 3.3 kg for women, which resulted in a 2-point lower BMI (in kg/m(2)). Similarly, compared with nonvegetarians, vegetarian children are leaner, and their BMI difference becomes greater during adolescence. Studies exploring the risk of overweight and food groups and dietary patterns indicate that a plant-based diet seems to be a sensible approach for the prevention of obesity in children. Plant-based diets are low in energy density and high in complex carbohydrate, fiber, and water, which may increase satiety and resting energy expenditure. Plant-based dietary patterns should be encouraged for optimal health and environmental benefits. Food policies are warranted to support social marketing messages and to reduce the cultural and economic forces that make it difficult to promote plant-based dietary patterns.

  12. Vegetarian diets and childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Joan; Wien, Michelle

    2010-05-01

    The increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is not unique to industrialized societies; dramatic increases are occurring in urbanized areas of developing countries. In light of the consensus that obesity is a significant public health concern and that many weight-loss interventions have been unsuccessful in the long term, an exploration of food patterns that are beneficial in the primary prevention of obesity is warranted. The focus of this article is to review the relation between vegetarian diets and obesity, particularly as they relate to childhood obesity. Epidemiologic studies indicate that vegetarian diets are associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) and a lower prevalence of obesity in adults and children. A meta-analysis of adult vegetarian diet studies estimated a reduced weight difference of 7.6 kg for men and 3.3 kg for women, which resulted in a 2-point lower BMI (in kg/m(2)). Similarly, compared with nonvegetarians, vegetarian children are leaner, and their BMI difference becomes greater during adolescence. Studies exploring the risk of overweight and food groups and dietary patterns indicate that a plant-based diet seems to be a sensible approach for the prevention of obesity in children. Plant-based diets are low in energy density and high in complex carbohydrate, fiber, and water, which may increase satiety and resting energy expenditure. Plant-based dietary patterns should be encouraged for optimal health and environmental benefits. Food policies are warranted to support social marketing messages and to reduce the cultural and economic forces that make it difficult to promote plant-based dietary patterns. PMID:20237136

  13. Early Childhood: Child, Teacher, Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, Christie

    2006-01-01

    The field of early childhood holds promising keys to unlocking many of the mysteries in learning. Educators in the field, given the right tools, have the potential to have a profound impact on the long-term success of their students. The design of this curriculum comes directly out of the incredible possibilities set in motion while exploring…

  14. Teaching Mathematics in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Children who learn math fundamentals in preschool and kindergarten have the best chance of later achievement in school--but too often, children don't get the effective early math instruction that makes all the difference. Now there's a core early childhood textbook that helps current and future educators teach the most critical math concepts to…

  15. Early Childhood Education in Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Early Learning Childhood Center in Azerbaijan's capital city. Focuses on the goals of the program; its initial development; staff ratios, compensation, and teacher training; curriculum; cultural challenges and compromise; and relationships with parents. Asserts that developing a culturally sensitive program is extremely difficult,…

  16. Predicting adult asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, JM; Boezen, HM

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There still is no cure for asthma. Early identification of patients at risk for disease progression may lead to better treatment opportunities and hopefully better disease outcomes in adulthood. Recent literature on childhood risk factors associated with the outcome of asthma in a

  17. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  18. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Bouw; N. Dors; H. van Ommen; N.L. Ramakers-van Woerden

    2009-01-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic puripura (TTP) is a rare disease, especially in childhood, and has a high mortality rate in the absence of appropriate treatment. it is characterised by microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and consumptive thrombocytopenia. TTP may be difficult to distinguish from haemolyt

  19. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity. PMID:25949965

  20. Childhood Obesity and Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Hunt Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity is on the rise across the country and in North Carolina, with four times as many children exhibiting signs of obesity now as they did 20 years ago. The costs in terms of medical expenses are staggering, with one estimate putting the cost to North Carolina at $16 million a year. Some North Carolina legislators have expressed…