WorldWideScience

Sample records for calculating childhood body

  1. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  2. An approach to calculating childhood body burdens of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans which accounts for age-dependent biological half lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paustenbach, D. [ChemRisk, San Francisco, CA (United States); Leung, H.W. [Leung, H.W. Private Consultant, Danbury, CT (United States); Scott, P. [ChemRisk, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kerger, B. [HSRI, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to apply an age-dependent half life model to examine the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens that correspond to selected exposure scenarios involving background dietary and environmental doses of dioxins. The scenarios examined include breast-fed and nonbreast- fed infants feeding for 6 months, other dioxin uptake from foods through age 7, and exposures to urban residential soils at 1 ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). These body burden estimates in children are then compared to the adult body burden estimates corresponding to the range of tolerable daily intakes (1 to 4 pg TEQ/kg-day) proposed by some U.S. and international regulatory/advisory groups.

  3. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Anisimova, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Khomyakova, I. A.; Konovalova, M. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Vashura, A. Yu

    2012-12-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition - 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  4. Face and body recognition show similar improvement during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Read, Ainsley; Jeffery, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Adults are proficient in extracting identity cues from faces. This proficiency develops slowly during childhood, with performance not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Bodies are similar to faces in that they convey identity cues and rely on specialized perceptual mechanisms. However, it is currently unclear whether body recognition mirrors the slow development of face recognition during childhood. Recent evidence suggests that body recognition develops faster than face recognition. Here we measured body and face recognition in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults to determine whether these two skills show different amounts of improvement during childhood. We found no evidence that they do. Face and body recognition showed similar improvement with age, and children, like adults, were better at recognizing faces than bodies. These results suggest that the mechanisms of face and body memory mature at a similar rate or that improvement of more general cognitive and perceptual skills underlies improvement of both face and body recognition.

  5. Relativistic Few-Body Hadronic Physics Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzou, Wayne [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2016-06-20

    The goal of this research proposal was to use ``few-body'' methods to understand the structure and reactions of systems of interacting hadrons (neutrons, protons, mesons, quarks) over a broad range of energy scales. Realistic mathematical models of few-hadron systems have the advantage that they are sufficiently simple that they can be solved with mathematically controlled errors. These systems are also simple enough that it is possible to perform complete accurate experimental measurements on these systems. Comparison between theory and experiment puts strong constraints on the structure of the models. Even though these systems are ``simple'', both the experiments and computations push the limits of technology. The important property of ``few-body'' systems is that the ``cluster property'' implies that the interactions that appear in few-body systems are identical to the interactions that appear in complicated many-body systems. Of particular interest are models that correctly describe physics at distance scales that are sensitive to the internal structure of the individual nucleons. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle implies that in order to be sensitive to physics on distance scales that are a fraction of the proton or neutron radius, a relativistic treatment of quantum mechanics is necessary. The research supported by this grant involved 30 years of effort devoted to studying all aspects of interacting two and three-body systems. Realistic interactions were used to compute bound states of two- and three-nucleon, and two- and three-quark systems. Scattering observables for these systems were computed for a broad range of energies - from zero energy scattering to few GeV scattering, where experimental evidence of sub-nucleon degrees of freedom is beginning to appear. Benchmark calculations were produced, which when compared with calculations of other groups provided an essential check on these complicated calculations. In

  6. Comparison of estimates of body fat content in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinicato, N A; Peres, F A; de Oliveira Peliçari, K; de Oliveira Santos, A; Ramos, C D; Marini, R; Appenzeller, S

    2017-04-01

    Objective We aimed to compare estimates of body fat content with respect to their ability to predict the percentage of body fat, confirmed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods We included 64 consecutive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 64 healthy age and sex-matched controls in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data, body mass index and body adiposity index were calculated for all subjects. Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients were further assessed for clinical and laboratory childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations and fat mass, lean mass and percentage of body fat evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Elevated waist/hip ratio was observed in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients when compared to controls ( p systemic lupus erythematosus patients and controls. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry as gold standard we observed that all indirect estimates of body fat were correlated with whole body fat mass. We observed a correlation between height and cumulative corticosteroid dose adjusted by weight ( r = 0.429, p = 0.005) in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. On whole body analysis we observed a correlation between lean mass and ACR Damage Index scores ( r = -0.395; p = 0.019); percentage of body fat and adjusted Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index ( r = 0.402; p = 0.008), disease duration ( r = -0.370; p = 0.012). On trunk analysis we observed a correlation between lean mass and ACR Damage Index ( r = -0.319; p = 0.042); percentage of body fat with adjusted Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index ( r = 0.402; p = 0.005), disease duration ( r = -0.408; p = 0.005). Conclusions This is the first study analyzing body adiposity index in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients. We observed that all

  7. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felix, Janine F; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Monnereau, Claire;

    2016-01-01

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We...

  8. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Felix (Janine); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); C. Monnereau; R.J.P. van der Valk (Ralf); E. Stergiakouli (Evie); A. Chesi (Alessandra); R. Gaillard (Romy); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); E. Thiering (Elisabeth); E. Kreiner-Møller (Eskil); A. Mahajan (Anubha); Niina Pitkänen; R. Joro (Raimo); A. Cavadino (Alana); V. Huikari (Ville); S. Franks (Steve); M. Groen-Blokhuis (Maria); D.L. Cousminer (Diana); J.A. Marsh (Julie); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); J.A. Curtin (John); J. Vioque (Jesus); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); R. Myhre (Ronny); T.S. Price (Thomas); Natalia Vilor-Tejedor; L. Yengo (Loic); N. Grarup (Niels); I. Ntalla (Ioanna); W.Q. Ang (Wei); M. Atalay (Mustafa); H. Bisgaard (Hans); A.I.F. Blakemore (Alexandra); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); L. Carstensen (Lisbeth); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); C. Flexeder (Claudia); L. Franke (Lude); F. Geller (Frank); M. Geserick (Mandy); A.L. Hartikainen; C.M.A. Haworth (Claire M.); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel N.); A. Hofman (Albert); J.-C. Holm (Jens-Christian); M. Horikoshi (Momoko); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); J. Huang (Jian); H.N. Kadarmideen (Haja N.); M. Kähönen (Mika); W. Kiess (Wieland); T.A. Lakka (Timo); T.A. Lakka (Timo); A. Lewin (Alex); L. Liang (Liming); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); B. Ma (Baoshan); P. Magnus (Per); S.E. McCormack (Shana E.); G. Mcmahon (George); F.D. Mentch (Frank); C.M. Middeldorp (Christel); C.S. Murray (Clare S.); K. Pahkala (Katja); T.H. Pers (Tune); R. Pfäffle (Roland); D.S. Postma (Dirkje); C. Power (Christine); A. Simpson (Angela); V. Sengpiel (Verena); C. Tiesler (Carla); M. Torrent (Maties); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); R. Vinding (Rebecca); J. Waage (Johannes); J. Wardle (Jane); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); B.S. Zemel (Babette S.); G.V. Dedoussis (George); O. Pedersen (Oluf); P. Froguel (Philippe); J. Sunyer (Jordi); R. Plomin (Robert); B. Jacobsson (Bo); T. Hansen (Torben); J.R. Gonzalez (Juan R.); A. Custovic; O.T. Raitakari (Olli T.); C.E. Pennell (Craig); Elisabeth Widén; D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); G.H. Koppelman (Gerard); S. Sebert (Sylvain); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); E. Hypponen (Elina); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); V. Lindi (Virpi); N. Harri (Niinikoski); A. Körner (Antje); K. Bønnelykke (Klaus); J. Heinrich (Joachim); M. Melbye (Mads); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); S.M. Ring (Susan); G.D. Smith; T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild I.A.); N. Timpson (Nicholas); S.F. Grant; V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent W. V.); H.J. Kalkwarf (Heidi J.); J.M. Lappe (Joan M.); V. Gilsanz (Vicente); S.E. Oberfield (Sharon E.); J.A. Shepherd (John A.); A. Kelly (Andrea)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractA large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown.We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation sc

  9. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, Janine F; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Monnereau, Claire; van der Valk, Ralf J P; Stergiakouli, Evie; Chesi, Alessandra; Gaillard, Romy; Feenstra, Bjarke; Thiering, Elisabeth; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Mahajan, Anubha; Pitkänen, Niina; Joro, Raimo; Cavadino, Alana; Huikari, Ville; Franks, Steve; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Cousminer, Diana L; Marsh, Julie A; Lehtimäki, Terho; Curtin, John A; Vioque, Jesus; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Myhre, Ronny; Price, Thomas S; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Yengo, Loïc; Grarup, Niels; Ntalla, Ioanna; Ang, Wei; Atalay, Mustafa; Bisgaard, Hans; Blakemore, Alexandra I; Bonnefond, Amelie; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Eriksson, Johan; Flexeder, Claudia; Franke, Lude; Geller, Frank; Geserick, Mandy; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Haworth, Claire M A; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Holm, Jens-Christian; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Huang, Jinyan; Kadarmideen, Haja N; Kähönen, Mika; Kiess, Wieland; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria; Lakka, Timo A; Lewin, Alexandra M; Liang, Liming; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Ma, Baoshan; Magnus, Per; McCormack, Shana E; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D; Middeldorp, Christel M; Murray, Clare S; Pahkala, Katja; Pers, Tune H; Pfäffle, Roland; Postma, Dirkje S; Power, Christine; Simpson, Angela; Sengpiel, Verena; Tiesler, Carla M T; Torrent, Maties; Uitterlinden, André G; van Meurs, Joyce B; Vinding, Rebecca; Waage, Johannes; Wardle, Jane; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zemel, Babette S; Dedoussis, George V; Pedersen, Oluf; Froguel, Philippe; Sunyer, Jordi; Plomin, Robert; Jacobsson, Bo; Hansen, Torben; Gonzalez, Juan R; Custovic, Adnan; Raitakari, Olli T; Pennell, Craig E; Widén, Elisabeth; Boomsma, Dorret I; Koppelman, Gerard H; Sebert, Sylvain; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hyppönen, Elina; McCarthy, Mark I; Lindi, Virpi; Harri, Niinikoski; Körner, Antje; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Heinrich, Joachim; Melbye, Mads; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ring, Susan M; Smith, George Davey; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Grant, Struan F A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2015-01-01

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We in

  10. Associations between childhood body size, composition, blood pressure and adult cardiac structure: the Fels Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy T Sabo

    Full Text Available To determine whether childhood body size, composition and blood pressure are associated with adult cardiac structure by estimating childhood "age of divergence."385 female and 312 male participants in the Fels Longitudinal Study had echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular mass, relative wall thickness, and interventricular septal thickness. Also available were anthropometric measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, percentage body fat, fat free mass, total body fat, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures, taken in both childhood and adulthood. The age of divergence is estimated as the lowest age at which childhood measurements are significantly different between patients with low and high measurements of adult cardiac structure.Childhood body mass index is significantly associated with adult left ventricular mass (indexed by height in men and women (ages of divergence: 7.5 years and 11.5 years, respectively, and with adult interventricular septal thickness in boys (age of divergence: 9 years. Childhood waist circumference indexed by height is associated with left ventricular mass (indexed by height in boys (age of divergence: 8 years. Cardiac structure was in general not associated with childhood body composition and blood pressure.Though results are affected by adult body size, composition and blood pressure, some aspects of adult cardiac structure may have their genesis in childhood body size.

  11. Body fat throughout childhood in 2647 healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Winther, K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Total body fat percentage (%BF) evaluated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans (DXA %BF) is widely recognized as a precise measure of fatness. We aimed to establish national reference curves for DXA %BF, %BF calculated from skinfolds (SF %BF) and waist...... correlation and best agreement with DXA %BF in identifying children with excess fat (+1 s.d.)....

  12. Atlas3bgeneral: Three-body resonance calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Tabaré

    2016-07-01

    For a massless test particle and given a planetary system, atlas3bgeneral calculates all three body resonances in a given range of semimajor axes with all the planets taken by pairs. Planets are assumed in fixed circular and coplanar orbits and the test particle with arbitrary orbit. A sample input data file to calculate the three-body resonances is available for use with the Fortran77 source code.

  13. Measurement and Interpretation of Body Mass Index during Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Susan Kohl; Zemel, Babette S.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of childhood health and disease has changed over the past century, and school nurses are now in a unique position to address the conditions that lead to chronic disease, such as obesity. Measuring body mass index (BMI) during childhood and adolescence is the recommended method for screening and/or monitoring obesity in school…

  14. Developing a Statewide Childhood Body Mass Index Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, David R.; Scruggs, Philip W.; Goc Karp, Grace; Ransdell, Lynda B.; Robinson, Clay; Lester, Michael J.; Gao, Yong; Petranek, Laura J.; Brown, Helen; Shimon, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several states have implemented childhood obesity surveillance programs supported by legislation. Representatives from Idaho wished to develop a model for childhood obesity surveillance without the support of state legislation, and subsequently report predictors of overweight and obesity in the state. Methods: A coalition comprised of…

  15. Body mass index in childhood and adult risk of primary liver cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Gamborg, Michael; Holst, Claus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Childhood overweight increases the risk of early development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which may predispose to carcinogenesis. We investigated if childhood body size during school ages was associated with the risk of primary liver cancer in adults. METHODS: A cohort...... hepatitis, alcohol-related disorders, and biliary cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: Higher BMI in childhood increases the risk of primary liver cancer in adults. In view of the high case fatality of primary liver cancer, this result adds to the future negative health outcomes of the epidemic of childhood overweight...

  16. Numeric calculation of celestial bodies with spreadsheet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The motion of the planets and moons in our solar system can easily be calculated for any time by the Kepler laws of planetary motion. The Kepler laws are a special case of the gravitational law of Newton, especially if you consider more than two celestial bodies. Therefore it is more basic to calculate the motion by using the gravitational law. But the problem is, that by gravitational law it is not possible to calculate the state of motion with only one step of calculation. The motion has to be numerical calculated for many time intervalls. For this reason, spreadsheet analysis is helpful for students. Skills in programmes like Excel, Calc or Gnumeric are important in professional life and can easily be learnt by students. These programmes can help to calculate the complex motions with many intervalls. The more intervalls are used, the more exact are the calculated orbits. The sutdents will first get a quick course in Excel. After that they calculate with instructions the 2-D-coordinates of the orbits of Moon and Mars. Step by step the students are coding the formulae for calculating physical parameters like coordinates, force, acceleration and velocity. The project is limited to 4 weeks or 8 lessons. So the calcualtion will only include the calculation of one body around the central mass like Earth or Sun. The three-body problem can only be shortly discussed at the end of the project.

  17. Body drop into a fluid tank and dynamic loads calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarov Aleksandr Andreevich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The theory of a body striking a fluid began intensively developing due to the tasks of hydroplanes landing. For the recent years the study of a stroke and submersion of bodies into fluid became even more current. We face them in the process of strength calculation of ship hulls and other structures in modern technology. These tasks solution represents great mathematical difficulty even in case of the mentioned simplifications. These difficulties emerge due to the unsteady character of fluid motion in case of body submersion, and also jet and spray phenomena, which lead to discontinuous motions. On the basis of G.V. Logvinovich’s concept the problem of loads determination with consideration for air gap is solved for both a body and reservoir enclosing structures when a body falls into a fluid. Numerical method is based on the decay of an arbitrary discontinuity.

  18. Atlas2bgeneral: Two-body resonance calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Tabaré

    2016-07-01

    For a massless test particle and given a planetary system, Atlas2bgeneral calculates all resonances in a given range of semimajor axes with all the planets taken one by one. Planets are assumed in fixed circular and coplanar orbits and the test particle with arbitrary orbit. A sample input data file to calculate the two-body resonances is available for use with the Fortran77 source code.

  19. The calculation of robot dynamics using articulated-body inertias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, R.

    1983-05-01

    This paper describes a new method for calculating the acceleration of a robot in response to given actuator forces. The method is applicable to open-loop kinematic chains containing revolute and prismatic joints. The algorithm is based on recursive formulas involving quantities called articulated-body inertias, which represent the inertia properties of collections of rigid bodies connected together by joints allowing constrained relative motion between the bodies. A new, matrix-based notation is introduced to represent articulated-body inertias and other spatial quantities. This notation is used to develop the algorithm, and results in a compact representation of the equations. The new algorithm has a computational requirement that varies linearly with the number of joints, and its efficiency is compared with other published algorithms.

  20. Body size perception in childhood: Stability, gender differences and predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Kristoffersen, Pernille; Rognsås, Stine Leming

    2014-01-01

    Overestimation and underestimation of one’s body size implies a misperception of body size. Body size misperception is a key element in the development of eating disorders, and an important factor for maintenance of an overweight status. The current study aimed to examine body size misperception and predictors for misperception in a community sample of 6-year olds (N=797) who were followed up when they were 8 years old (N=689). The following predictors were examined: Body Mass Index (BMI) of ...

  1. Final height and body mass index among adult survivors of childhood brain cancer: childhood cancer survivor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, James G; Ness, Kirsten K; Stovall, Marilyn; Wolden, Suzanne; Punyko, Judy A; Neglia, Joseph P; Mertens, Ann C; Packer, Roger J; Robison, Leslie L; Sklar, Charles A

    2003-10-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to compare final height and body mass index (BMI) between adult survivors of childhood brain cancer and age- and sex-matched population norms, 2) to quantify the effects of treatment- and cancer-related factors on the risk of final height below the 10th percentile (adult short stature) or having a BMI of 30 kg/m(2) or more (obesity). Treatment records were abstracted and surveys completed by 921 adults aged 20-45 yr who were treated for brain cancer as children and were participants in the multicenter Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Nearly 40% of childhood brain cancer survivors were below the 10th percentile for height. The strongest risk factors for adult short stature were young age at diagnosis and radiation treatment involving the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA). The multivariate odds ratio for adult short stature among those 4 yr of age or younger at diagnosis, relative to ages 10-20 yr, was 5.67 (95% confidence interval, 3.6-8.9). HPA radiation exposure increased the risk of adult short stature in a dose-response fashion (trend test, P obesity. Except for patients treated with surgery only, survivors of childhood brain cancer are at very high risk for adult short stature, and this risk increases with radiation dose involving the HPA. We did not find a corresponding elevated risk for obesity.

  2. Three-body calculation of Be double- hypernuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hossein Sadeghi; Hassan Khalili; Shahla Nahidinejad

    2014-09-01

    Energy levels and bond energy of the double- hypernucleus are calculated by considering two- and three-cluster interactions. Interactions between constituent particles are contact interactions for reproducing the low binding energy of nuclei. The effective action is constructed to involve three-body forces. In this paper, we also compare the obtained binding energy result with experimental and other cluster and shell models. The results of all schemes agree very well showing the high accuracy of our method to calculate the other many-body hyperonic nuclei using three-cluster interactions. The experimental values of $B_{}$(${}^{10}_{}$ Be) = (11.90 ± 0.13) MeV, $B_{}$(${}^{11}_{}$Be) = (20.49 ± 1.15) MeV and $B_{}$(${}^{12}_{}$Be) = (22.23 ± 1.15) MeV seem to be more compatible with our calculated value of $B_{}$(${}^{10}_{}$Be) = 14.04 MeV, $B_{}$(${}^{11}_{}$Be) = 19.31 MeV and $B_{}$(${}^{12}_{}$Be) = 21.45 MeV in comparison with the other calculated results by Hiyama et al, Gal et al and Guleria et al.

  3. Childhood body mass index and the risk of prostate cancer in adult men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI, indepen......BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI......, independently and adjusted for height, is positively associated with adult prostate cancer. METHODS: Subjects were a cohort of 125208 boys formed from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born 1930-1969 with height and weight measurements at 7-13 years. Cases were identified through linkage...... to the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 3355 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Body mass index during childhood was positively associated with adult prostate cancer. The hazard ratio of prostate cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1...

  4. Changes in body composition after childhood cancer treatment : Impact on future health status - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, C. A. J.; Gietema, J. A.; Kamps, W. A.; de Vries, E. G. E.; Postma, A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe data on changes in body composition in childhood cancer survivors. Underlying mechanisms in development of obesity are addressed, in order to discuss intervention strategies. Methods: A systematic literature search was undertaken with a number of search terms. Results: Female su

  5. Childhood body mass index in relation to future risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, M B; Freedman, N D; Gamborg, M;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Middle-aged obese adults are at substantially elevated risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. It is unclear whether this risk originates earlier in life. METHODS: We assessed associations between childhood body mass index (BMI) and height-measured annually between ages 7 and 13-with adul...

  6. Nuchal Skinfold Thickness : A Novel Parameter for Assessment of Body Composition in Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterkenburg, Anthe S.; Hoffmann, Anika; Reichel, Julia; Lohle, Kristin; Eveslage, Maria; Warmuth-Metz, Monika; Mueller, Hermann L.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Hypothalamic obesity, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and relapse/progression have a major impact on prognosis in childhood-onset craniopharyngioma (CP). We analyzed nuchal skinfold thickness (NST) on magnetic resonance imaging performed for follow-up monitoring as a novel parameter for body

  7. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, HM; Geskus, Ronald B; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J H; Caron, Hubert N; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights. Th

  8. Mode Calculation and Testing of a Car Body in White

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic parameters of a car body in white (BIW are important during a new car developing. Based on the finite element method, the model of a BIW is developed in which the welding points are treated specially as a new element type and the vibration modes of it are calculated. In modal testing, a fixed sine-sweeping exciter is used to conduct a single-point input force for the structure, whereas the output responses are picked up at different points to identify modes. The obtained modes are coincided both with the FE results and the practical testing.

  9. The contribution of physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence to adult women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of both past and current physical activity and media use on women's body image. A sample of 144 female undergraduate students completed measures of current physical activity, media use and body image, as well as providing retrospective reports of their physical activity participation and media usage during childhood and adolescence. Regression analyses showed that childhood experiences of physical activity and media use predicted adult body-image concerns more strongly than current activities. It was concluded that early experiences of both physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence play an important role in the development of adult women's body image.

  10. [Childhood body mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, L.W.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    The severity of the long term consequences of the current childhood obesity epidemic on coronary heart disease is unknown. Therefore we investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) at ages 7-13 years and heart disease in adulthood among 276,835 Danish schoolchildren. We found...... that higher BMI during this period of childhood is associated with an increased risk of any, non-fatal and fatal heart disease in adulthood. Worldwide, as children are becoming heavier, our findings suggest that greater numbers of children are at risk of having coronary heart disease in adulthood...

  11. Childhood social circumstances and body mass index in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne-Mette; Lund, Rikke; Kriegbaum, Margit

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether father's social class was associated with body mass index (BMI) at age 20 and 50 years in a cohort of men born in 1953 and to explore the role of birth weight, cognitive function (IQ), and educational status in these relationships.......To examine whether father's social class was associated with body mass index (BMI) at age 20 and 50 years in a cohort of men born in 1953 and to explore the role of birth weight, cognitive function (IQ), and educational status in these relationships....

  12. Body mass index trajectory classes and incident asthma in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzehak, Peter; Wijga, Alet H; Keil, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    The causal link between body mass index (BMI) or obesity and asthma in children is still being debated. Analyses of large longitudinal studies with a sufficient number of incident cases and in which the time-dependent processes of both excess weight and asthma development can be validly analyzed ...

  13. Childhood Height and Body Mass Index Were Associated with Risk of Adult Thyroid Cancer in a Large Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Berrington de González, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7...... to 13 years with risk of thyroid cancer in later life. The study population included 321,085 children from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born between 1930 and 1989 in Copenhagen, Denmark, with measurements of height and weight from 7 to 13 years of age. These data were linked...... with the Danish Cancer Registry to identify incident thyroid cancer cases (1968-2010). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for age- and sex-specific height and BMI SD scores (SDS) using proportional hazards models stratified by birth cohort and sex. During follow-up (median = 38...

  14. Trends in Parent-Child Correlations of Childhood Body Mass Index during the Development of the Obesity Epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Silventoinen, Karri;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The intergenerational resemblance in body mass index may have increased during the development of the obesity epidemic due to changes in environment and/or expression of genetic predisposition. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates trends in intergenerational correlations of childhood...... body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) during the emergence of the obesity epidemic. METHODS: The study population was derived from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, which includes height and weight measurements since birth year 1930. Mothers and fathers with BMIs available at ages 7 (n = 25......,923 and n = 20,972) or 13 years (n = 26,750 and n = 21,397), respectively, were linked through the civil registration system introduced in 1968 to their children with BMIs available at age 7 years. Age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores were calculated. Correlations were estimated across eight intervals...

  15. Few-body calculations of $\\eta$-nuclear quasibound states

    CERN Document Server

    Barnea, N; Gal, A

    2015-01-01

    We report on precise hyperspherical-basis calculations of $\\eta NN$ and $\\eta NNN$ quasibound states, using energy dependent $\\eta N$ interaction potentials derived from coupled-channel models of the $S_{11}$ $N^{\\ast}(1535)$ nucleon resonance. The $\\eta N$ attraction generated in these models is too weak to generate a two-body bound state. No $\\eta NN$ bound-state solution was found in our calculations in models where Re $a_{\\eta N}\\lesssim 1$ fm, with $a_{\\eta N}$ the $\\eta N$ scattering length, covering thereby the majority of $N^{\\ast}(1535)$ resonance models. A near-threshold $\\eta NNN$ bound-state solution, with $\\eta$ separation energy of less than 1 MeV and width of about 15 MeV, was obtained in the 2005 Green-Wycech model where Re $a_{\\eta N}\\approx 1$ fm. The role of handling self consistently the subthreshold $\\eta N$ interaction is carefully studied.

  16. Few-body calculations of η-nuclear quasibound states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Barnea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on precise hyperspherical-basis calculations of ηNN and ηNNN quasibound states, using energy dependent ηN interaction potentials derived from coupled-channel models of the S11 N⁎(1535 nucleon resonance. The ηN attraction generated in these models is too weak to generate a two-body bound state. No ηNN bound-state solution was found in our calculations in models where ReaηN≲1 fm, with aηN the ηN scattering length, covering thereby the majority of N⁎(1535 resonance models. A near-threshold ηNNN bound-state solution, with η separation energy of less than 1 MeV and width of about 15 MeV, was obtained in the 2005 Green–Wycech model where Re aηN≈1 fm. The role of handling self consistently the subthreshold ηN interaction is carefully studied.

  17. Few-body calculations of η-nuclear quasibound states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, N.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2015-07-01

    We report on precise hyperspherical-basis calculations of ηNN and ηNNN quasibound states, using energy dependent ηN interaction potentials derived from coupled-channel models of the S11N* (1535) nucleon resonance. The ηN attraction generated in these models is too weak to generate a two-body bound state. No ηNN bound-state solution was found in our calculations in models where ReaηN ≲ 1 fm, with aηN the ηN scattering length, covering thereby the majority of N* (1535) resonance models. A near-threshold ηNNN bound-state solution, with η separation energy of less than 1 MeV and width of about 15 MeV, was obtained in the 2005 Green-Wycech model where Re aηN ≈ 1 fm. The role of handling self consistently the subthreshold ηN interaction is carefully studied.

  18. Childhood obesity in Asia: the value of accurate body composition methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Andrew P; Mokhtar, Najat; Brownie, Sharon; Byrne, Nuala M

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity, a significant global public health problem, affects an increasing number of low- and middle-income countries, including in Asia. The obesity epidemic has been fuelled by the rapid nutrition and physical activity transition with the availability of more energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and lifestyles of many children dominated by physical inactivity. During the growing years the pace and quality of grow this best quantified by a combination of anthropometric and body composition measures. However, where normative data are available, this has typically been collected on Caucasian children. To better define and characterise overweight and obesity in Asian children, and to monitor nutrition and physical activity interventions, there is a need to increase the use of standardized anthropometric and body composition methodologies. The current paper reports on initiatives facilitated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and outlines future research needs for the prevention and management of childhood obesity in Asia.

  19. Growth in Body Mass Index from Childhood into Adolescence: The Role of Sleep Duration and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Bagley, Erika J.; Keiley, Margaret K.; Erath, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relations between sleep and body mass index (BMI) from late childhood ([X-bar] age = 9.44 at T1) to early adolescence ([X-bar] age = 11.36 at T3) with a relatively large (n = 273 at T1) and diverse (35% African Americans) sample. Sleep was assessed with actigraphy-based sleep minutes and self-reported sleep…

  20. Bone markers after total body irradiation in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto-Silva, A-C; Trivin, C; Espérou, H; Michon, J; Baruchel, A; Souberbielle, J-C; Brauner, R

    2010-03-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) can cause short stature because of decreased growth hormone (GH) and skeletal abnormalities. To evaluate the plasma concentrations of markers of bone formation (osteocalcin and procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide, P1NP) and resorption (carboxy-terminal telopeptide, CTX), in patients (n=65) who had been given TBI at 6.6+/-0.4 years were evaluated at 9.8+/-0.4 years. Patients given single 10 Gy or fractionated 12 Gy TBI had similar characteristics, except that plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) was lower in those given a single 10 Gy. Seven had lower osteocalcin and two had higher CTX than controls. Bone markers (as zs) were positively correlated (osteocalcin with P1NP, rho=0.42, P=0.0007; osteocalcin with CTX, rho=0.3, Pirradiated when young (P=0.0002) or given single TBI lost more height between TBI and adult height. Most TBI patients had normal bone formation and resorption markers. Thus, impaired bone turnover is probably not the cause of their short stature and poor response to GH.

  1. Webinar Presentation: Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Childhood Growth Trajectories and Body Composition: Linkages to Disrupted Self-Regulatory Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Childhood Growth Trajectories and Body Composition: Linkages to Disrupted Self-Regulatory Processes, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2016 Webinar Series: Childhood Obesity

  2. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo E; Sichieri, Rosely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking.

  3. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Muraro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405. Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2% also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59, 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking.

  4. Final height and gonad function after total body irradiation during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto-Silva, A-C; Trivin, C; Esperou, H; Michon, J; Baruchel, A; Lemaire, P; Brauner, R

    2006-09-01

    Short stature and gonad failure can be a side effect of total body irradiation (TBI). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the factors influencing final height and gonad function after TBI. Fifty young adults given TBI during childhood were included. Twenty-seven had been treated with growth hormone (GH). Those given single 10 Grays (Gy) or fractionated 12 Gy TBI had similar characteristics, GH peaks, final heights and gonad function. After the end of GH treatment, 11/20 patients evaluated had GH peak >10 microg/l. Final height was irradiated (Pirradiation, taking into account the GH peak. The plasma FSH and inhibin B concentrations may predict sperm function.

  5. Childhood body mass index and height and risk of histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J.; Gamborg, M.; Ulrich, L. G.;

    2016-01-01

    . METHODS: From the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, 155 505 girls born 1930-1989 with measured weights and heights from 7 to 13 years were linked to health registers. BMI and height were transformed to age-specific z-scores. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by Cox......BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer risk factors include adult obesity and taller stature, but the influence of size earlier in life is incompletely understood. We examined whether childhood body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) and height were associated with histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer...

  6. A Mathematica program for the calculation of five-body Moshinsky brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shuyuan; Mu, Xueli; Liu, Tingting; Chen, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Five-body Moshinsky brackets that relate harmonic oscillator wavefunctions in two different sets of Jacobi coordinates make it straightforward to calculate some matrix elements in the variational calculations of five-body systems. The analytical expression of these transformation coefficients and the computer code written in the Mathematica language are presented here for accurate calculations.

  7. DNA methylation patterns in cord blood DNA and body size in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L Relton

    Full Text Available Epigenetic markings acquired in early life may have phenotypic consequences later in development through their role in transcriptional regulation with relevance to the developmental origins of diseases including obesity. The goal of this study was to investigate whether DNA methylation levels at birth are associated with body size later in childhood.A study design involving two birth cohorts was used to conduct transcription profiling followed by DNA methylation analysis in peripheral blood. Gene expression analysis was undertaken in 24 individuals whose biological samples and clinical data were collected at a mean ± standard deviation (SD age of 12.35 (0.95 years, the upper and lower tertiles of body mass index (BMI were compared with a mean (SD BMI difference of 9.86 (2.37 kg/m(2. This generated a panel of differentially expressed genes for DNA methylation analysis which was then undertaken in cord blood DNA in 178 individuals with body composition data prospectively collected at a mean (SD age of 9.83 (0.23 years. Twenty-nine differentially expressed genes (>1.2-fold and p<10(-4 were analysed to determine DNA methylation levels at 1-3 sites per gene. Five genes were unmethylated and DNA methylation in the remaining 24 genes was analysed using linear regression with bootstrapping. Methylation in 9 of the 24 (37.5% genes studied was associated with at least one index of body composition (BMI, fat mass, lean mass, height at age 9 years, although only one of these associations remained after correction for multiple testing (ALPL with height, p(Corrected = 0.017.DNA methylation patterns in cord blood show some association with altered gene expression, body size and composition in childhood. The observed relationship is correlative and despite suggestion of a mechanistic epigenetic link between in utero life and later phenotype, further investigation is required to establish causality.

  8. Numerical Implementation of Three-Body Forces in Bound State Faddeev Calculations in Three Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, H; Glöckle, W; Elster, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    The Faddeev equations for the three-body bound state are solved directly as thre e-dimensional integral equations without employing partial wave decomposition. Two-body forces of the Malfliet-Tjon type and simple spin independent genuine three-body forces are considered for the calculation of the three-body binding energy.

  9. Lattice location of dopant atoms: An -body model calculation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N K Deepak

    2010-03-01

    The channelling and scattering yields of 1 MeV -particles in the $\\langle 1 0 0 \\rangle$, $\\langle 1 1 0 \\rangle and $\\langle 1 1 1 \\rangle$ directions of silicon implanted with bismuth and ytterbium have been simulated using -body model. The close encounter yield from dopant atoms in silicon is determined from the flux density, using the Bontemps and Fontenille method. All previous works reported in literature so far have been done with computer programmes using a statistical analytical expression or by a binary collision model or a continuum model. These results at the best gave only the transverse displacement of the lattice site from the concerned channelling direction. Here we applied the superior -body model to study the yield from bismuth in silicon. The finding that bismuth atom occupies a position close to the silicon substitutional site is new. The transverse displacement of the suggested lattice site from the channelling direction is consistent with the experimental results. The above model is also applied to determine the location of ytterbium in silicon. The present values show good agreement with the experimental results.

  10. Factorization in large-scale many-body calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Calvin W; Krastev, Plamen G

    2013-01-01

    One approach for solving interacting many-fermion systems is the configuration-interaction method, also sometimes called the interacting shell model, where one finds eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian in a many-body basis of Slater determinants (antisymmeterized products of single-particle wavefunctions). The resulting Hamiltonian matrix is typically very sparse, but for large systems the nonzero matrix elements can nonetheless require terabytes or more of storage. An alternate algorithm, applicable to a broad class of systems with symmetry, in our case rotational invariance, is to exactly factorize both the basis and the interaction using additive/multiplicative quantum numbers; such an algorithm can reduce the storage requirements by an order of magnitude or more. We discuss factorization in general as well as in the context of a specific configuration-interaction code, BIGSTICK, which runs both on serial and parallel machines.

  11. Body issues, sexual satisfaction, and relationship status satisfaction in long-term childhood cancer survivors and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Fults, Marci; Olshefski, Randal S.; Sanderman, Robbert; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveResearch on body image and sexual satisfaction after adult onset cancer has shown significant and lasting impairments regarding survivors' sexuality and romantic relationships. However, knowledge about these topics and their associations in adult survivors of childhood cancer is largely lac

  12. Methods for calculating phase angle from measured whole body bioimpedance modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbotten, Bernt J.; Martinsen, Ørjan G.; Grimnes, Sverre

    2010-04-01

    Assuming the Cole equation we have developed a method to calculate the Cole parameters (R0, R∞, α, τZ) and the phase angle from four frequency measurements of impedance modulus values. The values obtained compare well with impedance measurements obtained using the Solatron 1294/1260 as obtained when making whole body measurements on five persons. We have also performed calculations using an algorithm based on the Kramers-Kronig approach. The results which are presented show that it is possible to obtain complete body impedance data combining relatively simple measurements with advanced calculation using a laptop. This extends the potential of portable equipment, since the measurements will require less instrumentation.

  13. Comparison of classical and quantal calculations of helium three-body recombination

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Wang, Jia; Greene, Chris H

    2013-01-01

    A general method to study classical scattering in $n$-dimension is developed. Through classical trajectory calculations, the three-body recombination is computed as a function of the collision energy for helium atoms, as an example. Quantum calculations are also performed for the $J^{\\Pi}$ = $0^{+}$ symmetry of the three-body recombination rate in order to compare with the classical results, yielding good agreement for $E\\gtrsim$ 1 K. The classical threshold law is derived and numerically confirmed for the Newtonian three-body recombination rate. Finally, a relationship is found between the quantum and classical three-body hard hypersphere elastic cross sections which is analogous to the well-known shadow scattering in two-body collisions.

  14. Childhood body-mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The worldwide epidemic of childhood obesity is progressing at an alarming rate. Risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) are already identifiable in overweight children. The severity of the long-term effects of excess childhood weight on CHD, however, remains unknown. METHODS: We...

  15. Cesarean birth is not associated with early childhood body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, L G; Mol, B W; Jamieson, L; Lynch, J W

    2016-12-06

    Cesarean birth leads to a markedly different microbiome compared to vaginal birth, and the microbiome has been implicated in childhood obesity. Among mothers who had a previous cesarean, we compared anthropometry of 3- to 6-year-old children who were subsequently born by cesarean section versus vaginal birth. This large population-based study involved linking de-identified administrative perinatal and anthropometric data. Children's weight and height were collected at community-based clinics and converted to age- and sex-adjusted z-scores of height-for-age (HFAz), weight-for-age (WFAz) and BMI-for-age (BMIz). The average treatment effect (ATE) of cesarean versus vaginal birth was calculated from augmented inverse probability weighted analyses accounting for a wide range of confounding variables. There was little evidence of an effect of cesarean birth on HFAz (ATE = 0.26 95%CI -0.35, 0.87, n = 3993), WFAz (ATE = 0.35, 95%CI -0.19, 0.89, n = 4817) or BMIz (ATE = 0.11, 95%CI -0.25, 0.46, n = 3909). Cesarean section was not associated with anthropometry among children aged 3-6 years.

  16. Relation of Serial Changes in Childhood Body-Mass Index to Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Santosh K.; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Osmond, Clive; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Barker, David J.P.; Biswas, Sushant K. Dey; Ramji, Siddharth; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus is increased in people who have low birth weights and who subsequently become obese as adults. Whether their obesity originates in childhood and, if so, at what age are unknown. Understanding the origin of obesity may be especially important in developing countries, where type 2 diabetes is rapidly increasing yet public health messages still focus on reducing childhood “undernutrition.” METHODS We evaluated glucose tolerance and plasma insulin concentrations in 1492 men and women 26 to 32 years of age who had been measured at birth and at intervals of three to six months throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence in a prospective, population-based study. RESULTS The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance was 10.8 percent, and that of diabetes was 4.4 percent. Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes typically had a low body-mass index up to the age of two years, followed by an early adiposity rebound (the age after infancy when body mass starts to rise) and an accelerated increase in body-mass index until adulthood. However, despite an increase in body-mass index between the ages of 2 and 12 years, none of these subjects were obese at the age of 12 years. The odds ratio for disease associated with an increase in the body-mass index of 1 SD from 2 to 12 years of age was 1.36 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.18 to 1.57; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS There is an association between thinness in infancy and the presence of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes in young adulthood. Crossing into higher categories of body-mass index after the age of two years is also associated with these disorders. PMID:14985484

  17. Chondrosarcoma arising within a radiation-induced osteochondroma several years following childhood total body irradiation: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Shuji [Kurume University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Fukuoka (Japan); Shen, Robert K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Laack, Nadia N. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rochester, MN (United States); Inwards, Carrie Y. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Pathology, Rochester, MN (United States); Wenger, Doris E.; Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Malignant degeneration arising in radiation-induced osteochondromas is extremely rare. We report a case of a 34-year-old man with a chondrosarcoma arising from an osteochondroma of the left posterior eighth rib that developed following total body irradiation received as part of the conditioning regimen prior to bone marrow transplantation at age 8. To our knowledge, this is only the fourth reported case of a chondrosarcoma arising within a radiation-induced osteochondroma and the first case occurring following childhood total body irradiation. (orig.)

  18. Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations on Au64+ - Au69+ ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2006-03-31

    Many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) calculations are an adequate tool for the description of the structure of highly charged multi-electron ions and for the analysis of their spectra. They demonstrate this by way of a re-investigation of n=3, {Delta}n=0 transitions in the EUV spectra of Na-, Mg-, Al-like, and Si-like ions of Au that have been obtained previously by heavy-ion accelerator based beam-foil spectroscopy. They discuss the evidence and propose several revisions on the basis of the multi-reference many-body perturbation theory calculations of Ne- through P-like ions of Au.

  19. Early Childhood Caries and Body Mass Index in Young Children from Low Income Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti Queiroz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between early childhood caries (ECC and obesity is controversial. This cross-sectional survey investigated this association in children from low-income families in Goiania, Goias, Brazil and considered the role of several social determinants. A questionnaire examining the characteristics of the children and their families was administered to the primary caregiver during home visits. In addition, children (approximately 6 years of age had their height, weight, and tooth condition assessed. The primary ECC outcome was categorized as one of the following: caries experience (decayed, missing, filled tooth: “dmft” index > 0, active ECC (decayed teeth > 0, or active severe ECC (decayed teeth ≥ 6. Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The participants in the current study consisted of 269 caregiver-child dyads, 88.5% of whom were included in the Family Health Program. Caregivers were mostly mothers (67.7%, were 35.3 ± 10.0 years old on average and had 9.8 ± 3.1 years of formal education. The mean family income was 2.3 ± 1.5 times greater than the Brazilian minimum wage. On average, the children in the current study were 68.7 ± 3.8 months old. Of these, 51.7% were boys, 23.4% were overweight or obese, 45.0% had active ECC, and 17.1% had severe ECC. The average body mass index (BMI of the children was 15.9 ± 2.2, and their dmft index was 2.5 ± 3.2. BMI was not associated with any of the three categories of dental caries (p > 0.05. In contrast, higher family incomes were significantly associated with the lack of caries experience in children (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.01–1.50, but the mother’s level of education was not significantly associated with ECC.

  20. Early childhood caries and body mass index in young children from low income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Luciane Rezende; Daher, Anelise; Queiroz, Maria Goretti

    2013-03-05

    The relationship between early childhood caries (ECC) and obesity is controversial. This cross-sectional survey investigated this association in children from low-income families in Goiania, Goias, Brazil and considered the role of several social determinants. A questionnaire examining the characteristics of the children and their families was administered to the primary caregiver during home visits. In addition, children (approximately 6 years of age) had their height, weight, and tooth condition assessed. The primary ECC outcome was categorized as one of the following: caries experience (decayed, missing, filled tooth: "dmft" index > 0), active ECC (decayed teeth > 0), or active severe ECC (decayed teeth ≥ 6). Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The participants in the current study consisted of 269 caregiver-child dyads, 88.5% of whom were included in the Family Health Program. Caregivers were mostly mothers (67.7%), were 35.3 ± 10.0 years old on average and had 9.8 ± 3.1 years of formal education. The mean family income was 2.3 ± 1.5 times greater than the Brazilian minimum wage. On average, the children in the current study were 68.7 ± 3.8 months old. Of these, 51.7% were boys, 23.4% were overweight or obese, 45.0% had active ECC, and 17.1% had severe ECC. The average body mass index (BMI) of the children was 15.9 ± 2.2, and their dmft index was 2.5 ± 3.2. BMI was not associated with any of the three categories of dental caries (p > 0.05). In contrast, higher family incomes were significantly associated with the lack of caries experience in children (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.01-1.50), but the mother's level of education was not significantly associated with ECC.

  1. Calculation of local pressure tensors in systems with many-body interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Hendrik; Paul, Wolfgang; Binder, Kurt

    2005-12-01

    Local pressures are important in the calculation of interface tensions and in analyzing micromechanical behavior. The calculation of local pressures in computer simulations has been limited to systems with pairwise interactions between the particles, which is not sufficient for chemically detailed systems with many-body potentials such as angles and torsions. We introduce a method to calculate local pressures in systems with n-body interactions (n=2,3,4,) based on a micromechanical definition of the pressure tensor. The local pressure consists of a kinetic contribution from the linear momentum of the particles and an internal contribution from dissected many-body interactions by infinitesimal areas. To define dissection by a small area, respective n-body interactions are divided into two geometric centers, effectively reducing them to two-body interactions. Consistency with hydrodynamics-derived formulas for systems with two-body interactions [J. H. Irving and J. G. Kirkwood, J. Chem. Phys. 18, 817 (1950)], for average cross-sectional pressures [B. D. Todd, D. J. Evans, and P. J. Daivis, Phys. Rev. E 52, 1627 (1995)], and for volume averaged pressures (virial formula) is shown. As a simple numerical example, we discuss liquid propane in a cubic box. Local, cross-sectional, and volume-averaged pressures as well as relative contributions from two-body and three-body forces are analyzed with the proposed method, showing full numerical equivalence with the existing approaches. The method allows computing local pressures in the presence of many-body interactions in atomistic simulations of complex materials and biological systems.

  2. The Masquerades of a Childhood Ciliary Body Medulloepithelioma: A Case of Chronic Uveitis, Cataract, and Secondary Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Chua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ciliary body medulloepitheliomas in childhood often masquerade other intraocular conditions due to its insidious nature as well as its secondary effects on proximal intraocular tissues in the anterior chamber. We report a case where a ciliary body medulloepithelioma in a two-year-old boy presents with chronic uveitis, cataract, and an uncontrolled secondary glaucoma after an innocuous blunt ocular trauma. The diagnosis was only made after the occurrence of a ciliary body mass. We discuss the clinical features of ciliary body medulloepitheliomas, the implications of a delayed diagnosis and treatment as well as the concern of periorbital tumor seeding with the use of an aqueous shunt implant in this case.

  3. A Benchmark Calculation for the Nd Scattering with a Model Three-Body Force

    CERN Document Server

    Phyu, Aye Mya; Golak, Jacek; Oo, Htun Htun; Witala, Henryk; Gloeckle, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Using the complex energy method, the problem of nucleon-deuteron scattering is solved with a simple three-body force having a separable form. Our results are compared with the results of modern direct two-variable calculations and a good agreement is found. This forms a firm base for other applications of the complex energy method.

  4. Mathematical modeling and calculation of interaction of boundary layer with traces of bodies of various form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. І. Мамчук

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Given are the results of mathematical modeling of interaction of boundary layer on flat surface and traces of bodies of various form (streamlined and badly streamlined. Calculations are made in accordance with proposed and worked out residual difference method. The design parameters are compared to the well-known experimental data of E.G. Tylapyrkara, V. Ramzhy, R. Radzhasekara

  5. Optimizing dose prescription in stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung tumours using Monte Carlo dose calculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widder, Joachim; Hollander, Miranda; Ubbels, Jan F.; Bolt, Rene A.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To define a method of dose prescription employing Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumours aiming at a dose as low as possible outside of the PTV. Methods and materials: Six typical T1 lung tumours - three small, three large - were construc

  6. A new way in few-body scattering calculations: discretized Faddeev equations solved on GPU

    CERN Document Server

    Pomerantsev, V N; Rubtsova, O A

    2014-01-01

    A new approach towards very fast and economic few-body scattering calculations is described. The general method is realized on three steps: (i) reformulation of the scattering equations using the convenient analytical form for the channel resolvent operator; (ii) the complete few-body continuum discretization and projection of all operators and wave functions onto the $L_2$ type basis constructed from the stationary wave packets and (iii) ultra-fast solution of the resulted matrix equations using graphics processor. The whole approach is illustrated by the calculations of the neutron-deuteron elastic scattering below and above three-body breakup threshold with fully realistic $NN$ potential which are performed on a serial PC using graphics processor for extremely short running time.

  7. Obesity is underestimated using body mass index and waist-hip ratio in long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Blijdorp

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obesity, represented by high body mass index (BMI, is a major complication after treatment for childhood cancer. However, it has been shown that high total fat percentage and low lean body mass are more reliable predictors of cardiovascular morbidity. In this study longitudinal changes of BMI and body composition, as well as the value of BMI and waist-hip ratio representing obesity, were evaluated in adult childhood cancer survivors. METHODS: Data from 410 survivors who had visited the late effects clinic twice were analyzed. Median follow-up time was 16 years (interquartile range 11-21 and time between visits was 3.2 years (2.9-3.6. BMI was measured and body composition was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar Prodigy; available twice in 182 survivors. Data were compared with healthy Dutch references and calculated as standard deviation scores (SDS. BMI, waist-hip ratio and total fat percentage were evaluated cross-sectionally in 422 survivors, in who at least one DXA scan was assessed. RESULTS: BMI was significantly higher in women, without significant change over time. In men BMI changed significantly with time (ΔSDS = 0.19, P<0.001. Percentage fat was significantly higher than references in all survivors, with the highest SDS after cranial radiotherapy (CRT (mean SDS 1.73 in men, 1.48 in women, P<0.001. Only in men, increase in total fat percentage was significantly higher than references (ΔSDS = 0.22, P<0.001. Using total fat percentage as the gold standard, 65% of female and 42% of male survivors were misclassified as non-obese using BMI. Misclassification of obesity using waist-hip ratio was 40% in women and 24% in men. CONCLUSIONS: Sixteen years after treatment for childhood cancer, the increase in BMI and total fat percentage was significantly greater than expected, especially after CRT. This is important as we could show that obesity was grossly underestimated using BMI and waist-hip ratio.

  8. Neutron-deuteron scattering calculations with W-matrix representation of the two-body input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartnik, E.A.; Haberzettl, H.; Januschke, T.; Kerwath, U.; Sandhas, W.

    1987-11-01

    Employing the W-matrix representation of the partial-wave T matrix introduced by Bartnik, Haberzettl, and Sandhas, we show for the example of the Malfliet-Tjon potentials I and III that the single-term separable part of the W-matrix representation, when used as input in three-nucleon neutron-deuteron scattering calculations, is fully capable of reproducing the exact results obtained by Kloet and Tjon. This approximate two-body input not only satisfies the two-body off-shell unitarity relation but, moreover, it also contains a parameter which may be used in optimizing the three-body data. We present numerical evidence that there exists a variational (minimum) principle for the determination of the three-body binding energy which allows one to choose this parameter also in the absence of an exact reference calculation. Our results for neutron-deuteron scattering show that it is precisely this choice of the parameter which provides optimal scattering data. We conclude that the W-matrix approach, despite its simplicity, is a remarkably efficient tool for high-quality three-nucleon calculations.

  9. Neutron-deuteron scattering calculations with W-matrix representation of the two-body input

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartnik, E.A.; Haberzettl, H.; Januschke, T.; Kerwath, U.; Sandhas, W.

    1987-05-01

    Employing the W-matrix representation of the partial-wave T matrix introduced by Bartnik, Haberzettl, and Sandhas, we show for the example of the Malfliet-Tjon potentials I and III that the single-term separable part of the W-matrix representation, when used as input in three-nucleon neutron-deuteron scattering calculations, is fully capable of reproducing the exact results obtained by Kloet and Tjon. This approximate two-body input not only satisfies the two-body off-shell unitarity relation but, moreover, it also contains a parameter which may be used in optimizing the three-body data. We present numerical evidence that there exists a variational (minimum) principle for the determination of the three-body binding energy which allows one to choose this parameter also in the absence of an exact reference calculation. Our results for neutron-deuteron scattering show that it is precisely this choice of the parameter which provides optimal scattering data. We conclude that the W-matrix approach, despite its simplicity, is a remarkably efficient tool for high-quality three-nucleon calculations.

  10. Pregnancy Weight Gain and Childhood Body Weight: A Within-Family Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, David S.; Rouse, Heather L.; Janet Currie

    2013-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Childhood obesity has become a worldwide epidemic. For example, in the United States, the number of obese children has more than doubled in the past 30 years. 7% of American children aged 6–11 years were obese in 1980, compared to nearly 18% in 2010. Because of the rising levels of obesity, the current generation of children may have a shorter life span than their parents for the first time in 200 years. Childhood obesity has both immediate and long-term effects on...

  11. Relationship between parent demographic characteristics, perinatal and early childhood behaviors, and body mass index among preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E; Asfour, Lila; Arheart, Kristopher L; Selem, Sarah M; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Natale, Ruby

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 25% of US 2-to-5-year olds are overweight and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected. We explored the relationship between parent demographic characteristics, various perinatal/early childhood (EC) factors, and child body mass index (BMI) to determine possible contributors to these disparities. A preschool-based randomized controlled (N = 28 centers) obesity prevention intervention was conducted among multiethnic 2-to-5 year olds. Baseline assessment of demographic characteristics, various perinatal/EC factors, and child BMI were analyzed via generalized linear mixed models and logistic regression analysis. Foreign-born parents were almost 2.5 times as likely to have an obese child versus children of US-born parents (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.53-3.87). Families who spoke Spanish only or a combination of Creole/English at home were over twice as likely to have an obese preschool child versus families who spoke English only at home. Parent place of birth and language spoken at home plays a significant role in early childhood obesity. Future early childhood healthy weight initiatives should incorporate strategies that take into account these particular parent characteristics.

  12. Depictions of Human Bodies in the Illustrations of Early Childhood Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bello, Vladimir E.; Martínez-Bello, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    In many Ibero-American countries children in the early childhood education (ECE) system have the opportunity to interact with textbooks on a regular basis. The powerful social function of textbooks in socializing children in primary and secondary school, and in legitimizing what counts as cultural norms and officially sanctioned values and…

  13. Ab initio many-body calculations of the 4He photo-absorption cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Schuster, Micah D; Johnson, Calvin W; Jurgenson, Eric D; Navratil, Petr

    2013-01-01

    A major goal of nuclear theory is to make quantitative calculations of low-energy nuclear observables starting from microscopic internucleon forces. Computationally, this is complicated by the large model spaces needed to reach convergence in many-body approaches, such as the no-core shell model (NCSM). In recent years, the similarity renormalization group (SRG) has provided a powerful and versatile means to soften interactions for ab initio structure calculations, thus leading to convergence within smaller model spaces. Here we compute the 4He total photo absorption cross section and study, for the first time, the consistency of the SRG approach in a continuum observable.

  14. Three-body calculation of triple-alpha reaction at low energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Souichi

    2011-09-01

    The reaction rate of the triple-alpha (3α) process at low temperatures, where resonant reaction is not dominant, is calculated through the inverse process, the photodisintegration of a 12C nucleus. For this, Schrödinger equations in a three-alpha (3-α) model of 12C are directly solved by a Faddeev method, which has been successfully applied to three-nucleon problem so far. The nuclear Hamiltonian consists of an α-α potential, which reproduces the 8Be resonance state, together with three-body potentials to reproduce 12C properties. Our results of the 3α reaction rate are about 103 times larger at low temperature (T = 107 K) than a standard rate from the Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of Reaction Rates (NACRE), which means our results are remarkably smaller than recent results of quantum-mechanical three-body calculations by Ogata et al.

  15. An approximate many-body calculation for trapped bosons with attractive interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Anasuya [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 A P C Road, Calcutta-700 009 (India); Chakrabarti, Barnali [Department of Physics, Lady Brabourne College, P1/2 Surawardi Avenue, Calcutta-700 017 (India); Das, Tapan Kumar [Department of Physics, University of Calcutta, 92 A P C Road, Calcutta-700 009 (India); Canut, Sylvio [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-06-28

    The stability of trapped interacting bosons with attractive interactions is studied using an approximate many-body calculation. Instead of using the traditional hyperspherical harmonics expansion method we prescribe a potential harmonics expansion method (PHEM). The justification of the use of PHEM in connection with dilute condensates is presented. The choice of a correlation function is justified as it correctly reproduces the short-range two-body correlation in the wavefunction as also the correct value of the s-wave scattering length (a{sub s}). Applications to {sup 7}Li and {sup 85}Rb condensates with the realistic van der Waals interaction give good agreement with the Rice and JILA experiments, respectively. The JILA experiment used controlled collapse of the {sup 85}Rb condensate for different values of a{sub s}. Our calculations agree with the experimental results within the experimental error bars.

  16. Coulomb-Sturmian separable expansion approach three-body Faddeev calculations for Coulomb-like interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Papp, Z

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the Coulomb-Sturmian separable expansion method for generating accurate solutions of the Faddeev equations. Results obtained with this method are reported for several benchmark cases of bosonic and fermionic three-body systems. Correct bound-state results in agreement with the ones established in the literature are achieved for short-range interactions. We outline the formalism for the treatment of three-body Coulomb systems and present a bound-state calculation for a three-boson system interacting via Coulomb plus short-range forces. The corresponding result is in good agreement with the answer from a recent stochastic-variational-method calculation.

  17. Speeding up N-body Calculations on Machines without Hardware Square Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H. Karp

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The most time consuming part of an N-body simulation is computing the components of the accelerations of the particles. On most machines the slowest part of computing the acceleration is in evaluating r-3/2, which is especially true on machines that do the square root in software. This note shows how to cut the time for this part of the calculation by a factor of 3 or more using standard Fortran.

  18. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    . Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...... consumption rates increase as the operative temperature increases above 24 ◦C or decreases below 22 ◦C. With the data available so far, a second-order polynomial relationship between thermal sensation and the exergy consumption rate was established....... occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...

  19. A refined technique to calculate finite helical axes from rigid body trackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlin, Stewart D; Ferreira, Louis M; Dunning, Cynthia E

    2014-12-01

    Finite helical axes (FHAs) are a potentially effective tool for joint kinematic analysis. Unfortunately, no straightforward guidelines exist for calculating accurate FHAs using prepackaged six degree-of-freedom (6 DOF) rigid body trackers. Thus, this study aimed to: (1) describe a protocol for calculating FHA parameters from 6 DOF rigid body trackers using the screw matrix and (2) to maximize the number of accurate FHAs generated from a given data set using a moving window analysis. Four Optotrak® Smart Markers were used as the rigid body trackers, two moving and two fixed, at different distances from the hinge joint of a custom-machined jig. 6D OF pose information was generated from 51 static positions of the jig rotated and fixed in 0.5 deg increments up to 25 deg. Output metrics included the FHA direction cosines, the rotation about the FHA, the translation along the axis, and the intercept of the FHA with the plane normal to the jig's hinge joint. FHA metrics were calculated using the relative tracker rotation from the starting position, and using a moving window analysis to define a minimum acceptable rotational displacement between the moving tracker data points. Data analysis found all FHA rotations calculated from the starting position were within 0.15 deg of the prescribed jig rotation. FHA intercepts were most stable when determined using trackers closest to the hinge axis. Increasing the moving window size improved the FHA direction cosines and center of rotation accuracy. Window sizes larger than 2 deg had an intercept deviation of less than 1 mm. Furthermore, compared to the 0 deg window size, the 2 deg window had a 90% improvement in FHA intercept precision while generating almost an equivalent number of FHA axes. This work identified a solution to improve FHA calculations for biomechanical researchers looking to describe changes in 3D joint motion.

  20. Total body bone development during early childhood in very low birth weight infants without cerebral palsy and mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamura, T; Hasegawa, K; Yoshioka, H; Mizuta, R; Sawada, T

    1998-04-01

    Total body bone mineral density was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 52 children who were very low birth weight (VLBW) infants without cerebral palsy and mental retardation (postconceptional age, from 10 mo to 6 y and 6 mo). VLBW infants in this study seemed to show compensatory acceleration of total body bone development, catching up with the control group during early childhood. However, in VLBW infants with at least one of the three factors such as total parenteral nutrition for 1 week or more, assisted ventilation for 1 week or more, or oxygen therapy for 28 d or more in their early stage after birth, adequate mineral supplementation might be especially important for long-term bone development.

  1. Longitudinal Changes in Body Mass and Composition in Survivors of Childhood Hematologic Malignancies After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hiroto; Yang, Jie; Kaste, Sue C.; Hartford, Christine M.; Motosue, Megan S.; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Triplett, Brandon M.; Shook, David R.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Leung, Wing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To measure longitudinal changes in body mass and composition in survivors of childhood hematologic malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Patients and Methods Body mass index (BMI) was analyzed in 179 survivors by category (underweight, healthy-weight, overweight, and obese) and by z score. Fat and lean body mass measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was analyzed as z scores. Results Over a median 6.6 years of follow-up, BMI z scores diminished significantly (0.32 pre-HSCT v −0.60 at 10 years post-HSCT; P < .001). Mean z scores for fat mass stayed within population norms, but those for lean mass remained below normal levels and diminished significantly over time (P = .018). Pre-HSCT BMI category and/or z score were strongly predictive of post-HSCT BMI (P < .001) and of fat and lean mass z scores (both P < .001). Survivors with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease were more likely than others to have low BMI (P = .004) and low lean mass (P < .001) post-HSCT. Older age at HSCT (P = .015) and T-cell–depleted graft (P = .018) were predictive of lower post-HSCT BMI. Female patients had higher body fat (P = .002) and lower lean mass (P = .013) z scores than male patients, and black patients had higher fat mass z scores than white patients (P = .026). Conclusion BMI declines significantly after allogeneic HSCT for childhood hematologic malignancies, reflecting primarily a substantial decrease in lean mass but not fat mass. Monitoring and preservation of BMI and lean mass are vital, especially in those with the identified risk factors. PMID:23032628

  2. Dose calculation method with 60-cobalt gamma rays in total body irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Scaff, L A M

    2001-01-01

    Physical factors associated to total body irradiation using sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma rays beams, were studied in order to develop a calculation method of the dose distribution that could be reproduced in any radiotherapy center with good precision. The method is based on considering total body irradiation as a large and irregular field with heterogeneities. To calculate doses, or doses rates, of each area of interest (head, thorax, thigh, etc.), scattered radiation is determined. It was observed that if dismagnified fields were considered to calculate the scattered radiation, the resulting values could be applied on a projection to the real size to obtain the values for dose rate calculations. In a parallel work it was determined the variation of the dose rate in the air, for the distance of treatment, and for points out of the central axis. This confirm that the use of the inverse square law is not valid. An attenuation curve for a broad beam was also determined in order to allow the use of absorbers. In this wo...

  3. Regularizing the molecular potential in electronic structure calculations. II. Many-body methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, Florian A., E-mail: florian.bischoff@hu-berlin.de [Institut für Chemie, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-11-14

    In Paper I of this series [F. A. Bischoff, “Regularizing the molecular potential in electronic structure calculations. I. SCF methods,” J. Chem. Phys. 141, 184105 (2014)] a regularized molecular Hamilton operator for electronic structure calculations was derived and its properties in SCF calculations were studied. The regularization was achieved using a correlation factor that models the electron-nuclear cusp. In the present study we extend the regularization to correlated methods, in particular the exact solution of the two-electron problem, as well as second-order many body perturbation theory. The nuclear and electronic correlation factors lead to computations with a smaller memory footprint because the singularities are removed from the working equations, which allows coarser grid resolution while maintaining the precision. Numerical examples are given.

  4. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  5. Uranium(VI) Binding Forms in Selected Human Body Fluids: Thermodynamic Calculations versus Spectroscopic Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Alfatih A A; Geipel, Gerhard; Barkleit, Astrid; Bernhard, Gert

    2015-02-16

    Human exposure to uranium increasingly becomes a subject of interest in many scientific disciplines such as environmental medicine, toxicology, and radiation protection. Knowledge about uranium chemical binding forms(speciation) in human body fluids can be of great importance to understand not only its biokinetics but also its relevance in risk assessment and in designing decorporation therapy in the case of accidental overexposure. In this study, thermodynamic calculations of uranium speciation in relevant simulated and original body fluids were compared with spectroscopic data after ex-situ uranium addition. For the first time, experimental data on U(VI) speciation in body fluids (saliva, sweat, urine) was obtained by means of cryogenic time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (cryo-TRLFS) at 153 K. By using the time dependency of fluorescence decay and the band positions of the emission spectra, various uranyl complexes were demonstrated in the studied samples. The variations of the body fluids in terms of chemical composition, pH, and ionic strength resulted in different binding forms of U(VI). The speciation of U(VI) in saliva and in urine was affected by the presence of bioorganic ligands, whereas in sweat, the distribution depends mainly on inorganic ligands. We also elucidated the role of biological buffers, i.e., phosphate (H(2)PO(4−)/HPO(4)(2−)) on U(VI) distribution, and the system Ca(2+)/UO(2)(2+)/PO(4)(3−) was discussed in detail in both saliva and urine. The theoretical speciation calculations of the main U(VI) species in the investigated body fluids were significantly consistent with the spectroscopic data. Laser fluorescence spectroscopy showed success and reliability for direct determination of U(VI) in such biological matrices with the possibility for further improvement.

  6. Semen quality and reproductive hormones according to birthweight and body mass index in childhood and adult life: two decades of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Hansen, Maj; Jensen, Cecilie Rutkjaer

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between childhood body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and adulthood BMI, and adult semen quality and level of reproductive hormones. DESIGN: Follow-up study. SETTING: From a pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987. PATIENT(S): 347 out of 5,109 sons were...... selected for a study conducted 2005 to 2006. INTERVENTION(S): Semen and blood samples were related to information on BMI in boys (5-8 years), birth weight, and adult BMI. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Semen characteristics and reproductive hormones. RESULT(S): Neither childhood BMI, birth weight, nor adulthood...... BMI were significantly associated with semen quality. Men with the 33% highest childhood BMI had 15% lower sex hormone binding globulin, 8% lower testosterone, and 16% lower FSH than men with the 33% lowest childhood BMI. Men with high adulthood BMI had 14% lower testosterone, 9% lower inhibin B, 31...

  7. Hypervirial approach to calculating expectation values of the many-body Hamiltonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, R. M.; Fiedeldey, H.

    1995-05-01

    We present a new method, based on the hypervirial operator, for calculating expectation values of many-body Hamiltonians for local velocity-independent potentials. Our approach enables us to calculate the contributions of different components of an interaction [e.g., tensor, one pion exchange part (OPEP)] to the binding energy when all components are acting. In particular, using the integro-differential equation approach we investigate the contributions of different components of realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials to the triton and α particle ground-state binding energies. Although the tensor force contributes the most to the expectation value of the potential energy, we find that its overall contribution to the binding energy is much reduced by its large contribution to the expectation value of the kinetic energy.

  8. Birth weight, childhood body mass index and risk of coronary heart disease in adults: combined historical cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Geisler Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight and high childhood body mass index (BMI is each associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD in adult life. We studied individual and combined associations of birth weight and childhood BMI with the risk of CHD in adulthood. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Birth weight and BMI at age seven years were available in 216,771 Danish and Finnish individuals born 1924-1976. Linkage to national registers for hospitalization and causes of death identified 8,805 CHD events during up to 33 years of follow-up (median = 24 years after age 25 years. Analyses were conducted with Cox regression based on restricted cubic splines. Using median birth weight of 3.4 kg as reference, a non-linear relation between birth weight and CHD was found. It was not significantly different between cohorts, or between men and women, nor was the association altered by childhood BMI. For birth weights below 3.4 kg, the risk of CHD increased linearly and reached 1.28 (95% confidence limits: 1.13 to 1.44 at 2 kg. Above 3.4 kg the association weakened, and from about 4 kg there was virtually no association. BMI at age seven years was strongly positively associated with the risk of CHD and the relation was not altered by birth weight. The excess risk in individuals with a birth weight of 2.5 kg and a BMI of 17.7 kg/m(2 at age seven years was 44% (95% CI: 30% to 59% compared with individuals with median values of birth weight (3.4 kg and BMI (15.3 kg/m(2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Birth weight and BMI at age seven years appeared independently associated with the risk of CHD in adulthood. From a public health perspective we suggest that particular attention should be paid to children with a birth weight below the average in combination with excess relative weight in childhood.

  9. Prenatal parental separation and body weight, including development of overweight and obesity later in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Hohwü

    Full Text Available Early parental separation may be a stress factor causing a long-term alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity possibly impacting on the susceptibility to develop overweight and obesity in offspring. We aimed to examine the body mass index (BMI and the risk of overweight and obesity in children whose parents lived separately before the child was born.A follow-up study was conducted using data from the Aarhus Birth Cohort in Denmark and included 2876 children with measurements of height and weight at 9-11-years-of-age, and self-reported information on parental cohabitation status at child birth and at 9-11-years-of-age. Quantile regression was used to estimate the difference in median BMI between children whose parents lived separately (n = 124 or together (n = 2752 before the birth. We used multiple logistic regression to calculate odds ratio (OR for overweight and obesity, adjusted for gender, parity, breast feeding status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, age and educational level at child birth; with and without possible intermediate factors birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Due to a limited number of obese children, OR for obesity was adjusted for the a priori confounder maternal pre-pregnancy BMI only.The difference in median BMI was 0.54 kg/m2 (95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.10; 0.98 between children whose parents lived separately before birth and children whose parents lived together. The risk of overweight and obesity was statistically significantly increased in children whose parents lived separately before the birth of the child; OR 2.29 (95% CI: 1.18; 4.45 and OR 2.81 (95% CI: 1.05; 7.51, respectively. Additional, adjustment for possible intermediate factors did not substantially change the estimates.Parental separation before child birth was associated with higher BMI, and increased risk of overweight and obesity in 9-11-year-old children; this may suggest a fetal

  10. Improving the Volume Dependence of Two-Body Binding Energies Calculated with Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Davoudi, Zohreh

    2011-01-01

    Volume modifications to the binding of two-body systems in large cubic volumes of extent L depend upon the total momentum and exponentially upon the ratio of L to the size of the boosted system. Recent work by Bour et al determined the momentum dependence of the leading volume modifications to nonrelativistic systems with periodic boundary conditions imposed on the single-particle wavefunctions, enabling them to numerically determine the scattering of such bound states using a low-energy effective field theory and Luschers finite-volume method. The calculation of bound nuclear systems directly from QCD using Lattice QCD has begun, and it is important to reduce the systematic uncertainty introduced into such calculations by the finite spatial extent of the gauge-field configurations. We extend the work of Bour et al from nonrelativistic quantum mechanics to quantum field theory by generalizing the work of Luscher and of Gottlieb and Rummukainen to boosted two-body bound states. The volume modifications to bind...

  11. Childhood Obesity, Gender, Actual-Ideal Body Image Discrepancies, and Physical Self-Concept in Hong Kong Children: Cultural Differences in the Value of Moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Hau, K. T.; Sung, R. Y. T.; Yu, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasingly prevalent in Western and non-Western societies. The authors related multiple dimensions of physical self-concept to body composition for 763 Chinese children aged 8 to 15 and compared the results with Western research. Compared with Western research, gender differences favoring boys were generally much smaller for…

  12. The effect of perturbing body segment parameters on calculated joint moments and muscle forces during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Mariska; de Groote, Friedl; Jonkers, Ilse

    2014-01-22

    This study examined the effect of body segment parameter (BSP) perturbations on joint moments calculated using an inverse dynamics procedure and muscle forces calculated using computed muscle control (CMC) during gait. BSP (i.e. segment mass, center of mass location (com) and inertia tensor) of the left thigh, shank and foot of a scaled musculoskeletal model were perturbed. These perturbations started from their nominal value and were adjusted to ±40% in steps of 10%, for both individual as well as combined perturbations in BSP. For all perturbations, an inverse dynamics procedure calculated the ankle, knee and hip moments based on an identical inverse kinematics solution. Furthermore, the effect of applying a residual reduction algorithm (RRA) was investigated. Muscle excitations and resulting muscle forces were calculated using CMC. The results show only a limited effect of an individual parameter perturbation on the calculated moments, where the largest effect is found when perturbing the shank com (MS(com,shank), the ratio of absolute difference in torque and relative parameter perturbation, is maximally -7.81 N m for hip flexion moment). The additional influence of perturbing two parameters simultaneously is small (MS(mass+com,thigh) is maximally 15.2 N m for hip flexion moment). RRA made small changes to the model to increase the dynamic consistency of the simulation (after RRA MS(com,shank) is maximally 5.01 N m). CMC results show large differences in muscle forces when BSP are perturbed. These result from the underlying forward integration of the dynamic equations.

  13. Spectra for the A = 6 reactions calculated from a three-body resonance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paris Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a resonance model of the transition matrix for three-body breakup reactions of the A = 6 system and present calculations for the nucleon observed spectra, which are important for inertial confinement fusion and Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN. The model is motivated by the Faddeev approach where the form of the T matrix is written as a sum of the distinct Jacobi coordinate systems corresponding to particle configurations (α, n-n and (n; n-α to describe the final state. The structure in the spectra comes from the resonances of the two-body subsystems of the three-body final state, namely the singlet (T = 1 nucleon-nucleon (NN anti-bound resonance, and the Nα resonances designated the ground state (Jπ = 3−2${{{3^ - }} \\over 2}$ and first excited state (Jπ = 1−2${{{1^ - }} \\over 2}$ of the A = 5 systems 5He and 5Li. These resonances are described in terms of single-level, single-channel R-matrix parameters that are taken from analyses of NN and Nα scattering data. While the resonance parameters are approximately charge symmetric, external charge-dependent effects are included in the penetrabilities, shifts, and hard-sphere phases, and in the level energies to account for internal Coulomb differences. The shapes of the resonance contributions to the spectrum are fixed by other, two-body data and the only adjustable parameters in the model are the combinatorial amplitudes for the compound system. These are adjusted to reproduce the observed nucleon spectra from measurements at the Omega and NIF facilities. We perform a simultaneous, least-squares fit of the tt neutron spectra and the 3He3He proton spectra. Using these amplitudes we make a prediction of the α spectra for both reactions at low energies. Significant differences in the tt and 3He3He spectra are due to Coulomb effects.

  14. Spectra for the A = 6 reactions calculated from a three-body resonance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Mark W.; Hale, Gerald M.

    2016-06-01

    We develop a resonance model of the transition matrix for three-body breakup reactions of the A = 6 system and present calculations for the nucleon observed spectra, which are important for inertial confinement fusion and Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The model is motivated by the Faddeev approach where the form of the T matrix is written as a sum of the distinct Jacobi coordinate systems corresponding to particle configurations (α, n-n) and (n; n-α) to describe the final state. The structure in the spectra comes from the resonances of the two-body subsystems of the three-body final state, namely the singlet (T = 1) nucleon-nucleon (NN) anti-bound resonance, and the Nα resonances designated the ground state (Jπ = {{{3^ - }} over 2}) and first excited state (Jπ = {{{1^ - }} over 2}) of the A = 5 systems 5He and 5Li. These resonances are described in terms of single-level, single-channel R-matrix parameters that are taken from analyses of NN and Nα scattering data. While the resonance parameters are approximately charge symmetric, external charge-dependent effects are included in the penetrabilities, shifts, and hard-sphere phases, and in the level energies to account for internal Coulomb differences. The shapes of the resonance contributions to the spectrum are fixed by other, two-body data and the only adjustable parameters in the model are the combinatorial amplitudes for the compound system. These are adjusted to reproduce the observed nucleon spectra from measurements at the Omega and NIF facilities. We perform a simultaneous, least-squares fit of the tt neutron spectra and the 3He3He proton spectra. Using these amplitudes we make a prediction of the α spectra for both reactions at low energies. Significant differences in the tt and 3He3He spectra are due to Coulomb effects.

  15. Body-Related Emotions in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Anne S; Feldmann, Robert E; Borgmann, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic experiences are associated with emotions such as anxiety, shame, guilt, disgust, and anger. For patients who have experienced child sexual abuse, these emotions might be triggered by perceptions of their own body. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of the association of the body to traumatic experiences and to discern the emotions linked to trauma-associated body areas. Ninety-seven female participants were assigned to four groups: post-traumatic stress disorder following child sexual abuse with co-occurring borderline personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder following child sexual abuse without co-occurring borderline personality disorder, borderline personality disorder without post-traumatic stress disorder, and healthy controls. Participants rated 26 body areas regarding their association with trauma and 7 emotions. Emotions were assessed by questionnaires. Results suggest that specific areas of the body are associated with trauma and linked to highly aversive emotions. In post-traumatic stress disorder patients, the areas associated with highly negative emotions were the pubic region and inner thighs. Thus, the patient's body may act as a trigger for traumatic memories.

  16. Statistical and Multidimensional Body Composition Parameter Analysis in Young Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topczewska Magdalena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the problem of assessing selected body compo- sition parameters after completion of antitumor therapy and comparing them with the same parameters of healthy children. A high percentage of overweight and obesity, as well as abnormal fat distribution in convalescents with cancer shows a significant adverse effect of therapy on body composition and suggests the need for early intervention in terms of diet and exercise, which would help patients to quickly achieve the proper parameters of body composition. Two main problems will be mentioned during the presented data analysis. Firstly, in each group there was a small number of observations. Because of this, the real differences between examined subgroups may have been omitted. Secondarily, many variables are correlated and are not normally distributed. Therefore, be- side the standard statistical tests to compare two groups, principal component analysis was applied to reduce the dimensions of the attribute space and to attempt to classify two groups of patients.

  17. A comparison of dispersion calculations in bluff body wakes using LES and unsteady RANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschkewitz, J S

    2006-01-19

    Accurate modeling of the dispersion behavior of sprays or particles is critical for a variety of problems including combustion, urban pollution or release events, and splash and spray transport around heavy vehicles. Bluff body wakes are particularly challenging since these flows are both highly separated and strongly unsteady. Attempting to model the dispersion of droplets or particles interacting with bluff body wakes is even more difficult since small differences in the flow field encountered by particles can lead to large differences in the dispersion behavior. Particles with finite inertia can exhibit additional complicating effects such as preferential concentration. In this preliminary study, we consider the dispersion of solid particles in the wake of a rectangular plane at a Reynolds number (Re) of 10000 and that of droplets in the wake of a simplified tractor-trailer geometry at Re = 2 x 10{sup 6} using both the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) turbulence modeling approaches. The calculations were performed using identical meshes for both the LES and URANS models. Particle stresses are not backcoupled to the carrier fluid velocity solution. In the case of the rectangular plane wake, the LES calculation predicts a finer-scale and more persistent wake structure than the URANS one; the resulting particle dispersion is considerably ({approx} 40%) underpredicted for low inertia particles. For the case of the simplified tractor-trailer geometry, although the LES is underresolved, similar trends are observed with strong differences in the vertical and horizontal dispersion of the smallest particles. These results suggest that it may be necessary to use LES to accurately capture the dispersion behavior of small, low inertia particles or droplets, but that URANS may be sufficient for problems in which only large particles with substantial inertia are of primary concern.

  18. Influence of early life factors on body mass index trajectory during childhood: a population-based longitudinal analysis in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Barbara H; Villamor, Eduardo; Augusto, Rosângela A; Cardoso, Marly A

    2015-04-01

    Low- to middle-income countries may experience the occurrence of a dual burden of under and overnutrition. To better understand the overall progression of body mass index (BMI) during childhood, we estimated average BMI-for-age z-score (BAZ) growth curves in a population-based longitudinal study of 255 children living in the Brazilian Amazon. Children were aged 0.1-5.5 years at recruitment (2003). We collected data on socio-economic and maternal characteristics, children's birthweight and infant feeding practices. Child anthropometric measurements were taken in 2003, 2007 and 2009. BAZ differences among categories of exposure variables were calculated at 6 and 12 months, and 2, 7 and 10 years. At baseline, the mean (standard deviation) age was 2.6 (1.4) years; 12.9% were overweight and 3.9% thin. After adjustment, mean BAZ estimates were mostly negative. Boys were close to the median value for BAZ until 12 months, whereas girls were below the median (P=0.05). Children from households above the wealth median were 0.36 z- and 0.49 z-less underweight than poorer children at 7 and 10 years, respectively (Pchildhood. Although excessive weight gain is a public health concern, it is critical to restrict inequities, while promoting healthier growth in developing countries.

  19. Characteristic prefrontal blood volume patterns when imaging body type, high-calorie food, and mother-child attachment in childhood anorexia nervosa: A near infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Yamashita, Fumiko; Araki, Yuko; Iizuka, Chiho; Ozono, Shuichi; Komatsu, Hiroko; Ohya, Takashi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Tsuda, Akira; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prefrontal activation in childhood anorexia nervosa (AN) patients when imaging symptom-provocative factors such as body type, high-calorie food, and attachment between mother and child. The prefrontal activations during each task, in terms of blood volume changes, were measured by near infrared spectroscopy. Twelve females with childhood AN (mean age, 14.4 years old) and 13 age-matched healthy female controls (mean age, 14.3 years old) participated in this study. Both groups showed increased prefrontal blood volume when viewing images of each symptom-provocative factor. Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in the prefrontal blood volume increases between the control group and the childhood AN group when viewing images of slender and obese body types and high-calorie food. On the other hand, images of mother-child attachment resulted in significantly greater increases in prefrontal blood volume in the childhood AN group than in the control group. These results indicated that prefrontal activation in AN might be associated with imaging attachment between mother and child, but not associated with imaging body type or high-calorie food.

  20. Three-Body Model Calculation of Spin Distribution in Two-Nucleon Transfer Reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ogata, Kazuyuki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    The differential cross sections of two-nucleon transfer reactions 238U(18O,16O)240U around 10 MeV per nucleon are calculated by one-step Born-approximation with a 16O+2n+238U three-body model. The three-body wave function in the initial channel is obtained with the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method, and that in the final channel is evaluated with adiabatic approximation. The resulting cross sections have a peak around the grazing angle, and the spin distribution, i.e., the cross section at the peak as a function of the transferred spin, is investigated. The shape of the spin distribution is found not sensitive to the incident energies, optical potentials, and treatment of the breakup channels both in the initial and final states, while it depends on the excitation energy of the residual nucleus 240U. The peak of the spin distribution moves to the large-spin direction as the excitation energy increases. To fulfill the condition that the peak position should not exceeds 10 hbar, which is necessary f...

  1. Relationship between Chronic Short Sleep Duration and Childhood Body Mass Index: A School-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pileggi

    Full Text Available To assess relationship between obesity and chronic shorter sleep duration in children and to determine if lack of sleep represents an independent determinant of childhood Body Mass Index.This cross-sectional study was conducted in all children enrolled in the fifth class (approximately 10 years of age of all public primary schools in Catanzaro (Southern Italy. The overall response rate was 62% resulting in 542 participating children. Parents completed a questionnaire with information on their demographics and socio-economic characteristics, their health status, characteristics of their child birth and health status. The sleeping habits were investigated in the 3 months preceding the consultation and parents were asked to indicate hours of bedtime and wake-up of their children. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to examine the association between child BMI and chronic lack of sleep.36.7% of the children surveyed were overweight or obese. A quarter of children did not routinely play sports and many of them spent more than an hour a day watching TV (60.7% and using videogames or computer (51.1%. Widespread dietary habits were inadequate, especially concerning vegetables and fruit intake with more than 95% of children who consumed insufficient amounts. The average duration of sleep was equal to 9.4 (SD = ±0.6 hours, and the short-sleepers accounted for 38.9% of the total sample. The results of multivariate analysis showed a significant 0.77 Kg/m(2 increase of BMI for children classified as short compared to normal sleepers (95%CI = 0.16-1.38, p = 0.01.Chronic lack of sleep appears to be associated to higher BMI even in middle childhood and strongly suggests that public health strategies, focused on promoting healthy lifestyles should include an innovative approach to ensure an adequate duration of sleep at night especially in children, alongside more traditional approaches.

  2. Relevance of Morning and Evening Energy and Macronutrient Intake during Childhood for Body Composition in Early Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Diederichs

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: This study investigated the relevance of morning and evening energy and macronutrient intake during childhood for body composition in early adolescence; (2 Methods: Analyses were based on data from 372 DONALD (DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed study participants. Explorative life-course plots were performed to examine whether morning or evening energy and macronutrient intake at 3/4 years, 5/6 years, or 7/8 years is critical for fat mass index (FMI [kg/m2] and fat free mass index (FFMI [kg/m2] in early adolescence (10/11 years. Subsequently, exposures in periods identified as consistently critical were examined in depth using adjusted regression models; (3 Results: Life-course plots identified morning fat and carbohydrate (CHO intake at 3/4 years and 7/8 years as well as changes in these intakes between 3/4 years and 7/8 years as potentially critical for FMI at 10/11 years. Adjusted regression models corroborated higher FMI values at 10/11 years among those who had consumed less fat (p = 0.01 and more CHO (p = 0.01 in the morning at 7/8 years as well as among those who had decreased their morning fat intake (p = 0.02 and increased their morning CHO intake (p = 0.05 between 3/4 years and 7/8 years; (4 Conclusion: During childhood, adherence to a low fat, high CHO intake in the morning may have unfavorable consequences for FMI in early adolescence.

  3. Childhood Risk Factors for Thin Body Preoccupation and Social Pressure to Be Thin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agras, W. Stewart; Bryson, Susan; Hammer, Lawrence D.; Kraemer, Helena C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Thin body preoccupation and social pressure to be thin (TBPSP) in adolescence are risk factors for the development of full and partial bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. This study examined precursors of these potent risk factors. Method: A prospective study followed 134 children from birth to 11.0 years and their parents.…

  4. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, T.M.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Sjöberg, A.; Eldin, N.; Yngve, A.; Kunesova, M.; Stare, G.; Rito, A.I.; Duleva, V.; Hassapidou, M.; Martos, E.; Pudule, I.; Petrauskiene, A.; Farrugia Sant Angelo, V.; Hovengen, R.; Breda, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Meth

  5. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Lauritzen, Lotte; Brasholt, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate...... the relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast milk, body composition, and timing of adiposity rebound in children....

  6. Hyperspherical three-body model calculation for the bound $^{1,3}$S-states of Coulombic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Md Abdul

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, hyperspherical three-body model formalism has been applied for the calculation energies of the low-lying bound $^{1,3}$S (L=0)-states of neutral helium and helium like Coulombic three-body systems having nuclear charge (Z) in the range Z=2 to Z=92. The calculation of the coupling potential matrix elements of the two-body potentials has been simplified by the introduction of Raynal-Revai Coefficients (RRC). The three-body wave function in the Schr\\H{o}dinger equation when expanded in terms of hyperpherical harmonics (HH), leads to an infinite set of coupled differential equation (CDE). For practical reason the infinite set of CDE is truncated to a finite set and are solved by an exact numerical method known as renormalized Numerov method (RNM) to get the energy solution (E). The calculated energy is compared with the ones of the literature.

  7. Computer programs for calculating pressure distributions including vortex effects on supersonic monoplane or cruciform wing-body-tail combinations with round or elliptical bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillenius, M. F. E.; Nielsen, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Computer programs are presented which are capable of calculating detailed aerodynamic loadings and pressure distributions acting on pitched and rolled supersonic missile configurations which utilize bodies of circular or elliptical cross sections. The applicable range of angle of attack is up to 20 deg, and the Mach number range is 1.3 to about 2.5. Effects of body and fin vortices are included in the methods, as well as arbitrary deflections of canard or fin panels.

  8. Post-traumatic stress symptoms and childhood abuse categories in a national representative sample for a specific age group: associations to body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidsel H. Karsberg

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of specific groups such as military veterans have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is linked to adverse health outcomes including unhealthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between PTSD symptoms, experiences of childhood trauma and weight in a community sample. Methods: A stratified random probability survey was conducted in Denmark by the Danish National Centre for Social Research between 2008 and 2009 with 2,981 participants born in 1984, achieving a response rate of 67%. The participants were interviewed with a structured interview with questions pertaining PTSD symptomatology, exposure to childhood abuse, exposure to potentially traumatizing events, height, and weight. Underweight was defined by a body mass index (BMI <18.5, overweight was defined by a BMI ≥25 and <30 and obesity was defined by a BMI ≥30. Results: PTSD symptomatology and childhood abuse were significantly associated with both underweight and overweight/obesity. Childhood emotional abuse was especially associated with underweight, whereas sexual abuse and overall abuse were particularly associated with overweight/obesity. Conclusion: These findings indicate that health care professionals may benefit from assessing PTSD and childhood abuse in the treatment of both overweight and underweight individuals.

  9. A Prospective Study of Height and Body Mass Index in Childhood, Birth Weight, and Risk of Adult Glioma Over 40 Years of Follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Rajaraman, Preetha;

    2014-01-01

    Greater attained height and greater body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) in young adulthood have been associated with glioma risk, but few studies have investigated the association with body size at birth or during childhood, when the brain undergoes rapid cell growth and differentiat......Greater attained height and greater body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) in young adulthood have been associated with glioma risk, but few studies have investigated the association with body size at birth or during childhood, when the brain undergoes rapid cell growth...... weight, and adult glioma risk. During follow-up (1968-2010), 355 men and 253 women aged ≥18 years were diagnosed with glioma. In boys, height at each age between 7 and 13 years was positively associated with glioma risk; hazard ratios per standard-deviation score at ages 7 (approximately 5.1 cm) and 13...... (approximately 7.6 cm) years were 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.30) and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.35), respectively. No associations were observed for childhood height in girls or for BMI. Birth weight was positively associated with risk (per 0.5 kg: hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04, 1...

  10. Active video gaming improves body coordination in survivors of childhood brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabel, M.; Sjölund, A.; Broeren, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether active video gaming (AVG) could bring about regular, enjoyable, physical exercise in children treated for brain tumours, what level of physical activity could be reached and if the children’s physical functioning improved. Methods: Thirteen children, aged 7–17 years...... compared to their healthy peers. Active video gaming (AVG), supported by Internet coaching, is a feasible home-based intervention in children treated for brain tumours, promoting enjoyable, regular physical exercise of moderate intensity. In this pilot study, AVG with Nintendo Wii improved Body......-blinded assessments of physical functioning were done, using the Bruininks–Osteretsky Test of Motor Performance, second edition, evaluating participants before and after the intervention period, as well as comparing the randomisation groups after the first period. Results: All patients completed the study. AVG...

  11. Prenatal parental separation and body weight, including development of overweight and obesity later in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohwü, Lena; Zhu, Jin Liang; Graversen, Lise

    2015-01-01

    ) for overweight and obesity, adjusted for gender, parity, breast feeding status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, age and educational level at child birth; with and without possible intermediate factors birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Due to a limited number...... of obese children, OR for obesity was adjusted for the a priori confounder maternal pre-pregnancy BMI only. RESULTS: The difference in median BMI was 0.54 kg/m2 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.10; 0.98) between children whose parents lived separately before birth and children whose parents lived together......BACKGROUND: Early parental separation may be a stress factor causing a long-term alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity possibly impacting on the susceptibility to develop overweight and obesity in offspring. We aimed to examine the body mass index (BMI) and the risk...

  12. Ab initio many-body calculations of nucleon-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglioni, Sofia; Navrátil, Petr

    2009-04-01

    We develop a new ab initio many-body approach capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei, by combining the resonating-group method with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters. This approach preserves translational symmetry and the Pauli principle. We outline technical details and present phase-shift results for neutron scattering on H3, He4, and Be10 and proton scattering on He3,4, using realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials. Our A=4 scattering results are compared to earlier ab initio calculations. We find that the CD-Bonn NN potential in particular provides an excellent description of nucleon-He4S-wave phase shifts. In contrast, the experimental nucleon-He4P-wave phase shifts are not well reproduced by any NN potential we use. We demonstrate that a proper treatment of the coupling to the n-Be10 continuum is successful in explaining the parity-inverted ground state in Be11.

  13. Ab initio many-body calculations of nucleon-nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Quaglioni, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    We develop a new ab initio many-body approach capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei, by combining the resonating-group method with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters. This approach preserves translational symmetry and Pauli principle. We outline technical details and present phase shift results for neutron scattering on 3H, 4He and 10Be and proton scattering on 3He and 4He, using realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials. Our A=4 scattering results are compared to earlier ab initio calculations. We find that the CD-Bonn NN potential in particular provides an excellent description of nucleon-4He S-wave phase shifts. On the contrary, the experimental nucleon-4He P-wave phase shifts are not well reproduced by any NN potential we use. We demonstrate that a proper treatment of the coupling to the n-10Be continuum is successful in explaining the parity-inverted ground state in 11Be.

  14. Direction of associations between added sugar intake in early childhood and body mass index at age 7 years may depend on intake levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Antje; Diethelm, Katharina; Cheng, Guo; Alexy, Ute; Icks, Andrea; Buyken, Anette E

    2011-07-01

    Dietary factors, especially during early childhood, have been discussed as potentially critical for the development of childhood overweight. This study evaluated associations between added sugar intake during early childhood and BMI and body fat at age 7 y. Analysis was based on data from 216 participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study. Life-course plots were constructed to evaluate the association between added sugar intake at different ages (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 y) and BMI SD score (BMI-SDS) and % body fat (%BF) at age 7 y. Multivariable analyses were performed for the periods identified as critical for later BMI and body fat. Added sugar intake at age 1 y and the change in intake levels during the second year of life emerged as potentially critical. At age 1 y, a higher total added sugar intake was related to a lower BMI-SDS at age 7 y [adjusted β ± SE: -0.116 ± 0.057 BMI-SDS/percent energy (%En) added sugar; P = 0.04]. Conversely, an increase in total added sugar in the second year of life (Δ%En between age 1 and 2 y) tended to be associated with a higher BMI-SDS (adjusted β ± SE: 0.074 ± 0.043 BMI-SDS/Δ%En added sugar; P = 0.09). No associations were observed with %BF. In conclusion, added sugar intake at low intake levels during early childhood does not appear to be critical for BMI and body fat at age 7 y. However, detrimental effects on BMI development may emerge when added sugar intakes are increased to higher levels.

  15. Developing Intervention Strategies to Optimise Body Composition in Early Childhood in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaz, Simone A.; Stone, Matthew; Hinkley, Trina; Jones, Rachel A.; Louw, Johann; Twine, Rhian; Kahn, Kathleen; Norris, Shane A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this research was to collect data to inform intervention strategies to optimise body composition in South African preschool children. Methods. Data were collected in urban and rural settings. Weight status, physical activity, and gross motor skill assessments were conducted with 341 3–6-year-old children, and 55 teachers and parents/caregivers participated in focus groups. Results. Overweight and obesity were a concern in low-income urban settings (14%), but levels of physical activity and gross motor skills were adequate across all settings. Focus group findings from urban and rural settings indicated that teachers would welcome input on leading activities to promote physical activity and gross motor skill development. Teachers and parents/caregivers were also positive about young children being physically active. Recommendations for potential intervention strategies include a teacher-training component, parent/child activity mornings, and a home-based component for parents/caregivers. Conclusion. The findings suggest that an intervention focussed on increasing physical activity and improving gross motor skills per se is largely not required but that contextually relevant physical activity and gross motor skills may still be useful for promoting healthy weight and a vehicle for engaging with teachers and parents/caregivers for promoting other child outcomes, such as cognitive development. PMID:28194417

  16. Developing Intervention Strategies to Optimise Body Composition in Early Childhood in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Draper

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this research was to collect data to inform intervention strategies to optimise body composition in South African preschool children. Methods. Data were collected in urban and rural settings. Weight status, physical activity, and gross motor skill assessments were conducted with 341 3–6-year-old children, and 55 teachers and parents/caregivers participated in focus groups. Results. Overweight and obesity were a concern in low-income urban settings (14%, but levels of physical activity and gross motor skills were adequate across all settings. Focus group findings from urban and rural settings indicated that teachers would welcome input on leading activities to promote physical activity and gross motor skill development. Teachers and parents/caregivers were also positive about young children being physically active. Recommendations for potential intervention strategies include a teacher-training component, parent/child activity mornings, and a home-based component for parents/caregivers. Conclusion. The findings suggest that an intervention focussed on increasing physical activity and improving gross motor skills per se is largely not required but that contextually relevant physical activity and gross motor skills may still be useful for promoting healthy weight and a vehicle for engaging with teachers and parents/caregivers for promoting other child outcomes, such as cognitive development.

  17. Body Mass Transitions Through Childhood and Early Adolescence: A Multistate Life Table Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Melanie K; Krueger, Patrick M; McCormick, Emily; Davidson, Arthur; Main, Deborah S

    2016-04-01

    The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is well documented, but prevalence estimates offer little insight into rates of transition to higher or lower body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) categories. We estimated the expected numbers of years children would live as normal weight, overweight, and obese by race/ethnicity and sex, given rates of transition across BMI status levels. We used multistate life table methods and transition rates estimated from prospective cohort data (2007-2013) for Denver, Colorado, public schoolchildren aged 3-15 years. At age 3 years, normal-weight children could expect to live 11.1 of the following 13 years with normal weight status, and obese children could expect to live 9.8 years with obese status. At age 3 years, overweight children could expect to live 4.5 of the following 13 years with normal weight status, 5.1 years with overweight status, and 3.4 years with obese status. Whites and Asians lived more years at lower BMI status levels than did blacks or Hispanics; sex differences varied by race/ethnicity. Children who were normal weight or obese at age 3 years were relatively unlikely to move into a different BMI category by age 15 years. Overweight children are relatively likely to transition to normal weight or obese status.

  18. Effect of Parental Migration Background on Childhood Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Besharat Pour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Poor nutrition, lack of physical activity, and obesity in children have important public health implications but, to date, their effects have not been studied in the growing population of children in Sweden with immigrant parents. Methods. We estimated the association between parental migration background and nutrition, physical activity, and weight in 8-year-old children born in Stockholm between 1994 and 1996 of immigrants and Swedish parents (n=2589. Data were collected through clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by parents. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Children of immigrants complied more closely with Nordic Nutrition Recommendations compared with those of Swedes (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.11–1.64. They had higher intake of dietary fibre, vitamins C, B6, and E, folic acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6 reflecting higher consumption of foods of plant origin, but lower intake of vitamins A and D, calcium, and iron reflecting lower consumption of dairy products. Children of immigrants had higher intake of sucrose reflecting higher consumption of sugar and sweets. Furthermore, these children had a higher risk of having low physical activity (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.06–1.62 and being overweight (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.06–1.65 compared with children of Swedish parents. The odds of having low physical activity and being overweight were even higher in children whose parents were both immigrants. A low level of parental education was associated with increased risk of low physical activity regardless of immigration background. Conclusions. Culturally appropriate tools to capture the diverse range of ethnic foods and other lifestyle habits are needed. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the low levels of physical activity, increased weight, and lack of consumption of some important vitamins among children of

  19. Dynamic fe Model of Sitting Man Adjustable to Body Height, Body Mass and Posture Used for Calculating Internal Forces in the Lumbar Vertebral Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankoke, S.; Buck, B.; Woelfel, H. P.

    1998-08-01

    Long-term whole-body vibrations can cause degeneration of the lumbar spine. Therefore existing degeneration has to be assessed as well as industrial working places to prevent further damage. Hence, the mechanical stress in the lumbar spine—especially in the three lower vertebrae—has to be known. This stress can be expressed as internal forces. These internal forces cannot be evaluated experimentally, because force transducers cannot be implementated in the force lines because of ethical reasons. Thus it is necessary to calculate the internal forces with a dynamic mathematical model of sitting man.A two dimensional dynamic Finite Element model of sitting man is presented which allows calculation of these unknown internal forces. The model is based on an anatomic representation of the lower lumbar spine (L3-L5). This lumber spine model is incorporated into a dynamic model of the upper torso with neck, head and arms as well as a model of the body caudal to the lumbar spine with pelvis and legs. Additionally a simple dynamic representation of the viscera is used. All these parts are modelled as rigid bodies connected by linear stiffnesses. Energy dissipation is modelled by assigning modal damping ratio to the calculated undamped eigenvalues. Geometry and inertial properties of the model are determined according to human anatomy. Stiffnesses of the spine model are derived from static in-vitro experiments in references [1] and [2]. Remaining stiffness parameters and parameters for energy dissipation are determined by using parameter identification to fit measurements in reference [3]. The model, which is available in 3 different postures, allows one to adjust its parameters for body height and body mass to the values of the person for which internal forces have to be calculated.

  20. Poesia e infância: o corpo em viva voz Poetry and childhood: the body in live voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Fronckowiak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo busco problematizar a possibilidade desafiadora, colocada à escola da infância, de perceber o vínculo da leitura de poemas com sua potência enquanto experiência poética que pode ser conquistada em viva voz por um corpo que sente. No momento em que, no cenário educacional brasileiro, discute-se o currículo das escolas de Educação Infantil, o texto defende, a partir dos aportes teóricos da imaginação criadora em Gaston Bachelard; da pedagogia poética em Georges Jean; da performance vocal em Paul Zumthor; e da experiência em Walter Benjamin, a abordagem da literatura não como área do conhecimento ou campo disciplinar, mas como linguagem que emerge da corporeidade.This article seeks to discuss the challenging possibility, placed to the childhood school, of perceiving the bond of the poems reading with its strength as a poetic experience that can be conquered in live voice by a body that feels. At the moment in which, at the Brazilian educational scenario, the organization of the elementary schools curriculum has been discussed, the text defends, based onthe theoretical framework of Gaston Bachelard's creative imagination; on the poetic pedagogy in Georges Jean; on Paul Zumthor's vocal performance and on Walter Benjamin's experience, the approach to literature not as a knowledge area or a subject matter, but as language that emerges from corporeality.

  1. Three-body matrix elements for calculations of mean field and exp(S) ground state correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Mihaila, B; Mihaila, Bogdan; Heisenberg, Jochen H.

    1999-01-01

    In this document we present our approach to the computation of three-body matrix elements, based on the Urbana family of three-nucleon potentials. The calculations refer only to the necessary matrix elements needed to include the three-nucleon interaction in the manner presented in nucl-th/9912023.

  2. Run-up on a body in waves and current. Fully nonlinear and finite-order calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büchmann, Bjarne; Ferrant, P.; Skourup, J.

    2001-01-01

    Run-up on a large fixed body in waves and current have been calculated using both a fully nonlinear time-domain boundary element model and a finite-order time-domain boundary element model, the latter being correct to second order in the wave steepness and to first-order in the current strength...

  3. Comparison of two approaches for calculation of the geometric and inertial characteristics of the human body of the Bulgarian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Gergana; Toshev, Yuli

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of a representative anthropological investigation of 5290 individuals (2435 males and 2855 females) of the Bulgarian population at the age of 30-40 years (Yordanov et al. [1]) we proposed a 3D biomechanical model of human body of the average Bulgarian male and female and compared two different possible approaches to calculate analytically and to evaluate numerically the corresponding geometric and inertial characteristics of all the segments of the body. In the framework of the first approach, we calculated the positions of the centres of mass of the segments of human body as well as their inertial characteristics merely by using the initial original anthropometrical data, while in the second approach we adjusted the data by using the method based on regression equations. Wherever possible, we presented a comparison of our data with those available in the literature on other Caucasians and determined in which cases the use of which approach is more reliable.

  4. Non-Perturbative Calculation of the Scalar Yukawa Theory in Four-Body Truncation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yang; Maris, P; Vary, James P

    2014-01-01

    The scalar Yukawa theory is solved in the light-front Tamm-Dancoff approach including up to four constituents (one scalar nucleon, three scalar pions). The Fock sector dependent renormalization is implemented. By studying the Fock sector norms, we find that the lowest two Fock sectors dominate the state even in the large-coupling region. The one-body sector shows convergence with respect to the Fock sector truncation. However, the four-body norm exceeds the three-body norm at the coupling $\\alpha \\approx 1.7$.

  5. Changes in ponderal index and body mass index across childhood and their associations with fat mass and cardiovascular risk factors at age 15.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D Howe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about whether associations between childhood adiposity and later adverse cardiovascular health outcomes are driven by tracking of overweight from childhood to adulthood and/or by vascular and metabolic changes from childhood overweight that persist into adulthood. Our objective is to characterise associations between trajectories of adiposity across childhood and a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors measured in adolescence, and explore the extent to which these are mediated by fat mass at age 15. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we estimated individual trajectories of ponderal index (PI from 0-2 years and BMI from 2-10 years using random-effects linear spline models (N = 4601. We explored associations between PI/BMI trajectories and DXA-determined total-body fat-mass and cardiovascular risk factors at 15 years (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin with and without adjustment for confounders. Changes in PI/BMI during all periods of infancy and childhood were associated with greater DXA-determined fat-mass at age 15. BMI changes in childhood, but not PI changes from 0-2 years, were associated with most cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence; associations tended to be strongest for BMI changes in later childhood (ages 8.5-10, and were largely mediated by fat mass at age 15. CONCLUSION: Changes in PI/BMI from 0-10 years were associated with greater fat-mass at age 15. Greater increases in BMI from age 8.5-10 years are most strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors at age 15, with much of these associations mediated by fat-mass at this age. We found little evidence supporting previous reports that rapid PI changes in infancy are associated with future cardiovascular risk. This study suggests that associations between early overweight and subsequent

  6. Calculation of effective dose in whole body in dependence of angle of collimator for photon fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuenzalida, M. [Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco (Chile). Programa de Magister en Fisica Medica; Varon, C.; Piriz, G.; Banguero, Y.; Lozano, E.; Mancilla, C., E-mail: fisicamedica@incancer.c [Instituto Nacional del Cancer, Santiago (Chile). Unidad de Fisica Medica

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain quantifiable data of whole body effective dose for photons fields of 6 MV and 18 MV in function of the collimator angle of a Varian Clinac 21EX lineal accelerator. It has been made a variety of studies which investigate the form to reduce the dose in whole body with photons fields, specially over the potential risks and the influence of the collimator angle, as performed Stanthakis et al. [1] with the Monte Carlo method. As a result of this work, the values of whole body effective doses are higher with a 0 deg collimator than with a 90 deg collimator, and as the field size increases, the effective doses difference in whole body, between 0 deg and 90 deg collimator angle, for both energies, becomes smaller. (author)

  7. Childhood body mass index and risk of schizophrenia in relation to childhood age, sex and age of first contact with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H J; Gamborg, M; Sørensen, T I A

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Childhood leanness is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia, but the effects of gender, age at anthropometric measurements and age at first diagnosis on this relationship are unclear. The present study aimed at elucidating these associations. METHODS: Population-based coh......, but with a particular high risk of late-onset in lean boys irrespective of birth weight, and in lean girls with low birth weight. If replicated, these observations may inform preventive efforts build on schizophrenia trajectories rooted in early life......., a surprisingly strong association was found between leanness and later onset of schizophrenia. In girls, the risk of schizophrenia decreased linearly with increasing BMI z-score (HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.88-0.98). In both boys and girls, birth weight was inversely associated with later risk. In girls, but not in boys......, birth weight appeared to significantly modify the associations; there was a somewhat stronger inverse association in the lowest birth weight category. CONCLUSION: Birth weight as well as childhood BMI at ages 7 through 13 years is associated with risk of schizophrenia in both genders...

  8. Evaluation of algorithms for calculating bioimpedance phase angle values from measured whole-body impedance modulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbotten, Bernt J; Tronstad, Christian; Martinsen, Ørjan G; Grimnes, Sverre

    2011-07-01

    This paper addresses the problem of calculating the bioimpedance phase angle from measurements of impedance modulus. A complete impedance measurement was performed on altogether 20 healthy persons using a Solatron 1260/1294 system. The obtained impedance modulus (absolute impedance value) values were used to calculate the Cole parameters and from them the phase angles. In addition, the phase angles were also calculated using a Kramers-Kronig approach. A correlation analysis for all subjects at each frequency (5, 50, 100 and 200 kHz) for both methods gave R(2) values ranging from 0.7 to 0.96 for the Cole approach and from 0.83 to 0.96 for the Kramers-Kronig approach; thus, both methods gave good results compared with the complete measurement results. From further statistical significance testing of the absolute value of the difference between measured and calculated phase angles, it was found that the Cole equation method gave significantly better agreement for the 50 and 100 kHz frequencies. In addition, the Cole equation method gives the four Cole parameters (R(0), R(∞), τ(z) and α) using measurements at frequencies up to 200 kHz while the Kramers-Kronig method used frequencies up to 500 kHz to reduce the effect of truncation on the calculated results. Both methods gave results that can be used for further bioimpedance calculations, thus improving the application potential of bioimpedance measurement results obtained using relatively inexpensive and portable measurement equipment.

  9. Escaping the correction for body surface area when calculating glomerular filtration rate in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, Amy; Tondeur, Marianne [CHU St. Pierre, Department of Radioisotopes, Brussels (Belgium); Ham, Hamphrey [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-09-15

    {sup 51}Cr ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid ({sup 51}Cr EDTA) clearance is nowadays considered as an accurate and reproducible method for measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. Normal values in function of age, corrected for body surface area, have been recently updated. However, much criticism has been expressed about the validity of body surface area correction. The aim of the present paper was to present the normal GFR values, not corrected for body surface area, with the associated percentile curves. For that purpose, the same patients as in the previous paper were selected, namely those with no recent urinary tract infection, having a normal left to right {sup 99m}Tc MAG3 uptake ratio and a normal kidney morphology on the early parenchymal images. A single blood sample method was used for {sup 51}Cr EDTA clearance measurement. Clearance values, not corrected for body surface area, increased progressively up to the adolescence. The percentile curves were determined and allow, for a single patient, to estimate accurately the level of non-corrected clearance and the evolution with time, whatever the age. (orig.)

  10. Effect of the calculation methods on body moment of inertia estimations in individuals of different morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damavandi, Mohsen; Barbier, Franck; Leboucher, Julien; Farahpour, Nader; Allard, Paul

    2009-09-01

    Body segment moments of inertia (MOI) are estimated from data obtained from cadavers or living individuals. Though these methods can be valid for the general population, they usually are limited when applied to special populations (e.g., obese). The effect of two geometric methods, photogrammetry and two new methods, namely, inverse dynamics and angular momentum on the estimations of MOI in individuals of different body mass index (BMI) were compared to gain insight into their relative accuracy. The de Leva (1996) method was chosen as a criterion to determine how these methods behaved. MOI methods were not different in individuals with a normal BMI. On the average, MOI values obtained with inverse dynamics and angular momentum were respectively 13.2% lower for lean participants and 17.9% higher for obese subjects than those obtained from the de Leva method. The average Pearson coefficients of correlation between the MOI values, estimated by the de Leva method, and the other methods was 0.76 (+/-0.31). Since the proposed methods made no assumption on the mass distribution and segments' geometry, they appeared to be more sensitive to body morphology changes to estimate whole body MOI values in lean and obese subjects.

  11. The statistical distributed source boundary point method to calculate the acoustic radiation from the random vibrating body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGXiufeng; CHENXinzhao; LIUZhao

    2003-01-01

    The statistical distributed source boundary point method (SDSBPM) put forward is applied to calculate the acoustic radiation from the random vibrating body. A detailed description of this method is presented. A test for the SDSBPM is carried out through the random vibrating sphere and the random vibrating cuboid. An experiment on the exterior acoustic radiation of a random vibrating simulation axial box of the lathe tool is performed in a semi-anechoic chamber.

  12. $\\it{Ab}$ $\\it{initio}$ nuclear many-body perturbation calculations in the Hartree-Fock basis

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Baishan; Sun, Zhonghao; Vary, James P; Li, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Starting from realistic nuclear forces, the chiral N$^3$LO and JISP16, we have applied many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) to the structure of closed-shell nuclei, $^4$He and $^{16}$O. The two-body N$^3$LO interaction is softened by a similarity renormalization group transformation while JISP16 is adopted without renormalization. The MBPT calculations are performed within the Hartree-Fock (HF) bases. The angular momentum coupled scheme is used, which can reduce the computational task. Corrections up to the third order in energy and up to the second order in radius are evaluated. Higher-order corrections in the HF basis are small relative to the leading-order perturbative result. Using the anti-symmetrized Goldstone diagram expansions of the wave function, we directly correct the one-body density for the calculation of the radius, rather than calculate corrections to the occupation propabilities of single-particle orbits as found in other treatments. We compare our results with other methods where available a...

  13. Many-body effects on graphene conductivity: Quantum Monte Carlo calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyda, D. L.; Braguta, V. V.; Katsnelson, M. I.; Ulybyshev, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    Optical conductivity of graphene is studied using quantum Monte Carlo calculations. We start from a Euclidean current-current correlator and extract σ (ω ) from Green-Kubo relations using the Backus-Gilbert method. Calculations were performed both for long-range interactions and taking into account only the contact term. In both cases we vary interaction strength and study its influence on optical conductivity. We compare our results with previous theoretical calculations choosing ω ≈κ , thus working in the region of the plateau in σ (ω ) which corresponds to optical conductivity of Dirac quasiparticles. No dependence of optical conductivity on interaction strength is observed unless we approach the antiferromagnetic phase transition in the case of an artificially enhanced contact term. Our results strongly support previous theoretical studies that claimed very weak regularization of graphene conductivity.

  14. A multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention for childhood obesity : effects on body composition, exercise tolerance, quality of life and gut hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke Cathelijne

    2011-01-01

    The general aim of the studies described in this thesis is the effect evaluation of a family-based multidisciplinary cognitive behavioral treatment on several domains related to childhood obesity compared to standard care. The main findings from these studies are a modest long-term reduction of both

  15. Calculating two- and three-body decays with FeynArts and FormCalc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, M. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2002-10-01

    The Feynman diagram generator FeynArts and the computer algebra program FormCalc allow for an automatic computation of 2{yields}2 and 2{yields}3 scattering processes in High Energy Physics. We have extended this package by four new kinematical routines and adapted one existing routine in order to accomodate also two- and three-body decays of massive particles. This makes it possible to compute automatically tow- and three-body particle decay widths and decay energy distributions as well as resonant particle production within the Standard Model and the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model at the tree- and loop-level. The use of the program is illustrated with three standard examples: h{yields}bb, {mu} {yields} e{nu}{sub e}{nu}{sub {mu}}, and Z{yields} {nu}{sub e}{nu}{sub e}. (orig.)

  16. Quantum three-body calculation of the nonresonant triple-\\alpha reaction rate at low temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Ogata, Kazuyuki; Kamimura, Masayasu

    2009-01-01

    The triple-\\alpha reaction rate is re-evaluated by directly solving the three-body Schroedinger equation. The resonant and nonresonant processes are treated on the same footing using the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method for three-body scattering. Accurate description of the \\alpha-\\alpha nonresonant states significantly quenches the Coulomb barrier between the two-\\alpha's and the third \\alpha particle. Consequently, the \\alpha-\\alpha nonresonant continuum states below the resonance at 92.04 keV, i.e., the ground state of 8Be, give markedly larger contribution at low temperatures than in foregoing studies. We find about 20 orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the triple-\\alpha reaction rate around 10^7 K compared to the rate of the NACRE compilation.

  17. Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Rovira, S M; Inarejos Clemente, E J

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children; it can appear in any part of the body. Its biological behavior varies widely, and despite the absence of specific clinical or radiological characteristics, rhabdomyosarcoma should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of solid tumors in children. This review focuses primarily on the imaging findings and anatomical distribution of the histological subtypes of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and secondarily on the differential findings in histological studies.

  18. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative 2008: weight, height and body mass index in 6-9-year-old children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wijnhoven, T M A

    2012-09-21

    What is already known about this subject Overweight and obesity prevalence estimates among children based on International Obesity Task Force definitions are substantially lower than estimates based on World Health Organization definitions. Presence of a north-south gradient with the highest level of overweight found in southern European countries. Intercountry comparisons of overweight and obesity in primary-school children in Europe based on measured data lack a similar data collection protocol. What this study adds Unique dataset on overweight and obesity based on measured weights and heights in 6-9-year-old children from 12 European countries using a harmonized surveillance methodology. Because of the use of a consistent data collection protocol, it is possible to perform valid multiple comparisons between countries. It demonstrates wide variations in overweight and obesity prevalence estimates among primary-school children between European countries and regions. BACKGROUND: Nutritional surveillance in school-age children, using measured weight and height, is not common in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). The WHO Regional Office for Europe has therefore initiated the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. OBJECTIVE: To present the anthropometric results of data collected in 2007\\/2008 and to investigate whether there exist differences across countries and between the sexes. METHODS: Weight and height were measured in 6-9-year-old children in 12 countries. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, stunting, thinness and underweight as well as mean Z-scores of anthropometric indices of height, weight and body mass index were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 168 832 children were included in the analyses and a school participation rate of more than 95% was obtained in 8 out of 12 countries. Stunting, underweight and thinness were rarely prevalent. However, 19.3-49.0% of boys and 18.4-42.5% of girls were overweight (including

  19. Report on childhood obesity in China (5) Body weight, body dissatisfaction, and depression symptoms of Chinese children aged 9-10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.P.; Ma, G.S.; Schouten, E.G.; Hu, X.Q.; Cui, Z.H.; Wang, D.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between body weight, body dissatisfaction and depression symptoms among Chinese children. METHODS: The fasting body weight and height of the third and fourth grade students (n = 3886, aged 9 or 10 years) from 20 schools in Beijing, China, were measured, and the studen

  20. Many-body electronic structure calculations of Eu-doped ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorke, M.; Frauenheim, T.; da Rosa, A. L.

    2016-03-01

    The formation energies and electronic structure of europium-doped zinc oxide has been determined using DFT and many-body G W methods. In the absence of intrisic defects, we find that the europium-f states are located in the ZnO band gap with europium possessing a formal charge of 2+. On the other hand, the presence of intrinsic defects in ZnO allows intraband f -f transitions otherwise forbidden in atomic europium. This result corroborates with recently observed photoluminescence in the visible red region S. Geburt et al. [Nano Lett. 14, 4523 (2014), 10.1021/nl5015553].

  1. Calculation of convective heat transfer on highly blunt bodies at flow incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. P.

    1989-01-01

    An implicit finite-difference code is used to study three-dimensional viscous heat-conducting flows over the forebody of hypersonic vehicles. In the method, adaptive grids are generated to the shock and body contour, and local flow gradients and total enthalpy are used to control numerical dissipation. Typical axisymmetric configurations of a sphere, ellipsoid, and flat-face disk are considered, along with the cases of a blunt 70-deg cone at 0 and 20 deg flow incidences and an asymmetric 60-deg cone raked off at a 73-deg angle.

  2. Calculation of body-centered-cubic lattice sums with an application to ferromagnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintucky, E. G.

    1972-01-01

    The lattice sums for the bcc lattice are recalculated using the method of Flax and Raich to obtain more general expressions, valid for all temperatures, in terms of a Langevin function and its derivatives. Formulas are presented which enable easy numerical evaluation. A comparison with well-known low-temperature expansions and with the results of direct numerical integration demonstrates the validity at low temperatures of the more general expressions calculated here.

  3. A Method for Calculation of Low-Frequency Slow Drift Motions Based on NURBS for Floating Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-xi; REN Hui-long

    2009-01-01

    Through a higher-order boundary element method based on NURBS (Non-uniform Rational B-splines), the calcula-tion of second-order low-frequency forces and slow drift motions is conducted for floating bodies. In the floating body's in-ner domain, an auxiliary equation is obtained by applying a Green function which satisfies the solid surface condition. Then, the auxiliary equation and the velocity potential equation are combined in the fluid domain to remove the solid an-gle coefficient and the singularity of the double layer potentials in the integral equation. Thus, a new velocity potential in-tegral equation is obtained. The new equation is extended to the inner domain to relieve the irregular frequency effects; on the basis of the order analysis, the comparison is made about the contribution of all integral terms with the result in the second-order low-frequency problem; the higher-order boundary element method based on NURBS is applied to calculate the geometric position and velocity potentials; the slow drift motions are calculated by the spectrum analysis method. Re-moving the solid angle coefficient can apply NURBS technology to the hydrodyynaic calculation of floating bodies with complex surfaces, and the extended boundary integral method can reduce the irregular frequency effects. Order analysis shows that free surface integral can be neglected, and the numerical results can also prove the correctness of order analy-sis. The results of second-order low-frequency forces and slow drift motions and the comparison with the results from ref-erences show that the application of the NURBS technology to the second-order low-frequeney problem is of high efficiency and credible results.

  4. Model of horizontal stress in the Aigion10 well (Corinth) calculated from acoustic body waves

    CERN Document Server

    Rousseau, A

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we try to deduce the in situ stresses from the monopole acoustic waves of the well AIG10 between 689 and 1004 meters in depth (Corinth Golf). This borehole crosses competent sedimentary formations (mainly limestone), and the active Aigion fault between 769 and 780 meters in depth. This study is the application of two methods previously described by the author who shows the relationships between in situ horizontal stresses, and (i) the presence or absence of double body waves, (ii) the amplitude ratios between S and P waves (Rousseau, 2005a,b). The full waveforms of this well exhibit two distinct domains separated by the Aigion fault. Within the upper area the three typical waves (P, S and Stoneley) may appear, but the S waves are not numerous, and there is no double body wave, whereas within the lower area there are sometimes double P waves, but no S waves. From those observations, we conclude that the stress domain is isotropic above the Aigion fault, and anisotropic below, which is consistent ...

  5. Ab initio geometry and bright excitation of carotenoids: Quantum Monte Carlo and Many Body Green's Function Theory calculations on peridinin

    CERN Document Server

    Coccia, Emanuele; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In this letter we report the singlet ground state structure of the full carotenoid peridinin by means of variational Monte Carlo (VMC) calculations. The VMC relaxed geometry has an average bond length alternation of 0.1165(10) {\\AA}, larger than the values obtained by DFT (PBE, B3LYP and CAM-B3LYP) and shorter than that calculated at the Hartree-Fock (HF) level. TDDFT and EOM-CCSD calculations on a reduced peridinin model confirm the HOMO-LUMO major contribution of the Bu+-like (S2) bright excited state. Many Body Green's Function Theory (MBGFT) calculations of the vertical excitation energy of the Bu+-like state for the VMC structure (VMC/MBGFT) provide excitation energy of 2.62 eV, in agreement with experimental results in n-hexane (2.72 eV). The dependence of the excitation energy on the bond length alternation in the MBGFT and TDDFT calculations with different functionals is discussed.

  6. Calculation of three-body nuclear reactions with angular-momentum and parity-dependent optical potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Deltuva, A

    2016-01-01

    Angular-momentum or parity-dependent nonlocal optical potentials for nucleon-${}^{16}\\mathrm{O}$ scattering able to fit differential cross section data over the whole angular regime are developed and applied to the description of deuteron-${}^{16}\\mathrm{O}$ scattering in the framework of three-body Faddeev-type equations for transition operators. Differential cross sections and deuteron analyzing powers for elastic scattering and ${}^{16}\\mathrm{O}(d,p){}^{17}\\mathrm{O}$ transfer reactions are calculated using a number of local and nonlocal optical potentials and compared with experimental data. Angular-momentum or parity-dependence of the optical potential turns out to be quite irrelevant in the considered three-body reactions while nonlocality is essential for a successful description of the differential cross section data, especially in transfer reactions.

  7. Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model Calculations Using Realistic Two- and Three-Body Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Forssen, C; Caurier, E

    2004-11-30

    There has been significant progress in the ab initio approaches to the structure of light nuclei. One such method is the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM). Starting from realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions this method can predict low-lying levels in p-shell nuclei. In this contribution, we present a brief overview of the NCSM with examples of recent applications. We highlight our study of the parity inversion in {sup 11}Be, for which calculations were performed in basis spaces up to 9{Dirac_h}{Omega} (dimensions reaching 7 x 10{sup 8}). We also present our latest results for the p-shell nuclei using the Tucson-Melbourne TM three-nucleon interaction with several proposed parameter sets.

  8. Simultaneous description of conductance and thermopower in single-molecule junctions from many-body ab initio calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Chengjun; Markussen, Troels; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the electronic conductance and thermopower of a single-molecule junction consisting of bis-(4-aminophenyl) acetylene (B4APA) connected to gold electrodes. We use nonequilibrium Green's function methods in combination with density-functional theory (DFT) and the many-body GW...... approximation. To simulate recent break junction experiments, we calculate the transport properties of the junction as it is pulled apart. For all junction configurations, DFT with a standard semilocal functional overestimates the conductance by almost an order of magnitude, while the thermopower...

  9. Calculation of Elastic Constants of Ag/Pd Superlattice Thin Films by Molecular Dynamics with Many-Body Potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ning; LAI Wen-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ The calculation of elastic constants of Ag/Pd superlattice thin films by molecular dynamics simulations with many-body potentials is presented. It reveals that the elastic constants C11 and C55 increase with decreasing modulation wavelength A of the films, which is consistent with experiments. However, the change of C11 and C55 with A is found to be around the values determined by a rule of mixture using bulk elastic constants of metals.No supermodulus effect is observed and it is due to cancellation between enhanced and reduced contributions to elastic constants from Ag and Pd layers subjected to compressive and tensile strains, respectively.

  10. QCD sum rule calculation of quark-gluon three-body components in the B-meson wave function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    2011-10-01

    We discuss the QCD sum rule calculation of the heavy-quark effective theory parameters λE and λH, which represent quark-gluon three-body components in the B-meson wave function. We update the sum rules for λE,H calculating the new higher-order contributions to the operator product expansion for the corresponding correlator, i.e., the order αs radiative corrections to the Wilson coefficients associated with the dimension-5 quark-gluon mixed condensate, and the power corrections due to the dimension-6 vacuum condensates. We find that the new radiative corrections significantly improve stability of the corresponding Borel sum rules, modifying the values of λE,H.

  11. Disability, body image and sports/physical activity in adult survivors of childhood CNS tumors: population-based outcomes from a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Krister K; Hörnquist, Lina; De Graaff, Lisanne; Rickardsson, Jenny; Lannering, Birgitta; Gustafsson, Göran

    2013-03-01

    Childhood CNS tumor survivors risk health and functional impairments that threaten normal psychological development and self-perception. This study investigated the extent to which health and functional ability predict adult survivors' body image (BI) and self-confidence regarding sports and physical activity. The study cohort covered 708 eligible ≥ 18 year old CNS tumor survivors, and data from 528 (75 %) were analyzed. Disability was estimated using the Health Utilities Index™ Mark2/3, a multidimensional self-report instrument. Physical self-confidence in terms of BI and sports/physical activity-related self-confidence (SPAS) were assessed using the BI and the Sports/Athletics modules of a standardized self-report assessment scale. In adjusted regression models, global health and functional status (GHFS) predicted BI (B = 0.94, 95 % CI 0.69-1.19) and SPAS (B = 0.79, 95 % CI 0.55-1.04). Emotion and pain, and to a lesser degree cognition, speech and vision disability, were associated with poorer BI and SPAS. Gender, sub-diagnosis, and time since diagnosis influenced the relationship between health status and physical self-confidence outcomes. Females had poorer GHFS, BI and SPAS than males. Decreased health and functional ability following childhood CNS cancer intrudes on physical self-confidence, with females being at heightened risk for both disability and negative self-confidence. Identified disability and gender-related risk calls for a follow-up plan that integrates treatment of psychological sequelae in lifetime monitoring of childhood CNS tumor survivors to restore and protect self-image and self-confidence, essential mental health correlates. An expanded plan should recognize the need for such services, optimizing life-long quality of survival for CNS tumor survivors.

  12. Electronic structure and metallization of cubic GdH3 under pressure: Ab initio many-body GW calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Bo; Zhang, Yachao

    2016-07-01

    The electronic structures of the cubic GdH3 are extensively investigated using the ab initio many-body GW calculations treating the Gd 4f electrons either in the core (4f-core) or in the valence states (4f-val). Different degrees of quasiparticle (QP) self-consistent calculations with the different starting points are used to correct the failures of the GGA/GGA + U/HSE03 calculations. In the 4f-core case, GGA + G0W0 calculations give a fundamental band gap of 1.72 eV, while GGA+ GW0 or GGA + GW calculations present a larger band gap. In the 4f-val case, the nonlocal exchange-correlation (xc) functional HSE03 can account much better for the strong localization of the 4f states than the semilocal or Hubbard U corrected xc functional in the Kohn-Sham equation. We show that the fundamental gap of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) or ferromagnetic (FM) GdH3 can be opened up by solving the QP equation with improved starting point of eigenvalues and wave functions given by HSE03. The HSE03 + G0W0 calculations present a fundamental band gap of 2.73 eV in the AFM configuration, and the results of the corresponding GW0 and GW calculations are 2.89 and 3.03 eV, respectively. In general, for the cubic structure, the fundamental gap from G0W0 calculations in the 4f-core case is the closest to the real result. By G0W0 calculations in the 4f-core case, we find that H or Gd defects can strongly affect the band structure, especially the H defects. We explain the mechanism in terms of the possible electron correlation on the hydrogen site. Under compression, the insulator-to-metal transition in the cubic GdH3 occurs around 40 GPa, which might be a satisfied prediction.

  13. Effects of parent-only childhood obesity prevention programs on BMIz and body image in rural preteens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Galen; Paul, Lynn; Bailey, Sandra J; Ashe, Carrie Benke; Martz, Jill; Lynch, Wesley

    2016-03-01

    This experiment compared body image (BI) and BMI changes resulting from two parent-only obesity prevention interventions aimed at 8-12 year olds. Parents in the experimental intervention attended ten face-to-face educational sessions, while parents in the minimal (control) intervention received similar mailed information. Parent-child dyads (N=150) were semi-randomly assigned to intervention groups. Children were assessed before, after, and 6 months following the interventions; children did not attend experimental intervention sessions. Child BI assessments included weight and size perception, weight management goals, body esteem, and appearance attitudes. Significant effects included small decreases in BMIz scores and overweight dissatisfaction, as well as improvements in aspects of body esteem and appearance attitudes. Some BI effects were gender-specific. Decreases in overweight dissatisfaction were greater following the experimental treatment. Neither treatment reduced body size misperception. Thus, parent-only obesity prevention interventions can reduce body weight and body image concerns among rural preteens.

  14. Maternal anthropometry and feeding behavior toward preschool children: association with childhood body mass index in an observational study of Chilean families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corvalán Camila

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the link between eating behavior and maternal feeding practices with childhood and maternal weight status is of great interest. Objective To assess the association between childhood anthropometric measures with mothers' Body Mass Index (BMI and their feeding practices toward preschool children in Chile. Methods 1029 children (504 boys, 4.3 ± 0.3 years and their mothers were selected from public nurseries located in low income neighborhoods in Santiago. Mothers' BMI, children's BMI and waist-to-height ratios were registered. Maternal feeding practices towards their children's nutritional habits were measured using an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ. Results We found a direct correlation (p Conclusion Mothers' BMI and children's BMI z-scores are highly correlated. We found significant associations between mothers' behaviour subscales and children's BMI z-score. It is not possible to establish a causal link between mother's CFQ scores and children's nutritional status, given the cross-sectional nature of this study and the bidirectional influences that exist between mothers and their children.

  15. Dose conversion coefficients for electron exposure of the human eye lens: calculations including a whole body phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, R

    2013-07-01

    In this work, conversion coefficients from electron fluence to absorbed dose to the eye lens were calculated using Monte Carlo simulations based on a detailed stylised eye model and a very simple but whole body phantom. These data supersede and complement data published earlier based on the simulation of only a single stylised eye. The new data differ from the old ones by not more than 3, 4, 7 and 16 % for angles of radiation incidence of α=0°, 15°, 30° and 45°, respectively, due to the inclusion of the whole body phantom. The data presented in the present work also complement those of a recent report of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (ICRP Publication 116), where conversion coefficients from electron fluence to absorbed dose to the lens of the eye are shown for solely 0°, 180° and isotropic radiation incidence (but for a much broader range of energies). In this article, values are provided for angles of incidence of 0° up to 180° in steps of 15° and for rotational geometry; no systematic deviation was observed from the values given in ICRP Publication 116 for 0° (based on the application of a bare eye) and 180° (based on the application of a voxel whole body phantom). Data are given for monoenergetic electrons from 0.1 up to 10 MeV and for a broad parallel beam geometry in vacuum.

  16. A general procedure to evaluate many-body spin operator amplitudes from periodic calculations: application to cuprates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Iberio de P R [Departament de Quimica Fisica and Institut de Quimica Teorica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona and Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, C/ MartI i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Calzado, Carmen J [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, C/ Prof. GarcIa Gonzalez s/n, E-41012 Sevilla (Spain); Malrieu, Jean-Paul [IRSAMC, Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 Route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse-Cedex (France); Illas, Francesc [Departament de Quimica Fisica and Institut de Quimica Teorica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona and Parc CientIfic de Barcelona, C/ MartI i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    A general procedure is presented which permits the form of an extended spin Hamiltonian to be established for a given magnetic solid and the magnitude of its terms to be evaluated from spin polarized, Hartree-Fock or density functional calculations carried out for periodic models. The computational strategy makes use of a general mapping between the energy of pertinent broken-symmetry solutions and the diagonal terms of the spin Hamiltonian in a local representation. From this mapping it is possible to determine not only the amplitude of the well-known two-body magnetic coupling constants between near-neighbor sites, but also the amplitudes of four-body cyclic exchange terms. A scrutiny of the on-site spin densities provides additional information and control of the many broken-symmetry solutions which can be found. The procedure is applied to the La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}, Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}F{sub 2}, Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} square lattices and the SrCu{sub 2}O{sub 3} ladder compound. It is shown that a proper description of the magnetic structure of these compounds requires that two- and four-body terms are explicitly included in the spin Hamiltonian. The implications for the interpretation of recent experiments are discussed.

  17. HFOLD - A program package for calculating two-body MSSM Higgs decays at full one-loop level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, W; Eberl, H; Hluchá, H

    2011-10-01

    HFOLD (Higgs Full One Loop Decays) is a Fortran program package for calculating all MSSM Higgs two-body decay widths and the corresponding branching ratios at full one-loop level. The package is done in the SUSY Parameter Analysis convention and supports the SUSY Les Houches Accord input and output format. PROGRAM SUMMARY: Program title: HFOLD Catalogue identifier: AEJG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJG_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 340 621 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 760 051 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer: Workstation, PC Operating system: Linux RAM: 524 288 000 Bytes Classification: 11.1 External routines: LoopTools 2.2 (http://www.feynarts.de/looptools/), SLHALib 2.2 (http://www.feynarts.de/slha/). The LoopTools code is included in the distribution package. Nature of problem: A future high-energy e+e- linear collider will be the best environment for the precise measurements of masses, cross sections, branching ratios, etc. Experimental accuracies are expected at the per-cent down to the per-mile level. These must be matched from the theoretical side. Therefore higher order calculations are mandatory. Solution method: This program package calculates all MSSM Higgs two-body decay widths and the corresponding branching ratios at full one-loop level. The renormalization is done in the DR scheme following the SUSY Parameter Analysis convention. The program supports the SUSY Les Houches Accord input and output format. Running time: The example provided takes only a few seconds to run.

  18. Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wefstaedt Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS- model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. Methods The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT- and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI- data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. Results and Discussion As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. Conclusion In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in

  19. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (5) Body Weight, Body Dissatisfaction, and Depression Symptoms of Chinese Children Aged 9-10 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN-PING LI; GUAN-SHENG MA; EVERT G. SCHOUTEN; XIAO-QI HU; ZHAO-HUI CUI; DONG WANG; FRANS J. KOK

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between body weight, body dissatisfaction and depression symptoms among Chinese children. Methods The fasting body weight and height of the third and fourth grade students (n=3886, aged 9 or 10years) from 20 schools in Beijing, China, were measured, and the students were asked to choose the figures of body image and to complete the self-reported children's depression inventory (CDI) questionnaire. Results The CDI Cronbach's alpha was 0.81. The total CDI score was 9.60±7.50, 13.2% of children (boys 16.7% vs girls 9.5%) were at risk of developing depression symptoms. Overweight girls, but not boys, had significantly higher total CDI score than their normal weight counteparts. Both obese girls and boys showed a higher negative self-esteem score. More than one fifth underweight girls still wanted to be thinner while more than one third obese boys still wanted to be heavier. Children who wanted to be thinner showed slightly higher scores of ineffectiveness and negative self-esteem. After introducing the body dissatisfaction into the model, overweight was still associated with total CDI score among girls and obesity was still associated with negative self-esteem among both boys and girls. Conclusion Overweight girls show a significantly higher depression symptom score than their normal weight counterparts, which maybe partially explained by body dissatisfaction. Obese boys and girls are both more likely to suffer from low self-esteem, which is partially explained by body dissatisfaction.

  20. TIMED: a computer program for calculating cumulated activity of a radionuclide in the organs of the human body at a given time, t, after deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, S.B.; Snyder, W.S.; Ford, M.R.

    1976-12-01

    TIMED is a computer program designed to calculate cumulated radioactivity in the various source organs at various times after radionuclide deposition. TIMED embodies a system of differential equations which describes activity transfer in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs of the body. This system accounts for delay of transfer of activity between compartments of the body and radioactive daughters.

  1. Substituting sugar-sweetened beverages with water or milk is inversely associated with body fatness development from childhood to adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Olsen, Nanna Julie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between different types of beverage intake and substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by water, milk, or 100% fruit juice in relation to 6-y change in body fatness. METHODS: A cohort of 9-y-old children (N = 358) who...... with changes in BMIz (β = -0.05; P = 0.02), WC (β = -0.33; P = 0.046), and Σ4SF (β = -0.79; P = 0.06). No effect was observed for substitution of SSB by 100% fruit juice. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that SSB intake is associated with long-term changes in body fatness in children, and replacing SSBs...... with water or milk, but not 100% fruit juice, is inversely associated with body fatness development....

  2. Trabalho corporal na educação infantil: afinal, quem deve realizá-lo? Body work in early childhood education: finally who should actually achieve it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Jorge Saad Guirra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A educação infantil constitui-se no momento em que as crianças internalizam importantes conhecimentos que as auxiliarão para o resto de suas vidas, influenciando na sua formação e em suas práticas. O presente artigo reflete sobre o professor generalista, responsável pelo trabalho corporal, na educação infantil, de quais conhecimentos dispõe para desenvolver tal tarefa e como vê a importância desse trabalho para as crianças; aborda, ainda, segundo pesquisa realizada, a possível necessidade de um professor especialista na área para trabalhar o movimento e faz um questionamento sobre a preparação desse profissional para lidar com crianças de educação infantil. Conclui o presente, dialogando com essas questões e abrindo uma discussão sobre a possibilidade de um trabalho desses dois profissionais, em parceria, no sentido de garantir à criança, uma educação mais específica e que auxilie no seu desenvolvimento integral,Early childhood education is at the moment that the children internalize important knowledge that help the rest of their lives, influencing its formation and its practices. This article reflects on the teacher generalist, responsible for working on body movement with the children in early childhood education, which has expertise to develop such a task and sees the importance of this work for children, also discusses the second survey conducted, the possible need for a specialist teacher to work in the movement and is a question on the preparation of this work to deal with children in early childhood education. This article concludes the dialogue with these issues and open a discussion about the possibility of these two professionals work in partnership to ensure the child a more specific education and to help in its full development.

  3. Force field development for actinyl ions via quantum mechanical calculations: an approach to account for many body solvation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Neeraj; Tiwari, Surya P; Maginn, Edward J

    2012-09-06

    Advances in computational algorithms and methodologies make it possible to use highly accurate quantum mechanical calculations to develop force fields (pair-wise additive intermolecular potentials) for condensed phase simulations. Despite these advances, this approach faces numerous hurdles for the case of actinyl ions, AcO2(n+) (high-oxidation-state actinide dioxo cations), mainly due to the complex electronic structure resulting from an interplay of s, p, d, and f valence orbitals. Traditional methods use a pair of molecules (“dimer”) to generate a potential energy surface (PES) for force field parametrization based on the assumption that many body polarization effects are negligible. We show that this is a poor approximation for aqueous phase uranyl ions and present an alternative approach for the development of actinyl ion force fields that includes important many body solvation effects. Force fields are developed for the UO2(2+) ion with the SPC/Fw, TIP3P, TIP4P, and TIP5P water models and are validated by carrying out detailed molecular simulations on the uranyl aqua ion, one of the most characterized actinide systems. It is shown that the force fields faithfully reproduce available experimental structural data and hydration free energies. Failure to account for solvation effects when generating PES leads to overbinding between UO2(2+) and water, resulting in incorrect hydration free energies and coordination numbers. A detailed analysis of arrangement of water molecules in the first and second solvation shell of UO2(2+) is presented. The use of a simple functional form involving the sum of Lennard-Jones + Coulomb potentials makes the new force field compatible with a large number of available molecular simulation engines and common force fields.

  4. Accurate and efficient quantum chemistry calculations for noncovalent interactions in many-body systems: the XSAPT family of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Ka Un; Herbert, John M

    2015-01-15

    We present an overview of "XSAPT", a family of quantum chemistry methods for noncovalent interactions. These methods combine an efficient, iterative, monomer-based approach to computing many-body polarization interactions with a two-body version of symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT). The result is an efficient method for computing accurate intermolecular interaction energies in large noncovalent assemblies such as molecular and ionic clusters, molecular crystals, clathrates, or protein-ligand complexes. As in traditional SAPT, the XSAPT energy is decomposable into physically meaningful components. Dispersion interactions are problematic in traditional low-order SAPT, and two new approaches are introduced here in an attempt to improve this situation: (1) third-generation empirical atom-atom dispersion potentials, and (2) an empirically scaled version of second-order SAPT dispersion. Comparison to high-level ab initio benchmarks for dimers, water clusters, halide-water clusters, a methane clathrate hydrate, and a DNA intercalation complex illustrate both the accuracy of XSAPT-based methods as well as their limitations. The computational cost of XSAPT scales as O(N(3))-O(N(5)) with respect to monomer size, N, depending upon the particular version that is employed, but the accuracy is typically superior to alternative ab initio methods with similar scaling. Moreover, the monomer-based nature of XSAPT calculations makes them trivially parallelizable, such that wall times scale linearly with respect to the number of monomer units. XSAPT-based methods thus open the door to both qualitative and quantitative studies of noncovalent interactions in clusters, biomolecules, and condensed-phase systems.

  5. Nutrition in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolo, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    Childhood is the stage in a human’s life associated with growth and development. Growth proceeds rapidly in early life, slows down in middle childhood and accelerates at puberty before linear growth ceases. With increasing age there is also physical and psychomotor maturation, which influences activity, body composition, feeding skills and food choices (Geissler, 2011). Adequate nutrition is essential for growth, health and development of children. Poor nutrition in...

  6. "DANCE RHYMES" AS A PEDAGOGICAL METHOD FOR FOSTERING BODY SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE OF CULTURAL TRADITION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD DANCE EDUCATION IN ISRAEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari KATZ-ZICHRONY

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching dance in early childhood education in the National-Religious community is a relatively new phenomenon in Israeli society. This article describes one teaching practice "Dance Rhymes". The research is based on ethnographic observation of dance classes in schools. Through analysis of the rhyming method, this article illustrates how traditional dance teachers have formed a unique method of "dance rhyming" that is used to foster body skills and bridge the divide between Jewish tradition and dance."DANCE RHYMES" CA METODĂ DE FORMARE A COMPETENŢELOR MOTRICE ŞI VALORIFICARE A TRADIŢIILOR CULTURALE LA ETAPA EDUCAŢIEI TIMPURII ÎN ISRAELPredarea dansului la etapa educaţiei timpurii în comunităţi religioase este un fenomen relativ nou pentru societatea israeliană. "Dance Rhymes" este descris din perspectiva practicii educaţionale: valorificarea demersului etnografic şi a demersului metodologic privind "Dance Rhymes" ca metodă de formare a competenţelor motrice (coregrafice şi redu­cerea discrepanţei dintre tradiţia evreiască şi arta coregrafică.

  7. A common variant in the FTO gene is associated with body mass index and predisposes to childhood and adult obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayling, Timothy M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Weedon, Michael N; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Freathy, Rachel M; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Perry, John R B; Elliott, Katherine S; Lango, Hana; Rayner, Nigel W; Shields, Beverley; Harries, Lorna W; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Ellard, Sian; Groves, Christopher J; Knight, Bridget; Patch, Ann-Marie; Ness, Andrew R; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Ring, Susan M; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Sovio, Ulla; Bennett, Amanda J; Melzer, David; Ferrucci, Luigi; Loos, Ruth J F; Barroso, Inês; Wareham, Nicholas J; Karpe, Fredrik; Owen, Katharine R; Cardon, Lon R; Walker, Mark; Hitman, Graham A; Palmer, Colin N A; Doney, Alex S F; Morris, Andrew D; Smith, George Davey; Hattersley, Andrew T; McCarthy, Mark I

    2007-05-11

    Obesity is a serious international health problem that increases the risk of several common diseases. The genetic factors predisposing to obesity are poorly understood. A genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes-susceptibility genes identified a common variant in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene that predisposes to diabetes through an effect on body mass index (BMI). An additive association of the variant with BMI was replicated in 13 cohorts with 38,759 participants. The 16% of adults who are homozygous for the risk allele weighed about 3 kilograms more and had 1.67-fold increased odds of obesity when compared with those not inheriting a risk allele. This association was observed from age 7 years upward and reflects a specific increase in fat mass.

  8. CALCULATION OF FIELDS IN A COMBINED INDUCTOR SYSTEM AS A TOOLS OF STRAIGHTENING OF METAL COATING OF CAR BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Voloncevich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper construction of combined inductor system realizing the principle of superposition of circular and plane-parallel magnetic fields is proposed. This inductor system is the instrument of external straightening of dents in the metal coating of car body. The use of low-frequency plane-parallel magnetic field instead of a high-frequency magnetic field to create conditions for the transformation of the natural repulsion to attraction of sheet conductor is suggested. The low-frequency field is generated by inductor system by dint of flat circular turn. The plane-parallel magnetic field is generated by a rectangular turn. The low-frequency field penetrates the sheet workpiece in the construct. The theory and experiment indicate that plane-parallel magnetic field doesn’t diffuse almost. Conclusion calculated ratios to analyze the processes of magnetic pulse attraction in the system based on the solution of Maxwell's equations for non-zero intensity components of the electromagnetic field. The Maxwell's equations are transformed by Laplace zero initial conditions. In this case the integral sinus-transformation Fourier are applied. The problem is solved in the plane-wave approximation. Valid for plane waves directly proportional relationship between the tangent vector components of the electromagnetic field on the surface of conductor. For the analysis of processes in combined inductor system for a magnetic-pulsed «pulling» a predetermined part of the metal sheet were obtained the population of calculated expressions. The magnetic pressure on the metal sheet is caused by force action on the part of the excited fields. It is determined solely amplitude of penetrate field and is directed towards the working surface of the inductor. Finally, there is a predetermined part of the attraction of the sheet metal. The operating frequency of the plane-parallel field can be quite small. This choice doesn’t influence the diffusion processes in the

  9. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: body mass index and level of overweight among 6-9-year-old children from school year 2007/2008 to school year 2009/2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wijnhoven, Trudy Ma

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has established the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) to monitor changes in overweight in primary-school children. The aims of this paper are to present the anthropometric results of COSI Round 2 (2009\\/2010) and to explore changes in body mass index (BMI) and overweight among children within and across nine countries from school years 2007\\/2008 to 2009\\/2010.

  10. Body composition in early childhood : Parental, fetal, postnata and genetic determinants of fat, lean and bone mass. The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Ay (Lamise)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTh e prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased dramatically in developed countries over the past two decades. Childhood obesity is associated with short-term morbidity such as asthma and psychological problems and with an increased risk for chronic morbidity and mortal

  11. Childhood Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood schizophrenia Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Childhood schizophrenia is an uncommon but severe mental disorder in which children interpret reality abnormally. Schizophrenia involves a range of problems with thinking (cognitive), ...

  12. Childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  13. A method for calculating the lift and center of pressure of wing-body-tail combinations at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jack N; Kaattari, George E; Anastasio, Robert F

    1953-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating the lift and pitching-moment characteristics of circular cylindrical bodies in combination with triangular, rectangular, or trapezoidal wings or tails through the subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speed ranges. The method covers unbanked wings, sweptback leading edges or sweptforward trailing edges, low angles of attack, and the effects of wing and tail incidence. The wing-body interference is handled by the method presented in NACA RM's A51J04 and A52B06, and the wing-tail interference is treated by assuming one completely rolled-up vortex per wing panel and evaluating the tail load by strip theory. A computing table and set of design charts are presented which reduce the calculations to routine operations. Comparison is made between the estimated and experimental characteristics for a large number of wing-body and wing-body-tail combinations. Generally speaking, the lifts were estimated to within plus-or-minus 10 percent and the centers of pressure were estimated to within plus-or-minus 0.02 of the body length. The effect of wing deflection on wing-tail interference at supersonic speeds was not correctly predicted for triangular wings with supersonic leading edges.

  14. Introduction on background medium theory about celestial body motion orbit and foundation of fractional-dimension calculus about self-similar fractal measure calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, by discussing the basic hypotheses about the continuous orbit and discrete orbit in two research directions of the background medium theory for celestial body motion, the concrete equation forms and their summary of the theoretic frame of celestial body motion are introduced. Future more, by discussing the general form of Binet's equation of celestial body motion orbit and it's solution of the advance of the perihelion of planets, the relations and differences between the continuous orbit theory and Newton's gravitation theory and Einstein's general relativity are given. And by discussing the fractional-dimension expanded equation for the celestial body motion orbits, the concrete equations and the prophesy data of discrete orbit or stable orbits of celestial bodies which included the planets in the Solar system, satellites in the Uranian system, satellites in the Earth system and satellites obtaining the Moon obtaining from discrete orbit theory are given too. Especially, as the preliminary exploration and inference to the gravitation curve of celestial bodies in broadly range, the concept for the ideal black hole with trend to infinite in mass density difficult to be formed by gravitation only is explored. By discussing the position hypothesis of fractional-dimension derivative about general function and the formula form the hypothesis of fractional-dimension derivative about power function, the concrete equation formulas of fractional-dimension derivative, differential and integral are described distinctly further, and the difference between the fractional-dimension derivative and the fractional-order derivative are given too. Subsequently, the concrete forms of measure calculation equations of self-similar fractal obtaining by based on the definition of form in fractional-dimension calculus about general fractal measure are discussed again, and the differences with Hausdorff measure method or the covering method at present are given. By applying

  15. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  16. Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations on F-, Ne-, Na-, Mg-, Al-, Si-, and P-like xenon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2005-12-22

    Many-Body Perturbation Theory (MBPT) has been employed to calculate with high wavelength accuracy the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra of F-like to P-like Xe ions. They discuss the reliability of the new calculations using the example of EUV beam-foil spectra of Xe, in which n = 3, {Delta}n = 0 transitions of Na-, Mg-, Al-like, and Si-like ions have been found to dominate. A further comparison is made with spectra from an electron beam ion trap, that is, from a device with a very different (low density) excitation balance.

  17. A Unified Two-Dimensional Approach to the Calculation of Three- Dimensional Hypersonic Flows, with Application to Bodies of Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1955-01-01

    8217rinRE-DifMENSONAL HtYPERtSONIC 15.W indicated-flow-separation oin the leewardl side of (lie body for excellent agreemelnt in tlie plano of symmlletry...REIMARKS b~ound~ary layers may, inl like imanner, prove useful il- pie - A mnethod of characteristics employing p)ressure and-flow deigdrednesoa

  18. Tumor control probability and the utility of 4D vs 3D dose calculations for stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes, Gilmer, E-mail: gilmer.valdes@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Robinson, Clifford [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States); Lee, Percy [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Morel, Delphine [Department of Biomedical Engineering, AIX Marseille 2 University, Marseille (France); Department of Medical Physics, Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble (France); Low, Daniel; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Lamb, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Four-dimensional (4D) dose calculations for lung cancer radiotherapy have been technically feasible for a number of years but have not become standard clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to determine if clinically significant differences in tumor control probability (TCP) exist between 3D and 4D dose calculations so as to inform the decision whether 4D dose calculations should be used routinely for treatment planning. Radiotherapy plans for Stage I-II lung cancer were created for 8 patients. Clinically acceptable treatment plans were created with dose calculated on the end-exhale 4D computed tomography (CT) phase using a Monte Carlo algorithm. Dose was then projected onto the remaining 9 phases of 4D-CT using the Monte Carlo algorithm and accumulated onto the end-exhale phase using commercially available deformable registration software. The resulting dose-volume histograms (DVH) of the gross tumor volume (GTV), planning tumor volume (PTV), and PTV{sub setup} were compared according to target coverage and dose. The PTV{sub setup} was defined as a volume including the GTV and a margin for setup uncertainties but not for respiratory motion. TCPs resulting from these DVHs were estimated using a wide range of alphas, betas, and tumor cell densities. Differences of up to 5 Gy were observed between 3D and 4D calculations for a PTV with highly irregular shape. When the TCP was calculated using the resulting DVHs for fractionation schedules typically used in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), the TCP differed at most by 5% between 4D and 3D cases, and in most cases, it was by less than 1%. We conclude that 4D dose calculations are not necessary for most cases treated with SBRT, but they might be valuable for irregularly shaped target volumes. If 4D calculations are used, 4D DVHs should be evaluated on volumes that include margin for setup uncertainty but not respiratory motion.

  19. Relativistic three-body calculations of a Y=1, I=3/2 , J{sup P}=2{sup +}{pi}{Lambda}N-{pi}{Sigma}N dibaryon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcilazo, H., E-mail: humberto@esfm.ipn.mx [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gal, A., E-mail: avragal@savion.huji.ac.il [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2013-01-02

    The {pi}{Lambda}N-{pi}{Sigma}N coupled-channel system with quantum numbers (Y,I,J{sup P})=(1,3/2 ,2{sup +}) is studied in a relativistic three-body model, using two-body separable interactions in the dominant p-wave pion-baryon and {sup 3}S{sub 1}YN channels. Three-body equations are solved in the complex energy plane to search for quasibound state and resonance poles, producing a robust narrow {pi}{Lambda}N resonance about 10-20 MeV below the {pi}{Sigma}N threshold. Viewed as a dibaryon, it is a {sup 5}S{sub 2} quasibound state consisting of {Sigma}(1385)N and {Delta}(1232)Y components. Comparison is made between the present relativistic model calculation and a previous, outdated nonrelativistic calculation which resulted in a {pi}{Lambda}N bound state. Effects of adding a K{sup Macron }NN channel are studied and found insignificant. Possible production and decay reactions of this (Y,I,J{sup P})=(1,3/2 ,2{sup +}) dibaryon are discussed.

  20. A computer program for calculating the perfect gas inviscid flow field about blunt axisymmetric bodies at an angle of attack of 0 deg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoby, E. V.; Graves, R. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A method for the rapid calculation of the inviscid shock layer about blunt axisymmetric bodies at an angle of attack of 0 deg has been developed. The procedure is of an inverse nature, that is, a shock wave is assumed and calculations proceed along rays normal to the shock. The solution is iterated until the given body is computed. The flow field solution procedure is programed at the Langley Research Center for the Control Data 6600 computer. The geometries specified in the program are sphores, ellipsoids, paraboloids, and hyperboloids which may conical afterbodies. The normal momentum equation is replaced with an approximate algebraic expression. This simplification significantly reduces machine computation time. Comparisons of the present results with shock shapes and surface pressure distributions obtained by the more exact methods indicate that the program provides reasonably accurate results for smooth bodies in axisymmetric flow. However, further research is required to establish the proper approximate form of the normal momentum equation for the two-dimensional case.

  1. The Calculation of Single-Nucleon Energies of Nuclei by Considering Two-Body Effective Interaction, n(k,ρ, and a Hartree-Fock Inspired Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mariji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleon single-particle energies (SPEs of the selected nuclei, that is, O16, Ca40, and Ni56, are obtained by using the diagonal matrix elements of two-body effective interaction, which generated through the lowest-order constrained variational (LOCV calculations for the symmetric nuclear matter with the Aυ18 phenomenological nucleon-nucleon potential. The SPEs at the major levels of nuclei are calculated by employing a Hartree-Fock inspired scheme in the spherical harmonic oscillator basis. In the scheme, the correlation influences are taken into account by imposing the nucleon effective mass factor on the radial wave functions of the major levels. Replacing the density-dependent one-body momentum distribution functions of nucleons, n(k,ρ, with the Heaviside functions, the role of n(k,ρ in the nucleon SPEs at the major levels of the selected closed shell nuclei is investigated. The best fit of spin-orbit splitting is taken into account when correcting the major levels of the nuclei by using the parameterized Wood-Saxon potential and the Aυ18 density-dependent mean field potential which is constructed by the LOCV method. Considering the point-like protons in the spherical Coulomb potential well, the single-proton energies are corrected. The results show the importance of including n(k,ρ, instead of the Heaviside functions, in the calculation of nucleon SPEs at the different levels, particularly the valence levels, of the closed shell nuclei.

  2. Relativistic many-body calculation of energies, lifetimes, polarizabilities, blackbody radiative shift, and hyperfine constants in Lu2 +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, M. S.; Johnson, W. R.

    2016-09-01

    Energy levels of 30 low-lying states of Lu2 + and allowed electric-dipole matrix elements between these states are evaluated using a relativistic all-order method in which all single, double, and partial triple excitations of Dirac-Fock wave functions are included to all orders of perturbation theory. Matrix elements are critically evaluated for their accuracy and recommended values of the matrix elements are given together with uncertainty estimates. Line strengths, transition rates, and lifetimes of the metastable 5 d3 /2 and 5 d5 /2 states are calculated. Recommended values are given for static polarizabilities of the 6 s , 5 d , and 6 p states and tensor polarizabilities of the 5 d and 6 p3 /2 states. Uncertainties of the polarizability values are estimated in all cases. The blackbody radiation shift of the 6 s1 /2-5 d5 /2 transition frequency of the Lu2 + ion is calculated with the aid of the recommended scalar polarizabilities of the 6 s1 /2 and 5 d5 /2 states. Finally, A and B hyperfine constants are determined for states of 2+175Lu with n ≤9 . This work provides recommended values of transition matrix elements, polarizabilities, and hyperfine constants of Lu2 +, critically evaluated for accuracy, for benchmark tests of high-precision theoretical methodology and planning of future experiments.

  3. Relativistic many-body calculation of energies, lifetimes, polarizabilities, blackbody radiative shift and hyperfine constants in Lu2+

    CERN Document Server

    Safronova, U I; Johnson, W R

    2016-01-01

    Energy levels of 30 low-lying states of Lu2+ and allowed electric-dipole matrix elements between these states are evaluated using a relativistic all-order method in which all single, double and partial triple excitations of Dirac-Fock wave functions are included to all orders of perturbation theory. Matrix elements are critically evaluated for their accuracy and recommended values of the matrix elements are given together with uncertainty estimates. Line strengths, transition rates and lifetimes of the metastable 5d(3/2) and 5d(5/2) states are calculated. Recommended values are given for static polarizabilities of the 6s, 5d and 6p states and tensor polarizabilities of the 5d and 6p(3/2) states. Uncertainties of the polarizability values are estimated in all cases. The blackbody radiation shift of the 6s(1/2)-5d(5/2) transition frequency of the Lu2+ ion is calculated with the aid of the recommended scalar polarizabilities of the 6s(1/2) and 5d(5/2) states. Finally, A and B hyperfine constants are determined f...

  4. A new technique for calculating reentry base heating. [analysis of laminar base flow field of two dimensional reentry body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, J. C. S.

    1973-01-01

    The laminar base flow field of a two-dimensional reentry body has been studied by Telenin's method. The flow domain was divided into strips along the x-axis, and the flow variations were represented by Lagrange interpolation polynomials in the transformed vertical coordinate. The complete Navier-Stokes equations were used in the near wake region, and the boundary layer equations were applied elsewhere. The boundary conditions consisted of the flat plate thermal boundary layer in the forebody region and the near wake profile in the downstream region. The resulting two-point boundary value problem of 33 ordinary differential equations was then solved by the multiple shooting method. The detailed flow field and thermal environment in the base region are presented in the form of temperature contours, Mach number contours, velocity vectors, pressure distributions, and heat transfer coefficients on the base surface. The maximum heating rate was found on the centerline, and the two-dimensional stagnation point flow solution was adquate to estimate the maximum heating rate so long as the local Reynolds number could be obtained.

  5. Trends in Measures of Childhood Obesity in Korea From 1998 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwook Bahk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the last several decades, the number of children who are overweight or obese has reached alarming levels worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to examine trends in measures of childhood obesity among Korean children aged 2–19 from 1998 to 2012. Methods: Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC were measured, and body mass index (BMI was calculated. Age-adjusted means of WC and BMI were compared between years. We used three international criteria (International Obesity Task Force [IOTF], World Health Organization [WHO], United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] and a Korean national reference standard (Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [KCDC] to calculate age-standardized prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. Results: Despite differences in absolute prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity according to the four different criteria, the time trends of prevalence were generally similar across criteria. The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity generally stabilized from 2001–2012 in both boys and girls. WC decreased from 2001–2012 in both boys and girls aged 2–19. Conclusions: Further studies exploring the factors causing plateaued trends of childhood obesity measures are needed to implement effective policies for reducing the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity.

  6. Post-traumatic stress symptoms and childhood abuse categories in a national representative sample for a specific age group: associations to body mass index

    OpenAIRE

    Roenholdt, Stine; Beck, Nina N.; Karsberg, Sidsel H.; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    Background: Studies of specific groups such as military veterans have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is linked to adverse health outcomes including unhealthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between PTSD symptoms, experiences of childhood trauma and weight in a community sample. Methods: A stratified random probability survey was conducted in Denmark by the Danish National Centre for Social Research between 2008 and 2009 with 2,981 participants bo...

  7. Efficient dielectric matrix calculations using the Lanczos algorithm for fast many-body G0W0 implementations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme Janssen, Jonathan; Rousseau, Bruno; Côté, Michel

    2015-03-01

    We present a G0W0 implementation that assesses the two major bottlenecks of traditional plane-waves implementations, the summations over conduction states and the inversion of the dielectric matrix, without introducing new approximations in the formalism. The first bottleneck is circumvented by converting the summations into Sternheimer equations. Then, the novel avenue of expressing the dielectric matrix in a Lanczos basis is developed, which reduces the matrix size by orders of magnitude while being computationally efficient. We also develop a model dielectric operator that allows us to further reduce the size of the dielectric matrix without accuracy loss. Furthermore, we develop a scheme that reduces the numerical cost of the contour deformation technique to the level of the lightest plasmon pole model. Finally, the use of the simplified quasiminimal residual scheme in replacement of the conjugate gradients algorithm allows a direct evaluation of the G0W0 corrections at the desired real frequencies, without need for analytical continuation. The performance of the resulting G0W0 implementation is demonstrated by comparison with a traditional plane-waves implementation, which reveals a 500-fold speedup for the silane molecule. Finally, the accuracy of our G0W0 implementation is demonstrated by comparison with other G0W0 calculations and experimental results.

  8. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room Employment Feedback Contact Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Cancer Resources > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses Incidence Rates ...

  9. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining if the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on self-regulation, academic motivation, and internalized compliance/internalization of standards. Based on the accumulated body of evidence, we conclude that self...

  10. Complex-Scaling Calculation of Three-Body Resonances Using Complex-Range Gaussian Basis Functions --- Application to 3\\alpha resonances in 12C ---

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsubo, Shin-Ichi; Kamimura, Masayasu; Hiyama, Emiko

    2013-01-01

    We propose to use the complex-range Gaussian basis functions, {r^l e^{-(1 \\pm i\\omega)(r/r_n)^2}Y_{lm}(\\hat{r}); r_n in a geometric progression}, in the calculation of three-body resonances with the complex-scaling method (CSM) in which use is often made of the real-range Gaussian basis functions, {r^l e^{-(r/r_n)^2}Y_{lm}(\\hat{r})}, that are suitable for describing the short-distance structure and the asymptotic decaying behavior of few-body systems. The former basis set is more powerful than the latter when describing the resonant and nonresonant continuum states with highly oscillating amplitude at large scaling angles \\theta. We applied the new basis functions to the CSM calculation of the 3\\alpha resonances with J=0^+, 2^+ and 4^+ in 12C. The eigenvalue distribution of the complex scaled Hamiltonian becomes more precise and the maximum scaling angle becomes drastically larger (\\theta_{max}=16 deg. \\arrow 36 deg.) than those given by the use of the real-range Gaussians. Owing to these advantages, we were ...

  11. Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergency physicians. They receive comprehensive training in treating childhood emergencies and have more training in pediatric emergencies than other physicians, including pediatricians. Does Your Child's School Know About Food Allergies? - 8/10/2015 The nation's emergency physician ...

  12. Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has any of the following: Headaches, including morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Vision changes. Nausea ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  13. CHILDHOOD BODY MASS INDEX AND ADULT PRO-INFLAMMATORY AND PRO-THROMBOTIC RISK FACTORS; DATA FROM THE NEW DELHI BIRTH COHORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Fall, Caroline HD; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Osmond, Clive; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Biswas, Sushant Dey; Tandon, Nikhil; Ramji, Siddharth; Reddy, K Srinath; Barker, David JP; Bhargava, Santosh K

    2012-01-01

    Objective Weight gain and growth in early life may influence adult pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic cardiovascular risk factors. Methods Follow-up of a birth cohort in New Delhi, India, whose weight and height were measured 6-monthly until age 21 years. BMI at birth, during infancy (2 years), childhood (11 years) and adulthood (26-32 years) and BMI gain between these ages were analyzed in 886 men and 640 women in relation to adult fibrinogen, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) concentrations. Results All the pro-inflammatory/pro-thrombotic risk factors were higher in participants with higher adiposity. In women, BMI at birth and age 2 years was inversely related to fibrinogen (p=0.002 and 0.05) and, after adjusting for adult adiposity, to hsCRP (p=0.02 and 0.009). After adjusting for adult adiposity, BMI at 2 years was inversely related to hsCRP and PAI-1 concentrations (p<0.001 and p=0.02) in men. BMI gain between 2-11 years and/or 11 years to adulthood was positively associated with fibrinogen and hsCRP in women and with hsCRP and PAI-1 in men. Conclusions Thinness at birth or during infancy, and accelerated BMI gain during childhood/adolescence are associated with a pro-inflammatory/pro-thrombotic state in adult life. An altered inflammatory state could be one link between small newborn/infant size and adult cardiovascular disease. Associations between pro-inflammatory markers and childhood/adolescent BMI gain are probably mediated through adult adiposity. PMID:20660641

  14. AUTONOMY AND OBJECTIFIED BODIES IN LARGE INSTITUTIONS: DEVICES FOR THE INTERNALIZATION OF SPHINCTER CONTROL IN CHILDHOOD AND ITS EXTERNALIZATION DURING OLD AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Magadelna, Santiago

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the key criteria for the designation and management of the socially immature (Children and the relegated (Elderly is inadequate "personal autonomy". This is based, among other mechanisms on "physiological functional autonomy" which is put under question both during infant immaturity and senile cognitive impairment. At both ends (Children and Elderly guardianship is delegated, as "not-social birth" or "social death". We compare the need for sphincter control in Childhood socialization in institutionalized subjects with the arisen need of sphincter control in institutionalized Elderly.

  15. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quiz Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of ... Research Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Cancers ... This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Wilms tumor and ...

  16. Eating late in the evening is associated with childhood obesity in some age groups but not in all children: the relationship between time of consumption and body weight status in U.S. children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranz Sibylle

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies in adults indicate a positive correlation between eating later in the day and overall energy intake as well as body weight status. Thus, the time of food intake may be a risk factor in childhood obesity. This study was designed to describe the proportion of energy consumed in the time from 4 pm to midnight measured in two-hour increments and to determine a potential association between the time of proportion of energy consumed and body weight status. Methods Dietary, anthropometric, and socio-demographic data of 2–18 year olds (N = 11,072 of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2004 was examined to describe the proportion of total energy consumed within two-hour time periods between 4 pm and midnight. To examine the potential association between eating later in the day and body weight status, generalized estimating equations (GEE models were used to quantify the effect of time trends (proportion of total energy consumed in each 2-hour time period from 4 pm to 11.59 pm on body weight status. Analysis was conducted in the total sample and in subgroups stratified by sex, ethnic group (Non-Hispanic white, Non-Hispanic black, Mexican American, Other Hispanic, and Other Race including multi-racial and age group (2–5, 6–11, and 12–18 year olds. Complex sample survey analysis were used to assess differences at a significance level of p-value Results Proportion of energy consumed varied by sex, ethnic group, and age groups between 4 pm and 11.59 pm. Compared to healthy weight children, overweight school-age children consumed significantly higher while overweight adolescents consumed significantly lower proportions of total daily energy with each advancing two-hour time increment. Conclusion The association between the circadian rhythm of eating and body weight status needs to be investigated further to examine the effect of time of consumption on the risk of childhood obesity

  17. Ab Initio Many-Body Calculations of n-3H, n-4He, p-{3,4}He, and n-10Be Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Quaglioni, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    We develop a new ab initio many-body approach capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei, by combining the resonating-group method with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters. This approach preserves translational symmetry and Pauli principle. We present phase shifts for neutron scattering on 3H, 4He and 10Be and proton scattering on {3,4}He, using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. Our A=4 scattering results are compared to earlier ab initio calculations. We demonstrate that a proper treatment of the coupling to the n-10Be continuum is essential to explain the parity-inverted ground state in 11Be.

  18. SU-E-T-260: Pediatric Total Body Irradiation Calculations and In-Vivo Dosimetry Using Diodes and OSLD's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chungbin, S; Fatyga, M [Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To verify that a photon total body irradiation (TBI) calculation method scales properly from adult to pediatric dimensions and to determine TBI in-vivo dosimetry correction factors for diodes and optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLD's). Methods: TBI technique used is 400 SAD 18 MV opposed laterals with beam spoiler. Water bags are used to supplement narrower lateral dimensions for patient treatments. To verify that dose calculations scale properly with decreasing dimensions, CAX doses were measured and compared to calculations for different rectangular phantom geometries: (L=length(cm), H=height(cm), d=depth(cm)): L(30)xH(30) (d=3-25), L(30)xH(12)(d=2–20), L(13)xH(13) (d=5–13), L(30)x(H=10–40) d=15, L(30–150) x H(10) (d=15). In infant geometry, measured off axis “leg” dose (L(30)xH(2.5–10.6), d=7)) was compared to CAX (“body” L(30)xH(10)(d=7) adjacent to “leg”). Entrance and exit doses were measured with surface diodes, diodes with buildup, OSLD's, as well as ion chambers for comparison. Correction factors ((ion chamber CAX dose)/(in vivo dose)) were calculated for surface diodes, diodes with buildup, OSLD's, and ion chamber. Results: All rectangular phantom measurements agree with calculated within 2.5%. For L(30)xH(30), L(30)xH(12), L(13)xH(13), L(30)x(H=10–40) and L(30–80)xH(10) agreement was within 1%. For the infant geometry, the ratio of leg dose to CAX varies from 0.956 (h=2.5) to 0.995 (h=10.6). The range of in-vivo dosimetry entrance+exit to CAX dose correction factors varied by dosimeter (diode: 0.883–1.015, surface diode: 1.008–1.214, ion chamber: 0.924–1.084, OSLD: 0.920–1.106). Conclusion: TBI calculations scaled properly to pediatric dimensions. In-vivo dosimetry with various detectors demonstrated similar trends with different magnitudes. OSLD measurements agreed well with ion chamber measurements.

  19. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni

    2013-04-01

    Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective.

  20. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar Wittner Bynner...... (1881-1968) wrote, "The biggest problem in the world could have been solved when it was small"....

  1. 复杂形状海洋浮体水动力系数计算%Calculation of Hydrodynamic Coefficients of Floating Body with Complex Wetted Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任慧龙; 刘文玺

    2008-01-01

    Mesh generation is the key step of hydrodynamic calculation.A method of mesh generation is presented for floating bodies with complex wetted surface.For the floating body with complex bow and stem,the molded line reconstruction method is adopted to generate the section lines on the bow and on the stern which are necessary to construct the wetted surface,and it Can raise efficiency greatly that the intersection lines of intersection structures are obtained by the way of combining modelingtool and NURBS technology;then the patch representation method is adopted in generating the mesh of wetted surface and interior free surface,and the velocity potentials on them aye expressed separately,on basis of which the irregular frequency effect is dealt with in the calculation of hydrodynamic coefficients.The results show that the above methods are fit for the calculation of hydrodynamic coefficients.%网格划分是水动力计算的关键环节,文中针对复杂形状海洋浮体提出了一种湿表面网格划分方法.对于有复杂首尾结构的浮体,用型线重构的方式在首尾生成曲面构成所需要的截面线,将通用建模工具和NURBS曲线拟合相结合,生成相贯结构的相交线;然后,用分片法生成浮体湿表面及内自由面网格,并独立表达各自的速度势以处理不规则频率现象,进而进行水动力系数计算.计算结果表明,上述处理方式很适合复杂形状海洋浮体水动力系数的计算.

  2. Relativistic many-body calculations of lifetimes, rates, and line strengths of multipole transitions between 3l-1 4l' states in Ni-like ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, U I; Safronova, A S; Beiersdorfer, P

    2007-10-08

    Transition rates and line strengths are calculated for electric-multipole (E2 and E3) and magnetic-multipole (M1, M2, and M3) transitions between 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6}3d{sup 10}, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6}3d{sup 9}4l, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 5}3d{sup 10}4l, and 3s3p{sup 6}3d{sup 10}4l states (with 4l = 4s, 4p, 4d, and 4f) in Ni-like ions with the nuclear charges ranging from Z = 34 to 100. Relativistic many-body perturbation theory (RMBPT), including the Breit interaction, is used to evaluate retarded multipole matrix elements. Transition energies used in the calculation of line strengths and transition rates are from second-order RMBPT. Lifetimes of the 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 6}3d{sup 9}4s levels are given for Z = 34-100. Taking into account that calculations were performed in a very broad range of Z, most of the data are presented in graphs as Z-dependencies. The full set of data is given only for Ni-like W ion. In addition, we also give complete results for the 3d4s{sup 3}D{sub 2}-3d4s {sup 3}D{sub 1} magnetic-dipole transition, as the transition may be observed in future experiments, which measure both transition energies and radiative rates. These atomic data are important in the modeling of radiation spectra from Ni-like multiply-charged ions generated in electron beam ion trap experiments as well as for laboratory plasma diagnostics including fusion research.

  3. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  4. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  5. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children are obese. Twin and adoption studies demonstrate a large genetic component to obesity, especially in adults. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity over the last 20 years can only be explained by environmental factors. In most obese individuals, no measurable differences in metabolism can be detected. Few children engage in regular physical activity. Obese children and adults uniformly underreport the amount of food they eat. Obesity is particularly related to increased consumption of high-fat foods. BMI is a quick and easy way to screen for childhood obesity. Treating childhood obesity relies on positive family support and lifestyle changes involving the whole family. Food preferences are influenced early by parental eating habits, and when developed in childhood, they tend to remain fairly constant into adulthood. Children learn to be active or inactive from their parents. In addition, physical activity (or more commonly, physical inactivity) habits that are established in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Weight loss is usually followed by changes in appetite and metabolism, predisposing individuals to regain their weight. However, when the right family dynamics exist--a motivated child with supportive parents--long-term success is possible.

  6. Three- and four-body corrected fragment molecular orbital calculations with a novel subdividing fragmentation method applicable to structure-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Chiduru; Fukuzawa, Kaori; Okiyama, Yoshio; Tsukamoto, Takayuki; Kato, Akifumi; Tanaka, Shigenori; Mochizuki, Yuji; Nakano, Tatsuya

    2013-04-01

    We develop an inter-fragment interaction energy (IFIE) analysis based on the three- and four-body corrected fragment molecular orbital (FMO3 and FMO4) method to evaluate the interactions of functional group units in structure-based drug design context. The novel subdividing fragmentation method for a ligand (in units of their functional groups) and amino acid residues (in units of their main and side chains) enables us to understand the ligand-binding mechanism in more detail without sacrificing chemical accuracy of the total energy and IFIEs by using the FMO4 method. We perform FMO4 calculations with the second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory for an estrogen receptor (ER) and the 17β-estradiol (EST) complex using the proposed fragmentation method and assess the interaction for each ligand-binding site by the FMO4-IFIE analysis. When the steroidal EST is divided into two functional units including "A ring" and "D ring", respectively, the FMO4-IFIE analysis reveals their binding affinity with surrounding fragments of the amino acid residues; the "A ring" of EST has polarization interaction with the main chain of Thr347 and two hydrogen bonds with the side chains of Glu353 and Arg394; the "D ring" of EST has a hydrogen bond with the side chain of His524. In particular, the CH/π interactions of the "A ring" of EST with the side chains of Leu387 and Phe404 are easily identified in cooperation with the CHPI program. The FMO4-IFIE analysis using our novel subdividing fragmentation method, which provides higher resolution than the conventional IFIE analysis in units of ligand and each amino acid reside in the framework of two-body approximation, is a useful tool for revealing ligand-binding mechanism and would be applicable to rational drug design such as structure-based drug design and fragment-based drug design.

  7. On the accuracy of approximation of motion of a small celestial body by intermediate perturbed orbits calculated on the basis of three position vectors and three observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, V. A.; Shefer, O. V.

    2016-05-01

    Intermediate perturbed orbits, which were proposed earlier by the first author and are calculated based on three position vectors and three measurements of angular coordinates of a small celestial body, are examined. Provided that the reference time interval encompassing the measurements is short, these orbits are close in the accuracy of approximation of actual motion to an orbit with fourth-order tangency. The shorter the reference time interval is, the better is the approximation. The laws of variation of the errors of methods for constructing such intermediate orbits with the length of the reference time interval are formulated. According to these laws, the rate of convergence of the methods to an exact solution in the process of shortening of the reference time interval is, in general, three orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional methods relying on an unperturbed Keplerian orbit. The considered orbits are among the most accurate of their class that is defined by the order of tangency. The obtained theoretical results are verified by numerical experiments on determining the orbit of 99942 Apophis.

  8. On the ground state calculation of a many-body system using a self-consistent basis and quasi-Monte Carlo: an application to water hexamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Ionuţ; Jitomirskaya, Svetlana; Mandelshtam, Vladimir A

    2013-11-28

    Given a quantum many-body system, the Self-Consistent Phonons (SCP) method provides an optimal harmonic approximation by minimizing the free energy. In particular, the SCP estimate for the vibrational ground state (zero temperature) appears to be surprisingly accurate. We explore the possibility of going beyond the SCP approximation by considering the system Hamiltonian evaluated in the harmonic eigenbasis of the SCP Hamiltonian. It appears that the SCP ground state is already uncoupled to all singly- and doubly-excited basis functions. So, in order to improve the SCP result at least triply-excited states must be included, which then reduces the error in the ground state estimate substantially. For a multidimensional system two numerical challenges arise, namely, evaluation of the potential energy matrix elements in the harmonic basis, and handling and diagonalizing the resulting Hamiltonian matrix, whose size grows rapidly with the dimensionality of the system. Using the example of water hexamer we demonstrate that such calculation is feasible, i.e., constructing and diagonalizing the Hamiltonian matrix in a triply-excited SCP basis, without any additional assumptions or approximations. Our results indicate particularly that the ground state energy differences between different isomers (e.g., cage and prism) of water hexamer are already quite accurate within the SCP approximation.

  9. Childhood pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uretsky, G; Goldschmiedt, M; James, K

    1999-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare finding in childhood but probably more common than is generally realized. This condition should be considered in the evaluation of children with vomiting and abdominal pain, because it can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Clinical suspicion is required to make the diagnosis, especially when the serum amylase concentration is normal. Recurrent pancreatitis may be familial as a result of inherited biochemical or anatomic abnormalities. Patients with hereditary pancreatitis are at high risk for pancreatic cancer.

  10. Ultrasonographically supported removal of foreign bodies of the eye lid and parapharyngeal space in a 13-year-old boy subjected to shot injuries in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich, Reinhard E.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: B-scan ultrasonography is widely used in diagnostics of head and neck pathologies. Ultrasonography can be applied intraoperatively to identify foreign materials. Case report: This case report describes the ultrasonographic identification of foreign bodies of the eye lid and parapharyngeal space in an adolescent who was injured several years ago, obviously a victim of domestic violence. B-scan ultrasonography (small part transducer, emission frequency: 7.5 MHz proved to be a reliable tool to locate the foreign bodies. Ultrasound imaging facilitated the decision-making of the surgical approach and thus reduced the surgical exploration time. Discussion: B-scan ultrasonography is a valuable tool in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The use of B-scan ultrasonography in the head neck region requires the capacity of the surgeon to fuse the ultrasonographic picture with the topography of the head and neck. The advantages and limitations of B-scan ultrasonography in the head and neck region concerning foreign body identification are briefly discussed.

  11. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000–2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States, 2011-2014 Childhood obesity ...

  12. Taking into account absorbed doses in tooth enamel due to internal irradiation of human body by radioactive cesium isotopes at analysis EPR dosimetry data: Calculation by Monte-Carlo method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borysheva, N. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Korolyov str., 4, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Ivannikov, A. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Korolyov str., 4, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: Ivannikov-Alexander@yandex.ru; Tikunov, D.; Orlenko, S.; Skvortsov, V.; Stepanenko, V. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Korolyov str., 4, Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation); Hoshi, M. [Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan)

    2007-07-15

    By Monte-Carlo simulation of ionizing particles transport, for a realistic mathematical phantom of a man supplemented by a dental region, absorbed doses in teeth enamel and whole body doses are calculated for cases of internal irradiation by {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs isotopes incorporated in the human body resulted from staying in radioactive contaminated territory. It is shown that dose in enamel constitutes (40{+-}4)% and (59{+-}6)% of whole body dose resulted from the decay of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs isotopes, respectively. The results of calculations may be used for conversion of absorbed dose in enamel obtained by the tooth enamel EPR spectroscopy method to whole body dose for dosimetric investigation of population of territories contaminated by the radioactive cesium, which is specific for the Chernobyl accident.

  13. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (1) Body Mass Index Reference for Screening Overweight and Obesity in Chinese School-age Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGYE JI; COOPERATIVE STUDY ON CHILDHOOD OBESITY, WORKING GR

    2005-01-01

    Purpose To establish and propose a national body mass index (BMI) reference for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese school-age children and adolescents. Methods 2000 CNSSCH (Chinese National Survey on Students Constitution and Health) data, including 216 620 primary and secondary school students aged 7 to 18 years old, were used as a reference population. Compared with those of the NCHS internatioanl reference, three temporary sets of cut-off BMI were proposed by testing different combinations of P8s, P9o, and P95. When physiological and biochemical measures between and among "obesity","overweight", and "normal weight" groups were taken into consideration, set Ⅱ was selected to be the most appropriate one.The sex-age-specific curves were then plotted and smoothed by using B-spline method. Results Based on the samples from costal developed metropolis, the BMI curves successfully overcame the shortcomings of lower and level-off tendency of the Chinese total population. Temporary set Ⅱ, composed by cut-offs of P85 for overweight and P95 for obesity, was finally selected by its sensitivity and peculiarity. BMI 24 and 28 were used as cut-offs for overweight and obesity for both males and females aged 18 years old. These cut-offs, consistent with Chinese Adult's Reference, was proposed as the Body mass index reference for screening overweight and obesity in Chinese school-age children and adolescents. Conclusion The new reference clearly showed its superiorty in both prospectivity and actuality. The proposed reference minimized the gaps of the BMI curve between Chinese adolescents and the international reference. Most importantly was that it was consistent with the Eastern Asia ethnic characteristics of body fatness growth. It was therefore proposed by the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) to use it as an nationwide reference for screening overweight and obesity of school-age children and adolescents in China.

  14. The influence of anthropometry and body composition on children's bone health: the childhood health, activity and motor performance school (the CHAMPS) study, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Malene; Holst, René; Schou, Anders J; Klakk, Heidi; Husby, Steffen; Wedderkopp, Niels; Mølgaard, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Overweight, physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour have become increasing problems during the past decade. Increased sedentary behaviour may change the body composition (BC) by increasing the fat mass relative to the lean mass (LM). These changes may influence bone health to describe how anthropometry and BC predict the development of the bone accruement. The longitudinal study is a part of The CHAMPS study-DK. Children were DXA scanned at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. BC (LM, BF %) and BMC, BMD and BA were measured. The relationship between bone traits, anthropometry and BC was analysed by multilevel regression analyses. Of the invited children, 742/800 (93%) accepted to participate. Of these, 682/742 (92%) participated at follow-up. Mean (range) of age at baseline was 9.5 years (7.7-12.1). Height, BMI, LM and BF % predicted bone mineral accrual and bone size positively and independently. Height and BMI are both positive predictors of bone accruement. LM is a more precise predictor of bone traits than BF % in both genders. The effects of height and BMI and LM on bone accruement are nearly identical in the two genders, while changes in BF % have different but positive effects on bone accretion in both boys and girls.

  15. Relationship between mean body temperature calculated by two- or three-compartment models and active cutaneous vasodilation in humans: a comparison between cool and warm environments during leg exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demachi, Koichi; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Tsuneoka, Hideyuki

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the three-compartment model of mean body temperature (Tb3) calculated from the esophageal temperature (Tes), temperature in deep tissue of exercising muscle (Tdt), and mean skin temperature (Tsk) has the potential to provide a better match with the thermoregulatory responses than the two-component model of mean body temperature (Tb2) calculated from Tes and Tsk. Seven male subjects performed 40 min of a prolonged cycling exercise at 30% maximal oxygen uptake at 21°C or 31°C (50% relative humidity). Throughout the experiment, Tsk, Tb2, Tb3, and Tdt were significantly ( P vasodilation at the chest is related more closely to Tb3 or Tdt than that measured by Tes or Tb2 calculated by Tes and Tsk during exercise at both 21°C and 31°C.

  16. The properties of human body phantoms used in calculations of electromagnetic fields exposure by wireless communication handsets or hand-operated industrial devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zradziński, Patryk

    2013-06-01

    According to international guidelines, the assessment of biophysical effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) generated by hand-operated sources needs the evaluation of induced electric field (E(in)) or specific energy absorption rate (SAR) caused by EMF inside a worker's body and is usually done by the numerical simulations with different protocols applied to these two exposure cases. The crucial element of these simulations is the numerical phantom of the human body. Procedures of E(in) and SAR evaluation due to compliance analysis with exposure limits have been defined in Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers standards and International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines, but a detailed specification of human body phantoms has not been described. An analysis of the properties of over 30 human body numerical phantoms was performed which has been used in recently published investigations related to the assessment of EMF exposure by various sources. The differences in applicability of these phantoms in the evaluation of E(in) and SAR while operating industrial devices and SAR while using mobile communication handsets are discussed. The whole human body numerical phantom dimensions, posture, spatial resolution and electric contact with the ground constitute the key parameters in modeling the exposure related to industrial devices, while modeling the exposure from mobile communication handsets, which needs only to represent the exposed part of the human body nearest to the handset, mainly depends on spatial resolution of the phantom. The specification and standardization of these parameters of numerical human body phantoms are key requirements to achieve comparable and reliable results from numerical simulations carried out for compliance analysis against exposure limits or within the exposure assessment in EMF-related epidemiological studies.

  17. Comprehensive Intervention on Childhood Simple Obesity Lipid and Body Mass Index Effect%综合干预对儿童单纯性肥胖症血脂及体质量质量指数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟燕; 黄晓慧

    2013-01-01

      目的对综合干预对儿童单纯性肥胖症的效果进行分析,并观察患儿干预前后血脂及体质量指标的变化。方法选取本门诊符合儿童单纯性肥胖症诊断标准的7岁以下的儿童120例为研究对象,分别患儿实施膳食干预、运动干预、行为干预、心理干预等干预措施,观察患儿治疗前后体质量、血脂、身高、血压等指标的变化。结果患儿经过1年的干预后,其体质量、身高、血压、血脂水平(三酰甘油以总胆固醇水平)与治疗相比得到明显的改善,差异具有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论综合干预能有效控制单纯性肥胖儿童的体质量,有利于儿童的健康成长。%  Objective To comprehensive intervention on childhood simple obesity effect were analyzed, and were observed before and after the intervention of blood lipid and body weight index. Methods The clinic with the diagnosis standard of children simple obesity of children under 7 years old in 120 cases as the research object, respectively, with implementation of dietary intervention, exercise intervention, intervention, psychological intervention, interventions, and observed before and after treatment, serum lipids, blood pressure, height and weight indexes. Results The patients after 1 years of intervention, their weight, height, blood pressure, blood lipid levels (glycerin three greases with total cholesterol level) compared with the treatment was improved obviously, the difference was statistically significant (P0.05). Conclusion The comprehensive intervention can effectively control the body weight in simple obesity children, conducive to the healthy development of children.

  18. Relativistic many-body calculations of energy levels, hyperfine constants, electric-dipole matrix elements and static polarizabilities for alkali-metal atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Safronova, M S; Derevianko, S A

    1999-01-01

    Removal energies and hyperfine constants of the lowest four $ns, np_{1/2}$ and $np_{3/2}$ states in Na, K, Rb and Cs are calculated; removal energies of the n=7--10 states and hyperfine constants of the n=7 and 8 states in Fr are also calculated. The calculations are based on the relativistic single-double (SD) approximation in which single and double excitations of Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) wave functions are included to all-orders in perturbation theory. Using SD wave functions, accurate values of removal energies, electric-dipole matrix elements and static polarizabilities are obtained, however, SD wave functions give poor values of magnetic-dipole hyperfine constants for heavy atoms. To obtain accurate values of hyperfine constants for heavy atoms, we include triple excitations partially in the wave functions. The present calculations provide the basis for reevaluating PNC amplitudes in Cs and Fr.

  19. Parental Perceptions of the Schools' Role in Addressing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Maureen; Polivka, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    As childhood obesity has increased, schools have struggled with their role in this epidemic. Parents with a school-age child in a suburban latchkey program were surveyed regarding their perceptions of childhood obesity, body mass index, and the school's role in prevention and treatment of obesity. More than 80% of participants identified…

  20. [Psychopathy in childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, F; Remschmidt, H

    2013-12-01

    Personality disorders manifest themselves in stable deviations of personality traits that especially arise in negative interactions with others. Those typical dysfunctional interactions can be observed particularly in dissocial and antisocial personality disorders: adults with severe forms of personality disorders often showed specific symptoms in childhood and adolescence. Clinical researchers therefore demand a respective diagnosis of childhood and adolescent psychopathy. There is an extensive body of research on dissocial and borderline personality disorders in children and adolescents. To date the severe form of dissocial personality disorders, psychopathy, cannot be specifically classified. The transfer of this diagnosis to childhood and adolescence is crucial: based on the assumption of persistence and the risk of stigmatisation many clinicians refuse to diagnose psychopathy at a young age. On the other hand there are positive treatment outcomes that aim at symptom reduction from a very early age. The specification of dissocial personality disorders in childhood and adolescence may encourage the development of new treatments and the de-stigmatisation as well as qualify the dogged assumption of persistence of personality disorders.

  1. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Cancer Treatment Coping With Cancer en español Cáncer infantil Every cell in the body has a system that controls its growth, interaction with other cells, and even its life span. ... cancer . Different kinds of cancer have different signs, symptoms, ...

  2. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  3. Suicide among childhood cancer survivors in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Čižek Sajko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Suicide is one of the causes of late mortality among childhood cancer survivors. The aim of our study was to analyse the risk of suicide among childhood cancer survivors compared with that ofthe general population of Slovenia. Patients and methods. This retrospective study included patients with childhood cancer registeredat the Cancer Registry of Slovenia between 1978-2008, with an observation period of 1978-2010. Childhood cancer patients and controlsubjects from the general population of Slovenia were matched by sex,year and age at the beginning of follow-up and time of follow-up inyears. Data on the general population of Slovenia were obtained fromthe Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. Results. A total of 1647 patients were recorded in the Cancer Registry as having cancerduring childhood, with 3 patients committing suicide. All three weremale. Their age at diagnosis of cancer was 12, 13 and 2 years old; their age at suicide was 19, 32 and 28 years old. The mechanism of death was asphyxiation in all three deaths. The calculation of the expected number of suicides in the group of individuals with childhood cancer from the general Slovene population revealed the number of 3.16persons. Conclusion. The comparison of the observed and expectedprobability showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the suicide rate between childhood cancer survivors and the general population of Slovenia.

  4. 基于AMESim的人体固有频率计算%The Calculation of the Natural Frequency of the Human Body Based on AMESim

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万馨; 芮延年

    2014-01-01

    使用商用软件AMESim(Advanced Modeling Environment for Simulation of engineering)模拟人体的振动现象,通过建立人体振动生物力学模型获得人体各部位的固有频率,从而避免或降低人类在运动环境中由于共振产生的器官损伤,同时,通过对振动的了解,利用声音治愈部分器官的疾病。比较而言,AMESim软件是一款较易获得人体器官固有频率的软件,为研究人体振动力学模型提供了一种新的计算方法。%In the paper, AMESim soft is used to set model of human body vibration. AMESim stands for Ad-vanced Modeling Environment for Simulation of engineering. It is an important tool to settle complex non-lin-ear vibration of human biomechanical modeling. The model by using AMESim soft can directly attain the nat-ural frequency of human body, and it offers a better precise the natural frequency to avoid vibration harm. Absolutely, vibration therapy is widely applied to cure some difficult cases. in the paper it is easy to attain the natural frequency of the part of the human body by using AMESim soft. Comparatively, it is a trial manner to attain the natural frequency AMESim soft is better soft to attain the natural frequency of the part of human body.

  5. Application of instruments of nuclear physics to the calculation of theoretical dose distributions in various organs of the human body for beams used in hadrontherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliszewska Weronika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The area of interests of nuclear physics are studies of reactions, wherein atomic nuclei of projectile collide with target nuclei. An amount of energy lost by projectile nucleus during its passing through the target is a major issue – it is important to know how charged particles interact with matter. It is possible to afford this knowledge by using theoretical programs that calculate energy loss applying the Bethe-Bloch equation. Hadrontherapy, which is a field of still growing interest, is based on the interactions of charged particles with matter. Therefore, there exists a need of creating a simple model that could be used to the calculation of dose distributions in biological matter. Two programs (SRIM, Xeloss, used to the calculation of energy loss by nuclear physicist, have been adapted to determine the dose distributions in analogues of human tissues. Results of the calculations with those programs for beams used in hadrontherapy (e.g. 1H, 12C will be compared with experimental data available in references.

  6. Childhood obesity: pathophysiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klish, W J

    1995-02-01

    Childhood obesity is among the most difficult problems which pediatricians treat. It is frequently ignored by the pediatrician or viewed as a form of social deviancy, and blame for treatment failure placed on the patients or their families. The definition of obesity is difficult. Using total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) technology, total body fat ranges between 12% and 30% of total body weight in normal children and adolescents. This is influenced not only by age, but also by physical fitness. Anthropometry is the easiest way to define obesity. Children whose weight exceeds 120% of that expected for their height are considered overweight. Skinfold thickness and body mass index are indices of obesity that are more difficult to apply to the child. Childhood obesity is associated with obese parents, a higher socioeconomic status, increased parental education, small family size and a sedentary lifestyle. Genetics also clearly plays a role. Studies have demonstrated that obese and non-obese individuals have similar energy intakes implying that obesity results from very small imbalances of energy intake and expenditure. An excess intake of only 418 kJ per day can result in about 4.5 kg of excess weight gain per year. Small differences in basal metabolic rate or the thermic effects of food may also account for the difference in energy balance between the obese and non-obese. In the Prader Willi Syndrome, there appears to be a link between appetite and body fatness. When placed on growth hormone, lean body mass increases, body fat decreases, sometimes to normal, and appetite becomes more normal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Sujay; Mikati, Mohamad A; Vigevano, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a very rare disease characterized by recurrent attacks of loss of muscular tone resulting in hypomobility of one side of the body. The etiology of the disease due to ATP1A3 gene mutations in the majority of patients. Few familial cases have been described. AHC has an onset in the first few months of life. Hemiplegic episodes are often accompanied by other paroxysmal manifestations, such as lateral eyes and head deviation toward the hemiplegic side and a very peculiar monocular nystagmus. As the attack progresses, hemiplegia can shift to the other side of the body. Sometimes the attack can provoke bilateral paralysis, and these patients may have severe clinical impairment, with difficulty in swallowing and breathing. Hemiplegic attacks may be triggered by different stimuli, like bath in warm water, motor activity, or emotion. The frequency of attacks is high, usually several in a month or in a week. The duration is variable from a few minutes to several hours or even days. Sleep can stop the attack. Movement disorders such as dystonia and abnormal movements are frequent. Cognitive delay of variable degree is a common feature. Epilepsy has been reported in 50% of the cases, but seizure onset is usually during the third or fourth year of life. Many drugs have been used in AHC with very few results. Flunarizine has the most supportive anecdotal evidence regarding efficacy.

  8. Junk Food in Schools and Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite limited empirical evidence, there is growing concern that junk food availability in schools has contributed to the childhood obesity epidemic. In this paper, we estimate the effects of junk food availability on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and related outcomes among a national sample of fifth graders. Unlike previous studies, we address…

  9. Optical to ultraviolet spectra of sandwiches of benzene and transition metal atoms: Time dependent density functional theory and many-body calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Lopez, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    the optical properties according to specific functionality targets. The differences in the spectra could be used to identify relative abundances of isomers with different spins in experimental studies. As a salient feature, this theoretical spectroscopic analysis predicts the metallization of the infinite (Ti......The optical spectra of sandwich clusters formed by transition metal atoms (titanium, vanadium, and chromium) intercalated between parallel benzene molecules have been studied by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and many-body perturbation theory. Sandwiches with different number...... of layers, including infinite chains, are considered. The lowest excitation energy peaks in the spectra are characteristic of the robust bonding in these complexes. The excitation energies vary in a systematic way with the metal atoms and with the cluster size, and so these materials could be used to tune...

  10. Calculation of the static and dynamical correlation energy of pseudo-one-dimensional beryllium systems via a many-body expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, D; Paulus, B

    2016-01-01

    Low-dimensional beryllium systems constitute interesting case studies for the test of correlation methods because of the importance of both static and dynamical correlation in the formation of the bond. Aiming to describe the whole dissociation curve of extended Be systems we chose to apply the method of increments (MoI) in its multireference (MR) formalism. However, in order to do so an insight into the wave function was necessary. Therefore we started by focusing on the description of small Be chains via standard quantum chemical methods and gave a brief analysis of the main characteristics of their wave functions. We then applied the MoI to larger beryllium systems, starting from the Be6 ring. First, the complete active space formalism (CAS-MoI) was employed and the results were used as reference for local MR calculations of the whole dissociation curve. Despite this approach is well established for the calculation of systems with limited multireference character, its application to the description of whol...

  11. Calculations of long-range three-body interactions for Li($2\\,^2S$)-Li($2\\,^2S$)-Li($2\\,^2P$)

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Pei-Gen; Yan, Zong-Chao; Babb, James F

    2016-01-01

    General formulas for calculating the several leading long-range interactions among three identical atoms where two atoms are in identical $S$ states and the other atom is in a $P$ state are obtained using perturbation theory for the energies up to second order. The first order (dipolar) interactions depend on the geometrical configurations of the three atoms. In second order, additive and nonadditive dispersion interactions are obtained. The nonadditive interactions depend on the geometrical configurations in marked contrast to the case where all three atoms are in identical $S$ states, for which the nonadditive (also known as triple-dipole or as Axilrod-Muto-Teller) dispersion interactions appear at the third order. The formalism is demonstrated by the calculation of the coefficients for the Li($2\\,^2S$)-Li($2\\,^2S$)-Li($2\\,^{2}P$) system using variationally-generated atomic lithium wave functions in Hylleraas coordinates. The present dipolar coefficients and additive and nonadditive dispersion coefficients ...

  12. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: body mass index and level of overweight among 6-9-year-old children from school year 2007/2008 to school year 2009/2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, T.M.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Spinelli, A.; Starc, G.; Hassapidou, M.; Spiroski, I.; Rutter, H.; Martos, E.; Rito, A.I.; Hovengen, R.; Perez-Farinos, N.; Petrauskiene, A.; Eldin, N.; Braeckevelt, L.; Pudule, I.; Kunesova, M.; Breda, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has established the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) to monitor changes in overweight in primary-school children. The aims of this paper are to present the anthropometric results of COSI Round 2 (2009/2010) an

  13. Calculation of Large Rigid Body Pose and Multi-axis Synchronous Coordinating Control%大刚体姿态计算及多轴同步协调控制技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈稳太; 应蓓华; 董凤莲

    2014-01-01

    Calculation of large rigid body pose and its high precision control was studied herein .Ai‐ming at the 6-DOF large rigid body pose alignment system ,a fast calculation approach to the pose and a high precision multi-axis coordinating control system was presented .Firstly ,mathematic models of large rigid body pose calculation were established respectively on a global frame which was found on the basic platform and a body-fixed frame system which was found on the center of the large rigid body .By detecting the initial positions and the final positions of four marks on the large rigid body ,the displacement increments of three coordinates of the four supports could be easily calculated .Then ,a compensation of synchronization error integration technology was proposed for the large rigid body pose alignment system .By the technology ,the precision and speed of large rigid pose alignment could be improved significantly .The simulation results show that the proposed approach is rapid and effec‐tive ,the control algorithm has guiding significance for engineering applications of large rigid body pose alignment .%大刚体的姿态计算及其高精度控制是飞机、舰船等大型机器总装生产线的关键技术。针对一种六自由度的大刚体的姿态控制系统提出一种快速的姿态计算方法和高精度的多轴协调控制方法。以基础平台建立固定坐标系,以大刚体的中心建立连体坐标系,在此基础上建立大刚体姿态计算数学模型,通过测量大刚体上4个靶标的初始位置和目标位置,就可计算出大刚体4个支撑柱的三坐标的位移增量;在多轴同步控制技术中,引入同步误差积分补偿方法(CSEI),通过同步误差在相反方向的控制作用,可显著提高大刚体姿态调整的速度和精度。仿真表明,所提出的姿态计算方法和 CSEI 控制方法快速有效,对工程应用具有指导意义。

  14. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  15. Extended Relativistic Configuration Interaction and Many-body Perturbation Calculations of Spectroscopic Data for the N ≤ 6 Configurations in Ne-like Ions between Cr xv and Kr xxvii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Chen, Z. B.; Si, R.; Jönsson, P.; Ekman, J.; Guo, X. L.; Li, S.; Long, F. Y.; Dang, W.; Zhao, X. H.; Hutton, R.; Chen, C. Y.; Yan, J.; Yang, X.

    2016-10-01

    Level energies, wavelengths, electric dipole, magnetic dipole, electric quadrupole, and magnetic quadrupole transition rates, oscillator strengths, and line strengths from combined relativistic configuration interaction and many-body perturbation calculations are reported for the 201 fine-structure states of the 2{s}22{p}6, 2{s}22{p}53l, 2s2{p}63l, 2{s}22{p}54l, 2s2{p}64l, 2{s}22{p}55l, and 2{s}22{p}56l configurations in all Ne-like ions between Cr xv and Kr xxvii. Calculated level energies and transition data are compared with experiments from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and CHIANTI databases, and other recent benchmark calculations. The mean energy difference with the NIST experiments is only 0.05%. The present calculations significantly increase the amount of accurate spectroscopic data for the n > 3 states in a number of Ne-like ions of astrophysical interest. A complete data set should be helpful for analyzing new observations from solar and other astrophysical sources, and is also likely to be useful for modeling and diagnosing a variety of plasmas, including astronomical and fusion plasma.

  16. Extended relativistic configuration interaction and many-body perturbation calculations of spectroscopic data for the $n \\leq 6$ configurationsin ne-like ions between Cr XV and Kr XXVII

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Kai; Si, Ran; Jönsson, Per; Ekman, Jörgen; Guo, Xue Lin; Li, Shuang; Long, Fei Yun; Dang, Wei; Zhao, Xiao Hui; Hutton, Roger; Chen, Chong Yang; Yan, Jan; Yang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Level energies, wavelengths, electric dipole, magnetic dipole, electric quadrupole, and magnetic quadrupole transition rates, oscillator strengths, and line strengths from combined relativistic configuration interaction and many-body perturbation calculations are reported for the 201 fine-structure states of the $2s^2 2p^6$, $2s^2 2p^5 3l$, $2s 2p^6 3l$, $2s^2 2p^5 4l$, $2s 2p^6 4l$, $2s^2 2p^5 5l$, and $2s^2 2p^5 6l$ configurations in all Ne-like ions between Cr XV and Kr XXVII. Calculated level energies and transition data are compared with experiments from the NIST and CHIANTI databases, and other recent benchmark calculations. The mean energy difference with the NIST experiments is only 0.05%. The present calculations significantly increase the amount of accurate spectroscopic data for the $n >3$ states in a number of Ne-like ions of astrophysics interest. A complete dataset should be helpful in analyzing new observations from the solar and other astrophysical sources, and is also likely to be useful for ...

  17. A dosimetric study of a heterogeneous phantom for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy comparing Monte Carlo and pencil beam calculations to dose distributions measured with a 2-D diode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curley, Casey Michael

    Monte Carlo (MC) and Pencil Beam (PB) calculations are compared to their measured planar dose distributions using a 2-D diode array for lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). The planar dose distributions were studied for two different phantom types: an in-house heterogeneous phantom and a homogeneous phantom. The motivation is to mimic the human anatomy during a lung SBRT treatment and incorporate heterogeneities into the pre-treatment Quality Assurance process, where measured and calculated planar dose distributions are compared before the radiation treatment. Individual and combined field dosimetry has been performed for both fixed gantry angle (anterior to posterior) and planned gantry angle delivery. A gamma analysis has been performed for all beam arrangements. The measurements were obtained using the 2-D diode array MapCHECK 2(TM). MC and PB calculations were performed using the BrainLAB iPlan RTRTM Dose software. The results suggest that with the heterogeneous phantom as a quality assurance device, the MC calculations result in closer agreements to the measured values, when using the planned gantry angle delivery method for composite beams. For the homogeneous phantom, the results suggest that the preferred delivery method is at the fixed anterior to posterior gantry angle. Furthermore, the MC and PB calculations do not show significant differences for dose difference and distance to agreement criteria 3%/3mm. However, PB calculations are in better agreement with the measured values for more stringent gamma criteria when considering individual beam whereas MC agreements are closer for composite beam measurements.

  18. Efficient many-body calculations for two-dimensional materials using exact limits for the screened potential: Band gaps of MoS2, h -BN, and phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Filip A.; Schmidt, Per S.; Winther, Kirsten T.; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2016-10-01

    Calculating the quasiparticle (QP) band structure of two-dimensional (2D) materials within the GW self-energy approximation has proven to be a rather demanding computational task. The main reason is the strong q dependence of the 2D dielectric function around q =0 that calls for a much denser sampling of the Brillouin zone (BZ) than is necessary for similar three-dimensional solids. Here, we use an analytical expression for the small q limit of the 2D response function to perform the BZ integral over the critical region around q =0 . This drastically reduces the requirements on the q -point mesh and implies a significant computational speedup. For example, in the case of monolayer MoS2, convergence of the G0W0 band gap to within ˜0.1 eV is achieved with 12 ×12 q points rather than the 36 ×36 mesh required with discrete BZ sampling techniques. We perform a critical assessment of the band gap of the three prototypical 2D semiconductors, MoS2, h -BN, and phosphorene, including the effect of self-consistency at the GW0 level. The method is implemented in the open source code gpaw.

  19. Obesity and growth during childhood and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Growth during childhood and adolescence occurs at different rates and is influenced by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Nutritional status plays an important role in regulating growth, and excess body weight early in life can influence growth patterns. Childhood obesity is a growing and alarming problem, associated with several short-term and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In addition, there is evidence suggesting that excess adiposity during childhood influences growth patterns and pubertal development. Several studies have shown that during prepubertal years obese children have higher height velocity and accelerated bone age compared to lean subjects. However, this prepubertal advantage in growth tends to gradually decrease during puberty, when obese children show a reduced growth spurt compared with lean subjects. Growth hormone (GH) secretion in obese children is reduced, therefore suggesting that increased growth is GH independent. Factors which have been implicated in the accelerated growth in obese children include increased leptin and insulin levels, adrenal androgens, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-binding protein-1 and GH-binding proteins. Excess body weight during childhood can also influence pubertal development, through an effect on timing of pubertal onset and levels of pubertal hormonal levels. There is clear evidence indicating that obesity leads to early appearance of pubertal signs in girls. In addition, obese girls are also at increased risk of hyperandrogenism. In boys, excess adiposity has been associated with advanced puberty in some studies, whereas others have reported a delay in pubertal onset. The existing evidence on the association between childhood and adolescence obesity underlines a further reason for fighting the epidemics of childhood obesity; that is preventing abnormal growth and pubertal patterns.

  20. Childhood exposure to DEHP, DBP and BBP in Denmark and Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Chan-Kook

    and Korea. Varying environmental qualities and dietary intake patterns were taken into account using a Monte Carlo Model for calculating childhood aggregate exposure via the environment and food. Additionally, childhood activity related exposure from consumer products were calculated for selected product...... production. In order to protect human health equally, risk management systems need to include territorial varying background environmental qualities when modeling aggregate exposure. This study presents probabilistic assessments of multiple sources and routes to childhood phthalate exposure in Denmark...

  1. Childhood Roots of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Norman F.; Lubensky, Amy W.

    1976-01-01

    Earlier project reports compared childhood social behavior of nonmigratory schizophrenics and normal classmates by analyzing teachers' comments in school records. This article expands the sample to include migratory schizophrenics and analyzes childhood intellectual functioning. Behavioral differences indicated emotional immaturity and social…

  2. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Prevention and Wellness Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Childhood Overweight and Obesity Childhood Overweight and Obesity Family HealthFood and NutritionHealthy Food ChoicesKids and TeensPrevention and WellnessWeight Loss and Diet ...

  3. Undiagnosed asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease in childhood. To study the actual prevalence and impact of undiagnosed childhood asthma in daily life (i.e. quality of life, participation in physical and school activities) we performed a survey in schoolchildren (aged 7-10 years) in the southern part of

  4. Domestic Radon and Childhood Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, Helle P.;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Higher incidence rates of childhood cancer and particularly leukemia have been observed in regions with higher radon levels, but case-control studies have given inconsistent results. We tested the hypothesis that domestic radon exposure increases the risk for childhood cancer. Methods......: We identified 2400 incident cases of leukemia, central nervous system tumor, and malignant lymphoma diagnosed in children between 1968 and 1994 in the Danish Cancer Registry. Control children (n = 6697) were selected from the Danish Central Population Registry. Radon levels in residences of children...... and the cumulated exposure of each child were calculated as the product of exposure level and time, for each address occupied during childhood. Results: Cumulative radon exposure was associated with risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), with rate ratios of 1.21 (95% confidence interval = 0...

  5. Epidemiology of childhood stroke in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesaar, Rael; Kolk, Anneli; Uustalu, Ulle; Ilves, Pilvi; Tomberg, Tiiu; Talvik, Inga; Köbas, Kristel; Sander, Valentin; Talvik, Tiina

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the incidence and 30-day case-fatality of childhood stroke in Estonia, and clinical signs and risk factors of childhood stroke. A retrospective (1995-2003) and prospective study (2004-2006) of childhood stroke (arterial ischemic, hemorrhagic, and sinovenous thrombosis) and transient ischemic attack was conducted. Stroke-incidence calculation was based on the prospective study. Clinical diagnoses of stroke were confirmed by neuroradiology. The incidence rate of childhood stroke in Estonia was 2.73/100,000 person-years for children aged 30 days to 18 years: 1.61/100,000 for arterial ischemic stroke, 0.87/100,000 for hemorrhagic stroke, 0.25/100,000 for sinovenous thrombosis, and 0.37/100,000 for transient ischemic attack. No arterial ischemic stroke patients died within 30 days, but case-fatality for intracerebral hemorrhage was 46%. Focal signs occurred in 100% of arterial ischemic strokes and 64% of intracerebral hemorrhage cases. Risk factors were identified in 35/48 (73%) children with cerebrovascular attacks. Six children with arterial ischemic stroke (6/24, 25%) manifested more than one risk factor. The incidence rate of childhood stroke in Estonia is similar to that in earlier data.

  6. Early Childhood Staff and Families' Perceptions: Diverse Views about Important Experiences for Children Aged 3-5 Years in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Fay

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature about the potential for early childhood settings to serve as community hubs to develop relationships with families. However, there is limited information about the ways in which families and early childhood staff interface in defining what constitutes "quality" within settings. Researchers have…

  7. Declination Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Declination is calculated using the current International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model. Declination is calculated using the current World Magnetic Model...

  8. Disorders of childhood growth and development: childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Robert; Grissom, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity in the United States is estimated at 17%, or 12 million children ages 2 to 19 years. Obesity is a multifactorial condition with syndromic and nonsyndromic variants. Genetic, social, ethnic, endocrinologic, and behavioral issues are all potential etiologic factors. Preventive efforts should begin with monitoring from birth and include breastfeeding until age 6 months, avoiding juices, and promoting fruit and vegetable consumption and adequate exercise. Childhood obesity is diagnosed based on body mass index; a child is considered overweight at the 85th to 95th percentiles and obese at or above the 95th percentile. After obesity is diagnosed, testing should include blood pressure levels, fasting lipid profile, diabetes screening, and liver function tests. The physician should obtain a detailed history of the physical activity level and food intake and assess possible complications of obesity, including depression and hypertension, annually. Lifestyle interventions with family involvement are the mainstay of management, with pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery considered for adolescents only if intensive lifestyle modifications have failed and in the presence of comorbidities. Intervention by multiple disciplines (ie, medicine, nutrition, psychology) is recommended, and family physicians are encouraged to become more involved in encouraging physical activity and improved nutrition for children.

  9. 中性碳原子基态关联效应的多体理论计算%Many-body calculation on the ground state correlation effects of neutral Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐利强; 易有根; 袁建民; 高永毅; 周并举

    2001-01-01

    应用原子多体理论对开壳层原子中电子关联效应的有效哈密顿量及波算符的Goldston图进行了分析,在此基础上得到了计算有效哈密顿量的简单方法;以HFS模型为零级近似对中性碳原子基态的关联效应进行了计算并通过与实验结果及其他文献基于HF模型进行的计算相比较,得到了令人满意的结论。%Applying atomic many-body theory to analyse the Goldston diagrams of effective Hamiltonian and wave operator about electron-electron correlation for open shell atoms, we use a simple method to evaluate the effective Hamiltonian and calculate the correlation effectes of Corbon with HFS model as a zeroth order approximation. Making contrasts with the experiment and the calculation based on HF model we get pleased results.

  10. Childhood obesity: medical, cultural and psychological factors

    OpenAIRE

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was associated with age and sex standardized body mass index (Z-BMI), impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, high total cholesterol, high LDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides. There wer...

  11. Theoretical Investigation into Friction Resistance Calculation of Van Body Surface in the Presence of Air Film%气膜条件下车厢表面摩擦阻力计算理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢小鹏; 曹立峰; 曾建豪

    2015-01-01

    According to the friction resistance decrease of van body surface observed by experiments in the presence of air film, three theories, namely the thickened boundary layer theory , the mixed deceleration theory and the thickened boundary layer-mixed deceleration theory , are put forward to explore the mechanism of air-film drag re-duction , and a model to calculate the friction resistance of van body surface in the presence of air film is estab -lished .Then , the friction resistances of van body surface with and without air film are qualitatively compared and analyzed , respectively .The results show that the friction resistance decreases in the presence of air film , which is consistent with the previous experimental results obtained by the authors .This research provides a theoretical foun-dation for the practical application of air-film drag reduction of van body surface .%针对气膜条件下厢式运输车厢体表面摩擦阻力减小的实验结果,分别提出边界层加厚理论、混合降速理论、边界层加厚-混合降速理论3种理论来研究空气介质中空气膜的减阻机理,建立了气膜条件下厢式运输车厢体表面气流摩擦阻力计算模型,定性对比分析了厢体表面在有气膜和无气膜条件下各自所受到的气流摩擦阻力。结果表明,有气膜时摩擦阻力减小,这一结果与笔者前期的实验研究结果趋于一致,为气膜减阻在厢体表面减阻中的实际应用提供了理论基础。

  12. Childhood vitiligo: Treatment paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrinder Jit Kanwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo differs from the adults by showing a higher incidence in females, segmental vitiligo being more common and less frequent association with other systemic autoimmune and endocrine disorders.Childhood vitiligo is often associated with a marked psychosocial and long lasting effect on the self-esteem of the affected children and their parents, hence an adequate treatment is very essential. Treatment of vitiligo is indeed a tough challenge for the dermatologists′ more so in the background of childhood vitiligo. Although multiple therapeutic modalities are available in the therapeutic armamentarium, not all can be used in children. This brief report updates regarding various therapies available in the treatment of childhood vitiligo.

  13. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and other rarer and more severe genetic and metabolic disorders (eg, Prader-Willi syndrome, Turner syndrome, Cushing syndrome) ...

  14. Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosed, treated and even cured in younger children. Kawasaki Disease This childhood illness can result in long-term ... complications. Learn the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for Kawasaki disease. Cholesterol Raised cholesterol levels early in life may ...

  15. Stages of Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has any of the following: Headaches, including morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Vision changes. Nausea ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  16. Childhood Craniopharyngioma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has any of the following: Headaches, including morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Vision changes. Nausea ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  17. Stages of Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It may be painful. Bulging of the eye. Headache. Trouble urinating or having bowel movements. Blood in ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  18. Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your child has any of the following: Morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Nausea and vomiting. ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  19. Perinatal and Childhood Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology, risk factors, outcome and prognosis of perinatal and childhood stroke were reviewed at a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda, MD, on Sept 18 and 19, 2000.

  20. Depersonalization, mindfulness, and childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Matthias; Beutel, Manfred E; Jordan, Jochen; Zimmermann, Michael; Wolters, Susanne; Heidenreich, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Depersonalization (DP), i.e., feelings of being detached from one's own mental processes or body, can be considered as a form of mental escape from the full experience of reality. This mental escape is thought to be etiologically linked with maltreatment during childhood. The detached state of consciousness in DP contrasts with certain aspects of mindfulness, a state of consciousness characterized by being in touch with the present moment. Against this background, the present article investigates potential connections between DP severity, mindfulness, and childhood trauma in a mixed sample of nonpatients and chronic nonmalignant pain patients. We found a strong inverse correlation between DP severity and mindfulness in both samples, which persisted after partialing out general psychological distress. In the nonpatient sample, we additionally found significant correlations between emotional maltreatment on the one hand and DP severity (positive) and mindfulness (negative) on the other. We conclude that the results first argue for an antithetical relationship between DP and certain aspects of mindfulness and thus encourage future studies on mindfulness-based interventions for DP and second throw light on potential developmental factors contributing to mindfulness.

  1. Early childhood aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...

  2. Oxidative Stress Status in Childhood Obesity: A Potential Risk Predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Elif; Özer, Ömer Faruk; Erek, Aybala Toprak; Erman, Hayriye; Torun, Emel; Ayhan, Sıddıka Kesgin; Caglar, Hifa Gülru; Selek, Sahbettin; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity characterized by excessive fat in the body is one of the most serious health problems worldwide due to the social, medical, and physiological complications. Obesity and associated diseases are triggering factors for oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this study was to explore the possible association between childhood obesity and inflammatory and oxidative status. Material/Methods Thirty-seven obese children and 37 healthy controls selected from among children admitted to BLIND University Paediatrics Department were included in the study. Anthropometric measurements were performed using standard methods. Glucose, lipid parameters, CRP, insulin, total oxidant status (TOS), total anti-oxidant status (TAS) levels, and total thiol levels (TTL) were measured in serum. HOMA index (HOMA-IR) were calculated. The differences between the groups were evaluated statistically using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results Body mass index was significantly higher in the obese group (median: 28.31(pLDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the obese group (p<0.001). TAS (med: 2.5 μmol Trolox eq/L (1.7–3.3)) and TOS (med: 49.1 μmol H2O2 eq/L (34.5–78.8)) levels and TTL (med: 0.22 mmol/L (0.16–0.26)) were significantly higher in the obese group (p=0.001). CRP levels showed positive correlation with TOS and negative correlation with TTL levels (p=0.005, r=0.473; p=0.01, r=−0.417; respectively). TTL levels exhibited negative correlation with TOS levels (p=0.03, r=−0.347). Conclusions In conclusion, obese children were exposed to more oxidative burden than children with normal weight. Increased systemic oxidative stress induced by childhood obesity can cause development of obesity-related complications and diseases. Widely focussed studies are required on the use of oxidative parameters as early prognostic parameters in detection of obesity-related complications. PMID:27733746

  3. Ethnic Differences in Parental Attitudes and Beliefs about Being Overweight in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigwell, J.; Watson, P. M.; Murphy, R. C.; Stratton, G.; Cable, N. T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between ethnic background and parental views of healthy body size, concerns surrounding overweight and attitudes to perceived causes of overweight in childhood. Method: A self-report questionnaire was designed to explore parental attitudes towards childhood weight. Sampling deliberately…

  4. Middle Childhood Teacher-Child Relationships: Insights from an Attachment Perspective and Remaining Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschueren, Karine

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of research points to the significance of teacher-child relationships in shaping children's development. Extending the research literature on early childhood, this review examines the value of an attachment perspective to the study of teacher-child relationships in middle childhood. First, we discuss the conceptualization and…

  5. Impact of infant feeding practices on childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butte, Nancy F

    2009-02-01

    Childhood obesity is a complex disease influenced by genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. The current surge in childhood obesity in the United States is attributable to an interaction between a genetic predisposition toward obesity and a permissive environment. Several recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been published on the association between breast-feeding and childhood obesity. In these analyses, adjustment for confounding factors attenuated or nullified the protective effect of breast-feeding on later obesity. The Viva La Familia Study was designed to identify genetic and environmental factors affecting obesity and its comorbidities in 1030 Hispanic children from 319 families. Odds ratios for potential risk factors associated with childhood overweight were computed using binary logistic regression for panel data. Early infant-feeding practices were not significant. Salient independent risk factors for childhood obesity in this cohort of Hispanic children were age, birth weight, maternal obesity, paternal obesity, number of children in the family, and the percentage of awake time spent in sedentary activity. Breast-feeding may have a small protective effect against childhood obesity, although residual confounding may exist. Human milk is exquisitely fitted for optimal infant growth and development and may uniquely modulate neuroendocrine and immunologic pathways involved in the regulation of body weight. Nevertheless, other genetic and environmental determinants such as socioeconomic status, parental obesity, smoking, birth weight, and rapid infancy weight gain far supersede infant-feeding practices as risk factors for childhood obesity.

  6. Measured parental weight status and familial socio-economic status correlates with childhood overweight and obesity at age 9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimear Keane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Parental obesity is a predominant risk factor for childhood obesity. Family factors including socio-economic status (SES play a role in determining parent weight. It is essential to unpick how shared family factors impact on child weight. This study aims to investigate the association between measured parent weight status, familial socio-economic factors and the risk of childhood obesity at age 9. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross sectional analysis of the first wave (2008 of the Growing Up in Ireland (GUI study. GUI is a nationally representative study of 9-year-old children (N = 8,568. Schools were selected from the national total (response rate 82% and age eligible children (response rate 57% were invited to participate. Children and their parents had height and weight measurements taken using standard methods. Data were reweighted to account for the sampling design. Childhood overweight and obesity prevalence were calculated using International Obesity Taskforce definitions. Multinomial logistic regression examined the association between parent weight status, indicators of SES and child weight. Overall, 25% of children were either overweight (19.3% or obese (6.6%. Parental obesity was a significant predictor of child obesity. Of children with normal weight parents, 14.4% were overweight or obese whereas 46.2% of children with obese parents were overweight or obese. Maternal education and household class were more consistently associated with a child being in a higher body mass index category than household income. Adjusted regression indicated that female gender, one parent family type, lower maternal education, lower household class and a heavier parent weight status significantly increased the odds of childhood obesity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Parental weight appears to be the most influential factor driving the childhood obesity epidemic in Ireland and is an independent predictor of child obesity across SES groups. Due

  7. Childhood obesity: a simple equation with complex variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Gregory A; Cottrell, Erika R; Abang, Anthony E; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Hannon, Tamara S

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is rising rapidly, as are the associated medical complications, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. This has significant medical and socioeconomic implications. The definition of obesity in adults is based on body mass index (BMI), which has been correlated with morbidity and mortality. Similarly, the definition of childhood obesity is currently based on BMI; however, there are currently no data to relate morbidity and mortality to BMI values in children. The known and potential causes of childhood obesity are many, but they can be categorized as genetic, endocrine, prenatal/early life, physical activity, diet, and socioeconomic. These factors influence the basic equation: energy input = energy output. Imbalances in this equation can result in obesity. Here we present a review of recent literature and highlight the etiologies, certain complications, and potential prevention and treatment strategies of childhood obesity.

  8. MEMS Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access)   This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.

  9. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Stuart; Gallagher, Peter; Dougall, Dominic; Porter, Richard; Moncrieff, Joanna; Ferrier, I Nicol; Young, Allan H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Methods: Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipo...

  10. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, S; Gallagher, P.; Dougall, D.; Porter, R.; Moncrieff, J; Ferrier, I N; Young, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective:There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder.Methods:Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipolar...

  11. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial to ... on for tips to have a healthy body image. Topics About body image When you look in ...

  12. Joint effects of child temperament and maternal sensitivity on the development of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tiejian; Dixon, Wallace E; Dalton, William T; Tudiver, Fred; Liu, Xuefeng

    2011-05-01

    The interplay between child characteristics and parenting is increasingly implicated as crucial to child health outcomes. This study assessed the joint effects of children's temperamental characteristics and maternal sensitivity on children's weight status. Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were utilized. Infant temperament, assessed at child's age of 6 months by maternal report, was categorized into three types: easy, average, and difficult. Maternal sensitivity, assessed at child's age of 6 months by observing maternal behaviors during mother-child semi-structured interaction, was categorized into two groups: sensitive and insensitive. Children's height and weight were measured longitudinally from age 2 years to Grade 6, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. BMI percentile was obtained based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's BMI charts. Children, who had a BMI ≥ the 85th percentile, were defined as overweight-or-obese. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. The proportions of children overweight-or-obese increased with age, 15.58% at 2 years old to 34.34% by Grade 6. The joint effects of children's temperament and maternal sensitivity on a child's body mass status depended on the child's age. For instance, children with difficult temperament and insensitive mothers had significantly higher risks for being overweight-or-obese during the school age phase but not during early childhood. Specific combinations of child temperament and maternal sensitivity were associated with the development of obesity during childhood. Findings may hold implications for childhood obesity prevention/intervention programs targeting parents.

  13. Atopic endotype in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt

    2016-01-01

    against 28 inhalant and food allergens was assessed at ½, 1½, 4, 6, and 13 years of age in 399 children from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood2000 birth cohort by using both skin prick test responses and specific IgE levels. Asthma and eczema were diagnosed longitudinally by strictly...... with asthma through early childhood (0-6 years) when analyzed as any sensitization (odds ratio [OR] range, 0.78-1.29; P ≥ .48). However, at 13 years of age, any sensitization was associated with asthma (OR range, 4.02-5.94; all P ...%), eczema (26%), asthma (14%), or healthy status (24%). Conclusion: We found very little interdependency between asthma, eczema, and allergic sensitization through childhood. The associations between those entities were strongly dependent on age, type of allergens, and method of testing for sensitization...

  14. Discovering the Culture of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We often filter our interactions with children through the lens of adulthood. View the culture of childhood through a whole new lens. Identify age-based bias and expand your outlook on and understanding of early childhood as a culture. Examine various elements of childhood culture: language, the power of believing, artistic expressions, and social…

  15. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 1 Molnar, B., Berkman, L., & Buka, S. (2001). Psychopathology, childhood sexual abuse, and other childhood adversities: Relative links ... 4 Shapiro, S. (1992). Suicidality and the sequelae of childhood victimization. In S. ... and psychopathology. NY: Lexington Books. 56 Goldsmith et al., (2000). ...

  16. Childhood myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tathagata; Choudhry, V P

    2013-09-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) comprises of a heterogeneous group of bone marrow disorders resulting from a clonal stem cell defect characterised by cytopenias despite a relatively hypercellular marrow, ineffective hematopoiesis, morphological dysplasia in the marrow elements, no response to hematinics such as iron, B12 or folic acid and risk of progression to leukemia. Myelodysplastic syndrome in childhood is extremely rare and accounts for less than 5% of all hematopoietic neoplasms in children below the age of 14 y. The primary MDS in children, also known as de novo MDS differs from secondary MDS which generally follows congenital or acquired bone marrow (BM) failure syndromes as well as from therapy related MDS, commonly resulting from cytotoxic therapy. MDS associated with Down syndrome which accounts for approximately one-fourth of cases of childhood MDS is now considered a unique biologic entity synonymous with Down syndrome-related myeloid leukemia and is biologically distinct from other cases of childhood MDS. Refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC) is the commonest type of MDS. Genetic changes predisposing to MDS in childhood remain largely obscure. Monosomy 7 is by-far the commonest cytogenetic abnormality associated with childhood MDS; however most cases of RCC show a normal karyotype. Complex cytogenetic abnormalities and trisomy 8 and trisomy 21 are also occasionally observed. The most effective and curative treatment is Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and this is particularly effective in children with the monosomy 7 genetic defect as well as those displaying complex karyotype abnormalities provided it is instituted early in the course of the disease.

  17. The microbiome and probiotics in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Michael Harrison

    2014-01-01

    Infants, from the moment of birth, are colonized by large numbers of microbes. This colonization continues throughout childhood and from preliminary studies seems to be a highly dynamic process, even during the usual physiologic state we refer to as health. In this context, the persistence of bacterial and fungal species in and on the human body likely confers various benefits to the host. One specific approach to modulate such beneficial effects is the administration of probiotics, also known as beneficial microbes. Herein, we outline the highest level evidence in regard to the evolution of the microbiome during childhood and its manipulation by probiotics for genitourinary, enteric, and allergic and atopic disorders. Thus, probiotic approaches are promising alternatives and adjuvants to traditional vaccines and antibiotics. This may usher in a new age in which vaccine and antibiotic side effects and antibiotic resistance are minimal issues in the setting of maintaining children's health and prevention of disease.

  18. A Tewo Tibetan Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rdo rje tshe brtan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rdo rje tshe brtan (b. 1986 describes his childhood in Dredze Village, Yiwa Township, Tewo County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province, China, as well as being a student in Xining City, Qinghai Province. Topics covered include his family, childhood injuries and illnesses, education, Terang (malicious household deities, mountain deities and associated rituals and sacrifices, death, conflict with other locals, collecting local plants, a birth in the village, stealing fruit, a wedding, plowing, a visit to a hot spring, a lost yak, slaughtering pigs, government confiscation of fields, and slaughtering pigs. Photos provide additional detail.

  19. Interbirth interval is associated with childhood type 1 diabetes risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Svensson, Jannet; Waldhoer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    of childhood type 1 diabetes has not been investigated. A secondary analysis of 14 published observational studies of perinatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes was conducted. Risk estimates of diabetes by category of interbirth interval were calculated for each study. Random effects models were used...... to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and investigate heterogeneity between studies. Overall, 2,787 children with type 1 diabetes were included. There was a reduction in the risk of childhood type 1 diabetes in children born to mothers after interbirth intervals...

  20. Childhood height increases the risk of prostate cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult body size is positively associated with aggressive and fatal prostate cancers. It is unknown whether these associations originate in early life. Therefore, we investigated if childhood height, body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and growth are associated with prostate cancer-specific......BACKGROUND: Adult body size is positively associated with aggressive and fatal prostate cancers. It is unknown whether these associations originate in early life. Therefore, we investigated if childhood height, body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and growth are associated with prostate cancer......-specific mortality and survival. METHODS: Subjects were 125,208 men from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born 1930-1969 with height and weight measurements at ages 7-13years. Linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry and the Register of Causes of Death enabled identification of incident and fatal prostate...

  1. Child Care and Cortisol across Early Childhood: Context Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Daniel; Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Wiloughy, Michael; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Veron-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable body of literature suggests that children's child-care experiences may impact adrenocortical functioning in early childhood. Yet emerging findings also suggest that the magnitude and sometimes the direction of child-care effects on development may be markedly different for children from higher risk contexts. Using data from a large…

  2. Determinants of childhood overweight and obesity in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li Yanping,; Zhai, F.; Yang, X.; Schouten, E.G.; Hu, X.; He, Y.; Luan, D.; Ma, Guansheng

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the determinants of childhood overweight and obesity in China, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) was compared according to different dietary and physical activity patterns and parental body weight status. A total of 6826 children aged 7-17 years from the 2002 C

  3. Early Childhood Education for Sustainability: Recommendations for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daries, Julie; Engdahl, Ingrid; Otieno, Lorraine; Pramling-Samuelson, Ingrid; Siraj-Blatchford, John; Vallabh, Priya

    2009-01-01

    The following recommendations for "Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)" in Early Childhood Education were the product of an extended international collaboration that was supported by a number of bodies including the Centre for Environment and Sustainability in Gothenburg, the Swedish Ministry of Education and Research, the…

  4. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on…

  5. Peer Relations in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Dale F.; Payne, Alexandra; Chadwick, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    We present a developmental model that describes normal peer relations and highlights processes that underlie the emergence of problems with peers in childhood. We propose that children's relationships with peers begin in the first years of life, with stable individual differences and preferences for particular peers emerging by three years of age.…

  6. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  7. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... as pneumonia, blood infections, and bacterial meningitis Rotavirus vaccine (three ... in babies and young children 4 Months DTaP, Hib, IPV, PCV, RV 6 ...

  8. Childhood Depressive Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselhöft, Rikke Thaarup

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a female patient diagnosed with Barraquer-Simons syndrome, a rare form of acquired partial lipodystrophy characterised by symmetrical loss of adipose tissue from face, neck, upper extremities and the trunk with onset in early childhood. Initial symptoms were seen...

  9. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Yang, Jun J; Hunger, Stephen P;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the impact of collaborative studies on advances in the biology and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adolescents. METHODS: A review of English literature on childhood ALL focusing on collaborative studies was performed. The resulting article was re...

  10. The Teening of Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymowitz, Kay S.

    2000-01-01

    The market and advertising media aimed at children has skyrocketed in recent years. Many new products targeting 8-12-year-olds appeal to their sense of teen fashion, image consciousness, and independence from adults. Describes the development of this market aimed at early adolescents and how it is changing childhood as Americans have known it. (SM)

  11. Childhood microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah G Al Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Children with suspected microbial keratitis require comprehensive evaluation and management. Early recognition, identifying the predisposing factors and etiological microbial organisms, and instituting appropriate treatment measures have a crucial role in outcome. Ocular trauma was the leading cause of childhood microbial keratitis in our study.

  12. Treating childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terr, Lenore C

    2013-01-01

    This review begins with the question "What is childhood trauma?" Diagnosis is discussed next, and then the article focuses on treatment, using 3 basic principles-abreaction, context, and correction. Treatment modalities and complications are discussed, with case vignettes presented throughout to illustrate. Suggestions are provided for the psychiatrist to manage countertransference as trauma therapy proceeds.

  13. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  14. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2003-01-01

    are sometimes associated with this disorder, but contrary to earlier belief this is not typical. Interest in childhood disintegrative disorder has increased markedly in recent years and in this review attention is given to more recently published cases based on ICD-9, ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic systems...

  15. Narrative Processes across Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Matthew Keefe

    2011-01-01

    According to the narrative perspective on personality development, personality is constructed largely by interpreting and representing experience in story format (scripts) over the course of the lifespan. The focus of this paper is to describe briefly the narrative perspective on personality development during childhood and adolescence, to discuss…

  16. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results show

  17. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes the tissue to light up under a microscope. This type of test may be used to tell the ... Treatment for Childhood Cancer for more information). Four types of standard ... the tissue under a microscope to check for cancer cells . If cancer cells ...

  18. Childhood environment and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  19. Childhood Cancer: Osteosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Osteosarcoma KidsHealth > For Parents > Osteosarcoma Print A A A What's in this article? Risk for Childhood Osteosarcoma Symptoms of Osteosarcoma Diagnosing Osteosarcoma Treating Osteosarcoma ...

  20. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in south asian children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Joan L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls. BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size. The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99 and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31, adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity. Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96 and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67. Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in

  1. Foodscapes and Children’s Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Brembeck

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses children, food and body, and introduces a Deleuzian and Childhood Studies-inspired use of the concept of foodscape. The data draws on a transdisciplinary project on children as co-researchers of foodscapes. In this arti-cle we do not discuss the method or the children’s research results, which we have done elsewhere. Instead, our aim is to present a theoretically inspired analysis of our own fieldwork observations during this project in order to discuss the per-formance of children’s bodies, food and eating. Departing from the concept of foodscape, we present an analysis of some food events that illustrate the complex-ity of children’s foodscapes concerning the interaction between spaces, bodies, foodstuffs, values and rules. In encountering food and eating at various places, different child becomings emerge. We distinguish three powerful performances of what Stuart Aitken (2008 calls “I-dos”: First, the seemingly obedient pupil, who pretends to do what he or she is told, but who more or less imperceptibly escapes from adult supervi-sion. Second, the child who makes use of the stereotyped and possibly cute “food monster” designation, and turns it into a threatening subject, who disturbs the or-der and challenges adults’ power. Third, the knowledgeable scientist who, with the help of a research project, adult experts, nutritional calculation programs and ingredients, seizes the definition of the body as a site for growing stronger, health-ier and more capable. The foodscapes we met held many “striated spaces” (Deleuze & Guattari 1987, where the children had few alternatives to adhering to the adults’ designated “I-ams”. But we also entered smooth spots where children had the opportunity to experiment with “I-dos” that would not have occurred to us had we not followed them, and there are certainly many more that appear in the children’s everyday encounters with food.

  2. Childhood obesity: a role for gut microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Marina; Panahi, Shirin; Tremblay, Angelo

    2014-12-23

    Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota.

  3. Childhood Obesity: A Role for Gut Microbiota?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sanchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota.

  4. Parasomnias in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotagal, Suresh

    2009-04-01

    Common childhood parasomnias, including those occurring at sleep onset and during rapid eye movement sleep or non-rapid eye movement sleep and their ontogeny are discussed. The events may be distressing to both the patient and family members. Stereotypic movements characteristic of some parasomnias most likely arise from disinhibition of subcortical central pattern generators. Genetic predisposition, an inherent instability of non-rapid eye movement sleep and underlying sleep disturbances such as obstructive sleep apnea may predispose to the activation of confusional arousals, sleep walking or sleep terrors. Many parasomnias can be recognized by history alone, but some require nocturnal polysomnography for appropriate diagnosis and management. A scheme to distinguish non-rapid eye movement sleep parasomnias from nocturnal seizures is provided. Behavioral therapy has a role in the management of many childhood parasomnias, but evidence based recommendations are as yet unavailable.

  5. Genetics of Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.

  6. Danish Childhood Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Wehner, Peder Skov

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The overall aim is to monitor the quality of childhood cancer care in Denmark; to register late effects of treatment; to analyze complications of permanent central venous catheters (CVCs); to study blood stream infections in children with cancer; and to study acute toxicity of high......-dose methotrexate infusions in children with leukemia. STUDY POPULATION: All children below 15 years of age at diagnosis living in Denmark diagnosed after January 1, 1985 according to the International Classification of Diseases 10, including diagnoses DC00-DD48. MAIN VARIABLES: Cancer type, extent of disease......, and outcome of antimicrobial chemotherapy. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Since 1985, 4,944 children below 15 years of age have been registered in the database. There has been no significant change in the incidence of childhood cancer in Denmark since 1985. The 5-year survival has increased significantly since 1985...

  7. Childhood Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dayal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common condition in childhood and can result insevere complications if left untreated. It is showing a rising trend in India. A significantassociation with obesity has been observed; however, some children with enlargedtonsils and/or adenoids may even be underweight. The patient usually presents withsnoring and other respiratory problems like mouth breathing, choking and gaspingepisodes in night. Poor school performance and neurocognitive deficits have beenreported. Pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale are seen in severe cases. Besidesthe history and clinical examination, for definitive diagnosis an overnightpolysomnographic evaluation is the gold standard. In all cases, the specific treatmentranges from simple lifestyle modifications and medications to surgeries likeadenotonsillectomy. Early diagnosis is vital.Key words: Childhood OSA, Obesity, adenotonsillar hypertrophy

  8. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  9. Tibetan Nomad Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karma Dondrub

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A Tibetan Nomad Childhood by Kar+ma don 'grub. Kar+ma's life begins on the boundless Tibetan grassland in 1983 in Yushu (Yul shul Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sgnon (Qinghai Province. Living in a black yak hair tent, Kar+ma begins tending his family's yak calves as soon as he can walk, in a grassland so barren that he is startled upon first seeing a tree at the age of eight. Charlatan livestock-stealing monks, anthrax, death, birth, happiness, and encounters with modern education create a powerful, unparalleled account of Tibetan nomad childhood in the late twentieth century - a way of life that will soon be forever gone.

  10. Nomadic Research Practices in Early Childhood: Interrupting Racisms and Colonialisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Pacini-Ketchabaw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers how research practices on racialization in early childhood education might be reconceptualized when racialization is placed within relational intricacies and affects in multiple encounters. By foregrounding race and its emergence in multifarious, unpredictable ways in everyday encounters between human and non-human bodies, space, and discourse, the paper investigates how a movement toward research analyses that engage with both the materiality of race and its systemic and discursive formations might be used to constantly seek new ethical ways of responding to and acting against racisms and colonialism in early childhood.

  11. Thyroid cancer in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlin, J.B.; Sallan, S.E. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The incidence, clinical presentation, and types of thyroid cancers presenting in childhood are reviewed. The role of antecedent radiation in papillary and follicular thyroid cancers and genetics of medullary thyroid carcinoma are discussed. Unique aspects of therapy and prognosis for the pediatric patient with thyroid carcinoma are addressed as well as a diagnostic approach to the child who presents with a neck mass.59 references.

  12. Cultivating childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Greene-Martin, DeCleasha

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the levels of obesity in the United States has risen greatly especially amongst children. Doctors, psychologists, and other scientists have been studying the growing problem for years. Implications for childhood obesity not only have enormous physical consequences but emotional repercussions which can affect the child’s academic and social development. A number of factors have been identified as having an effect on these children; family life reveals the grocery store habits o...

  13. Childhood Short Stature

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood short stature comprises Varity of endocrinal, systemic, Skeletal & genetic disorders of pediatrics and is not just confined for endocrinal disorder only. A systemic approach often reduces the need for test which is often expensive &unnecessary. Use growth chart & asses bone age during evaluation. Short & heavy child are generally due to Endocrine causes, Short & thin are due to systemic disease, Short with normal velocity are may be due to Constitutional delay in growth &puberty or ...

  14. Fatty liver in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Ozturk,Yesim; Soylu, Ozlem Bekem

    2014-01-01

    Fatty liver is a growing health problem worldwide. It might evolve to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and cause hepatocellular carcinoma. This disease, which has increased because of eating habits, changes in food content and lifestyle, affects people from childhood. The most important risk factors are obesity and insulin resistance. Besides these factors, gender, ethnicity, genetic predisposition and some medical problems are also important. Cirrhosis in children is rare but is repor...

  15. Monitoring asthma in childhood: management-related issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart L. Rottier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Management-related issues are an important aspect of monitoring asthma in children in clinical practice. This review summarises the literature on practical aspects of monitoring including adherence to treatment, inhalation technique, ongoing exposure to allergens and irritants, comorbid conditions and side-effects of treatment, as agreed by the European Respiratory Society Task Force on Monitoring Asthma in Childhood. The evidence indicates that it is important to discuss adherence to treatment in a non-confrontational way at every clinic visit, and take into account a patient's illness and medication beliefs. All task force members teach inhalation techniques at least twice when introducing a new inhalation device and then at least annually. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, combustion-derived air pollutants, house dust mites, fungal spores, pollens and pet dander deserve regular attention during follow-up according to most task force members. In addition, allergic rhinitis should be considered as a cause for poor asthma control. Task force members do not screen for gastro-oesophageal reflux and food allergy. Height and weight are generally measured at least annually to identify individuals who are susceptible to adrenal suppression and to calculate body mass index, even though causality between obesity and asthma has not been established. In cases of poor asthma control, before stepping up treatment the above aspects of monitoring deserve closer attention.

  16. Childhood obesity and prevention approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Yildiz; Berna Eren Fidanci; Derya Suluhan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short and long term health problems associated with obesity. Being overweight or obese may increase the rate of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It may contribute to shortening life expectancy and adversely affects the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to prevent childhood obe...

  17. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Hatice; DİNÇER, Çağlayan

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  18. Calculator calculus

    CERN Document Server

    McCarty, George

    1982-01-01

    How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en­ couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...

  19. General Information about Childhood Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Liver Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Childhood ...

  20. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Childhood Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reports of childhood abuse and neglect were investigated. Childhood trauma, defined as abuse, neglect, or loss, is a ... the lifespan. In various animal and human studies childhood trauma has been associated with low resting cortisol levels, ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: alternating hemiplegia of childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions alternating hemiplegia of childhood alternating hemiplegia of childhood Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is a neurological condition characterized by ...

  2. Treatment Options for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood AML Treatment Research Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Acute ... Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment Past treatment for cancer and certain genetic conditions affect the ...

  3. Treatment Options for Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Childhood NHL Treatment Research Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Hodgkin ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  4. Effects of a Family-Based Childhood Obesity Treatment Program on Parental Weight Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, Cæcilie; Dahl, Maria; Stjernholm, Theresa; Nielsen, Tenna R. H.; Bøjsøe, Christine; Fonvig, Cilius E.; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment and to evaluate changes in the parents’ weight statuses during their child’s treatment. Methods The study included parents of 1,125 children and adolescents aged 3–22 years, who were enrolled in a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program. At baseline, weight and height of the parents were obtained by self-reported information and parental body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Weight and height of the children were measured in the clinic and BMI standard deviation scores were calculated. Furthermore, anthropometric data from parents of 664 children were obtained by telephone interview after a mean of 2.5 years of treatment (ranging 16 days to 7 years), and changes in parental BMI were analyzed. Results Data on changes in BMI were available in 606 mothers and 479 fathers. At baseline, the median BMI of the mothers was 28.1 kg/m2 (range: 16.9–66.6), and the median BMI of the fathers was 28.9 kg/m2 (range: 17.2–48.1). Seventy percent of the mothers and 80% of the fathers were overweight or obese at the time of their child’s treatment initiation. Both the mothers and fathers lost weight during their child’s treatment with a mean decrease in BMI in the mothers of 0.5 (95% CI: 0.2–0.8, p = 0.0006) and in the fathers of 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2–0.6, p = 0.0007). Of the overweight/obese parents, 60% of the mothers and 58% of the fathers lost weight during their child’s treatment. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment. Family-based childhood obesity treatment with a focus on the child has a positive effect on parental BMI with both mothers and fathers losing weight. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00928473 PMID:27560141

  5. Childhood BMI growth trajectories and endometrial cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Tilling, Kate;

    2017-01-01

    cancer and its sub-types. A cohort of 155,505 girls from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register with measured weights and heights at the ages of 6 to 14 years and born 1930-89 formed the analytical population. BMI was transformed to age-specific z-scores. Using linear spline multilevel models......Previously, we found that excess weight already in childhood has positive associations with endometrial cancer, however, associations with changes in body mass index (BMI) during childhood are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether growth in childhood BMI is associated with endometrial......, each girl's BMI growth trajectory was estimated as the deviance from the average trajectory for three different growth periods (6.25-7.99, 8.0-10.99, 11.0-14.0 years). Via a link to health registers, 1020 endometrial cancer cases were identified, and Cox regressions were performed. A greater gain...

  6. Evo-devo of infantile and childhood growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Ze'ev; Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin

    2008-07-01

    Human size is a tradeoff between the evolutionary advantages and disadvantages of being small or big. We now propose that adult size is determined to an important extent during transition from infancy to childhood. This transition is marked by a growth spurt. A delay in the transition has a lifelong impact on stature and is responsible for 44% of children with short stature in developed countries and many more in developing countries. Here, we present the data and theory of an evolutionary adaptive strategy of plasticity in the timing of transition from infancy into childhood to match the prevailing energy supply. We propose that humans have evolved to withstand energy crises by decreasing their body size, and that evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises trigger a predictive adaptive response that modify the transition into childhood, culminating in short stature.

  7. Atypical Presentation of Multiple Foreign Body Ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Sultan; Ayan, Burak

    2017-01-01

    Foreign body ingestion is very common in childhood especially under 3 year of age. Pica syndrome is characterized by an appetite for substances that are largely non-nutritive. We present a 3-year old girl who presented to ER with symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction. PMID:28164004

  8. [Childhood obesity: definition, consequences, and prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiolero, A; Lasserre, A M; Paccaud, F; Bovet, P

    2007-05-16

    Since the 1980s, an epidemic of obesity is occurring worldwide among adults and children. The body mass index (BMI) is useful to determine whether a child is overweight or obese because BMI relates strongly to body fat mass. However, contrary to adults, BMI changes with sex and age in children. Sex- and age-specific norms for BMI of the International obesity task force (IOTF) are now widely used. Approximately 15-20% of schoolchildren in Switzerland are currently overweight (or obese) and 2-5% are obese. Obesity is a major public health challenge. It is associated with numerous short and long term health hazards (in particular cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, e.g. diabetes) and it tracks form childhood throughout adulthood. This emphasizes the need for programs and polices aimed at preventing paediatric obesity.

  9. Neonatal anthropometrics and correlation to childhood obesity--data from the Danish Children's Obesity Clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Bille, Dorthe Sadowa; Nässlund, Ida

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Recent evidence has demonstrated the prenatal initiation of childhood obesity as epidemiological studies and animal studies have illustrated the effect of the intrauterine milieu for subsequent development of childhood obesity. This study investigates the relationship between severe...... childhood obesity and the preceding in utero conditions expressed by birth weight and birth length, birth-weight-for-gestational-age and neonatal ponderal index in a Danish cohort of 1,171 severely obese children (median age 11.48 years, range 3.13 to 17.98 years) with a mean body mass index...... that the prenatal period can be considered as a potential window of opportunity for prevention of childhood overweight and obesity and anthropological measurements may in theory be used to help identify neonates at high risk for developing childhood obesity....

  10. Body integrity identity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne M Blom

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal cord in order to become paralyzed. Aim of the study is to broaden the knowledge of BIID amongst medical professionals, by describing all who deal with BIID. METHODS: Somatic, psychiatric and BIID characteristic data were collected from 54 BIID individuals using a detailed questionnaire. Subsequently, data of different subtypes of BIID (i.e. wish for amputation or paralyzation were evaluated. Finally, disruption in work, social and family life due to BIID in subjects with and without amputation were compared. RESULTS: Based on the subjects' reports we found that BIID has an onset in early childhood. The main rationale given for their desire for body modification is to feel complete or to feel satisfied inside. Somatic and severe psychiatric co-morbidity is unusual, but depressive symptoms and mood disorders can be present, possibly secondary to the enormous distress BIID puts upon a person. Amputation and paralyzation variant do not differ in any clinical variable. Surgery is found helpful in all subjects who underwent amputation and those subjects score significantly lower on a disability scale than BIID subjects without body modification. CONCLUSIONS: The amputation variant and paralyzation variant of BIID are to be considered as one of the same condition. Amputation of the healthy body part appears to result in remission of BIID and an impressive improvement of quality of life. Knowledge of and respect for the desires of BIID individuals are the first steps in providing care and may decrease the huge burden they experience.

  11. Teachers in Early Childhood Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilderry, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher accountability and authority in early childhood policy. It reports on data from a study that investigated the influences affecting early childhood teacher decision-making at the preschool level in Victoria, Australia. Using a question raised by Ball "Where are the teachers in all this [policy]?" provided a…

  12. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  13. Childhood Victimization and Lifetime Revictimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J.; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the fundamental hypothesis that childhood victimization leads to increased vulnerability for subsequent (re)victimization in adolescence and adulthood and, if so, whether there are differences in rates of experiencing traumas and victimizations by gender, race/ethnicity, and type of childhood abuse and/or neglect. Methods:…

  14. Childhood environments and cytomegalovirus serostatus and reactivation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Doyle, William J; Marsland, Anna L; Bosch, Jos

    2014-08-01

    Childhood adversity, defined in terms of material hardship or physical or emotional maltreatment has been associated with risk for infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) among children and adolescents, and with CMV reactivation in children and adults. The present study examined whether different dimensions of childhood experience-those pertaining to socioeconomic status (SES), physical environment, or family relationships-relate differentially to CMV serostatus and reactivation during adulthood. Participants were 140 healthy adults, aged 18-55years (41% female; 64% white). Childhood environments were assessed retrospectively and included family SES (parental housing tenure); childhood neighborhood environment (urban residence; physical conditions; safety; and social atmosphere); residential exposures (parental smoking and physical condition of home); and family relationships (parental divorce; warmth; harmony; dysfunction; parental bonding). Approximately 39% (n=53) of participants were CMV+. In individual analyses controlling for age, sex, race, body mass, current adult SES and smoking status, fewer years of parental home ownership, having a parent who smoked, and living in a poorly maintained or unsafe neighborhood each were associated with greater odds of infection with CMV. By comparison, in individual analyses limited to CMV+ participants, less family warmth, less harmony, greater dysfunction, and suboptimal parental bonding each were related to higher antibody levels, independent of the aforementioned covariates. Findings were not attributable to current adult perceptions of psychological stress or relative levels of emotional stability. These results suggest that different types of childhood adversity may be associated with differential effects on CMV infection and latency.

  15. Household food insecurity during childhood and adolescent misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Vaughn, Michael G

    2017-03-01

    A large body of research has found that household food insecurity can interfere with the healthy development of children. The link between household food insecurity during childhood and misbehaviors during adolescence, however, is not commonly explored. The objective of the current study is to assess whether household food insecurity across childhood predicts four different forms of misconduct during early adolescence. Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K), a nationally representative sample of U.S. children, were employed in the present study. Associations between household food insecurity during childhood and adolescent misconduct were examined using Logistic and Negative Binomial Regression. Analyses were performed separately for males and females. The results revealed that household food insecurity and food insecurity persistence were predictive of most forms of misconduct for males, and were consistently predictive of engagement in multiple forms of misconduct and a greater variety of forms of misconduct for males. For females, however, household food insecurity generally failed to predict adolescent misconduct. The behavioral development of males during adolescence appears to be sensitive to the presence and persistence of household food insecurity during childhood. Future research should seek to replicate and extend the present findings to late adolescence and adulthood.

  16. Childhood moyamoya disease: hemodynamic MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzika, A.A. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Robertson, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Barnes, P.D. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Vajapeyam, S. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Burrows, P.E. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Treves, S.T. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Scott, R.M. l [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Background. Childhood moyamoya disease is a rare progressive cerebrovascular disease. Objective. To evaluate cerebral hemodynamics using dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced imaging in children with moyamoya disease. Materials and methods. Eight children (2-11 years of age) with the clinical and angiographic findings typical of moyamoya disease, before and/or after surgical intervention (pial synangiosis), underwent conventional MR imaging (MRI) and hemodynamic MR imaging (HMRI). HMRI used a spoiled gradient-echo with low flip angle (10 deg) and long TE (TR/TE = 24/15 ms) to minimize T 1 effects and emphasize T 2{sup *} weighting. Raw and calculated hemodynamic images were reviewed. Three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography (MRA) and perfusion brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were also performed. Results. Abnormal hemodynamic maps resulting from vascular stenosis or occlusion and basal collaterals were observed in six patient studies. HMRI depicted perfusion dynamics of affected cerebrovascular territories, detected cortical perfusion deficits, and complemented conventional MRI and MRA. HMRI findings were consistent with those of catheter angiography and perfusion SPECT. Conclusion. Our preliminary experience suggests that HMRI may be of value in the preoperative and postoperative evaluation of surgical interventions in moyamoya disease. (orig.). With 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in association with a normal total or free thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). It is frequently encountered in both neonatology and general paediatric practice; however, its clinical significance is widely debated. Currently there is no broad consensus on the investigation and treatment of these patients; specifically who to treat and what cut-off level of TSH should be used. This paper reviews the available evidence regarding investigation, treatments and outcomes reported for childhood SH.

  18. Increasing Childhood Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Lin, Chyongchiou J.; Hannibal, Kristin; Reis, Evelyn C.; Gallik, Gregory; Moehling, Krissy K.; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Allred, Norma J.; Wolfson, David H.; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the 2008 inception of universal childhood influenza vaccination, national rates have risen more dramatically among younger children than older children and reported rates across racial/ethnic groups are inconsistent. Interventions may be needed to address age and racial disparities to achieve the recommended childhood influenza vaccination target of 70%. Purpose To evaluate an intervention to increase childhood influenza vaccination across age and racial groups. Methods In 2011–2012, 20 primary care practices treating children were randomly assigned to Intervention and Control arms of a cluster randomized controlled trial to increase childhood influenza vaccination uptake using a toolkit and other strategies including early delivery of donated vaccine, in-service staff meetings, and publicity. Results The average vaccination differences from pre-intervention to the intervention year were significantly larger in the Intervention arm (n=10 practices) than the Control arm (n=10 practices), for children aged 2–8 years (10.2 percentage points (pct pts) Intervention vs 3.6 pct pts Control) and 9–18 years (11.1 pct pts Intervention vs 4.3 pct pts Control, p<0.05), for non-white children (16.7 pct pts Intervention vs 4.6 pct pts Control, p<0.001), and overall (9.9 pct pts Intervention vs 4.2 pct pts Control, p<0.01). In multi-level modeling that accounted for person- and practice-level variables and the interactions among age, race and intervention, the likelihood of vaccination increased with younger age group (6–23 months), white race, commercial insurance, the practice’s pre-intervention vaccination rate, and being in the Intervention arm. Estimates of the interaction terms indicated that the intervention increased the likelihood of vaccination for non-white children in all age groups and white children aged 9–18 years. Conclusions A multi-strategy intervention that includes a practice improvement toolkit can significantly improve influenza

  19. Momentos do parque em uma rotina de educação infantil: corpo, consumo, barbárie Playground moments in an early childhood education routine: body, consumption and barbarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Richter

    2010-12-01

    routine comprising various moments: arrival, cleaning, feeding, sleep, playground, guided activity, departure. Inspired by issues from the Critical Theory of Society, the present text deals with the playground moments, considered as "privileged situations for education", both in the teachers' discourses and in the actions that distinguish these moments from the others, establishing a kind of opposition between "work time" and "free time". In such relation, apart from being regarded as periods to renew energies for the other activities, these moments offer an excuse to suspend the closer following up of activities by the teachers: the look of the grown up "will need" only to steer children clear of inadequate places or to avoid "exposed" wounds, shaping a group of socio-sanitary practices around the vital needs, and that contribute to eliminate deviances and differences in pursuit of pseudo-gratifications. The absence of a more careful approximation will also leave children to an ambiguous "spontaneity", subjected to the violence that produces scars, mainly on the body, and which promote the kind of education that privileges barbarism instead of opposing it. The results show also the presence of products for the consumption of leisure that inform beforehand the sequence of operations to be reproduced, requiring automated gestures and actions that stimulate the barrenness of imagination.

  20. Body Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2000-01-01

    Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.

  1. Proceedings of the 3. Muenster symposium on late effects after tumor therapy in childhood and adolescence. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willich, Normann; Boelling, Tobias (eds.) [Univ. Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2009-08-15

    The volume on the 3rd Muenster Symposion on late effects after tumor therapy in childhood and adolescence contains 7 contributions: Evaluation of side effects after radiotherapy in childhood and adolescence; from retrospective case reports to a perspective, multicentric and transnational approach; late effects surveillance system after childhood cancer in Germany, Austria and parts of Switzerland - update 2009; second malignant neoplasm after childhood cancer in Germany - results from the long-term follow-up of the German childhood cancer registry; secondary neoplasm after Wilm's tumor in Germany; second cancer after total-body irradiation (TBI) in childhood; late toxicity in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with TBI-containing conditioning regimens for hematological malignancies; radiation toxicity following busulfan/melphalan high-dose chemotherapy in the EURO-EWING-99-trials: review of GPOH data.

  2. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : An extensive body of literature is concerned with obese people, risk, and weight management. However, little is known about weight management among people not belonging to the extreme BMI categories. Management of weight among normal-weight and moderately overweight individuals...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... of practices for monitoring their bodies based on different kinds of calculations of weight and body size, observations of body shape, and measurements of bodily firmness. Biometric measurements are familiar to them as are health authorities' recommendations. Despite not belonging to an extreme BMI category...

  3. Management of childhood stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onslow, Mark; O'Brian, Sue

    2013-02-01

    Stuttering is a speech disorder that begins during the first years of life and is among the most prevalent of developmental disorders. It appears to be a problem with neural processing of speech involving genetics. Onset typically occurs during the first years of life, shortly after language development begins. Clinical presentation during childhood is interrupted and effortful speech production, often with rapid onset. If not corrected during early childhood, it becomes intractable and can cause psychological, social, educational and occupational problems. There is evidence from replicated clinical trials to support early intervention during the pre-school years. Meta-analysis of studies indicates that children who receive early intervention during the pre-school years are 7.7 times more likely to have resolution of their stuttering. Early intervention is recommended with a speech pathologist. Some children who begin to stutter will recover without such intervention. However, the number of such recoveries is currently not known, and it is not possible to predict which children are likely to recover naturally. Consequently, the current best practice is for speech pathologists to monitor children for signs of natural recovery for up to 1 year before beginning treatment.

  4. Acute hemiplegia in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Takehiko; Takao, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Nakano, Shozo (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1983-04-01

    The results of CT in 100 patients with acute hemiplegia in childhood are reported here. The etiology was various: 2 patients had infratentorial brain tumors, 56 had cerebral vascular diseases, 3 had head injuries, 16 had intracranial infectious diseases, one had postinfectious encephalomyelitis, one had multiple sclerosis, 2 had epilepsy, and the diagnosis of 19 were unknown. Eleven patients had a normal CT and a good prognosis. As for the type of onset, there were patients of type 1 with fever and 42 with convulsions and unconsciousness; those of type 2 with convulsions and unconsciousness were 12, and those of type 3 without fever and convulsions were 46. This classification is assumed to be useful, as the type of onset is characteristic of the etiology. Six patients were diagnosed correctly by repeated examinations, although the first CT did not reveal any remarkable findings. Capsular infarction, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery in acute hemiplegia in childhood, abnormal findings of the internal capsule, thalamus, and midbrain in a patient with postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and a diffuse low density in the CT of the unilateral hemisphere in the patients with acute encephalopathy and acute hemiplegia of an obscure origin have been found after the introduction of computerized tomography.

  5. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NNR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Medicina. Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Departamento de Saúde Materno Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH], “child” (MeSH, and "childhood depression" (keyword. Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children's quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs

  6. Relationship between body composition and blood pressure in Bahraini adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sendi, Aneesa M; Shetty, Prakash; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Myatt, Mark

    2003-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between body composition and blood pressure (BP) in Bahraini adolescents. A sample of 504 Bahraini schoolchildren aged 12-17 years (249 boys and 255 girls) was selected using a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure. BP measurements were performed on the students. Anthropometric data including weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and triceps, subscapular and medial calf skinfold thicknesses were also collected. BMI, percentage body fat, waist:hip (WHR), and subscapular:triceps skinfold ratio were calculated. Mean systolic BP and mean diastolic BP were higher in males than in females. Weight and height in boys and weight only in girls were significantly associated with systolic BP independent of age or percentage fat. Nearly 14 % of the adolescents were classified as having high BP. BMI and percentage body fat were significantly and positively associated with the risk of having high BP in the boys and girls. Adolescents with high WHR or WC, as indicators for central obesity, tended to have higher BP values. The results from the present study indicate that obesity influences the BP of Bahraini adolescents and that simple anthropometric measurements such as WHR and WC are useful in identifying children at risk of developing high BP. These findings together with the known tracking of BP from adolescence into adulthood underline the importance of establishing intervention programmes in order to prevent the development of childhood and adolescent obesity.

  7. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  8. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  9. Averaged Propulsive Body Acceleration (APBA) Can Be Calculated from Biologging Tags That Incorporate Gyroscopes and Accelerometers to Estimate Swimming Speed, Hydrodynamic Drag and Energy Expenditure for Steller Sea Lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Colin; Trites, Andrew W; Rosen, David A S; Potvin, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Forces due to propulsion should approximate forces due to hydrodynamic drag for animals horizontally swimming at a constant speed with negligible buoyancy forces. Propulsive forces should also correlate with energy expenditures associated with locomotion-an important cost of foraging. As such, biologging tags containing accelerometers are being used to generate proxies for animal energy expenditures despite being unable to distinguish rotational movements from linear movements. However, recent miniaturizations of gyroscopes offer the possibility of resolving this shortcoming and obtaining better estimates of body accelerations of swimming animals. We derived accelerations using gyroscope data for swimming Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), and determined how well the measured accelerations correlated with actual swimming speeds and with theoretical drag. We also compared dive averaged dynamic body acceleration estimates that incorporate gyroscope data, with the widely used Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration (ODBA) metric, which does not use gyroscope data. Four Steller sea lions equipped with biologging tags were trained to swim alongside a boat cruising at steady speeds in the range of 4 to 10 kph. At each speed, and for each dive, we computed a measure called Gyro-Informed Dynamic Acceleration (GIDA) using a method incorporating gyroscope data with accelerometer data. We derived a new metric-Averaged Propulsive Body Acceleration (APBA), which is the average gain in speed per flipper stroke divided by mean stroke cycle duration. Our results show that the gyro-based measure (APBA) is a better predictor of speed than ODBA. We also found that APBA can estimate average thrust production during a single stroke-glide cycle, and can be used to estimate energy expended during swimming. The gyroscope-derived methods we describe should be generally applicable in swimming animals where propulsive accelerations can be clearly identified in the signal-and they should also

  10. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice UYSAL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done before and after peer bullying.

  11. Childhood obesity: prevention is better than cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandita A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aakash Pandita,1 Deepak Sharma,2 Dharti Pandita,3 Smita Pawar,4 Mir Tariq,5 Avinash Kaul6 1Department of Pediatrics, SMGS Hospital Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India; 2Department of Pediatrics, Pt Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India; 3Department of Microbiology Jammu University, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India; 4Department of OBG Fernandez Hospital, Hyderabad,Telangana, India; 5Department of Orthopedics, Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai, India; 6Department of Surgery, Acharya Shri Chander College of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India Abstract: Obesity and its associated comorbidities have emerged as a major health problem garnering interests from both public health agencies and mainstream media consumers. With increasing awareness on its impact on health, finances, and community at large, it has come to the forefront for scientific research and development of health plans. The need for better strategies and novel interventions to manage obesity is now being recognized by the entire health care system. Obesity and overweight is now the fifth leading global risk factor for mortality. Strategic investment is thus urgently needed to implement population-based childhood obesity prevention programmes which are effective and also culturally appropriate. Population-based prevention is crucial to stem this rising tide of childhood obesity which is fast reaching epidemic proportions. Obesity has its onset very early in life; therefore, children constitute a major group of this disease. It is thus imperative to lay utmost importance on prevention of obesity in children and herald its progress, if present already. Furthermore, treatment is still in preliminary stage, so early prevention holds better than treatment at later stages. This article is an attempt to lay emphasis on childhood obesity as a problem that needs to be recognized early and measures for its

  12. A general formalism for phase space calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Deutchman, Philip A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1988-01-01

    General formulas for calculating the interactions of galactic cosmic rays with target nuclei are presented. Methods for calculating the appropriate normalization volume elements and phase space factors are presented. Particular emphasis is placed on obtaining correct phase space factors for 2-, and 3-body final states. Calculations for both Lorentz-invariant and noninvariant phase space are presented.

  13. Pyoderma gangrenosum in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatri M

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We have treated 4 cases of pyoderma gangrenosum in infancy and childhood in past 2 years. The ages at onset were 6 months, 8 months, 6 months and 11.5 years respectively. Initial lesions were papulopustular in 3 and nodular in 1 patients but later on all of them developed ulcerative lesions with erythematous, violaceous, infiltrated or undermined edges. The lesions were numerous in 3 patients but few in 1 patient. The first patient had very high leucocyte count. In the second patient skin lesions of PG followed measles vaccinations. We could not reveal any association in the other two patients. None of the patient responded to antibiotic therapy. Three patients were treated successfully with dapsone and one with a combination of dapsone and prednisolone. We conclude that pyoderma gangrenosum is not so rare in infancy and it is more likely to occur without associated systemic diseases.

  14. Childhood Short Stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Ray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood short stature comprises Varity of endocrinal, systemic, Skeletal & genetic disorders of pediatrics and is not just confined for endocrinal disorder only. A systemic approach often reduces the need for test which is often expensive &unnecessary. Use growth chart & asses bone age during evaluation. Short & heavy child are generally due to Endocrine causes, Short & thin are due to systemic disease, Short with normal velocity are may be due to Constitutional delay in growth &puberty or Familial short stature, differentiation can be done by Bone Age. In Girls Turner syndrome has to be kept in mind. Purpose of evaluation to find out the child who does not need treatment, who cannot be treated & the child who can be benefited from treatment.

  15. Fatty liver in childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yesim; Ozturk; Ozlem; Bekem; Soylu

    2014-01-01

    Fatty liver is a growing health problem worldwide. It might evolve to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and cause hepatocellular carcinoma. This disease, which has increased because of eating habits, changes in food content and lifestyle, affects people from childhood. The most important risk factors are obesity and insulin resistance. Besides these factors, gender, ethnicity, genetic predisposition and some medical problems are also important. Cirrhosis in children is rare but is reported. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) has no specific symptoms or signs but should be considered in obese children. NAFLD does not have a proven treatment. Weight loss with family based treatments is the most acceptable management. Exercise and an applicable diet with low glycemic index and appropriate calorie intake are preferred. Drugs are promising but not sufficient in children for today.

  16. [Food allergy in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence.

  17. Trends in childhood disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallapies, Dirk

    2006-09-28

    Child mortality has declined remarkably during the last decades. While neonatal disorders, diarrhoea, pneumonia, and malaria as well as being underweight account for most of the child deaths worldwide, children's health discussions in Europe and the USA focus on other issues such as asthma, neurodevelopmental disorders, male genital malformations, and childhood cancer. There is clear evidence of increasing rates of asthma in various countries during the last decades, although rates in some countries may now have stabilised or even decline as recent UK data indicate. Although an increase in the frequency of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and attention deficit disorder has frequently been discussed, the limited data in this field does not justify such a conclusion. While geographic heterogeneity regarding reproductive outcomes is apparent, global trends have not been identified. Interpretation of the available information on asthma, neurodevelopmental disorders and reproductive outcomes is hampered by inconstant diagnostic criteria over place and time and the lack of good and comprehensive population-based surveillance data, which makes it impossible to ascertain trends in actual disease frequency. Data indicate that developed countries have a gradually increasing incidence in leukaemia with a corresponding drop in the incidence of lymphoma. Increases in brain tumour frequency may be related to the development and wide application of new diagnostic capabilities, rather than a true change in the incidence of malignant disease. With a better prognosis for childhood cancer survival, secondary cancers following chemotherapy appear to be increasing. A wide range of environmental factors is thought to have an impact on children's health. These factors include nutrition (protein, vitamins, antioxidants), lifestyle and behaviour choices such as tobacco and alcohol use, parental health, socio-economic status, choice of living environment (urban versus rural, etc

  18. 106例儿童孤独症的临床特征分析%Clinical Analysis for 106 Cases of Childhood Autism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新波; 柯晓燕; 罗硕军; 林节

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features of childhood autism. Methods Clinical analysis for 106 casesof clildhood autism by Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) .Results Onset age on0~ 11 month's autism are severe than11 ~ 23 month and 24 ~ 36 month, especially on human relatedness, use of body, relation to objects, visual responsiveness,auditory responsiveness, verbal sommunication and global impression. Cocnclusion The chnical features of childhood autismrelate to onset age.

  19. Determinants & Sequelae of Altered Body Composition in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blijdorp (Karin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn the Netherlands, approximately 600 children are diagnosed with cancer every year. Due to improvement of treatment, combining surgery, multi-agent chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, in addition to remarkable advances in supportive care, survival has increased substantially over the last d

  20. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  1. How Is Childhood Leukemia Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the organs. The echoes are converted by a computer into an image on a computer screen. This is a fairly easy test to ... material. For reprint requests, please see our Content Usage Policy . Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Types Can Childhood ...

  2. Childhood Deaths from Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Mohd. Sham; and Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data presented include ethnic origins, age, causes of death, identity of perpetrators, and marital situation of parents. (DB)

  3. Treatment Options for Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has any of the following: Headaches, including morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Vision changes. Nausea ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  4. General Information about Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It may be painful. Bulging of the eye. Headache. Trouble urinating or having bowel movements. Blood in ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  5. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and trouble walking. Vision and hearing problems. Morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Nausea and vomiting. ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It may be painful. Bulging of the eye. Headache. Trouble urinating or having bowel movements. Blood in ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  7. Treatment Options for Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It may be painful. Bulging of the eye. Headache. Trouble urinating or having bowel movements. Blood in ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  8. [Childhood of the schizophrenic patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, D

    2009-01-01

    We are able to identify the different risk factors involved in the development of the disorder from a study of the childhood of a schizophrenic patient. More specifically, we will define the perinatal risk factors: season and place of birth, viral exposure during pregnancy and obstetric complications. Developmental factors will also be discussed. Socialisation, language, psychomotor and cognitive development disorders are all developmental difficulties seen during the childhood of the schizophrenic patient. Finally we will finish by discussing a few psychosocial risk factors.

  9. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukheris, Houda [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel S. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stratton, Kayla L. [Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hammond, Sue [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mertens, Ann C. [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L. [Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Inskip, Peter D., E-mail: inskippe@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  10. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    ­logue between a written text and a visceral on-line performance involving photographs and music, the reader/audience has the possibility to be touched both sensually and intellectually, although through communication is in cyberspace, missing the liveliness of direct body language. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-May......Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...... and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move...

  11. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  12. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...

  13. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JosephDeVeto

    2004-01-01

    When we speak,we use much more than just words. We also communicate with our face. our hands,and even our own body. This Kind of communication ean be called “body language” or “non-verbal eommunieation”. Non-verbal

  14. Body weight/image perceptions and prevalence of obesity among adolescents-Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity can be seen as the first wave of a defined cluster of non communicable diseases called "New World Syndrome" creating an enormous socioeconomic and public health burden in poorer countries. The rising prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity cannot be addressed by a single etiology. Multiple factors plays role and among them perception on body weight and image plays vital role in adolescents. So the objective of this study was to know the perceptions of adolescents on their body weight and body image. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of high schools of Thiruvananthapuram city corporation, Kerala, India. The sample size of this study was 1718 and the technique adopted is multistage and stratified random sampling. Data was collected using pre designed and pretested semi-structured questionnaire which is self-administered. Body mass index was calculated based on physical measurements such as height and weight using standard methods. Results: This study revealed that 67.3% of study subjects underestimated their body weight and 15.5% over estimated their body weight. The prevalence of overweight/obesity is high among those who underestimated their body weight (18.7% compared to subjects who overestimated (6.7% but the prevalence of underweight is high among the subjects who overestimated their body weight (60.8% compared to subjects who underestimated (22%. Conclusion: Schools are probably the ideal medium of intervention as they are central to children′s lives and information can be relatively quickly dissipated through this channel and Helping adolescents to attain a realistic, positive perception of their body weight and image through health education.

  15. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood: new diagnostic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergont, Aleksandra; Kaciński, Marek

    2014-01-01

    A syndrome of alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare disorder first presented in 1971. AHC is characterized by transient episodes of hemiplegia affecting either one or both sides of the body. Age of onset is before 18 months and the common earliest manifestations are dystonic or tonic attacks and nystagmus. Hemiplegic episodes last minutes to days and the frequency and duration tend to decrease with time. Motor and intellectual development is affected, deficits may also develop later. Epileptic seizures occur in some patients. Neuroimaging of the brain usually reveals no abnormalities. The variability of individual clinical presentations and evolution of symptoms have made diagnosis difficult. Therefore the problems of misdiagnosis could account for the low prevalence of this syndrome. This paper hopes to present actual data on AHC, especially of the results of genetic research and new diagnostic tools.

  16. Birth weight and childhood blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Vidar O; Steinthorsdottir, Sandra D; Eliasdottir, Sigridur B; Indridason, Olafur S; Palsson, Runolfur

    2012-12-01

    A large body of literature suggests an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in children, adolescents and adults. The most persistent findings have been observed in children with a history of low birth weight or intrauterine growth restriction, while a large number of studies carried out in populations with normally distributed birth weight have shown conflicting results. A recently reported strong direct association between high birth weight and blood pressure, and the significant positive effect of postnatal growth on blood pressure suggests that the fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis should be expanded to include the role of excessive fetal and postnatal growth. In this paper, we review recent studies on the relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in childhood, with a focus on confounding variables that may explain the conflicting results of published work in this field.

  17. From Sleep Duration to Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Hense, Sabrina; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Sleep duration has been identified as risk factor for obesity already in children. Besides investigating the role of fat mass (FM), this study addressed the question whether endocrine mechanisms act as intermediates in the association between sleep duration and overweight/obesity. Within......-specific measure of sleep duration was derived to account for alteration in sleep duration during childhood/period of growth. Multivariate linear regression and quantile regression models confirmed an inverse relationship between sleep duration and measures of overweight/obesity. The estimate for the association...... of sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) was approximately halved after adjustment for FM, but remained significant. The strength of this association was also markedly attenuated when adjusting for insulin mainly for the upper BMI quantiles (Q80, β = −0.36 vs. β = −0.26; Q95, β = −0.87 vs. β = −0...

  18. Effect of childhood victimization on occupational prestige and income trajectories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A Fernandez

    Full Text Available Violence toward children (childhood victimization is a major public health problem, with long-term consequences on economic well-being. The purpose of this study was to determine whether childhood victimization affects occupational prestige and income in young adulthood. We hypothesized that young adults who experienced more childhood victimizations would have less prestigious jobs and lower incomes relative to those with no victimization history. We also explored the pathways in which childhood victimization mediates the relationships between background variables, such as parent's educational impact on the socioeconomic transition into adulthood.A nationally representative sample of 8,901 young adults aged 18-28 surveyed between 1999-2009 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY were analyzed. Covariate-adjusted multivariate linear regression and path models were used to estimate the effects of victimization and covariates on income and prestige levels and on income and prestige trajectories. After each participant turned 18, their annual 2002 Census job code was assigned a yearly prestige score based on the 1989 General Social Survey, and their annual income was calculated via self-reports. Occupational prestige and annual income are time-varying variables measured from 1999-2009. Victimization effects were tested for moderation by sex, race, and ethnicity in the multivariate models.Approximately half of our sample reported at least one instance of childhood victimization before the age of 18. Major findings include 1 childhood victimization resulted in slower income and prestige growth over time, and 2 mediation analyses suggested that this slower prestige and earnings arose because victims did not get the same amount of education as non-victims.Results indicated that the consequences of victimization negatively affected economic success throughout young adulthood, primarily by slowing the growth in prosperity due to lower

  19. Clinical evaluation of X-ray voxel Monte Carlo versus pencil beam-based dose calculation in stereotactic body radiotherapy of lung cancer under normal and deep inspiration breath hold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoni, V; Borzì, G R; Strolin, S; Bruzzaniti, V; Soriani, A; D'Alessio, D; Ambesi, F; Di Grazia, A M; Strigari, L

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the differences between dose distributions calculated with the pencil beam (PB) and X-ray voxel Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms for patients with lung cancer using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or HybridArc techniques. The 2 algorithms were compared in terms of dose-volume histograms, under normal and deep inspiration breath hold, and in terms of the tumor control probability (TCP). The dependence of the differences in tumor volume and location was investigated. Dosimetric validation was performed using Gafchromic EBT3 (International Specialty Products, ISP, Wayne, NJ). Forty-five Computed Tomography (CT) data sets were used for this study; 40 Gy at 8 Gy/fraction was prescribed with 5 noncoplanar 6-MV IMRT beams or 3 to 4 dynamic conformal arcs with 3 to 5 IMRT beams distributed per arc. The plans were first calculated with PB and then recalculated with MC. The difference between the mean tumor doses was approximately 10% ± 4%; these differences were even larger under deep inspiration breath hold. Differences between the mean tumor dose correlated with tumor volume and path length of the beams. The TCP values changed from 99.87% ± 0.24% to 96.78% ± 4.81% for both PB- and MC-calculated plans (P = .009). When a fraction of hypoxic cells was considered, the mean TCP values changed from 76.01% ± 5.83% to 34.78% ± 18.06% for the differently calculated plans (P < .0001). When the plans were renormalized to the same mean dose at the tumor, the mean TCP for oxic cells was 99.05% ± 1.59% and for hypoxic cells was 60.20% ± 9.53%. This study confirms that the MC algorithm adequately accounts for inhomogeneities. The inclusion of the MC in the process of IMRT optimization could represent a further step in the complex problem of determining the optimal treatment plan.

  20. Euler's Three-Body Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Walter J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the simplest three-body problem, known as Euler's problem. The article, intended for students in the undergraduate mathematics and physics curricula, shows how the complex equations for a specific three-body problem can be solved on a small calculator. (HM)

  1. Parental neglect during childhood and increased risk of obesity in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, I; Sørensen, T I

    1994-01-01

    reported on the child's general hygiene. 756 (86%) of the 881 eligible participants were followed up 10 years later. The influence of family factors in childhood on the risk of obesity (body-mass index > 95th centile) in young adulthood was estimated by odds ratios with control for age and body-mass index...... children had a much greater risk of adult obesity than averagely groomed children (9.8 [3.5-28.2]). However, being an only child, receiving overprotective parental support, or being well-groomed had no effect. Parental neglect during childhood predicts a great risk of obesity in young adulthood...

  2. Mental health, wellness, and childhood overweight/obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; McVey, Gail; Bardick, Angela; Ireland, Alana

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing concern, and while progress has been made to understand the association between multiple biological factors (i.e., genetics, nutrition, exercise etc.), little is known about the relationship between mental health and childhood obesity. In this paper, we offer a review of current evidence about the association between mental health and childhood obesity. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed, English-language studies published between January 2000 and January 2011 was undertaken and resulted in 759 unique records, of which 345 full-text articles were retrieved and 131 articles were included. A theoretical model is proposed to organize the paper and reflect the current state of the literature and includes psychological factors (i.e., depression and anxiety, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disordered symptoms, and emotional problems); psychosocial mediating variables (i.e., weight-based teasing and concern about weight and shape), and wellness factors (i.e., quality of life and resiliency/protective factors). We conclude with a number of recommendations to support the creation of solutions to the rise in childhood obesity rates that do not further marginalize overweight and obese children and youth and that can potentially improve the well-being of all children and youth regardless of their weight status.

  3. Indian Childhood Cirrhosis: Case Report and Pediatric Diagnostic Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaivinder Yadav

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indian childhood cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease usually seen in paediatric age group and is unique to the Indian subcontinent. The definitive causative factor for the disease is not found till now but excess copper ingestion has been associated with it.Case presentation: An Indian origin one and half year old premorbidly normal male child presented with history of gradual distension of abdomen for 6 months and jaundice, generalized body swelling, high colour urine for 20 days. There was no history of any bleeding or feature suggestive of hepatic encephalopathy. On physical examination child was icteric, pale and had anasarca, massive hepatosplenomegaly and ascites. The child was evaluated for various causes of hepatic failure in pediatric age group including infective, metabolic and autoimmune etiologies. Unfortunately the child succumbed to the illness. The post-mortem liver biopsy and copper estimation cleared the air, revealing Indian childhood cirrhosis as the underlying etiology.Conclusion: Though Indian childhood cirrhosis is a rare entity and reported less frequently in literature, the treating pediatrician should keep this as a differential in case of pediatric hepatic failure. The liver biopsy and hepatic copper estimation are the gold standard diagnostic tests for diagnosing Indian Childhood cirrhosis.

  4. Mental Health, Wellness, and Childhood Overweight/Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Russell-Mayhew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a growing concern, and while progress has been made to understand the association between multiple biological factors (i.e., genetics, nutrition, exercise etc., little is known about the relationship between mental health and childhood obesity. In this paper, we offer a review of current evidence about the association between mental health and childhood obesity. A systematic literature search of peer-reviewed, English-language studies published between January 2000 and January 2011 was undertaken and resulted in 759 unique records, of which 345 full-text articles were retrieved and 131 articles were included. A theoretical model is proposed to organize the paper and reflect the current state of the literature and includes psychological factors (i.e., depression and anxiety, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disordered symptoms, and emotional problems; psychosocial mediating variables (i.e., weight-based teasing and concern about weight and shape, and wellness factors (i.e., quality of life and resiliency/protective factors. We conclude with a number of recommendations to support the creation of solutions to the rise in childhood obesity rates that do not further marginalize overweight and obese children and youth and that can potentially improve the well-being of all children and youth regardless of their weight status.

  5. What money can buy: family income and childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between family income and childhood obesity. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), I report three new findings. First, family income and childhood obesity are generally negatively correlated, but for children in very low-income families, they are positively correlated. Second, the negative association between family income and Body Mass Index (BMI) is especially strong and significant among high-BMI children. Third, the difference in obesity rates between children from low- and high-income families increases as children age. This study further investigates potential factors that might contribute to a rapid increase in the obesity rate among low-income children. I find that their faster weight gain, rather than slower height growth, is a greater contributor to the rapid increase in their BMI over time. On the other hand, I also find that the faster weight gain by low-income children cannot be attributed to any single factor, such as participation in school meal programs, parental characteristics, or individual characteristics. These findings add to the current obesity debate by demonstrating that the key to curbing childhood obesity may lie in factors generating different obesity rates across income levels.

  6. Comparison of Different Internationally Accepted Reference Standards to Measure Childhood Adiposity Rates in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupča Sarmīte

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adiposity is increasingly affecting developed and developing countries alike. Body Mass Index (BMI is a good first approximation of body weight, but interpretation in specific patient populations may be inconsistent. The aim of this study was to compare adiposity rates using three internationally accepted weight reference standards – World Health Organisation (WHO, International Obesity Task Force (IOTF, and US Centers for Disease Control (CDC, plus a local national scale (LV, evaluating 465, 6-to-9-year old school children in Latvia. After obtaining height and weight, BMI was calculated, and the four scales were individually applied by gender and age. Highly significant differences between LV and CDC, LV and IOTF, LV and WHO were found in all age groups (P < 0.01, and between WHO and IOTF reference standards (P < 0.01 in 7- and 8-year olds. We conclude that reference standards should be used with great caution. Reference standards for local ethnic populations are needed to avoid disagreements between scales, as this can lead to incorrect choice of therapy; reliance on any single reference standard may not consider a patient's unique set of circumstances that have resulted in excess weight and information that is vital for a good clinical outcome.

  7. Examining Childhood Maltreatment and School Bullying Among Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study From Anhui Province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Geng-Fu; Jiang, Liu; Wang, Lu-Han; Hu, Guo-Yun; Fang, Yu; Yuan, Shan-Shan; Wang, Xiu-Xiu; Su, Pu-Yu

    2016-05-03

    Although a body of research has established the relationship between childhood maltreatment and bullying in Western culture backgrounds, few studies have examined the association between childhood maltreatment experiences and bullying in China. Moreover, to date, the relationship between multiple types of childhood maltreatment and cyber bullying is poorly understood. This study examined the association between multiple types of childhood maltreatment (physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect) and multiple forms of school bullying (physical, verbal, relational, and cyber). A cross-sectional study using three-stage random cluster-sampling approach was conducted in Tongling, Chuzhou, and Fuyang, in Anhui Province. Self-reported questionnaires were completed by 5,726 middle school students to assess their school bullying involvement and childhood maltreatment experiences. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between each single type of childhood maltreatment and each single form of school bullying. Each type of childhood maltreatment was associated with increased risk for involvement in each form of bullying as bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Specifically, both childhood physical neglect and emotional neglect were associated with increased risk for involvement in each form of school bullying. Each type of childhood maltreatment was associated with involvement in cyber bullying. Students who experienced multiple types of childhood maltreatment seem to report more forms of school bullying. Furthermore, multiple forms of school bullying caused the co-occurrence of several forms of school bullying. Our results indicated a significant association between school bullying and childhood maltreatment among adolescents. Interventions to reduce school bullying encompassing prevention toward childhood maltreatment might get better results in China.

  8. [Chronic ataxia in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erazo Torricelli, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Chronic ataxias are an heterogeneous group of disorders that affect the child at different ages. Thus, the congenital forms, generally non progressive are observed from first months of life and are expressed by hypotonia and motor delay long before the ataxia became evident. The cerebral magnetic resonance images (MRI) may be diagnostic in some pictures like Joubert syndrome. The group of progressive hereditary ataxias, usually begin after the infant period. The clinical signs are gait instability and ocular apraxia that can be associated with oculocutaneous telangiectasias (ataxia-telangiesctasia) or with sensory neuropathy (Friedreich ataxia). In this review are briefly described congenital ataxias and in more detailed form the progressive hereditary ataxias autosomal recessive, autosomal dominants and mitochondrials. The importance of genetic study is emphasized, because it is the key to obtain the diagnosis in the majority of these diseases. Although now there are no treatments for the majority of progressive hereditary ataxias, some they have like Refsum disease, vitamine E deficiency, Coenzyme Q10 deficiency and others, thus the diagnosis in these cases is even more important. At present the diagnosis of childhood hereditary ataxia not yet treatable is fundamental to obtain suitable handling, determine a precise outcome and to give to the family an opportune genetic counseling.

  9. [Epidemiology of childhood cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Jacqueline

    2007-05-31

    In industrial countries, 1 child out of 500 develops a cancer before the age of 15 years, and before the age of 6 years for almost half of them. In France, incidence rates were stable over the 15 last years with around 1500 cases each year. A very small fraction of cases is attributable to known risk factors, including heritable cancers or cancers in children with heritable predisposing diseases, cancers induced by high doses of ionizing radiation of medical or accidental origin, by chemotherapeutic or immunosuppressive drugs. Responsibility of Epstein Barr virus in a fraction of Hodgkin's and Burkitt's lymphomas is also established, even though little is still known on the cofactors involved in industrial countries. Other virus could cause leukaemia, as suggested by localized increases in incidence in various conditions of population mixing. Conversely, there is some evidence that early common infections could be protective toward leukaemia risk, probably through their contribution to the maturation of the immune system. Several agents are suspected to induce chemical cancers, particularly pesticides, which are consistently reported in childhood leukaemia and brain tumours. It is more and more likely that genetic factors may modulate risk induced of environmental factors.

  10. Childhood sledding injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, N A; Mooney, D P; Harmon, B J

    1999-01-01

    Sledding is only rarely thought of as a potentially dangerous childhood activity. However, serious injuries and occasional deaths do occur. A review of patients 18 years old and younger admitted to a pediatric trauma center following a sledding accident from 1991 to 1997 was conducted. By design this study was expected to identify the most seriously injured patients. Twenty-five patients were identified, all but four younger than 13. Seventeen were boys. The mechanisms of injury were: collision with stationary object, 15; sled-sled collision, 1; struck by sled, 2; going off jump, 3; foot caught under sled or on ground, 3; fall off sled being towed by snowmobile, 1. The average pediatric trauma score was 10.5, and the average injury severity score 10.6. There were no deaths. The injuries were: head, 11; long bone/extremity, all lower, 10; abdomen, 5; chest, 1; facial, 2; spinal, 1. Five patients sustained multiple injuries. A surprisingly high number, 5, had pre-existing neurological conditions that could have played a contributory role in the accident. Sledding is predominantly an activity of children, and occasional serious injuries occur. Most are preventable. Obeying the simple caveat that sledding should only be done in clear areas away from stationary objects would eliminate the great majority of serious injuries.

  11. Completed suicide in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervic, Kanita; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A

    2008-06-01

    Suicide in children and young adolescents up to 14 years of age has increased in many countries, warranting research and clinical awareness. International reported suicide rates per 100,000 in this young population vary between 3.1 and 0 (mean rate worldwide, approximately 0.6/100.000; male-female ratio, 2:1). Suicide occurs only in vulnerable children; this vulnerability begins with parental mood disorder and impulsive aggression, and family history of suicide. Childhood affective and disruptive disorders and abuse are the most often reported psychiatric risk factors. Suicide becomes increasingly common after puberty, most probably because of pubertal onset of depression and substance abuse, which substantially aggravate suicide risk. Biologic findings are scarce; however, serotonergic dysfunction is assumed. The most common precipitants are school and family problems and may include actual/anticipated transitions in these environments. Suicides in children and young adolescents up to 14 years of age often follow a brief period of stress. Cognitive immaturity/misjudgment, age-related impulsivity, and availability of suicide methods play an important role. Psychologic autopsy studies that focus on suicides in this age group are needed.

  12. Update on childhood brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushan, Mohammad R H; Amiri, Mohammad J S

    2013-04-01

    In endemic regions of brucellosis, childhood brucellosis includes up to one-third of all cases of human brucellosis. The main source of infection in children is consumption of unpasteurized dairy products and traditional local foods containing dairy products. The older boys are more involved in animal care. Boys are more commonly infected than girls. Common symptoms and signs include fever, arthralgia, sweating, peripheral arthritis and splenomegaly. Peripheral arthritis especially monoarthritis is more common and the most commonly affected joints are hip and knee. All organs may involve during the course of the disease. Isolation of Brucella spp. from the blood, bone marrow or other tissue fluids is the hallmark of diagnosis. Serologic tests are the main tools of diagnosis of brucellosis in endemic regions. Standard agglutination test (SAT) with titers > 1:160 and the 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) test ≥ 1:80 are suggestive of active infection. Children older than 8 years should be treated with doxycycline for 45 days or 8 weeks plus gentamicin for 7 or 5 days respectively or doxycycline for 45 days and streptomycin for 14 days. Also doxycycline plus rifampin or cotrimoxazole plus rifampin for 45 days may be alternative regimens. Cotrimoxazole plus rifampin for six weeks is the regimen of choice for the treatment of patients younger than 8 years old. Gentamicin for 5 days plus cotrimoxazole for six weeks may be a suitable alternative regimen. The article presented few of the patents associated with Brucellosis.

  13. Asthma in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Benedictis, Fernando Maria; Attanasi, Marina

    2016-03-01

    Several topics on childhood asthma were addressed in the Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress. With regard to the relationship between lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, it emerges that is the number of respiratory episodes in the first years of life, but not the particular viral trigger, to be associated with later asthma development. Understanding which characteristics of individual patients are associated with an increased risk for asthma exacerbation is a critical step to implement strategies preventing these seasonal events. Recent data suggest the possibility that exhaled volatile organic compounds may qualify as biomarkers in detecting early signs of asthma. Adding information of exhaled volatile organic compounds and expression of inflammation genes to a clinical tool significantly improves asthma prediction in preschool wheezy children. Personal communication with children and adolescents is likely more important than the tools actually used for monitoring asthma. Systemic corticosteroids do not affect the long-term prognosis in children with first viral-induced wheezing episode and should be used cautiously during acute episodes. Finally, stress and a polymorphism upstream of a specific gene are both associated with reduced bronchodilator response in children with asthma.

  14. Asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Maria de Benedictis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several topics on childhood asthma were addressed in the Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress. With regard to the relationship between lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, it emerges that is the number of respiratory episodes in the first years of life, but not the particular viral trigger, to be associated with later asthma development. Understanding which characteristics of individual patients are associated with an increased risk for asthma exacerbation is a critical step to implement strategies preventing these seasonal events. Recent data suggest the possibility that exhaled volatile organic compounds may qualify as biomarkers in detecting early signs of asthma. Adding information of exhaled volatile organic compounds and expression of inflammation genes to a clinical tool significantly improves asthma prediction in preschool wheezy children. Personal communication with children and adolescents is likely more important than the tools actually used for monitoring asthma. Systemic corticosteroids do not affect the long-term prognosis in children with first viral-induced wheezing episode and should be used cautiously during acute episodes. Finally, stress and a polymorphism upstream of a specific gene are both associated with reduced bronchodilator response in children with asthma.

  15. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma....... Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp...... presents an overview of our knowledge about the taphomic processes as well as the methods used in bog body research....

  16. ``Hit and Run Research'' with ``Hit and Miss'' Results in Early Childhood Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn; Robbins, Jill

    2003-08-01

    Constructivism has provided us with a useful pedagogy and a powerful methodological framework for over twenty years. We now know a great deal about children's thinking. Can this research paradigm take us any further? Are we locked into a particular perspective about data gathering and categorising children's thinking? Have we tended to fit early childhood data into the 'accepted science education paradigm'? As early childhood researchers, we have found the wealth of research in science education research unable to provide solutions to some fundamental challenges we face when working with young children. This paper seeks to examine the established body of literature in science education research with a view to seeking out a more inclusive research approach to support early childhood science education. Examples of early childhood data within a range of contexts are presented to illustrate some of the challenges. Some of the issues that are raised may well be helpful to the field as a whole.

  17. Childhood nutrition and later fertility: pathways through education and pre-pregnant nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Mariaelisa; Yount, Kathryn M; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Martorell, Reynaldo; Stein, Aryeh D

    2010-02-01

    Better childhood nutrition is associated with earlier physical maturation during adolescence and increased schooling attainment. However, as earlier onset of puberty and increased schooling can have opposing effects on fertility, the net effect of improvements in childhood nutrition on a woman's fertility are uncertain. Using path analysis, we estimate the strength of the pathways between childhood growth and subsequent fertility outcomes in Guatemalan women studied prospectively since birth. Height for age z score at 24 months was positively related to body mass index (BMI kg/m2) and height (cm) in adolescence and to schooling attainment. BMI was negatively associated (-0.23 +/- 0.09 years per kg/m2; p nutrition, as reflected by height at 2 years, was positively associated with delayed age at first birth and fewer children born. If schooling is available for girls, increased growth during childhood will most likely result in a net decrease infertility.

  18. Calculation of the body fat content in overweight students and normal weight students living in urban Chongqing%重庆城区正常体重学生和超重学生的体脂含量比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王念蓉; 周晓军; 赵妍

    2010-01-01

    [目的]比较重庆市正常体重学生和超重学生的体脂推算值,分析体质指数(body mass index,BMI)和体脂百分比(percent body fat,PBF%)的相互关系,探讨不同肥胖筛查标准的一致性,为国内儿童肥胖判断标准的完善提供线索. [方法]以Wh0的身高别体重(WFH)标准筛出超重学生844名,并按1:2配对选择了正常体重学生1 688名.通过测量学生的身高、体重、肱三头肌和肩胛下皮褶厚度,计算BMI,并推算PBF. [结果]1)7~18岁每个年龄段的超重男生和女生的BMI均值和PBF中位数均分别显著高于同龄正常体重的男生和女生的对应值(P均<0.001);2)PBF与BMI的偏相关系数r为0.397(P<0.001).多元线性回归分析显示:PBF与性别(男=1,女=2)、BMI正相关,与是否超重(超重=1,正常=2)、年龄负相关(R2=0.578,P<0.001);3)与中国肥胖工作组WGOC公布的BMI切点标准相比,协作组推荐的PBF判断标准的特异度为83.0%,灵敏度为82.9%. [结论]重庆城区超重学生和正常学生的脂肪推算值差异显著.PBF受多种因素影响,与BMI呈低度相关.直接测量学生的体内脂肪,建立本国的PBF筛查标准.联合BMI切点标准可能更有利于学生肥胖的准确诊断.

  19. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2008-01-01

    @@ For Teachers: The Wordless Language Spoken by Everyone by Pamela Osment An old saying goes:"Actions speak louder than words."That's true according to communication experts.Some studies show that up to 90 percent of communication is nonverbal.Though you might say one thing,your body movements may indicate something entirely different.This nonverbal way of communicating is called body language.The Universal(通用的)Language

  20. Recent Coverage of Early Childhood Education Approaches in Open Access Early Childhood Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Burhanettin

    2016-01-01

    A content analysis of the coverage of the major approaches to early childhood education in the early childhood research journals, published between 2010 and 2014, that are early childhood research oriented and have free online access were investigated. Among 21 journals in early childhood education, two journals were selected for the content…

  1. Childhood leukemia and residential proximity to industrial and urban sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Pérez, Javier, E-mail: jgarcia@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); López-Abente, Gonzalo, E-mail: glabente@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Gómez-Barroso, Diana, E-mail: dgomez@externos.isciii.es [CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Morales-Piga, Antonio, E-mail: amorales@isciii.es [Rare Disease Research Institute (IIER), Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Consortium for Biomedical Research in Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Madrid (Spain); Pardo Romaguera, Elena, E-mail: elena.pardo@uv.es [Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors (RETI-SEHOP), University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Tamayo, Ibon, E-mail: ibontama@gmail.com [Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, BIODonostia Research Institute, Department of Health of the Regional Government of the Basque Country, Donostia (Spain); Fernández-Navarro, Pablo, E-mail: pfernandezn@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); and others

    2015-07-15

    Background: Few risk factors for the childhood leukemia are well established. While a small fraction of cases of childhood leukemia might be partially attributable to some diseases or ionizing radiation exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. Objectives: To ascertain the possible effect of residential proximity to both industrial and urban areas on childhood leukemia, taking into account industrial groups and toxic substances released. Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study of childhood leukemia in Spain, covering 638 incident cases gathered from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors and for those Autonomous Regions with 100% coverage (period 1990-2011), and 13,188 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence. Distances were computed from the respective subject’s residences to the 1068 industries and the 157 urban areas with ≥10,000 inhabitants, located in the study area. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to industrial and urban pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for matching variables. Results: Excess risk of childhood leukemia was observed for children living near (≤2.5 km) industries (OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.03–1.67) – particularly glass and mineral fibers (OR=2.42; 95%CI=1.49–3.92), surface treatment using organic solvents (OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.24–2.83), galvanization (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.07–3.21), production and processing of metals (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.22–2.34), and surface treatment of metals (OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.22–2.15) – , and urban areas (OR=1.36; 95%CI=1.02–1.80). Conclusions: Our study furnishes some evidence that living in the proximity of industrial and urban sites may be a risk factor for childhood leukemia. - Highlights: • We studied proximity to both industrial and urban sites on childhood leukemia. • We conducted a case–control study in

  2. Epidemiology of childhood food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Ashley A; Gupta, Ruchi

    2013-06-01

    Food allergy is a public health problem that affects nearly 6 million children in the United States. The extent to which children, families, and communities live with food allergies varies as much as the range of clinical symptoms associated with the disease itself. Food allergy is defined as the reproducible adverse event that elicits a pathologic immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated or non-IgE-mediated reaction. Once an allergic child ingests a specific food allergen, the reaction can result in clinical symptoms ranging from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis.Not surprisingly, food allergies have been shown to limit social interactions and impair children's quality of life due to the ubiquity of food where children live, learn, and play. To ensure the safety of our children, the development of sound policy, clinical practice, and health programs must be informed by current research characterizing childhood food allergy at the population level. To set the stage for understanding the current evidence base, this article reviews: 1) epidemiology of childhood food allergy; 2) severity of symptoms; 3) geographic distribution of childhood food allergy; 4) tolerance; 5) economic impact of childhood food allergy; and 6) future directions in childhood food allergy epidemiological research.

  3. Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cord Tumors Treatment Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment Childhood Brain Stem Glioma ... Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors may begin in embryonic (fetal) cells that remain in the brain after birth. ...

  4. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa A; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja G;

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  5. Méthode numérique de calcul du mouvement d'un corps flottant soumis à l'influence d'une houle périodique en théorie linéaire Numerical Method for Calculating the Movement of a Floating Body Subjected to the Influence of Theoretically Linear Wave Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenot J. -L.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Nous rappelons les équations linéaires du mouvement d'un corps flottant soumis à l'action d'une houle sinusoïdale simple, en précisant les simplifications qui apparaissent lorsque le corps est de révolution. On recherche une solution potentielle dans le domaine fluide, divisé en deux zones : la première zone entoure le corps à distance finie, la seconde est infinie. Dans la première zone, une solution de types éléments finis est adoptée, avec des éléments à huit nceuds, dans le cas général, et des triangles à trois noeuds pour les corps de révolution. Dans la zone numéro deux nous utilisons une solution analytique sous forme d'une série de fonctions tronquée, qui vérifie la condition de radiation. Le raccordement entre les deux zones est assuré exactement pour la dérivée normale du potentiel (vitesse normale, et une formulation du type optimal en moyenne quadratique permet également de raccorder le potentiel. La formulation adoptée permet de conserver tous les avantages de la méthode des éléments finis et, de ce fait, elle est spécialement adaptée à la réalisation d'un modèle numérique [6]. This article reviews the linear equations describing a floating body subject to the effect of a simple sinusoidal wave action, including the simplifications that appear when the body forms a surface of revolution. A potential solution is sought after in the fluid realm divided into two zones : (i one surrounding the body at a finite distance, and (ii the other being infinite. In the first zone, a solution of the finite-element type is adopted, with eight-node elements in the general case and with triangles with three nodes for bodies of revolution. In thé second zone, we use on analytic solution in the form of a series of truncated functions which checks the radiation condition. The connection between the two zones is made exactly for the normal derivative of the potentiel (normal velocity, and a formulation of the

  6. Metabolic effects of exercise on childhood obesity: a current view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Tavares Paes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature concerning the effects of physical exercise on several metabolic variables related to childhood obesity. DATA SOURCE: A search was performed in Pubmed/MEDLINE and Web of Science databases. The keywords used were as follows: Obesity, Children Obesity, Childhood Obesity, Exercise and Physical Activity. The online search was based on studies published in English, from April 2010 to December 2013. DATA SYNTHESIS: Search queries returned 88,393 studies based on the aforementioned keywords; 4,561 studies were selected by crossing chosen keywords. After applying inclusion criteria, four studies were selected from 182 eligible titles. Most studies found that aerobic and resistance training improves body composition, lipid profile and metabolic and inflammatory status of obese children and adolescents; however, the magnitude of these effects is associated with the type, intensity and duration of practice. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the type, physical exercise promotes positive adaptations to childhood obesity, mainly acting to restore cellular and cardiovascular homeostasis, to improve body composition, and to activate metabolism; therefore, physical exercise acts as a co-factor in fighting obesity.

  7. Metabolic effects of exercise on childhood obesity: a current view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Santiago Tavares; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Andreazzi, Ana Eliza

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature concerning the effects of physical exercise on several metabolic variables related to childhood obesity. DATA SOURCE: A search was performed in Pubmed/MEDLINE and Web of Science databases. The keywords used were as follows: Obesity, Children Obesity, Childhood Obesity, Exercise and Physical Activity. The online search was based on studies published in English, from April 2010 to December 2013. DATA SYNTHESIS: Search queries returned 88,393 studies based on the aforementioned keywords; 4,561 studies were selected by crossing chosen keywords. After applying inclusion criteria, four studies were selected from 182 eligible titles. Most studies found that aerobic and resistance training improves body composition, lipid profile and metabolic and inflammatory status of obese children and adolescents; however, the magnitude of these effects is associated with the type, intensity and duration of practice. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the type, physical exercise promotes positive adaptations to childhood obesity, mainly acting to restore cellular and cardiovascular homeostasis, to improve body composition, and to activate metabolism; therefore, physical exercise acts as a co-factor in fighting obesity. PMID:25662015

  8. Multiple childcare arrangements and health outcomes in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jen-Hao

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the associations between multiple childcare arrangements and young children's health problems. This study used three waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, collected from a nationally representative sample of children when they were 9 months old, 2 years old, and 4 years old (N = 7,150). 'Multiple childcare arrangements' was defined and measured by the number of non-parental childcare arrangements that occurred on a regular basis. During each wave of the data collection, the mother reported the number of regular childcare arrangements by three types: relative care, non-relative care, and center-based care. These numbers were summed to calculate the total number of arrangements. The mother also reported the incidence of ear infections, gastrointestinal illnesses, asthma diagnosis, and unintentional injuries of the child. Random effects and fixed effects regression models were used to estimate the association between the number of childcare arrangements and measures of early childhood health problems. Increases in the total number of childcare arrangements were associated with an elevated risk of ear infections, gastrointestinal illnesses, and diagnosed asthma in children. Further analysis indicates that increases in both the number of center-based care and non-relative care (but not relative care) arrangements can lead to a greater chance of health problems in young children. Multiple childcare arrangements are associated with communicable illness and diagnosed asthma in early childhood and appear to be a risk factor for health problems in early childhood.

  9. Brucellosis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, L; Grant, W W; Alva, J D

    1975-03-01

    Brucellosis has always been an unusual disease in children and, concomitant with the control of the disease in domestic animals, reports have become sparse. The pediatrician, therefore, may not be aware of the protean clinical manifestations of childhood brucellosis. In 1973, nine cases occurred during a three-month period in El Paso, Texas. All cases were marked by spiking fevers and lethargy of four days to four weeks in duration. Tender hepatomegaly or splenomegaly was striking in seven patients. Other characteristics included epistaxis, arthralgia, myalgia, and weight loss. Leukopenia and leukemoid reaction were found in five patients. All of the patients tested had elevated liver enzymes. Febrile agglutinins were invaluable in screening for an early clue to diagnosis. When Brucella abortus antigen agglutinated serum from patients with a positive screen in dilutions greater than 1:320, a presumptive diagnosis of brucellosis was made. Brucella was isolated from the blood or bone marrow in seven patients and the time of incubation proved crucial for successful recovery. Bacterial blood cultures are usually discarded at ten days of age, as were cultures from the only two patients from whom the organism was not recovered. All of the cultures incubated for 12 to 15 days grew B. melitensis, an unusual causative species in the United States. However, several patients admitted eating cheese from the State of Chihuahua, Mexico, made from unpasteurized goat's milk, the presumed source of the infection. Within one to three days, all patients responded dramatically to antibiotics; tetracycline was given orally for 21 days and streptomycin intramuscularly for 14 days. Pediatricians caring for patients in areas where consumption of unpasteurized milk products is likely would do well to consider brucellosis in a child with obscure fever or toxic hepatosplenomegaly.

  10. Health lifestyles in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula

    2014-12-01

    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted.

  11. Friction and wear calculation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kragelsky, I V; Kombalov, V S

    1981-01-01

    Friction and Wear: Calculation Methods provides an introduction to the main theories of a new branch of mechanics known as """"contact interaction of solids in relative motion."""" This branch is closely bound up with other sciences, especially physics and chemistry. The book analyzes the nature of friction and wear, and some theoretical relationships that link the characteristics of the processes and the properties of the contacting bodies essential for practical application of the theories in calculating friction forces and wear values. The effect of the environment on friction and wear is a

  12. Suboptimal Vitamin D levels among adult survivors of childhood cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise A. Rokitka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Vitamin D plays an important role in many bodily systems, with increasing evidence suggesting its importance for the prevention of chronic diseases and cancer. The identification of vitamin D levels in childhood cancer survivors becomes, therefore, particularly relevant, given that optimizing levels may contribute to the prevention of secondary malignancies and chronic diseases.Methods: A cross - sectional analysis of serum 25 - hydroxyvitamin D levels among adult survivors of childhood cancers living in New York State and surrounding areas (n = 139 was performed. Independent variables included gender, race/ethnicity, cancer site, year of diagnosis, past medical and surgical history, prior radiation therapy; prior chemotherapy, age at diagnosis, age at last clinic visit, year of last clinic visit, height, weight, body mass index, and vitamin D supplementation.Results: Overall, 34% of survivors were vitamin D deficient (< 20 ng/ml, 39% were classified as insufficient (20 - 29 ng/ml and 27% (≥ 30 ng/ml were classified as having sufficient levels. Despite vitamin D supplementation among 41 patients, 68.3% continued to have insufficient or deficient levels. Participants with a BMI > 25 demonstrated lower levels of vitamin D (p < 0.05. Vitamin D levels did not vary by age group, race, ethnicity, diagnosis, or years since diagnosis.Conclusion: Given the growing awareness of the role of vitamin D and the documented late effects of treatment for childhood cancers, the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency within the childhood cancer survivor population is of concern. Vitamin D represents an important target for surveillance and intervention to help improve long - term outcomes of childhood cancer survivors.

  13. Longitudinal analyses of childhood growth: evidence from Project Koshu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kohta

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that fetal and infant environments are associated with childhood and adulthood health status, specifically regarding presence of obesity and chronic diseases. This concept is known as the "Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis." Thus, it is necessary to collect information about the fetal and infancy periods in order to examine the association between fetal and infancy exposures and later growth. Based on the DOHaD hypothesis, childhood growth trajectories, which were described by multilevel analysis, might be important in examining the effects of early-life environment on later-life health. The author and colleagues examined the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and fetal/childhood growth, specifically risk of childhood obesity, by using the dataset from an ongoing prospective cohort study called "Project Koshu," which enrolled pregnant women and their children from a rural area of Japan. Children born to smoking mothers were likely to have lower birth weights and, thereafter, to show an increase in body mass index compared to children of non-smoking mothers. Differences in pubertal growth patterns by gender and childhood weight status were then examined. Growth rate and height gain trajectories were similar between genders, although pubertal growth spurts were observed earlier in girls than in boys. The overweight/obese children grew faster than did the non-overweight children in the early pubertal stages, and the non-overweight children caught up and showed greater height gains at older ages. Because Project Koshu is ongoing, further studies examining new research questions will be conducted with larger sample sizes.

  14. [Evaluation of an education intervention for childhood obesity prevention in basic schools in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos Fernández, Luz Lorena; Leyton Dinamarca, Bárbara; Kain Bercovich, Juliana; Vio del Río, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a comprehensive intervention in nutrition education and physical activity to prevent childhood obesity in primary school children of low socioeconomic status in Macul county in Chile, with a two year follow-up (2008 and 2009) of the children. The intervention consisted in teacher nutrition training in healthy eating and the implementation of educational material based on Chilean dietary guidelines. In addition, there was an increase in physical education classes to 3-4 hours per week and physical education teachers were recruited for that purpose. Weight, height and six minutes walk test (6MWT) were measured and body mass index (BMI), BMI Z score, prevalence of normal, overweight and obese children were calculated with WHO 2007reference. Changes between baseline and BMI Z in each period and 6MWT/height, and changes in nutrition knowledge through questionnaires were measured. There was no significant difference in BMI Z score between the initial and final periods and in the evolution of the nutritional status of children. Nutrition knowledge improved significantly between the two measurements. There was a significant increase in 6MWT/height (10 meters between baseline and follow-up, p < 0.001). We conclude that although there was an improvement in nutrition knowledge and physical fitness of children, there was a stabilization of BMI Z score in the period of the study. New educational interventions are required according to the reality of each community to obtain a positive impact to prevent childhood obesity in primary schools.

  15. Evo-devo of Child Growth: The Role of Weaning in the Transition from Infancy to Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoul, Ron; Tiosano, Dov; Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2016-01-01

    Homo sapiens are unique in having a life history phase of childhood, which follows infancy, as defined by breastfeeding. This review uses evolutionary life history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies for transition from infancy to childhood. We have previously shown that a delayed infancy-childhood transition has a lifelong impact on stature. Feeding practices during infancy are fundamental elements of nutrition as they program for future growth and body composition. A relationship between the duration of breastfeeding and the nature of weaning has been suggested as a possible cause for later obesity and growth patterns. This review highlights the role that breast milk feeding and variations in the weaning age have on transition to childhood, growth, and body composition.

  16. Signifying Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of biosemiosis connect signifying bodies with their natural surroundings, cultural activities and subjective experiences. Health stretches all the way from the ecosocial surroundings, through the skin and into the self-organizing processes of every living cell. Signifying Bodies lays out a new approach to health...... and health care. Eschewing all forms of dualism, the authors emphasise the interdependency of how we act, think, feel and function. They advocate a relational turn in health care, in which bodies live and learn from suffering and care. In this view, health is inseparable from both living beings...... of, for example, how rheumatoid arthritis sufferers view their treatment, how decisions are made in simulated emergencies, and how therapists and homeopaths use distributed language and cognition with their clients....

  17. Body parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiter, Elif

    2010-01-01

    In this project, the artist wishes to examine corporeality in the virtual realm, through the usage of the (non)-physical body of the avatar. An art installation created in the virtual world of Second Life, which is meant to be accessed with site specific avatars, will provide the creative platform whereby this investigation is undertaken. Thus, "body parts" seeks to challenge the residents of virtual environments into connecting with the virtual manifestations, i.e., avatars of others in an emotionally expressive/intimate manner.

  18. Body Rainbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Phubu did not know how long hehad walked after leaving Baxoi, buthe did know that he was halfwaybetween home and Lhasa. Feelingthe weight of the sack containingPhumo's body on his back, Fhubuhad calmed down from the grief anddesperation. He had just one wish:to carry Phumo to Lhasa. He knewthat Phumo had gone, and her soulwas no longer in this body. But hewas determined to finish the trip, notonly because he had promised so, butalso that he believed that it would beredemption for him.

  19. The calculation of the energy curve of body-centered cubic structure of H+9 cluster with the simple oxygen wave functions%用类O原子波函数对H+9团簇的体心立方结构与能量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊; 曹乐千

    2001-01-01

    The simple oxygen wave functions are chosen as the electronic wave function of the H+9 cluster with one center spherical model approximation. The energy curve of the body-centered cubic structure of the H+9 cluster is calculated by means of variational method. The result of the calculation shows that the curve has a minimal energy -4.376 h0 at R=1.97a0 (a0=0.529 177×10-10 m, h0=27.2 eV). This means that the body-centered cubic structure of the H+9 cluster is stable and the cluster of H+9 may exist.%在单中心球模型近似下,选用类O原子解析函数,用变分法计算了H+9团簇体心立方结构与能量。结果表明当中心氢原子核到顶角氢原子核之间的距离R=1.97a0时,体系能量有一极小值E=-4.376 h0(a0=0.529 177×10-10m, h0=27.2 eV)。这表明H+9团簇的体心立方结构是稳定的结构,H+9团簇是存在的。

  20. Perception, experience and body identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ibor, Juan J; Ortiz, Tomás; López-Ibor, María I

    2011-12-01

    there is a confrontation between the body object and the body subject that has made it possible to investigate how the perception of the own body is and how the brain generates the schema and the body image. The study of the body experience, from the phenomenology and the anthropological psychiatry perspective, has made it possible to go greater in-depth into the knowledge of the alterations of the experience of the own body in different mental diseases, especially in those in which a confrontation between the body and the personal identity arises makes it necessary to consider the process of individual identification and a category of personal identity disorders that would include body dysmorphic disorder, erythrophobia, anorexia nervosa, body integrity identity as well as the gender-type disorders (transsexualism, nonfetishistic transvestism, gender identity disorder during childhood). Key words: Dualism, Monism, Agnosia, Phantom limb, Cenesthesia, Body schema, Body image, Body experience, Personal identity disorders, Body dysmorphic disorder, Anorexia nervosa, Personal integrity identity disorder.

  1. Childhood sarcoidosis: Louisiana experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedalia, Abraham; Khan, Tahir A; Shetty, Avinash K; Dimitriades, Victoria R; Espinoza, Luis R

    2016-07-01

    A retrospective chart review was conducted to detect patients with sarcoidosis seen by pediatric rheumatology service from the period of 1992 to 2013 at Children's hospital of New Orleans. Twenty-seven patients were identified. The average duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 5 (range 1-120) months. Five patients had onset before the age of 5 years and were diagnosed with early-onset sarcoidosis. The most common manifestations at presentation were constitutional symptoms (62 %) followed by ocular (38 %). During the course of illness, 19/27 (70 %) had multiorgan involvement. Common manifestations included uveitis/iritis (77 %), fever (50 %), hilar adenopathy (42 %), arthritis (31 %), peripheral lympadenopathy (31 %), hepatosplenomegaly (31 %), parenchymal lung disease (27 %), and skin rash (19 %). Unusual manifestations included granulomatous bone marrow disease (3 cases), hypertension (2), abdominal aortic aneurysm (large vessel vasculitis; 1), granulomatous hepatitis (1), nephrocalcinosis (1), membranous nephropathy (1), refractory granulomatous interstitial nephritis with recurrence in transplanted kidney (1), CNS involvement (2), parotid gland enlargement (1), and sensorineural hearing loss (1). Biopsy specimen was obtained in 21/27 (77 %) patients, and demonstration of noncaseating granuloma associated with negative stains for mycobacteria and fungi was seen in 18 patients. Elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme level was seen in 74 % of patients. Treatment with oral prednisone was initiated in symptomatic patients with significant clinical improvement. Low-dose methotrexate (MTX) 10-15 mg/m(2)/week orally, as steroid-sparing agent, was administered in 14 patients. Other immunomodulators included cyclophosphamide (2 patients), etanercept (2), infliximab (2), mycophenolate mofetil (1), and tacrolimus (1). Childhood sarcoidosis is prevalent in Louisiana. Most of the affected children present with a multisystem disease associated with

  2. [Case report: intestinal perforation by foreign body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Portilla, Karol A; Zubiri, Cecilia; Balcarce, Norma; Zosi, Anabella; Chereau, Clara I

    2017-02-01

    Accidental ingestion of foreign bodies in childhood is a common event that rarely requires interventional management and presents very few complications involving surgical treatment. We present a clinical case of a 10 month old infant, without abdominal manifestations, in whom it was incidentally found a foreign radiopaque body of 7 cm in length in the abdomen, compatible with a screw. It was not possible to extract it by endoscopy. Therefore, it was necessary to perform surgery and a perforation of the second and third portion of the duodenum was encountered.

  3. Vegetarian diets and childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaté, Joan; Wien, Michelle

    2010-05-01

    The increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is not unique to industrialized societies; dramatic increases are occurring in urbanized areas of developing countries. In light of the consensus that obesity is a significant public health concern and that many weight-loss interventions have been unsuccessful in the long term, an exploration of food patterns that are beneficial in the primary prevention of obesity is warranted. The focus of this article is to review the relation between vegetarian diets and obesity, particularly as they relate to childhood obesity. Epidemiologic studies indicate that vegetarian diets are associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) and a lower prevalence of obesity in adults and children. A meta-analysis of adult vegetarian diet studies estimated a reduced weight difference of 7.6 kg for men and 3.3 kg for women, which resulted in a 2-point lower BMI (in kg/m(2)). Similarly, compared with nonvegetarians, vegetarian children are leaner, and their BMI difference becomes greater during adolescence. Studies exploring the risk of overweight and food groups and dietary patterns indicate that a plant-based diet seems to be a sensible approach for the prevention of obesity in children. Plant-based diets are low in energy density and high in complex carbohydrate, fiber, and water, which may increase satiety and resting energy expenditure. Plant-based dietary patterns should be encouraged for optimal health and environmental benefits. Food policies are warranted to support social marketing messages and to reduce the cultural and economic forces that make it difficult to promote plant-based dietary patterns.

  4. THE CONCEPT OF CHILDHOOD IN LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Igorevna KRUPENINA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the nature, types, characteristics of the phenomenon of childhood as a social phenomenon of our time. The author notes the complexity of the definition of “childhood” and its different interpretations. The author also notes that social “construction” considers not childhood itself in its entirety but childhood through the "prism of adulthood". Childhood is often seen as something natural through which goes everyone and something that everybody must have as a result of education and development. At the same time, is lost the understanding of childhood as a valuable phenomenon in itself. The author draws attention to different ways of studying childhood in psychology, literature and history and correlates concepts of childhood in psychology, history and culturology. The author considers the childhood concept by Philippe Aries in correlation with the image of childhood in the novels by Charles Dickens. This choice is determined by specific periodizations of childhood in history and culture what makes the specific development of the world of childhood dependent on the evolution of the world of grown-ups and its culture. 

  5. School Context Matters: The Impacts of Concentrated Poverty and Racial Segregation on Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontak, Joy Rayanne; Schulman, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Schools are important sites for interventions to prevent childhood obesity. This study examines how variables measuring the socioeconomic and racial composition of schools and counties affect the likelihood of obesity among third to fifth grade children. Methods: Body mass index data were collected from third to fifth grade public…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Childhood Depression and Anxiety in Relation to Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofey, Dana L.; Kolko, Rachel P.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Silk, Jennifer S.; Bost, James E.; Feng, Wentao; Szigethy, Eva M.; Noll, Robert B.; Ryan, Neal D.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    Adult mood disturbances are highly correlated with obesity, although little is known about the developmental relationship between mood disorders and weight. This study investigated the relationship between childhood psychopathology and weight over the course of 3 years. Body Mass Index (BMI) percentiles and demographic data of children (ages 8-18)…

  7. The Influence of Technology-Rich Early Childhood Field Experiences on Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Nicholas; Lux, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite a comprehensive body of research on field experiences in teacher education, technology-rich early field experiences in early childhood environments is one particular area of inquiry lacking substantive current research. Therefore, this study was conducted to better understand how preservice teachers' perceptions of global concepts related…

  8. Early Childhood Intervention in Portugal: An Overview Based on the Developmental Systems Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ana Isabel; Grande, Catarina; Aguiar, Cecilia; de Almeida, Isabel Chaves; Felgueiras, Isabel; Pimentel, Julia Serpa; Serrano, Ana Maria; Carvalho, Leonor; Brandao, Maria Teresa; Boavida, Tania; Santos, Paula; Lopes-dos-Santos, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Research studies on early childhood intervention (ECI) in Portugal are diffuse regarding both program components and the geographical area under scrutiny. Since the 1990s, a growing body of knowledge and evidence in ECI is being gathered, based on postgraduate teaching, in-service training, and research. This article draws on the systems theory…

  9. Early childhood environment related to microbial exposure and the occurrence of atopic disease at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meer, G; Janssen, NAH; Brunekreef, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a growing body of evidence that the early childhood environment with respect to day care attendance, older siblings, pet ownership, and early life airway infections may protect from developing atopic disease. Few studies have distinguished between atopic sensitization and sympto

  10. Childhood overweight and asthma symptoms, the role of pro-inflammatory proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M. B. M.; Brunekreef, B.; de Jongste, J. C.; Kerkhof, M.; Smit, H. A.; Postma, D. S.; Gehring, U.; Wijga, A. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Systemic inflammation is suggested as a mechanism by which overweight might induce asthma. However, few studies have linked childhood overweight, inflammation and asthma. Objective To study the association between body mass index (BMI), asthma symptoms and pro-inflammatory proteins. Metho

  11. Childhood overweight and asthma symptoms, the role of pro-inflammatory proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.B.M.; Brunekreef, B.; de Jongste, J.C.; Kerkhof, M.; Smit, H.A.; Postma, D.S.; Gehring, U.; Wijga, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Systemic inflammation is suggested as a mechanism by which overweight might induce asthma. However, few studies have linked childhood overweight, inflammation and asthma. OBJECTIVE To study the association between body mass index (BMI), asthma symptoms and pro-inflammatory proteins. METHO

  12. Normalising the Breast: Early Childhood Services Battling the Bottle and the Breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Judith; Bartle, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Normalising practices as a tool for controlling the body and bodily processes have been well-documented using Foucault's theories, including debates around breastfeeding. In this article we explore how the ideas of "normalisation" of the bottle-feeding culture of infants in New Zealand early childhood settings has become the accepted…

  13. Nature and the Outdoor Learning Environment: The Forgotten Resource in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies now confirm the economic, academic, and social importance of high-quality early childhood education. At the same time, a substantial body of research indicates that an outdoor learning and play environment with diverse natural elements advances and enriches all of the domains relevant to the development, health, and well-being…

  14. Gooey Stuff, Intra-Activity, and Differential Obesities: Foregrounding Agential Adiposity within Childhood Obesity Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, forces such as the media, medical discourse, and public policy work to position childhood obesity as increased body fat content or excess adiposity due to various personal, social, and economic factors. Drawing on Barad's "agential realist ontology", this article aims to inhabit-with obesity in an effort to disrupt dominant…

  15. Childhood cardiometabolic outcomes of maternal obesity during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Romy; Steegers, Eric A P; Duijts, Liesbeth; Felix, Janine F; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2014-04-01

    Maternal prepregnancy obesity is associated with impaired cardiometabolic health in offspring. Whether these associations reflect direct intrauterine causal mechanisms remains unclear. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 4871 mothers, fathers, and their children, we examined the associations of both maternal and paternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) with childhood body fat distribution and cardiometabolic outcomes and explored whether any association was explained by pregnancy, birth, and childhood factors. We measured childhood BMI, total body and abdominal fat distribution, blood pressure, and blood levels of lipids, insulin, and C-peptide at the age of 6 years. We observed that higher maternal and paternal prepregnancy BMI were associated with higher childhood BMI, total body and abdominal fat mass measures, systolic blood pressure, and insulin levels and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (Peffect estimates for these outcomes were observed for paternal obesity. In conclusion, higher maternal and paternal prepregnancy BMI were associated with an adverse cardiometabolic profile in offspring, with stronger associations present for maternal prepregnancy BMI. These findings suggest that maternal prepregnancy BMI may influence the cardiometabolic health of offspring through direct intrauterine mechanisms.

  16. Predicting adult asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, JM; Boezen, HM

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There still is no cure for asthma. Early identification of patients at risk for disease progression may lead to better treatment opportunities and hopefully better disease outcomes in adulthood. Recent literature on childhood risk factors associated with the outcome of asthma in a

  17. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  18. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  19. Antecedents to Prostitution: Childhood Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Susan M.; Koverola, Catherine; Schludermann, Eduard H.

    1998-01-01

    Adolescent prostitutes (n=45) and adolescent nonprostitutes (n=37) were interviewed regarding their experiences related to childhood physical and sexual abuse, leaving home, family functioning, parental alcohol and drug use, and level of self-esteem. Although results replicated previous findings, when a comparison group was considered the same…

  20. Expertise of Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happo, Iiris; Määttä, Kaarina

    2011-01-01

    Every preschool age child in Finland has the right to day care and the expertise of educators is multidimensional. The aim of this article is to clarify the expertise of those early childhood educators, who have the competence of kindergarten teachers (n = 80). The data consisted of the early educators' stories of their growth towards expertise.…

  1. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents...

  2. Imaging intracranial tuberculosis in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D.H. [Dept. of Radiology, Red Cross War Memorial Children`s Hospital, Rondebosch (South Africa)

    1995-05-01

    A morphologically based imaging review of intracranial tuberculosis in childhood is presented. The computed tomography and magnetic resonance features of parenchymal tuberculoma, tuberculous meningitis and meningeal/meniningocerebral tuberculoma are illustrated. Recent insight into the nature of tuberculoma necrosis and its magnetic resonance correlation is reviewed. Pathogenesis, relevant clinical background and the role of modern imaging is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Childhood Obesity: Prediction and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael D.

    Obesity in children is a problem both insidious and acute. Childhood obesity has been indicated as a forerunner of adult obesity; it is also an immediate problem for the child. Given the lack of evidence for long term maintenance of any weight loss, this paper investigates the etiology of the disorder as a prelude to prevention. Upon review of the…

  4. Childhood Obesity. Special Reference Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the problem of childhood obesity and how it can lead to obesity in the adult. Eighty-four abstracts are presented of studies on the identification, prevention, and treatment of obesity in children, focusing on diet and psychological attitudes. Subjects of the studies were children ranging in age from infancy through…

  5. Sociological Factors Affecting Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster-Scott, Latisha

    2007-01-01

    According to data from the National Center for Health Statistics, childhood obesity rates are highest among ethnic minorities. It is very helpful to consider the role of culture when attempting to analyze and explain obesity rates in ethnic minority populations. Culture influences the attitudes and beliefs toward exercise, food and nutrition, and…

  6. Signs of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical and emotional pain. It has long-term effects on the child. And it is a crime. Recognizing childhood sexual ... living with stepparents.Lives in a rural or low-income area.Has been a ... and children with intellectual disabilities face a higher risk. Remember, ...

  7. Early Childhood Special Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2011-01-01

    The process of early intervention is a critical component of Early Childhood Special Music Education. Early intervention is the process of providing services, education, and support to young children who have disabilities or to children who are at-risk of developing needs that may affect their physical, cognitive, or emotional development. The…

  8. The Notebook of My Childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王潇涵

    2011-01-01

    About three years ago, I wrote this small poem in a beautiful notebook in memory of my happy childhood. It was missing for a long time. But luckily, in my winter holiday when I was cleaning my room I found it on the bottom of a pile of books. I was so exc

  9. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  10. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

  11. Global characteristics of childhood acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Samad, A; Pombo-de-Oliveira, M S; Scelo, G; Smith, M T; Feusner, J; Wiemels, J L; Metayer, C

    2015-03-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) comprises approximately 5-10% of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases in the US. While variation in this percentage among other populations was noted previously, global patterns of childhood APL have not been thoroughly characterized. In this comprehensive review of childhood APL, we examined its geographic pattern and the potential contribution of environmental factors to observed variation. In 142 studies (spanning >60 countries) identified, variation was apparent-de novo APL represented from 2% (Switzerland) to >50% (Nicaragua) of childhood AML in different geographic regions. Because a limited number of previous studies addressed specific environmental exposures that potentially underlie childhood APL development, we gathered 28 childhood cases of therapy-related APL, which exemplified associations between prior exposures to chemotherapeutic drugs/radiation and APL diagnosis. Future population-based studies examining childhood APL patterns and the potential association with specific environmental exposures and other risk factors are needed.

  12. Molecular Dynamics Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The development of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics is very important in the history of physics, and it underlines the difficulty in dealing with systems involving many bodies, even if those bodies are identical. Macroscopic systems of atoms typically contain so many particles that it would be virtually impossible to follow the behavior of all of the particles involved. Therefore, the behavior of a complete system can only be described or predicted in statistical ways. Under a grant to the NASA Lewis Research Center, scientists at the Case Western Reserve University have been examining the use of modern computing techniques that may be able to investigate and find the behavior of complete systems that have a large number of particles by tracking each particle individually. This is the study of molecular dynamics. In contrast to Monte Carlo techniques, which incorporate uncertainty from the outset, molecular dynamics calculations are fully deterministic. Although it is still impossible to track, even on high-speed computers, each particle in a system of a trillion trillion particles, it has been found that such systems can be well simulated by calculating the trajectories of a few thousand particles. Modern computers and efficient computing strategies have been used to calculate the behavior of a few physical systems and are now being employed to study important problems such as supersonic flows in the laboratory and in space. In particular, an animated video (available in mpeg format--4.4 MB) was produced by Dr. M.J. Woo, now a National Research Council fellow at Lewis, and the G-VIS laboratory at Lewis. This video shows the behavior of supersonic shocks produced by pistons in enclosed cylinders by following exactly the behavior of thousands of particles. The major assumptions made were that the particles involved were hard spheres and that all collisions with the walls and with other particles were fully elastic. The animated video was voted one of two

  13. Efficacy of growth hormone therapy in adults with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ja Hye; Cho, Ja Hyang; Yoo, Han-Wook; Choi, Jin-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Growth hormone (GH) plays a key role in the regulation of body composition, lipid metabolism, and quality of life in adults with GH deficiency (GHD). This study investigated changes in laboratory findings and body composition after GH recommencement for adult GHD and analyzed correlation between GH interruption period and endocrine or anthropometric parameters. Methods A total of 45 patients (17 females and 28 males) diagnosed with childhood-onset GHD (CO-GHD) were investigated and al...

  14. Childhood Maltreatment and Educational Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Elisa; Babchishin, Lyzon; Marquis, Robyn; Fréchette, Sabrina

    2015-10-01

    Children (0-18 years) with maltreatment histories are vulnerable to experiencing difficulties across multiple domains of functioning, including educational outcomes that encompass not only academic achievement but also mental well-being. The current literature review adopted Slade and Wissow's model to examine (1) the link between childhood maltreatment and academic achievement, (2) the link between childhood maltreatment and mental health outcomes (i.e., emotional and behavioral difficulties), and (3) the bidirectional relationship between childhood academic achievement and mental health. In addition, we reviewed variables that might influence or help explain the link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes, drawing on developmental perspectives and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. Finally, whenever possible, we presented findings specific to maltreated children in out-of-home care to highlight the unique challenges experienced by this population. Results indicated that children with maltreatment histories often experience impairments in both their academic performance (e.g., special education, grade retention, lower grades) and mental well-being (e.g., anxiety, low mood, aggression, social skills deficits, poor interpersonal relationships). These impairments appeared to be particularly pronounced among maltreated children in out-of-home care. Findings, albeit sparse, also indicated that mental health difficulties are negatively associated with children's academic achievement and, similarly, that academic achievement deficits are linked with mental health problems. The link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes may be partly explained through the disruption of key developmental processes in children, such as attachment, emotion regulation, and sense of agency. As well, maltreatment characteristics and the functioning of various systems in which children are embedded (e.g., family, school, child welfare) can serve to positively

  15. Sacralising Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    In post-revolution Iran, the sacred notion of martyrdom has been transformed into a routine act of government – a moral sign of order and state sovereignty. Moving beyond the debates of the secularisation of the sacred and the making sacred of the secular, this article argues that the moment...... of sacralisation is realised through co-production within a social setting when the object of sacralisation is recognised as such by others. In contemporary Iran, however, the moment of sacralising bodies by the state is also the moment of its own subversion as the political-theological field of martyrdom......-sacrifice became central to the mass mobilisation against the monarchy. Once the revolutionary government came into existence, this sacred tradition was regulated to create ‘martyrs’ as a fixed category, in order to consolidate the legacy of the revolution. In this political theatre, the dead body is a site...

  16. MBPT calculations with ABINIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giantomassi, Matteo; Huhs, Georg; Waroquiers, David; Gonze, Xavier

    2014-03-01

    Many-Body Perturbation Theory (MBPT) defines a rigorous framework for the description of excited-state properties based on the Green's function formalism. Within MBPT, one can calculate charged excitations using e.g. Hedin's GW approximation for the electron self-energy. In the same framework, neutral excitations are also well described through the solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE). In this talk, we report on the recent developments concerning the parallelization of the MBPT algorithms available in the ABINIT code (www.abinit.org). In particular, we discuss how to improve the parallel efficiency thanks to a hybrid version that employs MPI for the coarse-grained parallelization and OpenMP (a de facto standard for parallel programming on shared memory architectures) for the fine-grained parallelization of the most CPU-intensive parts. Benchmark results obtained with the new implementation are discussed. Finally, we present results for the GW corrections of amorphous SiO2 in the presence of defects and the BSE absorption spectrum. This work has been supported by the Prace project (PaRtnership for Advanced Computing in Europe, http://www.prace-ri.eu).

  17. Exploring Categorical Body Mass Index Trajectories in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Boles, Shawn; Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Evers, Cody

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies of body mass index (BMI) change have focused on understanding growth trajectories from childhood to adolescence and adolescence to adulthood, but few have explored BMI trajectories solely in elementary (grades K-5) school children. This report complements these studies by exploring changes in obesity status using analytic…

  18. Gendered dimensions of obesity in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeting Helen N

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on childhood and adolescent obesity is vast. In addition to producing a general overview, this paper aims to highlight gender differences or similarities, an area which has tended not to be the principal focus of this literature. Methods Databases were searched using the terms 'obesity' and 'child', 'adolescent', 'teenager', 'youth', 'young people', 'sex', 'gender', 'masculine', 'feminine', 'male', 'female', 'boy' and 'girl' (or variations on these terms. In order to limit the potential literature, the main focus is on other reviews, both general and relating to specific aspects of obesity. Results The findings of genetic studies are similar for males and females, and differences in obesity rates as defined by body mass index are generally small and inconsistent. However, differences between males and females due to biology are evident in the patterning of body fat, the fat levels at which health risks become apparent, levels of resting energy expenditure and energy requirements, ability to engage in certain physical activities and the consequences of obesity for the female reproductive system. Differences due to society or culture include food choices and dietary concerns, overall physical activity levels, body satisfaction and the long-term psychosocial consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. Conclusion This review suggests differences between males and females in exposure and vulnerability to obesogenic environments, the consequences of child and adolescent obesity, and responses to interventions for the condition. A clearer focus on gender differences is required among both researchers and policy makers within this field.

  19. Polygenic Risk, Rapid Childhood Growth, and the Development of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Blumenthal, James A.; Evans, James P.; Harrington, HonaLee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. Design A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. Main Exposures We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Results Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Conclusions Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:22665028

  20. Childhood socioeconomic status, telomere length, and susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sheldon; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Turner, Ronald B; Marsland, Anna L; Casselbrant, Margaretha L; Li-Korotky, Ha-Sheng; Epel, Elissa S; Doyle, William J

    2013-11-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) during childhood and adolescence has been found to predict greater susceptibility to common cold viruses in adults. Here, we test whether low childhood SES is associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length in adulthood, and whether telomere length mediates the association between childhood SES and susceptibility to acute upper respiratory disease in adulthood. At baseline, 196 healthy volunteers reported whether they currently owned their home and, for each year of their childhood, whether their parents owned the family home. Volunteers also had blood drawn for assessment of specific antibody to the challenge virus, and for CD8+ CD28- T-lymphocyte telomere length (in a subset, n=135). They were subsequently quarantined in a hotel, exposed to a virus (rhinovirus [RV] 39) that causes a common cold and followed for infection and illness (clinical cold) over five post-exposure days. Lower childhood SES as measured by fewer years of parental home ownership was associated with shorter adult CD8+ CD28- telomere length and with an increased probability of developing infection and clinical illness when exposed to a common cold virus in adulthood. These associations were independent of adult SES, age, sex, race, body mass, neuroticism, and childhood family characteristics. Associations with infections and colds were also independent of pre-challenge viral-specific antibody and season. Further analyses do not support mediating roles for smoking, alcohol consumption or physical activity but suggest that CD8+ CD28- cell telomere length may act as a partial mediator of the associations between childhood SES and infection and childhood SES and colds.

  1. Childhood intelligence is heritable, highly polygenic and associated with FNBP1L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamin, B; Pourcain, Bst; Davis, O S; Davies, G; Hansell, N K; Brion, M-J A; Kirkpatrick, R M; Cents, R A M; Franić, S; Miller, M B; Haworth, C M A; Meaburn, E; Price, T S; Evans, D M; Timpson, N; Kemp, J; Ring, S; McArdle, W; Medland, S E; Yang, J; Harris, S E; Liewald, D C; Scheet, P; Xiao, X; Hudziak, J J; de Geus, E J C; Jaddoe, V W V; Starr, J M; Verhulst, F C; Pennell, C; Tiemeier, H; Iacono, W G; Palmer, L J; Montgomery, G W; Martin, N G; Boomsma, D I; Posthuma, D; McGue, M; Wright, M J; Davey Smith, G; Deary, I J; Plomin, R; Visscher, P M

    2014-02-01

    Intelligence in childhood, as measured by psychometric cognitive tests, is a strong predictor of many important life outcomes, including educational attainment, income, health and lifespan. Results from twin, family and adoption studies are consistent with general intelligence being highly heritable and genetically stable throughout the life course. No robustly associated genetic loci or variants for childhood intelligence have been reported. Here, we report the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) on childhood intelligence (age range 6-18 years) from 17,989 individuals in six discovery and three replication samples. Although no individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected with genome-wide significance, we show that the aggregate effects of common SNPs explain 22-46% of phenotypic variation in childhood intelligence in the three largest cohorts (P=3.9 × 10(-15), 0.014 and 0.028). FNBP1L, previously reported to be the most significantly associated gene for adult intelligence, was also significantly associated with childhood intelligence (P=0.003). Polygenic prediction analyses resulted in a significant correlation between predictor and outcome in all replication cohorts. The proportion of childhood intelligence explained by the predictor reached 1.2% (P=6 × 10(-5)), 3.5% (P=10(-3)) and 0.5% (P=6 × 10(-5)) in three independent validation cohorts. Given the sample sizes, these genetic prediction results are consistent with expectations if the genetic architecture of childhood intelligence is like that of body mass index or height. Our study provides molecular support for the heritability and polygenic nature of childhood intelligence. Larger sample sizes will be required to detect individual variants with genome-wide significance.

  2. Magnetic Field Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Calculator will calculate the total magnetic field, including components (declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, northerly intensity,...

  3. Neuropsychological findings in childhood narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posar, Annio; Pizza, Fabio; Parmeggiani, Antonia; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a severely disabling disorder very often arising in childhood. Data on neuropsychological impairment in children are scant. We administered standardized neuropsychological tests to 13 children with narcolepsy with cataplexy. Overall, our patients displayed multiple patterns of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and often academic failure (7 cases out of 13). All children had a normal full intelligence quotient (IQ), but 3 patients presented a significantly higher and 2 a significantly lower Verbal IQ compared to Performance IQ, respectively. Mean sleep latency was significantly correlated (P emotional symptoms and conduct problems prevailed. Childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy represents a risk factor for subtle and heterogeneous cognitive impairments potentially resulting in academic failure, despite the normal IQ. These children also have a certain psychopathological risk. All this seems to be at least partially detached from the direct effects of daytime sleepiness.

  4. Bipolar Disorder and Childhood Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Erten

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is a chronic disorder in which irregular course of depressive, mania or mixed episodes or a complete recovery between episodes can be observed. The studies about the effects of traumatic events on bipolar disorder showed that they had significant and long-term effects on the symptoms of the disorder. Psychosocial stress might change the neurobiology of bipolar disorder over time. The studies revealed that the traumatic events could influence not only the onset of the disorder but also the course of the disorder and in these patients the rate of suicide attempt and comorbid substance abuse might increase. Bipolar patients who had childhood trauma had an earlier onset, higher number of episodes and comorbid disorders. In this review, the relationship between childhood trauma and bipolar disorder is reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 157-165

  5. Protection of Childhood in Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deligeoroglou E; Christopoulos P; Salakos N; Roupa Z; Sotiropoulou P; Papadimitriou P

    2005-01-01

    The early childhood care is important not only for individual Greek children and families but also for Greek society at large. Furthermore, it needs to be secured that the burden of labour and the raising of child is not only a woman's duty. There is a broad recognition that a strategy for developing early childhood services and childcare to support mother's labour force participation is in the public interest and should be the primary scope of the national health and social care policy. The inadequate organization of the child welfare system has adverse effects on the well-being, and function of the family. Only the improvement of the expected protection can lead to social politics that will give a chance to mother and child to live in conditions fitting human value and dignity. Herein, we presented the regulations and services along with health care professionals that refer to the protection of child in Greece.

  6. Psychological factors in childhood headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Kathleen; Dunn, David; Scott, Eric

    2010-06-01

    Recurrent headaches in children are most often migraines and are based in a genetic predisposition with a low headache threshold. As with any pain experience, there is a large emotional component associated with an attack of migraines that grows in amplitude as the headaches become more frequent and resistant to medicine, sleep, or other agents that used to work. Childhood headaches are especially complicated for 3 reasons: (1) the parents' fear (communicated to the child that serious medical pathology underlies the head pain), (2) the lack of evidence-based pharmacologic treatment, and (3) the belief that these headaches are largely psychological. This article addresses the mystery surrounding childhood headaches by delving into the influence of school, friends, and family; the impact of divorce; the coping skills required for a child to manage a migrainous nervous system; the potential secondary gain from headaches; psychiatric comorbidities and how to treat them; and the role of psychological intervention.

  7. Childhood pneumonia and vitamin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Heidarian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years old is acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI. ALRI clinical features are cough, tachypnea, fever, coryza, chest retraction, crackles and wheeze. Increased white blood cell count with left shift might happen in pneumonia. C-reactive protein (CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR might rise in children with respiratory tract infections. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with severe childhood infections. The effect of vitamin A supplementation in childhood pneumonia depends on the prevalence and the level of vitamin A deficiency in the population. Some studies confirmed that retinol levels were significantly higher after recovery from acute pneumonia compared to acute phase. But there were no significant association between serum retinol level and the clinical manifestation.

  8. Allergic Rhinitis in Childhood - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Babayiğit

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis, an immunoglobulin E mediated disease, is the most common chronic allergic childhood disease. The disease is characterized by nasal sneezing, rhinorrhea, palate and eye itchiness, and congestion and it can significantly impact children’s health. It causes uncomfortable symptoms, impairs quality of life and can predispose to the development of comorbidities such as asthma. Etiological diagnosis is based on cutaneous prick tests, which have a high sensitivity and specificity rate and which can be easily applied to young children. Treatment initially involves avoidance measures and, when necessary, pharmacotherapy or immunotherapy. Pharmacotherapy generally involves antihistamines and/or nasal corticosteroids, but leukotriene antagonists have also demonstrated effectiveness in treating allergic rhinitis symptoms. In this article, the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis in childhood are discussed. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 105-12

  9. Childhood Leukemia and Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Türkkan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the relationship between very low frequency electromagnetic fields, originating from high voltage powerlines, and childhood leukemia was evaluated. Electromagnetic fields have biological effects. Whole populations are effected by different levels of electromagnetic fields but children are more sensible. In urban areas high voltage powerlines are the main sources of electromagnetic fields. The relation of electromagnetic fields due to high voltage powerlines and leukemia with consideration of dose-response and distance is investigated in several studies. There are different opinions on the effects of electromagnetic fields on general health. The relation between electromagnetic fields and childhood leukemia must be considered separately. Although there is no limit value, it is generally accepted that exposure to 0.4 µT and over doubles the risk of leukemia in children 15 years and younger. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2009; 7: 137-41

  10. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  11. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  12. Childhood obesity in Italian primary schools: eating habits, physical activity and perception of weight by parents

    OpenAIRE

    Giancarlo Scarafile

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is the worst not infectious disease in the world with few clinical treatment options. The purpose of this review is to analyze the epidemiological differences related to childhood obesity in the age group of 6-11 years, both in the United States and Italy which are the most affected by this disease. Among the main causes, three were analyzed: eating habits, physical activity and the perception of the body weight of children by their parents. The review also reports a series ...

  13. Socioeconomic Status and Trajectory of Overweight from Birth to Mid-Childhood: The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Marlowe Gates Dieckmann; Laura Gottlieb; Jessica Chow; Fernald, Lia C. H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to use longitudinal data from a US birth cohort to test whether the probability of overweight or obesity during the first 6 years of life varied according to socioeconomic status. DESIGN AND METHODS: Using six waves of longitudinal data from full-term children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; n≈4,950), we examined the prevalence of overweight or obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI)>2 standard deviations above age- and sex- specific WHO ...

  14. Variational Monte Carlo calculations of few-body nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiringa, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    The variational Monte Carlo method is described. Results for the binding energies, density distributions, momentum distributions, and static longitudinal structure functions of the /sup 3/H, /sup 3/He, and /sup 4/He ground states, and for the energies of the low-lying scattering states in /sup 4/He are presented. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Comparison of Body Surface Area versus Weight-Based Growth Hormone Dosing for Girls with Turner Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrier, L.; Kam, M.L. de; McKinnon, R.; Bakri, A. Che; Oostdijk, W.; Sas, T.C.J.; Menke, L.A.; Otten, B.J.; Keizer-Schrama, S.M.; Kristrom, B.; Ankarberg-Lindgren, C.; Burggraaf, J.; Albertsson-Wikland, K.; Wit, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims: Growth Hormone (GH) dosage in childhood is adjusted for body size, but there is no consensus whether body weight (BW) or body surface area (BSA) should be used. We aimed at comparing the biological effect and cost-effectiveness of GH treatment dosed per m(2) BSA in comparison with d

  16. Chronic avulsive injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, L.F.; Helms, C.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Bisset, G.S. III [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Squire, D.L. [Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Children and adolescents are prone to avulsive injuries related to a combination of their propensity for great strength, ability to sustain extreme levels of activity, and immature growing apophyses. Appropriate interpretation of imaging studies showing chronic avulsive injuries is essential so that the irregularity and periostitis that can be associated with chronic avulsions is not misinterpreted as probable malignancy. This article reviews the chronic avulsive injuries of childhood. (orig.) With 12 figs., 8 refs.

  17. General Overview on Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil İnal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, it has not been put much emphasis on obesity in children and the view of “obese child is healthy” is widely accepted by families. However, understanding that a close relation exists between obesity prevalence and childhood obesity, which increased in recent years both across the world and in our country, and many diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases changed the opinion of both of health care professionals and the society about childhood obesity in Turkey, like it changed the opinion in all around the world. Although there are no studies in our country, which have been conducted to investigate obesity prevalence and affecting factors in children nationwide, it is reported in studies carried out in various cities that rate of overweight children in preschool children is between 4-13%, whereas rate of obese children is between 9-27%. In the literature, a positive correlation was found between the frequency of taking the children to fast-food restaurants, compelling children to eat foods on their dishes, one or two of the parents being obese and obesity of children in Turkey. In this review will focus on the risk factors of childhood obesity in Turkey. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2013; 11: 27-30

  18. The dynamics of childhood poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, M E; Chaudry, A

    1997-01-01

    Child poverty rates have remained high since the middle of the 1970s. While several trends, including declines in the number of children per family and increases in parental years of schooling, worked to reduce child poverty rates, several others, including show economic growth, widening economic inequality, and increases in the proportion of children living in mother-only families, had the opposite effect, pushing more children into poverty. Poverty is a common risk: One-third of all children will be poor for at least one year. For many, poverty lasts only a short while, but for a small percentage, poverty persists both throughout childhood and into the adult years. Poverty is not shared equally across different demographic groups. African-American children. Latino children, and children in mother-only families are disproportionately poor. Long-term poverty is even more concentrated than single-year poverty. In 1992, almost 90% of long-term poor children were African-American as compared to all poor children (single-year and long-term poor), of whom 60% were white. Both family structure and the labor market are implicated in long-term childhood poverty. Changes in employment of family members and changes in family composition are each strongly associated with transitions into and out of childhood poverty. Of these, changes in employment are the most important.

  19. Vitamin D deficiency and childhood obesity: interactions, implications, and recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson CA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Catherine A Peterson Department of Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO, USA Abstract: Vitamin D deficiency and childhood obesity have been classified as epidemics throughout the world, and both share some common risk factors including poor diet and inactivity. Observational and clinical studies show that vitamin D status and fat mass are inversely correlated. It is not clear whether vitamin D deficiency contributes to, or is a consequence of obesity, or whether there are regulatory interactions between excess adiposity and vitamin D activity. The effects of this deficiency in childhood obesity appear to have negative influences on overall health, including insulin resistance, inflammation, and impeded bone mineralization, as well as increased future risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. The rather ubiquitous distribution of the vitamin D receptor and the 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1a-hydroxylase throughout the body, including evidence for a role of vitamin D in adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism, may in part explain these widespread effects. Most of the findings to date suggest that the vitamin D needs of obese children are greater than the nonobese. Although ultraviolet B-induced skin synthesis is a main source of vitamin D, its use is neither feasible nor prudent due to limited sun availability for many and concerns for skin cancer. Likewise, obtaining adequate vitamin D from natural food sources alone is generally not achievable, and even in countries that allow fortification, vitamin D intakes are low. Therefore, in obese children, vitamin D supplementation is warranted. Weight loss interventions using energy restriction and physical activity may also improve the poor vitamin D status associated with obesity. More research is needed to define optimal vitamin D status in this vulnerable population, including investigations to determine the efficacy of vitamin D

  20. Combating Childhood Obesity: Changing Our Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Anna,

    2007-01-01

    A review of literature was conducted to identify risk factors and prevention strategies for childhood obesity. Factors contributing to childhood obesity include poor food choices, physical inactivity, and genetics. Complications of obesity include respiratory, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and endocrine diseases, cancer, gallbladder disease, poor health status, depression, low self-esteem, and social withdrawal. Since childhood obesity, largely due to the environment that children live in ...

  1. Fertility in female childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Van den Berg, Marleen H;

    2009-01-01

    Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly enlarging group of childhood cancer survivors. There is much concern, however, about the effects of treatment on reproductive potential. In women there is evidence that both...... fertility. Hence we will focus on direct effects as well as late fertility-related adverse effects caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and we will conclude with a summary of current options for fertility preservation in female childhood cancer survivors....

  2. The Life Time Prevalence of Childhood Seizure

    OpenAIRE

    P AlizadehTaheri; Naseri, M; M Lahooti; Sadeghi, M

    2009-01-01

    "nBackground: Seizure is the most common pediatric neurologic disorder. Epidemiological studies of childhood epilepsy are of importance to compare incidence and prevalence rates, age distribution, inheritance, seizure types, epilepsy syn­dromes and treatment strategies. Since there is little information about prevalence of childhood seizure in Iran, this study was aimed to determine the life time prevalence of childhood seizure and some of its determining factors in Tehran, Iran....

  3. 77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning prevention...

  4. Treatment Options for Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood NHL Treatment Research Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Non- ... fungoides rarely occurs in children and adolescents. Past treatment for cancer and having a weakened immune system ...

  5. The long reach of childhood: childhood experiences influence close relationships and loneliness across life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.-M.; Jak, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to gain insight into the role of childhood relationships and experiences within the parental home for the formation and meaning of later family relationships and loneliness. Particularly, childhood attachment to mother and father and stressful childhood experiences were studied in

  6. The long reach of childhood. Childhood experiences influence close relationships and loneliness across life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Merz; S. Jak

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to gain insight into the role of childhood relationships and experiences within the parental home for the formation and meaning of later family relationships and loneliness. Particularly, childhood attachment to mother and father and stressful childhood experiences were studied in

  7. Early Childhood Service Delivery for Families Living with Childhood Disability: Disabling Families through Problematic Implicit Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Lauren J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to unpack the implicit ideology underpinning early childhood service delivery for families living with childhood disability. The family as the unit of care is central to the philosophy and practice of early childhood services. However, the practice of family-centred care can be problematic; it is based upon neo-liberal…

  8. Maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and asthma in school children: findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Giallo

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%, sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%, and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.45, p.001. Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting.

  9. Maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and asthma in school children: findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, Rebecca; Bahreinian, Salma; Brown, Stephanie; Cooklin, Amanda; Kingston, Dawn; Kozyrskyj, Anita

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%), sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%), and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.45), p.001). Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting.

  10. Body mass index and body composition scaling to height in children and adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Sochung

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity prevalence has been increased and known to be related to various diseases and mortality in adult and body mass index (BMI) has been widely used as a screening tool in children with obesity. It is important to understand what BMI is and its limitations. BMI is a measure of weight adjusted for height. Weight scales to height with a power of about 2, is the basis of BMI (weight/height2) as the scaling of body weight to height across adults provides powers rounded to 2. BMI has ...

  11. Determinants of body mass index in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukara-Radujković Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Body Mass Index (BMI in boys and girls is predicted by parental BMI, age and occupation. OBJECTIVE Correlation of BMI among children and adolescents in Banjaluka region (Bosnia and Herzegovina and parental age, BMI, parents’ educational level and occupation, as well as the number of family members were investigated as the possible determinants of overweight and obesity in childhood. METHOD The study included 1204 children and adolescents (578 males, 626 females, 6-17 years old from primary and secondary schools in the Banjaluka region. BMI was calculated from height and weight using the standard formula. Each subject along with his parents answered the questionnaire that contained information about parents’ height and weight, educational level and occupation, as well as the number of family members. RESULTS In all studied children, the prevalence of overweight was 12.2% and of obesity 6.1%. Strong positive correlation was found between parental BMI and age (older than 40 years in males and females (p<0.001, while parental higher BMI and higher educational level had positive correlation only in males (p<0.001. The number of family members showed negative correlation with overweight/obesity only in females. CONCLUSION The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children’s population in the Banjaluka region is 12.2% and 6.1%, respectively. There is a positive correlation of overweight and obesity in children with parental overweight and obesity, as well as older age, and parental higher educational level.

  12. CONTRIBUTION FOR MINING ATMOSPHERE CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franica Trojanović

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Humid air is an unavoidable feature of mining atmosphere, which plays a significant role in defining the climate conditions as well as permitted circumstances for normal mining work. Saturated humid air prevents heat conduction from the human body by means of evaporation. Consequently, it is of primary interest in the mining practice to establish the relative air humidity either by means of direct or indirect methods. Percentage of water in the surrounding air may be determined in various procedures including tables, diagrams or particular calculations, where each technique has its specific advantages and disadvantages. Classical calculation is done according to Sprung's formula, in which case partial steam pressure should also be taken from the steam table. The new method without the use of diagram or tables, established on the functional relation of pressure and temperature on saturated line, is presented here for the first time (the paper is published in Croatian.

  13. The genetic and environmental influences on childhood obesity: a systematic review of twin and adoption studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, K; Rokholm, B; Kaprio, J;

    2010-01-01

    a substantial effect in mid-childhood, but this effect disappeared at adolescence. Adoption studies supported the role of family environment in childhood obesity as correlations were found between adoptees and adoptive parents; however, correlations were substantially stronger between parents......In this systematic review, we aimed to collect together all previous twin and adoption studies on childhood and adolescent obesity up to the age of 18 years. Using several sources, we identified nine twin and five adoption studies; all of these studies had used relative weight as an indicator...... of obesity. Except the two twin studies from the Korean population, all studies represented Caucasian populations. In a meta-analysis of these twin studies, we found that genetic factors had a strong effect on the variation of body mass index (BMI) at all ages. The common environmental factors showed...

  14. Endocrine Disorders in Childhood Cancer Survivors Treated with Haemopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Wei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of haemopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT taking place worldwide has offered a cure to many high risk childhood malignancies with an otherwise very poor prognosis. However, HSCT is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and premature death, and patients who have survived the acute complications continue to face lifelong health sequelae as a result of the treatment. Endocrine dysfunction is well described in childhood HSCT survivors treated for malignancies. The endocrine system is highly susceptible to damage from the conditioning therapy, such as, alkylating agents and total body irradiation, which is given prior stem cell infusion. Although not immediately life-threatening, the impact of these abnormalities on the long term health and quality of life in these patients may be considerable. The prevalence, risk factors, clinical approaches to investigations and treatments, as well as the implications of ongoing surveillance of endocrine disorders in childhood HSCT survivors, are discussed in this review.

  15. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BREAST-FEEDING, CO-SLEEPING, AND SOMATIC COMPLAINTS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Elisabeth Maria; Lusher, Joanne Marie; Banbury, Samantha; Chandler, Chris

    2016-09-01

    The central aim of this study was to expand a limited body of knowledge on the complex relationship between breast-feeding, co-sleeping, and somatic complaints in early childhood. An opportunity sample of 98 parents from the general population with children aged 18 to 60 months consented to participate in the study. Each parent completed a series of questionnaires measuring somatic complaints, sleep problems, co-sleeping, breast-feeding, and demographic factors. Findings indicated that co-sleeping was associated with increased somatic complaints and that breast-feeding associated with decreased somatic complaints. Co-sleeping also was found to be associated with an increase in sleep problems. Boys demonstrated significantly higher levels of sleep problems than did girls. These findings highlight the relationship between co-sleeping during early childhood, which could have implications for prevention, treatment, and intervention regarding somatic complaints and sleep problems in early childhood.

  16. Sexual Function in Women with a History of Intrafamilial Childhood Sexual Abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    2011-01-01

    analysis were applied. Of the women, 63% were unsatisfied with their current sexual life, 39% felt uncomfortable with physical endearments and 71% were unsatisfied with their body. Only 82% had an active sexual life and, of these, 73% reported at least one sexual problem, 48% orgasmic problems and 45......% dyspareunia. The occurrence of sexual problems was significantly correlated to childhood physical violence, current psychological distress, flashbacks in sexual situations and discomfort with physical endearment. The prevalence of sexual pain disorders were also positively correlated to “no adult support......This study investigated sexual function in women with a history of severe intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the correlation between sexual problems and the severity of CSA, adult support during childhood and current psychiatric symptoms. The sample consisted of 158 women who...

  17. Stable intergenerational associations of childhood overweight during the development of the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Ängquist, Lars; Silventoinen, Karri;

    2015-01-01

    of children born to parents with and without childhood overweight. METHODS: The study population was from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, which includes age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2) ) of children. This study used BMI values from 7-year-old children born 1952-1989 and from......: Parent-child resemblance in childhood overweight showed small changes during the development of the obesity epidemic, suggesting that the obesogenic environment inducing the epidemic in Denmark influenced children irrespective of their familial predisposition.......OBJECTIVE: The obesity epidemic may have developed as a response to the obesogenic environment among the genetically predisposed. This investigation examined whether the intergenerational resemblances in childhood overweight changed across the development of the obesity epidemic in groups...

  18. Three-Body Interactions in Many-Body Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Furnstahl, R J

    2003-01-01

    This contribution is an advertisement for applying effective field theory (EFT) to many-body problems, including nuclei and cold atomic gases. Examples involving three-body interactions are used to illustrate how EFT's quantify and systematically eliminate model dependence, and how they make many-body calculations simpler and more powerful.

  19. Childhood trauma and psychosis: Evidence, pathways, and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larkin W

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a growing body of research examining environmental factors in the etiology of psychosis. Much recent interest has focused on the relationship between childhood trauma and the risk of developing psychotic experiences later in life. Numerous studies of psychiatric patients where the majority are diagnosed psychotic indicate that the prevalence of traumatic experiences in this group is high. This body of research now includes many large-scale population-based studies controlling for possible mediating variables, which together provide persuasive evidence of a dose-response association and are indicative of a causal relationship. Several psychological and biological models have been proposed which offer credible accounts of the processes by which trauma may increase risk of psychotic experience. Clinically it is imperative to routinely enquire about traumatic experiences, to respond appropriately and to offer psychosocial treatments to those who report traumatic life events in the context of psychotic experiences.

  20. Parenthood--a contributing factor to childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Fatma G; Kanikireddy, Sankarabharan; Patel, Manthan

    2010-07-01

    Prevalence of childhood obesity and its complications have increased world-wide. Parental status may be associated with children's health outcomes including their eating habits, body weight and blood cholesterol. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1988-1994, provided a unique opportunity for matching parents to children enabling analyses of joint demographics, racial differences and health indicators. Specifically, the NHANES III data, 1988-1994, of 219 households with single-parents and 780 dual-parent households were analyzed as predictors for primary outcome variables of children's Body Mass Index (BMI), dietary nutrient intakes and blood cholesterol. Children of single-parent households were significantly (p single-parent households than dual-parent households (p single-parent status and excess weight in children. Further studies are needed to explore the dynamics of single-parent households and its influence on childhood diet and obesity. Parental involvement in the development of school- and community-based obesity prevention programs are suggested for effective health initiatives. Economic constraints and cultural preferences may be communicated directly by family involvement in these much needed public health programs.