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Sample records for calculating childhood body

  1. An approach to calculating childhood body burdens of dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans which accounts for age-dependent biological half lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paustenbach, D. [ChemRisk, San Francisco, CA (United States); Leung, H.W. [Leung, H.W. Private Consultant, Danbury, CT (United States); Scott, P. [ChemRisk, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kerger, B. [HSRI, Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to apply an age-dependent half life model to examine the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens that correspond to selected exposure scenarios involving background dietary and environmental doses of dioxins. The scenarios examined include breast-fed and nonbreast- fed infants feeding for 6 months, other dioxin uptake from foods through age 7, and exposures to urban residential soils at 1 ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). These body burden estimates in children are then compared to the adult body burden estimates corresponding to the range of tolerable daily intakes (1 to 4 pg TEQ/kg-day) proposed by some U.S. and international regulatory/advisory groups.

  2. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institutes of Health Contact Us Get Email Alerts Font Size Accessible Search Form Search the NHLBI, use ... Be Physically Active Healthy Weight Tools BMI Calculator Menu Plans Portion Distortion Key Recommendations Healthy Weight Resources ...

  3. Initial four-body forces in many-body calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Stefan; Roth, Robert [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    For the ab-initio description of light and medium-mass nuclei, chiral effective field theory is used successfully. Improving the precision and uncertainty estimation of chiral forces, especially an improved description of medium-mass nuclei, requires consistent order-by-order calculations. Starting at N{sup 3}LO, chiral four-body forces play a role and their impact on nuclei beyond few-body systems is currently unknown. Even without initial four-body forces, transformations such as the similarity renormalization group induce many-body forces. We model the four-body forces using a simple contact interaction and investigate its effect on nuclear many-body observables, especially ground-state energies and radii, as well as correlations between them. The four-body forces are evaluated in a Jacobi harmonic oscillator (HO) basis and subsequently used in no-core shell model and Hartree-Fock calculations for light- and medium mass nuclei. Handling of chiral forces is identical to a contact interaction, once they are evaluated in a HO basis.

  4. Relativistic Few-Body Hadronic Physics Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzou, Wayne [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2016-06-20

    The goal of this research proposal was to use ``few-body'' methods to understand the structure and reactions of systems of interacting hadrons (neutrons, protons, mesons, quarks) over a broad range of energy scales. Realistic mathematical models of few-hadron systems have the advantage that they are sufficiently simple that they can be solved with mathematically controlled errors. These systems are also simple enough that it is possible to perform complete accurate experimental measurements on these systems. Comparison between theory and experiment puts strong constraints on the structure of the models. Even though these systems are ``simple'', both the experiments and computations push the limits of technology. The important property of ``few-body'' systems is that the ``cluster property'' implies that the interactions that appear in few-body systems are identical to the interactions that appear in complicated many-body systems. Of particular interest are models that correctly describe physics at distance scales that are sensitive to the internal structure of the individual nucleons. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle implies that in order to be sensitive to physics on distance scales that are a fraction of the proton or neutron radius, a relativistic treatment of quantum mechanics is necessary. The research supported by this grant involved 30 years of effort devoted to studying all aspects of interacting two and three-body systems. Realistic interactions were used to compute bound states of two- and three-nucleon, and two- and three-quark systems. Scattering observables for these systems were computed for a broad range of energies - from zero energy scattering to few GeV scattering, where experimental evidence of sub-nucleon degrees of freedom is beginning to appear. Benchmark calculations were produced, which when compared with calculations of other groups provided an essential check on these complicated calculations. In

  5. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Anisimova, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Khomyakova, I. A.; Konovalova, M. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Vashura, A. Yu

    2012-12-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition - 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  6. Childhood body mass index and risk of adult pancreatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Leticia; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Gamborg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Excess weight in adulthood is one of the few modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer, and height has associations as well. This leads to question whether body weight and height in childhood are associated with adult pancreatic cancer. Objective: To examine if childhood body mass...

  7. Body mass index and annual increase of body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors; relationship to treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Cornelia A J; Gietema, Jourik A; Vonk, Judith M; Tissing, W J E; Boezen, Hendrika M; Zwart, Nynke; Postma, Aleida

    PURPOSE: Evaluation of body mass index (BMI) at final height (FH) and annual BMI increase in adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS) after treatment with anthracyclines, platinum, and/or radiotherapy. METHODS: BMI (weight/height²) was calculated retrospectively from diagnosis until FH. The prevalence

  8. Childhood Abuse and Neglect in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didie, Elizabeth R.; Tortolani, Christina C.; Pope, Courtney G.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: No published studies have examined childhood abuse and neglect in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). This study examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of abuse and neglect in individuals with this disorder. Methods: Seventy-five subjects (69.3% female, mean age = 35.4 +/- 12.0) with DSM-IV BDD completed the Childhood Trauma…

  9. Childhood Abuse, Body Image Disturbance, and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…

  10. The Development of Body Image and Weight Bias in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, S J; Damiano, S R

    2017-01-01

    Negative body image attitudes are related to the onset of disordered eating, poor self-esteem, general mental health problems, and obesity. In this chapter, we will review the nature of body image attitudes in girls and boys in early (approximately 3-7 years old) and later childhood (approximately 8-11 years old). The body image attitudes explored in this chapter include body image attitudes related to the self, with a focus on body dissatisfaction, and body image attitudes related to others, with a focus on weight bias. Issues of measurement of body image and weight bias will first be explored. In light of measurement considerations, the prevalence and predictors of body dissatisfaction and related concerns, and weight bias will be examined. The chapter will conclude with a review of promising directions in the prevention of body dissatisfaction and weight bias in children. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Childhood body mass index in relation to future risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, M B; Freedman, N D; Gamborg, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Middle-aged obese adults are at substantially elevated risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. It is unclear whether this risk originates earlier in life. METHODS: We assessed associations between childhood body mass index (BMI) and height-measured annually between ages 7 and 13-with adult...... the mechanisms require further investigation, our findings provide additional evidence for the long-term health risks of childhood obesity....... oesophageal adenocarcinoma in a cohort from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. Analyses included 255 053 children born during 1930-1971. Danish Cancer Registry linkage provided outcomes. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Cox proportional hazards regression...

  12. Comparison of estimates of body fat content in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinicato, N A; Peres, F A; de Oliveira Peliçari, K; de Oliveira Santos, A; Ramos, C D; Marini, R; Appenzeller, S

    2017-04-01

    Objective We aimed to compare estimates of body fat content with respect to their ability to predict the percentage of body fat, confirmed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods We included 64 consecutive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 64 healthy age and sex-matched controls in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data, body mass index and body adiposity index were calculated for all subjects. Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients were further assessed for clinical and laboratory childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations and fat mass, lean mass and percentage of body fat evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Elevated waist/hip ratio was observed in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients when compared to controls ( p lupus erythematosus patients and controls. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry as gold standard we observed that all indirect estimates of body fat were correlated with whole body fat mass. We observed a correlation between height and cumulative corticosteroid dose adjusted by weight ( r = 0.429, p = 0.005) in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. On whole body analysis we observed a correlation between lean mass and ACR Damage Index scores ( r = -0.395; p = 0.019); percentage of body fat and adjusted Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index ( r = 0.402; p = 0.008), disease duration ( r = -0.370; p = 0.012). On trunk analysis we observed a correlation between lean mass and ACR Damage Index ( r = -0.319; p = 0.042); percentage of body fat with adjusted Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index ( r = 0.402; p = 0.005), disease duration ( r = -0.408; p = 0.005). Conclusions This is the first study analyzing body adiposity index in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients. We observed that all indirect

  13. The metabolic syndrome and body composition in childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Chung

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Long-term survivors of childhood cancer appear to have an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome, subsequent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood compared to healthy children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of the metabolic syndrome and associated factors in childhood cancer survivors at a single center in Korea. Methods : We performed a retrospective review of medical records of 98 childhood cancer survivors who were diagnosed and completed anticancer treatment at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea between Jan. 1996 and Dec. 2007. Parameters of metabolic syndrome were evaluated between Jan. 2008 and Dec. 2009. Clinical and biochemical findings including body fat percentage were analyzed. Results : A total of 19 (19.4% patients had the metabolic syndrome. The median body fat percentage was 31.5%. The body mass index and waist circumference were positively correlated with the cranial irradiation dose (r=0.38, P<0.001 and r=0.44, P<0.00, respectively. Sixty-one (62.2% patients had at least one abnormal lipid value. The triglyceride showed significant positive correlation with the body fat percentage (r=0.26, P=0.03. The high density lipoprotein cholesterol showed significant negative correlation with the percent body fat (r=- 0.26, P=0.03. Conclusion : Childhood cancer survivors should have thorough metabolic evaluation including measurement of body fat percentage even if they are not obese. A better understanding of the determinants of the metabolic syndrome during adolescence might provide preventive interventions for improving health outcomes in adulthood.

  14. Childhood body mass index growth trajectories and endometrial cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Tilling, Kate; Ulrich, Lian G; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2017-01-15

    Previously, we found that excess weight already in childhood has positive associations with endometrial cancer; however, associations with changes in body mass index (BMI) during childhood are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether growth in childhood BMI is associated with endometrial cancer and its sub-types. A cohort of 155,505 girls from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register with measured weights and heights at the ages of 6-14 years and born 1930-1989 formed the analytical population. BMI was transformed to age-specific z scores. Using linear spline multilevel models, each girl's BMI growth trajectory was estimated as the deviance from the average trajectory for three different growth periods (6.25-7.99, 8.0-10.99, 11.0-14.0 years). Via a link to health registers, 1,020 endometrial cancer cases were identified, and Cox regressions were performed. A greater gain in BMI during childhood was positively associated with endometrial cancer but no differences between the different growth periods were detected in models adjusted for baseline BMI. The hazard ratios for the associations with overall growth during childhood per 0.1 z score increase were 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.24) for all endometrial cancers, 1.12 (95% CI: 1.04-1.21) for estrogen-dependent cancers, 1.16 (95% CI: 1.06-1.26) for endometrioid adenocarcinomas and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.16-1.84) for non-estrogen-dependent cancers. Growth in BMI in early life is positively linked to later endometrial cancer risk. We did not identify any sensitive childhood growth period, which suggests that excess gain in BMI during the entire childhood period should be avoided. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  15. Numeric calculation of celestial bodies with spreadsheet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The motion of the planets and moons in our solar system can easily be calculated for any time by the Kepler laws of planetary motion. The Kepler laws are a special case of the gravitational law of Newton, especially if you consider more than two celestial bodies. Therefore it is more basic to calculate the motion by using the gravitational law. But the problem is, that by gravitational law it is not possible to calculate the state of motion with only one step of calculation. The motion has to be numerical calculated for many time intervalls. For this reason, spreadsheet analysis is helpful for students. Skills in programmes like Excel, Calc or Gnumeric are important in professional life and can easily be learnt by students. These programmes can help to calculate the complex motions with many intervalls. The more intervalls are used, the more exact are the calculated orbits. The sutdents will first get a quick course in Excel. After that they calculate with instructions the 2-D-coordinates of the orbits of Moon and Mars. Step by step the students are coding the formulae for calculating physical parameters like coordinates, force, acceleration and velocity. The project is limited to 4 weeks or 8 lessons. So the calcualtion will only include the calculation of one body around the central mass like Earth or Sun. The three-body problem can only be shortly discussed at the end of the project.

  16. Multiple giant pilar cyst distributed over the body since childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asilian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichilemmal cyst or pilar cyst is defined as a cyst containing keratin and its breakdown products. It is usually situated on the scalp with a wall resembling external hair root sheath. In this case report we present a 55-year-old man with multiple giant pilar cysts that were distributed over the whole body since childhood. One of the cyst on the chest was transformed to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC.

  17. Effects of childhood body size on breast cancer tumour characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although a role of childhood body size in postmenopausal breast cancer risk has been established, less is known about its influence on tumour characteristics. Methods We studied the relationships between childhood body size and tumour characteristics in a Swedish population-based case-control study consisting of 2,818 breast cancer cases and 3,111 controls. Our classification of childhood body size was derived from a nine-level somatotype. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals, derived from fitting unconditional logistic regression models. Association between somatotype at age 7 and tumour characteristics were evaluated in a case-only analysis where P values for heterogeneity were obtained by performing one degree of freedom trend tests. Results A large somatotype at age 7 was found to be associated with decreased postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Although strongly associated with other risk factors such as age of menarche, adult body mass index and mammographic density, somatotype at age 7 remained a significant protective factor (odds ratio (OR) comparing large to lean somatotype at age 7 = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.58-0.91, P trend = 0.004) after adjustment. The significant protective effect was observed within all subgroups defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, with a stronger effect for ER-negative (0.40, 95% CI = 0.21-0.75, P trend = 0.002), than for ER-positive (0.80, 95% CI = 0.62-1.05, P trend = 0.062), tumours (P heterogeneity = 0.046). Somatotype at age 7 was not associated with tumour size, histology, grade or the presence or absence of metastatic nodes. Conclusions Greater body size at age 7 is associated with a decreased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, and the associated protective effect is stronger for the ER-negative breast cancer subtype than for the ER-positive subtype. PMID:20398298

  18. Body drop into a fluid tank and dynamic loads calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarov Aleksandr Andreevich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The theory of a body striking a fluid began intensively developing due to the tasks of hydroplanes landing. For the recent years the study of a stroke and submersion of bodies into fluid became even more current. We face them in the process of strength calculation of ship hulls and other structures in modern technology. These tasks solution represents great mathematical difficulty even in case of the mentioned simplifications. These difficulties emerge due to the unsteady character of fluid motion in case of body submersion, and also jet and spray phenomena, which lead to discontinuous motions. On the basis of G.V. Logvinovich’s concept the problem of loads determination with consideration for air gap is solved for both a body and reservoir enclosing structures when a body falls into a fluid. Numerical method is based on the decay of an arbitrary discontinuity.

  19. Three-body calculation of Be double-hypernuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Energy levels and bond energy of the double- hypernucleus are calculated by considering two- and three-cluster interactions. Interactions between constituent particles are contact interactions for reproducing the low binding energy of nuclei. The effective action is constructed to involve three-body forces. In this paper ...

  20. Higher body mass index associated with severe early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Katherine; Schroth, Robert J; Levi, Jeremy A; Yaffe, Aaron B; Mittermuller, Betty-Anne; Sellers, Elizabeth A C

    2016-08-20

    Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) is an aggressive form of tooth decay in preschool children affecting quality of life and nutritional status. The purpose was to determine whether there is an association between Body Mass Index (BMI) and S-ECC. Children with S-ECC were recruited on the day of their slated dental surgery under general anesthesia. Age-matched, caries-free controls were recruited from the community. All children were participating in a larger study on nutrition and S-ECC. Analysis was restricted to children ≥ 24 months of age. Parents completed a questionnaire and heights and weights were recorded. BMI scores and age and gender adjusted BMI z-scores and percentiles were calculated. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was significant. Two hundred thirty-five children were included (141 with S-ECC and 94 caries-free). The mean age was 43.3 ± 12.8 months and 50.2 % were male. Overall, 34.4 % of participants were overweight or obese. Significantly more children with S-ECC were classified as overweight or obese when compared to caries-free children (p = 0.038) and had significantly higher mean BMI z-scores than caries-free children (0.78 ± 1.26 vs. 0.22 ± 1.36, p = 0.002). Those with S-ECC also had significantly higher BMI percentiles (69.0 % ± 29.2 vs. 56.8 % ± 31.7, p = 0.003). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that BMI z-scores were significantly and independently associated with S-ECC and annual household income as were BMI percentiles. Children with S-ECC in our sample had significantly higher BMI z-scores than caries-free peers.

  1. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Felix (Janine); J.P. Bradfield (Jonathan); C. Monnereau; R.J.P. van der Valk (Ralf); E. Stergiakouli (Evie); A. Chesi (Alessandra); R. Gaillard (Romy); B. Feenstra (Bjarke); E. Thiering (Elisabeth); E. Kreiner-Møller (Eskil); A. Mahajan (Anubha); Niina Pitkänen; R. Joro (Raimo); A. Cavadino (Alana); V. Huikari (Ville); S. Franks (Steve); M. Groen-Blokhuis (Maria); D.L. Cousminer (Diana); J.A. Marsh (Julie); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); J.A. Curtin (John); J. Vioque (Jesus); T.S. Ahluwalia (Tarunveer Singh); R. Myhre (Ronny); T.S. Price (Thomas); Natalia Vilor-Tejedor; L. Yengo (Loic); N. Grarup (Niels); I. Ntalla (Ioanna); W.Q. Ang (Wei); M. Atalay (Mustafa); H. Bisgaard (Hans); A.I.F. Blakemore (Alexandra); A. Bonnefond (Amélie); L. Carstensen (Lisbeth); J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); C. Flexeder (Claudia); L. Franke (Lude); F. Geller (Frank); M. Geserick (Mandy); A.L. Hartikainen; C.M.A. Haworth (Claire M.); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel N.); A. Hofman (Albert); J.-C. Holm (Jens-Christian); M. Horikoshi (Momoko); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); J. Huang (Jian); H.N. Kadarmideen (Haja N.); M. Kähönen (Mika); W. Kiess (Wieland); T.A. Lakka (Timo); T.A. Lakka (Timo); A. Lewin (Alex); L. Liang (Liming); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); B. Ma (Baoshan); P. Magnus (Per); S.E. McCormack (Shana E.); G. Mcmahon (George); F.D. Mentch (Frank); C.M. Middeldorp (Christel); C.S. Murray (Clare S.); K. Pahkala (Katja); T.H. Pers (Tune); R. Pfäffle (Roland); D.S. Postma (Dirkje); C. Power (Christine); A. Simpson (Angela); V. Sengpiel (Verena); C. Tiesler (Carla); M. Torrent (Maties); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); R. Vinding (Rebecca); J. Waage (Johannes); J. Wardle (Jane); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); B.S. Zemel (Babette S.); G.V. Dedoussis (George); O. Pedersen (Oluf); P. Froguel (Philippe); J. Sunyer (Jordi); R. Plomin (Robert); B. Jacobsson (Bo); T. Hansen (Torben); J.R. Gonzalez (Juan R.); A. Custovic; O.T. Raitakari (Olli T.); C.E. Pennell (Craig); Elisabeth Widén; D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); G.H. Koppelman (Gerard); S. Sebert (Sylvain); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); E. Hypponen (Elina); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); V. Lindi (Virpi); N. Harri (Niinikoski); A. Körner (Antje); K. Bønnelykke (Klaus); J. Heinrich (Joachim); M. Melbye (Mads); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); H. Hakonarson (Hakon); S.M. Ring (Susan); G.D. Smith; T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild I.A.); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); S.F.A. Grant (Struan); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H.J. Kalkwarf (Heidi J.); J.M. Lappe (Joan M.); V. Gilsanz (Vicente); S.E. Oberfield (Sharon E.); J.A. Shepherd (John A.); A. Kelly (Andrea)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractA large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown.We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation

  2. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Felix, Janine F.; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Monnereau, Claire; van der Valk, Ralf J. P.; Stergiakouli, Evie; Chesi, Alessandra; Gaillard, Romy; Feenstra, Bjarke; Thiering, Elisabeth; Kreiner-Moller, Eskil; Mahajan, Anubha; Pitkanen, Niina; Joro, Raimo; Cavadino, Alana; Huikari, Ville; Franks, Steve; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Marsh, Julie A.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Curtin, John A.; Vioque, Jesus; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S.; Myhre, Ronny; Price, Thomas S.; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Yengo, Loic; Grarup, Niels; Ntalla, Ioanna; Ang, Wei; Atalay, Mustafa; Bisgaard, Hans; Blakemore, Alexandra I.; Bonnefond, Amelie; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Eriksson, Johan; Flexeder, Claudia; Franke, Lude; Geller, Frank; Geserick, Mandy; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Holm, Jens-Christian; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Huang, Jinyan; Kadarmideen, Haja N.; Kahonen, Mika; Kiess, Wieland; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria; Lakka, Timo A.; Lewin, Alexandra M.; Liang, Liming; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Ma, Baoshan; Magnus, Per; McCormack, Shana E.; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Murray, Clare S.; Pahkala, Katja; Pers, Tune H.; Pfaefle, Roland; Postma, Dirkje S.; Power, Christine; Simpson, Angela; Sengpiel, Verena; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Torrent, Maties; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Meurs, Joyce B.; Vinding, Rebecca; Waage, Johannes; Wardle, Jane; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zemel, Babette S.; Dedoussis, George V.; Pedersen, Oluf; Froguel, Philippe; Sunyer, Jordi; Plomin, Robert; Jacobsson, Bo; Hansen, Torben; Gonzalez, Juan R.; Custovic, Adnan; Raitakari, Olli T.; Pennell, Craig E.; Widen, Elisabeth; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Sebert, Sylvain; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hypponen, Elina; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindi, Virpi; Harri, Niinikoski; Koerner, Antje; Bonnelykke, Klaus; Heinrich, Joachim; Melbye, Mads; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ring, Susan M.; Smith, George Davey; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Grant, Struan F. A.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.

    2016-01-01

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex-and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We

  3. Body Size Estimation from Early to Middle Childhood: Stability of Underestimation, BMI, and Gender Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsbekk, Silje; Klöckner, Christian A; Fildes, Alison; Kristoffersen, Pernille; Rognsås, Stine L; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Individuals who are overweight are more likely to underestimate their body size than those who are normal weight, and overweight underestimators are less likely to engage in weight loss efforts. Underestimation of body size might represent a barrier to prevention and treatment of overweight; thus insight in how underestimation of body size develops and tracks through the childhood years is needed. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine stability in children's underestimation of body size, exploring predictors of underestimation over time. The prospective path from underestimation to BMI was also tested. In a Norwegian cohort of 6 year olds, followed up at ages 8 and 10 (analysis sample: n = 793) body size estimation was captured by the Children's Body Image Scale, height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Overall, children were more likely to underestimate than overestimate their body size. Individual stability in underestimation was modest, but significant. Higher BMI predicted future underestimation, even when previous underestimation was adjusted for, but there was no evidence for the opposite direction of influence. Boys were more likely than girls to underestimate their body size at ages 8 and 10 (age 8: 38.0% vs. 24.1%; Age 10: 57.9% vs. 30.8%) and showed a steeper increase in underestimation with age compared to girls. In conclusion, the majority of 6, 8, and 10-year olds correctly estimate their body size (prevalence ranging from 40 to 70% depending on age and gender), although a substantial portion perceived themselves to be thinner than they actually were. Higher BMI forecasted future underestimation, but underestimation did not increase the risk for excessive weight gain in middle childhood.

  4. Body Size Estimation from Early to Middle Childhood: Stability of Underestimation, BMI, and Gender Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silje Steinsbekk

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who are overweight are more likely to underestimate their body size than those who are normal weight, and overweight underestimators are less likely to engage in weight loss efforts. Underestimation of body size might represent a barrier to prevention and treatment of overweight; thus insight in how underestimation of body size develops and tracks through the childhood years is needed. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine stability in children’s underestimation of body size, exploring predictors of underestimation over time. The prospective path from underestimation to BMI was also tested. In a Norwegian cohort of 6 year olds, followed up at ages 8 and 10 (analysis sample: n = 793 body size estimation was captured by the Children’s Body Image Scale, height and weight were measured and BMI calculated. Overall, children were more likely to underestimate than overestimate their body size. Individual stability in underestimation was modest, but significant. Higher BMI predicted future underestimation, even when previous underestimation was adjusted for, but there was no evidence for the opposite direction of influence. Boys were more likely than girls to underestimate their body size at ages 8 and 10 (age 8: 38.0% vs. 24.1%; Age 10: 57.9% vs. 30.8% and showed a steeper increase in underestimation with age compared to girls. In conclusion, the majority of 6, 8, and 10-year olds correctly estimate their body size (prevalence ranging from 40 to 70% depending on age and gender, although a substantial portion perceived themselves to be thinner than they actually were. Higher BMI forecasted future underestimation, but underestimation did not increase the risk for excessive weight gain in middle childhood.

  5. Childhood Gender Nonconformity and Body Dissatisfaction in Gay and Heterosexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Scott M.; Singh, Devendra; Randall, Patrick K.

    2000-01-01

    Employed a measure of recalled childhood gender nonconformity to examine gender role behaviors in association with body dissatisfaction among ethnically diverse, homosexual and heterosexual, predominantly college-aged males. Gay males reported more body dissatisfaction and recalled more childhood gender atypical behaviors. Group differences in…

  6. Mode Calculation and Testing of a Car Body in White

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic parameters of a car body in white (BIW are important during a new car developing. Based on the finite element method, the model of a BIW is developed in which the welding points are treated specially as a new element type and the vibration modes of it are calculated. In modal testing, a fixed sine-sweeping exciter is used to conduct a single-point input force for the structure, whereas the output responses are picked up at different points to identify modes. The obtained modes are coincided both with the FE results and the practical testing.

  7. Severe insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia after childhood total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayson, Sarah E; Parker, Victoria E R; Schutta, Mark H; Semple, Robert K; Rickels, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    To characterize the metabolic phenotype of 2 cases of normal weight young women who developed type 2 diabetes (T2D), severe insulin resistance (insulin requirement >200 units/day), marked hypertriglyceridemia (>2000 mg/dL), and hepatic steatosis beginning 9 years after undergoing total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation for childhood cancer. Fasting plasma glucose, insulin, free fatty acids (FFAs), leptin, adiponectin, resistin, TNFα, and IL-6 were measured in each case and in 8 healthy women; Case 1 was also assessed after initiating pioglitazone. Coding regions and splice junctions of PPARG, LMNA, and AKT2 were sequenced in Case 1 and of PPARG in Case 2 to evaluate for familial partial lipodystrophies. Genotyping of APOE was performed in Case 1 to rule out type III hyperlipoproteinemia. Both cases had elevated plasma levels of insulin, leptin, resistin, and IL-6, high-normal to elevated TNFα, and low to low-normal adiponectin in keeping with post-receptor insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation. Case 1 experienced a biochemical response to pioglitazone. No causative mutations for partial lipodystrophies or type III hyperlipoproteinemia were identified. Though metabolic derangements have previously been reported in association with TBI, few cases have described insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia as severe as that seen in our patients. We speculate that early childhood TBI may impede adipose tissue development leading to metabolic complications from an attenuated ability of adipose tissue to accommodate caloric excess, and propose that this extreme metabolic syndrome be evaluated for as a late complication of TBI.

  8. Calculation of station body wave magnitude—an alternative suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radzyner, Y.; Ben Horin, Y.; Steinberg, D. M.

    2017-11-01

    The International Data Center (IDC) routinely calculates an adapted version of the body wave magnitude mb as part of the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Improving the consistency of the magnitude scale will improve the efficiency of the CTBT verification regime. In this work, based on the analysis of the station magnitude residuals reported by the IDC, we propose a model in which the station magnitude depends on (1 + a)log (A/T) instead of log (A/T) where a is a station specific correction. It is demonstrated, based on an analysis of IDC data and simulation, that the improvement achieved in the magnitude consistency is not a statistical artefact of the averaging process used in the estimation of the network magnitude. In this work, we calculate the station parameters for all 146 active seismic stations currently analysed by the IDC. With these parameters we achieve an average reduction of 30 per cent in the magnitude residual.

  9. Childhood body mass index trajectories predicting cardiovascular risk in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Brittany P; Nelson, Jackie A; Holub, Shayla C

    2015-06-01

    The present study compared growth parameters of girls' and boys' body mass index (BMI) trajectories from infancy to middle childhood and evaluated these parameters as predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adolescence. Using 657 children from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, quadratic growth curve analyses were conducted to establish growth parameters (intercept, slope, and quadratic term) for girls and boys from age 15 months to 10.5 years. Parameters were compared across gender and evaluated as predictors of a CVD risk index at the age of 15 years, controlling for characteristics of the adiposity rebound (AR) including age at which it occurred and children's BMI at the rebound. Boys had more extreme trajectories of growth than girls with higher initial BMI at age 15 months (intercept), more rapid declines in BMI before the AR (slope), and sharper rebound growth in BMI after the rebound (quadratic term). For boys and girls, higher intercept, slope, and quadratic term values predicted higher CVD risk at the age of 15 years, controlling for characteristics of the AR. Findings suggest that individuals at risk for developing CVD later in life may be identified before the AR by elevated BMI at 15 months and slow BMI declines. Because of the importance of early intervention in altering lifelong health trajectories, consistent BMI monitoring is essential in identifying high-risk children. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between severe early childhood caries and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoomika, W; Ramakrishna, Y; Munshi, A K

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Body Mass Index (BMI) in the absence of any underlying medical condition for the school going (3 to 6 years old) children of Mathura city, India. One hundred caries free children (50 boys and 50 girls) and one hundred children (50 boys and 50 girls) affected with S-ECC in the age range of 3-6 years without any contributing medical history were included in the study. Measurements of the weight (kg) and height (m) were done using a standard balanced beam scale and stadiometer. The BMI (kg/m2) was determined and the body weight status was evaluated using CDC based classification for each child. Independent t-test was used to evaluate whether the weight, height and BMI of S-ECC children is significantly different from caries free children. Although the weight of the S-ECC children is more when compared to the normal children, the difference is not statistically significant. However, the mean BMI of S-ECC children is more when compared to the caries free children which was found to be statistically significant at p children based on the CDC classification revealed that 48% have been classified in underweight category and 43% in normal weight category and very few children are found to be at risk of overweight and overweight. A positive correlation between the BMI and S-ECC was observed in this study. 51% of caries free children and 45% of S-ECC children were classified in underweight category based on CDC classification.

  11. Body mass index in childhood and adult risk of primary liver cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Gamborg, Michael; Holst, Claus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Childhood overweight increases the risk of early development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which may predispose to carcinogenesis. We investigated if childhood body size during school ages was associated with the risk of primary liver cancer in adults. METHODS: A cohort...... (95% CI) of adult liver cancer was 1.20 (1.07-1.33) and 1.30 (1.16-1.46) per 1-unit BMI z-score at 7 years and 13 years of age, respectively. Similar associations were found in boys and girls, for hepatocellular carcinoma only, across years of birth, and after accounting for diagnoses of viral...... of 285,884 boys and girls, born 1930 through 1980, who attended school in Copenhagen, were followed from 1977 to 31 December 2010. Their heights and weights were measured by school doctors or nurses at ages 7 through 13 years. Body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated from an internal age- and sex...

  12. Measurement and Interpretation of Body Mass Index during Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Susan Kohl; Zemel, Babette S.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of childhood health and disease has changed over the past century, and school nurses are now in a unique position to address the conditions that lead to chronic disease, such as obesity. Measuring body mass index (BMI) during childhood and adolescence is the recommended method for screening and/or monitoring obesity in school…

  13. Developing a Statewide Childhood Body Mass Index Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, David R.; Scruggs, Philip W.; Goc Karp, Grace; Ransdell, Lynda B.; Robinson, Clay; Lester, Michael J.; Gao, Yong; Petranek, Laura J.; Brown, Helen; Shimon, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several states have implemented childhood obesity surveillance programs supported by legislation. Representatives from Idaho wished to develop a model for childhood obesity surveillance without the support of state legislation, and subsequently report predictors of overweight and obesity in the state. Methods: A coalition comprised of…

  14. Webinar Presentation: Prenatal Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and Childhood Body Mass Index Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Prenatal Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) and Childhood Body Mass Index Trajectories, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series held on Feb. 11, 2015.

  15. Effects of body size and change in body size from infancy through childhood on body mass index in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise G; Rasmussen, K M; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2014-01-01

    Background:Weight and weight gain throughout infancy are related to later obesity, but whether the strength of the associations varies during the infancy period is uncertain.Aims:Our aims were to identify the period of infancy when change in body weight has the strongest association with adult body...... mass index (BMI) and also the extent to which these associations during infancy are mediated through childhood BMI.Methods:The Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort, in which participants were followed from birth through 42 years of age, provided information on weight at 12 months and BMI at 42 years for 1633...... individuals. Information on weight at birth, 2 weeks, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 months was retrieved from health visitors' records and information on BMI at ages 7 and 13 years from school health records. The associations of infant weight and weight gain standard deviation scores (SDS) with adult BMI-SDS were analyzed...

  16. Childhood body mass index in adolescent-onset anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Staci A; Witt, Ashley A; Gillberg, Christopher; Råstam, Maria; Wentz, Elisabet; Lowe, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    Although weight history is relevant in predicting eating disorder symptom severity, little is known about its role in the etiology of anorexia nervosa (AN). This study aimed to determine whether BMI or BMI trajectory differed between individuals who later developed adolescent-onset AN and a comparison group of HCs between school grades 1 through 6. This study was based on longitudinal data that identified 51 adolescents with AN and 51 matched HCs. Cases were identified through community screening in Sweden and included individuals born in 1969 through 1977. Measured weights and heights were retrieved and BMIs and weight trajectories of the AN and HC groups were compared using growth curve analysis. Main outcome measures included measured BMI and BMI trajectories from grades 1-6. Secondary outcomes examined included ponderal index at birth and maternal body weight. Individuals who later developed AN had higher BMIs than HCs between grades 1 and 6, by an average of 1.42 BMI-units. There was no difference in rate of weight gain between groups. Ponderal index at birth was higher for the AN as compared with HC group. Maternal weight did not differ significantly between groups. These findings, combined with those previously reported on the premorbid BMIs of those with bulimia nervosa, suggest that a predisposition toward elevated premorbid BMIs during childhood characterizes those who later develop anorexia or bulimia nervosa. These findings are consistent with a transdiagnostic perspective and suggest shared risk factors for AN and obesity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:1002-1009). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Childhood Height and Body Mass Index Were Associated with Risk of Adult Thyroid Cancer in a Large Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Berrington de González, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7...... with the Danish Cancer Registry to identify incident thyroid cancer cases (1968-2010). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for age- and sex-specific height and BMI SD scores (SDS) using proportional hazards models stratified by birth cohort and sex. During follow-up (median = 38...

  18. Body Mass Index: Calculator for Child and Teen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... age percentile on a CDC BMI-for-age growth chart. Use this calculator for children and teens, aged 2 through 19 years old. For adults, 20 years old and older, use the Adult BMI Calculator . Measuring Height and Weight Accurately At Home BMI Calculator for ...

  19. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Janine F; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Monnereau, Claire; van der Valk, Ralf J P; Stergiakouli, Evie; Chesi, Alessandra; Gaillard, Romy; Feenstra, Bjarke; Thiering, Elisabeth; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Mahajan, Anubha; Pitkänen, Niina; Joro, Raimo; Cavadino, Alana; Huikari, Ville; Franks, Steve; Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Cousminer, Diana L; Marsh, Julie A; Lehtimäki, Terho; Curtin, John A; Vioque, Jesus; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Myhre, Ronny; Price, Thomas S; Vilor-Tejedor, Natalia; Yengo, Loïc; Grarup, Niels; Ntalla, Ioanna; Ang, Wei; Atalay, Mustafa; Bisgaard, Hans; Blakemore, Alexandra I; Bonnefond, Amelie; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Eriksson, Johan; Flexeder, Claudia; Franke, Lude; Geller, Frank; Geserick, Mandy; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Haworth, Claire M A; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Holm, Jens-Christian; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Huang, Jinyan; Kadarmideen, Haja N; Kähönen, Mika; Kiess, Wieland; Lakka, Hanna-Maaria; Lakka, Timo A; Lewin, Alexandra M; Liang, Liming; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Ma, Baoshan; Magnus, Per; McCormack, Shana E; McMahon, George; Mentch, Frank D; Middeldorp, Christel M; Murray, Clare S; Pahkala, Katja; Pers, Tune H; Pfäffle, Roland; Postma, Dirkje S; Power, Christine; Simpson, Angela; Sengpiel, Verena; Tiesler, Carla M T; Torrent, Maties; Uitterlinden, André G; van Meurs, Joyce B; Vinding, Rebecca; Waage, Johannes; Wardle, Jane; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Zemel, Babette S; Dedoussis, George V; Pedersen, Oluf; Froguel, Philippe; Sunyer, Jordi; Plomin, Robert; Jacobsson, Bo; Hansen, Torben; Gonzalez, Juan R; Custovic, Adnan; Raitakari, Olli T; Pennell, Craig E; Widén, Elisabeth; Boomsma, Dorret I; Koppelman, Gerard H; Sebert, Sylvain; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Hyppönen, Elina; McCarthy, Mark I; Lindi, Virpi; Harri, Niinikoski; Körner, Antje; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Heinrich, Joachim; Melbye, Mads; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hakonarson, Hakon; Ring, Susan M; Smith, George Davey; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Grant, Struan F A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-01-15

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We included 35 668 children from 20 studies in the discovery phase and 11 873 children from 13 studies in the replication phase. In total, 15 loci reached genome-wide significance (P-value body mass index or childhood obesity. We identified three novel loci: rs13253111 near ELP3, rs8092503 near RAB27B and rs13387838 near ADAM23. Per additional risk allele, body mass index increased 0.04 Standard Deviation Score (SDS) [Standard Error (SE) 0.007], 0.05 SDS (SE 0.008) and 0.14 SDS (SE 0.025), for rs13253111, rs8092503 and rs13387838, respectively. A genetic risk score combining all 15 SNPs showed that each additional average risk allele was associated with a 0.073 SDS (SE 0.011, P-value = 3.12 × 10(-10)) increase in childhood body mass index in a population of 1955 children. This risk score explained 2% of the variance in childhood body mass index. This study highlights the shared genetic background between childhood and adult body mass index and adds three novel loci. These loci likely represent age-related differences in strength of the associations with body mass index. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Adult and childhood weight influence body image and depression through weight stigmatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Serena D; Herbozo, Sylvia; Morrell, Holly Er; Schaefer, Lauren M; Thompson, J Kevin

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this study was to examine lifetime weight stigmatization as a mediator of the relationships among current body mass index, childhood overweight, depression, and body dissatisfaction. Participants were 299 female undergraduates (mean age = 20.52, standard deviation = 2.57; mean body mass index = 23.29, standard deviation = 4.51). Weight stigmatization significantly mediated the relationships between body mass index and body dissatisfaction, body mass index and depressive symptoms, and childhood overweight and depressive symptoms. The model accounted for 44.7 percent of the variance in depressive symptoms and 28.2 percent of the variance in body image dissatisfaction. Findings indicated that a decrease in weight stigmatization may predict better mental health.

  1. Negative body experience in women with early childhood trauma : Associations with trauma severity and dissociation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers, Wilhelmina; Hoek, Maike; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Duijn, Marijtje A. J.; Schoevers, Robert A.; van Busschbach, Jooske T.

    2017-01-01

    Background:A crucial but often overlooked impact of early life exposure to trauma is its farreaching effect on a person's relationship with their body. Several domains of body experience may be negatively influenced or damaged as a result of early childhood trauma. Objective: The aim of this study

  2. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during...... childhood obesity treatment. METHODS: 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6-21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3-5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0......, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations. CONCLUSION: Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition...

  3. A genome-wide association study of body mass index across early life and childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Warrington, N.; Howe, L.; Paternoster, L; Kaakinen, M; Herrala, S; Huikari, V.; Wu, Y.; Kemp, J.; Timpson, N; St Pourcain, B; Smith, G.; Tilling, K; Jarvelin, M.; Pennell, C; Evans, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have investigated the effect of known adult body mass index (BMI) associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on BMI in childhood. There has been no genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BMI trajectories over childhood. Methods: We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of BMI trajectories from 1 to 17 years of age in 9377 children (77 967 measurements) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Ra...

  4. Development and validation of parenting measures for body image and eating patterns in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence-based parenting interventions are important in assisting parents to help their children develop healthy body image and eating patterns. To adequately assess the impact of parenting interventions, valid parent measures are required. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the validity and reliability of two new parent measures, the Parenting Intentions for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Parenting Intentions BEC) and the Knowledge Test for Body image an...

  5. Gender, stress in childhood and adulthood, and trajectories of change in body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Umberson, Debra

    2015-08-01

    Despite substantial evidence of the linkage between stress and weight change, previous studies have not considered how stress trajectories that begin in childhood and fluctuate throughout adulthood may work together to have long-term consequences for weight change. Working from a stress and life course perspective, we investigate the linkages between childhood stress, adulthood stress and trajectories of change in body mass (i.e., Body Mass Index, BMI) over time, with attention to possible gender variation in these processes. Data are drawn from a national longitudinal survey of the Americans' Changing Lives (N = 3617). Results from growth curve analyses suggest that both women and men who experienced higher levels of childhood stress also report higher levels of stress in adulthood. At the beginning of the study period, higher levels of adulthood stress are related to greater BMI for women but not men. Moreover, women who experienced higher levels of childhood stress gained weight more rapidly throughout the 15-year study period than did women who experienced less childhood stress, but neither childhood nor adulthood stress significantly modified men's BMI trajectories. These findings add to our understanding of how childhood stress-a more important driver of long-term BMI increase than adult stress-reverberates throughout the life course to foster cumulative disadvantage in body mass, and how such processes differ for men and women. Results highlight the importance of considering sex-specific social contexts of early childhood in order to design effective clinical programs that prevent or treat overweight and obesity later in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Childhood body size and associations with prostate and endometrial cancer risks and adult body size (Ph.D)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie

    2015-01-01

    barndommen en periode hvor mekanistiske undersøgelser af disse sammenhænge skal fokusere. Engelsk: Prostate and endometrial cardinogenesis is linked to early life body size, suggesting that these diseases have early origins. Even though these associations may operate through adult body size, it is not likely...... of later prostate and endometrial cancer, childhood may be the period of time that mechanistic investigations should focus on in their search for links between body size and the risk of these cancer forms....

  7. BODY IMAGE IN CHILDHOOD: AN INTEGRATIVE LITERATURE REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Clara Mockdece; Cipriani, Flávia Marcelle; Meireles, Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras; Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2017-01-01

    To analyse the scientific literature regarding the evaluation of body image in children through an integrative literature review. An intersection of the keywords "body image" AND "child" was conducted in Scopus, Medline and Virtual Health Library (BVS - Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde) databases. The electronic search was based on studies published from January 2013 to January 2016, in order to verify the most current investigations on the subject. Exclusion criteria were: articles in duplicate; no available summaries; not empirical; not assessing any component of body image; the sample did not consider the target age of this research (0 to 12 years old) and/or considered clinical populations; besides articles not fully available. 7,681 references were identified, and, after the exclusion criteria were implemented, 33 studies were analysed. Results showed that the perceptual and attitudinal dimensions focusing on body dissatisfaction were explored, mainly evaluated by silhouette scales. Intervention programs were developed internationally to prevent negative body image in children. The studies included in this review evaluated specific aspects of body image in children, especially body perception and body dissatisfaction. The creation of specific tools for children to evaluate body image is recommended to promote the psychosocial well being of individuals throughout human development.

  8. Exact and approximate multiple diffraction calculations. [Fixed-scatterer model, three-body problem, two-body amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Y.; Wallace, S.J.; Sparrow, D.A.

    1976-08-01

    A three-body potential scattering problem is solved in the fixed scatterer model exactly and approximately to test the validity of commonly used assumptions of multiple scattering calculations. The model problem involves two-body amplitudes that show diffraction-like differential scattering similar to high energy hadron-nucleon amplitudes. The exact fixed scatterer calculations are compared to Glauber approximation, eikonal-expansion results and a noneikonal approximation.

  9. Childhood body mass index and the risk of prostate cancer in adult men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI......, independently and adjusted for height, is positively associated with adult prostate cancer. METHODS: Subjects were a cohort of 125208 boys formed from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born 1930-1969 with height and weight measurements at 7-13 years. Cases were identified through linkage...... to the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 3355 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Body mass index during childhood was positively associated with adult prostate cancer. The hazard ratio of prostate cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1...

  10. Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new susceptibility loci for childhood body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felix, Janine F; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Monnereau, Claire

    2016-01-01

    A large number of genetic loci are associated with adult body mass index. However, the genetics of childhood body mass index are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of childhood body mass index, using sex- and age-adjusted standard deviation scores. We...... increased 0.04 Standard Deviation Score (SDS) (Standard Error (SE) 0.007), 0.05 SDS (SE 0.008) and 0.14 SDS (SE 0.025), for rs13253111, rs8092503, and rs13387838, respectively. A genetic risk score combining all 15 SNPs showed that each additional average risk allele was associated with a 0.073 SDS (SE 0....... These loci likely represent age-related differences in strength of the associations with body mass index....

  11. Changes in body composition after childhood cancer treatment : Impact on future health status - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, C. A. J.; Gietema, J. A.; Kamps, W. A.; de Vries, E. G. E.; Postma, A.

    Purpose: To describe data on changes in body composition in childhood cancer survivors. Underlying mechanisms in development of obesity are addressed, in order to discuss intervention strategies. Methods: A systematic literature search was undertaken with a number of search terms. Results: Female

  12. Nuchal Skinfold Thickness : A Novel Parameter for Assessment of Body Composition in Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterkenburg, Anthe S.; Hoffmann, Anika; Reichel, Julia; Lohle, Kristin; Eveslage, Maria; Warmuth-Metz, Monika; Mueller, Hermann L.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Hypothalamic obesity, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and relapse/progression have a major impact on prognosis in childhood-onset craniopharyngioma (CP). We analyzed nuchal skinfold thickness (NST) on magnetic resonance imaging performed for follow-up monitoring as a novel parameter for body

  13. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, HM; Geskus, Ronald B; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J H; Caron, Hubert N; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights.

  14. Body mass index trajectory classes and incident asthma in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rzehak, Peter; Wijga, Alet H; Keil, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The causal link between body mass index (BMI) or obesity and asthma in children is still being debated. Analyses of large longitudinal studies with a sufficient number of incident cases and in which the time-dependent processes of both excess weight and asthma development can be validly analyzed ...

  15. Childhood social circumstances and body mass index in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne-Mette; Lund, Rikke; Kriegbaum, Margit

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether father's social class was associated with body mass index (BMI) at age 20 and 50 years in a cohort of men born in 1953 and to explore the role of birth weight, cognitive function (IQ), and educational status in these relationships....

  16. Gender, Visible Bodies and Schooling: Cultural Pathologies of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paechter, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I consider two interrelated problems. The first concerns the issues and difficulties involved in studying how children think about their bodies, in the schooling setting. The second involves an attempt to bring together a series of phenomena around which gendered media and social panics are being constructed in the UK and elsewhere.…

  17. The contribution of physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence to adult women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of both past and current physical activity and media use on women's body image. A sample of 144 female undergraduate students completed measures of current physical activity, media use and body image, as well as providing retrospective reports of their physical activity participation and media usage during childhood and adolescence. Regression analyses showed that childhood experiences of physical activity and media use predicted adult body-image concerns more strongly than current activities. It was concluded that early experiences of both physical activity and media use during childhood and adolescence play an important role in the development of adult women's body image.

  18. Internet Impact on the Insertion of Genitourinary Tract Foreign Bodies in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenophon Sinopidis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body self-insertion into the urethra is an uncommon paraphilia. Variety in object form, motivation, clinical presentation, complications, and treatment options is a rule. In childhood it is very rare, and it is attributed to curiosity or mental disorders so far. However, the internet impact on daily life of all age groups has created a new category of sexual behavior in childhood and adolescence, the “internet induced paraphilia.” Such is the case of an electrical cable inserted in the urethra of a 12-year-old boy reported here, which is representative of this kind of impact.

  19. [Childhood body mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, L.W.; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2008-01-01

    The severity of the long term consequences of the current childhood obesity epidemic on coronary heart disease is unknown. Therefore we investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) at ages 7-13 years and heart disease in adulthood among 276,835 Danish schoolchildren. We found...... that higher BMI during this period of childhood is associated with an increased risk of any, non-fatal and fatal heart disease in adulthood. Worldwide, as children are becoming heavier, our findings suggest that greater numbers of children are at risk of having coronary heart disease in adulthood...

  20. Childhood Body Size and the Risk of Malignant Melanoma in Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyle, Kathrine D; Gamborg, Michael; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2017-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. Adult anthropometry influences MM development; however, associations between childhood body size and future melanomagenesis are largely unknown. We investigated whether height, body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2......), and body surface area (BSA) at ages 7-13 years and birth weight are associated with adult MM. Data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, containing annual height and weight measurements of 372,636 Danish children born in 1930-1989, were linked with the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox regression......, without any comparable influence of BMI or BSA. Melanoma transformation is unlikely to be due to height per se; however, height-regulating processes in childhood present new areas for mechanistic explorations of this disease....

  1. Birth weight, childhood body mass index and risk of coronary heart disease in adults: combined historical cohort studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lise Geisler; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Eriksson, Johan G

    2010-01-01

    Low birth weight and high childhood body mass index (BMI) is each associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in adult life. We studied individual and combined associations of birth weight and childhood BMI with the risk of CHD in adulthood.......Low birth weight and high childhood body mass index (BMI) is each associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in adult life. We studied individual and combined associations of birth weight and childhood BMI with the risk of CHD in adulthood....

  2. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria; Mollerup, Pernille Maria; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2018-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during childhood obesity treatment. 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6-21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3-5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0.4-7.4). Height and weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG)) were available in 469 individuals (264 girls). Linear regressions were performed to investigate the associations between BMI SDS, body composition indices, and lipid concentrations. At baseline, BMI SDS was negatively associated with concentrations of HDL (p = 6.7*10-4) and positively with TG (p = 9.7*10-6). Reductions in BMI SDS were associated with reductions in total body fat percentage (pSDS were associated with improvements in concentrations of TC, LDL, HDL, non-HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio, and TG (all p SDS, 61% improved their body composition, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations. Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition and lipid concentrations may improve.

  3. The relationship between childhood body weight and dental caries experience: an umbrella systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Susan J; Abuhaloob, Lamis; Richards, Derek; Hector, Mark P; Freeman, Ruth

    2017-10-25

    Obesity and dental caries are global public health problems which can impact in childhood and throughout the life course. In simple terms, childhood dental caries and body weight are linked via the common risk factor of diet. An association between dental caries and obesity has been described in a number of studies and reviews. However, similarly, a relationship has also been noted between low body weight and caries experience in children. This protocol will provide the framework for an umbrella review to address the following question: Does the available evidence support a relationship between dental caries experience and body weight in the child population? This review protocol outlines the process to carry out an umbrella systematic review which will synthesise previous reviews of childhood dental caries experience and body weight. An umbrella review methodology will be used to examine the methodological and reporting quality of existing reviews. The final umbrella review aims to aggregate the available evidence in order to provide a summary for policymakers and to inform healthcare interventions. PROSPERO CRD42016047304.

  4. Influence of genetic variants associated with body mass index on eating behavior in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnereau, Claire; Jansen, Pauline W; Tiemeier, Henning; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Felix, Janine F

    2017-04-01

    Childhood eating behaviors are associated with body mass index (BMI). Recent genome-wide association studies have identified many single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with adult and childhood BMI. This study hypothesized that these SNPs also influence eating behavior. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 3,031 children (mean age [standard deviation]: 4.0 [0.1] years), two weighted genetic risk scores, based on 15 childhood and 97 adult BMI SNPs, and ten individual appetite- and/or satiety-related SNPs were tested for association with food fussiness, food responsiveness, enjoyment of food, satiety responsiveness, and slowness in eating. The 15 SNP-based childhood BMI genetic risk score was not associated with the eating behavior subscales. The 97 SNP-based adult BMI genetic risk score was nominally associated with satiety responsiveness (β: -0.007 standard deviation, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.013, 0.000). Of the 10 individual SNPs, rs11030104 in BDNF and rs10733682 in LMX1B were nominally associated with satiety responsiveness (β: -0.057 standard deviation, 95% CI -0.112, -0.002). These findings do not strongly support the hypothesis that BMI-associated SNPs also influence eating behavior at this age. A potential role for BMI SNPs in satiety responsiveness during childhood was observed; however, no associations with the other eating behavior subscales were found. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  5. Childhood maltreatment, depressive symptoms, and body dissatisfaction in patients with binge eating disorder: the mediating role of self-criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2010-04-01

    We examined the mediating role of self-criticism in the relation between childhood maltreatment and both depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). Participants were 170 BED patients who completed measures of childhood maltreatment, self-criticism, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and body dissatisfaction. Specific forms of childhood maltreatment (emotional abuse, sexual abuse) were significantly associated with body dissatisfaction. Path analyses demonstrated that self-criticism fully mediated the relation between emotional abuse and both depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Specificity for the mediating role of self-criticism was demonstrated in comparison to other potential mediators (low self-esteem) and alternative competing mediation models. These results highlight self-criticism as a potential mechanism through which certain forms of childhood maltreatment may be associated with depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction in BED patients.

  6. Rigid Body Motion Calculated From Spatial Co-ordinates of Markers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we present a unified method for calculating spatial coordinates of markers for a rigid body motion such as in bones. Kinematical analysis of bone movement in cadaveric specimens or living objects had been developed. Here, we show how spatial co-ordinates of markers in or on bone can be calculated from ...

  7. Growth in Body Mass Index from Childhood into Adolescence: The Role of Sleep Duration and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Bagley, Erika J.; Keiley, Margaret K.; Erath, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relations between sleep and body mass index (BMI) from late childhood ([X-bar] age = 9.44 at T1) to early adolescence ([X-bar] age = 11.36 at T3) with a relatively large (n = 273 at T1) and diverse (35% African Americans) sample. Sleep was assessed with actigraphy-based sleep minutes and self-reported sleep…

  8. Association of childhood body mass index and change in body mass index with first adult ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjærde, Line K.; Gamborg, Michael; Ängquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The incidence of ischemic stroke among young adults is rising and is potentially due to an increase in stroke risk factors occurring at younger ages, such as obesity. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether childhood body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI are associated with adult ischemic...... of 0.5 from ages 7 to 13 years was positively associated with early ischemic stroke in women (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06-1.23) and in men (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.18). Adjusting for birth weight minimally affected the associations. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Independent of birth weight, above...

  9. Infant feeding and growth trajectory patterns in childhood and body composition in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzehak, Peter; Oddy, Wendy H; Mearin, M Luisa; Grote, Veit; Mori, Trevor A; Szajewska, Hania; Shamir, Raanan; Koletzko, Sibylle; Weber, Martina; Beilin, Lawrence J; Huang, Rae-Chi; Koletzko, Berthold

    2017-08-01

    Background: Growth patterns of breastfed and formula-fed infants may differ, with formula-fed infants growing more rapidly than breastfed infants into childhood and adulthood. Objective: Our objectives were to identify growth patterns and investigate early nutritional programming potential on growth patterns at 6 y and on body composition at 20 y. Design: The West Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study and 3 European cohort studies (European Childhood Obesity Trial, Norwegian Human Milk Study, and Prevention of Coeliac Disease) that collaborate in the European Union-funded Early Nutrition project combined, harmonized, and pooled data on full breastfeeding, anthropometry, and body composition. Latent growth mixture modeling was applied to identify growth patterns among the 6708 individual growth trajectories. The association of full breastfeeding for composition at 20 y among the identified trajectory classes were tested by analysis of variance. Results: Three body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) trajectory patterns were identified and labeled as follows-class 1: persistent, accelerating, rapid growth (5%); class 2: early, nonpersistent, rapid growth (40%); and class 3: normative growth (55%). A shorter duration of full breastfeeding for composition at 20 y ( P composition in young adulthood. Rapid-growth patterns in early childhood could be a mediating link between infant feeding and long-term obesity risk. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Methods for calculating phase angle from measured whole body bioimpedance modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbotten, Bernt J.; Martinsen, Ørjan G.; Grimnes, Sverre

    2010-04-01

    Assuming the Cole equation we have developed a method to calculate the Cole parameters (R0, R∞, α, τZ) and the phase angle from four frequency measurements of impedance modulus values. The values obtained compare well with impedance measurements obtained using the Solatron 1294/1260 as obtained when making whole body measurements on five persons. We have also performed calculations using an algorithm based on the Kramers-Kronig approach. The results which are presented show that it is possible to obtain complete body impedance data combining relatively simple measurements with advanced calculation using a laptop. This extends the potential of portable equipment, since the measurements will require less instrumentation.

  11. Postmortem Increase in Body Core Temperature: How Inaccurate We Can Be in Time Since Death Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtíšek, Tomáš; Kučerová, Štěpánka; Krajsa, Jan; Eren, Bülent; Vysočanová, Petra; Hejna, Petr

    2017-03-01

    Postmortem increase in body core temperature is a well-known phenomenon in forensic practice. Despite this, cases of reliably documented postmortem hyperthermia are rarely reported in the forensic literature, and it is still not clear how frequently postmortem hyperthermia occurs and in which cases we may it predict. In routine forensic practice, the standard course of body cooling is expected, and the prediction of normal body core temperature in the time of death is used for back-calculating the time of death by Henssge method. The unexpected rising in body core temperature may considerably misguide the estimation of time since death in the early postmortem period. We present a rare case of nonviolent death in the hospital with exactly recorded unusual elevation of body core temperature after death, although the body temperature shortly before the death was normal. In the presented case, the "standard" cooling of the body began up to 4 hours after death.

  12. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...... sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation....... Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...

  13. Psychosocial environment in childhood and body mass index growth over 32years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Hakulinen, Christian; Lehtimäki, Terho; Jokinen, Eero; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Mikkilä, Vera; Tossavainen, Päivi; Jula, Antti; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli; Juonala, Markus

    2017-04-01

    The psychosocial environment and especially various psychosocial risks in childhood have been shown to predict later negative health behavior and health problems. In this study, we examined whether various psychosocial factor domains in childhood and adolescence: socioeconomic status, the emotional family environment (parental nurturance, life-satisfaction), parental lifestyle, life-events, the child's self-regulatory behavior and the child's social adaptation were associated with body mass index (BMI) trajectories individually by domain and as a cumulative score across domains. The participants were a nationally representative sample of 2016 men and women from the Young Finns study aged 3-18years at study entry in 1980. Their BMI was measured at six study phases from 1980 to 2012. Their parents reported all the factors related to their psychosocial environment in 1980. The participants responded to questions on adulthood socioeconomic status in 2007. The accumulation of psychosocial factors in childhood was the main exposure variable. The findings from repeated measures multilevel modeling showed that parental lifestyle and life-events and the more positive cumulative psychosocial factors score were associated with a slower increase in BMI during follow-up (regression coefficient range from -0.06 to -0.50). In conclusion, the psychosocial environment in childhood and adolescence, particularly parental lifestyle and lack of stressful life-events, are associated with a lower increase of BMI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudy M.A. Wijnhoven

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively. School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children’s weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children’s BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%-95% of schools and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30-0.93. Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70 countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20-1.02, indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the

  15. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School nutrition environment and body mass index in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, Trudy M A; van Raaij, Joop M A; Sjöberg, Agneta; Eldin, Nazih; Yngve, Agneta; Kunešová, Marie; Starc, Gregor; Rito, Ana I; Duleva, Vesselka; Hassapidou, Maria; Martos, Eva; Pudule, Iveta; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Sant'Angelo, Victoria Farrugia; Hovengen, Ragnhild; Breda, João

    2014-10-30

    Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children's weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children's BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%-95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30-0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20-1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school nutrition environment score and the school BMI/A Z

  16. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, Trudy M.A.; van Raaij, Joop M.A.; Sjöberg, Agneta; Eldin, Nazih; Yngve, Agneta; Kunešová, Marie; Starc, Gregor; Rito, Ana I.; Duleva, Vesselka; Hassapidou, Maria; Martos, Éva; Pudule, Iveta; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Farrugia Sant’Angelo, Victoria; Hovengen, Ragnhild; Breda, João

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children’s weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children’s BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%−95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30−0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20−1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school

  17. Associations of prenatal and childhood antibiotic use with child body mass index at age 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Melissa N; Pollak, Jonathan; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Hirsch, Annemarie G; Glass, Thomas A; Schwartz, Brian S

    2017-02-01

    Early-life antibiotic exposure, whether through prenatal or childhood antibiotic use, may contribute to increased child body mass. Associations of prenatal and childhood antibiotic use with body mass index z-score (BMIz) were evaluated at age 3 years. Electronic health records were utilized from 8,793 mothers and singleton children delivered at Geisinger Clinic in Pennsylvania between 2006 and 2012. Antibiotic orders were ascertained for mothers during pregnancy and for children through their age-3 BMI measurement. Linear mixed-effects regression models evaluated associations of prenatal and childhood antibiotic use with child BMIz. Prenatal antibiotic orders were not associated with child BMIz. Children in the three largest categories of lifetime antibiotic orders had higher BMIz compared with children with no orders; associations persisted when controlling for prenatal antibiotics (β [95% confidence interval]) (4-5 child orders: 0.090 [0.011 to 0.170]; 6 to 8: 0.113 [0.029 to 0.197]; ≥9: 0.175 [0.088 to 0.263]; trend P value antibiotic use with increased child BMI highlight antibiotic exposure as a modifiable factor for reducing population-level excess weight. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  18. Association of Childhood Body Mass Index and Change in Body Mass Index With First Adult Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjærde, Line K; Gamborg, Michael; Ängquist, Lars; Truelsen, Thomas C; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2017-08-21

    The incidence of ischemic stroke among young adults is rising and is potentially due to an increase in stroke risk factors occurring at younger ages, such as obesity. To investigate whether childhood body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI are associated with adult ischemic stroke and to assess whether the associations are age dependent or influenced by birth weight. This investigation was a population-based cohort study of schoolchildren born from 1930 to 1987, with follow-up through national health registers from 1977 to 2012 in Denmark. Participants were 307 677 individuals (8899 ischemic stroke cases) with measured weight and height at ages 7 to 13 years. The dates of the analysis were September 1, 2015, to May 27, 2016. Childhood BMI, change in BMI, and birth weight. Ischemic stroke events were divided into early (≤55 years) or late (>55 years) age at diagnosis. The study cohort comprised 307 677 participants (approximately 49% female and 51% male). During the study period, 3529 women and 5370 men experienced an ischemic stroke. At all ages from 7 to 13 years, an above-average BMI z score was positively associated with early ischemic stroke. At age 13 years, a BMI z score of 1 was associated with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.11-1.43) in women and 1.21 (95% CI, 1.10-1.33) in men. No significant associations were found for below-average BMI z scores. Among children with above-average BMI z scores at age 7 years, a score increase of 0.5 from ages 7 to 13 years was positively associated with early ischemic stroke in women (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.20) and in men (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00-1.16). Similarly, among children with below-average BMI z scores at age 7 years, a score increase of 0.5 from ages 7 to 13 years was positively associated with early ischemic stroke in women (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06-1.23) and in men (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.18). Adjusting for birth weight minimally affected the associations. Independent of birth weight, above

  19. The Relationship of Severe Early Childhood Caries and Body Mass Index in a Group of 3- to 6-year-old Children in Shiraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edalat, A; Abbaszadeh, M; Eesvandi, M; Heidari, A

    2014-06-01

    Early childhood caries can cause pain, discomfort and also inability to have a healthy nutrition .Malnutrition can be characterized when there is a weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) deficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the severe early childhood caries (based on the dmft index) and BMI in pre-school children in Shiraz. A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was enrolled on 202 healthy preschool children with the age range of 3-6 years recruited from the kindergartens of different socio- economical parts of Shiraz, Iran. The Anthropometric measurements, weight and height were evaluated. The Z-scores were calculated employing WHO Anthro software (www.who.int/childgrowth/software/en/ index.html) to elucidate the subject's status on the age- and sex-specific growth chart. Every Child who has received two Z-scores under the normal value (children with severe early childhood caries, 12.5%were under weight, 5% had height deficiency and 19.5% had BMI deficiency, however, there was no significant relationship between increasing dmft and the height, weight and BMI deficiency. There was not a linear correlation between severe early childhood caries and BMI, height, and weight deficiency. An incidence of 55% was yielded for severe early childhood caries which was an additional finding of this study.

  20. Association of a body mass index genetic risk score with growth throughout childhood and adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Warrington

    Full Text Available While the number of established genetic variants associated with adult body mass index (BMI is growing, the relationships between these variants and growth during childhood are yet to be fully characterised. We examined the association between validated adult BMI associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and growth trajectories across childhood. We investigated the timing of onset of the genetic effect and whether it was sex specific.Children from the ALSPAC and Raine birth cohorts were used for analysis (n = 9,328. Genotype data from 32 adult BMI associated SNPs were investigated individually and as an allelic score. Linear mixed effects models with smoothing splines were used for longitudinal modelling of the growth parameters and measures of adiposity peak and rebound were derived.The allelic score was associated with BMI growth throughout childhood, explaining 0.58% of the total variance in BMI in females and 0.44% in males. The allelic score was associated with higher BMI at the adiposity peak (females  =  0.0163 kg/m(2 per allele, males  =  0.0123 kg/m(2 per allele and earlier age (-0.0362 years per allele in males and females and higher BMI (0.0332 kg/m(2 per allele in females and 0.0364 kg/m(2 per allele in males at the adiposity rebound. No gene:sex interactions were detected for BMI growth.This study suggests that known adult genetic determinants of BMI have observable effects on growth from early childhood, and is consistent with the hypothesis that genetic determinants of adult susceptibility to obesity act from early childhood and develop over the life course.

  1. Association of a Body Mass Index Genetic Risk Score with Growth throughout Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan Yan; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Tilling, Kate; Pennell, Craig E.; Newnham, John; Davey-Smith, George; Palmer, Lyle J.; Beilin, Lawrence J.; Lye, Stephen J.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Briollais, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Background While the number of established genetic variants associated with adult body mass index (BMI) is growing, the relationships between these variants and growth during childhood are yet to be fully characterised. We examined the association between validated adult BMI associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and growth trajectories across childhood. We investigated the timing of onset of the genetic effect and whether it was sex specific. Methods Children from the ALSPAC and Raine birth cohorts were used for analysis (n = 9,328). Genotype data from 32 adult BMI associated SNPs were investigated individually and as an allelic score. Linear mixed effects models with smoothing splines were used for longitudinal modelling of the growth parameters and measures of adiposity peak and rebound were derived. Results The allelic score was associated with BMI growth throughout childhood, explaining 0.58% of the total variance in BMI in females and 0.44% in males. The allelic score was associated with higher BMI at the adiposity peak (females  =  0.0163 kg/m2 per allele, males  =  0.0123 kg/m2 per allele) and earlier age (-0.0362 years per allele in males and females) and higher BMI (0.0332 kg/m2 per allele in females and 0.0364 kg/m2 per allele in males) at the adiposity rebound. No gene:sex interactions were detected for BMI growth. Conclusions This study suggests that known adult genetic determinants of BMI have observable effects on growth from early childhood, and is consistent with the hypothesis that genetic determinants of adult susceptibility to obesity act from early childhood and develop over the life course. PMID:24244521

  2. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraro, Ana Paula; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo E; Sichieri, Rosely

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI) from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old) from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405). Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2%) also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59), 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking.

  3. Effect of the exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood on the body mass index until adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Muraro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Investigate the effect of exposure to smoking during pregnancy and early childhood on changes in the body mass index (BMI from birth to adolescence. METHODS A population-based cohort of children (0-5 years old from Cuiabá, Midwest Brazil, was assessed in 1999-2000 (n = 2,405. Between 2009 and 2011, the cohort was re-evaluated. Information about birth weight was obtained from medical records, and exposure to smoking during pregnancy and childhood was assessed at the first interview. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy and preschool age, and the body mass index of children at birth, childhood and adolescence. RESULTS Only 11.3% of the mothers reported smoking during pregnancy, but most of them (78.2% also smoked during early childhood. Among mothers who smoked only during pregnancy (n = 59, 97.7% had smoked only in the first trimester. The changes in body mass index at birth and in childhood were similar for children exposed and those not exposed to maternal smoking. However, from childhood to adolescence the rate of change in the body mass index was higher among those exposed only during pregnancy than among those who were not exposed. CONCLUSIONS Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, especially in the first trimester, seems to affect changes in the body mass index until adolescence, supporting guidelines that recommend women of childbearing age to stop smoking.

  4. Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations on Au64+ - Au69+ ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2006-03-31

    Many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) calculations are an adequate tool for the description of the structure of highly charged multi-electron ions and for the analysis of their spectra. They demonstrate this by way of a re-investigation of n=3, {Delta}n=0 transitions in the EUV spectra of Na-, Mg-, Al-like, and Si-like ions of Au that have been obtained previously by heavy-ion accelerator based beam-foil spectroscopy. They discuss the evidence and propose several revisions on the basis of the multi-reference many-body perturbation theory calculations of Ne- through P-like ions of Au.

  5. Evaluation of modified multicompartment models to calculate body composition in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, A H; Johansson, A G; Sjödin, A; Bryding, G; Ljunghall, S; Hambraeus, L

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop flexible and accurate multicompartment equations to calculate body composition and compare the results with methods using common two-compartment equations. Twenty-two healthy male volunteers 22-59 y of age were studied. Body volume was measured by underwater weighing (UWW) or with a skinfold caliper, bone mineral by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and body water by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The percentage of water and bone mineral in fat-free mass (FFM) had a significant effect on the difference in percentage fat obtained by the two-compartment model compared with a four-compartment model. FFM density was negatively (r = -0.76, P water in FFM was positively correlated with age (r = 0.75, P body fat correlated significantly with the more complex four-compartment model (UWW + BIA + DXA; r = 0.95, P body content of bone mineral and water.

  6. Body fat distribution in childhood obesity: association with metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiz, Serap; Ozgoren, Ercin; Sabir, Nuran; Semiz, Ender

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of body fat distribution in childhood obesity, we investigated the associations of subcutaneous and intraabdominal (preperitoneal and visceral) fat, estimated by ultrasonography, with metabolic risk factors. Fifty-one obese (age 11.5+/- 2.6 years) and 33 non-obese (age 12.2+/- 2.7 years) children. Case control study. Ultrasonographic measurements of fat thickness [maximum and minimum preperitoneal fat thicknesses (Pmax, Pmin), maximum and minimum subcutaneous fat thicknesses (Smax, Smin), visceral fat thickness (V), triceps (Tr) and subscapular (Ss) skin fold thicknesses] were documented. Blood pressures, lipid profiles, fasting insulin levels, glucose/insulin ratio and HOMA IR (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance) were evaluated in both groups and these parameters were correlated with body fat distribution. In the obese group, fasting insulin level was correlated to Smin, Smax, and Pmin. HOMA, accordingly, was also correlated to Smin, Smax, and Pmin. Fasting insulin level and HOMA showed no correlation with either Pmax or visceral fat thickness. Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measurements were the best predictors of hyperinsulinemia (R2: 0.32). We did not observe a significant correlation between blood pressure, lipid parameters and body fat distribution in obese group. Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness might be a better predictor of the risk for hyperinsulinemia in childhood obesity.

  7. Novel Anthropometry-Based Calculation of the Body Heat Capacity in the Korean Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Duc Pham

    Full Text Available Heat capacity (HC has an important role in the temperature regulation process, particularly in dealing with the heat load. The actual measurement of the body HC is complicated and is generally estimated by body-composition-specific data. This study compared the previously known HC estimating equations and sought how to define HC using simple anthropometric indices such as weight and body surface area (BSA in the Korean population. Six hundred participants were randomly selected from a pool of 902 healthy volunteers aged 20 to 70 years for the training set. The remaining 302 participants were used for the test set. Body composition analysis using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to access body components including body fat, water, protein, and mineral mass. Four different HCs were calculated and compared using a weight-based HC (HC_Eq1, two HCs estimated from fat and fat-free mass (HC_Eq2 and HC_Eq3, and an HC calculated from fat, protein, water, and mineral mass (HC_Eq4. HC_Eq1 generally produced a larger HC than the other HC equations and had a poorer correlation with the other HC equations. HC equations using body composition data were well-correlated to each other. If HC estimated with HC_Eq4 was regarded as a standard, interestingly, the BSA and weight independently contributed to the variation of HC. The model composed of weight, BSA, and gender was able to predict more than a 99% variation of HC_Eq4. Validation analysis on the test set showed a very high satisfactory level of the predictive model. In conclusion, our results suggest that gender, BSA, and weight are the independent factors for calculating HC. For the first time, a predictive equation based on anthropometry data was developed and this equation could be useful for estimating HC in the general Korean population without body-composition measurement.

  8. Childhood body mass index and height and risk of histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J.; Gamborg, M.; Ulrich, L. G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer risk factors include adult obesity and taller stature, but the influence of size earlier in life is incompletely understood. We examined whether childhood body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) and height were associated with histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer....... METHODS: From the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, 155 505 girls born 1930-1989 with measured weights and heights from 7 to 13 years were linked to health registers. BMI and height were transformed to age-specific z-scores. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by Cox...

  9. Optimizing dose prescription in stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung tumours using Monte Carlo dose calculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widder, Joachim; Hollander, Miranda; Ubbels, Jan F.; Bolt, Rene A.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    Purpose: To define a method of dose prescription employing Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumours aiming at a dose as low as possible outside of the PTV. Methods and materials: Six typical T1 lung tumours - three small, three large - were

  10. Calculation of Water Drop Trajectories to and About Arbitrary Three-Dimensional Bodies in Potential Airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norment, H. G.

    1980-01-01

    Calculations can be performed for any atmospheric conditions and for all water drop sizes, from the smallest cloud droplet to large raindrops. Any subsonic, external, non-lifting flow can be accommodated; flow into, but not through, inlets also can be simulated. Experimental water drop drag relations are used in the water drop equations of motion and effects of gravity settling are included. Seven codes are described: (1) a code used to debug and plot body surface description data; (2) a code that processes the body surface data to yield the potential flow field; (3) a code that computes flow velocities at arrays of points in space; (4) a code that computes water drop trajectories from an array of points in space; (5) a code that computes water drop trajectories and fluxes to arbitrary target points; (6) a code that computes water drop trajectories tangent to the body; and (7) a code that produces stereo pair plots which include both the body and trajectories. Code descriptions include operating instructions, card inputs and printouts for example problems, and listing of the FORTRAN codes. Accuracy of the calculations is discussed, and trajectory calculation results are compared with prior calculations and with experimental data.

  11. [Effect of genetic polymorphisms on change in body mass index and obesity status during childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M X; Cheng, H; Zhao, X Y; Wu, L J; Yan, Y K; Mi, J

    2017-07-06

    Objective: The present study aimed to prospectively validate whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in obesity-related genes were associated with change in body mass index (BMI) and obesity status during childhood. Methods: Based on the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome study (BCAMS), which was initiated between April and October in 2004, we conducted a follow-up study among 1 624 children aged 6 to 11 years old with genetic data in December 2010. A total of 777 children (246 obese and 531 non-obese) were reassessed for BMI. Z -score of BMI was used to standardize for age and sex. The changes in BMI Z -score during follow up were calcnlated SNPs were genotyped by quantitative Real-time PCR (rs9939609, rs6499640, rs7138803, rs1805081, rs17782313, rs6265, rs10938397, rs6235, rs29941, rs2844479, rs10913469 and rs4788102). Overweight and obesity were diagnosed by the age-and sex-specific BMI cutoffs recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. A multilocus genetic risk score for BMI was calculated as the simple sum of alleles of all the SNPs associated with BMI. Linear regression models and logistic regression models were performed to assess the associations of change in BMI Z-score and obese status with genotypes (assuming an additive model), respectively. Results: During 6 years of follow-up, 158 previously obese children remained obese as they aged into adolescence, and 88 transiently obese children were not obese during the second survey, 58 children were newly identified obese, and the other 473 children remained their non-obese state. BMI Z-score increased from 1.41±0.05 at baseline to 1.57±0.06 at follow up.The genotypes of the SNPs except rs6499640( P =0.033) and rs6265( P =0.041) were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in each group ( P> 0.05). Each additional copy of the rs9939609 A allele was significantly associated with an increase in BMI Z-score (β=0.205, P= 0.014) during follow up. Per C allele of rs17782313 was associated

  12. Calculation of Pressure Distribution at Rotary Body Surface with the Vortex Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Dergachev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vortex element method allows to simulate unsteady hydrodynamic processes in incompressible environment, taking into account the evolution of the vortex sheet, including taking into account the deformation or moving of the body or part of construction.For the calculation of the hydrodynamic characteristics of the method based on vortex element software package was developed MVE3D. Vortex element (VE in program is symmetrical Vorton-cut. For satisfying the boundary conditions at the surface used closed frame of vortons.With this software system modeled incompressible flow around a cylindrical body protection elongation L / D = 13 with a front spherical blunt with the angle of attack of 10 °. We analyzed the distribution of the pressure coefficient on the body surface of the top and bottom forming.The calculate results were compared with known Results of experiment.Considered design schemes with different number of Vorton framework. Also varied radius of VE. Calculation make possible to establish the degree of sampling surface needed to produce close to experiment results. It has been shown that an adequate reproducing the pressure distribution in the transition region spherical cylindrical surface, on the windward side requires a high degree of sampling.Based on these results Can be possible need to improve on the design scheme of body's surface, allowing more accurate to describe the flow vorticity in areas with abrupt changes of geometry streamlined body.

  13. Changes in childhood food consumption patterns: a cause for concern in light of increasing body weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Keller, Kathleen L; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2003-12-01

    Childhood obesity is currently at its highest: recent statistics show that 16% of children between the ages of 6 and 11 y are overweight [> or =95th percentile of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) for age] and that an additional 14.3% are at risk of becoming overweight (> or =85th percentile but foods and soft drinks. The proportion of foods that children consumed from restaurants and fast food outlets increased by nearly 300% between 1977 and 1996. Children's soft drink consumption has also increased during those years, and now soft drinks provide soft drink consumers 188 kcal/d beyond the energy intake of nonconsumers. These changes in food intakes among children may partly explain the rise in childhood obesity observed in the past few years. Although the mechanism of appetite regulation will not be explored in this report, it is hypothesized that the greater energy intakes in children who consume large amounts of soft drinks and fast foods are not compensated for by increased physical activity or decreased energy intakes. Furthermore, overweight and obesity in childhood may predispose persons to morbidity in adulthood. Blood pressure and fasting insulin and cholesterol concentrations are higher in overweight children than in normal-weight children. This review focuses on current food patterns and eating habits of children, in an attempt to explain their increasing BMI. In addition, a critical review of food service and political practices regarding food choices for children at school is included.

  14. A Prospective Examination of the Mechanisms Linking Childhood Physical Abuse to Body Mass Index in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Melville M; Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has reported associations between childhood physical abuse and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood. This article examined the role of four potential mediators (anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and coping) hypothesized to explain this relationship. Using data from a prospective cohort design, court-substantiated cases of childhood physical abuse (N = 78) and nonmaltreated comparisons (N = 349) were followed up and assessed in adulthood at three time points (1989-1995, 2000-2002, and 2003-2005) when participants were of age 29.2, 39.5, and 41.2, respectively. At age 41, average BMI of the current sample was 29.97, falling between overweight and obese categories. Meditation analyses were conducted, controlling for age, sex, race, smoking, and self-reported weight. Childhood physical abuse was positively associated with subsequent generalized anxiety, major depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms at age 29.2 and higher levels of depression and posttraumatic stress predicted higher BMI at age 41.2. In contrast, higher levels of anxiety predicted lower BMI. Coping did not mediate between physical abuse and BMI. Anxiety symptoms mediated the relationship between physical abuse and BMI for women, but not for men. These findings illustrate the complexity of studying the consequences of physical abuse, particularly the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and adult health outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. DNA methylation patterns in cord blood DNA and body size in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L Relton

    Full Text Available Epigenetic markings acquired in early life may have phenotypic consequences later in development through their role in transcriptional regulation with relevance to the developmental origins of diseases including obesity. The goal of this study was to investigate whether DNA methylation levels at birth are associated with body size later in childhood.A study design involving two birth cohorts was used to conduct transcription profiling followed by DNA methylation analysis in peripheral blood. Gene expression analysis was undertaken in 24 individuals whose biological samples and clinical data were collected at a mean ± standard deviation (SD age of 12.35 (0.95 years, the upper and lower tertiles of body mass index (BMI were compared with a mean (SD BMI difference of 9.86 (2.37 kg/m(2. This generated a panel of differentially expressed genes for DNA methylation analysis which was then undertaken in cord blood DNA in 178 individuals with body composition data prospectively collected at a mean (SD age of 9.83 (0.23 years. Twenty-nine differentially expressed genes (>1.2-fold and p<10(-4 were analysed to determine DNA methylation levels at 1-3 sites per gene. Five genes were unmethylated and DNA methylation in the remaining 24 genes was analysed using linear regression with bootstrapping. Methylation in 9 of the 24 (37.5% genes studied was associated with at least one index of body composition (BMI, fat mass, lean mass, height at age 9 years, although only one of these associations remained after correction for multiple testing (ALPL with height, p(Corrected = 0.017.DNA methylation patterns in cord blood show some association with altered gene expression, body size and composition in childhood. The observed relationship is correlative and despite suggestion of a mechanistic epigenetic link between in utero life and later phenotype, further investigation is required to establish causality.

  16. Four-body continuum-discretized coupled-channels calculations applied to {sup 6}He reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Gallardo, M. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Estructura de la Materia; Arias, J.M.; Gomez-Camacho, J.M.; Moro, A.M. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear; Thompson, I.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Physical Science Directorate; Tostevin, J.A. [University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    2010-07-01

    Full text. The scattering of a weakly bound three-body system by a target is discussed. The continuum-discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) framework, recently extended to four-body reactions (three-body projectile plus target), is used for the scattering calculations. Two different methods are used to discretized the three-body continuum of the projectile. In the first case, we make use of a Pseudo-State (PS) method in which the states of the projectile are represented by the eigenstates of its internal Hamiltonian in a truncated basis of square-integrable functions. In particular, we use the transformed harmonic oscillator (THO) method, in which the PS basis is obtained by applying a local scale transformation to the Harmonic Oscillator basis. In the second case, we applied the binning procedure that has just been extended to three-body projectiles. This discretization method requires to calculate first the true continuum of the projectile and then this continuum is discretized making bins or packages of energy. This has been the method used for many years in standard three-body (two-body projectile plus target) CDCC calculations. Its extension to three-body projectiles uses the eigenchannel expansion of the three-body S-matrix. We applied this formalism to several reactions induced by the Borromean nucleus {sup 6}He at different energies, namely {sup 6}He+{sup 9}Be at 16.2 MeV, {sup 6}He+{sup 64}Zn at 13.6 MeV, {sup 6}He+{sup 120}Sn at 17.4 MeV, and {sup 6}He+{sup 208}Pb at 22 MeV. Four-body CDCC calculations for elastic and breakup observables are presented for these reactions comparing both discretization methods, THO and binning. The effect of the mass of the target, which is clearly related to the influence of Coulomb couplings, is investigated. The elastic cross sections are also compared to existing experimental data. (author)

  17. A genome-wide association study of body mass index across early life and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Nicole M; Howe, Laura D; Paternoster, Lavinia; Kaakinen, Marika; Herrala, Sauli; Huikari, Ville; Wu, Yan Yan; Kemp, John P; Timpson, Nicholas J; St Pourcain, Beate; Davey Smith, George; Tilling, Kate; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Pennell, Craig E; Evans, David M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Briollais, Laurent; Palmer, Lyle J

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have investigated the effect of known adult body mass index (BMI) associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on BMI in childhood. There has been no genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BMI trajectories over childhood. We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of BMI trajectories from 1 to 17 years of age in 9377 children (77,967 measurements) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Genome-wide significant loci were examined in a further 3918 individuals (48,530 measurements) from Northern Finland. Linear mixed effects models with smoothing splines were used in each cohort for longitudinal modelling of BMI. A novel SNP, downstream from the FAM120AOS gene on chromosome 9, was detected in the meta-analysis of ALSPAC and Raine. This association was driven by a difference in BMI at 8 years (T allele of rs944990 increased BMI; PSNP = 1.52 × 10(-8)), with a modest association with change in BMI over time (PWald(Change) = 0.006). Three known adult BMI-associated loci (FTO, MC4R and ADCY3) and one childhood obesity locus (OLFM4) reached genome-wide significance (PWald < 1.13 × 10(-8)) with BMI at 8 years and/or change over time. This GWAS of BMI trajectories over childhood identified a novel locus that warrants further investigation. We also observed genome-wide significance with previously established obesity loci, making the novel observation that these loci affected both the level and the rate of change in BMI. We have demonstrated that the use of repeated measures data can increase power to allow detection of genetic loci with smaller sample sizes. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  18. Active video gaming improves body coordination in survivors of childhood brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabel, M.; Sjölund, A.; Broeren, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether active video gaming (AVG) could bring about regular, enjoyable, physical exercise in children treated for brain tumours, what level of physical activity could be reached and if the children’s physical functioning improved. Methods: Thirteen children, aged 7–17 years...... survivors, home-based AVG, supported by a coach, was a feasible, enjoyable and moderately intense form of exercise that improved Body Coordination.Implications for Rehabilitation Childhood brain tumour survivors frequently have cognitive problems, inferior physical functioning and are less physically active...... compared to their healthy peers. Active video gaming (AVG), supported by Internet coaching, is a feasible home-based intervention in children treated for brain tumours, promoting enjoyable, regular physical exercise of moderate intensity. In this pilot study, AVG with Nintendo Wii improved Body...

  19. Self-Concept in Childhood: The Role of Body Image and Sport Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Mendo-Lázaro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in satisfaction with body image depending on whether the subject practices organized sport or not, as well as the gender of the children. In addition, the study aims to examine the role of body image and the practice of organized sport on the process of building the academic, social, emotional, family and physical dimensions of self-concept in childhood. To do so, a sample of 944 pupils was used. These children were attending primary school in different centers of the Autonomous Community of Extremadura (Spain and were between 9 and 12 years of age. The main results of the study show that three out of every four children participating in this study were not satisfied with their figure and one out of every five was very dissatisfied. The satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the figure was similar in boys and girls, although it could be appreciated that the ideal body image is partly conditioned by gender stereotypes. The children most satisfied with their body image had a greater academic and physical self-concept. The children that practiced organized sports had a greater physical and emotional self-concept. The children most dissatisfied with their body image and practiced organized sports had a lower family self-concept. All these findings are discussed with reference to previous research literature.

  20. Self-Concept in Childhood: The Role of Body Image and Sport Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendo-Lázaro, Santiago; Polo-del-Río, María I.; Amado-Alonso, Diana; Iglesias-Gallego, Damián; León-del-Barco, Benito

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in satisfaction with body image depending on whether the subject practices organized sport or not, as well as the gender of the children. In addition, the study aims to examine the role of body image and the practice of organized sport on the process of building the academic, social, emotional, family and physical dimensions of self-concept in childhood. To do so, a sample of 944 pupils was used. These children were attending primary school in different centers of the Autonomous Community of Extremadura (Spain) and were between 9 and 12 years of age. The main results of the study show that three out of every four children participating in this study were not satisfied with their figure and one out of every five was very dissatisfied. The satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the figure was similar in boys and girls, although it could be appreciated that the ideal body image is partly conditioned by gender stereotypes. The children most satisfied with their body image had a greater academic and physical self-concept. The children that practiced organized sports had a greater physical and emotional self-concept. The children most dissatisfied with their body image and practiced organized sports had a lower family self-concept. All these findings are discussed with reference to previous research literature. PMID:28596750

  1. Self-Concept in Childhood: The Role of Body Image and Sport Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendo-Lázaro, Santiago; Polo-Del-Río, María I; Amado-Alonso, Diana; Iglesias-Gallego, Damián; León-Del-Barco, Benito

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in satisfaction with body image depending on whether the subject practices organized sport or not, as well as the gender of the children. In addition, the study aims to examine the role of body image and the practice of organized sport on the process of building the academic, social, emotional, family and physical dimensions of self-concept in childhood. To do so, a sample of 944 pupils was used. These children were attending primary school in different centers of the Autonomous Community of Extremadura (Spain) and were between 9 and 12 years of age. The main results of the study show that three out of every four children participating in this study were not satisfied with their figure and one out of every five was very dissatisfied. The satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the figure was similar in boys and girls, although it could be appreciated that the ideal body image is partly conditioned by gender stereotypes. The children most satisfied with their body image had a greater academic and physical self-concept. The children that practiced organized sports had a greater physical and emotional self-concept. The children most dissatisfied with their body image and practiced organized sports had a lower family self-concept. All these findings are discussed with reference to previous research literature.

  2. A semi-empirical method for calculating the pitching moment of bodies of revolution at low Mach numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Edward J

    1951-01-01

    A semiempirical method, in which potential theory is arbitrarily combined with an approximate viscous theory, for calculating the aerodynamic pitching moments for bodies of revolution is presented. The method can also be used for calculating the lift and drag forces. The calculated and experimental force and moment characteristics of 15 bodies of revolution are compared.

  3. The development of bodily self-consciousness: changing responses to the Full Body Illusion in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Dorothy; McKenna, Aisling; Bremner, Andrew J; Aspell, Jane E

    2017-03-22

    The present work investigates the development of bodily self-consciousness and its relation to multisensory bodily information, by measuring for the first time the development of responses to the full body illusion in childhood. We tested three age groups of children: 6- to 7-year-olds (n = 28); 8- to 9-year-olds (n = 21); 10- to 11-year-olds (n = 19), and a group of adults (n = 31). Each participant wore a head-mounted display (HMD) which displayed a view from a video camera positioned 2 metres behind their own back. Thus, they could view a virtual body from behind. We manipulated visuo-tactile synchrony by showing the participants a view of their virtual back being stroked with a stick at the same time and same place as their real back (synchronous condition), or at different times and places (asynchronous condition). After each period of stroking, we measured three aspects of bodily self-consciousness: drift in perceived self-location, self-identification with the virtual body, and touch referral to the virtual body. Results show that self-identification with the virtual body was significantly stronger in the synchronous condition than in the asynchronous condition even in the youngest group tested; however, the size of this effect increased with age. Touch referral to the virtual body was greater in the synchronous condition than in the asynchronous condition only for 10- to 11-year-olds and adults. Drift in perceived self-location was greater in the synchronous condition than in the asynchronous condition only for adults. Thus, the youngest age tested can self-identify with a virtual body, but the links between multisensory signals and bodily self-consciousness develop significantly across childhood. This suggests a long period of development of the bodily self and exciting potential for the use of virtual reality technologies with children. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Development and validation of parenting measures for body image and eating patterns in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based parenting interventions are important in assisting parents to help their children develop healthy body image and eating patterns. To adequately assess the impact of parenting interventions, valid parent measures are required. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the validity and reliability of two new parent measures, the Parenting Intentions for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Parenting Intentions BEC) and the Knowledge Test for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Knowledge Test BEC). Participants were 27 professionals working in research or clinical treatment of body dissatisfaction or eating disorders, and 75 parents of children aged 2-6 years, who completed the measures via an online questionnaire. Seven scenarios were developed for the Parenting Intentions BEC to describe common experiences about the body and food that parents might need to respond to in front of their child. Parents ranked four behavioural intentions, derived from the current literature on parenting risk factors for body dissatisfaction and unhealthy eating patterns in children. Two subscales were created, one representing positive behavioural intentions, the other negative behavioural intentions. After piloting a larger pool of items, 13 statements were used to construct the Knowledge Test BEC. These were designed to be factual statements about the influence of parent language, media, family meals, healthy eating, and self-esteem on child eating and body image. The validity of both measures was tested by comparing parent and professional scores, and reliability was assessed by comparing parent scores over two testing occasions. Compared with parents, professionals reported significantly higher scores on the Positive Intentions subscale and significantly lower on the Negative Intentions subscale of the Parenting Intentions BEC; confirming the discriminant validity of six out of the seven scenarios. Test-retest reliability was also confirmed as

  5. Externalizing behavior in early childhood and body mass index from age 2 to 12 years: longitudinal analyses of a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoppe-Sullivan Sarah

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some evidence suggests that obesity and behavior problems are related in children, but studies have been conflicting and have rarely included children under age 4. An association between behavior problems in early childhood and risk for obesity could suggest that a common set of factors contribute to both. Our research objectives were to determine the extent to which externalizing behavior in early childhood is related to body mass index (BMI in early childhood and through age 12, and to evaluate whether these associations differ by sex and race. Methods Data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were analyzed. Externalizing behaviors at 24 months were assessed by mothers using the Child Behavior Checklist. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight assessed 7 times between age 2 and 12 years. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess associations between 24 month externalizing behavior and BMI from 2 to 12 years, calculate predicted differences in BMI, and evaluate effect modification. Results Externalizing behavior at 24 months was associated with a higher BMI at 24 months and through age 12. Results from a linear mixed effects model, controlling for confounding variables and internalizing behavior, predicted a difference in BMI of approximately 3/4 of a unit at 24 months of age comparing children with high levels of externalizing behavior to children with low levels of externalizing behavior. There was some evidence of effect modification by race; among white children, the average BMI difference remained stable through age 12, but it doubled to 1.5 BMI units among children who were black or another race. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that externalizing behaviors in early childhood are associated with children's weight status early in childhood and throughout the elementary school years, though the magnitude of the effect is modest.

  6. The 2003 update of antiproton mass by precision three-body calculation of antiprotonic helium atom

    CERN Document Server

    Kino, Y; Kudo, H

    2004-01-01

    The Particle Listings 2000 edition gave the recommended value of antiproton mass, for the first time, to be within 5 * 10/sup -7/ in the relative deviation from the proton mass; this can be a test of the CPT invariance. The value was derived by our precision 3-body calculation, using the Gaussian expansion method, to analyze the laser spectroscopy data of metastable states in antiprotonic helium atoms taken at CERN. The 2002 edition and the 2003 updated version reported an one-order smaller value, 6 * 10/sup -8/, based on further development of both the experiment and our calculation.

  7. Speeding up N-body Calculations on Machines without Hardware Square Root

    OpenAIRE

    Alan H. Karp

    1992-01-01

    The most time consuming part of an N-body simulation is computing the components of the accelerations of the particles. On most machines the slowest part of computing the acceleration is in evaluating r-3/2, which is especially true on machines that do the square root in software. This note shows how to cut the time for this part of the calculation by a factor of 3 or more using standard Fortran.

  8. Speeding up N-body Calculations on Machines without Hardware Square Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H. Karp

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The most time consuming part of an N-body simulation is computing the components of the accelerations of the particles. On most machines the slowest part of computing the acceleration is in evaluating r-3/2, which is especially true on machines that do the square root in software. This note shows how to cut the time for this part of the calculation by a factor of 3 or more using standard Fortran.

  9. Dose calculation method with 60-cobalt gamma rays in total body irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Scaff, L A M

    2001-01-01

    Physical factors associated to total body irradiation using sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma rays beams, were studied in order to develop a calculation method of the dose distribution that could be reproduced in any radiotherapy center with good precision. The method is based on considering total body irradiation as a large and irregular field with heterogeneities. To calculate doses, or doses rates, of each area of interest (head, thorax, thigh, etc.), scattered radiation is determined. It was observed that if dismagnified fields were considered to calculate the scattered radiation, the resulting values could be applied on a projection to the real size to obtain the values for dose rate calculations. In a parallel work it was determined the variation of the dose rate in the air, for the distance of treatment, and for points out of the central axis. This confirm that the use of the inverse square law is not valid. An attenuation curve for a broad beam was also determined in order to allow the use of absorbers. In this wo...

  10. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher body mass index in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether different types of childhood adversity are associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, we studied 147 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 41% of whom reported exposure to at least one adversity (maltreatment, abuse, peer victimization, or witness to community or domestic violence). We examined associations between adversity type and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores using linear regression and overweight and obese status using logistic regression. We adjusted for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounders and tested for effect modification by gender. Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or peer victimization did not have significantly different BMI z-scores than those without exposure (p>0.05 for all comparisons). BMI z-scores were higher in adolescents who had experienced physical abuse (β=0.50, 95% CI 0.12-0.91) or witnessed domestic violence (β=0.85, 95% CI 0.30-1.40). Participants who witnessed domestic violence had almost 6 times the odds of being overweight or obese (95% CI: 1.09-30.7), even after adjustment for potential confounders. No gender-by-adversity interactions were found. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher adolescent BMI. This finding highlights the importance of screening for violence in pediatric practice and providing obesity prevention counseling for youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Childhood height and body mass index were associated with risk of adult thyroid cancer in a large cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Berrington de González, Amy; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7 to 13 years with risk of thyroid cancer in later life. The study population included 321,085 children from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born between 1930 and 1989 in Copenhagen, Denmark, with measurements of height and weight from 7 to 13 years of age. These data were linked with the Danish Cancer Registry to identify incident thyroid cancer cases (1968-2010). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for age- and sex-specific height and BMI SD scores (SDS) using proportional hazards models stratified by birth cohort and sex. During follow-up (median = 38.6 years), 171 women and 64 men were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. Both height and BMI were positively associated with thyroid cancer risk, and these associations were similar by age at measurement. Using age 10 as an example, HRs per 1 unit increase in SDS for height (~6-7 cm) and BMI (~1.5-2 kg/m(2)) were 1.22 (95% CI, 1.07-1.40) and 1.15 (95% CI, 1.00-1.34), respectively. These results, together with the relatively young ages at which thyroid cancers are diagnosed compared with other malignancies, suggest a potential link between early-life factors related to growth and body weight and thyroid carcinogenesis.

  12. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Louise; Lauritzen, Lotte; Brasholt, Martin; Buhl, Thora; Bisgaard, Hans

    2012-12-01

    The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast milk, body composition, and timing of adiposity rebound in children. In the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood birth cohort, breast milk fatty acid profile was determined in 281 mothers and BMI development was prospectively followed up to the age of 7 y in 222 children. Age and BMI at adiposity rebound were registered. Furthermore, fat mass determination by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed in 207 children at 6-9 y of age. There was a significant association between breast milk DHA and BMI from 2 to 7 y, fat mass, and, for the girls, age at adiposity rebound. No associations were found between the breast milk n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio and body composition. Early intake of DHA may have an effect on body composition. Dietary habits of lactating mothers could contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity in Western societies.

  13. Uranium(VI) Binding Forms in Selected Human Body Fluids: Thermodynamic Calculations versus Spectroscopic Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Alfatih A A; Geipel, Gerhard; Barkleit, Astrid; Bernhard, Gert

    2015-02-16

    Human exposure to uranium increasingly becomes a subject of interest in many scientific disciplines such as environmental medicine, toxicology, and radiation protection. Knowledge about uranium chemical binding forms(speciation) in human body fluids can be of great importance to understand not only its biokinetics but also its relevance in risk assessment and in designing decorporation therapy in the case of accidental overexposure. In this study, thermodynamic calculations of uranium speciation in relevant simulated and original body fluids were compared with spectroscopic data after ex-situ uranium addition. For the first time, experimental data on U(VI) speciation in body fluids (saliva, sweat, urine) was obtained by means of cryogenic time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (cryo-TRLFS) at 153 K. By using the time dependency of fluorescence decay and the band positions of the emission spectra, various uranyl complexes were demonstrated in the studied samples. The variations of the body fluids in terms of chemical composition, pH, and ionic strength resulted in different binding forms of U(VI). The speciation of U(VI) in saliva and in urine was affected by the presence of bioorganic ligands, whereas in sweat, the distribution depends mainly on inorganic ligands. We also elucidated the role of biological buffers, i.e., phosphate (H(2)PO(4−)/HPO(4)(2−)) on U(VI) distribution, and the system Ca(2+)/UO(2)(2+)/PO(4)(3−) was discussed in detail in both saliva and urine. The theoretical speciation calculations of the main U(VI) species in the investigated body fluids were significantly consistent with the spectroscopic data. Laser fluorescence spectroscopy showed success and reliability for direct determination of U(VI) in such biological matrices with the possibility for further improvement.

  14. Body Size at Birth, Physical Development and Cognitive Outcomes in Early Childhood: Evidence from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Aydogan

    2016-01-01

    Using a rich sample created from the Longitudinal Survey of Australian Children, we investigate the extent to which the relationship between body size at birth and early childhood cognitive skills is mediated by physical development indicators. Consistent with existing evidence from other countries, we find a significant relationship between body…

  15. Body issues, sexual satisfaction, and relationship status satisfaction in long-term childhood cancer survivors and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Fults, Marci; Olshefski, Randal S.; Sanderman, Robbert; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    ObjectiveResearch on body image and sexual satisfaction after adult onset cancer has shown significant and lasting impairments regarding survivors' sexuality and romantic relationships. However, knowledge about these topics and their associations in adult survivors of childhood cancer is largely

  16. Childhood body mass index trajectories: modeling, characterizing, pairwise correlations and socio-demographic predictors of trajectory characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Wen Xiaozhong; Kleinman Ken; Gillman Matthew W; Rifas-Shiman Sheryl L; Taveras Elsie M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Modeling childhood body mass index (BMI) trajectories, versus estimating change in BMI between specific ages, may improve prediction of later body-size-related outcomes. Prior studies of BMI trajectories are limited by restricted age periods and insufficient use of trajectory information. Methods Among 3,289 children seen at 81,550 pediatric well-child visits from infancy to 18 years between 1980 and 2008, we fit individual BMI trajectories using mixed effect models with f...

  17. Modeling body mass variation: incorporating social influence into calculations of caloric intake and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Ana María; Huerta-Quintanilla, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Variations in individual body mass and composition have long been a key focus in the health sciences, particularly now that overweight and obesity are considered as public health problems. We study a mathematical model that describes body mass variations which are determined by the energy balance between caloric intake and total energy expenditure. To calculate the change in caloric intake and energy expenditure over time, we proposed a relationship for each of these quantities, and we used measured values that are reported in the literature for the initial conditions. To account for small variations in the daily energy balance of an individual, we include social interactions as the multiplication of two terms: social proximity and social influence. We observe that social interactions have a considerable effect when the body mass of an individual is quite constant and social interactions take random values. However, when an individual's mass value changes (either increases or decreases), social interactions do not have a notable effect. In our simulation, we tested two different models that describe the body mass composition, and it resulted that one fits better the data.

  18. Long sleep duration and childhood overweight/obesity and body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padez, Cristina; Mourao, Isabel; Moreira, Pedro; Rosado, Vitor

    2009-01-01

    To assess the association between short sleep duration and overweight/obesity and body fat (BF) and to identify correlates of short sleep duration in a sample of Portuguese children. A cross-sectional study of children 7-9 years (n = 4511) was performed between October 2002 and June 2003. Weight, height, and skinfolds were measured, and parents filled out a questionnaire about family characteristics as well as sleep duration. The prevalence of overweight/obesity and BF (%) both decreased by long sleep duration. After adjusted for confounders, the odds ratio (OR) for overweight/obesity and sleep duration were as follows: reference >11 h/d; 10-11 h/d, OR: 1.3; confidence interval (CI):1.26, 1.33; 9-10 h/d, OR: 1.16; CI: 1.13, 1.19; and long sleep duration and overweight/obesity prevalence as well as with body fat, and these findings are important because sleep duration is a potentially modifiable risk factor that could be important to consider in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Total body and hand surface area: Measurements, calculations, and comparisons in ethnically diverse children in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sharon; Kriho, Keely; De Klerk, Storm; van Dijk, Monique; Rode, Heinz

    2017-11-01

    The aim was to investigate hand surface as a percentage of body surface area from infancy to 13 years of age using physical measurement and digital planimetry and establish the influence of age, gender, BMI for age and ethnicity, specifically in the South African population. A secondary aim included the development of a template for burn size measurement. This was a cross-sectional observational study. Demographic information was obtained from each participant. Body mass index (BMI) and body surface area (BSA) were determined using several established formulas. The hand area was measured using a standard physical measurement method and a digital planimetry method. All data was presented in an Excel and SPSS spreadsheet and the calculations performed with SPSS 24.0. Three-hundred and sixty-eight burn patients and 150 children from a nearby primary school were enrolled. The age ranged from 1 month to 13 years. The hospital patient group was significantly younger, included more boys and had a lower BMI by age. Most patients (98.7%) were African or mixed race compared to the school children who were primarily Caucasian (pformulas to determine the BSA were highly comparable with Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.997 (95% CI 0.996-0.998). Actual hand surface area measured ranged from 22.44cm(2) to 164.9cm(2). The mean measured and digital percentage HSA of TBSA for all participants was 0.929% with a SD of 0.088. Male children, had a larger HSA as a proportion of TBSA by 0.036%. Generally, as the child gets older from toddler to late childhood, the hand becomes relatively smaller by a factor of approximately 0.08%. As the BMI increased, the hand got relatively smaller. The potential value of the physical measurement method is that it lends itself to direct measurement during examination of the burnt child. The study showed that there are minor differences between racial groups, gender, BMI and age variations. The clinical relevance of these variations is

  20. Changes in Dietary Patterns from Childhood to Adolescence and Associated Body Adiposity Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Biazzi Leal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to identify cross-sectional dietary patterns (DPs in a representative sample of 7–10-year-old schoolchildren, to examine how scores for these DPs tracked over a time period of five years (from age 7–10 years to 12–15 years, and to investigate longitudinal associations between changes in DPs scores and changes in BMI (Body Mass Index z-scores. Children aged 7–10-years were examined in 2007 (n = 1158 and a subset of the sample participated in a follow-up in 2012 (n = 458. Factor analysis (FA was applied to derive DPs at baseline. The change in DP from childhood to adolescence was analyzed by comparing factor scores using the complete cases, in which factor loadings were the ones evaluated at baseline. Associations of BMI change with DP change were assessed by multivariate linear regression. At baseline, four DP were identified that explained 47.9% of the food intake variance. On average, the factor scores of “DP II” (salty snacks, French fries, fast-food, sugary beverages decreased in follow-up, while no changes were observed for “DP I” (rice, cooked beans, beef/poultry, leafy vegetables, “DP III” (fruits, cooked and leafy vegetables, fruit juices, pasta, milk, cheese, and “DP IV” (milk, coffee with milk, cheese, breads/biscuits. No significant linear association was shown between changes in BMI z-scores and changes in DP scores from childhood to adolescence. In conclusion, three out of four DP scores identified at baseline tracked slightly in adolescence.

  1. Early Childhood Disadvantage for Sons of Mexican Immigrants: Body Mass Index Across Ages 2-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Elizabeth; Mollborn, Stefanie; Riosmena, Fernando

    2016-09-01

    To distinguish the origins of higher weight status and determine when and why intra- and interracial/ethnic disparities emerge. The study used a longitudinal analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). The study was conducted in the United States. Participants were children of non-Hispanic white mothers and children of U.S.- and foreign-born mothers of Mexican origin from a nationally representative sample of children born in the year 2001 (N ≈ 3700). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts determined sex- and age-specific weight status. Covariates were obtained from birth certificate records and parent interviews. Frequencies, growth curve trajectories, and ordinary least squares regression examined body mass index (BMI) and obesity across survey waves. Compared to their peers with non-Hispanic white mothers, children of Mexican-heritage mothers have higher average BMI and greater rates of obesity. The BMI of boys with Mexican-born mothers is higher relative to whites and children of U.S.-born Mexican mothers across early childhood, increasing sharply at about age 4.5 years. This divergence is driven by increases in the BMI of boys, as girls do not show the same growth. A number of measures, including descriptors of children's nutritional intake, lifestyle factors, and acculturation, do not explain the increased obesity rates among sons of Mexican mothers. Despite favorable perinatal health and weight, Mexican-American sons of foreign-born mothers show disadvantages in BMI that emerge close to the start of kindergarten. © 2016 by American Journal of Health Promotion, Inc.

  2. Changes in Dietary Patterns from Childhood to Adolescence and Associated Body Adiposity Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, France

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify cross-sectional dietary patterns (DPs) in a representative sample of 7–10-year-old schoolchildren, to examine how scores for these DPs tracked over a time period of five years (from age 7–10 years to 12–15 years), and to investigate longitudinal associations between changes in DPs scores and changes in BMI (Body Mass Index) z-scores. Children aged 7–10-years were examined in 2007 (n = 1158) and a subset of the sample participated in a follow-up in 2012 (n = 458). Factor analysis (FA) was applied to derive DPs at baseline. The change in DP from childhood to adolescence was analyzed by comparing factor scores using the complete cases, in which factor loadings were the ones evaluated at baseline. Associations of BMI change with DP change were assessed by multivariate linear regression. At baseline, four DP were identified that explained 47.9% of the food intake variance. On average, the factor scores of “DP II” (salty snacks, French fries, fast-food, sugary beverages) decreased in follow-up, while no changes were observed for “DP I” (rice, cooked beans, beef/poultry, leafy vegetables), “DP III” (fruits, cooked and leafy vegetables, fruit juices, pasta, milk, cheese), and “DP IV” (milk, coffee with milk, cheese, breads/biscuits). No significant linear association was shown between changes in BMI z-scores and changes in DP scores from childhood to adolescence. In conclusion, three out of four DP scores identified at baseline tracked slightly in adolescence. PMID:28984828

  3. Trends in parent-child correlations of childhood body mass index during the development of the obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajslev, Teresa A; Ängquist, Lars; Silventoinen, Karri; Baker, Jennifer L; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    The intergenerational resemblance in body mass index may have increased during the development of the obesity epidemic due to changes in environment and/or expression of genetic predisposition. This study investigates trends in intergenerational correlations of childhood body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) during the emergence of the obesity epidemic. The study population was derived from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, which includes height and weight measurements since birth year 1930. Mothers and fathers with BMIs available at ages 7 (n = 25,923 and n = 20,972) or 13 years (n = 26,750 and n = 21,397), respectively, were linked through the civil registration system introduced in 1968 to their children with BMIs available at age 7 years. Age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores were calculated. Correlations were estimated across eight intervals of child birth years (1952-1989) separately by sex. Trends in these correlations were examined. Whereas the mother-child correlations reflected the biological relationship, a likely decline in the assignment of non-biological fathers through the registration system across time must be considered when interpreting the father-child correlations. The BMI correlations between mothers and sons ranged from 0.29-0.36 and they decreased marginally, albeit significantly across time at ages 7-7 years (-0.002/year, p = 0.006), whereas those at 13-7 years remained stable (obesity epidemics development, the intergenerational resemblance with mothers remained stable, whereas the father-child BMI resemblance increased, possibly reflecting changes in family relationships, and unlikely to have influenced the epidemic.

  4. Improving the Volume Dependence of Two-Body Binding Energies Calculated with Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Davoudi, Zohreh

    2011-01-01

    Volume modifications to the binding of two-body systems in large cubic volumes of extent L depend upon the total momentum and exponentially upon the ratio of L to the size of the boosted system. Recent work by Bour et al determined the momentum dependence of the leading volume modifications to nonrelativistic systems with periodic boundary conditions imposed on the single-particle wavefunctions, enabling them to numerically determine the scattering of such bound states using a low-energy effective field theory and Luschers finite-volume method. The calculation of bound nuclear systems directly from QCD using Lattice QCD has begun, and it is important to reduce the systematic uncertainty introduced into such calculations by the finite spatial extent of the gauge-field configurations. We extend the work of Bour et al from nonrelativistic quantum mechanics to quantum field theory by generalizing the work of Luscher and of Gottlieb and Rummukainen to boosted two-body bound states. The volume modifications to bind...

  5. Body issues, sexual satisfaction, and relationship status satisfaction in long-term childhood cancer survivors and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Fults, Marci; Olshefski, Randal S; Sanderman, Robbert; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2016-02-01

    Research on body image and sexual satisfaction after adult onset cancer has shown significant and lasting impairments regarding survivors' sexuality and romantic relationships. However, knowledge about these topics and their associations in adult survivors of childhood cancer is largely lacking. Participants completed web-based questionnaires concerning body image, body dissociation, sexual satisfaction, and relationship status satisfaction (i.e., satisfaction with either being in a relationship or being single). Survivors (n = 87) and controls (n = 87) were matched on age and gender, with a mean age of 27 years (range: 20-40). Survivors were most often diagnosed with leukemia (46%), at an average of 16 years prior to study participation (range: 6-33 years). Similar numbers of survivors and controls were single (n = 24/31), in a committed relationship (n = 33/23), or married (n = 30/33). Survivors and controls reported comparable levels of body image, body dissociation, sexual experiences, and sexual and status satisfaction (d = 0.15-0.28). Higher status satisfaction was associated with being in a relationship (compared with being single, β = 0.439), more positive body image (β = 0.196), and higher sexual satisfaction (β = 0.200). Adult survivors of childhood cancer were comparable to healthy peers regarding views of their bodies and psychosexual development, which was unexpected. Independent of whether people experienced cancer or not, their status satisfaction was associated with their relationship status, body image, and sexual satisfaction. Future research should explore why sexual and body problems are identified after adult onset cancer, whereas this seems to be less of a problem in childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Calculation of electric fields induced by body and head motion in high-field MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Zhao, Huawei; Crozier, Stuart

    2003-03-01

    In modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), patients are exposed to strong, nonuniform static magnetic fields outside the central imaging region, in which the movement of the body may be able to induce electric currents in tissues which could be possibly harmful. This paper presents theoretical investigations into the spatial distribution of induced electric fields and currents in the patient when moving into the MRI scanner and also for head motion at various positions in the magnet. The numerical calculations are based on an efficient, quasi-static, finite-difference scheme and an anatomically realistic, full-body, male model. 3D field profiles from an actively shielded 4 T magnet system are used and the body model projected through the field profile with a range of velocities. The simulation shows that it possible to induce electric fields/currents near the level of physiological significance under some circumstances and provides insight into the spatial characteristics of the induced fields. The results are extrapolated to very high field strengths and tabulated data shows the expected induced currents and fields with both movement velocity and field strength.

  7. [Calculating and development of refraction in theoretical intraocular lens implantation in early childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampik, A; Schinzel, M; Haigis, W

    1993-04-01

    For various reasons the implantation of an intraocular lens in very young children remains a controversial matter. Although an intraocular lens might solve the problems of aniseiconia and amblyopia better then other forms of correction, the growth of the eyeball remains a major problem for constant refraction. Therefore we theoretically analysed the biometric data from small children with regard to the development of refraction in 29 children (40 eyes). These theoretic calculations demonstrate that with an aimed refraction of -2.0 diopters at the time of cataract-operation, refraction at an age of 10 years varies from -2.75 diopters to -32.0 diopters (mean -11.75 diopters). The calculated aniseiconia at the age of 10 varies between 1 and 76% (mean 11%). In analysing these biometric data according to the age of the children at the time of surgery it is evident, that refraction at an age of 10 years would be more within a normal range if the age at the time of operation was certainly above 12 month of age. According to this theoretical analysis implantation of an intraocular lens appears not to be meaningful at an age of less than 12 months at the time of operation. If lens implantation in older children is considered the further growth of the eyeball should be taken into account when calculating the power of an intraocular lens.

  8. Spectra for the A = 6 reactions calculated from a three-body resonance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Mark W.; Hale, Gerald M.

    2016-06-01

    We develop a resonance model of the transition matrix for three-body breakup reactions of the A = 6 system and present calculations for the nucleon observed spectra, which are important for inertial confinement fusion and Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The model is motivated by the Faddeev approach where the form of the T matrix is written as a sum of the distinct Jacobi coordinate systems corresponding to particle configurations (α, n-n) and (n; n-α) to describe the final state. The structure in the spectra comes from the resonances of the two-body subsystems of the three-body final state, namely the singlet (T = 1) nucleon-nucleon (NN) anti-bound resonance, and the Nα resonances designated the ground state (Jπ = {{{3^ - }} over 2}) and first excited state (Jπ = {{{1^ - }} over 2}) of the A = 5 systems 5He and 5Li. These resonances are described in terms of single-level, single-channel R-matrix parameters that are taken from analyses of NN and Nα scattering data. While the resonance parameters are approximately charge symmetric, external charge-dependent effects are included in the penetrabilities, shifts, and hard-sphere phases, and in the level energies to account for internal Coulomb differences. The shapes of the resonance contributions to the spectrum are fixed by other, two-body data and the only adjustable parameters in the model are the combinatorial amplitudes for the compound system. These are adjusted to reproduce the observed nucleon spectra from measurements at the Omega and NIF facilities. We perform a simultaneous, least-squares fit of the tt neutron spectra and the 3He3He proton spectra. Using these amplitudes we make a prediction of the α spectra for both reactions at low energies. Significant differences in the tt and 3He3He spectra are due to Coulomb effects.

  9. Spectra for the A = 6 reactions calculated from a three-body resonance model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paris Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a resonance model of the transition matrix for three-body breakup reactions of the A = 6 system and present calculations for the nucleon observed spectra, which are important for inertial confinement fusion and Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN. The model is motivated by the Faddeev approach where the form of the T matrix is written as a sum of the distinct Jacobi coordinate systems corresponding to particle configurations (α, n-n and (n; n-α to describe the final state. The structure in the spectra comes from the resonances of the two-body subsystems of the three-body final state, namely the singlet (T = 1 nucleon-nucleon (NN anti-bound resonance, and the Nα resonances designated the ground state (Jπ = 3−2${{{3^ - }} \\over 2}$ and first excited state (Jπ = 1−2${{{1^ - }} \\over 2}$ of the A = 5 systems 5He and 5Li. These resonances are described in terms of single-level, single-channel R-matrix parameters that are taken from analyses of NN and Nα scattering data. While the resonance parameters are approximately charge symmetric, external charge-dependent effects are included in the penetrabilities, shifts, and hard-sphere phases, and in the level energies to account for internal Coulomb differences. The shapes of the resonance contributions to the spectrum are fixed by other, two-body data and the only adjustable parameters in the model are the combinatorial amplitudes for the compound system. These are adjusted to reproduce the observed nucleon spectra from measurements at the Omega and NIF facilities. We perform a simultaneous, least-squares fit of the tt neutron spectra and the 3He3He proton spectra. Using these amplitudes we make a prediction of the α spectra for both reactions at low energies. Significant differences in the tt and 3He3He spectra are due to Coulomb effects.

  10. Maternal perceptions of early childhood ideal body weight differ among Mexican-origin mothers residing in Mexico compared to California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Fernald, Lia C H; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena

    2010-02-01

    To assess maternal perceptions of children's current and ideal body sizes, and the meaning of and factors contributing to overweight in infancy and early childhood among Mexican-origin mothers living in Mexico and in California. A quali-quantitative study combining focus groups and a self-administered questionnaire. A purposive sample of 84 low-income, Mexican-origin mothers of 4- to 6-year-old children recruited between March 2006 and January 2008 from rural and urban communities in Mexico and California. Bivariate, multivariate, and qualitative analyses of maternal perceptions of children's actual and ideal body size supplemented by qualitative analyses of meaning of and factors contributing to childhood overweight/obesity. Ideal child body size was considerably lower among Mexican-origin mothers living in California (3.86+/-0.56) than it was among mothers living in Mexico (4.32+/-0.83), and this difference was significant (P=0.001) after adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. Among mothers of overweight children, 82% of mothers in California were dissatisfied with their child's weight compared with 29% of mothers in Mexico (P=0.003). Focus-group results suggest that these differences in the perception of children's ideal body size can be attributable to differences in body size norms among mothers and awareness of the negative effects of obesity that occur after migration to California. Maternal perceptions of early childhood overweight appear to differ among Mexican-origin women living in Mexico and California. Recognition of the negative health consequences of obesity and identification of barriers to achieving weight control are important first steps toward childhood obesity prevention. Interventions directed at Mexican-origin mothers should focus on culturally acceptable ways of transmitting weight-control information. Copyright 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Some calculator programs for particle physics. [LEGENDRE, ASSOCIATED LEGENDRE, CONFIDENCE, TWO BODY, ELLIPSE, DALITZ RECTANGULAR, and DALITZ TRIANGULAR codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Seven calculator programs that do simple chores that arise in elementary particle physics are given. LEGENDRE evaluates the Legendre polynomial series ..sigma..a/sub n/P/sub n/(x) at a series of values of x. ASSOCIATED LEGENDRE evaluates the first-associated Legendre polynomial series ..sigma..b/sub n/P/sub n//sup 1/(x) at a series of values of x. CONFIDENCE calculates confidence levels for chi/sup 2/, Gaussian, or Poisson probability distributions. TWO BODY calculates the c.m. energy, the initial- and final-state c.m. momenta, and the extreme values of t and u for a 2-body reaction. ELLIPSE calculates coordinates of points for drawing an ellipse plot showing the kinematics of a 2-body reaction or decay. DALITZ RECTANGULAR calculates coordinates of points on the boundary of a rectangular Dalitz plot. DALITZ TRIANGULAR calculates coordinates of points on the boundary of a triangular Dalitz plot. There are short versions of CONFIDENCE (EVEN N and POISSON) that calculate confidence levels for the even-degree-of-freedom-chi/sup 2/ and the Poisson cases, and there is a short version of TWO BODY (CM) that calculates just the c.m. energy and initial-state momentum. The programs are written for the HP-97 calculator. (WHK)

  12. Calculation of water drop trajectories to and about arbitrary three-dimensional lifting and nonlifting bodies in potential airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norment, H. G.

    1985-01-01

    Subsonic, external flow about nonlifting bodies, lifting bodies or combinations of lifting and nonlifting bodies is calculated by a modified version of the Hess lifting code. Trajectory calculations can be performed for any atmospheric conditions and for all water drop sizes, from the smallest cloud droplet to large raindrops. Experimental water drop drag relations are used in the water drop equations of motion and effects of gravity settling are included. Inlet flow can be accommodated, and high Mach number compressibility effects are corrected for approximately. Seven codes are described: (1) a code used to debug and plot body surface description data; (2) a code that processes the body surface data to yield the potential flow field; (3) a code that computes flow velocities at arrays of points in space; (4) a code that computes water drop trajectories from an array of points in space; (5) a code that computes water drop trajectories and fluxes to arbitrary target points; (6) a code that computes water drop trajectories tangent to the body; and (7) a code that produces stereo pair plots which include both the body and trajectories. Accuracy of the calculations is discussed, and trajectory calculation results are compared with prior calculations and with experimental data.

  13. Childhood body-mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Olsen, Lina Wøhlk; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The worldwide epidemic of childhood obesity is progressing at an alarming rate. Risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) are already identifiable in overweight children. The severity of the long-term effects of excess childhood weight on CHD, however, remains unknown. METHODS: We...

  14. Relation of Serial Changes in Childhood Body-Mass Index to Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Santosh K.; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Fall, Caroline H.D.; Osmond, Clive; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Barker, David J.P.; Biswas, Sushant K. Dey; Ramji, Siddharth; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus is increased in people who have low birth weights and who subsequently become obese as adults. Whether their obesity originates in childhood and, if so, at what age are unknown. Understanding the origin of obesity may be especially important in developing countries, where type 2 diabetes is rapidly increasing yet public health messages still focus on reducing childhood “undernutrition.” METHODS We evaluated glucose tolerance and plasma insulin concentrations in 1492 men and women 26 to 32 years of age who had been measured at birth and at intervals of three to six months throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence in a prospective, population-based study. RESULTS The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance was 10.8 percent, and that of diabetes was 4.4 percent. Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes typically had a low body-mass index up to the age of two years, followed by an early adiposity rebound (the age after infancy when body mass starts to rise) and an accelerated increase in body-mass index until adulthood. However, despite an increase in body-mass index between the ages of 2 and 12 years, none of these subjects were obese at the age of 12 years. The odds ratio for disease associated with an increase in the body-mass index of 1 SD from 2 to 12 years of age was 1.36 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.18 to 1.57; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS There is an association between thinness in infancy and the presence of impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes in young adulthood. Crossing into higher categories of body-mass index after the age of two years is also associated with these disorders. PMID:14985484

  15. Novel Anthropometry-Based Calculation of the Body Heat Capacity in the Korean Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pham, Duong Duc; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Young Boum; Park, Eun Seok; Kim, Ka Yul; Song, Ji Yeon; Kim, Ji Eun; Leem, Chae Hun

    2015-01-01

    .... The remaining 302 participants were used for the test set. Body composition analysis using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to access body components including body fat, water, protein, and mineral mass...

  16. Chondrosarcoma arising within a radiation-induced osteochondroma several years following childhood total body irradiation: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Shuji [Kurume University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Fukuoka (Japan); Shen, Robert K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States); Laack, Nadia N. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rochester, MN (United States); Inwards, Carrie Y. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Pathology, Rochester, MN (United States); Wenger, Doris E.; Amrami, Kimberly K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Malignant degeneration arising in radiation-induced osteochondromas is extremely rare. We report a case of a 34-year-old man with a chondrosarcoma arising from an osteochondroma of the left posterior eighth rib that developed following total body irradiation received as part of the conditioning regimen prior to bone marrow transplantation at age 8. To our knowledge, this is only the fourth reported case of a chondrosarcoma arising within a radiation-induced osteochondroma and the first case occurring following childhood total body irradiation. (orig.)

  17. Generic calculation of two-body partial decay widths at the full one-loop level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, Mark D.; Liebler, Stefan; Staub, Florian

    2017-11-01

    We describe a fully generic implementation of two-body partial decay widths at the full one-loop level in the SARAH and SPheno framework compatible with most supported models. It incorporates fermionic decays to a fermion and a scalar or a gauge boson as well as scalar decays into two fermions, two gauge bosons, two scalars or a scalar and a gauge boson. We present the relevant generic expressions for virtual and real corrections. Whereas wave-function corrections are determined from on-shell conditions, the parameters of the underlying model are by default renormalised in a \\overline{ {DR}} (or \\overline{ {MS}}) scheme. However, the user can also define model-specific counter-terms. As an example we discuss the renormalisation of the electric charge in the Thomson limit for top-quark decays in the standard model. One-loop-induced decays are also supported. The framework additionally allows the addition of mass and mixing corrections induced at higher orders for the involved external states. We explain our procedure to cancel infrared divergences for such cases, which is achieved through an infrared counter-term taking into account corrected Goldstone boson vertices. We compare our results for sfermion, gluino and Higgs decays in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) against the public codes SFOLD, FVSFOLD and HFOLD and explain observed differences. Radiatively induced gluino and neutralino decays are compared against the original implementation in SPheno in the MSSM. We exactly reproduce the results of the code CNNDecays for decays of neutralinos and charginos in R-parity violating models. The new version SARAH 4.11.0 by default includes the calculation of two-body decay widths at the full one-loop level. Current limitations for certain model classes are described.

  18. Generic calculation of two-body partial decay widths at the full one-loop level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodsell, Mark D. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06 (France); Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France); Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France); Liebler, Stefan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Staub, Florian [Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Physics

    2017-04-15

    We describe a fully generic implementation of two-body partial decay widths at the full one-loop level in the SARAH and SPheno framework compatible with most supported models. It incorporates fermionic decays to a fermion and a scalar or a gauge boson as well as scalar decays into two fermions, two gauge bosons, two scalars or a scalar and a gauge boson. We present the relevant generic expressions for virtual and real corrections. Whereas wavefunction corrections are determined from on-shell conditions, the parameters of the underlying model are by default renormalised in a DR (or MS) scheme. However, the user can also define model-specific counter-terms. As an example we discuss the renormalisation of the electric charge in the Thomson limit for top-quark decays in the standard model. One-loop induced decays are also supported. The framework additionally allows the addition of mass and mixing corrections induced at higher orders for the involved external states. We explain our procedure to cancel infra-red divergences for such cases, which is achieved through an infra-red counter-term taking into account corrected Goldstone boson vertices. We compare our results for sfermion, gluino and Higgs decays in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) against the public codes SFOLD, FVSFOLD and HFOLD and explain observed differences. Radiative induced gluino and neutralino decays are compared against the original implementation in SPheno in the MSSM. We exactly reproduce the results of the code CNNDecays for decays of neutralinos and charginos in R-parity violating models. The new version SARAH 4.11.0 by default includes the calculation of two-body decay widths at the full one-loop level. Current limitations for certain model classes are described.

  19. Early childhood caries and body mass index in young children from low income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Luciane Rezende; Daher, Anelise; Queiroz, Maria Goretti

    2013-03-05

    The relationship between early childhood caries (ECC) and obesity is controversial. This cross-sectional survey investigated this association in children from low-income families in Goiania, Goias, Brazil and considered the role of several social determinants. A questionnaire examining the characteristics of the children and their families was administered to the primary caregiver during home visits. In addition, children (approximately 6 years of age) had their height, weight, and tooth condition assessed. The primary ECC outcome was categorized as one of the following: caries experience (decayed, missing, filled tooth: "dmft" index > 0), active ECC (decayed teeth > 0), or active severe ECC (decayed teeth ≥ 6). Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The participants in the current study consisted of 269 caregiver-child dyads, 88.5% of whom were included in the Family Health Program. Caregivers were mostly mothers (67.7%), were 35.3 ± 10.0 years old on average and had 9.8 ± 3.1 years of formal education. The mean family income was 2.3 ± 1.5 times greater than the Brazilian minimum wage. On average, the children in the current study were 68.7 ± 3.8 months old. Of these, 51.7% were boys, 23.4% were overweight or obese, 45.0% had active ECC, and 17.1% had severe ECC. The average body mass index (BMI) of the children was 15.9 ± 2.2, and their dmft index was 2.5 ± 3.2. BMI was not associated with any of the three categories of dental caries (p > 0.05). In contrast, higher family incomes were significantly associated with the lack of caries experience in children (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.01-1.50), but the mother's level of education was not significantly associated with ECC.

  20. Trajectories of growth in body mass index across childhood: Associations with maternal and paternal employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W

    2013-10-01

    Research links mothers' employment to higher body mass index (BMI), a measure of weight-for-height, among their children. However, how maternal employment patterns relate to their children's BMI trajectories, and the role that fathers' employment plays in when and at what rate children grow, remain unclear. With data on children from 2 to 15 years of age living in two-parent families from the U.S. NICHD's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1107), individual growth models are used to describe American children's BMI trajectories as predicted by maternal and paternal employment characteristics. Results indicate that, by age 15, children's BMIs are, on average, nearly one-half of a standard deviation above recommended levels, and the majority of growth occurs during the preschool period. The duration of maternal employment, and combined measures of maternal and paternal employment duration, are both associated with higher child BMI across childhood. Associations are small but cumulative. Notably, the association between the duration of time children lived in dual-earner families and child BMI is larger than that between maternal employment duration alone and children's BMI, which is strongest during the preschool period. Combined measures of maternal and paternal employment intensity, defined as the number of periods both parents worked 35 or more hours per week, are associated with higher child BMI during the preschool period only. Findings highlight the importance of taking into account both parents' employment characteristics in investigating children's physical development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Early Childhood Obesity: Growth Trajectories in Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Alma D; Mao, Cherry; Fuller, Bruce; Bridges, Margaret; Franke, Todd; Kuo, Alice A

    2016-03-01

    The aims of this study are to describe growth trajectories in the body mass index (BMI) among the major racial and ethnic groups of US children and to identify predictors of children's BMI trajectories. The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) was used to identify predictors of BMI growth trajectories, including child characteristics, maternal attributes, home practices related to diet and social behaviors, and family sociodemographic factors. Growth models, spanning 48 to 72 months of age, were estimated with hierarchical linear modeling via STATA/Xtmixed methods. Approximately one-third of 4-year-old females and males were overweight and/or obese. African-American and Latino children displayed higher predicted mean BMI scores and differing mean BMI trajectories, compared with White children, adjusting for time-independent and time-dependent predictors. Several factors were significantly associated with lower mean BMI trajectories, including very low birth weight, higher maternal education level, residing in a two-parent household, and breastfeeding during infancy. Greater consumption of soda and fast food was associated with higher mean BMI growth. Soda consumption was a particularly strong predictor of mean BMI growth trajectory for young Black children. Neither the child's inactivity linked to television viewing nor fruit nor vegetable consumption was predictive of BMI growth for any racial/ethnic group. Significant racial and ethnic differences are discernible in BMI trajectories among young children. Raising parents' and health practitioners' awareness of how fast food and sweetened-beverage consumption contributes to early obesity and growth in BMI-especially for Blacks and Latinos-could improve the health status of young children.

  2. Early Childhood Caries and Body Mass Index in Young Children from Low Income Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goretti Queiroz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between early childhood caries (ECC and obesity is controversial. This cross-sectional survey investigated this association in children from low-income families in Goiania, Goias, Brazil and considered the role of several social determinants. A questionnaire examining the characteristics of the children and their families was administered to the primary caregiver during home visits. In addition, children (approximately 6 years of age had their height, weight, and tooth condition assessed. The primary ECC outcome was categorized as one of the following: caries experience (decayed, missing, filled tooth: “dmft” index > 0, active ECC (decayed teeth > 0, or active severe ECC (decayed teeth ≥ 6. Descriptive, bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted. The participants in the current study consisted of 269 caregiver-child dyads, 88.5% of whom were included in the Family Health Program. Caregivers were mostly mothers (67.7%, were 35.3 ± 10.0 years old on average and had 9.8 ± 3.1 years of formal education. The mean family income was 2.3 ± 1.5 times greater than the Brazilian minimum wage. On average, the children in the current study were 68.7 ± 3.8 months old. Of these, 51.7% were boys, 23.4% were overweight or obese, 45.0% had active ECC, and 17.1% had severe ECC. The average body mass index (BMI of the children was 15.9 ± 2.2, and their dmft index was 2.5 ± 3.2. BMI was not associated with any of the three categories of dental caries (p > 0.05. In contrast, higher family incomes were significantly associated with the lack of caries experience in children (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.01–1.50, but the mother’s level of education was not significantly associated with ECC.

  3. Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, M; Vrijkotte, T G M; Fall, C H D; van Eijsden, M; Osmond, C; Gemke, R J B J

    2015-04-01

    Growth and feeding during infancy have been associated with later life body mass index. However, the associations of infant feeding, linear growth and weight gain relative to linear growth with separate components of body composition remain unclear. Of 5551 children with collected growth and infant-feeding data in a prospective cohort study (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development), body composition measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis at the age of 5-6 years was available for 2227 children. We assessed how feeding (duration of full breastfeeding and timing of introduction of complementary feeding) and conditional variables representing linear growth and relative weight gain were associated with childhood fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM). Birth weight was positively associated with both FFM and FM in childhood, and more strongly with FFM than FM. Faster linear growth and faster relative weight gain at all ages in infancy were positively associated with childhood FFM and FM. The associations with FM were stronger for relative weight gain than for linear growth (FM z score: β coefficient 0.23 (95% con 0.19 to 0.26), P6 months was associated with lower FM (FM z score: -0.17 (-0.28 to -0.05), P=0.005) and lower FFM (FFM z score: -0.13 (-0.23 to -0.03), P=0.015), as was the introduction of complementary feeding >6 months (FM z score: -0.22 (-0.38 to -0.07), P=0.004), compared with 6 months and introduction of complementary feeding >6 months are associated with lower childhood FM.

  4. Trends in Parent-Child Correlations of Childhood Body Mass Index during the Development of the Obesity Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajslev, Teresa A.; Ängquist, Lars; Silventoinen, Karri; Baker, Jennifer L.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The intergenerational resemblance in body mass index may have increased during the development of the obesity epidemic due to changes in environment and/or expression of genetic predisposition. Objectives This study investigates trends in intergenerational correlations of childhood body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) during the emergence of the obesity epidemic. Methods The study population was derived from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, which includes height and weight measurements since birth year 1930. Mothers and fathers with BMIs available at ages 7 (n = 25,923 and n = 20,972) or 13 years (n = 26,750 and n = 21,397), respectively, were linked through the civil registration system introduced in 1968 to their children with BMIs available at age 7 years. Age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores were calculated. Correlations were estimated across eight intervals of child birth years (1952–1989) separately by sex. Trends in these correlations were examined. Whereas the mother-child correlations reflected the biological relationship, a likely decline in the assignment of non-biological fathers through the registration system across time must be considered when interpreting the father-child correlations. Results The BMI correlations between mothers and sons ranged from 0.29–0.36 and they decreased marginally, albeit significantly across time at ages 7–7 years (−0.002/year, p = 0.006), whereas those at 13–7 years remained stable (<0.0004/year, p = 0.96). Mother-daughter correlations ranged from 0.30–0.34, and they were stable at ages 7–7 years (0.0001/year, p = 0.84) and at 13–7 years (0.0004/year, p = 0.56). In contrast, father-son correlations increased significantly during this period, both at ages 7–7 (0.002/year, p = 0.007) and at ages 13–7 years (0.003/year, p<0.001), whereas the increase in father-daughter correlations were insignificant both at ages 7–7 (0.001/year, p = 0.37) and at

  5. Trends in parent-child correlations of childhood body mass index during the development of the obesity epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Ajslev

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intergenerational resemblance in body mass index may have increased during the development of the obesity epidemic due to changes in environment and/or expression of genetic predisposition. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates trends in intergenerational correlations of childhood body mass index (BMI; kg/m2 during the emergence of the obesity epidemic. METHODS: The study population was derived from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, which includes height and weight measurements since birth year 1930. Mothers and fathers with BMIs available at ages 7 (n = 25,923 and n = 20,972 or 13 years (n = 26,750 and n = 21,397, respectively, were linked through the civil registration system introduced in 1968 to their children with BMIs available at age 7 years. Age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores were calculated. Correlations were estimated across eight intervals of child birth years (1952-1989 separately by sex. Trends in these correlations were examined. Whereas the mother-child correlations reflected the biological relationship, a likely decline in the assignment of non-biological fathers through the registration system across time must be considered when interpreting the father-child correlations. RESULTS: The BMI correlations between mothers and sons ranged from 0.29-0.36 and they decreased marginally, albeit significantly across time at ages 7-7 years (-0.002/year, p = 0.006, whereas those at 13-7 years remained stable (<0.0004/year, p = 0.96. Mother-daughter correlations ranged from 0.30-0.34, and they were stable at ages 7-7 years (0.0001/year, p = 0.84 and at 13-7 years (0.0004/year, p = 0.56. In contrast, father-son correlations increased significantly during this period, both at ages 7-7 (0.002/year, p = 0.007 and at ages 13-7 years (0.003/year, p<0.001, whereas the increase in father-daughter correlations were insignificant both at ages 7-7 (0.001/year, p = 0.37 and at ages 13

  6. 3D shape reconstruction from relief calculation: application to human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In experimental mechanics especially in experimental biomechanics, evaluating a volume object is a major research axe. In mechanics, 3D reconstruction is made from different optical methods like stereovision [1] or structured light methods. In biomechanics, it is achieved from tomography techniques or from models which divide human body into 15, 16 and 17 polyarticulated solids [2][3]. Those solids are simple volumes (cylinders, spheres. In this review, a method of 3D reconstruction from two calculated relief is proposed. Then, the geometric parameters are extracted using an algorithm and compared to the real dimension of various objects. The first test consist in studying the feasibility of the 3D reconstruction using a real upper arm and a mannequin. In a second test an analysis of a sphere and two cylinders which have different dimensions is performed. The aim of those last tests is to evaluate the performances of the proposed method, to show distortion volume problems and to propose solutions.

  7. Calculation of midplane dose for total body irradiation from entrance and exit dose MOSFET measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satory, P R

    2012-03-01

    This work is the development of a MOSFET based surface in vivo dosimetry system for total body irradiation patients treated with bilateral extended SSD beams using PMMA missing tissue compensators adjacent to the patient. An empirical formula to calculate midplane dose from MOSFET measured entrance and exit doses has been derived. The dependency of surface dose on the air-gap between the spoiler and the surface was investigated by suspending a spoiler above a water phantom, and taking percentage depth dose measurements (PDD). Exit and entrances doses were measured with MOSFETs in conjunction with midplane doses measured with an ion chamber. The entrance and exit doses were combined using an exponential attenuation formula to give an estimate of midplane dose and were compared to the midplane ion chamber measurement for a range of phantom thicknesses. Having a maximum PDD at the surface simplifies the prediction of midplane dose, which is achieved by ensuring that the air gap between the compensator and the surface is less than 10 cm. The comparison of estimated midplane dose and measured midplane dose showed no dependence on phantom thickness and an average correction factor of 0.88 was found. If the missing tissue compensators are kept within 10 cm of the patient then MOSFET measurements of entrance and exit dose can predict the midplane dose for the patient.

  8. Corpo e infância: natureza e cultura em confronto Body and childhood: nature and culture in clash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Buss-Simão

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio desenvolveu reflexões sobre possíveis avanços teórico-metodológicos na concepção de corpo e infância, a partir da consideração da existência da interconexão entre natureza e cultura. Inicialmente, examinamos os elementos das concepções dualistas, as quais se mostravam insuficientes para a compreensão da relação entre corpo e infância, seja pelo fato de focarem suas deduções apenas nas diferenças e semelhanças biológicas do corpo, seja por debruçarem-se exclusivamente em determinações culturais. Pautados nos estudos da Sociologia da Infância e em outros de base filosófica, buscamos delinear uma possível concepção crítica da relação entre infância e corpo que a compreendesse, concomitantemente, como construção cultural e biológica. Além disso, ainda que breves, acabamos redigindo, também, alguns desdobramentos da reflexão realizada para a prática dos educadores que trabalham em instituições educativas.This essay provides reflections on the possible theoretical and methodological developments in devising Body and Childhood by considering the existence of an interconnection between character and culture. Initially we reviewed the details of the duality concept, which proved insufficient for the understanding of the relationship between body and childhood, either because of focusing their deductions just on the difference and similarity of the biology of the body, or in addressing to cultural determinations, eventually leading to some reductionism. Based on studies of childhood sociology and on childhood philosophy, we seek to outline a possible critical conception of the relationship between childhood and body to, at the same time, understand it as a cultural and biological diversity. Moreover, this paper also discusses, although superficially, some ramifications of thought developed for the practice of teachers working at educational institutions.

  9. Obesity is underestimated using body mass index and waist-hip ratio in long-term adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Blijdorp

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obesity, represented by high body mass index (BMI, is a major complication after treatment for childhood cancer. However, it has been shown that high total fat percentage and low lean body mass are more reliable predictors of cardiovascular morbidity. In this study longitudinal changes of BMI and body composition, as well as the value of BMI and waist-hip ratio representing obesity, were evaluated in adult childhood cancer survivors. METHODS: Data from 410 survivors who had visited the late effects clinic twice were analyzed. Median follow-up time was 16 years (interquartile range 11-21 and time between visits was 3.2 years (2.9-3.6. BMI was measured and body composition was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar Prodigy; available twice in 182 survivors. Data were compared with healthy Dutch references and calculated as standard deviation scores (SDS. BMI, waist-hip ratio and total fat percentage were evaluated cross-sectionally in 422 survivors, in who at least one DXA scan was assessed. RESULTS: BMI was significantly higher in women, without significant change over time. In men BMI changed significantly with time (ΔSDS = 0.19, P<0.001. Percentage fat was significantly higher than references in all survivors, with the highest SDS after cranial radiotherapy (CRT (mean SDS 1.73 in men, 1.48 in women, P<0.001. Only in men, increase in total fat percentage was significantly higher than references (ΔSDS = 0.22, P<0.001. Using total fat percentage as the gold standard, 65% of female and 42% of male survivors were misclassified as non-obese using BMI. Misclassification of obesity using waist-hip ratio was 40% in women and 24% in men. CONCLUSIONS: Sixteen years after treatment for childhood cancer, the increase in BMI and total fat percentage was significantly greater than expected, especially after CRT. This is important as we could show that obesity was grossly underestimated using BMI and waist-hip ratio.

  10. Childhood body mass index and height in relation to site-specific risks of colorectal cancers in adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt W; Gamborg, Michael; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    As colorectal cancers have a long latency period, their origins may lie early in life. Therefore childhood body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and height may be associated with adult colorectal cancer. Using a cohort design, 257,623 children from The Copenhagen School Health Records Register born from...... 1930 to 1972 with measured heights and weights at ages 7 to 13 years were followed for adult colon and rectal adenocarcinomas by linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox proportional hazard regressions. During follow-up, 2676...... colon and 1681 rectal adenocarcinomas were diagnosed. No sex differences were observed in the associations between child BMI or height and adult colon or rectal cancers. Childhood BMI and height were positively associated with colon cancer; at age 13 years the HRs were 1.09 (95% CI 1.04-1.14) and 1...

  11. Evaluating the predictive ability of childhood body mass index classification systems for overweight and obesity at 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brann, Ebba; Sjöberg, Agneta; Chaplin, John E; Leu, Monica; Mehlig, Kirsten; Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin; Lissner, Lauren

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the performance of three childhood body mass index classification systems defining weight status at age 10, for predicting overweight and obesity at 18 years, according to the World Health Organization adult body mass index classification. Weight and height of 4235 Swedish girls and boys were measured both at around ages 10 and 18 years. Predictive ability of the extended International Obesity Task Force body mass index cut-offs (2012), the World Health Organization body mass index-for-age (2007) and a Swedish body mass index reference (2001) were assessed for sensitivity and specificity. For predicting overweight including obesity at 18 years, the World Health Organization 2007 and the Swedish body mass index reference 2001 had similar sensitivity, 68% and 71%. The International Obesity Task Force 2012 had a significantly lower sensitivity, 53%. Specificity was 82-91% and highest for International Obesity Task Force 2012. For predicting obesity, the sensitivity for International Obesity Task Force 2012 was 29%, significantly lower than for the other two, 63% and 70%. Specificity was 94-100%, and highest for International Obesity Task Force 2012. In situations when optimal screening sensitivity is required for identifying as many high-risk children as possible, the World Health Organization 2007 and the Swedish body mass index reference 2001 performed better than the International Obesity Task Force 2012. However, it is important to keep in mind that the International Obesity Task Force 2012 will identify the fewest false positives. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  12. Childhood body mass index trajectories: modeling, characterizing, pairwise correlations and socio-demographic predictors of trajectory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaozhong; Kleinman, Ken; Gillman, Matthew W; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Taveras, Elsie M

    2012-03-29

    Modeling childhood body mass index (BMI) trajectories, versus estimating change in BMI between specific ages, may improve prediction of later body-size-related outcomes. Prior studies of BMI trajectories are limited by restricted age periods and insufficient use of trajectory information. Among 3,289 children seen at 81,550 pediatric well-child visits from infancy to 18 years between 1980 and 2008, we fit individual BMI trajectories using mixed effect models with fractional polynomial functions. From each child's fitted trajectory, we estimated age and BMI at infancy peak and adiposity rebound, and velocity and area under curve between 1 week, infancy peak, adiposity rebound, and 18 years. Among boys, mean (SD) ages at infancy BMI peak and adiposity rebound were 7.2 (0.9) and 49.2 (11.9) months, respectively. Among girls, mean (SD) ages at infancy BMI peak and adiposity rebound were 7.4 (1.1) and 46.8 (11.0) months, respectively. Ages at infancy peak and adiposity rebound were weakly inversely correlated (r = -0.09). BMI at infancy peak and adiposity rebound were positively correlated (r = 0.76). Blacks had earlier adiposity rebound and greater velocity from adiposity rebound to 18 years of age than whites. Higher birth weight z-score predicted earlier adiposity rebound and higher BMI at infancy peak and adiposity rebound. BMI trajectories did not differ by birth year or type of health insurance, after adjusting for other socio-demographics and birth weight z-score. Childhood BMI trajectory characteristics are informative in describing childhood body mass changes and can be estimated conveniently. Future research should evaluate associations of these novel BMI trajectory characteristics with adult outcomes.

  13. Childhood body mass index trajectories: modeling, characterizing, pairwise correlations and socio-demographic predictors of trajectory characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Xiaozhong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling childhood body mass index (BMI trajectories, versus estimating change in BMI between specific ages, may improve prediction of later body-size-related outcomes. Prior studies of BMI trajectories are limited by restricted age periods and insufficient use of trajectory information. Methods Among 3,289 children seen at 81,550 pediatric well-child visits from infancy to 18 years between 1980 and 2008, we fit individual BMI trajectories using mixed effect models with fractional polynomial functions. From each child's fitted trajectory, we estimated age and BMI at infancy peak and adiposity rebound, and velocity and area under curve between 1 week, infancy peak, adiposity rebound, and 18 years. Results Among boys, mean (SD ages at infancy BMI peak and adiposity rebound were 7.2 (0.9 and 49.2 (11.9 months, respectively. Among girls, mean (SD ages at infancy BMI peak and adiposity rebound were 7.4 (1.1 and 46.8 (11.0 months, respectively. Ages at infancy peak and adiposity rebound were weakly inversely correlated (r = -0.09. BMI at infancy peak and adiposity rebound were positively correlated (r = 0.76. Blacks had earlier adiposity rebound and greater velocity from adiposity rebound to 18 years of age than whites. Higher birth weight z-score predicted earlier adiposity rebound and higher BMI at infancy peak and adiposity rebound. BMI trajectories did not differ by birth year or type of health insurance, after adjusting for other socio-demographics and birth weight z-score. Conclusions Childhood BMI trajectory characteristics are informative in describing childhood body mass changes and can be estimated conveniently. Future research should evaluate associations of these novel BMI trajectory characteristics with adult outcomes.

  14. Body weight and basal metabolic rate in childhood narcolepsy: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongwen; Wu, Huijuan; Stone, William S; Zhuang, Jianhua; Qiu, Linli; Xu, Xing; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Zhengqing; Han, Fang; Zhao, Zhongxin

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to document the trajectory of weight gain and body mass index (BMI) in children with type 1 narcolepsy, and to analyze basal metabolic rate (BMR). A total of 65 Chinese children with type 1 narcolepsy with a disease duration ≤12 months were included. In addition, 79 healthy age-matched students were enrolled as controls. Height and body weight were measured every six months for up to 36 months to calculate BMI growth. BMR was measured using COSMED K4b2 indirect calorimetry in 34 patients and 30 healthy controls at six months. At the end of 36 months, the BMR was compared among 18 patients and 16 healthy controls. The children with type 1 narcolepsy showed higher BMIs at follow-up assessments. At the end of the study, 38.46% of the patients were obese and an additional 26.15% were overweight. The patients' BMI growth at six, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months of follow-up was significantly higher, but not at month 36. The patients' basal energy expenditure was significantly lower than that of the controls at six months but not at 36 months. BMI increased rapidly in children with type 1 narcolepsy after disease onset, but BMI growth decreased gradually with prolonged disease. Decreased BMR is an important cause underlying rapid weight gain. The gradual restoration of BMI growth and BMR in narcolepsy emphasizes the importance of compensatory metabolic mechanisms in this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Body image disturbance in patients with borderline personality disorder: impact of eating disorders and perceived childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Anne; Borgmann, Elisabeth; Feldmann, Robert E; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Priebe, Kathlen; Bohus, Martin; Vocks, Silja

    2013-03-01

    Body image disturbances occur in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Systematic research on these characteristics in well-defined BPD groups is lacking. It is unknown, if the disturbances are related to eating disorders and childhood sexual abuse (CSA), which frequently co-occur in patients with BPD. In the present study, cognitive-affective and behavioral components of body image for 89 female patients with BPD (49 with lifetime eating disorders) and 41 healthy participants were assessed via Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire (BIAQ) and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ). Within the BPD group, 43 patients reported a history of CSA. Compared to healthy controls, BPD patients reported significantly more negative scores in the BIAQ and the MBSRQ. Both a history of CSA and a comorbid eating disorder were independently associated with an even more negative body image. Results suggest a disturbance of cognitive-affective and behavioral components of body image in female BPD patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Childhood body mass index in relation to subsequent risk of type 1 diabetes-A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antvorskov, Julie C; Aunsholt, Lise; Buschard, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is increasing, and obesity may be a contributing factor by increasing the risk and accelerating the onset. We investigated the relation between childhood body mass index z-scores (BMIz) and the later risk of T1D, including association with age at onset of T1D....... The study included 238 cases and 10 147 controls selected from the Copenhagen School Health Record Register (CSHRR). Cases of T1D were identified in the Danish Registry of Childhood and Adolescent Diabetes and 2 regional studies and linked to CSHRR. Using conditional logistic regression models......, the association of childhood prediagnostic BMIz at 7 and 13 years of age and changes between these ages with subsequent risk (odds ratio, OR) of T1D was estimated. A greater BMIz at 7 and 13 years of age was associated with increased risk of T1D with OR of 1.23 (confidence interval, CI 1.09-1.37; P = .0001) and 1...

  17. Relationship between parent demographic characteristics, perinatal and early childhood behaviors, and body mass index among preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Sarah E; Asfour, Lila; Arheart, Kristopher L; Selem, Sarah M; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Natale, Ruby

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 25% of US 2-to-5-year olds are overweight and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected. We explored the relationship between parent demographic characteristics, various perinatal/early childhood (EC) factors, and child body mass index (BMI) to determine possible contributors to these disparities. A preschool-based randomized controlled (N = 28 centers) obesity prevention intervention was conducted among multiethnic 2-to-5 year olds. Baseline assessment of demographic characteristics, various perinatal/EC factors, and child BMI were analyzed via generalized linear mixed models and logistic regression analysis. Foreign-born parents were almost 2.5 times as likely to have an obese child versus children of US-born parents (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.53-3.87). Families who spoke Spanish only or a combination of Creole/English at home were over twice as likely to have an obese preschool child versus families who spoke English only at home. Parent place of birth and language spoken at home plays a significant role in early childhood obesity. Future early childhood healthy weight initiatives should incorporate strategies that take into account these particular parent characteristics.

  18. Obesity Is Underestimated Using Body Mass Index and Waist-Hip Ratio in Long-Term Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blijdorp, Karin; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Pieters, Rob; Boot, Annemieke M.; Delhanty, Patric J. D.; van der Lely, Aart-Jan; Neggers, Sebastian J. C. M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Obesity, represented by high body mass index (BMI), is a major complication after treatment for childhood cancer. However, it has been shown that high total fat percentage and low lean body mass are more reliable predictors of cardiovascular morbidity. In this study longitudinal changes

  19. A Prospective Study of Height and Body Mass Index in Childhood, Birth Weight, and Risk of Adult Glioma Over 40 Years of Follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2014-01-01

    Greater attained height and greater body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) in young adulthood have been associated with glioma risk, but few studies have investigated the association with body size at birth or during childhood, when the brain undergoes rapid cell growth...

  20. Finite element calculations for aerodynamic coefficients of a 3-dimensional body in subsonic flow using Green's function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagizawa, Mitsunori; Kikuchi, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    An accurate method for evaluating the derivatives along circular paths on the surface is proposed. Calculations are made on various practical configurations such as wing-body combinations, tandem wings, wings with dihedral angles at sideslip, ground effects, interference between a sphere and wind tunnel, etc. Comparisons with experiment show good agreement.

  1. Depictions of Human Bodies in the Illustrations of Early Childhood Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Bello, Vladimir E.; Martínez-Bello, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    In many Ibero-American countries children in the early childhood education (ECE) system have the opportunity to interact with textbooks on a regular basis. The powerful social function of textbooks in socializing children in primary and secondary school, and in legitimizing what counts as cultural norms and officially sanctioned values and…

  2. Birth weight, childhood body mass index, and height in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Bihrmann, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight...

  3. Body composition and bone density during and after childhood cancer therapy : The flip side of therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hoed, M.A.H.

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands, there are approximately 8000 childhood cancer survivors, and this population of survivors is expanding due to improved therapy. However, therapy has a consequent flip side, namely their inherent side effects. Approximately 75% of the CCS will develop one or more severe chronic

  4. Calculation of the radiation doses occurring in the human body for inadvertent ingestion of soil and other soil exposure pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, F.; Okumuolu, N.

    2003-11-01

    We estimate the radiation doses in the human body, in the Gudalore region in India, following the inadvertent ingestion of soil and exposure to other soil pathways by measuring Th-232, U-238, and K-40. We estimate the equivalent dose in eleven different organs and the absorbed dose calculations for the whole body. The annual effective doses are calculated, the lowest is in Kariyasolai at 7.8 x 10(-3) mSv whereas the highest is in Ponnur at 8.9 x 10(-2) mSv. In all regions, the lowest equivalent doses through inadvertent soil ingestion are calculated in the kidney and thyroid whereas the highest doses are in the red marrow and on the bone surface.

  5. A DXA validated geometric model for the calculation of body segment inertial parameters of young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Samantha Lee; Forrest, Sarah Michelle; Wallace, Joanne; Challis, John H

    2017-08-08

    The purpose of this study was to validate a new geometric solids model, developed to address the lack of female specific models for body segment inertial parameter estimation. A second aim was to determine the effect of reducing the number of geometric solids used to model the limb segments on model accuracy. The 'full' model comprised 56 geometric solids, the 'reduced' 31, and the 'basic' 16. Predicted whole-body inertial parameters were compared with direct measurements (reaction board, scales), and predicted segmental parameters with those estimated from whole-body DXA scans for 28 females. The percentage root mean square error (%RMSE) for whole-body volume was <2.5% for all models, and 1.9% for the full model. The %RMSE for whole-body center of mass location was <3.2% for all models. The %RMSE whole-body mass was <3.3% for the full model. The RMSE for segment masses was <0.5 kg (<0.5%) for all segments; Bland-Altman analysis showed the full and reduced models could adequately model thigh, forearm, foot and hand segments, but the full model was required for the trunk segment. The proposed model was able to accurately predict body segment inertial parameters for females, more geometric solids are required to more accurately model the trunk.

  6. Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness predict changes in body composition from childhood to adolescence: findings from the European Youth Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Rui T; Silva, Analiza M; Minderico, Cláudia S; Sardinha, Luís B

    2011-05-01

    Several variables, such as waist circumference (WC) and trunk skinfolds (TS), are indicators of body fat. There is interest in evaluating the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) measures on changes in these markers from childhood to adolescence. To examine CRF as a potential predictor of changes in body fat over an 8-year follow-up period in a pediatric population. A cohort study of 86 children (44 girls, 42 boys) with a mean age of 9.8 ± 0.3 years who participated in the Portuguese arm of the European Youth Heart Study in 2000 completed a follow-up evaluation in 2008 at a mean age of 17.0 ± 0.4 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness, expressed as maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), was assessed during an incremental multistage bicycle test to exhaustion. Physical activity (PA) was objectively measured by accelerometry at both periods of evaluation. Fat mass (FM) was assessed using anthropometric models, sum of TS, and WC. Changes were expressed as a percentage of the baseline value. Comparison of means and linear regression analysis were used for data analysis. While CRF significantly increased among boys (P < 0.05) and decreased in girls (P < 0.01), the percentage of body fat decreased over time in boys (P < 0.01) and increased among girls. Alone, CRF explained 39%, 26%, and 25% of the total variance in WC, FM, and TS, respectively (P < 0.01). Adjusting for PA, sex, and maturation changes, CRF remained a significant predictor of WC (β = -0.335; P < 0.01), FM (β = -2.084; P < 0.01), and TS (β = -1.500; P < 0.01). Changes in CRF are a significant predictor of changes in body fat percentage from childhood to adolescence. School-based PA interventions are encouraged to maintain or improve CRF from childhood and throughout adolescence to prevent increased percentages of body fat, particularly in the abdominal region.

  7. Zn-VI quasiparticle gaps and optical spectra from many-body calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riefer, A.; Weber, N.; Mund, J.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Bayer, M.; Schindlmayr, Arno; Meier, C.; Schmidt, W. G.

    2017-06-01

    The electronic band structures of hexagonal ZnO and cubic ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe compounds are determined within hybrid-density-functional theory and quasiparticle calculations. It is found that the band-edge energies calculated on the {{G}0}{{W}0} (Zn chalcogenides) or GW (ZnO) level of theory agree well with experiment, while fully self-consistent QSGW calculations are required for the correct description of the Zn 3d bands. The quasiparticle band structures are used to calculate the linear response and second-harmonic-generation (SHG) spectra of the Zn-VI compounds. Excitonic effects in the optical absorption are accounted for within the Bethe-Salpeter approach. The calculated spectra are discussed in the context of previous experimental data and present SHG measurements for ZnO.

  8. A prospective analysis of body size during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Giovannucci, Edward; Zhang, Shumin M.; Laden, Francine; Rosner, Bernard; Birmann, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    The etiology of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is poorly understood. Obesity is associated with inflammation, a cytokine milieu conducive to lymphocyte proliferation, and has been associated with NHL risk in some epidemiologic studies. To prospectively examine NHL risk in relation to adult and earlier life obesity, we documented 635 incident NHL diagnoses among 46,390 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and 1254 diagnoses among 116,794 women in the Nurses’ Health Study over 22–32 years of follow-up. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models we estimated cohort-specific incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk of NHL and major histologic subtypes associated with cumulative average middle and young adult (ages 18–21) body mass index (BMI) and adolescent and childhood somatotype. NHL risk was modestly increased in men (but not women) with a cumulative average middle adult BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (vs. 15–22.9 kg/m2; RR: 1.28; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.77; P-trend=0.05). In meta-analyses across cohorts, higher young adult BMI was associated with increased risk of all NHL (pooled RR per 5 kg/m2: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.05, 1.37), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular lymphoma (FL) (all P-trend≤0.02). Adolescent somatotype was also positively associated with all NHL, DLBCL, and FL in pooled analyses (all P-trend ≤0.03) while childhood somatotype was positively associated with NHL overall among women only (P-trend <0.01). These findings in two large prospective cohorts provide novel evidence that larger body size in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood predicts increased risk of NHL, and particularly of DLBCL and FL. PMID:23803416

  9. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  10. The Role of Parental Misperception of Child's Body Weight in Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Colleen; Long, Lisa; Southward, Linda H; Walker, Ben; McCown, John

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the accuracy of parental perceptions of their child's weight status and also the relationship between parental perceptions and the prevalence of childhood obesity in Mississippi. Data from multi-year surveys (2009-2012) with random samples of public school parents (N=14,808). Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression were conducted with quantitative data to examine the relationship between parental perception and childhood obesity. More than 2 out of 5 parents misperceived the weight status of their child (k-12). The greatest difference occurred with kindergartners, 83.9% of parents categorized them as "healthy", when only 28.3% actually were. Parents who misperceived their child's weight were almost 12 times more likely of having an obese child. Only half of the children in this study had a healthy weight (54.5%). Health care providers, nutritionists, social workers, teachers, and school health councils could play an important role in educating parents and children on how to recognize an unhealthy weight. The strongest predictor of childhood obesity was parental misperception of their child's weight status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Calculation of center of mass and inertia moment of human body in motion by means of transformation matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yifang; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng

    2008-10-01

    Aim of research: Human body segment inertial parameters are the basic physical quantities in the study of human body in motion. Through careful calculation, inertial parameters such as the position of center of mass and moment of inertia of the total and segmental human body in motion in random postures have been obtained. Research method: Based upon the basic inertial parameters derived from Hanavan human body model and from Barter regression equation, upon position vector, moment and moment of inertia of the human body and segment relative to inertial reference frame by means of transformation matrix, and upon the resultant moment theorem and the parallel-axis theorem, inertial parameters such as the position of center of mass and moment of inertia of human body in random posture in motion are thus obtained. Result and conclusion: The research findings are in accordance with those of the balance plate and trilinear pendulum. The characteristics of individual and random posture of human body inertial parameter in motion are presented in this paper.

  12. Mothers' intake of sugar-containing beverages during pregnancy and body composition of their children during childhood: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Vincent; Erler, Nicole S; Tielemans, Myrte J; Braun, Kim Ve; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Franco, Oscar H; Voortman, Trudy

    2017-04-01

    Background: High intake of sugar-containing beverages (SCBs) has been linked to increased risk of obesity. However, associations of SCB intake during pregnancy with child body composition have been unclear.Objectives: We explored whether SCB intake during pregnancy was associated with children's body mass index (BMI) and detailed measures of body composition. In addition, we examined different types of SCBs (i.e., fruit juice, soda, and concentrate).Design: We included 3312 mother-child pairs of the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort from fetal life onward in the Netherlands. Energy-adjusted SCB intake was assessed in the first trimester with a food-frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric data of the children were collected repeatedly ≤6 y of age, and BMI was calculated. At 6 y of age, we further measured fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. All outcomes were sex- and age-standardized. Associations of SCB intake with children's BMI trajectories and body composition were analyzed with multivariable linear mixed and regression models.Results: Results from linear mixed models showed that, after adjustment for confounders including the SCB intake of the child itself, mothers' total SCB intake was positively associated with children's BMI ≤6 y of age [per serving per day: 0.04 SD score (SDS); 95% CI: 0.00, 0.07 SDS]. In addition, intakes of total SCBs and fruit juice, but not of soda or concentrate, were associated with a higher FMI [total SCBs: 0.05 SDS (95% CI: 0.01, 0.08 SDS); fruit juice: 0.04 SDS (95% CI: 0.01, 0.06 SDS)] of the 6-y-old children. These associations remained significant (P concentrations.Conclusion: Our study suggests that maternal SCB intake during pregnancy is positively associated with children's BMI during early childhood and particularly with higher fat mass. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Evaluation of algorithms for calculating bioimpedance phase angle values from measured whole-body impedance modulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbotten, Bernt J; Tronstad, Christian; Martinsen, Ørjan G; Grimnes, Sverre

    2011-07-01

    This paper addresses the problem of calculating the bioimpedance phase angle from measurements of impedance modulus. A complete impedance measurement was performed on altogether 20 healthy persons using a Solatron 1260/1294 system. The obtained impedance modulus (absolute impedance value) values were used to calculate the Cole parameters and from them the phase angles. In addition, the phase angles were also calculated using a Kramers-Kronig approach. A correlation analysis for all subjects at each frequency (5, 50, 100 and 200 kHz) for both methods gave R(2) values ranging from 0.7 to 0.96 for the Cole approach and from 0.83 to 0.96 for the Kramers-Kronig approach; thus, both methods gave good results compared with the complete measurement results. From further statistical significance testing of the absolute value of the difference between measured and calculated phase angles, it was found that the Cole equation method gave significantly better agreement for the 50 and 100 kHz frequencies. In addition, the Cole equation method gives the four Cole parameters (R(0), R(∞), τ(z) and α) using measurements at frequencies up to 200 kHz while the Kramers-Kronig method used frequencies up to 500 kHz to reduce the effect of truncation on the calculated results. Both methods gave results that can be used for further bioimpedance calculations, thus improving the application potential of bioimpedance measurement results obtained using relatively inexpensive and portable measurement equipment.

  14. Effects of posture on FDTD calculations of specific absorption rate in a voxel model of the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, R P; Dimbylow, P J [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-21

    A change in the posture of the human body can significantly affect the way in which it absorbs radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. To study this, an anatomically realistic model of the body has been modified to develop new voxel models in postures other than the standard standing position with arms to the side. These postures were sitting, arms stretched out horizontally to the side and vertically above the head. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations of the whole-body averaged specific energy absorption rate (SAR) have been performed from 10 MHz to 300 MHz at a resolution of 4 mm. Calculations show that the effect of a raised arm above the head posture was to increase the value of the whole-body averaged SAR at resonance by up to 35% when compared to the standard, arms by the side position. SAR values, both whole-body averaged and localized in the ankle, were used to derive the external electric field values required to produce the SAR basic restrictions of the ICNIRP guidelines. It was found that, in certain postures, external electric field reference levels alone would not provide a conservative estimate of localized SAR exposure and it would be necessary to invoke secondary reference levels on limb currents to provide compliance with restrictions.

  15. The effects of body posture, anatomy, age and pregnancy on the calculation of induced current densities at 50 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimbylow, Peter; Findlay, Richard

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents calculations of the induced current density in the body at 50 Hz from applied electric and magnetic fields. An extensive ensemble of 25 voxel models has been used to investigate the effects of body posture, anatomy, age and pregnancy. This set includes six adult models, eight child models and seven pregnant female models at various stages of gestation. The four postures investigated in the HPA adult model, NORMAN, were the standard position with the arms at the side, with the arms vertically above the head, the arms horizontally to the side and sitting.

  16. Escaping the correction for body surface area when calculating glomerular filtration rate in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, Amy; Tondeur, Marianne [CHU St. Pierre, Department of Radioisotopes, Brussels (Belgium); Ham, Hamphrey [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-09-15

    {sup 51}Cr ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid ({sup 51}Cr EDTA) clearance is nowadays considered as an accurate and reproducible method for measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. Normal values in function of age, corrected for body surface area, have been recently updated. However, much criticism has been expressed about the validity of body surface area correction. The aim of the present paper was to present the normal GFR values, not corrected for body surface area, with the associated percentile curves. For that purpose, the same patients as in the previous paper were selected, namely those with no recent urinary tract infection, having a normal left to right {sup 99m}Tc MAG3 uptake ratio and a normal kidney morphology on the early parenchymal images. A single blood sample method was used for {sup 51}Cr EDTA clearance measurement. Clearance values, not corrected for body surface area, increased progressively up to the adolescence. The percentile curves were determined and allow, for a single patient, to estimate accurately the level of non-corrected clearance and the evolution with time, whatever the age. (orig.)

  17. Lattice location of dopant atoms: An N-body model calculation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The channelling and scattering yields of 1 MeV α-particles in the (100),. (110) and (111) directions of silicon implanted with bismuth and ytterbium have been simulated using N-body model. The close encounter yield from dopant atoms in silicon is determined from the flux density, using the Bontemps and ...

  18. Five-body calculations of D-2 fragmentation by Xe19+ impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feeler, CR; Olson, RE; DuBois, RD; Schlatholter, T; Hadjar, O; Hoekstra, R; Morgenstern, R; Schlathölter, Thomas

    A five-body classical trajectory Monte Carlo model has been developed to study fragmentation of diatomic molecules after double electron removal by highly charged ion impact. A systematic study of the final-state deuteron energy and momentum spectra has been conducted for Xe19+ + D-2 collisions at

  19. Body Mass Index (BMI) Trajectories in Infancy Differ by Population Ancestry and May Presage Disparities in Early Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sani M.; Chesi, Alessandra; Mentch, Frank; Xiao, Rui; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Mitchell, Jonathan A.; Kelly, Andrea; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F.A.; Zemel, Babette S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: No consensus definition exists for excess adiposity during infancy. After age 2 years, high body mass index (BMI) is related to adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Before age 2 years, the utility of BMI as a metric of excess adiposity is unknown. Objectives: The objective of the study was to characterize infant BMI trajectories in a diverse, longitudinal cohort and investigate the relationship between the infancy BMI trajectory and childhood obesity. Subjects: Healthy, nonpreterm infants (n = 2114) in the Genetic Causes for Complex Pediatric Disorders study (The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia) with six or more BMI measurements in the first 13.5 months participated in the study. Design: For each infant, the BMI trajectory was modeled using polynomial regression. Independent effects of clinical factors on magnitude and timing of peak BMI were assessed. The relationship between infancy BMI and early childhood BMI (age 4 y) was examined (n = 1075). Results: The cohort was 53% male and 61% African-American. Peak BMI was 18.6 ± 1.7 kg/m2 and occurred at 8.6 ± 1.4 months. In multivariate analysis, boys had a higher (0.50 kg/m2, P BMI than girls. The peak was higher (0.53 kg/m2, P ≤ .001) and occurred earlier (by 12 d, P BMI. Conclusions: We demonstrate sex- and ancestry-specific differences in infancy BMI and an association of infancy peak BMI with childhood BMI. These findings support the potential utility of infancy BMI to identify children younger than age 2 years with increased risk for later obesity. PMID:25636051

  20. Prenatal parental separation and body weight, including development of overweight and obesity later in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Hohwü

    Full Text Available Early parental separation may be a stress factor causing a long-term alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity possibly impacting on the susceptibility to develop overweight and obesity in offspring. We aimed to examine the body mass index (BMI and the risk of overweight and obesity in children whose parents lived separately before the child was born.A follow-up study was conducted using data from the Aarhus Birth Cohort in Denmark and included 2876 children with measurements of height and weight at 9-11-years-of-age, and self-reported information on parental cohabitation status at child birth and at 9-11-years-of-age. Quantile regression was used to estimate the difference in median BMI between children whose parents lived separately (n = 124 or together (n = 2752 before the birth. We used multiple logistic regression to calculate odds ratio (OR for overweight and obesity, adjusted for gender, parity, breast feeding status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, age and educational level at child birth; with and without possible intermediate factors birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Due to a limited number of obese children, OR for obesity was adjusted for the a priori confounder maternal pre-pregnancy BMI only.The difference in median BMI was 0.54 kg/m2 (95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.10; 0.98 between children whose parents lived separately before birth and children whose parents lived together. The risk of overweight and obesity was statistically significantly increased in children whose parents lived separately before the birth of the child; OR 2.29 (95% CI: 1.18; 4.45 and OR 2.81 (95% CI: 1.05; 7.51, respectively. Additional, adjustment for possible intermediate factors did not substantially change the estimates.Parental separation before child birth was associated with higher BMI, and increased risk of overweight and obesity in 9-11-year-old children; this may suggest a fetal

  1. Prenatal parental separation and body weight, including development of overweight and obesity later in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohwü, Lena; Zhu, Jin Liang; Graversen, Lise; Li, Jiong; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Obel, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Early parental separation may be a stress factor causing a long-term alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis activity possibly impacting on the susceptibility to develop overweight and obesity in offspring. We aimed to examine the body mass index (BMI) and the risk of overweight and obesity in children whose parents lived separately before the child was born. A follow-up study was conducted using data from the Aarhus Birth Cohort in Denmark and included 2876 children with measurements of height and weight at 9-11-years-of-age, and self-reported information on parental cohabitation status at child birth and at 9-11-years-of-age. Quantile regression was used to estimate the difference in median BMI between children whose parents lived separately (n = 124) or together (n = 2752) before the birth. We used multiple logistic regression to calculate odds ratio (OR) for overweight and obesity, adjusted for gender, parity, breast feeding status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, weight gain during pregnancy, age and educational level at child birth; with and without possible intermediate factors birth weight and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Due to a limited number of obese children, OR for obesity was adjusted for the a priori confounder maternal pre-pregnancy BMI only. The difference in median BMI was 0.54 kg/m2 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.10; 0.98) between children whose parents lived separately before birth and children whose parents lived together. The risk of overweight and obesity was statistically significantly increased in children whose parents lived separately before the birth of the child; OR 2.29 (95% CI: 1.18; 4.45) and OR 2.81 (95% CI: 1.05; 7.51), respectively. Additional, adjustment for possible intermediate factors did not substantially change the estimates. Parental separation before child birth was associated with higher BMI, and increased risk of overweight and obesity in 9-11-year-old children; this may suggest a fetal

  2. Race differences in accuracy of self-reported childhood body size among white and black women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, AE; Franko, DL; Striegel-Moore, RH; Schreiber, GB; Crawford, PB; Daniels, [No Value

    Objective: To assess the relation of self-reported current and recalled preadolescent body size to measured BMI (kilograms per meter squared) and interviewer's assessment of body size. 4Research Methods and Procedures: This was a prospective cohort study of 1890 white and black women who were 9 to

  3. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. ... blood cells help your body fight infection. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  4. The Massachusetts school-based body mass index experiment: gleaning implementation lessons for future childhood obesity reduction efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Fatima Cody; Taveras, Elsie M

    2014-04-01

    In 2009, Massachusetts (MA) Department of Public Health (DPH) implemented new regulations that required public schools in the state to measure height and weight, determine body mass index (BMI), and notify parents of children in grades 1, 4, 7, and 10 of their child's weight status. After 3 years of implementation, MA DPH recently abandoned parental notification of school-based BMI screening results citing several concerns including flaws in the ability to monitor the way that the BMI screening results were communicated from the schools to parents/guardians and some reports of breaches in confidentiality of students' measurements. In this article, we review implementation issues that could have impacted the success of the MA DPH regulation as well as lessons to be learned and potentially applied to future childhood obesity efforts. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  5. Long-term impact of GH treatment during childhood on body composition and fat distribution in young adults born SGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breukhoven, P E; Kerkhof, G F; van Dijk, M; Hokken-Koelega, A C S

    2011-12-01

    GH treatment of short children born small for gestational age (SGA) results in a decline in fat mass (FM) and an increase in lean body mass (LBM). It is, however, unknown whether these changes persist into adulthood. Our objective was to assess the long-term impact of GH treatment during childhood on body composition and fat distribution. A total of 377 young adults participated in this cross-sectional study: 59 previously GH-treated young SGA adults compared to 52 untreated SGA adults with short stature (SGA-S), 161 SGA adults with spontaneous catch-up growth (SGA-CU), and 105 healthy normal-statured controls born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Body composition and fat distribution were determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Mean (SD) duration of GH treatment was 7.7 (2.4) yr and period after discontinuation 6.8 (1.8) yr. FM, fat distribution, and LBM of GH-treated SGA adults were not significantly different from that of untreated SGA-S adults. GH-treated SGA adults also had a similar FM and fat distribution as SGA-CU adults but a lower LBM. All SGA subgroups had a lower LBM and tended to have a higher FM than healthy AGA controls. Body composition and fat distribution of previously GH-treated SGA adults was similar to that of untreated SGA-S adults. GH-induced catch-up growth has no unfavorable effect on FM and fat distribution compared with spontaneous catch-up growth. However, our study shows that SGA adults in general may have a different body composition than healthy AGA controls.

  6. Cesarean Delivery and Body Mass Index at 6 Months and Into Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Rebecca Kofod; Sejersen, Tobias Steen; Chawes, Bo L

    2017-01-01

    in growth and obesity. METHODS: Term children from the birth cohorts Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2000 (COPSAC2000) and COPSAC2010 were included. Height, length, and weight measurements were collected prospectively until 5 years in COPSAC2010 and until 13 years in COPSAC2000. Dual......-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were performed at 3.5 and 7 years. Information on relevant covariates were verified during clinical visits. Analyses were adjusted for covariates associating with CD. RESULTS: In COPSAC2010, 20% (N = 138/673) of the children were delivered by CD; 49% were girls...... = .16; and meta-analysis β-coefficient, .37 (95% CI, .14 to .60), P = .002. There were no differences in BMI trajectory between the 2 groups by 5 and 13 years, nor cross-sectional BMI at 5 and 13 years, nor in fat percentages from DXA scans. CONCLUSIONS: Children delivered by CD had a higher BMI at 6...

  7. Effects of body habitus on internal radiation dose calculations using the 5-year-old anthropomorphic male models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-08-01

    Computational phantoms are commonly used in internal radiation dosimetry to assess the amount and distribution pattern of energy deposited in various parts of the human body from different internal radiation sources. Radiation dose assessments are commonly performed on predetermined reference computational phantoms while the argument for individualized patient-specific radiation dosimetry exists. This study aims to evaluate the influence of body habitus on internal dosimetry and to quantify the uncertainties in dose estimation correlated with the use of fixed reference models. The 5-year-old IT’IS male phantom was modified to match target anthropometric parameters, including body weight, body height and sitting height/stature ratio (SSR), determined from reference databases, thus enabling the creation of 125 5-year-old habitus-dependent male phantoms with 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentile body morphometries. We evaluated the absorbed fractions and the mean absorbed dose to the target region per unit cumulative activity in the source region (S-values) of F-18 in 46 source regions for the generated 125 anthropomorphic 5-year-old hybrid male phantoms using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended general purpose Monte Carlo transport code and calculated the absorbed dose and effective dose of five 18F-labelled radiotracers for children of various habitus. For most organs, the S-value of F-18 presents stronger statistical correlations with body weight, standing height and sitting height than BMI and SSR. The self-absorbed fraction and self-absorbed S-values of F-18 and the absorbed dose and effective dose of 18F-labelled radiotracers present with the strongest statistical correlations with body weight. For 18F-Amino acids, 18F-Brain receptor substances, 18F-FDG, 18F-L-DOPA and 18F-FBPA, the mean absolute effective dose differences between phantoms of different habitus and fixed reference models are 11.4%, 11.3%, 10.8%, 13.3% and 11.4%, respectively. Total body

  8. Effects of body habitus on internal radiation dose calculations using the 5-year-old anthropomorphic male models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-07-13

    Computational phantoms are commonly used in internal radiation dosimetry to assess the amount and distribution pattern of energy deposited in various parts of the human body from different internal radiation sources. Radiation dose assessments are commonly performed on predetermined reference computational phantoms while the argument for individualized patient-specific radiation dosimetry exists. This study aims to evaluate the influence of body habitus on internal dosimetry and to quantify the uncertainties in dose estimation correlated with the use of fixed reference models. The 5-year-old IT'IS male phantom was modified to match target anthropometric parameters, including body weight, body height and sitting height/stature ratio (SSR), determined from reference databases, thus enabling the creation of 125 5-year-old habitus-dependent male phantoms with 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentile body morphometries. We evaluated the absorbed fractions and the mean absorbed dose to the target region per unit cumulative activity in the source region (S-values) of F-18 in 46 source regions for the generated 125 anthropomorphic 5-year-old hybrid male phantoms using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended general purpose Monte Carlo transport code and calculated the absorbed dose and effective dose of five (18)F-labelled radiotracers for children of various habitus. For most organs, the S-value of F-18 presents stronger statistical correlations with body weight, standing height and sitting height than BMI and SSR. The self-absorbed fraction and self-absorbed S-values of F-18 and the absorbed dose and effective dose of (18)F-labelled radiotracers present with the strongest statistical correlations with body weight. For (18)F-Amino acids, (18)F-Brain receptor substances, (18)F-FDG, (18)F-L-DOPA and (18)F-FBPA, the mean absolute effective dose differences between phantoms of different habitus and fixed reference models are 11.4%, 11.3%, 10.8%, 13.3% and 11.4%, respectively

  9. Ab Initio Geometry and Bright Excitation of Carotenoids: Quantum Monte Carlo and Many Body Green's Function Theory Calculations on Peridinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccia, Emanuele; Varsano, Daniele; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2014-02-11

    In this letter, we report the singlet ground state structure of the full carotenoid peridinin by means of variational Monte Carlo (VMC) calculations. The VMC relaxed geometry has an average bond length alternation of 0.1165(10) Å, larger than the values obtained by DFT (PBE, B3LYP, and CAM-B3LYP) and shorter than that calculated at the Hartree-Fock (HF) level. TDDFT and EOM-CCSD calculations on a reduced peridinin model confirm the HOMO-LUMO major contribution of the Bu(+)-like (S2) bright excited state. Many Body Green's Function Theory (MBGFT) calculations of the vertical excitation energy of the Bu(+)-like state for the VMC structure (VMC/MBGFT) provide an excitation energy of 2.62 eV, in agreement with experimental results in n-hexane (2.72 eV). The dependence of the excitation energy on the bond length alternation in the MBGFT and TDDFT calculations with different functionals is discussed.

  10. Systematic reduction of sign errors in many-body calculations of atoms and molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, P. R. C.; Bajdich, M.; Tiago, M. L.; Hood, R. Q.; Reboredo, F. A.

    2010-03-01

    We apply the self-healing diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm (SHDMC) [Phys. Rev. B 79 195117 (2009), ibid. 80 125110 (2009)] to the calculation of ground states of atoms and molecules. By comparing with configuration interaction results we show the method yields systematic convergence towards the exact ground state wave function and reduction of the fixed-node DMC sign error. We present results for atoms and light molecules, obtaining, e.g. the binding of N2 to chemical accuracy. Moreover, we demonstrate that the algorithm is robust enough to be used for the systems as large as the fullerene C20 starting from a set of random coefficients. SHDMC thus constitutes a practical method for systematically reducing the Fermion sign problem in electronic structure calculations. Research sponsored by the ORNL LDRD program (MB), U.S. DOE BES Divisions of Materials Sciences & Engineering (FAR, MLT) and Scientific User Facilities (PRCK). LLNL research was performed under U.S. DOE contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 (RQH).

  11. Disability, body image and sports/physical activity in adult survivors of childhood CNS tumors: population-based outcomes from a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boman, Krister K.; Hörnquist, Lina; de Graaff, Lisanne; Rickardsson, Jenny; Lannering, Birgitta; Gustafsson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Childhood CNS tumor survivors risk health and functional impairments that threaten normal psychological development and self-perception. This study investigated the extent to which health and functional ability predict adult survivors' body image (BI) and self-confidence regarding sports and

  12. Semen quality and reproductive hormones according to birthweight and body mass index in childhood and adult life: two decades of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Hansen, Maj; Jensen, Cecilie Rutkjaer

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between childhood body mass index (BMI), birth weight, and adulthood BMI, and adult semen quality and level of reproductive hormones. DESIGN: Follow-up study. SETTING: From a pregnancy cohort established in 1984-1987. PATIENT(S): 347 out of 5,109 sons wer...

  13. Comparing pairwise-additive and many-body generalized Born models for acid/base calculations and protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Francesco; Mignon, David; Polydorides, Savvas; Simonson, Thomas

    2017-10-30

    Generalized Born (GB) solvent models are common in acid/base calculations and protein design. With GB, the interaction between a pair of solute atoms depends on the shape of the protein/solvent boundary and, therefore, the positions of all solute atoms, so that GB is a many-body potential. For compute-intensive applications, the model is often simplified further, by introducing a mean, native-like protein/solvent boundary, which removes the many-body property. We investigate a method for both acid/base calculations and protein design that uses Monte Carlo simulations in which side chains can explore rotamers, bind/release protons, or mutate. The fluctuating protein/solvent dielectric boundary is treated in a way that is numerically exact (within the GB framework), in contrast to a mean boundary. Its originality is that it captures the many-body character while retaining the residue-pairwise complexity given by a fixed boundary. The method is implemented in the Proteus protein design software. It yields a slight but systematic improvement for acid/base constants in nine proteins and a significant improvement for the computational design of three PDZ domains. It eliminates a source of model uncertainty, which will facilitate the analysis of other model limitations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Stronger influence of maternal than paternal obesity on infant and early childhood body mass index: the Fels Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linabery, A M; Nahhas, R W; Johnson, W; Choh, A C; Towne, B; Odegaard, A O; Czerwinski, S A; Demerath, E W

    2013-06-01

    Excessive early childhood adiposity is a prevalent and increasing concern in many parts of the world. Parental obesity is one of the several factors previously associated with infant and early childhood weight, length and adiposity. Parental obesity represents a surrogate marker of the complex interplay among genetic, epigenetic and shared environmental factors, and is potentially modifiable. The relative contributions of maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI) to infant and early childhood growth, as well as the timing of such effects, have not been firmly established. Utilizing serial infant measurements and growth curve modelling, this is the largest study to fully characterize and formally compare associations between maternal and paternal BMI and offspring growth across the entire infancy and early childhood period. Maternal obesity is a stronger determinant of offspring BMI than paternal obesity at birth and from 2 to 3 years of age, suggesting that prevention efforts focused particularly on maternal lifestyle and BMI may be important in reducing excess infant BMI. The observation that maternal BMI effects are not constant, but rather present at birth, wane and re-emerge during late infancy, suggests that there is a window of opportunity in early infancy when targeted interventions on children of obese mothers may be most effective. Parental obesity influences infant body size. To fully characterize their relative effects on infant adiposity, associations between maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI) category (normal: ≤25 kg m(-2) , overweight: 25 - obese: ≥30 kg m(-2) ) and infant BMI were compared in Fels Longitudinal Study participants. A median of 9 serial weight and length measures from birth to 3.5 years were obtained from 912 European American children born in 1928-2008. Using multivariable mixed effects regression, contributions of maternal vs. paternal BMI status to infant BMI growth curves were evaluated. Cubic spline models

  15. Statistical and Multidimensional Body Composition Parameter Analysis in Young Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topczewska Magdalena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the problem of assessing selected body compo- sition parameters after completion of antitumor therapy and comparing them with the same parameters of healthy children. A high percentage of overweight and obesity, as well as abnormal fat distribution in convalescents with cancer shows a significant adverse effect of therapy on body composition and suggests the need for early intervention in terms of diet and exercise, which would help patients to quickly achieve the proper parameters of body composition. Two main problems will be mentioned during the presented data analysis. Firstly, in each group there was a small number of observations. Because of this, the real differences between examined subgroups may have been omitted. Secondarily, many variables are correlated and are not normally distributed. Therefore, be- side the standard statistical tests to compare two groups, principal component analysis was applied to reduce the dimensions of the attribute space and to attempt to classify two groups of patients.

  16. A new formula for calculating standard liver volume for living donor liver transplantation without using body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokudo, Takashi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Uldry, Emilie; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Kaneko, Junichi; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Aoki, Taku; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Demartines, Nicolas; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro; Halkic, Nermin

    2015-10-01

    The standard liver volume (SLV) is widely used in liver surgery, especially for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). All the reported formulas for SLV use body surface area or body weight, which can be influenced strongly by the general condition of the patient. We analyzed the liver volumes of 180 Japanese donor candidates and 160 Swiss patients with normal livers to develop a new formula. The dataset was randomly divided into two subsets, the test and validation sample, stratified by race. The new formula was validated using 50 LDLT recipients. Without using body weight-related variables, age, thoracic width measured using computed tomography, and race independently predicted the total liver volume (TLV). A new formula: 203.3-(3.61×age)+(58.7×thoracic width)-(463.7×race [1=Asian, 0=Caucasian]), most accurately predicted the TLV in the validation dataset as compared with any other formulas. The graft volume for LDLT was correlated with the postoperative prothrombin time, and the graft volume/SLV ratio calculated using the new formula was significantly better correlated with the postoperative prothrombin time than the graft volume/SLV ratio calculated using the other formulas or the graft volume/body weight ratio. The new formula derived using the age, thoracic width and race predicted both the TLV in the healthy patient group and the SLV in LDLT recipients more accurately than any other previously reported formulas. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Communication: electronic band gaps of semiconducting zig-zag carbon nanotubes from many-body perturbation theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umari, P; Petrenko, O; Taioli, S; De Souza, M M

    2012-05-14

    Electronic band gaps for optically allowed transitions are calculated for a series of semiconducting single-walled zig-zag carbon nanotubes of increasing diameter within the many-body perturbation theory GW method. The dependence of the evaluated gaps with respect to tube diameters is then compared with those found from previous experimental data for optical gaps combined with theoretical estimations of exciton binding energies. We find that our GW gaps confirm the behavior inferred from experiment. The relationship between the electronic gap and the diameter extrapolated from the GW values is also in excellent agreement with a direct measurement recently performed through scanning tunneling spectroscopy.

  18. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, T.M.A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Sjöberg, A.; Eldin, N.; Yngve, A.; Kunesova, M.; Stare, G.; Rito, A.I.; Duleva, V.; Hassapidou, M.; Martos, E.; Pudule, I.; Petrauskiene, A.; Farrugia Sant Angelo, V.; Hovengen, R.; Breda, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries.

  19. Maternal and Early Childhood Determinants of Women's Body Size in Midlife : Overall Cohort and Sibling Analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ester, Wietske A.; Houghton, Lauren C.; Lumey, L. H.; Michels, Karin B.; Hoek, Hans W.; Wei, Ying; Susser, Ezra S.; Cohn, Barbara A.; Terry, Mary Beth

    2017-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that adult body size has its roots earlier in life, yet few life-course studies have data on siblings with which to control for family-level confounding. Using prospective data from the Early Determinants of Mammographic Density Study (n = 1,108; 1959-2008), we

  20. Electronic structure of lanthanum bromide and strontium iodide from many-body perturbation theory calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhart, Paul [Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Aaberg, Daniel; Sadigh, Babak [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Rare-earth based scintillators represent a challenging class of scintillator materials due to pronounced spin-orbit coupling and subtle interactions between d and f states that cannot be reproduced by standard electronic structure methods such as density functional theory. In this contribution we present a detailed investigation of the electronic band structure of LaBr{sub 3} using the quasi-p article self-consistent GW (scGW) method. This parameter-free approach is shown to yield an excellent description of the electronic structure of LaBr{sub 3}. Specifically we reproduce the correct level ordering and spacing of the 4f and 5d states, which are inverted with respect to the free La atom, the band gap as well as the spin-orbit splitting of La-derived states. We furthermore present electronic structure calculations using G{sub 0}W{sub 0} for the important scintillator material SrI{sub 2}. We explicitly take into account spin-orbit coupling at all levels of the theory. Our results demonstrate the applicability and reliability of the scGW approach for rare-earth halides. They furthermore provide an excellent starting point for investigating the electronic structure of rare-earth dopants such as Ce and Er.

  1. Relativistic Many-body Moller-Plesset Perturbation Theory Calculations of the Energy Levels and Transition Probabilities in Na- to P-like Xe Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilkas, M J; Ishikawa, Y; Trabert, E

    2007-03-27

    Relativistic multireference many-body perturbation theory calculations have been performed on Xe{sup 43+}-Xe{sup 39+} ions, resulting in energy levels, electric dipole transition probabilities, and level lifetimes. The second-order many-body perturbation theory calculation of energy levels included mass shifts, frequency-dependent Breit correction and Lamb shifts. The calculated transition energies and E1 transition rates are used to present synthetic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet range for some of the Xe ions.

  2. Calculation of Electronic and Optical Properties of AgGaO2 Polymorphs Using Many-Body Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadsetani, Mehrdad; Nejatipour, Reihan

    2018-02-01

    Ab initio calculations based on many-body perturbation theory have been used to study the electronic and optical properties of AgGaO2 in rhombohedral, hexagonal, and orthorhombic phases. GW calculations showed that AgGaO2 is an indirect-bandgap semiconductor in all three phases with energy bandgap of 2.35 eV, 2.23 eV, and 2.07 eV, in good agreement with available experimental values. By solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave basis, optical properties of the AgGaO2 polymorphs were calculated and compared with those obtained using the GW-corrected random phase approximation (RPA) and with existing experimental data. Strong anisotropy in the optical absorption spectra was observed, and the excitonic structures which were absent in the RPA calculations were reproduced in GWBSE calculations, in good agreement with the optical absorption spectrum of the rhombohedral phase. While modifying peak positions and intensities of the absorption spectra, the GWBSE gave rise to the redistribution of oscillator strengths. In comparison with the z-polarized response, excitonic effects in the x-polarized response were dominant. In the x- (and y-) polarized responses of r- and h-AgGaO2, spectral features and excitonic effects occur at the lower energies, but in the case of o-AgGaO2, the spectral structures of the z-polarized response occur at lower energies. In addition, the low-energy loss functions of AgGaO2 were calculated and compared using the GWBSE approach. Spectral features in the energy loss function components near the bandgap region were attributed to corresponding excitonic structures in the imaginary part of the dielectric function.

  3. Electronic structure and metallization of cubic GdH3 under pressure: Ab initio many-body GW calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Bo; Zhang, Yachao

    2016-07-01

    The electronic structures of the cubic GdH3 are extensively investigated using the ab initio many-body GW calculations treating the Gd 4f electrons either in the core (4f-core) or in the valence states (4f-val). Different degrees of quasiparticle (QP) self-consistent calculations with the different starting points are used to correct the failures of the GGA/GGA + U/HSE03 calculations. In the 4f-core case, GGA + G0W0 calculations give a fundamental band gap of 1.72 eV, while GGA+ GW0 or GGA + GW calculations present a larger band gap. In the 4f-val case, the nonlocal exchange-correlation (xc) functional HSE03 can account much better for the strong localization of the 4f states than the semilocal or Hubbard U corrected xc functional in the Kohn-Sham equation. We show that the fundamental gap of the antiferromagnetic (AFM) or ferromagnetic (FM) GdH3 can be opened up by solving the QP equation with improved starting point of eigenvalues and wave functions given by HSE03. The HSE03 + G0W0 calculations present a fundamental band gap of 2.73 eV in the AFM configuration, and the results of the corresponding GW0 and GW calculations are 2.89 and 3.03 eV, respectively. In general, for the cubic structure, the fundamental gap from G0W0 calculations in the 4f-core case is the closest to the real result. By G0W0 calculations in the 4f-core case, we find that H or Gd defects can strongly affect the band structure, especially the H defects. We explain the mechanism in terms of the possible electron correlation on the hydrogen site. Under compression, the insulator-to-metal transition in the cubic GdH3 occurs around 40 GPa, which might be a satisfied prediction.

  4. Relevance of Morning and Evening Energy and Macronutrient Intake during Childhood for Body Composition in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichs, Tanja; Roßbach, Sarah; Herder, Christian; Alexy, Ute; Buyken, Anette E

    2016-11-10

    (1) Background: This study investigated the relevance of morning and evening energy and macronutrient intake during childhood for body composition in early adolescence; (2) Methods: Analyses were based on data from 372 DONALD (DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed study) participants. Explorative life-course plots were performed to examine whether morning or evening energy and macronutrient intake at 3/4 years, 5/6 years, or 7/8 years is critical for fat mass index (FMI [kg/m²]) and fat free mass index (FFMI [kg/m²]) in early adolescence (10/11 years). Subsequently, exposures in periods identified as consistently critical were examined in depth using adjusted regression models; (3) Results: Life-course plots identified morning fat and carbohydrate (CHO) intake at 3/4 years and 7/8 years as well as changes in these intakes between 3/4 years and 7/8 years as potentially critical for FMI at 10/11 years. Adjusted regression models corroborated higher FMI values at 10/11 years among those who had consumed less fat (p = 0.01) and more CHO (p = 0.01) in the morning at 7/8 years as well as among those who had decreased their morning fat intake (p = 0.02) and increased their morning CHO intake (p = 0.05) between 3/4 years and 7/8 years; (4) Conclusion: During childhood, adherence to a low fat, high CHO intake in the morning may have unfavorable consequences for FMI in early adolescence.

  5. Relationship between Chronic Short Sleep Duration and Childhood Body Mass Index: A School-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pileggi

    Full Text Available To assess relationship between obesity and chronic shorter sleep duration in children and to determine if lack of sleep represents an independent determinant of childhood Body Mass Index.This cross-sectional study was conducted in all children enrolled in the fifth class (approximately 10 years of age of all public primary schools in Catanzaro (Southern Italy. The overall response rate was 62% resulting in 542 participating children. Parents completed a questionnaire with information on their demographics and socio-economic characteristics, their health status, characteristics of their child birth and health status. The sleeping habits were investigated in the 3 months preceding the consultation and parents were asked to indicate hours of bedtime and wake-up of their children. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to examine the association between child BMI and chronic lack of sleep.36.7% of the children surveyed were overweight or obese. A quarter of children did not routinely play sports and many of them spent more than an hour a day watching TV (60.7% and using videogames or computer (51.1%. Widespread dietary habits were inadequate, especially concerning vegetables and fruit intake with more than 95% of children who consumed insufficient amounts. The average duration of sleep was equal to 9.4 (SD = ±0.6 hours, and the short-sleepers accounted for 38.9% of the total sample. The results of multivariate analysis showed a significant 0.77 Kg/m(2 increase of BMI for children classified as short compared to normal sleepers (95%CI = 0.16-1.38, p = 0.01.Chronic lack of sleep appears to be associated to higher BMI even in middle childhood and strongly suggests that public health strategies, focused on promoting healthy lifestyles should include an innovative approach to ensure an adequate duration of sleep at night especially in children, alongside more traditional approaches.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of different body weight and height-based definitions of childhood obesity in identifying overfat among Chinese children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Hui, Stanley Sai-chuen

    2015-08-20

    Various body weight and height-based references are used to define obese children and adolescents. However, no study investigating the diagnostic accuracies of the definitions of obesity and overweight in Hong Kong Chinese children and adolescents has been conducted. The current study aims to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of BMI-based definitions and 1993 HK reference in screening excess body fat among Hong Kong Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 2,134 participants (1,135 boys and 999 girls) were recruited from local schools. The foot-to-foot BIA scale was applied to assess %BF using standard methods. The criterion of childhood obesity (i.e., overfat) was defined as over 25 %BF for boys and over 30 %BF for girls. Childhood obesity was also determined from four BMI-based references and the 1993 HK reference. The diagnostic accuracy of these existing definitions for childhood obesity in screening excess body fat was evaluated using diagnostic indices. Overall, %BF was significantly correlated with anthropometry measurements in both genders (in boys, r = 0.747 for BMI 0.766 for PWH; in girls, r = 0.930 for BMI 0.851 for PWH). The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity determined by BMI-based references were similar with the prevalence rates of obesity in the 1993 HK reference in both genders. All definitions for childhood obesity showed low sensitivity (in boys, 0.325-0.761; in girls, 0.128-0.588) in detecting overfat. Specificities were high for cut-offs among all definitions for childhood obesity (in boys, 0.862-0.980; in girls, 0.973-0.998). In conclusion, prevalence rates of childhood obesity or overweight varied widely according to the diagnostic references applied. The diagnostic performance for weight and height-based references for obesity is poorer than expected for both genders among Hong Kong Chinese children and adolescents. In order to improve the diagnosis accuracy of childhood obesity, either cut-off values of body weight and

  7. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Lauritzen, Lotte; Brasholt, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate the rela...... the relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast milk, body composition, and timing of adiposity rebound in children....

  8. Risk factors associated with hypoxemia during foreign body removal from airways in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Paulo Fernando Souto; Camargos, Paulo; Picinin, Isabela Furtado de Mendonça

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between variables associated with hypoxemia in children who underwent rigid bronchoscopy for foreign body removal. From April 1993 to April 2011, four hundred and one children who inhaled foreign bodies were included. Apart from descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors related to hypoxemia. Among the patients aged up to one year, the risk of hypoxemia was five and a half times higher than for patients aged 1 or older (OR=5.6), whereas the risk of patients who underwent foreign body removal using seed type tweezers having hypoxemia was approximately 4 times higher than that of patients who underwent this procedure with other types of tweezers (OR=3.7). Furthermore, for each additional minute in the duration of the procedure, the risk of hypoxemia reached 4% (OR=1.04). Our results suggest that children younger than 1 year who require RB seem to be vulnerable to a higher risk of hypoxemia, especially in longer procedures in which seed tweezers are used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of body image dissatisfaction in the association between treatment-related scarring or disfigurement and psychological distress in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuotto, Stefanie C; Ojha, Rohit P; Li, Chenghong; Kimberg, Cara; Klosky, James L; Krull, Kevin R; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Brinkman, Tara M

    2018-01-01

    To examine the potential mediating role of body image dissatisfaction on the association between treatment-related scarring/disfigurement and psychological distress in adult survivors of childhood cancer. Participants included 1714 adult survivors of childhood cancer (mean [SD] age at evaluation = 32.4 [8.0] years, time since diagnosis = 24.1 [8.1] years) enrolled in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study. Survivors completed measures of body image, emotional distress, and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Body image dissatisfaction (BID) was categorized into 2 groups (cancer-related and general) based on factor analysis. Using causal mediation analysis, we estimated the proportion of psychological distress associated with treatment-related scarring/disfigurement that could be eliminated by resolving BID through a hypothetical intervention. Among survivors with scarring/disfigurement of the head, a sizable proportion of the relative excess of psychological distress could be eliminated if BID was successfully treated (males: [cancer-related BID: depression: 63%; anxiety: 100%; PTSS: 52%]; [general BID: depression: 70%; anxiety: 100%; PTSS: 42%]; females: [cancer-related BID: depression: 20%; anxiety; 36%; PTSS: 23%]; [general BID: depression: 32%; anxiety: 87%; PTSS: 38%]). The mediating effect of BID was less pronounced for the association between scarring/disfigurement of the body and psychological distress for both males and females. Body image dissatisfaction mediates the association treatment-related scarring/disfigurement and psychological distress among adult survivors of childhood cancer, particularly among survivors with scarring/disfigurement of the head and male survivors. Successful treatment of body image dissatisfaction has the potential to eliminate a substantial proportion of psychological distress related to scarring/disfigurement among adult survivors of childhood cancer. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. HFOLD - A program package for calculating two-body MSSM Higgs decays at full one-loop level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, W; Eberl, H; Hluchá, H

    2011-10-01

    HFOLD (Higgs Full One Loop Decays) is a Fortran program package for calculating all MSSM Higgs two-body decay widths and the corresponding branching ratios at full one-loop level. The package is done in the SUSY Parameter Analysis convention and supports the SUSY Les Houches Accord input and output format. PROGRAM SUMMARY: Program title: HFOLD Catalogue identifier: AEJG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJG_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 340 621 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 760 051 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 77 Computer: Workstation, PC Operating system: Linux RAM: 524 288 000 Bytes Classification: 11.1 External routines: LoopTools 2.2 (http://www.feynarts.de/looptools/), SLHALib 2.2 (http://www.feynarts.de/slha/). The LoopTools code is included in the distribution package. Nature of problem: A future high-energy e+e- linear collider will be the best environment for the precise measurements of masses, cross sections, branching ratios, etc. Experimental accuracies are expected at the per-cent down to the per-mile level. These must be matched from the theoretical side. Therefore higher order calculations are mandatory. Solution method: This program package calculates all MSSM Higgs two-body decay widths and the corresponding branching ratios at full one-loop level. The renormalization is done in the DR scheme following the SUSY Parameter Analysis convention. The program supports the SUSY Les Houches Accord input and output format. Running time: The example provided takes only a few seconds to run.

  11. Multi-body simulation of a canine hind limb: model development, experimental validation and calculation of ground reaction forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wefstaedt Patrick

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among other causes the long-term result of hip prostheses in dogs is determined by aseptic loosening. A prevention of prosthesis complications can be achieved by an optimization of the tribological system which finally results in improved implant duration. In this context a computerized model for the calculation of hip joint loadings during different motions would be of benefit. In a first step in the development of such an inverse dynamic multi-body simulation (MBS- model we here present the setup of a canine hind limb model applicable for the calculation of ground reaction forces. Methods The anatomical geometries of the MBS-model have been established using computer tomography- (CT- and magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI- data. The CT-data were collected from the pelvis, femora, tibiae and pads of a mixed-breed adult dog. Geometric information about 22 muscles of the pelvic extremity of 4 mixed-breed adult dogs was determined using MRI. Kinematic and kinetic data obtained by motion analysis of a clinically healthy dog during a gait cycle (1 m/s on an instrumented treadmill were used to drive the model in the multi-body simulation. Results and Discussion As a result the vertical ground reaction forces (z-direction calculated by the MBS-system show a maximum deviation of 1.75%BW for the left and 4.65%BW for the right hind limb from the treadmill measurements. The calculated peak ground reaction forces in z- and y-direction were found to be comparable to the treadmill measurements, whereas the curve characteristics of the forces in y-direction were not in complete alignment. Conclusion In conclusion, it could be demonstrated that the developed MBS-model is suitable for simulating ground reaction forces of dogs during walking. In forthcoming investigations the model will be developed further for the calculation of forces and moments acting on the hip joint during different movements, which can be of help in context with the in

  12. Post-traumatic stress symptoms and childhood abuse categories in a national representative sample for a specific age group: associations to body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roenholt, Stine; Beck, Nina N; Karsberg, Sidsel H; Elklit, Ask

    2012-01-01

    Studies of specific groups such as military veterans have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is linked to adverse health outcomes including unhealthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between PTSD symptoms, experiences of childhood trauma and weight in a community sample. A stratified random probability survey was conducted in Denmark by the Danish National Centre for Social Research between 2008 and 2009 with 2,981 participants born in 1984, achieving a response rate of 67%. The participants were interviewed with a structured interview with questions pertaining PTSD symptomatology, exposure to childhood abuse, exposure to potentially traumatizing events, height, and weight. Underweight was defined by a body mass index (BMI) <18.5, overweight was defined by a BMI ≥25 and <30 and obesity was defined by a BMI ≥30. PTSD symptomatology and childhood abuse were significantly associated with both underweight and overweight/obesity. Childhood emotional abuse was especially associated with underweight, whereas sexual abuse and overall abuse were particularly associated with overweight/obesity. These findings indicate that health care professionals may benefit from assessing PTSD and childhood abuse in the treatment of both overweight and underweight individuals.

  13. Post-traumatic stress symptoms and childhood abuse categories in a national representative sample for a specific age group: associations to body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidsel H. Karsberg

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of specific groups such as military veterans have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is linked to adverse health outcomes including unhealthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between PTSD symptoms, experiences of childhood trauma and weight in a community sample. Methods: A stratified random probability survey was conducted in Denmark by the Danish National Centre for Social Research between 2008 and 2009 with 2,981 participants born in 1984, achieving a response rate of 67%. The participants were interviewed with a structured interview with questions pertaining PTSD symptomatology, exposure to childhood abuse, exposure to potentially traumatizing events, height, and weight. Underweight was defined by a body mass index (BMI <18.5, overweight was defined by a BMI ≥25 and <30 and obesity was defined by a BMI ≥30. Results: PTSD symptomatology and childhood abuse were significantly associated with both underweight and overweight/obesity. Childhood emotional abuse was especially associated with underweight, whereas sexual abuse and overall abuse were particularly associated with overweight/obesity. Conclusion: These findings indicate that health care professionals may benefit from assessing PTSD and childhood abuse in the treatment of both overweight and underweight individuals.

  14. Body composition during childhood and adolescence: relations to bone strength and microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Amin, Shreyasee; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Achenbach, Sara J; McCready, Louise K; Joseph Melton, L; Khosla, Sundeep

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have examined the association of body composition with bone development in children and adolescents, but none have used micro-finite element (μFE) analysis of high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography images to assess bone strength. This study sought to examine the relations of appendicular lean mass (ALM) and total body fat mass (TBFM) to bone strength (failure load) at the distal radius and tibia. This was a cross-sectional study of 198 healthy 8- to bone age, height, fracture history, ALM, and TBFM, multiple linear regression analyses in boys and girls, separately, showed robust positive associations between ALM and failure loads at both the distal radius (boys: β = 0.92, P relationship between TBFM and failure load at the distal radius was virtually nonexistent (boys: β = -0.07; P = .284; girls: β = -0.03; P = .729). At the distal tibia, positive, albeit weak, associations were observed between TBFM and failure load in both boys (β = 0.09, P = .075) and girls (β = 0.17, P = .033). Our data highlight the importance of lean mass for optimizing bone strength during growth, and suggest that fat mass may have differential relations to bone strength at weight-bearing vs non-weight-bearing sites in children and adolescents. These observations suggest that the strength of the distal radius does not commensurately increase with excess gains in adiposity during growth, which may result in a mismatch between bone strength and the load experienced by the distal forearm during a fall. These findings may explain, in part, why obese children are over-represented among distal forearm fracture cases.

  15. Do naturally occurring magnetic nanoparticles in the human body mediate increased risk of childhood leukaemia with EMF exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binhi, Vladimir

    2008-07-01

    To develop the hypothesis that magnetic nanoparticles, found in many organisms and often involved in biological reactions to weak electromagnetic fields (EMF), mediate EMF-induced DNA damage which could result in increased risk of childhood leukaemia and other cancers. An analysis of current research into magnetic nanoparticles. Physics estimates and the development of the hypothesis that intracellular magnetic nanoparticles chronically change the free radical concentration and can mediate the enhanced rate of DNA damage in hematopoietic stem cells. The properties of magnetic nanoparticles are considered and the naturally occurring magnetic field generated by a magnetic nanoparticle within a cell is calculated to be in the range of about 1-200 millitesla, which exceeds the level of the natural geomagnetic field by orders of magnitude. Experiments are summarized on the biological effects of static magnetic field in this range. It is shown that magnetic nanoparticles can increase the rate of free radical formation by a few percent, in the course of an idealized radical-pair reaction in a cell. A mechanism is discussed that explains how weak alternating magnetic fields, of the order of 0.4 muT, could cause an increase in the rate of leukaemia via millitesla fields produced around superparamagnetic nanoparticles in hematopoietic stem cells. The postulated presence of magnetic nanoparticles located in hematopoietic stem cells could constitute a cancer risk factor. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles can possibly mediate increased level of leukaemia caused by background exposure to low-frequency weak EMF.

  16. Childhood body mass index and development of type 2 diabetes throughout adult life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Bjerregaard, Lise G.; Gamborg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated how a wide spectrum of body mass index (BMI) values at ages 7 to 13 years are associated with type 2 diabetes throughout adulthood, including potential modifying effects of sex and birth weight. METHODS: From the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, 292......,827 individuals, born between 1930 and 1989, were followed in national registers for type 2 diabetes (women, n = 7,472; men, n = 11,548). Heights and weights were measured at ages 7 to 13 years. RESULTS: Below-average BMIs, with few exceptions, were not associated with type 2 diabetes. Above-average BMIs had...... positive associations that were stronger in women than men, stronger in younger birth cohorts, and weaker with older age at diagnosis. Women born 1930-1947, 1948-1965, and 1966-1983 with above-average BMIs at 13 years (≥18.2 kg/m(2) ) had hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) ranging from 2.12 (1...

  17. [The influence of sleep and emotional states on childhood body mass index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo-Vázquez, I; Busto-Zapico, R; Peña-Suárez, E; Fernández-Rodríguez, C

    2015-02-01

    By using path analysis, the aim of this study iso show how anxiety, low self-esteem and a decrease in hours of sleep interact to lead to an increase in overweight in children. A random sample of 291 schoolchildren was included. A cross-sectional design was used, measuring their body mass index (BMI) and applying the State-Trait Anxiety inventory for Children and the Children' Depression Inventory. The mean sleep time was 9 hours and 50 minutes. There was an inverse relationship between hours of sleep and BMI. Similarly, anxiety and low self-esteem were predictors of the number of hours of sleep. These data allow it to be concluded that, on one hand, the population studied sleeps less than the 10 or 11 hours recommended for their age. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated how certain emotional states can encourage increased BMI in children, but this relationship is associated with reduced sleep. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Developing Intervention Strategies to Optimise Body Composition in Early Childhood in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Draper

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this research was to collect data to inform intervention strategies to optimise body composition in South African preschool children. Methods. Data were collected in urban and rural settings. Weight status, physical activity, and gross motor skill assessments were conducted with 341 3–6-year-old children, and 55 teachers and parents/caregivers participated in focus groups. Results. Overweight and obesity were a concern in low-income urban settings (14%, but levels of physical activity and gross motor skills were adequate across all settings. Focus group findings from urban and rural settings indicated that teachers would welcome input on leading activities to promote physical activity and gross motor skill development. Teachers and parents/caregivers were also positive about young children being physically active. Recommendations for potential intervention strategies include a teacher-training component, parent/child activity mornings, and a home-based component for parents/caregivers. Conclusion. The findings suggest that an intervention focussed on increasing physical activity and improving gross motor skills per se is largely not required but that contextually relevant physical activity and gross motor skills may still be useful for promoting healthy weight and a vehicle for engaging with teachers and parents/caregivers for promoting other child outcomes, such as cognitive development.

  19. CodaNorm: A software package for the body-wave attenuation calculation by the coda-normalization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predein, Peter A.; Dobrynina, Anna A.; Tubanov, Tsyren A.; German, Eugeny I.

    The presented software package CodaNorm is an open source seismological software and allows the estimation of the seismic quality factor (QP, QS), its frequency dependence (n) and attenuation decrement (γ) for body P- and S-waves by the coda-normalization method for different frequency ranges selected by a user. Obtained data about the seismic wave attenuation are necessary to correct the decay shake model from the earthquakes on the traces from the seismically active zones in the main urban areas, as well as for the further calculation of synthetic accelerograms and the evaluation of the parameters of the vibration for the possible strong earthquakes and etc. The software package CodaNorm was applied for the estimation of the attenuation of the body P- and S-waves in the area of the South and Central Baikal (Baikal rift system, Southern Siberia, Russia) using 185 regional earthquakes with magnitude Ml =2-5. The calculations were carried out for eight traces crossing the rift system in different directions and for the frequency range from 0.5 to 16 Hz. In the low frequency area the coincidence of the values of the seismic quality factor for P- and S-waves (QP and QS, respectively) is observed while for the high frequencies (8-16 Hz) the ratio between quality factors is QS ≈ 1.7QP. Such difference is the evidence of different absorption of longitudinal and transverse waves by geological medium. The comparison of the attenuation parameters for different azimuthal traces showed that higher attenuation is observed for the traces crossing the rift system in normal direction to the main tectonic structures. This fact may reflects the differences between the local elastic properties of the crust of the Baikal rift system and the high heterogeneity of the medium.

  20. Childhood body mass index and risk of schizophrenia in relation to childhood age, sex and age of first contact with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H J; Gamborg, M; Sørensen, T I A

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Childhood leanness is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia, but the effects of gender, age at anthropometric measurements and age at first diagnosis on this relationship are unclear. The present study aimed at elucidating these associations. METHODS: Population-based coh...

  1. High Body Mass Index in Infancy May Predict Severe Obesity in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smego, Allison; Woo, Jessica G; Klein, Jillian; Suh, Christina; Bansal, Danesh; Bliss, Sherri; Daniels, Stephen R; Bolling, Christopher; Crimmins, Nancy A

    2017-04-01

    To characterize growth trajectories of children who develop severe obesity by age 6 years and identify clinical thresholds for detection of high-risk children before the onset of obesity. Two lean (body mass index [BMI] 5th to ≤75th percentile) and 2 severely obese (BMI ≥99th percentile) groups were selected from populations treated at pediatric referral and primary care clinics. A population-based cohort was used to validate the utility of identified risk thresholds. Repeated-measures mixed modeling and logistic regression were used for analysis. A total of 783 participants of normal weight and 480 participants with severe obesity were included in the initial study. BMI differed significantly between the severely obese and normal-weight cohorts by age 4 months (P severe obesity by age 6 years (sensitivity, 51%-95%; specificity, 95%). This BMI threshold was validated in a second independent cohort (n = 2649), with a sensitivity of 33%-77% and a specificity of 74%-87%. A BMI ≥85th percentile in infancy increases the risk of severe obesity by age 6 years by 2.5-fold and the risk of clinical obesity by age 6 years by 3-fold. BMI trajectories in children who develop severe obesity by age 6 years differ from those in children who remain at normal weight by age 4-6 months, before the onset of obesity. Infants with a WHO BMI ≥85th percentile are at increased risk for developing severe obesity by age 6 years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. "DANCE RHYMES" AS A PEDAGOGICAL METHOD FOR FOSTERING BODY SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE OF CULTURAL TRADITION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD DANCE EDUCATION IN ISRAEL

    OpenAIRE

    Sari KATZ-ZICHRONY

    2016-01-01

    Teaching dance in early childhood education in the National-Religious community is a relatively new phenomenon in Israeli society. This article describes one teaching practice "Dance Rhymes". The research is based on ethnographic observation of dance classes in schools. Through analysis of the rhyming method, this article illustrates how traditional dance teachers have formed a unique method of "dance rhyming" that is used to foster body skills and bridge the divide between Jewish tradition a...

  3. Effect of Parental Migration Background on Childhood Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Besharat Pour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Poor nutrition, lack of physical activity, and obesity in children have important public health implications but, to date, their effects have not been studied in the growing population of children in Sweden with immigrant parents. Methods. We estimated the association between parental migration background and nutrition, physical activity, and weight in 8-year-old children born in Stockholm between 1994 and 1996 of immigrants and Swedish parents (n=2589. Data were collected through clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by parents. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Children of immigrants complied more closely with Nordic Nutrition Recommendations compared with those of Swedes (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.11–1.64. They had higher intake of dietary fibre, vitamins C, B6, and E, folic acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6 reflecting higher consumption of foods of plant origin, but lower intake of vitamins A and D, calcium, and iron reflecting lower consumption of dairy products. Children of immigrants had higher intake of sucrose reflecting higher consumption of sugar and sweets. Furthermore, these children had a higher risk of having low physical activity (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.06–1.62 and being overweight (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.06–1.65 compared with children of Swedish parents. The odds of having low physical activity and being overweight were even higher in children whose parents were both immigrants. A low level of parental education was associated with increased risk of low physical activity regardless of immigration background. Conclusions. Culturally appropriate tools to capture the diverse range of ethnic foods and other lifestyle habits are needed. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the low levels of physical activity, increased weight, and lack of consumption of some important vitamins among children of

  4. Longitudinal associations between reported sleep duration in early childhood and the development of body mass index, fat mass index and fat free mass index until age 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diethelm, Katharina; Bolzenius, Katja; Cheng, Guo; Remer, Thomas; Buyken, Anette E

    2011-06-01

    Epidemiological studies in children and adolescents have revealed short sleep duration as a risk factor for weight gain. However, only few studies have addressed sleep in early childhood. Our aim was to determine whether sleep in the second year of life is associated with the development of body composition throughout childhood. Analysis included 481 DONALD participants with parental reported data on sleep duration and annually measured body composition until age 7. Using median splits of sleeping time at 1.5 and 2 years we defined sleep duration categories: consistently short (CS, n = 122), inconsistent (I, n = 143) and consistently long (CL, n = 216). Polynomial mixed effects regression models were used to analyze differences in the trajectories of body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), fat mass index (FMI, kg/m(2)) and fat free mass index (FFMI, kg/m(2)) from ages 2-7 years between the sleep duration categories. Compared to CL-children, CS-sleepers differed in their FMI development with respect to linear, quadratic and cubic trend (all p sleep duration categories. Consistently short sleep duration in the critical window of early childhood appears to exert a moderate but sustained adverse effect on the development of fat mass - but not fat free mass - until age 7.

  5. TIMED: a computer program for calculating cumulated activity of a radionuclide in the organs of the human body at a given time, t, after deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, S.B.; Snyder, W.S.; Ford, M.R.

    1976-12-01

    TIMED is a computer program designed to calculate cumulated radioactivity in the various source organs at various times after radionuclide deposition. TIMED embodies a system of differential equations which describes activity transfer in the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and other organs of the body. This system accounts for delay of transfer of activity between compartments of the body and radioactive daughters.

  6. [Prevalence of childhood obesity in the Murcia Region; an assessment of different references for body mass index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espín Ríos, M I; Pérez Flores, D; Sánchez Ruíz, J F; Salmerón Martínez, D

    2013-06-01

    Childhood obesity is a problem of high magnitude with serious repercussions on health, which justifies estimating its prevalence at local level to identify conditioning factors and to take preventive actions. The main objective of the present work is to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the children in the general population of the Murcia Region, using the body mass index (BMI) and applying the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria, and to compare these results with the ones obtained from other frequently used references in Spain. The BMI of 178,894 children aged from 2 to 14 years was determined. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was compared to the IOTF, to the studies of the World Health Organization, as well as those of the Orbergozo Foundation (FO), and the Cross-sectional Spanish Growth Study (ETEC) references. The agreement between the different results was evaluated using the kappa index. The evaluation using the IOTF cut-off points gave an overweight prevalence of 20.6% (95% CI: 20.4-20.8), an obesity prevalence of 11.4% (95% CI: 11.2-11.5) and an overweight plus obesity prevalence of 32% (95% CI: 31.8-32.2), with this last one being higher in girls (33.2%) than in boys (30.9%). The highest agreement is between IOTF and FO-2011 (kappa=.795) and between FO-2011 and ETEC (kappa=.794). A high prevalence of overweight and obesity in children in the Region of Murcia was found. The ETEC and the FO-2011 study showed the highest agreement with the results obtained using the IOTF criteria. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Poesia e infância: o corpo em viva voz Poetry and childhood: the body in live voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Fronckowiak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo busco problematizar a possibilidade desafiadora, colocada à escola da infância, de perceber o vínculo da leitura de poemas com sua potência enquanto experiência poética que pode ser conquistada em viva voz por um corpo que sente. No momento em que, no cenário educacional brasileiro, discute-se o currículo das escolas de Educação Infantil, o texto defende, a partir dos aportes teóricos da imaginação criadora em Gaston Bachelard; da pedagogia poética em Georges Jean; da performance vocal em Paul Zumthor; e da experiência em Walter Benjamin, a abordagem da literatura não como área do conhecimento ou campo disciplinar, mas como linguagem que emerge da corporeidade.This article seeks to discuss the challenging possibility, placed to the childhood school, of perceiving the bond of the poems reading with its strength as a poetic experience that can be conquered in live voice by a body that feels. At the moment in which, at the Brazilian educational scenario, the organization of the elementary schools curriculum has been discussed, the text defends, based onthe theoretical framework of Gaston Bachelard's creative imagination; on the poetic pedagogy in Georges Jean; on Paul Zumthor's vocal performance and on Walter Benjamin's experience, the approach to literature not as a knowledge area or a subject matter, but as language that emerges from corporeality.

  8. Can the influence of childhood socioeconomic status on men's and women's adult body mass be explained by adult socioeconomic status or personality? Findings from a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Fiscella, Kevin; Duberstein, Paul; Kawachi, Ichiro; Coletta, Maria

    2009-07-01

    On the basis of a life-course risk-chain framework, the authors examined whether (a) residual associations between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and adult obesity and body mass index (BMI) would be observed in women but not men after adjusting for adult SES, (b) adult Big Five personality traits would be associated with adult body mass in both genders, and (c) personality would explain unique variation in outcomes beyond child and adult SES. National survey (Midlife Development in the United States study; N = 2,922). BMI and obesity. (a) In both genders, association between childhood SES and adult obesity were accounted for entirely by adult SES, but its effect on adult BMI was observed only in women; (b) higher conscientiousness was associated with lower obesity prevalence and BMI in both genders, although more strongly in women, and in men, greater obesity prevalence was associated with higher agreeableness and neuroticism; and (c) personality explained unique outcome variation in both genders. Early social disadvantage may affect adult weight status more strongly in women owing to gender differences in the timing and nature of weight-management socialization. Personality may enhance or detract from risks incurred by childhood or adulthood SES in either gender, necessitating the consideration of dispositional differences in prevention and intervention programs.

  9. Role of Body Esteem in the Sexual Excitation and Inhibition Responses of Women With and Without a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilimnik, Chelsea D; Meston, Cindy M

    2016-11-01

    Women's sexuality is influenced by their perceptions of their bodies. Negative body appraisals have been implicated in the development and maintenance of sexual concerns in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The sexuality of these women is often expressed in extremes of approach and avoidant sexual tendencies, which have been related to the sexual inhibition and sexual excitation pathways of the dual control model. To test the influence of body esteem on the sexual excitation and inhibition responses of women with and without a history of CSA. One hundred thirty-nine women with CSA and 83 non-abused women reported on their abuse history, depressive symptomology, sexual response, and affective appraisals of their body. Validated self-report measurements of sexual excitation and inhibition responses (Sexual Excitation/Sexual Inhibition Inventory for Women) and body esteem (Body Esteem Scale) were administered. Body esteem was significantly associated with sexual inhibition responses of women regardless of CSA history status but was significantly related only to the sexual excitation responses of women with a CSA history. Perceived sexual attractiveness was a unique predictor of sexual excitation in women with a history of CSA. Women with a history of CSA have lower body esteem than non-abused women, particularly in self-perceived sexual attractiveness, and these perceptions appear to influence their sexual responses by acting on the sexual excitation and inhibition response pathways. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of Body Esteem in the Sexual Excitation and Inhibition Responses of Women With and Without a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiminik, Chelsea D.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Women’s sexuality is influenced by their perceptions of their bodies. Negative body appraisals have been implicated in the development and maintenance of sexual concerns in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The sexuality of these women is often expressed in extremes of approach and avoidant sexual tendencies, which have been related to the sexual inhibition and sexual excitation pathways of the dual control model. Aim To test the influence of body esteem on the sexual excitation and inhibition responses of women with and without a history of CSA. Methods One hundred thirty-nine women with CSA and 83 non-abused women reported on their abuse history, depressive symptomology, sexual response, and affective appraisals of their body. Main Outcome Measures Validated self-report measurements of sexual excitation and inhibition responses (Sexual Excitation/Sexual Inhibition Inventory for Women) and body esteem (Body Esteem Scale) were administered. Results Body esteem was significantly associated with sexual inhibition responses of women regardless of CSA history status but was significantly related only to the sexual excitation responses of women with a CSA history. Perceived sexual attractiveness was a unique predictor of sexual excitation in women with a history of CSA. Conclusion Women with a history of CSA have lower body esteem than non-abused women, particularly in self-perceived sexual attractiveness, and these perceptions appear to influence their sexual responses by acting on the sexual excitation and inhibition response pathways. PMID:27692843

  11. Impact of excessive gestational weight gain in non-smoking mothers on body fatness in infancy and early childhood. Prospective prebirth cohort study in Cracow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, W; Maugeri, U; Kaim, I; Budzyn-Mrozek, D; Flak, E; Mroz, E; Sochacka-Tatara, E; Sowa, A; Musial, A

    2011-02-01

    Gestational weight gain (GWG) is important for health policy as it may be associated with overweight epidemics in childhood and adolescence. The purpose of the study was to perform the risk assessment of joint effects of the excessive GWG and the pregravid maternal BMI on overweight in infancy and childhood. The observations were collected in the ongoing prospective birth cohort study of 482 non-smoking mothers and their newborns in Cracow inner city area. At 5 years of age the subsample of 312 infants were reexamined in order to assess their nutritional status. Body fatness was assessed by means of the weight/length ratio (WLR) in neonates and weight/height ratio (WHR) in 5-year-olds since they showed the strongest correlation with subcutaneous fat mass of young children. In the statistical analysis the binary regression models were applied to identify predictors of overweight. The excessive GWG (>18 kg) increased more than twofold the adjusted relative risk (RR) of neonatal fatness (R=2.7; 95% CI 2.0-3.7) and was also a significant independent risk factor for postnatal body fatness at 5 years of age (RR=2.0; 95% CI: 1.3-3.3). The results confirmed earlier findings that pregravid overweight increased not only the relative risk of neonatal fatness (RR=2.9; 95% CI: 2.2-3.9) but also overweight in early childhood (RR=2.7; 95% CI: 1.7-4.4). The conclusion is that excessive GWG may be a risk factor for overweight in early childhood and should be a focus of public health policy.

  12. Birth weight, childhood body mass index, and height in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer: a register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Zorana J; Baker, Jennifer L; Bihrmann, Kristine; Vejborg, Ilse; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-20

    High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight, childhood body mass index (BMI), and height with the risk of breast cancer. 13,572 women (50 to 69 years) in the Copenhagen mammography screening program (1991 through 2001) with childhood anthropometric measurements in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register were followed for breast cancer until 2010. With logistic and Cox regression models, we investigated associations among birth weight, height, and BMI at ages 7 to 13 years with MD (mixed/dense or fatty) and breast cancer, respectively. 8,194 (60.4%) women had mixed/dense breasts, and 716 (5.3%) developed breast cancer. Childhood BMI was significantly inversely related to having mixed/dense breasts at all ages, with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) ranging from 0.69 (0.66 to 0.72) at age 7 to 0.56 (0.53 to 0.58) at age 13, per one-unit increase in z-score. No statistically significant associations were detected between birth weight and MD, height and MD, or birth weight and breast cancer risk. BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer, with hazard ratios of 0.91 (0.83 to 0.99) at age 7 and 0.92 (0.84 to 1.00) at age 13, whereas height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (age 7, 1.06 (0.98 to 1.14) and age 13, 1.08 (1.00 to 1.16)). After additional adjustment for MD, associations of BMI with breast cancer diminished (age 7, 0.97 (0.88 to 1.06) and age 13, 1.01 (0.93 to 1.11)), but remained with height (age 7, 1.06 (0.99 to 1.15) and age 13, 1.09 (1.01 to 1.17)). Among women 50 years and older, childhood body fatness was inversely associated with the breast cancer risk, possibly via a mechanism mediated by MD, at least partially. Childhood tallness was positively associated with breast cancer

  13. Changes in ponderal index and body mass index across childhood and their associations with fat mass and cardiovascular risk factors at age 15.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D Howe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about whether associations between childhood adiposity and later adverse cardiovascular health outcomes are driven by tracking of overweight from childhood to adulthood and/or by vascular and metabolic changes from childhood overweight that persist into adulthood. Our objective is to characterise associations between trajectories of adiposity across childhood and a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors measured in adolescence, and explore the extent to which these are mediated by fat mass at age 15.Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we estimated individual trajectories of ponderal index (PI from 0-2 years and BMI from 2-10 years using random-effects linear spline models (N = 4601. We explored associations between PI/BMI trajectories and DXA-determined total-body fat-mass and cardiovascular risk factors at 15 years (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin with and without adjustment for confounders. Changes in PI/BMI during all periods of infancy and childhood were associated with greater DXA-determined fat-mass at age 15. BMI changes in childhood, but not PI changes from 0-2 years, were associated with most cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence; associations tended to be strongest for BMI changes in later childhood (ages 8.5-10, and were largely mediated by fat mass at age 15.Changes in PI/BMI from 0-10 years were associated with greater fat-mass at age 15. Greater increases in BMI from age 8.5-10 years are most strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors at age 15, with much of these associations mediated by fat-mass at this age. We found little evidence supporting previous reports that rapid PI changes in infancy are associated with future cardiovascular risk. This study suggests that associations between early overweight and subsequent adverse cardiovascular health are largely due to

  14. Changes in ponderal index and body mass index across childhood and their associations with fat mass and cardiovascular risk factors at age 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Laura D; Tilling, Kate; Benfield, Li; Logue, Jennifer; Sattar, Naveed; Ness, Andy R; Smith, George Davey; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2010-12-08

    Little is known about whether associations between childhood adiposity and later adverse cardiovascular health outcomes are driven by tracking of overweight from childhood to adulthood and/or by vascular and metabolic changes from childhood overweight that persist into adulthood. Our objective is to characterise associations between trajectories of adiposity across childhood and a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors measured in adolescence, and explore the extent to which these are mediated by fat mass at age 15. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we estimated individual trajectories of ponderal index (PI) from 0-2 years and BMI from 2-10 years using random-effects linear spline models (N = 4601). We explored associations between PI/BMI trajectories and DXA-determined total-body fat-mass and cardiovascular risk factors at 15 years (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin) with and without adjustment for confounders. Changes in PI/BMI during all periods of infancy and childhood were associated with greater DXA-determined fat-mass at age 15. BMI changes in childhood, but not PI changes from 0-2 years, were associated with most cardiovascular risk factors in adolescence; associations tended to be strongest for BMI changes in later childhood (ages 8.5-10), and were largely mediated by fat mass at age 15. Changes in PI/BMI from 0-10 years were associated with greater fat-mass at age 15. Greater increases in BMI from age 8.5-10 years are most strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors at age 15, with much of these associations mediated by fat-mass at this age. We found little evidence supporting previous reports that rapid PI changes in infancy are associated with future cardiovascular risk. This study suggests that associations between early overweight and subsequent adverse cardiovascular health are largely due to overweight

  15. Standardized mirror confrontation: Body-related emotions, cognitions and level of dissociation in patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder after childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgmann, Elisabeth; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Vocks, Silja; Dyer, Anne Sibilla

    2014-01-01

    A criterion for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is the avoidance of trauma-associated stimuli that trigger emotional suffering. First studies on body image of patients with PTSD after childhood sexual abuse (CSA) support the hypothesis that awareness of the own body triggers emotional suffering. Body-related emotions, cognitions and level of dissociation of n = 17 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and n = 29 healthy controls (HCs) during a standardized mirror confrontation while wearing a standard bikini were assessed. It was shown that expecting to be and while being confronted with one's own body, patients with PTSD showed significantly stronger negative emotionality and cognitions as well as higher dissociative states as compared to HCs. Findings suggest that in patients with PTSD after CSA, one's own body might function as a stimulus that leads to aversive emotional responses, negative cognitions and dissociative states. The elaboration of treatment for PTSD should consider these body-related aspects, e.g., by investigating the effects of body exposure.

  16. CALCULATION OF FIELDS IN A COMBINED INDUCTOR SYSTEM AS A TOOLS OF STRAIGHTENING OF METAL COATING OF CAR BODY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.O. Voloncevich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper construction of combined inductor system realizing the principle of superposition of circular and plane-parallel magnetic fields is proposed. This inductor system is the instrument of external straightening of dents in the metal coating of car body. The use of low-frequency plane-parallel magnetic field instead of a high-frequency magnetic field to create conditions for the transformation of the natural repulsion to attraction of sheet conductor is suggested. The low-frequency field is generated by inductor system by dint of flat circular turn. The plane-parallel magnetic field is generated by a rectangular turn. The low-frequency field penetrates the sheet workpiece in the construct. The theory and experiment indicate that plane-parallel magnetic field doesn’t diffuse almost. Conclusion calculated ratios to analyze the processes of magnetic pulse attraction in the system based on the solution of Maxwell's equations for non-zero intensity components of the electromagnetic field. The Maxwell's equations are transformed by Laplace zero initial conditions. In this case the integral sinus-transformation Fourier are applied. The problem is solved in the plane-wave approximation. Valid for plane waves directly proportional relationship between the tangent vector components of the electromagnetic field on the surface of conductor. For the analysis of processes in combined inductor system for a magnetic-pulsed «pulling» a predetermined part of the metal sheet were obtained the population of calculated expressions. The magnetic pressure on the metal sheet is caused by force action on the part of the excited fields. It is determined solely amplitude of penetrate field and is directed towards the working surface of the inductor. Finally, there is a predetermined part of the attraction of the sheet metal. The operating frequency of the plane-parallel field can be quite small. This choice doesn’t influence the diffusion processes in the

  17. Disaster-related prenatal maternal stress explains increasing amounts of variance in body composition through childhood and adolescence: Project Ice Storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guan Ting; Dancause, Kelsey N; Elgbeili, Guillaume; Laplante, David P; King, Suzanne

    2016-10-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity worldwide has become a public health issue. While many factors are involved in the development of obesity, stress during pregnancy has been linked to adiposity. However, research involving stressors that are independent of pregnant women's socioeconomic and psychological characteristics is rare. The present study made use of a natural disaster (1998 Quebec ice storm) to determine which aspect of the women's disaster experience (objective hardship, subjective stress, and/or cognitive appraisal) were associated with body mass index levels and/or waist to height ratio across childhood and adolescence. Measure of objective hardship, subjective stress, and cognitive appraisal were obtained following the 1998 Quebec ice storm. We measured height, weight, and waist circumference in children at ages 5½, 8½, 11½, 13½, and 15½. Our results show that higher prenatal maternal stress was associated with higher body mass index levels and central adiposity in children of ages 5½, 8½, 13½, and 15½. The effects of prenatal maternal stress on anthropometric measurements tend to increase as the children grew older. The findings of this study highlight the long-lasting effect of prenatal stress on body composition, and are compatible with the current theory of fetal programming. Hopefully, our increased knowledge of the effects of prenatal stress on the fetus will lead to improved awareness and the creation of early intervention programs, ultimately improving women's and children's health in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. FDTD calculation of whole-body average SAR in adult and child models for frequencies from 30 MHz to 3 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jianqing [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Fujiwara, Osamu [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Kodera, Sachiko [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Watanabe, Soichi [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Nukui-kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan)

    2006-09-07

    Due to the difficulty of the specific absorption rate (SAR) measurement in an actual human body for electromagnetic radio-frequency (RF) exposure, in various compliance assessment procedures the incident electric field or power density is being used as a reference level, which should never yield a larger whole-body average SAR than the basic safety limit. The relationship between the reference level and the whole-body average SAR, however, was established mainly based on numerical calculations for highly simplified human modelling dozens of years ago. Its validity is being questioned by the latest calculation results. In verifying the validity of the reference level with respect to the basic SAR limit for RF exposure, it is essential to have a high accuracy of human modelling and numerical code. In this study, we made a detailed error analysis in the whole-body average SAR calculation for the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method in conjunction with the perfectly matched layer (PML) absorbing boundaries. We derived a basic rule for the PML employment based on a dielectric sphere and the Mie theory solution. We then attempted to clarify to what extent the whole-body average SAR may reach using an anatomically based Japanese adult model and a scaled child model. The results show that the whole-body average SAR under the ICNIRP reference level exceeds the basic safety limit nearly 30% for the child model both in the resonance frequency and 2 GHz band.

  19. Computational model for calculating body-core temperature elevation in rabbits due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Sugiyama, Hironori; Kojima, Masami; Kawai, Hiroki; Yamashiro, Yoko; Fujiwara, Osamu; Watanabe, Soichi; Sasaki, Kazuyuki

    2008-06-01

    In the current international guidelines and standards with regard to human exposure to electromagnetic waves, the basic restriction is defined in terms of the whole-body average-specific absorption rate. The rationale for the guidelines is that the characteristic pattern of thermoregulatory response is observed for the whole-body average SAR above a certain level. However, the relationship between energy absorption and temperature elevation was not well quantified. In this study, we improved our thermal computation model for rabbits, which was developed for localized exposure on eye, in order to investigate the body-core temperature elevation due to whole-body exposure at 2.45 GHz. The effect of anesthesia on the body-core temperature elevation was also discussed in comparison with measured results. For the whole-body average SAR of 3.0 W kg-1, the body-core temperature in rabbits elevates with time, without becoming saturated. The administration of anesthesia suppressed body-core temperature elevation, which is attributed to the reduced basal metabolic rate.

  20. Report on childhood obesity in China (5) Body weight, body dissatisfaction, and depression symptoms of Chinese children aged 9-10 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.P.; Ma, G.S.; Schouten, E.G.; Hu, X.Q.; Cui, Z.H.; Wang, D.; Kok, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between body weight, body dissatisfaction and depression symptoms among Chinese children. METHODS: The fasting body weight and height of the third and fourth grade students (n = 3886, aged 9 or 10 years) from 20 schools in Beijing, China, were measured, and the

  1. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative 2008: weight, height and body mass index in 6-9-year-old children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wijnhoven, T M A

    2012-09-21

    What is already known about this subject Overweight and obesity prevalence estimates among children based on International Obesity Task Force definitions are substantially lower than estimates based on World Health Organization definitions. Presence of a north-south gradient with the highest level of overweight found in southern European countries. Intercountry comparisons of overweight and obesity in primary-school children in Europe based on measured data lack a similar data collection protocol. What this study adds Unique dataset on overweight and obesity based on measured weights and heights in 6-9-year-old children from 12 European countries using a harmonized surveillance methodology. Because of the use of a consistent data collection protocol, it is possible to perform valid multiple comparisons between countries. It demonstrates wide variations in overweight and obesity prevalence estimates among primary-school children between European countries and regions. BACKGROUND: Nutritional surveillance in school-age children, using measured weight and height, is not common in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). The WHO Regional Office for Europe has therefore initiated the WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative. OBJECTIVE: To present the anthropometric results of data collected in 2007\\/2008 and to investigate whether there exist differences across countries and between the sexes. METHODS: Weight and height were measured in 6-9-year-old children in 12 countries. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, stunting, thinness and underweight as well as mean Z-scores of anthropometric indices of height, weight and body mass index were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 168 832 children were included in the analyses and a school participation rate of more than 95% was obtained in 8 out of 12 countries. Stunting, underweight and thinness were rarely prevalent. However, 19.3-49.0% of boys and 18.4-42.5% of girls were overweight (including

  2. A multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention for childhood obesity : effects on body composition, exercise tolerance, quality of life and gut hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Rimke Cathelijne

    2011-01-01

    The general aim of the studies described in this thesis is the effect evaluation of a family-based multidisciplinary cognitive behavioral treatment on several domains related to childhood obesity compared to standard care. The main findings from these studies are a modest long-term reduction of both

  3. FDTD calculations of specific energy absorption rate in a seated voxel model of the human body from 10 MHz to 3 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, R P; Dimbylow, P J [Health Protection Agency, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-07

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed to investigate the frequency dependence of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a seated voxel model of the human body. The seated model was derived from NORMAN (NORmalized MAN), an anatomically realistic voxel phantom in the standing posture with arms to the side. Exposure conditions included both vertically and horizontally polarized plane wave electric fields between 10 MHz and 3 GHz. The resolution of the voxel model was 4 mm for frequencies up to 360 MHz and 2 mm for calculations in the higher frequency range. The reduction in voxel size permitted the calculation of SAR at these higher frequencies using the FDTD method. SAR values have been calculated for the seated adult phantom and scaled versions representing 10-, 5- and 1-year-old children under isolated and grounded conditions. These scaled models do not exactly reproduce the dimensions and anatomy of children, but represent good geometric information for a seated child. Results show that, when the field is vertically polarized, the sitting position causes a second, smaller resonance condition not seen in resonance curves for the phantom in the standing posture. This occurs at {approx}130 MHz for the adult model when grounded. Partial-body SAR calculations indicate that the upper and lower regions of the body have their own resonant frequency at {approx}120 MHz and {approx}160 MHz, respectively, when the grounded adult model is orientated in the sitting position. These combine to produce this second resonance peak in the whole-body averaged SAR values calculated. Two resonance peaks also occur for the sitting posture when the incident electric field is horizontally polarized. For the adult model, the peaks in the whole-body averaged SAR occur at {approx}180 and {approx}600 MHz. These peaks are due to resonance in the arms and feet, respectively. Layer absorption plots and colour images of SAR in individual voxels show the

  4. FDTD calculations of specific energy absorption rate in a seated voxel model of the human body from 10 MHz to 3 GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, R P; Dimbylow, P J

    2006-05-07

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations have been performed to investigate the frequency dependence of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) in a seated voxel model of the human body. The seated model was derived from NORMAN (NORmalized MAN), an anatomically realistic voxel phantom in the standing posture with arms to the side. Exposure conditions included both vertically and horizontally polarized plane wave electric fields between 10 MHz and 3 GHz. The resolution of the voxel model was 4 mm for frequencies up to 360 MHz and 2 mm for calculations in the higher frequency range. The reduction in voxel size permitted the calculation of SAR at these higher frequencies using the FDTD method. SAR values have been calculated for the seated adult phantom and scaled versions representing 10-, 5- and 1-year-old children under isolated and grounded conditions. These scaled models do not exactly reproduce the dimensions and anatomy of children, but represent good geometric information for a seated child. Results show that, when the field is vertically polarized, the sitting position causes a second, smaller resonance condition not seen in resonance curves for the phantom in the standing posture. This occurs at approximately 130 MHz for the adult model when grounded. Partial-body SAR calculations indicate that the upper and lower regions of the body have their own resonant frequency at approximately 120 MHz and approximately 160 MHz, respectively, when the grounded adult model is orientated in the sitting position. These combine to produce this second resonance peak in the whole-body averaged SAR values calculated. Two resonance peaks also occur for the sitting posture when the incident electric field is horizontally polarized. For the adult model, the peaks in the whole-body averaged SAR occur at approximately 180 and approximately 600 MHz. These peaks are due to resonance in the arms and feet, respectively. Layer absorption plots and colour images of SAR in

  5. Height and Body Size in Childhood, Adolescence and Young Adulthood and Breast Cancer Risk According to Molecular Subtype in the Nurses’ Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Erica T.; Hu, Rong; Collins, Laura C.; Beck, Andrew H.; Schnitt, Stuart; Rosner, Bernard; Eliassen, A. Heather; Michels, Karin B.; Willett, Walter C.; Tamimi, Rulla M.

    2016-01-01

    Height and body size in childhood and young adulthood have been consistently associated with breast cancer risk; whether associations differ across molecular subtypes is unclear. In a pooled analysis of the Nurses’ Health Studies we prospectively examined the association of four exposures: height, body mass index (BMI) at age 18, childhood and adolescent somatotypes, with breast cancer risk according to molecular subtypes defined by immunohistochemical markers. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).We identified 2983 luminal A, 1281 luminal B, 318 HER2-enriched, 408 basal-like and 128 unclassified tumors. Height was positively associated with all subtypes (p-heterogeneity=0.78). BMI at age 18 (p-heterogeneity=0.001), childhood (p-heterogeneity=0.51) and adolescent somatotype (p-heterogeneity=0.046) were inversely associated, but with differences in magnitude of association. BMI at age 18 of ≥25 kg/m2 (compared to 20-21.9 kg/m2) was associated with a 52% decreased risk of HER2-enriched (HR: 0.48, 95%CI: 0.26-0.91; p-trend <0.0001) and 39% reduced risk of basal-like tumors (HR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.36-1.02; p-trend=0.008). Compared to the lowest category, women in the highest adolescent body size category were 71% less likely to develop HER2-enriched (HR: 0.29, 95%CI: 0.10-0.85; p-trend=0.0005) and 60% less likely to develop basal-like (HR: 0.40, 95%CI: 0.17-0.95; p-trend=0.0008). Height was positively associated with risk of all breast cancer molecular subtypes. BMI at age 18 and childhood and adolescent were inversely associated with risk of most breast cancer molecular subtypes with somewhat stronger associations with HER2-enriched and basal-like subtypes. PMID:27590596

  6. Body

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is both the physical form inhabited by an individual “self” and the medium through which an individual engages with society. Hence the body both shapes and is shaped by an individual’s social roles. In contrast to the cognate fields of archaeology, anthropology, and classics, there has been little explicit discussion or theorization of the body in Egyptology. Some recent works, discussed here, constitute an exception to this trend, but there is much more scope for exploring anc...

  7. Effects of body habitus on internal radiation dose calculations using the 5-year-old anthropomorphic male models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-01-01

    Computational phantoms are commonly used in internal radiation dosimetry to assess the amount and distribution pattern of energy deposited in various parts of the human body from different internal radiation sources. Radiation dose assessments are commonly performed on predetermined reference

  8. The influence of sport club participation on physical activity, fitness and body fat during childhood and adolescence: The LOOK Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Rohan M; Telford, Richard D; Cochrane, Thomas; Cunningham, Ross B; Olive, Lisa S; Davey, Rachel

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the longitudinal effect of sport participation in physical activity, fitness and body fat changes during childhood and adolescence. Longitudinal study (134 boys, 155 girls) of Australian youth aged 8-16 years. Physical activity was assessed by pedometers and accelerometers, fitness by the 20m shuttle-run, body fat by DEXA and club sport participation by questionnaire. Linear mixed models were used to determine the effects of sport participation and gender differences. Sports club participants were more physically active at all age groups than non-participants; boys took an extra 1800 steps (psports participants (boys 27% and girls 20% higher, both psport participant girls had 2.9% less body fat (psports participants but their greater PA diminished during adolescence, this being more evident among girls. Only 20% of sports club participants met the recommended daily average of 60min MVPA. Sport participants were more active, fitter and had less body fat (girls only) than non-sports participants. However, the associated benefits of sport with PA diminished during adolescence and the majority of sports participants did not meet recommended levels of PA. Strategies aiming to maximise the benefits of sports participation may be enhanced by providing special attention to the early adolescent period particularly among girls. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of body habitus on internal radiation dose calculations using the 5-year-old anthropomorphic male models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Tianwu; Kuster, Niels; Zaidi, Habib

    2017-01-01

    computational phantoms while the argument for individualized patient-specific radiation dosimetry exists. This study aims to evaluate the influence of body habitus on internal dosimetry and to quantify the uncertainties in dose estimation correlated with the use of fixed reference models. The 5-year-old IT......'IS male phantom was modified to match target anthropometric parameters, including body weight, body height and sitting height/stature ratio (SSR), determined from reference databases, thus enabling the creation of 125 5-year-old habitus-dependent male phantoms with 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th...... for individual subjects using the most closely matched habitus-dependent computational phantom should be considered as an alternative to improve the accuracy of the estimates....

  10. Relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain and childhood fatness at 6-7 years by air displacement plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Helen; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on offspring body composition. In this prospective cohort study, offspring body composition at 6 years of age was obtained through air displacement plethysmography. Linear regression was used to obtain crude and adjusted coefficients. Information regarding offspring body composition and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was available for 3156 children and on offspring body composition and GWG for 3129 children. There was a direct association of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with offspring's fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI) and body fat percent (BF%) in crude and adjusted analyses. After adjustment for co-variables, for each kg m(-2) of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI increase, there was a mean increment of 0.13 kg in the offspring FFM, 0.06 kg m(-2) in FFMI, 0.11 kg in FM, 0.07 kg m(-2) in FMI and 0.18% in BF%. For each kilogram of maternal GWG increase, there was a mean increment of 0.08 kg in offspring's FM, 0.05 kg m(-2) in FMI, 0.04 kg in FFM, 0.01 kg m(-2) in FFMI and 0.18 % in BF%. Mothers with a higher pre-pregnancy BMI or GWG tend to have children with greater adiposity at age 6 years. Fetal overnutrition is more likely among mothers with greater BMI during pregnancy; as a consequence, it can accelerate the childhood obesity epidemic. © 2015 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Simultaneous description of conductance and thermopower in single-molecule junctions from many-body ab initio calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Chengjun; Markussen, Troels; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the electronic conductance and thermopower of a single-molecule junction consisting of bis-(4-aminophenyl) acetylene (B4APA) connected to gold electrodes. We use nonequilibrium Green's function methods in combination with density-functional theory (DFT) and the many-body GW...

  12. A Unified Two-Dimensional Approach to the Calculation of Three- Dimensional Hypersonic Flows, with Application to Bodies of Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1955-01-01

    8217rinRE-DifMENSONAL HtYPERtSONIC 15.W indicated-flow-separation oin the leewardl side of (lie body for excellent agreemelnt in tlie plano of symmlletry...REIMARKS b~ound~ary layers may, inl like imanner, prove useful il- pie - A mnethod of characteristics employing p)ressure and-flow deigdrednesoa

  13. Final height and body mass index in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated without cranial radiotherapy: a retrospective longitudinal multicenter Italian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzi, Patrizia; Predieri, Barbara; Corrias, Andrea; Marsciani, Alberto; Street, Maria Elisabeth; Rossidivita, Aurora; Paolucci, Paolo; Iughetti, Lorenzo

    2014-09-22

    Young adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with protocols including cranial radiotherapy demonstrate a persistent weight gain and reduced final height. Published reports on the effects on growth of different oncologic therapies are conflicting and difficult to interpret because they combined children treated with both cranial irradiation and multi-agent chemotherapy. Our study investigated the effect of chemotherapy alone on body mass index (BMI) and on growth at the achievement of final height in a homogeneous cohort of Italian childhood ALL survivors. We retrospectively studied 162 Caucasian patients treated on the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology protocols without radiotherapy between 1989 and 2000 at five Italian centers with 107 inclusions (58 males). Height- and BMI-standard deviation score (SDS) were collected at diagnosis of ALL, at the end of treatment and at the achievement of final height. Changes in height SDS and BMI SDS with time were analyzed using dependent sample Student's t-test. A significant reduction of height-SDS was documented during treatment in both genders. This reduction of height-SDS was not followed by an appropriate catch-up growth, despite the achievement of a mean final height within the normal range. At diagnosis females showed a lower mean BMI-SDS than males. During treatment, in the whole population, BMI-SDS increased significantly. After it, while males lost BMI-SDS, females showed its persistent increase. Survivors of childhood ALL generally seemed to achieve a normal final height with a BMI within the normal range. These parameters appeared to be only minimally affected by chemotherapy. Nevertheless, height catch-up growth was not completed after chemotherapy in both genders and all patients experienced an increase of BMI-SDS during chemotherapy that only females seemed to conserve until the achievement of final height.

  14. Disability, body image and sports/physical activity in adult survivors of childhood CNS tumors: population-based outcomes from a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Krister K; Hörnquist, Lina; De Graaff, Lisanne; Rickardsson, Jenny; Lannering, Birgitta; Gustafsson, Göran

    2013-03-01

    Childhood CNS tumor survivors risk health and functional impairments that threaten normal psychological development and self-perception. This study investigated the extent to which health and functional ability predict adult survivors' body image (BI) and self-confidence regarding sports and physical activity. The study cohort covered 708 eligible ≥ 18 year old CNS tumor survivors, and data from 528 (75 %) were analyzed. Disability was estimated using the Health Utilities Index™ Mark2/3, a multidimensional self-report instrument. Physical self-confidence in terms of BI and sports/physical activity-related self-confidence (SPAS) were assessed using the BI and the Sports/Athletics modules of a standardized self-report assessment scale. In adjusted regression models, global health and functional status (GHFS) predicted BI (B = 0.94, 95 % CI 0.69-1.19) and SPAS (B = 0.79, 95 % CI 0.55-1.04). Emotion and pain, and to a lesser degree cognition, speech and vision disability, were associated with poorer BI and SPAS. Gender, sub-diagnosis, and time since diagnosis influenced the relationship between health status and physical self-confidence outcomes. Females had poorer GHFS, BI and SPAS than males. Decreased health and functional ability following childhood CNS cancer intrudes on physical self-confidence, with females being at heightened risk for both disability and negative self-confidence. Identified disability and gender-related risk calls for a follow-up plan that integrates treatment of psychological sequelae in lifetime monitoring of childhood CNS tumor survivors to restore and protect self-image and self-confidence, essential mental health correlates. An expanded plan should recognize the need for such services, optimizing life-long quality of survival for CNS tumor survivors.

  15. Extracting three-body breakup observables from continuum-discretized coupled-channels calculations with core excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Diego, R.; Crespo, R.; Moro, A. M.

    2017-04-01

    Background: Core-excitation effects in the scattering of two-body halo nuclei have been investigated in previous works. In particular, these effects have been found to affect in a significant way the breakup cross sections of neutron-halo nuclei with a deformed core. To account for these effects, appropriate extensions of the continuum-discretized coupled-channels (CDCC) method have been recently proposed. Purpose: We aim to extend these studies to the case of breakup reactions measured under complete kinematics or semi-inclusive reactions in which only the angular or energy distribution of one of the outgoing fragments is measured. Method: We use the standard CDCC method as well as its extended version with core excitations, assuming a pseudostate basis for describing the projectile states. Two- and three-body observables are computed by projecting the discrete two-body breakup amplitudes, obtained within these reaction frameworks, onto two-body scattering states with definite relative momentum of the outgoing fragments and a definite state of the core nucleus. Results: Our working example is the one-neutron halo 11Be. Breakup reactions on protons and 64Zn targets are studied at 63.7 MeV/nucleon and 28.7 MeV, respectively. These energies, for which experimental data exist, and the targets provide two different scenarios where the angular and energy distributions of the fragments are computed. The importance of core dynamical effects is also compared for both cases. Conclusions: The presented method provides a tool to compute double and triple differential cross sections for outgoing fragments following the breakup of a two-body projectile and might be useful to analyze breakup reactions with other deformed weakly bound nuclei, for which core excitations are expected to play a role. We have found that, while dynamical core excitations are important for the proton target at intermediate energies, they are very small for the Zn target at energies around the Coulomb

  16. Associations of infant feeding and timing of linear growth and relative weight gain during early life with childhood body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Fall, C.H.D.; Eijsden, M.; Osmond, C.; Gemke, R.J.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Growth and feeding during infancy have been associated with later life body mass index. However, the associations of infant feeding, linear growth and weight gain relative to linear growth with separate components of body composition remain unclear.Methods:Of 5551 children with collected

  17. Vibrational spectra of halide-water dimers: Insights on ion hydration from full-dimensional quantum calculations on many-body potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Pushp; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker; Paesani, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    Full-dimensional vibrational spectra are calculated for both X-(H2O) and X-(D2O) dimers (X = F, Cl, Br, I) at the quantum-mechanical level. The calculations are carried out on two sets of recently developed potential energy functions (PEFs), namely, Thole-type model energy (TTM-nrg) and many-body energy (MB-nrg), using the symmetry-adapted Lanczos algorithm with a product basis set including all six vibrational coordinates. Although both TTM-nrg and MB-nrg PEFs are derived from coupled-cluster single double triple-F12 data obtained in the complete basis set limit, they differ in how many-body effects are represented at short range. Specifically, while both models describe long-range interactions through the combination of two-body dispersion and many-body classical electrostatics, the relatively simple Born-Mayer functions employed in the TTM-nrg PEFs to represent short-range interactions are replaced in the MB-nrg PEFs by permutationally invariant polynomials to achieve chemical accuracy. For all dimers, the MB-nrg vibrational spectra are in close agreement with the available experimental data, correctly reproducing anharmonic and nuclear quantum effects. In contrast, the vibrational frequencies calculated with the TTM-nrg PEFs exhibit significant deviations from the experimental values. The comparison between the TTM-nrg and MB-nrg results thus reinforces the notion that an accurate representation of both short-range interactions associated with electron density overlap and long-range many-body electrostatic interactions is necessary for a correct description of hydration phenomena at the molecular level.

  18. Maternal anthropometry and feeding behavior toward preschool children: association with childhood body mass index in an observational study of Chilean families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corvalán Camila

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the link between eating behavior and maternal feeding practices with childhood and maternal weight status is of great interest. Objective To assess the association between childhood anthropometric measures with mothers' Body Mass Index (BMI and their feeding practices toward preschool children in Chile. Methods 1029 children (504 boys, 4.3 ± 0.3 years and their mothers were selected from public nurseries located in low income neighborhoods in Santiago. Mothers' BMI, children's BMI and waist-to-height ratios were registered. Maternal feeding practices towards their children's nutritional habits were measured using an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ. Results We found a direct correlation (p Conclusion Mothers' BMI and children's BMI z-scores are highly correlated. We found significant associations between mothers' behaviour subscales and children's BMI z-score. It is not possible to establish a causal link between mother's CFQ scores and children's nutritional status, given the cross-sectional nature of this study and the bidirectional influences that exist between mothers and their children.

  19. On the accuracy of calculation of the mean residence time of drug in the body and its volumes of distribution based on the assumption of central elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskiy, Leonid M

    2016-01-01

    1. The steady state and terminal volumes of distribution, as well as the mean residence time of drug in the body (Vss, Vβ, and MRT) are the common pharmacokinetic parameters calculated using the drug plasma concentration-time profile (Cp(t)) following intravenous (iv bolus or constant rate infusion) drug administration. 2. These traditional calculations are valid for the linear pharmacokinetic system with central elimination (i.e. elimination rate being proportional to drug concentration in plasma). The assumption of central elimination is not valid in general, so that the accuracy of the traditional calculation of these parameters is uncertain. 3. The comparison of Vss, Vβ, and MRT calculated by the derived exact equations and by the commonly used ones was made considering a physiological model. It turned out that the difference between the exact and simplified calculations does not exceed 2%. 4. Thus the calculations of Vss, Vβ, and MRT, which are based on the assumption of central elimination, may be considered as quite accurate. Consequently it can be used as the standard for comparisons with kinetic and in silico models.

  20. Identifying developmental trajectories of body mass index in childhood using latent class growth (mixture modelling: associations with dietary, sedentary and physical activity behaviors: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Koning

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, many epidemiologic studies examining associations between obesity and dietary and sedentary/physical activity behaviors have focused on assessing Body Mass Index (BMI at one point in time. Recent developments in statistical techniques make it possible to study the potential heterogeneity in the development of BMI during childhood by identifying distinct subpopulations characterized by distinct developmental trajectories. Using Latent Class Growth (Mixture Modelling (LCGMM techniques we aimed to identify BMI trajectories in childhood and to examine associations between these distinct trajectories and dietary, sedentary and physical activity behaviors. Methods This longitudinal study explored BMI standard deviation score (SDS trajectories in a sample of 613 children from 4 to 12 years of age. In 2006, 2009 and 2012 information on children’s health related behaviors was obtained by parental questionnaires, and children’s height and weight were measured. Associations with behaviors were investigated with logistic regression models. Results We identified two BMI SDS trajectories; a decreasing BMI SDS trajectory (n = 416; 68 % and an increasing BMI SDS trajectory (n = 197; 32 %. The increasing BMI SDS trajectory consisted of more participants of lower socio-economic status (SES and of non-western ethnicity. Maternal overweight status was associated with being in the increasing BMI SDS trajectory at both baseline and follow-up six years later (2006: Odds Ratio (OR, 2.9; 95 % confidence interval (CI 1.9 to 4.3; 2012 OR, 1.8; 95 % CI 1.2 to 2.6. The increasing BMI SDS trajectory was associated with the following behaviors; drinking sugared drinks > 3 glasses per day, participation in organized sports  2 h per day, though participation in organized sports at follow-up was the only significant result. Conclusions Our results indicate the importance of healthy lifestyle behaviors at a young age, and

  1. Relativistic many-body calculation of energies, transition rates, lifetimes, and multipole polarizabilities in Cs-like La iii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, M. S.

    2014-05-01

    Excitation energies of the [Xe]nd (n =5-9), [Xe]ns (n =6-10), [Xe]np (n =6-9), [Xe]nf (n =4-8), and [Xe]ng (n =5-8) states in La iii, where [Xe] = 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p6, are evaluated. Electric dipole matrix elements for the allowed transitions between the low-lying [Xe]nd, [Xe]ns, [Xe]np, [Xe]nf, and [Xe]ng states in the La iii ion are calculated using the high-precision relativistic all-order method where all single, double, and partial triple excitations of the Dirac-Fock wave functions are included to all orders of perturbation theory. Recommended values are provided for a large number of electric dipole matrix elements, oscillator strengths, transition rates, and lifetimes. Scalar and tensor polarizabilities of the states listed above are evaluated. The uncertainties of the recommended values are estimated. Electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole matrix elements are calculated to determine lifetimes of the 5d5/2 and 6s metastable levels. The ground-state E1, E2, and E3 static polarizabilities are calculated. This work provides recommended values critically evaluated for their accuracy for a number of La iii atomic properties for use in planning and analysis of various experiments as well as theoretical modeling.

  2. Effects of parent-only childhood obesity prevention programs on BMIz and body image in rural preteens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Galen; Paul, Lynn; Bailey, Sandra J; Ashe, Carrie Benke; Martz, Jill; Lynch, Wesley

    2016-03-01

    This experiment compared body image (BI) and BMI changes resulting from two parent-only obesity prevention interventions aimed at 8-12 year olds. Parents in the experimental intervention attended ten face-to-face educational sessions, while parents in the minimal (control) intervention received similar mailed information. Parent-child dyads (N=150) were semi-randomly assigned to intervention groups. Children were assessed before, after, and 6 months following the interventions; children did not attend experimental intervention sessions. Child BI assessments included weight and size perception, weight management goals, body esteem, and appearance attitudes. Significant effects included small decreases in BMIz scores and overweight dissatisfaction, as well as improvements in aspects of body esteem and appearance attitudes. Some BI effects were gender-specific. Decreases in overweight dissatisfaction were greater following the experimental treatment. Neither treatment reduced body size misperception. Thus, parent-only obesity prevention interventions can reduce body weight and body image concerns among rural preteens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tumor control probability and the utility of 4D vs 3D dose calculations for stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes, Gilmer, E-mail: gilmer.valdes@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Robinson, Clifford [Department of Radiation Oncology, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States); Lee, Percy [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Morel, Delphine [Department of Biomedical Engineering, AIX Marseille 2 University, Marseille (France); Department of Medical Physics, Joseph Fourier University, Grenoble (France); Low, Daniel; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Lamb, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Four-dimensional (4D) dose calculations for lung cancer radiotherapy have been technically feasible for a number of years but have not become standard clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to determine if clinically significant differences in tumor control probability (TCP) exist between 3D and 4D dose calculations so as to inform the decision whether 4D dose calculations should be used routinely for treatment planning. Radiotherapy plans for Stage I-II lung cancer were created for 8 patients. Clinically acceptable treatment plans were created with dose calculated on the end-exhale 4D computed tomography (CT) phase using a Monte Carlo algorithm. Dose was then projected onto the remaining 9 phases of 4D-CT using the Monte Carlo algorithm and accumulated onto the end-exhale phase using commercially available deformable registration software. The resulting dose-volume histograms (DVH) of the gross tumor volume (GTV), planning tumor volume (PTV), and PTV{sub setup} were compared according to target coverage and dose. The PTV{sub setup} was defined as a volume including the GTV and a margin for setup uncertainties but not for respiratory motion. TCPs resulting from these DVHs were estimated using a wide range of alphas, betas, and tumor cell densities. Differences of up to 5 Gy were observed between 3D and 4D calculations for a PTV with highly irregular shape. When the TCP was calculated using the resulting DVHs for fractionation schedules typically used in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), the TCP differed at most by 5% between 4D and 3D cases, and in most cases, it was by less than 1%. We conclude that 4D dose calculations are not necessary for most cases treated with SBRT, but they might be valuable for irregularly shaped target volumes. If 4D calculations are used, 4D DVHs should be evaluated on volumes that include margin for setup uncertainty but not respiratory motion.

  4. Renormalization of the quasiparticle band gap in doped two-dimensional materials from many-body calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shiyuan; Yang, Li

    2017-10-01

    Doped free carriers can substantially renormalize electronic self-energy and quasiparticle band gaps of two-dimensional (2D) materials. However, it is still challenging to quantitatively calculate this many-electron effect, particularly at the low doping density that is most relevant to realistic experiments and devices. Here we develop a first-principles-based effective-mass model within the G W approximation and show a dramatic band-gap renormalization of a few hundred meV for typical 2D semiconductors. Moreover, we reveal the roles of different many-electron interactions: The Coulomb-hole contribution is dominant for low doping densities while the screened-exchange contribution is dominant for high doping densities. Three prototypical 2D materials are studied by this method: h -BN , Mo S2 , and black phosphorus, covering insulators to semiconductors. Especially, anisotropic black phosphorus exhibits a surprisingly large band-gap renormalization because of its smaller density-of-state that enhances the screened-exchange interactions. Our work demonstrates an efficient way to accurately calculate band-gap renormalization and provides quantitative understanding of doping-dependent many-electron physics of general 2D semiconductors.

  5. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million obese people world-wide. Obesity is a condition of excess body fat often associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders. It is still a matter of debate as to how to define obesity in young people. Overweight children have an increased risk of being overweight as adults. Genetics, behavior, and family environment play a role in childhood overweight. Childhood overweight increases the risk for certain medical and psychological conditions. Encourage overweight children to expand high energy activity, minimize low energy activity (screen watching), and develop healthful eating habits. Breast feeding is protective against obesity. Diet restriction is not recommended in very young children. Children are to be watched for gain in height rather than reduction in weight. Weight reduction of less than 10% is a normal variation, not significant in obesity.

  6. Body composition and bone health in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood and adolescence: the protocol for a cross-sectional cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ronald; Nayiager, Trishana; Gordon, Christopher; Marriott, Christopher; Athale, Uma

    2015-01-20

    Success in the treatment of young people with cancer, as measured conventionally by survival rates, is mitigated by late effects of therapy that impose a burden of morbidity and limit life expectancy. Among these adverse sequelae are altered body composition, especially obesity, and compromised bone health in the form of osteoporosis and increased fragility. These outcomes are potentially reversible and even preventable. This study will examine measures of body composition and bone health in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in childhood and adolescence. These measures will be complemented by measures of physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Survivors of ALL who are at least 10 years from diagnosis, following treatment on uniform protocols, will undergo measurements of body mass index; triceps skin fold thickness and mid-upper arm circumference; fat mass, lean body mass, skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral density by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry; trabecular and cortical bone indices and muscle density by peripheral quantitative CT; physical activity by the Habitual Activity Estimation Scale; and HRQL by Health Utilities Index instruments. Descriptive measures will be used for continuous variables and number (percent) for categorical variables. Associations between variables will be assessed using Fisher's exact t test and the χ(2) test; correlations will be tested by the Pearson correlation coefficient. The study is approved by the institutional research ethics board and is supported by a competitive funding award. Dissemination of the results will occur by presentations to scientific meetings and publications in peer-reviewed journals, and by posting summaries of the results on websites accessed by adolescent and young adult survivors of cancer. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Relativistic three-body calculations of a Y=1, I=3/2 , J{sup P}=2{sup +}{pi}{Lambda}N-{pi}{Sigma}N dibaryon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcilazo, H., E-mail: humberto@esfm.ipn.mx [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Gal, A., E-mail: avragal@savion.huji.ac.il [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2013-01-02

    The {pi}{Lambda}N-{pi}{Sigma}N coupled-channel system with quantum numbers (Y,I,J{sup P})=(1,3/2 ,2{sup +}) is studied in a relativistic three-body model, using two-body separable interactions in the dominant p-wave pion-baryon and {sup 3}S{sub 1}YN channels. Three-body equations are solved in the complex energy plane to search for quasibound state and resonance poles, producing a robust narrow {pi}{Lambda}N resonance about 10-20 MeV below the {pi}{Sigma}N threshold. Viewed as a dibaryon, it is a {sup 5}S{sub 2} quasibound state consisting of {Sigma}(1385)N and {Delta}(1232)Y components. Comparison is made between the present relativistic model calculation and a previous, outdated nonrelativistic calculation which resulted in a {pi}{Lambda}N bound state. Effects of adding a K{sup Macron }NN channel are studied and found insignificant. Possible production and decay reactions of this (Y,I,J{sup P})=(1,3/2 ,2{sup +}) dibaryon are discussed.

  8. The relationships of calculated percent body fat, sports participation, age, and place of residence on menstrual patterns in healthy adolescent girls at an independent New England high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C; Emans, S J; Mansfield, J; Podolsky, C; Grace, E

    1984-10-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to determine normal menstrual patterns in healthy girls in an independent high school and assess the effects of exercise (type and hours per day), age (chronologic and gynecologic), calculated estimate of body fat, and place of residence (boarding and day students) on menstrual function. Three hundred twenty-seven girls (means age 15.5 +/- 1.1 years) answered a questionnaire on menstrual history; 306 (93.6%) were postmenarchal and 21 (6.4%) premenarchal. Calculated estimate of percent body fat was significantly lower in premenarchal than postmenarchal girls (22.4% versus 27.3% p less than 0.0001). Ninety-three percent of adolescents reported flow lasting 4-7 days; 59.7% dysmenorrhea; and 63% premenstrual symptoms. There was no correlation between estimated body fat or hours per day of exercise and the regularity of menses, duration of flow, or dysmenorrhea. With the exception of gymnastics and dancing, sports participation had little or no impact on menstrual patterns. Follow up questionnaires and menstrual calendars were obtained from 87 girls eight to fifteen months after the initial questionnaires. All girls whose cycles had changed from regular to irregular were boarding students, confirming previous anecdotal reports that separation from home may be a significant stress for adolescents.

  9. SU-E-T-351: Verification of Monitor Unit Calculation for Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Using a Secondary Independent Planning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuruta, Y; Nakata, M; Higashimura, K [Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan); Nakamura, M; Miyabe, Y; Akimoto, M; Ono, T; Mukumoto, N; Ishihara, Y; Matsuo, Y; Mizowaki, T; Hiraoka, M [Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare isocenter (IC) dose between X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) and Acuros XB (AXB) as part of an independent verification of monitor unit (MU) calculation for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using a secondary independent treatment planning system (TPS). Methods: Treatment plans of 110 lesions from 101 patients who underwent lung SBRT with Vero4DRT (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Japan, and BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany) were evaluated retrospectively. Dose distribution was calculated with X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC) in iPlan 4.5.1 (BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany) on averaged intensity projection images. A spatial resolution and mean variance were 2 mm and 2%, respectively. The clinical treatment plans were transferred from iPlan to Eclipse (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA), and doses were recalculated with well commissioned AXB ver. 11.0.31 while maintaining the XVMC-calculated MUs and beam arrangement. Dose calculations were made in the dose-to-medium dose reporting mode with the calculation grid size of 2.5 mm. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of the IC dose difference between XVMC and AXB were calculated. The tolerance level was defined as |mean|+2SD. Additionally, the relationship between IC dose difference and the size of planning target volume (PTV) or computed tomography (CT) value of internal target volume (ITV) was evaluated. Results: The mean±SD of the IC dose difference between XVMC and AXB was −0.32±0.73%. The tolerance level was 1.8%. Absolute IC dose differences exceeding the tolerance level were observed in 3 patients (2.8%). There were no strong correlations between IC dose difference and PTV size (R=−0.14) or CT value of ITV (R=−0.33). Conclusion: The present study suggested that independent verification of MU calculation for lung SBRT using a secondary TPS is useful.

  10. Substituting sugar-sweetened beverages with water or milk is inversely associated with body fatness development from childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Andersen, Lars Bo; Wedderkopp, Niels; Kristensen, Peter; Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Lempert, Susanne Merethe; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between different types of beverage intake and substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by water, milk, or 100% fruit juice in relation to 6-y change in body fatness. A cohort of 9-y-old children (N = 358) who participated in the Danish part of the European Youth Heart Study was followed for development of body fatness over 6 y. Multivariate linear regression was used to examine the associations between beverage intake at baseline and change in body fatness (body mass index z score [BMIz]), waist circumference (WC), and sum of four skinfolds (Σ4SF) over 6 y with adjustment for potential confounders. Substitution models were used to evaluate various beverages as alternatives to SSBs. SSB intake at age 9 y, but not intake of other beverages, was directly associated with subsequent 6-y changes in BMIz (β = 0.05; P = 0.02) and Σ4SF (β = 0.86; P = 0.02). Daily substitution of 100 g water for 100 g SSB was inversely associated with changes in BMIz (β = -0.04; P = 0.02), WC (β =-0.29; P = 0.04), and Σ4SF (β = -0.91; P = 0.02) over 6 y. Daily substitution of 100 g milk for 100 g SSB was also inversely associated with changes in BMIz (β = -0.05; P = 0.02), WC (β = -0.33; P = 0.046), and Σ4SF (β = -0.79; P = 0.06). No effect was observed for substitution of SSB by 100% fruit juice. Our results suggest that SSB intake is associated with long-term changes in body fatness in children, and replacing SSBs with water or milk, but not 100% fruit juice, is inversely associated with body fatness development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Calculation of Single-Nucleon Energies of Nuclei by Considering Two-Body Effective Interaction, n(k,ρ, and a Hartree-Fock Inspired Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mariji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleon single-particle energies (SPEs of the selected nuclei, that is, O16, Ca40, and Ni56, are obtained by using the diagonal matrix elements of two-body effective interaction, which generated through the lowest-order constrained variational (LOCV calculations for the symmetric nuclear matter with the Aυ18 phenomenological nucleon-nucleon potential. The SPEs at the major levels of nuclei are calculated by employing a Hartree-Fock inspired scheme in the spherical harmonic oscillator basis. In the scheme, the correlation influences are taken into account by imposing the nucleon effective mass factor on the radial wave functions of the major levels. Replacing the density-dependent one-body momentum distribution functions of nucleons, n(k,ρ, with the Heaviside functions, the role of n(k,ρ in the nucleon SPEs at the major levels of the selected closed shell nuclei is investigated. The best fit of spin-orbit splitting is taken into account when correcting the major levels of the nuclei by using the parameterized Wood-Saxon potential and the Aυ18 density-dependent mean field potential which is constructed by the LOCV method. Considering the point-like protons in the spherical Coulomb potential well, the single-proton energies are corrected. The results show the importance of including n(k,ρ, instead of the Heaviside functions, in the calculation of nucleon SPEs at the different levels, particularly the valence levels, of the closed shell nuclei.

  12. Long-term impact of GH treatment during childhood on body composition and fat distribution in young adults born SGA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E. Breukhoven (Petra); G.F. Kerkhof (Gerthe); M. van Dijk (Marije); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractContext: GH treatment of short children born small for gestational age (SGA) results in a decline in fat mass (FM) and an increase in lean body mass (LBM). It is, however, unknown whether these changes persist into adulthood. Objective: Our objective was to assess the long-term impact of

  13. Serum Visfatin and Leptin in Relation to Childhood Adiposity and Body Fat Distribution : The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, Saskia M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van de Heijning, Bert; van der Beek, Eline; Postma, Dirkje S.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Visfatin has been suggested as a marker of visceral adiposity. We hypothesized that visfatin, but not leptin, would be specifically associated with visceral adiposity. We investigated the relation of serum visfatin and leptin with measures of adiposity and body fat distribution in

  14. Four-body modified Coulomb-Born calculation for 2 MeV/amu C6+ + He fully differential single ionization cross-section

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, W. F.; Lu, C. W.; Sun, S. Y.; Jia, X. F.

    2015-08-01

    The four-body modified Coulomb-Born approximation including the internuclear interaction (MCB-NN) with a full quantum-mechanical method, is applied to investigate single ionization of helium by 2 MeV/amu C6+ impact. The fully differential cross-sections (FDCS) are calculated for a variety of momentum transfers and ejected electron energies in the scattering plane. The obtained results are compared with the experimental data and the three-body distorted wave-eikonal initial state (3DW-EIS) results and we find that the magnitudes and the angular distribution of the FDCS is well reproduced by the MCB-NN theory for low ejected electron energy. Especially in the recoil region, the present MCB-NN results yield an excellent agreement with experiment.

  15. Spectroscopy of La0.5Sr1.5MnO4 orbital ordering: a cluster many-body calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirone, A.; Dhesi, S. S.; van der Laan, G.

    2006-09-01

    Orbital ordering (OO) in La0.5Sr1.5MnO4 has been studied using soft X-ray resonant diffraction (SXRD) at the Mn L2,3 edges in combination with many-body cluster calculations. The SXRD intensity is modelled in second quantization using a small planar cluster consisting of a central active Mn site with first-neighbour shells comprising O and Mn sites. The effective Hamiltonian includes Slater-Koster parameters and charge transfer and electron correlation energies obtained from previous measurements on manganites. The energy dependence of the SXRD OO peak is calculated using the Jahn-Teller distortions of the oxygen octahedra and in-plane spin correlations as adjustable parameters. These contributions are clearly distinguished above the Néel temperature with a good spectroscopic agreement. The results also suggest a significant charge separation between the Mn sites.

  16. Four-body calculation of {sub {Lambda}}{sup 4}H and {sub {Lambda}}{sup 4}He with realistic {Lambda}N interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiyama, E.; Kamimura, M. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Motoba, T. [Lab. of Physics, Osaka Electro-Communication Univ., Neyagawa (Japan); Yamada, T. [Lab. of Physics, Kanto Gakuin Univ., Yokohama (Japan); Yamamoto, Y. [Physics Section, Tsuru Univ., Tsuru Yamanashi (Japan)

    1998-08-24

    We examine the spin-spin part of the existing YN inter actions. For this purpose {sup 4}{sub {Lambda}}H and {sup 4}{sub {Lambda}}He are well suited since both of the spin-doublet states (0{sup +},1{sup +}) are bound and ob served. We report a four-body calculation within the framework of a 3N+{Lambda} model in which the {Sigma}N-channel contribution is renormalized into {Lambda}N interactions. (orig.) 8 refs.

  17. Four-body calculation of {sup 4}{sub {lambda}}H and {sup 4}{sub {lambda}}He with realistic Y N and N N interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiyama, E

    2000-05-08

    We carried out four-body calculations of {sup 4}{sub {lambda}}H and {sup 4}{sub {lambda}}He taking both the 3N + {lambda} and 3N + {sigma} channels explicitly with the use of realistic N N and Y N interactions. The {sigma}-channel component plays an important role in binding energies of the A = 4 hypernuclei though the admixture is approximately 1%. The {lambda}N - {sigma}N coupling is found to be of central-force type in the Nijmegen model D and of tensor-force type in the model F.

  18. Linking childhood obesity to the built environment: a multi-level analysis of home and school neighbourhood factors associated with body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Jason A; Rangel, Claudia Y; Healy, Martin A; Tucker, Patricia; Loebach, Janet E; Hess, Paul M; He, Meizi; Irwin, Jennifer D; Wilk, Piotr

    2012-07-26

    This study examines environmental factors associated with BMI (body mass index) levels among adolescents with the aim of identifying potential interventions for reducing childhood obesity. Students (n=1,048) aged 10-14 years at 28 schools in London, ON, completed a survey providing information on age, sex, height, weight, home address, etc., which was used to construct age-sex adjusted BMI z-scores. The presence of recreation opportunities, fast-food outlets and convenience stores was assessed using four areal units around each participant's home and school neighbourhood: "circular buffers" encompassing territory within a straight-line distance of 500 m and 1000 m; and "network buffers" of 500 m and 1000 m measured along the street network. School neighbourhoods were also assessed using school-specific "walksheds". Multilevel structural equation modeling techniques were employed to simultaneously test the effects of school-environment (Level 2) and home-environment (Level 1) predictors on BMI z-scores. Most participants (71%) had a normal BMI, 16.9% were overweight, 7.6% were obese, and 4.6% were considered underweight. Multilevel analyses indicated that built environment characteristics around children's homes and schools had a modest but significant effect on their BMI. The presence of public recreation opportunities within a 500 m network distance of home was associated with lower BMI z-scores (p<0.05), and fast-food outlets within the school walkshed was associated with higher BMI z-scores (p<0.05). Interventions and policies that improve children's access to publicly provided recreation opportunities near home and that mitigate the concentration of fast-food outlets close to schools may be key to promoting healthy lifestyles and reducing childhood obesity.

  19. Body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in childhood obesity depending on pubertal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüher, Susann; Molz, Esther; Wiegand, Susanna; Otto, Klaus-Peter; Sergeyev, Elena; Tuschy, Sabine; L'Allemand-Jander, Dagmar; Kiess, Wieland; Holl, Reinhard W

    2013-08-01

    The predictive value of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) to define cardiometabolic risk is unclear in childhood obesity. [corrected] The associations between BMI, WtHR, or WC and cardiometabolic risk markers were analyzed in a multicenter data collection of obese youth. BMI, WtHR, and WC were retrospectively evaluated in 1278 patients (11-18 years, 53% boys) from the German/Austrian/Swiss Adiposity Patients Registry. Parameters were correlated with homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, fasting insulin, blood pressure, transaminases, lipids and uric acid, applying adjusted regression models, with age group, pubertal stage and gender as covariates. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance and fasting insulin were most strongly correlated with BMI, independent of age group or gender. Lipids, transaminases, and uric acid were most strongly correlated with WC with stronger associations for boys. Correlations between BMI and WC as well as metabolic markers and systolic blood pressure showed only minor differences. The pattern of relationship changed during the course of pubertal development with the strongest associations for pubertal children. None of the parameters showed a dependency on WtHR that was superior to BMI or WC. There is only small additional benefit in using WC measurements for routine pediatric care in addition to BMI for predicting metabolic risk. For all parameters, the relationship is strongest during midpuberty, emphasizing that among obese pubertal adolescents, anthropometric measures (BMI and WC) best predict cardiometabolic comorbidities. WtHR does not seem to be superior to BMI or WC in predicting metabolic or cardiovascular risk related to childhood obesity.

  20. Trabalho corporal na educação infantil: afinal, quem deve realizá-lo? Body work in early childhood education: finally who should actually achieve it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Jorge Saad Guirra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A educação infantil constitui-se no momento em que as crianças internalizam importantes conhecimentos que as auxiliarão para o resto de suas vidas, influenciando na sua formação e em suas práticas. O presente artigo reflete sobre o professor generalista, responsável pelo trabalho corporal, na educação infantil, de quais conhecimentos dispõe para desenvolver tal tarefa e como vê a importância desse trabalho para as crianças; aborda, ainda, segundo pesquisa realizada, a possível necessidade de um professor especialista na área para trabalhar o movimento e faz um questionamento sobre a preparação desse profissional para lidar com crianças de educação infantil. Conclui o presente, dialogando com essas questões e abrindo uma discussão sobre a possibilidade de um trabalho desses dois profissionais, em parceria, no sentido de garantir à criança, uma educação mais específica e que auxilie no seu desenvolvimento integral,Early childhood education is at the moment that the children internalize important knowledge that help the rest of their lives, influencing its formation and its practices. This article reflects on the teacher generalist, responsible for working on body movement with the children in early childhood education, which has expertise to develop such a task and sees the importance of this work for children, also discusses the second survey conducted, the possible need for a specialist teacher to work in the movement and is a question on the preparation of this work to deal with children in early childhood education. This article concludes the dialogue with these issues and open a discussion about the possibility of these two professionals work in partnership to ensure the child a more specific education and to help in its full development.

  1. Substituting sugar-sweetened beverages with water or milk is inversely associated with body fatness development from childhood to adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Olsen, Nanna Julie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between different types of beverage intake and substitution of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) by water, milk, or 100% fruit juice in relation to 6-y change in body fatness. METHODS: A cohort of 9-y-old children (N = 358) who...... with changes in BMIz (β = -0.05; P = 0.02), WC (β = -0.33; P = 0.046), and Σ4SF (β = -0.79; P = 0.06). No effect was observed for substitution of SSB by 100% fruit juice. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that SSB intake is associated with long-term changes in body fatness in children, and replacing SSBs...

  2. Accurate Three-Nucleon Bound-State Calculation with an Extended Separable Expansion of the Two-Body T-Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Y.; Parke, W. C.; Maximon, L. C.; Lehman, D. R.

    An accurate solution for the three-nucleon bound state is obtained within 1 keV in the binding energy and, on the whole, better than 1% in the wave function, using a new systematic and efficient method. The method is based on a recently developed separable expansion for any finite-range interaction, in which a rigorous separable series for the two-body t-matrix is obtained by expanding the wave function in terms of a complete set of basis functions inside the range of the potential. In order to treat a potential with a strong repulsive core, as in the case of the Argonne potential, we develop a two-potential formalism. The expansion starts with a few EST (Ernst, Shakin, and Thaler) terms in order to accelerate the convergence and continues with an orthogonal set of polynomials, avoiding the known difficulties of a pure EST expansion. Thus, several techniques are combined in the present extended separable expansion (ESE). In this way, the method opens a new systematic treatment for accurate few-body calculations resulting in a dramatic reduction in the CPU time required to solve few-body equations.

  3. Development and application of a dosimetry model (ExDoM2) for calculating internal dose of specific particle-bound metals in the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalvatzaki, Eleftheria; Lazaridis, Mihalis

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to develop a dosimetry model (ExDoM2) for calculating internal dose of specific particle-bound metals (As, Pb, Cd, Cr and Mn) in the human body. The ExDoM2 is a revised version of a respiratory tract model (ExDoM) incorporating a new particle clearance mechanism in the respiratory tract model and a Physiologically-Based PharmacoKinetic (PBPK) model. The revised respiratory tract model was used to calculate the deposition, clearance and retention of particles in the human respiratory tract and the mass transferred to the oesophagus (gastrointestinal tract) and blood. The PBPK module was used to analyze the distribution of metals (As, Pb, Cd, Cr and Mn) from the blood circulation system to other organs or tissues like liver, kidneys, heart, brain, muscle and bone. The model was applied to calculate the internal human dose for an adult Caucasian male exposed to particulate mass matter (PM), PMPb, PMCd, PMMn and PMCr in an urban area (Athens, Greece). The analysis showed that at the end of the exposure (one day exposure scenario) to PMPb, the major accumulation occurs in the bone, blood and muscle, whereas as regards PMCd the major accumulation occurs in the other tissues, like kidney and liver. In addition, for PMMn, the major accumulation occurs in the other tissues and lungs, whereas as regards PMCr the major accumulation occurs in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and lungs. Therefore, ExDoM2 is an important feature in studying deposition of particles in the human body.

  4. Accurate double many-body expansion potential energy surface by extrapolation to the complete basis set limit and dynamics calculations for ground state of NH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqing; Yuan, Jiuchuang; Chen, Maodu; Ma, Fengcai; Sun, Mengtao

    2013-07-15

    An accurate single-sheeted double many-body expansion potential energy surface is reported for the title system. A switching function formalism has been used to warrant the correct behavior at the H2(X1Σg+)+N(2D) and NH (X3Σ-)+H(2S) dissociation channels involving nitrogen in the ground N(4S) and first excited N(2D) states. The topographical features of the novel global potential energy surface are examined in detail, and found to be in good agreement with those calculated directly from the raw ab initio energies, as well as previous calculations available in the literature. The novel surface can be using to treat well the Renner-Teller degeneracy of the 12A″ and 12A' states of NH 2. Such a work can both be recommended for dynamics studies of the N(2D)+H2 reaction and as building blocks for constructing the double many-body expansion potential energy surface of larger nitrogen/hydrogen-containing systems. In turn, a test theoretical study of the reaction N(2D)+H2(X1Σg+)(ν=0,j=0)→NH (X3Σ-)+H(2S) has been carried out with the method of quantum wave packet on the new potential energy surface. Reaction probabilities, integral cross sections, and differential cross sections have been calculated. Threshold exists because of the energy barrier (68.5 meV) along the minimum energy path. On the curve of reaction probability for total angular momentum J = 0, there are two sharp peaks just above threshold. The value of integral cross section increases quickly from zero to maximum with the increase of collision energy, and then stays stable with small oscillations. The differential cross section result shows that the reaction is a typical forward and backward scatter in agreement with experimental measurement result. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc..

  5. Childhood obesity case statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Paul W; Caskey, Paul; Heaton, Lisa E; Otsuka, Norman

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this publication is to raise awareness of the impact of childhood obesity on the musculoskeletal health of children and its potential long-term implications. Relevant articles dealing with musculoskeletal disorders either caused by or worsened by childhood obesity were reviewed through a Pub Med search. Efforts to recognize and combat the childhood obesity epidemic were also identified through Internet search engines. This case statement was then reviewed by the members of the pediatric specialty group of the US Bone and Joint Initiative, which represents an extensive number of organizations dealing with musculoskeletal health. Multiple musculoskeletal disorders are clearly caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. The review of the literature clearly demonstrates the increased frequency and severity of many childhood musculoskeletal disorders. Concerns about the long-term implications of these childhood onset disorders such as pain and degenerative changes into adulthood are clearly recognized by all the member organizations of the US Bone and Joint Initiative. It is imperative to recognize the long-term implications of musculoskeletal disorders caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. It is also important to recognize that the ability to exercise comfortably is a key factor to developing a healthy lifestyle and maintaining a healthy body weight. Efforts to develop reasonable and acceptable programs to increase physical activity by all facets of society should be supported. Further research into the long-term implications of childhood musculoskeletal disorders related to childhood obesity is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk Groups for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for cancer and certain genetic conditions affect the risk of having childhood ALL. Anything that increases your ... marrow or in other parts of the body. Risk Groups for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Key Points ...

  7. "DANCE RHYMES" AS A PEDAGOGICAL METHOD FOR FOSTERING BODY SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE OF CULTURAL TRADITION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD DANCE EDUCATION IN ISRAEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari KATZ-ZICHRONY

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching dance in early childhood education in the National-Religious community is a relatively new phenomenon in Israeli society. This article describes one teaching practice "Dance Rhymes". The research is based on ethnographic observation of dance classes in schools. Through analysis of the rhyming method, this article illustrates how traditional dance teachers have formed a unique method of "dance rhyming" that is used to foster body skills and bridge the divide between Jewish tradition and dance."DANCE RHYMES" CA METODĂ DE FORMARE A COMPETENŢELOR MOTRICE ŞI VALORIFICARE A TRADIŢIILOR CULTURALE LA ETAPA EDUCAŢIEI TIMPURII ÎN ISRAELPredarea dansului la etapa educaţiei timpurii în comunităţi religioase este un fenomen relativ nou pentru societatea israeliană. "Dance Rhymes" este descris din perspectiva practicii educaţionale: valorificarea demersului etnografic şi a demersului metodologic privind "Dance Rhymes" ca metodă de formare a competenţelor motrice (coregrafice şi redu­cerea discrepanţei dintre tradiţia evreiască şi arta coregrafică.

  8. Relationship of APOA5, PPARγ and HL gene variants with serial changes in childhood body mass index and coronary artery disease risk factors in young adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Shikha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triglycerides is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD and is especially important in Indians because of high prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in this population. Both genetic and environmental factors determine triglyceride levels. In a birth cohort from India, hypertriglyceridemia was found in 41% of men and 11% of women. Subjects who had high triglycerides had more rapid body mass index (BMI or weight gain than rest of the cohort throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence. We analysed polymorphisms in APOA5, hepatic lipase and PPARγ genes and investigated their association with birth weight and serial changes in BMI. Results Polymorphisms in APOA5 (-1131T > C, S19W, PPARγ (Pro12Ala and hepatic lipase (-514C > T were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by restriction digestion in 1492 subjects from the New Delhi Birth Cohort (NDBC. We assessed whether these polymorphisms influence lipid and other variables and serial changes in BMI, both individually and together. The risk allele of APOA5 (-1131C resulted in 23.6 mg/dl higher triglycerides as compared to normal allele (P PPARγ Pro12Ala variation with a lower conditional weight at 6 months, (P = 0.020 and APOA5 S19W with a higher conditional BMI at 11 yrs of age (P = 0.030, none of the other associations between the gene polymorphisms and serial changes in body mass index from birth to young adulthood were significant. Conclusion The promoter polymorphism in APOA5 was associated with raised serum triglycerides and that of HL with raised HDL2 levels. None of the polymorphisms had any significant relationship with birth weight or serial changes in anthropometry from birth to adulthood in this cohort.

  9. A genetic link between prepregnancy body mass index, postpartum weight retention, and offspring weight in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aihua; Teo, Koon K; Morrison, Katherine M; McDonald, Sarah D; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Anand, Sonia S; Meyre, David

    2017-01-01

    The effects of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on maternal and offspring obesity traits, as well as the maternal and offspring genetic contribution to GWG and postpartum weight retention, were examined. Blood samples from mothers (n = 608) and offspring (n = 541) were genotyped for 83 BMI-associated SNPs and 47 waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)-associated SNPs. Linear regression and mixed-effects regression models were performed to examine clinical epidemiological and genetic associations with unweighted and weighted BMI and WHR genetic risk scores (GRS). Prepregnancy BMI was positively associated with offspring weight and BMI Z-score from birth to 5 years. GWG was positively associated with maternal postpartum weight retention at 1 and 5 years and with offspring weight Z-score from birth to 5 years old. The maternal unweighted BMI GRS was associated with prepregnancy BMI, postpartum weight retention at 5 years, and offspring weight Z-score from birth to 5 years old, but not associated with GWG. Both maternal and offspring unweighted WHR GRSs were negatively associated with GWG. Maternal BMI-associated SNPs may contribute to the genetic link between prepregnancy BMI variation, long-term postpartum weight retention, and offspring birth weight and longitudinal weight. Maternal and offspring WHR-associated SNPs may contribute to GWG variation. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  10. Trends in Parent-Child Correlations of Childhood Body Mass Index during the Development of the Obesity Epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa A; Ängquist, Lars; Silventoinen, Karri

    2014-01-01

    interpreting the father-child correlations. RESULTS: The BMI correlations between mothers and sons ranged from 0.29-0.36 and they decreased marginally, albeit significantly across time at ages 7-7 years (-0.002/year, p = 0.006), whereas those at 13-7 years remained stable (daughter.......001), whereas the increase in father-daughter correlations were insignificant both at ages 7-7 (0.001/year, p = 0.37) and at ages 13-7 years (0.001/year, p = 0.18). CONCLUSION: During the obesity epidemics development, the intergenerational resemblance with mothers remained stable, whereas the father-child BMI...... body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) during the emergence of the obesity epidemic. METHODS: The study population was derived from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, which includes height and weight measurements since birth year 1930. Mothers and fathers with BMIs available at ages 7 (n = 25...

  11. An Improved Computational Technique for Calculating Electromagnetic Forces and Power Absorptions Generated in Spherical and Deformed Body in Levitation Melting Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Jin-Ho; Szekely, Julian; Schwartz, Elliot

    1992-01-01

    An improved computational technique for calculating the electromagnetic force field, the power absorption and the deformation of an electromagnetically levitated metal sample is described. The technique is based on the volume integral method, but represents a substantial refinement; the coordinate transformation employed allows the efficient treatment of a broad class of rotationally symmetrical bodies. Computed results are presented to represent the behavior of levitation melted metal samples in a multi-coil, multi-frequency levitation unit to be used in microgravity experiments. The theoretical predictions are compared with both analytical solutions and with the results or previous computational efforts for the spherical samples and the agreement has been very good. The treatment of problems involving deformed surfaces and actually predicting the deformed shape of the specimens breaks new ground and should be the major usefulness of the proposed method.

  12. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: body mass index and level of overweight among 6-9-year-old children from school year 2007/2008 to school year 2009/2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wijnhoven, Trudy Ma

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe has established the Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) to monitor changes in overweight in primary-school children. The aims of this paper are to present the anthropometric results of COSI Round 2 (2009\\/2010) and to explore changes in body mass index (BMI) and overweight among children within and across nine countries from school years 2007\\/2008 to 2009\\/2010.

  13. Body composition in early childhood : Parental, fetal, postnata and genetic determinants of fat, lean and bone mass. The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Ay (Lamise)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTh e prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased dramatically in developed countries over the past two decades. Childhood obesity is associated with short-term morbidity such as asthma and psychological problems and with an increased risk for chronic morbidity and

  14. A method for calculating the gas volume proportions and inhalation temperature of inert gas mixtures allowing reaching normothermic or hypothermic target body temperature in the awake rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques H Abraini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The noble gases xenon (Xe and helium (He are known to possess neuroprotective properties. Xe is considered the golden standard neuroprotective gas. However, Xe has a higher molecular weight and lower thermal conductivity and specific heat than those of nitrogen, the main diluent of oxygen (O2 in air, conditions that could impair or at least reduce the intrinsic neuroprotective properties of Xe by increasing the critical care patient's respiratory workload and body temperature. In contrast, He has a lower molecular weight and higher thermal conductivity and specific heat than those of nitrogen, but is unfortunately far less potent than Xe at providing neuroprotection. Therefore, combining Xe with He could allow obtaining, depending on the gas inhalation temperature and composition, gas mixtures with neutral or hypothermic properties, the latter being advantageous in term of neuroprotection. However, calculating the thermal properties of a mixture, whatever the substances – gases, metals, rubbers, etc. – is not trivial. To answer this question, we provide a graphical method to assess the volume proportions of Xe, He and O2 that a gas mixture should contain, and the inhalation temperature to which it should be administered to allow a clinician to maintain the patient at a target body temperature.

  15. The significance of body mass index in calculating the cut-off points for low muscle mass in the elderly: methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzymińska-Siemaszko, Roma; Czepulis, Natasza; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Dworak, Lechoslaw B; Fryzowicz, Anna; Madej-Dziechciarow, Beata; Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Cut-off points (COPs) for appendicular lean mass (ALM) index, essential to define low muscle mass (LMM) in the elderly, have never been officially defined for Poland. The aim of the study was to establish them. Additionally, the significance of body mass index (BMI) for correctly defining the COPs in a young, healthy reference group was assessed. The study was composed of reference group (n = 1113) and the elderly group (n = 200). In all subjects, body composition was assessed by bioimpedance analysis, and ALM index was calculated. Next, COPs (kg/m(2)) were set up for the whole reference group and for particular subgroups with different BMIs separately. They were used to diagnose sarcopenia in the elderly. COP for all young females was 5.37 (COP-F), while it was equal to 5.52 (COP-F2) when only those with a recommended BMI (18.50-24.99 kg/m(2)) were taken into consideration. For males, it was 7.32 and 7.29, respectively. Only 7% of elderly females had LMM based on COP-F and 15% had LMM based on COP-F2 (P low muscle mass.

  16. Comparison of matching by body volume or gestational age for calculation of observed to expected total lung volume in fetuses with isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawapun, K; Sandaite, I; Dekoninck, P; Claus, F; Richter, J; De Catte, L; Deprest, J

    2014-12-01

    To determine the bias induced by matching fetuses according to gestational age (GA) or fetal body volume (FBV) when calculating the observed to expected total fetal lung volume (o/e TFLV) in cases of isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). This was a single-center, retrospective study on archived magnetic resonance (MR) images of fetuses with isolated CDH over a 10-year period. We retrieved the TFLV, GA and o/e TFLVGA , and delineated FBV to obtain TFLVFBV in each case. We evaluated the relationship between o/e TFLVFBV and o/e TFLVGA by Bland-Altman analysis. All outliers were manually identified, and their specific clinical features were retrieved. Records of a total of 377 MR examinations of 225 fetuses were identified and included in the analysis. The mean ( ± SD) time spent on FBV measurement was 16.12 ± 4.95 min. On reproducibility analysis of FBV measurement (n = 10), the intraobserver intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.998 and the interobserver ICC was 0.999. FBV was highly correlated with GA (R(2)  = 0.899; P  90(th) centile (+14.7%). Discrepancies in matching by FBV and GA when calculating o/e TFLV are more likely in fetuses with an abnormal EFW or in fetuses carried by overweight women. The clinical relevance of using FBV rather than GA for calculation of the o/e TFLV might be limited, as there was no discrepancy between the two methods in fetuses with small lungs ( lung volume assessment. Copyright © 2014 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Comparison of dosimetric and radiobiological parameters on plans for prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy using an endorectal balloon for different dose-calculation algorithms and delivery-beam modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Won; Suh, Tae-Suk; Chung, Jin-Beom; Eom, Keun-Yong; Song, Changhoon; Kim, In-Ah; Kim, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Cho, Woong

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of dosimetric and radiobiological parameters on treatment plans by using different dose-calculation algorithms and delivery-beam modes for prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy using an endorectal balloon. For 20 patients with prostate cancer, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) plans were generated by using a 10-MV photon beam with flattening filter (FF) and flattening-filter-free (FFF) modes. The total treatment dose prescribed was 42.7 Gy in 7 fractions to cover at least 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) with 95% of the prescribed dose. The dose computation was initially performed using an anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) in the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) and was then re-calculated using Acuros XB (AXB V. 11.0.34) with the same monitor units and multileaf collimator files. The dosimetric and the radiobiological parameters for the PTV and organs at risk (OARs) were analyzed from the dose-volume histogram. An obvious difference in dosimetric parameters between the AAA and the AXB plans was observed in the PTV and rectum. Doses to the PTV, excluding the maximum dose, were always higher in the AAA plans than in the AXB plans. However, doses to the other OARs were similar in both algorithm plans. In addition, no difference was observed in the dosimetric parameters for different delivery-beam modes when using the same algorithm to generate plans. As a result of the dosimetric parameters, the radiobiological parameters for the two algorithm plans presented an apparent difference in the PTV and the rectum. The average tumor control probability of the AAA plans was higher than that of the AXB plans. The average normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) to rectum was lower in the AXB plans than in the AAA plans. The AAA and the AXB plans yielded very similar NTCPs for the other OARs. In plans using the same algorithms, the NTCPs for delivery

  18. Periodic health examination, 1994 update: 1. Obesity in childhood. Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination.

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update the 1979 Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination recommendation on screening for childhood obesity by reviewing any new evidence concerning health risks in childhood and adulthood, and effective preventive or therapeutic interventions. OPTIONS: Detection: routine measurement of height and weight, use of skinfold thickness measurements, calculation of body mass index (BMI). Intervention: diet, exercise, behaviour modification and comprehensive family-based w...

  19. Childhood body mass index and subsequent physician-diagnosed asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood asthma and obesity prevalence have increased in recent years suggesting a potential association. However, the direction of any association is poorly understood and the potential causal-relationship is unknown. Methods We examined the association between overweight/obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI) asthma at least one year after BMI assessment. We sought to explore potential effect modification by sex. PubMed and Embase were searched using keywords and restricted to subjects aged 0–18 years. There were no date or language restrictions. From each study we extracted: authors, publication date, location, overweight/obesity definitions, asthma definitions, number of participants, recruitment duration, description of cohort, follow-up time, adjusted effect estimates (with 95% CI) and estimates of subgroup analysis. Results Six prospective cohort studies which focused on children asthma (RR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.15, 1.58). In boys, the combined RR of overweight on asthma was significant (RR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.05, 1.88). For girls, when BMI was defined by Z-score, the combined RR of overweight on asthma was also significant (RR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.06, 1.34). The combined risk ratio (RR) of obesity was associated with asthma in both boys and girls (RR = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.22, 1.83), in boys only (RR = 1.40; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.93) and in girls only (RR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.09, 2.14). Conclusions Overweight and, especially, obese children are at increased risk of subsequent physician diagnosed asthma in comparison to normal weight children. Except for sex, no studies reported any other potential effect modifiers. The observed sex effects were inconsistent. PMID:23941287

  20. Body mass index trajectories in the first two years and subsequent childhood cardio-metabolic outcomes: a prospective multi-ethnic Asian cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aris, Izzuddin M; Chen, Ling-Wei; Tint, Mya Thway; Pang, Wei Wei; Soh, Shu E; Saw, Seang-Mei; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Tan, Kok-Hian; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Godfrey, Keith M; Kramer, Michael S; Lee, Yung Seng

    2017-08-21

    We investigated body mass index (BMI) trajectories in the first 2 years of life in 1170 children from an Asian mother-offspring cohort in Singapore, and examined their predictors and associations with childhood cardio-metabolic risk measures at 5 years. Latent class growth mixture modelling analyses were performed to identify distinct BMI z-score (BMIz) trajectories. Four trajectories were identified: 73.2%(n = 857) of the children showed a normal BMIz trajectory, 13.2%(n = 155) a stable low-BMIz trajectory, 8.6%(n = 100) a stable high-BMIz trajectory and 5.0%(n = 58) a rapid BMIz gain after 3 months trajectory. Predictors of the stable high-BMIz and rapid BMIz gain trajectories were pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, Malay and Indian ethnicity, while predictors of stable low-BMIz trajectory were preterm delivery and Indian ethnicity. At 5 years, children with stable high-BMIz or rapid BMIz gain trajectories had increased waist-to-height ratios [B(95%CI) 0.02(0.01,0.03) and 0.03(0.02,0.04)], sum of skinfolds [0.42(0.19,0.65) and 0.70(0.36,1.03)SD units], fat-mass index [0.97(0.32,1.63)SD units] and risk of obesity [relative risk 3.22(1.73,6.05) and 2.56 (1.19,5.53)], but not higher blood pressure. BMIz trajectories were more predictive of adiposity at 5 years than was BMIz at 2 years. Our findings on BMIz trajectories in the first 2 years suggest important ethnic-specific differences and impacts on later metabolic outcomes.

  1. Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference, and Waist-to-Height Ratio as Predictors of Cardiometabolic Risk in Childhood Obesity Depending on Pubertal Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    for the Adiposity Patients Registry Initiative and the German Competence Net Obesity; Blüher, Susann; Molz, Esther; Wiegand, Susanna; Otto, Klaus-Peter; Sergeyev, Elena; Tuschy, Sabine; l'Allemand-Jander, Dagmar; Kiess, Wieland; Holl, Reinhard W

    2013-01-01

    ...) to define cardiometabolic risk is unclear in childhood obesity. Obective: The associations between BMI, WtHR, or WC and cardiometabolic risk markers were analyzed in a multicenter data collection of obese youth...

  2. Body fluids and salt metabolism - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettinelli Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a high frequency of diarrhea and vomiting in childhood. As a consequence the focus of the present review is to recognize the different body fluid compartments, to clinically assess the degree of dehydration, to know how the equilibrium between extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid is maintained, to calculate the effective blood osmolality and discuss both parenteral fluid maintenance and replacement.

  3. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Childhood Stress KidsHealth / For Parents / Childhood Stress What's in this ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  4. Effect of Attendance of the Child on Body Weight, Energy Intake, and Physical Activity in Childhood Obesity Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutelle, Kerri N; Rhee, Kyung E; Liang, June; Braden, Abby; Douglas, Jennifer; Strong, David; Rock, Cheryl L; Wilfley, Denise E; Epstein, Leonard H; Crow, Scott J

    2017-07-01

    Family-based weight loss treatment (FBT) is considered the gold-standard treatment for childhood obesity and is provided to the parent and child. However, parent-based treatment (PBT), which is provided to the parent without the child, could be similarly effective and easier to disseminate. To determine whether PBT is similarly effective as FBT on child weight loss over 24 months. Secondary aims evaluated the effect of these 2 treatments on parent weight loss, child and parent dietary intake, child and parent physical activity, parenting style, and parent feeding behaviors. Randomized 2-arm noninferiority trial conducted at an academic medical center, University of California, San Diego, between July 2011 and July 2015. Participants included 150 overweight and obese 8- to 12-year-old children and their parents. Both PBT and FBT were delivered in 20 one-hour group meetings with 30-minute individualized behavioral coaching sessions over 6 months. Treatments were similar in content; the only difference was the attendance of the child. The primary outcome measure was child weight loss (body mass index [BMI] and BMI z score) at 6, 12, and 18 months post treatment. Secondary outcomes were parent weight loss (BMI), child and parent energy intake, child and parent physical activity (moderate to vigorous physical activity minutes), parenting style, and parent feeding behaviors. One hundred fifty children (mean BMI, 26.4; mean BMI z score, 2.0; mean age, 10.4 years; 66.4% girls) and their parent (mean BMI, 31.9; mean age, 42.9 years; 87.3% women; and 31% Hispanic, 49% non-Hispanic white, and 20% other race/ethnicity) were randomly assigned to either FBT or PBT. Child weight loss after 6 months was -0.25 BMI z scores in both PBT and FBT. Intention-to-treat analysis using mixed linear models showed that PBT was noninferior to FBT on all outcomes at 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up with a mean difference in child weight loss of 0.001 (95% CI, -0.06 to 0.06). Parent

  5. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  6. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Late for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias Childhood Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Cancer Print A A A What's in this ... in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...

  7. Effects on childhood body habitus of feeding large volumes of cow or formula milk compared with breastfeeding in the latter part of infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, David; Steer, Colin D; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline M

    2015-11-01

    There is controversy over whether a lack of breastfeeding is related to obesity development. We examined the effects of feeding different types of milk in late infancy on childhood growth. A cohort of 1112 term, singleton children (born in 1992) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, United Kingdom, were studied prospectively. Food records collected at 8 mo of age were used to define the following 5 mutually exclusive feeding groups on the basis of the type and amount of milk consumed: breast milk (BM), habitus through childhood.

  8. Cuerpo e imagen: Acerca de la construcción de imaginarios sociales sobre cuerpo, derechos e infancia Body and image: About body, rights and childhood social imaginary construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugenia Velázquez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente texto aparece contextualizado en el seno del proyecto de investigación Análisis de la práctica de la psicología jurídica en relación a los delitos contra la integridad sexual (ley 25087/99 y los derechos sexuales. Dimensiones institucional-organizacional, simbólico-imaginaria e histórico-genealógica (P423; Directora: Lic. Matilde de la Iglesia, UBACyT 2008-2010. En el intento de cartograiar (Guattari, 2000; Guattari-Rolnik, 2006 los imaginarios sociales acerca de los derechos sexuales, se trabajó en la indagación de fuentes gráicas -fotografías e internet- para determinar bajo qué operaciones de asignación de sentido los medios de comunicación construyen imágenes posibles en sus discursos, acerca de derechos sexuales, cuerpo; y sus efectos concretos en la constitución subjetiva de los individuos. En los catálogos de ropa infantil, que se han tomado como representativos y colaboradores activos en la construcción de significaciones culturales acerca de la infancia contemporánea, aparecen imágenes de niños con características adultas, o por lo menos modelos cuyos rasgos infantiles tratan de disimularse.The following paper appears in the context of the works of the UBACYT P423, 2008/10, research group, Analysis of the practice on legal psychology in relation to crimes against sexual integrity (law nº 25087/99 and sexual rights: organizational-institutional, symbolical-imaginary, and genealogical-historical dimensions. Director: B.A. Matilde de la Iglesia. In the attempt of charting (Guattari, 2000; Guattari-Rolnik, 2006 the social imaginaries of social rights, graphics sources -photographs and internet- were used in order to determinate under which sense-giving operations the media constructs possible images of sex rights and body; and their effects on individual subjective constitution. In children's clothing catalogs, that have been taken as representatives and active collaborators of cultural signification of

  9. The impact of childhood body mass index on timing of puberty, adult stature and obesity: a follow-up study based on adolescent anthropometry recorded at Christ's Hospital (1936-1964).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, J; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Cole, T J; Holly, J; Davey Smith, G

    2006-01-01

    To examine the impact of childhood body mass index (BMI) on timing of puberty, adult stature and obesity. A retrospective school-based cohort follow-up study. A total of 1520 men born between 1927 and 1956 with serial height and weight measurements from the age of 9 to 18, followed up in adulthood at a mean age of 63 years. Prepubertal (child) BMI; age at peak height velocity (APHV); adult leg length, waist and hip circumference (self-reported), and height and weight (measured). Boys with a higher childhood BMI tended to have an earlier puberty (per s.d. increase in child BMI: -0.31 years, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.23 to -0.39, P puberty tended to be taller (per s.d. increase in APHV: 0.57 cm, 95% CI: 0.17-0.97, P = 0.006) and less adipose as adults (-0.55 kg/m(2), 95% CI: -0.33 to -0.77, P obesity into adulthood are well known, but the potential impact on early pubertal maturation is less well appreciated. The factors that contribute to the onset and persistence of childhood obesity require more public health focus.

  10. Eating late in the evening is associated with childhood obesity in some age groups but not in all children: the relationship between time of consumption and body weight status in U.S. children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Stephanie; Wagstaff, David A; Kranz, Sibylle

    2009-05-21

    Some studies in adults indicate a positive correlation between eating later in the day and overall energy intake as well as body weight status. Thus, the time of food intake may be a risk factor in childhood obesity. This study was designed to describe the proportion of energy consumed in the time from 4 pm to midnight measured in two-hour increments and to determine a potential association between the time of proportion of energy consumed and body weight status. Dietary, anthropometric, and socio-demographic data of 2-18 year olds (N = 11,072) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 was examined to describe the proportion of total energy consumed within two-hour time periods between 4 pm and midnight. To examine the potential association between eating later in the day and body weight status, generalized estimating equations (GEE) models were used to quantify the effect of time trends (proportion of total energy consumed in each 2-hour time period from 4 pm to 11.59 pm) on body weight status. Analysis was conducted in the total sample and in subgroups stratified by sex, ethnic group (Non-Hispanic white, Non-Hispanic black, Mexican American, Other Hispanic, and Other Race including multi-racial) and age group (2-5, 6-11, and 12-18 year olds). Complex sample survey analysis were used to assess differences at a significance level of p-value weight children, overweight school-age children consumed significantly higher while overweight adolescents consumed significantly lower proportions of total daily energy with each advancing two-hour time increment. The association between the circadian rhythm of eating and body weight status needs to be investigated further to examine the effect of time of consumption on the risk of childhood obesity. Especially longitudinal studies in diverse child populations would help elucidate the importance of time of eating on obesity.

  11. Childhood maltreatment severity is associated with elevated C-reactive protein and body mass index in adults with schizophrenia and bipolar diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Monica; Dieset, Ingrid; Hope, Sigrun; Hoseth, Eva; Mørch, Ragni; Reponen, Elina; Steen, Nils Eiel; Laskemoen, Jannicke Fjæra; Ueland, Thor; Aukrust, Pål; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Several studies have described an association between childhood maltreatment and inflammatory markers in the psychotic disorders (schizophrenia [SZ] and bipolar disorder [BD]). Previous studies have been relatively small (childhood abuse severity and clinical diagnosis on inflammatory markers were investigated in a large sample (n=483) of patients with a disorder on the psychosis spectrum and in healthy controls (HCs). Plasma levels of inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP], soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 [TNFR-R1], glycoprotein 130 [gp130]) were analyzed, and BMI and data on childhood trauma events, on the basis of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), were obtained from all participants. Patients had increased levels of hs-CRP (Pchildhood maltreatment experiences (Pchildhood abuse (up to three types of abuse: sexual abuse, physical abuse, and emotional abuse) was associated with elevated BMI (f=8.46, Pchildhood abuse were found for elevated hs-CRP (f=4.76, P<0.001, Cohen's d=0.4). Differences among the groups disappeared when BMI was added to the model. Trauma-altered immune activation via elevated hs-CRP in patients with SZ and BD may be mediated by higher BMI; however, the direction of this association needs further clarification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Calculating the spectral density of the loading moment on the working body of the deep milling machine at the design stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Fomin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of production processes requires a creation of high-performance and reliable machines. This leads to solving a number of problems, one of which is a development of the efficient methods of engineering and design. The accuracy of its solution depends on how the amount and nature of the load taken when calculation of structural elements correspond to the real ones arising in the process of operation.One reason for the low reliability milling units is high dynamic loading of drive components and their structures. These dynamic loads can be considered as a result of forced vibrations of elastic systems of the drive emerged from the external resistance forces at the executor, which are random functions.When a deep milling machine performs a technological operation there is a grinding soil together with the bushes growing on the surface, their root system and woody debris. Thus, a structural mix of the cutting surroundings, a variability of their physical and mechanical properties, and available local inclusions predetermine a highly variable, random nature of load on the milling machine.When analyzing the moment of loading, the periodic nature of the interaction of the cutting elements with soil medium and the random changes of its physical-mechanical properties, its structural heterogeneity ought to be taken into consideration. This predetermines presentation of the load in the form of a pulse sequence with random parameters and complex structure. The parameters of pulses are determined by the kinematic and power interaction features cutting elements with the soil. The random nature of their changes is determined by the random change of physical and mechanical properties of the soil, the existing local inclusions, machine operation conditions i.e. cutter speed, movement speed of the unit.On the basis of developed model the expressions have been obtained. They enable determining the spectral density of the moment on a working body

  13. Trends in Measures of Childhood Obesity in Korea From 1998 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Jinwook; Khang, Young-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background During the last several decades, the number of children who are overweight or obese has reached alarming levels worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to examine trends in measures of childhood obesity among Korean children aged 2–19 from 1998 to 2012. Methods Height, weight, and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Age-adjusted means of WC and BMI were compared between years. We used three international criteria (International Obesity Task Force [IOTF], World Health Organization [WHO], United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]) and a Korean national reference standard (Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [KCDC]) to calculate age-standardized prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. Results Despite differences in absolute prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity according to the four different criteria, the time trends of prevalence were generally similar across criteria. The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity generally stabilized from 2001–2012 in both boys and girls. WC decreased from 2001–2012 in both boys and girls aged 2–19. Conclusions Further studies exploring the factors causing plateaued trends of childhood obesity measures are needed to implement effective policies for reducing the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. PMID:26686881

  14. Assessing many-body contributions to intermolecular interactions of the AMOEBA force field using energy decomposition analysis of electronic structure calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerdash, Omar; Mao, Yuezhi; Liu, Tianyi; Head-Gordon, Martin; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2017-10-28

    In this work, we evaluate the accuracy of the classical AMOEBA model for representing many-body interactions, such as polarization, charge transfer, and Pauli repulsion and dispersion, through comparison against an energy decomposition method based on absolutely localized molecular orbitals (ALMO-EDA) for the water trimer and a variety of ion-water systems. When the 2- and 3-body contributions according to the many-body expansion are analyzed for the ion-water trimer systems examined here, the 3-body contributions to Pauli repulsion and dispersion are found to be negligible under ALMO-EDA, thereby supporting the validity of the pairwise-additive approximation in AMOEBA's 14-7 van der Waals term. However AMOEBA shows imperfect cancellation of errors for the missing effects of charge transfer and incorrectness in the distance dependence for polarization when compared with the corresponding ALMO-EDA terms. We trace the larger 2-body followed by 3-body polarization errors to the Thole damping scheme used in AMOEBA, and although the width parameter in Thole damping can be changed to improve agreement with the ALMO-EDA polarization for points about equilibrium, the correct profile of polarization as a function of intermolecular distance cannot be reproduced. The results suggest that there is a need for re-examining the damping and polarization model used in the AMOEBA force field and provide further insights into the formulations of polarizable force fields in general.

  15. The properties of human body phantoms used in calculations of electromagnetic fields exposure by wireless communication handsets or hand-operated industrial devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zradziński, Patryk

    2013-06-01

    According to international guidelines, the assessment of biophysical effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) generated by hand-operated sources needs the evaluation of induced electric field (E(in)) or specific energy absorption rate (SAR) caused by EMF inside a worker's body and is usually done by the numerical simulations with different protocols applied to these two exposure cases. The crucial element of these simulations is the numerical phantom of the human body. Procedures of E(in) and SAR evaluation due to compliance analysis with exposure limits have been defined in Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers standards and International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines, but a detailed specification of human body phantoms has not been described. An analysis of the properties of over 30 human body numerical phantoms was performed which has been used in recently published investigations related to the assessment of EMF exposure by various sources. The differences in applicability of these phantoms in the evaluation of E(in) and SAR while operating industrial devices and SAR while using mobile communication handsets are discussed. The whole human body numerical phantom dimensions, posture, spatial resolution and electric contact with the ground constitute the key parameters in modeling the exposure related to industrial devices, while modeling the exposure from mobile communication handsets, which needs only to represent the exposed part of the human body nearest to the handset, mainly depends on spatial resolution of the phantom. The specification and standardization of these parameters of numerical human body phantoms are key requirements to achieve comparable and reliable results from numerical simulations carried out for compliance analysis against exposure limits or within the exposure assessment in EMF-related epidemiological studies.

  16. Socio-economic disparities of childhood Body Mass Index in a newly developed population: evidence from Hong Kong's 'Children of 1997' birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooling, C Mary; Yau, Cynthia; Cowling, Benjamin J; Lam, Tai Hing; Leung, Gabriel M

    2010-06-01

    Childhood adiposity in developed countries is often associated with lower socio-economic position (SEP) of the family and neighbourhood. However, the association of adiposity with SEP varies with national income. The authors examined whether childhood BMI was associated with family or neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics in a recently and rapidly developed Chinese population. The authors used multilevel modelling in Hong Kong's population-representative 'Children of 1997' birth cohort (n=8327) to examine the association of BMI z-score and overweight (including obesity) at ages 6-11 years with parental education, mother's birthplace, sex and neighbourhood median income. In 7108 (85 % successful follow-up) children, boys were more adipose than girls. The association of parental education with BMI z-score varied with mother's birthplace (p value for interaction 0.001). In children of Hong Kong-born mothers, parental education was negatively associated with BMI z-score (mean difference -0.15, 95% CI -0.25 to -0.05 for highest compared with lowest). However, in children of mainland China-born mothers, parental education was positively associated with BMI z-score (0.18, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.34 in the same comparison). Neighbourhood had no association with BMI z-score. In this recently developed Chinese population, there was no consistent association between socio-economic characteristics and childhood BMI. Other factors, such as experience of economic transition, as proxied by mother's place of birth, exerted a modifying impact. The cultural and biological mechanisms underlying these socio-historical intergenerational influences need to be determined, so that effective interventions can be implemented in China and elsewhere.

  17. The error of L5/S1 joint moment calculation in a body-centered non-inertial reference frame when the fictitious force is ignored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, X.; Faber, G.S.; Kingma, I.; Chang, C.C.; Hsiang, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    In ergonomics studies, linked segment models are commonly used for estimating dynamic L5/S1 joint moments during lifting tasks. The kinematics data input to these models are with respect to an arbitrary stationary reference frame. However, a body-centered reference frame, which is defined using the

  18. Optical to ultraviolet spectra of sandwiches of benzene and transition metal atoms: Time dependent density functional theory and many-body calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Lopez, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    The optical spectra of sandwich clusters formed by transition metal atoms (titanium, vanadium, and chromium) intercalated between parallel benzene molecules have been studied by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and many-body perturbation theory. Sandwiches with different number...

  19. Eating late in the evening is associated with childhood obesity in some age groups but not in all children: the relationship between time of consumption and body weight status in U.S. children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranz Sibylle

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies in adults indicate a positive correlation between eating later in the day and overall energy intake as well as body weight status. Thus, the time of food intake may be a risk factor in childhood obesity. This study was designed to describe the proportion of energy consumed in the time from 4 pm to midnight measured in two-hour increments and to determine a potential association between the time of proportion of energy consumed and body weight status. Methods Dietary, anthropometric, and socio-demographic data of 2–18 year olds (N = 11,072 of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2004 was examined to describe the proportion of total energy consumed within two-hour time periods between 4 pm and midnight. To examine the potential association between eating later in the day and body weight status, generalized estimating equations (GEE models were used to quantify the effect of time trends (proportion of total energy consumed in each 2-hour time period from 4 pm to 11.59 pm on body weight status. Analysis was conducted in the total sample and in subgroups stratified by sex, ethnic group (Non-Hispanic white, Non-Hispanic black, Mexican American, Other Hispanic, and Other Race including multi-racial and age group (2–5, 6–11, and 12–18 year olds. Complex sample survey analysis were used to assess differences at a significance level of p-value Results Proportion of energy consumed varied by sex, ethnic group, and age groups between 4 pm and 11.59 pm. Compared to healthy weight children, overweight school-age children consumed significantly higher while overweight adolescents consumed significantly lower proportions of total daily energy with each advancing two-hour time increment. Conclusion The association between the circadian rhythm of eating and body weight status needs to be investigated further to examine the effect of time of consumption on the risk of childhood obesity

  20. Calculations ofB1Distribution, Specific Energy Absorption Rate, and Intrinsic Signal-to-Noise Ratio for a Body-Size Birdcage Coil Loaded with Different Human Subjects at 64 and 128 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Collins, C M; Smith, M B

    2005-03-01

    A numerical model of a female body is developed to study the effects of different body types with different coil drive methods on radio-frequency magnetic ( B 1 ) field distribution, specific energy absorption rate (SAR), and intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (ISNR) for a body-size birdcage coil at 64 and 128 MHz. The coil is loaded with either a larger, more muscular male body model (subject 1) or a newly developed female body model (subject 2), and driven with two-port (quadrature), four-port, or many (ideal) sources. Loading the coil with subject 1 results in significantly less homogeneous B 1 field, higher SAR, and lower ISNR than those for subject 2 at both frequencies. This dependence of MR performance and safety measures on body type indicates a need for a variety of numerical models representative of a diverse population for future calculations. The different drive methods result in similar B 1 field patterns, SAR, and ISNR in all cases.

  1. High-order post-Newtonian contributions to the two-body gravitational interaction potential from analytical gravitational self-force calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato

    2013-01-01

    We extend the analytical determination of the main radial potential describing (within the effective one-body formalism) the gravitational interaction of two bodies beyond the 4th post-Newtonian approximation recently obtained by us. This extension is done to linear order in the mass ratio by applying analytical gravitational self-force theory (for a particle in circular orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole) to Detweiler's gauge-invariant redshift variable. By using the version of black hole perturbation theory developed by Mano, Suzuki and Takasugi, we have pushed the analytical determination of the (linear in mass ratio) radial potential to the 6th post-Newtonian order (passing through 5 and 5.5 post-Newtonian terms). In principle, our analytical method can be extended to arbitrarily high post-Newtonian orders.

  2. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Reports Watchdog Ratings Feedback Contact Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Cancer Resources > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses ...

  3. Childhood Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of onset presents special challenges for diagnosis, treatment, education, and emotional and social development. Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that requires lifelong treatment. Identifying and starting treatment for childhood schizophrenia ...

  4. Declination Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Declination is calculated using the current International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model. Declination is calculated using the current World Magnetic Model...

  5. Does preterm period sleep development predict early childhood growth trajectories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, M R; Park, J; Pan, W; Brandon, D H; Scher, M; Holditch-Davis, D

    2017-09-01

    The current study examined the relationship between sleep state development across the preterm and early post-term periods and subsequent growth trajectories from 1 to 27 months corrected age. Retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively from 111 preterm infants (⩽34 weeks gestation) who participated in a multi-site longitudinal study. Separate longitudinal parallel process models were calculated for each sleep state (active and quiet sleep) and growth (weight, length and body mass index (BMI) Z-scores) variable to estimate the associations between their developmental trajectories. Significant associations were identified between the trajectories of quiet sleep and weight, active sleep and weight, quiet sleep and BMI, and active sleep and BMI. No statistically meaningful associations were identified between the trajectories of early childhood length and the preterm sleep states. Faster preterm period sleep development appears to predict more favorable early childhood growth trajectories, particularly for weight, indicating preterm sleep may be an important biomarker for subsequent growth outcomes.

  6. Development of a computer code to calculate the distribution of radionuclides within the human body by the biokinetic models of the ICRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masaki; Yamanaka, Tsuneyasu; Hayakawa, Nobuhiro; Iwai, Satoshi; Sugiura, Nobuyuki

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the Basic Radionuclide vAlue for Internal Dosimetry (BRAID) code, which was developed to calculate the time-dependent activity distribution in each organ and tissue characterised by the biokinetic compartmental models provided by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Translocation from one compartment to the next is taken to be governed by first-order kinetics, which is formulated by the first-order differential equations. In the source program of this code, the conservation equations are solved for the mass balance that describes the transfer of a radionuclide between compartments. This code is applicable to the evaluation of the radioactivity of nuclides in an organ or tissue without modification of the source program. It is also possible to handle easily the cases of the revision of the biokinetic model or the application of a uniquely defined model by a user, because this code is designed so that all information on the biokinetic model structure is imported from an input file. The sample calculations are performed with the ICRP model, and the results are compared with the analytic solutions using simple models. It is suggested that this code provides sufficient result for the dose estimation and interpretation of monitoring data. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A tool for calculation of 7Li(p,n)7Be neutron source spectra below the three-body break-up reaction threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachuau, Rebecca; Lalremruata, B.; Otuka, N.; Hlondo, L. R.; Punte, L. R. M.; Thanga, H. H.

    2017-09-01

    We developed a new deterministic neutron source spectrum code EPEN - Energy of Proton Energy of Neutron - for a given lithium target thickness, sample angular coverage and proton energy from the reaction threshold to the three-body break-up threshold. The angular differential cross sections of the 7Li(p,n0)7Be and 7Li(p,n1)7Be reactions evaluated by Liskien and Paulsen were adopted above 1.95 MeV while the functional form suggested by Macklin and Gibbons was adopted for the 7Li(p,n0)7Be reaction cross section near threshold. The spectra obtained by EPEN are validated by the experimental spectra and also compared with the spectra predicted by two Monte Carlo codes, SimLiT and PINO. The results of comparison are discussed in detail.

  8. Engineering method of calculation temperature fields and thermal stresses in the initial stage of radiation convection heating (cooling body with variable heat transfer coefficient, and the temperature of environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov A.D.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing solutions of radiant and convective heating (cooling body problems at the initial stage at unsteady heat transfer coefficients and temperatures are rather cumbersome. The purpose of this work is getting simpler dependencies. Decisions are based on the analysis of relations between the cause (heat flow and the effect (surface temperature in the initial period of heating. Two simple and effective engineering methods of calculation of unsteady temperature fields, and axial thermal stresses at the initial stage of heating (cooling of body of canonical form for both convection and radiation heat transfer at variable ambient temperature and environmental factors have been developed. Some of the solutions are generic in nature, which allows significantly reducing the number of variables and thus using the graphical method of problem solving. The formulas for calculating the bulk and central temperature in the initial stage are provided; other researchers of nonlinear heat conduction problems did not usually do this. It has been found that the axial thermal stresses are determined entirely by the heat flow on the surface. The adequacy of the developed techniques is based on five cases of calculation of heating (cooling plates under various conditions of its thermal loading. It is shown that the error in determining the surface temperature does not exceed 6%, and that the developed method can be used up to Fourier numbers Fo<0.4

  9. Identifying developmental trajectories of body mass index in childhood using latent class growth (mixture) modelling : associations with dietary, sedentary and physical activity behaviors: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Maaike; Hoekstra, Trynke; De Jong, Elske; Visscher, Tommy L S; Seidell, Jacob C.; Renders, Carry M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: To date, many epidemiologic studies examining associations between obesity and dietary and sedentary/physical activity behaviors have focused on assessing Body Mass Index (BMI) at one point in time. Recent developments in statistical techniques make it possible to study the potential

  10. A policy-driven multifaceted approach for early childhood physical fitness promotion: impacts on body composition and physical fitness in young Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhixiong; Ren, Hong; Yin, Zenong; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Kaizhen

    2014-05-05

    The prevalence of obesity increased while certain measures of physical fitness deteriorated in preschool children in China over the past decade. This study tested the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention that integrated childcare center, families, and community to promote healthy growth and physical fitness in preschool Chinese children. This 12-month study was conducted using a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design with comparison group. The participants were 357 children (mean age = 4.5 year) enrolled in three grade levels in two childcare centers in Beijing, China. The intervention included: 1) childcare center intervention (physical activity policy changes, teacher training, physical education curriculum and food services training), 2) family intervention (parent education, internet website for support, and family events), and 3) community intervention (playground renovation and community health promotion events). The study outcome measures included body composition (percent body fat, fat mass, and muscle mass), Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-score and physical fitness scores in 20-meter agility run (20M-AR), broad jump for distance (BJ), timed 10-jumps, tennis ball throwing (TBT), sit and reach (SR), balance beam walk (BBW), 20-meter crawl (20M-C)), 30-meter sprint (30M-S)) from a norm referenced test. Measures of process evaluation included monitoring of children's physical activity (activity time and intensity) and food preparation records, and fidelity of intervention protocol implementation. Children in the intervention center significantly lowered their body fat percent (-1.2%, p BBW: -2.02 seconds, p <0.0001; 30M-S: -0.45 seconds, p < 0.02; 20M-C: -3.36 seconds, p < 0.0001). Process evaluation data showed that the intervention protocol was implemented with high fidelity. The study demonstrated that a policy-driven multi-faceted intervention can improve preschool children's body composition and physical fitness. Program efficacy should be

  11. A Monte Carlo approach to lung dose calculation in small fields used in intensity modulated radiation therapy and stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbahi, Asghar; Dadgar, Habib; Ghareh-Aghaji, Nahideh; Mohammadzadeh, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, the effect of electronic disequilibrium on lung dose with small photon beams was verified. The central axis absorbed dose in lung phantom was calculated by Monte Carlo (MC) method. The 6 and 18 MV photon beams of Varian Clinac 2100EX were simulated using MCNPX MC Code (Los Alamos national lab, USA). The MC model was used to calculate the depth doses water and low density water resembling the soft-tissue and lung, respectively. Four small field sizes including 0.5 cm2×0.5 cm2, 1 cm2×1 cm2, 2 cm2×2 cm2, and 3 cm2×3 cm2 were used in this study. Percentage of dose reduction in lung region relative to homogenous phantom for 6 MV photon beam were 44.6%, 39%, 13%, and 7% for 0.5 cm2×0.5 cm2, 1 cm2×1 cm2, 2 cm2×2 cm2, and 3 cm2×3 cm2 fields, respectively. For 18 MV photon beam, the results were found to be 82%, 69%, 46%, and 25.8% for the same field sizes, respectively. The solid tumor dose inside lung was reduced considerably between 17% and 35% for 18 MV beam, while there was only 9% dose reduction for tumor dose for 0.5 and 1 cm field sizes. Our study showed that the dose reduction with small fields in the lung was very enormous. Thus, inaccurate prediction of absorbed dose inside lung and also lung soft-tissue interfaces with small photon beams may lead to critical consequences for treatment outcome.

  12. Radiation Doses to Members of the U.S. Population from Ubiquitous Radionuclides in the Body: Part 2, Methods and Dose Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, David J.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2011-02-25

    This paper is part two of a three-part series investigating annual effective doses to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling 222Rn, 220Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. Part one reviewed, summarized, characterized, and grouped all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Assumptions about equilibrium with long-lived parents are made for the 28 other radionuclides in these series lacking data. This paper describes the methods developed to group the collected data into source regions described in the Radiation Dose Assessment Resource (RADAR) dosimetric methodology. Methods for converting the various units of data published over 50 years into a standard form are developed and described. Often, meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements were not published so that variability in data sets is confounded with measurement uncertainty. A description of the methods developed to estimate variability is included in this paper. The data described in part one are grouped by gender and age to match the RADAR dosimetric phantoms. Within these phantoms, concentration values are grouped into source tissue regions by radionuclide, and they are imputed for source regions lacking tissue data. Radionuclide concentrations are then imputed for other phantoms’ source regions with missing concentration values, and the uncertainties of the imputed values are increased. The content concentrations of hollow organs are calculated, and activities are apportioned to the bone source regions using assumptions about each radionuclide’s bone-seeking behavior. The data sets are then ready

  13. Age at adiposity rebound and body mass index trajectory from early childhood to adolescence; differences by breastfeeding and maternal immigration background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharat Pour, M; Bergström, A; Bottai, M; Magnusson, J; Kull, I; Moradi, T

    2017-02-01

    This paper aims to assess association between breastfeeding and maternal immigration background and body mass index development trajectories from age 2 to 16 years. A cohort of children born in Stockholm during 1994 to 1996 was followed from age 2 to 16 years with repeated measurement of height and weight at eight time points (n = 2278). Children were categorized into groups by breastfeeding status during the first 6 months of life and maternal immigration background. Body mass index (BMI) trajectories and age at adiposity rebound were estimated using mixed-effects linear models. Body mass index trajectories were different by breastfeeding and maternal immigration status (P-value immigrant mothers followed a lower BMI trajectory. Ages at adiposity rebound were earlier for higher BMI trajectories regardless of maternal immigration background. Differences in BMI trajectories between offspring of immigrant and of Swedish mothers suggest a lack of beneficial association between breastfeeding and long-term BMI development among children of immigrant mothers. Given the relation between long-term BMI development and risk of overweight/obesity, these differences challenge the notion that exclusive breastfeeding is always beneficial for children's BMI development and subsequent risk of overweight/obesity. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  14. Ultrasonographically supported removal of foreign bodies of the eye lid and parapharyngeal space in a 13-year-old boy subjected to shot injuries in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich, Reinhard E.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: B-scan ultrasonography is widely used in diagnostics of head and neck pathologies. Ultrasonography can be applied intraoperatively to identify foreign materials. Case report: This case report describes the ultrasonographic identification of foreign bodies of the eye lid and parapharyngeal space in an adolescent who was injured several years ago, obviously a victim of domestic violence. B-scan ultrasonography (small part transducer, emission frequency: 7.5 MHz proved to be a reliable tool to locate the foreign bodies. Ultrasound imaging facilitated the decision-making of the surgical approach and thus reduced the surgical exploration time. Discussion: B-scan ultrasonography is a valuable tool in oral and maxillofacial surgery. The use of B-scan ultrasonography in the head neck region requires the capacity of the surgeon to fuse the ultrasonographic picture with the topography of the head and neck. The advantages and limitations of B-scan ultrasonography in the head and neck region concerning foreign body identification are briefly discussed.

  15. A dosimetric study of a heterogeneous phantom for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy comparing Monte Carlo and pencil beam calculations to dose distributions measured with a 2-D diode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curley, Casey Michael

    Monte Carlo (MC) and Pencil Beam (PB) calculations are compared to their measured planar dose distributions using a 2-D diode array for lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). The planar dose distributions were studied for two different phantom types: an in-house heterogeneous phantom and a homogeneous phantom. The motivation is to mimic the human anatomy during a lung SBRT treatment and incorporate heterogeneities into the pre-treatment Quality Assurance process, where measured and calculated planar dose distributions are compared before the radiation treatment. Individual and combined field dosimetry has been performed for both fixed gantry angle (anterior to posterior) and planned gantry angle delivery. A gamma analysis has been performed for all beam arrangements. The measurements were obtained using the 2-D diode array MapCHECK 2(TM). MC and PB calculations were performed using the BrainLAB iPlan RTRTM Dose software. The results suggest that with the heterogeneous phantom as a quality assurance device, the MC calculations result in closer agreements to the measured values, when using the planned gantry angle delivery method for composite beams. For the homogeneous phantom, the results suggest that the preferred delivery method is at the fixed anterior to posterior gantry angle. Furthermore, the MC and PB calculations do not show significant differences for dose difference and distance to agreement criteria 3%/3mm. However, PB calculations are in better agreement with the measured values for more stringent gamma criteria when considering individual beam whereas MC agreements are closer for composite beam measurements.

  16. Extended relativistic configuration interaction and many-body perturbation calculations of spectroscopic data for the $n \\leq 6$ configurationsin ne-like ions between Cr XV and Kr XXVII

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Kai; Si, Ran; Jönsson, Per; Ekman, Jörgen; Guo, Xue Lin; Li, Shuang; Long, Fei Yun; Dang, Wei; Zhao, Xiao Hui; Hutton, Roger; Chen, Chong Yang; Yan, Jan; Yang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Level energies, wavelengths, electric dipole, magnetic dipole, electric quadrupole, and magnetic quadrupole transition rates, oscillator strengths, and line strengths from combined relativistic configuration interaction and many-body perturbation calculations are reported for the 201 fine-structure states of the $2s^2 2p^6$, $2s^2 2p^5 3l$, $2s 2p^6 3l$, $2s^2 2p^5 4l$, $2s 2p^6 4l$, $2s^2 2p^5 5l$, and $2s^2 2p^5 6l$ configurations in all Ne-like ions between Cr XV and Kr XXVII. Calculated level energies and transition data are compared with experiments from the NIST and CHIANTI databases, and other recent benchmark calculations. The mean energy difference with the NIST experiments is only 0.05%. The present calculations significantly increase the amount of accurate spectroscopic data for the $n >3$ states in a number of Ne-like ions of astrophysics interest. A complete dataset should be helpful in analyzing new observations from the solar and other astrophysical sources, and is also likely to be useful for ...

  17. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar Wittner Bynner...

  18. Body Mass Index in the Early Years in Relation to Motor Coordination at the Age of 5–7 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Laukkanen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA and body mass index (BMI are consistently associated with motor coordination (MC in children. However, we know very little how BMI in early childhood associates with MC later in childhood. This study investigated associations between BMI in early childhood and BMI, PA, and MC in middle childhood. Children aged 5 to 7 years (n = 64, 32 girls were measured for MC using Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK and for moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA using triaxial accelerometers. Prevailing body weight and height were measured, and information on weight and height in early years was based on parental report of child health care report cards. Age-adjusted BMIz scores were calculated on the basis of international growth curve references. Associations and the explained variability of MC were investigated by Pearson correlations and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Age and MVPA were found to be significantly associated with MC at middle childhood, in general. BMIz at middle childhood and at ages 4 and 5 years inversely explained 12% (p < 0.05, 6% (p > 0.05, and 7% (p > 0.05 of the variation in MC in girls after adjusting for covariates, respectively. In boys, BMIz scores did not show any trend of association with MC. This study suggests sex-specific mechanisms in the interplay between BMI and motor development in childhood.

  19. Stages of Childhood Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram . The picture can be printed to be looked at later. In childhood liver ... use this content on your website or other digital platform? Our syndication services page shows you how. National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US ... ...

  20. The role of fitness in the association between fatness and cardiometabolic risk from childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Silvia I; Stolk, Ronald P; Liem, Eryn T; Lemmink, Koen A P M; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2013-02-01

    Fatness and fitness both influence cardiometabolic risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether childhood fatness and increasing fatness from childhood to adolescence are associated with cardiometabolic risk during adolescence and how fitness affects this association. Of 565 adolescents (283 boys and 282 girls) from the TRacking Adolescents Individual Life Survey (TRAILS) data on anthropometric parameters (age 11 and 16), metabolic parameters, and fitness (age 16) were available. Body mass index and skinfolds were used as measures for fatness. Increasing fatness was calculated by subtracting Z-scores for fatness at age 11 from Z-score fatness at age 16. Cardiometabolic risk was calculated as the average of the standardized means of mean arterial pressure, fasting serum triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, glucose, and waist circumference. Insulin resistance was calculated by homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Fitness was estimated as maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2) max) during a shuttle run test. Boys showed a higher clustered cardiometabolic risk when compared to girls (p fitness was related to a reduced effect of increasing fatness on clustered cardiometabolic risk. Childhood fatness, increasing fatness, and fitness were independently associated with HOMA-IR. Moreover, in boys this association was dependent of fatness. Childhood fatness and increasing fatness are associated with increased cardiometabolic risk and HOMA-IR during adolescence, but a good fitness attenuates this association especially in fat boys. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children are obese. Twin and adoption studies demonstrate a large genetic component to obesity, especially in adults. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity over the last 20 years can only be explained by environmental factors. In most obese individuals, no measurable differences in metabolism can be detected. Few children engage in regular physical activity. Obese children and adults uniformly underreport the amount of food they eat. Obesity is particularly related to increased consumption of high-fat foods. BMI is a quick and easy way to screen for childhood obesity. Treating childhood obesity relies on positive family support and lifestyle changes involving the whole family. Food preferences are influenced early by parental eating habits, and when developed in childhood, they tend to remain fairly constant into adulthood. Children learn to be active or inactive from their parents. In addition, physical activity (or more commonly, physical inactivity) habits that are established in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Weight loss is usually followed by changes in appetite and metabolism, predisposing individuals to regain their weight. However, when the right family dynamics exist--a motivated child with supportive parents--long-term success is possible.

  2. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  3. Socioeconomic Inequality in Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ghobad; Mostafavi, Farideh; Azadi, Namamali; Esmaeilnasab, Nader; Ghaderi, Ebrahim

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity and overweight in children aged 10 to 12 yr old. A cross-sectional study. This study was conducted on 2506 children aged 10 to 12 yr old in the city of Sanandaj, western Iran in 2015. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Considering household situation and assets, socioeconomic status (SES) of the subjects was determined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Concentration Index was used to measure inequality and Oaxaca decomposition was used to determine the share of different determinants of inequality. The prevalence of overweight was 24.1% (95% CI: 22.4, 25.7). 11.5% (95% CI: 10.0, 12.0) were obese. The concentration index for overweight and obesity, respectively, was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.15), and 0.07 (95% CI:0.00, 0.14) which indicated inequality and a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight in higher SES. The results of Oaxaca decomposition suggested that socioeconomic factors accounted for 75.8% of existing inequalities. Residential area and mother education were the most important causes of inequality. To reduce inequalities in childhood obesity, mother education must be promoted and special attention must be paid to residential areas and children gender.

  4. MEMS Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 166 MEMS Calculator (Web, free access)   This MEMS Calculator determines the following thin film properties from data taken with an optical interferometer or comparable instrument: a) residual strain from fixed-fixed beams, b) strain gradient from cantilevers, c) step heights or thicknesses from step-height test structures, and d) in-plane lengths or deflections. Then, residual stress and stress gradient calculations can be made after an optical vibrometer or comparable instrument is used to obtain Young's modulus from resonating cantilevers or fixed-fixed beams. In addition, wafer bond strength is determined from micro-chevron test structures using a material test machine.

  5. Gravitational constant calculation methodologies

    OpenAIRE

    Shakhparonov, V. M.; Karagioz, O. V.; Izmailov, V. P.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the gravitational constant calculation methodologies for a rectangular block of the torsion balance body presented in the papers Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 240801 (2009) and Phys.Rev. D. 82, 022001 (2010). We have established the influence of non-equilibrium gas flows on the obtained values of G.

  6. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: Impact of Type of Clothing Worn during Anthropometric Measurements and Timing of the Survey on Weight and Body Mass Index Outcome Measures in 6–9-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudy M. A. Wijnhoven

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The World Health Organization European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI conducted examinations in 6–9-year-old children from 16 countries in the first two rounds of data collection. Allowing participating countries to adhere to their local legal requirements or adapt to other circumstances required developing a flexible protocol for anthropometric procedures. Objectives. (1 Review intercountry variation in types of clothing worn by children during weight and height measurements, clothes weight adjustments applied, timing of the survey, and duration of data collection; (2 assess the impact of the observed variation in these practices on the children’s weight or body mass index (BMI outcome measures. Results. The relative difference between countries’ unadjusted and clothes-adjusted prevalence estimates for overweight was 0.3–11.5%; this figure was 1.4–33.3% for BMI-for-age Z-score values. Monthly fluctuations in mean BMI-for-age Z-score values did not show a systematic seasonal effect. The majority of the monthly BMI-for-age Z-score values did not differ statistically within a country; only 1–3 monthly values were statistically different within some countries. Conclusions. The findings of the present study suggest that the built-in flexibility in the COSI protocol concerning the data collection practices addressed in the paper can be kept and thus do not necessitate a revision of the COSI protocol.

  7. The influence of anthropometry and body composition on children's bone health: the childhood health, activity and motor performance school (the CHAMPS) study, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Malene; Holst, René; Schou, Anders J; Klakk, Heidi; Husby, Steffen; Wedderkopp, Niels; Mølgaard, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Overweight, physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour have become increasing problems during the past decade. Increased sedentary behaviour may change the body composition (BC) by increasing the fat mass relative to the lean mass (LM). These changes may influence bone health to describe how anthropometry and BC predict the development of the bone accruement. The longitudinal study is a part of The CHAMPS study-DK. Children were DXA scanned at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. BC (LM, BF %) and BMC, BMD and BA were measured. The relationship between bone traits, anthropometry and BC was analysed by multilevel regression analyses. Of the invited children, 742/800 (93%) accepted to participate. Of these, 682/742 (92%) participated at follow-up. Mean (range) of age at baseline was 9.5 years (7.7-12.1). Height, BMI, LM and BF % predicted bone mineral accrual and bone size positively and independently. Height and BMI are both positive predictors of bone accruement. LM is a more precise predictor of bone traits than BF % in both genders. The effects of height and BMI and LM on bone accruement are nearly identical in the two genders, while changes in BF % have different but positive effects on bone accretion in both boys and girls.

  8. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000–2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States, 2011-2014 Childhood obesity ...

  9. Childhood Traumatic Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Educators Resources for Kids and Teens Childhood Traumatic Grief What is Childhood Traumatic Grief? Children grieve in their own way ... functioning, the child may have a condition called Childhood Traumatic Grief (CTG). Thinking about the person who ...

  10. The difference in pediatric blood pressure between middle childhood and late childhood prior to dental treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Anissa Syaimima bt. Syaiful Azim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Every child will go through several stages in his or her life. They are different from each other as they are in the process of development of cognition, physics, emotion, and personality. For many children, a visit to the dentist can raise their anxiety. This anxiousness will lead to stress that influences the cardiovascular function in the body. The purpose of this research was to determine the difference in pediatric blood pressure between middle childhood and late childhood prior to dental treatment. This research was a clinical trial, pure experimental study. The sample consisted of 30 children within the range of 4-12 years old where they were divided into two groups of age; middle childhood (4-7 years old and late childhood (8-12 years old. The blood pressures were measured before any dental treatment began and the values were recorded. The data were then analyzed using the One-Sample T-Test analysis. The results of blood pressure in middle childhood and late childhood were compared to the average mean values for each age group. It showed that there was a significant difference in the systolic pressure, which was found higher in the middle childhood group compared to the late childhood. From the result can be concluded that there was a difference in the pediatric blood pressure between middle childhood and late childhood prior to dental treatment.

  11. Obesity and Metabolic Disease After Childhood Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnea, Dana; Raghunathan, Nirupa; Friedman, Danielle Novetsky; Tonorezos, Emily S

    2015-11-01

    As care for the childhood cancer patient has improved significantly, there is an increasing incidence of treatment-related late effects. Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are common and significant metabolic conditions in some populations of adult survivors of childhood cancer. Results from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study and other large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors reveal that long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and those who received total body irradiation or abdominal radiotherapy are at highest risk. The potential mechanisms for the observed increase in risk, including alterations in leptin and adiponectin, pancreatic insufficiency, poor dietary habits, sedentary lifestyle, and perhaps changes in the composition of the gut microbiota, are reviewed. Discussion of exercise and diet intervention studies shows that further research about the barriers to a healthy lifestyle and other interventions in childhood cancer survivors is warranted.

  12. Childhood Leukemia and Primary Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Todd P.; Metayer, Catherine; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Singer, Amanda W.; Miller, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia is the most common pediatric cancer, affecting 3,800 children per year in the United States. Its annual incidence has increased over the last decades, especially among Latinos. Although most children diagnosed with leukemia are now cured, many suffer long-term complications, and primary prevention efforts are urgently needed. The early onset of leukemia – usually before age five – and the presence at birth of “pre-leukemic” genetic signatures indicate that pre- and postnatal events are critical to the development of the disease. In contrast to most pediatric cancers, there is a growing body of literature – in the United States and internationally – that has implicated several environmental, infectious, and dietary risk factors in the etiology of childhood leukemia, mainly for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common subtype. For example, exposures to pesticides, tobacco smoke, solvents, and traffic emissions have consistently demonstrated positive associations with the risk of developing childhood leukemia. In contrast, intake of vitamins and folate supplementation during the pre-conception period or pregnancy, breastfeeding, and exposure to routine childhood infections have been shown to reduce the risk of childhood leukemia. Some children may be especially vulnerable to these risk factors, as demonstrated by a disproportionate burden of childhood leukemia in the Latino population of California. The evidence supporting the associations between childhood leukemia and its risk factors – including pooled analyses from around the world and systematic reviews – is strong; however, the dissemination of this knowledge to clinicians has been limited. To protect children’s health, it is prudent to initiate programs designed to alter exposure to well-established leukemia risk factors rather than to suspend judgement until no uncertainty remains. Primary prevention programs for childhood leukemia would also result in the significant co

  13. Calculation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    MathSoft Plus 5.0 is a calculation software package for electrical engineers and computer scientists who need advanced math functionality. It incorporates SmartMath, an expert system that determines a strategy for solving difficult mathematical problems. SmartMath was the result of the integration into Mathcad of CLIPS, a NASA-developed shell for creating expert systems. By using CLIPS, MathSoft, Inc. was able to save the time and money involved in writing the original program.

  14. Childhood psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, Emmanuel

    2016-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. Recently, few data have been published on epidemiology, comorbidity, or therapy in children with psoriasis. Psoriasis affects up to 2% of children in Europe, even during the first months of life. The link between psoriasis and metabolic comorbidities has been highlighted, notably in relation to excessive weight and obesity. The clinical picture of psoriasis in childhood resembles adult disease, however, some clinical features are noteworthy: neonatal diaper rash is relatively specific, face involvement and guttate psoriasis are more common, plaques are often smaller, and scales are finer and softer than in adults. Napkin, guttate and palmoplantar psoriasis appear to have specific features in childhood and prevalence depends on the age of the child. Although benign, the effect of psoriasis on social interaction can be major, especially in children. Topical therapies are the first line of treatment for skin-limited disease. For chronic cases and more severe cases, phototherapy or traditional biologic systemic treatments must be discussed. The great challenge will be to propose international guidelines to manage these children.

  15. Calculator calculus

    CERN Document Server

    McCarty, George

    1982-01-01

    How THIS BOOK DIFFERS This book is about the calculus. What distinguishes it, however, from other books is that it uses the pocket calculator to illustrate the theory. A computation that requires hours of labor when done by hand with tables is quite inappropriate as an example or exercise in a beginning calculus course. But that same computation can become a delicate illustration of the theory when the student does it in seconds on his calculator. t Furthermore, the student's own personal involvement and easy accomplishment give hi~ reassurance and en­ couragement. The machine is like a microscope, and its magnification is a hundred millionfold. We shall be interested in limits, and no stage of numerical approximation proves anything about the limit. However, the derivative of fex) = 67.SgX, for instance, acquires real meaning when a student first appreciates its values as numbers, as limits of 10 100 1000 t A quick example is 1.1 , 1.01 , 1.001 , •••• Another example is t = 0.1, 0.01, in the functio...

  16. Overview of Childhood Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Betsy

    Childhood schizophrenia is a rare but serious disorder with complex symptoms that affect children and their families. Childhood schizophrenia was once the term applied for all childhood psychoses, including autism and mood disorders, but more recently researchers have distinguished childhood schizophrenia from other disorders. There are differing…

  17. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  18. Childhood depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J A

    1988-07-01

    The spectrum of depressive disorders found in children and adolescents presents diagnostic and treatment challenges for the physician. The increasing scientific rigor of child and adolescent mental disorder research has explicated the importance of clinical diagnoses. Distinctions have to be made between depressive symptoms that are transient and situational specific and the constellation of depressive symptoms that represent clinical disorders such as bipolar disorder, cyclothymia, major depressive disorder, or dysthymia. The clinically sensitive physician attuned to the diagnostic criteria of these disorders has the opportunity to promote effective treatment and to reduce the morbidity associated with these conditions. The established severity and persistence of these disorders over time suggests the need for definitive medical management of these conditions. The recognition of childhood depression as a medical entity of varying severity, persistence, and prognosis represents the first step in effective treatment.

  19. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speiser, Phyllis W; Rudolf, Mary C J; Anhalt, Henry; Camacho-Hubner, Cecilia; Chiarelli, Francesco; Eliakim, Alon; Freemark, Michael; Gruters, Annette; Hershkovitz, Eli; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Krude, Heiko; Latzer, Yael; Lustig, Robert H; Pescovitz, Ora Hirsch; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Rogol, Alan D; Shalitin, Shlomit; Sultan, Charles; Stein, Daniel; Vardi, Pnina; Werther, George A; Zadik, Zvi; Zuckerman-Levin, Nehama; Hochberg, Zeev

    2005-03-01

    In March 2004 a group of 65 physicians and other health professionals representing nine countries on four continents convened in Israel to discuss the widespread public health crisis in childhood obesity. Their aim was to explore the available evidence and develop a consensus on the way forward. The process was rigorous, although time and resources did not permit the development of formal evidence-based guidelines. In the months before meeting, participants were allocated to seven groups covering prevalence, causes, risks, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and psychology. Through electronic communication each group selected the key issues for their area, searched the literature, and developed a draft document. Over the 3-d meeting, these papers were debated and finalized by each group before presenting to the full group for further discussion and agreement. In developing a consensus statement, this international group has presented the evidence, developed recommendations, and provided a platform aimed toward future corrective action and ongoing debate in the international community.

  20. Longitudinal study of body weight changes in children: who is gaining and who is losing weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Donald A; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Stewart, Tiffany M; Harsha, David W

    2011-03-01

    Cross-sectional studies have reported significant temporal increases in prevalence of childhood obesity in both genders and various racial groups, but recently the rise has subsided. Childhood obesity prevention trials suggest that, on average, overweight/obese children lose body weight and nonoverweight children gain weight. This investigation tested the hypothesis that overweight children lose body weight/fat and nonoverweight children gain body weight/fat using a longitudinal research design that did not include an obesity prevention program. The participants were 451 children in 4th to 6th grades at baseline. Height, weight, and body fat were measured at month 0 and month 28. Each child's BMI percentile score was calculated specific for their age, gender and height. Higher BMI percentile scores and percent body fat at baseline were associated with larger decreases in BMI and percent body fat after 28 months. The BMI percentile mean for African-American girls increased whereas BMI percentile means for white boys and girls and African-American boys were stable over the 28-month study period. Estimates of obesity and overweight prevalence were stable because incidence and remission were similar. These findings support the hypothesis that overweight children tend to lose body weight and nonoverweight children tend to gain body weight.

  1. Parental Perceptions of the Schools' Role in Addressing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Maureen; Polivka, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    As childhood obesity has increased, schools have struggled with their role in this epidemic. Parents with a school-age child in a suburban latchkey program were surveyed regarding their perceptions of childhood obesity, body mass index, and the school's role in prevention and treatment of obesity. More than 80% of participants identified…

  2. Differences in the association between childhood trauma and BMI in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Forty-four normalweight (BMI30kg/m2), black and white premenopausal women completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which retrospectively assessed emotional and physical neglect, and emotional, physical and sexual abuse in childhood. Results: Body composition ...

  3. Childhood Age and Associations Between Childhood Metabolic Syndrome and Adult Risk for Metabolic Syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Carotid Intima Media Thickness: The International Childhood Cardiovascular Cohort Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Juha; Magnussen, Costan G; Sinaiko, Alan; Woo, Jessica; Urbina, Elaine; Jacobs, David R; Steinberger, Julia; Prineas, Ronald; Sabin, Matthew A; Burns, Trudy; Berenson, Gerald; Bazzano, Lydia; Venn, Alison; Viikari, Jorma S A; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Raitakari, Olli; Dwyer, Terence; Juonala, Markus

    2017-08-16

    There is paucity of knowledge concerning the specific age in youth when the associations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) begin to be operative. Thus, we investigated the relation of age to the associations of childhood MetS with adult MetS, type 2 diabetes mellitus and high carotid intima-media thickness. Five thousand eight-hundred three participants were analyzed in 4 cohort studies (Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns, Bogalusa Heart Study, Princeton Lipid Research Study, Insulin Study). International cutoffs and previously used 75th percentile cutoffs were used for children to define MetS and its components. Mean follow-up period was 22.3 years. Logistic regression was used to calculate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Childhood MetS and overweight were associated with over 2.4-fold risk for adult MetS from the age of 5 years onward. Risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus was increased from the age of 8 (risk ratio, 2.6-4.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-6.76 and 1.12-7.24, respectively) onward for the 2 childhood MetS criteria based on international cut-off values and for childhood overweight. Risk for high carotid intima-media thickness was significant at ages 11 to 18 years in relation to childhood MetS or overweight (risk ratio, 2.44-4.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.55-3.55 and 2.55-5.66, respectively). Continuous childhood MetS score was associated with adult MetS from the age of 5, with type 2 diabetes mellitus from the age of 14 and with high carotid intima-media thickness from the age of 11 years onward. Adult MetS was predicted by MetS in childhood beginning at age 5. However, adult type 2 diabetes mellitus and subclinical atherosclerosis were not predicted by childhood data until after age 8. Body mass index measurement alone at the same age points provided similar findings. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  4. HUMAN BODY COMPOSITION DURING ONTOGENESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Koukou, Aikaterini

    2015-01-01

    1. ABSTRACT This diploma thesis refers to human body composition and its alterations by physiological and pathological processes that occur during different stages of life. Fat mass, fat free mass and total body water represent the major components of the human body which are modified during infancy, childhood, puberty, pregnancy and adulthood. Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA), Dual Energy Absorptiometry (DEXA), Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are some meth...

  5. [Childhood tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzaoui, A

    2015-01-01

    Childhood TB is an indication of failing TB control in the community. It allows disease persistence in the population. Mortality and morbidity due to TB is high in children. Moreover, HIV co-infection and multidrug-resistant diseases are as frequent in children as in adults. Infection is more frequent in younger children. Disease risk after primary infection is greatest in infants younger than 2 years. In case of exposure, evidence of infection can be obtained using the tuberculin skin test (TST) or an interferon-gamma assay (IGRA). There is no evidence to support the use of IGRA over TST in young children. TB suspicion should be confirmed whenever possible, using new available tools, particularly in case of pulmonary and lymph node TB. Induced sputum, nasopharyngeal aspiration and fine needle aspiration biopsy provide a rapid and definitive diagnosis of mycobacterial infection in a large proportion of patients. Analysis of paediatric samples revealed higher sensitivity and specificity values of molecular techniques in comparison with the ones originated from adults. Children require higher drugs dosages than adults. Short courses of steroids are associated with TB treatment in case of respiratory distress, bronchoscopic desobstruction is proposed for severe airways involvement and antiretroviral therapy is mandatory in case of HIV infection. Post-exposure prophylaxis in children is a highly effective strategy to reduce the risk of TB disease. The optimal therapy for treatment of latent infection with a presumably multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain is currently not known. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Childhood: An Endangered Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Margaret G.

    1983-01-01

    The author reviews the concept of childhood as it evolved from Aristotle and Plato's time and cites the threat to the childhood today of eletronic media, which may lead to a majority of asocial, amoral, child-adults. (CL)

  7. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  8. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions KidsHealth / For Parents / Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions What's in this article? Flatfeet Toe Walking ...

  9. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Share Print Children need ...

  10. Microcomputer calculations in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingbeck, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    The use of microcomputers to carry out computations in an interactive manner allows the judgement of the operator to be allied with the calculating power of the machine in a synthesis which speeds up the creation and testing of mathematical techniques for physical problems. This advantage is accompanied by a disadvantage, in that microcomputers are limited in capacity and power, and special analysis is needed to compensate for this. These two features together mean that there is a fairly recognisable body of methods which are particularly appropriate for interactive microcomputing. This article surveys a wide range of mathematical methods used in physics, indicating how they can be applied using microcomputers and giving several original calculations which illustrate the value of the microcomputer in stimulating the exploration of new methods. Particular emphasis is given to methods which use iteration, recurrence relation or extrapolation procedures which are well adapted to the capabilities of modern microcomputers.

  11. Watching television is associated with childhood obesity: but is it clinically important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancox, R J; Poulton, R

    2006-01-01

    To assess the impact of television viewing during childhood and adolescence on body mass index (BMI) in children up to the age of 15 years. Unselected birth cohort, assessed at birth and every 2 years from age 3 to 15 years. In all, 1037 individuals were assessed at age 3 years. At age 15 years, 976 (95% of living cohort) continued to participate. Parental estimates of weekday television viewing between age 5 and 11 years. Self-reports of television viewing at age 13 and 15 years. Weight and height were measured at each age to calculate BMI. BMI and prevalence of overweight at all ages were significantly associated with mean hours of television viewing reported in the assessments up to that age. These associations were stronger in girls than boys. The associations remained significant after adjusting for parental body mass indices and socio-economic status. Time spent watching television is a significant predictor of BMI and overweight in childhood. Although the effect size appears small, it is larger than the effect sizes commonly reported for nutritional intake and physical activity. Television viewing should be regarded as an important contributing factor to childhood obesity.

  12. Body mass index in school-aged children and the risk of routinely diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Gamborg, Michael; Holst, Claus

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The relation between childhood overweight and adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is largely unknown. We investigated if weight and weight gain in childhood increases the risk of being diagnosed with NAFLD in routine clinical settings in adulthood. PARTICIPANTS: We studied ...... 244,464 boys and girls, born between 1930 and 1989, who attended school in Copenhagen, Denmark. Their heights and weights were measured by physicians or nurses at mandatory school health examinations at ages 7-13 years. Body mass index (BMI) z-scores were calculated from an internal age...

  13. The Impact of Teasing on Children's Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanski, Marion; Gullone, Eleonora

    2007-01-01

    Being teased about one's physical appearance in childhood has been found to have a strong impact on the way in which adolescent and adult women perceive their bodies. Teasing is also strongly related to self-esteem in children. However, little is known about the impact of teasing on the development of body image in childhood. Through a…

  14. Junk Food in Schools and Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite limited empirical evidence, there is growing concern that junk food availability in schools has contributed to the childhood obesity epidemic. In this paper, we estimate the effects of junk food availability on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and related outcomes among a national sample of fifth graders. Unlike previous studies, we address…

  15. General Information about Childhood Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram . The picture can be printed to be looked at later. In childhood liver ... use this content on your website or other digital platform? Our syndication services page shows you how. National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US ... ...

  16. Age-related consequences of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Megan M; Zaepfel, Alysia; Bjornstad, Petter; Nadeau, Kristen J

    2014-01-01

    The severity and frequency of childhood obesity has increased significantly over the past three to four decades. The health effects of increased body mass index as a child may significantly impact obese youth as they age. However, many of the long-term outcomes of childhood obesity have yet to be studied. This article examines the currently available longitudinal data evaluating the effects of childhood obesity on adult outcomes. Consequences of obesity include an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and its associated retinal and renal complications, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, asthma, orthopedic complications, psychiatric disease, and increased rates of cancer, among others. These disorders can start as early as childhood, and such early onset increases the likelihood of early morbidity and mortality. Being obese as a child also increases the likelihood of being obese as an adult, and obesity in adulthood also leads to obesity-related complications. This review outlines the evidence for childhood obesity as a predictor of adult obesity and obesity-related disorders, thereby emphasizing the importance of early intervention to prevent the onset of obesity in childhood.

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Progress on Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... niños: [PODCAST – 1:15 minutes] Childhood Overweight and Obesity Child and Teen BMI Calculator About BMI for Children ... and Support Winnable Battles: Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity On Other Web Sites Let’s Move! Let’s Move! Child Care We Can! ChooseMyPlate.gov The Community Guide: ...

  18. Standardized childhood fitness percentiles derived from school-based testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Aaron L; Bowser, John; White, Doug; Moberg, D Paul; Weaver, Brian; Hisgen, Jon; Eickhoff, Jens; Allen, David B

    2012-07-01

    To develop a statewide school-based program of measuring and reporting cardiovascular fitness levels in children, and to create age- and sex-specific cardiovascular fitness percentile-based distribution curves. A pilot study validated cardiovascular fitness assessment with Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) testing as an accurate predictor of cardiovascular fitness measured by maximal oxygen consumption treadmill testing. Schools throughout the state were then recruited to perform PACER and body mass index (BMI) measurement and report de-identified data to a centralized database. Data on 20 631 individual students with a mean age 12.1 ± 2.0 years, BMI of 21.4 ± 5.1, and a cardiovascular fitness measured with PACER of 29.7 ± 18.2 laps (estimated maximal oxygen consumption of 36.5 mL/kg/min) were submitted for analysis. Standardized fitness percentiles were calculated for age and sex. This study demonstrates the feasibility of performing, reporting, and recording annual school-based assessments of cardiovascular fitness to develop standardized childhood fitness percentiles on the basis of age and sex. Such data can be useful in comparing populations and assessing initiatives that aim to improve childhood fitness. Because health consequences of obesity result from both adiposity and physical inactivity, supplementation of BMI measurement with tracking of cardiovascular fitness adds a valuable tool for large-scale health assessment. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  19. Monte Carlo calculations of nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, S.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.

    1997-10-01

    Nuclear many-body calculations have the complication of strong spin- and isospin-dependent potentials. In these lectures the author discusses the variational and Green`s function Monte Carlo techniques that have been developed to address this complication, and presents a few results.

  20. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/250566370

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  1. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René; Meije, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk

    2015-01-01

    Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of

  2. Race and Sex Differences of Long-Term Blood Pressure Profiles From Childhood and Adult Hypertension: The Bogalusa Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Li, Shengxu; Zhang, Huijie; Xi, Bo; Shen, Hongbing; Fernandez, Camilo; Bazzano, Lydia; He, Jiang; Chen, Wei

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to characterize longitudinal blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood in black-white and sex groups and examine the association between childhood level-independent trajectories of BP and adult hypertension. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 2732 adults who had body mass index and BP measured 4 to 15 times from childhood (4-19 years) to adulthood (20-51 years). Model-estimated levels and linear slopes of BP and body mass index at childhood age points were calculated at 1-year intervals using the growth curve parameters and their first derivatives, respectively. Linear and nonlinear curve parameters differed significantly between race-sex groups; BP levels showed race and sex differences 15 years of age onward. Hypertensives had higher long-term BP levels than normotensives in race-sex groups. Although linear and nonlinear slope parameters of BP were race and sex specific, they differed consistently, significantly between hypertension and normotension groups. BP trajectories during young adulthood (20-35 years) were significantly greater in hypertensives than in normotensives; however, the trajectories during middle-aged adulthood (36-51 years) were significantly smaller in hypertensives than in normotensives. Level-independent linear slopes of systolic BP showed significantly negative associations (odds ratio=0.50≈0.76; P hypertension, adjusting for covariates. These associations were consistent across race-sex groups. These observations indicate that adult hypertension originates in childhood, with different longitudinal BP trajectory profiles during young and middle-aged adulthood in black-white and sex groups. Puberty is a crucial period for the development of hypertension in later life. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. [Therapy of childhood schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, C

    1977-01-01

    Due to the multifacet genesis and variability of clinical phenomenology, the therapy of childhood schizophrenia must be multidimensional. Formerly applied techniques like electroshock- and insulin-therapy are now replaced by pharmaco-therapy, primarily with phenothiazines, butyrophenones and chlorprothixens. The dosage depends on age, body weight or body surface. Because of extrapyramidal motor side effects, combinations with anticholinergic drugs may be necessary. Psychopharmaco-therapy alone, however, is insufficient. High emphasis must be placed on psychotherapy and educational guidance and counselling of the psychotic child. Participation in play groups, sports, muscial activities, arts and crafts, and acting helps make it possible to improve communication behaviour and to transform aggressive anxiety defense into stabilized control of emotions and impulses. In addition to successive integration of the psychotic child into small groups, play therapy with the single child is meaningful. In this case, a constant and confidential relation between therapist and child is extremely important and only possible if the therapist attempts to place himself into the magic-animistic phantasies of the psychotic child. He has first to learn the psychotic language of his patient in order to support more reality-oriented behaviour processes of the child's thinking, preceiving and performing later on. In this manner, the magic-omnipotent phantasies can be dissolved and an increasing orientation of the child toward reality can be encouraged. This involves strengthening and support of non-pathological ego-functions and initiation of a new level of ego-functioning. Such an integrated developmental concept can best be realized through play therapy.

  4. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Study Findings Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview Dr. Greg Armstrong, ... Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer .) The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study ( CCSS ), funded by the National ...

  5. [Body height, body weight and the Quetelet-Kaup Index in students 13 to 16 years of age in a rural district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, V

    1989-01-01

    The influence of excessive body weight on cardiovascular disorders and mortality has been demonstrated for adults. The prognosis for extreme obesity is also unfavourable for young people. However, there is still a considerable lack of clarity about the predictions to be based on slight or moderate obesity in childhood and adolescence. The results of the measurement of the height and body weight of 1,252 pupils of between 13 and 16 years in an rural district, together with the calculations of the Quetelet Kaup index, are set out here. Over this age rang the Quetelet Kaup index increased from 18.8 kg/m2 to 20.6 kg/m2 for the boys and from 19.5 kg/m2 to 21.3 kg/m2 for the girls. There is a discussion of the connections between relative body weight and sexual maturity.

  6. Obesity and growth during childhood and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Growth during childhood and adolescence occurs at different rates and is influenced by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Nutritional status plays an important role in regulating growth, and excess body weight early in life can influence growth patterns. Childhood obesity is a growing and alarming problem, associated with several short-term and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In addition, there is evidence suggesting that excess adiposity during childhood influences growth patterns and pubertal development. Several studies have shown that during prepubertal years obese children have higher height velocity and accelerated bone age compared to lean subjects. However, this prepubertal advantage in growth tends to gradually decrease during puberty, when obese children show a reduced growth spurt compared with lean subjects. Growth hormone (GH) secretion in obese children is reduced, therefore suggesting that increased growth is GH independent. Factors which have been implicated in the accelerated growth in obese children include increased leptin and insulin levels, adrenal androgens, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-binding protein-1 and GH-binding proteins. Excess body weight during childhood can also influence pubertal development, through an effect on timing of pubertal onset and levels of pubertal hormonal levels. There is clear evidence indicating that obesity leads to early appearance of pubertal signs in girls. In addition, obese girls are also at increased risk of hyperandrogenism. In boys, excess adiposity has been associated with advanced puberty in some studies, whereas others have reported a delay in pubertal onset. The existing evidence on the association between childhood and adolescence obesity underlines a further reason for fighting the epidemics of childhood obesity; that is preventing abnormal growth and pubertal patterns. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial ... Read on for tips to have a healthy body image. Â Topics About body image When you ...

  8. Body Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... spreads up in a V shape over time. Body hair is normal, and some people think it looks ...

  9. Childhood BMI growth trajectories and endometrial cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Tilling, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we found that excess weight already in childhood has positive associations with endometrial cancer, however, associations with changes in body mass index (BMI) during childhood are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether growth in childhood BMI is associated with endometrial......, each girl's BMI growth trajectory was estimated as the deviance from the average trajectory for three different growth periods (6.25-7.99, 8.0-10.99, 11.0-14.0 years). Via a link to health registers, 1020 endometrial cancer cases were identified, and Cox regressions were performed. A greater gain...... in BMI during childhood was positively associated with endometrial cancer but no differences between the different growth periods were detected in models adjusted for baseline BMI. The hazard ratios for the associations with overall growth during childhood per 0.1 z-score increase were 1.15 (95...

  10. Assessing Child Body Mass Index Perceptions Among African American Caregivers in a Rural Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dayna S; Alfonso, Moya L; Cao, Chunhua; Hansen, Andrew R

    2017-04-28

    In the USA, African American children residing in rural areas are disproportionately affected by childhood obesity. One strategy for preventing childhood obesity is helping caregivers to recognize their child is overweight or obese. The purpose of this study is to assess African American caregivers' perceived level of their child's obesity status and concordance between caregiver's reported height and weight of their children compared to the objective measure of their child's height and weight. Caregivers completed a paper-based survey about perceptions of their child's weight status including body silhouettes (n = 119) and self-reported their child's body mass index status (n = 68). Children's (n = 71) height and weight were objectively measured. Spearman rho and independent sample t tests were calculated to assess the relationship between caregiver's self-reported and objective BMI status. Caregiver's visually perceived their child's weight status to be underweight; yet, self-reported that their child's body mass index status was obese. The Spearman's rho correlation indicated a significant relationship between caregiver's self-reported and objective body mass index (r = .39, p child's body mass index.

  11. Domestic Radon and Childhood Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, Helle P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Higher incidence rates of childhood cancer and particularly leukemia have been observed in regions with higher radon levels, but case-control studies have given inconsistent results. We tested the hypothesis that domestic radon exposure increases the risk for childhood cancer. Methods......: We identified 2400 incident cases of leukemia, central nervous system tumor, and malignant lymphoma diagnosed in children between 1968 and 1994 in the Danish Cancer Registry. Control children (n = 6697) were selected from the Danish Central Population Registry. Radon levels in residences of children...... and the cumulated exposure of each child were calculated as the product of exposure level and time, for each address occupied during childhood. Results: Cumulative radon exposure was associated with risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), with rate ratios of 1.21 (95% confidence interval = 0...

  12. [Therapy of obesity in childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiauer, K

    1998-01-01

    Major therapeutic goal of the treatment of childhood obesity is to prevent immediate and long-term adverse health consequences. In obese adults weight loss is always necessary to achieve normal or tolerable weight. During infancy and childhood keeping body weight constant while body height increases can be acceptable. If substantial body weight loss in children and adolescents is mandatory, it is necessary to consider the special physiological peculiarities of the growing organism during weight reduction. The main cornerstones of therapeutic regimens for long-term weight reduction in childhood obesity are: eating behaviour modification resulting in changes in food selection, dietary fat intake and caloric restriction, instruction to increase physical activity in everyday life and guidance to an active life style. Integrated therapeutic programs including these components based on behaviour modification have been shown to be the most successful in long-term effect on body weight. Treatment of obesity is most successful if realistic goals are set, if parental support is strong and if behaviour therapy is provided during the course of treatment to help both child and parent achieve these goals.

  13. Nighttime sleep duration and hedonic eating in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, L; Wardle, J; Llewellyn, C H; Fisher, A

    2015-10-01

    Higher food intake is implicated in the elevated risk of obesity associated with shorter sleep in children, but the mechanisms driving higher intake are uncertain. Research in adults suggests that acute sleep deprivation affects brain reward systems, which increases responsiveness to palatable foods. However, there have been few studies addressing habitual sleep duration, and few in children, among whom the strongest associations with body mass index (BMI) are seen. The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that shorter-sleeping children are more food responsive and explore the mediation of the relationship between sleep and weight by food responsiveness (FR). Participants were families from Gemini, a UK twin birth cohort, who had provided complete information on their children's sleep and appetite at age 5 years (n=1008). One child from each twin pair was randomly selected for analyses. Nighttime sleep duration was calculated from parent-reported bedtime and wake time, and categorised as shorter, adequate or longer according to age-specific reference values. FR was assessed with the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. BMI s.d. scores (BMI-SDS) were calculated from parent-measured heights and weights using the UK 1990 reference data and were available for 494 children. There was a significant linear association between shorter sleep and higher FR at age 5 years (P for linear trend=0.032), which was maintained after adjusting for age, sex, birth weight, maternal education and BMI-SDS. In the subset with BMI data at age 5 years, shorter sleep was associated with higher BMI-SDS (P=0.026) as expected. Testing for mediation by adding FR to the model attenuated the linear relationship to borderline significance (P=0.049), suggesting partial mediation. Shorter sleep in childhood is associated with higher FR, which may partly explain the association between shorter sleep and adiposity in childhood.

  14. Historian's discovery of childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijhoff, W.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    The "discovery of childhood" is a tricky notion because childhood is as much a fact of a biological and psychological nature as a cultural notion that through the centuries has been the object of changing perceptions, definitions, and images. Children barely speak in history; virtually everything we

  15. Severe childhood malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Berkley, James A; Bandsma, Robert H J

    2017-01-01

    The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children ... nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood. Children with severe malnutrition have an increased risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. International growth standards are used for the diagnosis of severe malnutrition and provide...

  16. Childhood osteomyelitis: imaging characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schuppen, Joost; van Doorn, Martine M. A. C.; van Rijn, Rick R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to illustrate the imaging findings of childhood osteomyelitis. The diagnosis of childhood osteomyelitis can be challenging. Clinical presentation and laboratory results can differ and are relatively unreliable. To date, its role in the assessment of treatment efficacy

  17. Human Body Exergy Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Mady, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The exergy analysis of the human body is a tool that can provide indicators of health and life quality. To perform the exergy balance it is necessary to calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis, or metabolic exergy, although there is not yet consensus in its calculation procedure. Hence, the aim of this work is to provide a general method to evaluate this physical quantity for human body based on indirect calorimetry data. To calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis it is necessary to d...

  18. Averaged Propulsive Body Acceleration (APBA Can Be Calculated from Biologging Tags That Incorporate Gyroscopes and Accelerometers to Estimate Swimming Speed, Hydrodynamic Drag and Energy Expenditure for Steller Sea Lions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Ware

    Full Text Available Forces due to propulsion should approximate forces due to hydrodynamic drag for animals horizontally swimming at a constant speed with negligible buoyancy forces. Propulsive forces should also correlate with energy expenditures associated with locomotion-an important cost of foraging. As such, biologging tags containing accelerometers are being used to generate proxies for animal energy expenditures despite being unable to distinguish rotational movements from linear movements. However, recent miniaturizations of gyroscopes offer the possibility of resolving this shortcoming and obtaining better estimates of body accelerations of swimming animals. We derived accelerations using gyroscope data for swimming Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus, and determined how well the measured accelerations correlated with actual swimming speeds and with theoretical drag. We also compared dive averaged dynamic body acceleration estimates that incorporate gyroscope data, with the widely used Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration (ODBA metric, which does not use gyroscope data. Four Steller sea lions equipped with biologging tags were trained to swim alongside a boat cruising at steady speeds in the range of 4 to 10 kph. At each speed, and for each dive, we computed a measure called Gyro-Informed Dynamic Acceleration (GIDA using a method incorporating gyroscope data with accelerometer data. We derived a new metric-Averaged Propulsive Body Acceleration (APBA, which is the average gain in speed per flipper stroke divided by mean stroke cycle duration. Our results show that the gyro-based measure (APBA is a better predictor of speed than ODBA. We also found that APBA can estimate average thrust production during a single stroke-glide cycle, and can be used to estimate energy expended during swimming. The gyroscope-derived methods we describe should be generally applicable in swimming animals where propulsive accelerations can be clearly identified in the signal

  19. Averaged Propulsive Body Acceleration (APBA) Can Be Calculated from Biologging Tags That Incorporate Gyroscopes and Accelerometers to Estimate Swimming Speed, Hydrodynamic Drag and Energy Expenditure for Steller Sea Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trites, Andrew W.; Rosen, David A. S.; Potvin, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Forces due to propulsion should approximate forces due to hydrodynamic drag for animals horizontally swimming at a constant speed with negligible buoyancy forces. Propulsive forces should also correlate with energy expenditures associated with locomotion—an important cost of foraging. As such, biologging tags containing accelerometers are being used to generate proxies for animal energy expenditures despite being unable to distinguish rotational movements from linear movements. However, recent miniaturizations of gyroscopes offer the possibility of resolving this shortcoming and obtaining better estimates of body accelerations of swimming animals. We derived accelerations using gyroscope data for swimming Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), and determined how well the measured accelerations correlated with actual swimming speeds and with theoretical drag. We also compared dive averaged dynamic body acceleration estimates that incorporate gyroscope data, with the widely used Overall Dynamic Body Acceleration (ODBA) metric, which does not use gyroscope data. Four Steller sea lions equipped with biologging tags were trained to swim alongside a boat cruising at steady speeds in the range of 4 to 10 kph. At each speed, and for each dive, we computed a measure called Gyro-Informed Dynamic Acceleration (GIDA) using a method incorporating gyroscope data with accelerometer data. We derived a new metric—Averaged Propulsive Body Acceleration (APBA), which is the average gain in speed per flipper stroke divided by mean stroke cycle duration. Our results show that the gyro-based measure (APBA) is a better predictor of speed than ODBA. We also found that APBA can estimate average thrust production during a single stroke-glide cycle, and can be used to estimate energy expended during swimming. The gyroscope-derived methods we describe should be generally applicable in swimming animals where propulsive accelerations can be clearly identified in the signal—and they should

  20. Energy allocation between brain and body during ontogenetic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubera, Britta; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Peters, Achim; Braun, Wiebke; Langemann, Dirk; Neugebohren, Stephanie; Heller, Martin; Müller, Manfred James

    2013-01-01

    We here studied how energy is allocated between brain and body both during the ontogenetic development from a child to an adult and during weight loss. We investigated 180 normal weight female and male children and adolescents (aged 6.1-19.9 years) as well as 35 overweight adolescents undergoing weight reduction intervention. 52 normal weight and 42 obese adult women were used for comparison. We assessed brain mass by magnetic-resonance-imaging and body metabolism by indirect calorimetry. To study how energy is allocated between brain and body, we measured plasma insulin, since insulin fulfils the functions of a glucose allocating hormone, i.e., peripheral glucose uptake depends on insulin, central uptake does not. We used reference data obtained in the field of comparative biology. In a brain-body-plot, we calculated the distance between each subject and a reference mammal of comparable size and named the distance "encephalic measure." With higher encephalic measures, more energy is allocated to the brain. We found that ontogenetic development from a child to an adult was indicated by decreasing encephalic measures in females (r = -0.729, P brain increased with weight loss, but decreased during the ontogenetic development from childhood to adolescence. These developmental changes in brain-to-body energy allocation appear to be driven by increasing plasma insulin concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Friction and wear calculation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Kragelsky, I V; Kombalov, V S

    1981-01-01

    Friction and Wear: Calculation Methods provides an introduction to the main theories of a new branch of mechanics known as """"contact interaction of solids in relative motion."""" This branch is closely bound up with other sciences, especially physics and chemistry. The book analyzes the nature of friction and wear, and some theoretical relationships that link the characteristics of the processes and the properties of the contacting bodies essential for practical application of the theories in calculating friction forces and wear values. The effect of the environment on friction and wear is a

  2. 108 NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS IN THE GENERAL DYNAMICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Correspondence Author ... of Moving Bodies”, the following postulates were introduced:- .... 110. Table1: calculated values of the ratio of coordinate time to proper time for both general relativity and dynamical theory of gravitation. Body. Mass (M) Kg.

  3. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim o...

  4. Esophageal Foreign Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Cobanoglu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal foreign body aspiration is a common event which can cause serious morbidity and mortality in the children and adult population. For that reason, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for preventing these life threateining complications. Children most often ingest coins and toys whereas adults commonly tend to have problems with meat and bones. Esophageal foreign bodies are located at the cricopharyngeus muscle level in 70%, the thoracic esophagus in 15% and the gastroesophageal junction in the remaining 15%. Symptoms can vary according to the shape and structure of the ingested object, type of location, patient%u2019s age and complications caused by the foreign body. Delay in treatment, esophageal perforation and an underlying esophageal disease are poor prognostic factors. In treatment, observation, foley catheter, rigid or flexible esophagoscopy and removing the foreign body with a Magill forceps, pushing the foreign body into the stomach, giving intravenous glucagon and surgical treatment methods can be used. Rigid esophagoscopy is an effective and safe procedure for foreign body diagnosis and removal. Improved endoscopic experience and clinical management of thoracic surgeons led to reduced morbidity and mortality in recent years. Most of those emergencies of childhood are preventable. Family education is very important.

  5. Childhood Obesity: A Role for Gut Microbiota?

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Sanchez; Shirin Panahi; Angelo Tremblay

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotic...

  6. Magnetic Field Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Calculator will calculate the total magnetic field, including components (declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, northerly intensity,...

  7. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIAAA College Materials Supporting Research Special Features CollegeAIM College Administrators Parents & Students Home > Special Features > Calculators > Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie ...

  8. Efficient many-body calculations for two-dimensional materials using exact limits for the screened potential: Band gaps of MoS2, h-BN, and phosphorene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Filip Anselm; Schmidt, Per Simmendefeldt; Winther, Kirsten Trøstrup

    2016-01-01

    Calculating the quasiparticle (QP) band structure of two-dimensional (2D) materials within the GW self-energy approximation has proven to be a rather demanding computational task. The main reason is the strong q dependence of the 2D dielectric function around q = 0 that calls for a much denser sa...... gap of the three prototypical 2D semiconductors, MoS2, h-BN, and phosphorene, including the effect of self-consistency at the GW0 level. The method is implemented in the open source code GPAW....

  9. Association between common variation at the FTO locus and changes in body mass index from infancy to late childhood: the complex nature of genetic association through growth and development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Sovio

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An age-dependent association between variation at the FTO locus and BMI in children has been suggested. We meta-analyzed associations between the FTO locus (rs9939609 and BMI in samples, aged from early infancy to 13 years, from 8 cohorts of European ancestry. We found a positive association between additional minor (A alleles and BMI from 5.5 years onwards, but an inverse association below age 2.5 years. Modelling median BMI curves for each genotype using the LMS method, we found that carriers of minor alleles showed lower BMI in infancy, earlier adiposity rebound (AR, and higher BMI later in childhood. Differences by allele were consistent with two independent processes: earlier AR equivalent to accelerating developmental age by 2.37% (95% CI 1.87, 2.87, p = 10(-20 per A allele and a positive age by genotype interaction such that BMI increased faster with age (p = 10(-23. We also fitted a linear mixed effects model to relate genotype to the BMI curve inflection points adiposity peak (AP in infancy and AR. Carriage of two minor alleles at rs9939609 was associated with lower BMI at AP (-0.40% (95% CI: -0.74, -0.06, p = 0.02, higher BMI at AR (0.93% (95% CI: 0.22, 1.64, p = 0.01, and earlier AR (-4.72% (-5.81, -3.63, p = 10(-17, supporting cross-sectional results. Overall, we confirm the expected association between variation at rs9939609 and BMI in childhood, but only after an inverse association between the same variant and BMI in infancy. Patterns are consistent with a shift on the developmental scale, which is reflected in association with the timing of AR rather than just a global increase in BMI. Results provide important information about longitudinal gene effects and about the role of FTO in adiposity. The associated shifts in developmental timing have clinical importance with respect to known relationships between AR and both later-life BMI and metabolic disease risk.

  10. Association between Common Variation at the FTO Locus and Changes in Body Mass Index from Infancy to Late Childhood: The Complex Nature of Genetic Association through Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briollais, Laurent; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Cecil, Joanne; Sandling, Johanna K.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Kaakinen, Marika; Beilin, Lawrie J.; Millwood, Iona Y.; Bennett, Amanda J.; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Molitor, John; Davey Smith, George; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Pennell, Craig E.; Cole, Tim J.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Timpson, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    An age-dependent association between variation at the FTO locus and BMI in children has been suggested. We meta-analyzed associations between the FTO locus (rs9939609) and BMI in samples, aged from early infancy to 13 years, from 8 cohorts of European ancestry. We found a positive association between additional minor (A) alleles and BMI from 5.5 years onwards, but an inverse association below age 2.5 years. Modelling median BMI curves for each genotype using the LMS method, we found that carriers of minor alleles showed lower BMI in infancy, earlier adiposity rebound (AR), and higher BMI later in childhood. Differences by allele were consistent with two independent processes: earlier AR equivalent to accelerating developmental age by 2.37% (95% CI 1.87, 2.87, p = 10−20) per A allele and a positive age by genotype interaction such that BMI increased faster with age (p = 10−23). We also fitted a linear mixed effects model to relate genotype to the BMI curve inflection points adiposity peak (AP) in infancy and AR. Carriage of two minor alleles at rs9939609 was associated with lower BMI at AP (−0.40% (95% CI: −0.74, −0.06), p = 0.02), higher BMI at AR (0.93% (95% CI: 0.22, 1.64), p = 0.01), and earlier AR (−4.72% (−5.81, −3.63), p = 10−17), supporting cross-sectional results. Overall, we confirm the expected association between variation at rs9939609 and BMI in childhood, but only after an inverse association between the same variant and BMI in infancy. Patterns are consistent with a shift on the developmental scale, which is reflected in association with the timing of AR rather than just a global increase in BMI. Results provide important information about longitudinal gene effects and about the role of FTO in adiposity. The associated shifts in developmental timing have clinical importance with respect to known relationships between AR and both later-life BMI and metabolic disease risk. PMID:21379325

  11. Foreign Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SearchingPediatrics.com Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Foreign Body Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... I call the doctor? What is a foreign body? A foreign body is when an object is ...

  12. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in south asian children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Joan L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a continuing problem in the UK and South Asian children represent a group that are particularly vulnerable to its health consequences. The relationship between body dissatisfaction and obesity is well documented in older children and adults, but is less clear in young children, particularly South Asians. A better understanding of this relationship in young South Asian children will inform the design and delivery of obesity intervention programmes. The aim of this study is to describe body image size perception and dissatisfaction, and their relationship to weight status in primary school aged UK South Asian children. Methods Objective measures of height and weight were undertaken on 574 predominantly South Asian children aged 5-7 (296 boys and 278 girls. BMI z-scores, and weight status (underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese were calculated based on the UK 1990 BMI reference charts. Figure rating scales were used to assess perceived body image size (asking children to identify their perceived body size and dissatisfaction (difference between perceived current and ideal body size. The relationship between these and weight status were examined using multivariate analyses. Results Perceived body image size was positively associated with weight status (partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 0.63 (95% CI 0.26-0.99 and for BMI z-score was 0.21 (95% CI 0.10-0.31, adjusted for sex, age and ethnicity. Body dissatisfaction was also associated with weight status, with overweight and obese children more likely to select thinner ideal body size than healthy weight children (adjusted partial regression coefficient for overweight/obese vs. non-overweight/obese was 1.47 (95% CI 0.99-1.96 and for BMI z-score was 0.54 (95% CI 0.40-0.67. Conclusions Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established at a young age in

  13. Effect of exercise on bone status and body composition in Japanese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minematsu, Kazuo; Noguchi, Masanori; Muraki, Satoshi; Fukuda, Rika; Goto, Kensuke; Tagami, Kazumi; Yuasa, Motoyuki; Marui, Eiji; Tsunawake, Noriaki

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated the effect of exercise on stiffness and fat-free mass (FFM), which consists of bone and muscle, in Japanese students. It is uncertain whether exercise or sports activities will help to accumulate overall peak bone mass in Japanese adolescents. A total of 710 Japanese students (age = 15-20 yr) were enrolled. Students who regularly engage in physical exercise were assigned to an exercise group; other students were assigned to a nonexercise group. Body composition, including height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio, were measured and calculated. Lung volume, body volume, and body fat percentage were evaluated by air displacement plethysmography. Fat mass and FFM were derived from body fat percentage and body weight. Bone status, such as speed of sounds, broadband ultrasound attenuation, and stiffness, which is defined as bone density, was assessed by quantitative ultrasound. In both sexes, height, weight, body mass index, circumferences, waist-to-hip ratio, lung volume, and body volume between the exercise and nonexercise groups did not show any significant differences. FFM, speed of sounds, broadband ultrasound attenuation, and stiffness in the exercise group were statistically higher than those in the nonexercise group (P effect of exercise in Japanese students. For Japanese pubertal females who did not have a history of regular exercise, stiffness slowly decreased with age. Exercise habits in early childhood are important in the relationship between stiffness and FFM.

  14. A longitudinal study of the relationship between dental caries and obesity in late childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Scullin, Emma Patricia; Whitehead, Hilary; Rushton, Helen; Milsom, Keith; Tickle, Martin

    2017-10-30

    To determine whether caries experience in late childhood (aged 7-9 years) was predictive of adolescent obesity (ages 12-16 years) to inform the use of a common risk factor approach (CRFA) for prevention. A cohort study was conducted in an area of North West England. Clinical assessment of caries took place using the same methodology at ages 7-9 years and 12-16 years. Body mass index (BMI) category was calculated from height and weight measurements using age and gender specific cut-offs at 12-16 years only. The association between dependent variable (BMI category dichotomized as underweight/normal and overweight/obese) and explanatory variables (baseline and follow-up dental caries and sociodemographic status) adjusted for age, was assessed. At baseline, 5,470 (96.8 percent) participants took part and information was available for 2,958 (54.1 percent) participants at follow-up. Univariate analysis indicated that BMI category in adolescence was not shown to be significantly associated with: the presence or absence of caries in late childhood (P = 0.61); in adolescence (P = 0.06); gender (P = 0.91); or deprivation (P = 0.35). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that BMI category in adolescence was not predicted by caries in late childhood or adolescence, after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Caries and obesity were highly prevalent in this population. Caries in childhood was not shown to be associated with obesity in adolescence and there was no cross-sectional association between the two diseases in adolescence. A CRFA is not precluded, however, the results suggest that additional interventions, specific for each disease, are required to prevent obesity and caries. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  15. Body image, body dissatisfaction and weight status in children from Emilia-Romagna (Italy): comparison between immigrant and native-born.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Spiga, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional study among immigrant and native children from Emilia-Romagna (Italy). The purpose of the present study was to examine the relative contribution of weight status, ethnicity and sex on body dissatisfaction in a sample of children from Emilia-Romagna (Italy). Primary school children (226 immigrants and 1206 Italians) aged 6-11 years were measured: immigrant children were divided into Asians, Africans, Latin Americans and East Europeans. Height and weight were measured and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Body image perception was assessed using Body Silhouette Charts. A body dissatisfaction score (BDS) was derived by subtracting the "ideal self" from the "self" score. Weight status disorders were higher in immigrants than in native-born males; Italian females had higher prevalence of underweight and overweight and lower prevalence of obesity than immigrants peers. BDS rose with the increase of weight status categories. Awareness of body image size and increasing body dissatisfaction with higher weight status is established in childhood, regardless of ethnicity and gender.

  16. Foodscapes and Children’s Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Brembeck

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses children, food and body, and introduces a Deleuzian and Childhood Studies-inspired use of the concept of foodscape. The data draws on a transdisciplinary project on children as co-researchers of foodscapes. In this arti-cle we do not discuss the method or the children’s research results, which we have done elsewhere. Instead, our aim is to present a theoretically inspired analysis of our own fieldwork observations during this project in order to discuss the per-formance of children’s bodies, food and eating. Departing from the concept of foodscape, we present an analysis of some food events that illustrate the complex-ity of children’s foodscapes concerning the interaction between spaces, bodies, foodstuffs, values and rules. In encountering food and eating at various places, different child becomings emerge. We distinguish three powerful performances of what Stuart Aitken (2008 calls “I-dos”: First, the seemingly obedient pupil, who pretends to do what he or she is told, but who more or less imperceptibly escapes from adult supervi-sion. Second, the child who makes use of the stereotyped and possibly cute “food monster” designation, and turns it into a threatening subject, who disturbs the or-der and challenges adults’ power. Third, the knowledgeable scientist who, with the help of a research project, adult experts, nutritional calculation programs and ingredients, seizes the definition of the body as a site for growing stronger, health-ier and more capable. The foodscapes we met held many “striated spaces” (Deleuze & Guattari 1987, where the children had few alternatives to adhering to the adults’ designated “I-ams”. But we also entered smooth spots where children had the opportunity to experiment with “I-dos” that would not have occurred to us had we not followed them, and there are certainly many more that appear in the children’s everyday encounters with food.

  17. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

  18. Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  19. Tooth decay - early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottle mouth; Bottle carries; Baby bottle tooth decay; Early childhood caries (ECC) ... inside of your baby's mouth healthy and prevents tooth decay. If you are bottle-feeding your baby: Give babies, ages newborn to ...

  20. [Childhood-onset mastocytosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenhaar, F; Weller, K; Blume-Peytavi, U; Maurer, M

    2012-02-01

    Mastocytoses are a group of rare diseases characterized, in most cases, by a benign proliferation and accumulation of mast cells in different tissues. In children, mastocytosis affects usually exclusively the skin and differs in many aspects from adult-onset mastocytosis. Except for diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis, which is an uncommon subtype of childhood-onset mastocytosis, involvement of the bone marrow or additional extracutaneous organs is rarely seen in children. The prognosis of childhood-onset mastocytosis is usually very good. Compared to adult patients who most commonly experience chronic-stable or slowly progressive disease, mastocytosis in children is mostly transient and self-limiting. In this review, we present and discuss the subtypes of childhood-onset mastocytosis, recent advances in the understanding of their pathogenesis as well as similarities and differences between adult- and childhood-onset mastocytosis.

  1. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  2. Perinatal and Childhood Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology, risk factors, outcome and prognosis of perinatal and childhood stroke were reviewed at a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda, MD, on Sept 18 and 19, 2000.

  3. Childhood tuberculosis in Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Jay P.N Singh; Mohammed, Reem; Thayyullathil, Thanveer; Al-Khal, Abdullatif; Al- Suwaidi, Zubaida

    2016-01-01

    Childhood tuberculosis (TB) has been long neglected but has gained attention in recent years. In 2012, the World Health Organization annual report included an estimate for childhood TB for the first time, and in the following year, the TB Alliance received a grant from UNITAID (International Drug Purchase Facility) to develop pediatric TB formulations. Qatar is a low-incidence country. In this observational study, laboratory-confirmed cases of TB were analyzed from 2013 to 2015 and included p...

  4. Childhood obesity and eating behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón, Ana María; Pettinelli, Paulina P; Santos, Jose Luis

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased substantially in the recent decade as a result of the reduction in physical activity and the availability of high-fat and high-energy-density foods which the paediatric population faces daily. Although children are highly exposed to these foods, there is a wide variation in body weight, suggesting the presence of different patterns of response to an "obesogenic" environment. This wide variability from the point of view of eating behaviour involves a number of social issues (e.g., food availability, cost) as well as genuine behavioural traits such as the response to satiety, energy compensation, eating rate, responsiveness to food, food reward and dietary preferences. This article reviews the main physiological variables related to energy intake affecting eating behaviour in the paediatric population.

  5. MCNPX CALCULATIONS OF SPECIFIC ABSORBED FRACTIONS IN SOME ORGANS OF THE HUMAN BODY DUE TO APPLICATION OF 133Xe, 99mTc and 81mKr RADIONUCLIDES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, Z; Krstic, D; Nikezic, D; Ros, J M Gomez; Ferrari, P

    2017-09-23

    Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate treatment doses with wide spread used radionuclides 133Xe, 99mTc and 81mKr. These different radionuclides are used in perfusion or ventilation examinations in nuclear medicine and as indicators for cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. The objective of this work was to estimate the specific absorbed fractions in surrounding organs and tissues, when these radionuclides are incorporated in the lungs. For this purpose a voxel thorax model has been developed and compared with the ORNL phantom. All calculations and simulations were performed by means of the MCNP5/X code. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A meta-analysis of school-based obesity prevention programs demonstrates limited efficacy of decreasing childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ling-Shen; Tidwell, Diane K; Hall, Michael E; Lee, Michelle L; Briley, Chiquita A; Hunt, Barry P

    2015-03-01

    Childhood obesity is a global concern. The objectives of this meta-analytical study were to evaluate the effectiveness of school-based childhood obesity prevention programs, and to examine program components (moderators). The methods included searching databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, and the university's EBSCOhost Web service) as well as handsearching reference lists of articles published in English. Selection criteria for studies to be included in the meta-analysis were limited to studies that reported body mass index (BMI) or skinfold thickness as outcome measures and were school-based obesity prevention interventions; cross-sectional design studies were excluded. We hypothesized the meta-analysis would yield a summary effect size of magnitude which would indicate that school-based interventions have been effective in improving children's BMI or skinfold thickness values. A total of 26 114 children from 27 school-based childhood obesity prevention programs provided 54 effect sizes. A random-effects model calculated a small summary effect size of 0.039 (95% confidence interval -0.013 to 0.092). Heterogeneity among studies was observed which disappeared after pooling studies that used a randomized controlled trial design with one program moderator (physical activity or nutrition). We failed to accept our hypothesis and concluded that overall, school-based interventions have not been effective for improving body mass index or skinfold thickness to curb childhood obesity; however, randomized controlled trials that focused on physical activity or nutrition appeared to produce promising results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and factors associated with childhood overweight/obesity of private school children in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirala, M; Khatri, R B; Khanal, V; Amatya, A

    2015-01-01

    Childhood overweight/obesity is a global health problem because of adverse health and nutrition consequences worldwide. Currently, there is a paucity of information on childhood overweight/obesity in Nepal. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of, and the factors associated with, childhood overweight/obesity among primary school children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in June-December, 2013. We collected data using the structured self-administered questionnaire with parents of children aged 6-13 years in grades 1-6 studying at private schools of the Lalitpur district of Nepal. Height and weight measurements of 986 children were taken, and the corresponding body mass index (BMI)-for-age was calculated. The prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity was reported in proportion. Factors associated with childhood overweight/obesity were examined using the Chi-square tests followed by multiple logistic regression analyses. Of 986 children, 144 (14.6%) were overweight and 111 (11.3%) were obese. Overall, 255 (25.9%) children were found to be overweight/obese. Children from families, having ≤2 siblings (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.958, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.163-3.296), upper class family (aOR=3.672; 95% CI: 1.154-11.690), and advantaged ethnic group (aOR=1.561; 95% CI: 1.00-2.437) and children who were of larger birth weight (>4.0kg) had a greater likelihood of being (aOR=2.557, 95% CI: 1.222-5.349) overweight/obese. A quarter of children were found to be overweight/obese in private primary schools. Preventive interventions should focus on the advantaged ethnic groups, families with fewer siblings, and upper class families. A greater emphasis ought to be placed on formulation and implementation of policies aimed at addressing the newly emerging problems of childhood overweight/obesity in Nepal. New school health programs are to be launched and strengthened including avoidance of high energy junk food, and promoting outdoor

  8. Weight status and perceived body size image in overweight and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doaa K. Hussin

    Children;. Obesity;. Body image. Abstract Background: Young people's perception of their weight status attracted much interest. With a better understanding of childhood body image problems, investigating prevention programs within schools is an important next step. Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate body ...

  9. Differences in gestational weight gain between pregnancies before and after maternal bariatric surgery correlate with differences in birth weight but not with scores on the body mass index in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglind, D; Willmer, M; Näslund, E

    2013-01-01

    Large maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with increased birth weight and increased risk of obesity in offspring, but these associations may be confounded by genetic and environmental factors. The aim was to investigate the effects of differences in GWG in all three trimesters on...... on differences in birth weight and in body mass index (BMI) scores at 4 and 6 years of age, within siblings born before and after bariatric surgery....

  10. Early Childhood Stress and Child Age Predict Longitudinal Increases in Obesogenic Eating among Low-Income Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L; Gearhardt, Ashley N; Retzloff, Lauren; Sturza, Julie; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2018-01-18

    To identify whether psychosocial stress exposure during early childhood predicts subsequent increased eating in the absence of hunger (EAH), emotional overeating, food responsiveness, and enjoyment of food. This was an observational longitudinal study. Among 207 low-income children (54.6% non-Hispanic white, 46.9% females) early childhood stress exposure was measured by parent report and a stress exposure index was calculated (higher scores indicating more stress exposure). Eating behaviors were measured in early (M: 4.3 (SD 0.5) years) and middle (M: 7.9 (SD 0.7) years) childhood. Observed EAH was assessed by measuring kilocalories of palatable food the child consumed after a meal. Parents reported on child eating behaviors on the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured and body mass index z-score (BMIz) calculated. Multivariable linear regression, adjusting for child sex, race/ethnicity, and BMIz, was used to examine the association of stress exposure with rate of change per year in each child eating behavior. Early childhood stress exposure predicted yearly increases in EAH (β=0.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.002, 0.27) and Emotional Overeating (β=0.14, 95% CI 0.008, 0.27). Stress exposure was not associated with Food Responsiveness (trend for decreased Enjoyment of Food; β=-0.13, 95% CI 0.002, -0.26). All child obesogenic eating behaviors increased with age (p'sstress exposure predicted increases in child eating behaviors known to associate with overweight/obesity. Psychosocial stress may confer overweight/obesity risk through eating behavior pathways. Targeting eating behaviors may be an important prevention strategy for children exposed to stress. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Incidence of obesity during childhood and adolescence in a large contemporary cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adrienne R; Sherriff, Andrea; Lawlor, Debbie A; Ness, Andrew R; Reilly, John J

    2011-05-01

    Timing of obesity development during childhood and adolescence is unclear, hindering preventive strategies. The primary aim of the present study was to quantify the incidence of overweight and obesity throughout childhood and adolescence in a large contemporary cohort of English children (the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, ALSPAC; children born 1991-1992). A secondary aim was to examine the persistence of overweight and obesity. Longitudinal data on weight and height were collected annually from age 7-15 years in the entire ALSPAC cohort (n=4283), and from 3 to 15 years in a randomly selected subsample of the cohort (n=549; 'Children in Focus' CiF). Incidence of overweight and obesity (BMI (Body mass index) at or above the 85th and 95th centiles relative to U.K. reference data) was calculated. Risk ratios (RR) for overweight and obesity at 15 years based on weight status at 3, 7, and 11 years were also calculated. In the entire cohort, four-year incidence of obesity was higher between ages 7 and 11 years than between 11 and 15 years (5.0% vs. 1.4% respectively). In the CiF sub-sample, four-year incidence of obesity was also highest during mid-childhood (age 7-11years, 6.7%), slightly lower during early childhood (3-7 years, 5.1%) and lowest during adolescence (11-15 years 1.6%). Overweight and obesity at all ages had a strong tendency to persist to age 15 years as indicated by risk ratios (95% CI (Confidence interval)) for overweight and obesity at 15 years from overweight and obesity (relative to healthy weight status) at 3 years (2.4, 1.8-3.1), 7 years (4.6, 3.6-5.8), and 11 years (9.3, 6.5-13.2). Mid-late childhood (around age 7-11 years) may merit greater attention in future obesity prevention interventions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Parental and Early Childhood Influences on Adolescent Obesity: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Paola; Parker, Helen; Bulsara, Max; Beilin, Lawrence; Hands, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The influence of parental and early childhood factors on adolescent obesity was investigated using a longitudinal model of body mass index (BMI) from birth to 14 years. Trajectories of BMI using linear mixed model (LMM) analysis were used to investigate the influence of early parental and childhood factors on BMI at 14 years in the Raine birth…

  13. Cost Study of the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Heather L.; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Minnesota Early Learning Foundation created the Saint Paul Early Childhood Scholarship Program, a pilot program to provide families with scholarships to cover the cost of high-quality early childhood education (ECE) programs. Although there is a large body of research about the benefits of preschool specifically and early learning…

  14. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood overweight and fat distribution: The KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, S.H.; Mommers, M.; Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Prins, M.H.; Penders, J.; Thijs, C.

    2014-01-01

    What is already known about this subject There is an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and higher body mass index (BMI) and overweight in childhood. What this study adds The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood overweight develops with age, starting

  15. Middle Childhood Teacher-Child Relationships: Insights from an Attachment Perspective and Remaining Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschueren, Karine

    2015-01-01

    An increasing body of research points to the significance of teacher-child relationships in shaping children's development. Extending the research literature on early childhood, this review examines the value of an attachment perspective to the study of teacher-child relationships in middle childhood. First, we discuss the conceptualization and…

  16. Recommended Practices for Promoting Physical Activity in Early Childhood Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Paul M.; Stork, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Although the importance of physical development as an integrated part of early childhood education is well understood, many early childhood teachers lack the specific background and training in this area. To fill this gap, this article presents a framework of recommended practices and a corresponding assessment tool. The Head Start Body Start…

  17. Factors Associated With Desistence and Persistence of Childhood Gender Dysphoria: A Quantitative Follow-Up Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensma, T.D.; McGuire, J.K.; Kreukels, B.P.C.; Beekman, A.J.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factors associated with the persistence of childhood gender dysphoria (GD), and to assess the feelings of GD, body image, and sexual orientation in adolescence. Method: The sample consisted of 127 adolescents (79 boys, 48 girls), who were referred for GD in childhood (<12

  18. Interbirth interval is associated with childhood type 1 diabetes risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Svensson, Jannet; Waldhoer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    of childhood type 1 diabetes has not been investigated. A secondary analysis of 14 published observational studies of perinatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes was conducted. Risk estimates of diabetes by category of interbirth interval were calculated for each study. Random effects models were used...... to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and investigate heterogeneity between studies. Overall, 2,787 children with type 1 diabetes were included. There was a reduction in the risk of childhood type 1 diabetes in children born to mothers after interbirth intervals...

  19. Influences of Childhood Experiences on Early Childhood Education Students

    OpenAIRE

    Strekalova-Hughes, Ekaterina; Maarouf, Saoussan; Keskin, Burhanettin

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined whether or not childhood experiences of the early childhood education students affected their present personal beliefs and pedagogies. A digital survey was filled out by 58 students majoring in Early Childhood Education program. The participants were asked to identify and reflect on their impactful early experiences. The follow-up interviews with two participants were conducted to deepen the reflections on childhood experiences and explore their effects on the ...

  20. Childhood underweight, weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood and incidence of adult metabolic syndrome in the SUN (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Adriano M; Beunza, Juan-José; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2011-07-01

    To assess associations between childhood body weight, weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood and incidence of adult metabolic syndrome (MetS). A dynamic prospective cohort study (the SUN Project; Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra). Participants were asked to select which of nine body images most closely represented their body shape at ages 5 and 20 years, and it was used as a proxy of BMI. An incident case of MetS was diagnosed according to criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. Associations between childhood body weight, weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood and incidence of adult MetS were estimated by multiple-adjusted odds ratios and their 95 % confidence intervals. University of Navarra, Spain. The study included 5317 university graduates, followed-up for a median of 6·1 years. The incidence of MetS was 2·9 % (1·7 % in women and 5·1 % in men). Among men, body shape at age 5 years was inversely related to adult MetS (OR = 0·83, 95 % CI 0·72, 0·97), whereas weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood was directly associated with adult MetS (OR = 1·49, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·18); both childhood underweight (OR = 5·20, 95 % CI 1·87, 14·50) and childhood obesity (OR = 4·66, 95 % CI 1·40, 15·51) increased the likelihood of adult MetS. No association was apparent among women. These results support treating childhood underweight and weight gain during childhood to adolescence/young adulthood as part of comprehensive adult MetS prevention efforts in men.

  1. Test Your Calculator IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    1981-01-01

    This short quiz for teachers is intended to help them to brush up on their calculator operating skills and to prepare for the types of questions their students will ask about calculator idiosyncracies. (SJL)

  2. Childhood Loneliness and Isolation: Implications and Strategies for Childhood Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Addresses why childhood educators should concern themselves with the issue of childhood loneliness and isolation. Reviews research findings that show loneliness predisposes children and adolescents to a wide array of adverse consequences that suggest the need for incorporating loneliness reduction strategies within existing childhood programs.…

  3. Calculating correct compilers

    OpenAIRE

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present a new approach to the problem of calculating compilers. In particular, we develop a simple but general technique that allows us to derive correct compilers from high- level semantics by systematic calculation, with all details of the implementation of the compilers falling naturally out of the calculation process. Our approach is based upon the use of standard equational reasoning techniques, and has been applied to calculate compilers for a wide range of language f...

  4. Autistic Savant Calendar Calculators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Paul J.

    This study identified 10 savants with developmental disabilities and an exceptional ability to calculate calendar dates. These "calendar calculators" were asked to demonstrate their abilities, and their strategies were analyzed. The study found that the ability to calculate dates into the past or future varied widely among these…

  5. Flexible Mental Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threlfall, John

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that strategy choice is a misleading characterization of efficient mental calculation and that teaching mental calculation methods as a whole is not conducive to flexibility. Proposes an alternative in which calculation is thought of as an interaction between noticing and knowledge. Presents an associated teaching approach to promote…

  6. Childhood Head and Neck Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Association ® www.thyroid.org Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland ... Thyroid Association ® www.thyroid.org Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation Thyroid nodules (see Thyroid Nodule brochure) • Thyroid nodules ...

  7. The influence of hepatic transport on the distribution volumes and mean residence time of drug in the body and the accuracy of estimating these parameters by the traditional pharmacokinetic calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskiy, Leonid M

    2011-11-01

    The influence of hepatic uptake and efflux, which includes passive diffusion and transporter-mediated component, on drug distribution volumes [steady-state volume of distribution (V(ss)) and terminal volume of distribution (V(β))], mean residence time (MRT), clearance, and terminal half-life is considered using a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. To account for hepatic uptake, liver is treated as two-compartmental unit with drug transfer from extracellular water into hepatocytes. The exactly calculated distribution volumes and MRT are compared with that obtained by the traditional equations based on the assumption of central elimination. It was found that V(ss) may increase more than 10-fold and V(β) more than 100-fold due to the contribution of transporter-mediated uptake. The terminal half-life may be substantially shortened (more than 100-fold) due to transporters. It may also decrease significantly due to the increase of intrinsic hepatic clearance (CL(int)), whereas hepatic clearance has already reached saturation (and stays close to the possible maximum value). It is shown that in case of transporter-mediated uptake of compound into hepatocytes, in the absence of efflux and passive diffusion (unidirectional uptake), hepatic clearance is independent of CL(int) and is determined by hepatic blood flow and uptake rate constant. The effects of transporter-mediated uptake are mostly pronounced for hydrophilic acidic compounds and moderately lipophilic neutral compounds. For basic compounds and lipophilic neutral compounds the change of distribution volumes due to transporters is rather unlikely. It was found that the traditional equations provide very accurate values of V(ss), V(β), and MRT in the absence of transporter action even for very low rates of passive diffusion. On the other hand, the traditional equations fail to provide the correct values of these parameters when the increase of distribution volumes due to transporters takes

  8. [National epidemiological survey on childhood obesity, 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zong-yi

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of the 3rd national survey on childhood obesity was conducted not only to understand the present status and trends of childhood obesity in China since the last survey conducted 10 years ago, but also to reveal the health status of preschool children at nutrition transit period and to evaluate the efficacy and sensitivity of cited reference population, criteria and cut-off point of body mass index (BMI), adiposity rebound age, waist/hip ratio and other parameters relevant to the diagnosis of obesity made by the national task force on childhood obesity of China (NTFCOC). A total of 84,766 children aged 0 - 7 years were recruited in the survey by the random cluster sampling which represented a 1, 414, 220 children's population from 11 cities covered north, central, south and west regions of China. The criteria of screening overweight/obesity was more than 1 Z-score/2 Z-score of the medium of reference value of weight for height made by WHO. Length-height/weight for all subjects and waist/hip/thigh circumference and blood pressure data for children 3 - 6 years of age were measured. The prevalence of overweight and obesity, overweight-obesity ratio, adiposity rebound age and BMI were calculated. The enumeration and measurement data were statistically managed by chi-square test and T-test, respectively using SPSS version 12.0 and the significance level was 0.05. (1) The prevalence of obesity and overweight was 7.2% and 19.8% for all; 8.9% and 22.2% for boys, and 5.3% and 17.0% for girls, respectively, which is 3.6/4.7 times higher than that of 1996 respectively, the annual increase rate of obesity and overweight was in average 156% and 52%, respectively. The distribution pattern of prevalence of overweight and obesity in geographic areas and gender was that the northern regions had higher prevalence than the west and the central regions and the prevalence in boys was higher than in girls. The obesity/overweight ratio (OOR) was still at a high risk level. (2

  9. Transforming childhood and youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    Louise Seeberg** This panel focuses on the changing dynamics of integration of various categories of children and young people, be they moving across borders, or settled in cities of immigration. The papers propose to cover diverse settings in Europe primarily through empirical studies. Moving beyond...... of childhood among Polish migrants in Norway' "Elzbieta M. Gozdziak (Georgetown University, USA), 'Keleti Pályaudvar: Past and Present Child Refugee Crises in Hungary' " "Carmen Draghici University Paris 13-Sorbonne Paris Cite, France), 'Transforming childhood and youth: increasing diversity in European cities...... and Childhood: On children of migrants from the Central Asia in Russia' " "Eva Janska, Zdeněk Čermák and Andrea Svobodova (Charles University, Prague, Czechia), 'Migration to Cities: decision making process and identity changes of young Vietnamese in Czechia' " "Mari Rysst (Inland University College...

  10. Developmental prosopagnosia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Corrow, Sherryse; Yonas, Albert; Duchaine, Brad

    2012-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is defined by severe face recognition problems resulting from a failure to develop the necessary visual mechanisms for processing faces. While there is a growing literature on DP in adults, little has been done to study this disorder in children. The profound impact of abnormal face perception on social functioning and the general lack of awareness of childhood DP can result in severe social and psychological consequences for children. This review discusses possible aetiologies of DP and summarizes the few cases of childhood DP that have been reported. It also outlines key objectives for the growth of this emerging research area and special considerations for studying DP in children. With clear goals and concerted efforts, the study of DP in childhood will be an exciting avenue for enhancing our understanding of normal and abnormal face perception for all age groups.

  11. Atopic endotype in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt

    2016-01-01

    against 28 inhalant and food allergens was assessed at ½, 1½, 4, 6, and 13 years of age in 399 children from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood2000 birth cohort by using both skin prick test responses and specific IgE levels. Asthma and eczema were diagnosed longitudinally by strictly...... with asthma through early childhood (0-6 years) when analyzed as any sensitization (odds ratio [OR] range, 0.78-1.29; P ≥ .48). However, at 13 years of age, any sensitization was associated with asthma (OR range, 4.02-5.94; all P ...%), eczema (26%), asthma (14%), or healthy status (24%). Conclusion: We found very little interdependency between asthma, eczema, and allergic sensitization through childhood. The associations between those entities were strongly dependent on age, type of allergens, and method of testing for sensitization...

  12. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... nutrients. However, little is known about the development of dietary patterns in childhood both in relation to possible indicators and to obesity related outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this PhD thesis was to make exploratory analyses of dietary patterns in childhood using the method principal component...... analysis (PCA) and to investigate associations to possible indicators and outcomes related to growth and obesity. This was based on two observational cohort studies (SKOT I, SKOT II) and one intervention study (MoMS). The research showed that PCA is a suitable method for understanding some...

  13. Maternal obesity and childhood wheezing and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Franca; Popovic, Maja

    2017-03-01

    Obesity represents one of the major public health problems worldwide, with an increased prevalence also among women of reproductive age. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity are important risk factors for a number of maternal and foetal/neonatal complications. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the most recent evidence regarding the associations between pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and wheezing and asthma in childhood. Potential mechanisms, mediators and confounding factors involved in these associations are also discussed. Despite the relatively large body of studies examining these associations and taking into account main confounders and potential mediators, the causal relationship between maternal obesity and wheezing and asthma in childhood is still uncertain. This uncertainty is not trivial, as any prevention strategy aimed at reducing the burden of these conditions would necessarily imply better understanding of the factors that are in the causal chain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The Influence of Familial Predisposition to Cardiovascular Complications upon Childhood Obesity Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise A; Bøjsøe, Christine; Kloppenborg, Julie T

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim was to investigate whether a familial predisposition to obesity related cardiovascular complications was associated with the degree of obesity at baseline and/or changes in the degree of obesity during a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program. METHODS: The study...... included 1421 obese children (634 boys) with a median age of 11.5 years (range 3.1-17.9 years), enrolled in treatment for 0.04 to 5.90 years (median 1.3 years) at the Children's Obesity Clinic, Denmark. At baseline, weight and height were measured, body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS......) calculated, and self-reported information on familial predisposition to obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), thromboembolic events, and dyslipidaemia were obtained. A familial predisposition included events in biological parents, siblings, grandparents, uncles, and aunts. The treatment...

  15. Body Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Body, Facial, & Dental Hygiene Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... hygiene and by frequently washing parts of the body and hair with soap and clean, running water ( ...

  16. Reconceptualizing the "Nature" of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Affrica

    2011-01-01

    This interdisciplinary article draws upon human geography to bring fresh new perspectives to the relationship between two commonly conflated concepts: "childhood" and "nature". Childhood studies scholars have gone a long way towards retheorizing childhood beyond the "natural" and the "universal" by pointing to its historical and cultural…

  17. Discovering the Culture of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We often filter our interactions with children through the lens of adulthood. View the culture of childhood through a whole new lens. Identify age-based bias and expand your outlook on and understanding of early childhood as a culture. Examine various elements of childhood culture: language, the power of believing, artistic expressions, and social…

  18. CONTRIBUTION FOR MINING ATMOSPHERE CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franica Trojanović

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Humid air is an unavoidable feature of mining atmosphere, which plays a significant role in defining the climate conditions as well as permitted circumstances for normal mining work. Saturated humid air prevents heat conduction from the human body by means of evaporation. Consequently, it is of primary interest in the mining practice to establish the relative air humidity either by means of direct or indirect methods. Percentage of water in the surrounding air may be determined in various procedures including tables, diagrams or particular calculations, where each technique has its specific advantages and disadvantages. Classical calculation is done according to Sprung's formula, in which case partial steam pressure should also be taken from the steam table. The new method without the use of diagram or tables, established on the functional relation of pressure and temperature on saturated line, is presented here for the first time (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. Body Alchemy

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The exhibition "Body Alchemy" centers on the artistic concept of jewelry and metal art, new materials and the relation and dialogue between body and space. It discusses the evolution of contemporary jewelry and metal art from alchemy to casting body, from material aesthetics to conceptual art and from space shaping to body language. (subtracts from invite and event program). \\ud \\ud International contemporary jewelry artists and metal artists are invited to participate in the exhibition next ...

  20. Danish Childhood Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Wehner, Peder Skov

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The overall aim is to monitor the quality of childhood cancer care in Denmark; to register late effects of treatment; to analyze complications of permanent central venous catheters (CVCs); to study blood stream infections in children with cancer; and to study acute toxicity of high......, and outcome of antimicrobial chemotherapy. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Since 1985, 4,944 children below 15 years of age have been registered in the database. There has been no significant change in the incidence of childhood cancer in Denmark since 1985. The 5-year survival has increased significantly since 1985...

  1. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español About Body Basics KidsHealth / For Parents / About Body Basics Print Remember the biology class you had ... do, lots of new knowledge about how the body works helps us to understand it now better ...

  2. Childhood family psychosocial environment and coronary heart disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Eric B; Almeida, Nisha D; Taylor, Shelley E; Matthews, Karen A

    2011-09-01

    Little is known about whether the childhood family psychosocial environment affects coronary heart disease (CHD). Study objectives were to evaluate associations of childhood family psychosocial environment (termed "risky families"; characterized by cold, unaffectionate interactions, conflict, aggression, neglect, and/or low nurturance) with calculated risk for CHD. Study participants included 3554 participants of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study, aged 33 to 45 years. Childhood family psychosocial environment was measured using a risky family questionnaire via self-report. Ten-year CHD risk was calculated using the validated Framingham risk algorithm. In a multivariable-adjusted regression analysis adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, and childhood socioeconomic position, a 1-unit (range, 0-21) increase in risky family score was associated with 1.0% (95% confidence interval = 0.4%-1.7%) and 1.0% (95% confidence interval = 0.2%-1.8%) higher CHD risk in women and men, respectively. Multiple mediation analyses suggested significant indirect effects of education, income, depressive symptomatology, and anger-out expression in women and education in men, indicating that these may be mediating mechanisms between childhood psychosocial environment and CHD risk. Of the modifiable Framingham algorithm components, smoking (in women and men) and high-density lipoprotein (in women) were the factors most strongly associated with risky family score. Childhood family psychosocial environment was positively associated with the calculated 10-year CHD risk. Mechanisms may include the potential negative impact of childhood family psychosocial environment on later-life socioeconomic position (e.g., education in men and women) and/or psychosocial functioning (e.g., depression and anger-out expression in women), which may in turn lead to higher CHD risk, particularly through smoking (in men and women) and low level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (in women).

  3. Une méthode de calcul par éléments finis de la résistence de vague des corps flottants ou immergés en théorie linéaire A Finite Elements Method for Computing the Resistance of Floating Or Submerged Bodies to Wave Action Using a Linear Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariou A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pour calculer le potentiel de l'écoulement autour d'un corps en mouvement rectiligne uniforme, soit en fluide illimité (engin sous-marin, soit sur une mer infinie (corps flottant ou voisin de la surface libre, on se place dans le cadre du problème de Neumann extérieur ou du problème de Neumann Kelvin. Pour résoudre ces problèmes on se propose de délimiter autour de la carène un domaine fluide fini (,ri dont les frontières sont : la carène (SC, une surface (SE entourant la carène et éventuellement la portion de surface libre (SI. limitée par les lignes de flottaison de SC et SE. La solution à l'intérieur de (,ri est déterminée à l'aide d'une méthode d'éléments finis et elle est raccordée à la solution en domaine infini elle-même calculée grâce aux fonctions de Green du problème (ou solutions élémentaires. For computing the flow potential around a body in uniform rectilinear movement, either in an unlimited fluid (subsea croft or on an infinite sea (body floating near the free surface, consideration must be given ta the outside Neumann problem or ta the Neumann Kelvin problem. Ta solve these problems, this article proposes ta delimit a finite fluid realm (T: around the body. The limits of this realm are: I the body (SC, 2 a surface (SE surrounding the body, and eventually 3 the portion of free surface (SU bounded by the waterlines of SC and SE. The solution within iri is determined by a finite elements method, and it is related ta the solution in on infinite realm which in turn is computed by the Green functions of the problem (or elementary solutions.

  4. Childhood temperament predictors of adolescent physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Janssen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Many patterns of physical activity involvement are established early in life. To date, the role of easily identifiable early-life individual predictors of PA, such as childhood temperament, remains relatively unexplored. Here, we tested whether childhood temperamental activity level, high intensity pleasure, low intensity pleasure, and surgency predicted engagement in physical activity (PA patterns 11 years later in adolescence. Methods Data came from a longitudinal community study (N = 206 participants, 53% females, 70% Caucasian. Parents reported their children’s temperamental characteristics using the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ when children were 4 & 5 years old. Approximately 11 years later, adolescents completed self-reports of PA using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Ordered logistic regression, ordinary least squares linear regression, and Zero-inflated Poisson regression models were used to predict adolescent PA from childhood temperament. Race, socioeconomic status, and adolescent body mass index were used as covariates. Results Males with greater childhood temperamental activity level engaged in greater adolescent PA volume (B = .42, SE = .13 and a 1 SD difference in childhood temperamental activity level predicted 29.7% more strenuous adolescent PA per week. Males’ high intensity pleasure predicted higher adolescent PA volume (B = .28, SE = .12. Males’ surgency positively predicted more frequent PA activity (B = .47, SE = .23, OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.54 and PA volume (B = .31, SE = .12. No predictions from females’ childhood temperament to later PA engagement were identified. Conclusions Childhood temperament may influence the formation of later PA habits, particularly in males. Boys with high temperamental activity level, high intensity

  5. Core calculations of JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In material testing reactors like the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) of 50 MW in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of irradiated samples show complex distributions. It is necessary to assess the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of an irradiation field by carrying out the nuclear calculation of the core for every operation cycle. In order to advance core calculation, in the JMTR, the application of MCNP to the assessment of core reactivity and neutron flux and spectra has been investigated. In this study, in order to reduce the time for calculation and variance, the comparison of the results of the calculations by the use of K code and fixed source and the use of Weight Window were investigated. As to the calculation method, the modeling of the total JMTR core, the conditions for calculation and the adopted variance reduction technique are explained. The results of calculation are shown. Significant difference was not observed in the results of neutron flux calculations according to the difference of the modeling of fuel region in the calculations by K code and fixed source. The method of assessing the results of neutron flux calculation is described. (K.I.)

  6. Child Care and Cortisol across Early Childhood: Context Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Daniel; Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Wiloughy, Michael; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Veron-Feagans, Lynne; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Granger, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable body of literature suggests that children's child-care experiences may impact adrenocortical functioning in early childhood. Yet emerging findings also suggest that the magnitude and sometimes the direction of child-care effects on development may be markedly different for children from higher risk contexts. Using data from a large…

  7. Home management of childhood diarrhoea: Need to intensify ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-01

    Feb 1, 2011 ... Infections in other parts of the body can lead to parenteral diarrhea. By far the foremost cause of diarrhea leading to death and morbidity worldwide in childhood is rotavirus infection. It is only second to pneumonia as a killer in children.[1] It derives its name from the wheel-like shape of the organism when.

  8. Early Diet and Later Cancer Risk: Prospective Associations of Dietary Patterns During Critical Periods of Childhood with the GH-IGF Axis, Insulin Resistance and Body Fatness in Younger Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Anke L B; Schulze, Matthias B; Kroke, Anja; Diethelm, Katharina; Joslowski, Gesa; Krupp, Danika; Wudy, Stefan; Buyken, Anette E

    2015-01-01

    Early life, adiposity rebound, and puberty represent critical growth periods when food choices could have long-term relevance for cancer risk. We aimed to relate dietary patterns during these periods to the growth hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor (GH-IGF) axis, insulin resistance, and body fatness in adulthood. Data from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study participants with outcome data at 18-37 years, and ≥2 dietary records during early life (1-2 yr; n = 128), adiposity rebound (4-6 years, n = 179), or puberty (girls 9-14, boys 10-15 yr; n = 213) were used. Dietary patterns at these ages were derived by 1) reduced rank regression (RRR) to explain variation in adult IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fat-mass index; 2) principal component analysis (PCA). Regarding RRR, the patterns "cake/canned fruit/cheese & eggs" (early life), "sweets & dairy" (adiposity rebound) and "high-fat foods" (pubertal boys) were independently associated with higher adult HOMA-IR. Furthermore, the patterns "favorable carbohydrate sources" (early life), "snack & convenience foods" (adiposity rebound), and "traditional & convenience carbohydrates" (pubertal boys) were related to adult IGFBP-3 (P trend 0.1). In conclusion, dietary patterns during sensitive growth periods may be of long-term relevance for adult insulin resistance and IGFBP-3.

  9. Music in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feierabend, John

    1990-01-01

    Argues that music activities in early childhood education foster a variety of developmental skills. Analyzes Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, contending that music intelligence is a separate intelligence. Provides ways to identify and promote musical intelligence. Suggests methods for encouraging musical development. Using songs…

  10. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results

  11. Lead Poisoning in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Siegfried M., Ed.; Linakis, James G., Ed.; Anderson, Angela C., Ed.

    The magnitude of childhood lead poisoning has been inexplicably neglected by modern medicine and by legislators. However, since the 1970s, increased attention has been focused on lead poisoning, and advances have been made in several areas, including understanding of the neurodevelopmental and behavioral ramifications of lead poisoning, and…

  12. Stress and childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.S. van

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, characterized by the enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Children with epilepsy and their parents often report seizures precipitated by stress. In order to increase our understanding of the pathophysiological

  13. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  14. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2003-01-01

    are sometimes associated with this disorder, but contrary to earlier belief this is not typical. Interest in childhood disintegrative disorder has increased markedly in recent years and in this review attention is given to more recently published cases based on ICD-9, ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic systems...

  15. Childhood environment and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  16. Monitoring asthma in childhood: management-related issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart L. Rottier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Management-related issues are an important aspect of monitoring asthma in children in clinical practice. This review summarises the literature on practical aspects of monitoring including adherence to treatment, inhalation technique, ongoing exposure to allergens and irritants, comorbid conditions and side-effects of treatment, as agreed by the European Respiratory Society Task Force on Monitoring Asthma in Childhood. The evidence indicates that it is important to discuss adherence to treatment in a non-confrontational way at every clinic visit, and take into account a patient's illness and medication beliefs. All task force members teach inhalation techniques at least twice when introducing a new inhalation device and then at least annually. Exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, combustion-derived air pollutants, house dust mites, fungal spores, pollens and pet dander deserve regular attention during follow-up according to most task force members. In addition, allergic rhinitis should be considered as a cause for poor asthma control. Task force members do not screen for gastro-oesophageal reflux and food allergy. Height and weight are generally measured at least annually to identify individuals who are susceptible to adrenal suppression and to calculate body mass index, even though causality between obesity and asthma has not been established. In cases of poor asthma control, before stepping up treatment the above aspects of monitoring deserve closer attention.

  17. Multiphase flow calculation software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-04-15

    Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

  18. Radar Signature Calculation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The calculation, analysis, and visualization of the spatially extended radar signatures of complex objects such as ships in a sea multipath environment and...

  19. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. Marr

    2000-05-11

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation.

  20. Electrical installation calculations advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio

  1. Evapotranspiration Calculator Desktop Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Evapotranspiration Calculator estimates evapotranspiration time series data for hydrological and water quality models for the Hydrologic Simulation Program - Fortran (HSPF) and the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM).

  2. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  3. Electrical installation calculations basic

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for basic electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practice. A step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3Fo

  4. Is ideal body image related to obesity and lifestyle behaviours in African American adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Wang, Y

    2012-03-01

    Childhood obesity epidemic has become a public health issue in the USA, especially among African American youths. Research on the association between ideal body image (IBI) and obesity and related lifestyle factors among African American children and adolescents is limited. Data collected from 402 low-income African American adolescents aged 10-14 years in four Chicago public schools were used. Questionnaires were used to assess IBI, weight perception, weight control practices, and self-efficacy towards food and physical activity. Body mass index was calculated using measured weight and height. Associations between IBI and weight perception, overweight/obesity and lifestyle behaviours were assessed using linear and logistic regression models. The most frequently chosen ideal body size was the fourth of eight silhouettes (from thinnest to heaviest) for boys (55%) and girls (49%). Overweight and obese girls selected larger ideal body figures than the others (trend test: P body figures, girls who selected smaller ones were twice as likely to have an unhealthy diet as indicated by less fruit and milk consumption; the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were 2.40 (1.15-5.02) for fruits intake (peers (trend test: both P body image is associated with weight status, food self-efficacy and lifestyle behaviours among low-income African American adolescents. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Factors associated with school-aged children's body mass index in Korean American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Myoungock; Grey, Margaret; Sadler, Lois; Jeon, Sangchoon; Nam, Soohyun; Song, Hee-Jung; Whittemore, Robin

    2017-08-01

    To examine factors associated with children's body mass index and obesity-risk behaviours in Korean American families. Limited data are available about family factors related to overweight and obesity in Korean American children. A cross-sectional study. Convenient sampling was employed to recruit Korean American families in the Northeast of the United States between August 2014 and January 2015. Child, family and societal/demographic/community factors were measured with self-report questionnaires completed by mothers and children. Height and weight were measured to calculate body mass index. Data were analyzed using mixed effects models incorporating within-group correlation in siblings. The sample included 170 Korean American children and 137 mothers. In bivariate analyses, more child screen time, number of children in the household, greater parental underestimation of child's weight and children's participation in the school lunch program were significantly associated with higher child body mass index. In multivariate analyses that included variables showing significant bivariate relationship, no variable was associated with child body mass index. There were no child, family and societal/demographic/community factors related to child body mass index in Korean American families in the multivariate analysis, which is contrary to research in other racial/ethnic groups. In bivariate analyses, there is evidence that some factors were significantly related to child body mass index. Further research is needed to understand the unique behavioural, social and cultural features that contribute to childhood obesity in Korean American families. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Childhood Obesity: A Role for Gut Microbiota?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sanchez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota.

  7. Childhood obesity: a role for gut microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Marina; Panahi, Shirin; Tremblay, Angelo

    2014-12-23

    Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotics and probiotics are of interest because they have been shown to alter the composition of gut microbiota and to affect food intake and appetite, body weight and composition and metabolic functions through gastrointestinal pathways and modulation of the gut bacterial community. As shown in this review, prebiotics and probiotics have physiologic functions that contribute to changes in the composition of gut microbiota, maintenance of a healthy body weight and control of factors associated with childhood obesity through their effects on mechanisms controlling food intake, fat storage and alterations in gut microbiota.

  8. Chemical calculations and chemicals that might calculate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael P.

    I summarize some applications of symbolic calculation to the evaluation of molecular integrals over Slater orbitals, and discuss some spin-offs of this work that have wider potential. These include the exploration of the mechanized use of analogy. I explain the methods that I use to do this, in relation to mathematical proofs and to modeling step by step processes such as organic syntheses and NMR pulse sequences. Another spin-off relates to biological information processing. Some challenges and opportunities in the information infrastructure of interdisciplinary research are discussed.

  9. [Understanding dosage calculations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlahouès, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The calculation of dosages in paediatrics is the concern of the whole medical and paramedical team. This activity must generate a minimum of risks in order to prevent care-related adverse events. In this context, the calculation of dosages is a practice which must be understood by everyone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. [Evaluation of an education intervention for childhood obesity prevention in basic schools in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobos Fernández, Luz Lorena; Leyton Dinamarca, Bárbara; Kain Bercovich, Juliana; Vio del Río, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a comprehensive intervention in nutrition education and physical activity to prevent childhood obesity in primary school children of low socioeconomic status in Macul county in Chile, with a two year follow-up (2008 and 2009) of the children. The intervention consisted in teacher nutrition training in healthy eating and the implementation of educational material based on Chilean dietary guidelines. In addition, there was an increase in physical education classes to 3-4 hours per week and physical education teachers were recruited for that purpose. Weight, height and six minutes walk test (6MWT) were measured and body mass index (BMI), BMI Z score, prevalence of normal, overweight and obese children were calculated with WHO 2007reference. Changes between baseline and BMI Z in each period and 6MWT/height, and changes in nutrition knowledge through questionnaires were measured. There was no significant difference in BMI Z score between the initial and final periods and in the evolution of the nutritional status of children. Nutrition knowledge improved significantly between the two measurements. There was a significant increase in 6MWT/height (10 meters between baseline and follow-up, p childhood obesity in primary schools. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. Childhood obesity and adult cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umer, Amna; Kelley, George A; Cottrell, Lesley E; Giacobbi, Peter; Innes, Kim E; Lilly, Christa L

    2017-08-29

    Overweight and obesity is a major public health concern that includes associations with the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors during childhood and adolescence as well as premature mortality in adults. Despite the high prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity as well as adult CVD, individual studies as well as previous systematic reviews examining the relationship between childhood obesity and adult CVD have yielded conflicting results. The purpose of this study was to use the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to address this gap. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: (1) longitudinal and cohort studies (including case-cohort), (2) childhood exposure and adult outcomes collected on the same individual over time, (3) childhood obesity, as defined by the original study authors, (4) English-language articles, (5) studies published up to June, 2015, (6) one or more of the following CVD risk factors [systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL), and triglycerides (TG)], (7) outcome(s) not self-reported, and (8) exposure measurements (child's adiposity) assessed by health professionals, trained investigators, or self-reported. Studies were retrieved by searching three electronic databases as well as citation tracking. Fisher's r to z score was calculated for each study for each outcome. Pooled effect sizes were calculated using random-effects models while risk of bias was assessed using the STROBE instrument. In order to try and identify sources of heterogeneity, random-effects meta-regression was also performed. Of the 4840 citations reviewed, a total of 23 studies were included in the systematic review and 21 in the meta-analysis. The findings suggested that childhood obesity is significantly and positively associated with adult SBP (Zr

  12. Childhood obesity and adult cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amna Umer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity is a major public health concern that includes associations with the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors during childhood and adolescence as well as premature mortality in adults. Despite the high prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity as well as adult CVD, individual studies as well as previous systematic reviews examining the relationship between childhood obesity and adult CVD have yielded conflicting results. The purpose of this study was to use the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to address this gap. Methods Studies were included if they met the following criteria: (1 longitudinal and cohort studies (including case-cohort, (2 childhood exposure and adult outcomes collected on the same individual over time, (3 childhood obesity, as defined by the original study authors, (4 English-language articles, (5 studies published up to June, 2015, (6 one or more of the following CVD risk factors [systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG], (7 outcome(s not self-reported, and (8 exposure measurements (child’s adiposity assessed by health professionals, trained investigators, or self-reported. Studies were retrieved by searching three electronic databases as well as citation tracking. Fisher’s r to z score was calculated for each study for each outcome. Pooled effect sizes were calculated using random-effects models while risk of bias was assessed using the STROBE instrument. In order to try and identify sources of heterogeneity, random-effects meta-regression was also performed. Results Of the 4840 citations reviewed, a total of 23 studies were included in the systematic review and 21 in the meta-analysis. The findings suggested that childhood obesity is significantly and

  13. Childhood brain tumors and residential electromagnetic fields (EMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheifets, L I; Sussman, S S; Preston-Martin, S

    1999-01-01

    There are many recent comprehensive reviews of the residential EMF epidemiologic literature, but they do not attempt to cover the issue of childhood brain tumors and EMF in depth. We present here background information on descriptive epidemiology of known or suspected causes of childhood brain tumors and a detailed review of studies that have examined the associations between EMF as represented by various surrogates, and childhood brain tumors. We evaluated nine studies of childhood brain tumors and residential exposure to EMF based on wire codes, distance, measurements, and modeling, and six studies that examined the use of appliances by children or their mothers during pregnancy. For each study we discussed analytical and methodological issues including choice of cutpoints, nonconcurrent control selection, random digit dialing, differential participation, and ability of a study to detect an association. On the basis of this comprehensive review of all available childhood brain cancer studies, we do not see support for an overall association between EMF and childhood brain cancer. This lack of support applied for all surrogates of past magnetic fields, including wire code, distance, measured or calculated fields, and use of appliances by either child or mother.

  14. The impact of height during childhood on the national prevalence rates of overweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula van Dommelen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is known that height and body mass index (BMI are correlated in childhood. However, its impact on the (trend of national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity has never been investigated. The aim of our study is to investigate the relation between height and national prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in childhood between 1980, 1997, and 2009, and to calculate which fixed value of p (2.0,2.1, …,3.0 in kg/m(p during childhood is most accurate in predicting adult overweight. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cross-sectional growth data of children from three Dutch nationwide surveys in 1980, 1997, and 2009, and longitudinal data from the Terneuzen Birth Cohort and the Harpenden Growth Study were used. Relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Our study showed that tall (>1 standard deviation (SD girls aged 5.0-13.9 y were more often overweight (RR = 3.5,95%CI:2.8-4.4 and obese (RR = 3.9,95%CI:2.1-7.4 than short girls (<-1 SD. Similar results were found in boys aged 5.0-14.9 y (RR = 4.4,95%CI:3.4-5.7 and RR = 5.3,95%CI:2.6-11.0. No large differences were found in the other age groups and in comparison with children with an average stature. Tall boys aged 2.0-4.9 y had a significantly higher positive trend in overweight between 1980 and 1997 compared to short boys (RR = 4.0,95%CI:1.38-11.9. For other age groups and in girls, no significant trends were found. The optimal Area Under the Curve (AUC to predict adult overweight was found for p = 2.0. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Tall girls aged 5.0-13.9y and tall boys aged 5.0-14.9y have much higher prevalence rates of overweight and obesity than their shorter peers. We suggest taking into account the impact of height when evaluating trends and variations of BMI distributions in childhood, and to use BMI to predict adult overweight.

  15. Effects of a Family-Based Childhood Obesity Treatment Program on Parental Weight Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cæcilie Trier

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment and to evaluate changes in the parents' weight statuses during their child's treatment.The study included parents of 1,125 children and adolescents aged 3-22 years, who were enrolled in a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program. At baseline, weight and height of the parents were obtained by self-reported information and parental body mass index (BMI was calculated. Weight and height of the children were measured in the clinic and BMI standard deviation scores were calculated. Furthermore, anthropometric data from parents of 664 children were obtained by telephone interview after a mean of 2.5 years of treatment (ranging 16 days to 7 years, and changes in parental BMI were analyzed.Data on changes in BMI were available in 606 mothers and 479 fathers. At baseline, the median BMI of the mothers was 28.1 kg/m2 (range: 16.9-66.6, and the median BMI of the fathers was 28.9 kg/m2 (range: 17.2-48.1. Seventy percent of the mothers and 80% of the fathers were overweight or obese at the time of their child's treatment initiation. Both the mothers and fathers lost weight during their child's treatment with a mean decrease in BMI in the mothers of 0.5 (95% CI: 0.2-0.8, p = 0.0006 and in the fathers of 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2-0.6, p = 0.0007. Of the overweight/obese parents, 60% of the mothers and 58% of the fathers lost weight during their child's treatment.There is a high prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment. Family-based childhood obesity treatment with a focus on the child has a positive effect on parental BMI with both mothers and fathers losing weight.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00928473.

  16. Effects of a Family-Based Childhood Obesity Treatment Program on Parental Weight Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, Cæcilie; Dahl, Maria; Stjernholm, Theresa; Nielsen, Tenna R H; Bøjsøe, Christine; Fonvig, Cilius E; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment and to evaluate changes in the parents' weight statuses during their child's treatment. The study included parents of 1,125 children and adolescents aged 3-22 years, who were enrolled in a multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment program. At baseline, weight and height of the parents were obtained by self-reported information and parental body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Weight and height of the children were measured in the clinic and BMI standard deviation scores were calculated. Furthermore, anthropometric data from parents of 664 children were obtained by telephone interview after a mean of 2.5 years of treatment (ranging 16 days to 7 years), and changes in parental BMI were analyzed. Data on changes in BMI were available in 606 mothers and 479 fathers. At baseline, the median BMI of the mothers was 28.1 kg/m2 (range: 16.9-66.6), and the median BMI of the fathers was 28.9 kg/m2 (range: 17.2-48.1). Seventy percent of the mothers and 80% of the fathers were overweight or obese at the time of their child's treatment initiation. Both the mothers and fathers lost weight during their child's treatment with a mean decrease in BMI in the mothers of 0.5 (95% CI: 0.2-0.8, p = 0.0006) and in the fathers of 0.4 (95% CI: 0.2-0.6, p = 0.0007). Of the overweight/obese parents, 60% of the mothers and 58% of the fathers lost weight during their child's treatment. There is a high prevalence of overweight/obesity among parents of children entering childhood obesity treatment. Family-based childhood obesity treatment with a focus on the child has a positive effect on parental BMI with both mothers and fathers losing weight. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00928473.

  17. Three-body calculation of Be double- hypernuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Coulomb potential WC, due to its long range, does not satisfy the math- ematical properties required for the formulation of standard scattering theory as given in the previous section for short-range interactions Vα. We choose the screened Coulomb potential in configuration-space representation as. WR(r) = WC(r)e.

  18. EFFECTS OF A SCHOOL-BASED INTERVENTION ON BMI AND MOTOR ABILITIES IN CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Graf

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in childhood is increasing worldwide. To combat overweight and obesity in childhood, the school-based Children's Health InterventionaL Trial (CHILT project combines health education and physical activity. This paper examines the effect of intervention on the body mass index (BMI and motor abilities after 20.8 ± 1.0 months in 12 randomly selected primary schools compared with 5 randomly selected control schools. The anthropometric data were assessed, BMI was calculated. Coordination was determined by lateral jumping and endurance performance by a 6-minute run. No difference in the prevalence of overweight and obesity was found between the intervention (IS and control schools (CS either at baseline or following intervention (each p > 0.05. The increase in the number of lateral jumps was significantly higher in the IS than in the CS (p < 0.001. For the 6-minute run the increase in distance run was significantly improved in IS (p = 0.020. All variables were controlled for gender and age. Overweight and obese children in both IS and CS produced significantly lower scores in coordination and endurance tasks than normal and underweight children during both examinations (each p < 0.001, adjusted for gender and age. Preventive intervention in primary schools offers an effective means to improve motor skills in childhood and to break through the vicious circle of physical inactivity - motor deficits - frustration - increasing inactivity possibly combined with an excess energy intake and weight gain. To prevent overweight and obesity these measures have to be intensified

  19. Momentos do parque em uma rotina de educação infantil: corpo, consumo, barbárie Playground moments in an early childhood education routine: body, consumption and barbarism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Richter

    2010-12-01

    routine comprising various moments: arrival, cleaning, feeding, sleep, playground, guided activity, departure. Inspired by issues from the Critical Theory of Society, the present text deals with the playground moments, considered as "privileged situations for education", both in the teachers' discourses and in the actions that distinguish these moments from the others, establishing a kind of opposition between "work time" and "free time". In such relation, apart from being regarded as periods to renew energies for the other activities, these moments offer an excuse to suspend the closer following up of activities by the teachers: the look of the grown up "will need" only to steer children clear of inadequate places or to avoid "exposed" wounds, shaping a group of socio-sanitary practices around the vital needs, and that contribute to eliminate deviances and differences in pursuit of pseudo-gratifications. The absence of a more careful approximation will also leave children to an ambiguous "spontaneity", subjected to the violence that produces scars, mainly on the body, and which promote the kind of education that privileges barbarism instead of opposing it. The results show also the presence of products for the consumption of leisure that inform beforehand the sequence of operations to be reproduced, requiring automated gestures and actions that stimulate the barrenness of imagination.

  20. Nomadic Research Practices in Early Childhood: Interrupting Racisms and Colonialisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Pacini-Ketchabaw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers how research practices on racialization in early childhood education might be reconceptualized when racialization is placed within relational intricacies and affects in multiple encounters. By foregrounding race and its emergence in multifarious, unpredictable ways in everyday encounters between human and non-human bodies, space, and discourse, the paper investigates how a movement toward research analyses that engage with both the materiality of race and its systemic and discursive formations might be used to constantly seek new ethical ways of responding to and acting against racisms and colonialism in early childhood.