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Sample records for calcium silicate cements

  1. Nanostructure of Calcium Silicate Hydrates in Cements

    KAUST Repository

    Skinner, L. B.; Chae, S. R.; Benmore, C. J.; Wenk, H. R.; Monteiro, P. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is the major volume phase in the matrix of Portland cement concrete. Total x-ray scattering measurements with synchrotron x rays on synthetic CSH(I) shows nanocrystalline ordering with a particle diameter of 3.5(5) nm, similar to a size-broadened 1.1 nm tobermorite crystal structure. The CSH component in hydrated tricalcium silicate is found to be similar to CSH(I). Only a slight bend and additional disorder within the CaO sheets is required to explain its nanocrystalline structure. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  2. Nanostructure of Calcium Silicate Hydrates in Cements

    KAUST Repository

    Skinner, L. B.

    2010-05-11

    Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is the major volume phase in the matrix of Portland cement concrete. Total x-ray scattering measurements with synchrotron x rays on synthetic CSH(I) shows nanocrystalline ordering with a particle diameter of 3.5(5) nm, similar to a size-broadened 1.1 nm tobermorite crystal structure. The CSH component in hydrated tricalcium silicate is found to be similar to CSH(I). Only a slight bend and additional disorder within the CaO sheets is required to explain its nanocrystalline structure. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  3. Calcium silicate-based cements: composition, properties, and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, Alaa E; Parashos, Peter; Wong, Rebecca H K; Reynolds, Eric C; Manton, David J

    2017-05-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a calcium silicate-based cement (CSC) commonly used in endodontic procedures involving pulpal regeneration and hard tissue repair, such as pulp capping, pulpotomy, apexogenesis, apexification, perforation repair, and root-end filling. Despite the superior laboratory and clinical performance of MTA in comparison with previous endodontic repair cements, such as Ca(OH) 2 , MTA has poor handling properties and a long setting time. New CSC have been commercially launched and marketed to overcome the limitations of MTA. The aim of the present review was to explore the available literature on new CSC products, and to give evidence-based recommendations for the clinical use of these materials. Within the limitations of the available data in the literature regarding the properties and performance of the new CSC, the newer products could be promising alternatives to MTA; however, further research is required to support this assumption. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Shear-peel strength comparison of orthodontic band cements including novel calcium silicate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leo, Mariantonietta; Løvschall, Henrik

    calcium silicate with fluoride and fast-setting, Glass ionomer, and Zinc phosphate cement, used for luting of orthodontic bands on molars kept one month in phosphate buffering solution (PBS). Materials and methods: The roots of 35 extracted human molars were embedded in acryl. Three groups were allocated....... An orthodontic band (AO) was fitted on the free crown. Each group of the teeth (n>10) was cemented with novel calcium silicate (Protooth), Glass ionomer (Orthocem), or Zinc phosphate (DeTrey Zinc). The cements were mixed according to the manufacturers instructions. Samples were stored at 37ºC in humid chamber...... Silicate (Protooth) and Zinc phosphate cement (DeTrey Zinc) were significantly higher than Glass ionomer cement (Orthocem) when looking for the force (N, p

  5. Vibrational investigation of calcium-silicate cements for endodontics in simulated body fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, Paola; Modena, Enrico; Tinti, Anna; Siboni, Francesco; Prati, Carlo; Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna

    2011-05-01

    Calcium-silicate MTA (Mineral Trioxide Aggregate) cements have been recently developed for oral and endodontic surgery. This study was aimed at investigating commercial (White ProRoot MTA, White and Grey MTA-Angelus) and experimental (wTC-Bi) accelerated calcium-silicate cements with regards to composition, hydration products and bioactivity upon incubation for 1-28 days at 37 °C, in Dulbecco's Phosphate Buffered Saline (DPBS). Deposits on the surface of the cements and the composition changes during incubation were investigated by micro-Raman and ATR/FT-IR spectroscopy, and pH measurements. Vibrational techniques disclosed significant differences in composition among the unhydrated cements, which significantly affected the bioactivity as well as pH, and hydration products of the cements. After one day in DPBS, all the cements were covered by a more or less homogeneous layer of B-type carbonated apatite. The experimental cement maintained a high bioactivity, only slightly lower than the other cements and appears a valid alternative to commercial cements, in view of its adequate setting time properties. The bioactivity represents an essential property to favour bone healing and makes the calcium-silicate cements the gold standard materials for root-apical endodontic surgery.

  6. Incorporation of bitumen and calcium silicate in cement and lime stabilized soil blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, W. H.; Cheah, C. B.; Ramli, M.; Al-Sakkaf, Y. K.

    2017-04-01

    Providing affordable housing is the most critical problem in many of the developing countries. Using earth materials in building construction is one of the feasible methods to address this issue and it can be a way towards sustainable construction as well. However, the published information on the stabilized soil blocks is limited. Therefore, the present study is conducted to examine the characterization of the soils and engineering properties of the stabilized soil blocks. Four types of stabilizer were used in the study, namely; cement, slaked lime, bitumen emulsion and calcium silicate. Cement and slaked lime were added at different percentages in the range of 5% to 15%, with interval of 2.5%. The percentage was determined based on weight of soil. Meanwhile, bitumen emulsion and calcium silicate were incorporated at various percentages together with 10% of cement. Dosage of bitumen emulsion is in the range of 2% to 10% at interval of 2% while calcium silicate was incorporated at 0.50%, 0.75%, 1.00%, 1.25%, 1.50% and 2.00%. Results show that cement is the most viable stabilizer for the soil block among all stabilizers in this study. The bulk density, optimum moisture content and compressive strengths were increased with the increasing cement content. The most suitable cement content was 10% added at moisture content of 12%. Lime, bitumen and calcium contents were recommended at 5.0%, 6.0% and 1.25%, respectively.

  7. Production of a calcium silicate cement material from alginate impression material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washizawa, Norimasa; Narusawa, Hideaki; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize biomaterials from daily dental waste. Since alginate impression material contains silica and calcium salts, we aimed to synthesize calcium silicate cement from alginate impression material. Gypsum-based investment material was also investigated as control. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that although firing the set gypsum-based and modified investment materials at 1,200°C produced calcium silicates, firing the set alginate impression material did not. However, we succeeded when firing the set blend of pre-fired set alginate impression material and gypsum at 1,200°C. SEM observations of the powder revealed that the featured porous structures of diatomite as an alginate impression material component appeared useful for synthesizing calcium silicates. Experimentally fabricated calcium silicate powder was successfully mixed with phosphoric acid solution and set by depositing the brushite. Therefore, we conclude that the production of calcium silicate cement material is possible from waste alginate impression material.

  8. Analysis of the color alteration and radiopacity promoted by bismuth oxide in calcium silicate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Marina Angélica; Estrela, Carlos; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if the increase in radiopacity provided by bismuth oxide is related to the color alteration of calcium silicate-based cement. Calcium silicate cement (CSC) was mixed with 0%, 15%, 20%, 30% and 50% of bismuth oxide (BO), determined by weight. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was the control group. The radiopacity test was performed according to ISO 6876/2001. The color was evaluated using the CIE system. The assessments were performed after 24 hours, 7 and 30 days of setting time, using a spectrophotometer to obtain the ΔE, Δa, Δb and ΔL values. The statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis/Dunn and ANOVA/Tukey tests (poxide was added showed radiopacity corresponding to the ISO recommendations (>3 mm equivalent of Al). The MTA group was statistically similar to the CSC/30% BO group (p>0.05). In regard to color, the increase of bismuth oxide resulted in a decrease in the ΔE value of the calcium silicate cement. The CSC group presented statistically higher ΔE values than the CSC/50% BO group (poxide has no relation to the color alteration of calcium silicate-based cements.

  9. Predictive Mechanical Characterization of Macro-Molecular Material Chemistry Structures of Cement Paste at Nano Scale - Two-phase Macro-Molecular Structures of Calcium Silicate Hydrate, Tri-Calcium Silicate, Di-Calcium Silicate and Calcium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla Espinosa, Ingrid Marcela

    Concrete is a hierarchical composite material with a random structure over a wide range of length scales. At submicron length scale the main component of concrete is cement paste, formed by the reaction of Portland cement clinkers and water. Cement paste acts as a binding matrix for the other components and is responsible for the strength of concrete. Cement paste microstructure contains voids, hydrated and unhydrated cement phases. The main crystalline phases of unhydrated cement are tri-calcium silicate (C3S) and di-calcium silicate (C2S), and of hydrated cement are calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) and calcium hydroxide (CH). Although efforts have been made to comprehend the chemical and physical nature of cement paste, studies at molecular level have primarily been focused on individual components. Present research focuses on the development of a method to model, at molecular level, and analysis of the two-phase combination of hydrated and unhydrated phases of cement paste as macromolecular systems. Computational molecular modeling could help in understanding the influence of the phase interactions on the material properties, and mechanical performance of cement paste. Present work also strives to create a framework for molecular level models suitable for potential better comparisons with low length scale experimental methods, in which the sizes of the samples involve the mixture of different hydrated and unhydrated crystalline phases of cement paste. Two approaches based on two-phase cement paste macromolecular structures, one involving admixed molecular phases, and the second involving cluster of two molecular phases are investigated. The mechanical properties of two-phase macromolecular systems of cement paste consisting of key hydrated phase CSH and unhydrated phases C3S or C2S, as well as CSH with the second hydrated phase CH were calculated. It was found that these cement paste two-phase macromolecular systems predicted an isotropic material behavior. Also

  10. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of calcium silicate-based cements on an osteoblast lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lívia GOMES-CORNÉLIO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several calcium silicate-based biomaterials have been developed in recent years, in addition to Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and apoptosis/necrosis in human osteoblast cells (SAOS-2 of pure calcium silicate-based cements (CSC and modified formulations: modified calcium silicate-based cements (CSCM and three resin-based calcium silicate cements (CSCR1 (CSCR 2 (CSCR3. The following tests were performed after 24 hours of cement extract exposure: methyl-thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT, apoptosis/necrosis assay and comet assay. The negative control (CT- was performed with untreated cells, and the positive control (CT+ used hydrogen peroxide. The data for MTT and apoptosis were submitted to analysis of variance and Bonferroni’s posttest (p < 0.05, and the data for the comet assay analysis, to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (p < 0.05. The MTT test showed no significant difference among the materials in 2 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL concentrations. CSCR3 showed lower cell viability at 10 mg/mL. Only CSC showed lower cell viability at 50 mg/mL. CSCR1, CSCR2 and CSCR3 showed a higher percentage of initial apoptosis than the control in the apoptosis test, after 24 hours exposure. The same cements showed no genotoxicity in the concentration of 2 mg/mL, with the comet assay. CSC and CSCR2 were also not genotoxic at 10 mg/mL. All experimental materials showed viability with MTT. CSC and CSCR2 presented a better response to apoptosis and genotoxicity evaluation in the 10 mg/mL concentration, and demonstrated a considerable potential for use as reparative materials.

  11. Compressive strength and magnetic properties of calcium silicate-zirconia-iron (III) oxide composite cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridzwan, Hendrie Johann Muhamad; Shamsudin, Roslinda; Ismail, Hamisah; Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Hamid, Muhammad Azmi Abdul; Awang, Rozidawati Binti

    2018-04-01

    In this study, ZrO2 microparticles and γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles have been added into calcium silicate based cements. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the compressive strength and magnetic properties of the prepared composite cement. Calcium silicate (CAS) powder was prepared by hydrothermal method. SiO2 and CaO obtained from rice husk ash and limestone respectively were autoclaved at 135 °C for 8 h and sintered at 950°C to obtain CAS powder. SiO2:CaO ratio was set at 45:55. CAS/ZrO2 sample were prepared with varying ZrO2 microparticles concentrations by 0-40 wt. %. Compressive strength value of CAS/ZrO2 cements range from 1.44 to 2.44 MPa. CAS/ZrO2/γ-Fe2O3 sample with 40 wt. % ZrO2 were prepared with varying γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles concentrations (1-5 wt. %). The additions of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles showed up to twofold increase in the compressive strength of the cement. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) results confirm the formation of mixed phases in the produced composite cements. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis revealed that the ferromagnetic behaviour has been observed in CAS/ZrO2/γ-Fe2O3 composite cements.

  12. THE CURRENT STATE OF CALCIUM SILICATE CEMENTS IN RESTORATIVE DENTISTRY: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Corral-Núñez, Camila; Fernández-Godoy, Eduardo; Casielles, Javier Martín; Estay, Juan; Bersezio-Miranda, Cristian; Cisternas-Pinto, Patricia; Batista-de Oliveira Jr, Osmir

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Calcium silicate cements have been used as dental materials for more than twenty years; however, their use in restorative dentistry is more recent. Better mechanical properties and shorter curing times make them suitable for a variety of applications in which they are used as a substitute of dentin, including direct/indirect pulp capping and as cavity base/liner. These materials may also be used to restore enamel temporarily. This article seeks to review the available scientific evid...

  13. Cytotoxicity and Bioactivity of Calcium Silicate Cements Combined with Niobium Oxide in Different Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestieri, Leticia Boldrin; Gomes-Cornélio, Ana Lívia; Rodrigues, Elisandra Márcia; Faria, Gisele; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and bioactivity of calcium silicate-based cements combined with niobium oxide (Nb2O5) micro and nanoparticles, comparing the response in different cell lines. This evaluation used four cell lines: two primary cultures (human dental pulp cells - hDPCs and human dental follicle cells - hDFCs) and two immortalized cultures (human osteoblast-like cells - Saos-2 and mouse periodontal ligament cells - mPDL). The tested materials were: White Portland Cement (PC), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), white Portland cement combined with microparticles (PC/Nb2O5µ) or nanoparticles (PC/Nb2O5n) of niobium oxide (Nb2O5). Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and trypan blue exclusion assays and bioactivity by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme activity. Results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (a=0.05). PC/Nb2O5n presented similar or higher cell viability than PC/Nb2O5µ in all cell lines. Moreover, the materials presented similar or higher cell viability than MTA. Saos-2 exhibited high ALP activity, highlighting PC/Nb2O5µ material at 7 days of exposure. In conclusion, calcium silicate cements combined with micro and nanoparticles of Nb2O5 presented cytocompatibility and bioactivity, demonstrating the potential of Nb2O5 as an alternative radiopacifier agent for these cements. The different cell lines had similar response to cytotoxicity evaluation of calcium silicate cements. However, bioactivity was more accurately detected in human osteoblast-like cell line, Saos-2.

  14. Brain aluminium accumulation and oxidative stress in the presence of calcium silicate dental cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkaya, K; Demirdöğen, B Can; Torun, Z Öncel; Erdem, O; Çırak, E; Tunca, Y M

    2017-10-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a calcium silicate dental cement used for various applications in dentistry. This study was undertaken to test whether the presence of three commercial brands of calcium silicate dental cements in the dental extraction socket of rats would affect the brain aluminium (Al) levels and oxidative stress parameters. Right upper incisor was extracted and polyethylene tubes filled with MTA Angelus, MTA Fillapex or Theracal LC, or left empty for the control group, were inserted into the extraction socket. Rats were killed 7, 30 or 60 days after operation. Brain tissues were obtained before killing. Al levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were determined using spectrophotometry. A transient peak was observed in brain Al level of MTA Angelus group on day 7, while MTA Fillapex and Theracal LC groups reached highest brain Al level on day 60. Brain TBARS level, CAT, SOD and GPx activities transiently increased on day 7 and then returned to almost normal levels. This in vivo study for the first time indicated that initial washout may have occurred in MTA Angelus, while element leaching after the setting is complete may have taken place for MTA Fillapex and Theracal LC. Moreover, oxidative stress was induced and antioxidant enzymes were transiently upregulated. Further studies to search for oxidative neuronal damage should be done to completely understand the possible toxic effects of calcium silicate cements on the brain.

  15. Apatite formation on bioactive calcium-silicate cements for dentistry affects surface topography and human marrow stromal cells proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Ciapetti, Gabriela; Taddei, Paola; Perut, Francesca; Tinti, Anna; Cardoso, Marcio Vivan; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Prati, Carlo

    2010-10-01

    The effect of ageing in phosphate-containing solution of bioactive calcium-silicate cements on the chemistry, morphology and topography of the surface, as well as on in vitro human marrow stromal cells viability and proliferation was investigated. A calcium-silicate cement (wTC) mainly based on dicalcium-silicate and tricalcium-silicate was prepared. Alpha-TCP was added to wTC to obtain wTC-TCP. Bismuth oxide was inserted in wTC to prepare a radiopaque cement (wTC-Bi). A commercial calcium-silicate cement (ProRoot MTA) was tested as control. Cement disks were aged in DPBS for 5 h ('fresh samples'), 14 and 28 days, and analyzed by ESEM/EDX, SEM/EDX, ATR-FTIR, micro-Raman techniques and scanning white-light interferometry. Proliferation, LDH release, ALP activity and collagen production of human marrow stromal cells (MSC) seeded for 1-28 days on the cements were evaluated. Fresh samples exposed a surface mainly composed of calcium-silicate hydrates CSH (from the hydration of belite and alite), calcium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, and ettringite. Apatite nano-spherulites rapidly precipitated on cement surfaces within 5 h. On wTC-TCP the Ca-P deposits appeared thicker than on the other cements. Aged cements showed an irregular porous calcium-phosphate (Ca-P) coating, formed by aggregated apatite spherulites with interspersed calcite crystals. All the experimental cements exerted no acute toxicity in the cell assay system and allowed cell growth. Using biochemical results, the scores were: fresh cements>aged cements for cell proliferation and ALP activity (except for wTC-Bi), whereas fresh cementscements for collagen synthesis. Summarizing (1) non-aged cements showed higher cell proliferation than aged cements, probably favoured by the presence of Si-OH gel and the early formation of apatite nano-spherulites; (2) the alpha-TCP doped cement aged for 28 days displayed the highest bioactivity and cell proliferation; (3) the deleterious effect of bismuth on cell

  16. Evaluation of Calcium Silicate Cement Bond Strength after Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... (chloroform, Endosolv E, orange oil, and eucalyptol) on the push‑out bond strength of calcium ... rotary files, lasers, heating apparatuses, or ultrasonic instruments. .... essential factor for the success of endodontic treatments.

  17. Physical characteristics, antimicrobial and odontogenesis potentials of calcium silicate cement containing hinokitiol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ming-Hsien [Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Shen, Yu-Fang; Hsu, Tuan-Ti [3D Printing Medical Research Center, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Huang, Tsui-Hsien [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Department of Stomatology, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Shie, Ming-You, E-mail: eviltacasi@gmail.com [3D Printing Medical Research Center, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-01

    Hinokitiol is a natural material and it has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the material characterization, cell viability, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory abilities of the hinokitiol-modified calcium silicate (CS) cement as a root end filling material. The setting times, diametral tensile strength (DTS) values and XRD patterns of CS cements with 0–10 mM hinokitiol were examined. Then, the antibacterial effect and the expression levels of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) of the hinokitiol-modified CS cements were evaluated. Furthermore, the cytocompatibility, the expression levels of the markers of odontoblastic differentiation, mineralized nodule formation and calcium deposition of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) cultured on hinokitiol-modified CS cements were determined. The hinokitiol-modified CS cements had better antibacterial and anti-inflammatory abilities and cytocompatibility than non-modified CS cements. Otherwise, the hinokitiol-modified CS cements had suitable setting times and better odontoblastic potential of hDPCs. Previous report pointed out that the root-end filling materials may induce inflammatory cytokines reaction. In our study, hinokitiol-modified CS cements not only inhibited the expression level of inflammatory cytokines, but also had better cytocompatibility, antimicrobial properties and active ability of odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs. Therefore, the hinokitiol-modified CS cement may be a potential root end filling material for clinic. - Highlights: • The hinokitiol-modified CS up-regulation of odontogenic of hDPCs. • Promoted proliferation of hDPCs on hinokitiol-modified CS. • The hinokitiol-modified CS cements not only inhibited the expression level of inflammatory cytokines, but also had better cytocompatibility. • The hinokitiol-modified CS up-regulation of odontogenic of hPDLs.

  18. Physical characteristics, antimicrobial and odontogenesis potentials of calcium silicate cement containing hinokitiol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ming-Hsien; Shen, Yu-Fang; Hsu, Tuan-Ti; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Shie, Ming-You

    2016-01-01

    Hinokitiol is a natural material and it has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the material characterization, cell viability, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory abilities of the hinokitiol-modified calcium silicate (CS) cement as a root end filling material. The setting times, diametral tensile strength (DTS) values and XRD patterns of CS cements with 0–10 mM hinokitiol were examined. Then, the antibacterial effect and the expression levels of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) of the hinokitiol-modified CS cements were evaluated. Furthermore, the cytocompatibility, the expression levels of the markers of odontoblastic differentiation, mineralized nodule formation and calcium deposition of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) cultured on hinokitiol-modified CS cements were determined. The hinokitiol-modified CS cements had better antibacterial and anti-inflammatory abilities and cytocompatibility than non-modified CS cements. Otherwise, the hinokitiol-modified CS cements had suitable setting times and better odontoblastic potential of hDPCs. Previous report pointed out that the root-end filling materials may induce inflammatory cytokines reaction. In our study, hinokitiol-modified CS cements not only inhibited the expression level of inflammatory cytokines, but also had better cytocompatibility, antimicrobial properties and active ability of odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs. Therefore, the hinokitiol-modified CS cement may be a potential root end filling material for clinic. - Highlights: • The hinokitiol-modified CS up-regulation of odontogenic of hDPCs. • Promoted proliferation of hDPCs on hinokitiol-modified CS. • The hinokitiol-modified CS cements not only inhibited the expression level of inflammatory cytokines, but also had better cytocompatibility. • The hinokitiol-modified CS up-regulation of odontogenic of hPDLs.

  19. The physical properties and ion release of CPP-ACP-modified calcium silicate-based cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A E; Manton, D J; Parashos, P; Wong, Rhk; Palamara, Jea; Stanton, D P; Reynolds, E C

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the physical properties and ion release of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP)-modified calcium silicate-based cements (CSCs) and compared the properties of a trial mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) with two commercially available CSCs, Biodentine(™) and Angelus(®) MTA. The setting time, solubility, compressive strength and Vickers surface microhardness of the three CSCs incorporated with 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0% and 3.0% (w/w) CPP-ACP were investigated. Release of calcium (Ca(2+) ), phosphate ions (Pi ) and pH of the test cements were measured after 24, 72, 168 and 336 h of storage. The addition of up to 1.0% CPP-ACP into Biodentine(™) and 0.5% into the other cements did not adversely affect their physical properties except for the setting time. The addition of 0.5% CPP-ACP increased Ca(2+) released from Biodentine(™) (after 168 and 336 h), Angelus(®) MTA (after 168 h) and the trial MTA (after 72 h). The addition of 1.0-3.0% CPP-ACP increased Ca(2+) and Pi released from all the cements. Biodentine(™) released more Ca(2+) particularly in the early stages and showed shorter setting time and higher mechanical properties than the other cements. The mechanical properties of Angelus(®) MTA and the trial MTA were similar. All the cements produced highly alkaline storage solutions. Up to 1.0% CPP-ACP in Biodentine(™) improves Ca(2+) and Pi release and 0.5% CPP-ACP in Angelus(®) MTA and the trial MTA improves Ca(2+) release without altering the mechanical properties and solubility. The addition of CPP-ACP into CSCs prolonged the setting time. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  20. Improvement of in vitro physicochemical properties and osteogenic activity of calcium sulfate cement for bone repair by dicalcium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chun-Cheng; Wang, Chien-Wen; Hsueh, Nai-Shuo; Ding, Shinn-Jyh

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dicalcium silicate can improve osteogenic activity of calcium sulfate cement. • The higher the calcium sulfate content, the shorter the setting time in the composite cement. • The results were useful for designing calcium-based cement with optimal properties. -- Abstract: An ideal bone graft substitute should have the same speed of degradation as formation of new bone tissue. To improve the properties of calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) featured for its rapid resorption, a low degradation material of dicalcium silicate (DCS) was added to the CSH cement. This study examined the effect of DCS (20, 40, 60 and 80 wt%) on the in vitro physicochemical properties and osteogenic activities of the calcium-based composite cements. The diametral tensile strength, porosity and weight loss of the composite cements were evaluated before and after soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF). The osteogenic activities, such as proliferation, differentiation and mineralization, of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) seeded on cement surfaces were also examined. As a result, the greater the DCS amount, the higher the setting time was in the cement. Before soaking in SBF, the diametral tensile strength of the composite cements was decreased due to the introduction of DCS. On 180-day soaking, the composite cements containing 20, 40, 60 and 80 wt% DCS lost 80%, 69%, 61% and 44% in strength, respectively. Regarding in vitro bioactivity, the DCS-rich cements were covered with clusters of apatite spherulites after soaking for 7 days, while there was no formation of apatite spherulites on the CSH-rich cement surfaces. The presence of DCS could reduce the degradation of the CSH cements, as evidenced in the results of weight loss and porosity. More importantly, DCS may promote effectively the cell proliferation, proliferation and mineralization. The combination of osteogenesis of DCS and degradation of CSH made the calcium-based composite cements an attractive choice for

  1. Anti-inflammation performance of curcumin-loaded mesoporous calcium silicate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Chien; Shie, Ming-You; Wu, Yuan-Haw Andrew; Lee, Kai-Xing Alvin; Wei, Li-Ju; Shen, Yu-Fang

    2017-09-01

    Calcium silicate (CS) cements have excellent bioactivity and can induce the bone-like apatite formation. They are good biomaterials for bone tissue engineering and bone regenerative medicine. However, they have degradability and the dissolved CS can cause the inflammatory response at the early post-implantation stage. The purpose of this study was to design and prepare the curcumin-loaded mesoporous CS (MesoCS/curcumin) cements as a strategy to reduce the inflammatory reaction after implantation. The MesoCS/curcumin cements were designed and prepared. The characteristics of MesoCS/curcumin specimens were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Their physical properties, biocompatibility, and anti-inflammatory ability were also evaluated. The MesoCS/curcumin cements displayed excellent biocompatibility and physical properties. Their crystalline characterizations were very similar with MesoCS cements. After soaking in simulated body fluid, the bone-like apatite layer of the MesoCS/curcumin cements could be formed. In addition, it could inhibit the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) after inflammation reaction induced by lipopolysaccharides and had good anti-inflammatory ability. Adding curcumin in MesoCS cements can reduce the inflammatory reaction, but does not affect the original biological activity and properties of MesoCS cements. It can provide a good strategy to inhibit the inflammatory reaction after implantation for bone tissue engineering and bone regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Experimental Calcium Silicate-Based Cement with and without Zirconium Oxide Modulates Fibroblasts Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slompo, Camila; Peres-Buzalaf, Camila; Gasque, Kellen Cristina da Silva; Damante, Carla Andreotti; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether the use of zirconium oxide as a radiopacifier of an experimental calcium silicate-based cement (WPCZO) leads to cytotoxicity. Fibroblasts were treated with different concentrations (10 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL, and 0.1 mg/mL) of the cements diluted in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) for periods of 12, 24, and 48 h. Groups tested were white Portland cement (WPC), white Portland cement with zirconium oxide (WPCZO), and white mineral trioxide aggregate Angelus (MTA). Control group cells were not treated. The cytotoxicity was evaluated through mitochondrial-activity (MTT) and cell-density (crystal violet) assays. All cements showed low cytotoxicity. In general, at the concentration of 10 mg/mL there was an increase in viability of those groups treated with WPC and WPCZO when compared to the control group (pcement with 20% zirconium oxide as the radiopacifier showed low cytotoxicity as a promising material to be exploited for root-end filling.

  3. [Endodontics in motion: new concepts, materials and techniques 1. Hydraulic Calcium Silicate Cements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinzadeh, A T; Jongsma, L; de Groot-Kuin, D; Cristescu, R; Neirynck, N; Camilleri, J

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic Calcium Silicate Cements (HCSCs) constitute a group of materials that have become increasingly popular in endodontics since the introduction of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) in the 1990s. MTA is Portland cement to which bismuth oxide has been added to increase its radiopacity. The most important property of MTA is its capacity to set in water or a humid environment. However, MTA also has important limitations, for example, it's difficult to work with and can discolour teeth. Recently, numerous products based on HCSC chemistry, which can be considered as modifications of MTA intended to reduce its limitations, have become available on the market. Despite their potential advantages, all of these materials have their own specific limitations that are currently insufficiently known and investigated.

  4. Mechanistic study and modeling of radionuclides retention by the hydrated calcium silicates (HCS) of cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointeau, I.

    2000-09-01

    This work attempts to investigate the modelling of radioisotopes (Cs + , Pb 2+ , Eu 3+ ) immobilization in cement matrix, in the frame of the design of engineered barrier of a deep radwaste repository. The model development concept consists of three major steps: - surface chemistry modelling of the calcium silicate hydrate CSH, used to simulate hydrated cement behaviour; - solid analysis of the batch sorption experiments: identification of the uptake mechanism; - both previous steps are used, with isotherm data, in the modelling of the radioisotopes immobilization in the CSH matrix. Final results: (all modelling are available for all the range of studied Ca/Si ratios and have been validated with predictive calculations). - A thermodynamic modelling of the CSH surface chemistry has been developed. The labile calcium and proton sorption constants on silanol sites (>SiOH) have been extracted. - Cs + is sorbed on two sites. The silanol site (weak site) has a high site density (10 sites.nm -2 ), which accounts for the CSH unsaturation in high [CS + ]. A strong site is also identified. - Pb 2+ immobilization in CSH matrix is modelled with surface equilibria and solubility equilibrium. - Eu 3+ fixation has been investigated with solid analysis: Site-Selective anti Time-Resolved Luminescence Spectroscopy, XPS and SEM-EDS. Eu 3+ thus does not precipitate in CSH water but is sorbed on the CSH surface (high hydroxylated environment). Europium is also (minority site) inserted in the CSH framework. (author)

  5. Marginal Gaps between 2 Calcium Silicate and Glass Ionomer Cements and Apical Root Dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biočanin, Vladimir; Antonijević, Đorđe; Poštić, Srđan; Ilić, Dragan; Vuković, Zorica; Milić, Marija; Fan, Yifang; Li, Zhiyu; Brković, Božidar; Đurić, Marija

    2018-01-12

    The outcome of periapical surgery has been directly improved with the introduction of novel material formulations. The aim of the study was to compare the retrograde obturation quality of the following materials: calcium silicate (Biodentine; Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, France), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA+; Cerkamed Company, Stalowa Wola, Poland), and glass ionomer cement (Fuji IX; GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Materials' wettability was calculated concerning the contact angles of the cements measured using a glycerol drop. Cements' porosity was determined using mercury intrusion porosimetry and micro-computed tomographic (μCT) imaging. Extracted upper human incisors were retrofilled, and μCT analysis was applied to calculate the volume of the gap between the retrograde filling material and root canal dentin. Experiments were performed before and after soaking the materials in simulated body fluid (SBF). No statistically significant differences were found among the contact angles of the studied materials after being soaked in SBF. The material with the lowest nanoporosity (Fuji IX: 2.99% and 4.17% before and after SBF, respectively) showed the highest values of microporosity (4.2% and 3.1% before and after SBF, respectively). Biodentine had the lowest value of microporosity (1.2% and 0.8% before and after SBF, respectively) and the lowest value of microgap to the root canal wall ([10 ± 30] × 10 -3  mm 3 ). Biodentine and MTA possess certain advantages over Fuji IX for hermetic obturation of retrograde root canals. Biodentine shows a tendency toward the lowest marginal gap at the cement-to-dentin interface. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanostructural Deformation Analysis of Calcium Silicate Hydrate in Portland Cement Paste by Atomic Pair Distribution Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Suzuki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The deformation of nanostructure of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H in Portland cement (PC paste under compression was characterized by the atomic pair distribution function (PDF, measured using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The PDF of the PC paste exhibited a unique deformation behavior for a short-range order below 2.0 nm, close to the size of the C-S-H globule, while the deformation for a long-range order was similar to that of a calcium hydroxide phase measured by Bragg peak shift. The compressive deformation of the C-S-H nanostructure was comprised of three stages with different interactions between globules. This behavior would originate from the granular nature of C-S-H, which deforms with increasing packing density by slipping the interfaces between globules, rearranging the overall C-S-H nanostructure. This new approach will lead to increasing applications of the PDF technique to understand the deformation mechanism of C-S-H in PC-based materials.

  7. Tooth Discoloration Induced by Different Calcium Silicate-based Cements: A Systematic Review of In Vitro Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Możyńska, Joanna; Metlerski, Marcin; Lipski, Mariusz; Nowicka, Alicja

    2017-10-01

    On the basis of many clinical observations, some calcium silicate-based cements have a high potential for staining tooth tissue. This feature greatly limits the use of those cements, particularly for anterior teeth. This review aimed to provide a systematic evaluation of published in vitro studies to determine the effect of different calcium silicate-based cements on dental tissue discoloration. This literature review was developed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. The literature search was based on all publications without a year limit. The last search was performed on October 22, 2016. An electronic search was performed on MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane, and Scopus. The articles were selected to address the following research question: Which materials based on calcium silicate-based cements have hard tissue staining potential? The necessary information was extracted by 2 authors independently using a standardized form. The search resulted in 390 titles from all databases. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Most of the studies exhibited a moderate risk of bias. The results indicated that some materials showed a strong potential for staining, including gray and white MTA Angelus (Londrina, PR, Brazil), gray and white ProRoot MTA (Dentsply, Tulsa, OK), and Ortho MTA (BioMTA, Seoul, Korea). Individual study results showed that Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fosses, France), Retro MTA (BioMTA), Portland cement, EndoSequence Root Repair Material (Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA), Odontocem (Australian Dental Manufacturing, Brisbane, Australia), MM-MTA (Micro Mega, Besancon Cedex, France), and MTA Ledermix (Riemser Pharma GmbH, Greiswald-Insel Riems, Germany) were materials with the smallest staining potential. This review clearly showed that some calcium silicate-based cements have a high potential for staining hard tissue. On the other hand, some showed only a small change in color, which was

  8. A novel sol-gel-derived calcium silicate cement with short setting time for application in endodontic repair of perforations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bor-Shiunn; Lin, Hong-Ping; Chan, Jerry Chun-Chung; Wang, Wei-Chuan; Hung, Ping-Hsuan; Tsai, Yu-Hsin; Lee, Yuan-Ling

    2018-01-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is the most frequently used repair material in endodontics, but the long setting time and reduced mechanical strength in acidic environments are major shortcomings. In this study, a novel sol-gel-derived calcium silicate cement (sCSC) was developed using an initial Ca/Si molar ratio of 3, with the most effective mixing orders of reactants and optimal HNO 3 catalyst volumes. A Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometer were used for material characterization. The setting time, compressive strength, and microhardness of sCSC after hydration in neutral and pH 5 environments were compared with that of MTA. Results showed that sCSC demonstrated porous microstructures with a setting time of ~30 min, and the major components of sCSC were tricalcium silicate, dicalcium silicate, and calcium oxide. The optimal formula of sCSC was sn200, which exhibited significantly higher compressive strength and microhardness than MTA, irrespective of neutral or pH 5 environments. In addition, both sn200 and MTA demonstrated good biocompatibility because cell viability was similar to that of the control. These findings suggest that sn200 merits further clinical study for potential application in endodontic repair of perforations.

  9. Incorporation of phosphorus guest ions in the calcium silicate phases of Portland cement from 31P MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Søren L; Jakobsen, Hans J; Skibsted, Jørgen

    2010-06-21

    Portland cements may contain small quantities of phosphorus (typically below 0.5 wt % P(2)O(5)), originating from either the raw materials or alternative sources of fuel used to heat the cement kilns. This work reports the first (31)P MAS NMR study of anhydrous and hydrated Portland cements that focuses on the phase and site preferences of the (PO(4))(3-) guest ions in the main clinker phases and hydration products. The observed (31)P chemical shifts (10 to -2 ppm), the (31)P chemical shift anisotropy, and the resemblance of the lineshapes in the (31)P and (29)Si MAS NMR spectra strongly suggest that (PO(4))(3-) units are incorporated in the calcium silicate phases, alite (Ca(3)SiO(5)) and belite (Ca(2)SiO(4)), by substitution for (SiO(4))(4-) tetrahedra. This assignment is further supported by a determination of the spin-lattice relaxation times for (31)P in alite and belite, which exhibit the same ratio as observed for the corresponding (29)Si relaxation times. From simulations of the intensities, observed in inversion-recovery spectra for a white Portland cement, it is deduced that 1.3% and 2.1% of the Si sites in alite and belite, respectively, are replaced by phosphorus. Charge balance may potentially be achieved to some extent by a coupled substitution mechanism where Ca(2+) is replaced by Fe(3+) ions, which may account for the interaction of the (31)P spins with paramagnetic Fe(3+) ions as observed for the ordinary Portland cements. A minor fraction of phosphorus may also be present in the separate phase Ca(3)(PO(4))(2), as indicated by the observation of a narrow resonance at delta((31)P) = 3.0 ppm for two of the studied cements. (31)P{(1)H} CP/MAS NMR spectra following the hydration of a white Portland cement show that the resonances from the hydrous phosphate species fall in the same spectral range as observed for (PO(4))(3-) incorporated in alite. This similarity and the absence of a large (31)P chemical shift ansitropy indicate that the hydrous (PO(4

  10. Pore solution in alkali-activated slag cement pastes. Relation to the composition and structure of calcium silicate hydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puertas, F.; Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Blanco-Varela, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    In this work, the relationship between the composition of pore solution in alkali-activated slag cement (AAS) pastes activated with different alkaline activator, and the composition and structure of the main reaction products, has been studied. Pore solution was extracted from hardened AAS pastes. The analysis of the liquids was performed through different techniques: Na, Mg and Al by atomic absorption (AA), Ca ions by ionic chromatography (IC) and Si by colorimetry; pH was also determined. The solid phases were analysed by XRD, FTIR, solid-state 29 Si and 27 Al NMR and BSE/EDX. The most significant changes in the ionic composition of the pore solution of the AAS pastes activated with waterglass take place between 3 and 24 h of reaction. These changes are due to the decrease of the Na content and mainly to the Si content. Results of 29 Si MAS NMR and FTIR confirm that the activation process takes place with more intensity after 3 h (although at this age, Q 2 units already exist). The pore solution of the AAS pastes activated with NaOH shows a different evolution to this of pastes activated with waterglass. The decrease of Na and Si contents progresses with time. The nature of the alkaline activator influences the structure and composition of the calcium silicate hydrate formed as a consequence of the alkaline activation of the slag. The characteristic of calcium silicate hydrate in AAS pastes activated with waterglass is characterised by a low structural order with a low Ca/Si ratio. Besides, in this paste, Q 3 units are detected. The calcium silicate hydrate formed in the pastes activated with NaOH has a higher structural order (higher crystallinity) and contains more Al in its structure and a higher Ca/Si ratio than those obtained with waterglass

  11. Swelling behavior of ion exchange resins incorporated in tri-calcium silicate cement matrix: I. Chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neji, M.; Bary, B.; Le Bescop, P.; Burlion, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the first part of a theoretical and experimental work aiming at modeling the chemo-mechanical behavior of composites made up of ion exchange resins (IER) solidified in a tri-calcium silicate cement paste (C_3S). Because of ion exchange processes, the volume change of the IER may cause internal pressures leading to the degradation of the material. In this study, a predictive modeling is developed for describing the chemical behavior of such material. It is based on thermodynamic equilibria to determine the evolution of the ion exchange processes, and the potential precipitation of portlandite in the composite. In parallel, a phenomenological study has been set up to understand chemical phenomena related to the swelling mechanisms. The model created has been finally implemented in a finite elements software; the simulation of a laboratory test has been performed and the results compared to experimental data. - Highlights: • Ion exchange theory to model the swelling behavior of Ion exchange resin. • Experimental phenomenon analysis about Chemo-mechanical interaction between IER and cement paste matrix. • Chemo-Transport modeling on a composite material made with IER embedded into cement paste matrix.

  12. Swelling behavior of ion exchange resins incorporated in tri-calcium silicate cement matrix: II. Mechanical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neji, M.; Bary, B.; Le Bescop, P.; Burlion, N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the second part of a study aiming at modelling the mechanical behavior of composites made up of ion exchange resins (IER) solidified in a tri-calcium silicate cement paste (C_3S). Such composites may be subjected to internal pressures due to ion exchange processes between ionic species which are in IER and interstitial solution of the cement paste. The reactive transport model developed in the companion paper is coupled in this study to a multi-scale approach describing the mechanical behavior of the material. It is based on an analogy with thermomechanics for taking in account the IER internal pressures, and on Eshelby-based homogenization techniques to estimate both mechanical and coupling parameters. A laboratory test has been set up to measure the macroscopic strain caused by the swelling phenomenon. The model has been finally implemented in a finite elements software. The simulation of the laboratory tests has been performed and the results have been analyzed and compared to experimental data. - Highlights: • Experimental analysis about mechanical behavior of a composite material. • Chemo-Mechanical-Transport modeling on a composite material made up with IER embedded into cement paste matrix. • Multi-scale modeling.

  13. Interaction of calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H), the main components of cement, with alkaline chlorides, analogy with clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viallis-Terrisse, H.

    2000-01-01

    This work, belonging to a more general study on the structure and reactivity of cement, deals with the experimental and theoretical analysis of the interaction of alkaline chlorides with calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H), the main components of cement paste. The interaction of alkaline cations with C-S-H is interfacial, involving both electrostatic and surface complexation mechanisms. The C-S-H surface is constituted of silanol sites, partially dissociated due to the high pH of the interstitial solution. The calcium ions, present in large amounts in the equilibrium solution of C-S-H, constitute potential determining ions for the C-S-H surface. The alkaline ions seem to compete with calcium for the same surface sites. The adsorption isotherms show that caesium presents a better affinity than sodium and lithium for the C-S-H surface. Moreover, solid-state NMR suggests that caesium forms with the surface sites inner-sphere complexes, whereas sodium seems to keep its hydration sphere. These results are in agreement with zeta potential measurements, which let suppose a specific adsorption of caesium ions, and an indifferent behaviour of both other alkaline ions. A model for the C-S-H surface was proposed, from the electric double layer model, and mass action laws expressing the complexation of the different ionic species with the silanol sites. The whole study relies on a structural analogy with smectites, some clays presenting well-known cationic adsorption properties. The structural similarity between both minerals is enhanced by some similarities of reactivity, though significant behaviour differences could also be noted. (author)

  14. Sustainable Nanopozzolan Modified Cement: Characterizations and Morphology of Calcium Silicate Hydrate during Hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mohamed Sutan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are environmental and sustainable benefits of partially replacing cement with industrial by-products or synthetic materials in cement based products. Since microstructural behaviours of cement based products are the crucial parameters that govern their sustainability and durability, this study investigates the microstructural comparison between two different types of cement replacements as nanopozzolan modified cement (NPMC in cement based product by focusing on the evidence of pozzolanic reactivity in corroboration with physical and mechanical properties. Characterization and morphology techniques using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were carried out to assess the pozzolanic reactivity of cement paste modified with the combination of nano- and micro silica as NPMC in comparison to unmodified cement paste (UCP of 0.5 water to cement ratio (w/c. Results were then substantiated with compressive strength (CS results as mechanical property. Results of this study showed clear evidence of pozzolanicity for all samples with varying reactivity with NPMC being the most reactive.

  15. Effect of addition of nano-hydroxyapatite on physico-chemical and antibiofilm properties of calcium silicate cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Maria GUERREIRO-TANOMARU

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA is a calcium silicate cement composed of Portland cement (PC and bismuth oxide. Hydroxyapatite has been incorporated to enhance mechanical and biological properties of dental materials. This study evaluated physicochemical and mechanical properties and antibiofilm activity of MTA and PC associated with zirconium oxide (ZrO2 and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAn. Material and Methods White MTA (Angelus, Brazil; PC (70%+ZrO2 (30%; PC (60%+ZrO2 (30%+HAn (10%; PC (50%+ZrO2 (30%+HAn (20% were evaluated. The pH was assessed by a digital pH-meter and solubility by mass loss. Setting time was evaluated by using Gilmore needles. Compressive strength was analyzed by mechanical test. Samples were radiographed alongside an aluminum step wedge to evaluate radiopacity. For the antibiofilm evaluation, materials were placed in direct contact with E. faecalis biofilm induced on dentine blocks. The number of colony-forming units (CFU mL-1 in the remaining biolfilm was evaluated. The results were submitted to ANOVA and the Tukey test, with 5% significance. Results There was no difference in pH levels of PC+ZrO2, PC+ZrO2+HAn (10% and PC+ZrO2+HAn (20% (p>0.05 and these cements presented higher pH levels than MTA (p<0.05. The highest solubility was observed in PC+ZrO2+HAn (10% and PC+ZrO2+HAn (20% (p<0.05. MTA had the shortest initial setting time (p<0.05. All the materials showed radiopacity higher than 3 mmAl. PC+ZrO2 and MTA had the highest compressive strength (p<0.05. Materials did not completely neutralize the bacterial biofilm, but the association with HAn provided greater bacterial reduction than MTA and PC+ZrO2 (p<0.05 after the post-manipulation period of 2 days. Conclusions The addition of HAn to PC associated with ZrO2 harmed the compressive strength and solubility. On the other hand, HAn did not change the pH and the initial setting time, but improved the radiopacity (HAn 10%, the final setting time and

  16. Kinetics of apatite formation on a calcium-silicate cement for root-end filling during ageing in physiological-like phosphate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Taddei, Paola; Tinti, Anna; De Stefano Dorigo, Elettra; Rossi, Piermaria Luigi; Prati, Carlo

    2010-12-01

    The bioactivity of calcium silicate mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cements has been attributed to their ability to produce apatite in presence of phosphate-containing fluids. This study evaluated surface morphology and chemical transformations of an experimental accelerated calcium-silicate cement as a function of soaking time in different phosphate-containing solutions. Cement discs were immersed in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) or Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) for different times (1-180 days) and analysed by scanning electron microscopy connected with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. SEM-EDX revealed Ca and P peaks after 14 days in DPBS. A thin Ca- and P-rich crystalline coating layer was detected after 60 days. A thicker multilayered coating was observed after 180 days. Micro-Raman disclosed the 965-cm(-1) phosphate band at 7 days only on samples stored in DPBS and later the 590- and 435-cm(-1) phosphate bands. After 60-180 days, a layer approximately 200-900 μm thick formed displaying the bands of carbonated apatite (at 1,077, 965, 590, 435 cm(-1)) and calcite (at 1,088, 713, 280 cm(-1)). On HBSS-soaked, only calcite bands were observed until 90 days, and just after 180 days, a thin apatite-calcite layer appeared. Micro-Raman and SEM-EDX demonstrated the mineralization induction capacity of calcium-silicate cements (MTAs and Portland cements) with the formation of apatite after 7 days in DPBS. Longer time is necessary to observe bioactivity when cements are immersed in HBSS.

  17. Structural study and crystallography of the major compound of anhydrous cement: tri-calcium silicate; Etude structurale et cristallographie du compose majoritaire du ciment anhydre: le silicate tricalcique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noirfontaine, M.N. de

    2000-01-01

    Anhydrous (Portland) cement is mainly composed of a synthetic material, the clinker, whose major compound is tri-calcium silicate (Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}), often referred as C{sub 3}S with the compact oxides notations, C = CaO et S = SiO{sub 2}. The polymorphism of C{sub 3}S, still not well known, is the main subject of the thesis. Various crystal structures (rhombohedral R, monoclinic M1, M2, M3 and triclinic T1, T2, T3) can be found, depending on temperature and impurities. The only known structures are T1, M1 and M3, involving large unit cells with an orientational disorder of silicate tetrahedra. The single crystal studies exhibit no clear relation between the various polymorphs. Starting from known results from literature single crystal experiments, we establish the metric and structural relations between the different structures. Averaged structures for the T1, M1 and M3 polymorphs are proposed, together with all the matrices of transformation between the unit cells. We also introduce new 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D structural units, which make easier the understanding of the structures of C{sub 3}S, with the result of a better description of the orientational disorder. The effects of impurities on the structure are discussed. In industrial clinkers, impurities stabilize mainly M1 and M3 monoclinic forms. We propose a space group (Pc) and two structural models (a superstructure and an approximate averaged structure) for the M1 form. All the models are validated on synthetic compounds (M3, M2, M1 et T1) and industrial clinkers analysed by X-Ray powder diffraction with Rietveld analysis. (author)

  18. Calcium and magnesium silicate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lothenbach, B.; L'Hopital, E.; Nied, D.; Achiedo, G.; Dauzeres, A.

    2015-01-01

    Deep geological disposals are planed to discard long-lived intermediate-level and high-level radioactive wastes. Clay-based geological barriers are expected to limit the ingress of groundwater and to reduce the mobility of radioelements. In the interaction zone between the cement and the clay based material alteration can occur. Magnesium silicate hydrates (M-S-H) have been observed due to the reaction of magnesium sulfate containing groundwater with cements or in the interaction zone between low-pH type cement and clays. M-S-H samples synthesized in the laboratory showed that M-S-H has a variable composition within 0.7 ≤ Mg/Si ≤ 1.5. TEM/EDS analyses show an homogeneous gel with no defined structure. IR and 29 Si NMR data reveal a higher polymerization degree of the silica network in M-S-H compared to calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H). The presence of mainly Q 3 silicate tetrahedrons in M-S-H indicates a sheet like or a triple-chain silica structure while C-S-H is characterised by single chain-structure. The clear difference in the silica structure and the larger ionic radius of Ca 2+ (1.1 Angstrom) compared to Mg 2+ (0.8 Angstrom) make the formation of an extended solid solution between M-S-H and C-S-H gel improbable. In fact, the analyses of synthetic samples containing both magnesium and calcium in various ratios indicate the formation of separate M-S-H and C-S-H gels with no or very little uptake of magnesium in CS-H or calcium in M-S-H

  19. Using calcium silicate to regulate the physicochemical and biological properties when using β-tricalcium phosphate as bone cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Chia-Tze; Huang, Tsui-Hsien [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yi-Jyun [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Dental Department, Taichung Hospital, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Hung, Chi-Jr [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Chang, E-mail: chichang31@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Shie, Ming-You, E-mail: eviltacasi@gmail.com [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive material. For this research we have combined it with a low degradation calcium silicate (CS) to enhance its bioactive and osteostimulative properties. To check its effectiveness, a series of β-TCP/CS composites with different ratios were prepared to make new bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites for bone repair. Regarding the formation of bone-like apatite, the diametral tensile strength as well as the ion release and weight loss of composites were compared both before and after immersions in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, we also examined the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) cultured on β-TCP/CS composites. The results show that the apatite deposition ability of the β-TCP/CS composites improves as the CS content is increased. For composites with more than a 60% CS content, the samples become completely covered by a dense bone-like apatite layer. At the end of the immersion period, weight losses of 24%, 32%, 34%, 38%, 41%, and 45% were observed for the composites containing 0%, 20%, 40%, 80%, 80% and 100% β-TCP cements, respectively. In addition, the antibacterial activity of CS/β-TCP composite improves as the CS-content is increased. In vitro cell experiments show that the CS-rich composites promote human dental pulp cell (hDPC) proliferation and differentiation. However, when the CS quantity in the composite is less than 60%, the quantity of cells and osteogenesis protein of hDPCs is stimulated by Si released from the β-TCP/CS composites. The degradation of β-TCP and the osteogenesis of CS give strong reason to believe that these calcium-based composite cements will prove to be effective bone repair materials. - Highlights: • CS improved the physicochemical properties and osteogenic activity of β-TCP. • Higher CS in the composite, the shorter setting time and the higher DTS was found. • With a CS more than 40%, the osteogenesis and angiogenesis proteins were promoted by

  20. Development of the foremost light-curable calcium-silicate MTA cement as root-end in oral surgery. Chemical-physical properties, bioactivity and biological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna; Taddei, Paola; Siboni, Francesco; Modena, Enrico; Ciapetti, Gabriela; Prati, Carlo

    2011-07-01

    An innovative light-curable calcium-silicate cement containing a HEMA-TEGDMA-based resin (lc-MTA) was designed to obtain a bioactive fast setting root-end filling and root repair material. lc-MTA was tested for setting time, solubility, water absorption, calcium release, alkalinizing activity (pH of soaking water), bioactivity (apatite-forming ability) and cell growth-proliferation. The apatite-forming ability was investigated by micro-Raman, ATR-FTIR and ESEM/EDX after immersion at 37°C for 1-28 days in DPBS or DMEM+FBS. The marginal adaptation of cement in root-end cavities of extracted teeth was assessed by ESEM/EDX, and the viability of Saos-2 cell on cements was evaluated. lc-MTA demonstrated a rapid setting time (2min), low solubility, high calcium release (150-200ppm) and alkalinizing power (pH 10-12). lc-MTA proved the formation of bone-like apatite spherulites just after 1 day. Apatite precipitates completely filled the interface porosities and created a perfect marginal adaptation. lc-MTA allowed Saos-2 cell viability and growth and no compromising toxicity was exerted. HEMA-TEGDMA creates a polymeric network able to stabilize the outer surface of the cement and a hydrophilic matrix permeable enough to allow water absorption. SiO(-)/Si-OH groups from the mineral particles induce heterogeneous nucleation of apatite by sorption of calcium and phosphate ions. Oxygen-containing groups from poly-HEMA-TEGDMA provide additional apatite nucleating sites through the formation of calcium chelates. The strong novelty was that the combination of a hydraulic calcium-silicate powder and a poly-HEMA-TEGDMA hydrophilic resin creates the conditions (calcium release and functional groups able to chelate Ca ions) for a bioactive fast setting light-curable material for clinical applications in dental and maxillofacial surgery. The first and unique/exclusive light-curable calcium-silicate MTA cement for endodontics and root-end application was created, with a potential

  1. Human tooth germ stem cell response to calcium-silicate based endodontic cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Pamukcu Guven

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic effects of endodontic cements on human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs. MTA Fillapex, a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA-based, salicylate resin containing root canal sealer, was compared with iRoot SP, a bioceramic sealer, and AH Plus Jet, an epoxy resin-based root canal sealer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To evaluate cytotoxicity, all materials were packed into Teflon rings (4 mmµ3 mm and co-cultured with hTGSCs with the aid of 24-well Transwell permeable supports, which had a pore size of 0.4 µm. Coverslips were coated with MTA Fillapex, iRoot SP and AH Plus Jet and each coverslip was placed onto the bottom of one well of a six-well plate for scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis. Before the cytotoxicity and SEM analysis, all samples were stored at 37ºC and at 95% humidity and 5% CO2 for 24 hours to set. The cellular viability was analyzed using MTS test (3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxy-methoxy-phenyl-2-(4-sulfo-phenyl-2H-tetrazolium. The cytotoxic effects and SEM visualization of the tested materials were analyzed at 24-hour, 72-hour, one-week and two-week periods. RESULTS: On the 1st day, only MTA Fillapex caused cytotoxicity compared to negative control (NC group (p0.05. After 14 days of incubation with the test materials, MTA Fillapex exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity compared with iRoot SP, AH Plus Jet and the NC group (P<0.008. In the SEM analysis, the highest levels of cell attachment were observed for iRoot SP and the control group. After 24 hours, MTA Fillapex reduced the number of cells attached to the surface. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this study, sealers exerted different cytotoxic effects on hTGSCs. Although all materials have exerted cellular toxicity, iRoot SP and AH Plus Jet may promote better attachment to hTGSCs.

  2. Influences of doping mesoporous magnesium silicate on water absorption, drug release, degradability, apatite-mineralization and primary cells responses to calcium sulfate based bone cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Zhengrong; Wang, Sicheng; Weng, Weizong; Chen, Xiao; Cao, Liehu; Wei, Jie; Shin, Jung-Woog; Su, Jiacan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, composite cements containing mesoporous magnesium silicate (m-MS) and calcium sulfate (CS) were fabricated. The results revealed that the setting time of the m-MS/CS composite cements (m-MSC) slightly prolonged with the increase of m-MS content while the compressive strength suffered a little loss. The doping of m-MS improved the water absorption, drug release (vancomycin) and degradability of the m-MSC in Tris-HCl solution (pH = 7.4). In addition, addition of m-MS facilitated the apatite-mineralization of m-MSC in simulated body fluid (SBF), indicating good bioactivity. For cell cultural experiments, the results revealed that the m-MSC promoted the cells adhesion and proliferation, and improved the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of MC3T3-E1 cells, revealing good cytocompatibility. It could be suggested that the m-MSC might be promising cements biomaterials for bone tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • The mesoporous magnesium silicate and calcium sulfate composite was fabricated. • The composite possessed good water absorption and drug release of vancomycin. • The bioactive composite could enhance the in vivo apatite formation in SBF. • The composite promoted cell adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation.

  3. Influences of doping mesoporous magnesium silicate on water absorption, drug release, degradability, apatite-mineralization and primary cells responses to calcium sulfate based bone cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Zhengrong [Department of Trauma Orthopaedics, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); The Department of Orthopaedics, Jing' an District Centre Hospital of Shanghai (Huashan Hospital Fudan University Jing' An Branch), 200040 (China); Wang, Sicheng [Department of Trauma Orthopaedics, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, Zhongye Hospital, Shanghai 200941 (China); Weng, Weizong; Chen, Xiao; Cao, Liehu [Department of Trauma Orthopaedics, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wei, Jie [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Shin, Jung-Woog [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Inje University, Gimhae, 621749 (Korea, Republic of); Su, Jiacan, E-mail: jiacansu@sina.com [Department of Trauma Orthopaedics, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2017-06-01

    In this study, composite cements containing mesoporous magnesium silicate (m-MS) and calcium sulfate (CS) were fabricated. The results revealed that the setting time of the m-MS/CS composite cements (m-MSC) slightly prolonged with the increase of m-MS content while the compressive strength suffered a little loss. The doping of m-MS improved the water absorption, drug release (vancomycin) and degradability of the m-MSC in Tris-HCl solution (pH = 7.4). In addition, addition of m-MS facilitated the apatite-mineralization of m-MSC in simulated body fluid (SBF), indicating good bioactivity. For cell cultural experiments, the results revealed that the m-MSC promoted the cells adhesion and proliferation, and improved the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of MC3T3-E1 cells, revealing good cytocompatibility. It could be suggested that the m-MSC might be promising cements biomaterials for bone tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • The mesoporous magnesium silicate and calcium sulfate composite was fabricated. • The composite possessed good water absorption and drug release of vancomycin. • The bioactive composite could enhance the in vivo apatite formation in SBF. • The composite promoted cell adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation.

  4. ToF-SIMS images and spectra of biomimetic calcium silicate-based cements after storage in solutions simulating the effects of human biological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, A.; Torrisi, V.; Tuccitto, N.; Gandolfi, M. G.; Prati, C.; Licciardello, A.

    2010-01-01

    ToF-SIMS images were obtained from a section of a tooth, obturated by means of a new calcium-silicate based cement (wTCF) after storage for 1 month in a saline solutions (DPBS), in order to simulate the body fluid effects on the obturation. Afterwards, ToF-SIMS spectra were obtained from model samples, prepared by using the same cement paste, after storage for 1 month and 8 months in two different saline solutions (DPBS and HBSS). ToF-SIMS spectra were also obtained from fluorine-free cement (wTC) samples after storage in HBSS for 1 month and 8 months and used for comparison. It was found that the composition of both the saline solution and the cement influenced the composition of the surface of disks and that longer is the storage greater are the differences. Segregation phenomena occur both on the cement obturation of the tooth and on the surface of the disks prepared by using the same cement. Indirect evidences of formation of new crystalline phases are supplied.

  5. 21 CFR 573.260 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 573.260 Section 573.260 Food and... Listing § 573.260 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely used as an anticaking agent in animal feed, provided that the amount of calcium silicate does not...

  6. Mechanistic study and modeling of radionuclides retention by the hydrated calcium silicates (HCS) of cements; Etude mecanistique et modelisation de la retention de radionucleides par les silicates de calcium hydrates (CSH) des ciments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointeau, I

    2000-09-01

    This work attempts to investigate the modelling of radioisotopes (Cs{sup +}, Pb{sup 2+}, Eu{sup 3+}) immobilization in cement matrix, in the frame of the design of engineered barrier of a deep radwaste repository. The model development concept consists of three major steps: - surface chemistry modelling of the calcium silicate hydrate CSH, used to simulate hydrated cement behaviour; - solid analysis of the batch sorption experiments: identification of the uptake mechanism; - both previous steps are used, with isotherm data, in the modelling of the radioisotopes immobilization in the CSH matrix. Final results: (all modelling are available for all the range of studied Ca/Si ratios and have been validated with predictive calculations). - A thermodynamic modelling of the CSH surface chemistry has been developed. The labile calcium and proton sorption constants on silanol sites (>SiOH) have been extracted. - Cs{sup +} is sorbed on two sites. The silanol site (weak site) has a high site density (10 sites.nm{sup -2}), which accounts for the CSH unsaturation in high [CS{sup +}]. A strong site is also identified. - Pb{sup 2+} immobilization in CSH matrix is modelled with surface equilibria and solubility equilibrium. - Eu{sup 3+} fixation has been investigated with solid analysis: Site-Selective anti Time-Resolved Luminescence Spectroscopy, XPS and SEM-EDS. Eu{sup 3+} thus does not precipitate in CSH water but is sorbed on the CSH surface (high hydroxylated environment). Europium is also (minority site) inserted in the CSH framework. (author)

  7. 21 CFR 172.410 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 172.410 Section 172.410 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Agents § 172.410 Calcium silicate. Calcium silicate, including synthetic calcium silicate, may be safely...

  8. The role of integrin αv in proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp cell response to calcium silicate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chi-Jr; Hsu, Hsin-I; Lin, Chi-Chang; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Wu, Buor-Chang; Kao, Chia-Tze; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-11-01

    It has been proved that integrin αv activity is related to cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and organ development. However, the biological functions of integrin αv in human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) cultured on silicate-based materials have not been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of integrin αv in the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs cultured with the effect of calcium silicate (CS) cement and β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) cement. In this study, hDPCs were cultured on CS and TCP materials, and we evaluated fibronectin (FN) secretion and integrin αv expression during the cell attachment stage. After small interfering RNA transfection targeting integrin αv, the proliferation and odontogenesis differentiation behavior of hDPCs were analyzed. The results indicate that CS releases Si ion-increased FN secretion and adsorption, which promote cell attachment more effectively than TCP. The CS cement facilitates FN and αv subintegrin expression. However, the FN adsorption and integrin expression of TCP are similar to that observed in the control dish. Integrin αv small interfering RNA inhibited odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs with the decreased formation of mineralized nodules on CS. It also down-regulated the protein expression of multiple markers of odontogenesis and the expression of dentin sialophosphoprotein protein. These results establish composition-dependent differences in integrin binding and its effectiveness as a mechanism regulating cellular responses to biomaterial surface. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. X-ray spectra and theoretical elastic properties of crystalline calcium silicate hydrates: comparison with cement hydrated gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuela, A.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available For 22 crystalline Calcium Silicates Hydrates, we have calculated their structure and their elastic properties by atomistic force field methods as well as simulate their Xray diffraction patterns. From the computed Young moduli, it can be suggested that the key parameters to determine the elastic properties of crystalline Calcium Silicate Hydrates are densities and water content. We have compared these trends with those of cementitious C-S-H gel and synthetic C-S-H type I as a function of their C/S ratios and nominal water content. Our comparison show that the experimentally suggested values of density and Young moduli for C-S-H gel lie in the range of the calculated CSH crystals. However, we conclude that a detailed correspondence might require investigating structurally within CSH gels the role of water and especially of Ca and Si sites through their C/S ratio.

    En este trabajo se han calculado para 22 Silicatos Cálcicos Hidratados cristalinos, su estructura y sus propiedades elásticas mediante métodos atomísticos “force field”, así como simulado sus espectros de difracción de rayos X. De los módulos de Young calculados se puede deducir, que los parámetros clave que determinan las propiedades elásticas de los Silicatos Cálcicos Hidratados cristalinos son la densidad y el contenido en agua. Nuestros resultados muestran que los valores experimentales de la densidad y de los módulos de Young para el gel C-S-H están dentro del rango de los cristales de CSH calculados. Sin embargo, podemos concluir que para establecer una correlación más directa sería necesario investigar el papel que juegan el agua y sobre todo el Ca y Si, mediante la relación C/S, en la estructura del gel CSH.

  10. The synergistic effects of CO2 laser treatment with calcium silicate cement of antibacterial, osteogenesis and cementogenesis efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, T-T; Yang, J-J; Kao, C-T; Huang, T-H; Chen, Y-W; Shie, M-Y

    2015-01-01

    Calcium silicate-based material (CS) has been successfully used in dental clinical applications. Some researches show that the antibacterial effects of CO 2 laser irradiation are highly efficient when bacteria are embedded in biofilm, due to a photo-thermal mechanism. The purpose of this study was to confirm the effects of CO 2 laser irradiation on CS, with regard to both material characterization and human periodontal ligament cell (hPDLs) viability. CS was irradiated with a dental CO 2 laser using directly mounted fiber optics in wound healing mode with a spot area of 0.25 cm 2 , and then stored in an incubator at 100% relative humidity and 37 °C for 1 d to set. The hPDLs cultured on CS were analyzed, along with their proliferation and odontogenic differentiation behaviors. The results indicate that the CO 2 laser irradiation increased the amount of Ca and Si ions released from the CS, and regulated cell behavior. CO 2 laser-irradiated CS promoted cementogenic differentiation of hPDLs, with the increased formation of mineralized nodules on the substrate’s surface. It also up-regulated the protein expression of multiple markers of cementogenic and the expression of cementum attachment protein. The current study provides new and important data about the effects of CO 2 laser irradiation on CS. Taking cell functions into account, the Si concentration released from CS with laser irradiated may be lower than a critical value, and this information could lead to the development of new regenerative therapies for dentin and periodontal tissue. (letter)

  11. The synergistic effects of CO2 laser treatment with calcium silicate cement of antibacterial, osteogenesis and cementogenesis efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, T.-T.; Kao, C.-T.; Chen, Y.-W.; Huang, T.-H.; Yang, J.-J.; Shie, M.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    Calcium silicate-based material (CS) has been successfully used in dental clinical applications. Some researches show that the antibacterial effects of CO2 laser irradiation are highly efficient when bacteria are embedded in biofilm, due to a photo-thermal mechanism. The purpose of this study was to confirm the effects of CO2 laser irradiation on CS, with regard to both material characterization and human periodontal ligament cell (hPDLs) viability. CS was irradiated with a dental CO2 laser using directly mounted fiber optics in wound healing mode with a spot area of 0.25 cm2, and then stored in an incubator at 100% relative humidity and 37 °C for 1 d to set. The hPDLs cultured on CS were analyzed, along with their proliferation and odontogenic differentiation behaviors. The results indicate that the CO2 laser irradiation increased the amount of Ca and Si ions released from the CS, and regulated cell behavior. CO2 laser-irradiated CS promoted cementogenic differentiation of hPDLs, with the increased formation of mineralized nodules on the substrate’s surface. It also up-regulated the protein expression of multiple markers of cementogenic and the expression of cementum attachment protein. The current study provides new and important data about the effects of CO2 laser irradiation on CS. Taking cell functions into account, the Si concentration released from CS with laser irradiated may be lower than a critical value, and this information could lead to the development of new regenerative therapies for dentin and periodontal tissue.

  12. 21 CFR 182.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium silicate. 182.2227 Section 182.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  13. 21 CFR 582.2227 - Calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium silicate. 582.2227 Section 582.2227 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium silicate. (a) Product. Calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent and 5 percent. (c) Limitations...

  14. Regulation of physicochemical properties, osteogenesis activity, and fibroblast growth factor-2 release ability of β-tricalcium phosphate for bone cement by calcium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Ching-Chuan; Kao, Chia-Tze; Hung, Chi-Jr; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-01-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is an osteoconductive material. For this research we have combined it with a low degradation calcium silicate (CS) to enhance its bioactive and osteostimulative properties. To check its effectiveness, a series of β-TCP/CS composites with different ratios were prepared to make new bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites for bone repair. Formation of bone-like apatite, the diametral tensile strength, and weight loss of composites were considered before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, we also examined the effects of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) released from β-TCP/CS composites and in vitro human dental pulp cell (hDPC) and studied its behavior. The results showed that the apatite deposition ability of the β-TCP/CS composites was enhanced as the CS content was increased. For composites with more than 50% CS contents, the samples were completely covered by a dense bone-like apatite layer. At the end of the immersion point, weight losses of 19%, 24%, 33%, 42%, and 51% were observed for the composites containing 0%, 30%, 50%, 70% and 100% β-TCP cements, respectively. In vitro cell experiments show that the CS-rich composites promote human dental pulp cell (hDPC) proliferation and differentiation. However, when the CS quantity in the composite is less than 70%, the amount of cells and osteogenesis protein of hDPCs was stimulated by FGF-2 released from β-TCP/CS composites. The combination of FGF-2 in degradation of β-TCP and osteogenesis of CS gives a strong reason to believe that these calcium-based composite cements may prove to be promising bone repair materials. - Highlights: • CS improved physicochemical properties and osteogenic activity of β-TCP. • The higher the CS in the cement, the shorter the setting time and the higher the DTS. • The cell behavior was stimulated by FGF-2 released from composite containing 50% CS. • β-TCP/CS composite with FGF-2 has optimal properties for

  15. Effect of saliva and blood contamination on the bi-axial flexural strength and setting time of two calcium-silicate based cements: Portland cement and biodentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhodiry, W; Lyons, M F; Chadwick, R G

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of contamination with saliva and blood on the bi-axial flexural strength and setting time of pure gray Portland cement and Biodentine (Septodont, Allington, UK). A one-way ANOVA showed that contamination caused no significant difference between the cements in bi-axial flexural strength (P> 0.05). However there was a significant difference in setting time (PPortland cement taking longer than Biodentine, regardless of the contaminant, and contamination with blood increased the setting time of both materials. Biodentine was similar in strength to Portland cement, but had a shorter setting time for both contaminated and non-contaminated samples.

  16. In vitro bioactivity of a tricalcium silicate cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morejon-Alonso, L.; Bareiro, O.; Santos, L.A. dos, E-mail: loreley.morejon@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRG), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dep. de Materiais; Carrodeguas R, Garcia [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Ceramica y Vidrio. Dept. de Ceramica

    2009-07-01

    Tricalcium silicate is the major constituent of Portland cement and the responsible for their mechanical strength at early stages. In order to be used as and additive of conventional calcium phosphate cement (CPC), in vitro bioactivity of a calcium silicate cement (CSC) after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 14 days was study. The cement was obtained by mixing Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}, obtained by sol-gel process, and a Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solution. The morphological and structural changes of the material before and after soaking were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed the formation of a layer of a Hydroxyapatite (HA) onto the CSC cement after soaking for 1h in SBF that became denser with the increase of soaking time. The study suggests that Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} would be an effective additive to improve the bioactivity and long term strength of conventional CPC. (author)

  17. NMR study of hydrated calcium silicates; Etude par RMN de la structure des silicates de calcium hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klur, I

    1996-02-26

    Radioactive wastes storage methods are developed by the CEA. As cements are important materials as well for hours living radioisotopes than for years living radioisotopes, a better knowledge of this material will allow to anticipate its behaviour and to obtain safer storage methods. The structure of calcium silicates (C-S-H) (main constituent of cements) have then been determined in this thesis by nuclear magnetic resonance. This method has allow to explain in structural terms, the different calcium rates that can be measured in the C-S-H too. (O.M.) 101 refs.

  18. Calcium Orthophosphate Cements and Concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Dorozhkin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In early 1980s, researchers discovered self-setting calcium orthophosphate cements, which are a bioactive and biodegradable grafting material in the form of a powder and a liquid. Both phases form after mixing a viscous paste that after being implanted, sets and hardens within the body as either a non-stoichiometric calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA or brushite, sometimes blended with unreacted particles and other phases. As both CDHA and brushite are remarkably biocompartible and bioresorbable (therefore, in vivo they can be replaced with newly forming bone, calcium orthophosphate cements represent a good correction technique for non-weight-bearing bone fractures or defects and appear to be very promising materials for bone grafting applications. Besides, these cements possess an excellent osteoconductivity, molding capabilities and easy manipulation. Furthermore, reinforced cement formulations are available, which in a certain sense might be described as calcium orthophosphate concretes. The concepts established by calcium orthophosphate cement pioneers in the early 1980s were used as a platform to initiate a new generation of bone substitute materials for commercialization. Since then, advances have been made in the composition, performance and manufacturing; several beneficial formulations have already been introduced as a result. Many other compositions are in experimental stages. In this review, an insight into calcium orthophosphate cements and concretes, as excellent biomaterials suitable for both dental and bone grafting application, has been provided.

  19. Electronic structure calculations of calcium silicate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterne, P.A.; Meike, A.

    1995-11-01

    Many phases in the calcium-silicate-hydrate system can develop in cement exposed over long periods of time to temperatures above 25 C. As a consequence, chemical reactions involving these phases can affect the relative humidity and water chemistry of a radioactive waste repository that contains significant amounts of cement. In order to predict and simulate these chemical reactions, the authors are developing an internally consistent database of crystalline Ca-Si-hydrate structures. The results of first principles electronic structure calculations on two such phases, wollastonite (CaSiO 3 ) and xonotlite (Ca 6 Si 6 O 17 (OH) 2 ), are reported here. The calculated ground state properties are in very good agreement with experiment, providing equilibrium lattice parameters within about 1--1.4% of the experimentally reported values. The roles of the different types of oxygen atoms, which are fundamental to understanding the energetics of crystalline Ca-Si-hydrates are briefly discussed in terms of their electronic state densities. The good agreement with experiment for the lattice parameters and the consistency of the electronic density of states features for the two structures demonstrate the applicability of these electronic structure methods in calculating the fundamental properties of these phases

  20. Modified tricalcium silicate cement formulations with added zirconium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Yoshihara, Kumiko; De Munck, Jan; Cokic, Stevan; Pongprueksa, Pong; Putzeys, Eveline; Pedano, Mariano; Chen, Zhi; Van Landuyt, Kirsten; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of modifying tricalcium silicate (TCS) cements on three key properties by adding ZrO 2 . TCS powders were prepared by adding ZrO 2 at six different concentrations. The powders were mixed with 1 M CaCl 2 solution at a 3:1 weight ratio. Biodentine (contains 5 wt.% ZrO 2 ) served as control. To evaluate the potential effect on mechanical properties, the mini-fracture toughness (mini-FT) was measured. Regarding bioactivity, Ca release was assessed using ICP-AES. The component distribution within the cement matrix was evaluated by Feg-SEM/EPMA. Cytotoxicity was assessed using an XTT assay. Adding ZrO 2 to TCS did not alter the mini-FT (p = 0.52), which remained in range of that of Biodentine (p = 0.31). Ca release from TSC cements was slightly lower than that from Biodentine at 1 day (p > 0.05). After 1 week, Ca release from TCS 30 and TCS 50 increased to a level that was significantly higher than that from Biodentine (p  0.05). EPMA revealed a more even distribution of ZrO 2 within the TCS cements. Particles with an un-reacted core were surrounded by a hydration zone. The 24-, 48-, and 72-h extracts of TCS 50 were the least cytotoxic. ZrO 2 can be added to TCS without affecting the mini-FT; Ca release was reduced initially, to reach a prolonged release thereafter; adding ZrO 2 made TCS cements more biocompatible. TCS 50 is a promising cement formulation to serve as a biocompatible hydraulic calcium silicate cement.

  1. Interaction of calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H), the main components of cement, with alkaline chlorides, analogy with clays; Interaction des silicates de calcium hydrates, principaux constituants du ciment, avec les chlorures d'alcalins. Analogie avec les argiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viallis-Terrisse, H

    2000-10-06

    This work, belonging to a more general study on the structure and reactivity of cement, deals with the experimental and theoretical analysis of the interaction of alkaline chlorides with calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H), the main components of cement paste. The interaction of alkaline cations with C-S-H is interfacial, involving both electrostatic and surface complexation mechanisms. The C-S-H surface is constituted of silanol sites, partially dissociated due to the high pH of the interstitial solution. The calcium ions, present in large amounts in the equilibrium solution of C-S-H, constitute potential determining ions for the C-S-H surface. The alkaline ions seem to compete with calcium for the same surface sites. The adsorption isotherms show that caesium presents a better affinity than sodium and lithium for the C-S-H surface. Moreover, solid-state NMR suggests that caesium forms with the surface sites inner-sphere complexes, whereas sodium seems to keep its hydration sphere. These results are in agreement with zeta potential measurements, which let suppose a specific adsorption of caesium ions, and an indifferent behaviour of both other alkaline ions. A model for the C-S-H surface was proposed, from the electric double layer model, and mass action laws expressing the complexation of the different ionic species with the silanol sites. The whole study relies on a structural analogy with smectites, some clays presenting well-known cationic adsorption properties. The structural similarity between both minerals is enhanced by some similarities of reactivity, though significant behaviour differences could also be noted. (author)

  2. Microstructure engineering of Portland cement pastes and mortars through addition of ultrafine layer silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Holger; Geiker, Mette; Krøyer, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    Pozzolanic submicron-sized silica fume and the non-pozzolanic micron- and nano-sized layer silicates (clay minerals) kaolinite, smectite and palygorskite have been used as additives in Portland cement pastes and mortars. These layer silicates have different particle shape (needles and plates......), surface charge, and size (micron and nano). The structure of the resulting cement pastes and mortars has been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), helium porosimetry, nitrogen adsorption (specific surface area and porosity), low-temperature calorimetry (LTC) and thermal analysis. The main result...... is that the cement paste structure and porosity can be engineered by addition of selected layer silicates having specific particle shapes and surface properties (e.g., charge and specific surface area). This seems to be due to the growth of calcium-silicate hydrates (C-S-H) on the clay particle surfaces...

  3. Calcium Aluminate Cement Hydration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusinović, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium aluminate cement (AC is a very versatile special cement used for specific applications. As the hydration of AC is highly temperature dependent, yielding structurally different hydration products that continuously alter material properties, a good knowledge of thermal properties at early stages of hydration is essential. The kinetics of AC hydration is a complex process and the use of single mechanisms models cannot describe the rate of hydration during the whole stage.This paper examines the influence of temperature (ϑ=5–20 °C and water-to-cement mass ratio (mH /mAC = 0.4; 0.5 and 1.0 on hydration of commercial iron-rich AC ISTRA 40 (producer: Istra Cement, Pula, Croatia, which is a part of CALUCEM group, Figs 1–3. The flow rate of heat generation of cement pastes as a result of the hydration reactions was measured with differential microcalorimeter. Chemically bonded water in the hydrated cement samples was determined by thermo-gravimetry.Far less heat is liberated when cement and water come in contact for the first time, Fig. 1, than in the case for portland cement (PC. Higher water-to-cement ratio increases the heat evolved at later ages (Fig. 3 due to higher quantity of water available for hydration. A significant effect of the water-to-cement ratio on the hydration rate and hydration degree showed the importance of water as being the limiting reactant that slows down the reaction early. A simplified stoichiometric model of early age AC hydration (eq. (8 based on reaction schemes of principal minerals, nominally CA, C12A7 and C4AF (Table 1, was employed. Hydration kinetics after the induction period (ϑ < 20 °C had been successfully described (Fig. 4 and Table 2 by a proposed model (eq. (23 which simultaneously comprised three main mechanisms: nucleation and growth, interaction at phase boundary, and mass transfer. In the proposed kinetic model the nucleation and growth is proportional to the amount of reacted minerals (eq

  4. Thermogravimetric analysis of phase transitions in cement compositions mixed by sodium silicate solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedosov Sergey Viktorovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the capability to modify cement by mechanical activation of sodium silicate water solution. Admixtures or blends of binding agents were employed for modifying concrete properties. The liquid glass is applied to protect from chemically or physically unfavorable environmental impacts, such as acidic medium and high temperature. The sodium silicate is a high-capacity setting accelerator. The increasing of the liquid glass proportion in the mix leads to the degradation of the cement paste plasticity and for this reason it is necessary to reduce the amount of liquid glass in the cement paste. The activation of dilute water solution of sodium silicate into rotary pulsating apparatus directly before tempering of the cement paste is an effective way to decrease mass fraction of liquid glass in the cement paste. The results of the combined influence of liquid glass and mechanical activation on physicochemical processes taking place in cement stone are represented in this research. Thermogravimetric analysis was used in order to study cement blends. Thermogravimetric analysis of modified cement stone assays was performed by thermo analyzer SETARAM TGA 92-24. The results of the analysis of phase transition taking place under high-temperature heating of cement stone modified by the mechanical activation of the water solution of the sodium silicate were introduced. Thermograms of cement stone assays were obtained at different hardening age. The comparison of these thermograms allows us to come to a conclusion on the formation and the retention during long time of a more dense structure of the composite matrix mixed by the mechanical activation of sodium silicate water solution. The relation between the concrete composition and its strength properties was stated. Perhaps, the capability of modified concrete to keep calcium ions in sparingly soluble hydrosilicates leads to the increase in its durability and corrosion resistance.

  5. 21 CFR 582.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum calcium silicate. 582.2122 Section 582.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  6. 21 CFR 182.2122 - Aluminum calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum calcium silicate. 182.2122 Section 182.2122 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....2122 Aluminum calcium silicate. (a) Product. Aluminum calcium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c...

  7. New silicates of rare earths and calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, I.F.; Shevyakov, A.M.; Smorodina, T.P.; Semenov, N.E.

    1975-01-01

    The complex silicates of the third subgroup elements of lanthanides and calcium were synthesized: Ca 3 Er 2 Si 6 O 18 , Ca 3 Lu 2 Si 6 O 18 and Ca 3 Yb 2 Si 6 O 18 . To specify these compounds their physical and chemical properties were studied by means of roentgenographic, IR spectroscopic and crystaloptical methods. The values of Ng, Np,Δn,m,p were determined, the elementary cell parameters: a,b,c,α,β,γ were computed. Existence of such compounds and their analogy in ternary systems MeO-Ln 2 O 3 -SiO 2 were forcasted

  8. Effects of cement organic additives on the adsorption of uranyl ions on calcium silicate hydrate phases: experimental determination and computational molecular modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androniuk, Iuliia

    2017-01-01

    Cementitious materials are extensively used in the design and construction of radioactive waste repositories. One of the ways to enhance their performance is to introduce organic admixtures into the cement structure. However, the presence of organics in the pore water may affect the radionuclide mobility: organic molecules can form water-soluble complexes and compete for sorption sites. This work was designed to get detailed understanding of the mechanisms of such interactions on the molecular level. The model system has three components. First, pure C-S-H phases with different Ca/Si ratios were chosen as a cement model. Secondly, gluconate (a simple well-described molecule) is selected as a good starting organic additive model to probe the interaction mechanisms on the molecular scale. A more complex system involving poly-carboxylate super-plasticizer (PCE) was also tested. The third, U(VI), is a representative of the actinide radionuclide series. The development of description of the effects of organics for radioactive waste disposal applications was the primary objective of this work. The study of binary systems provides reference data for the investigation of more complex ternary (C-S-H/organic/U(VI)). The interactions are studied by means of both experimental and computational molecular modelling techniques. Data on sorption and desorption kinetics and isotherms for additives and for U(VI) on C-S-H are acquired in this work. In parallel, atomistic models are developed for the interfaces of interest. Structural, energetic, and dynamic aspects of the sorption processes on surface of cement are quantitatively modeled by molecular dynamics technique. (author)

  9. Effect of polymers on the nanostructure and on the carbonation of calcium silicate hydrates: a scanning transmission X-ray microscopy study

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, J.; Chae, S.; Chou, K. W.; Tyliszczak, T.; Monteiro, P. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of organic polymers (polyethylene glycol and hexadecyltrimethylammonium) on structures of calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) which is the major product of Portland cement hydration. Increased surface areas

  10. A New Biphasic Dicalcium Silicate Bone Cement Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Zuleta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the processing parameters and biocompatibility of a novel biphasic dicalcium silicate (C2S cement. Biphasic α´L + β-C2Sss was synthesized by solid-state processing, and was used as a raw material to prepare the cement. In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility studies were assessed by soaking the cement samples in simulated body fluid (SBF and human adipose stem cell cultures. Two critical-sized defects of 6 mm Ø were created in 15 NZ tibias. A porous cement made of the high temperature forms of C2S, with a low phosphorous substitution level, was produced. An apatite-like layer covered the cement’s surface after soaking in SBF. The cell attachment test showed that α´L + β-C2Sss supported cells sticking and spreading after 24 h of culture. The cement paste (55.86 ± 0.23 obtained higher bone-to-implant contact (BIC percentage values (better quality, closer contact in the histomorphometric analysis, and defect closure was significant compared to the control group (plastic. The residual material volume of the porous cement was 35.42 ± 2.08% of the initial value. The highest BIC and bone formation percentages were obtained on day 60. These results suggest that the cement paste is advantageous for initial bone regeneration.

  11. Effect of calcium/silicon ratio on retention of uranium (VI) in portland cement materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Hongbin; Li Yuxiang

    2005-01-01

    Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) materials of varied calcium to silicon (Ca/Si) ratios were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis at 80 degree C, with calcium oxide and micro-silicon employed. These products were determined to be of gel phase by XRD. Leaching tests with 1% hydrochloric acid indicated that more Uranium (VI) was detained by CSH with lower Ca/Si ratios. Alkali-activated slag cement (with a lower Ca/Si ratio) was found to have a stronger retention capacity than Portland cement (with a higher Ca/Si ratio), at 25 degree C in 102-days leaching tests with simulated solidified forms containing Uranium (VI). The accumulative leaching fraction of Uranium (VI) for Alkali-activated slag cement solidified forms is 17.6% lower than that for Portland cement. The corresponding difference of diffusion coefficients is 40.6%. This could be correlated with the difference of Ca/Si ratios between cements of two kinds. (authors)

  12. stabilization of ikpayongo laterite with cement and calcium carbide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Laterite obtained from Ikpayongo was stabilized with 2-10 % cement and 2-10 % Calcium Carbide waste, for use .... or open dumping which have effect on surface and ... Table 1: Chemical Composition of Calcium Carbide Waste and Cement.

  13. Developing a novel magnesium glycerophosphate/silicate-based organic-inorganic composite cement for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhengwen; Li, Hong; Wei, Jie; Li, Ruijiang; Yan, Yonggang

    2018-06-01

    Considering that the phospholipids and glycerophosphoric acid are the basic materials throughout the metabolism of the whole life period and the bone is composed of organic polymer collagen and inorganic mineral apatite, a novel self-setting composite of magnesium glycerophosphate (MG) and di-calcium silicate(C2S)/tri-calcium silicate(C3S) was developed as bio-cement for bone repair, reconstruction and regeneration. The composite was prepared by mixing the MG, C2S and C3S with the certain ratios, and using the deionized water and phosphoric acid solution as mixed liquid. The combination and formation of the composites was characterized by FTIR, XPS and XRD. The physicochemical properties were studied by setting time, compressive strength, pH value, weight loss in the PBS and surface change by SEM-EDX. The biocompatibility was evaluated by cell culture in the leaching solution of the composites. The preliminary results showed that when di- and tri-calcium silicate contact with water, there are lots of Ca(OH) 2 generated making the pH value of solution is higher than 9 which is helpful for the formation of hydroxyapatite(HA) that is the main bone material. The new organic-inorganic self-setting bio-cements showed initial setting time is ranged from 20 min to 85 min and the compressive strength reached 30 MPa on the 7th days, suitable as the bone fillers. The weight loss was 20% in the first week, and 25% in the 4th week. Meanwhile, the new HA precipitated on the composite surface during the incubation in the SBF showed bioactivity. The cell cultured in the leaching liquid of the composite showed high proliferation inferring the new bio-cement has good biocompatibility to the cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Calcium silicates synthesised from industrial residues with the ability for CO2 sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Flórez, Victor; Santos, Alberto; López, Antonio; Moriña, Isabel; Esquivias, Luis

    2014-12-01

    This work explored several synthesis routes to obtain calcium silicates from different calcium-rich and silica-rich industrial residues. Larnite, wollastonite and calcium silicate chloride were successfully synthesised with moderate heat treatments below standard temperatures. These procedures help to not only conserve natural resources, but also to reduce the energy requirements and CO2 emissions. In addition, these silicates have been successfully tested as carbon dioxide sequesters, to enhance the viability of CO2 mineral sequestration technologies using calcium-rich industrial by-products as sequestration agents. Two different carbon sequestration experiments were performed under ambient conditions. Static experiments revealed carbonation efficiencies close to 100% and real-time resolved experiments characterised the dynamic behaviour and ability of these samples to reduce the CO2 concentration within a mixture of gases. The CO2 concentration was reduced up to 70%, with a carbon fixation dynamic ratio of 3.2 mg CO2 per g of sequestration agent and minute. Our results confirm the suitability of the proposed synthesis routes to synthesise different calcium silicates recycling industrial residues, being therefore energetically more efficient and environmentally friendly procedures for the cement industry. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Calcium phosphate cement scaffolds with PLGA fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Letícia Araújo; dos Santos, Luís Alberto

    2013-04-01

    The use of calcium phosphate-based biomaterials has revolutionized current orthopedics and dentistry in repairing damaged parts of the skeletal system. Among those biomaterials, the cement made of hydraulic grip calcium phosphate has attracted great interest due to its biocompatibility and hardening "in situ". However, these cements have low mechanical strength compared with the bones of the human body. In the present work, we have studied the attainment of calcium phosphate cement powders and their addition to poly (co-glycolide) (PLGA) fibers to increase mechanical properties of those cements. We have used a new method that obtains fibers by dripping different reagents. PLGA fibers were frozen after lyophilized. With this new method, which was patented, it was possible to obtain fibers and reinforcing matrix which furthered the increase of mechanical properties, thus allowing the attainment of more resistant materials. The obtained materials were used in the construction of composites and scaffolds for tissue growth, keeping a higher mechanical integrity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Decreased water flowing from a forest amended with calcium silicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark B. Green; Amey S. Bailey; Scott W. Bailey; John J. Battles; John L. Campbell; Charles T. Driscoll; Timothy J. Fahey; Lucie C. Lepine; Gene E. Likens; Scott V. Ollinger; Paul G. Schaberg

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition during the 20th century caused widespread depletion of available soil calcium (Ca) throughout much of the industrialized world. To better understand how forest ecosystems respond to changes in a component of acidification stress, an 11.8-ha watershed was amended with wollastonite, a calcium silicate mineral, to restore available soil Ca to preindustrial...

  17. Confined Water in Layered Silicates: The Origin of Anomalous Thermal Expansion Behavior in Calcium-Silicate-Hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, N. M. Anoop; Wang, Bu; Falzone, Gabriel; Le Pape, Yann; Neithalath, Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Water, under conditions of nanoscale confinement, exhibits anomalous dynamics, and enhanced thermal deformations, which may be further enhanced when such water is in contact with hydrophilic surfaces. Such heightened thermal deformations of water could control the volume stability of hydrated materials containing nanoconfined structural water. Understanding and predicting the thermal deformation coefficient (TDC, often referred to as the CTE, coefficient of thermal expansion), which represents volume changes induced in materials under conditions of changing temperature, is of critical importance for hydrated solids including: hydrogels, biological tissues, and calcium silicate hydrates, as changes in their volume can result in stress development, and cracking. By pioneering atomistic simulations, we examine the physical origin of thermal expansion in calcium-silicate-hydrates (C–S–H), the binding agent in concrete that is formed by the reaction of cement with water. We report that the TDC of C–S–H shows a sudden increase when the CaO/SiO_2 (molar ratio; abbreviated as Ca/Si) exceeds 1.5. This anomalous behavior arises from a notable increase in the confinement of water contained in the C–S–H’s nanostructure. We identify that confinement is dictated by the topology of the C–S–H’s atomic network. Altogether, the results suggest that thermal deformations of hydrated silicates can be altered by inducing compositional changes, which in turn alter the atomic topology and the resultant volume stability of the solids.

  18. Confined Water in Layered Silicates: The Origin of Anomalous Thermal Expansion Behavior in Calcium-Silicate-Hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, N M Anoop; Wang, Bu; Falzone, Gabriel; Le Pape, Yann; Neithalath, Narayanan; Pilon, Laurent; Bauchy, Mathieu; Sant, Gaurav

    2016-12-28

    Water, under conditions of nanoscale confinement, exhibits anomalous dynamics, and enhanced thermal deformations, which may be further enhanced when such water is in contact with hydrophilic surfaces. Such heightened thermal deformations of water could control the volume stability of hydrated materials containing nanoconfined structural water. Understanding and predicting the thermal deformation coefficient (TDC, often referred to as the CTE, coefficient of thermal expansion), which represents volume changes induced in materials under conditions of changing temperature, is of critical importance for hydrated solids including: hydrogels, biological tissues, and calcium silicate hydrates, as changes in their volume can result in stress development, and cracking. By pioneering atomistic simulations, we examine the physical origin of thermal expansion in calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H), the binding agent in concrete that is formed by the reaction of cement with water. We report that the TDC of C-S-H shows a sudden increase when the CaO/SiO 2 (molar ratio; abbreviated as Ca/Si) exceeds 1.5. This anomalous behavior arises from a notable increase in the confinement of water contained in the C-S-H's nanostructure. We identify that confinement is dictated by the topology of the C-S-H's atomic network. Taken together, the results suggest that thermal deformations of hydrated silicates can be altered by inducing compositional changes, which in turn alter the atomic topology and the resultant volume stability of the solids.

  19. Evaluation of the Ca ion release, pH and surface apatite formation of a prototype tricalcium silicate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, S; Han, L; Noiri, Y; Okiji, T

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the Ca 2+ -releasing, alkalizing and apatite-like surface precipitate-forming abilities of a prototype tricalcium silicate cement, which was mainly composed of synthetically prepared tricalcium silicate and zirconium oxide radiopacifier. The prototype tricalcium silicate cement, white ProRoot MTA (WMTA) and TheraCal LC (a light-cured resin-modified calcium silicate-filled material) were examined. The chemical compositions were analysed with a wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy electron probe microanalyser with an image observation function (SEM-EPMA). The pH and Ca 2+ concentrations of water in which the set materials had been immersed were measured, and the latter was assessed with the EDTA titration method. The surface precipitates formed on the materials immersed in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were analysed with SEM-EPMA and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction were used for statistical analysis (α = 0.05). The prototype cement contained Ca, Si and Zr as major elemental constituents, whereas it did not contain some metal elements that were detected in the other materials. The Ca 2+ concentrations and pH of the immersion water samples exhibited the following order: WMTA = prototype cement > TheraCal LC (P prototype cement and WMTA. The prototype tricalcium silicate cement exhibited similar Ca 2+ -releasing, alkalizing and apatite-like precipitate-forming abilities to WMTA. The Ca 2+ -releasing, alkalizing and apatite-like precipitate-forming abilities of TheraCal LC were lower than those of the other materials. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS OF SILICATE MUD CONTAMINATION WITH CALCIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The silicate-based drilling fluid is a low solids KCl/polymer system with the addition of soluble sodium or potassium silicate to enhance inhibition and wellbore stability. Silicate-based drilling fluids exhibit remarkable shale and chalk stabilizing properties, resulting in gauge hole and the formation of firm cuttings when drilling reactive shales and soft chalks. Silicates protect shales by in-situ gellation when exposed to the neutral pore fluid and precipitation, which occurs on contact with divalent ions present at the surface of the shale. Also, silicates prevent the dispersion and washouts when drilling soft chalk by reacting with the Ca2+ ions present on chalk surfaces of cutting and wellbore to form a protective film. The silicate-based drilling fluid can be used during drilling hole section through shale interbeded anhydrite formations because of its superior shale stabilizing characteristics. However, drilling through the anhydrite can decrease the silicate concentration and change rheological and filtration fluid properties. So, the critical concentration of calcium ions should be investigated by lab tests. This paper details the mechanism of shale inhibition using silicate-based drilling fluid, and presents results of lab tests conducted to ascertain the effect of Ca2+ ions on silicate level in the fluid and the fluid properties.

  1. Hydration water and microstructure in calcium silicate and aluminate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fratini, Emiliano; Ridi, Francesca; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Baglioni, Piero

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the state of the hydration water and the microstructure development in a cement paste is likely to be the key for the improvement of its ultimate strength and durability. In order to distinguish and characterize the reacted and unreacted water, the single-particle dynamics of water molecules in hydrated calcium silicates (C 3 S, C 2 S) and aluminates (C 3 A, C 4 AF) were studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering, QENS. The time evolution of the immobile fraction represents the hydration kinetics and the mobile fraction follows a non-Debye relaxation. Less sophisticated, but more accessible and cheaper techniques, like differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and near-infrared spectroscopy, NIR, were validated through QENS results and they allow one to easily and quantitatively follow the cement hydration kinetics and can be widely applied on a laboratory scale to understand the effect of additives (i.e., superplasticizers, cellulosic derivatives, etc) on the thermodynamics of the hydration process. DSC provides information on the free water index and on the activation energy involved in the hydration process while the NIR band at 7000 cm -1 monitors, at a molecular level, the increase of the surface-interacting water. We report as an example the effect of two classes of additives widely used in the cement industry: superplasticizers, SPs, and cellulose derivatives. SPs interact at the solid surface, leading to a consistent increment of the activation energy for the processes of nucleation and growth of the hydrated phases. In contrast, the cellulosic additives do not affect the nucleation and growth activation energy, but cause a significant increment in the water availability: in other words the hydration process is more efficient without any modification of the solid/liquid interaction, as also evidenced by the 1 H-NMR. Additional information is obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultra small angle neutron scattering (USANS) and wide

  2. Density and mechanical properties of calcium aluminate cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Taqi Uddin; Ahmmad, Shaik Kareem

    2018-04-01

    Calcium aluminate cements are a special type of cements which have their composition mainly dominated by the presence of Monocalcium Aluminates. In the present paper for the first time we have shown theoretical density and elastic constants for various calcium aluminate cements. The density of the present CAS decrease with aluminates presents in the cement. Using the density data, the elastic moduli namely Young's modulus, bulk and shear modulus show strong linear dependence as a function of compositional parameter.

  3. Solidification of low-level radioactive liquid waste using a cement-silicate process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandlund, R.W.; Hayes, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Extensive use has been made of silicate and Portland cement for the solidification of industrial waste and recently this method has been successfully used to solidify a variety of low level radioactive wastes. The types of wastes processed to date include fuel fabrication sludges, power reactor waste, decontamination solution, and university laboratory waste. The cement-silicate process produces a stable solid with a minimal increase in volume and the chemicals are relatively inexpensive and readily available. The method is adaptable to either batch or continuous processing and the equipment is simple. The solid has leaching characteristics similar to or better than plain Portland cement mixtures and the leaching can be further reduced by the use of ion-exchange additives. The cement-silicate process has been used to solidify waste containing high levels of boric acid, oils, and organic solvents. The experience of handling the various types of liquid waste with a cement-silicate system is described

  4. Novel understanding of calcium silicate hydrate from dilute hydration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lina; Yamauchi, Kazuo; Li, Zongjin; Zhang, Xixiang; Ma, Hongyan; Ge, Shenguang

    2017-01-01

    The perspective of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is still confronting various debates due to its intrinsic complicated structure and properties after decades of studies. In this study, hydration at dilute suspension of w/s equaling to 10

  5. Production of precipitated calcium carbonate from calcium silicates and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teir, Sebastian; Eloneva, Sanni; Zevenhoven, Ron

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the pulp and paper industry by calcium carbonation are presented. The current precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) production uses mined, crushed calcium carbonate as raw materials. If calcium silicates were used instead, carbon dioxide emissions from the calcination of carbonates would be eliminated. In Finland, there could, thus, be a potential for eliminating 200 kt of carbon dioxide emissions per year, considering only the PCC used in the pulp and paper industry. A preliminary investigation of the feasibility to produce PCC from calcium silicates and the potential to replace calcium carbonate as the raw material was made. Calcium carbonate can be manufactured from calcium silicates by various methods, but only a few have been experimentally verified. The possibility and feasibility of these methods as a replacement for the current PCC production process was studied by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations using HSC software and process modelling using Aspen Plus[reg]. The results from the process modelling showed that a process that uses acetic acid for extraction of the calcium ions is a high potential option for sequestering carbon dioxide by mineral carbonation. The main obstacle seems to be the limited availability and relatively high price of wollastonite, which is a mineral with high calcium silicate content. An alternative is to use the more common, but also more complex, basalt rock instead

  6. Tobermorite/jennite- and tobermorite/calcium hydroxide-based models for the structure of C-S-H: applicability to hardened pastes of tricalcium silicate, β-dicalcium silicate, Portland cement, and blends of Portland cement with blast-furnace slag, metakaolin, or silica fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, I.G.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the applicability of the tobermorite-jennite (T/J) and tobermorite-'solid-solution' calcium hydroxide (T/CH) viewpoints for the nanostructure of C-S-H present in real cement pastes. The discussion is facilitated by a consideration of the author's 1992 model, which includes formulations for both structural viewpoints; its relationship to other recent models is outlined. The structural details of the model are clearly illustrated with a number of schematic diagrams. Experimental observations on the nature of C-S-H present in a diverse range of cementitious systems are considered. In some systems, the data can only be accounted for on the T/CH structural viewpoint, whilst in others, both the T/CH and T/J viewpoints could apply. New data from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are presented. The 'inner product' (Ip) C-S-H in relatively large grains of C 3 S or alite appears to consist of small globular particles, which are ∼4-8 nm in size in pastes hydrated at 20 deg. C but smaller at elevated temperatures, ∼3-4 nm. Fibrils of 'outer product' (Op) C-S-H in C 3 S or β-C 2 S pastes appear to consist of aggregations of long thin particles that are about 3 nm in their smallest dimension and of variable length, ranging from a few nanometers to many tens of nanometers. The small size of these particles of C-S-H is likely to result in significant edge effects, which would seem to offer a reasonable explanation for the persistence of Q 0 (H) species. This would also explain why there is more Q 0 (H) at elevated temperatures, where the particles seem to be smaller, and apparently less in KOH-activated pastes, where the C-S-H has foil-like morphology. In blended cements, a reduction in the mean Ca/Si ratio of the C-S-H results in a change from fibrillar to a crumpled-foil morphology, which suggests strongly that as the Ca/Si ratio is reduced, a transition occurs from essentially one-dimensional growth of the C-S-H particles to

  7. Synthesis of Portland cement and calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement for sustainable development and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Irvin Allen

    Portland cement concrete, the most widely used manufactured material in the world, is made primarily from water, mineral aggregates, and portland cement. The production of portland cement is energy intensive, accounting for 2% of primary energy consumption and 5% of industrial energy consumption globally. Moreover, portland cement manufacturing contributes significantly to greenhouse gases and accounts for 5% of the global CO2 emissions resulting from human activity. The primary objective of this research was to explore methods of reducing the environmental impact of cement production while maintaining or improving current performance standards. Two approaches were taken, (1) incorporation of waste materials in portland cement synthesis, and (2) optimization of an alternative environmental friendly binder, calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement. These approaches can lead to less energy consumption, less emission of CO2, and more reuse of industrial waste materials for cement manufacturing. In the portland cement part of the research, portland cement clinkers conforming to the compositional specifications in ASTM C 150 for Type I cement were successfully synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals with 0% to 40% fly ash and 0% to 60% slag incorporation (with 10% intervals), 72.5% limestone with 27.5% fly ash, and 65% limestone with 35% slag. The synthesized portland cements had similar early-age hydration behavior to commercial portland cement. However, waste materials significantly affected cement phase formation. The C3S--C2S ratio decreased with increasing amounts of waste materials incorporated. These differences could have implications on proportioning of raw materials for cement production when using waste materials. In the calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement part of the research, three calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement clinkers with a range of phase compositions were successfully synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals. The synthesized calcium sulfoaluminate

  8. Substitution of strontium for calcium in glass ionomer cements (Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substitution of strontium for calcium in glass ionomer cements (Part 1): Glass synthesis and characterisation, and the effects on the cement handling variables and ... acid to form glass ionomer cements, whose properties were investigated at different time points: working and setting times were determined by rheometry; and, ...

  9. Development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/boms/026/04/0415-0422. Keywords. Calcium phosphate cements; hydroxyapatite; bioceramics; bone substitute; orthopedic; dental. Abstract. A study on the development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement for orthopedic and dental applications is presented.

  10. The effect of mixing method on tricalcium silicate-based cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, J A; Fernandes, S L; Bubola, J P; Duarte, M A H; Camilleri, J; Marciano, M A

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of three methods of mixing on the physical and chemical properties of tricalcium silicate-based cements. The materials evaluated were MTA Angelus and Portland cement with 20% zirconium oxide (PC-20-Zr). The cements were mixed using a 3 : 1 powder-to-liquid ratio. The mixing methods were manual (m), trituration (tr) and ultrasonic (us) activation. The materials were characterized by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Flowability was analysed according to ANSI/ADA 57/2012. Initial and final setting times were assessed following ASTM C266/08. Volume change was evaluated using a micro-CT volumetric method. Solubility was analysed according to ADA 57/2012. pH and calcium ion release were measured after 3, 24, 72 and 168 h. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way analysis of variance. The level of significance was set at P = 0.05. The SEM analysis revealed that ultrasonic activation was associated with a homogeneous distribution of particles. Flowability, volume change and initial setting time were not influenced by the mixing method (P > 0.05). Solubility was influenced by the mixing method (P < 0.05). For pH, at 168 h, significant differences were found between MTA-m and PC-20-Zr-m (P < 0.05). For calcium ion release, PC-20-Zr-tr had higher values than MTA-m at 3 h, and MTA-tr had higher values than PC-20-Zr-m at 168 h (P < 0.05). The ultrasonic and trituration methods led to higher calcium ion release and pH compared with manual mixing for all cements, whilst the ultrasonic method produced smaller particles for the PC-20-Zr cement. Flow, setting times and volume change were not influenced by the mixing method used; however, it did have an impact on solubility. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Study of belite calcium sulfo-aluminate cement potential for zinc conditioning: From hydration to durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, St.

    2009-12-01

    Calcium silicate cements are widely used for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste conditioning. However, wastes produced by nuclear activities are very diverse and some of their components may chemically react with cement phases. For instance, ashes resulting from the incineration of technological wastes including neoprene and polyvinylchloride may contain substantial amounts of soluble zinc chloride. This compound is known to strongly delay or inhibit Portland cement setting. One approach to limit adverse cement-waste interactions is to select a binder showing a better compatibility with the waste while keeping cement matrix advantages (low cost, simple process, hydration with water provided by the waste...). This work thus investigates the potential of calcium sulfo-aluminate cement for zinc Zn(II) immobilization. Four aspects were considered: hydration (kinetics and products formed), properties of hydrated binders, mechanisms of zinc retention and durability of the cement pastes (based on leaching experiments and modelling). The influence of three main parameters was assessed: the gypsum content of the cement, the concentration of ZnCl 2 and the thermal evolution at early age. It follows that materials based on a calcium sulfo-aluminate cement containing 20% gypsum are interesting candidates for zinc Zn(II) stabilization/solidification: there is no delay in hydration, mineralogy of the hydrated phases is slightly dependent on thermal history, mechanical strength is high, dimensional changes are limited and zinc Zn(II) is well immobilized, even if the cement paste is leached by pure water during a long period (90 d). (author)

  12. Calcium Isotopic Composition of Bulk Silicate Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J.; Ionov, D. A.; Liu, F.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Huang, F.

    2016-12-01

    Ca isotopes are used to study the accretion history of the Earth and terrestrial planets, but, Ca isotopic composition of the Bulk Silicate Earth (BSE) remains poorly constrained [1]. To better understand the Ca isotopic composition of BSE, we analyzed 22 well studied peridotite xenoliths from Tariat (Mongolia), Vitim (southern Siberia) and Udachnaya (Siberian Craton). These samples include both fertile and highly depleted garnet and spinel peridotites that show no or only minor post-melting metasomatism or alteration. Ca isotope measurements were done on a Triton-TIMS using double spike method at the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, CAS. The data are reported as δ44/40Ca (relative to NIST SRM 915a). Results for geostandards are consistent with those from other laboratories. 2 standard deviations of SRM 915a analyses are 0.13‰ (n=48). δ44/40Ca of both and fertile and refractory peridotites range from 0.79 to 1.07‰ producing an average of 0.93±0.12‰ (2SD). This value defines the Ca isotopic composition of the BSE, which is consistent with the average δ44/40Ca of oceanic basalts ( 0.90‰)[2,3]. [1] Huang et al (2010) EPSL 292; [2] Valdes et al (2014) EPSL 394; [3]DePaolo (2004) RMG 55.

  13. Preparation and characterization of bioceramics produced from calcium phosphate cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriotis, O.; Katsamenis, O.L. [Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504, Patras (Greece); Mouzakis, D.E. [Technological Educational Institute of Larisa, Department of Mechanical Engineering, T.E.I of Larissa, 411 10, Larissa (Greece); Bouropoulos, N. [Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas, Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes, FORTH/ICE-HT, P.O. Box 1414, 26504 Rio Patras (Greece)

    2010-03-15

    The present work reports a method for preparing calcium phosphate ceramics by calcination of calcium phosphate cements composed mainly of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA). It was found that hardened cements calcinied at temperatures from to 600 to 1300 C were transformed to tricalcium phosphates. Moreover the compressive strength was determined and porosity was estimated as a function of the calcination temperature. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Crystallochemical characteristics of alkali calcium silicates from charoitites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhdestvenskaya, I.V.; Nikishova, L.V.

    2002-01-01

    The characteristic features of the crystal structures of alkali calcium silicates from various deposits are considered. The structures of these minerals, which were established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods, are described as the combinations of large construction modules, including the alternating layers of alkali cations and tubular silicate radicals (in canasite, frankamenite, miserite, and agrellite) and bent ribbons linked through hydrogen bonds in the layers (in tinaksite and tokkoite). The incorporation of impurities and the different ways of ordering them have different effects on the structures of these minerals and give rise to the formation of superstructures accompanied by a change of the space group (frankamenite-canasite), leading, in turn, to different mutual arrangements of the layers of silicate tubes and the formation of pseudopolytypes (agrellites), structure deformation, and changes in the unit-cell parameters (tinaksite-tokkoite)

  15. Hydrophobic Calcium Carbonate for Cement Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi B. Atla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This report describes a novel way to generate a highly effective hydrophobic cement surface via a carbonation route using sodium stearate. Carbonation reaction was carried out at different temperatures to investigate the hydrophobicity and morphology of the calcium carbonate formed with this process. With increasing temperatures, the particles changed from irregular shapes to more uniform rod-like structures and then aggregated to form a plate-like formation. The contact angle against water was found to increase with increasing temperature; after 90 °C there was no further increase. The maximum contact angle of 129° was obtained at the temperature of 60 °C. It was also found that carbonation increased the micro hardness of the cement material. The micro hardness was found to be dependent on the morphology of the CaCO3 particles. The rod like structures which caused increased mineral filler produced a material with enhanced strength. The 13C cross polarization magic-angle spinning NMR spectra gave plausible explanation of the interaction of organic-inorganic moieties.

  16. Carbonation of calcium aluminate cement pastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Carrasco, L.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses the results from accelerated tests intended to investigate the ways the different curing methods affect the carbonation of calcium aluminate cements pastes (CAC. The research was focused on the mineralogical composition of hydrated and carbonated samples. The compressive strengths and the porosity of the samples have been determined. Results point out that vaterite and aragonite are formed as a result of carbonation of both cubic and hexagonal calcium aluminate hydrates. The polymorph of calcium carbonate formed does not depend on the curing process. Carbonation rates is higher in hexagonal than in cubic hydrates. Results obtained through this study evidence that, as a consequence of the carbonation process of CAC pastes, in test conditions, an increase of the mechanical strengths occurs.

    En el presente trabajo se discuten los resultados obtenidos en los ensayos acelerados llevados a cabo para investigar los efectos de diferentes métodos de curado sobre la carbonatacion de pastas del cemento de aluminato de calcio (CAC. Se estudió la composición mineralógica de las muestras hidratadas y carbonatadas. Además, se determinaron las resistencias mecánicas a compresión y la porosidad de las probetas. Los resultados indican que la vaterita y el aragonito son las polimorfías del CaCO3 que se forman al carbonatar los aluminatos cálcicos hidratos, tanto los de naturaleza hexagonal como cúbica. El polimorfo del carbonato cálcico formado no depende del proceso de curado. La velocidad de carbonatación de los hidratos hexagonales es mayor que la de los cúbicos. Los resultados obtenidos en el presente trabajo han evidenciado que como consecuencia del proceso de carbonatación sobre pastas de CAC, en las condiciones realizadas, se produce un incremento en las resistencias mecánicas.

  17. Novel understanding of calcium silicate hydrate from dilute hydration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lina

    2017-05-13

    The perspective of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is still confronting various debates due to its intrinsic complicated structure and properties after decades of studies. In this study, hydration at dilute suspension of w/s equaling to 10 was conducted for tricalcium silicate (C3S) to interpret long-term hydration process and investigate the formation, structure and properties of C-S-H. Based on results from XRD, IR, SEM, NMR and so forth, loose and dense clusters of C-S-H with analogous C/S ratio were obtained along with the corresponding chemical formulae proposed as Ca5Si4O13∙6.2H2O. Crystalline structure inside C-S-H was observed by TEM, which was allocated at the foil-like proportion as well as the edge of wrinkles of the product. The long-term hydration process of C3S in dilute suspension could be sketchily described as migration of calcium hydroxide and in-situ growth of C-S-H with equilibrium silicon in aqueous solution relatively constant and calcium varied.

  18. Development of a degradable cement of calcium phosphate and calcium sulfate composite for bone reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, H; Wei, J; Liu, C S

    2006-01-01

    A new type of composite bone cement was prepared and investigated by adding calcium sulfate (CS) to calcium phosphate cement (CPC). This composite cement can be handled as a paste and easily shaped into any contour, which can set within 5-20 min, the setting time largely depending on the liquid-solid (L/S) ratio; adding CS to CPC had little effect on the setting time of the composite cements. No obvious temperature increase and pH change were observed during setting and immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). The compressive strength of the cement decreased with an increase in the content of CS. The degradation rate of the composite cements increased with time when the CS content was more than 20 wt%. Calcium deficient apatite could form on the surface of the composite cement because the release of calcium into SBF from the dissolution of CS and the apatite of the cement induced the new apatite formation; increasing the content of CS in the composite could improve the bioactivity of the composite cements. The results suggested that composite cement has a reasonable setting time, excellent degradability and suitable mechanical strength and bioactivity, which shows promising prospects for development as a clinical cement

  19. stabilization of ikpayongo laterite with cement and calcium carbide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    the stabilization of soil will ensure economy in road construction, while providing an effective way of disposing calcium carbide waste. KEYWORDS: Cement, Calcium carbide waste, Stabilization, Ikpayongo laterite, Pavement material. INTRODUCTION. Road building in the developing nations has been a major challenge to ...

  20. Preparation, physical-chemical characterisation and cytocompatibility of calcium carbonate cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, C; Miao, Baoji; Bareille, Reine; Rey, Christian

    2006-03-01

    The feasibility of calcium carbonate cements involving the recrystallisation of metastable calcium carbonate varieties has been demonstrated. Calcium carbonate cement compositions presented in this paper can be prepared straightforwardly by simply mixing water (liquid phase) with two calcium carbonate phases (solid phase) which can be easily obtained by precipitation. An original cement composition was obtained by mixing amorphous calcium carbonate and vaterite with an aqueous medium. The cement set and hardened within 2h at 37 degrees C in an atmosphere saturated with water and the final composition of the cement consisted mostly of aragonite. The hardened cement was microporous and showed poor mechanical properties. Cytotoxicity tests revealed excellent cytocompatibility of calcium carbonate cement compositions. Calcium carbonates with a higher solubility than the apatite formed for most of the marketed calcium phosphate cements might be of interest to increase biomedical cement resorption rates and to favour its replacement by bone tissue.

  1. Impact of Micro Silica Surface Hydroxyl Groups on the Properties of Calcium Silicate Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Sonja; Jørgensen, Bianca; Yu, Donghong

    2017-01-01

    Porous calcium silicates are widely used in insulating systems for high temperature applications. In the production of porous calcium silicates, quicklime and micro silica have been utilized as key raw materials. In the reaction between SiO2 and CaO, the dissolution of SiO2 has been proven...

  2. Measurement of the efficacy of calcium silicate for the protection and repair of dental enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Alexander S; Patel, Anisha N; Al Botros, Rehab; Snowden, Michael E; McKelvey, Kim; Unwin, Patrick R; Ashcroft, Alexander T; Carvell, Mel; Joiner, Andrew; Peruffo, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the formation of hydroxyapatite (HAP) from calcium silicate and the deposition of calcium silicate onto sound and acid eroded enamel surfaces in order to investigate its repair and protective properties. Calcium silicate was mixed with phosphate buffer for seven days and the resulting solids analysed for crystalline phases by Raman spectroscopy. Deposition studies were conducted on bovine enamel surfaces. Acid etched regions were produced on the enamel surfaces using scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM) with acid filled pipettes and varying contact times. Following treatment with calcium silicate, the deposition was visualised with FE-SEM and etch pit volumes were measured by AFM. A second set of bovine enamel specimens were pre-treated with calcium silicate and fluoride, before acid exposure with the SECCM. The volumes of the resultant acid etched pits were measured using AFM and the intrinsic rate constant for calcium loss was calculated. Raman spectroscopy confirmed that HAP was formed from calcium silicate. Deposition studies demonstrated greater delivery of calcium silicate to acid eroded than sound enamel and that the volume of acid etched enamel pits was significantly reduced following one treatment (penamel was 0.092 ± 0.008 cm/s. This was significantly reduced, 0.056 ± 0.005 cm/s, for the calcium silicate treatments (penamel surfaces. Calcium silicate can provide significant protection of sound enamel from acid challenges. Calcium silicate is a material that has potential for a new approach to the repair of demineralised enamel and the protection of enamel from acid attacks, leading to significant dental hard tissue benefits. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Niobium pentoxide as radiopacifying agent of calcium silicate-based material: evaluation of physicochemical and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Guilherme F; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Bernardi, Maria I B; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane M; Cerri, Paulo S

    2015-11-01

    The physicochemical properties and the tissue reaction promoted by microparticulated or nanoparticulated niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5) added to calcium silicate-based cement (CS), compared to MTA-Angelus™, were evaluated. Materials were submitted to the tests of radiopacity, setting time, pH, and calcium ion release. Polyethylene tubes filled with the materials were implanted into rats subcutaneously. After 7, 15, 30, and 60 days, the specimens were fixed and embedded in paraffin. Hematoxylin & eosin (H&E)-stained sections were used to compute the number of inflammatory cells (IC). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) detection was performed, and the number of immunolabeled cells was obtained; von Kossa method was also carried out. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey test (p ≤ 0.05). Nb2O5micro and Nb2O5nano provided to the CS radiopacity values (3.52 and 3.75 mm Al, respectively) superior to the minimum recommended. Groups containing Nb2O5 presented initial setting time significantly superior than mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). All materials presented an alkaline pH and released calcium ions. The number of IC and IL-6 immunolabeled cells in the CS + Nb2O5 groups was significantly reduced in comparison to MTA in all periods. von Kossa-positive structures were observed adjacent to implanted materials in all periods. The addition of Nb2O5 to the CS resulted in a material biocompatible and with adequate characteristics regarding radiopacity and final setting time and provides an alkaline pH to the environment. Furthermore, the particle size did not significantly affect the physicochemical and biological properties of the calcium silicate-based cement. Niobium pentoxide can be used as radiopacifier for the development of calcium silicate-based materials.

  4. Hydration of Portland cement with additions of calcium sulfoaluminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Saoût, Gwenn; Lothenbach, Barbara; Hori, Akihiro; Higuchi, Takayuki; Winnefeld, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The effect of mineral additions based on calcium aluminates on the hydration mechanism of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was investigated using isothermal calorimetry, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance and pore solution analysis. Results show that the addition of a calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA) to the OPC does not affect the hydration mechanism of alite but controls the aluminate dissolution. In the second blend investigated, a rapid setting cement, the amorphous calcium aluminate reacts very fast to ettringite. The release of aluminum ions strongly retards the hydration of alite but the C–S–H has a similar composition as in OPC with no additional Al to Si substitution. As in CSA–OPC, the aluminate hydration is controlled by the availability of sulfates. The coupling of thermodynamic modeling with the kinetic equations predicts the amount of hydrates and pore solution compositions as a function of time and validates the model in these systems.

  5. Discrete element modeling of calcium-silicate-hydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, Mei Qiang; Peters, John F; Pelessone, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    The discrete element method (DEM) was used to model calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) at the nanoscale. The C-S-H nanoparticles were modeled as spherical particles with diameters of approximately 5 nm. Interparticle forces included traditional mechanical contact forces, van der Waals forces and ionic correlation forces due to negatively charged C-S-H nanoparticles and ion species in the nanopores. Previous work by the authors demonstrated the DEM method was feasible in studying the properties of the C-S-H nanostructures. In this work, the simulations were performed to look into the effects of nanoparticle packing, nanoparticle morphology, interparticle forces and nanoparticle properties on the deformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of the C-S-H matrix. This work will provide insights into possible ways to improve the properties of the C-S-H matrix. (paper)

  6. Hydration behaviors of calcium silicate-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuan-Ling; Wang, Wen-Hsi; Lin, Feng-Huie; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2017-06-01

    Calcium silicate (CS)-based biomaterials, such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), have become the most popular and convincing material used in restorative endodontic treatments. However, the commercially available CS-based biomaterials all contain different minor additives, which may affect their hydration behaviors and material properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydration behavior of CS-based biomaterials with/without minor additives. A novel CS-based biomaterial with a simplified composition, without mineral oxides as minor additives, was produced. The characteristics of this biomaterial during hydration were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. The hydration behaviors of commercially available gray and white MTAs with mineral oxide as minor additives were also evaluated for reference. For all three test materials, the XRD analysis revealed similar diffraction patterns after hydration, but MTAs presented a significant decrease in the intensities of Bi 2 O 3 -related peaks. SEM results demonstrated similar porous microstructures with some hexagonal and facetted crystals on the outer surfaces. In addition, compared to CS with a simplified composition, the FTIR plot indicated that hydrated MTAs with mineral oxides were better for the polymerization of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH), presenting Si-O band shifting to higher wave numbers, and contained more water crystals within CSH, presenting sharper bands for O-H bending. Mineral oxides might not result in significant changes in the crystal phases or microstructures during the hydration of CS-based biomaterials, but these compounds affected the hydration behavior at the molecular level. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Potassium silicate and calcium silicate on the resistance of soybean to Phakopsora pachyrhizi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Cruz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of Asian Soybean Rust (ASR, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, has been difficult due to the aggressiveness of the pathogen and the lack of resistant cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of spray of potassium silicate (PS and soil amendment with calcium silicate (CS on soybean resistance to ASR. The PS solution was sprayed to leaves 24 hours prior to fungal inoculation while CS was amended to the soil at thirty-five days before sowing. The infection process of P. pachyrhizi was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The uredia on leaves of plants sprayed with PS were smaller and more compact than those observed on the leaves of plants grown in soil amended with CS or in soil non-amended with CS (control treatment. On leaves of plants from the control treatment, uredia produced many urediniospores at 9 days after inoculation, and the ASR severity was 15, 8 and 9%, respectively, for plants from control, PS and CS treatments. In conclusion, the spray of PS contributed to reduce the number of uredia per cm² of leaf area and both PS spray and CS resulted in lower ASR symptoms.

  8. Influence of ferrite phase in alite-calcium sulfoaluminate cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvallet, Tristana Yvonne Francoise

    Since the energy crisis in 1970's, research on low energy cements with low CO2- emissions has been increasing. Numerous solutions have been investigated, and the goal of this original research is to create a viable hybrid cement with the components of both Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSAC), by forming a material that contains both alite and calcium sulfoaluminate clinker phases. Furthermore, this research focuses on keeping the cost of this material reasonable by reducing aluminum requirements through its substitution with iron. The aim of this work would produce a cement that can use large amounts of red mud, which is a plentiful waste material, in place of bauxite known as an expensive raw material. Modified Bogue equations were established and tested to formulate this novel cement with different amounts of ferrite, from 5% to 45% by weight. This was followed by the production of cement from reagent chemicals, and from industrial by-products as feedstocks (fly ash, red mud and slag). Hydration processes, as well as the mechanical properties, of these clinker compositions were studied, along with the addition of gypsum and the impact of a ferric iron complexing additive triisopropanolamine (TIPA). To summarize this research, the influence of the addition of 5-45% by weight of ferrite phase, was examined with the goal of introducing as much red mud as possible in the process without negatively attenuate the cement properties. Based on this PhD dissertation, the production of high-iron alite-calcium sulfoaluminateferrite cements was proven possible from the two sources of raw materials. The hydration processes and the mechanical properties seemed negatively affected by the addition of ferrite, as this phase was not hydrated entirely, even after 6 months of curing. The usage of TIPA counteracted this decline in strength by improving the ferrite hydration and increasing the optimum amount of gypsum required in each composition

  9. Mechanical behavior of a composite interface: Calcium-silicate-hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palkovic, Steven D.; Moeini, Sina; Büyüköztürk, Oral, E-mail: obuyuk@mit.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Yip, Sidney [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-07-21

    The generalized stacking fault (GSF) is a conceptual procedure historically used to assess shear behavior of defect-free crystalline structures through molecular dynamics or density functional theory simulations. We apply the GSF technique to the spatially and chemically complex quasi-layered structure of calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H), the fundamental nanoscale binder within cementitious materials. A failure plane is enforced to calculate the shear traction-displacement response along a composite interface containing highly confined water molecules, hydroxyl groups, and calcium ions. GSF simulations are compared with affine (homogeneous) shear simulations, which allow strain to localize naturally in response to the local atomic environment. Comparison of strength and deformation behavior for the two loading methods shows the composite interface controls bulk shear deformation. Both models indicate the maximum shear strength of C-S-H exhibits a normal-stress dependency typical of cohesive-frictional materials. These findings suggest the applicability of GSF techniques to inhomogeneous structures and bonding environments, including other layered systems such as biological materials containing organic and inorganic interfaces.

  10. Influence of Thermal Treatment Conditions on the Properties of Dental Silicate Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Voicu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the sol-gel process was used to synthesize a precursor mixture for the preparation of silicate cement, also called mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA cement. This mixture was thermally treated under two different conditions (1400 °C/2 h and 1450 °C/3 h followed by rapid cooling in air. The resulted material (clinker was ground for one hour in a laboratory planetary mill (v = 150 rot/min, in order to obtain the MTA cements. The setting time and mechanical properties, in vitro induction of apatite formation by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF and cytocompatibility of the MTA cements were assessed in this study. The hardening processes, nature of the reaction products and the microstructural characteristics were also investigated. The anhydrous and hydrated cements were characterized by different techniques e.g., X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and thermal analysis (DTA-DTG-TG. The setting time of the MTA cement obtained by thermal treatment at 1400 °C/2 h (MTA1 was 55 min and 15 min for the MTA cement obtained at 1450 °C/3 h (MTA2. The compressive strength values were 18.5 MPa (MTA1 and 22.9 MPa (MTA2. Both MTA cements showed good bioactivity (assessed by an in vitro test, good cytocompatibility and stimulatory effect on the proliferation of cells.

  11. INFLUENCE OF SILICEOUS AND CALCAREOUS FLY-ASHES ON PROPERTIES OF CEMENT MORTARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Monika Rutkowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Care of the environment in accordance with the principles of sustainable development introduces the possibility and need for waste recycling. Construction and building industries have the greatest potential for reuse of waste. The article presents the results of investigations of cement mortars – tests of compressive and tensile strength after 28 and 56 days of curing – for normative mortars and mortars containing fly ashes – calcareous and siliceous ash – in their composition. To make the samples, the Portland cement CEM I 32,5 R, 42,5R and natural aggregate with graining of 0–2 mm were used. Concrete with siliceous and calcareous admixtures was made in six lots where the ash was added in the quantity of 2%, 5%, 10% of the cement mass or the 2%, 5%, 10% of cement was replaced by ashes. After the tests, it was stated that the siliceous fly-ash admixture increases the compressive and bending strength in comparison to the mortars with the calcareous ash admixtures.

  12. Substitution of strontium for calcium in glass ionomer cements (Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of substituting strontium for calcium in fluoroaluminosilicate glass on the mechanical and ion-releasing properties of high-viscosity glass ionomer cements. Design: An exploratory, laboratory-based study. Setting: Dental biomaterials research laboratory, Dental Physical Sciences Unit, ...

  13. Injectable biphasic calcium phosphate cements as a potential bone substitute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sariibrahimoglu, K.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Yubao, L.; Jansen, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Apatitic calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) have been widely used as bone grafts due to their excellent osteoconductive properties, but the degradation properties are insufficient to stimulate bone healing in large bone defects. A novel approach to overcome the lack of degradability of apatitic CPC

  14. Stabilization of Ikpayongo laterite with cement and calcium carbide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laterite obtained from Ikpayongo was stabilized with 2-10 % cement and 2-10 % Calcium Carbide waste, for use as pavement material. Atterberg's limits test, California bearing ratio (CBR) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were conducted on the natural laterite and the treated soil specimens. The plasticity ...

  15. Preparation, physical-chemical characterisation and cytocompatibility of calcium carbonate cements

    OpenAIRE

    Combes, Christèle; Miao, Baoji; Bareille, Reine; Rey, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of calcium carbonate cements involving the recrystallisation of metastable calcium carbonate varieties has been demonstrated. Calcium carbonate cement compositions presented in this paper can be prepared straightforwardly by simply mixing water (liquid phase) with two calcium carbonate phases (solid phase) which can be easily obtained by precipitation. An original cement composition was obtained by mixing amorphous calcium carbonate and vaterite with an aqueous medium. The cem...

  16. Halting of the calcium aluminate cement hydration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, A.P.; Borba, N.Z; Pandolfelli, V.C.

    2011-01-01

    The calcium aluminate cement reactions with water lead to the anhydrous phases dissolution resulting a saturated solution, followed by nucleation and crystal growth of the hydrate compounds. This is a dynamic process, therefore, it is necessary to use suitable methods to halt the hydration in order to study the phase transformations kinetics of such materials. In this work two methods are evaluated: use of acetone and microwave drying, aiming to withdraw the free water and inhibit further reactions. X ray diffraction and thermogravimetric tests were used to quantify the phases generated in the cement samples which were kept at 37 deg C for 1 to 15 days. The advantages and disadvantages of those procedures are presented and discussed. The use of microwave to halt the hydration process seems to be effective to withdraw the cement free water, and it can further be used in researches of the refractory castables area, endodontic cements, etc. (author)

  17. Calcium phosphate cements with strontium halides as radiopacifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Alejandro; Montazerolghaem, Maryam; Engqvist, Håkan; Ott, Marjam Karlsson; Persson, Cecilia

    2014-02-01

    High radiopacity is required to monitor the delivery and positioning of injectable implants. Inorganic nonsoluble radiopacifiers are typically used in nondegradable bone cements; however, their usefulness in resorbable cements is limited due to their low solubility. Strontium halides, except strontium fluoride, are ionic water-soluble compounds that possess potential as radiopacifiers. In this study, we compare the radiopacity, mechanical properties, composition, and cytotoxicity of radiopaque brushite cements prepared with strontium fluoride (SrF2 ), strontium chloride (SrCl2 ·6H2 O), strontium bromide (SrBr2 ), or strontium iodide (SrI2 ). Brushite cements containing 10 wt % SrCl2 ·6H2 O, SrBr2 , or SrI2 exhibited equal to or higher radiopacity than commercial radiopaque cements. Furthermore, the brushite crystal lattice in cements that contained the ionic radiopacifiers was larger than in unmodified cements and in cements that contained SrF2 , indicating strontium substitution. Despite the fact that the strontium halides increased the solubility of the cements and affected their mechanical properties, calcium phosphate cements containing SrCl2 ·6H2 O, SrBr2 , and SrI2 showed no significant differences in Saos-2 cell viability and proliferation with respect to the control. Strontium halides: SrCl2 ·6H2 O, SrBr2 , and SrI2 may be potential candidates as radiopacifiers in resorbable biomaterials although their in vivo biocompatibility, when incorporated into injectable implants, is yet to be assessed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Cytocompatibility of calcium silicate-based sealers in a three-dimensional cell culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal; Zaia, Alexandre A; Peters, Ove A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate cytotoxic effects and cytokine production of calcium silicate-based sealers (EndoSeal, EndoSequence BC Sealer, and MTA Fillapex) using an in vitro root canal filling model and three-dimensional (3D) cell culture. AH Plus as a reference was compared to contemporary calcium silicate cements regarding cell viability and cytokine production. Root canals of 30 human maxillary incisors were prepared using a single-file reciprocating technique. The samples were randomly distributed and canals filled with either AH Plus, EndoSeal, EndoSequence BC Sealer, and MTA Fillapex (n = 6). In the negative control group, the root canal remained unfilled. Sealers were placed into the canals along with a gutta-percha cone placed to working length. Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts, cultured in a type I collagen 3D scaffold, were exposed to filling material and the respective root apex for 24 h. Cytocompatibility of the materials was evaluated using the methyl-thiazoldiphenyl-tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The production of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). One-way analysis of variance was performed, and when the F-ratios were significant, data were compared by Duncan's multiple-range test. The alpha-type error was set at 0.05. EndoSeal, Endosequence BC Sealer and AH Plus showed cell viability that was similar to the negative control group (P > 0.05), while MTA Fillapex sealer was cytotoxic (P culture, AH Plus, EndoSeal, and EndoSequence BC Sealer were cytocompatible. These results may suggest that AH Plus, EndoSeal and EndoSequence BC Sealer may achieve better biological response when compared to MTA Fillapex.

  19. Nanoporous Calcium Silicate and PLGA Bio composite for Bone Repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, J.; Wang, Z.; Wu, Y.; Cao, L.; Ma, Y.; Yu, B.; Li, M.; Yan, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoporous calcium silicate (n-CS) with high surface area was synthesized using the mixed surfactants of EO20PO70EO20 (polyethylene oxide)20(polypropylene oxide)70(polyethylene oxide)20, P123) and hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as templates, and its composite with poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were fabricated. The results showed that the n-CS/PLGA composite (n-CPC) with 20 wt% n-CS could induce a dense and continuous layer of apatite on its surface after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1 week, suggesting the excellent in vitro bioactivity. The n-CPC could promote cell attachment on its surfaces. In addition, the proliferation ratio of MG63 cells on n-CPC was significantly higher than PLGA; the results demonstrated that n-CPC had excellent cytocompatibility. We prepared n-CPC scaffolds that contained open and interconnected macroporous ranging in size from 200 to 500 μ m. The n-CPC scaffolds were implanted in femur bone defect of rabbits, and the in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenicity of the scaffolds were investigated. The results indicated that n-CPC scaffolds exhibited good biocompatibility, degradability, and osteogenesis in vivo. Collectively, these results suggested that the incorporation of n-CS in PLGA produced biocomposites with improved bioactivity and biocompatibility.

  20. Properties of Chemically Combusted Calcium Carbide Residue and Its Influence on Cement Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfang Sun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbide residue (CCR is a waste by-product from acetylene gas production. The main component of CCR is Ca(OH2, which can react with siliceous materials through pozzolanic reactions, resulting in a product similar to those obtained from the cement hydration process. Thus, it is possible to use CCR as a substitute for Portland cement in concrete. In this research, we synthesized CCR and silica fume through a chemical combustion technique to produce a new reactive cementitious powder (RCP. The properties of paste and mortar in fresh and hardened states (setting time, shrinkage, and compressive strength with 5% cement replacement by RCP were evaluated. The hydration of RCP and OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement pastes was also examined through SEM (scanning electron microscope. Test results showed that in comparison to control OPC mix, the hydration products for the RCP mix took longer to formulate. The initial and final setting times were prolonged, while the drying shrinkage was significantly reduced. The compressive strength at the age of 45 days for RCP mortar mix was found to be higher than that of OPC mortar and OPC mortar with silica fume mix by 10% and 8%, respectively. Therefore, the synthesized RCP was proved to be a sustainable active cementitious powder for the strength enhanced of building materials, which will result in the diversion of significant quantities of this by-product from landfills.

  1. Properties of Chemically Combusted Calcium Carbide Residue and Its Influence on Cement Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongfang; Li, Zishanshan; Bai, Jing; Memon, Shazim Ali; Dong, Biqin; Fang, Yuan; Xu, Weiting; Xing, Feng

    2015-02-13

    Calcium carbide residue (CCR) is a waste by-product from acetylene gas production. The main component of CCR is Ca(OH)₂, which can react with siliceous materials through pozzolanic reactions, resulting in a product similar to those obtained from the cement hydration process. Thus, it is possible to use CCR as a substitute for Portland cement in concrete. In this research, we synthesized CCR and silica fume through a chemical combustion technique to produce a new reactive cementitious powder (RCP). The properties of paste and mortar in fresh and hardened states (setting time, shrinkage, and compressive strength) with 5% cement replacement by RCP were evaluated. The hydration of RCP and OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement) pastes was also examined through SEM (scanning electron microscope). Test results showed that in comparison to control OPC mix, the hydration products for the RCP mix took longer to formulate. The initial and final setting times were prolonged, while the drying shrinkage was significantly reduced. The compressive strength at the age of 45 days for RCP mortar mix was found to be higher than that of OPC mortar and OPC mortar with silica fume mix by 10% and 8%, respectively. Therefore, the synthesized RCP was proved to be a sustainable active cementitious powder for the strength enhanced of building materials, which will result in the diversion of significant quantities of this by-product from landfills.

  2. Silver-Doped Calcium Phosphate Bone Cements with Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Rau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate bone cements (CPCs with antibacterial properties are demanded for clinical applications. In this study, we demonstrated the use of a relatively simple processing route based on preparation of silver-doped CPCs (CPCs-Ag through the preparation of solid dispersed active powder phase. Real-time monitoring of structural transformations and kinetics of several CPCs-Ag formulations (Ag = 0 wt %, 0.6 wt % and 1.0 wt % was performed by the Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction technique. The partial conversion of β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP phase into the dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD took place in all the investigated cement systems. In the pristine cement powders, Ag in its metallic form was found, whereas for CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt % cements, CaAg(PO33 was detected and Ag (met. was no longer present. The CPC-Ag 0 wt % cement exhibited a compressive strength of 6.5 ± 1.0 MPa, whereas for the doped cements (CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt % the reduced values of the compressive strength 4.0 ± 1.0 and 1.5 ± 1.0 MPa, respectively, were detected. Silver-ion release from CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt % cements, measured by the Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, corresponds to the average values of 25 µg/L and 43 µg/L, respectively, rising a plateau after 15 days. The results of the antibacterial test proved the inhibitory effect towards pathogenic Escherichia coli for both CPC-Ag 0.6 wt % and CPC-Ag 1.0 wt % cements, better performances being observed for the cement with a higher Ag-content.

  3. Calcium carbonate-calcium phosphate mixed cement compositions for bone reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, C; Bareille, R; Rey, C

    2006-11-01

    The feasibility of making calcium carbonate-calcium phosphate (CaCO(3)-CaP) mixed cements, comprising at least 40% (w/w) CaCO(3) in the dry powder ingredients, has been demonstrated. Several original cement compositions were obtained by mixing metastable crystalline CaCO(3) phases with metastable amorphous or crystalline CaP powders in aqueous medium. The cements set within at most 1 h at 37 degrees C in atmosphere saturated with water. The hardened cement is microporous and exhibits weak compressive strength. The setting reaction appeared to be essentially related to the formation of a highly carbonated nanocrystalline apatite phase by reaction of the metastable CaP phase with part or almost all of the metastable CaCO(3) phase. The recrystallization of metastable CaP varieties led to a final cement consisting of a highly carbonated poorly crystalline apatite analogous to bone mineral associated with various amounts of vaterite and/or aragonite. The presence of controlled amounts of CaCO(3) with a higher solubility than that of the apatite formed in the well-developed CaP cements might be of interest to increase resorption rates in biomedical cement and favors its replacement by bone tissue. Cytotoxicity testing revealed excellent cytocompatibility of CaCO(3)-CaP mixed cement compositions.

  4. Brittle and ductile adjustable cement derived from calcium phosphate cement/polyacrylic acid composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Ju, Chien-Ping; Wang, Jen-Chyan; Hung, Chun-Cheng; Chern Lin, Jiin-Huey

    2008-12-01

    Bone filler has been used over the years in dental and biomedical applications. The present work is to characterize a non-dispersive, fast setting, modulus adjustable, high bioresorbable composite bone cement derived from calcium phosphate-based cement combined with polymer and binding agents. This cement, we hope, will not swell in simulated body fluid and keep the osteogenetic properties of the dry bone and avoid its disadvantages of being brittle. We developed a calcium phosphate cement (CPC) of tetracalcium phosphate/dicalcium phosphate anhydrous (TTCP/DCPA)-polyacrylic acid with tartaric acid, calcium fluoride additives and phosphate hardening solution. The results show that while composite, the hard-brittle properties of 25wt% polyacrylic acid are proportional to CPC and mixing with additives is the same as those of the CPC without polyacrylic acid added. With an increase of polyacrylic acid/CPC ratio, the 67wt% samples revealed ductile-tough properties and 100wt% samples kept ductile or elastic properties after 24h of immersion. The modulus range of this development was from 200 to 2600MPa after getting immersed in simulated body fluid for 24h. The TTCP/DCPA-polyacrylic acid based CPC demonstrates adjustable brittle/ductile strength during setting and after immersion, and the final reaction products consist of high bioresorbable monetite/brushite/calcium fluoride composite with polyacrylic acid.

  5. Biocompatibility of calcium phosphate bone cement with optimised mechanical properties: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Iwan; Nelson, John; Schatton, Wolfgang; Dunne, Nicholas J; Buchanan, Fraser; Clarke, Susan A

    2016-12-01

    This work establishes the in vivo performance of modified calcium phosphate bone cements for vertebroplasty of spinal fractures using a lapine model. A non-modified calcium phosphate bone cement and collagen-calcium phosphate bone cements composites with enhanced mechanical properties, utilising either bovine collagen or collagen from a marine sponge, were compared to a commercial poly(methyl methacrylate) cement. Conical cement samples (8 mm height × 4 mm base diameter) were press-fit into distal femoral condyle defects in New Zealand White rabbits and assessed after 5 and 10 weeks. Bone apposition and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity around cements were assessed. All implants were well tolerated, but bone apposition was higher on calcium phosphate bone cements than on poly(methyl methacrylate) cement. Incorporation of collagen showed no evidence of inflammatory or immune reactions. Presence of positive tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining within cracks formed in calcium phosphate bone cements suggested active osteoclasts were present within the implants and were actively remodelling within the cements. Bone growth was also observed within these cracks. These findings confirm the biological advantages of calcium phosphate bone cements over poly(methyl methacrylate) and, coupled with previous work on enhancement of mechanical properties through collagen incorporation, suggest collagen-calcium phosphate bone cement composite may offer an alternative to calcium phosphate bone cements in applications where low setting times and higher mechanical stability are important.

  6. Sulfoaluminate-belite cement from low-calcium fly ash and sulfur-rich and other industrial by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arjunan, P.; Silsbee, M.R.; Roy, D.M.

    1999-08-01

    The study describes the preparation and characterization of an environmentally friendly cement with performance characteristics similar to those of Portland cement, from a lime kiln bag house dust, a low-calcium fly ash, and a scrubber sludge. Promising preliminary results show the formation of relatively low-temperature phases calcium sulfoaluminate (4CaO{center{underscore}dot}3Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center{underscore}dot}SO{sub 3}) and dicalcium silicate (2CaO{center{underscore}dot}SiO{sub 2}) at {approximately} 1,250 C if nodulized raw means used for clinker preparation and at 1,175 C if powdered raw meal is used as compared to the {approximately} 1,500 C sintering temperature required for Portland cement. Phases of the developed cements were predicted using modified Bogue calculations. Isothermal calorimetric measurements indicate the hydration properties of the cements are comparable to ordinary Portland cement. Mechanical properties and microstructural evaluations also were carried out.

  7. β-Dicalcium silicate-based cement: synthesis, characterization and in vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Daniel; Almirall, Amisel; García-Carrodeguas, Raúl; dos Santos, Luis Alberto; De Aza, Antonio H; Parra, Juan; Delgado, José Ángel

    2014-10-01

    β-dicalcium silicate (β-Ca₂ SiO₄, β-C₂ S) is one of the main constituents in Portland cement clinker and many refractory materials, itself is a hydraulic cement that reacts with water or aqueous solution at room/body temperature to form a hydrated phase (C-S-H), which provides mechanical strength to the end product. In the present investigation, β-C₂ S was synthesized by sol-gel process and it was used as powder to cement preparation, named CSiC. In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility studies were assessed by soaking the cement samples in simulated body fluid solutions and human osteoblast cell cultures for various time periods, respectively. The results showed that the sol-gel process is an available synthesis method in order to obtain a pure powder of β-C₂ S at relatively low temperatures without chemical stabilizers. A bone-like apatite layer covered the material surface after soaking in SBF and its compressive strength (CSiC cement) was comparable with that of the human trabecular bone. The extracts of this cement were not cytotoxic and the cell growth and relative cell viability were comparable to negative control. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effect of the calcium to phosphorus ratio on the setting properties of calcium phosphate bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlad, M D; Gómez, S; Barracó, M; López, J; Fernández, E

    2012-09-01

    α-Tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) has become the main reactant of most experimental and commercial ceramic bone cements. It has calcium-to-phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio of 1.50. The present study expands and reports on the microstructures and mechanical properties of calcium phosphate (CP) cements containing sintered monolithic reactants obtained in the interval 1.29 properties as well as on their microstructure and crystal phase evolution. The results showed that: (a) CP-cements made with reactants with Ca/P ratio other than 1.50 have longer setting and lower hardening properties; (b) CP-cements reactivity was clearly affected by the Ca/P ratio of the starting reactant; (c) reactants with Ca/P calcium pyrophosphate and α- and β-TCP. Similarly, reactants with Ca/P > 1.50 were composed of α-TCP, tetracalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite; (d) only the reactant with Ca/P = 1.50 was monophasic and was made of α-TCP, which transformed during the setting into calcium deficient hydroxyapatite; (e) CP-cements developed different crystal microstructures with specific features depending on the Ca/P ratio of the starting reactant.

  9. Characterization of the Bonds Developed between Calcium Silicate Hydrate and Polycarboxylate-Based Superplasticizers with Silyl Functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Carlos A; Chun, Byong W; Geng, Guoqing; Emwas, Abdul H; Monteiro, Paulo J M

    2017-04-11

    Major developments in concrete technology have been achieved with the use of polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers (PCEs) to improve the concrete rheology without increasing the mix water content. Currently, it is possible to control the fluidity of the fresh concrete and obtain stronger and more durable structures. Therefore, there is a strong incentive to understand the interactions between PCEs and cement hydrates at the atomic scale to design new customized functional PCEs according to the ever-increasing requirements of the concrete industry. Here, the bonding types generated between a PCE with silyl functionalities (PCE-Sil) and a synthetic calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) are analyzed using XRD, 29 Si NMR spectroscopy, and synchrotron-based techniques, such as NEXAFS and EXAFS. The results indicated that the carboxylic groups present in PCE-Sil interact by a ligand-type bond with calcium, which modified not only the symmetry and coordination number of the calcium located at the surface of C-S-H but also the neighboring silicon atoms of the C-S-H. In addition, the silyl functionalities of the PCE-Sil generated covalent bonds through siloxane bridges between the silanol groups of PCE-Sil and the nonbonding oxygen located at the dimeric sites in C-S-H, forming new bridging silicon sites and subsequently increasing the silicate polymerization.

  10. Characterization of the Bonds Developed between Calcium Silicate Hydrate and Polycarboxylate-Based Superplasticizers with Silyl Functionalities

    KAUST Repository

    Orozco, Carlos A.; Chun, Byong W.; Geng, Guoqing; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Major developments in concrete technology have been achieved with the use of polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers (PCEs) to improve the concrete rheology without increasing the mix water content. Currently, it is possible to control the fluidity of the fresh concrete and obtain stronger and more durable structures. Therefore, there is a strong incentive to understand the interactions between PCEs and cement hydrates at the atomic scale to design new customized functional PCEs according to the ever-increasing requirements of the concrete industry. Here, the bonding types generated between a PCE with silyl functionalities (PCE-Sil) and a synthetic calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) are analyzed using XRD, 29Si NMR spectroscopy, and synchrotron-based techniques, such as NEXAFS and EXAFS. The results indicated that the carboxylic groups present in PCE-Sil interact by a ligand-type bond with calcium, which modified not only the symmetry and coordination number of the calcium located at the surface of C-S-H but also the neighboring silicon atoms of the C-S-H. In addition, the silyl functionalities of the PCE-Sil generated covalent bonds through siloxane bridges between the silanol groups of PCE-Sil and the nonbonding oxygen located at the dimeric sites in C-S-H, forming new bridging silicon sites and subsequently increasing the silicate polymerization.

  11. Characterization of the Bonds Developed between Calcium Silicate Hydrate and Polycarboxylate-Based Superplasticizers with Silyl Functionalities

    KAUST Repository

    Orozco, Carlos A.

    2017-03-24

    Major developments in concrete technology have been achieved with the use of polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers (PCEs) to improve the concrete rheology without increasing the mix water content. Currently, it is possible to control the fluidity of the fresh concrete and obtain stronger and more durable structures. Therefore, there is a strong incentive to understand the interactions between PCEs and cement hydrates at the atomic scale to design new customized functional PCEs according to the ever-increasing requirements of the concrete industry. Here, the bonding types generated between a PCE with silyl functionalities (PCE-Sil) and a synthetic calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) are analyzed using XRD, 29Si NMR spectroscopy, and synchrotron-based techniques, such as NEXAFS and EXAFS. The results indicated that the carboxylic groups present in PCE-Sil interact by a ligand-type bond with calcium, which modified not only the symmetry and coordination number of the calcium located at the surface of C-S-H but also the neighboring silicon atoms of the C-S-H. In addition, the silyl functionalities of the PCE-Sil generated covalent bonds through siloxane bridges between the silanol groups of PCE-Sil and the nonbonding oxygen located at the dimeric sites in C-S-H, forming new bridging silicon sites and subsequently increasing the silicate polymerization.

  12. Prediction of the Setting Properties of Calcium Phosphate Bone Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmud Rabiee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting properties of bone substitutes are improved using an injectable system. The injectable bone graft substitutes can be molded to the shape of the bone cavity and set in situ when injected. Such system is useful for surgical operation. The powder part of the injectable bone cement is included of β-tricalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, and dicalcium phosphate and the liquid part contains poly ethylene glycol solution with different concentrations. In this way, prediction of the mechanical properties, setting times, and injectability helps to optimize the calcium phosphate bone cement properties. The objective of this study is development of three different adaptive neurofuzzy inference systems (ANFISs for estimation of compression strength, setting time, and injectability using the data generated based on experimental observations. The input parameters of models are polyethylene glycol percent and liquid/powder ratio. Comparison of the predicted values and measured data indicates that the ANFIS model has an acceptable performance to the estimation of calcium phosphate bone cement properties.

  13. Effects of fibers on expansive shotcrete mixtures consisting of calcium sulfoaluminate cement, ordinary Portland cement, and calcium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry often uses shotcrete for ground stabilization. However, cracking within shotcrete is commonly observed, which delays production schedules and increases maintenance costs. A possible crack reduction method is using expansive shotcrete mixture consisting of calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA, ordinary Portland cement (OPC, and calcium sulfate (CS to reduce shrinkage. Furthermore, fibers can be added to the mixture to restrain expansion and impede cracking. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of nylon fiber, glass fiber, and steel fiber on an expansive shotcrete mixture that can better resist cracking. In this study, parameters such as density, water absorption, volume of permeable voids, unconfined compressive strength (UCS, splitting tensile strength (STS, and volume change of fiber-added expansive mixtures were determined at different time periods (i.e. the strengths on the 28th day, and the volume changes on the 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days. The results show that addition of fibers can improve mixture durability, in the form of decreased water absorption and reduced permeable pore space content. Moreover, the expansion of the CSA-OPC-CS mixture was restrained up to 50% by glass fiber, up to 43% by nylon fiber, and up to 28% by steel fiber. The results show that the STS was improved by 57% with glass fiber addition, 43% with steel fiber addition, and 38% with nylon fiber addition. The UCS was also increased by 31% after steel fiber addition, 26% after nylon fiber addition, and 16% after glass fiber addition. These results suggest that fiber additions to the expansive shotcrete mixtures can improve durability and strengths while controlling expansion. Keywords: Shotcrete, Restrained expansion, Fibers, Calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA, Ordinary Portland cement (OPC, Calcium sulfate (CS

  14. Effect of sodium carbonate solution on self-setting properties of tricalcium silicate bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiguang Huan; Jiang Chang

    2008-11-01

    In this study, the effects of sodium carbonate (Na(2)CO(3) ) solution with different concentrations (10, 15, 20, and 25 wt%) as liquid phase on the setting time and compressive strength of tricalcium silicate bone cements are investigated. The in vitro bioactivity and degradability of the resultant Ca(3)SiO(5)-Na(2)CO(3) solution paste was also studied. The results indicate that as the concentration of Na(2)CO(3) solution varies from 0 to 25 wt%, the initial and final setting time of the cement decrease significantly from 90 to 20 min and from 180 to 45 min, respectively. After setting for 24 h, the compressive strength of Ca(3)SiO(5)-Na(2)CO(3) solution paste reaches 5.1 MPa, which is significantly higher than that of Ca( 3)SiO(5)-water cement system. The in vitro bioactivity of the cements is investigated by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days. The results show that the Ca(3)SiO(5)-Na(2)CO( 3) solution bone cement has a good bioactivity and can degrade in Ringer's solution. The results indicate that Na(2)CO(3) solution as a liquid phase significantly improves the self-setting properties of Ca( 3)SiO(5) cement as compared to water. The Ca(3)SiO( 5) cement paste prepared using Na(2)CO(3) solution shows good bioactivity and moderate degradability, and the Ca(3)SiO( 5)-Na(2)CO(3) solution system may be used as degradable and bioactive bone defect filling materials.

  15. Effects of calcium leaching on diffusion properties of hardened and altered cement pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurumisawa, Kiyofumi; Haga, Kazuko; Hayashi, Daisuke; Owada, Hitoshi

    2017-06-01

    It is very important to predict alterations in the concrete used for fabricating disposal containers for radioactive waste. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the alteration of cementitious materials caused by calcium leaching when they are in contact with ground water in the long term. To evaluate the long-term transport characteristics of cementitious materials, the microstructural behavior of these materials should be considered. However, many predictive models of transport characteristics focus on the pore structure, while only few such models consider both, the spatial distribution of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), portlandite, and the pore spaces. This study focused on the spatial distribution of these cement phases. The auto-correlation function of each phase of cementitious materials was calculated from two-dimensional backscattered electron imaging, and the three-dimensional spatial image of the cementitious material was produced using these auto-correlation functions. An attempt was made to estimate the diffusion coefficient of chloride from the three-dimensional spatial image. The estimated diffusion coefficient of the altered sample from the three-dimensional spatial image was found to be comparable to the measured value. This demonstrated that it is possible to predict the diffusion coefficient of the altered cement paste by using the proposed model.

  16. Influence of iron on crystallization behavior and thermal stability of the insulating materials - porous calcium silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Sonja; Yu, Donghong; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2017-01-01

    The properties of porous calcium silicate for high temperature insulation are strongly influenced by impurities. In this work we determine the influence of Fe3+ on the crystallization behavior and thermal stability of hydrothermally derived calcium silicate. We synthesize porous calcium silicate...... with Ca/Si molar ratio of 1, to which Fe2O3 is added with Fe/Si molar ratios of 0.1, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, and 1.3%. Structure and morphology of the porous calcium silicate, with different iron concentrations, are investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). FTIR...... measurements reveal a pronounced decrease in the number of Q3 sites in the calcium silicate with an increase of Fe3+, and thereby lower the crystal fraction of xonotlite (Ca6Si6O17(OH)2) phase, and increase the crystal fractions of tobermorite(Ca5Si6O16(OH)2·4H2O) and calcite (CaCO3) phases, as confirmed...

  17. Silicate species of water glass and insights for alkali-activated green cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Helén, E-mail: helen.jansson@chalmers.se [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Bernin, Diana, E-mail: diana.bernin@nmr.gu.se [Swedish NMR Centre, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, 41390 Sweden (Sweden); Ramser, Kerstin, E-mail: kerstin.ramser@ltu.se [Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, 971 87 Luleå (Sweden)

    2015-06-15

    Despite that sodium silicate solutions of high pH are commonly used in industrial applications, most investigations are focused on low to medium values of pH. Therefore we have investigated such solutions in a broad modulus range and up to high pH values (∼14) by use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy and silicon nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 29}Si-NMR). The results show that the modulus dependent pH value leads to more or less charged species, which affects the configurations of the silicate units. This in turn, influences the alkali-activation process of low CO{sub 2} footprint cements, i.e. materials based on industrial waste or by-products.

  18. Evaluation of bioactivity in vitro of endodontic calcium aluminate cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, I.R.; Andrade, T.L.; Santos, G.L.; Pandolfelli, V.C.

    2011-01-01

    Bioactivity is referred to as the capacity of a material to develop a stable bond with living tissue via the deposition of hydroxyapatite. Materials which exhibit this property can be used to repair diseased or damaged bone tissue and can be designed to remain in situ indefinitely. An indication of bioactivity can be obtained by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of a substrate in simulated body fluids (SBF) in vitro. Therefore, set samples of calcium aluminate endodontic cement were maintained in contact with SBF solutions (Kokubo and Rigo) and their surfaces were later evaluated by means of SEM, EDX and DRX. Measurements of pH and ionic conductivity were also carried out for SBF solutions in contact with set samples of endodontic cement. The ideal conditions of precipitation were obtained in SBF Rigo been observed a surface layer with spherical morphology characteristic of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite.(author)

  19. Testing Urey's carbonate-silicate cycle using the calcium isotopic composition of sedimentary carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blättler, Clara L.; Higgins, John A.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonate minerals constitute a major component of the sedimentary geological record and an archive of a fraction of the carbon and calcium cycled through the Earth's surface reservoirs for over three billion years. For calcium, carbonate minerals constitute the ultimate sink for almost all calcium liberated during continental and submarine weathering of silicate minerals. This study presents >500 stable isotope ratios of calcium in Precambrian carbonate sediments, both limestones and dolomites, in an attempt to characterize the isotope mass balance of the sedimentary carbonate reservoir through time. The mean of the dataset is indistinguishable from estimates of the calcium isotope ratio of bulk silicate Earth, consistent with the Urey cycle being the dominant mechanism exchanging calcium among surface reservoirs. The variability in bulk sediment calcium isotope ratios within each geological unit does not reflect changes in the global calcium cycle, but rather highlights the importance of local mineralogical and/or diagenetic effects in the carbonate record. This dataset demonstrates the potential for calcium isotope ratios to help assess these local effects, such as the former presence of aragonite, even in rocks with a history of neomorphism and recrystallization. Additionally, 29 calcium isotope measurements are presented from ODP (Ocean Drilling Program) Site 801 that contribute to the characterization of altered oceanic crust as an additional sink for calcium, and whose distinct isotopic signature places a limit on the importance of this subduction flux over Earth history.

  20. Sorption of caesium and strontium onto calcium silicate hydrate in saline groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, D.; Fujita, T.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the concept for radioactive waste disposal in Japan, cement is a potential waste packaging and backfilling material and is expected to provide chemical containment. The sorption of radionuclides onto cement materials, which controls the aqueous concentrations of elements in the pore-water, is a very important parameter when considering the release of radionuclides from the near field of a cementitious radioactive waste repository. Many safety assessment calculations currently assume radionuclide retardation as linear sorption equilibrium and describe it with a distribution ratio (R d value). In this study, the sorption mechanism is discussed by measuring the sorption isotherm of caesium, strontium (10 -5 ∼ 10 -2 mol dm -3 ) and sodium (10 -4 ∼ 10 -1 mol dm -3 ) onto Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H gel, Ca/Si 0.65 ∼ 1.2) at a liquid:solid ratio of 100:1, to support the assumption. In addition, the competitive sorption between caesium or strontium, and sodium is studied by sorption measurements using a range of sodium chloride concentration to simulate different ionic strengths in saline groundwater. The initial and equilibrated aqueous compositions were measured in the sorption experiments and it was found that caesium, strontium and sodium were sorbed by substitution for Ca in C-S-H phases by examining the mass balance. Based on the experimental results, we propose a modelling approach in which the ion-exchange model is employed and the presence of some calcium sites with different ion-exchange log K values in C-S-H is assumed by considering the composition and the structure of C-S-H. The modelling calculation results predict the measured Rd values well and also describe the competition of sorption of caesium or strontium, and sodium in the experiments. The log K values for sorption of each cation element decreased as Ca/Si ratio of C-S-H gel increased. This agrees with the trend that C-S-H gel is negatively charged at low

  1. Study of cements silicate phases hydrated under high pressure and high temperature; Etude des phases silicatees du ciment hydrate sous haute pression et haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meducin, F.

    2001-10-01

    This study concerns the durability of oil-well cementing. Indeed, in oil well cementing a cement slurry is pumped down the steel casing of the well up the annular space between it and the surrounding rock to support and protect the casing. The setting conditions of pressure and temperature may be very high (up to 1000 bar and 250 deg C at the bottom of the oil-well). In this research, the hydration of the main constituent of cement, synthetic tri-calcium silicate Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 2}, often called C{sub 3}S (C = CaO; S = SiO{sub 2} and H H{sub 2}O), is studied. Calcium Silicate hydrates are prepared in high-pressure cells to complete their phase diagram (P,T) and obtain the stability conditions for each species. Indeed, the phases formed in these conditions are unknown and the study consists in the hydration of C{sub 3}S at different temperatures, pressures, and during different times to simulate the oil-well conditions. In a first step (until 120 deg C at ambient pressure) the C-S-H, a not well crystallized and non-stoichiometric phase, is synthesized: it brings adhesion and mechanical properties., Then, when pressure and temperature increase, crystallized phases appear such as jaffeite (Ca{sub 6}(Si{sub 2}O{sub 7})(OH){sub 6}) and hillebrandite (Ca{sub 2}(SiO{sub 3})(OH){sub 2}). Silicon {sup 29}Si Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (using standard sequences MAS, CPMAS) allow us to identify all the silicates hydrates formed. Indeed, {sup 29}Si NMR is a valuable tool to determine the structure of crystallized or not-well crystallized phases of cement. The characterization of the hydrated samples is completed by other techniques: X- Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The following results are found: jaffeite is the most stable phase at C/S=3. To simulate the hydration of real cement, hydration of C{sub 3}S with ground quartz and with or without super-plasticizers is done. In those cases, new phases appear: kilchoanite mainly, and xonotlite. A large amount of

  2. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2016-03-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to ameliorate soil acidity in rice-cropped soil. The secondary objective was to study the effects of calcium silicate amendment on soil acidity, exchangeable Al, exchangeable Ca, and Si content. The soil was treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 Mg ha-1 of calcium silicate under submerged conditions and the soil treatments were sampled every 30 days throughout an incubation period of 120 days. Application of calcium silicate induced a positive effect on soil pH and exchangeable Al; soil pH increased from 2.9 (initial) to 3.5, while exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 (initial) to 0.82 cmolc kg-1. Furthermore, the exchangeable Ca and Si contents increased from 1.68 (initial) to 4.94 cmolc kg-1 and from 21.21 (initial) to 81.71 mg kg-1, respectively. Therefore, it was noted that calcium silicate was effective at alleviating Al toxicity in acid sulfate, rice-cropped soil, yielding values below the critical level of 2 cmolc kg-1. In addition, application of calcium silicate showed an ameliorative effect as it increased soil pH and supplied substantial amounts of Ca and Si.

  3. Electrophoretic deposition of calcium silicate-reduced graphene oxide composites on titanium substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrali, Mehdi; Akhiani, Amir Reza; Talebian, Sepehr

    2016-01-01

    Calcium silicate (CS)/graphene coatings have been used to improve the biological and mechanical fixation of metallic prosthesis. Among the extraordinary features of graphene is its very high mechanical strength, which makes it an attractive nanoreinforcement material for composites. Calcium...... silicate-reduced graphene oxide (CS-rGO) composites were synthesized, using an in situ hydrothermal method. CS nanowires were uniformly decorated on the rGO, with an appropriate interfacial bonding. The CS-rGO composites behaved like hybrid composites when deposited on a titanium substrate by cathodic...

  4. Effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement blended with siliceous fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschner, Florian, E-mail: florian.deschner@gmail.com [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, Barbara; Winnefeld, Frank [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Neubauer, Jürgen [GeoZentrum Nordbayern, Mineralogy, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement pastes blended with 50 wt.% of siliceous fly ash is investigated within a temperature range of 7 to 80 °C. The elevation of temperature accelerates both the hydration of OPC and fly ash. Due to the enhanced pozzolanic reaction of the fly ash, the change of the composition of the C–S–H and the pore solution towards lower Ca and higher Al and Si concentrations is shifted towards earlier hydration times. Above 50 °C, the reaction of fly ash also contributes to the formation of siliceous hydrogarnet. At 80 °C, ettringite and AFm are destabilised and the released sulphate is partially incorporated into the C–S–H. The observed changes of the phase assemblage in dependence of the temperature are confirmed by thermodynamic modelling. The increasingly heterogeneous microstructure at elevated temperatures shows an increased density of the C–S–H and a higher coarse porosity. -- Highlights: •The reaction of quartz powder at 80 °C strongly enhances the compressive strength. •Almost no strength increase of fly ash blended OPC at 80 °C was found after 2 days. •Siliceous hydrogarnet is formed upon the reaction of fly ash at high temperatures. •Temperature dependent change of the system was simulated by thermodynamic modelling. •Destabilisation of ettringite above 50 °C correlates with sulphate content of C–S–H.

  5. Effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement blended with siliceous fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschner, Florian; Lothenbach, Barbara; Winnefeld, Frank; Neubauer, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the hydration of Portland cement pastes blended with 50 wt.% of siliceous fly ash is investigated within a temperature range of 7 to 80 °C. The elevation of temperature accelerates both the hydration of OPC and fly ash. Due to the enhanced pozzolanic reaction of the fly ash, the change of the composition of the C–S–H and the pore solution towards lower Ca and higher Al and Si concentrations is shifted towards earlier hydration times. Above 50 °C, the reaction of fly ash also contributes to the formation of siliceous hydrogarnet. At 80 °C, ettringite and AFm are destabilised and the released sulphate is partially incorporated into the C–S–H. The observed changes of the phase assemblage in dependence of the temperature are confirmed by thermodynamic modelling. The increasingly heterogeneous microstructure at elevated temperatures shows an increased density of the C–S–H and a higher coarse porosity. -- Highlights: •The reaction of quartz powder at 80 °C strongly enhances the compressive strength. •Almost no strength increase of fly ash blended OPC at 80 °C was found after 2 days. •Siliceous hydrogarnet is formed upon the reaction of fly ash at high temperatures. •Temperature dependent change of the system was simulated by thermodynamic modelling. •Destabilisation of ettringite above 50 °C correlates with sulphate content of C–S–H

  6. Another look at the deterioration of calcium aluminate cement concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambor, Jaromir

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential degradation of concrete structures made of calcium aluminate cement (CAC is well known and is caused by transformation (conversion of the thermodynamically metastable into stable calcium aluminate hydrate phases. This recrystallization is influenced by temperature and humidity; the structural degradation of the concrete itself thus its loss of strength, is strongly related to the pore structure of the hydrated cement paste, the critical parameters being the total volume of pores below 15-20 nm and the median micropore radius. This constitutes a novel procedure for evaluation of existing CAC concrete structure.

    La degradación potencial de estructuras de hormigón elaboradas con cemento aluminoso (CA es bien conocida. Este deterioro está causado por la recristalización (conversión de las fases del aluminato cálcico que son termodinámicamente metastables, en fases estables. En esta recristalización influye la temperatura y la humedad. Tanto la degradación del propio hormigón, como su pérdida de resistencias están relacionadas estrechamente con la estructura porosa de la pasta del cemento hidratado, siendo parámetros críticos el volumen total de los poros inferiores a 15-20 nm y el tamaño medio de los radios de los microporos. Esto constituye un nuevo procedimiento para evaluar las estructuras existentes de hormigón de cemento aluminoso (CA.

  7. Synthesis of calcium silicates by Pechini method and exchanging ions of sodium alginate-calcium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Garay, K.A.; Martinez-Luevanos, A.; Cruz-Ortiz, B.R.; Garcia-Cerda, L.A.; Lopez-Badillo, C.M.

    2016-07-01

    Calcium silicates samples were synthesized using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and by Pechini methodology assisted with ion-exchange of sodium alginate, followed by a heat treatment of 800°C by two hours. A, B and C samples were obtained using 1.7×10−3M, 3.4×10−3M and 5.1×10−3M of TEOS, respectively, and without heat treatment; these samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR). Furthermore, samples A800, B800 and C800 obtained using a heat treatment of 800° by two hours were characterized by FTIR-ATR, absorption technique (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy. The XRD patterns indicate that sample A800 contains olivine (Ca2SiO4) in orthorhombic phase and wollastonite-2M (CaSiO3); sample B800 showed the earlier phases and quartz (SiO2), whereas sample C800 contains wollastonite phases and larnite-2M (Ca2SiO4). (Author)

  8. Studies on the alkali-silica reaction rim in a simplified calcium-alkali-silicate system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Kunpeng; Adriaensens, Peter; De Schutter, Geert; Ye, G.; Taerwe, Luc

    2016-01-01

    This work is intended to provide a better understanding about the properties and roles of the reaction rim in an alkali-silica reaction. A simplified calcium-alkali-silicate system was created to simulate the multiple interactions among reactive silica, alkaline solution and portlandite near the

  9. Clinical and Radiographic Assessment of the Efficacy of Calcium Silicate Indirect Pulp Capping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, D.; Mannocci, F.; Patel, S.; Manoharan, A.; Brown, J.E.; Watson, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effectiveness of calcium silicate cement (Biodentine) versus glass ionomer cement (GIC; control group) as indirect pulp capping materials in patients with reversible pulpitis and to compare the effectiveness of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) versus periapical (PA) radiographs in detecting PA changes at baseline (T0) and at 12 mo (T12) postoperatively. Seventy-two restorations (36 Biodentine, 36 Fuji IX) were placed randomly in 53 patients. CBCT/PA radiographs were taken at T0 and T12. Two calibrated examiners assessed the presence/absence and increase/decrease in the size of existing PA radiolucencies under standardized conditions. The Kappa coefficient evaluated statistically the effectiveness of CBCT versus PA radiographs in detecting PA changes. Chi-square/Mann-Whitney tests were used to evaluate the association between PA changes in CBCT with various clinical measures. Significance was predetermined at α = 0.05. Clinical success rates for Biodentine and Fuji IX GIC were 83.3%. CBCT was significantly more effective in detecting PA radiolucencies compared with radiographs (P = 0.0069). Of the teeth, 65.4% and 90.4% were deemed healthy using CBCT and PA radiographs, respectively, at T12. Healing/healed rates were 17.3%/0%, while new/progressed radiolucency were 30.8%/9.6% with CBCT/PA radiographs, respectively. Seventy-one percent of healed lesions had received Biodentine; 88% of new/progressed lesions received Fuji IX GIC. Teeth presenting with an initial CBCT PA lesion had a failure rate of 63%, whereas teeth with no initial lesion had a failure rate of 16%. Although no statistically significant difference was detected in the clinical efficacy of Biodentine/Fuji IX when used as indirect pulp capping materials in patients with reversible pulpitis, CBCT showed a significant difference in that most healed CBCT lesions had received Biodentine while most that did not heal received Fuji IX. Longer-term follow-up is

  10. Physicochemical properties of calcium silicate-based formulations MTA Repair HP and MTA Vitalcem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Bruno Martini; Prati, Carlo; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna

    2018-04-05

    This study aimed to analyze the following physicochemical properties: radiopacity, final setting time, calcium release, pH change, solubility, water sorption, porosity, surface morphology, and apatite-forming ability of two calcium silicate-based materials. We tested MTA Repair HP and MTA Vitalcem in comparison with conventional MTA, analyzing radiopacity and final setting time. Water absorption, interconnected pores and apparent porosity were measured after 24-h immersion in deionized water at 37°C. Calcium and pH were tested up to 28 d in deionized water. We analyzed data using two-way ANOVA with Student-Newman-Keuls tests (pcalcium release at 28 d (pcalcium phosphate on their surface after 28 d in HBSS. MTA Repair HP and MTA Vitalcem had extended alkalinizing activity and calcium release that favored calcium phosphate nucleation. The presence of the plasticizer in MTA HP might increase its solubility and porosity. The radiopacifier calcium tungstate can be used to replace bismuth oxide.

  11. Hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance of a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Rare and Precious Metals Green Recycling and Extraction, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, Yazhao [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Xiaoming, E-mail: liuxm@ustb.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Rare and Precious Metals Green Recycling and Extraction, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • Cementitious material was designed according to [SiO{sub 4}] polymerization degree of raw materials. • The cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag yields excellent physical and mechanical properties. • Amorphous C–A–S–H gel and rod-like ettringite are predominantly responsible for the strength development. • Leaching toxicity and radioactivity tests show the cementitious material is environmentally acceptable. - Abstract: Calcium silicate slag is an alkali leaching waste generated during the process of extracting Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} from high-alumina fly ash. In this research, a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was developed, and its mechanical and physical properties, hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance were investigated. The results show that an optimal design for the cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was determined by the specimen CFSC7 containing 30% calcium silicate slag, 5% high-alumina fly ash, 24% blast furnace slag, 35% clinker and 6% FGD gypsum. This blended system yields excellent physical and mechanical properties, confirming the usefulness of CFSC7. The hydration products of CFSC7 are mostly amorphous C–A–S–H gel, rod-like ettringite and hexagonal-sheet Ca(OH){sub 2} with small amount of zeolite-like minerals such as CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}·4H{sub 2}O and Na{sub 2}Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}·H{sub 2}O. As the predominant hydration products, rod-like ettringite and amorphous C–A–S–H gel play a positive role in promoting densification of the paste structure, resulting in strength development of CFSC7 in the early hydration process. The leaching toxicity and radioactivity tests results indicate that the developed cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag is environmentally acceptable. This study points out a promising direction for the proper utilization of calcium silicate slag in large quantities.

  12. Modeling Nanomechanical Behavior of Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    coefficient is effective in making the C-S-H matrix stronger. However, increasing packing density also makes the material response more brittle ...16102-16107 Pellenq, R.J. –M and Van Damme, Henri., 2004, Why Does Concrete set?: The nature of Cohesion Forces in hardened Cement-Based...Hydrated Nanocomposites: Concrete, Bone , and Shale. J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 90(9): 2677-2692. Wu, Jianzhong. and John M. Prausnitz. 2002. Generalizations for

  13. Optimization of calcium chloride content on bioactivity and mechanical properties of white Portland cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torkittikul, Pincha; Chaipanich, Arnon

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the optimization of calcium chloride content on the bioactivity and mechanical properties of white Portland cement. Calcium chloride was used as an addition of White Portland cement at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10% by weight. Calcium chloride was dissolved in sterile distilled water and blended with White Portland cement using a water to cement ratio of 0.5. Analysis of the bioactivity and pH of white Portland cement pastes with calcium chloride added at various amounts was carried out in simulated body fluid. Setting time, density, compressive strength and volume of permeable voids were also investigated. The characteristics of cement pastes were examined by X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscope linked to an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer. The result indicated that the addition of calcium chloride could accelerate the hydration of white Portland cement, resulting in a decrease in setting time and an increase in early strength of the pastes. The compressive strength of all cement pastes with added calcium chloride was higher than that of the pure cement paste, and the addition of calcium chloride at 8 wt.% led to achieving the highest strength. Furthermore, white Portland cement pastes both with and without calcium chloride showed well-established bioactivity with respect to the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the material within 7 days following immersion in simulated body fluid; white Portland cement paste with added 3%CaCl 2 exhibited the best bioactivity. - Highlights: ► Optimization CaCl 2 content on the bioactivity and mechanical properties. ► CaCl 2 was used as an addition at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10% by weight. ► CaCl 2 resulted in a decrease in setting time and an increase in early strength. ► Addition of 3%CaCl 2 exhibited the optimum formation of hydroxyapatite.

  14. Calcium silicate-based sealers: Assessment of physicochemical properties, porosity and hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Marina Angélica; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Camilleri, Josette

    2016-02-01

    Investigation of hydration, chemical, physical properties and porosity of experimental calcium silicate-based sealers. Experimental calcium silicate-based sealers with calcium tungstate and zirconium oxide radio-opacifiers were prepared by mixing 1g of powder to 0.3 mL of 80% distilled water and 20% propylene glycol. MTA and MTA Fillapex were used as controls. The raw materials and set sealers were characterized using a combination of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Physical properties were analyzed according to ANSI/ADA. The pH and calcium ion release were assessed after 3, 24, 72 and 168 h. The porosity was assessed using mercury intrusion porosimetry. The analysis of hydration of prototype sealers revealed calcium hydroxide as a by-product resulting in alkaline pH and detection of calcium ion release, with high values in initial periods. The radiopacity was similar to MTA for the sealers containing high amounts of radio-opacifiers (p>0.05). Flowability was higher and film thickness was lower for resinous MTA Fillapex sealer (p0.05). The prototype sealers presented adequate hydration, elevated pH and calcium ion release. Regarding physical properties, elevated proportions of radio-opacifiers were necessary to accomplish adequate radiopacity, enhance flowability and reduce film thickness. All the tested sealers presented water sorption and porosity similar to MTA. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Developments in TEM Nanotomography of Calcium Silicate Hydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Taylor, Rae; Sakdinawat, Anne E.; Chae, Sejung R.; Wenk, Haz Rudolf; Levitz, Pierre E.; Sougrat, Rachid; Monteiro, Paulo José Meleragno

    2015-01-01

    This investigation was designed to explore the possibility of using transmission electron microscope (TEM) tomography on cement-based systems gain a greater understanding of their nanostructure and pore network. The preliminary results show a clearly a well-defined pore network at the nanoscale, with pore size approximately 1.7-2.4 nm in diameter and spaced around 5-8 nm apart. A comparison of small angle X-ray scattering data with 2-D TEM images analyzed with the Fourier slice theorem documents an excellent structural correlation. © 2015 The American Ceramic Society.

  16. Developments in TEM Nanotomography of Calcium Silicate Hydrate

    KAUST Repository

    Taylor, Rae

    2015-04-01

    This investigation was designed to explore the possibility of using transmission electron microscope (TEM) tomography on cement-based systems gain a greater understanding of their nanostructure and pore network. The preliminary results show a clearly a well-defined pore network at the nanoscale, with pore size approximately 1.7-2.4 nm in diameter and spaced around 5-8 nm apart. A comparison of small angle X-ray scattering data with 2-D TEM images analyzed with the Fourier slice theorem documents an excellent structural correlation. © 2015 The American Ceramic Society.

  17. The effects of injectable calcium silicate-based composites with the Chinese herb on an osteogenic accelerator in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Nai-Jen; Chen, Yi-Wen; Fang, Hsin-Yuan; Shie, Ming-You; Shieh, Den-En

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the physicochemical and biological effects of calcium silicate (CS)-based cements together with the Chinese medicine Xu Duan (XD) after seeding with human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). Here, we fabricated CS-based substrates with different ratios of XD (0%, 5% and 10%) as bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites, subsequent to examining their respective effectiveness for bone repair. The setting time, the injectability, the mechanical properties measured by diametral tensile strength (DTS), the in vitro degradation determined by changes in the weight loss of the composites, the characteristic formation of bone-like apatite, and cell growth as well as osteogenesis protein and bone mineralization were comprehensively evaluated before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF), respectively. At the end of testing, with regard to physicochemical effects, the CS-based substrate mixed with the 10% XD group showed significantly sound mechanical properties, an applicable setting time and injectability and the formation of a dense bone-like apatite layer. In terms of biological effects, the CS-based substrate with the 10% XD group showed a significant development of osteogenic activities with sound cell proliferation and higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, as well as indicating osteogenic differentiation, greater osteocalcin (OC) protein secretion and clearly calcified tissue mineralization. The present drug-release strategy with CS-based cements may pave the way for future alternative bone repair therapy (paper)

  18. Effect of calcium chloride on physical properties of calcium-enriched mixture cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Sedigh Shams, Mahdi; Jamshidi, Yasin; Parashos, Peter; Bagheri, Rafat

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding 10% calcium chloride (CaCl2) on the setting time, solubility and the pH of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement. Setting time was assessed in accordance with American Dental Association specification N°57. Solubility was measured at 24 and 72 h, 7 and 14 days in hydrated and dehydrated conditions by calculating weight change. The pH of MiliQ water in which the CEM cement samples were immersed was measured immediately after each time interval with and without the addition of CaCl2. The data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and the Student's t-test. The initial setting time was significantly decreased after the addition of 10% CaCl2. The pH of water increased immediately when in contact with the cements in both groups. The weight loss of hydrated and dehydrated specimens was more than 3% and was significantly reduced by the addition of 10% CaCl2. © 2015 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  19. Synthesis optimization of calcium aluminate cement phases for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, T.L.; Santos, G.L.; Oliveira, I.R.; Pandolfelli, V.C.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium aluminate cement (CAC) has been studied as a potential material for applications in the areas of health such as, endodontics and bone reconstruction. These studies have been based on commercial products consisting of a mixture of phases. Improvements can be attained by investigating the synthesis routes of CAC aiming the proper balance between the phases and the control of impurities that may impair its performance for biomedical applications. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the CAC synthesis routes in the Al 2 O 3 -CaCO 3 and Al 2 O 3 -CaO systems, as well as the phase characterization attained by means of X ray analysis. The Al 2 O 3 -CaO route enabled the production of the target phases (CA, CA 2 , C 3 A and C 12 A 7 ) with a higher purity compared to the Al2O3-CaCO3 one. As a result the particular properties of these phases can be evaluated to define a more suitable composition that results in better properties for an endodontic cement and other applications. (author)

  20. Fabrication and characterization of calcium phosphate cement scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, E. de; Motisuke, M.; Bertran, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    In Tissue Engineering, the need for scaffolds which are capable of guiding the organization, differentiation and growth of cells leading to the formation of new tissues is highly relevant. For the development of new scaffolds focused on bone tissue therapy, calcium phosphate cements (CPC) have great potential, because besides their resorbability, they present morphology and chemical composition similar to the bone mineral phase. Moreover, there are several processing techniques to produce ceramic scaffolds: polymeric sponge replication, incorporation of organic material into the ceramic powder, gelcasting, emulsion, among others. The aim of this work was to obtain CPCs scaffolds by using two techniques, emulsion and gelcasting. The scaffolds were characterized by their physical and mechanical properties and the crystalline phases formed after the setting reaction of cement were determined by X-ray diffraction. The samples obtained by both methods presented porosity between 61-65% and the microstructure consists of nearly spherical pores (d5o = 50-100 μm). The mechanical strength of the samples ranged from 5.5 to 1.5 MPa. The crystalline phases found were monetite (CaHPO 4 ) and brushite (CaHPO 4 2H 2 O). (author)

  1. Hydration studies of calcium sulfoaluminate cements blended with fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Maté, M.; De la Torre, A.G. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); León-Reina, L. [Servicios Centrales de Apoyo a la Investigación, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); Aranda, M.A.G. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain); CELLS-Alba synchrotron, Carretera BP 1413, Km. 3.3, E-08290 Cerdanyola, Barcelona (Spain); Santacruz, I., E-mail: isantacruz@uma.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga (Spain)

    2013-12-15

    The main objective of this work is to study the hydration and properties of calcium sulfoaluminate cement pastes blended with fly ash (FA) and the corresponding mortars at different hydration ages. Laboratory X-ray powder diffraction, rheological studies, thermal analysis, porosimetry and compressive strength measurements were performed. The analysis of the diffraction data by Rietveld method allowed quantifying crystalline phases and overall amorphous contents. The studied parameters were: i) FA content, 0, 15 and 30 wt.%; and ii) water addition, water-to-CSA mass ratio (w/CSA = 0.50 and 0.65), and water-to-binder mass ratio (w/b = 0.50). Finally, compressive strengths after 6 months of 0 and 15 wt.% FA [w/CSA = 0.50] mortars were similar: 73 ± 2 and 72 ± 3 MPa, respectively. This is justified by the filler effect of the FA as no strong evidences of reactivity of FA with CSA were observed. These results support the partial substitution of CSA cements with FA with the economic and environmental benefits.

  2. Calcium isotope fractionation in a silicate dominated Cenozoic aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junxia; DePaolo, Donald J.; Wang, Yanxin; Xie, Xianjun

    2018-04-01

    To understand the characteristics of Ca isotope composition and fractionation in silicate-dominated Quaternary aquifer system, hydrochemical and isotope studies (87Sr/86Sr, 13CDIC and 44/40Ca) were conducted on groundwater, sediment and rock samples from the Datong basin, China. Along the groundwater flow path from the basin margin to the center, groundwater hydrochemical type evolves from Ca-HCO3 to Na-HCO3/Na-Cl type, which results from aluminosilicate hydrolysis, vertical mixing, cation exchange between CaX2 and NaX, and calcite/dolomite precipitation. These processes cause the decrease in groundwater Ca concentration and the associated modest fractionation of groundwater Ca isotopes along the flowpath. The groundwater δ44/40Ca value varies from -0.11 to 0.49‰. The elevated δ44/40Ca ratios in shallow groundwater are attributed to vertical mixing involving addition of irrigation water, which had the average δ44/40Ca ratio of 0.595‰. Chemical weathering of silicate minerals and carbonate generates depleted δ44/40Ca signatures in groundwater from Heng Mountain (east area) and Huanghua Uplift (west area), respectively. Along the groundwater flow path from Heng Mountain to central area of east area, cation exchange between CaX2 and NaX on clay mineral results in the enrichment of heavier Ca isotope in groundwater. All groundwater samples are oversaturated with respect to calcite and dolomite. The groundwater environment rich in organic matter promotes the precipitation of carbonate minerals via the biodegradation of organic carbon, thereby further promoting the elevation of groundwater δ44/40Ca ratios.

  3. Development of Magnesium Silicate Hydrate cement system for nuclear waste encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, T.; Vandeperre, L.J.; Cheeseman, C.R.

    2012-01-01

    A novel low pH cement system for encapsulating nuclear industry wastes containing aluminium has been developed using blends of MgO and silica fume (SF). Identification of the hydrated phases in MgO/silica fume samples showed that brucite formed in early stages of hydration and then reacted with the silica fume to produce a magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) gel phase. When all brucite reacts with silica fume a cement system with an equilibrium pH just below 10 was achieved. Selected mixes have been characterized for hydration reactions, setting time and strength development. Mortar samples with w/s ratios of 0.5 and 50% by weight of sand added achieved compressive strengths in excess of 95 MPa after 28 days. The addition of MgCO 3 buffered the early pH and the addition of fine sand particles eliminated shrinkage cracking. The interaction of the optimised mortar with Al metal has been investigated. Al metal strips were firmly bound into the MgO:SF:sand samples and no H 2 gas detected, and this indicates that the novel systems developed in this work have potential for encapsulating certain types of problematic legacy wastes from the nuclear industry. (authors)

  4. Formation of magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) cement pastes using sodium hexametaphosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tingting [Faculty of Infrastructure Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Department of Materials, Centre for Advanced Structural Ceramics, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Vandeperre, Luc J. [Department of Materials, Centre for Advanced Structural Ceramics, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cheeseman, Christopher R., E-mail: c.cheeseman@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) gel is formed by the reaction of brucite with amorphous silica during sulphate attack in concrete and M-S-H is therefore regarded as having limited cementing properties. The aim of this work was to form M-S-H pastes, characterise the hydration reactions and assess the resulting properties. It is shown that M-S-H pastes can be prepared by reacting magnesium oxide (MgO) and silica fume (SF) at low water to solid ratio using sodium hexametaphosphate (NaHMP) as a dispersant. Characterisation of the hydration reactions by x-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis shows that brucite and M-S-H gel are formed and that for samples containing 60 wt.% SF and 40 wt.% MgO all of the brucites react with SF to form M-S-H gel. These M-S-H cement pastes were found to have compressive strengths in excess of 70 MPa.

  5. Mechanical Properties and Durability of Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings in Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicate Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinovich, Daniel S.; Zhu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings are being developed and tested for use with SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) gas turbine engine components. Several oxide and silicate based compositons are being studied for use as top-coat and intermediate layers in a three or more layer environmental barrier coating system. Specifically, the room temperature Vickers-indentation-fracture-toughness testing and high-temperature stability reaction studies with Calcium Magnesium Alumino-Silicate (CMAS or "sand") are being conducted using advanced testing techniques such as high pressure burner rig tests as well as high heat flux laser tests.

  6. Nanohydroxyapatite Silicate-Based Cement Improves the Primary Stability of Dental Implants: An In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooman Khorshidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Insufficient cortical bone volume when placing implants can lead to lack of primary stability. The use of cement as a bone fill material in bone defects around dental implant could result in better clinical outcome. HA has shown excellent biological properties in implant dentistry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of nanohydroxyapatite powder (Nano-HA in combination with accelerated Portland cement (APC on implant primary stability in surgically created circumferential bone defects in a bovine rib in vitro model. Materials and Methods. Sixteen bovine rib bones and thirty-six implants of same type and size (4 mm × 10 mm were used. Implants were divided into six groups: no circumferential bone defect, defect and no grafting, bone chips grafting, Nano-HA grafting, APC grafting, and Nano-HA mixed to APC grafting (Nano-HA-APC. Circumferential defects around the implants were prepared. The implant stability quotient (ISQ values were measured before and after the grafting. Results. APC exhibited the highest ISQ values. A significant increase of ISQ values following the grafting of Nano-HA-APC (18.08±5.82 and APC alone (9.50±4.12 was achieved. Increase of ISQ values after 72 hours was 24.16±5.01 and 17.58±4.89, respectively. Nano-HA grafting alone exhibited the least rise in ISQ values. Conclusions. Nanohydroxyapatite silicate-based cement could improve the primary stability of dental implants in circumferential bone defect around implants.

  7. "MTA"-an Hydraulic Silicate Cement: review update and setting reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvell, B W; Wu, R C T

    2011-05-01

    To review the current status and understanding of Portland cement-like endodontic materials commonly referred to by the trade designation "MTA" (alias "Mineral Trioxide Aggregate"), and to present an outline setting reaction scheme, hitherto unattempted. The literature was searched using on-line tools, overlapping an earlier substantial review to pick up any omissions, including that in respect of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), with which MTA shares much. The search was conducted for the period January 2005 to December 2009 using 'MTA', 'GMTA', 'WMTA', and 'mineral AND trioxide AND aggregate' as keywords, with various on-line search engines including ScienceDirect (http://www.sciencedirect.com), SAGE Journals Online (http://online.sagepub.com), Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com), SciELO Scientific electronic library online (http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php), JSTOR (http://www.jstor.org), and Scopus (http://www.scopus.com). References of articles found were cross-checked where appropriate for missed publications. Manufacturers' and related websites were searched with Google Search (http://www.google.com.hk). A generic name for this class of materials, Hydraulic Silicate Cement (HSC), is proposed, and an outline reaction scheme has been deduced. HSC has distinct advantages apparent, including sealing, sterilizing, mineralizing, dentinogenic and osteogenic capacities, which research continues to demonstrate. However, ad hoc modifications have little supporting justification. While HSC has a definite place in dentistry, with few of the drawbacks associated with other materials, some improvements in handling and other properties are highly desirable, as are studies of the mechanisms of the several beneficial physiological effects. Reference to the extensive, but complex, literature on OPC may provide the necessary insight. Copyright © 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of calcium carbonate on hardening, physicochemical properties, and in vitro degradation of injectable calcium phosphate cements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sariibrahimoglu, K.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Yubao, L.; Jansen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main disadvantage of apatitic calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) is their slow degradation rate, which limits complete bone regeneration. Carbonate (CO(3)(2)(-)) is the common constituent of bone and it can be used to improve the degradability of the apatitic calcium phosphate ceramics. This study

  9. Effects of calcium hydroxide addition on the physical and chemical properties of a calcium silicate-based sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuga, Milton Carlos; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Sant'anna-Júnior, Arnaldo; Keine, Kátia Cristina; Faria, Gisele; Dantas, Andrea Abi Rached; Guiotti, Flávia Angélica

    2014-06-01

    Recently, various calcium silicate-based sealers have been introduced for use in root canal filling. The MTA Fillapex is one of these sealers, but some of its physicochemical properties are not in accordance with the ISO requirements. The aim of this study was to evaluate the flowability, pH level and calcium release of pure MTA Fillapex (MTAF) or containing 5% (MTAF5) or 10% (MTAF10) calcium hydroxide (CH), in weight, in comparison with AH Plus sealer. The flowability test was performed according to the ISO 6876:2001 requirements. For the pH level and calcium ion release analyses, the sealers were placed individually (n=10) in plastic tubes and immersed in deionized water. After 24 hours, 7 and 14 days, the water in which each specimen had been immersed was evaluated to determine the pH level changes and calcium released. Flowability, pH level and calcium release data were analyzed statistically by the ANOVA test (α=5%). In relation to flowability: MTAF>AH Plus>MTAF5>MTAF10. In relation to the pH level, for 24 h: MTAF5=MTAF10=MTAF>AH Plus; for 7 and 14 days: MTAF5=MTAF10>MTAF>AH Plus. For the calcium release, for all periods: MTAF>MTAF5=MTAF10>AH Plus. The addition of 5% CH to the MTA Fillapex (in weight) is an alternative to reduce the high flowability presented by the sealer, without interfering in its alkalization potential.

  10. Transformation of meta-stable calcium silicate hydrates to tobermorite: reaction kinetics and molecular structure from XRD and NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the integrity of well-bore systems that are lined with Portland-based cements is critical to the successful storage of sequestered CO2 in gas and oil reservoirs. As a first step, we investigate reaction rates and mechanistic pathways for cement mineral growth in the absence of CO2 by coupling water chemistry with XRD and NMR spectroscopic data. We find that semi-crystalline calcium (alumino-)silicate hydrate (Al-CSH) forms as a precursor solid to the cement mineral tobermorite. Rate constants for tobermorite growth were found to be k = 0.6 (± 0.1) × 10-5 s-1 for a solution:solid of 10:1 and 1.6 (± 0.8) × 10-4 s-1 for a solution:solid of 5:1 (batch mode; T = 150°C). This data indicates that reaction rates for tobermorite growth are faster when the solution volume is reduced by half, suggesting that rates are dependent on solution saturation and that the Gibbs free energy is the reaction driver. However, calculated solution saturation indexes for Al-CSH and tobermorite differ by less than one log unit, which is within the measured uncertainty. Based on this data, we consider both heterogeneous nucleation as the thermodynamic driver and internal restructuring as possible mechanistic pathways for growth. We also use NMR spectroscopy to characterize the site symmetry and bonding environment of Al and Si in a reacted tobermorite sample. We find two [4]Al coordination structures at δiso = 59.9 ppm and 66.3 ppm with quadrupolar product parameters (PQ) of 0.21 MHz and 0.10 MHz (± 0.08) from 27Al 3Q-MAS NMR and speculate on the Al occupancy of framework sites by probing the protonation environment of Al metal centers using 27Al{1H}CP-MAS NMR. PMID:19144195

  11. Effects of Calcium Lignosulfonate and Silicic Acid on Ammonium Nitrate Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ozan Gezerman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium nitrate salts are the most commonly used nitrogenous fertilizers in industry. However, storage of ammonium nitrate is problematic, since its initial properties can decline because of environmental factors, leading to large economic losses. In this study, in order to prevent the caking and degradation of ammonium nitrate, an alternative composition with additional calcium lignosulfonate and silicic acid was studied. The resulting fertilizer was analyzed by screening analysis, ion chromatography, and electron microscopy methods.

  12. Polyelectrolyte addition effect on the properties of setting hydraulic cements based on calcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Luis A. dos; Oliveira, Luci C. de; Rigo, Eliana C.S.; Boschi, Anselmo Ortega; Carrodeguas, Raul Gracia

    1997-01-01

    In the present work the effects of the addition of some poly electrolytes (sodium alginate and poly acrylic acid) on the solubility, crystalline phases, pH and mechanical strength under compression of three calcium phosphate cements were studied. (author)

  13. Cementation of Radioactive Waste from a PWR with Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.

    2013-01-01

    Spent radioactive ion-exchange resin (SIER) and evaporation concentrates are radioactive wastes that are produced at by pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power stations. Borate, which is used as a retardent for cement, is also present as a moderator in a PWR, therefore, borate will be present in both ion-exchange resins and evaporation concentrates. In this study the use of Calcium sulfoaluminate cements (SAC) as encapsulation medium for these waste streams was investigated. The study involved the manufacturing of different cement test samples with different amounts of SAC cement, waste resins (50% water content) and admixtures. In order to reduce hydration heat during 200 L solidification experiments, different admixtures were investigated. Initial results based on compressive strength tests and hydration temperature studies, indicated that zeolite was the best admixture for the current waste form. Experiments indicated that the addition of resin material into the current cement matrix reduces the hydration heat during curing Experimental results indicated that a combination of SAC (35 wt. %), zeolite (7 wt. %) mix with 42 wt. % resins (50% water content) and 16 wt. % of water forms a optimum cured monolith with low hydration heat. The microstructures of hydrated OPC, SAC and SAC with zeolite addition were studied using a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SEM results indicated that the SAC matrices consist of a needle type structure that changed gradually into a flake type structure with the addition of zeolite. Additionally, the presence of zeolite material inside the SAC matrix reduced the leaching rates of radionuclides significantly. In a final 200 L grouting test, measured results indicated a hydration temperature below 90oC withno thermal cracks after solidified. The influence of radiation on the compressive strength and possible gas generation (due to radiolysis) on cement waste forms containing different concentrations ion exchange resin was

  14. Molecular mechanism of crystallization impacting calcium phosphate cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giocondi, J L; El-Dasher, B S; Nancollas, G H; Orme, C A

    2009-05-31

    In summary, SPM data has shown that (1) Mg inhibits growth on all steps but relatively high Mg/Ca ratios are needed. Extracting the mechanism of interaction requires more modeling of the kinetic data, but step morphology is consistent with incorporation. (2) Citrate has several effects depending on the citrate/Ca ratio. At the lowest concentrations, citrate increases the step free energy without altering the step kinetics; at higher concentrations, the polar step is slowed. (3) Oxalate also slows the polar step but additionally stabilizes a new facet, with a [100]{sub Cc} step. (4) Etidronate has the greatest kinetic impact of the molecules studied. At 7{micro}M concentrations, the polar step slows by 60% and a new polar step appears. However, at the same time the [10-1]{sub Cc} increases by 67%. It should be noted that all of these molecules complex calcium and can effect kinetics by altering the solution supersaturation or the Ca to HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ratio. For the SPM data shown, this effect was corrected for to distinguish the effect of the molecule at the crystal surface from the effect of the molecule on the solution speciation. The goal of this paper is to draw connections between fundamental studies of atomic step motion and potential strategies for materials processing. It is not our intent to promote the utility of SPM for investigating processes in cement dynamics. The conditions are spectacularly different in many ways. The data shown in this paper are fairly close to equilibrium (S=1.6) whereas the nucleation of cements is initiated at supersaturation ratios in the thousands to millions. Of course, after the initial nucleation phase, the growth will occur at more modest supersaturations and as the cement evolves towards equilibrium certainly some of the growth will occur in regimes such as shown here. In addition to the difference in supersaturation, cements tend to have lower additive to calcium ratios. As an example, the additive to Ca ratio is

  15. Sodium Silicate Gel Effect on Cemented Tailing Backfill That Contains Lead-Zinc Smelting Slag at Early Ages

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Lijie; Li, Wenchen; Yang, Xiaocong; Xu, Wenyuan

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the priming effect of sodium silicate gel (SS) on cemented tailing backfill (CTB) that contains lead-zinc smelting slag. CTB and cemented paste (CP) containing lead-zinc smelting slag samples with SS of 0 and 0.4% of the mass of the slag were prepared and cured at 20°C for 1, 3, 7, and 28 days. Mechanical test and pore structure analyses were performed on the studied CTB samples, microstructural analyses (X-ray diffraction analysis a...

  16. Zinc incorporation improves biological activity of beta-tricalcium silicate resin-based cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Raquel; Yamauti, Monica; Sauro, Salvatore; Watson, Tim F; Toledano, Manuel

    2014-11-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibition may improve endodontic treatment prognosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if zinc incorporation into experimental resin cements containing bioactive fillers may modulate MMP-mediated collagen degradation of dentin. Human dentin samples untreated and demineralized using 10% phosphoric acid or 0.5 mol/L EDTA were infiltrated with the following experimental resins: (1) unfilled resin, (2) resin with Bioglass 45S5 particles (OSspray, London, UK), (3) resin with beta-tricalcium silicate particles (βTCS), (4) resin with zinc-doped Bioglass 45S5, and (5) resin with zinc-doped βTCS particles. The specimens were stored in artificial saliva (for 24 hours, 1 week, and 4 weeks) and submitted to radioimmunoassay to quantify C-terminal telopeptide. Scanning electron microscopy analysis was also undertaken on dentin samples after 4 weeks of storage. Collagen degradation was prominent both in phosphoric acid and EDTA-treated dentin. Resin infiltration strongly reduced MMP activity in demineralized dentin. Resin containing Bioglass 45S5 particles exerted higher and stable protection of collagen. The presence of zinc in βTCS particles increases MMP inhibition. Different mineral precipitation was attained in dentin infiltrated with the resin cements containing bioactive fillers. MMP degradation of dentin collagen is strongly reduced after resin infiltration of dentin. Zinc incorporation in βTCS particles exerted an additional protection against MMP-mediated collagen degradation. However, it did not occur in resin containing Bioglass 45S5 particles, probably because of the formation of phosphate-zinc compounds. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. On the nature of structural disorder in calcium silicate hydrates with a calcium/silicon ratio similar to tobermorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grangeon, Sylvain, E-mail: S.Grangeon@brgm.fr [BRGM, 3, Avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Claret, Francis; Lerouge, Catherine [BRGM, 3, Avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Warmont, Fabienne [CRMD, UMR 6619 – CNRS, 1b rue de la férollerie, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Sato, Tsutomu; Anraku, Sohtaro [Laboratory of Environmental Geology, Research Group of Geoenvironmental/Engineering Division of Solid Waste, Resources and Geoenvironmental/Engineering Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Numako, Chiya [Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokushima, 1-1, Minami-Josanjima, Tokushima, 770-8502 (Japan); Linard, Yannick [ANDRA, Centre de Meuse/Haute Marne, 55290 Bure (France); Lanson, Bruno [ISTerre, Grenoble University, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France)

    2013-10-15

    Four calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) with structural calcium/silicon (Ca/Si) ratios ranging from 0.82 ± 0.02 to 0.87 ± 0.02 were synthesized at room temperature, 50, 80, and 110 °C. Their structure was elucidated by collating information from electron probe micro-analysis, transmission electron microscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). A modeling approach specific to defective minerals was used because sample turbostratism prevented analysis using usual XRD refinement techniques (e.g. Rietveld analysis). It is shown that C-S-H with Ca/Si ratio of ∼ 0.8 are structurally similar to nano-crystalline turbostratic tobermorite, a naturally occurring mineral. Their structure thus consists of sheets of calcium atoms in 7-fold coordination, covered by ribbons of silicon tetrahedra with a dreierketten (wollastonite-like) organization. In these silicate ribbons, 0.42 Si per bridging tetrahedron are missing. Random stacking faults occur systematically between successive layers (turbostratic stacking). Layer-to-layer distance is equal to 11.34 Å. Crystallites have a mean size of 10 nm in the a–b plane, and a mean number of 2.6–2.9 layers stacked coherently along the c* axis.

  18. Properties of a novel polysiloxane-guttapercha calcium silicate-bioglass-containing root canal sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, M G; Siboni, F; Prati, C

    2016-05-01

    Root canal filling sealers based on polymethyl hydrogensiloxane or polymethyl hydrogensiloxane-guttapercha--introduced to improve the quality of conventional guttapercha-based and resin-based systems--showed advantages in handiness and clinical application. The aim of the study was to evaluate the chemical-physical properties of a novel polysiloxane-guttapercha calcium silicate-containing root canal sealer (GuttaFlow bioseal). GuttaFlow bioseal was examined and compared with GuttaFlow2, RoekoSeal and MTA Fillapex sealers. Setting times, open and impervious porosity and apparent porosity, water sorption, weight loss, calcium release, and alkalinizing activity were evaluated. ESEM-EDX-Raman analyses of fresh materials and after soaking in simulated body fluid were also performed. Marked differences were obtained among the materials. GuttaFlow bioseal showed low solubility and porosity, high water sorption, moderate calcium release and good alkalinizing activity. MTA Fillapex showed the highest calcium release, alkalinizing activity and solubility, RoekoSeal the lowest calcium release, no alkalinizing activity, very low solubility and water sorption. Only GuttaFlow bioseal showed apatite forming ability. GuttaFlow bioseal showed alkalinizing activity together with negligible solubility and slight calcium release. Therefore, the notable nucleation of apatite and apatite precursors can be related to the co-operation of CaSi particles (SiOH groups) with polysiloxane (SiOSi groups). The incorporation of a calcium silicate component into polydimethyl polymethylhydrogensiloxane guttapercha sealers may represent an attractive strategy to obtain a bioactive biointeractive flowable guttapercha sealer for moist/bleeding apices with bone defects in endodontic therapy. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biocompatibility of calcium phosphate bone cement with optimized mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Iwan; Nelson, John; Schatton, Wolfgang; Dunne, Nicholas J; Buchanan, Fraser J; Clarke, Susan A

    2016-02-01

    The broad aim of this work was to investigate and optimize the properties of calcium phosphate bone cements (CPCs) for use in vertebroplasty to achieve effective primary fixation of spinal fractures. The incorporation of collagen, both bovine and from a marine sponge (Chondrosia reniformis), into a CPC was investigated. The biological properties of the CPC and collagen-CPC composites were assessed in vitro through the use of human bone marrow stromal cells. Cytotoxicity, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation were evaluated using lactate dehydrogenase, PicoGreen, and alkaline phosphatase activity assays, respectively. The addition of both types of collagen resulted in an increase in cytotoxicity, albeit not to a clinically relevant level. Cellular proliferation after 1, 7, and 14 days was unchanged. The osteogenic potential of the CPC was reduced through the addition of bovine collagen but remained unchanged in the case of the marine collagen. These findings, coupled with previous work showing that incorporation of marine collagen in this way can improve the physical properties of CPCs, suggest that such a composite may offer an alternative to CPCs in applications where low setting times and higher mechanical stability are important. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. BLENDED CALCIUM ALUMINATE-CALCIUM SULFATE CEMENT-BASED GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-03-10

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout which has a pH greater than 12.4. In addition, blended calcium aluminate - calcium hemihydrate cement compositions can be formulated such that the primary cementitious phase is a stable crystalline material. A less alkaline material (pH {<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts [Wiersma, 2009a and b, Wiersma, 2010, and Serrato and Langton, 2010]. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere [Griffin, 2010, Stefanko, 2009 and Wiersma, 2009 and 2010, Bobbitt, 2010, respectively]. Radiolysis calculations are also provided in a separate document [Reyes-Jimenez, 2010].

  1. Doped Calcium Silicate Ceramics: A New Class of Candidates for Synthetic Bone Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    No, Young Jung; Li, Jiao Jiao; Zreiqat, Hala

    2017-01-01

    Doped calcium silicate ceramics (DCSCs) have recently gained immense interest as a new class of candidates for the treatment of bone defects. Although calcium phosphates and bioactive glasses have remained the mainstream of ceramic bone substitutes, their clinical use is limited by suboptimal mechanical properties. DCSCs are a class of calcium silicate ceramics which are developed through the ionic substitution of calcium ions, the incorporation of metal oxides into the base binary xCaO–ySiO2 system, or a combination of both. Due to their unique compositions and ability to release bioactive ions, DCSCs exhibit enhanced mechanical and biological properties. Such characteristics offer significant advantages over existing ceramic bone substitutes, and underline the future potential of adopting DCSCs for clinical use in bone reconstruction to produce improved outcomes. This review will discuss the effects of different dopant elements and oxides on the characteristics of DCSCs for applications in bone repair, including mechanical properties, degradation and ion release characteristics, radiopacity, and biological activity (in vitro and in vivo). Recent advances in the development of DCSCs for broader clinical applications will also be discussed, including DCSC composites, coated DCSC scaffolds and DCSC-coated metal implants. PMID:28772513

  2. Attributes of the soil fertilized with sewage sludge and calcium and magnesium silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo R. Zuba Junio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the chemical attributes of an Inceptisol cultivated with castor bean (Ricinus communis L., variety ‘BRS Energia’, fertilized with sewage sludge compost and calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg silicate. The experiment was conducted at the ICA/UFMG, in a randomized block design, using a 2 x 4 factorial scheme with three replicates, and the treatments consisted of two doses of Ca-Mg silicate (0 and 1 t ha-1 and four doses of sewage sludge compost (0, 23.81, 47.62 and 71.43 t ha-1, on dry basis. Soil organic matter (OM, pH, sum of bases (SB, effective cation exchange capacity (CEC(t, total cation exchange capacity (CEC(T, base saturation (V% and potential acidity (H + Al were evaluated. There were no significant interactions between doses of sewage sludge compost and doses of Ca-Mg silicate on soil attributes, and no effect of silicate fertilization on these attributes. However, fertilization with sewage sludge compost promoted reduction in pH and increase in H + Al, OM and CEC. The dose of 71.43 t ha-1 of sewage sludge compost promoted the best soil chemical conditions.

  3. Characterization and chemical activity of Portland cement and two experimental cements with potential for use in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, J

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate the chemical activity of Portland cement and two other cement types with similar chemical composition to mineral trioxide aggregate with the aim of developing these cements for further applications in dentistry. The chemical composition of the three cement types namely Portland cement, calcium sulpho-aluminate cement and calcium fluoro-aluminate cement was evaluated by elemental analysis using energy dispersive analysis with X-ray under the scanning electron microscope and by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) to determine the phases. The constituents of the hydration reaction by-products were evaluated by XRD analysis of the set cements at 1, 7, 28 and 56 days and by analysis of the leachate by ion chromatography. The pH of both cements and leachate was determined at different time intervals. Cements admixed with micro-silica were also tested to determine the effect of micro-silica on the reaction by-products. All three cement types were composed of tricalcium silicate as the main constituent phase. The hydration reaction of Portland cement produced calcium hydroxide. However, this was not present in the other cements tested at all ages. Admixed micro-silica had little or no effect on the cements with regard to reaction by-products. The pH of all cements tested was alkaline. Both the experimental calcium sulpho-aluminate cement and calcium fluoro-aluminate cement had different hydration reactions to that of Portland cement even though calcium silicate was the major constituent element of both cement types. No calcium hydroxide was produced as a by-product to cement hydration. Micro-silica addition to the cement had no effect on the hydration reaction.

  4. Mechanical and physical properties of calcium silicate/alumina composite for biomedical engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, F S; Mehrali, M; Oshkour, A A; Metselaar, H S C; Kadri, N A; Abu Osman, N A

    2014-02-01

    The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of Al2O3 on α-calcium silicate (α-CaSiO3) ceramic. α-CaSiO3 was synthesized from CaO and SiO2 using mechanochemical method followed by calcinations at 1000°C. α-CaSiO3 and alumina were grinded using ball mill to create mixtures, containing 0-50w% of Al2O3 loadings. The powders were uniaxially pressed and followed by cold isostatic pressing (CIP) in order to achieve greater uniformity of compaction and to increase the shape capability. Afterward, the compaction was sintered in a resistive element furnace at both 1150°C and 1250°C with a 5h holding time. It was found that alumina reacted with α-CaSiO3 and formed alumina-rich calcium aluminates after sintering. An addition of 15wt% of Al2O3 powder at 1250°C were found to improve the hardness and fracture toughness of the calcium silicate. It was also observed that the average grain sizes of α-CaSiO3 /Al2O3 composite were maintained 500-700nm after sintering process. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.; Harris, A.W.; Manning, M.; Chambers, A.; Swanton, S.W.

    2006-01-01

    The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 deg. C compared to those prepared at 25 deg. C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium

  6. In situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction study of the early hydration of α-tricalcium phosphate/tricalcium silicate composite bone cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morejon-Alonso, Loreley; Correa, Jose Raul, E-mail: lmorejon@fq.uh.cu [Departamento de Quimica General, Facultad de Quimica, Universidad de La Habana, UH (Cuba); Motisuke, Mariana [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Carrodeguas, Raul Garcia [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Laboratorio de Avaliacao e Desenvolvimento de Biomateriais do Nordeste; Santos, Luis Alberto dos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Departamento de Materiais

    2015-01-15

    Bioactivity, osteogenicity and mechanical properties of α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) based phosphates cements can be improved by adding tricalcium silicate (C{sub 3}S); however, the addition of C{sub 3}S delays the precipitation and growth of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA). Thus, the aim of this work was the study of in situ setting reaction of α-TCP/C{sub 3}S composite bone cement under high energy X-ray generated by a synchrotron source within the first 72h. The results showed that the addition of C{sub 3}S induces the precipitation of nanosized CDHA at early times depending on the added content. Calculated crystallite sizes showed that the higher the content of C{sub 3}S, the smaller the crystal size at the beginning of the precipitation. These results are different from those obtained by conventional XRD method, suggesting that the proposed technique is a powerful tool in determining the composition and extent of reaction of CPCs surfaces in real time. (author)

  7. 40 CFR 721.10018 - Calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6(OH)2O2(Si2O5)3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10018 Calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6(OH)2O2... substance identified as calcium hydroxide oxide silicate (Ca6(OH)2O2(Si2O5)3) (PMN P-01-442; CAS No. 13169...

  8. Calcium silicate ceramic scaffolds toughened with hydroxyapatite whiskers for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Pei; Wei, Pingpin; Li, Pengjian; Gao, Chengde; Shuai, Cijun; Peng, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    Calcium silicate possessed excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity and degradability, while the high brittleness limited its application in load-bearing sites. Hydroxyapatite whiskers ranging from 0 to 30 wt.% were incorporated into the calcium silicate matrix to improve the strength and fracture resistance. Porous scaffolds were fabricated by selective laser sintering. The effects of hydroxyapatite whiskers on the mechanical properties and toughening mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that the scaffolds had a uniform and continuous inner network with the pore size ranging between 0.5 mm and 0.8 mm. The mechanical properties were enhanced with increasing hydroxyapatite whiskers, reached a maximum at 20 wt.% (compressive strength: 27.28 MPa, compressive Young's modulus: 156.2 MPa, flexural strength: 15.64 MPa and fracture toughness: 1.43 MPa·m 1/2 ) and then decreased by addition of more hydroxyapatite whiskers. The improvement of mechanical properties was due to whisker pull-out, crack deflection and crack bridging. Moreover, the degradation rate decreased with the increase of hydroxyapatite whisker content. A layer of bone-like apatite was formed on the scaffold surfaces after being soaked in simulated body fluid. Human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells spread well on the scaffolds and proliferated with increasing culture time. These findings suggested that the calcium silicate scaffolds reinforced with hydroxyapatite whiskers showed great potential for bone regeneration and tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • HA whiskers were incorporated into CS to improve the properties. • The scaffolds were successfully fabricated by SLS. • Toughening mechanisms was whisker pull-out, crack deflection and bridging. • The scaffolds showed excellent apatite forming ability

  9. Biocompatibility of a new nanomaterial based on calcium silicate implanted in subcutaneous connective tissue of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Violeta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate rat connective tissue response to a new calcium silicate system 7, 15, 30 and 60 days after implantation. Twenty Wistar albino male rats received two tubes half-filled with a new calcium silicate system (NCSS or MTA in subcutaneous tissue. The empty half of the tubes served as controls. Five animals were sacrificed after 7, 15, 30 and 60 days and samples of the subcutaneous tissue around implanted material were submitted to histological analysis. The intensity of inflammation was evaluated based on the number of inflammatory cells present. Statistical analysis was performed using one way ANOVA and Holm Sidak's multiple comparison tests. Mild to moderate inflammatory reaction was observed after 7, 15 and 30 days around a NCSS while mild inflammatory reaction was detected after 60 days of implantation. In the MTA group, mild to moderate inflammatory reaction was found after 7 and 15 days while mild inflammatory reaction was present after 30 and 60 days. There was no statistically significant difference in the intensity of inflammatory reactions between the tested materials and control groups in any experimental period (ANOVA p>0.05. Regarding the intensity of inflammatory reactions at different experimental periods, a statistically significant difference was observed between 7 and 30 days, 7 and 60 days and 15 to 60 days for both materials. For the controls, a statistically significant difference was found between 7 and 60 days and 15 and 60 days of the experiment (Holm Sidak < p 0.001. Subcutaneous tissue of rats showed good tolerance to a new calcium silicate system. Inflammatory reaction was similar to that caused by MTA. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172026

  10. Calcium silicate ceramic scaffolds toughened with hydroxyapatite whiskers for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Pei [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Central South University, Changsha 410083, PR China, (China); Wei, Pingpin [Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha 410078 (China); Li, Pengjian; Gao, Chengde [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Central South University, Changsha 410083, PR China, (China); Shuai, Cijun, E-mail: shuai@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Complex Manufacturing, Central South University, Changsha 410083, PR China, (China); Department of Regenerative Medicine and Cell Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States); Peng, Shuping, E-mail: shuping@csu.edu.cn [Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha 410078 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Calcium silicate possessed excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity and degradability, while the high brittleness limited its application in load-bearing sites. Hydroxyapatite whiskers ranging from 0 to 30 wt.% were incorporated into the calcium silicate matrix to improve the strength and fracture resistance. Porous scaffolds were fabricated by selective laser sintering. The effects of hydroxyapatite whiskers on the mechanical properties and toughening mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that the scaffolds had a uniform and continuous inner network with the pore size ranging between 0.5 mm and 0.8 mm. The mechanical properties were enhanced with increasing hydroxyapatite whiskers, reached a maximum at 20 wt.% (compressive strength: 27.28 MPa, compressive Young's modulus: 156.2 MPa, flexural strength: 15.64 MPa and fracture toughness: 1.43 MPa·m{sup 1/2}) and then decreased by addition of more hydroxyapatite whiskers. The improvement of mechanical properties was due to whisker pull-out, crack deflection and crack bridging. Moreover, the degradation rate decreased with the increase of hydroxyapatite whisker content. A layer of bone-like apatite was formed on the scaffold surfaces after being soaked in simulated body fluid. Human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells spread well on the scaffolds and proliferated with increasing culture time. These findings suggested that the calcium silicate scaffolds reinforced with hydroxyapatite whiskers showed great potential for bone regeneration and tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • HA whiskers were incorporated into CS to improve the properties. • The scaffolds were successfully fabricated by SLS. • Toughening mechanisms was whisker pull-out, crack deflection and bridging. • The scaffolds showed excellent apatite forming ability.

  11. Experimental study and field application of calcium sulfoaluminate cement for rapid repair of concrete pavements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhua GUAN; Ying GAO; Renjuan SUN; Moon C.WON; Zhi GE

    2017-01-01

    The fast-track repair of deteriorated concrete pavement requires materials that can be placed,cured,and opened to the traffic in a short period.Type Ⅲ cement and Calcium Sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement are the most commonly used fast-setting hydraulic cement (FSHC).In this study,the properties of Type Ⅲ and CSA cement concrete,including compressive strength,coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and shrinkage were evaluated.The test results indicate that compressive strength of FSHC concrete increased rapidly at the early age.CSA cement concrete had higher early-age and long term strength.The shrinkage of CSA cement concrete was lower than that of Type Ⅲ cement concrete.Both CSA and Type Ⅲ cement concrete had similar CTE values.Based on the laboratory results,the CSA cement was selected as the partial-depth rapid repair material for a distressed continuously reinforced concrete pavement.The data collected during and after the repair show that the CSA cement concrete had good short-term and long-term performances and,therefore,was suitable for the rapid repair of concrete pavement.

  12. Odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells by calcium silicate materials stimulating via FGFR/ERK signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chao-Hsin; Hung, Chi-Jr; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Lin, Chi-Chang; Kao, Chia-Tze; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-01-01

    Bone healing needs a complex interaction of growth factors that establishes an environment for efficient bone formation. We examine how calcium silicate (CS) and tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) cements influence the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) through fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and active MAPK pathways, in particular ERK. The hDPCs are cultured with β-TCP and CS, after which the cells' viability and odontogenic differentiation markers are determined by using PrestoBlue® assay and western blot, respectively. The effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection targeting FGFR was also evaluated. The results showed that CS promoted cell proliferation and enhances FGFR expression. It was also found that CS increases ERK and p38 activity in hDPCs, and furthermore, raises the expression and secretion of DSP, and DMP-1. Additionally, statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) have been found in the calcium deposition in si-FGFR transfection and ERK inhibitor between CS and β-TCP; these variations indicated that ERK/MAPK signaling is involved in the silicon-induced odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs. The current study shows that CS substrates play a key role in odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs through FGFR and modulate ERK/MAPK activation. - Highlights: • CS influences the behavior of hDPCs through fibroblast growth factor receptor. • CS increases ERK and p38 activity in hDPCs. • ERK/MAPK signaling is involved in the Si-induced odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs. • Ca staining shows that FGFR regulates hDPC differentiation on CS, but not on β-TCP

  13. Leach characterization of cement encapsulated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; Scheetz, B.E.; Wakeley, L.D.; Barnes, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    Matrix encapsulation of defense nuclear waste as well as intermediate-level commercial wastes within a low-temperature cementitious composite were investigated. The cements for this study included both as-received and modified calcium silicate and calcium aluminate cements. Specimens were prepared following conventional formulation techniques designed to produce dense monoliths, followed by curing at 60 0 C. An alternative preparation procedure is contrasted in which the specimens were ''warm'' pressed in a uniaxial press at 150 0 C at 50,000 psi for 0.5 h. Specimens of the waste/cement composites were leached in deionized water following three different procedures which span a wide range of temperatures and solution saturation conditions. Aluminate and compositionally adjusted silicate cements exhibited a better retentivity for Cs and Sr than did the as-received silicate cement. 15 refs

  14. The effects of excess calcium on the handling and mechanical properties of hydrothermal derived calcium phosphate bone cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, N. N.; Sukardi, M. A.; Sopyan, I.; Mel, M.; Salleh, H. M.; Rahman, M. M.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effects of excess calcium on the handling and mechanical properties of hydrothermal derived calcium phosphate cement (CPC) for bone filling applications. Hydroxyapatite powder was synthesized via hydrothermal method using calcium oxide, CaO and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, NH4H2PO4 as the calcium and phosphorus precursors respectively. The effects of calcium excess were evaluated by varying the CaO content at 0, 5 and 15 mole %. The precursors were then refluxed in distilled water at 90-100°C and dried overnight until the calcium phosphate powder was formed. CPC was then produced by mixing the synthesized powder with distilled water at the powder-to-liquid (P/L) ratio of 1.5. The result from the morphological properties of CPC shows the increase in agglomeration and particles size with 5 mole % of calcium excess but decreased with 15 mole % of calcium excess in CPC. This result was in agreement with the compressive strength result where the CPC increased its strength with 5 mole % of calcium excess but reduced with 15 mole % of calcium excess. The excess in calcium precursor also significantly improved the setting time but reduced the injectability of CPC.

  15. Preparation of in situ hardening composite microcarriers: Calcium phosphate cement combined with alginate for bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hui; Lee, Eun-Jung; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2014-01-01

    Novel microcarriers consisting of calcium phosphate cement and alginate were prepared for use as three-dimensional scaffolds for the culture and expansion of cells that are effective for bone tissue engineering. The calcium phosphate cement-alginate composite microcarriers were produced by an emulsification of the composite aqueous solutions mixed at varying ratios (calcium phosphate cement powder/alginate solution = 0.8–1.2) in an oil bath and the subsequent in situ hardening of the compositions during spherodization. Moreover, a porous structure could be easily created in the solid microcarriers by soaking the produced microcarriers in water and a subsequent freeze-drying process. Bone mineral-like apatite nanocrystallites were shown to rapidly develop on the calcium phosphate cement–alginate microcarriers under moist conditions due to the conversion of the α-tricalcium phosphate phase in the calcium phosphate cement into a carbonate–hydroxyapatite. Osteoblastic cells cultured on the microspherical scaffolds were proven to be viable, with an active proliferative potential during 14 days of culture, and their osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity. The in situ hardening calcium phosphate cement–alginate microcarriers developed herein may be used as potential three-dimensional scaffolds for cell delivery and tissue engineering of bone. PMID:23836845

  16. Properties of calcium silicate-monobasic calcium phosphate materials for endodontics containing tantalum pentoxide and zirconium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamparini, Fausto; Siboni, Francesco; Prati, Carlo; Taddei, Paola; Gandolfi, Maria Giovanna

    2018-05-08

    The aim of the study was to evaluate chemical-physical properties and apatite-forming ability of three premixed calcium silicate materials containing monobasic calcium phosphate (CaH 4 P 2 O 8 ) bioceramic, tantalum pentoxide and zirconium oxide, recently marketed for endodontics (TotalFill BC-Sealer, BC-RRM-Paste, BC-RRM-Putty). Microchemical and micromorphological analyses, radiopacity, initial and final setting times, calcium release and alkalising activity were tested. The nucleation of calcium phosphates (CaPs) and/or apatite after 28 days ageing was evaluated by ESEM-EDX and micro-Raman spectroscopy. BC-Sealer and BC-RRM-Paste showed similar initial (23 h), prolonged final (52 h) setting times and good radiopacity (> 7 mm Al); BC-RRM-Putty showed fast initial (2 h) and final setting times (27 h) and excellent radiopacity (> 9 mm Al). All materials induced a marked alkalisation (pH 11-12) up to 28 days and showed the release of calcium ions throughout the entire test period (cumulative calcium release 641-806 ppm). After 28 days ageing, a well-distributed mineral layer was present on all samples surface; EDX demonstrated relevant calcium and phosphorous peaks. B-type carbonated apatite and calcite deposits were identified by micro-Raman spectroscopy on all the 28-day-aged samples; the deposit thickness was higher on BC-RRM-Paste and BC-RRM-Putty, in agreement with calcium release data. These materials met the required chemical and physical standards and released biologically relevant ions. The CaSi-CaH 4 P 2 O 8 system present in the materials provided Ca and OH ions release with marked abilities to nucleate a layer of B-type carbonated apatite favoured/accelerated by the bioceramic presence. The ability to nucleate apatite may lead many clinical advantages: In orthograde endodontics, it may improve the sealing ability by the deposition of CaPs at the material-root dentine interface, and in endodontic surgery, it could promote bone and

  17. Calcium aluminate cement hydration in a high alkalinity environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomo, Á.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper forms part of a broader research project that aims primarily to devise new cementitious products via the alkali activation of silico-aluminous materials. This work addresses the possibility of using small percentages of calcium aluminate cement (CAC as a source of reactive aluminium. For this reason, a preliminary review was needed of the behaviour of CACs in highly alkaline media (2, 8 and 12M NaOH solutions. Two, 28- and 180-day mechanical strength was determined and the reaction products were characterized with XRD and FTIR. The water-hydrated CAC was used as the control.The results obtained showed that CAC hardening took place much more slowly in highly alkaline media than in water. Nonetheless, the 28-day compressive strength obtained, ≥80MPa. As main reaction products, to ambient temperature and from the two days of cured, cubic aluminate C3AH6, and AH3 polymorphs are formed, instead of the usual hexagonal aluminatos (CAH10 and C2AH8 that are formed in the normal hydrate with water.El presente trabajo forma parte de una amplia investigación cuyo objetivo principal es el de elaborar nuevos materiales con propiedades cementantes mediante la activación alcalina de materiales de naturaleza silito-aluminosa. En estos estudios se contempla la posibilidad de utilizar pequeños porcentajes de cemento de aluminato de calcio (CAC como fuente de aluminio reactivo. Por ello inicialmente se ha estudiado el comportamiento de los CAC en medios fuertemente alcalinos (disoluciones de NaOH 2M, 8M y 12M. Se determinaron las resistencias mecánicas a 2, 28 y 180 días y se realizó una caracterización de los productos de reacción formados por DRX, FTIR. Como sistema de referencia se consideró la hidratación del CAC con agua.Los resultados obtenidos muestran que en medios fuertemente alcalinos se retrasan los procesos de rápido endurecimiento de CAC con agua. No obstante a 28 días se obtienen valores de resistencia a compresión

  18. Fluorescence emission behavior of Eu(III) sorbed on calcium silicate hydrates as a secondary mineral formed without drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niibori, Yuichi; Narita, Masayuki; Chida, Taiji; Mimura, Hitoshi; Kirishima, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is a main component of cement-based material required for constructing the geological repository. As in many countries, since the repository in Japan is constructed below water table, we must consider the interaction of radionuclide with cement materials altered around the repository after the backfill. Using fluorescence emission spectra, so far, the authors have investigated the interaction of Eu(III) (as a chemical analog of Am(III)) with CSH gels as a secondary mineral formed without drying process, considering a condition saturated with groundwater. However, in such fluorescence emission behaviors, a deexcitation process of OH vibrators of light water and a quenching effect caused by Eu-Eu energy transfer between Eu atoms incorporated in the CSH gel must be considered. This study examined the fluorescence emission behavior of Eu(III) sorbed on CSH gels, by using La(III) (non-fluorescent ions) as a diluent of Eu(III). Furthermore, CSH samples were synthesized with CaO, SiO 2 , and heavy water (D 2 O) as a solvent in order to avoid the obvious deexcitation process of OH vibrators of light water. In the results, the peak around 618 nm was split into two peaks of 613 nm and 622 nm in the cases of Ca/Si=1.0 and 1.6. Then, the peak of 613 nm decreased with increment of Eu(III)/La(III) ratio. This means that the relative intensity of 613 nm is useful to quantify the amount of Eu(III) incorporated in CSH gel. Besides, the decay behavior of the fluorescence emission did not depend on the Eu/La concentration ratio. That is, such a quenching effect is neglectable. Additionally, the fluorescence emission spectra of Eu(III) showed that the state of Eu(III) depended on Ca/Si ratio of CSH. This suggested that there was several sites in CSH to incorporate Eu(III). When CSH is altered, whole cementitious material in repository must be altered forming cracks and leaching some calcium compositions. Therefore, the adsorptive capacity of CSH might

  19. Reconstruction of radial bone defect in rat by calcium silicate biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Ahmad; Alidadi, Soodeh

    2018-05-15

    Despite many attempts, an appropriate therapeutic method has not yet been found to enhance bone formation, mechanical strength and structural and functional performances of large bone defects. In the present study, the bone regenerative potential of calcium silicate (CS) biomaterials combined with chitosan (CH) as calcium silicate/chitosan (CSC) scaffold was investigated in a critical radial bone defect in a rat model. The bioimplants were bilaterally implanted in the defects of 20 adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were euthanized and the bone specimens were harvested at the 56th postoperative day. The healed radial bones were evaluated by three-dimensional CT, radiology, histomorphometric analysis, biomechanics, and scanning electron microscopy. The XRD analysis of the CS biomaterial showed its similarity to wollastonite (β-SiCO 3 ). The degradation rate of the CSC scaffold was much higher and it induced milder inflammatory reaction when compared to the CH alone. More bone formation and higher biomechanical performance were observed in the CSC treated group in comparison with the CH treated ones in histological, CT scan and biomechanical examinations. Scanning electron microscopic observation demonstrated the formation of more hydroxyapatite crystals in the defects treated with CSC. This study showed that the CSC biomaterials could be used as proper biodegradable materials in the field of bone reconstruction and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Microstructure and mechanical properties of stainless steel/calcium silicate composites manufactured by selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeng; Wang, Lianfeng; Jia, Min; Cheng, Lingyu; Yan, Biao

    2017-02-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is raised as one kind of additive manufacturing (AM) which is based on the discrete-stacking concept. This technique can fabricate advanced composites with desirable properties directly from 3D CAD data. In this research, 316L stainless steel (316L SS) and different fractions of calcium silicate (CaSiO 3 ) composites (weight fractions of calcium silicate are 0%, 5%,10% and 15%, respectively) were prepared by SLM technique with a purpose to develop biomedical metallic materials. The relative density, tensile, microhardness and elastic modulus of the composites were tested, their microstructures and fracture morphologies were observed using optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the addition of CaSiO 3 particles influenced the microstructure and mechanical properties of specimens significantly. The CaSiO 3 precipitates from the overlap of adjacent tracks and became the origin of the defects. The tensile strength of specimens range 320-722MPa. The microhardness and elastic modulus are around 250HV and 215GPa respectively. These composites were ductile materials and the fracture mode of the composites was mixed mode of ductile and brittle fracture. The 316L SS/CaSiO 3 composites can be a potential biomedical metallic materials in the medical field. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Device for continuous radiometric determination of the calcium and iron content in raw slurry for cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasilewska, M.; Ostachowicz, J.; Lankosz, M.; Molodynska, W.

    1975-01-01

    The characteristic iron and calcium-K series were excited using a Cd-109 isotope source. In order to determine the calcium and iron content in dry slurry, the Compton-effect scattered radiation of the Cd-109 source in the sample was used. A numerical process was worked out which allowed the elimination of the influence of changing contents of iron and water on the results of the calcium content determinations, and a device for continuous radiometric determination of calcium and iron in raw slurry was designed and constructed. The device was installed in the cement plant 'Przyjazn' under technical measuring conditions and its applicability was tested. (orig./LH) [de

  2. CALCIUM ORTHOPHOSPHATES HYDRATES: FORMATION, STABILITY AND INFLUENCE ON STANDARD PROPERTIES OF PORTLAND CEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaziliunas A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of phosphogypsum to produce the binders requires a much higher input than preparation of natural gypsum stone. This makes it uncompetitive material. The investigations presented therein are meant to reduce this input by looking for the ways of rendering impurities harmless. Soluble acid orthophosphates are the main harmful impurity of phosphogypsum. The studies show that dry insoluble calcium orthophosphates hydrates (1.09 % and 2.18 % P2O5 in gypsum have little effect on W/C, setting times and soundness of Portland cement pastes. Insoluble calcium orthophosphates hydrates {CaHPO4∙2H2O, Ca8(HPO42(PO44∙5H2O and Ca9(HPO4(PO45(OH∙4H2O} formed in acidic medium (pH = 4.2 - 5.9 have been destroyed in alkaline medium and reduce standard compressive strength of cement up to 28 %. Calcium orthophosphates hydrates of hydroxyapatite group are stable in alcaline medium, while in dry state they reduce the standard compressive strength of cement until 10 %, but their suspensions prolong setting times of Portland cement as soluble orthophosphates – 2 - 3 times. Alkalis in cement increase pH of paste, but do not change the process of formation of calcium orthophosphates hydrates of hydroxyapatite group: it takes place through an intermediate phase - CaHPO4·2H2O, whose transformation into apatite lasts for 2 - 3 months.

  3. Effects of Montmorillonite on the Mineralization and Cementing Properties of Microbiologically Induced Calcium Carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate mineralization microbe is a microorganism capable of decomposing the substrate in the metabolic process to produce the carbonate, which then forms calcium carbonate with calcium ions. By taking advantage of this process, contaminative uranium tailings can transform to solid cement, where calcium carbonate plays the role of a binder. In this paper, we have studied the morphology of mineralized crystals by controlling the mineralization time and adding different concentrations of montmorillonite (MMT. At the same time, we also studied the effect of carbonate mineralized cementation uranium tailings by controlling the amount of MMT. The results showed that MMT can regulate the crystal morphology of calcium carbonate. What is more, MMT can balance the acidity and ions in the uranium tailings; it also can reduce the toxicity of uranium ions on microorganisms. In addition, MMT filling in the gap between the uranium tailings made the cement body more stable. When the amount of MMT is 6%, the maximum strength of the cement body reached 2.18 MPa, which increased by 47.66% compared with that the sample without MMT. Therefore, it is reasonable and feasible to use the MMT to regulate the biocalcium carbonate cemented uranium tailings.

  4. Hydration of Blended Portland Cements Containing Calcium-Aluminosilicate Glass Powder and Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, M; Poulsen, Søren Lundsted; Herfort, D

    2012-01-01

    M. MOESGAARD, S.L. POULSEN, D. HERFORT, M. STEENBERG, L.F. KIRKEGAARD, J. SKIBSTED, Y. YUE, Hydration of Blended Portland Cements Containing Calcium-Aluminosilicate Glass Powder and Limestone, Journal of the American Ceramic Society 95, 403 – 409 (2012).......M. MOESGAARD, S.L. POULSEN, D. HERFORT, M. STEENBERG, L.F. KIRKEGAARD, J. SKIBSTED, Y. YUE, Hydration of Blended Portland Cements Containing Calcium-Aluminosilicate Glass Powder and Limestone, Journal of the American Ceramic Society 95, 403 – 409 (2012)....

  5. Impact of fuel selection on the environmental performance of post-combustion calcium looping applied to a cement plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, Wouter; Hung, Christine Roxanne; Tokheim, Lars Andre; Strømman, Anders Hammer; Worrell, Ernst; Ramírez, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Calcium looping CO2 capture is a promising technology to reduce CO2 emissions from cement production. Coal has been seen as a logical choice of fuel to drive the calcium looping process as coal is already the primary fuel used to produce cement. This study assesses the impact of using different

  6. Sodium Silicate Gel Effect on Cemented Tailing Backfill That Contains Lead-Zinc Smelting Slag at Early Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the priming effect of sodium silicate gel (SS on cemented tailing backfill (CTB that contains lead-zinc smelting slag. CTB and cemented paste (CP containing lead-zinc smelting slag samples with SS of 0 and 0.4% of the mass of the slag were prepared and cured at 20°C for 1, 3, 7, and 28 days. Mechanical test and pore structure analyses were performed on the studied CTB samples, microstructural analyses (X-ray diffraction analysis and thermal gravity analysis were performed on the studied CP samples, whereas the electrical conductivity of CTB was monitored. The results reveal that SS has a significant positive effect on cementitious activity of binder mixed by cement and lead-zinc smelting slag. This activation leads to the acceleration of binder hydration process, the formation of more cement hydration products in the CTBs, and the refinement of their pore structure, which is favorable for the strength development of CTB.

  7. Effect of temperature on the microstructure of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallucci, E., E-mail: gallucci.emmanuel@ch.sika.com; Zhang, X.; Scrivener, K.L.

    2013-11-15

    Temperature affects the properties of concrete through its effect on the hydration of cement and its associated microstructural development. This paper focuses on the modifications to C-S-H induced by isothermal curing between 5 and 60 °C. The results show that as the temperature increases (within the range studied) the C/S ratio of C-S-H changes only slightly, with a higher degree of polymerisation of silicate chains, but there is a significant decrease in its bound water content and an increase of apparent density of 25%. This increase seems to come from a different packing of C-S-H at the nanoscale. As a consequence of these changes, the microstructure of the cement paste is much coarser and porous, which explains the lower final strengths obtained by curing at elevated temperatures. -- Highlights: •C-S-H structure studied at the atomic level •Multiple analytical techniques used •Studies conducted at temperatures above and below normal temperatures.

  8. Production and characterization of setting hydraulic cements based on calcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Luci C. de; Rigo, Eliana C.S.; Santos, Luis A dos; Boschi, Anselmo Ortega; Carrodeguas, Raul G.

    1997-01-01

    Setting hydraulic cements based on calcium phosphate has risen great interest in scientific literature during recent years due to their total bio compatibility and to the fact that they harden 'in situ', providing easy handling and adaptation to the shape and dimensions of the defect which requires correction, differently from the predecessors, the calcium phosphate ceramics (Hydroxy apatite, β-tri calcium phosphate, biphasic, etc) in the shape of dense or porous blocks and grains. In the work, three calcium-phosphate cement compositions were studied. The resulting compositions were characterized according to the following aspects: setting times, pH, mechanical resistance, crystalline phases, microstructure and solubility in SBF (Simulated Body Fluid). The results show a potential use for the compositions. (author)

  9. Physicochemical properties and biocompatibility of chitosan oligosaccharide/gelatin/calcium phosphate hybrid cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Ting-Yi [Department of Dental Laboratory Technology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 406, Taiwan (China); Ho, Chia-Che [Institute of Oral Biology and Biomaterials Science, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Chen, David Chan-Hen [Institute of Veterinary Microbiology, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Lai, Meng-Heng [Institute of Oral Biology and Biomaterials Science, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Ding, Shinn-Jyh, E-mail: sjding@csmu.edu.tw [Institute of Oral Biology and Biomaterials Science, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung-Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2010-04-15

    A bone substitute material was developed consisting of a chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) solution in a liquid phase and gelatin (GLT) containing calcium phosphate powder in a solid phase. The physicochemical and biocompatible properties of the hybrid cements were evaluated. The addition of COS to cement did not affect the setting time or diametral tensile strength of the hybrid cements, whereas GLT significantly prolonged the setting time and decreased the strength slightly. The setting reaction was inhibited by the addition of GLT to the initial mixture, but not by COS. However, the presence of GLT appreciably improved the anti-washout properties of the hybrid cement compared with COS. COS may promote the cement's biocompatibility as an approximate twofold increase in cell proliferation for 10% COS-containing cements was observed on day 3 as compared with the controls. The combination of GLT and COS was chosen due to the benefits achieved from several synergistic effects and for their clinical applications. Cement with 5% GLT and 10% COS may be a better choice among cements in terms of anti-washout properties and biological activity.

  10. Reduced CSF leak in complete calvarial reconstructions of microvascular decompression craniectomies using calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eseonu, Chikezie I; Goodwin, C Rory; Zhou, Xin; Theodros, Debebe; Bender, Matthew T; Mathios, Dimitrios; Bettegowda, Chetan; Lim, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Calcium phosphate cement provides a biomaterial that can be used for calvarial reconstruction in a retrosigmoid craniectomy for microvascular decompression (MVD). This study evaluates the outcomes of postoperative CSF leak and wound infection for patients undergoing a complete cranioplasty using calcium phosphate cement versus incomplete cranioplasty using polyethylene titanium mesh following a retrosigmoid craniectomy for MVD. The authors evaluated 211 cases involving patients who underwent first-time retrosigmoid craniectomies performed by a single attending surgeon fortrigeminal neuralgia from October 2008 to June 2014. From this patient population, 111 patients underwent calvarial reconstruction after retrosigmoid craniectomy using polyethylene titanium mesh, and 100 patients had reconstructions using calcium phosphate cement. A Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare postoperative complications of CSF leak and wound infection in these 2 types of cranioplasties. The polyethylene titanium mesh group included 5 patients (4.5%) with postoperative CSF leak or pseudomeningocele and 3 patients (2.7%) with wound infections. In the calcium phosphate cement group, no patients had a CSF leak, and 2 patients (2%) had wound infections. This represented a statistically significant reduction of postoperative CSF leak in patients who underwent calcium phosphate reconstructions of their calvarial defect compared with those who underwent polyethylene titanium mesh reconstructions (p = 0.03). No significant difference was seen between the 2 groups in the number of patients with postoperative wound infections. Calcium phosphate cement provides a viable alternative biomaterial for calvarial reconstruction of retrosigmoid craniectomy defects in patients who have an MVD. The application of this material provides a biocompatible barrier that reduces the incidence of postoperative CSF leaks.

  11. Preparation and characterization of a novel injectable strontium-containing calcium phosphate cement with collagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Ziqiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop a novel injectable strontium-containing calcium phosphate cement with collagen. Methods: A novel calcium phosphate bone cement (CPC was prepared with the addition of strontium element, collagenⅠ, and modified starch; the injectability, solidification time, microstructure, phase composition, compressive strength, anti-collapsibility and histological properties of material were evaluated. Results: The results showed that the material could be injected with an excellent performance; the modified starch significantly improved the anti-washout property of cement; with the liquid to solid ratio of 0.3, the largest compressive strength of cement was obtained (48.0 MPa ± 2.3 MPa; histological examination of repair tissue showed that the bone was repaired after 16 weeks; the degradation of cement was consistent with the new bone growth. Conclusion: A novel injectable collagen-strontium-containing CPC with excellent compressive strength and suitable setting time was prepared, with addition of modified starch. The CPC showed a good antiwashout property and the degradation time of the cement met with the new bone growing. This material is supposed to be used in orthopedic and maxillofacial surgery for bone defects.

  12. A theranostic agent to enhance osteogenic and magnetic resonance imaging properties of calcium phosphate cements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ventura, M.; Sun, Y.; Cremers, S.; Borm, P.; Tahmasebi Birgani, Zeinab; Habibovic, Pamela; Heerschap, A.; van der Kraan, P.M.; Jansen, J.A.; Walboomers, X.F.

    2014-01-01

    With biomimetic biomaterials, like calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), non-invasive assessment of tissue regeneration is challenging. This study describes a theranostic agent (TA) to simultaneously enhance both imaging and osteogenic properties of such a bone substitute material. For this purpose,

  13. Effect of Different Irrigation Solutions on the Colour Stability of Three Calcium Silicate-Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhnamayan F

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Statement of Problem: Previous studies have shown discoloration of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA in contact with root canal irrigation solutions. However, there are limited data on colour stability of other calcium silicate–based materials (CSMs. Objectives: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the colour stability of three CSMs in contact with different irrigation solutions. Materials and Methods: Three CSMs including White MTA (wMTA Angelus, calcium enriched mixture (CEM, and Biodentine were assessed in this study. Forty five samples of each material were mixed according to the manufactures’ instructions and then placed in silicone tubes. After 24 hours, the materials were removed from the moulds and 9 samples of each material left dry or immersed in normal saline, 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL, 2% chlorhexidinegluconate (CHX, or 17%EDTA for 24 hours. Colour changes were measured with a spectrophotometer. Data were evaluated with 2-way analysis of variance, one way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests. Results: The highest discoloration of all materials was observed after contact with CHX. In the MTA Angelus and CEM cement groups, significant differences were observed between CHX and NaOCl and also between these two irrigants with the other three irrigants (p < 0.05. In the Biodentine group, CHX created statistically significant discoloration compared to other irrigants (p < 0.05. Only wMTA Angelus showed a significantly higher discoloration in contact with EDTA compared to normal saline and dry condition (p < 0.05. wMTA Angelus showed a significantly higher colour change compared with CEM cement and Biodentine after contact with NaOCl, CHX, and EDTA (p < 0.05. Conclusions: The contact of wMTA, CEM cement, and Biodentine with CHX should be avoided because this leads to severe discoloration. Contact with sodium hypochlorite also leads to discoloration of wMTA and CEM cements. Among of the three tested materials, w

  14. Stabilisation of clayey soils with high calcium fly ash and cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Kolias; V. Kasselouri-Rigopoulou; A. Karahalios [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2005-02-01

    The effectiveness of using high calcium fly ash and cement in stabilising fine-grained clayey soils (CL,CH) was investigated in the laboratory. Strength tests in uniaxial compression, in indirect (splitting) tension and flexure were carried out on samples to which various percentages of fly ash and cement had been added. Modulus of elasticity was determined at 90 days with different types of load application and 90-day soaked CBR values are also reported. Pavement structures incorporating subgrades improved by in situ stabilisation with fly ash and cement were analyzed for construction traffic and for operating traffic. These pavements are compared with conventional flexible pavements without improved subgrades and the results clearly show the technical benefits of stabilising clayey soils with fly ash and cement. In addition TG-SDTA and XRD tests were carried out on certain samples in order to study the hydraulic compounds, which were formed.

  15. The role of calcium ions and lignosulphonate plasticiser in the hydration of cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grierson, L.H.; Knight, J.C.; Maharaj, R.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments involving equilibrium dialysis, conductivity, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) have been carried out to investigate the role of calcium ions and polymeric plasticisers in cement/admixture hydration. Results from a study of lignosulphonic acid, sodium salt, acetate as a plasticiser shows that a plasticiser has dual role; one mainly as a kinetic inhibitor (poison) in cement hydration mechanism and the other as a dispersant. Evidence of a weak Ca 2+ binding to lignosulphonate sulphonic moieties was found at low ionic strengths of 0.1 M using ITC. No evidence of formal Ca 2+ binding to lignosulphonate sulphonic acid moieties was found using equilibrium dialysis at higher ionic strength of 1 M (ionic strengths of 0.4 M are typically found in Portland cement pore solution), as is often suggested in cement/admixture literature

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of stainless steel/calcium silicate composites manufactured by selective laser melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Shanghai Key Lab. of D& A for Metal-Functional Materials, Shanghai 201804 (China); Wang, Lianfeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Shanghai Aerospace Equipments Manufacturer, Shanghai 200240 (China); Jia, Min [Shanghai Aircraft Manufacturing Co., Ltd, Shanghai 200436 (China); Cheng, Lingyu [Shanghai Aerospace Equipments Manufacturer, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yan, Biao, E-mail: 84016@tongji.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Shanghai Key Lab. of D& A for Metal-Functional Materials, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is raised as one kind of additive manufacturing (AM) which is based on the discrete-stacking concept. This technique can fabricate advanced composites with desirable properties directly from 3D CAD data. In this research, 316L stainless steel (316L SS) and different fractions of calcium silicate (CaSiO{sub 3}) composites (weight fractions of calcium silicate are 0%, 5%,10% and 15%, respectively) were prepared by SLM technique with a purpose to develop biomedical metallic materials. The relative density, tensile, microhardness and elastic modulus of the composites were tested, their microstructures and fracture morphologies were observed using optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the addition of CaSiO{sub 3} particles influenced the microstructure and mechanical properties of specimens significantly. The CaSiO{sub 3} precipitates from the overlap of adjacent tracks and became the origin of the defects. The tensile strength of specimens range 320–722 MPa. The microhardness and elastic modulus are around 250 HV and 215 GPa respectively. These composites were ductile materials and the fracture mode of the composites was mixed mode of ductile and brittle fracture. The 316L SS/CaSiO{sub 3} composites can be a potential biomedical metallic materials in the medical field. - Highlights: • 316L SS/CaSiO{sub 3} composites were fabricated by selective laser melting. • Microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance of samples was studied. • Composites is a ductile material and mixed mode of ductile and brittle fracture. • Composites is a potential biomedical metallic materials in the medical field.

  17. Fractionation and solubility of cadmium in paddy soils amended with porous hydrated calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Masaihiko, Saigusa

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that porous hydrated calcium silicate (PS) is very effective in decreasing cadmium (Cd) content in brown rice. However, it is unclear whether the PS influences cadmium transformation in soil. The present study examined the effect of PS on pH, cadmium transformation and cadmium solubility in Andosol and Alluvial soil, and also compared its effects with CaCO3, acidic porous hydrated calcium silicate (APS) and silica gel. Soil cadmium was operationally fractionationed into exchangeable (Exch), bound to carbonates (Carb), bound to iron and manganese oxides (FeMnO(x)), bound to organic matters (OM) and residual (Res) fraction. Application of PS and CaCO3 at hig rates enhanced soil pH, while APS and silica gel did not obviously change soil pH. PS and CaCO3 also increased the FeMnO(x)-Cd in Andosol and Carb-Cd in Alluvial soil, thus reducing the Exch-Cd in the tested soils. However, PS was less effective than CaCO3 at the same application rate. Cadmium fractions in the two soils were not changed by the treatments of APS and silica gel. There were no obvious differences in the solubility of cadmium in soils treated with PS, APS, silica gel and CaCO3 except Andosol treated 2.0% CaCO3 at the same pH of soil-CaCl2 suspensions. These findings suggested that the decrease of cadmium availability in soil was mainly attributed to the increase of soil pH caused by PS.

  18. Hydration process for calcium-aluminate cement within EVA emulsion by SPring-8 synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotera, Masaru; Matsuda, Ikuyo; Miyashita, Keiko; Adachi, Nobuyuki; Tamura, Hisayuki

    2005-01-01

    Polymer-modified mortars which consist of a polymer emulsion and cement materials have been widely developed in the construction materials fields. Forming process of the polymer-modified cement membrane simultaneously involves evaporation of water within the polymer emulsion and hydration of cement. It is important for the polymer-modified cement paste that the hydrate crystal of cement is generating by the hydration during the setting process under existence of the polymer emulsion. In this study, hydration process for calcium-aluminate cement under existence of poly (ethylene-vinyl acetate) (EVA) emulsion (polymer-cement ratio=100%) was investigated by X-ray diffraction method using synchrotron radiation (SPring-8). The diffraction peaks of calcium aluminate (CA) disappeared after the hardening, on the other hand, the peaks of hydrate crystals of calcium-aluminate cement (C 2 AH 8 and C 3 AH 6 ) could be observed. This polymer-modified cement paste hydrated using the water within the polymer emulsion. The hydration of C 2 AH 8 from CA started at around 300 min, and then C 3 AH 6 hydrate crystal increased after 700 min at ambient temperature. This implies that the conversion from C 2 AH 8 to C 3 AH 6 occurred to be more stable phase. The setting temperature affected the reaction rate. In case of hydration at 35degC, the start time of the hydration for calcium-aluminate cement was quicker than that in the ambient temperature four or more times. (author)

  19. Development of a fully injectable calcium phosphate cement for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2003-01-27

    Jan 27, 2003 ... excellent alloplastic material for osseous augmentation because of the ... and basic calcium phosphate compounds on wetting with an aqueous ... ment of acute fracture of the radius through percutaneous administration of ...

  20. SEALING ABILITY OF MINERAL TRIOXIDE AGGREGATE, CALCIUM PHOSPHATE CEMENT, AND GLASS IONOMER CEMENT IN THE REPAIR OF FURCATION PERFORATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabath Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro sealing ability of three repair materials. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA; Group A, calcium phosphate cement (CPC; Group B, and light cured glass ionomer cement (GIC; Group C when used to repair the perforation created in the pulpal floor of fifty extracted human permanent molars. Materials and methods: Preparation of access openings and furcation perforations were done, and the teeth divided into five experimental groups (A, B, C including two controls (D, E with ten samples in each group randomly. Following the repair procedure, the pulp chambers and access openings were filled with composite resin and immersed in 2% methylene blue solution for 48 hours. The teeth were sectioned longitudinally and the linear dye penetration measured under a stereo­microscope. Results: The comparison of the linear length of micro-leakage (mm among the experimental groups revealed no significant difference (p = 0.332. On calculating the percentage of depth of leakage to the total length of the perforation, it was observed that the mean leakage was 35.5% in Group A, 53.6% in Group B and the highest, 87.5% in Group C. The mean of leakage percentage was statistically significant by Kruskal-Wallis test (p = 0.003. The results indicated that the dye penetration used as furcation perforation repair material was least with mineral trioxide aggregate. Comparing the depth of penetration of dye, 50% of the Group A samples showed less than 25% of depth penetration. While 40% of Group B cases had more than 50% dye penetration. In our study, all Group C teeth had ≥ 50% dye penetration. Conclusions: The present study indicated that GIC had the greatest dye penetration followed by CPC and MTA. Mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium phosphate cement had comparatively better sealing ability than glass ionomer cement.

  1. The mechanical properties and hydration characteristics of cement pastes containing added-calcium coal gangue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongxu Li; Xuyan Song [Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing (China). College of Material Science and Engineering

    2008-04-15

    The mechanical properties of several kinds of coal gangue calcined with limestone were researched so as to find the optimum way of calcinations with limestone. The microstructure and property of hydration process of cement pastes containing added-calcium coal gangue were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the method of mercury in trusion poremeasurement. When the proper amounst of gypsum and fluorite were taken as mineralizers in the course of calcinations of added-calcium coal gangue, the activity of coal gangue can be effectively improved. The results of mechanical property and structural characteristics such as hydration, hydration products and microstructure etc. of cement pastes containing added-calcium coal gangue are consistent.

  2. Early-age hydration and volume change of calcium sulfoaluminate cement-based binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaunsali, Piyush

    Shrinkage cracking is a predominant deterioration mechanism in structures with high surface-to-volume ratio. One way to allay shrinkage-induced stresses is to use calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement whose early-age expansion in restrained condition induces compressive stress that can be utilized to counter the tensile stresses due to shrinkage. In addition to enhancing the resistance against shrinkage cracking, CSA cement also has lower carbon footprint than that of Portland cement. This dissertation aims at improving the understanding of early-age volume change of CSA cement-based binders. For the first time, interaction between mineral admixtures (Class F fly ash, Class C fly ash, and silica fume) and OPC-CSA binder was studied. Various physico-chemical factors such as the hydration of ye'elimite (main component in CSA cement), amount of ettringite (the main phase responsible for expansion in CSA cement), supersaturation with respect to ettringite in cement pore solution, total pore volume, and material stiffness were monitored to examine early-age expansion characteristics. This research validated the crystallization stress theory by showing the presence of higher supersaturation level of ettringite, and therefore, higher crystallization stress in CSA cement-based binders. Supersaturation with respect to ettringite was found to increase with CSA dosage and external supply of gypsum. Mineral admixtures (MA) altered the expansion characteristics in OPC-CSA-MA binders with fixed CSA cement. This study reports that fly ash (FA) behaves differently depending on its phase composition. The Class C FA-based binder (OPC-CSA-CFA) ceased expanding beyond two days unlike other OPC-CSA-MA binders. Three factors were found to govern expansion of CSA cement-based binders: 1) volume fraction of ettringite in given pore volume, 2) saturation level of ettringite, and 3) dynamic modulus. Various models were utilized to estimate the macroscopic tensile stress in CSA cement

  3. Reinforcement of calcium phosphate cement with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and bovine serum albumin for injectable bone substitute applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chew, K.K.; Low, K.L.; Zein, S.H.S.; McPhail, D.; Gerhardt, L.C.; Roether, J.A.; Boccaccini, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of novel alternative injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) composites for orthopaedic applications. The new CPC composites comprise ß-tri-calcium phosphate (ß-TCP) and di-calcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) mixed with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and incorporated

  4. Strontium-doped calcium silicate bioceramic with enhanced in vitro osteogenic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    No, Young Jung; Roohaniesfahani, Seyediman; Lu, Zufu; Shi, Jeffrey; Zreiqat, Hala

    2017-06-05

    Gehlenite (GLN, Ca 2 SiAl 2 O 7 ) is a bioceramic that has been recently shown to possess excellent mechanical strength and in vitro osteogenic properties for bone regeneration. Substitutional incorporation of strontium in place of calcium is an effective way to further enhance biological properties of calcium-based bioceramics and glasses. However, such strategy has the potential to affect other important physicochemical parameters such as strength and degradation due to differences in the ionic radius of strontium and calcium. This study is the first to investigate the effect of a range of concentrations of strontium substitution of calcium at 1, 2, 5, 10 mol% (S1-GLN, S2-GLN, S5-GLN and S10-GLN) on the physicochemical and biological properties of GLN. We showed that up to 2 mol% strontium ion substitution retains the monophasic GLN structure when sintered at 1450 °C, whereas higher concentrations resulted in presence of calcium silicate impurities. Increased strontium incorporation resulted in changes in grain morphology and reduced densification when the ceramics were sintered at 1450 °C. Porous GLN, S1-GLN and S2-GLN scaffolds (∼80% porosity) showed compressive strengths of 2.05 ± 0.46 MPa, 1.76 ± 0.79 MPa and 1.57 ± 0.52 MPa respectively. S1-GLN and S2-GLN immersed in simulated body fluid showed increased strontium ion release but reduced calcium and silicon ion release compared to GLN without affecting overall weight loss and pH over a 21 d period. The bioactivity of the S2-GLN ceramics was significantly improved as reflected in the significant upregulation of HOB proliferation and differentiation compared to GLN. Overall, these results suggest that increased incorporation of strontium presents a trade-off between bioactivity and mechanical strength for GLN bioceramics. This is an important consideration in the development of strontium-doped bioceramics.

  5. In vitro and in vivo study of commercial calcium phosphate cement HydroSet™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Niall W; Blunn, Gordon; Karpukhina, Natalia; Davis, Graham; de Godoy, Roberta Ferro; Wilson, Rory M; Coathup, Melanie; Onwordi, Lyris; Quak, Wen Yu; Hill, Robert

    2018-01-01

    The commercial calcium phosphate cement, HydroSet™, was investigated in vitro, studying phase formation, compressive strength and setting time, followed by an ovine in vivo study to measure osseointegration, bone apposition and bone-to-graft contact. The X-ray diffraction and 31 P Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) results showed the initial formation of octacalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite at one hour. Over 7 days the octacalcium phosphate transformed to apatite, which was the only crystalline phase of the cement at 28 days. This apatite phase is thought to be a calcium deficient apatite. In the scanning electron microscopy, histological images of 12-week ovine in vivo results showed a high degree of osseointegration, 92.5%. Compressive strength comparisons between in vitro and in vivo measurements showed a dramatic difference between the in vitro measurements (highest 25.4 MPa) and in vivo (95 MPa), attributed to bone ingrowth into the cement in vivo. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time phase evolution of HydroSet™ and the properties studied in vitro complement the in vivo evaluation of the cement in a publication. The significance of the new finding of initial formation of octacalcium phosphate in this cement is discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 21-30, 2018. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Characterization of cement calcium phosphate for use dental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, C.M.B.; Oliveira, S.V.; Silva, M.C.; Marques, J.B.; Fook, M.V.L.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium phosphates are interesting biological and medical attention due to its occurrence in different animal species and humans. Ceramics based on calcium phosphate in the form of implants or porous particulate materials, have proven to be suitable replacements for bone tissue when they are only subjected to small mechanical stresses. Was obtained research laboratory DEMA/UFCG a calcium phosphate phase. The goal is to characterize the material by X-ray diffraction (XRD) in order to analyze what the phases and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to identify the absorption bands of the bonding characteristic. Was identified by XRD phase present in the sample is hydroxyapatite Ca/P 1.67. In infrared spectroscopy has absorption bands characteristic of the phosphate group at 1032 cm1 region. (author)

  7. Sealing ability of a new calcium silicate based material as a dentin substitute in class II sandwich restorations: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Viola Solomon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Class ll sandwich restorations are routinely performed where conventional Glass ionomer cement (GIC or Resin-modified GIC (RMGIC is used as a base or dentin substitute and a light curing composite resin restorative material is used as an enamel substitute. Various authors have evaluated the microleakage of composite resin restorations where glass ionomer cement has been used as a base in class II sandwich restorations, but a literature survey reveals limited studies on the microleakage analysis of similar restorations with biodentine as a dentin substitute, as an alternative to glass ionomer cement. The aim of this study is: To evaluate the marginal sealing efficacy of a new calcium-silicate-based material (Biodentine as a dentin substitute, at the cervical margins, in posterior class II sandwich restorations.To compare and evaluate the microleakage at the biodentine/composite interface with the microleakage at the resin-modified GIC/composite interface, in posterior class II open sandwich restorations. To compare the efficacy between a water-based etch and rinse adhesive (Scotch bond multipurpose and an acetone-based etch and rinse adhesive (Prime and bond NT, when bonding biodentine to the composite. To evaluate the enamel, dentin, and interfacial microleakage at the composite and biodentine/RMGIC interfaces. Materials and Methods: Fifty class II cavities were prepared on the mesial and distal surfaces of 25 extracted human maxillary third molars, which were randomly divided into five groups of ten cavities each: (G1 Biodentine group, (G2 Fuji II LC GIC group, (G3 Biodentine as a base + prime and bond NT + Tetric N-Ceram composite, (G4 Biodentine + scotchbond multi-purpose + Tetric N-Ceram composite, (G5 Fuji II LC as a base + prime and bond NT+ Tetric-N Ceram composite. The samples were then subjected to thermocycling, 2500× (5°C to 55°C, followed by the dye penetration test. Scores are given from 0 to 3 based on the depth of

  8. Calculation of calcium diffusion coefficient of cement hardenings using minute pore data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitomi, Takashi; Takeda, Nobufumi; Iriya, Keishiro

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the calculations of the diffusion coefficient of the Ca ion of cement hardenings using minute pore data. The observed hardenings were ordinary Portland cement (OPC), low-heat Portland cement with fly ash (LPC+FA) and highly fly ash containing silica fume cement (HFSC). The samples were cured in the standard and artificially leached by accelerated test. Minute pore datas of the cement hardenings were acquired with image processing of internal structural information obtained from high resolution X-ray computed tomography observations. Upon analysis, several voxels are combined into one bigger voxel, the diffusion coefficient of the voxels were determined in proportion to the number of voxels which were included in. The results reveal that the change in the calcium diffusion coefficient of OPC due to leaching was large, but the LPC+FA and HFSC cements exhibited even greater changes than OPC. It is suggested that the diffusion coefficients are proportional to the Ca/Si ratio of the samples. (author)

  9. Influence of saline solution on hydration behavior of β-dicalcium silicate in comparison with biphasic calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite bio-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwan, M.M., E-mail: mmahmoudradwan@yahoo.com [Ceramics Dept, National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt); Abd El-Hamid, H.K. [Ceramics Dept, National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt); Mohamed, A.F. [The Holding Company for Production of Vaccines, Sera and Drugs (EGYVAC) (Egypt)

    2015-12-01

    The influence of using saline solution as mixing and curing liquid on some characteristics of β-dicalcium silicate (β-C{sub 2}S) and biphasic compound tri-calcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite (TCP/HAp) bio-ceramics was investigated. β-C{sub 2}S (27–30 nm) was prepared by solid state reaction at 1450 °C, while biphasic compound TCP/HAp (7–15 nm) was synthesized from an aqueous solution of Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·12H{sub 2}O by chemical precipitation method. Setting times, compressive strength, pH values, X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were investigated. The evaluation of cytotoxicity of both calcium silicate and biphasic compounds to human gingival fibroblasts was carried out. The use of saline solution as mixing and immersing liquid shortened the setting time for the two bio-cements. TCP/HAp did not show any mechanical strength but β-C{sub 2}S showed good strength values. Both synthesized compounds showed a moderate cytotoxicity and both materials were effective in a no significant way. - Highlights: • The dissolution and hydration of β-C{sub 2}S and TCP/HAp in distilled water and saline solution were studied. • TCP/HAp did not show mechanical strength, while β-C{sub 2}S showed good mechanical strength. • The use of saline solution did enhances the dissolution & hydration rate. • An increase in pH values was detected when using saline solution. • Both materials showed a moderate cytotoxicity in no significant way.

  10. Osseointegration of nanohydroxyapatite- or nano-calcium silicate-incorporated polyetheretherketone bioactive composites in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma R

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rui Ma,1,2 Zhifeng Yu,1 Songchao Tang,3 Yongkang Pan,3 Jie Wei,3 Tingting Tang1 1Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implants, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shanxi Province, People’s Republic of China; 3Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Polyetheretherketone (PEEK exhibits appropriate biomechanical strength as well as good biocompatibility and stable chemical properties but lacks bioactivity and cannot achieve highly efficient osseointegration after implantation. Incorporating bioceramics into the PEEK matrix is a feasible approach for improving its bioactivity. In this study, nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA and nano-calcium silicate (n-CS were separately incorporated into PEEK to prepare n-HA/PEEK and n-CS/PEEK biocomposites, respectively, using a compounding and injection-molding technique, and the in vitro degradation characteristics were evaluated. Discs with a diameter of 8 mm were inserted in 8 mm full-thickness cranial defects in rabbits for 4 and 8 weeks, and implantation of pure PEEK was used as the control. Three-dimensional microcomputed tomography, histological analysis, fluorescence microscopy of new bone formation, and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the osseointegration performance at the bone/implant interface. The results of the in vitro degradation study demonstrated that degradation of n-CS on the surface of n-CS/PEEK could release Ca and Si ions and form a porous structure. In vivo tests revealed that both n-CS/PEEK and n-HA/PEEK promoted osseointegration at the bone/implant interface compared to PEEK

  11. Graphene-reinforced calcium silicate coatings for load-bearing implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Youtao; Li, Hongqing; Zhang, Chi; Gu, Xin; Zheng, Xuebin; Huang, Liping

    2014-04-01

    Owing to the superior mechanical properties and low coefficient of thermal expansion, graphene has been widely used in the reinforcement of ceramics. In the present study, various ratios of graphene (0.5 wt%, 1.5 wt% and 4 wt%) were reinforced into calcium silicate (CS) coatings for load-bearing implant surface modification. Surface characteristics of the graphene/calcium silicate (GC) composite coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Results show that the graphene plates (less than 4 wt% in the coatings) were embedded in the CS matrix homogeneously. The surfaces of the coatings showed a hierarchical hybrid nano-/microstructure, which is believed to be beneficial to the behaviors of the cell and early bone fixation of the implants. Wear resistance measured by a pin-on-disc model exhibited an obvious enhancement with the adoption of graphene plates. The weight losses of the GC coatings decreased with the increase of graphene content. However, too high graphene content (4 wt% or more) made the composite coatings porous and the wear resistance decreased dramatically. The weight loss was only 1.3 ± 0.2 mg for the GC coating containing 1.5 wt% graphene (denoted as GC1.5) with a load of 10 N and sliding distance of 500 m, while that of the pure CS coating reached up to 28.6 ± 0.5 mg. In vitro cytocompatibility of the GC1.5 coating was evaluated using a human marrow stem cell (hMSC) culture system. The proliferation and alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin (OC) osteogenesis-related gene expression of the cells on the GC1.5 coating did not deteriorate with the adoption of graphene. Conversely, even better adhesion of the hMSCs was observed on the GC1.5 coating than on the pure CS coating. All of the results indicate that the GC1.5 coating is a good candidate for load-bearing implants.

  12. Microstructure of amorphous aluminum hydroxide in belite-calcium sulfoaluminate cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Fei; Yu, Zhenglei; Yang, Fengling; Lu, Yinong, E-mail: yinonglu@njtech.edu.cn; Liu, Yunfei, E-mail: yfliu@njtech.edu.cn

    2015-05-15

    Belite-calcium sulfoaluminate (BCSA) cement is a promising low-CO{sub 2} alternative to ordinary Portland cement. Herein, aluminum hydroxide (AH{sub 3}), the main amorphous hydration product of BCSA cement, was investigated in detail. The microstructure of AH{sub 3} with various quantities of gypsum was investigated via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The AH{sub 3} with various morphologies were observed and confirmed in the resulting pastes. Particular attention was paid to the fact that AH{sub 3} always contained a small amount of Ca according to the results of EDS analysis. The AH{sub 3} was then characterized via high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The results of HRTEM indicated that Ca arose from nanosized tricalcium aluminate hexahydrate which existed in the AH{sub 3}.

  13. Addition of 1, 2 and 3% in mass of sodium alginate in calcium phosphate cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, W.T.; Fernandes, J.M.; Vieira, R.S.; Thurmer, M.B.; Santos, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    The calcium phosphate cement (CFC) are bone substitutes with great potential for use in orthopedics, traumatology and dentistry because of their biocompatibility, bioactivity, osteoconductivity and osteotransdutivity, and a paste that can be easily molded and placed into the surgical site. However, CFCs have low mechanical strength, which equals the maximum mechanical strength of trabecular bone. Aiming to evaluate the strength and time to handle a CFC phase composed mainly of alpha were added to sodium alginate (1%, 2% and 3% wt) and an accelerator handle in an aqueous medium. The cement powder was mixed with liquid takes 2 minutes and resigned in specimens and assessed for apparent density and porosity by the Archimedes method, X-ray diffraction and mechanical strength. We noticed a significant increase in mechanical properties of cement added sodium alginate. (author)

  14. Nano clay-enhanced calcium phosphate cements and hydrogels for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammalamadaka, Udayabhanu

    Biomaterials are used as templates for drug delivery, scaffolds in tissue engineering, grafts in surgeries, and support for tissue regeneration. Novel biomaterial composites are needed to meet multifaceted requirements of compatibility, ease of fabrication and controlled drug delivery. Currently used biomaterials in orthopedics surgeries suffer limitations in toxicity and preventing infections. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) used as bone cement suffers from limitations of thermal necrosis and monomer toxicity calls for development of better cementing biomaterials. A biodegradable/bioresorbable cement with good mechanical properties is needed to address this short coming. Metal implants used in fixing fractures or total joint replacement needs improvements in preventing biofilm formation and better tissue integration. This research addressed the above mentioned research gaps by formulating novel biomaterial composites. Calcium phosphate cements are the alternative bone cements that are bioresorbable and promote tissue integration. These cements lack sufficient mechanical strengths to be used in load bearing sites. The addition of nanoparticles is hypothesized to improve the mechanical properties without inducing toxicity to the tissue. This hypothesis was tested by evaluating compression and flexural strengths in addition to cytocompatibility tests. Results indicate that addition of nano-clay particles (halloysites nanotubes) improved the compressive strength and osteoinductive properties of calcium phosphate cements. To address the research need of preventing implant failure due to infection and aseptic loosening, novel coatings are needed. Hydrogels are well establish for their ability to mimic in vivo environment, promote cell viability and as drug delivery vehicles. Use of composites of hydrogels and drug-loaded nanoparticles to prevent infection was evaluated. Cytocompatibility results indicate good cell viability. Antibacterial results show sustained release

  15. Conditioning highly concentrated borate solutions with calcium sulfo-aluminate cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champenois, J.B.; Cau dit Coumes, C.; Poulesquen, A.; Le Bescop, P.; Damidot, D.

    2012-01-01

    The early age hydration by borate solution of 3 calcium sulfo-aluminate cements (CSA), containing respectively 0%, 10% and 20% of gypsum by weight of cement was studied using isothermal calorimetry and dynamic mode rheo-metry. XRD and TGA analysis were carried out on pastes with increasing hydration degrees (up to 90 days) to specify the mineralogy and to figure out the mechanisms of borate immobilisation. It has been shown that the retarding effect of borate anions is due to the precipitation of the amorphous calcium borate C 2 B 3 H 8 ; borate anions were then incorporated in Aft-type phases. The macroscopic properties of hydrated binders (compressive strength, length change) were also followed during 180 days. It appears that the mechanical strength continuously increases with the hydration degree. Length changes under wet-curing and sealed bag remain moderate and seem to be stabilized after 180 days

  16. Calcium phosphate holmium-166 ceramic to addition in bone cement: synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donanzam, Blanda A.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade do Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Dalmazio, Ilza; Valente, Eduardo S., E-mail: id@cdtn.b, E-mail: valente@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Spine metastases are a common and painful complication of cancer. The treatment often consists of bone cement injection (vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty) within vertebral body for vertebrae stabilization, followed by external beam radiation therapy. Recently, researchers introduced the concept of radioactive bone cement for spine tumors therapy. Then, investigations about bioactive and radioactive materials became interesting. In this study, we present the synthesis of calcium phosphate incorporated holmium (CaP-Ho) via sol-gel technique, and its characterization by XRD, FT-IR, NA and SEM. Results showed a multiphasic bioceramic composed mainly of hydroxyapatite, {beta}-tricalcium phosphate, holmium phosphate and traces of calcium pyrophosphate. Furthermore, the nuclide Ho-166 was the major radioisotope produced. Despite that, the radioactive bioceramic CaP-{sup 166}Ho must be investigated in clinical trials to assure its efficacy and safety on spine tumors treatment (author)

  17. Calcium phosphate holmium-166 ceramic to addition in bone cement: synthesis and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donanzam, Blanda A.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2011-01-01

    Spine metastases are a common and painful complication of cancer. The treatment often consists of bone cement injection (vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty) within vertebral body for vertebrae stabilization, followed by external beam radiation therapy. Recently, researchers introduced the concept of radioactive bone cement for spine tumors therapy. Then, investigations about bioactive and radioactive materials became interesting. In this study, we present the synthesis of calcium phosphate incorporated holmium (CaP-Ho) via sol-gel technique, and its characterization by XRD, FT-IR, NA and SEM. Results showed a multiphasic bioceramic composed mainly of hydroxyapatite, β-tricalcium phosphate, holmium phosphate and traces of calcium pyrophosphate. Furthermore, the nuclide Ho-166 was the major radioisotope produced. Despite that, the radioactive bioceramic CaP- 166 Ho must be investigated in clinical trials to assure its efficacy and safety on spine tumors treatment (author)

  18. Ph-activated nano-amorphous calcium phosphate-based cement to reduce dental enamel demineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Mary A S; Weir, Michael D; Passos, Vanara F; Powers, Michael; Xu, Hockin H K

    2017-12-01

    Enamel demineralization is destructive, esthetically compromised, and costly complications for orthodontic patients. Nano-sized amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) has been explored to address this challenge. The 20% NACP-loaded ortho-cement notably exhibited favorable behavior on reducing demineralization of enamel around brackets in a caries model designed to simulate the carious attack. The 20% NACP-loaded ortho-cement markedly promotes higher calcium and phosphate release at a low pH, and the mineral loss was almost two fold lower and carious lesion depth decreased the by 1/3. This novel approach is promising co-adjuvant route for prevention of dental caries dissemination in millions of patients under orthodontic treatment.

  19. Microstructure engineering of Portland cement pastes and mortars through addition of ultrafine layer silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Holger; Geiker, Mette Rica; Krøyer, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    , in comparison to the pure cement pasta and the paste containing kaolinite, a more open pore structure consisting of fine pores. Silica fume paste contains a significant amount of closed pores. As a secondary result, it is demonstrated that both the degree and duration of sample drying strongly modifies...

  20. Physical-Mechanical Properties and Micromorphology of Calcium Cements Exposed to Polyacrylic and Phosphoric Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Gustavo Fernandes; Arrais, Ana Beatriz; Aragão, Cícero Flávio Soares; Ferreira, Isana Alvares; Borges, Boniek Castillo Dutra

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate if physical and mechanical properties of self-curing calcium hydroxide cements were affected by contact with polyacrylic and phosphoric acids. Resin-containing (Life (LF)) and resin-free (Hydro C (HyC)) materials were subjected to polyacrylic acid conditioning and rinsing (POL); phosphoric acid conditioning and rinsing (PHO); rinsing only; and no treatment ( n = 10). Water sorption/solubility, release of hydroxyl ions (pH), roughness (Ra), and impact resistance were evaluated. Additional samples ( n = 1) were prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the surface morphology. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test ( P < 0.05). Water sorption was significantly higher for LF when in contact with PHO and lower for POL ( P < 0.05). The mean solubility was higher with POL for both cements ( P < 0.05). PHO increased the mean surface roughness for HyC ( P < 0.01); a significant decrease was noted for LF after contact with both acids ( P < 0.01). PHO promoted lower release of hydroxyl ions on both cements ( P < 0.05). For LF, rinsing, PHO, and POL presented similar morphology, differing from the control group. For HyC, PHO and POL presented similar morphology, differing from the control group. PHO had a negative effect on the physical properties of the cements tested, except for the solubility test. POL affected roughness and solubility of HyC cement. Clinical procedures that require polyacrylic and phosphoric acid conditioning must be done carefully on self-curing calcium hydroxide cements in order to avoid negative impact on their properties.

  1. Preparation, Physical-Chemical Characterization, and Cytocompatibility of Polymeric Calcium Phosphate Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania M. Khashaba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Physicochemical mechanical and in vitro biological properties of novel formulations of polymeric calcium phosphate cements (CPCs were investigated. Methods. Monocalcium phosphate, calcium oxide, and synthetic hydroxyapatite were combined with either modified polyacrylic acid, light activated polyalkenoic acid, or polymethyl vinyl ether maleic acid to obtain Types I, II, and III CPCs. Setting time, compressive and diametral strength of CPCs was compared with zinc polycarboxylate cement (control. Specimens were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. In vitro cytotoxicity of CPCs and control was assessed. Results. X-ray diffraction analysis showed hydroxyapatite, monetite, and brushite. Acid-base reaction was confirmed by the appearance of stretching peaks in IR spectra of set cements. SEM revealed rod-like crystals and platy crystals. Setting time of cements was 5–12 min. Type III showed significantly higher strength values compared to control. Type III yielded high biocompatibility. Conclusions. Type III CPCs show promise for dental applications.

  2. Preparation of iron-modified portland cement adsorbent and the investigation of its decolorization performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Wang, Huifeng; Li, Yang; Li, Zhen

    2018-02-01

    The ordinary portland cement was modified by ferric salt impregnation method. Through the technologies of x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy, the physicochemical properties of modified cement were detected and analyzed. It was found that after the modification, the main constituents of raw cement, tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate had been depleted, and the new crystal mineral of antarcticite replaced them. The iron precipitates and cement hydration products calcium silicate hydrate gel mainly existed in the form of amorphous on modified cement. The results of BET specific surface determination showed that the modified cement particles had mesoporous distribution. The results of adsorption experiment revealed modified cement exhibited excellent adsorption performance on reactive brilliant blue KNR. The combination mechanism between modified cement and adsorbate was mainly electrostatic interaction. The adsorption process satisfied with the pseudo-second order kinetics model, and the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous endothermic process.

  3. Nanostructured silicate substituted calcium phosphate (NanoSiCaPs) nanoparticles — Efficient calcium phosphate based non-viral gene delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhar, Sudhanshu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Center for Complex Engineered Multifunctional Materials, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); McGowan Institute of Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Roy, Abhijit; Hong, Daeho [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Kumta, Prashant N., E-mail: pkumta@pitt.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Center for Complex Engineered Multifunctional Materials, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); McGowan Institute of Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Nanostructured ceramic particles, particularly, nanoparticles of calcium phosphate (CaP) remain an attractive option among the various types of non-viral gene delivery vectors studied because of their safety, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and ease of handling as well as their adsorptive capacity for DNA. We have accordingly developed an enhanced version of nanostructured calcium phosphates (NanoCaPs), by substituting known amounts of silicate for phosphate in the hydroxyapatite (HA) lattice (NanoSiCaPs). Results indicate that in addition to the excellent transfection levels exhibited by un-substituted NanoCaPs alone in vitro, an additional 20–50% increase in transfection is observed for NanoCaPs containing 8.3–50 mol% silicate aptly called NanoSiCaPs, owing to its rapid dissolution properties enabling nanoparticles escaping the lysosomal degradation. However, high silicate substitution (> 50 mol%) resulted in a drastic decline in transfection as the synthesized NanoCaPs deviated far from the characteristic hydroxyapatite phase formed as evidenced by the materials characterization results. - Highlights: • Successful demonstration of nanostructured NanoSiCaPs formation • Demonstration of superior transfection of NanoSiCaPs contrasted to NanoCaPs • Silicate substitution leads to smaller aggregates of nanoparticle complexes. • Enhanced dissolution of NanoSiCaPs demonstrated • Faster NanoSiCaPs dissolution leads to escape of pDNA from lysosomal degradation.

  4. Effect of Moisture Content of Chitin-Calcium Silicate on Rate of Degradation of Cefotaxime Sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nimry, Suhair S; Alkhamis, Khouloud A

    2018-04-01

    Assessment of incompatibilities between active pharmaceutical ingredient and pharmaceutical excipients is an important part of preformulation studies. The objective of the work was to assess the effect of moisture content of chitin calcium silicate of two size ranges (two specific surface areas) on the rate of degradation of cefotaxime sodium. The surface area of the excipient was determined using adsorption method. The effect of moisture content of a given size range on the stability of the drug was determined at 40°C in the solid state. The moisture content was determined at the beginning and the end of the kinetic study using TGA. The degradation in solution was studied for comparison. Increasing the moisture content of the excipient of size range 63-180 μm (surface area 7.2 m 2 /g) from 3.88 to 8.06% increased the rate of degradation of the drug more than two times (from 0.0317 to 0.0718 h -1 ). While an opposite trend was observed for the excipient of size range moisture content moisture content of 8.54%, and the degradation in solid state at both moisture contents was higher than that in solution (0.0871 h -1 ). In conclusion, the rate of degradation in solid should be studied taking into consideration the specific surface area and moisture content of the excipient at the storage condition and it may be higher than that in solution.

  5. The Internal Recycle Reactor Enhances Porous Calcium Silicate Hydrates to Recover Phosphorus from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Guan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, the porous calcium silicate hydrates (P-CSHs were prepared via a hydrothermal method and then modified by polyethylene glycol (PEG. The modified P-CSHs combined with an internal recycle reactor could successfully recover the phosphorus from electroplating wastewater. The modified P-CSHs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. After compared with different samples, the modified P-CSHs-PEG2000 sample had larger specific surface area of 87.48 m2/g and higher pore volume of 0.33 cm3/g, indicating a high capacity for phosphorus recovery. In the process of phosphorus recovery, the pH value of solution was increased to 9.5, which would enhance the recovery efficiency of phosphorus. The dissolution rate of Ca2+ from P-CSH-PEG2000 was fast, which was favorable for phosphorus precipitation and phosphorus recovery. The effects of initial concentration of phosphorus, P-CSHs-PEG2000 dosage, and stirring speed on phosphorus recovery were analyzed, so the optimal operation conditions for phosphorus recovery were obtained. The deposition was analyzed by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, and SEM techniques; it was indicated that the pore volume and surface area of the P-CSHs-PEG2000 were significantly reduced, and the deposition on the surface of P-CSHs-PEG2000 was hydroxyapatite.

  6. Mechanical and microstructure of reinforced hydroxyapatite/calcium silicate nano-composites materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beheri, Hanan H.; Mohamed, Khaled R.; El-Bassyouni, Gehan T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nano sized of HA and CS powders were prepared. ► Mechanical of HACS composites enhanced with content of CS. ► The apatite formation onto the composites is proved. -- Abstract: In this study, the nano sized hydroxyapatite (HA) and calcium silicate (CS) powders prepared by both chemical precipitation and sol–gel methods respectively. Biphasic nano-composites materials containing different ratios of HA and CS were fabricated and assessed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transmission infrared reflectance (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The effect of variation of ratios between HA and CS on mechanical properties, microstructure and in vitro study was studied. The results proved that the mechanical properties were enhanced with increasing the CS ratio in the composite. In vitro study proved the formation and nucleation of apatite onto composites surfaces which contain low content of CS after one week of immersion. Finally, it is concluded that the HACS composites containing high HA content at the expense of CS content will be promising for bone substitute’s applications, especially in load bearing sites.

  7. The Performance of Calcium Silicate Board Partition Fireproof Drywall Assembly with Junction Box under Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinuo Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses a metal stud partition fireproof drywall measuring 83 mm in thickness as a test specimen to explore the impact of an embedded junction box on the firefighting performance of the wall through one time of standard fire test on a 300 cm × 300 cm area and five times of standard fire test on a 120 cm × 120 cm area. The results show that the quality of calcium silicate board plays a big role in the fireproof effectiveness. The embedded junction box located on the backside of the fire can reduce the effectiveness of the wall, especially the area above the socket. The thickness of rock wool may increase the performance, but in a limited rate. External junction box may not impact the fireproofing performance of the wall but it still possesses some safety risks. An embedded junction box measuring 101 × 55 mm could already damage the fire compartment, and in reality there may be more complicated situations that should be noted and improved.

  8. A New Type of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Cement as a Gentamicin Carrier for Osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yu Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis therapy is a long-term and inconvenient procedure for a patient. Antibiotic-loaded bone cements are both a complementary and alternative treatment option to intravenous antibiotic therapy for the treatment of osteomyelitis. In the current study, the biphasic calcium phosphate cement (CPC, called α-TCP/HAP (α-tricalcium phosphate/hydroxyapatite biphasic cement, was prepared as an antibiotics carrier for osteomyelitis. The developed biphasic cement with a microstructure of α-TCP surrounding the HAP has a fast setting time which will fulfill the clinical demand. The X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry analyses showed the final phase to be HAP, the basic bone mineral, after setting for a period of time. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a porous structure with particle sizes of a few micrometers. The addition of gentamicin in α-TCP/HAP would delay the transition of α-TCP but would not change the final-phase HAP. The gentamicin-loaded α-TCP/HAP supplies high doses of the antibiotic during the initial 24 hours when they are soaked in phosphate buffer solution (PBS. Thereafter, a slower drug release is produced, supplying minimum inhibitory concentration until the end of the experiment (30 days. Studies of growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in culture indicated that gentamicin released after 30 days from α-TCP/HAP biphasic cement retained antibacterial activity.

  9. Evaluation of mechanical strength and hydrate products evolution of calcium aluminate cement, for endodontic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, A.P.; Borba, N.Z.; Pandolfelli, V.C.

    2011-01-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is the most used retrograde filling cement in the endodontic area. Nevertheless, although its composition is similar to the conventional Portland cement, its high cost, long setting time and low mechanical strength have led to a continuous search for new alternative materials. Considering these aspects, the mechanical strength and crystalline phase evolution of a calcium aluminate cement (CAC), during its hydration process, have been evaluated in this work aiming to apply such material for endodontic treatments. Secar 71 cement samples were prepared and kept in contact with water or SBF (simulated body fluid) during 15 days at 37 deg C. Compressive strength, apparent porosity, X ray diffraction and thermogravimetric tests were carried out for the samples evaluation after 1, 3, 7 and 15 days. The main identified phases were CAH_1_0, C_2AH_8, C_3AH_6 and AH_3. Moreover, when in the presence of SBF, some changes in the amount of the hydrates in the CAC samples were observed, which affected the mechanical behavior of the cement. (author)

  10. Alteration of a borosilicate glass in cemented water: antagonist effects of calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frizon, F.; Depierre, S.; Angeli, F.; Gin, S.

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the storage of radioactive wastes in deep geological layers, vitrified waste may be in contact with an environment saturated with solutions stemming from various stages of cement degradation. A series of experiments has been performed to assess how a basic aqueous calcium-rich solution can impact the mechanisms and kinetics of glass alteration. This study shows that 2 main parameters have an impact on the kinetics of the dissolution of glass: the S/V ratio (the glass surface divided by the volume of solution) and the calcium concentration. The calcium concentration is a key parameter whatever the kinetics of glass degradation. In a diluted medium with a pH over 11, the kinetics of glass alteration slows down along with an increase in calcium concentration. What happens is that the silicon flux being too weak to allow the nucleation of C-S-H phases, calcium can penetrate the alteration layer which leads to a better retention of glass components through specific silicon-calcium reactivity and a slowing down of the glass alteration kinetics. On the contrary in a confined environment, a high concentration in calcium leads to the precipitation of C-S-H and to less C-S-H available to cover glass grains diminishing its passivating effect and consequently the dissolving of glass can keep on at more or less the same pace. (A.C.)

  11. Elastic modulus of the alkali-silica reaction rim in a simplified calcium-alkali-silicate system determined by nano-indentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Kunpeng; Lukovic, M.; De Schutter, Geert; Ye, G.; Taerwe, Luc

    2016-01-01

    This work aims at providing a better understanding of the mechanical properties of the reaction rim in the alkali-silica reaction. The elastic modulus of the calcium alkali silicate constituting the reaction rim, which is formed at the interface between alkali silicate and Ca(OH)2 in a

  12. Evaluation of the sealing ability of bone cement as furcation perforation repair material when compared with mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium phosphate cement: An in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Chordiya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the sealing ability of bone cement as furcation perforation repair material when compared with mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium phosphate cement. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 sound mandibular molars were selected for this study. The sample teeth were randomly divided into five groups: group I - n=20, perforation repair material used, mineral trioxide aggregate; group II - n=20, perforation repair material used, calcium phosphate cement; group III - n=20, perforation repair material used, bone cement; group IV - positive control, n=5, the furcation were not repaired with any material; group V - negative control, n=5, furcation area intact, no perforation done. The teeth were immersed in silver nitrate solution for 2 hours and then rinsed with photographic developer solution for 6 hours. They were then sectioned in a longitudinal direction and examined under a stereomicroscope. In each section the actual values of dye leakage were calculated from outer margins of perforation to the level of pulpal floor and were then subjected to statistical analysis. Results: An unpaired ′t′ test revealed that different groups exhibited significantly different dye penetrations (P<0.01. Conclusion: Furcation perforation repaired with MTA showed minimum microleakage (mean 54.5%, calcium phosphate cement showed maximum microleakage (100%, and bone cement showed moderate dye leakage (87.8%.

  13. Effects of Leaching Behavior of Calcium Ions on Compression and Durability of Cement-Based Materials with Mineral Admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, An; Chao, Sao-Jeng; Lin, Wei-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Leaching of calcium ions increases the porosity of cement-based materials, consequently resulting in a negative effect on durability since it provides an entry for aggressive harmful ions, causing reinforcing steel corrosion. This study investigates the effects of leaching behavior of calcium ions on the compression and durability of cement-based materials. Since the parameters influencing the leaching behavior of cement-based materials are unclear and diverse, this paper focuses on the influence of added mineral admixtures (fly ash, slag and silica fume) on the leaching behavior of calcium ions regarding compression and durability of cemented-based materials. Ammonium nitrate solution was used to accelerate the leaching process in this study. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis were employed to analyze and compare the cement-based material compositions prior to and after calcium ion leaching. The experimental results show that the mineral admixtures reduce calcium hydroxide quantity and refine pore structure through pozzolanic reaction, thus enhancing the compressive strength and durability of cement-based materials. PMID:28809247

  14. The Retentive Strength of Cemented Zirconium Oxide Crowns after Dentin Pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste Containing 8% Arginine and Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilo, Raphael; Harel, Noga; Nissan, Joseph; Levartovsky, Shifra

    2016-01-01

    The effect of dentin pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate on the retention of zirconium oxide (Y-TZP) crowns was tested. Forty molar teeth were mounted and prepared using a standardized protocol. Y-TZP crowns were produced using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) technology. The 40 prepared teeth were either pretreated with Desensitizing Paste or not pretreated. After two weeks, each group was subdivided into two groups, cemented with either Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC) or Self Adhesive Resin Cement (SARC)). Prior to cementation, the surface areas of the prepared teeth were measured. After aging, the cemented crown-tooth assemblies were tested for retentive strength using a universal testing machine. The debonded surfaces of the teeth and crowns were examined microscopically at 10× magnification. Pretreating the dentin surfaces with Desensitizing Paste prior to cementation did not affect the retention of the Y-TZP crowns. The retentive values for RMGIC (3.04 ± 0.77 MPa) were significantly higher than those for SARC (2.28 ± 0.58 MPa). The predominant failure modes for the RMGIC and SARC were adhesive cement-dentin and adhesive cement-crown, respectively. An 8.0% arginine and calcium carbonate in-office desensitizing paste can be safely used to reduce post-cementation sensitivity without reducing the retentive strength of Y-TZP crowns. PMID:27023532

  15. The Retentive Strength of Cemented Zirconium Oxide Crowns after Dentin Pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste Containing 8% Arginine and Calcium Carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Pilo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dentin pretreatment with Desensitizing Paste containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate on the retention of zirconium oxide (Y-TZP crowns was tested. Forty molar teeth were mounted and prepared using a standardized protocol. Y-TZP crowns were produced using computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM technology. The 40 prepared teeth were either pretreated with Desensitizing Paste or not pretreated. After two weeks, each group was subdivided into two groups, cemented with either Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC or Self Adhesive Resin Cement (SARC. Prior to cementation, the surface areas of the prepared teeth were measured. After aging, the cemented crown-tooth assemblies were tested for retentive strength using a universal testing machine. The debonded surfaces of the teeth and crowns were examined microscopically at 10× magnification. Pretreating the dentin surfaces with Desensitizing Paste prior to cementation did not affect the retention of the Y-TZP crowns. The retentive values for RMGIC (3.04 ± 0.77 MPa were significantly higher than those for SARC (2.28 ± 0.58 MPa. The predominant failure modes for the RMGIC and SARC were adhesive cement-dentin and adhesive cement-crown, respectively. An 8.0% arginine and calcium carbonate in-office desensitizing paste can be safely used to reduce post-cementation sensitivity without reducing the retentive strength of Y-TZP crowns.

  16. Preliminary investigation of novel bone graft substitutes based on strontium-calcium-zinc-silicate glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D; Carroll, G; Towler, M R; Freeman, C; Farthing, P; Brook, I M

    2009-01-01

    Bone graft procedures typically require surgeons to harvest bone from a second site on a given patient (Autograft) before repairing a bone defect. However, this results in increased surgical time, excessive blood loss and a significant increase in pain. In this context a synthetic bone graft with excellent histocompatibility, built in antibacterial efficacy and the ability to regenerate healthy tissue in place of diseased tissue would be a significant step forward relative to current state of the art philosophies. We developed a range of calcium-strontium-zinc-silicate glass based bone grafts and characterised their structure and physical properties, then evaluated their in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility using standardised models from the literature. A graft (designated BT109) of composition 0.28SrO/0.32ZnO/0.40 SiO(2) (mol fraction) was the best performing formulation in vitro shown to induce extremely mild cytopathic effects (cell viability up to 95%) in comparison with the commercially available bone graft Novabone (cell viability of up to 72%). Supplementary to this, the grafts were examined using the standard rat femur healing model on healthy Wister rats. All grafts were shown to be equally well tolerated in bone tissue and new bone was seen in close apposition to implanted particles with no evidence of an inflammatory response within bone. Complimentary to this BT109 was implanted into the femurs of ovariectomized rats to monitor the response of osteoporotic tissue to the bone grafts. The results from this experiment indicate that the novel grafts perform equally well in osteoporotic tissue as in healthy tissue, which is encouraging given that bone response to implants is usually diminished in ovariectomized rats. In conclusion these materials exhibit significant potential as synthetic bone grafts to warrant further investigation and optimisation.

  17. Surface Corrosion and Microstructure Degradation of Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cement Subjected to Wet-Dry Cycles in Sulfate Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuman Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydration products of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA cement are different from those of Portland cement. The degradation of CSA cement subjected to wet-dry cycles in sulfate solution was studied in this paper. The surface corrosion was recorded and the microstructures were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that SO42-, Na+, Mg2+, and Cl− have an effect on the stability of ettringite. In the initial period of sulfate attack, salt crystallization is the main factor leading to the degradation of CSA cement specimens. The decomposition and the carbonation of ettringite will cause long-term degradation of CSA cement specimens under wet-dry cycles in sulfate solution. The surface spalling and microstructure degradation increase significantly with the increase of wet-dry cycles, sulfate concentration, and water to cement ratio. Magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride reduce the degradation when the concentration of sulfate ions is a constant value.

  18. In Vivo Evaluation of an Injectable Premixed Radiopaque Calcium Phosphate Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Åberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a radiopaque premixed calcium phosphate cement (pCPC has been developed and evaluated in vivo. Radiopacity was obtained by adding 0–40 % zirconia to the cement paste. The effects of zirconia on setting time, strength and radiopacity were evaluated. In the in vivo study a 2 by 3.5 mm cylindrical defect in a rat vertebrae was filled with either the pCPC, PMMA or bone chips. Nano-SPECT CT analysis was used to monitor osteoblast activity during bone regeneration. The study showed that by adding zirconia to the cement the setting time becomes longer and the compressive strength is reduced. All materials evaluated in the in vivo study filled the bone defect and there was a strong osteoblast activity at the injury site. In spite of the osteoblast activity, PMMA blocked bone healing and the bone chips group showed minimal new bone formation. At 12 weeks the pCPC was partially resorbed and replaced by new bone with good bone ingrowth. The radiopaque pCPC may be considered to be used for minimal invasive treatment of vertebral fractures since it has good handling, radiopacity and allows healing of cancellous bone in parallel with the resorption of the cement.

  19. Chemical alteration of calcium silicate hydrates in saline groundwater. Mechanism of sorption of Na on C-S-H and effect of NaCl on leaching of Ca from C-S-H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Fujita, Tomonari

    2004-01-01

    In the concept for TRU waste disposal in Japan, cement is a potential waste packaging and backfilling material and is expected to provide chemical containment. In the presence of some reactive ions in a saline groundwater, the chemical properties of cement materials should be affected. In this study, the mechanism of sorption of sodium (Na) on C-S-H and the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on dissolution of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) are discussed by measuring the sorption isotherm of sodium onto C-S-H gel (Ca/Si = 0.65-1.2). Based on the experimental results, it is showed that sodium sorbs by substitution for Ca in C-S-H phases and leaching of Ca from C-S-H is enhanced in NaCl solution ( -1 mol dm -3 ). The results of sorption experiments are reasonably well modelled by the ion-exchange model assuming some calcium sites with different ion-exchange log K values. It is also suggested that the dissolution of C-S-H can be modelled reasonably well by considering the effect of ionic strength on activity coefficients of aqueous species for high Ca/Si ratio of C-S-H, and the effect of exchange of sodium with calcium of C-S-H on leaching of Ca becomes obvious for lower Ca/Si ratio of C-S-H. (author)

  20. Corrosion Resistance of Calcium Aluminate Cement Concrete Exposed to a Chloride Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann, Ki Yong; Cho, Chang-Geun

    2014-01-28

    The present study concerns a development of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) concrete to enhance the durability against an externally chemically aggressive environment, in particular, chloride-induced corrosion. To evaluate the inhibition effect and concrete properties, CAC was partially mixed with ordinary Portland cement (OPC), ranging from 5% to 15%, as a binder. As a result, it was found that an increase in the CAC in binder resulted in a dramatic decrease in the setting time of fresh concrete. However, the compressive strength was lower, ranging about 20 MPa, while OPC indicated about 30-35 MPa at an equivalent age. When it comes to chloride transport, there was only marginal variation in the diffusivity of chloride ions. The corrosion resistance of CAC mixture was significantly enhanced: its chloride threshold level for corrosion initiation exceeded 3.0% by weight of binder, whilst OPC and CAC concrete indicated about 0.5%-1.0%.

  1. Intracanal management of a post traumatic perforative invasive cervical root resorption using calcium enriched matrix cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asgary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical root resorption (ICR is a consequence of a resorptive soft-tissue penetrating into dentin that starts below the gingival attachment and tends to be asymptomatic unless dental pulp involvement. Prompt diagnosis is the key to retention of the involved tooth. Treatment procedure includes non-surgical elimination of the resorptive soft-tissues and restoration of the cavity. In case of pulp involvement, endodontic treatment is indicated. This is a report of a non-surgical intra canal treatment case in a maxillary central incisor, which involved the pulp and was successfully treated with calcium enriched mixture (CEM cement. Based on favorable long-term treatment outcomes, CEM cement may be a promising biomaterial in treatment of ICR cases.

  2. Modifications on the properties of a calcium phosphate cement by additions of sodium alginate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, W.T.; Fernandes, J.M.; Vieira, R.S.; Thurmer, M.B.; Santos, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Calcium Phosphate Cement (CPC) are bone substitutes with great potential for use in orthopedics, traumatology and dentistry due to its biocompatibility, bioactivity and osteoconductivity, and form a paste that can be easily shaped and placed into the surgical site. However, CPCs have low mechanical strength, which equals the maximum mechanical strength of trabecular bone. In order to assess the strength and time to handle a CPC composed primarily of alpha phase, were added sodium alginate (1%, 2% and 3% wt) and an accelerator in an aqueous solution. The cement powder was mixed with liquid of setting, shaped into specimens and evaluated for apparent density and porosity by Archimedes method, X-ray diffraction and compressive strength. A significant increase in compressive strength by adding sodium alginate was verified. (author)

  3. Characterization of a calcium phosphate cement based on alpha-tricalcium phosphate obtained by wet precipitation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurmer, M.B.; Diehl, C.E.; Vieira, R.S.; Coelho, W.T.G.; Santos, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    There are several systems of calcium phosphate cements being studied. Those based on alpha-tricalcium phosphate are of particular interest. After setting they produce calcium deficient hydroxyapatite similar to bone like hydroxyapatite. This work aims to obtain alpha-tricalcium phosphate powders by the wet precipitation process, using calcium nitrate and phosphoric acid as reagents. This powder was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and particle size distribution. In order to prepare the calcium phosphate cement, the powder was mixed with an accelerator in an aqueous solution. The mechanical properties of the cement were assessed and it was evaluated by means of apparent density, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The described method produced crystalline alpha-tricalcium phosphate as the major phase. The calcium phosphate cement showed high values of compression strength (50 MPa). The soaking of the cement in a simulated body fluid (SBF) formed a layer of hydroxyapatite like crystals in the surface of the samples. (author)

  4. Study of a hydraulic dicalcium phosphate dihydrate/calcium oxide-based cement for dental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Briak, Hasna; Durand, Denis; Nurit, Josiane; Munier, Sylvie; Pauvert, Bernard; Boudeville, Phillipe

    2002-01-01

    By mixing CaHPO(4) x 2H(2)O (DCPD) and CaO with water or sodium phosphate buffers as liquid phase, a calcium phosphate cement was obtained. Its physical and mechanical properties, such as compressive strength, initial and final setting times, cohesion time, dough time, swelling time, dimensional and thermal behavior, and injectability were investigated by varying different parameters such as liquid to powder (L/P) ratio (0.35-0.7 ml g(-1)), molar calcium to phosphate (Ca/P) ratio (1.67-2.5) and the pH (4, 7, and 9) and the concentration (0-1 M) of the sodium phosphate buffer. The best results were obtained with the pH 7 sodium phosphate buffer at the concentration of 0.75 M. With this liquid phase, physical and mechanical properties depended on the Ca/P and L/P ratios, varying from 3 to 11 MPa (compressive strength), 6 to 10 min (initial setting time), 11 to 15 min (final setting time), 15 to 30 min (swelling time), 7 to 20 min (time of 100% injectability). The dough or working time was over 16 min. This cement expanded during its setting (1.2-5 % according to Ca/P and L/P ratios); this would allow a tight filling. Given the mechanical and rheological properties of this new DCPD/CaO-based cement, its use as root canal sealing material can be considered as classical calcium hydroxide or ZnO/eugenol-based pastes, without or with a gutta-percha point. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res (Appl Biomater) 63: 447-453, 2002

  5. Development of novel strontium containing bioactive glass based calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, A; Kent, N W; Shahdad, S A; Hill, R G

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on properties of increasing strontium substitution for calcium in bioactive glasses used as precursors for novel calcium phosphate cements. Glasses were produced by progressively substituting strontium for calcium. Cements were prepared by mixing the glass powder with Ca(H2PO4)2 powder with a 2.5% solution of Na2HPO4. Setting times and compressive strength were measured after 1h, 1 day, 7 days and 28 days immersion in Tris buffer solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and radiopacity were measured and crystal morphology was assessed using scanning electron microscopy. A correlation between the phases formed, morphology of the crystallites, setting time and compressive strength were analyzed. Setting time increased proportionally with strontium substitution in the glass up to 25%, whereas for higher substitutions it decreased. Compressive strength showed a maximum value of 12.5MPa and was strongly influenced by the interlocking of the crystals and their morphology. XRD showed that the presence of strontium influenced the crystal phases formed. Octacalcium phosphate (Ca8H2(PO4)6·5H2O, OCP) was the main phase present after 1h and 1 day whereas after 28 days OCP was completely transformed to strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (SrxCa(10-x)(PO4)6(OH)2, SrHA). Radiopacity increased proportionally to strontium substitution in the glass. A novel method to develop a bone substitute forming in vitro SrHA as a final product by using a bioactive glass as a precursor was shown. These novel injectable bioactive glass cements are promising materials for dental and orthopedic applications. Further in vivo characterizations are being conducted. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stabilization of ZnCl2-Containing Waste Using Calcium Sulfoaluminate Cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Berger, S.; Le Bescop, P.; Damidot, D.

    2013-01-01

    The potential of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cement was investigated to solidify and stabilize radwastes containing large amounts of soluble zinc chloride (a strong inhibitor of Portland cement hydration). Hydration of pastes and mortars prepared with a 0.5 mol/L ZnCl 2 mixing solution was characterized over one year as a function of the gypsum content of the binder and the thermal history of the material. Blending the CSA clinker with 20% gypsum enabled rapid hydration, with only very small delay compared with a reference prepared with pure water. It also improved the compressive strength of the hardened material and significantly reduced its expansion under wet curing. Moreover, the hydrate assemblage was less affected by a thermal treatment at early age simulating the temperature rise and fall occurring in a large-volume drum of cemented waste. Fully hydrated materials contained ettringite, amorphous aluminum hydroxide, straetlingite, together with AFm phases (Kuzel's salt associated with monosulfoaluminate or Friedel's salt depending on the gypsum content of the binder), and possibly C-(A)-S-H. Zinc was readily insolubilized and could not be detected in the pore solution extracted from cement pastes, or in their leachates after 3 months of leaching by pure water at pH 7. The good retention of zinc by the cement matrix was mainly attributed to the precipitation of a hydrated and well crystallized phase with platelet morphology (which may belong to the layered double hydroxides family) at early age ≤ 1 day), and to chemisorption onto aluminum hydroxide at later age. (author)

  7. Effect of a bonding agent on in vitro biochemical activities of remineralizing resin-based calcium phosphate cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Sabine H; Flaim, Glenn M

    2008-09-01

    To test whether fluoride in a resin-based Ca-PO4 ion releasing cement or coating with an acidic bonding agent for improved adhesion compromised the cement remineralization potential. Cements were formulated without fluoride (Cement A) or with fluoride (Cement B). The treatment groups were A=Cement A; A2=Cement A+bonding agent; B=Cement B; B2=Cement B+bonding agent. The calcium, phosphate, and fluoride ion release in saliva-like solution (SLS) was determined from hardened cement disks without or with a coating of bonding agent. For the remineralization, two cavities were prepared in dentin of extracted human molars and demineralized. One cavity received composite resin (control); the other received treatment A, A2, B or B2. After 6 week incubation in SLS, 180 microm cross-sections were cut. The percentage remineralization was determined by transverse microradiography comparing the dentin mineral density under the cement to that under the control. The percentage of remineralization (mean+/-S.D.) was A (39+/-14)=B (37+/-18), A2 (23+/-13), B2 (14+/-7). Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Holm-Sidak test showed a significant effect from the presence of bonding agent (p0.05). The ion solution concentrations of all groups showed undersaturation with respect to dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and calcium fluoride and supersaturation for fluorapatite and hydroxyapatite suggesting a positive remineralization potential. Compared to the control all treatments resulted in mineral increase. The remineralization was negatively affected by the presence of the bonding agent.

  8. Mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cements obtained by solution combustion synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkmer, Tiago M.; Barreiro, Oscar; Souza, Vania Caldas; Santos, Luis Alberto dos, E-mail: tiagovolkmer@gmail.com, E-mail: oscarbafer@hotmail.com, E-mail: vania.souza@ufrgs.br, E-mail: luis.santos@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Laboratorio de Biomateriais

    2009-07-01

    Bioceramics based on calcium phosphates, especially hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphates (TCP) are the most used biomaterials as bone substitutes. The objective of this work is to evaluate the mechanical properties of α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) synthesized by the solution combustion method. The solution combustion synthesis (SCS) can be considered as faster and simpler as other methods, furthermore it allows the obtainment of high purity α-TCP. In the calcium phosphates (CPC), α-TCP reacts with water forming needle like HA, which restrain the movement of grains, increasing mechanical resistance. In the present paper the influence of particle size on mechanical properties of α-TCP cements were evaluated. The α-TCP powder were characterized by XRD, TEM, BET and laser diffraction to asses particle size while the CPC bodies by SEM, Arquimedes method and compression tests. Increasing the milling time, the particle size decreases, resulting in samples with less porosity and consequently with higher compression resistance. (author)

  9. Incorporation of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate into a glass-ionomer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaoui, S A; Burrow, M F; Tyas, M J; Dashper, S G; Eakins, D; Reynolds, E C

    2003-11-01

    Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) nanocomplexes have been shown to prevent demineralization and promote remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions in animal and in situ caries models. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of incorporating CPP-ACP into a self-cured glass-ionomer cement (GIC). Incorporation of 1.56% w/w CPP-ACP into the GIC significantly increased microtensile bond strength (33%) and compressive strength (23%) and significantly enhanced the release of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride ions at neutral and acidic pH. MALDI mass spectrometry also showed casein phosphopeptides from the CPP-ACP nanocomplexes to be released. The release of CPP-ACP and fluoride from the CPP-ACP-containing GIC was associated with enhanced protection of the adjacent dentin during acid challenge in vitro.

  10. Synthesis, mechanical properties, and in vitro biocompatibility with osteoblasts of calcium silicate-reduced graphene oxide composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrali, Mehdi; Moghaddam, Ehsan; Shirazi, Seyed Farid Seyed; Baradaran, Saeid; Mehrali, Mohammad; Latibari, Sara Tahan; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Kadri, Nahrizul Adib; Zandi, Keivan; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

    2014-03-26

    Calcium silicate (CaSiO3, CS) ceramics are promising bioactive materials for bone tissue engineering, particularly for bone repair. However, the low toughness of CS limits its application in load-bearing conditions. Recent findings indicating the promising biocompatibility of graphene imply that graphene can be used as an additive to improve the mechanical properties of composites. Here, we report a simple method for the synthesis of calcium silicate/reduced graphene oxide (CS/rGO) composites using a hydrothermal approach followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP). Adding rGO to pure CS increased the hardness of the material by ∼40%, the elastic modulus by ∼52%, and the fracture toughness by ∼123%. Different toughening mechanisms were observed including crack bridging, crack branching, crack deflection, and rGO pull-out, thus increasing the resistance to crack propagation and leading to a considerable improvement in the fracture toughness of the composites. The formation of bone-like apatite on a range of CS/rGO composites with rGO weight percentages ranging from 0 to 1.5 has been investigated in simulated body fluid (SBF). The presence of a bone-like apatite layer on the composite surface after soaking in SBF was demonstrated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The biocompatibility of the CS/rGO composites was characterized using methyl thiazole tetrazolium (MTT) assays in vitro. The cell adhesion results showed that human osteoblast cells (hFOB) can adhere to and develop on the CS/rGO composites. In addition, the proliferation rate and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of cells on the CS/rGO composites were improved compared with the pure CS ceramics. These results suggest that calcium silicate/reduced graphene oxide composites are promising materials for biomedical applications.

  11. Improved workability of injectable calcium sulfate bone cement by regulation of self-setting properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zonggang, E-mail: chenzg@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Huanye [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Liu, Xi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lian, Xiaojie [College of Mechanics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Guo, Zhongwu [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Jiang, Hong-Jiang [Wendeng Hospital of Traditional Chinese Orthopedics and Traumatology, Shandong 264400 (China); Cui, Fu-Zhai, E-mail: cuifz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-04-01

    Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) powder as an injectable bone cement was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD). The prepared materials showed X-ray diffraction peaks corresponding to the CSH structure without any secondary phases, implying complete conversion from CSD phase to CSH phase. Thermogravimetric (TG) analyses showed the crystal water content of CSH was about 6.0% (wt.), which is near to the theoretic crystal water value of CSH. From scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, sheet crystal structure of CSD was observed to transform into rod-like crystal structure of CSH. Most interesting and important of all, CSD as setting accelerator was also introduced into CSH powder to regulate self-setting properties of injectable CSH paste, and thus the self-setting time of CSH paste can be regulated from near 30 min to less than 5 min by adding various amounts of setting accelerator. Because CSD is not only the reactant of preparing CSH but also the final solidified product of CSH, the setting accelerator has no significant effect on the other properties of materials, such as mechanical properties. In vitro biocompatibility and in vivo histology studies have demonstrated that the materials have good biocompatibility and good efficacy in bone regeneration. All these will further improve the workability of CSH in clinic applications. Highlights: ► Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) can be an injectable bone cement. ► CSH was produced by hydrothermal synthesis of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD). ► CSD was introduced into CSH powder to regulate self-setting properties of CSH. ► Setting accelerator has no significant effect on the other properties of materials. ► Injectable CSH has good biocompatibility and good efficacy in bone regeneration.

  12. Improved workability of injectable calcium sulfate bone cement by regulation of self-setting properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zonggang; Liu, Huanye; Liu, Xi; Lian, Xiaojie; Guo, Zhongwu; Jiang, Hong-Jiang; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2013-01-01

    Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) powder as an injectable bone cement was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD). The prepared materials showed X-ray diffraction peaks corresponding to the CSH structure without any secondary phases, implying complete conversion from CSD phase to CSH phase. Thermogravimetric (TG) analyses showed the crystal water content of CSH was about 6.0% (wt.), which is near to the theoretic crystal water value of CSH. From scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, sheet crystal structure of CSD was observed to transform into rod-like crystal structure of CSH. Most interesting and important of all, CSD as setting accelerator was also introduced into CSH powder to regulate self-setting properties of injectable CSH paste, and thus the self-setting time of CSH paste can be regulated from near 30 min to less than 5 min by adding various amounts of setting accelerator. Because CSD is not only the reactant of preparing CSH but also the final solidified product of CSH, the setting accelerator has no significant effect on the other properties of materials, such as mechanical properties. In vitro biocompatibility and in vivo histology studies have demonstrated that the materials have good biocompatibility and good efficacy in bone regeneration. All these will further improve the workability of CSH in clinic applications. Highlights: ► Calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) can be an injectable bone cement. ► CSH was produced by hydrothermal synthesis of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD). ► CSD was introduced into CSH powder to regulate self-setting properties of CSH. ► Setting accelerator has no significant effect on the other properties of materials. ► Injectable CSH has good biocompatibility and good efficacy in bone regeneration

  13. Assessment of bone healing ability of calcium phosphate cements loaded with platelet lysate in rat calvarial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo, Pedro S; Carvalho, Pedro P; Santo, Vítor E; Faria, Susana; Gomes, Manuela E; Reis, Rui L

    2016-11-01

    Injectable calcium phosphate cements have been used as a valid alternative to autologous bone grafts for bone augmentation with the additional advantage of enabling minimally invasive implantation procedures and for perfectly fitting the tissue defect. Nevertheless, they have low biodegradability and lack adequate biochemical signaling to promote bone healing and remodeling. In previous in vitro studies, we observed that the incorporation of platelet lysate directly into the cement paste or loaded in hyaluronic acid microspheres allowed to modulate the cement degradation and the in vitro expression of osteogenic markers in seeded human adipose derived stem cells. The present study aimed at investigating the possible effect of this system in new bone formation when implanted in calvarial bilateral defects in rats. Different formulations were assessed, namely plain calcium phosphate cements, calcium phosphate cements loaded with human platelet lysate, hybrid injectable formulations composed of the calcium phosphate cement incorporating hyaluronin acid non-loaded microparticles (20% hyaluronin acid) or with particles loaded with platelet lysate. The degradability and new bone regrowth were evaluated in terms of mineral volume in the defect, measured by micro-computed tomography and histomorphometric analysis upon 4, 8 and 12 weeks of implantation. We observed that the incorporation of hyaluronin acid microspheres induced an overly rapid cement degradation, impairing the osteoconductive properties of the cement composites. Moreover, the incorporation of platelet lysate induced higher bone healing than the materials without platelet lysate, up to four weeks after surgery. Nevertheless, this effect was not found to be significant when compared to the one observed in the sham-treated group. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of phosphors based on calcium and magnesium silicates doped with europium and dysprosium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misso, Agatha Matos

    2016-01-01

    Ca and Mg silicates based phosphors were prepared by sol-gel method combined with the molten salts process. The gel of silica was obtained from Na 2 SiO 3 solution by using europium, dysprosium, calcium and magnesium chloride solutions. Therefore, those chlorides were homogeneously dispersed into the gel. The obtained gel was dried and heat treated to 900° C for 1h to allow the fusion of the present salts. Then it was water washed until negative test for Cl - , and dried. The reduction of the europium to Eu 2+ was performed under atmosphere of 5% of H 2 and 95% of Ar to 900° C for 3h, to reach CaMgSi 2 O 6 :Eu 2+ and CaMgSi 2 O 6 :Eu 2+ :Dy 3+ phosphors. Diopside was identified as main crystalline phase and quartz, as secondary phase from XRD (X-ray diffraction) patterns. SEM (scanning electron microscopy) micrographs, of the samples showed needles, spheres, leaves and rods of particles and agglomerates. Thermal analysis (TGA-DTGA) curves revealed that the crystallization temperature of CaMgSi 2 O 6 :Eu 2+ lies around 765° C. Photoluminescence spectroscopy of the phosphors was studied based on interconfigurational 4f N → 4f N-1 5d transition of Eu 2+ ion. The spectra of excitation showed 4f N → 4f N-1 5d transition of Eu 2+ ion broad band, related to the ligand to metal charge transfer transition (LMCT) O 2- (2p) → Eu 3+ in the 250 nm region, when the emission is monitored at 583,5 nm. It also presents the 4f ↔ 4f transitions of Eu 3+ ion bands, showing the 7 F 0 → 5 L 6 transition at 393 nm. From emission spectra with excitation monitored at 393 nm, it can be observed fine peaks between 570 and 750 nm which are characteristics of 5 D 0 → 7 F J (J = 0 - 5) transition of Eu 3+ ion, indicating that the Eu 3+ ion occupies a site with center of inversion. Finally, the obtained results indicate that the developed method is suitable to synthesize CaMgSi 2 O 6 :Eu 2+ and CaMgSi 2 O 6 :Eu 2+ :Dy 3+ phosphors, as it has been proposed. (author)

  15. Luminescence properties of dysprosium doped calcium magnesium silicate phosphor by solid state reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, Ishwar Prasad, E-mail: ishwarprasad1986@gmail.com [School of Studies in Physics & Astrophysics, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, C.G. 492010 (India); Chandrakar, Priya; Baghel, R.N.; Bisen, D.P.; Brahme, Nameeta [School of Studies in Physics & Astrophysics, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, C.G. 492010 (India); Tamrakar, Raunak Kumar [Department of Applied Physics, Bhilai Institute of Technology, Durg, C.G. 491001 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Dysprosium doped calcium magnesium silicate (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+}) white light emitting phosphor was synthesized by solid state reaction process. The crystal structure of sintered phosphor was monoclinic structure with space group C2/c. Chemical composition of the sintered CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphor was confirmed by EDX. The prepared CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphor was excited from 352 nm and their corresponding emission spectra were recorded at blue (470 nm), yellow (570 nm) and red (675 nm) line due to the {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 13/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 11/2} transitions of Dy{sup 3+} ions. The combination of these three emissions constituted as white light confirmed by the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) chromatic coordinate diagram. The possible mechanism of the white light emitting long lasting CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphor was also investigated. Investigation on afterglow property show that phosphor held fast and slow decay process. The peak of mechanoluminescence (ML) intensity increases linearly with increasing impact velocity of the moving piston. Thus the present investigation indicates that the local piezoelectricity-induced electron bombardment model is responsible to produce ML in prepared CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphor. - Highlights: • The crystal structure of CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphor is consistent with standard monoclinic structure. • CIE coordinates of CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphor is suitable as white light emitting phosphor. • The local piezoelectricity-induced electron bombardment model is responsible to produce ML in CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Dy{sup 3+} phosphor.

  16. The synergistic effects of Chinese herb and injectable calcium silicate/β-tricalcium phosphate composite on an osteogenic accelerator in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Tze; Chen, Yi-Wen; Hsu, Tuan-Ti; Shieh, Den-En; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Shie, Ming-You

    2015-04-01

    This study investigates the physicochemical and biological effects of traditional Chinese medicines on the β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP)/calcium silicate (CS) composites of bone cells using human dental pulp cell. CS is an osteoconductive and bioactive material. For this research we have combined β-TCP and CS and check its effectiveness, a series of β-TCP/CS composites with different ratios of Xu Duan (XD) were prepared to make new bioactive and biodegradable biocomposites for bone repair. XD has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for hundreds of years as an antiosteoporosis, tonic and antiaging agent for the therapy of low back pain, traumatic hematoma, threatened abortion and bone fractures. Formation of bone-like apatite, the diametral tensile strength, and weight loss of composites were considered before and after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, we also examined the effects of XD released from β-TCP/CS composites and in vitro human dental pulp cell (hDPCs) and studied its behavior. The results show the XD-contained paste did not give any demixing when the weight ratio of XD increased to 5-10 % due to the filter-pressing effect during extrusion through the syringe. After immersion in SBF, the microstructure image showed a dense bone-like apatite layer covered on the β-TCP/CS/XD composites. In vitro cell experiments shows that the XD-rich composites promote human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) proliferation and differentiation. However, when the XD quantity in the composite is more than 5 %, the amount of cells and osteogenesis protein of hDPCs were stimulated by XD released from β-TCP/CS composites. The combination of XD in degradation of β-TCP and osteogenesis of CS gives strong reason to believe that these calcium-based composite cements may prove to be promising bone repair materials.

  17. The influence of calcium lignosulphonate - sodium bicarbonate on the status of ettringite crystallization in fly ash cement paste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, K.; Zhang, C.; Liu, Z. [Hebei Institute of Technology, Tang Shan (China)

    2002-01-01

    Calcium lignosulphonate (CL) - sodium bicarbonate (SB) (a total of 0.7% by weight of cement and CL to SB ratio of 1:1.8) will cause the fluidity of fly ash cement paste to decrease rapidly. It is the variation of the status of ettringite crystallization that causes this phenomenon. Experimental results show that CL-SB affects the liquid-phase composition of fly ash cement paste remarkably. As a result, ettringite crystallizes out in the shape of needles from the solution. These needle-like crystal particles are distributed in the solution at a certain distance from the surface of clinker particles. At the initial hydration stage, the crystallization of ettringite is stronger in fly ash cement with calcined gypsum than in fly ash cement with gypsum. 5 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Effect of the leaching of calcium hydroxide from cement paste on mechanical and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carde, C.; Francois, R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the leaching process of cement based materials on their mechanical and physical properties. In order to characterize this effect, the authors have performed experiments on cement paste samples. The leaching process was achieved by the use of a 50% concentrate solution of ammonium nitrate. Both compression tests and water porosity tests were conducted on micro-cylinder samples (10, 12, 14 and 20 mm of diameter) because of the slow kinetics of degradation due to the leaching. The deterioration of the cement paste and the mortar exposed to the action of the ammonium nitrate was manifested by a peripheral zone of less resistance. This process induces mainly a total leaching of Ca(OH) 2 and a progressive decalcification of C-S-H which leads to a gradient of C/S ratio in the leaching zone. Both mechanical tests and water porosity tests show that there is a linear variation of the loss of strength and the increase in porosity in relation to the ratio of degraded area over total area of the sample A d /A t . It means that both compressive resistance and water porosity of the leaching zone are constant whatever the size of the degraded zone and then whatever the time of exposure to the chemical attack. So the authors could venture the hypothesis that the dissolution of calcium hydroxide is the essential parameter governing both decrease in strength and increase in porosity

  19. A histological evaluation on osteogenesis and resorption of methotrexate-loaded calcium phosphate cement in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Dong; Yang Zhiping; Li Xin; Li Zhenfeng; Li Jianmin [Department of Orthopedics, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Shandong (China); Yang Jingyan, E-mail: yangzhiping@medmail.com.c [Department of Pathology, 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Shandong University, Shandong (China)

    2010-04-15

    In this study, we investigated the resorption of in vivo methotrexate-loaded calcium phosphate cement (MTX-CPC) implants and their effect on osteogenesis. MTX-CPC implants containing 1% methotrexate (MTX) (weight/weight) were preset and implanted into the femoral condyle of rabbits. Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) without MTX was used as the control. The femurs were harvested at day 1 and at 1, 3 and 6 months after implantation and radiological examination were performed. Decalcified sections were examined by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) immunohistochemistry and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAPase) enzyme histochemistry. Then, we performed histomorphometric analysis, including determination of the percentage of newly formed bone and osteoblast and osteoclast counts. The results indicated that MTX-CPC implants were biocompatible, biodegradable and osteoconducive. However, MTX release from the implantation site inhibited osteogenesis in the initial period; this inhibition weakened with time, and no difference was observed between CPC and MTX-CPC at 6 months after implantation. Hence, MTX-CPC is an excellent material for filling defects and can be used for preparing effective drug delivery systems to achieve local control of invasive bone tumors.

  20. X-AFm stabilization as a mechanism of bypassing conversion phenomena in calcium aluminate cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))" data-affiliation=" (Laboratory for the Chemistry of Construction Materials LC2, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))" >Falzone, Gabriel; Balonis, Magdalena; 2, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); California Nanosystems Institute (CNSI), University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))" data-affiliation=" (Laboratory for the Chemistry of Construction Materials LC2, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); California Nanosystems Institute (CNSI), University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))" >Sant, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Phase conversion phenomena are often observed in calcium aluminate cements (CACs), when the water-rich hydrates (e.g., CAH 10 , C 2 AH 8 ) formed at early ages, at temperatures ≤ 30 °C, expel water in time to form more compact, less water-rich structures (C 3 AH 6 ). The phase conversions follow a path regulated by the thermodynamic stabilities (solubilities) of phases. Based on this premise, it is proposed that conversion phenomena in CACs can be bypassed by provoking the precipitation of phases more preferred than those typically encountered along the conversion pathway. Therefore, X-AFm formation (where in this case, X = NO 3 − ) triggered by the sequential addition of calcium nitrate (Ca(NO 3 ) 2 = CN) additives is identified as a new means of bypassing conversion. A multi-method approach comprising X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analytics, and evaluations of the compressive strength is applied to correlate phase balances and properties of CAC systems cured at 25 °C and 45 °C. The results highlight the absence of the C 3 AH 6 phase across all systems and the curing conditions considered, with enhanced strengths being noted, when sufficient quantities of CN are added. The experimental outcomes are supported by insights gained from thermodynamic calculations which highlight thermodynamic selectivity as a means of regulating and controlling the evolutions of solid phase balances using inorganic salts in CACs, and more generally in cementing material systems

  1. Impact of Fuel Selection on Techno-environmental Performance of Post-combustion Calcium Looping Process Applied to a Cement Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, Wouter; Orregioni, Gabriel; Strømman, Anders; Ramirez, Andrea

    Calcium looping CO2 capture is a promising technology to reduce CO2 emissions from cement production. Coal is generally considered the fuel used to drive the calcium looping process as coal is already used as feedstock for cement production. This study assesses the impact of different fuels (coal,

  2. Q-Speciation and Network Structure Evolution in Invert Calcium Silicate Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaseman, Derrick C; Retsinas, A; Kalampounias, A G; Papatheodorou, G N; Sen, S

    2015-07-02

    Binary silicate glasses in the system CaO-SiO2 are synthesized over an extended composition range (42 mol % ≤ CaO ≤ 61 mol %), using container-less aerodynamic levitation techniques and CO2-laser heating. The compositional evolution of Q speciation in these glasses is quantified using (29)Si and (17)O magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results indicate progressive depolymerization of the silicate network upon addition of CaO and significant deviation of the Q speciation from the binary model. The equilibrium constants for the various Q species disproportionation reactions for these glasses are found to be similar to (much smaller than) those characteristic of Li (Mg)-silicate glasses, consistent with the corresponding trends in the field strengths of these modifier cations. Increasing CaO concentration results in an increase in the packing density and structural rigidity of these glasses and consequently in their glass transition temperature Tg. This apparent role reversal of conventional network-modifying cations in invert alkaline-earth silicate glasses are compared and contrasted with that in their alkali silicate counterparts.

  3. A Study of Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate/Polymer Nanocomposites Fabricated Using the Layer-By-Layer Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Kamali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH/polymer nanocomposites were synthesized with the layer-by-layer (LBL method, and their morphology and mechanical properties were investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM imaging and AFM nanoindentation. Different sets of polymers were used to produce CSH/polymer nanocomposites. The effect of different factors including dipping time, calcium to silicate ratios (C/S ratios and pH on morphology was investigated. CSH/polymer nanocomposites made with different sets of polymers showed variation in morphologies. However, the Young’s modulus did not seem to reveal significant differences between the nanocomposites studied here. In nanocomposites containing graphene oxide (GO nanosheet, an increase in the density of CSH particles was observed on the GO nanosheet compared to areas away from the GO nanosheet, providing evidence for improved nucleation of CSH in the presence of GO nanosheets. An increase in roughness and a reduction in the packing density in nanocomposites containing GO nanosheets was observed.

  4. Effects of dietary supplementation of arginine-silicate-inositol complex on absorption and metabolism of calcium of laying hens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazim Sahin

    Full Text Available The effects of supplementation of arginine-silicate-inositol complex (ASI; 49.5-8.2-25 g/kg, respectively to laying hens were investigated with respect to eggshell quality, calcium (Ca balance, and expression of duodenal proteins related to Ca metabolism (calbindin and tight junction proteins. A total of 360 laying hens, 25 weeks old, were divided into 3 groups consisting of 6 replicate of cages, 20 birds per cage. The groups were fed a basal diet and the basal diet supplemented with 500 or 1000 mg ASI complex per kilogram for 90 days. Data were analyzed by ANCOVA using data during the first week of the adaptation period as covariates. As the ASI complex supplementation level increased, there were increases in feed intake (P < 0.0001, egg production (P < 0.001, egg weight (P < 0.0001 and eggshell weight (P < 0.001 weight, and shell thickness (P < 0.001 and decreases in feed conversion ratio and cracked egg percentage (P < 0.0001 for both. Concentrations of serum osteocalcin (P < 0.0001, vitamin D (P < 0.0001, calcium (P < 0.001, phosphorus (P < 0.001, and alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.008 as well as amounts of calcium retention (P < 0.0001 and eggshell calcium deposition (P < 0.001, and Ca balance (P < 0.0001 increased, whereas amount of calcium excretion (P < 0.001 decreased linearly in a dose-dependent manner. The ASI complex supplementation increased expressions of calcium transporters (calbindin-D28k, N sodium-calcium exchanger, plasma membrane calcium ATPase, and vitamin D receptor and tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1 and occludin in the duodenum in a linear fashion (P < 0.0001 for all. In conclusion, provision of dietary ASI complex to laying hens during the peak laying period improved eggshell quality through improving calcium utilization as reflected by upregulation of genes related to the calcium metabolism. Further studies are needed to elucidate the contribution of each of the ASI complex ingredients.

  5. Is it cement to be? Downhole cement that uses zeolite additive may offer lightweight alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, J.

    2001-05-01

    C2C Zeolite Corporation produces zeolites from a large deposit near Cache Creek, British Columbia, and processes them for use as an additive in downhole cement well casings. Early research indicates that zeolites can significantly improve the way downhole cement is made in the oil industry. Zeolites are made up mostly of silicates of aluminum and calcium. They have a great ability to absorb water, resulting in a lighter and more fluid cement than is currently available. C2C claims that zeolites will reduce cement weight, column pressure and operator costs. The cost benefits of using lighter cement downhole includes easier moving, processing and handling of the mix. Initial research suggests that zeolites might prove to be viable alternatives to other cement lighteners such as silica fumes or flyash. Zeolite-based cement also performed reasonably well in freeze-thaw tests and showed good adhesion and no evidence of shrinkage in downhole tests. 3 figs.

  6. Biocompatibility and setting time of CPM-MTA and white Portland cement clinker with or without calcium sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Kato, Marcia Magro; Assis, Gerson Francisco de; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Bernardineli, Norberti; Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes de; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald; Bramante, Alexandre Silva

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the biocompatibility and the setting time of Portland cement clinker with or without 2% or 5% calcium sulfate and MTA-CPM. Twenty-four mice (Rattus norvegicus) received subcutaneously polyethylene tubes filled with Portland cement clinker with or without 2% or 5% calcium sulfate and MTA. After 15, 30 and 60 days of implantation, the animals were killed and specimens were prepared for microscopic analysis. For evaluation of the setting time, each material was analyzed using Gilmore needles weighing 113.5 g and 456.5 g, according to the ASTM specification Number C266-08 guideline. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test for setting time and Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn test for biocompatibility at 5% significance level. Histologic observation showed no statistically significant difference of biocompatibility (p>0.05) among the materials in the subcutaneous tissues. For the setting time, clinker without calcium sulfate showed the shortest initial and final setting times (6.18 s/21.48 s), followed by clinker with 2% calcium sulfate (9.22 s/25.33 s), clinker with 5% calcium sulfate (10.06 s/42.46 s) and MTA (15.01 s/42.46 s). All the tested materials showed biocompatibility and the calcium sulfate absence shortened the initial and final setting times of the white Portland cement clinker.

  7. A novel and easy-to-prepare strontium(II) modified calcium phosphate bone cement with enhanced mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, M; Henß, A; Rohnke, M; Gelinsky, M

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate two different approaches to obtaining strontium-modified calcium phosphate bone cements (SrCPCs) without elaborate synthesis of Sr-containing calcium phosphate species as cement precursors that could release biologically effective doses of Sr(2+) and thus could improve the healing of osteoporotic bone defects. Using strontium carbonate as a strontium(II) source, it was introduced into a hydroxyapatite-forming cement either by the addition of SrCO3 to an α-tricalcium phosphate-based cement precursor mixture (A-type) or by substitution of CaCO3 by SrCO3 during precursor composition (S-type). The cements, obtained after setting in a water-saturated atmosphere, contained up to 2.2at.% strontium in different distribution patterns as determined by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The setting time of CPC and A-type cements was in the range of 6.5-7.5min and increased for substitution-type cements (12.5-13.0min). Set cements had an open porosity between 26 and 42%. Compressive strength was found to increase from 29MPa up to 90% in substituted S-type cements (58MPa). SrCPC samples released between 0.45 and 1.53mgg(-1) Sr(2+) within 21days and showed increased radiopacity. Based on these findings, the SrCPC developed in this study could be beneficial for the treatment of defects of systemically impaired (e.g. osteoporotic) bone. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Properties of calcium depleted hydrated cement paste: mineralogical characterization and cesium adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaahmadi, A.; Tang, L.; Zareen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the changes in adsorption properties of cementitious barriers and the effect on the release of radio-nuclides to the environment during the service life of the repository is of high importance. A major degradation scenario within safety assessment analysis of nuclear waste repositories is decalcification of cementitious materials due to long-term contact with groundwater. In order to decrease the uncertainty in the simulation of this process due to extrapolating short term data sets based on short term experimental analysis, acceleration methods enhancing the decalcification process can be used. However it is not yet completely proved that how different the properties of the aged samples through accelerated leaching is compared to the samples aged in natural ageing process. In this study the changes in cesium adsorption of the hydrated cement paste due to calcium depletion is taken in to consideration. The aged samples are prepared with application of an accelerating electro-chemical migration method. The mineralogical properties of decalcified specimens are characterized to demonstrate their comparability with naturally leached samples. The gradual effect of migration function on cementitious materials indicates a relatively homogenous leaching in cementitious specimens and a considerable increase in specific surface area due to the leaching of calcium. It is concluded that the aged samples having a larger surface area and less calcium and alkalis ions compared to pristine materials, exhibit a higher binding potential for Cs ions

  9. Comparative study on the change in index of refraction in ion-exchange interdiffusion in alkali-silicate glasses containing calcium, strontium, barium and titanium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livshits, V.Ya.; Marchuk, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    Different ability to ion exchange from the salts of lithium-sodium-silicate glass melt containing calcium (or strontium, or barium) and titanium oxides in addition has been shown. CaO, SrO and BaO have negative effect, but TiO 2 -positive one on the fullness of ion exchange of lithium-sodium and on the rate of interdiffusion in alkali-silicate glass. The value of change in index of refraction of glass with TiO 2 is twice higher than glass with calcium oxide (or strontium, or barium) as the fourth component

  10. Bulk physicochemical, interconnectivity, and mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cements-fibrin glue composites for bone substitute applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Heredia, M.A.; Pattipeilohy, J.; Hsu, S.; Grykien, M.; Weijden, B. van der; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Salmon, P.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Jansen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) and fibrin glue (FG) are used for surgical applications. Their combination is promising to create bone substitutes able to promote cell attachment and bone remodeling. This study proposes a novel approach to create CPC-FG composites by simultaneous CPC setting and FG

  11. A new acoustic method to determine the setting time of calcium sulfate bone cement mixed with antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J J; Brayford, M J; Laycock, P A

    2014-08-01

    A new method is described which can be used to determine the setting times of small amounts of high value bone cements. The test was developed to measure how the setting times of a commercially available synthetic calcium sulfate cement (Stimulan, Biocomposites, UK) in two forms (standard and Rapid Cure) varies with the addition of clinically relevant antibiotics. The importance of being able to accurately quantify these setting times is discussed. The results demonstrate that this new method, which is shown to correlate to the Vicat needle, gives reliable and repeatable data with additional benefits expressed in the article. The majority of antibiotics mixed were found to retard the setting reaction of the calcium sulfate cement.

  12. A new acoustic method to determine the setting time of calcium sulfate bone cement mixed with antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J J; Brayford, M J; Laycock, P A

    2014-01-01

    A new method is described which can be used to determine the setting times of small amounts of high value bone cements. The test was developed to measure how the setting times of a commercially available synthetic calcium sulfate cement (Stimulan, Biocomposites, UK) in two forms (standard and Rapid Cure) varies with the addition of clinically relevant antibiotics. The importance of being able to accurately quantify these setting times is discussed. The results demonstrate that this new method, which is shown to correlate to the Vicat needle, gives reliable and repeatable data with additional benefits expressed in the article. The majority of antibiotics mixed were found to retard the setting reaction of the calcium sulfate cement. (paper)

  13. Calcium phosphate cements properties with polymers addition; Propriedades do cimento de fosfato de calcio com adicao de polimeros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, J.M.; Trajano, W.T.; Escobar, C.F.; Santos, L.A., E-mail: julianafernandes2@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), RS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPC) have attracted great interest to use in orthopedics and dentistry as replacements for damaged parts of the skeletal system, showing good biocompatibility and osseointegration, allowing its use as bone graft. Several studies have shown that the addition of polymer additives have a strong influence on the cement properties. The low mechanical strength is the main obstacle to greater use of CPC as an implant material. The objective of this study was to evaluate properties of a cement based on α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP), added polymers. PVA (10%, 8%, 6%), sodium alginate (2%) and polyacrylate ammonia (3%), all in weight, were added to the synthesized α-TCP powder. The samples were molded and evaluated for density, porosity in vitro test (Simulated Body Fluid), crystalline phases and mechanical strength. The results show increased the mechanical properties of the cement when added these polymers.

  14. Study of the ultrasonic waves action on the preparation of calcium aluminates cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, R.R.; Exposito, C.C.D.; Rodrigues, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Calcium aluminates cements were prepared through a route that uses the sonochemical process. In this process, calcia and alumina in an aqueous suspension are put under an ultrasonic bath during some time. After that, the water is evaporated and the material is heat treated. In this work, the action of ultrasonic waves were studied on initials molar compositions calcia:alumina of 1:1. It was also verified the influence of the water on the reactivity of initial solids. SEM and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the obtained materials. In addition, mechanical strength of the products was evaluated through splitting tensile tests. The X-ray diffractograms showed that the presence of the water was enough to form hydrated compounds. However the material subjected to the sonochemical process presented the highest mechanical strength, indicating the potential of this route of synthesis. (author)

  15. Calcium silicate structure and carbonation shrinkage of a tobermorite-based material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Fumiaki; Aono, Yoshimichi; Shibata, Sumio

    2004-01-01

    Carbonated autoclaved aerated concretes (AACs) show no shrinkage at a degree of carbonation approximately less than 20%. The 29 Si MAS NMR spectrum showed that at a degree of carbonation less than 25%, the typical double-chain silicate anion structure of tobermorite-11A was well maintained and interlayer Ca ions were exchanged with protons. This corresponded to the absence of carbonation shrinkage at a degree of carbonation less than 20%. When the degree of carbonation increased from 25% to 50% up to 60%, the double-chain silicate anion structure of tobermorite-11A was decomposed and Ca ions in the Ca-O layers were dissolved, showing a possible mechanism of carbonation shrinkage

  16. Effect of polymers on the nanostructure and on the carbonation of calcium silicate hydrates: a scanning transmission X-ray microscopy study

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, J.

    2011-09-07

    This study investigated the effects of organic polymers (polyethylene glycol and hexadecyltrimethylammonium) on structures of calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) which is the major product of Portland cement hydration. Increased surface areas and expansion of layers were observed for all organic polymer modified C-S-H. The results from attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopic measurements also suggest lowered water contents in the layered structures for the C-S-H samples that are modified by organic polymers. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) results further supports this observation. We also observed difference in the extent of C-S-H carbonation due to the presence of organic polymers. No calcite formed in the presence of HDTMA whereas formation of calcite was observed with C-S-H sample modified with PEG. We suggest that the difference in the carbonation reaction is possibly due to the ease of penetration and diffusion of the CO 2. This observation suggests that CO 2 reaction strongly depends on the presence of organic polymers and the types of organic polymers incorporated within the C-S-H structure. This is the first comprehensive study using STXM to quantitatively characterize the level of heterogeneity in cementitious materials at high spatial and spectral resolutions. The results from BET, XRD, ATR-FTIR, and STXM measurements are consistent and suggest that C-S-H layer structures are significantly modified due to the presence of organic polymers, and that the chemical composition and structural differences among the organic polymers determine the extent of the changes in the C-S-H nanostructures as well as the extent of carbonation reaction. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  17. Densification of the interlayer spacing governs the nanomechanical properties of calcium-silicate-hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Guoqing; Myers, Rupert J; Qomi, Mohammad Javad Abdolhosseini; Monteiro, Paulo J M

    2017-09-08

    Calciuam-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) is the principal binding phase in modern concrete. Molecular simulations imply that its nanoscale stiffness is 'defect-driven', i.e., dominated by crystallographic defects such as bridging site vacancies in its silicate chains. However, experimental validation of this result is difficult due to the hierarchically porous nature of C-S-H down to nanometers. Here, we integrate high pressure X-ray diffraction and atomistic simulations to correlate the anisotropic deformation of nanocrystalline C-S-H to its atomic-scale structure, which is changed by varying the Ca-to-Si molar ratio. Contrary to the 'defect-driven' hypothesis, we clearly observe stiffening of C-S-H with increasing Ca/Si in the range 0.8 ≤ Ca/Si ≤ 1.3, despite increasing numbers of vacancies in its silicate chains. The deformation of these chains along the b-axis occurs mainly through tilting of the Si-O-Si dihedral angle rather than shortening of the Si-O bond, and consequently there is no correlation between the incompressibilities of the a- and b-axes and the Ca/Si. On the contrary, the intrinsic stiffness of C-S-H solid is inversely correlated with the thickness of its interlayer space. This work provides direct experimental evidence to conduct more realistic modelling of C-S-H-based cementitious material.

  18. Wollastonite nanofiber–doped self-setting calcium phosphate bioactive cement for bone tissue regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo H

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Han Guo,1,2 Jie Wei,2 Wenhua Song,2 Shan Zhang,2 Yonggang Yan,3 Changsheng Liu,2 Tiqiao Xiao11Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 3School of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The purpose of this study was to synthesize a self-setting bioactive cement by incorporation of wollastonite nanofibers (WNFs into calcium phosphate cement (CPC. The composition, morphology, setting time, compressive strength, hydrophilicity, and degradation of WNF-doped CPC (wnf-CPC were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy were utilized. Additionally, methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium bromide assay, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and histological evaluation were used to study the cell and tissue responses to wnf-CPC, both in vitro and in vivo. The results confirmed that the addition of WNFs into CPC had no obvious effect on the setting time or the compressive strength of wnf-CPC, provided the WNF amount was not more than 10 wt%. However, the hydrophilicity and degradability of wnf-CPC were significantly improved by the addition of WNFs – this was because of the change of microstructure caused by the WNFs. The preferred dissolution of WNFs caused the formation of microporosity in wnf-CPC when soaked in tris hydrochloride solution. The microporosity enlarged the surface area of the wnf-CPC and so promoted degradation of the wnf-CPC when in contact with liquid. In addition, MG-63 cell attachment and proliferation on the wnf-CPC were superior to that on the CPC, indicating that

  19. Formation of Calcium Silicates during Ignition of Marine Sediments and its Implication on the State of Silica on the Sea Floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duursma, E.K.; Bosch, C.J.; Eisma, D.

    1976-01-01

    Anomalies in the formation of calcium silicates in various marine sediment samples were observed on ignition at 800°C. The hypothesis is put forward that silica, originating from the land and from marine diatoms, undergoes a slow hydrolysis in the seabed and becomes more reactive. (author)

  20. Synthesis and mechanical properties of a calcium sulphoaluminate cement made of industrial wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallardo, M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally-friendly calcium sulphoaluminate clinkers were obtained from a mixture of aluminium dross, fluorgypsum, fly ash and CaCO₃ at temperatures within the range of 1100 to 1400 °C. After the heat treatments Ca₄Al₆O₁₂SO₄ was the main phase. Three different cements were prepared using the clinkers synthesized at 1250, 1350 and 1400 °C; the clinker powders were mixed with 20 wt% of hemihydrate. Cement pastes were prepared using a water/cement ratio (w/c, 0.4 followed by curing at 20 or 40 °C for periods of time ranging from 1 to 28 days. Most of the samples showed high compression strengths 40–47 MPa after 28 days, which were comparable to the strength of Portland cement. Ettringite was the main hydration product and its morphology consisted of acicular and hexagonal plates, which is typical of this phase.Se fabricaron clinkers de bajo impacto ambiental a base de sulfoaluminato de calcio calcinando mezclas de escoria de aluminio, fluoryeso, ceniza volante y CaCO₃ a diferentes temperaturas dentro de un rango de 1100 a 1400 °C. Se observó la formación de Ca₄Al₆O₁₂SO₄ como fase principal. Para obtener los cementos, los clinkers obtenidos a 1250, 1350 y 1400 °C se mezclaron con 20% en peso de hemihidrato. Se prepararon pastas usando una relación agua/cemento, de 0.4 y se curaron a 20 y 40 °C por diferentes periodos de tiempo desde 1 hasta 28 días. Los valores de resistencia a la compresión a los 28 días de curado de la mayoría de las muestras estuvieron entre 40–47 MPa, equiparables a los de referencia de pastas de cemento Portland. La etringita fue el principal producto de hidratación y su morfología consistió de placas hexagonales y aciculares, típicas de esta fase.

  1. Orthodontic cement with protein-repellent and antibacterial properties and the release of calcium and phosphate ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Weir, Michael D; Chen, Chen; Melo, Mary A S; Bai, Yuxing; Xu, Hockin H K

    2016-07-01

    White spot lesions often occur in orthodontic treatments. The objective of this study was to develop a novel resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGI) as an orthodontic cement with protein-repellent, antibacterial and remineralization capabilities. Protein-repellent 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), antibacterial dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM), nanoparticles of silver (NAg), and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) were incorporated into a RMGI. Enamel shear bond strength (SBS) was determined. Calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion releases were measured. Protein adsorption onto specimens was determined by a micro bicinchoninic acid method. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model was tested. Increasing the NACP filler level increased the Ca and P ion release. Decreasing the solution pH increased the ion release. Incorporating MPC into RMGI reduced protein adsorption, which was an order of magnitude less than that of commercial controls. Adding DMAHDM and NAg into RMGI yielded a strong antibacterial function, greatly reducing biofilm viability and acid production. Biofilm CFU counts on the multifunctional orthodontic cement were 3 orders of magnitude less than that of commercial control (p0.1). A novel multifunctional orthodontic cement was developed with strong antibacterial and protein-repellent capabilities for preventing enamel demineralization. The new cement is promising to prevent white spot lesions in orthodontic treatments. The method of incorporating four bioactive agents may have wide applicability to the development of other bioactive dental materials to inhibit caries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cementing Material From Rice Husk-Broken Bricks-Spent Bleaching Earth-Dried Calcium Carbide Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthengia Jackson Washira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A cementious material, coded CSBR (Carbide residue Spent bleaching earth Broken bricks and Rice husks, was made from dried calcium carbide residue (DCCR and an incinerated mix of rice husks (RH, broken bricks (BB and spent bleaching earth (SBE. Another material, coded SBR (Spent bleaching earth Broken bricks and Rice husk ash, was made from mixing separately incinerated RH, SBE and ground BB in the same ash ratio as in CSBR. When CSBR was inter-ground with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC, it showed a continued decrease in Ca(OH2 in the hydrating cement as a function of curing time and replacement levels of the cement. Up to 45 % replacement of the OPC by CSBR produced a Portland pozzolana cement (PPC material that passed the relevant Kenyan Standard. Incorporation of the CSBR in OPC reduces the resultant calcium hydroxide from hydrating Portland cement. The use of the waste materials in production of cementitious material would rid the environment of wastes and lead to production of low cost cementitious material.

  3. [Experiment of porous calcium phosphate/bone matrix gelatin composite cement for repairing lumbar vertebral bone defect in rabbit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song; Yang, Han; Yang, Jian; Kang, Jianping; Wang, Qing; Song, Yueming

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of a porous calcium phosphate/bone matrix gelatin (BMG) composite cement (hereinafter referred to as the "porous composite cement") for repairing lumbar vertebral bone defect in a rabbit model. BMG was extracted from adult New Zealand rabbits according to the Urist's method. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microsphere was prepared by W/O/W double emulsion method. The porous composite cement was developed by using calcium phosphate cement (CPC) composited with BMG and PLGA microsphere. The physicochemical characterizations of the porous composite cement were assessed by anti-washout property, porosity, and biomechanical experiment, also compared with the CPC. Thirty 2-month-old New Zealand rabbits were used to construct vertebral bone defect at L 3 in size of 4 mm×3 mm×3 mm. Then, the bone defect was repaired with porous composite cement (experimental group, n =15) or CPC (control group, n =15). At 4, 8, and 12 weeks after implantation, each bone specimen was assessed by X-ray films for bone fusion, micro-CT for bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume fraction (BVF), trabecular thickness (Tb. Th.), trabecular number (Tb.N.), and trabecular spacing (Tb. Sp.), and histological section with toluidine blue staining for new-born bone formation. The study demonstrated well anti-washout property in 2 groups. The porous composite cement has 55.06%±1.18% of porosity and (51.63±6.73) MPa of compressive strength. The CPC has 49.38%±1.75% of porosity and (63.34±3.27) MPa of compressive strength. There were significant differences in porosity and compressive strength between different cements ( t =4.254, P =0.006; t =2.476, P =0.034). X-ray films revealed that the zone between the cement and host bone gradually blurred with the time extending. At 12 weeks after implantation, the zone was disappeared in the experimental group, but clear in the control group. There were significant differences in BMD, BVF, Tb. Th., Tb. N., and Tb. Sp. between

  4. The influence of calcium nitrate on setting and hardening rate of Portland cement concrete at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kičaitė, A.; Pundienė, I.; Skripkiūnas, G.

    2017-10-01

    Calcium nitrate in mortars and concrete is used as a multifunctional additive: as set accelerator, plasticizer, long term strength enhancer and as antifreeze admixture. Used binding material and the amount of calcium nitrate, affect the characteristics of the concrete mixture and strength of hardened concrete. The setting time of the initial and the final binding at different temperatures of hardening (+ 20 °C and + 5 °C) of the pastes made of different cements (Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R and Portland limestone cement CEM II/A-LL 42.5 R) and various amounts of calcium nitrate from 1 % until 3 % were investigated. The effect of calcium nitrate on technological characteristics of concrete mixture (the consistency of the mixture, the density, and the amount of air in the mixture), on early concrete strength after 2 and 7 days, as well as on standard concrete strength after 28 days at different temperatures (at + 20 °C and + 5 °C) were analysed.

  5. Biphasic calcium sulfate dihydrate/iron-modified alpha-tricalcium phosphate bone cement for spinal applications: in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, M D; Lopez, J; Torres, R; Barraco, M; Fernandez, E; Valle, L J; Poeata, I

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the cytocompatibility of new 'iron-modified/alpha-tricalcium phosphate (IM/α-TCP) and calcium sulfate dihydrate (CSD)' bone cement (IM/α-TCP/CSD-BC) intended for spinal applications has been approached. The objective was to investigate by direct-contact osteoblast-like cell cultures (from 1 to 14 days) the in vitro cell adhesion, proliferation, morphology and cytoskeleton organization of MG-63 cells seeded onto the new cements. The results were as follows: (a) quantitative MTT-assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that cell adhesion, proliferation and viability were not affected with time by the presence of iron in the cements; (b) double immunofluorescent labeling of F-actin and α-tubulin showed a dynamic interaction between the cell and its porous substrates sustaining the locomotion phenomenon on the cements' surface, which favored the colonization, and confirming the biocompatibility of the experimental cements; (c) SEM-cell morphology and cytoskeleton observations also evidenced that MG-63 cells were able to adhere, to spread and to attain normal morphology on the new IM/α-TCP/CSD-BC which offered favorable substratum properties for osteoblast-like cells proliferation and differentiation in vitro. The results showed that these new iron-modified cement-like biomaterials have cytocompatible features of interest not only as possible spinal cancellous bone replacement biomaterial but also as bone tissue engineering scaffolds.

  6. Properties of Tricalcium Silicate Sealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Issam; Naaman, Alfred; Camilleri, Josette

    2016-10-01

    Sealers based on tricalcium silicate cement aim at an interaction of the sealer with the root canal wall, alkalinity with potential antimicrobial activity, and the ability to set in a wet field. The aim of this study was to characterize and investigate the properties of a new tricalcium silicate-based sealer and verify its compliance to ISO 6876 (2012). A new tricalcium silicate-based sealer (Bio MM; St Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon), BioRoot RCS (Septodont, St Maure de Fosses, France), and AH Plus (Dentsply, DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) were investigated. Characterization using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis was performed. Furthermore, sealer setting time, flow, film thickness, and radiopacity were performed following ISO specifications. pH and ion leaching in solution were assessed by pH analysis and inductively coupled plasma. Bio MM and BioRoot RCS were both composed of tricalcium silicate and tantalum oxide in Bio MM and zirconium oxide in BioRoot RCS. In addition, the Bio MM contained calcium carbonate and a phosphate phase. The inorganic components of AH Plus were calcium tungstate and zirconium oxide. AH Plus complied with the ISO norms for both flow and film thickness. BioRoot RCS and Bio MM exhibited a lower flow and a higher film thickness than that specified for sealer cements in ISO 6876. All test sealers exhibited adequate radiopacity. Bio MM interacted with physiologic solution, thus showing potential for bioactivity. Sealer properties were acceptable and comparable with other sealers available clinically. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Silicato de cálcio como amenizante da toxidez de metais pesados em mudas de eucalipto Calcium silicate to reduce heavy metal toxicity in eucalyptus seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria de Aguiar Accioly

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do silicato de cálcio na redução da toxidez de metais pesados no solo para Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Foram utilizadas cinco doses de silicato de cálcio (0, 1,6, 3,2, 4,8 e 6,4 g kg-1, em solos com diferentes graus de contaminação. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos com 1,5 kg de solo, com uma muda por vaso, em esquema fatorial 4x5 (quatro graus de contaminação x cinco doses de silicato. O silicato de cálcio reduziu a toxidez de metais pesados em E.camaldulensis, retardou o aparecimento dos sintomas de toxidez e diminuiu os teores de zinco e cádmio na parte aérea das plantas. Entretanto, não evitou totalmente a depressão no crescimento, nos solos com contaminação elevada. O efeito amenizante do silicato foi crescente com o aumento das doses e mais evidente nos solos com contaminação elevada. O efeito benéfico do silicato de cálcio está relacionado à redução da transferência do zinco para a parte aérea do eucalipto.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium silicate to reduce heavy metal toxicity in Eucalyptus camaldulensis seedlings. Five doses of calcium silicate (0, 1.6, 3.2, 4.8, and 6.4 g kg-1 were used in soils with increasing levels of contamination. The experiment was carried out in pots with 1.5 kg of soil, with one plant each, in a 4x5 factorial array (four levels of contamination x five silicate doses. Calcium silicate minimized heavy metal toxicity to E.camaldulensis, delayed the onset of toxicity symptoms, and decreased zinc and cadmium shoot concentrations. However, calcium silicate did not completely overcome the depressive effect upon plant growth in soils with high metal concentrations. Calcium silicate effects increased with increasing doses and were more evident in highly contaminated soils. The beneficial effects of calcium silicate on metal toxicity were highly related to the decrease in zinc translocation to the eucalyptus shoots.

  8. Calcium titanium silicate based glass-ceramic for nuclear waste immobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K.; Srivastav, A. P.; Goswami, M.; Krishnan, Madangopal

    2018-04-01

    Titanate based ceramics (synroc) have been studied for immobilisation of nuclear wastes due to their high radiation and thermal stability. The aim of this study is to synthesis glass-ceramic with stable phases from alumino silicate glass composition and study the loading behavior of actinides in glass-ceramics. The effects of CaO and TiO2 addition on phase evolution and structural properties of alumino silicate based glasses with nominal composition x(10CaO-9TiO2)-y(10Na2O-5 Al2O3-56SiO2-10B2O3); where z = x/y = 1.4-1.8 are reported. The glasses are prepared by melt-quench technique and characterized for thermal and structural properties using DTA and Raman Spectroscopy. Glass transition and peak crystallization temperatures decrease with increase of CaO and TiO2 content, which implies the weakening of glass network and increased tendency of glasses towards crystallization. Sphene (CaTiSiO5) and perovskite (CaTiO3) crystalline phases are confirmed from XRD which are well known stable phase for conditioning of actinides. The microsturcture and elemental analysis indicate the presence of actinide in stable crystalline phases.

  9. Novel adaptations to zinc-silicate glass polyalkenoate cements: the unexpected influences of germanium based glasses on handling characteristics and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, B T; Kehoe, S; Boyd, D

    2013-07-01

    Aluminum-free glass polyalkenoate cements (GPC) have been hindered for use as injectable bone cements by their inability to balance handling characteristics with mechanical integrity. Currently, zinc-based, aluminum-free GPCs demonstrate compression strengths in excess of 60MPa, but set in c. 1-2 min. Previous efforts to extend the setting reaction have remained clinically insufficient and are typically accompanied by a significant drop in strength. This work synthesized novel glasses based on a zinc silicate composition with the inclusion of GeO2, ZrO2, and Na2O, and evaluated the setting reaction and mechanical properties of the resultant GPCs. Germanium based GPCs were found to have working times between 5 and 10 min, setting times between 14 and 36 min, and compression strengths in excess of 30 MPa for the first 30 days. The results of this investigation have shown that the inclusion of GeO2, ZrO2, and Na2O into the glass network have produced, for the first time, an aluminum-free GPC that is clinically viable as injectable bone cements with regards to handling characteristics and mechanical properties. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of synthetic calcium silicates on the strength properties of fine-grained concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarusova, S. B.; Gordienko, P. S.; Kozin, A. V.; Zhevtun, I. G.; Perfilev, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of additives based on acicular calcium hydrosilicates (xonotlite and tobermorite) and wollastonite, obtained from boric acid production waste in autoclave synthesis at a temperature of 220 °C, on the strength of fine-grained concrete, has been studied in this paper. It was shown that when the calcium hydrosilicates and wollastonite are introduced, an increase in the strength characteristics of concrete is observed. After heat and moisture treatment, the maximum increase in strength is observed with the addition of 4% of mass content of calcium hydrosilicates and 6% of mass content of wollastonite. After 28 days of hardening under normal conditions, the maximum increase in strength of concrete is observed with the addition of 4% of mass content of both types of additives. It was shown that the water absorption of concrete decreases with a maximum when 4% of mass content is added, as in the case of the introduction of calcium hydrosilicates, and wollastonite. With a further increase in the number of additives, the amount of water absorption increases, but these values remain below the values for the control sample without additives.

  11. Characterization of silicates and calcium carbonates applied to high-dose dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, Gustavo Barreto

    2012-01-01

    The predominant isomorphous form in the biominerals studied in this work (oyster shell, coral, mother of pearl and shell) was aragonite. The appearance of the calcite phase occurred at 500 deg C at a heating rate of 10 deg C /s for all samples except for the coral sample, which was 400 deg C, independent of the heating rate. The most abundant element in the biominerals samples was Ca in the CaO form, and in the silicates (tremolite, diopside and rhodonite) Si in the SiO form. The most common trace element observed in the biominerals samples was Fe. The analyses of electron paramagnetic resonance showed lines of Mn 2+ in the coral and mother-of-pearl samples before irradiation. In the case of the irradiated samples, the defects found were CO 2 - , CO 3 3- , CO 3 - and SO 2 - , in the g range between 2.0010 and 2.0062. In the analyses by optical absorption of biominerals, transitions due to the presence of Mn in the samples were found. A thermoluminescent (TL) peak at approximately 140 deg C was found for the biominerals and at 180 deg C for silicates, which intensity depends directly on the dose. For samples exposed to different types of radiation, the TL peak occurred at lower temperatures. From the dose-response curves obtained for these materials, it was possible to determine a linear range for which their application in high dose dosimetry becomes possible. Taking into account the radiation type, among biominerals and silicates, the lowest detectable dose (40mGy) to gamma radiation was achieved for oyster shell samples using the measuring technique of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Using beta radiation, for diopside and tremolite samples the lowest detectable dose of 60mGy was obtained. For all samples, using the TL, OSL and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) techniques in alpha, beta and gamma radiation beans a good response reproducibility was obtained. Therefore, the samples characterized in this work are suitable to be used as high

  12. XANES analysis of calcium and sodium phosphates and silicates and hydroxyapatite-Bioglass (registered) 45S5 co-sintered bioceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirkiran, Hande; Hu Yongfeng; Zuin, Lucia; Appathurai, Narayana; Aswath, Pranesh B.

    2011-01-01

    Bioglass (registered) 45S5 was co-sintered with hydroxyapatite at 1200 deg. C. When small amounts ( 5 (PO 4 ) 2 SiO 4 and Na 3 Ca 6 (PO 4 ) 5 in an amorphous silicate matrix respectively. These chemistries show improved bioactivity compared to hydroxyapatite and are the subject of this study. The structure of several crystalline calcium and sodium phosphates and silicates as well as the co-sintered hydroxyapatite-Bioglass (registered) 45S5 bioceramics were examined using XANES spectroscopy. The nature of the crystalline and amorphous phases were studied using silicon (Si) and phosphorus (P) K- and L 2,3 -edge and calcium (Ca) K-edge XANES. Si L 2,3 -edge spectra of sintered bioceramic compositions indicates that the primary silicates present in these compositions are sodium silicates in the amorphous state. From Si K-edge spectra, it is shown that the silicates are in a similar structural environment in all the sintered bioceramic compositions with 4-fold coordination. Using P L 2,3 -edge it is clearly shown that there is no evidence of sodium phosphate present in the sintered bioceramic compositions. In the P K-edge spectra, the post-edge shoulder peak at around 2155 eV indicates that this shoulder to be more defined for calcium phosphate compounds with decreasing solubility and increasing thermodynamic stability. This shoulder peak is more noticeable in hydroxyapatite and β-TCP indicating greater stability of the phosphate phase. The only spectra that does not show a noticeable peak is the composition with Na 3 Ca 6 (PO 4 ) 5 in a silicate matrix indicating that it is more soluble compared to the other compositions.

  13. Calcium phosphate cement as a "barrier-graft" for the treatment of human periodontal intraosseous defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Calcium phosphate cements (CPC are apparently good candidates for periodontal treatment by virtue of their biocompatibility, mouldability and osteoconductivity. However, the clinical efficacy in this regard has not been established. This study is aimed at the evaluation of the efficacy of a formulation of CPC in healing human periodontal intraosseous defects in comparison with hydroxyapatite ceramic granules. Materials and Methods : In this clinical study, 60 patients with periodontal defects were divided into 2 test groups and 1 control group. The defect sites in the test groups were repaired with CPC and hydroxyapatite ceramic granules (HAG. Debridement alone was given in the control group. The progress was assessed at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months observation intervals through soft tissue parameters (probing depth, attachment level and gingival recession. Results: CPC showed significantly better outcome. Probing depth reduction values of CPC, HAG and Control at 6 months were 5.40 ± 1.43, 3.75 ± 1.71 and 2.90 ± 1.48, and those at 12 months were 6.20 ± 1.80, 4.5 ± 1.91 and 2.95 ± 1.73. Clinical attachment gain values of CPC, HAG and Control at 6 months were 5.15 ± 1.50, 3.45 ± 1.96 and 2.25 ± 1.52, and those at 12 months were 5.80 ± 2.02, 3.55 ± 2.06 and 2.30 ± 1.78, In both cases the P value was < 0.001 showing high significance. The gingival recession over 12 months, for the CPC group is lesser than that in the HAG group and the value for the control group is marginally higher than both. Soft-tissue measurements were appended by postoperative radiographs and surgical re-entry in selected cases. Conclusions: Calcium phosphate cement is found to be significantly better than hydroxyapatite ceramic granules. The material could be considered as a "barrier-graft".

  14. Effect of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Addition on the Properties of Hydrothermal Derived Calcium Phosphate Cement for Bone Filling Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, N. N.; Sopyan, I.; Mel, M.; Salleh, H. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Singh, R.

    2017-06-01

    The effect of addition of poly(vinyl alcohol) on hydrothermal derived calcium phosphate cement has been studied. The precursors used to prepare the cement were calcium oxide (CaO) and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4); the reaction was conducted in water at 80-100°C. To improve properties of CPC, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) of 1wt% and 2wt% was added to the liquid phase of CPC and the results were compared to CPC without PVA addition. The addition of PVA was proved to bring remarkable effects on cohesion, setting time and mechanical strength of CPC which make it suitable physically for injectable bone filler applications.

  15. The Evaluation of Damage Effects on MgO Added Concrete with Slag Cement Exposed to Calcium Chloride Deicing Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Kyeong; Kim, Hong-Gi; Kim, Jun-Hyeong

    2018-01-01

    Concrete systems exposed to deicers are damaged in physical and chemical ways. In mitigating the damage from CaCl2 deicers, the usage of ground slag cement and MgO are investigated. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and slag cement are used in different proportions as the binding material, and MgO in doses of 0%, 5%, 7%, and 10% are added to the systems. After 28 days of water-curing, the specimens are immersed in 30% CaCl2 solution by mass for 180 days. Compressive strength test, carbonation test, chloride penetration test, chloride content test, XRD analysis, and SEM-EDAX analysis are conducted to evaluate the damage effects of the deicing solution. Up to 28 days, plain specimens with increasing MgO show a decrease in compressive strength, an increase in carbonation resistance, and a decrease in chloride penetration resistance, whereas the S30- and S50- specimens show a slight increase in compressive strength, an increase in carbonation resistance, and a slight increase in chloride penetration resistance. After 180 days of immersion in deicing solution, specimens with MgO retain their compressive strength longer and show improved durability. Furthermore, the addition of MgO to concrete systems with slag cement induces the formation of magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) phases. PMID:29758008

  16. The Evaluation of Damage Effects on MgO Added Concrete with Slag Cement Exposed to Calcium Chloride Deicing Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae-Kyeong; Kim, Hong-Gi; Kim, Jun-Hyeong; Ryou, Jae-Suk

    2018-05-14

    Concrete systems exposed to deicers are damaged in physical and chemical ways. In mitigating the damage from CaCl₂ deicers, the usage of ground slag cement and MgO are investigated. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and slag cement are used in different proportions as the binding material, and MgO in doses of 0%, 5%, 7%, and 10% are added to the systems. After 28 days of water-curing, the specimens are immersed in 30% CaCl₂ solution by mass for 180 days. Compressive strength test, carbonation test, chloride penetration test, chloride content test, XRD analysis, and SEM-EDAX analysis are conducted to evaluate the damage effects of the deicing solution. Up to 28 days, plain specimens with increasing MgO show a decrease in compressive strength, an increase in carbonation resistance, and a decrease in chloride penetration resistance, whereas the S30- and S50- specimens show a slight increase in compressive strength, an increase in carbonation resistance, and a slight increase in chloride penetration resistance. After 180 days of immersion in deicing solution, specimens with MgO retain their compressive strength longer and show improved durability. Furthermore, the addition of MgO to concrete systems with slag cement induces the formation of magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) phases.

  17. Leaching of both calcium hydroxide and C-S-H from cement paste: Modeling the mechanical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carde, C.; Torrenti, J.M.; Francois, R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the leaching process of cement based materials on their mechanical properties. This process induces mainly a total leaching of Ca(OH) 2 and a progressive decalcification of C-S-H which leads to a gradient of C/S ratio in the leaching zone. In a previous work, the authors venture the hypothesis that the dissolution of calcium hydroxide was the essential parameter governing both decrease in strength and increase in porosity in the case of a paste sample made with an OPC cement which leads to a 20% content of calcium. In order to quantify the effect of the decrease of C/S ratio in C-S-H, the authors have performed experiments on paste samples with the admixture of silica fume to reduce the content of calcium hydroxide and thus emphasize the effect of C/S ratio decrease of the C-S-H. The leaching process was achieved by the use of a 50% concentrate solution of ammonium nitrate. Compression tests were conducted on micro-cylinder samples (10, 12, 14, 20 and 30 mm of diameter) because of the slow kinetics of degradation due to the leaching. The deterioration of the cement paste and the mortar exposed to the action of the ammonium nitrate was indicated by a peripheral zone of less resistance. The experimental results allow the modeling of the mechanical behavior of cement pastes in relation to the ratio of degraded area over total area of the sample A d /A t . The model thus defined allows separation of the effect of calcium hydroxide leaching and C-S-H leaching, and shows the importance of the first one. The current research program tries to characterize the deterioration of the mechanical properties of the concrete surrounding radioactive wastes, due to the water flow during storage

  18. Effects of surface application of dolomitic limestone and calcium-magnesium silicate on soybean and maize in rotation with green manure in a tropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Spadotti Amaral Castro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although lime is currently the material most frequently used to ameliorate soil acidity in Brazil, silicate could efficiently replace this source because of its greater solubility and its greater silicon content, which are beneficial for plant development. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of superficial lime and silicate application on soil chemical attributes as well as on soybean and maize nutrition and grain yields when these crops are grown in rotation with green manure. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with sixteen replicates. Plots were treated with one of two materials for acidity correction (dolomitic lime and calcium/magnesium silicate or with no soil correction, as a control. Silicate corrected soil acidity and increased exchangeable base levels in soil at greater depths faster than does liming. The application of both acidity-correcting materials increased N, Ca and Mg leaf concentrations, and all yield components and grain yield in soybean; but in maize, just silicate also increased N and Si when compared with lime, whereas both acidity-correcting increased just two yield components: grains per ear and mass of 100 grains, resulting in highest grain yield. The application of both acidity-correcting materials increased dry matter production of green manures, but for pigeon pea the silicate provided the best result in this dry-winter region.

  19. Effect of polydopamine on the biomimetic mineralization of mussel-inspired calcium phosphate cement in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zongguang [Key Lab of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Qu, Shuxin, E-mail: qushuxin@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zheng, Xiaotong; Xiong, Xiong [Key Lab of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Fu, Rong; Tang, Kuangyun; Zhong, Zhendong [Department of Plastic Surgery, Academy of Medical Sciences and Sichuan Provincial People' s Hospital, Chengdu 610041 (China); Weng, Jie [Key Lab of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2014-11-01

    Inspired by the excellent adhesive property of mussel adhesive protein, we added polydopamine (PDA) to calcium phosphate cement (PDA–CPC) to enhance its compressive strength previously. The mineralization and mechanism on PDA–CPC were investigated by soaking it in simulated body fluid in this study. The results indicated that PDA promoted the conversion of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate and α-tricalcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite (HA) in the early stage but inhibited this conversion subsequently. PDA promoted the rapid mineralization on PDA–CPC to form a layer of nanoscale calcium phosphate (CaP) whereas there was no CaP formation on the control-CPC after 1 d of soaking. This layer of nanoscale CaP was similar to that of natural bone, which was always observed during soaking. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the peak of C=O of PDA existed in the newly formed CaP on PDA–CPC, indicating the co-precipitation of CaP with PDA. Furthermore, the newly formed CaP on PDA–CPC was HA confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, which the newly formed HA was in association with PDA. Therefore, PDA increased the capacity of mineralization of CPC and induced the formation of nanoscale bone-like apatite on PDA–CPC. Thus, this provides the feasible route for surface modification on CPC. - Highlights: • Effect of polydopamine (PDA) on the in vitro mineralization of PDA-CPC was studied. • PDA promoted the rapid mineralization on PDA-CPC to form a nanoscale HA layer. • The precipitation of the nanoscale HA layer on PDA-CPC accompanied with PDA. • Polydopamine induced mineralization is feasible for surface modification of CaP.

  20. Observation on the role of osteoporotic vertebra augmented with calcium sulfate cement in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xuesong; Shi Qin; Zhang Zhiming; Geng Dechun; Mao Haiqing; Chen Chunmao; Wang Genlin; Yang Huilin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the biomechanical and histological performance of calcium sulfate cement (CSC) in osteoporotic vertebral bodies. Methods: Bone voids were created in L 2 ∼ L 5 vertebras of twelve female osteoporotic mature sheep. CSC and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) were injected into one bone voids randomly, L 1 and L 6 vertebrae served as the normal control. Six sheep were sacrificed at the 2nd week and the 24th week after operation respectively. Overall observation,biomechanical test and undecalcified bone histology analyses were performed. Results: Biomechanical analysis showed that the vertebrae could be augmented by CSC and PMMA. The biomechanical properties of the vertebrae augmented with CSC were weakened more than that in the PMMA and normal group at the 2nd week, increased significantly at the 24th week. Histological observation showed that CSC was mostly absorbed at the 24th week, mature bone trabecula was seen in the defect area. Conclusion: The osteoporotic vertebrae can be augmented instantly by CSC. As time goes on, CSC can promote bone remodeling, and enhance the vertebrae. It is an alternation for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. (authors)

  1. Lithium doped calcium phosphate cement maintains physical mechanical properties and promotes osteoblast proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Wang, Renchong; Li, Baichuan; Liang, Wei; Pan, Haobo; Cui, Xu; Tang, Jingli; Li, Bing

    2017-07-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) has been widely used in bone tissue repairing due to its physical mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Addition of trace element to CPC has shown promising evidence to improve the physical properties and biological activities of CPC. Lithium (Li) has effect on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we incorporated Li to CPC and examined the physical properties of Li/CPC and its effect on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. We found that Li doped CPC maintained similar setting time, pore size distribution, compressive strength, composition, and morphology as CPC without Li. Additionally, Li doped CPC improved osteoblast proliferation and differentiation significantly compared to CPC without Li. To our knowledge, our results, for the first time, show that Li doped CPC has beneficial effect on osteoblast in cell culture while keeps the excellent physical-mechanical properties of CPC. This study will lead to potential application of Li doped CPC in bone tissue engineering. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 944-952, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Gold nanoparticles in injectable calcium phosphate cement enhance osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yang; Chen, Huimin; Zhang, Feimin; Bao, Chongyun; Weir, Michael D; Reynolds, Mark A; Ma, Junqing; Gu, Ning; Xu, Hockin H K

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a novel calcium phosphate cement containing gold nanoparticles (GNP-CPC) was developed. Its osteogenic induction ability on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) was investigated for the first time. The incorporation of GNPs improved hDPSCs behavior on CPC, including better cell adhesion (about 2-fold increase in cell spreading) and proliferation, and enhanced osteogenic differentiation (about 2-3-fold increase at 14 days). GNPs endow CPC with micro-nano-structure, thus improving surface properties for cell adhesion and subsequent behaviors. In addition, GNPs released from GNP-CPC were internalized by hDPSCs, as verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thus enhancing cell functions. The culture media containing GNPs enhanced the cellular activities of hDPSCs. This result was consistent with and supported the osteogenic induction results of GNP-CPC. In conclusion, GNP-CPC significantly enhanced the osteogenic functions of hDPSCs. GNPs are promising to modify CPC with nanotopography and work as bioactive additives thus enhance bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. CT volumetry of intravertebral cement after kyphoplasty. Comparison of polymethylmethacrylate and calcium phosphate in a 12-month follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libicher, M.; Noeldge, G.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Vetter, M.; Wolf, I.; Meinzer, H.P.; Kasperk, C.; Grafe, I.; Fonseca, K.D.; Meeder, P.J.; Hillmeier, J.

    2005-01-01

    This study was intended to measure the volume of intravertebral cement after balloon kyphoplasty with high resolution computed tomography (CT) and dedicated software. Volume changes of biocompatible calcium phosphate cement (CPC) were detected during a follow-up of 12 months. Measurements were compared with a control group of patients treated with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Twenty-three vertebrae (14 CPC, 9 PMMA) of 12 patients were examined with CT using an identical imaging protocol. Dedicated software was used to quantify intravertebral cement volume in subvoxel resolution by analyzing each cement implant with a density-weighted algorithm. The mean volume reduction of CPC was 0.08 ml after 12 months, which corresponds to an absorption rate of 2 vol%. However, the difference did not reach significance level (P>0.05). The mean error estimate was 0.005 ml, indicating excellent precision of the method. CT volumetry appears a precise tool for measurement of intravertebral cement volume. CT volumetry offers the possibility of in vivo measurement of CPC resorption. (orig.)

  4. Dentin-cement Interfacial Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmeh, A.R.; Chong, E.Z.; Richard, G.; Festy, F.; Watson, T.F.

    2012-01-01

    The interfacial properties of a new calcium-silicate-based coronal restorative material (Biodentine™) and a glass-ionomer cement (GIC) with dentin have been studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-Raman spectroscopy, and two-photon auto-fluorescence and second-harmonic-generation (SHG) imaging. Results indicate the formation of tag-like structures alongside an interfacial layer called the “mineral infiltration zone”, where the alkaline caustic effect of the calcium silicate cement’s hydration products degrades the collagenous component of the interfacial dentin. This degradation leads to the formation of a porous structure which facilitates the permeation of high concentrations of Ca2+, OH-, and CO32- ions, leading to increased mineralization in this region. Comparison of the dentin-restorative interfaces shows that there is a dentin-mineral infiltration with the Biodentine, whereas polyacrylic and tartaric acids and their salts characterize the penetration of the GIC. A new type of interfacial interaction, “the mineral infiltration zone”, is suggested for these calcium-silicate-based cements. PMID:22436906

  5. Long-term heat storage in calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA) based concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, Josef P.; Winnefeld, Frank [Empa Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Duebendorf (Switzerland). Lab. for Concrete and Construction Chemistry

    2011-07-01

    In general, the selection of materials proposed for solar heat storage is based on one of two principal processes: sensible heat storage or latent heat storage. Sensible heat storage utilizes the specific heat capacity of a material, while latent heat storage is based on the change in enthalpy (heat content) associated with a phase change of the material. Long time sensible heat storage requires excellent thermal insulation whereas latent heat storage allows permanent (seasonal) storage without significant energy losses and any special insulation. Ettringite, one of the cement hydration products, exhibits a high dehydration enthalpy. Calcium sulfoaluminate cement based concrete containing a high amount of ettringite is henceproposed as an efficient latent heat storage material. Compared to conventional heat storage materials this innovative concrete mixture has a high loss-free storage energy density (> 100-150 kWh/m{sup 3}) which is much higher than the one of paraffin or the (loss-sensitive) sensible heat of water. Like common concrete the CSA-concrete is stable and even may carry loads. The dehydration of the CSA-concrete is achieved at temperatures below 100 C. The rehydration process occurs as soon as water (liquid or vapor) is added. In contrast to paraffin, the phase change temperature is not fixed and the latent heat may be recovered at any desired temperature. Furthermore the heat conductivity of this material is high, so that the energy transfer from/to an exchange medium is easy. Additionally CSA-concrete is not flammable and absolutely safe regarding any health aspects. The cost of such CSA-concrete isin the order of normal concrete. The main application is seen in house heating systems. Solar heat, mostly generated during the summer period by means of roof collectors, can be stored in CSA-concrete until the winter. A part or even the whole annual heatingenergy may be produced and saved locally by the householder himself. Additional applications may be

  6. Biological Assessment of a Calcium Silicate Incorporated Hydroxyapatite-Gelatin Nanocomposite: A Comparison to Decellularized Bone Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Joon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our laboratory utilized biomimicry to develop a synthetic bone scaffold based on hydroxyapatite-gelatin-calcium silicate (HGCS. Here, we evaluated the potential of HGCS scaffold in bone formation in vivo using the rat calvarial critical-sized defect (CSD. Twelve Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four groups: control (defect only, decellularized bone matrix (DECBM, and HGCS with and without multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs. DECBM was prepared by removing all the cells using SDS and NH4OH. After 12 weeks, the CSD specimens were harvested to evaluate radiographical, histological, and histomorphometrical outcomes. The in vitro osteogenic effects of the materials were studied by focal adhesion, MTS, and alizarin red. Micro-CT analysis indicated that the DECBM and the HGCS scaffold groups developed greater radiopaque areas than the other groups. Bone regeneration, assessed using histological analysis and fluorochrome labeling, was the highest in the HGCS scaffold seeded with MAPCs. The DECBM group showed limited osteoinductivity, causing a gap between the implant and host tissue. The group grafted with HGCS+MAPCs resulting in twice as much new bone formation seems to indicate a role for effective bone regeneration. In conclusion, the novel HGCS scaffold could improve bone regeneration and is a promising carrier for stem cell-mediated bone regeneration.

  7. Effects of graphene plates' adoption on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and in vivo biocompatibility of calcium silicate coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Youtao; Li, Hongqin; Ding, Chuanxian; Zheng, Xuebin; Li, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Calcium silicate (CS) ceramic is a good coating candidate for biomedical implants to improve biocompatibility and accelerate early osseointegration. However, the poor fracture toughness and wear resistance of this ceramic material restricts the long-term performance of implants. In this study, graphene plates (GPs) were used as reinforcement to improve the mechanical properties of CS coating. Composite coating containing 1.5 weight % GPs was prepared by vacuum plasma spraying technology. The good survival of the GPs in the composite coating was demonstrated by Raman analysis, although the defects of the GPs were increased after plasma spraying. Effects of the GPs' adoption on the microstructure of the coating were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that the GPs were homogenously distributed in the CS grains interface or enwrapped on the particles, and exhibited good wetting behavior with the CS matrix. The wear properties of the composite coating were obviously enhanced by the reinforcement of GPs. The reinforcement mechanism was attributed to the enhanced micro-hardness and interfacial bonding of the particles in the coating. In vivo experiments demonstrated that the composite coating possessed similarly good biocompatibility compared to pure CS coating. The bone-implant contact ratio reached 84.3%±7.4% for GPs/CS coating and 79.6%±9.4% for CS coating after 3 months' implantation.

  8. Effects of graphene plates’ adoption on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and in vivo biocompatibility of calcium silicate coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Youtao; Li, Hongqin; Ding, Chuanxian; Zheng, Xuebin; Li, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Calcium silicate (CS) ceramic is a good coating candidate for biomedical implants to improve biocompatibility and accelerate early osseointegration. However, the poor fracture toughness and wear resistance of this ceramic material restricts the long-term performance of implants. In this study, graphene plates (GPs) were used as reinforcement to improve the mechanical properties of CS coating. Composite coating containing 1.5 weight % GPs was prepared by vacuum plasma spraying technology. The good survival of the GPs in the composite coating was demonstrated by Raman analysis, although the defects of the GPs were increased after plasma spraying. Effects of the GPs’ adoption on the microstructure of the coating were studied by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that the GPs were homogenously distributed in the CS grains interface or enwrapped on the particles, and exhibited good wetting behavior with the CS matrix. The wear properties of the composite coating were obviously enhanced by the reinforcement of GPs. The reinforcement mechanism was attributed to the enhanced micro-hardness and interfacial bonding of the particles in the coating. In vivo experiments demonstrated that the composite coating possessed similarly good biocompatibility compared to pure CS coating. The bone-implant contact ratio reached 84.3%±7.4% for GPs/CS coating and 79.6%±9.4% for CS coating after 3 months’ implantation. PMID:26089662

  9. Effects of nanosilver and nanozinc incorporated mesoporous calcium-silicate nanoparticles on the mechanical properties of dentin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhu

    Full Text Available Mesoporous calcium-silicate nanoparticles (MCSNs are advanced biomaterials for drug delivery and mineralization induction. They can load silver and exhibit significantly antibacterial effects. However, the effects of MCSNs and silver-loaded MCSNs on dentin are unknown. The silver (Ag and/or zinc (Zn incorporated MCSNs (Ag-Zn-MCSNs were prepared by a template method, and their characterizations were tested. Then the nanoparticles were filled into root canals and their effects on the dentin were investigated. Ag-Zn-MCSNs showed characteristics of mesoporous materials and sustained release of ions over time. Ag-Zn-MCSNs adhered well to the root canal walls and infiltrated into the dentinal tubules after ultrasound activation. Ag-Zn-MCSNs showed no significantly negative effects on either the flexural strength or the modulus of elasticity of dentin, while CH decreased the flexural strength of dentin significantly (P<0.05. These findings suggested that Ag and Zn can be incorporated into MCSNs using a template method, and the Ag-Zn-MCSNs may be developed into a new disinfectant for the root canal and dentinal tubules.

  10. Influence of the redox state on the neptunium sorption under alkaline conditions. Batch sorption studies on titanium dioxide and calcium silicate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tits, Jan; Laube, Andreas; Wieland, Erich; Gaona, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Wet chemistry experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the redox state and aqueous speciation on the uptake of neptunium by titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) and by calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) under alkaline conditions. TiO 2 was chosen as a reference sorbent to determine the surface complexation behaviour of neptunium under alkaline conditions. C-S-H phases are important constituents of cement and concrete. They may contribute significantly to radionuclide retention due to their high recrystallization rates making incorporation the dominating sorption mechanism for many radionuclides (e.g. the actinides) on these materials. The sorption of neptunium on both solids was found to depend strongly on the degree of hydrolysis. On TiO 2 R d values for Np(IV), Np(V) and Np(VI) are identical at pH = 10 and decrease with progressing hydrolysis in case of Np(V) and Np(VI). On C-S-H phases, R d values for the three redox states are also identical at pH = 10. While the R d values for Np(VI) sorption on C-S-H phases decrease with progressing hydrolysis, the R d values for Np(IV) and Np(V) sorption are not affected by the pH. In addition to the effect of hydrolysis, the presence of Ca is found to promote Np(V) and Np(VI) sorption on TiO 2 whereas on C-S-H phases, the present wet chemistry data do not give unambiguous evidence. Thus, the aqueous speciation appears to have a similar influence on the sorption of the actinides on both types of solids despite the different sorption mechanism. The similar R d values for Np(IV,V,VI) sorption at pH = 10 can be explained qualitatively by invoking inter-ligand electrostatic repulsion between OH groups in the coordination sphere of Np(V) and Np(VI). This mechanism was proposed earlier in the literature for the prediction of actinide complexation constants with inorganic ligands. A limiting coordination number for each Np redox state, resulting from the inter-ligand electrostatic repulsion, allows the weaker sorption of the

  11. Addition of Wollastonite Fibers to Calcium Phosphate Cement Increases Cell Viability and Stimulates Differentiation of Osteoblast-Like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Almeida Domingues

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate cement (CPC that is based on α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP is considered desirable for bone tissue engineering because of its relatively rapid degradation properties. However, such cement is relatively weak, restricting its use to areas of low mechanical stress. Wollastonite fibers (WF have been used to improve the mechanical strength of biomaterials. However, the biological properties of WF remain poorly understood. Here, we tested the response of osteoblast-like cells to being cultured on CPC reinforced with 5% of WF (CPC-WF. We found that both types of cement studied achieved an ion balance for calcium and phosphate after 3 days of immersion in culture medium and this allowed subsequent long-term cell culture. CPC-WF increased cell viability and stimulated cell differentiation, compared to nonreinforced CPC. We hypothesize that late silicon release by CPC-WF induces increased cell proliferation and differentiation. Based on our findings, we propose that CPC-WF is a promising material for bone tissue engineering applications.

  12. A randomized clinical trial on the use of medical Portland cement, MTA and calcium hydroxide in indirect pulp treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Marina Agathi; Alhamoui, Fadi Alhaddad; Welk, Alexander; Altarabulsi, Mohammed Basel; Alkilzy, Mohammed; H Splieth, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Studies on indirect pulp treatment (IPT) show varying success rates of 73 to 97 %. The necessity of re-opening the cavity and the question of the optimal capping material is still under debate. The aim of this prospective in vivo study was to compare the clinical and microbiological outcomes of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), medical Portland cement, and calcium hydroxide on the dentin-pulp complex of permanent and primary teeth treated with two-step IPT. In 86 regular patients (51 % men; 49 % women; age 17.2 years ±13.8), one deep carious lesion each was treated with incomplete caries removal, randomly selected capping with either calcium hydroxide (n = 31), medical Portland cement (29) or white MTA (26), and re-entry (6.3 months ±1.0). Clinical (color, humidity, and consistency of dentin) and microbiological (Lactobacilli/Mutans Strep. counts) parameters were recorded at the first and second treatment. The IPT had a high success rate of 90.3 % regardless of the material used (p = 0.72). The arrested lesions showed consistently darker, dry, and therefore, sclerotic dentine (p Portland cement. The findings of this study could promote the improvement of the IPT as a one-step treatment of deep carious lesions when the remaining demineralized dentin would be sealed with durable restorations.

  13. The biological performance of injectable calcium phosphate/PLGA cement in osteoporotic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Watering, Floor C J; Cuijpers, Vincent M; Jansen, John A; Van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Laverman, Peter; Gotthardt, Martin; Boerman, Otto C; Bronkhorst, Ewald M

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) including poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microparticles are promising candidates for bone regenerative applications. Previous studies with CPC/PLGA demonstrated that the material is non-toxic, biocompatible and osteoconductive. However, the outcome of these studies was based on healthy individuals and consequently does not provide information on bone substitute material performance in a compromised situation, such as osteoporosis. Therefore, this study comparatively evaluated the performance of injectable CPC/PLGA in healthy (SHAM) and osteoporotic rats (OVX) using a rat femoral condyle defect with implantation periods of 4 and 12 weeks. It was hypothesized that in OVX rats the degradation of CPC/PLGA would increase due to a higher osteoclastic activity present in osteoporotic animals and that the obtained space would be rapidly filled with newly formed bone. The results revealed an accelerated degradation of the used CPC/PLGA in osteoporotic animals, but bone formation was less compared to that in healthy animals at 4 and 12 weeks after implantation. In addition, after 4 weeks, the amount of newly formed bone under osteoporotic conditions was less in the femoral condyle defect compared to that present in a non-defect, osteoporotic control femoral condyle, but equal after 12 weeks. On the other hand, in healthy animals, the amount of newly formed bone in the femoral condyle defect was equal to that present in a non-defect control femoral condyle at 4 weeks, while higher after 12 weeks. This indicates that bone regeneration at a defect site under osteoporotic conditions is slower, but can reach native amounts after longer time periods. Consequently, bone regenerative treatments under osteoporotic conditions seem to require additional empowerment of bone substitute materials. (paper)

  14. Immobilization of radioactive waste in cement-based matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, F.P.; Rahman, A.A.; Crawford, R.W.; McCulloch, C.E.; Angus, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Tobermorite and xonotlite, two synthetic calcium silicate hydrates, improve the Cs retention of cement matrices for Cs, when incorporated at the 6 to 10% level. A kinetic and mechanistic scheme is presented for the reaction of fine grained, Cs-loaded clinoptilolite with cement. The Magnox waste form reacts quickly with cement, leading to an exchange of carbonate between waste form and cement components. Carbonation of cements leads to a marked improvement in their physical properties of Cs retentivity. Diffusion models are presented for cement systems whose variable parameters can readily be derived from experimental measurements. Predictions about scaled-up behaviour of large immobilized masses are applied to extrapolation of laboratory scale results to full-size masses. (author)

  15. Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear Waste Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Cau-di-Coumes, Céline; Frizon, Fabien; Lorente, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    As the re-emergence of nuclear power as an acceptable energy source on an international basis continues, the need for safe and reliable ways to dispose of radioactive waste becomes ever more critical. The ultimate goal for designing a predisposal waste-management system depends on producing waste containers suitable for storage, transportation and permanent disposal. Cement-Based Materials for Nuclear-Waste Storage provides a roadmap for the use of cementation as an applied technique for the treatment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes.Coverage includes, but is not limited to, a comparison of cementation with other solidification techniques, advantages of calcium-silicate cements over other materials and a discussion of the long-term suitability and safety of waste packages as well as cement barriers. This book also: Discusses the formulation and production of cement waste forms for storing radioactive material Assesses the potential of emerging binders to improve the conditioning of problemati...

  16. Current perspectives of bio-ceramic technology in endodontics: calcium enriched mixture cement - review of its composition, properties and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawal, Ruchika Roongta; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in bio-ceramic technology has revolutionised endodontic material science by enhancing the treatment outcome for patients. This class of dental materials conciliates excellent biocompatibility with high osseoconductivity that render them ideal for endodontic care. Few recently introduced bio-ceramic materials have shown considerable clinical success over their early generations in terms of good handling characteristics. Calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, Endosequence sealer, and root repair materials, Biodentine and BioAggregate are the new classes of bio-ceramic materials. The aim of this literature review is to present investigations regarding properties and applications of CEM cement in endodontics. A review of the existing literature was performed by using electronic and hand searching methods for CEM cement from January 2006 to December 2013. CEM cement has a different chemical composition from that of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) but has similar clinical applications. It combines the biocompatibility of MTA with more efficient characteristics, such as significantly shorter setting time, good handling characteristics, no staining of tooth and effective seal against bacterial leakage. PMID:25671207

  17. Solid solubility of MgO in the calcium silicates of portland clinker. The effect of CaF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, F.

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available The solid solubility of MgO in the calcium silicates of portland clinker has been determined by XRD and XDS. The influence that the presence of CaF2 has on said solubility has also been verified. The solid solution limit of MgO in C3S at 1275 ºC lies at about 1.0% wt, where the triclinic form II stabilizes. The presence of CaF2 does not alter the maximum value of the MgO solubilized in that silicate, although there does take place the stabilization of the triclinic polymorph II at lower MgO contents (between 0.3 - 0.6% wt. The maximum amount of solubilized MgO in βC2 at 1.050 ºC lies around 0.5% wt. This value does not change by the presence of CaF2.Se ha determinado por DRX y EDX la solubilidad sólida del MgO en los silicatos cálcicos del clínker portland. Se ha comprobado, así mismo la influencia que sobre dicha solubilidad tiene la presencia de CaF2. El límite de disolución sólida del MgO en el C3S a 1.275º C se sitúa alrededor del 1,0% en peso, estabilizándose la forma triclínica II. La presencia de CaF2 no altera el valor máximo de MgO solubilizado en este silicato, aunque si se produce la estabilización del polimorfo triclínico II a contenidos menores de MgO (entre 0,3 – 0,6% en peso. La cantidad máxima de MgO solubilizado en e/ βC2S a 1.050 ºC se sitúa en torno al 0,5% en peso. Este valor no se ve modificado por la presencia de CaF2.

  18. Protective or damage promoting effect of calcium carbonate layers on the surface of cement based materials in aqueous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwotzer, M.; Scherer, T.; Gerdes, A.

    2010-01-01

    Cement based materials permanently exposed to aggressive aqueous environments are subject to chemical changes affecting their durability. However, this holds also for tap water that is considered to be not aggressive to cementitious materials, although in that case a formation of covering layers of CaCO 3 on the alkaline surfaces is commonly supposed to provide protection against reactive transport processes. Thus, investigations of the structural and chemical properties of the material/water interface were carried out in laboratory experiments and case studies to elucidate the consequences of surface reactions for the durability of cement based materials exposed to tap water. Focused Ion Beam investigations revealed that a protective effect of a CaCO 3 covering layer depends on its structural properties, which are in turn affected by the hydro-chemical conditions during crystallization. Surface precipitation of CaCO 3 can trigger further chemical degradation, if the required calcium is supplied by the pore solution of the material.

  19. Immobilization and leaching mechanisms of radwaste in cement-based matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, F.P.; Rahman, A.A.; Crawford, R.W.; McCullough, C.E.; Angus, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of potential sorbers including silicas, titania, calcined kaolin, zirconium phosphate and two crystalline calcium silicates, tobermorite and xonotlite, have been used to improve the Cs-retention capacity of cement-based systems. The analysis of the pore fluid compositions of equilibrated cement-radwaste composites provides evidence concerning the leach mechanisms whereby Cs is removed. The reactions occurring between cement and clinoptilolite are elucidated and results of kinetic studies presented. Simulate Magnox waste is shown to react with cement, leading to a carbonate exchange. (author)

  20. Microscale Investigation of Arsenic Distribution and Species in Cement Product from Cement Kiln Coprocessing Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the understanding of the immobilization mechanism and the leaching risk of Arsenic (As in the cement product from coprocessing wastes using cement kiln, distribution and species of As in cement product were determined by microscale investigation methods, including electron probe microanalysis (EPMA and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In this study, sodium arsenate crystals (Na3AsO412H2O were mixed with cement production raw materials and calcined to produce cement clinker. Then, clinker was mixed water to prepare cement paste. EPMA results showed that As was generally distributed throughout the cement paste. As content in calcium silicate hydrates gel (C-S-H was in low level, but higher than that in other cement mineral phases. This means that most of As is expected to form some compounds that disperse on the surfaces of cement mineral phases. Linear combination fitting (LCF of the X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra revealed that As in the cement paste was predominantly As(V and mainly existed as Mg3(AsO42, Ca3(AsO42, and Na2HAsO4.

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of Si and Sr co-substituted hydroxyapatite nanowires using strontium containing calcium silicate as precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Na; Zhai, Dong; Chen, Lei; Zou, Zhaoyong; Lin, Kaili; Chang, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of any organic surfactants and solvents, the silicon (Si) and strontium (Sr) co-substituted hydroxyapatite [Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 , Si/Sr-HAp] nanowires were synthesized via hydrothermal treatment of the Sr-containing calcium silicate (Sr-CS) powders as the precursors in trisodium phosphate (Na 3 PO 4 ) aqueous solution. The morphology, phase, chemical compositions, lattice constants and the degradability of the products were characterized. The Si/Sr-HAp nanowires with diameter of about 60 nm and up to 2 μm in length were obtained after hydrothermal treatment of the Sr-CS precursors. The Sr and Si substitution amount of the HAp nanowires could be well regulated by facile tailoring the Sr substitution level of the precursors and the reaction ratio of the precursor/solution, respectively. The SiO 4 tetrahedra and Sr 2+ ions occupied the crystal sites of the HAp, and the lattice constants increased apparently with the increase of the substitution amount. EDS mapping also suggested the uniform distribution of Si and Sr in the synthetic nanowires. Moreover, the Si/Sr-substitution apparently improved the degradability of the HAp materials. Our study suggested that the precursor transformation method provided a facile approach to synthesize the Si/Sr co-substituted HAp nanowires with controllable substitution amount, and the synthetic Si/Sr-HAp nanowires might be used as bioactive materials for hard tissue regeneration applications. - Highlights: • Si/Sr-HAp nanowires were hydrothermally transformed from Sr x -CaSiO 3 precursors. • The Si/Sr-substitution level could be facilely regulated. • The nanowire-like morphology and composition could be simultaneously regulated

  2. Histological evaluation of tissue reactions to newly synthetized calcium silicate- and hydroxyapatite-based bioactive materials: in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opačić-Galić Vanja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Development of materials which could be used as biological bone substitutes is one of the most valuable and active fields of biomaterial research. The goal of the study was to research the reaction of tissue on calcium silicate- (CS and hydroxyapatitebased (CS-HA newly synthesized nanomaterials, after being implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of a rats and direct pulp capping of rabbit teeth. Methods. The tested materials were implanted in 40 Wistar male rats, sacrificed after seven, 15, 30, and 60 days. The direct pulp capping was performed on the teeth of rabbits. Cavities were prepared on the vestibular surface of the incisors. The animals were sacrificed after 10 and 15 days. The control material was mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Histological analysis covered the tracking of inflammatory reaction cellular components, presence of gigantic cells, and necrosis of the tissue. Results. Seven days after the implantation, the strongest inflammatory response was given by the MTA (3.3 Ѓ} 0.48, while CS and CS-HA scored 3 ± 0.71. After 60 days, the rate of inflammatory reactions dropped, which was the least visible with CS-HA (0.2 ± 0.45. The least visible inflammatory reaction of the rabbits’ pulp tissue was spotted with the CS (1.83 ± 0.75, than with the MTA and CS-HA (2.67 ± 1.53, 3 ± 0.63. Conclusion. The newly synthesized materials caused a slight reaction of the subcutaneous tissue. CS-HA showed the best tissue tolerance. Nanostructural biomaterials caused a slight to moderate inflammatory reaction of the rabbits’ pulp tissue only in the immediate vicinity of the implanted material.

  3. Anticorrosive effects and in vitro cytocompatibility of calcium silicate/zinc-doped hydroxyapatite composite coatings on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yong, E-mail: xfpang@aliyun.com [College of Lab Medicine, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou 075000 (China); Institute of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhang, Honglei [College of Chemistry Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding 071000 (China); Qiao, Haixia; Nian, Xiaofeng [College of Lab Medicine, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou 075000 (China); Zhang, Xuejiao, E-mail: 527238610@qq.com [College of Lab Medicine, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou 075000 (China); Wang, Wendong; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Chang, Xiaotong [College of Lab Medicine, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou 075000 (China); Han, Shuguang [Institute of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Pang, Xiaofeng [Institute of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); International Centre for Materials Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenyang 110015 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • We developed a ZnHA/CS-coated Ti implant by using an ED method. • The obtained ZnHA/CS coatings presented a net-like micro-porous. • The ZnHA/CS coating possessed an excellent corrosion protection ability. • The composite coated CP-Ti possesses favourable cytocompatibility. - Abstract: This work elucidated the corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility of electroplated Zn- and Si-containing bioactive calcium silicate/zinc-doped hydroxyapatite (ZnHA/CS) ceramic coatings on commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti). The formation of ZnHA/CS coating was investigated through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and inductively coupled plasma analyses. The XRD image showed that the reaction layer was mainly composed of HA and CaSiO{sub 3}. The fabricated ZnHA/CS coatings presented a porous structure and appropriate thickness for possible applications in orthopaedic surgery. Potentiodynamic polarization tests showed that ZnHA/CS coatings exhibited higher corrosion resistance than CP-Ti. Dissolution tests on the coating also revealed that Si{sup 4+} and Zn{sup 2+} were leached at low levels. Moreover, MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on ZnHA/CS featured improved cell morphology, adhesion, spreading, proliferation and expression of alkaline phosphatase than those cultured on HA. The high cytocompatibility of ZnHA/CS could be mainly attributed to the combination of micro-porous surface effects and ion release (Zn{sup 2+} and Si{sup 4+}). All these results indicate that ZnHA/CS composite-coated CP-Ti may be a potential material for orthopaedic applications.

  4. XANES analysis of calcium and sodium phosphates and silicates and hydroxyapatite-Bioglass (registered) 45S5 co-sintered bioceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirkiran, Hande [Graduate Student, Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Hu Yongfeng; Zuin, Lucia [Beamline Scientist, Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Appathurai, Narayana [Beamline Scientist, Synchrotron Radiation Center, Madison, WI (United States); Aswath, Pranesh B., E-mail: aswath@uta.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States)

    2011-03-12

    Bioglass (registered) 45S5 was co-sintered with hydroxyapatite at 1200 deg. C. When small amounts (< 5 wt.%) of Bioglass (registered) 45S5 was added it behaved as a sintering aid and also enhanced the decomposition of hydroxyapatite to {beta}-tricalcium phosphate. However when 10 wt.% and 25 wt.% Bioglass (registered) 45S5 was used it resulted in the formation of Ca{sub 5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Na{sub 3}Ca{sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 5} in an amorphous silicate matrix respectively. These chemistries show improved bioactivity compared to hydroxyapatite and are the subject of this study. The structure of several crystalline calcium and sodium phosphates and silicates as well as the co-sintered hydroxyapatite-Bioglass (registered) 45S5 bioceramics were examined using XANES spectroscopy. The nature of the crystalline and amorphous phases were studied using silicon (Si) and phosphorus (P) K- and L{sub 2,3}-edge and calcium (Ca) K-edge XANES. Si L{sub 2,3}-edge spectra of sintered bioceramic compositions indicates that the primary silicates present in these compositions are sodium silicates in the amorphous state. From Si K-edge spectra, it is shown that the silicates are in a similar structural environment in all the sintered bioceramic compositions with 4-fold coordination. Using P L{sub 2,3}-edge it is clearly shown that there is no evidence of sodium phosphate present in the sintered bioceramic compositions. In the P K-edge spectra, the post-edge shoulder peak at around 2155 eV indicates that this shoulder to be more defined for calcium phosphate compounds with decreasing solubility and increasing thermodynamic stability. This shoulder peak is more noticeable in hydroxyapatite and {beta}-TCP indicating greater stability of the phosphate phase. The only spectra that does not show a noticeable peak is the composition with Na{sub 3}Ca{sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 5} in a silicate matrix indicating that it is more soluble compared to the other compositions.

  5. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  6. SYNTHESIS OF EXPANDER TO PREVENT CONTRACTION OF CEMENT STONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenova Aurika Almazovna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the results of studies of the use of additives containing crystallization components significantly affecting the curing of cement, improving the structure of cement stone and concrete. The crystalline component is obtained using the rotary-pulse unit, which provides not only the grinding of agents, but their interaction with each other as well in order to accelerate the hydration and structure formation in cement stone. The degree, and kinetics of hydration, the composition of hydrated phases, the structure of the additives and cement stone was studied using the following methods: x-ray diffraction (XRD, differential thermal analysis (DTA, scanning electron microscope (SEM. Mechanical properties of cement were determined by standard methods and techniques. The expander produced by means of hydrodynamic activation of the sulfoaluminate clinker (SAC consists of ettringite and hydrated calcium silicates, which are characterized by high dispersion rate (less than 10 µm and reactivity as the seed for the crystallization of hydrated compounds. The introduction of the ultrafine additives of the crystalline SAC (within 1-5% was discovered to cause expansion of the cement stone. Implementation of the additives increases cement hydration and contributes to the formation of active centers of crystallization that lead to the fast formation of ettringite, hydrated calcium aluminates and calcium silicates. The activated crystalline additive provides for significant reduction of porosity, initial curing, and high strength of cement stone. In addition, the additive is an expansive component, forming needle-like crystals of ettringite during hydration. These microcrystals grow in the capillaries of cement stone, filling them, and create conditions for improving the crack resistance of cement concrete.

  7. Microstructure of hydrated cement pastes as determined by SANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabine, T.; Bertram, W.; Aldridge, L.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Technologists have known how to make concrete for over 2000 years but despite painstaking research no one has been able to show how and why concrete sets. Part of the problem is that the calcium silicate hydrate (the gel produced by hydrating cement) is amorphous and cannot be characterised by x-ray crystallographic techniques. Small angle neutron scattering on instrument V12a at BENSC was used to characterise the hydration reactions and show the growth of the calcium silicate hydrates during initial hydration and the substantial differences in the rate of growth and structure as different additives are used. SANS spectra were measured as a function of the hydration from three different types of cement paste: 1) Ordinary Portland Cement made with a water to cement ratio of about 0.4; 2) A blend of Ordinary Portland Cement(25%) and Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (75%) with a water to cement ration of about 0.4; 3) A dense paste made from silica fume(24%), Ordinary Portland Cement (76%) at a water to powder ratio of 0.18. The differences in the spectra are interpreted in terms of differences between the microstructure of the pastes

  8. A novel pharmaceutical excipient: Coprecipitation of calcium and magnesium silicate using brine-seawater in date palm cellulose as an absorbing host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hamaidi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to produce a cost competitive and innovative pharmaceutical additive with multi-purpose use in the pharmaceutical industry from Saudi Arabia natural resources and bio-wastes. The waste substance, brine, and the naturally occurring compound, sodium silica, were reacted together to produce water insoluble calcium and magnesium silicate salts [WISS]. The purity index WISS was compared with synthetic Mg silicae.The produced particle size was 1.994 µm. Date palm cellulose [DPC] with a high purity index [0.99] was produced from the biomass waste of date palm tree. DPC was used as a host for coprecipitation of synthetic calcium magnesium silicate within its intimate structures. The interaction between the cellulose polymer and silicates is physical in nature. WISS-DPC was more flowable than DPC. In SEM, the particles of DPC were fibrous and irregular in shape, while WISS-DPC showed more regular shape than DPC. Tablets prepared from WISS-DPC were harder and had lower disintegration time at all compression forces compared to those made from DPC. The produced excipient had excellent compaction and disintegration properties and could be used as a superdisintegrant and tablet binder in pharmaceutical industries.

  9. Hydration kinetics of cement composites with varying water-cement ratio using terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Shaumik; Dash, Jyotirmayee; Devi, Nirmala; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Pesala, Bala

    2015-03-01

    Cement is mixed with water in an optimum ratio to form concrete with desirable mechanical strength and durability. The ability to track the consumption of major cement constituents, viz., Tri- and Dicalcium Silicates (C3S, C2S) reacting with water along with the formation of key hydration products, viz., Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (C-S-H) which gives the overall strength to the concrete and Calcium Hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), a hydration product which reduces the strength and durability, using an efficient technique is highly desirable. Optimizing the amount of water to be mixed with cement is one of the main parameters which determine the strength of concrete. In this work, THz spectroscopy has been employed to track the variation in hydration kinetics for concrete samples with different water-cement ratios, viz., 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6. Results show that for the sample with water-cement ratio of 0.3, significant amount of the C3S and C2S remain unreacted even after the initial hydration period of 28 days while for the cement with water-cement ratio of 0.6, most of the constituents get consumed during this stage. Analysis of the formation of Ca(OH)2 has been done which shows that the concrete sample with water-cement ratio of 0.6 produces the highest amount of Ca(OH)2 due to higher consumption of C3S/C2S in presence of excess water which is not desirable. Samples with water-cement ratio of 0.4 and 0.5 show more controlled reaction during the hydration which can imply formation of an optimized level of desired hydration products resulting in a more mechanically strong and durable concrete.

  10. Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicates (CMAS) Reaction Mechanisms and Resistance of Advanced Turbine Environmental Barrier Coatings for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Costa, Gustavo; Harder, Bryan J.; Wiesner, Valerie L.; Hurst, Janet B.; Puleo, Bernadette J.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) and SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) systems will play a crucial role in future turbine engines for hot-section component applications because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. The development of prime-reliant environmental barrier coatings is an essential requirement to enable the applications of the 2700-3000 F EBC - CMC systems. This presentation primarily focuses on the reaction mechanisms of advanced NASA environmental barrier coating systems, when in contact with Calcium-Magnesium Alumino-Silicates (CMAS) at high temperatures. Advanced oxide-silicate defect cluster environmental barrier coatings are being designed for ultimate balanced controls of the EBC temperature capability and CMAS reactivity, thus improving the CMAS resistance. Further CMAS mitigation strategies are also discussed.

  11. Effect of Initial Backfill Temperature on the Deformation Behavior of Early Age Cemented Paste Backfill That Contains Sodium Silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixiang Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing the knowledge on the deformation behavior of cemented paste backfill (CPB in terms of stress-strain relations and modulus of elasticity is significant for economic and safety reasons. In this paper, the effect of the initial backfill temperature on the CPB’s stress-strain behavior and modulus of elasticity is investigated. Results show that the stress-strain relationship and the modulus of elasticity behavior of CPB are significantly affected by the curing time and initial temperature of CPB. Additionally, the relationship between the modulus of elasticity and unconfined compressive strength (UCS and the degree of hydration was evaluated and discussed. The increase of UCS and hydration degree leads to an increase in the modulus of elasticity, which is not significantly affected by the initial temperature.

  12. Physicochemical changes of cements by ground water corrosion in radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras R, A.; Badillo A, V. E.; Robles P, E. F.; Nava E, N.

    2009-10-01

    Knowing that the behavior of cementations materials based on known hydraulic cement binder is determined essentially by the physical and chemical transformation of cement paste (water + cement) that is, the present study is essentially about the cement paste evolution in contact with aqueous solutions since one of principal risks in systems security are the ground and surface waters, which contribute to alteration of various barriers and represent the main route of radionuclides transport. In this research, cements were hydrated with different relations cement-aqueous solution to different times. The pastes were analyzed by different solid observation techniques XRD and Moessbauer with the purpose of identify phases that form when are in contact with aqueous solutions of similar composition to ground water. The results show a definitive influence of chemical nature of aqueous solution as it encourages the formation of new phases like hydrated calcium silicates, which are the main phases responsible of radionuclides retention in a radioactive waste storage. (Author)

  13. The crucial effect of early-stage gelation on the mechanical properties of cement hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidou, Katerina; Kanduč, Matej; Li, Lunna; Frenkel, Daan; Dobnikar, Jure; Del Gado, Emanuela

    2016-07-01

    Gelation and densification of calcium-silicate-hydrate take place during cement hydration. Both processes are crucial for the development of cement strength, and for the long-term evolution of concrete structures. However, the physicochemical environment evolves during cement formation, making it difficult to disentangle what factors are crucial for the mechanical properties. Here we use Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics simulations to study a coarse-grained model of cement formation, and investigate the equilibrium and arrested states. We can correlate the various structures with the time evolution of the interactions between the nano-hydrates during the preparation of cement. The novel emerging picture is that the changes of the physicochemical environment, which dictate the evolution of the effective interactions, specifically favour the early gel formation and its continuous densification. Our observations help us understand how cement attains its unique strength and may help in the rational design of the properties of cement and related materials.

  14. Production and characterization of setting hydraulic cements based on calcium phosphate; Obtencao e caracterizacao de cimentos de fosfato de calcio de pega hidraulica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luci C. de; Rigo, Eliana C.S.; Santos, Luis A dos; Boschi, Anselmo Ortega [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Carrodeguas, Raul G. [Universidad de La Habana, Habana (Cuba). Centro de Biomateriales

    1997-12-31

    Setting hydraulic cements based on calcium phosphate has risen great interest in scientific literature during recent years due to their total bio compatibility and to the fact that they harden `in situ`, providing easy handling and adaptation to the shape and dimensions of the defect which requires correction, differently from the predecessors, the calcium phosphate ceramics (Hydroxy apatite, {beta}-tri calcium phosphate, biphasic, etc) in the shape of dense or porous blocks and grains. In the work, three calcium-phosphate cement compositions were studied. The resulting compositions were characterized according to the following aspects: setting times, pH, mechanical resistance, crystalline phases, microstructure and solubility in SBF (Simulated Body Fluid). The results show a potential use for the compositions. (author) 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Properties and hydration of blended cements with steelmaking slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourounis, S.; Tsivilis, S.; Tsakiridis, P.E.; Papadimitriou, G.D.; Tsibouki, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The present research study investigates the properties and hydration of blended cements with steelmaking slag, a by-product of the conversion process of iron to steel. For this purpose, a reference sample and three cements containing up to 45% w/w steel slag were tested. The steel slag fraction used was the '0-5 mm', due to its high content in calcium silicate phases. Initial and final setting time, standard consistency, flow of normal mortar, autoclave expansion and compressive strength at 2, 7, 28 and 90 days were measured. The hydrated products were identified by X-ray diffraction while the non-evaporable water was determined by TGA. The microstructure of the hardened cement pastes and their morphological characteristics were examined by scanning electron microscopy. It is concluded that slag can be used in the production of composite cements of the strength classes 42.5 and 32.5 of EN 197-1. In addition, the slag cements present satisfactory physical properties. The steel slag slows down the hydration of the blended cements, due to the morphology of contained C 2 S and its low content in calcium silicates

  16. Cu2+, Co2+ and Cr3+ doping of a calcium phosphate cement influences materials properties and response of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamel, Martha; Bernhardt, Anne; Quade, Mandy; Würkner, Claudia; Gbureck, Uwe; Moseke, Claus; Gelinsky, Michael; Lode, Anja

    2017-04-01

    The application of biologically active metal ions to stimulate cellular reactions is a promising strategy to accelerate bone defect healing. Brushite-forming calcium phosphate cements were modified with low doses of Cu 2+ , Co 2+ and Cr 3+ . The modified cements released the metal ions in vitro in concentrations which were shown to be non-toxic for cells. The release kinetics correlated with the solubility of the respective metal phosphates: 17-45 wt.-% of Co 2+ and Cu 2+ , but calcium and phosphate ions with cell culture medium. In case of cements modified with 50mmol Cr 3+ /mol β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), XRD and SEM analyses revealed a significant amount of monetite and a changed morphology of the cement matrix. Cell culture experiments with human mesenchymal stromal cells indicated that the observed cell response is not only influenced by the released metal ions but also by changed cement properties. A positive effect of modifications with 50mmol Cr 3+ or 10mmol Cu 2+ per mol β-TCP on cell behaviour was observed in indirect and direct culture. Modification with Co 2+ resulted in a clear suppression of cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, metal ion doping of the cement influences cellular activities in addition to the effect of released metal ions by changing properties of the ceramic matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The suitability of a supersulfated cement for nuclear waste immobilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, N.C., E-mail: nick.collier@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Milestone, N.B. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Callaghan Innovation, 69 Gracefield Road, PO Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); Gordon, L.E. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Geopolymer and Minerals Processing Group, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Ko, S.-C. [Holcim Technology Ltd, Hagenholzstrasse 85, CH-8050 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We investigate a supersulfated cement for use as a nuclear waste encapsulant. • High powder fineness requires a high water content to satisfy flow requirements. • Heat generation during hydration is similar to a control cement paste. • Typical hydration products are formed resulting in a high potential for waste ion immobilisation. • Paste pH and aluminium corrosion is less than in a control cement paste. - Abstract: Composite cements based on ordinary Portland cement are used in the UK as immobilisation matrices for low and intermediate level nuclear wastes. However, the high pore solution pH causes corrosion of some metallic wastes and undesirable expansive reactions, which has led to alternative cementing systems being examined. We have investigated the physical, chemical and microstructural properties of a supersulfated cement in order to determine its applicability for use in nuclear waste encapsulation. The hardened supersulfated cement paste appeared to have properties desirable for use in producing encapsulation matrices, but the high powder specific surface resulted in a matrix with high porosity. Ettringite and calcium silicate hydrate were the main phases formed in the hardened cement paste and anhydrite was present in excess. The maximum rate of heat output during hydration of the supersulfated cement paste was slightly higher than that of a 9:1 blastfurnace slag:ordinary Portland cement paste commonly used by the UK nuclear waste processing industry, although the total heat output of the supersulfated cement paste was lower. The pH was also significantly lower in the supersulfated cement paste. Aluminium hydroxide was formed on the surface of aluminium metal encapsulated in the cement paste and ettringite was detected between the aluminium hydroxide and the hardened cement paste.

  18. The suitability of a supersulfated cement for nuclear waste immobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, N.C.; Milestone, N.B.; Gordon, L.E.; Ko, S.-C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate a supersulfated cement for use as a nuclear waste encapsulant. • High powder fineness requires a high water content to satisfy flow requirements. • Heat generation during hydration is similar to a control cement paste. • Typical hydration products are formed resulting in a high potential for waste ion immobilisation. • Paste pH and aluminium corrosion is less than in a control cement paste. - Abstract: Composite cements based on ordinary Portland cement are used in the UK as immobilisation matrices for low and intermediate level nuclear wastes. However, the high pore solution pH causes corrosion of some metallic wastes and undesirable expansive reactions, which has led to alternative cementing systems being examined. We have investigated the physical, chemical and microstructural properties of a supersulfated cement in order to determine its applicability for use in nuclear waste encapsulation. The hardened supersulfated cement paste appeared to have properties desirable for use in producing encapsulation matrices, but the high powder specific surface resulted in a matrix with high porosity. Ettringite and calcium silicate hydrate were the main phases formed in the hardened cement paste and anhydrite was present in excess. The maximum rate of heat output during hydration of the supersulfated cement paste was slightly higher than that of a 9:1 blastfurnace slag:ordinary Portland cement paste commonly used by the UK nuclear waste processing industry, although the total heat output of the supersulfated cement paste was lower. The pH was also significantly lower in the supersulfated cement paste. Aluminium hydroxide was formed on the surface of aluminium metal encapsulated in the cement paste and ettringite was detected between the aluminium hydroxide and the hardened cement paste

  19. Effect of curing conditions on the dimensional and thermal stability of calcium phosphate cement for elevated temperature applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, Johan [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Mechanics of Materials and Constructions, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050 (Belgium); Rahier, Hubert [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Research Group of Physical Chemistry and Polymer Sciences, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050 (Belgium); Wastiels, Jan, E-mail: Jan.Wastiels@vub.ac.be [Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Mechanics of Materials and Constructions, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050 (Belgium)

    2014-12-15

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are attractive materials for elevated temperature applications, like moulds to process thermoplastics up to 300 °C. The CPC resulting from the reaction of wollastonite with phosphoric acid cured at room temperature however contains hydrated phases like brushite, and is thus not stable when exposed to temperatures above 200 °C. A non-contact method based on digital image correlation demonstrated that isothermal curing at 60 °C reduces the thermal shrinkage up to 300 °C by 25%. This curing method results in the direct formation of the more stable monetite in a shorter curing time. The correlated results of TGA, pH of the filtration water, and DSC analysis on partially cured material indicate this. XRD diffractograms and SEM images in combination with EDX show the evolution of the transformation of wollastonite into monetite, and the structure and morphology of the formed material.

  20. PRINCIPLES OF RE-ENGINEERING METHODOLOGY FOR TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS IN PROCESSING OF RAW MATERIAL COMPONENTS WHILE PRODUCING CEMENT AND SILICATE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Busel

    2014-01-01

    necessity to modernize technological equipment used for grinding raw material components with the purpose to improve efficiency and quality, power- and resource saving. The possibility of using various grinding aids that permit to increase grinding productivity is shown in the paper. The paper studies an automation concept of the control system which used for grinding process of mineral raw material. A conceptual model for complexation of various methods grinding aids has been proposed in the paper. The paper presents methodological principles for simulation of technological process used for processing of mineral raw material while producing cement and silicate products. The parameters which are to be controlled and which are necessary for development of computer simulations of technological grinding process have been determined in the paper. The paper justifies an application of imitation simulation for creation of computer models. Methodology for imitation simulation of the technological process has been studied in the paper. The paper confirms the possibility to use analytical and probability methods. Imitation simulations of a grinding mill operation have been developed on the basis of experimental data and probability functions. The possibility of controlling technological process of raw material grinding has been demonstrated in the paper.While implementing the proposed complex of organizational and technical recommendations it is possible to increase grinding productivity up to 30-50 % and significantly reduce и существенно снизить energy consumption for mineral raw material grinding during production of cement and silicate products. The combined reengineering methodology for grinding process including all the mentioned intensification methods substantially increases quality of final products and reduces its self-cost that will favour its compatibility and attractiveness for consumers.

  1. Bone regeneration in experimental animals using calcium phosphate cement combined with platelet growth factors and human growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilov-Velev, K; Clemente-de-Arriba, C; Alobera-García, M Á; Moreno-Sansalvador, E M; Campo-Loarte, J

    2015-01-01

    Many substances (growth factors and hormones) have osteoinduction properties and when added to some osteoconduction biomaterial they accelerate bone neoformation properties. The materials included 15 New Zealand rabbits, calcium phosphate cement (Calcibon(®)), human growth hormone (GH), and plasma rich in platelets (PRP). Each animal was operated on in both proximal tibias and a critical size bone defect of 6mm of diameter was made. The animals were separated into the following study groups: Control (regeneration only by Calcibon®), PRP (regeneration by Calcibon® and PRP), GH (regeneration by Calcibon® and GH). All the animals were sacrificed at 28 days. An evaluation was made of the appearance of the proximal extreme of rabbit tibiae in all the animals, and to check the filling of the critical size defect. A histological assessment was made of the tissue response, the presence of new bone formation, and the appearance of the biomaterial. Morphometry was performed using the MIP 45 image analyser. ANOVA statistical analysis was performed using the Statgraphics software application. The macroscopic appearance of the critical defect was better in the PRP and the GH group than in the control group. Histologically greater new bone formation was found in the PRP and GH groups. No statistically significant differences were detected in the morphometric study between bone formation observed in the PRP group and the control group. Significant differences in increased bone formation were found in the GH group (p=0.03) compared to the other two groups. GH facilitates bone regeneration in critical defects filled with calcium phosphate cement in the time period studied in New Zealand rabbits. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Pore Size on the Osteoconductivity and Mechanical Properties of Calcium Phosphate Cement in a Rabbit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Nan; Fan, Jun-Jun; Li, Zhi-Quan; Liu, Yan-Wu; Wu, Yao-Ping; Liu, Jian

    2017-02-01

    Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) porous scaffold is widely used as a suitable bone substitute to repair bone defect, but the optimal pore size is unclear yet. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of different pore sizes on the processing of bone formation in repairing segmental bone defect of rabbits using CPC porous scaffolds. Three kinds of CPC porous scaffolds with 5 mm diameters and 12 mm length were prepared with the same porosity but different pore sizes (Group A: 200-300 µm, Group B: 300-450 µm, Group C: 450-600 µm, respectively). Twelve millimeter segmental bone defects were created in the middle of the radius bone and filled with different kinds of CPC cylindrical scaffolds. After 4, 12, and 24 weeks, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), histological assessment, and mechanical properties evaluation were performed in all three groups. After 4 weeks, ALP activity increased in all groups but was highest in Group A with smallest pore size. The new bone formation within the scaffolds was not obvious in all groups. After 12 weeks, the new bone formation within the scaffolds was obvious in each group and highest in Group A. At 24 weeks, no significant difference in new bone formation was observed among different groups. Besides the osteoconductive effect, Group A with smallest pore size also had the best mechanical properties in vivo at 12 weeks. We demonstrate that pore size has a significant effect on the osteoconductivity and mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cement porous scaffold in vivo. Small pore size favors the bone formation in the early stage and may be more suitable for repairing segmental bone defect in vivo. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The effect of fly ash and coconut fibre ash as cement replacement materials on cement paste strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuaji, R.; Kurniawan, R. W.; Yasin, A. K.; Fatoni, H. AT; Lutfi, F. M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Concrete is the backbone material in the construction field. The main concept of the concrete material is composed of a binder and filler. Cement, concrete main binder highlighted by environmentalists as one of the industry are not environmentally friendly because of the burning of cement raw materials in the kiln requires energy up to a temperature of 1450° C and the output air waste CO2. On the other hand, the compound content of cement that can be utilized in innovation is Calcium Hydroxide (CaOH), this compound will react with pozzolan material and produces additional strength and durability of concrete, Calcium Silicate Hydrates (CSH). The objective of this research is to explore coconut fibers ash and fly ash. This material was used as cement replacement materials on cement paste. Experimental method was used in this study. SNI-03-1974-1990 is standard used to clarify the compressive strength of cement paste at the age of 7 days. The result of this study that the optimum composition of coconut fiber ash and fly ash to substitute 30% of cement with 25% and 5% for coconut fibers ash and fly ash with similar strength if to be compared normal cement paste.

  4. Antagonist effects of calcium on borosilicate glass alteration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado-Depierre, S. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SPDE LCLT, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Angeli, F., E-mail: frederic.angeli@cea.fr [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SPDE LCLT, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Frizon, F. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SECM LP2C, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Gin, S. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SPDE LCLT, 30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Kinetic study of glass alteration is investigated in calcium-enriched solutions. •New insights into silicon–calcium interactions in glass/cement systems are proposed. •Glass alteration is controlled by pH, Ca concentration and reaction progress. •Evidence of antagonist effects according to the importance of these parameters. -- Abstract: Numerous studies have been conducted on glass and cement durability in contact with water, but very little work to date has focused directly on interactions between the two materials. These interactions are mostly controlled by silicon–calcium reactivity. However, the physical and chemical processes involved remain insufficiently understood to predict the evolution of coupled glass–cement systems used in several industrial applications. Results are reported from borosilicate glass alteration in calcium-rich solutions. Our data show that four distinct behaviors can be expected according to the relative importance of three key parameters: the pH, the reaction progress (short- or long-term alteration) and the calcium concentration. Glass alteration is thus controlled by specific mechanisms depending on the solution chemistry: calcium complexation at the glass surface, precipitation of calcium silicate hydrates (C–S–H) or calcium incorporation in the altered layer. These findings highlight the impact of silicon–calcium interactions on glass durability and open the way for a better understanding of glass–cement mixing in civil engineering applications as well as in nuclear waste storage.

  5. Antagonist effects of calcium on borosilicate glass alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado-Depierre, S.; Angeli, F.; Frizon, F.; Gin, S.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Kinetic study of glass alteration is investigated in calcium-enriched solutions. •New insights into silicon–calcium interactions in glass/cement systems are proposed. •Glass alteration is controlled by pH, Ca concentration and reaction progress. •Evidence of antagonist effects according to the importance of these parameters. -- Abstract: Numerous studies have been conducted on glass and cement durability in contact with water, but very little work to date has focused directly on interactions between the two materials. These interactions are mostly controlled by silicon–calcium reactivity. However, the physical and chemical processes involved remain insufficiently understood to predict the evolution of coupled glass–cement systems used in several industrial applications. Results are reported from borosilicate glass alteration in calcium-rich solutions. Our data show that four distinct behaviors can be expected according to the relative importance of three key parameters: the pH, the reaction progress (short- or long-term alteration) and the calcium concentration. Glass alteration is thus controlled by specific mechanisms depending on the solution chemistry: calcium complexation at the glass surface, precipitation of calcium silicate hydrates (C–S–H) or calcium incorporation in the altered layer. These findings highlight the impact of silicon–calcium interactions on glass durability and open the way for a better understanding of glass–cement mixing in civil engineering applications as well as in nuclear waste storage

  6. Comparison of physical, chemical and cellular responses to nano- and micro-sized calcium silicate/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) bioactive composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jie; Heo, S J; Kim, D H; Kim, S E; Hyun, Y T; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2008-06-06

    In this study, we fabricated nano-sized calcium silicate/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) composite (n-CPC) and micro-sized calcium silicate/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) composite (m-CPC). The composition, mechanical properties, hydrophilicity and degradability of both n-CPC and m-CPC were determined, and in vitro bioactivity was evaluated by investigating apatite forming on their surfaces in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, cell responses to the two kinds of composites were comparably investigated. The results indicated that n-CPC has superior hydrophilicity, compressive strength and elastic modulus properties compared with m-CPC. Both n-CPC and m-CPC exhibited good in vitro bioactivity, with different morphologies of apatite formation on their surfaces. The apatite layer on n-CPC was more homogeneous and compact than on m-CPC, due to the elevated levels of calcium and silicon concentrations in SBF from n-CPC throughout the 14-day soaking period. Significantly higher levels of attachment and proliferation of MG63 cells were observed on n-CPC than on m-CPC, and significantly higher levels of alkaline phosphatase activity were observed in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on n-CPC than on m-CPC after 7 days. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that hMSCs were in intimate contact with both n-CPC and m-CPC surfaces, and significantly cell adhesion, spread and growth were observed on n-CPC and m-CPC. These results indicated that both n-CPC and m-CPC have the ability to support cell attachment, growth, proliferation and differentiation, and also yield good bioactivity and biocompatibility.

  7. Application of Carbonate Looping to Cement Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, cycle experiments of different types of limestone, cement raw meal and a mixture of limestone and clay were carried out in laboratory scale setups at more realistic conditions (i.e. calcination temperature is 950°C and CO2 concentration is 80%) to simulate the performance...... with an increase in the CO2 partial pressure during calcination, indicating enhancement of sintering by the presence of CO2. As sorbents, cement raw meal and the mixture of limestone and clay show a similar trend as limestone with respect to the decay of the CO2 carrying capacity and this capacity is lower than...... that of limestone at the same conditions in most cases. SEM and XRD analyses indicate that a combination of severe sintering and formation of calcium silicates attributes to the poor performance of the cement raw meal....

  8. In-situ Mechanical Manipulation of Wellbore Cements as a Solution to Leaky Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupresan, D.; Radonjic, M.; Heathman, J.

    2013-12-01

    Wellbore cement provides casing support, zonal isolation, and casing protection from corrosive fluids, which are essential for wellbore integrity. Cements can undergo one or more forms of failure such as debonding at cement/formation and cement/casing interface, fracturing and defects within cement matrix. Failures and defects within cement will ultimately lead to fluids migration, resulting in inter-zonal fluid migration and premature well abandonment. There are over 27,000 abandoned oil and gas wells only in The Gulf of Mexico (some of them dating from the late 1940s) with no gas leakage monitoring. Cement degradation linked with carbon sequestration can potentially lead to contamination of fresh water aquifers with CO2. Gas leaks can particularly be observed in deviated wells used for hydraulic fracking (60% leakage rate as they age) as high pressure fracturing increases the potential for migration pathways. Experimental method utilized in this study enables formation of impermeable seals at interfaces present in a wellbore by mechanically manipulating wellbore cement. Preliminary measurements obtained in bench scale experiments demonstrate that an impermeable cement/formation and cement/casing interface can be obtained. In post-modified cement, nitrogen gas flow-through experiments showed complete zonal isolation and no permeability in samples with pre-engineered microannulus. Material characterization experiments of modified cement revealed altered microstructural properties of cement as well as changes in mineralogical composition. Calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH), the dominant mineral in hydrated cement which provides low permeability of cement, was modified as a result of cement pore water displacement, resulting in more dense structures. Calcium hydroxide (CH), which is associated with low resistance of cement to acidic fluids and therefore detrimental in most wellbore cements, was almost completely displaced and/or integrated in CSH as a result of

  9. The Bone Building Blues: Self-hardening copper-doped calcium phosphate cement and its in vitro assessment against mammalian cells and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Julietta V; Wu, Victoria M; Graziani, Valerio; Fadeeva, Inna V; Fomin, Alexander S; Fosca, Marco; Uskoković, Vuk

    2017-10-01

    A blue calcium phosphate cement with optimal self-hardening properties was synthesized by doping whitlockite (β-TCP) with copper ions. The mechanism and the kinetics of the cement solidification process were studied using energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and it was found out that hardening was accompanied by the phase transition from TCP to brushite. Reduced lattice parameters in all crystallographic directions resulting from the rather low (1:180) substitution rate of copper for calcium was consistent with the higher ionic radius of the latter. The lower cationic hydration resulting from the partial Ca→Cu substitution facilitated the release of constitutive hydroxyls and lowered the energy of formation of TCP from the apatite precursor at elevated temperatures. Addition of copper thus effectively inhibited the formation of apatite as the secondary phase. The copper-doped cement exhibited an antibacterial effect, though exclusively against Gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. enteritidis. This antibacterial effect was due to copper ions, as demonstrated by an almost negligible antibacterial effect of the pure, copper-free cement. Also, the antibacterial activity of the copper-containing cement was significantly higher than that of its precursor powder. Since there was no significant difference between the kinetics of the release of copper from the precursor TCP powder and from the final, brushite phase of the hardened cement, this has suggested that the antibacterial effect was not solely due to copper ions, but due to the synergy between cationic copper and a particular phase and aggregation state of calcium phosphate. Though inhibitory to bacteria, the copper-doped cement increased the viability of human glial E297 cells, murine osteoblastic K7M2 cells and especially human primary lung fibroblasts. That this effect was also due to copper ions was evidenced by the null effect on viability increase exhibited by the copper

  10. Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    T. D. Gunneswara Rao; Mudimby Andal

    2014-01-01

    Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, as partial replacement to fine aggregates and as admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in any one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conven...

  11. Investigations on the crystal-structure and non-ambient behaviour of K2Ca2Si8O19 - a new potassium calcium silicate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidmair, Daniela; Kahlenberg, Volker; Praxmarer, Alessandra; Perfler, Lukas; Mair, Philipp

    2017-09-01

    Within the context of a systematic re-investigation of phase relationships between compounds of the ternary system K2O-CaO-SiO2 a new potassium calcium silicate with the chemical formula K2Ca2Si8O19 was synthesized via solid state reactions as well as the flux method using KCl as a solvent. Its crystal structure was determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by applying direct methods. The new compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P 1 bar . Unit cell dimensions are a = 7.4231(7) Å, b = 10.7649(10) Å, c = 12.1252(10) Å, α = 70.193(8)°, β = 83.914(7)° and γ = 88.683(7)°. K2Ca2Si8O19 is built up of corner-connected, slightly distorted [SiO4]-tetrahedra forming double-sheets, which are linked by double-chains of edge-sharing [CaO6]-octahedra. Electroneutrality of the material is provided by additional potassium atoms that are located within the voids of the silicate layers and between adjacent [Ca2O6]-double-chains. Further characterization of the compound was performed by Raman spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis. The behaviour of K2Ca2Si8O19 under high-temperature and high-pressure was investigated by in-situ high-temperature powder X-ray diffraction up to a maximum temperature of 1125 °C and a piston cylinder experiment at 1.5 GPa and 1100 °C. Additionally an overview of known double-layer silicates is given as well as a comparison of K2Ca2Si8O19 to closely related structures.

  12. Immobilisation of heavy metal in cement-based solidification/stabilisation: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.Y.; Tyrer, M.; Hills, C.D.; Yang, X.M.; Carey, P.

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metal-bearing waste usually needs solidification/stabilization (s/s) prior to landfill to lower the leaching rate. Cement is the most adaptable binder currently available for the immobilisation of heavy metals. The selection of cements and operating parameters depends upon an understanding of chemistry of the system. This paper discusses interactions of heavy metals and cement phases in the solidification/stabilisation process. It provides a clarification of heavy metal effects on cement hydration. According to the decomposition rate of minerals, heavy metals accelerate the hydration of tricalcium silicate (C 3 S) and Portland cement, although they retard the precipitation of portlandite due to the reduction of pH resulted from hydrolyses of heavy metal ions. The chemical mechanism relevant to the accelerating effect of heavy metals is considered to be H + attacks on cement phases and the precipitation of calcium heavy metal double hydroxides, which consumes calcium ions and then promotes the decomposition of C 3 S. In this work, molecular models of calcium silicate hydrate gel are presented based on the examination of 29 Si solid-state magic angle spinning/nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS/NMR). This paper also reviews immobilisation mechanisms of heavy metals in hydrated cement matrices, focusing on the sorption, precipitation and chemical incorporation of cement hydration products. It is concluded that further research on the phase development during cement hydration in the presence of heavy metals and thermodynamic modelling is needed to improve effectiveness of cement-based s/s and extend this waste management technique

  13. The mechanical and biological studies of calcium phosphate cement-fibrin glue for bone reconstruction of rabbit femoral defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Jingjing Dong,1,* Geng Cui,2,* Long Bi,1,* Jie Li,3 Wei Lei11Institute of Orthopedics, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Institute of Orthopedics, General Hospital of PLA, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, General Hospital of PLA, Beijing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: In order to improve the mechanical and biological properties of calcium phosphate cement (CPC, nanometer-biomaterial for bone reconstruction in the rabbit femoral defect model, fibrin glue (FG, the natural product, purified from the blood was introduced at three different ratios. The CPC powder and the FG solution were mixed, respectively, at the powder/liquid (P/L ratios (g/mL of 1:1, 3:1, and 5:1 (g/mL, and pure CPC was used as a control. After being implanted into the femoral defect in rabbit, the healing process was evaluated by micro-computed tomography scan, biomechanical testing, and histological examination. By micro-computed tomography analysis, the P/L ratio of 1:1 (g/mL group indicated the largest quantity of new bone formation at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks after implantation, respectively. Bone volume per trabecular volume of the 1:1 group was highest in the four groups, which was 1.45% ± 0.42%, 7.35% ± 1.45%, and 29.10% ± 1.67% at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks after the operation, respectively. In the biomechanical tests, the compressive strength and the elastic modulus of the three CPC–FG groups were much higher than those of the pure CPC group at the determined time point (P < 0.05. The histological evaluation also showed the best osseointegration in the 1:1 group at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks after the operation, respectively. In the 1:1 group, the bone grew into the pore of the cement in the laminar arrangement and connected with the cement tightly at the 12th week after the operation

  14. Calcium phosphate composite cements based on simple mixture of brushite and apatite phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, A. A.; Fedotov, A. Yu; Pereloma, I. S.; Teterina, A. Yu; Sergeeva, N. S.; Sviridova, I. K.; Kirsanova, V. A.; Akhmedova, S. A.; Nesterova, A. V.; Reshetov, I. V.; Barinov, S. M.; Komlev, V. S.

    2018-04-01

    The composite cements based on simple mixtures brishite and apatite with ratio 70/30, 50/50, 30/70 were developed. The processes of phase formation, microstructure and mechanical properties were studied. The kinetics of degradation in simulated body fluid depending on the microstructure and the materials phase composition was carried out. The biological test in vitro were performed using the MTT-test on the human fibroblast immortalized (hFB) cell line and the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63. The materials didn’t have acute cytoxicity and possessed surface matrix properties. It was determined that the both line of cells actively proliferated, with viable cells values higher 20-60 % then control at all observation periods.

  15. Effects of added antibiotics on the basic properties of anti-washout-type fast-setting calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi, M; Miyamoto, Y; Ishikawa, K; Nagayama, M; Kon, M; Asaoka, K; Suzuki, K

    1998-02-01

    The effect of added antibiotics on the basic properties of anti-washout-type fast-setting calcium phosphate cement (aw-FSCPC) was investigated in a preliminary evaluation of aw-FSCPC containing drugs. Flomoxef sodium was employed as the antibiotic and was incorporated into the powder-phase aw-FSCPC at up to 10%. The setting time, consistency, wet diametral tensile strength (DTS) value, and porosity were measured for aw-FSCPC containing various amounts of flomoxef sodium. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was also conducted for the identification of products. To evaluate the drug-release profile, set aw-FSCPC was immersed in saline and the released flomoxef sodium was determined at regular intervals. The spread area of the cement paste as an index of consistency of the cement increased progressively with the addition of flomoxef sodium, and it doubled when the aw-FSCPC contained 8% flomoxef sodium. In contrast, the wet DTS value decreased with increase in flomoxef sodium content. Bulk density measurement and scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that the set mass was more porous with the amount of flomoxef sodium contained in the aw-FSCPC. The XRD analysis revealed that formation of hydroxyapatite (HAP) from aw-FSCPC was reduced even after 24 h, when the aw-FSCPC contained flomoxef sodium at > or = 6%. Therefore, the decrease of wet DTS value was thought to be partly the result of the increased porosity and inhibition of HAP formation in aw-FSCPC containing large amounts of flomoxef sodium. The flomoxef sodium release from aw-FSCPC showed the typical profile observed in a skeleton-type drug delivery system (DDS). The rate of drug release from aw-FSCPC can be controlled by changing the concentration of sodium alginate. Although flomoxef sodium addition has certain disadvantageous effects on the basic properties of aw-FSCPC, we conclude that aw-FSCPC is a good candidate for potential use as a DDS carrier that may be useful in surgical operations.

  16. EFFECT OF MgO ON THE COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF BELITE-BARIUM CALCIUM SULPHOALUMINATE CEMENT IN THE PRESENCE OF Na2O AND K2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of MgO (1 - 9 wt. % on the composition and properties of belite-barium calcium sulphoaluminate cement with additions of Na2O and K2O. The results show that 1 - 5 wt. % content of MgO can stabilize crystal types of M3-C3S, R-C3S and β-C2S. Moreover, MgO can promote the formation of C3S and C4AF, but has little effect on the formation of C2.75B1.25A3$ and C3A. The C3A/C4AF ratio is reduced by 22 % at 5 wt. % MgO, which indicates that appropriate MgO can decrease the liquid viscosity. In the presence of Na2O and K2O, the highest limit of incorporated amount of MgO is about 3 wt. %, which is higher than that in Portland cement clinker of 2 wt. %. Besides, MgO favors the formation of small C3S crystals in size of 4 - 20 μm. MgO enhances the hydration rate and mechanical property of cement at an optimal dosage (1 - 5 wt. %, beyond which an adverse effect could be resulted. At a MgO dosage of 5 wt. %, the compressive strengths of the cement at 1, 3, 7 and 28 days are 15.8, 39.3, 68.6 and 97.3 MPa, which increases by 116 %, 17 %, 10 % and 6 % respectively compared to the cement without MgO dopant. This study could lead to the effective use of magnesia-rich limestone in industrial production of belite-barium calcium sulphoaluminate cement.

  17. Effect of Graphene Oxide (GO on the Morphology and Microstructure of Cement Hydration Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of graphene oxide (GO on the microstructure of cement mortars were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric (TG, and X-ray diffraction (XRD techniques. Cement mortar samples with different proportions of GO (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08 wt % based on the weight of cement were prepared. The test results showed that GO affected the crystallization of cement hydration products, C–S–H (calcium silicate hydrate is the main hydrate product and CH (calcium hydroxide. The morphology of hydration products changed with the increase of GO content. Furthermore, the results of XRD analyses showed that the diffraction peak intensity and the crystal grain size of CH (001, (100, (101, and (102 for GO samples increased considerably compared with the control sample. Based on the results, it can be understood that GO can modify the crystal surface of CH, leading to the formation of larger crystals.

  18. Determination of trace amounts of cerium in silicate rocks based on its candoluminescence in a calcium oxide based matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belcher, R.; Nasser, T.A.K.; Polo-Diez, L.; Townshend, A.

    1977-01-01

    A very sensitive method for the determination of cerium (above 10 ng ml -1 ) has been developed (Belcher et al., Analyst;100:415(1975)), based on the measurement of the green candoluminescence produced by cerium in a calcium oxide-calcium sulphate matrix, with sulphuric acid as a coactivator, when the matrix is inserted into a hydrogen-nitrogen-air flame. This paper describes the application of this method to the determination of trace amounts of cerium in rocks. It involves the fusion of the sample with lithium metaborate, and does not require the isolation of cerium from other components of the rock, before measuring the candoluminescence intensity of the cerium. (author)

  19. Umbilical cord stem cells released from alginate-fibrin microbeads inside macroporous and biofunctionalized calcium phosphate cement for bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenchuan; Zhou, Hongzhi; Weir, Michael D.; Bao, Chongyun; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2012-01-01

    The need for bone repair has increased as the population ages. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop a novel biofunctionalized and macroporous calcium phosphate cement (CPC) containing alginate-fibrin microbeads encapsulating human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs); and (2) investigate hUCMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation inside CPC for the first time. Macroporous CPC was developed using calcium phosphate powders, chitosan, and gas-foaming porogen. Five types of CPCs were fabricated: CPC control, CPC + 0.05% fibronectin (Fn), CPC + 0.1% Fn, CPC + 0.1% Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), and CPC + 0.1% Fn + 0.1% RGD. Alginate-fibrin microbeads containing 106 hUCMSCs/mL were encapsulated in the CPC paste. After CPC had set, the degradable microbeads released hUCMSCs inside CPC. hUCMScs proliferated inside CPC, with cell density at 21 d being 4-fold that at 1 d. CPC + 0.1% RGD had the highest cell density, which was 4-fold that of CPC control. The released cells differentiated into the osteogenic lineage and synthesized bone minerals. hUCMSCs inside the CPC + 0.1% RGD construct had gene expressions of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and collagen I, which were twice those of CPC control. Mineral synthesis by hUCMSCs inside the CPC + 0.1% RGD construct was 2-fold that in CPC control. RGD and Fn incorporation in CPC did not compromise the strength of CPC, which matched the reported strength of cancellous bone. In conclusion, degradable microbeads released the hUCMSCs which proliferated, differentiated and synthesized minerals inside the macroporous CPC for the first time. CPC with RGD greatly enhanced cell functions. The novel biofunctionalized and macroporous CPC-microbead-hUCMSC construct is promising for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:22391411

  20. Atributos químicos de solos influenciados pela substituição do carbonato por silicato de cálcio Soil chemical properties influenced by the substitution of calcium carbonate by calcium silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ferreira de Souza

    2008-08-01

    ácia do silicato de Ca foi inferior à de carbonato de Ca na melhoria das condições químicas do solo.The application of silicates to soils can result in increased soil cation exchange capacity (CEC, displace anions, especially H2PO4- (diacid phosphate, neutralize the pH and Al toxicity and, in general, increase the nutrient availability to plants. However, calcium silicates may be less efficient than calcium carbonates. To evaluate the effect of calcium carbonate substitution by calcium silicate on the soil chemical properties, especially on phosphorus availability, four experiments were conducted in an entirely randomized design with four replications, in a greenhouse. The treatments consisted of five levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % of calcium carbonate substitution by calcium silicate, with a 4:1 Ca:Mg stoichiometric and the same amount of CaO, enough to reach a 60 % base saturation. The treatments were applied to 4 dm³ samples of a sandy orthic Quartzarenic Neosol (Quartzpsament, a sandy loam dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol (Oxisol, sandy clay loam dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol (Oxisol and a clayey dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol; each soil represented one experiment. The pH values in H2O, P, phosphorus in the equilibrium solution (P-rem, K, Ca, Mg, Si, Al, H + Al, organic matter (OM, Cu, Mn, Zn and B, sum of bases (S, effective (t ant total (T CEC, base saturation (V and Al saturation (m were submitted to analysis of variance and simple regression models fitted as a function of CaCO3 substitution by CaSiO3 levels. It was observed that carbonate substitution by silicate promoted significant increases in the values of Si, Al, H + Al and m and reduction in the values of P-rem, pH, S, t and V. The values of Mehlich 1 P, K, Mg, OM, T, Mn, Cu, and B were not influenced significantly. A reduction in Zn availability was verified in the dystrophic orthic Quartzarenic Neosol only. Calcium silicate was less efficient than calcium carbonate in the improvement of soil chemical

  1. Structural and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from alite hydration in the presence of sodium and potassium hydroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Oscar, E-mail: oamendoz@unal.edu.co [Grupo del Cemento y Materiales de Construcción (CEMATCO). Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Minas, Medellín (Colombia); Giraldo, Carolina [Cementos Argos S.A., Medellín (Colombia); Camargo, Sergio S. [Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/COPPE, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tobón, Jorge I. [Grupo del Cemento y Materiales de Construcción (CEMATCO). Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Minas, Medellín (Colombia)

    2015-08-15

    This research evaluates the effect of sodium and potassium hydroxide on the structure and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from the hydration of pure alite. Monoclinic (MIII) alite was synthesized and hydrated, using water-to-alite ratios of 0.5 and 0.6 and additions of 10% NaOH and KOH by weight of alite. Based on results of X-ray diffraction, isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and nanoindentation, two different effects of the alkaline hydroxides on the hydration reaction of alite, both at early and later ages, can be identified: (i) a differentiated hydration process, attributed to an enhancement in calcium hydroxide (CH) precipitation and a stimulation of the C-S-H nuclei; and (ii) an increase in the elastic modulus of the C-S-H aggregations, attributed to an electrostatic attraction between positive charges from the alkaline cations and negative charges from the C-S-H structure.

  2. Structural and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from alite hydration in the presence of sodium and potassium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, Oscar; Giraldo, Carolina; Camargo, Sergio S.; Tobón, Jorge I.

    2015-01-01

    This research evaluates the effect of sodium and potassium hydroxide on the structure and nano-mechanical properties of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) formed from the hydration of pure alite. Monoclinic (MIII) alite was synthesized and hydrated, using water-to-alite ratios of 0.5 and 0.6 and additions of 10% NaOH and KOH by weight of alite. Based on results of X-ray diffraction, isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and nanoindentation, two different effects of the alkaline hydroxides on the hydration reaction of alite, both at early and later ages, can be identified: (i) a differentiated hydration process, attributed to an enhancement in calcium hydroxide (CH) precipitation and a stimulation of the C-S-H nuclei; and (ii) an increase in the elastic modulus of the C-S-H aggregations, attributed to an electrostatic attraction between positive charges from the alkaline cations and negative charges from the C-S-H structure

  3. Incorporation of zinc into calcium silicate hydrates, Part I: formation of C-S-H(I) with C/S=2/3 and its isochemical counterpart gyrolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumm, Andreas; Garbev, Krassimir; Beuchle, Guenter; Black, Leon; Stemmermann, Peter; Nueesch, Rolf

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the incorporation of zinc into both nanocrystalline and crystalline calcium silicate hydrates with starting C/S ratios of 2/3 (0.66). Zinc was added replacing calcium in the starting mixtures [Zn/(Zn+Ca)=0-1/4; 0-10 wt.% Zn], and the resultant phases were characterised using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetry (DTA-TG) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). In both groups of samples, increasing zinc content led to gradual structural changes, until eventually a second phase was formed. Zinc was incorporated to similar limits in both sets of samples. The thermal stability of the structures increased to a certain zinc content, beyond which there was structural destabilisation. Zinc incorporation is possible up to ∼6 wt.%. Our observations strongly indicate similar zinc incorporation mechanisms in both sample series, namely incorporation of zinc into the interlayer of C-S-H(I) and the X-sheet of gyrolite for nanocrystalline and crystalline samples, respectively

  4. Physicochemical changes of cements by ground water corrosion in radioactive waste storage; Evolucion fisicoquimica de los cementos por corrosion de aguas subterraneas en un almacen de desechos radioactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras R, A.; Badillo A, V. E.; Robles P, E. F. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Nava E, N. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, Col. San Bartolo Atepehuacan, 07730 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)], e-mail: aida.contreras@inin.gob.mx

    2009-10-15

    Knowing that the behavior of cementations materials based on known hydraulic cement binder is determined essentially by the physical and chemical transformation of cement paste (water + cement) that is, the present study is essentially about the cement paste evolution in contact with aqueous solutions since one of principal risks in systems security are the ground and surface waters, which contribute to alteration of various barriers and represent the main route of radionuclides transport. In this research, cements were hydrated with different relations cement-aqueous solution to different times. The pastes were analyzed by different solid observation techniques XRD and Moessbauer with the purpose of identify phases that form when are in contact with aqueous solutions of similar composition to ground water. The results show a definitive influence of chemical nature of aqueous solution as it encourages the formation of new phases like hydrated calcium silicates, which are the main phases responsible of radionuclides retention in a radioactive waste storage. (Author)

  5. Synthesis and hydration behavior of calcium zirconium aluminate (Ca7ZrAl6O18) cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eun-Hee; Yoo, Jun-Sang; Kim, Bo-Hye; Choi, Sung-Woo; Hong, Seong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    Calcium zirconium aluminate (Ca 7 ZrAl 6 O 18 ) cements were prepared by solid state reaction and polymeric precursor methods, and their phase evolution, morphology, and hydration behavior were investigated. In polymeric precursor method, a nearly single phase Ca 7 ZrAl 6 O 18 was obtained at relatively lower temperature (1200 °C) whereas in solid state reaction, a small amount of CaZrO 3 coexisted with Ca 7 ZrAl 6 O 18 even at higher temperature (1400 °C). Unexpectedly, Ca 7 ZrAl 6 O 18 synthesized by polymeric precursor process was the large-sized and rough-shaped powder. The planetary ball milling was employed to control the particle size and shape. The hydration behavior of Ca 7 ZrAl 6 O 18 was similar to that of Ca 3 Al 2 O 6 (C3A), but the hydration products were Ca 3 Al 2 O 6 ·6H 2 O (C3AH6) and several intermediate products. Thus, Zr (or ZrO 2 ) stabilized the intermediate hydration products of C3A

  6. Enhanced healing of rabbit segmental radius defects with surface-coated calcium phosphate cement/bone morphogenetic protein-2 scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yi; Hou, Juan; Yin, ManLi [Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Jing, E-mail: biomatwj@163.com [Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu, ChangSheng, E-mail: csliu@sh163.net [Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2014-11-01

    Large osseous defects remain a difficult clinical problem in orthopedic surgery owing to the limited effective therapeutic options, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is useful for its potent osteoinductive properties in bone regeneration. Here we build a strategy to achieve prolonged duration time and help inducting new bone formation by using water-soluble polymers as a protective film. In this study, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds were prepared as the matrix and combined with sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC), and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) respectively to protect from the digestion of rhBMP-2. After being implanted in the mouse thigh muscles, the surface-modified composite scaffolds evidently induced ectopic bone formation. In addition, we further evaluated the in vivo effects of surface-modified scaffolds in a rabbit radius critical defect by radiography, three dimensional micro-computed tomographic (μCT) imaging, synchrotron radiation-based micro-computed tomographic (SRμCT) imaging, histological analysis, and biomechanical measurement. The HPMC-modified CPC scaffold was regarded as the best combination for segmental bone regeneration in rabbit radius. - Highlights: • A simple surface-coating method was used to fabricate composite scaffolds. • Growth factor was protected from rapid depletion via superficial coating. • Significant promotion of bone regeneration was achieved. • HPMC-modification displayed optimal effect of bone regeneration.

  7. Effect of Tartaric Acid on Hydration of a Sodium-Metasilicate-Activated Blend of Calcium Aluminate Cement and Fly Ash F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatina, Tatiana; Sugama, Toshifumi; Moon, Juhyuk; James, Simon

    2016-05-27

    An alkali-activated blend of aluminum cement and class F fly ash is an attractive solution for geothermal wells where cement is exposed to significant thermal shocks and aggressive environments. Set-control additives enable the safe cement placement in a well but may compromise its mechanical properties. This work evaluates the effect of a tartaric-acid set retarder on phase composition, microstructure, and strength development of a sodium-metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate/fly ash class F blend after curing at 85 °C, 200 °C or 300 °C. The hardened materials were characterized with X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray computed tomography, and combined scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and tested for mechanical strength. With increasing temperature, a higher number of phase transitions in non-retarded specimens was found as a result of fast cement hydration. The differences in the phase compositions were also attributed to tartaric acid interactions with metal ions released by the blend in retarded samples. The retarded samples showed higher total porosity but reduced percentage of large pores (above 500 µm) and greater compressive strength after 300 °C curing. Mechanical properties of the set cements were not compromised by the retarder.

  8. Effect of Tartaric Acid on Hydration of a Sodium-Metasilicate-Activated Blend of Calcium Aluminate Cement and Fly Ash F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Pyatina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An alkali-activated blend of aluminum cement and class F fly ash is an attractive solution for geothermal wells where cement is exposed to significant thermal shocks and aggressive environments. Set-control additives enable the safe cement placement in a well but may compromise its mechanical properties. This work evaluates the effect of a tartaric-acid set retarder on phase composition, microstructure, and strength development of a sodium-metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate/fly ash class F blend after curing at 85 °C, 200 °C or 300 °C. The hardened materials were characterized with X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray computed tomography, and combined scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and tested for mechanical strength. With increasing temperature, a higher number of phase transitions in non-retarded specimens was found as a result of fast cement hydration. The differences in the phase compositions were also attributed to tartaric acid interactions with metal ions released by the blend in retarded samples. The retarded samples showed higher total porosity but reduced percentage of large pores (above 500 µm and greater compressive strength after 300 °C curing. Mechanical properties of the set cements were not compromised by the retarder.

  9. Calcium aluminate cement concrete: durablllty and conversión. A fresh look at an old subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George, C. M.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper re-examines the relationship between durability and conversion of calcium aluminate cement concretes, CACC. Conversion is a natural and inevitable process whereby these materials reach a stable mature condition. Numerous structures built more than half a century ago remain serviceable and in service today. Some of these are illustrated. They are the best testament to the durability of converted concrete having survived far longer in the converted than the unconverted condition. The unique rapid hardening characteristics of CACC offer a valuable selfheating capability. Conversión is immediate and this leads to better long term strengths because more cement is hydrated. Moreover, recent work has shown that the thermodynamically stable hydrates of converted CAC are intrinsically more resistant to attack from such aggressive agents as sulphuric acid. This provides an explanation of the excellent long term performance of Fondu concretes, for example in many saewer applications. Our knowledge and understanding today of the durability of calcium alumínate bonded materials has been built on close to 100 years of accumulated experience and laboratory studies. We know how to use these materials and we know what to expect from them. We can be confident that they will serve us well in the century ahead.

    Este trabajo examina de nuevo la relación entre durabilidad y conversión de hormigones de cemento aluminoso, HAC (High Alumina Cement. La conversión es un proceso natural e inevitable a través del cual este material consigue una condición definitiva y estable. Numerosas estructuras que se edificaron hace más de medio siglo siguen utilizables y utilizadas hoy en día. Algunas de estas estructuras vienen ilustradas en este trabajo. Ellas sirven como mejor ejemplo de la durabilidad del hormigón convertido, ya que han sobrevivido mucho más tiempo en el estado convertido que en el no convertido. Las singulares caracter

  10. Effect of the strontium aluminate and hemihydrate contents on the properties of a calcium sulphoaluminate based cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velazco, G.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of strontium aluminate (SrAl2O4 on the hydration process of a calcium sulphoaluminate (C4A3Ŝ cement was investigated. Cement pastes were prepared by mixing C4A3Ŝ , hemihydrate (CaSO4· ½H2O, CŜH0.5 and 0, 10 or 20wt% of SrAl2O4 (SrA. The amount of CŜH0.5 was 15, 20 or 25wt% based on the C4A3Ŝ quantity. The cement pastes were hydrated using water to cement ratios (w/c of 0.4 and 0.5. Samples were cured from 1 to 28 d. The compressive strength and setting time were evaluated and the hydration products were characterized. It was found that the setting time was delayed up to 42 min for the samples containing SrAl2O4 compared to samples without addition. The samples with 25wt% hemihydrate containing 20wt% SrAl2O4 developed the highest compressive strength (60 MPa after 28 d of curing. The main product after hydration was ettringite (C6AŜ3H32. The morphology of this phase consisted of thin needle-shaped crystals.Se investigó el efecto de la adición de aluminato de estroncio (SrAl2O4 sobre las propiedades de un cemento de sulfoaluminato de calcio (C4A3Ŝ. Se prepararon muestras mezclando C4A3Ŝ, hemihidrato (CaSO4· ½H2O, CŜH0.5 y 0, 10 o 20% e.p de SrAl2O4 (SrA. La cantidad de CŜH0.5 fue de 15, 20 o 25% e.p. basado en la cantidad de C4A3Ŝ. Las relaciones agua/cemento utilizadas fueron 0.4 y 0.5. Las muestras fueron curadas hasta 28 d. Se evaluó el tiempo de fraguado y la resistencia a la compresión. Los productos de hidratación se caracterizaron mediante DRX y MEB. El tiempo de fraguado se retardó hasta 42 minutos con la adición del SrAl2O4 comparado con las muestras sin adiciones. Las muestras con 25% e.p. de yeso y 20% e.p. de SrAl2O4 desarrollaron la mayor resistencia a la compresión alcanzando 60 MPa a 28 d de curado. Los análisis por MEB y DRX muestran como principal producto de hidratación a la etringita (C6AŜ3H32, cuya morfología se observa como cristales aciculares.

  11. Durability of pulp fiber-cement composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Benjamin J.

    Wood pulp fibers are a unique reinforcing material as they are non-hazardous, renewable, and readily available at relatively low cost compared to other commercially available fibers. Today, pulp fiber-cement composites can be found in products such as extruded non-pressure pipes and non-structural building materials, mainly thin-sheet products. Although natural fibers have been used historically to reinforce various building materials, little scientific effort has been devoted to the examination of natural fibers to reinforce engineering materials until recently. The need for this type of fundamental research has been emphasized by widespread awareness of moisture-related failures of some engineered materials; these failures have led to the filing of national- and state-level class action lawsuits against several manufacturers. Thus, if pulp fiber-cement composites are to be used for exterior structural applications, the effects of cyclical wet/dry (rain/heat) exposure on performance must be known. Pulp fiber-cement composites have been tested in flexure to examine the progression of strength and toughness degradation. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), a three-part model describing the mechanisms of progressive degradation has been proposed: (1) initial fiber-cement/fiber interlayer debonding, (2) reprecipitation of crystalline and amorphous ettringite within the void space at the former fiber-cement interface, and (3) fiber embrittlement due to reprecipitation of calcium hydroxide filling the spaces within the fiber cell wall structure. Finally, as a means to mitigate kraft pulp fiber-cement composite degradation, the effects of partial portland cement replacement with various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been investigated for their effect on mitigating kraft pulp fiber-cement composite mechanical property degradation (i.e., strength and toughness

  12. Preparation, characterization and investigation of in vitro and in vivo biological properties of strontium-modified calcium phosphate cement for bone defect repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Masaeli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the invitro and invivo performance of a 3 wt% of strontium additive hydroxyapatite calcium phosphate cements (CPC. Materials and Methods: The prepared calcium phosphate cement was characterized with XRD, FTIR, setting time, STA and in vitro and in vivo biological analyses. The MTT assay ALP activities as in vitro study and radiological and histological examinations as in vivo study between the three groups of 3 wt% Sr-HA/CPC, CPC and control were performed and compared. Data were analyzed using T-test and One-way ANOVA. Results: XRD analysis demonstrated that by increasing the ratio of Powder/Liquid (P/L, the crystallinity of the prepared cement increased. The substitution of strontium instead of calcium in CPC could also alter the crystal structure, including some structural disorder. However, in the CPC with no strontium hydroxyapatite (Sr-HA, no significant increase in the crystallinity was observed. SEM observations revealed CPC with increasing P/L ratio, the formation of hydroxyapatite crystals arising from the interaction of solid and liquid phase of cement was decreased. Also, the addition of Sr within Ca site culminated in a dramatic increase in crystallinity of hydroxyapatite. In vitro biological properties ascertained that addition of 3 wt. % Sr-HA into CPC enhanced MTT assay and ALP activity, which could be due to the presence of strontium ions. The histological study showed that greater remodeling was seen at 4 weeks after implantation when the 3 wt% Sr-HA/CPC was used. Conclusion: The obtained results cleared that CPC can be a potential candidate as a carrier with strontium additives for bone remodeling and regeneration.

  13. NASA's Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings Development for SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Understanding Calcium Magnesium Alumino-Silicate (CMAS) Degradations and Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) and SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) systems will play a crucial role in next generation turbine engines for hot-section component applications because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures with improved efficiency, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. The development of prime-reliant environmental barrier coatings is essential to the viability and reliability of the envisioned CMC engine component applications, ensuring integrated EBC-CMC system durability and designs are achievable for successful applications of the game-changing component technologies and lifing methodologies.This paper will emphasize recent NASA environmental barrier coating developments for SiCSiC turbine airfoil components, utilizing advanced coating compositions, state-of-the-art processing methods, and combined mechanical and environment testing and durability evaluations. The coating-CMC degradations in the engine fatigue-creep and operating environments are particularly complex; one of the important coating development aspects is to better understand engine environmental interactions and coating life debits, and we have particularly addressed the effect of Calcium-Magnesium-Alumino-Silicate (CMAS) from road sand or volcano-ash deposits on the durability of the environmental barrier coating systems, and how the temperature capability, stability and cyclic life of the candidate rare earth oxide and silicate coating systems will be impacted in the presence of the CMAS at high temperatures and under simulated heat flux conditions. Advanced environmental barrier coating systems, including HfO2-Si with rare earth dopant based bond coat systems, will be discussed for the performance improvements to achieve better temperature capability and CMAS resistance for future engine operating conditions.

  14. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You can get decent amounts of calcium from baked beans, navy beans, white beans, and others. Canned fish. You're in luck if you like sardines and canned salmon with bones. Almond milk. Working Calcium Into Your ...

  15. Injection laryngoplasty using BIOPEX calcium phosphate cement. The Sanokousei General Hospital experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Keisuke; Shinnabe, Akihiro; Saito, Koichiro; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2008-01-01

    The calcium phosphate bone paste BIOPEX is an injectable material developed as a bone replacement that hardens into a hydroxylapatite block after injection. BIOPEX offers many advantages as a material for injection laryngoplasty: it induces little foreign-material reaction, is minimally absorbed, and is easy to prepare in the OR. Between 2004 and 2007, 14 patients, including 13 with vocal fold paralysis and 1 with severe atrophy of the vocal folds, were treated with BIOPEX-injection laryngoplasty at Sanokousei General Hospital. The injection of BIOPEX is usually performed through a direct laryngoscopy under general anesthesia, and no adverse effects were observed in any of the cases. A postoperative three-dimensional CT revealed successful injection of the BIOPEX into the paraglottic space in all cases. BIOPEX is minimally absorbed over long time periods, and this procedure results in a dramatic improvement of glottic function immediately after surgery. We consider this operative technique, which aims at medialization of the vocal fold by injection of a sclerotic agent into the lateral side of the vocal fold, as 'type I thyroplasty from inside the laryngeal framework.' (author)

  16. A Novel Injectable Magnesium/Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate Composite Cement for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanchuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A novel injectable magnesium/calcium sulfate hemihydrate (Mg/CSH composite with improved properties was reported here. Methods. Composition, setting time, injectability, compressive strength, and bioactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF of the Mg/CSH composite were evaluated. Furthermore, the cellular responses of canine bone marrow stromal cells (cBMSCs and bone formation capacity after the implantation of Mg/CSH in tibia defects of canine were investigated. Results. Mg/CSH possessed a prolonged setting time and markedly improved injectability and mechanical property p<0.05. Mg/CSH samples showed better degradability than CSH in SBF after 21 days of soaking p<0.05. Moreover, the degrees of cell attachment, proliferation, and capability of osteogenic differentiation on the Mg/CSH specimens were higher than those on CSH, without significant cytotoxicity and with the increased proliferation index, ALP activity, and expression levels of integrin β1 and Coll I in cBMSCs p<0.05. Mg/CSH enhanced the efficiency of new bone formation at the tibia defect area, including the significantly elevated bone mineral density, bone area fraction, and Coll I expression level p<0.05. Conclusions. The results implied that this new injectable bone scaffold exhibited promising prospects for bone repair and had a great potential in bone tissue engineering.

  17. Radionuclides retention in C-S-H, main phases of cement matrices for low and intermediate-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badillo A, V. E.; Lopez R, C.; Vidal M, J.; Gutierrez B, O.

    2014-10-01

    Knowing that the behavior of cementitious materials based on hydraulic binder called cement is essentially determined by the physicochemical evolution of the cement paste (water + cement) which constitutes it, the evolution of the cement paste in contact with different aqueous solutions is studied since one of the main risks in safety of systems is composed of surface and groundwater, which contribute to the alteration of the different barriers and represent the main way of radionuclides transport. The calcium silicates CSH are the main phases that compose the systems based on Portland cement. The hydrates calcium silicates possess a high degree of structural complexity which includes crystalline, partially crystalline and amorphous phases. In this study the microstructures of the CSH phases as well as the retention of radionuclide Sr (II) are studied through the 87m Sr in formulations of water/cement w/c = 0.55; experimental values of K d low around 20 ml g -1 are obtained in function of hydration time of the cement paste in equilibrium with aqueous solutions. (Author)

  18. Compositional Evolution of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) Structures by Total X-Ray Scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Soyer-Uzun, Sezen

    2011-12-09

    High-energy X-ray diffraction was employed to study the structural characteristics of a set of C-S-H samples with 0.6 ≤ C/S a;circ 1.75. It has been observed that Si is tetrahedrally coordinated to O for all samples irrespective of chemical composition and the Ca-O coordination number gradually decreases from ∼7 to ∼6 with increasing C/S ratio. This suggests that the C-S-H structure evolves from a tobermorite-like structure into a jennite-like structure as a function of increasing C/S ratio as the interlayer space decreases from ∼1.3 to ∼1 nm. Evolution of these short- and medium-range order structural characteristics in the C-S-H system is associated with the alteration of the Ca-O layers and silicate depolymerization with increasing C/S. © 2011 The American Ceramic Society.

  19. Compositional Evolution of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) Structures by Total X-Ray Scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Soyer-Uzun, Sezen; Chae, Sejung Rosie; Benmore, Chris J.; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf; Monteiro, Paulo J. M.

    2011-01-01

    High-energy X-ray diffraction was employed to study the structural characteristics of a set of C-S-H samples with 0.6 ≤ C/S a;circ 1.75. It has been observed that Si is tetrahedrally coordinated to O for all samples irrespective of chemical composition and the Ca-O coordination number gradually decreases from ∼7 to ∼6 with increasing C/S ratio. This suggests that the C-S-H structure evolves from a tobermorite-like structure into a jennite-like structure as a function of increasing C/S ratio as the interlayer space decreases from ∼1.3 to ∼1 nm. Evolution of these short- and medium-range order structural characteristics in the C-S-H system is associated with the alteration of the Ca-O layers and silicate depolymerization with increasing C/S. © 2011 The American Ceramic Society.

  20. Tantalum oxide and barium sulfate as radiopacifiers in injectable calcium phosphate-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) cements for monitoring in vivo degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Jan Willem M; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; Meijer, Gert J; Jansen, John A

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the degradation of calcium phosphate-based bone substitute materials in vivo by means of noninvasive techniques (e.g., radiography) is often a problem due to the chemical resemblance of those substitutes with the mineral phase of bone. In the view of that, the present study aimed at enhancing the radiopacity of calcium phosphate cement enriched with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (CPC-PLGA) microspheres, by adding tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) or the more traditional radiopacifier barium sulfate (BaSO4). The radiopacifying capacity of these radiopacifiers was first evaluated in vitro by microcomputed tomography (μCT). Thereafter, both radiopacifiers were tested in vivo using a distal femoral condyle model in rabbits, with subsequent ex vivo μCT analysis in parallel with histomorphometry. Addition of either one of the radiopacifiers proved to enhance radiopacity of CPC-PLGA in vitro. The in vivo experiment showed that both radiopacifiers did not induce alterations in biological performance compared to plain CPC-PLGA, hence both radiopacifiers can be considered safe and biocompatible. The histomorphometrical assessment of cement degradation and bone formation showed similar values for the three experimental groups. Interestingly, μCT analysis showed that monitoring cement degradation becomes feasible upon incorporation of either type of radiopacifier, albeit that BaSO4 showed more accuracy compared to Ta2O5. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  1. A prospective clinical trial on the influence of a triamcinolone/demeclocycline and a calcium hydroxide based temporary cement on pain perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willershausen Brita

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of this clinical trial was to compare the degree of short term post-operative irritation after application of a triamcinolone/demeclocycyline based or a calcium hydroxide based provisional cement. Methods A total of 109 patients (55 female and 54 male; mean age: 51 ± 14 years with primary or secondary dentinal caries were randomly assigned to the two treatment groups of this biomedical clinical trial (phase III. Selection criteria were good systemic health and treated teeth, which were vital and showed no symptoms of pulpitis. Up to three teeth were prepared for indirect metallic restorations, and the provisional restorations were cemented with a triamcinolone/demeclocycyline (Ledermix or a calcium hydroxide (Provicol based material. The intensity of post-operative pain experienced was documented according to the VAS (4, 12, 20, 24, and 82 h and compared to VAS baseline. Results A total of 159 teeth were treated (Ledermix: 83 teeth, Provicol: 76 teeth. The minor irritation of the teeth, experienced prior to treatment, was similar in both groups; however, 4 h after treatment this value was significantly higher in the Provicol group than in the Ledermix group (p Conclusions The patients had no long term post-operative pain experience in both groups. However, within the first hours after cementation the sensation of pain was considerably higher in the Provicol group than in the Ledermix group.

  2. Human embryonic stem cell-encapsulation in alginate microbeads in macroporous calcium phosphate cement for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Minghui; Chen, Wenchuan; Weir, Michael D.; Thein-Han, Wahwah; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are exciting for regenerative medicine applications because of their strong proliferative ability and multilineage differentiation capability. To date there has been no report on hESC seeding with calcium phosphate cement (CPC). The objective of this study was to investigate hESC-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hESCd-MSC) encapsulation in hydrogel microbeads in macroporous CPC for bone tissue engineering. hESCs were cultured to form embryoid bodies (EBs), and the MSCs were then migrated out of the EBs. hESCd-MSCs had surface markers characteristic of MSCs, with positive alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining when cultured in osteogenic medium. hESCd-MSCs were encapsulated in alginate at a density of 1 million cells/mL, with an average microbead size of 207 µm. CPC contained mannitol porogen to create a porosity of 64% and macropores with size of 218 µm, with 20% absorbable fibers for additional porosity when the fibers degrade. hESCd-MSCs encapsulated in microbeads in CPC had good viability from 1 to 21 d. ALP gene expression at 21 d was 25-fold that at 1 d. Osteocalcin (OC) at 21 d was two orders of magnitude of that at 1 d. ALP activity in colorimetric p-nitrophenyl phosphate assay at 21 d was 5-fold that at 1 d. Mineral synthesis by the encapsulated hESCd-MSCs at 21 d was 7-fold that at 1 d. Potential benefits of the CPC-stem cell paste include injectability, intimate adaptation to complex-shaped bone defects, ease in contouring to achieve esthetics in maxillofacial repairs, and in situ setting ability. In conclusion, hESCd-MSCs were encapsulated in alginate microbeads in macroporous CPC showing good cell viability, osteogenic differentiation and mineral synthesis for the first time. The hESCd-MSC-encapsulating macroporous CPC construct is promising for bone regeneration in a wide range of orthopedic and maxillofacial applications. PMID:22633970

  3. Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Reduces Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Development on Glass Ionomer Cement and Disrupts Established Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashper, Stuart G; Catmull, Deanne V; Liu, Sze-Wei; Myroforidis, Helen; Zalizniak, Ilya; Palamara, Joseph E A; Huq, N Laila; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are dental restorative materials that are suitable for modification to help prevent dental plaque (biofilm) formation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incorporating casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) into a GIC on the colonisation and establishment of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and the effects of aqueous CPP-ACP on established S mutans biofilms. S. mutans biofilms were either established in flow cells before a single ten min exposure to 1% w/v CPP-ACP treatment or cultured in static wells or flow cells with either GIC or GIC containing 3% w/w CPP-ACP as the substratum. The biofilms were then visualised using confocal laser scanning microscopy after BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining. A significant decrease in biovolume and average thickness of S. mutans biofilms was observed in both static and flow cell assays when 3% CPP-ACP was incorporated into the GIC substratum. A single ten min treatment with aqueous 1% CPP-ACP resulted in a 58% decrease in biofilm biomass and thickness of established S. mutans biofilms grown in a flow cell. The treatment also significantly altered the structure of these biofilms compared with controls. The incorporation of 3% CPP-ACP into GIC significantly reduced S. mutans biofilm development indicating another potential anticariogenic mechanism of this material. Additionally aqueous CPP-ACP disrupted established S. mutans biofilms. The use of CPP-ACP containing GIC combined with regular CPP-ACP treatment may lower S. mutans challenge.

  4. Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Reduces Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Development on Glass Ionomer Cement and Disrupts Established Biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart G Dashper

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GIC are dental restorative materials that are suitable for modification to help prevent dental plaque (biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incorporating casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP into a GIC on the colonisation and establishment of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and the effects of aqueous CPP-ACP on established S mutans biofilms. S. mutans biofilms were either established in flow cells before a single ten min exposure to 1% w/v CPP-ACP treatment or cultured in static wells or flow cells with either GIC or GIC containing 3% w/w CPP-ACP as the substratum. The biofilms were then visualised using confocal laser scanning microscopy after BacLight LIVE/DEAD staining. A significant decrease in biovolume and average thickness of S. mutans biofilms was observed in both static and flow cell assays when 3% CPP-ACP was incorporated into the GIC substratum. A single ten min treatment with aqueous 1% CPP-ACP resulted in a 58% decrease in biofilm biomass and thickness of established S. mutans biofilms grown in a flow cell. The treatment also significantly altered the structure of these biofilms compared with controls. The incorporation of 3% CPP-ACP into GIC significantly reduced S. mutans biofilm development indicating another potential anticariogenic mechanism of this material. Additionally aqueous CPP-ACP disrupted established S. mutans biofilms. The use of CPP-ACP containing GIC combined with regular CPP-ACP treatment may lower S. mutans challenge.

  5. Cement Pastes and Mortars Containing Nitrogen-Doped and Oxygen-Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Martínez-Alanis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement pastes and mortars based on ordinary Portland cement containing nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-Nx or oxygen-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-Ox are investigated. To incorporate MWCNTs into the cementitious matrix, the as-produced carpets are dispersed over periods of 1 and 2 hours in distilled water at pH levels of 1 and 7. The cement pastes are prepared by adding 0.1 wt% of MWCNTs to cement powder, followed by characterization with SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD at an early age (first hours of hydration. The mortars are mechanically characterized during the hydration process for a period of 28 days. SEM characterization of cement pastes revealed that the carbon nanotubes are well incorporated in the cementitious matrix, with the hydrated cement grains interconnected by long carbon nanotubes. XRD characterizations demonstrated that, during the hydration of cement pastes, different peaks emerged that were associated with ettringite, hydrated calcium silicate, and calcium hydroxide, among other structures. Results of the compressive strength measurements for mortars simultaneously mixed with MWCNT-Nx and MWCNT-Ox reached an increment of approximately 30% in compressive strength. In addition, density functional theory calculations were performed in nitrogen-doped and oxygen-functionalized carbon nanotubes interacting with a cement grain.

  6. Individual and combined effects of chloride, sulfate, and magnesium ions on hydrated Portland-cement paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, T.S.; Wakeley, L.D.; Young, C.L.

    1994-03-01

    Ground water with a high concentration of magnesium ion is known to cause deterioration to portland cement concretes. A proposed mechanism for this deterioration process published previously involves an approximate 1:1 replacement of Ca ions by Mg ions in the crystalline phases of hydrated cement. The current study was undertaken to determine which ions, among magnesium, chloride, and sulfate, cause deterioration; whether their deleterious action is individual or interdependent; and to relate this mechanism of deterioration to the outlook for a 100-yr service life of concretes used in mass placements at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Loss of Ca ion by cement pastes was found to be strongly related to the concentration of Mg ion in simulated ground-water solutions in which the paste samples were aged. This was true of both salt- containing and conventional cement pastes. No other ion in the solutions exerted a strong effect on Ca loss. Ca ion left first from calcium hydroxide in the pastes, depleting all calcium hydroxide by 60 days. Some calcium silicate hydrate remained even after 90 days in the solutions with the highest concentration of Mg ion, while the paste samples deteriorated noticeably. The results indicated a mechanism that involves dissolution of Ca phases and transport of Ca ions to the surface of the sample, followed by formation of Mg-bearing phases at this reaction surface rather than directly by substitution within the microstructure of hydrated cement. Given that calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate are the principal strength-giving phases of hydrated cement, this mechanism indicates the likelihood of significant loss of integrity of a concrete exposed to Mg-bearing ground water at the WIPP. The rate of deterioration ultimately will depend on Mg-ion concentration, the microstructure materials of the concrete exposed to that groundwater, and the availability of brine

  7. Study on analysis of waste edible oil with deterioration and removal of acid value, carbonyl value, and free fatty acid by a food additive (calcium silicate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Tanaka, Yuko; Tominaga, Hisato; Kangawa, Moe; Inoue, Kenji; Ueda, Ayaka; Iwata, Yuka; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the regeneration of waste edible oil using a food additive (calcium silicate, CAS). Waste edible oil was prepared by combined heat and aeration treatment. Moreover, the deterioration of edible oil by combined heat and aeration treatment was greater than that by heat treatment alone. The acid value (AV) and carbonyl value (CV) increased with increasing deterioration; conversely, the tocopherol concentration decreased with increasing deterioration. The specific surface area, pore volume, and mean pore diameter of the 3 CAS formulations used (CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90) were evaluated, and scanning electron microscopic images were taken. The specific surface area increased in the order of CAS30 (115.54 m(2)/g) edible oil was possible with CAS treatment. The AV reduced by 15.2%, 10.8%, and 23.1% by CAS30, CAS60, and CAS90 treatment, respectively, and the CV was reduced by 35.6%, 29.8%, and 31.3% by these 3 treatments, respectively. Moreover, the concentrations of tocopherol and free fatty acids did not change with CAS treatment. The characteristics of CAS were not related to the degree of change of AV and CV. However, the adsorption mechanism of polar and non-polar compounds generated in waste edible oil by CAS was related with the presence of silica gel molecules in CAS. The findings indicated that CAS was useful for the regeneration of waste edible oil.

  8. Bond strength and interfacial morphology of orthodontic brackets bonded to eroded enamel treated with calcium silicate-sodium phosphate salts or resin infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costenoble, Aline; Vennat, Elsa; Attal, Jean-Pierre; Dursun, Elisabeth

    2016-11-01

     To investigate the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets bonded to eroded enamel treated with preventive approaches and to examine the enamel/bracket interfaces.  Ninety-one brackets were bonded to seven groups of enamel samples: sound; eroded; eroded+treated with calcium silicate-sodium phosphate salts (CSP); eroded+infiltrated by ICON ® ; eroded+infiltrated by ICON ® and brackets bonded with 1-month delay; eroded+infiltrated by an experimental resin; and eroded+infiltrated by an experimental resin and brackets bonded with 1-month delay. For each group, 12 samples were tested in SBS and bond failure was assessed with the adhesive remnant index (ARI); one sample was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).  Samples treated with CSP or infiltration showed no significant differences in SBS values with sound samples. Infiltrated samples followed by a delayed bonding showed lower SBS values. All of the values remained acceptable. The ARI scores were significantly higher for sound enamel, eroded, and treated with CSP groups than for all infiltrated samples. SEM examinations corroborated the findings.  Using CSP or resin infiltration before orthodontic bonding does not jeopardize the bonding quality. The orthodontic bonding should be performed shortly after the resin infiltration.

  9. Clinical and radiographic comparison of indirect pulp treatment using light-cured calcium silicate and mineral trioxide aggregate in primary molars: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Navya P; Varma, Balagopal R; Janardhanan, Sureshkumar; Kumaran, Parvathy; Xavier, Arun Mamachan; Govinda, Bhat Sangeetha

    2016-01-01

    To clinically and radiographically evaluate the reparative dentin formation in indirect pulp treatment (IPT) using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and light cured calcium silicate (TheraCal) in primary molars over a period of 6 months. A clinical trial on IPT on 43 primary molars in 21 patients between the age of 4-7 years, divided into two groups: 22 teeth in MTA group and 21 in TheraCal group. Measurement of the variation in dentin thickness was done on the digitalized radiograph at baseline, 3 months and 6 months using CorelDRAW X3 software. Statistical analysis using an independent t -test for intragroup and intergroup comparison showed a significant increase in dentin thickness in both the MTA and TheraCal group (intragroup comparison [ P 0.05). Clinically and radiographically, both MTA and TheraCal are good IPT materials. The better handling characteristics and comparable reparative dentin-forming ability of TheraCal make this material an alternative to MTA in pediatric restorative procedures.

  10. Clinical and radiographic comparison of indirect pulp treatment using light-cured calcium silicate and mineral trioxide aggregate in primary molars: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navya P Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To clinically and radiographically evaluate the reparative dentin formation in indirect pulp treatment (IPT using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA and light cured calcium silicate (TheraCal in primary molars over a period of 6 months. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial on IPT on 43 primary molars in 21 patients between the age of 4–7 years, divided into two groups: 22 teeth in MTA group and 21 in TheraCal group. Measurement of the variation in dentin thickness was done on the digitalized radiograph at baseline, 3 months and 6 months using CorelDRAW X3 software. Results: Statistical analysis using an independent t-test for intragroup and intergroup comparison showed a significant increase in dentin thickness in both the MTA and TheraCal group (intragroup comparison [P 0.05. Conclusion: Clinically and radiographically, both MTA and TheraCal are good IPT materials. The better handling characteristics and comparable reparative dentin-forming ability of TheraCal make this material an alternative to MTA in pediatric restorative procedures.

  11. A food-grade process for isolation and partial purification of bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria that uses diatomite calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coventry, M J; Gordon, J B; Alexander, M; Hickey, M W; Wan, J

    1996-01-01

    Bacteriocins, including nisin, pediocin PO2, brevicin 286, and piscicolin 126, were extracted from fermentation media by adsorption onto Micro-Cel (a food-grade diatomite calcium silicate anticaking agent) and subsequent desorption. The optimal conditions for desorption of piscicolin 126 were determined and applied to other bacteriocins, and the relative purities of the desorbed preparations were compared. Piscicolin was not successfully desorbed from Micro-Cel at pH 1.0 to 12.0, with organic solvents, or by increase of ionic strength up to 1 M NaCl. However, 25 and 75% of the bacteriocin activity was desorbed by using 1% sodium deoxycholate and 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), respectively. Higher levels (up to 100%) of desorption were achieved by repeated elution or by an increase in surfactant concentration. Desorption of piscicolin with 1/10 volume of SDS solution resulted in a preparation with 10 times concentration in activity, equivalent to that of ammonium sulfate preparations (409,600 to 819,200 activity units/ml). Determination of organic nitrogen (N) content revealed that the desorbed piscicolin preparations were substantially free of proteinaceous substances (approximately 92 to 99%) compared with original culture supernatants and ammonium sulfate preparations. Nisin, pediocin, and brevicin were also desorbed with 1% SDS with a similar level of purification. PMID:8633875

  12. 3D printed scaffolds of calcium silicate-doped β-TCP synergize with co-cultured endothelial and stromal cells to promote vascularization and bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuan; Jiang, Chuan; Li, Cuidi; Li, Tao; Peng, Mingzheng; Wang, Jinwu; Dai, Kerong

    2017-07-17

    Synthetic bone scaffolds have potential application in repairing large bone defects, however, inefficient vascularization after implantation remains the major issue of graft failure. Herein, porous β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds with calcium silicate (CS) were 3D printed, and pre-seeded with co-cultured human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) to construct tissue engineering scaffolds with accelerated vascularization and better bone formation. Results showed that in vitro β-TCP scaffolds doped with 5% CS (5%CS/β-TCP) were biocompatible, and stimulated angiogenesis and osteogenesis. The results also showed that 5%CS/β-TCP scaffolds not only stimulated co-cultured cells angiogenesis on Matrigel, but also stimulated co-cultured cells to form microcapillary-like structures on scaffolds, and promoted migration of BMSCs by stimulating co-cultured cells to secrete PDGF-BB and CXCL12 into the surrounding environment. Moreover, 5%CS/β-TCP scaffolds enhanced vascularization and osteoinduction in comparison with β-TCP, and synergized with co-cultured cells to further increase early vessel formation, which was accompanied by earlier and better ectopic bone formation when implanted subcutaneously in nude mice. Thus, our findings suggest that porous 5%CS/β-TCP scaffolds seeded with co-cultured cells provide new strategy for accelerating tissue engineering scaffolds vascularization and osteogenesis, and show potential as treatment for large bone defects.

  13. Evaluation of bioactivity in vitro of endodontic calcium aluminate cement; Avaliacao da bioatividade in vitro de cimento endodontico a base de aluminato de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, I.R.; Andrade, T.L.; Santos, G.L., E-mail: ivonero@univap.br [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Pandolfelli, V.C. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Bioactivity is referred to as the capacity of a material to develop a stable bond with living tissue via the deposition of hydroxyapatite. Materials which exhibit this property can be used to repair diseased or damaged bone tissue and can be designed to remain in situ indefinitely. An indication of bioactivity can be obtained by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of a substrate in simulated body fluids (SBF) in vitro. Therefore, set samples of calcium aluminate endodontic cement were maintained in contact with SBF solutions (Kokubo and Rigo) and their surfaces were later evaluated by means of SEM, EDX and DRX. Measurements of pH and ionic conductivity were also carried out for SBF solutions in contact with set samples of endodontic cement. The ideal conditions of precipitation were obtained in SBF Rigo been observed a surface layer with spherical morphology characteristic of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite.(author)

  14. Preliminary study on removing Cs⁺/Sr²⁺ by activated porous calcium silicate-A by-product from high-alumina fly ash recycling industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yingying; Wang, Rong; Chen, Mengjun

    2015-01-01

    ¹³⁷Cs⁺/⁹⁰Sr²⁺-containing radioactive wastewater is one of the most important problems that the world has been facing with. A by-product, activated porous calcium silicate, is generated at high levels by the pre-desiliconizing and soda-lime-sintering processes for producing Al₂O₃from high-alumina fly ash. In order to examine if this by-product could be used as an absorbent for removal of ¹³⁷Cs⁺/⁹⁰Sr²⁺ from radioactive wastewater, various parameters, such as pH, adsorbent dose, contact time, and initial concentration, were discussed. Results indicated that the equilibrium reached in about 2 hr. Activated porous calcium silicate was highly pH sensitive and able to remove Cs(+)/Sr²⁺ in a near-neutral environment. The adsorption equilibrium was best described by Freundlich isotherm equations, and the adsorption of Cs⁺/Sr²⁺ was a physical process. The adsorption kinetic data could be better fitted by the pseudo-second-order model, and the adsorption was controlled by multidiffusion. Current study showed that activated porous calcium silicate has a good adsorption of Cs⁺/Sr²⁺ for their removal. However, other characteristics, such as selectivity because of coexisting cations, elution and regeneration, thermal stability, and acid resistance, should be discussed carefully before using it in an actual field.

  15. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fred Sabins

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Issues, Task 2: Review Russian Ultra-Lightweight Cement Literature, Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements, and Task 8: Develop Field ULHS Cement Blending and Mixing Techniques. Results reported this quarter include: preliminary findings from a literature review focusing on problems associated with ultra-lightweight cements; summary of pertinent information from Russian ultra-lightweight cement literature review; laboratory tests comparing ULHS slurries to foamed slurries and sodium silicate slurries for two different applications; and initial laboratory studies with ULHS in preparation for a field job

  16. Deterioration of the mechanical properties of calcium phosphate cements with Poly (γ-glutamic acid) and its strontium salt after in vitro degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ting; Gao, Chun-Xia; Yang, Lei; Saijilafu; Yang, Hui-Lin; Luo, Zong-Ping

    2017-11-01

    The mechanical reliability of calcium phosphate cements has restricted their clinical application in load-bearing locations. Although their mechanical strength can be improved using a variety of strategies, their fatigue properties are still unclear, especially after degradation. The evolutions of uniaxial compressive properties and the fatigue behavior of calcium phosphate cements incorporating poly (γ-glutamic acid) and its strontium salt after different in vitro degradation times were investigated in the present study. Compressive strength decreased from the 61.2±5.4MPa of the original specimen, to 51.1±4.4, 42.2±3.8, 36.8±2.4 and 28.9±3.2MPa following degradation for one, two, three and four weeks, respectively. Fatigue life under same loading condition also decreased with increasing degradation time. The original specimens remained intact for one million cycles (run-out) under a maximum stress of 30MPa. After degradation for one to four weeks, the specimens were able to withstand maximum stress of 20, 15, 10 and 10MPa, respectively until run-out. Defect volume fraction within the specimens increased from 0.19±0.021% of the original specimen to 0.60±0.19%, 1.09±0.04%, 2.68±0.64% and 7.18±0.34% at degradation time of one, two, three and four weeks, respectively. Therefore, we can infer that the primary cause of the deterioration of the mechanical properties was an increasing in micro defects induced by degradation, which promoted crack initiation and propagation, accelerating the final mechanical failure of the bone cement. This study provided the data required for enhancing the mechanical reliability of the calcium phosphate cements after different degradation times, which will be significant for the modification of load-bearing biodegradable bone cements to match clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Low pH Cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, David; Benbow, Steven

    2007-05-01

    The development of low-pH cements for use in geological repositories for radioactive waste stems from concerns over the potential for deleterious effects upon the host rock and other EBS materials (notably bentonite) under the hyperalkaline conditions (pH > 12) of cement pore fluids. Low pH cement (also known as low heat cement) was developed by the cement industry for use where large masses of cement (e.g. dams) could cause problems regarding heat generated during curing. In low pH cements, the amount of cement is reduced by substitution of materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume, and/or non-pozzolanic silica flour. SKB and Posiva have ruled out the use of blast furnace slag and fly-ash and are focusing on silica fume as a blending agent. Currently, no preferred composition has been identified by these agencies. SKB and Posiva have defined a pH limit ≤ 11 for cement grout leachates. To attain this pH, blending agents must comprise at least 50 wt % of dry materials. Because low pH cement has little, or no free portlandite, the cement consists predominantly of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel with a Ca/Si ratio ≤ 0.8. Although there are potential implications for the performance of the spent fuel and cladding due to the presence of hyperalkaline fluids from cement, the principal focus for safety assessment lies with the behaviour of bentonite. There are a number of potential constraints on the interaction of hyperalkaline cement pore fluids with bentonite, including mass balance, thermodynamic issues, mass transport, and kinetics, but none of these is likely to be limiting if conventional OPC cements are employed in repository construction. Nevertheless: Low-pH cements may supply approximately 50 % less hydroxyl ions than conventional OPC for a given volume of cement, but mass balance constraints are complicated by the uncertainty concerning the type of secondary minerals produced during cement-bentonite interaction. The change of aqueous

  18. Low pH Cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, David; Benbow, Steven [Quintessa Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    The development of low-pH cements for use in geological repositories for radioactive waste stems from concerns over the potential for deleterious effects upon the host rock and other EBS materials (notably bentonite) under the hyperalkaline conditions (pH > 12) of cement pore fluids. Low pH cement (also known as low heat cement) was developed by the cement industry for use where large masses of cement (e.g. dams) could cause problems regarding heat generated during curing. In low pH cements, the amount of cement is reduced by substitution of materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume, and/or non-pozzolanic silica flour. SKB and Posiva have ruled out the use of blast furnace slag and fly-ash and are focusing on silica fume as a blending agent. Currently, no preferred composition has been identified by these agencies. SKB and Posiva have defined a pH limit {<=} 11 for cement grout leachates. To attain this pH, blending agents must comprise at least 50 wt % of dry materials. Because low pH cement has little, or no free portlandite, the cement consists predominantly of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel with a Ca/Si ratio {<=} 0.8. Although there are potential implications for the performance of the spent fuel and cladding due to the presence of hyperalkaline fluids from cement, the principal focus for safety assessment lies with the behaviour of bentonite. There are a number of potential constraints on the interaction of hyperalkaline cement pore fluids with bentonite, including mass balance, thermodynamic issues, mass transport, and kinetics, but none of these is likely to be limiting if conventional OPC cements are employed in repository construction. Nevertheless: Low-pH cements may supply approximately 50 % less hydroxyl ions than conventional OPC for a given volume of cement, but mass balance constraints are complicated by the uncertainty concerning the type of secondary minerals produced during cement-bentonite interaction. The change of aqueous

  19. Antibiotic-impregnated calcium phosphate cement as part of a comprehensive treatment for patients with established orthopaedic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niikura, Takahiro; Lee, Sang Yang; Iwakura, Takashi; Sakai, Yoshitada; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2016-07-01

    The treatment of established orthopaedic infection is challenging. While the main focus of treatment is wide surgical debridement, systemic and local antibiotic administration are important adjuvant therapies. Several reports have described the clinical use of antibiotic-impregnated calcium phosphate cement (CPC) to provide local antibiotic therapy for bone infections. However, these were all individual case reports, and no case series have been reported. We report a case series treated by a single surgeon using antibiotic-impregnated CPC as part of a comprehensive treatment plan in patients with established orthopaedic infection. We enrolled 13 consecutive patients with osteomyelitis (n = 6) or infected non-union (n = 7). Implantation of antibiotic-impregnated CPC was performed to provide local antibiotic therapy as part of a comprehensive treatment plan that also included wide surgical debridement, systemic antibiotic therapy, and subsequent second-stage reconstruction surgery. We investigated the rate of successful infection eradication and systemic/local complications. The concentration of antibiotics in the surgical drainage fluids, blood, and recovered CPC (via elution into a phosphate-buffered saline bath) were measured. The mean follow-up period after surgery was 50.4 (range, 27-73) months. There were no cases of infection recurrence during follow-up. No systemic toxicity or local complications from the implantation of antibiotic-impregnated CPC were observed. The vancomycin concentration in the fluid from surgical drainage (n = 6) was 527.1 ± 363.9 μg/mL on postoperative day 1 and 224.5 ± 198.4 μg/mL on postoperative day 2. In patients who did not receive systemic vancomycin therapy (n = 3), the maximum serum vancomycin level was antibiotic-impregnated CPC is an option to provide local antibiotic therapy as part of a comprehensive treatment plan. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  20. Form-stable LiNO_3–NaNO_3–KNO_3–Ca(NO_3)_2/calcium silicate composite phase change material (PCM) for mid-low temperature thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Zhu; Leng, Guanghui; Ye, Feng; Ge, Zhiwei; Liu, Chuanping; Wang, Li; Huang, Yun; Ding, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The figure (a) displays the microstructure of calcium silicate and the inset figure is the LiNO_3–NaNO_3–KNO_3–Ca(NO_3)_2/calcium silicate composite PCM. Calcium silicate is used as a porous skeleton material which could absorb large amounts of the nitrate PCM in voids and prevent the PCM from leakage during phase change process. Figure (b) shows the heat capacity of the composite PCM and the inset figure is the DSC curve of the composite. It indicates that this composite has a low melting point (103.5 °C) and good energy storage property. Based on the novel LiNO_3–NaNO_3–KNO_3–Ca(NO_3)_2/calcium silicate composite PCM, this work involves fabrication process, thermal and microstructural characterization, and chemical and physical stability measurements. - Highlights: • A novel LiNO_3–NaNO_3–KNO_3–Ca(NO_3)_2/calcium silicate composite PCM was prepared. • It has a low melting point (103.5 °C) and could remain stable until 585.5 °C. • It could keep form-stable without leakage during phase change process. • Thermal conductivity of the composite PCM reaches up to 1.177 W m"−"1 K"−"1. • It shows good thermal reliability after 1000 times heating and cooling cycling. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel form-stable LiNO_3–NaNO_3–KNO_3–Ca(NO_3)_2/calcium silicate composite PCM was developed by cold compression and sintering. The eutectic quaternary nitrate is used as PCM, while calcium silicate is used as structural supporting material. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) shows the PCM and the supporting material have good chemical compatibility. This composite PCM has a low melting point (103.5 °C) and remain stable without decomposition until 585.5 °C. Moreover, this composite shows excellent long term stability after 1000 melting and freezing cycles. Thermal conductivity of the composite was measured to be 1.177 W m"−"1 K"−"1, and that could be increased by adding thermal conductivity enhancers into the composite

  1. Photocatalytic NO{sub x} abatement by calcium aluminate cements modified with TiO{sub 2}: Improved NO{sub 2} conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Nicolás, M. [MIMED Research Group, Department of Chemistry and Soil Sciences, School of Sciences, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea, 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); Balbuena, J.; Cruz-Yusta, M.; Sánchez, L. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, School of Sciences, University of Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales, Edificio Marie Curie, 14071 Córdoba (Spain); Navarro-Blasco, I.; Fernández, J.M. [MIMED Research Group, Department of Chemistry and Soil Sciences, School of Sciences, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea, 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain); Alvarez, J.I., E-mail: jalvarez@unav.es [MIMED Research Group, Department of Chemistry and Soil Sciences, School of Sciences, University of Navarra, c/Irunlarrea, 1, 31008 Pamplona (Spain)

    2015-04-15

    Photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} was studied in two types of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) under two different curing regimes. The effect of the TiO{sub 2} addition on the setting time, consistency and mechanical properties of the CACs was evaluated. The abatement of gaseous pollutants (NO{sub x}) under UV irradiation was also assessed. These cementitious matrices were found to successfully retain NO{sub 2}: more abundant presence of aluminates in white cement (w-CAC, iron-lean) helped to better adsorb NO{sub 2}, thus improving the conversion performance of the catalyst resulting in a larger NO{sub x} removal under UV irradiation. As evidenced by XRD, SEM, EDAX and zeta potential analyses, the presence of ferrite in dark cement (d-CAC, iron-reach) induced a certain chemical interaction with TiO{sub 2}. The experimental findings suggest the formation of new iron titanate phases, namely pseudobrookite. The reduced band-gap energy of these compounds compared with that of TiO{sub 2} accounts for the photocatalytic activity of these samples.

  2. Longevity of borehole and shaft sealing materials: characterization of cement-based ancient building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    Durability and long-term stability of cements, mortars, and/or concretes utilized as borehole plugging and shaft sealing materials are of present concern in the national effort to isolate and contain nuclear waste within deep geological repositories. The present study consists of a preliminary examination of selected ancient, old, and modern building materials (14 specimens) and was intended to document and explain the remarkable durability of these portland cement-related materials. This study has provided insights into reasons for the durability of certain structures and also into the long-term stability of calcium silicate binders (cements) used in archaeologic materials. These data were combined with knowledge obtained from the behavior of modern portland cements and natural materials to evaluate the potential for longevity of such materials in a borehole environment. A multimethod analysis was used and included: macroscopic and microscopic (petrographic and SEM) analyses, chemical analyses, and x-ray diffraction analyses. 61 figures, 11 tables

  3. Effects of adsorbed and templated nanosilver in mesoporous calcium-silicate nanoparticles on inhibition of bacteria colonization of dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan W

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Wei Fan,1,* Daming Wu,1,* Franklin R Tay,2 Tengjiao Ma,1 Yujie Wu,1 Bing Fan1 1The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Endodontics, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, Georgia, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Mesoporous calcium-silicate nanoparticles (MCSNs are advanced biomaterials for controlled drug delivery and mineralization induction. Nanosilver-incorporated MCSNs (Ag-MCSNs were prepared in the present study using both the adsorption and template methods. Both versions of Ag-MCSNs showed characteristic morphology of mesoporous materials and exhibited sustained release of ions over time. In antibacterial testing against planktonic Enterococcus faecalis, Ag-MCSNs showed significantly better antibacterial effects when compared with MCSNs (P<0.05. The Ag-MCSNs aggregated on the dentin surface of root canal walls and infiltrated into dentinal tubules after ultrasound activation, significantly inhibiting the adherence and colonization of E. faecalis on dentin (P<0.05. Despite this, Ag-MCSNs with templated nanosilver showed much lower cytotoxicity than Ag-MCSNs with adsorbed nanosilver (P<0.05. The results of the present study indicated that nanosilver could be incorporated into MCSNs using the template method. The templated nanosilver could release silver ions and inhibit the growth and colonization of E. faecalis both in the planktonic form and as biofilms on dentin surfaces as absorbed nanosilver. Templated Ag-MCSNs may be developed into a new intracanal disinfectant for root canal disinfection due to their antibacterial ability and low cytotoxicity, and as controlled release devices for other bioactive molecules to produce multifunctional biomaterials. Keywords: antibacterial effect, mesoporosity

  4. The effect of powder properties on sintering, microstructure, mechanical strength and degradability of beta-tricalcium phosphate/calcium silicate composite bioceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Kaili; Chang Jiang; Shen Ruxiang, E-mail: jchang@mail.sic.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2009-12-15

    The effect of powder properties on sintering, microstructure, mechanical strength and degradability of beta-tricalcium phosphate/Calcium silicate (beta-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}/CaSiO{sub 3}, beta-TCP/CS) composite bioceramics was investigated. beta-TCP/CS composite powders with a weight ratio of 50:50 were prepared by three different methods: mechanical milling method (TW-A), two-step chemical precipitation method (TW-B) and in situ chemical co-precipitation method (TW-C), and then the three composite powders were uniaxially compacted at 30 MPa, followed by cold isostatic pressing into rectangular-prism-shaped specimens under a pressure of 200 MPa for 15 min, and then sintered at 1150 deg. C for 5 h. The TW-B powders with less agglomerative morphologies and uniform nano-size particles attained 96.14% relative density (RD). A uniform microstructure with about 120 nm grains was observed. Whereas, the samples obtained from TW-A and TW-C powders only reached a RD of 63.08% and 78.86%, respectively. The bending strength of the samples fabricated from TW-B reached 125 MPa, which was more than 3.7 and 1.5 times higher as compared with that of samples obtained from TW-A and TW-C powders, respectively. Furthermore, the degradability of the samples fabricated from TW-B powders was obviously lower than that of the samples fabricated from TW-A and TW-C powders.

  5. A Comparison in Mechanical Properties of Cermets of Calcium Silicate with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V Alloys for Hard Tissues Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Sumit; Shirazi, Seyed Farid Seyed; Mehrali, Mehdi; Yau, Yat-Huang; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of calcium silicate (CS) content on composition, compressive mechanical properties, and hardness of CS cermets with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V alloys sintered at 1200°C. The powder metallurgy route was exploited to prepare the cermets. New phases of materials of Ni16Ti6Si7, CaTiO3, and Ni31Si12 appeared in cermet of Ti-55Ni with CS and in cermet of Ti-6Al-4V with CS, the new phases Ti5Si3, Ti2O, and CaTiO3, which were emerged during sintering at different CS content (wt%). The minimum shrinkage and density were observed in both groups of cermets for the 50 and 100 wt% CS content, respectively. The cermets with 40 wt% of CS had minimum compressive Young's modulus. The minimum of compressive strength and strain percentage at maximum load were revealed in cermets with 50 and 40 wt% of CS with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V cermets, respectively. The cermets with 80 and 90 wt% of CS showed more plasticity than the pure CS. It concluded that the composition and mechanical properties of sintered cermets of Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V with CS significantly depend on the CS content in raw cermet materials. Thus, the different mechanical properties of the cermets can be used as potential materials for different hard tissues replacements. PMID:25538954

  6. Interfacial Kinetics of High-Al-Containing Ultra-Lightweight Steels with Calcium Silicate-Based Molten Oxides at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gi Hyun; Sohn, Il

    2016-06-01

    The kinetics of the high-temperature reaction between high-Al- and -Mn-containing steels and synthesized molten calcium silicate-based fluxes from 1623 K to 1643 K (1350 °C to 1370 °C) was studied. Cylindrical steel rods were rotated in the molten fluxes for 300 to 1200 seconds at various temperatures below the melting point of the steels. The rods were connected to a rheometer, and the initial reaction rates were estimated from the torque variations. The dissolution of the steel into the molten slag was correlated to the variation in torque. The kinetics of the reaction between the rods and the slag estimated from the torque and subsequently from the viscosity were confirmed from the mass balance and from the variation in the chemical compositions of the rods and the molten slags, respectively. The liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient of Al2O3 was calculated to be 1.14 × 10-2 cm/s at 1623 K (1350 °C) and 1.52 × 10-2 cm/s at 1633 K (1360 °C). The kinetics calculated assuming liquid-phase mass transfer control was observed to be similar to the aforementioned kinetics determined from the dynamic viscosity variations. On the basis of dimensionless analysis of the Sherwood number (Sh = 0.05·Re0.65Sc0.31), liquid-phase mass transfer from the metal/flux interface was observed to be the rate-controlling step.

  7. A Comparison in Mechanical Properties of Cermets of Calcium Silicate with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V Alloys for Hard Tissues Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azim Ataollahi Oshkour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of calcium silicate (CS content on composition, compressive mechanical properties, and hardness of CS cermets with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V alloys sintered at 1200°C. The powder metallurgy route was exploited to prepare the cermets. New phases of materials of Ni16Ti6Si7, CaTiO3, and Ni31Si12 appeared in cermet of Ti-55Ni with CS and in cermet of Ti-6Al-4V with CS, the new phases Ti5Si3, Ti2O, and CaTiO3, which were emerged during sintering at different CS content (wt%. The minimum shrinkage and density were observed in both groups of cermets for the 50 and 100 wt% CS content, respectively. The cermets with 40 wt% of CS had minimum compressive Young’s modulus. The minimum of compressive strength and strain percentage at maximum load were revealed in cermets with 50 and 40 wt% of CS with Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V cermets, respectively. The cermets with 80 and 90 wt% of CS showed more plasticity than the pure CS. It concluded that the composition and mechanical properties of sintered cermets of Ti-55Ni and Ti-6Al-4V with CS significantly depend on the CS content in raw cermet materials. Thus, the different mechanical properties of the cermets can be used as potential materials for different hard tissues replacements.

  8. Lunar cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  9. [An experimental study on a slow-release complex with rifampicin-polylactic-co-glycolic acid-calcium 
phosphate cement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianhuang; Ding, Zhou; Lei, Qing; Li, Miao; Liang, Yan; Lu, Tao

    2016-09-28

    To prepare the slow-release complex with rifampicin (RFP)-polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-calcium phosphate cement (CPC) (RFP-PLGA-CPC complex), and to study its physical and chemical properties and drug release properties in vitro.
 The emulsification-solvent evaporation method was adopted to prepare rifampicin polylactic acid-glycolic acid (RFP-PLGA) slow-release microspheres, which were divided into 3 groups: a calcium phosphate bone cement group (CPC group), a CPC embedded with RFP group (RFP-CPC group), and a PLGA slow-release microspheres carrying RFP and the self-curing CPC group (RFP- PLGA-CPC complex group). The solidification time and porosity of materials were determined. The drug release experiments in vitro were carried out to observe the compressive strength, the change of section morphology before and after drug release. 
 The CPC group showed the shortest solidification time, while the RFP-PLGA-CPC complex group had the longest one. There was statistical difference in the porosity between the CPC group and the RFP-CPC group (Pbehavior of the complex, which was in accordance with zero order kinetics equation F=0.168×t.
 The porosity of RFP-PLGA-CPC complex is significantly higher than that of CPC, and it can keep slow release of the effective anti-tuberculosis drugs and maintain a certain mechanical strength for a long time.

  10. Formulation of calcium dialuminate (CaO·2Al2O3 refractory cement from local bauxite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Tchamba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three types of bauxites containing aluminum hydroxide of 58.1% gibbsite and 19.3% boehmite for BX3, 95.5% of gibbsite for BX55 and 84.5% of gibbsite for BX8 were used with lime at 95% of CaO through solid state sintering in one stage to prepare a refractory clinker at 1550 °C. The powder obtained after grinding the clinker showed in the XRD curves the presence of CaO·2Al2O3 and CaO·TiO2 phases in the cement samples. The density of cement powder varied between 2.95 and 3.17 g/cm3 and the specific area of powder obtained after grinding was between 0.72 and 0.85 m2/g. The properties of hydrated cement, W/C = 0.33, after stabilization of cement components for 48 h at 105 °C were showed by XRD, DTA, DTG and SEM (C3AH6, AH3, CA2 and CaO·TiO2. The Young's modulus of the cement made varied between 35.5 and 39.4 GPa, and these Young's moduli were compared to conventional CA14M cement.

  11. Modeling the degradation of Portland cement pastes by biogenic organic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Windt, Laurent; Devillers, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Reactive transport models can be used to assess the long-term performance of cement-based materials subjected to biodegradation. A bioleaching test (with Aspergillus niger fungi) applied to ordinary Portland cement pastes during 15 months is modeled with HYTEC. Modeling indicates that the biogenic organic acids (acetic, butyric, lactic and oxalic) strongly accelerate hydrate dissolution by acidic hydrolysis whilst their complexation of aluminum has an effect on the secondary gel stability only. The deepest degradation front corresponds to portlandite dissolution and decalcification of calcium silicate hydrates. A complex pattern of sulfate phases dissolution and precipitation takes place in an intermediate zone. The outermost degraded zone consists of alumina and silica gels. The modeling accurateness of calcium leaching, pH evolution and degradation thickness is consistently enhanced whilst considering increase of diffusivity in the degraded zones. Precipitation of calcium oxalate is predicted by modeling but was hindered in the bioleaching reactor.

  12. The influence of calcium chloride on the setting time, solubility, disintegration, and pH of mineral trioxide aggregate and white Portland cement with a radiopacifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, Eduardo Antunes; Broon, Norberto Juárez; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Tanomaru Filho, Mario; Esberard, Roberto Miranda

    2009-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of addition of 10% calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) on the setting time, solubility, disintegration, and pH of white MTA (WMTA) and white Portland cement (WPC). A test of the setting time was performed following the #57 ADA specifications and a test of the final setting time according to the ASTM. For the solubility tests disintegration and pH, Teflon rings were filled with the cements and weighed after setting. After 24 h in a desiccator, they were once again weighed. Thereafter, they were immersed in MiliQ water for 24 and 72 h and 7, 14, and 28 days, with maintenance in the desiccator and weighing between periods. The pH of water in which the rings were immersed was measured immediately after contact with them and in the other periods. The addition of CaCl(2) provided a significant reduction (50%) in the initial setting time of cements. The final setting time of WMTA was reduced in 35.5% and the final setting time of WPC in 68.5%. The WMTA with CaCl(2) absorbed water and gained weight with time, except for in the 24-h period. The addition of CaCl(2) to the WPC reduced its solubility. The addition of CaCl(2) increased the pH of WMTA in the immediate period and at 24 and 72 h and for WPC in the immediate period and at 24 h. The addition of CaCl(2) to WMTA and WPC reduced the setting times and solubility of both and increased the pH of cements in the initial periods.

  13. Obtaining calcium silicates by using solid residues as precursors. Influence of water in the process of mixing reagents; Obtencin de silicatos de calcio empleando como precursores residuos solidos. Influencia del mezclado de reactivos en fase seca o fase humeda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe-Sese, M.; Eliche-Quesada, D.; Corpas-Iglesias, F. A.

    2011-07-01

    The suitability of re-using residues marble, remaining from cutting marble, as a source of calcium-oxide, as well as the resultant ashes from the combustion of the wastes generated in the process of manufacturing boards from derivates of wood, as a source of silica, as raw material for the production of calcium silicate products has been determined. First of all, the influence of water has been studied in the initial phase of mixing residues. Marble and ashes have been mixed in molar relation CaO:SiO{sub 2} of 1:1 using two different ways: using a planetary ball mill (while in solid state) or agitating at 90 degree centigrade (2 h) using a 60 wt% of water (while in humid state). Later, both mixtures were sintered at 1100 degree centigrade (24 h). In order to use the obtained calcium-silicates as ceramic insulating thermal materials, the samples were compressed at 15 Tm obtaining bricks from which the technological properties have been studied. The ceramic materials obtained from mixing the residues in dry phase, as well as those obtained in the wet phase, can be used as thermal insulators, showing values of conductivity of 0.18 and 0.12 w/m{sup 2}K, with an elevated resistance to compressive strength. (Author) 14 refs.

  14. Propriedades e bioatividade de um cimento endodôntico à base de aluminato de cálcio Properties and bioactivity of endodontic calcium aluminate cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Desde sua introdução na endodontia como um material retro-obturador e selador de defeitos da raiz dental, o agregado de trióxido mineral (MTA tem sido considerado como um material endodôntico revolucionário. Apesar disso, este material apresenta algumas propriedades limitantes, necessitando alterações em sua composição bem como desenvolvimento de novos materiais. Assim, o objetivo desse trabalho foi mostrar a influência de aditivos no desenvolvimento de um cimento endodôntico à base de cimento de aluminato de cálcio (ECAC. Além disso, foram avaliadas as propriedades do ECAC em comparação com o MTA, quando em contato com solução de fluido corporal simulado (SBF. Testes de manipulação e medidas de resistência à compressão, porosidade aparente, tempo de endurecimento, pH e condutividade iônica, foram realizados para os materiais MTA puro e ECAC contendo aditivos. Considerando as propriedades apresentadas pelo ECAC, este material alternativo pode ser indicado para múltiplas aplicações em endodontia.The mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, a material primarily developed as a root-end filling has been extensively investigated as an innovative product for endodontic applications. However, changes in its formulation/composition involving its mineral aggregates and the development of alternatives of materials have been proposed in an attempt to overcome its negative physical-chemical characteristics. In this work, the influence of additives addition on the development of a novel endodontic cement based on calcium aluminate, has been evaluated. In addition, the properties of endodontic calcium aluminate cement (ECAC were compared with the gold standard mineral-trioxide-aggregate in contact with simulated body fluid (SBF. Manipulation tests and measurements of compressive strength, apparent porosity, setting time, pH and ionic conductivity were carried out on plain MTA and calcium aluminate cement with and without various additives

  15. Polyelectrolyte addition effect on the properties of setting hydraulic cements based on calcium phosphate; Efeito da adicao de polieletrolitos sobre as propriedades de cimentos de fosfato de calcio de pega hidraulica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Luis A. dos; Oliveira, Luci C. de; Rigo, Eliana C.S.; Boschi, Anselmo Ortega [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Carrodeguas, Raul Gracia [Universidad de La Habana, Habana, (Cuba). Centro de Biomateriales

    1997-12-31

    In the present work the effects of the addition of some poly electrolytes (sodium alginate and poly acrylic acid) on the solubility, crystalline phases, pH and mechanical strength under compression of three calcium phosphate cements were studied. (author) 10 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Preparation and properties of calcium-silicate filled resins for dental restoration. Part I: chemical-physical characterization and apatite-forming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profeta, Andrea Corrado

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to measure dimensional changes due to hygroscopic expansion and the bioactivity of two experimental methacrylate-based dental adhesives either incorporating Bioglass 45S5 (3-E&RA/BG) or MTA (3-E&RA/WMTA). 3-E&RA/BG, 3-E&RA/WMTA and a control filler-free resin blend (3-E&RA) were formulated from commercially available monomers. Water sorption (WS) and solubility (SL) behaviour were evaluated by weighing material disks at noted intervals; the relationship between degree of hydration and the glass transition temperature (Tg) was investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro apatite-forming ability as a function of soaking time in phosphate-containing solutions was also determined. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate differences between groups for maximum WS, SL, net water uptake and the percentage change in Tg values. Post-ANOVA pair-wise comparisons were conducted using Mann-Whitney-U tests. 3-E&RA/BG and 3-E&RA/WMTA exhibited values of maximum WS and net water uptake that were significantly higher when compared to 3-E&RA. However, no statistically significant differences were observed in terms of SL between all the adhesives. The addition of the Bioglass 45S5 and MTA to the 3-E&RA showed no reduction of the Tg after 60 days of storage in deionized water. ATR Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) of the filled resin disks soaked in DPBS for 60 days showed the presence of carbonate ions in different chemical phases. Dentine bonding agents comprising calcium-silicates are not inert materials in a simulated oral environment and apatite formation may occur in the intra-oral conditions. A bioactive dental material which forms apatite on the surface would have several benefits including closure of gaps forming at the resin-dentine interface and potentially better bond strength over time (less degradation of bond).

  17. Temperature dependence, 0 to 40 deg. C, of the mineralogy of Portland cement paste in the presence of calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matschei, Thomas; Glasser, Fredrik P.

    2010-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculations disclose that significant changes of the AFm and AFt phases and amount of Ca(OH) 2 occur between 0 and 40 deg. C; the changes are affected by added calcite. Hydrogarnet, C 3 AH 6 , is destabilised at low carbonate contents and/or low temperatures 3 -ettringite. A nomenclature scheme is proposed and AFm-AFt phase relations are presented in isothermal sections at 5, 25 and 40 deg. C. The AFt and AFm phase relations are depicted in terms of competition between OH, CO 3 and SO 4 for anion sites. Diagrams are presented showing how changing temperatures affect the volume of the solid phases with implications for space filling by the paste. Specimen calculations are related to regimes likely to occur in commercial cements and suggestions are made for testing thermal impacts on cement properties by defining four regimes. It is concluded that calculation provides a rapid and effective tool for exploring the response of cement systems to changing composition and temperature and to optimise cement performance.

  18. THERMOCHEMISTRY OF INTERACTION REACTIONS FOR SODIUM AND ALUMINUM SULPHATES WITH COMPONENTS OF HYDRATING PORTLAND CEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Yukhnevskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical additives are widely used in the technology of concrete with the purpose to solve various problems and sulphate-containing additives-electrolytes are also used as accelerators for setting and hardening of cement. Action mechanism of additive accelerators for setting and hardening of cement is rather complicated and can not be considered as well-established. An influence of sulfate-containing additives such as sodium sulfate is reduced to acceleration of cement silicate phase hydration by increasing ionic strength of the solution. In addition to it, exchange reactions of anion additive with portlandite phase (Ca(OH2 and aluminate phases of hardening cement have a significant effect on hardening process that lead to formation of readily soluble hydroxides and hardly soluble calcium salts. The influence of sulfate-containing additives on properties of water cement paste and cement stone is quite diverse and depends on salt concentration and cation type. For example, the action of the aluminum sulphate additive becomes more complicated if the additive is subjected to hydrolysis in water, which is aggravated in an alkaline medium of the water cement paste. Formation of hydrolysis products and their reaction with aluminate phases and cement portlandite lead to a significant acceleration of setting. Thus, despite the similarity of additives ensuring participation of anions in the exchange reactions, the mechanism of their influence on cement setting and hardening varies rather significantly. The present paper considers peculiar features concerning the mechanism of interaction of sodium and aluminum sulfate additives in cement compositions from the viewpoint of thermochemistry. Thermochemical equations for reactions of sulfate-containing additives with phases of hydrated cement clinker have been given in the paper. The paper contains description how to calculate thermal effects of chemical reactions and determine an influence of the formed

  19. Influence of nano-dispersive modified additive on cement activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazonova, Natalya, E-mail: n.a.sazonova@mail.ru; Badenikov, Artem, E-mail: rector@agta.ru; Ivanova, Elizaveta, E-mail: lisik-iva@mail.ru [Angarsk State Technical University, 60, Tchaykovsky St., 665835, Angarsk (Russian Federation); Skripnikova, Nelli, E-mail: nks2003@mail.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    In the work the influence of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) on the cement activity and the processes of structure formation of the hardened cement paste in different periods of hydration are studied. The changes in the kinetic curves of the sample strength growth modified with SWCNT in amount of 0.01 and 0.0005 % are stipulated by the results of differential scanning colorimetry, scanning electronic and ionic microscopy, X-ray-phase analysis. It was found that the nano-modified additive may increase in the axis compressive strength of the system by 1.4–6.3 fold relatively to the reference samples and may reach 179.6 MPa. It may intensify the hydration process of calcium silicates as well as influence on the matrix of hardened cement paste. The studies are conducted on the structural changes in the hardened cement paste, the time periods of increase and decrease of the compressive strength of the samples, the amount of the calcium hydroxide and tobermorite-like gel as well as the degree of hydration C{sub 3}S and β-C{sub 2}S.

  20. A simple and effective approach to prepare injectable macroporous calcium phosphate cement for bone repair: Syringe-foaming using a viscous hydrophilic polymeric solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingtao; Liu, Weizhen; Gauthier, Olivier; Sourice, Sophie; Pilet, Paul; Rethore, Gildas; Khairoun, Khalid; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Tancret, Franck; Weiss, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we propose a simple and effective strategy to prepare injectable macroporous calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) by syringe-foaming via hydrophilic viscous polymeric solution, such as using silanized-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (Si-HPMC) as a foaming agent. The Si-HPMC foamed CPCs demonstrate excellent handling properties such as injectability and cohesion. After hardening the foamed CPCs possess hierarchical macropores and their mechanical properties (Young's modulus and compressive strength) are comparable to those of cancellous bone. Moreover, a preliminary in vivo study in the distal femoral sites of rabbits was conducted to evaluate the biofunctionality of this injectable macroporous CPC. The evidence of newly formed bone in the central zone of implantation site indicates the feasibility and effectiveness of this foaming strategy that will have to be optimized by further extensive animal experiments. A major challenge in the design of biomaterial-based injectable bone substitutes is the development of cohesive, macroporous and self-setting calcium phosphate cement (CPC) that enables rapid cell invasion with adequate initial mechanical properties without the use of complex processing and additives. Thus, we propose a simple and effective strategy to prepare injectable macroporous CPCs through syringe-foaming using a hydrophilic viscous polymeric solution (silanized-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, Si-HPMC) as a foaming agent, that simultaneously meets all the aforementioned aims. Evidence from our in vivo studies shows the existence of newly formed bone within the implantation site, indicating the feasibility and effectiveness of this foaming strategy, which could be used in various CPC systems using other hydrophilic viscous polymeric solutions. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis optimization of calcium aluminate cement phases for biomedical applications; Avaliacao da sintese das fases de cimento de aluminato de calcio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, T.L.; Santos, G.L.; Oliveira, I.R. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Pandolfelli, V.C. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Calcium aluminate cement (CAC) has been studied as a potential material for applications in the areas of health such as, endodontics and bone reconstruction. These studies have been based on commercial products consisting of a mixture of phases. Improvements can be attained by investigating the synthesis routes of CAC aiming the proper balance between the phases and the control of impurities that may impair its performance for biomedical applications. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the CAC synthesis routes in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaCO{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO systems, as well as the phase characterization attained by means of X ray analysis. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO route enabled the production of the target phases (CA, CA{sub 2}, C{sub 3}A and C{sub 12}A{sub 7}) with a higher purity compared to the Al2O3-CaCO3 one. As a result the particular properties of these phases can be evaluated to define a more suitable composition that results in better properties for an endodontic cement and other applications. (author)

  2. Solidification of ion exchange resins saturated with Na+ ions: Comparison of matrices based on Portland and blast furnace slag cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, E.; Cau dit Coumes, C.; Gauffinet, S.; Chartier, D.; Stefan, L.; Le Bescop, P.

    2017-01-01

    This work is devoted to the conditioning of ion exchange resins used to decontaminate radioactive effluents. Calcium silicate cements may have a good potential to encapsulate spent resins. However, certain combinations of cement and resins produce a strong expansion of the final product, possibly leading to its full disintegration. The focus is placed on the understanding of the behaviour of cationic resins in the Na+ form in Portland or blast furnace slag (CEM III/C) cement pastes. During hydration of the Portland cement paste, the pore solution exhibits a decrease in its osmotic pressure, which causes a transient expansion of small magnitude of the resins. At 20 °C, this expansion takes place just after setting in a poorly consolidated material and is sufficient to induce cracks. In the CEM III/C paste, swelling of the resins also occurs, but before the end of setting, and induces limited stress in the matrix which is still plastic.

  3. Reliability estimate of unconfined compressive strength of black cotton soil stabilized with cement and quarry dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayo Oluwatoyin AKANBI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reliability estimates of unconfined compressive strength values from laboratory results for specimens compacted at British Standard Light (BSLfor compacted quarry dust treated black cotton soil using cement for road sub – base material was developed by incorporating data obtained from Unconfined compressive strength (UCS test gotten from the laboratory test to produce a predictive model. Data obtained were incorporated into a FORTRAN-based first-order reliability program to obtain reliability index values. Variable factors such as water content relative to optimum (WRO, hydraulic modulus (HM, quarry dust (QD, cement (C, Tri-Calcium silicate (C3S, Di-calcium silicate (C2S, Tri-Calcium Aluminate (C3A, and maximum dry density (MDD produced acceptable safety index value of1.0and they were achieved at coefficient of variation (COV ranges of 10-100%. Observed trends indicate that WRO, C3S, C2S and MDD are greatly influenced by the COV and therefore must be strictly controlled in QD/C treated black cotton soil for use as sub-base material in road pavements. Stochastically, British Standard light (BSL can be used to model the 7 days unconfined compressive strength of compacted quarry dust/cement treated black cotton soil as a sub-base material for road pavement at all coefficient of variation (COV range 10 – 100% because the safety index obtained are higher than the acceptable 1.0 value.

  4. Radionuclides retention in C-S-H, main phases of cement matrices for low and intermediate-level wastes; Retencion de radionuclidos en C-S-H, principales fases de matrices de cemento para desechos de bajo y medio nivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badillo A, V. E.; Lopez R, C.; Vidal M, J. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Gutierrez B, O., E-mail: veronica.badillo@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Exrancho La Virgen, Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Knowing that the behavior of cementitious materials based on hydraulic binder called cement is essentially determined by the physicochemical evolution of the cement paste (water + cement) which constitutes it, the evolution of the cement paste in contact with different aqueous solutions is studied since one of the main risks in safety of systems is composed of surface and groundwater, which contribute to the alteration of the different barriers and represent the main way of radionuclides transport. The calcium silicates CSH are the main phases that compose the systems based on Portland cement. The hydrates calcium silicates possess a high degree of structural complexity which includes crystalline, partially crystalline and amorphous phases. In this study the microstructures of the CSH phases as well as the retention of radionuclide Sr (II) are studied through the {sup 87m}Sr in formulations of water/cement w/c = 0.55; experimental values of K d low around 20 ml g{sup -1} are obtained in function of hydration time of the cement paste in equilibrium with aqueous solutions. (Author)

  5. NON-AUTOCLAVE SILICATE BRICK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Yaglov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a technology for obtaining bricks on the basis of lime-silica mixtures where chemical interactions are practically completely realized in dispersive state at the stage of preparation of binding contact maturing and raw mixture as a whole. The role of forming operation (moulding is changed in principle because in this case conversion of dispersive system into a rock-like solid occurs and due to this the solid obtains complete water-resistance in contact with water immediately after forming operation. Theoretical basis for the developed technology is capability of silicate dispersive substances (hydrated calcium silicate to transit in non-stable state, to form a rock-like water-resistant solid in the moment of mechanical load application during forming process. Specific feature of the proposed method is an exclusion of additional operations for autoclaving of products from the process of obtaining a silicate brick.Synthetic hydrated calcium silicate in contrast to natural ones are more uniform in composition and structure, they contain less impurities and they are characterized by dispersive composition and due to the mentioned advantages they find wider practical application. Contact-condensation binders permit to manipulate product properties on their basis and ensure maximum correspondence to the requirements of the concrete application. Raw material sources for obtaining synthetic hydrated calcium silicates are practically un-limited because calcium-silicon containing substances are found as in various technogenic wastes so in natural compounds as well. So the problem for obtaining hydrated calcium silicates having contact-condensation ability for structure formation becomes more and more actual one. This transition is considered as dependent principally on arrangement rate of substance particles which determined the level of its instability.

  6. Cu{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+} and Cr{sup 3+} doping of a calcium phosphate cement influences materials properties and response of human mesenchymal stromal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schamel, Martha [Department for Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry, University of Würzburg, Pleicherwall 2, 97070 Würzburg (Germany); Bernhardt, Anne; Quade, Mandy; Würkner, Claudia [Centre for Translational Bone, Joint and Soft Tissue Research, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus and Faculty of Medicine of Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Gbureck, Uwe; Moseke, Claus [Department for Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry, University of Würzburg, Pleicherwall 2, 97070 Würzburg (Germany); Gelinsky, Michael [Centre for Translational Bone, Joint and Soft Tissue Research, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus and Faculty of Medicine of Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany); Lode, Anja, E-mail: anja.lode@tu-dresden.de [Centre for Translational Bone, Joint and Soft Tissue Research, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus and Faculty of Medicine of Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstraße 74, 01307 Dresden (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    The application of biologically active metal ions to stimulate cellular reactions is a promising strategy to accelerate bone defect healing. Brushite-forming calcium phosphate cements were modified with low doses of Cu{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+} and Cr{sup 3+}. The modified cements released the metal ions in vitro in concentrations which were shown to be non-toxic for cells. The release kinetics correlated with the solubility of the respective metal phosphates: 17–45 wt.-% of Co{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+}, but < 1 wt.-% of Cr{sup 3+} were released within 28 days. Moreover, metal ion doping led to alterations in the exchange of calcium and phosphate ions with cell culture medium. In case of cements modified with 50 mmol Cr{sup 3+}/mol β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), XRD and SEM analyses revealed a significant amount of monetite and a changed morphology of the cement matrix. Cell culture experiments with human mesenchymal stromal cells indicated that the observed cell response is not only influenced by the released metal ions but also by changed cement properties. A positive effect of modifications with 50 mmol Cr{sup 3+} or 10 mmol Cu{sup 2+} per mol β-TCP on cell behaviour was observed in indirect and direct culture. Modification with Co{sup 2+} resulted in a clear suppression of cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, metal ion doping of the cement influences cellular activities in addition to the effect of released metal ions by changing properties of the ceramic matrix. - Highlights: • A brushite-forming calcium phosphate cement was modified by doping with bioactive Cu{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+} and Cr{sup 3+} ions. • The metal ions were integrated in the cement matrix, setting was not affected. • The modified cements released the metal ions in doses non-toxic for cells. • Modification with Cr{sup 3+} ions enhanced the biocompatibility of the cement.

  7. Cement manufacture and the environment - Part I: Chemistry and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oss, H. G.; Padovani, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    Hydraulic (chiefly portland) cement is the binding agent in concrete and mortar and thus a key component of a country's construction sector. Concrete is arguably the most abundant of all manufactured solid materials. Portland cement is made primarily from finely ground clinker, which itself is composed dominantly of hydraulically active calcium silicate minerals formed through high-temperature burning of limestone and other materials in a kiln. This process requires approximately 1.7 tons of raw materials perton of clinker produced and yields about 1 ton of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, of which calcination of limestone and the combustion of fuels each contribute about half. The overall level of CO2 output makes the cement industry one of the top two manufacturing industry sources of greenhouse gases; however, in many countries, the cement industry's contribution is a small fraction of that from fossil fuel combustion by power plants and motor vehicles. The nature of clinker and the enormous heat requirements of its manufacture allow the cement industry to consume a wide variety of waste raw materials and fuels, thus providing the opportunity to apply key concepts of industrial ecology, most notably the closing of loops through the use of by-products of other industries (industrial symbiosis). In this article, the chemistry and technology of cement manufacture are summarized. In a forthcoming companion article (part II), some of the environmental challenges and opportunities facing the cement industry are described. Because of the size and scope of the U.S. cement industry, the analysis relies primarily on data and practices from the United States.