Sample records for calcium pump stimulation

  1. Protein kinase C modulates cytosolic free calcium by stimulating calcium pump activity in Jurkat T cells. (United States)

    Balasubramanyam, M; Gardner, J P


    Although protein kinase C (PKC) activation has been shown to inhibit Ca2+ influx in T lymphocytes, the role of PKC on Ca2+ sequestration or extrusion processes has not been fully explored. We examined the effect of CD3 stimulation and PKC activators on cytosolic Ca2+ (Ca2+i) extrusion and 45Ca2+ efflux in human leukemic Jurkat T cells. Treatment of Fura-2 loaded cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or thymeleatoxin (THYM) resulted in a decrease in Ca2+i both in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca2+, whereas inactive phorbol esters had no effect. PKC activators added at the peak of a Ca2+i transient induced by anti-CD3 mAb, ionomycin or thapsigargin (TG) stimulated the rate and extent of return of Ca2+i to basal levels by 17-53%. PKC stimulation of the Ca2+i decline was not enhanced by the presence of Na+, indicating that PKC activators increase Ca2+ pump activity rather than a Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism. As CD3 receptor activation enhanced the Ca2+i decline in TG-treated cells, antigen-mediated activation of phospholipase C (PLC) signaling includes enhanced Ca2+ extrusion at the plasma membrane. The effect of PKC activators on parameters of Ca2+i extrusion were further explored. PMA significantly increased the rate of Ca2+ extrusion in TG-treated cells from 0.28 +/- 0.02 to 0.35 +/- 0.03 s-1 (mean +/- SEM) and stimulated the initial rate of 45Ca2+ efflux by 69% compared to inactive phorbol ester treated cells. The effects of PKC activation on the Ca2+i decline were eliminated by PKC inhibitors, PKC down regulation (24 h PMA pretreatment), ATP-depletion and conditions that inhibited the Ca2+ pump. In contrast, pretreatment of cells with okadaic acid enhanced the PMA-stimulated response. We suggest that Jurkat T cells contain a PKC-sensitive Ca2+ extrusion mechanism likely to be the Ca2+ pump. In lymphocytes, receptor/PLC-linked PKC activation modulates Ca2+i not only by inhibiting Ca2+ influx but also by stimulating plasma membrane Ca2+i

  2. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump (United States)

    Rasmussen, H.


    Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

  3. The structural basis of calcium transport by the calcium pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Claus; Picard, Martin; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund


    of a conformational change that leads to the opening of a luminal exit pathway defined by the transmembrane segments M1 through M6, which represent the canonical membrane domain of P-type pumps. Ca2+ release is promoted by translocation of the M4 helix, exposing Glu 309, Glu 771 and Asn 796 to the lumen...

  4. SERCA pump isoforms: their role in calcium transport and disease. (United States)

    Periasamy, Muthu; Kalyanasundaram, Anuradha


    The sarcoendoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium transport ATPase (SERCA) is a pump that transports calcium ions from the cytoplasm into the SR. It is present in both animal and plant cells, although knowledge of SERCA in the latter is scant. The pump shares the catalytic properties of ion-motive ATPases of the P-type family, but has distinctive regulation properties. The SERCA pump is encoded by a family of three genes, SERCA1, 2, and 3, that are highly conserved but localized on different chromosomes. The SERCA isoform diversity is dramatically enhanced by alternative splicing of the transcripts, occurring mainly at the COOH-terminal. At present, more than 10 different SERCA isoforms have been detected at the protein level. These isoforms exhibit both tissue and developmental specificity, suggesting that they contribute to unique physiological properties of the tissue in which they are expressed. The function of the SERCA pump is modulated by the endogenous molecules phospholamban (PLB) and sarcolipin (SLN), expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscles. The mechanism of action of PLB on SERCA is well characterized, whereas that of SLN is only beginning to be understood. Because the SERCA pump plays a major role in muscle contraction, a number of investigations have focused on understanding its role in cardiac and skeletal muscle disease. These studies document that SERCA pump expression and activity are decreased in aging and in a variety of pathophysiological conditions including heart failure. Recently, SERCA pump gene transfer was shown to be effective in restoring contractile function in failing heart muscle, thus emphasizing its importance in muscle physiology and its potential use as a therapeutic agent.

  5. Strongly coupled stimulated Brillouin amplification in pump-ionizing plasma (United States)

    Peng, H.; Wu, Z. H.; Zuo, Y. L.; Zhou, K. N.; Wang, X. D.; Li, Q.; Zhu, H. Y.; Su, J. Q.


    Laser amplification based on strongly coupled stimulated Brillouin scattering in plasma is investigated. The pump and seed are at the same wavelength of 800 nm and the same duration of 3.5 ps, but with a different intensity. The plasma is produced by the front part of the pump via tunnel ionization from hydrogen. The hydrogen is fully ionized to eliminate small-scale density fluctuations in the plasma, so the transmission level of the seed is enhanced to 22%, and a relative amplification factor of 6 is obtained.

  6. Stimulated electromagnetic emission polarization under different polarizations of pump waves


    E. D. Tereshchenko; R. Y. Yurik; Baddeley, L.


    The results of investigations into the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) polarization under different modes of the pump wave polarization are presented. The present results were obtained in November 2012 during a heating campaign utilizing the SPEAR (Space Plasma Exploration by Active Radar) heating facility, transmitting in both O- and X-mode polarization, and a PGI (Polar Geophysical Institute) radio interferometer capable of recording the polarization of the recei...

  7. The mode of inhibition of the Na+-K+ pump activity in mast cells by calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T; Johansen, Torben


    1 The inhibition by calcium of the Na(+)-K+ pump in the plasma membrane of rat peritoneal mast cells was studied in pure populations of the cells by measuring the ouabain-sensitive uptake of the radioactive potassium analogue, 86rubidium (86Rb+). 2 Exposure of the cells to calcium induced a time...... not develop when the mast cells were incubated in a potassium-free medium, which is known to block Na(+)-K+ pump activity and allow accumulation of sodium inside the cells. Likewise, increasing the sodium permeability of the plasma membrane by monensin abolished the inhibition of the pump activity. In both...... peritoneal mast cells in a calcium-free medium increases the permeability of the plasma membrane to sodium, and the consequent increase in the intracellular concentration of sodium causes an increase in the activity of the pump. Addition of calcium to the cell suspension decreases the sodium permeability...

  8. Stimulation of cell proliferation by calcium and a calcimimetic compound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mailland, M; Waelchli, R; Ruat, M; Boddeke, HGWM; Seuwen, K

    Some mesenchymal cells respond to stimulation by specific cations with increased cell proliferation. In the present study we have investigated whether the parathyroid/kidney/brain calcium-sensing receptor (PCaR) can mediate such mitogenic responses. We have expressed the recombinant rat PCaR in

  9. Phorbol ester stimulates calcium sequestration in saponized human platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K.; Nachmias, V.T.


    When platelets are activated by agonists, calcium (Ca2+) is released from an intracellular storage site. Recent studies using fura-2 show that, after thrombin stimulation, the rise in free calcium is transient and returns to base-line levels in 2-3 min, while the transient following ADP stimulation lasts only 15-20 s. We reported previously that the phorbol ester 12,13-phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), added at nanomolar levels after thrombin, immediately accelerated the rate of return of calcium to the base line severalfold. In the present study, we used both intact and saponized platelets to determine whether this is due to stimulation of calcium sequestration. Using fura-2 and intact platelets, we found 1) that PMA stimulated the restoration of free Ca2+ levels after ADP as well as after thrombin, and 2) that H-7, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent enzyme), slowed the return of Ca2+ to baseline levels. Using saponized platelets, we also found 3) that pretreatment of platelets with PMA before saponin treatment increased the ATP-dependent /sup 45/Ca2+ uptake 2-fold, with a half-maximal effect at 5 nm; 4) that most of the Ca2+ released by ionomycin or by myoinositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate; and 5) that a GTP-binding protein inhibitor, guanosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate), decreased basal or PMA-stimulated /sup 45/Ca2+ uptake in saponin-treated platelets. Our data suggest that activation of protein kinase C stimulates the sequestration of Ca2+ independently of cAMP or myoinositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate.

  10. Na+ -K+ pump activity in rat peritoneal mast cells: inhibition by extracellular calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Johansen, Torben


    1. Pure populations of rat peritoneal mast cells were used to study cellular potassium uptake. The radioactive potassium analogue, 86rubidium, was used as a tracer for potassium for measurements of the activity of the cellular potassium uptake process. 2. The ouabain-sensitive and the ouabain......-resistant potassium (86rubidium) uptake of mast cells incubated in the presence of calcium, 1 mmol l-1, were very low, 52 and 147 pmol per 10(6) cells min-1. 3. Calcium-deprivation of the cells uncovered a large capacity ouabain-sensitive potassium (86rubidium) uptake mechanism. The activity of the uptake mechanism...... of an enzyme, and it is mediated by the Na+ -K+ pump located in the plasma membrane. It is demonstrated that the activity of the Na+ -K+ pump mechanism is inhibited by low concentrations of extracellular calcium (0.1-1.2 mmol l-1). The possibility is discussed that calcium-deprivation may increase the pump...

  11. Reversal of lower limb edema by calf muscle pump stimulation. (United States)

    Goddard, Ayana A; Pierce, Carolyn S; McLeod, Kenneth J


    Peripheral edema (PE) is commonly coupled with heart failure, restrictive cardiomyopathy, nephrotic syndrome, renal failure, and hypoproteinemia. Diuretics and/or limb elevation, although commonly prescribed to treat PE, are often insufficient to remove sufficient fluid to prevent complications. We assessed the ability of the calf muscle pump (CMP) stimulation to reverse PE. Fluid volume was evaluated by air plethysmography in the right legs of 54 adult women (mean age 46.7 +/- 1.5 years) following venous status assessment. Change in calf volume was assessed during 30 minutes of quiet sitting, followed by 30 minutes of sitting with CMP stimulation via micromechanical stimulation of the plantar surface. Leg volume changes demonstrated a bimodal distribution. Leg volume decreased during quiet sitting in 56% of the study group, whereas in 44% of the group, significant lower leg fluid pooling was evident (increase in calf volume of 14.0 +/- 0.3 mL/h). CMP stimulation reversed the fluid pooling in the edematous group (-2.7 +/- 0.1 mL/h) and was able to accelerate fluid removal in the nonedematous group. Approximately two fifths of adult women experience substantial pooling when their lower limbs are maintained in a dependent position. Lower-extremity edema exhibited by these women may primarily be due to inadequate calf muscle tone because exogenous stimulation of the CMP was sufficient to halt and reverse fluid pooling. Whether CMP stimulation would provide a means to treat PE in individuals with edema-related health complications, such as congestive heart failure, merits further investigation.

  12. Conformational changes produced by ATP binding to the plasma membrane calcium pump


    Mangialavori, Irene C.; Ferreira Gomes, Mariela S.; Saffioti, Nicolas A.; Gonzalez-Lebrero, Rodolfo Martin; Rossi, Rolando Carlos; Rossi, Juan Pablo Francisco


    The aim of this work was to study the plasma membrane calcium pump (PMCA) reaction cycle by characterizing conformational changes associated with calcium, ATP, and vanadate binding to purified PMCA. This was accomplished by studying the exposure of PMCA to surrounding phospholipids by measuring the incorporation of the photoactivatable phosphatidylcholine analog 1-O-hexadecanoyl-2-O-[9-[[[2-[125I]iodo-4-(trifluoromethyl-3H-diazirin-3-yl)benzyl]oxy]carbonyl]nonanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholin...

  13. Subthalamic nucleus electrical stimulation modulates calcium activity of nigral astrocytes.

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    Elodie Barat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, delivering inhibitory efferents to the relay nuclei of the thalamus. Pathological hyperactivity of SNr neurons is known to be responsible for some motor disorders e.g. in Parkinson's disease. One way to restore this pathological activity is to electrically stimulate one of the SNr input, the excitatory subthalamic nucleus (STN, which has emerged as an effective treatment for parkinsonian patients. The neuronal network and signal processing of the basal ganglia are well known but, paradoxically, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of SNr activity has never been studied. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, we developed a rat brain slice model to study the influence of spontaneous and induced excitability of afferent nuclei on SNr astrocytes calcium activity. Astrocytes represent the main cellular population in the SNr and display spontaneous calcium activities in basal conditions. Half of this activity is autonomous (i.e. independent of synaptic activity while the other half is dependent on spontaneous glutamate and GABA release, probably controlled by the pace-maker activity of the pallido-nigral and subthalamo-nigral loops. Modification of the activity of the loops by STN electrical stimulation disrupted this astrocytic calcium excitability through an increase of glutamate and GABA releases. Astrocytic AMPA, mGlu and GABA(A receptors were involved in this effect. SIGNIFICANCE: Astrocytes are now viewed as active components of neural networks but their role depends on the brain structure concerned. In the SNr, evoked activity prevails and autonomous calcium activity is lower than in the cortex or hippocampus. Our data therefore reflect a specific role of SNr astrocytes in sensing the STN-GPe-SNr loops activity and suggest that SNr astrocytes could potentially feedback on SNr neuronal activity. These findings have major implications given the

  14. Calcium pumps of plasma membrane and cell interior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strehler, Emanuel E; Treiman, Marek


    /endoplasmatic reticulum are the plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPases (PMCAs) and the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPases (SERCAs), respectively. In mammals, multigene families code for these Ca2+ pumps and additional isoform subtypes are generated via alternative splicing. PMCA and SERCA isoforms show developmental-, tissue...

  15. Calcium channels and pumps in cancer: changes and consequences. (United States)

    Monteith, Gregory R; Davis, Felicity M; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J


    Increases in intracellular free Ca(2+) play a major role in many cellular processes. The deregulation of Ca(2+) signaling is a feature of a variety of diseases, and modulators of Ca(2+) signaling are used to treat conditions as diverse as hypertension to pain. The Ca(2+) signal also plays a role in processes important in cancer, such as proliferation and migration. Many studies in cancer have identified alterations in the expression of proteins involved in the movement of Ca(2+) across the plasma membrane and subcellular organelles. In some cases, these Ca(2+) channels or pumps are potential therapeutic targets for specific cancer subtypes or correlate with prognosis.

  16. Calcium Channels and Pumps in Cancer: Changes and Consequences* (United States)

    Monteith, Gregory R.; Davis, Felicity M.; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J.


    Increases in intracellular free Ca2+ play a major role in many cellular processes. The deregulation of Ca2+ signaling is a feature of a variety of diseases, and modulators of Ca2+ signaling are used to treat conditions as diverse as hypertension to pain. The Ca2+ signal also plays a role in processes important in cancer, such as proliferation and migration. Many studies in cancer have identified alterations in the expression of proteins involved in the movement of Ca2+ across the plasma membrane and subcellular organelles. In some cases, these Ca2+ channels or pumps are potential therapeutic targets for specific cancer subtypes or correlate with prognosis. PMID:22822055

  17. Differential effect of extracellular calcium on the Na(+)-K+ pump activity in intact polymorphonuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, R H; Knudsen, T; Johansen, Torben


    The effect of extracellular calcium on the Na(+)-K+ pump activity in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes was studied and compared with the activity in mixed peritoneal leucocytes from rats. While there was maximal decrease in the pump activity (25-30%) of leucocytes from both rat ...... of the influx of sodium across the plasma membrane, since in human leucocytes calcium had no effect on the pump activity if the cells were loaded with sodium.......The effect of extracellular calcium on the Na(+)-K+ pump activity in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and erythrocytes was studied and compared with the activity in mixed peritoneal leucocytes from rats. While there was maximal decrease in the pump activity (25-30%) of leucocytes from both rat...... and human by calcium 0.6 mM, a concentration of 0.1 mM caused a substantial decrease indicating a high sensitivity for extracellular calcium. In contrast, calcium had no effect on the pump activity in erythrocytes. The effect of calcium on the pump activity in leucocytes may be due to regulation...

  18. Plasma membrane calcium pump and sodium-calcium exchanger in maintenance and control of calcium concentrations in platelets. (United States)

    Juska, Alfonsas


    The purpose of this research was to elucidate the activity of the mechanisms responsible for control of cytosolic calcium concentration in platelets by modeling the time-course of the concentration changing in response to discharge of the intracellular stores or store-operated calcium entry (SOCE). The parameters estimated as a result of model fitting to experimental data are related to physiological or pathological state of the cells. It has been shown that: (a) the time-course is determined by the passive calcium fluxes and activities of the corresponding mechanisms; (b) the decline in the concentration (after its rise) develops due to activity of plasma membrane calcium ATPase (PMCA) both in the case of discharge of the stores of platelets contained in calcium-free medium and in the case of SOCE; (c) impulsive extrusion of calcium in response to its sudden influx, presumably, is the main function of PMCA; (d) the function of sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX) is to extrude calcium excess by permanent counteracting its influx. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Target size of calcium pump protein from skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. (United States)

    Hymel, L; Maurer, A; Berenski, C; Jung, C Y; Fleischer, S


    The oligomeric size of calcium pump protein (CPP) in fast skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane was determined using target theory analysis of radiation inactivation data. There was a parallel decrease of Ca2+-ATPase and calcium pumping activities with increasing radiation dose. The loss of staining intensity of the CPP band, observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, also correlated directly with the loss of activity. The target size molecular weight of the CPP in the normal sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane ranged between 210,000 and 250,000, which is consistent with a dimeric structure. Essentially the same size is obtained for the non-phosphorylated CPP or for the phosphoenzyme form generated from either ATP (E1 state) or inorganic phosphate (E2 state). Hence, the oligomeric state of the pump does not appear to change during the catalytic cycle. Similar results were obtained with reconstituted sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane vesicles with different lipid to protein ratios. We conclude that the CPP is a dimer in both native and reconstituted sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes. The target size of the calcium-binding protein (calsequestrin) was found to be 50,000 daltons, approximating a monomer.

  20. Stimulated Brillouin scattering in the field of a two-dimensionally localized pumping wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solikhov, D. K., E-mail: [Tajik National University, Faculty of Physics (Tajikistan); Dvinin, S. A., E-mail: [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)


    Stimulated Brillouin scattering of electromagnetic waves in the field of a two-dimensionally localized pump wave at arbitrary scattering angles in the regime of forward scattering is analyzed. Spatial variations in the amplitudes of interacting waves are studied for different values of the pump field and different dimensions of the pump wave localization region. The intensity of scattered radiation is determined as a function of the scattering angle and the dimensions of the pump wave localization region. It is shown that the intensity increases with increasing scattering angle.

  1. Depression of calcium pump activity in renal cortex of vitamin D-deficient rats with secondary hyperparathyroidism

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    Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Saitoh, Michiyo (Department of Medicine, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan)); Takita, Yumiko; Nakano, Toshiaki (Medical Science Centre, Applied Research Laboratories, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co, Tokyo (Japan)); Tamura, Teiichi (Second Department of Internal Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan))


    To examine the hormonal regulation of the ATP-dependent Ca{sup 2+} pump in the kidneys, the ATP-dependent Ca{sup 2+} uptake by the basolateral membrane vesicles in the renal cortex was measured using radioactive calcium ({sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}) in rats with vitamin D deficiency or rats undergoing thyroparathyroidectomy. The V{sub max} of the Ca{sup 2+} pump activity was increased not only by administering calcitriol, but also by normalizing the serum calcium level in vitamin D-deficient rats. PTH suppressed the Ca{sup 2+} pump activity in normocalcemic vitamin D-deficient rats. Thyroparathyroidectomy did not affect the Ca{sup 2+} pump activity in the kidneys of normal rats. It was concluded that the ATP-dependent Ca{sup 2+} pump activity was depressed by secondary hyperparathyroidism in vitamin D-deficient rats. (author).

  2. Partial purification of the ATP-driven calcium pump of Streptococcus sanguis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, A.R.; Rosen, B.P.


    ATP-dependent transport of calcium has been observed in several species of streptococci as uptake of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ into everted membrane vesicles. Membranes from Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus faecalis were solubilized with octyl-..beta..-D-glucoside or Triton X-100, and the extracts reconstituted into proteoliposomes containing Escherichia coli or soybean phospholipid. Calcium transport in reconstituted proteoliposomes was insensitive to the ionophores nigericin and valinomycin and was unaffected by the F/sub 0/F/sub 1/ inhibitor N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. Uptake was inhibited by ortho-vanadate with a K/sub i/ in the micromolar range. These results demonstrate that the reconstituted transport activities are not the result of ATP-driven proton pumping via the F/sub 0/F/sub 1/ coupled to a calcium/proton antiporter and suggest that existence of a calcium translocating ATPase. Partial purification of the transport activity from Streptococcus sanguis has been achieved using density gradient centrifugation and FPLC.

  3. Renin release from permeabilized juxtaglomerular cells is stimulated by chloride but not by low calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Skøtt, O


    The intracellular concentrations of calcium and chloride have been suggested to be involved in the control of renin secretion from juxtaglomerular (JG) cells. We have tested these propositions on permeabilized JG cells. Rat glomeruli with attached JG cells were isolated by the magnetic iron......M]. These maneuvers had no effect on renin release, while 1.5 mM calcium caused a stimulation, which was not inhibited by 50 mM sucrose. Isosmotic increases in the chloride concentration to 25, 60, and 132 mM resulted in prompt stimulations of renin release. Similarly, iodide and nitrate stimulated renin release. We...... conclude that renin release from permeabilized JG cells is unaffected by calcium concentrations in the nano- and micromolar range, while the release is stimulated by chloride or other permeant anions. We suggest that in intact JG cells an increase in calcium inhibits renin release through activation...

  4. The impact of calcium current reversal on neurotransmitter release in the electrically stimulated retina (United States)

    Werginz, Paul; Rattay, Frank


    Objective. In spite of intense theoretical and experimental investigations on electrical nerve stimulation, the influence of reversed ion currents on network activity during extracellular stimulation has not been investigated so far. Approach. Here, the impact of calcium current reversal on neurotransmitter release during subretinal stimulation was analyzed with a computational multi-compartment model of a retinal bipolar cell (BC) that was coupled with a four-pool model for the exocytosis from its ribbon synapses. Emphasis was laid on calcium channel dynamics and how these channels influence synaptic release. Main results. Stronger stimulation with anodic pulses caused transmembrane voltages above the Nernst potential of calcium in the terminals and, by this means, forced calcium ions to flow in the reversed direction from inside to the outside of the cell. Consequently, intracellular calcium concentration decreased resulting in a reduced vesicle release or preventing release at all. This mechanism is expected to lead to a pronounced ring-shaped pattern of exocytosis within a group of neighbored BCs when the stronger stimulated cells close to the electrode fail in releasing vesicles. Significance. Stronger subretinal stimulation causes failure of synaptic exocytosis due to reversal of calcium flow into the extracellular space in cells close to the electrode.

  5. EUV stimulated emission from MgO pumped by FEL pulses

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    Philippe Jonnard


    Full Text Available Stimulated emission is a fundamental process in nature that deserves to be investigated and understood in the extreme ultra-violet (EUV and x-ray regimes. Today, this is definitely possible through high energy density free electron laser (FEL beams. In this context, we give evidence for soft-x-ray stimulated emission from a magnesium oxide solid target pumped by EUV FEL pulses formed in the regime of travelling-wave amplified spontaneous emission in backward geometry. Our results combine two effects separately reported in previous works: emission in a privileged direction and existence of a material-dependent threshold for the stimulated emission. We develop a novel theoretical framework, based on coupled rate and transport equations taking into account the solid-density plasma state of the target. Our model accounts for both observed mechanisms that are the privileged direction for the stimulated emission of the Mg L2,3 characteristic emission and the pumping threshold.

  6. Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ (SERCA)-pumps: link to heart beats and calcium waves. (United States)

    Misquitta, C M; Mack, D P; Grover, A K


    Mobilization of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ is pivotal to the ability of a cell to send or respond to stimuli. Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPases, termed SERCA pumps, sequester Ca2+ into the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum. There are several SERCA protein isoforms encoded by three genes. This paper summarizes the structure, function, tissue and subcellular distribution, and regulation of various SERCA isoforms. Then it attempts to link divergence in the signal transduction processes of cells to the types and levels of SERCA proteins they express and to how the cells regulate their SERCA pump activity. The paper examines possible linkages between SERCA pumps and receptor-activated Ca2+ entry, SERCA isoform localization and Ca(2+)-waves, and the role of SERCA pumps in nuclear Ca2+ in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Then it uses available information on cardiac function and chronic stimulation of the fast-twitch muscle to answer a series of basic questions on the regulation of SERCA activity and expression and their linkage to signal transduction. Finally, it discusses the possibility that neurons exhibit complex Ca(2+)-waves whose interactions have the potential to explain the operational basis of neural networks. A series of unanswered questions emerge based on this synthesis, including the unsettling issue of whether all the isoforms are needed to achieve the divergence in signal transduction or if there is a degree of redundancy in the system.

  7. Mathematical modeling of calcium waves induced by mechanical stimulation in keratinocytes.

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    Yasuaki Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that the behavior of calcium in the epidermis is closely related to the conditions of the skin, especially the differentiation of the epidermal keratinocytes and the permeability barrier function, and therefore a correct understanding of the calcium dynamics is important in explaining epidermal homeostasis. Here we report on experimental observations of in vitro calcium waves in keratinocytes induced by mechanical stimulation, and present a mathematical model that can describe the experimentally observed wave behavior that includes finite-range wave propagation and a ring-shaped pattern. A mechanism of the ring formation hypothesized by our model may be related to similar calcium propagation patterns observed during the wound healing process in the epidermis. We discuss a possible extension of our model that may serve as a tool for investigating the mechanisms of various skin diseases.

  8. Glucose-stimulated calcium dynamics in islets of Langerhans in acute mouse pancreas tissue slices.

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    Andraž Stožer

    Full Text Available In endocrine cells within islets of Langerhans calcium ions couple cell stimulation to hormone secretion. Since the advent of modern fluorimetry, numerous in vitro studies employing primarily isolated mouse islets have investigated the effects of various secretagogues on cytoplasmic calcium, predominantly in insulin-secreting beta cells. Due to technical limitations, insights of these studies are inherently limited to a rather small subpopulation of outermost cells. The results also seem to depend on various factors, like culture conditions and duration, and are not always easily reconcilable with findings in vivo. The main controversies regard the types of calcium oscillations, presence of calcium waves, and the level of synchronized activity. Here, we set out to combine the in situ acute mouse pancreas tissue slice preparation with noninvasive fluorescent calcium labeling and subsequent confocal laser scanning microscopy to shed new light on the existing controversies utilizing an innovative approach enabling the characterization of responses in many cells from all layers of islets. Our experiments reproducibly showed stable fast calcium oscillations on a sustained plateau rather than slow oscillations as the predominant type of response in acute tissue slices, and that calcium waves are the mechanistic substrate for synchronization of oscillations. We also found indirect evidence that even a large amplitude calcium signal was not sufficient and that metabolic activation was necessary to ensure cell synchronization upon stimulation with glucose. Our novel method helped resolve existing controversies and showed the potential to help answer important physiological questions, making it one of the methods of choice for the foreseeable future.

  9. Stimulation of root elongation and curvature by calcium (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Scott, T. K.; Suge, H.


    Ca2+ has been proposed to mediate inhibition of root elongation. However, exogenous Ca2+ at 10 or 20 millimolar, applied directly to the root cap, significantly stimulated root elongation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Furthermore, Ca2+ at 1 to 20 millimolar, applied unilaterally to the caps of Alaska pea roots, caused root curvature away from the Ca2+ source, which was caused by an acceleration of elongation growth on the convex side (Ca2+ side) of the roots. Roots of an agravitropic pea mutant, ageotropum, responded to a greater extent. Roots of Merit and Silver Queen corn also responded to Ca2+ in similar ways but required a higher Ca2+ concentration than that of pea roots. Roots of all other cultivars tested (additional four cultivars of pea and one of corn) curved away from the unilateral Ca2+ source as well. The Ca(2+)-stimulated curvature was substantially enhanced by light. A Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, at 20 micromolar or abscisic acid at 0.1 to 100 micromolar partially substituted for the light effect and enhanced the Ca(2+)-stimulated curvature in the dark. Unilateral application of Ca2+ to the elongation zone of intact roots or to the cut end of detipped roots caused either no curvature or very slight curvature toward the Ca2+. Thus, Ca2+ action on root elongation differs depending on its site of application. The stimulatory action of Ca2+ may involve an elevation of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in root cap cells and may partipate in root tropisms.

  10. The nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside stimulates the Na+-K+ pump in isolated rabbit cardiac myocytes. (United States)

    William, Maged; Vien, Jimmy; Hamilton, Elisha; Garcia, Alvaro; Bundgaard, Henning; Clarke, Ronald J; Rasmussen, Helge H


    Nitric oxide (NO) affects the membrane Na(+)-K(+) pump in a tissue-dependent manner. Stimulation of intrinsic pump activity, stimulation secondary to NO-induced Na(+) influx into cells or inhibition has been reported. We used the whole-cell patch clamp technique to measure electrogenic Na(+)-K(+) pump current (I(p)) in rabbit ventricular myocytes. Myocytes were voltage clamped with wide-tipped patch pipettes to achieve optimal perfusion of the intracellular compartment, and I(p) was identified as the shift in holding current induced by 100 microm ouabain. The NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in concentrations of 1, 10, 50 or 100 microm induced a significant increase in I(p) when the intracellular compartment was perfused with pipette solutions containing 10 mm Na(+), a concentration near physiological levels. SNP had no effect when the pump was near-maximally activated by 80 mm Na(+) in pipette solutions. Stimulation persisted in the absence of extracellular Na(+), indicating its independence of transmembrane Na(+) influx. The SNP-induced pump stimulation was abolished by inhibition of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) with 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, by inhibition of protein kinase G (PKG) with KT-5823 or by inhibition of protein phosphatase with okadaic acid. Inclusion of the non-hydrolysable cGMP analogue 8pCPT-cGMP, activated recombinant PKG or the sGC-activator YC-1 in patch pipette filling solutions reproduced the SNP-induced pump stimulation. Pump stimulation induced by YC-1 was dependent on the Na(+) concentration but not the K(+) concentration in pipette filling solutions, suggesting an altered sensitivity of the Na(+)-K(+) pump to intracellular Na(+).

  11. Characteristics of stimulated emission from optically pumped freestanding GaN grown by hydride vapor-phase epitaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, M H; Kim, S T; Chung, S H; Moon, D C


    In this study, we observed optically pumped stimulated emission at room temperature in quasi-bulk GaN prepared from thick-film GaN grown on a sapphire substrate by using hydride vapor-phase epitaxy and subsequent mechanical removal of the sapphire substrate. The stimulated emission from the surface and 1-mm-wide-cleaved cavity of the GaN was red-shifted compared to the spontaneous emission by increasing the optical pumping-power density, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the peak decreased. The stimulated emission was demonstrated to have a highly TE-mode polarized nature, and the super-linear dependence of the integrated emission intensity on the excitation power indicated a threshold pump-power density of I sub t sub h = 2 MW/cm sup 2 for one set of stimulated emissions.

  12. Natriuretic peptides stimulate the cardiac sodium pump via NPR-C-coupled NOS activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    William, M.; Hamilton, E.J.; Garcia, A.


    Natriuretic peptides (NPs) and their receptors (NPRs) are expressed in the heart, but their effects on myocyte function are poorly understood. Because NPRs are coupled to synthesis of cGMP, an activator of the sarcolemmal Na(+)-K(+) pump, we examined whether atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP......) regulates the pump. We voltage clamped rabbit ventricular myocytes and identified electrogenic Na(+)-K(+) pump current (arising from the 3:2 Na(+):K(+) exchange and normalized for membrane capacitance) as the shift in membrane current induced by 100 micromol/l ouabain. Ten nanomoles per liter ANP stimulated...... with KT-5823, nitric oxide (NO)-activated guanylyl cyclase with 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), or NO synthase with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Since synthesis of cGMP by NPR-A and NPR-B is not NO dependent or ODQ sensitive, we exposed myocytes to AP-811, a highly...

  13. The Role of Parvalbumin, Sarcoplasmatic Reticulum Calcium Pump Rate, Rates of Cross-Bridge Dynamics, and Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Current on Peripheral Muscle Fatigue: A Simulation Study (United States)

    Neumann, Verena


    A biophysical model of the excitation-contraction pathway, which has previously been validated for slow-twitch and fast-twitch skeletal muscles, is employed to investigate key biophysical processes leading to peripheral muscle fatigue. Special emphasis hereby is on investigating how the model's original parameter sets can be interpolated such that realistic behaviour with respect to contraction time and fatigue progression can be obtained for a continuous distribution of the model's parameters across the muscle units, as found for the functional properties of muscles. The parameters are divided into 5 groups describing (i) the sarcoplasmatic reticulum calcium pump rate, (ii) the cross-bridge dynamics rates, (iii) the ryanodine receptor calcium current, (iv) the rates of binding of magnesium and calcium ions to parvalbumin and corresponding dissociations, and (v) the remaining processes. The simulations reveal that the first two parameter groups are sensitive to contraction time but not fatigue, the third parameter group affects both considered properties, and the fourth parameter group is only sensitive to fatigue progression. Hence, within the scope of the underlying model, further experimental studies should investigate parvalbumin dynamics and the ryanodine receptor calcium current to enhance the understanding of peripheral muscle fatigue. PMID:27980606

  14. Alendronate-Eluting Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP) Scaffolds Stimulate Osteogenic Differentiation (United States)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Lee, Deok-Won; Kang, Eun Young; Jeong, Won Jae; Lee, Boram; Jeong, Myeong Seon; Kim, Hak Jun; Park, Kyeongsoon; Song, Hae-Ryong


    Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds have been widely used in orthopedic and dental fields as osteoconductive bone substitutes. However, BCP scaffolds are not satisfactory for the stimulation of osteogenic differentiation and maturation. To enhance osteogenic differentiation, we prepared alendronate- (ALN-) eluting BCP scaffolds. The coating of ALN on BCP scaffolds was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). An in vitro release study showed that release of ALN from ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds was sustained for up to 28 days. In vitro results revealed that MG-63 cells grown on ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds exhibited increased ALP activity and calcium deposition and upregulated gene expression of Runx2, ALP, OCN, and OPN compared with the BCP scaffold alone. Therefore, this study suggests that ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds have the potential to effectively stimulate osteogenic differentiation. PMID:26221587

  15. Alendronate-Eluting Biphasic Calcium Phosphate (BCP Scaffolds Stimulate Osteogenic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Eun Kim


    Full Text Available Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP scaffolds have been widely used in orthopedic and dental fields as osteoconductive bone substitutes. However, BCP scaffolds are not satisfactory for the stimulation of osteogenic differentiation and maturation. To enhance osteogenic differentiation, we prepared alendronate- (ALN- eluting BCP scaffolds. The coating of ALN on BCP scaffolds was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. An in vitro release study showed that release of ALN from ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds was sustained for up to 28 days. In vitro results revealed that MG-63 cells grown on ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds exhibited increased ALP activity and calcium deposition and upregulated gene expression of Runx2, ALP, OCN, and OPN compared with the BCP scaffold alone. Therefore, this study suggests that ALN-eluting BCP scaffolds have the potential to effectively stimulate osteogenic differentiation.

  16. Na+,K+-pump stimulation improves contractility in isolated muscles of mice with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (United States)

    Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard; Clausen, Johannes D.; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Hayward, Lawrence J.


    In patients with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HyperKPP), attacks of muscle weakness or paralysis are triggered by K+ ingestion or rest after exercise. Force can be restored by muscle work or treatment with β2-adrenoceptor agonists. A missense substitution corresponding to a mutation in the skeletal muscle voltage-gated Na+ channel (Nav1.4, Met1592Val) causing human HyperKPP was targeted into the mouse SCN4A gene (mutants). In soleus muscles prepared from these mutant mice, twitch, tetanic force, and endurance were markedly reduced compared with soleus from wild type (WT), reflecting impaired excitability. In mutant soleus, contractility was considerably more sensitive than WT soleus to inhibition by elevated [K+]o. In resting mutant soleus, tetrodotoxin (TTX)-suppressible 22Na uptake and [Na+]i were increased by 470 and 58%, respectively, and membrane potential was depolarized (by 16 mV, P muscles of mutant mice, the content of Na+,K+ pumps was 28, 62, and 33% higher than in WT, respectively, possibly reflecting the stimulating effect of elevated [Na+]i on the synthesis of Na+,K+ pumps. The results confirm that the functional disorders of skeletal muscles in HyperKPP are secondary to increased Na+ influx and show that contractility can be restored by acute stimulation of the Na+,K+ pumps. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) restored force in mutant soleus but caused no detectable increase in 86Rb uptake. Repeated excitation and capsaicin also restored contractility, possibly because of the release of endogenous CGRP from nerve endings in the isolated muscles. These observations may explain how mild exercise helps locally to prevent severe weakness during an attack of HyperKPP. PMID:21708955

  17. Investigation of ionospheric stimulated Brillouin scatter generated at pump frequencies near electron gyroharmonics (United States)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Fu, H.; Briczinski, S. J.; McCarrick, M. J.


    Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions (SEEs), secondary electromagnetic waves excited by high power electromagnetic waves transmitted into the ionosphere, produced by the Magnetized Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (MSBS) process are investigated. Data from four recent research campaigns at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility is presented in this work. These experiments have provided additional quantitative interpretation of the SEE spectrum produced by MSBS to yield diagnostic measurements of the electron temperature and ion composition in the heated ionosphere. SEE spectral emission lines corresponding to ion acoustic (IA) and electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) mode excitation were observed with a shift in frequency up to a few tens of Hz from the pump frequency for heating near the third harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency 3fce. The threshold of each emission line has been measured by changing the pump wave power. The excitation threshold of IA and EIC emission lines originating at the reflection and upper hybrid altitudes is measured for various beam angles relative to the magnetic field. Variation of strength of MSBS emission lines with pump frequency relative to 3fce and 4fce is also studied. A full wave solution has been used to estimate the amplitude of the electric field at the interaction altitude. The estimated instability threshold using the theoretical model is compared with the threshold of MSBS lines in the experiment and possible diagnostic information for the background ionospheric plasma is discussed. Simultaneous formation of artificial field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) and suppression of the MSBS process is investigated. This technique can be used to estimate the growth time of artificial FAIs which may result in determination of plasma waves and physical process involved in the formation of FAIs.

  18. Excitation threshold of Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions SEEs generated at pump frequency near the third electron gyroharmonic (United States)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Scales, W.


    The High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) in Gakona, Alaska provides effective radiated powers in the megawatt range that have allowed researchers to study many non-linear effects of wave-plasma interactions. Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) is of interest to the ionospheric community for its diagnostic purposes. In recent HAARP heating experiments, it has been shown that during the Magnetized Stimulated Brillouin Scattering MSBS instability, the pumped electromagnetic wave may decay into an electromagnetic wave and a low frequency electrostatic wave (either ion acoustic IA wave or electrostatic ion cyclotron EIC wave). Using Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) spectral features, side bands which extend above and below the pump frequency can yield significant diagnostics for the modified ionosphere. It has been shown that the IA wave frequency offsets can be used to measure electron temperature in the heated ionosphere and EIC wave offsets can be used as a sensitive method to determine the ion species by measuring ion mass using the ion gyro-frequency offset. The threshold of each emission line has been measured by changing the amplitude of pump wave. The experimental results aimed to show the threshold for transmitter power to excite IA wave propagating along the magnetic field lines as well as for EIC wave excited at an oblique angle relative to the background magnetic field. Another parametric decay instability studied is the ion Bernstein decay instability that has been attributed to the simultaneous parametric decay of electron Bernstein waves into multiple electron Bernstein and ion Bernstein waves. The SIB process is thought to involve mode conversion from EM to EB waves followed by parametric decay of the EB wave to multiple EB and IB waves. The parametric decay instability of ion Bernstein modes has been observed simultaneously for the first time at the third electron gyroharmonics during 2011 Summer Student Research

  19. Local calcium elevation and cell elongation initiate guided motility in electrically stimulated osteoblast-like cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Ozkucur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigation of the mechanisms of guided cell migration can contribute to our understanding of many crucial biological processes, such as development and regeneration. Endogenous and exogenous direct current electric fields (dcEF are known to induce directional cell migration, however the initial cellular responses to electrical stimulation are poorly understood. Ion fluxes, besides regulating intracellular homeostasis, have been implicated in many biological events, including regeneration. Therefore understanding intracellular ion kinetics during EF-directed cell migration can provide useful information for development and regeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the initial events during migration of two osteogenic cell types, rat calvarial and human SaOS-2 cells, exposed to strong (10-15 V/cm and weak (< or = 5 V/cm dcEFs. Cell elongation and perpendicular orientation to the EF vector occurred in a time- and voltage-dependent manner. Calvarial osteoblasts migrated to the cathode as they formed new filopodia or lamellipodia and reorganized their cytoskeleton on the cathodal side. SaOS-2 cells showed similar responses except towards the anode. Strong dcEFs triggered a rapid increase in intracellular calcium levels, whereas a steady state level of intracellular calcium was observed in weaker fields. Interestingly, we found that dcEF-induced intracellular calcium elevation was initiated with a local rise on opposite sides in calvarial and SaOS-2 cells, which may explain their preferred directionality. In calcium-free conditions, dcEFs induced neither intracellular calcium elevation nor directed migration, indicating an important role for calcium ions. Blocking studies using cadmium chloride revealed that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs are involved in dcEF-induced intracellular calcium elevation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these data form a time scale of the morphological and physiological

  20. CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: Spectrum evolutions of spontaneous and pump-depleted stimulated Brillouin scatterings in liquid media (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Lü, Zhi-Wei; He, Wei-Ming; Hasi, Wu-Li-Ji; Zhang, Zan


    A theoretical model for calculating spontaneous and stimulated Brillouin scattering(SBS) spectra is described. An empirical formula for the Stokes output spectral linewidth, a function of spontaneous Brillouin linewidth and the exponential gain coefficient, is obtained by the calculated data fitting. The formula holds true for two cases involving pump undepletion and depletion. The lineshape change from spontaneous to highly pump-depleted SBS spectra is also investigated. The result shows that for the pump power below the SBS threshold, the Stokes output spectral lineshape evolves from Lorentzian to approximately Gaussian as the pump power increases. For the pump power near or beyond the threshold, the SBS spectrum is in the form of a steady Gaussian profile, and the spectral linewidth comes to a certain value about 7 times narrower than the spontaneous one. The theoretical results are experimentally demonstrated by using several common liquid media.

  1. Backward stimulated radiation from filaments in Nitrogen gas and air pumped by circularly polarized 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Mitryukovskiy, Sergey; Ding, Pengji; Houard, Aurélien; Mysyrowicz, André


    We report on strong backward stimulated emission at 337 nm in Nitrogen gas pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses at 800 nm. A distinct dependence of the backward UV spectrum on pump laser polarization and intensity is observed, pointing to the occurrence of backward amplified spontaneous emission inside filaments. We attribute the population inversion to inelastic collision between the free electrons produced by the pump laser and neutral N2 molecules. The addition of Oxygen molecules is detrimental for the gain, reducing it to near threshold at atmospheric concentration.

  2. Femtosecond hole-burning spectroscopy with stimulated emission pumping and supercontinuum probing (United States)

    Kovalenko, S. A.; Ruthmann, J.; Ernsting, N. P.


    A novel broadband femtosecond version of the stimulated emission pumping (SEP) technique is demonstrated. A nonstationary ground state of a molecular sample in the condensed phase is prepared by two optical pulses. The first picosecond PUMP pulse resonantly excites the sample. The second femtosecond DUMP pulse, which is tuned to the molecular fluorescence band, is applied after relaxation in the excited state and creates a "particle" in the ground state and a "hole" in the excited state. The relaxation of this system is probed by a femtosecond supercontinuum. An advantage of the proposed scheme is that the hole contribution is constant for certain conditions, and hence, the transient absorption spectrum of the particle may be isolated. As an application of the technique, the ground-state evolution of coumarin 102 in acetonitrile is studied. Intramolecular vibrational redistribution (IVR), with a characteristic time τIVR˜10 fs, is observed in the frequency domain. Subsequently, the absorption band shifts to the blue and shows isosbestic points in the course of relaxation.

  3. Calcium (United States)

    ... Turn to calcium-fortified (or "calcium-set") tofu, soy milk, tempeh, soy yogurt, and cooked soybeans (edamame). Calcium-fortified foods. Look for calcium-fortified orange juice, soy or rice milk, breads, and cereal. Beans. You can get decent ...

  4. Time-resolved UV-IR pump-stimulated emission pump spectroscopy to probe collisional relaxation of $8p\\,^2P_{3/2}$ Cs I

    CERN Document Server

    Salahuddin, Mohammed; McFarland, Jacob; Bayram, S Burcin


    We describe and use a time-resolved pump-stimulated emission pump spectroscopic technique to measure collisional relaxation in a high-lying energy level of atomic cesium. Aligned $8p\\,^2P_{3/2}$ cesium atoms were produced by a pump laser. A second laser, the stimulated emission pump, promoted the population exclusively to the $5d\\,^2D_{5/2}$ level. The intensity of the $5d\\,^2D_{5/2}\\rightarrow6s\\,^2S_{1/2}$ cascade fluorescence at 852.12 nm was monitored. The linear polarization dependence of the $6s\\,^2S_{1/2}\\rightarrow8p\\,^2P_{3/2}\\rightarrow5d\\,^2S_{5/2}$ transition was measured in the presence of argon gas at various pressures. From the measurement, we obtained the disalignment cross section value for the $8p\\,^2P_{3/2}$ level due to collisions with ground-level argon atoms.

  5. The influence of osmotic stress on the content of calcium ions in the red beet vacuoles and on the transport activity of tonoplast proton pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozolina N.V.


    Full Text Available The contents of calcium ions in the isolated vacuoles and in intact red beets under the conditions of dormancy and osmotic stress was determined. It is demonstrated that the content of calcium ions in the red beet vacuoles not exposed to osmotic stress makes 13.3% of the total content these ions in intact red beets. Under the conditions of osmotic stress, this indicator increases substantially. Furthermore, under the conditions of hyperosmotic stress, the content of calcium ions in the vacuoles was 30%, while under hypoosmotic stress it was 49% of the total content of these ions in the intact red beet. The transition of calcium ions from the cytoplasm and other compartments into the vacuole under the conditions of osmotic stress is, probably, one of forms of participation of the vacuole in adaptation processes of the plant cell under this kind of abiotic stress. It has been demonstrated for the first time that tonoplast proton pumps, which actively participate in provision of calcium homeostasis in cytoplasm, substantially activate their transport activity under osmotic stress, what allows one to speak about their important role in the cell’s protective programs. Under normal (no stress conditions, artificial elevation of the content of calcium ions led to inhibition of activity of the tonoplast proton pumps, while under gipoosmotic stress the activity of tonoplast proton pumps increased, what might aid to restoring homeoctasis with respect to calcium ions in cytoplasm.

  6. Pump spectral linewidth influence on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and self-termination behavior of SRS in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Guang S.; Kuzmin, Andrey; Prasad, Paras N. [The Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)


    The threshold, temporal behavior, and conversion efficiency of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SBS) in three liquids (benzene, hexane, and dimethyl sulfoxide) and two crystals (calcite and barium nitrate) have been investigated under three largely different spectral linewidth conditions. Pumped with 532-nm and nanosecond duration laser pulses of ≤ 0.01 cm{sup -1} linewidth, only SBS can be generated in all tested liquids with a high nonlinear reflectivity. However when the pump spectral linewidth is ∝0.07 cm{sup -1} or ∝0.8 cm{sup -1}, both SBS and SRS can be observed in benzene while only SRS can be generated in dimethyl sulfoxide; in all these cases SRS is the dominant contribution to the stimulated scattering but the efficiency values are drastically decreased due to the self-termination behavior of SRS in liquids, which arises from the thermal self-defocusing of both pump beam and SRS beam owing to Stokes-shift related opto-heating effect. In contrast, for SRS process in the two crystals, the thermal self-defocusing influence is negligible benefitting from their much greater thermal conductivity, and a higher conversion efficiency of SRS generation can be retained under all three pump conditions. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Calcium dependent plasticity applied to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with a neural field model. (United States)

    Wilson, M T; Fung, P K; Robinson, P A; Shemmell, J; Reynolds, J N J


    The calcium dependent plasticity (CaDP) approach to the modeling of synaptic weight change is applied using a neural field approach to realistic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocols. A spatially-symmetric nonlinear neural field model consisting of populations of excitatory and inhibitory neurons is used. The plasticity between excitatory cell populations is then evaluated using a CaDP approach that incorporates metaplasticity. The direction and size of the plasticity (potentiation or depression) depends on both the amplitude of stimulation and duration of the protocol. The breaks in the inhibitory theta-burst stimulation protocol are crucial to ensuring that the stimulation bursts are potentiating in nature. Tuning the parameters of a spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) window with a Monte Carlo approach to maximize agreement between STDP predictions and the CaDP results reproduces a realistically-shaped window with two regions of depression in agreement with the existing literature. Developing understanding of how TMS interacts with cells at a network level may be important for future investigation.

  8. Association of Basal and Calcium-stimulated Calcitonin Levels with Pathological Findings After Total Thyroidectomy. (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios; Keramidas, Ioannis; Triantafillou, Eleni; Kanouta, Fotini; Pappa, Theodora; Kaltzidou, Victoria; Tertipi, Athanasia; Iordanidou, Lydia; Trivizaki, Erasmia; Vecchini, Gino; Villiotou, Vassiliki; Pappas, Anastasios


    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) originates from thyroid C-cells and is a calcitonin-secreting tumor. Calcitonin is also elevated in C-cell hyperplasia (CCH). The objective of the study was to determine the optimal basal (bCT) and peak stimulated calcitonin (psCT) cut-off value for differentiating MTC from CCH, and to examine the histological findings of thyroidectomy in patients with maximum psCT >100 pg/ml. Fifty-five patients had a maximum calcium-psCT >100 pg/ml and underwent total thyroidectomy. A total of 20 patients were diagnosed with MTC and the remaining 35 with CCH. A bCT level >17.4 pg/ml and psCT level >452 pg/ml demonstrated the best sensitivity and positive predictive value for differenting MTC from CCH. The overlap of calcitonin levels between MTC and CCH reduces the accuracy of the calcium stimulation test. Remarkably, an appreciable number of patients with psCT levels >100 pg/ml harbor differentiated thyroid carcinoma of follicular origin. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. Pancreatic arterial calcium stimulation in the diagnosis and localisation of persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemia of infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chigot, V.; Brunelle, F. [Department of Radiology, Hopital des Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Lonlay, P. de; Nassogne, M.-C.; Delagne, V.; Saudubray, J.-M. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Hopital des Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Laborde, K. [Dept. of Biology, Hopital des Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Fournet, J.-C. [Dept. of Pathology, Hopital des Enfants Malades, Paris (France); Nihoul-Fekete, C. [Department of Surgery, Hopital des Enfants Malades, Paris (France)


    Persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemia of infancy (PHHI) is often resistant to medical therapy. Surgery is therefore necessary. It is due to focal adenomatous islet-cell hyperplasia treatable by partial pancreatectomy, or diffuse beta-cell hyperfunction, which requires near-total pancreatectomy. Pancreatic venous sampling (PVS) is the reference technique for the preoperative diagnosis and localization of focal forms of PHHI in the pancreas. However, hypoglycaemia is necessary to analyse the results and PVS is technically challenging. Pancreatic arterial calcium stimulation (PACS) is technically easier and does not require hypoglycaemia. To study the accuracy in the diagnosis and localization of PHHI. Materials and methods: PACS was performed in 12 patients and correlated with histology. The accuracy of PACS is poor in diffuse lesions since only two of six cases were correctly identified by this test. Five of six focal lesions were correctly recognized and located. PACS is less accurate than PVS in PHHI. Currently, it should be performed only when PVS fails. (orig.)

  10. Thermally stimulated luminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance studies on uranium doped calcium phosphate

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, V; Veeraraghavan, R; Sastry, M D


    Thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies on uranium doped calcium phosphate yielded mechanistic information on the observed glow peaks at 365, 410 and 450 K. TSL spectral studies of the glow peaks showed that UO sub 2 sup 2 sup + acts as the luminescent center. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies on gamma-irradiated samples revealed that the predominant radiation induced centers are H sup 0 , PO sub 4 sup 2 sup - , PO sub 3 sup 2 sup - and O sup - ion. Studies on the temperature dependence studies of the EPR spectra of samples annealed to different temperatures indicate the role of H sup 0 and PO sub 4 sup 2 sup - ions in the main glow peak at 410 K.

  11. Calcium (United States)

    ... and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with ...

  12. Muscarinic stimulation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in isolated rat pancreatic acini. (United States)

    Cui, Z J


    To study whether M3 receptor occupation would lead to activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II). In this study, we isolated rat pancreatic acini by collagenase digestion; measured the Ca2+/calmodulin-independent activity of autophosphorylated form of the CaM kinase II both before and after stimulation of the acini with muscarinic secretagogue bethanechol (Bet). Bet stimulated the activation of, or generation of Ca(2+)-independent activity of, this kinase, in a concentration (0.0001-1 mmol.L-1) and time (5-300 s)-dependent manner; with Bet of 100 mumol.L-1, Ca(2+)-independent activity increased from an unstimulated level of 4.5 +/- 0.3 (n = 4) to 8.9 +/- 1.3 (n = 4, P Ca2+ mobilizing secretagogue cholecystokinin (CCK) also activated the kinase; at 1 mumol.L-1, CCK increased Ca(2+)-independent kinase activity to 12.9 +/- 0.5 (n = 6, P -independent kinase activity (from control 3.90 +/- 0.28 to 4.53 +/- 0.47, n = 6, P > 0.05). Atropine completely blocked Bet activation of the kinase. CaM kinase II plays a pivotal role in digestive enzyme secretion, especially during the initial phase of amylase secretion.

  13. Efficient ionisation of calcium, strontium and barium by resonant laser pumping (United States)

    Skinner, C. H.


    Efficient ionization has been observed when an atomic vapor of strontium, barium or calcium was illuminated with a long pulse tunable laser at the frequency of the atomic resonance line. The variation in the degree of ionization with neutral density and laser intensity has been measured using the 'hook' method. The maximum ionization observed was 94%. Excited state populations were measured yielding an excitation temperature (depending on exact experimental conditions) in the region of 0.4 eV. The decay of ion density after the laser pulse was monitored and the recombination coefficients determined. The results are interpreted in terms of an electron heating model.

  14. Calcium (United States)

    ... from dietary supplements are linked to a greater risk of kidney stones, especially among older adults. But calcium from foods does not appear to cause kidney stones. For most people, other factors (such as not drinking enough fluids) probably have ...

  15. ESCRT components regulate the expression of the ER/Golgi calcium pump gene PMR1 through the Rim101/Nrg1 pathway in budding yeast. (United States)

    Zhao, Yunying; Du, Jingcai; Xiong, Bing; Xu, Huihui; Jiang, Linghuo


    The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) complexes function to form multivesicular bodies for sorting of proteins destined for the yeast vacuole or the mammalian lysosome. ESCRT components are well conserved in eukaryotes, and their mutations cause neurodegenerative diseases and other cellular pathologies in humans. PMR1 is the orthologous gene of two human genes for calcium pumps secretory pathway Ca(2+)-ATPase (SPCA1, ATP2C1) and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA, ATP2A2), which are mutated in Hailey-Hailey and Darier genetic diseases, respectively. Here we show that deletion mutation of ESCRT components Snf7, Snf8, Stp22, Vps20, Vps25, Vps28, or Vps36 activates the calcium/calcineurin signaling in yeast cells, but surprisingly leads to a nearly 50% reduction in expression of the ER/Golgi calcium pump gene PMR1 independent of calcium stress. These ESCRT mutants are known to have a defect in Rim101 activation. Ectopic expression of a constitutively active form of Rim101 or further deletion of NRG1 in these mutants partially suppresses their calcium hypersensitivity. Deletion of NRG1 also completely rescues the expression of PMR1 in these mutants to the level of the wild type. Promoter mutagenesis, gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrate that Nrg1 binds to two motifs in the PMR1 promoter. In addition, expression of PMR1 under the control of its promoters with mutated Nrg1-binding motifs suppresses the calcium hypersensitivity of these ESCRT mutants. Collectively, these data have uncovered a function of ESCRT components in regulating PMR1 expression through the Nrg1/Rim101 pathway. Our findings provide important clues for understanding human diseases related to calcium homeostasis.

  16. Estrogen receptor beta-selective agonists stimulate calcium oscillations in human and mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang


    Full Text Available Estrogens are used extensively to treat hot flashes in menopausal women. Some of the beneficial effects of estrogens in hormone therapy on the brain might be due to nongenomic effects in neurons such as the rapid stimulation of calcium oscillations. Most studies have examined the nongenomic effects of estrogen receptors (ER in primary neurons or brain slices from the rodent brain. However, these cells can not be maintained continuously in culture because neurons are post-mitotic. Neurons derived from embryonic stem cells could be a potential continuous, cell-based model to study nongenomic actions of estrogens in neurons if they are responsive to estrogens after differentiation. In this study ER-subtype specific estrogens were used to examine the role of ERalpha and ERbeta on calcium oscillations in neurons derived from human (hES and mouse embryonic stem cells. Unlike the undifferentiated hES cells the differentiated cells expressed neuronal markers, ERbeta, but not ERalpha. The non-selective ER agonist 17beta-estradiol (E(2 rapidly increased [Ca2+]i oscillations and synchronizations within a few minutes. No change in calcium oscillations was observed with the selective ERalpha agonist 4,4',4''-(4-Propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyltrisphenol (PPT. In contrast, the selective ERbeta agonists, 2,3-bis(4-Hydroxyphenyl-propionitrile (DPN, MF101, and 2-(3-fluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl-7-vinyl-1,3 benzoxazol-5-ol (ERB-041; WAY-202041 stimulated calcium oscillations similar to E(2. The ERbeta agonists also increased calcium oscillations and phosphorylated PKC, AKT and ERK1/2 in neurons derived from mouse ES cells, which was inhibited by nifedipine demonstrating that ERbeta activates L-type voltage gated calcium channels to regulate neuronal activity. Our results demonstrate that ERbeta signaling regulates nongenomic pathways in neurons derived from ES cells, and suggest that these cells might be useful to study the nongenomic mechanisms of estrogenic compounds.

  17. Effective Fluorescence Lifetime and Stimulated Emission Cross-Section of Nd/Cr:YAG Ceramics under CW Lamplight Pumping (United States)

    Saiki, Taku; Motokoshi, Shinji; Imasaki, Kazuo; Fujioka, Kana; Fujita, Hisanori; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Izawa, Yasukazu; Yamanaka, Chiyoe


    Remarkable improvements in the lifetime of the Nd upper level and in the effective stimulated emission cross-section of Nd/Cr:YAG ceramics have been theoretically and experimentally studied. Until recently, it had been thought that the long energy transition time from Cr ions to Nd ions of Nd/Cr:YAG adversely affects laser action, degrading optical-optical conversion efficiency under CW and flash lamp pumping. However, current research showed that high-efficiency energy transition has a positive effect on laser action. The effective lifetime is increased from 0.23 to 1.1 ms and the emission cross-section is effectively increased to three times for that of the conventional Nd:YAG. A small signal gain is significantly improved, and the saturation power density is reduced to 1/10 that of the Nd:YAG for the same pumping power density. A CW laser light generated in a laser diode (LD)-pumped 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser oscillator was amplified, and the measured output power was saturated. The output laser power calculated using theoretical saturation power density was consistent with the experimental results.

  18. Prostate cancer cells stimulated by calcium-mediated activation of protein kinase C undergo a refractory period before re-releasing calcium-bearing microvesicles. (United States)

    Stratton, Dan; Moore, Colin; Zheng, Lei; Lange, Sigrun; Inal, Jameel


    MVs are released in response to several stress agents, in an attempt to prevent continued cellular damage. After an initial stimulus of prostate cancer cells with sublytic C5b-9 and activation of MV release through PKC, cells take at least 20 min to fully recover their ability to microvesiculate. This release of MVs through activation of sublytic C5b-9 was inhibited by the PKC inhibitor bisindoylmaleimide I but not the Rho kinase inhibitor, Y27632. After stimulus there is a rise of 79 nMs(-1) over 11 s, reaching a peak [Ca(2+)]i of 920 nM. The concentration of cytosolic calcium then falls steadily at 2.4 nMs(-1) over 109 s reaching baseline levels (50-100 nM) within 10-15 min. In PC3 cells the rate of release of MVs from stimulated cells also reaches a minimum within 10-15 min. Using fura-2 AM-loaded cells, upon stimulation, cells were found to release MVs with a concentration of intravesicular calcium estimated at ∼ 430 nM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptor function determined by stimulation of rubidium and calcium movements from NCB-20 neurons. (United States)

    Kemmel, V; Taleb, O; Andriamampandry, C; Aunis, D; Maitre, M


    Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate is derived from GABA in brain and plays specific functional roles in the CNS. It is thought to exert a tonic inhibitory control on dopamine and GABA release in certain brain areas, through specific gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptors. Apart from modifying certain calcium currents, the specific transduction mechanism induced by stimulation of gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptors remains largely unknown. We investigated the possible contribution of K(+) channels to the hyperpolarization phenomena generally induced by gamma-hydroxybutyrate in brain, by monitoring (86)Rb(+) movements in a neuronal cell line (NCB-20 cells), which expresses gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptors. Physiological concentrations of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (5-25 microM) induce a slow efflux of (86)Rb(+), which peaks at 5-15 min and returns to baseline levels 20 min later after constant stimulation. This effect can be reproduced by the gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptor agonist NCS-356 and blocked by the gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptor antagonist 6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5-[H]-benzocycloheptene-5-ol-4-ylidene. The GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP 55845 has no effect on gamma-hydroxybutyrate-induced (86)Rb(+) efflux. The pharmacology of this gamma-hydroxybutyrate-dependent efflux of (86)Rb(+) is in favor of the involvement of tetraethylammonium and charybdotoxin insensitive, apamin sensitive Ca(2+) activated K(+) channels, identifying them as small conductance calcium activated channels. We demonstrated a gamma-hydroxybutyrate dose-dependent entry of calcium ions into NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells at resting potential. Electrophysiological data showed that this Ca(2+) entry corresponded mainly to a left-hand shift of the current/voltage relation of the T-type calcium channel. This process must at least partially trigger small conductance calcium activated channel activation leading to gamma-hydroxybutyrate-induced hyperpolarization.

  20. The effects of long-term therapy with proton pump inhibitors on meal stimulated gastrin. (United States)

    Helgadóttir, Hólmfridur; Metz, David C; Yang, Yu-Xiao; Rhim, Andrew D; Björnsson, Einar S


    Dyspepsia develops in healthy volunteers after withdrawal of proton-pump inhibitors. This phenomenon, attributed to rebound acid hypersecretion, is thought to be mediated by reflex hypergastrinemia. To measure fasting and postprandial gastrin in patients on long-term proton-pump inhibitor treatment and correlate gastrin levels with the duration of treatment and other potential predictors. In this cross sectional study patients, with erosive esophagitis, on long-term proton-pump inhibitor treatment and healthy controls underwent gastrin measurements at baseline and four times following a meal and Helicobacter pylori status was determined. A total of 100 patients and 50 controls were studied. Pre- and postprandial gastrin levels were higher in patients (pgastrin-curve and the treatment duration. Female patients had significantly higher gastrin levels than males pre- and postprandial, whereas such differences was not found in the control group. Female gender was the only independent predictor of s-gastrin levels (OR 2.50 compared to males, 95% CI: 1.08-5.76, p=0.032) in the patient group. Gastrin values were higher in patients compared to controls. There was no correlation between gastrin levels and treatment duration. Female patients had significantly higher gastrin values than males. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid and Localized Mechanical Stimulation and Adhesion Assay: TRPM7 Involvement in Calcium Signaling and Cell Adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Shin Nishitani

    Full Text Available A cell mechanical stimulation equipment, based on cell substrate deformation, and a more sensitive method for measuring adhesion of cells were developed. A probe, precisely positioned close to the cell, was capable of a vertical localized mechanical stimulation with a temporal frequency of 207 Hz, and strain magnitude of 50%. This setup was characterized and used to probe the response of Human Umbilical Endothelial Vein Cells (HUVECs in terms of calcium signaling. The intracellular calcium ion concentration was measured by the genetically encoded Cameleon biosensor, with the Transient Receptor Potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7 expression inhibited. As TRPM7 expression also regulates adhesion, a relatively simple method for measuring adhesion of cells was also developed, tested and used to study the effect of adhesion alone. Three adhesion conditions of HUVECs on polyacrylamide gel dishes were compared. In the first condition, the substrate is fully treated with Sulfo-SANPAH crosslinking and fibronectin. The other two conditions had increasingly reduced adhesion: partially treated (only coated with fibronectin, with no use of Sulfo-SANPAH, at 5% of the normal amount and non-treated polyacrylamide gels. The cells showed adhesion and calcium response to the mechanical stimulation correlated to the degree of gel treatment: highest for fully treated gels and lowest for non-treated ones. TRPM7 inhibition by siRNA on HUVECs caused an increase in adhesion relative to control (no siRNA treatment and non-targeting siRNA, but a decrease to 80% of calcium response relative to non-targeting siRNA which confirms the important role of TRPM7 in mechanotransduction despite the increase in adhesion.

  2. Calcium and cAMP signaling induced by gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptor(s) stimulation in NCB-20 neurons. (United States)

    Coune, P; Taleb, O; Mensah-Nyagan, A G; Maitre, M; Kemmel, V


    The NCB-20 neurohybridoma cells differentiated with dibutyryl-cyclic-AMP represent an interesting model to study several components of the gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) system in brain. In particular, an active Na(+)-dependent uptake and a depolarization-evoked release of GHB is expressed by these cells, together with high affinity specific binding sites for this substance. However, only little is known about cellular mechanisms following GHB receptor(s) stimulation in these neurons. Electrophysiological data indicate that GHB can differently affect Ca(2+) currents. L-type calcium channels were typically inhibited by GHB when NCB-20 cells were depolarized. In contrast, when NCB-20 cells were at resting potential, GHB induced a specific Ca(2+) entry through T-type calcium channels. In this study, we investigated the effect induced on cytosolic free Ca(2+) level and cAMP production by GHB receptor(s) stimulated with micromolar concentrations of GHB or structural analogues of GHB. Ca(2+) movements studied by cellular imaging were dose-dependently increased but disappeared for GHB concentrations >25 microM. In addition, nanomolar doses of GHB inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase. This effect was also rapidly desensitized at higher GHB concentrations. Acting as an antagonist, NCS-382 decreased GHB receptor(s) mediated cAMP and calcium signals. The agonist NCS-356 mimicked GHB effects which were not affected by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP-55-845. Our results reveal the occurrence of Ca(2+)-dependent adenylate cyclase inhibition in NCB-20 neurons after GHB receptor(s) stimulation by GHB concentrations NCB-20 neurons of GHB receptors belonging to GPCR family that may recruit various G protein subtypes. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dexamethasone stimulates store-operated calcium entry and protein degradation in cultured L6 myotubes through a phospholipase A2-dependent mechanism (United States)

    Itagaki, Kiyoshi; Menconi, Michael; Antoniu, Bozena; Zhang, Qin; Gonnella, Patricia; Soybel, David; Hauser, Carl


    Muscle wasting in various catabolic conditions is at least in part regulated by glucocorticoids. Increased calcium levels have been reported in atrophying muscle. Mechanisms regulating calcium homeostasis in muscle wasting, in particular the role of glucocorticoids, are poorly understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that glucocorticoids increase intracellular calcium concentrations in skeletal muscle and stimulate store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) and that these effects of glucocorticoids may at least in part be responsible for glucocorticoid-induced protein degradation. Treatment of cultured myotubes with dexamethasone, a frequently used in vitro model of muscle wasting, resulted in increased intracellular calcium concentrations determined by fura-2 AM fluorescence measurements. When SOCE was measured by using calcium “add-back” to muscle cells after depletion of intracellular calcium stores, results showed that SOCE was increased 15–25% by dexamethasone and that this response to dexamethasone was inhibited by the store-operated calcium channel blocker BTP2. Dexamethasone treatment stimulated the activity of calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2), and dexamethasone-induced increase in SOCE was reduced by the iPLA2 inhibitor bromoenol lactone (BEL). In additional experiments, treatment of myotubes with the store-operated calcium channel inhibitor gadolinium ion or BEL reduced dexamethasone-induced increase in protein degradation. Taken together, the results suggest that glucocorticoids increase calcium concentrations in myocytes and stimulate iPLA2-dependent SOCE and that glucocorticoid-induced muscle protein degradation may at least in part be regulated by increased iPLA2 activity, SOCE, and cellular calcium levels. PMID:20107037

  4. Applications of calcium electroporation to effective apoptosis induction in fibrosarcoma cells and stimulation of normal muscle cells. (United States)

    Zielichowska, Anna; Daczewska, Małgorzata; Saczko, Jolanta; Michel, Olga; Kulbacka, Julita


    The electroporation (EP) supports various types of anticancer therapies by the selective transport of cytostatics. Increase in intracellular calcium level by EP may be a new approach to fibrosarcoma treatment. Calcium is one of the most important factors of cell proliferation, differentiation and cell death (apoptosis or necrosis). Calcium level balanced by electroporation can cause different effects on normal and pathological cells. The efficiency and safety of electroporation combined with Ca(2+) ions were examined in our study. The two muscle cell lines were used: normal rat skeletal muscle cells - L6 and cancer muscle cells - Wehi-164 (fibrosarcoma). Two CaCl2 concentrations were tested: 0.5 mM and 5 mM combined with EP parameters: 1000 V/cm, 1200 V/cm, and 1500 V/cm. The results show that EP supported by Ca(2+) is cytotoxic for Wehi-164 cells and simultaneously safe for normal muscle cells. The main type of cell death - apoptosis - was confirmed by Tunnel and Annexin V/PI assay. Additionally, sPLA2 pro-tumorigenic influence was proved by immunocytochemistry. Moreover, EP with 0.5 mM of Ca(2+) slightly stimulates the normal muscle cells - L6 to increase proliferation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclase subtype 1 (AC1 contributes to LTP in the insular cortex of adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Yamanaka


    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation (LTP of synaptic transmission in the central nervous system is a key form of cortical plasticity. The insular cortex (IC is known to play important roles in pain perception, aversive memory and mood disorders. LTP has been recently reported in the IC, however, the signaling pathway for IC LTP remains unknown. Here, we investigated the synaptic mechanism of IC LTP. We found that IC LTP induced by the pairing protocol was N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs dependent, and expressed postsynaptically, since paired-pulse ratio (PPR was not affected. Postsynaptic calcium is important for the induction of post-LTP, since the postsynaptic application of BAPTA completely blocked the induction of LTP. Calcium-activated adenylyl cyclase subtype 1 (AC1 is required for potentiation. By contrast, AC8 is not required. Inhibition of Ca2+ permeable α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (CP-AMPARs or protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ reduced the expression of LTP. Our results suggest that calcium-stimulated AC1, but not AC8, can be a trigger of the induction and maintenance of LTP in the IC.

  6. Furosemide stimulation of parathormone in humans: role of the calcium-sensing receptor and the renin-angiotensin system. (United States)

    Muller, Marie-Eve; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Maillard, Marc; Stoudmann, Candice; Zweiacker, Carole; Anex, Christiane; Wuerzner, Grégoire; Burnier, Michel; Bonny, Olivier


    Interactions between sodium and calcium regulating systems are poorly characterized but clinically important. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are increased shortly after furosemide treatment by an unknown mechanism, and this effect is blunted by the previous administration of a calcimimetic in animal studies. Here, we explored further the possible underlying mechanisms of this observation in a randomized crossover placebo-controlled study performed in 18 human males. Volunteers took either cinacalcet (60 mg) or placebo and received a 20 mg furosemide injection 3 h later. Plasma samples were collected at 15-min intervals and analyzed for intact PTH, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, phosphate, plasma renin activity (PRA), and aldosterone up to 6 h after furosemide injection. Urinary electrolyte excretion was also monitored. Subjects under placebo presented a sharp increase in PTH levels after furosemide injection. In the presence of cinacalcet, PTH levels were suppressed and marginal increase of PTH was observed. No significant changes in electrolytes and urinary excretion were identified that could explain the furosemide-induced increase in PTH levels. PRA and aldosterone were stimulated by furosemide injection but were not affected by previous cinacalcet ingestion. Expression of NKCC1, but not NKCC2, was found in parathyroid tissue. In conclusion, our results indicate that furosemide acutely stimulates PTH secretion in the absence of any detectable electrolyte changes in healthy adults. A possible direct effect of furosemide on parathyroid gland needs further studies.

  7. Construction and use of a zebrafish heart voltage and calcium optical mapping system, with integrated electrocardiogram and programmable electrical stimulation (United States)

    Lin, Eric; Craig, Calvin; Lamothe, Marcel; Sarunic, Marinko V.; Beg, Mirza Faisal


    Zebrafish are increasingly being used as a model of vertebrate cardiology due to mammalian-like cardiac properties in many respects. The size and fecundity of zebrafish make them suitable for large-scale genetic and pharmacological screening. In larger mammalian hearts, optical mapping is often used to investigate the interplay between voltage and calcium dynamics and to investigate their respective roles in arrhythmogenesis. This report outlines the construction of an optical mapping system for use with zebrafish hearts, using the voltage-sensitive dye RH 237 and the calcium indicator dye Rhod-2 using two industrial-level CCD cameras. With the use of economical cameras and a common 532-nm diode laser for excitation, the rate dependence of voltage and calcium dynamics within the atrial and ventricular compartments can be simultaneously determined. At 140 beats/min, the atrial action potential duration was 36 ms and the transient duration was 53 ms. With the use of a programmable electrical stimulator, a shallow rate dependence of 3 and 4 ms per 100 beats/min was observed, respectively. In the ventricle the action potential duration was 109 ms and the transient duration was 124 ms, with a steeper rate dependence of 12 and 16 ms per 100 beats/min. Synchronous electrocardiograms and optical mapping recordings were recorded, in which the P-wave aligns with the atrial voltage peak and R-wave aligns with the ventricular peak. A simple optical pathway and imaging chamber are detailed along with schematics for the in-house construction of the electrocardiogram amplifier and electrical stimulator. Laboratory procedures necessary for zebrafish heart isolation, cannulation, and loading are also presented. PMID:25740339

  8. Activation of the calcium sensing receptor stimulates gastrin and gastric acid secretion in healthy participants (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion is a complex process regulated by neuronal and hormonal pathways. Ex vivo studies in human gastric tissues indicate that the calcium sensing receptor (CaR), expressed on the surface of G and parietal cells, may be involved in this regulation. We sought to determine whether cin...

  9. Calcium and osmotic stimulation in renin release from isolated rat glomeruli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O


    The effects of changes in osmolality and calcium concentration on renin release (RR) from isolated superfused rat glomeruli were studied. The undisturbed RR followed a first order fall with a half-time of about 100 min (n = 45). Changes in the osmolality between 270 and 350 mOsm/kg resulted in do...

  10. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Nishida

    Full Text Available The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  11. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging. (United States)

    Nishida, Kazuhiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Taniguchi, Wataru; Uta, Daisuke; Furue, Hidemasa; Ito, Seiji


    The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  12. Changes in outflow to respiratory pump muscles produced by natural vestibular stimulation. (United States)

    Rossiter, C D; Hayden, N L; Stocker, S D; Yates, B J


    1. Activity was recorded from abdominal (expiratory) and phrenic (inspiratory) nerves during natural vestibular stimulation in multiple vertical planes and the horizontal plane in decerebrate cats. Vestibular stimulation was produced by rotating the head in animals whose upper cervical dorsal roots were transected to remove inputs from neck receptors; the upper airway and carotid sinus were denervated, and the vagus nerves were transected to assure that the head rotations did not elicit visceral or pulmonary inputs. 2. The plane of head rotation that produced maximal modulation of respiratory nerve activity (response vector orientation) was measured at one or more frequencies between 0.05 and 0.5 Hz. The dynamics of the response were then studied with sinusoidal (0.05-2 Hz) stimuli aligned with this orientation. In some animals, sinusoidal horizontal rotations of the head at 0.5 and 1 Hz or static head tilts in the pitch and roll planes were also delivered. 3. Typically, maximal modulation of abdominal nerve outflow was elicited by head rotations in a plane near pitch; nose-up rotations produced increased outflow, and nose-down rotations reduced nerve discharges. The gains of the responses (relative to stimulus position) remained relatively constant across stimulus frequencies, and the phases were consistently near stimulus position, like regularly firing otolith afferents. Static nose-up tilt produced elevated abdominal nerve activity throughout the stimulus period, providing further evidence that pitch-sensitive otolith receptors contribute to the response. Horizontal head rotations had little influence on abdominal nerve discharges. 4. The abdominal nerve responses to head rotation were abolished by chemical or aspiration lesions of the medial and inferior vestibular nuclei, which is concordant with the responses resulting from activation of vestibular receptors. Transections of axons arising from bulbospinal neurons in the ventral respiratory group, which are

  13. Arachidonic Acid and Prostaglandins Enhance Potassium-Stimulated Calcium InFlux into Rat Brain Synaptosomes (United States)


    calcium ci 10 100 10~M l0UM 3O"M I Blausten and Uctor. 1975. Leslie. Friedman, Wilcox riMet’al~r 01iM . and FlrI rod. I 9SO( [a~ contro an d drug...releases sesceral types of cell t Barritt. 1981). it i, possible a ra li l o"nic acid troil, lie ph. -phI1o i pi ds ( Brad ford. that secretion. stim ul...cardiosa-,alar Leslie S. W. Friedman MI B . Wilcox R. F. and Elrod S. disease and calcium antagonists. Am J. (’urdio/ 49: Y i Nxw Acute and c~hronic

  14. Addition of Wollastonite Fibers to Calcium Phosphate Cement Increases Cell Viability and Stimulates Differentiation of Osteoblast-Like Cells

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    Juliana Almeida Domingues


    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate cement (CPC that is based on α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP is considered desirable for bone tissue engineering because of its relatively rapid degradation properties. However, such cement is relatively weak, restricting its use to areas of low mechanical stress. Wollastonite fibers (WF have been used to improve the mechanical strength of biomaterials. However, the biological properties of WF remain poorly understood. Here, we tested the response of osteoblast-like cells to being cultured on CPC reinforced with 5% of WF (CPC-WF. We found that both types of cement studied achieved an ion balance for calcium and phosphate after 3 days of immersion in culture medium and this allowed subsequent long-term cell culture. CPC-WF increased cell viability and stimulated cell differentiation, compared to nonreinforced CPC. We hypothesize that late silicon release by CPC-WF induces increased cell proliferation and differentiation. Based on our findings, we propose that CPC-WF is a promising material for bone tissue engineering applications.

  15. Stimulation of Odontogenesis and Angiogenesis via Bioactive Nanocomposite Calcium Phosphate Cements Through Integrin and VEGF Signaling Pathways. (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Im; Lee, Eui-Suk; El-Fiqi, Ahmed; Lee, So-Youn; Eun-Cheol Kim; Kim, Hae-Won


    Formulating self-setting calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) with secondary phases particularly in the nanoscale order holds great promise to improve biological properties. Here, we focus on the effect that bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGN) incorporated in CPC compositions can have on the proliferation, odontogenic differentiation, and angiogenic stimulation of stem cells derived from human dental pulp (HDPSCs). These odontogenic and angiogenic events are of special importance in the dentin-pulp regeneration processes. In comparison to pure CPCs, nanocomposite cements exhibit a significantly improved proliferation of HDPSCs, and the improvement is more significant as the BGN content increases. The nanocomposite cements substantially enhance the adhesion of cells, and significantly up-regulate odontogenic differentiation, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the expressions of odontogenic genes (sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein I, ALP, osteopontin and osteocalcin). Furthermore, the use of nanocomposite cements result in stimulation of angiogenic gene expression (VEGF, FGF-2, VEGFRs, PECAM-1, and VE-cadherin) and protein production (VEGF, VEGFR-1). The angiogenic stimulation by the HDPSCs significantly affects the endothelial cell behaviors, that is, the endothelial cell migration and the tubular network formation are substantially improved when treated with HDPSC-conditioned medium, particularly with the help of nanocomposite cements. The integrin and VEGF signaling pathways are reasoned for the stimulation of the odontogenesis and angiogenesis of cells, where the nanocomposite cements up-regulate the integrin subsets α1, α2, α3, and β1, and activate the integrin downstream signal pathways, such as p-FAK, p-Akt, p-paxillin, JNK, EK, and NF-κB, as well as other nuclear transcriptional factors, including CREB, STAT-3, and ELK-1. The current results indicate that the new formulation of the nanocomposite self-setting cements might provide some

  16. Stimulation of fibroblast growth factor 23 by metabolic acidosis requires osteoblastic intracellular calcium signaling and prostaglandin synthesis. (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy S; Bushinsky, David A


    Serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) increases progressively in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with increased mortality. FGF23 is synthesized in osteoblasts and osteocytes; however, the factors regulating its production are not clear. Patients with CKD have decreased renal acid excretion leading to metabolic acidosis (MET). During MET, acid is buffered by bone with release of mineral calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P). MET increases intracellular Ca signaling and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2)-induced prostaglandin production in the osteoblast, leading to decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption. We found that MET directly stimulates FGF23 in mouse bone organ cultures and primary osteoblasts. We hypothesized that MET increases FGF23 through similar pathways that lead to bone resorption. Neonatal mouse calvariae were incubated in neutral (NTL, pH = 7.44, Pco2 = 38 mmHg, [HCO3-] = 27 mM) or acid (MET, pH = 7.18, Pco2 = 37 mmHg, [HCO3-] = 13 mM) medium without or with 2-APB (50 μM), an inhibitor of intracellular Ca signaling or NS-398 (1 μM), an inhibitor of COX2. Each agent significantly inhibited MET stimulation of medium FGF23 protein and calvarial FGF23 RNA as well as bone resorption at 48 h. To exclude the potential contribution of MET-induced bone P release, we utilized primary calvarial osteoblasts. In these cells each agent inhibited MET stimulation of FGF23 RNA expression at 6 h. Thus stimulation of FGF23 by MET in mouse osteoblasts utilizes the same initial signaling pathways as MET-induced bone resorption. Therapeutic interventions directed toward correction of MET, especially in CKD, have the potential to not only prevent bone resorption but also lower FGF23 and perhaps decrease mortality. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Role of arginine residues in the stimulation of the smooth-muscle plasma-membrane Ca2+ pump by negatively charged phospholipids.


    Missiaen, L; Raeymaekers, L; Droogmans, G; Wuytack, F; Casteels, R


    Negatively charged phospholipids strongly stimulate the purified plasma membrane Ca2+ pump of erythrocytes [Enyedi, Flura, Sarkadi, Gardos & Carafoli (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 6425-6430] and of smooth muscle [Missiaen, Raeymaekers, Wuytack, Vrolix, De Smedt & Casteels, (1989) Biochem. J. 263, 687-694]. We have investigated the role of arginine residues in the interaction of these acidic phospholipids with the smooth-muscle Ca2+ transport ATPase. The arginine-modifying reagent phenylglyoxal i...

  18. Local electric stimulation causes conducted calcium response in rat interlobular arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsson, Max; Gustafsson, Finn; Andreasen, Ditte


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the conducted Ca(2+) response to local electrical stimulation in isolated rat interlobular arteries. Interlobular arteries were isolated from young Sprague-Dawley rats, loaded with fura 2, and attached to pipettes in a chamber on an inverted...... microscope. Local electrical pulse stimulation (200 ms, 100 V) was administered by means of an NaCl-filled microelectrode (0.7-1 M(Omega)) juxtaposed to one end of the vessel. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) was measured with an image system at a site approximately 500 microm from......% of baseline, whereas the response was absent when the electrode was negative. This response was not dependent on perivascular nerves, because the conducted response was unaffected by TTX (1 microM). The conducted [Ca(2+)](i) response was abolished by an ambient Ca(2+) free solution and blunted by nifedipine...

  19. The effect of calcium channel blockers and calmodulin inhibitors on the macrophage factor-stimulated synthesis of collagenase by rabbit chondrocytes. (United States)

    Nolan, J C; Gathright, C E; Wagner, L E


    Macrophages and monocytes secrete a factor(s) which can stimulate the synthesis of collagenase in synovial cells and in chondrocytes. Incubation of rabbit chondrocytes with macrophage conditioned medium (MCM) and with the calcium channel blockers, nifedipine, verapamil or diltiazem (up to 200 microM) had no effect on collagenase synthesis. However, TMB-8 (8-[N,N-diethylamino]-octyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate hydrochloride), an inhibitor of internal calcium movement, did inhibit the process with an IC50 of approximately 130 microM. The calmodulin antagonists, trifluoperazine, chlorpromazine and calmidazolium (R-24571) were effective inhibitors of the process with IC50's of 40 microM, 18 microM and 3.5 microM, respectively. Collagenase activity itself was not affected by these agents. The data suggests that calmodulin and/or internal calcium movement may play a role in the macrophage factor-stimulated synthesis of collagenase in rabbit chondrocytes.

  20. Stimulation of AIDS lymphocytes with calcium ionophore (A23187) and phorbol ester (PMA): studies of cytoplasmic free Ca, IL-2 receptor expression, IL-2 production, and proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Moller, J; Langhoff, E


    the PHA-induced rise of cytoplasmic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]1) in normal and AIDS lymphocytes was observed. The percentage of cells expressing IL-2 receptors (CD25) was also normal both after addition of PHA and after addition of A23187/PMA and the expression was normal on both CD4 and CD8 cells....... The production of IL-2 in normal lymphocytes stimulated with A23187/PMA was 33 times higher than that after stimulation with PHA. In AIDS lymphocytes the production of IL-2 induced by all activators was severely decreased compared to control subjects, although the production of IL-2 after stimulation with A23187...

  1. Effects of AMPK on high glucose stimulated apoptosis of endothelial cells via regulation of calcium influx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting LU


    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect of adenosine monophosphate (AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK on high glucose-stimulated endothelial cell apoptosis and its mechanism. Methods MS-1 endothelial cells were cultured in vitro, and they were treated with AMPK agonist, AMPK inhibitor, 2-APB (a blocker of store operated Ca2+ channel (SOCC and (or high glucose, and a control group without any intervention were set up. TUNEL assay was performed to determine apoptotic cells. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to assess the Ca2+ influx into cells, and Western-blotting was performed to determine the expressions of Stim1 and Orai1 of the store operated Ca2+ channel (SOCC proteins. Results Apoptosis of endothelial cells was induced significantly, and the expressions of Stim1 and Orai1 were upregulated in high glucose group compared with that in control group (P<0.05. The rate of apoptosis of high glucose-induced endothelial cell was found to be increased in AMPK inhibitor group and decreased in AMPK agonist group, and the expressions of Stim1 and Orai1 were found to be down-regulated in AMPK agonist group as compared with that in high glucose group (P<0.05. Compared with the control group, high glucose stimulation significantly induced the Ca2+ influx to endothelial cells; compared with high glucose group, 2-APB significantly inhibited high glucose-induced Ca2+ influx to endothelial cells, and blocked the inducing effect of high-glucose on endothelial cell apoptosis. Compared with high glucose group, AMPK agonist significantly inhibited high glucose-induced cell Ca2+ influx. Conclusion By reducing the expressions of Stim1 and Orai1, AMPK may inhibit SOCC-mediated Ca2+ influx, and block the high glucose-stimulated endothelial cell apoptosis, thus play an important protective role in sustaining endothelial cell function. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.10.01

  2. Long persistent and optically stimulated luminescence behaviors of calcium aluminates with different trap filling processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Buhao; Xu, Xuhui; Li, Qianyue; Wu, Yumei; Qiu, Jianbei; Yu, Xue, E-mail:


    Properties of long persistent luminescence (LPL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}, R{sup 3+} (R=Nd, Dy, Tm) materials were investigated. The observed phenomenon indicates that R{sup 3+} ions (R=Nd, Dy, Tm) have different effects on trap properties of CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}. The greatly improved LPL performance was observed in Nd{sup 3+} co-doped samples, which indicates that the incorporation of Nd{sup 3+} creates suitable traps for LPL. While co-doping Tm{sup 3+} ions, the intensity of high temperature of thermoluminescence band in CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphors is enhanced for the formation of the most suitable traps which benefits the intense and stable OSL. These results suggest that the effective traps contributed to the LPL/OSL are complex, of which could be an aggregation formation with shallow and deep traps other than simple traps from co-doped R{sup 3+} ions. The mechanism presented in the end potentially provides explanations of why the OSL of CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}, R{sup 3+} exhibits different read-in/read-out performance as well. - Graphical abstract: OSL emission spectra of Ca{sub 0.995}Al{sub 2}O{sub 4}:0.0025Eu{sup 2+}, 0.0025R{sup 3+} (R=Nd, Dy, Tm) taken under varying stimulation time (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 s). Inset: Blue emission pictures under varying stimulation time. - Highlights: • The LPL and OSL properties of CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+}, R{sup 3+} were investigated. • An alternative approach to control the trap depth of CaAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor was proposed. • A new oxide ETM phosphor exhibiting intense and stable OSL was explored.

  3. Calcium imaging reveals glial involvement in transcranial direct current stimulation-induced plasticity in mouse brain. (United States)

    Monai, Hiromu; Ohkura, Masamichi; Tanaka, Mika; Oe, Yuki; Konno, Ayumu; Hirai, Hirokazu; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Nakai, Junichi; Iwai, Youichi; Hirase, Hajime


    Transcranical direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a treatment known to ameliorate various neurological conditions and enhance memory and cognition in humans. tDCS has gained traction for its potential therapeutic value; however, little is known about its mechanism of action. Using a transgenic mouse expressing G-CaMP7 in astrocytes and a subpopulation of excitatory neurons, we find that tDCS induces large-amplitude astrocytic Ca(2+) surges across the entire cortex with no obvious changes in the local field potential. Moreover, sensory evoked cortical responses are enhanced after tDCS. These enhancements are dependent on the alpha-1 adrenergic receptor and are not observed in IP3R2 (inositol trisphosphate receptor type 2) knockout mice, in which astrocytic Ca(2+) surges are absent. Together, we propose that tDCS changes the metaplasticity of the cortex through astrocytic Ca(2+)/IP3 signalling.

  4. Calcium/calmodulin and calmodulin kinase II stimulate hyperactivation in demembranated bovine sperm. (United States)

    Ignotz, George G; Suarez, Susan S


    Hyperactivated motility is observed among sperm in the mammalian oviduct near the time of ovulation. It is characterized by high-amplitude, asymmetrical flagellar beating and assists sperm in penetrating the cumulus oophorus and zona pellucida. Elevated intracellular Ca2+ is required for the initiation of hyperactivated motility, suggesting that calmodulin (CALM) and Ca2+/CALM-stimulated pathways are involved. A demembranated sperm model was used to investigate the role of CALM in promoting hyperactivation. Ejaculated bovine sperm were demembranated and immobilized by brief exposure to Triton X-100. Motility was restored by addition of reactivation medium containing MgATP and Ca2+, and hyperactivation was observed as free Ca2+ was increased from 50 nM to 1 microM. However, when 2.5 mM Ca2+ was added to the demembranation medium to extract flagellar CALM, motility was not reactivated unless exogenous CALM was readded. The inclusion of anti-CALM IgG in the reactivation medium reduced the proportion hyperactivated in 1 microM Ca2+ to 5%. Neither control IgG, the CALM antagonist W-7, nor a peptide directed against the CALM-binding domain of myosin light chain kinase (MYLK2) inhibited hyperactivation. However, when sperm were reactivated in the presence of CALM kinase II (CAMK2) inhibiting peptides, hyperactivation was reduced by 75%. Furthermore, an inhibitor of CAMK2, KN-93, inhibited hyperactivation without impairing normal motility of intact sperm. CALM and CAMK2 were immunolocalized to the acrosomal region and flagellum. These results indicate that hyperactivation is stimulated by a Ca2+/CALM pathway involving CAMK2.

  5. The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency on the stimulation of intestinal calcium transport by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. (United States)

    Kreutter, D; Matsumoto, T; Peckham, R; Zawalich, K; Wen, W H; Zolock, D T; Rasmussen, H


    The effect of altering the lipid composition of the brush-border membrane on the ability of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) to stimulate calcium transport across the intestinal mucosa was examined by raising chicks on a vitamin D, essential fatty acid-deficient diet (-DEFAD) and measuring calcium absorption from duodenal sacs in situ and calcium uptake into brush-border membrane vesicles in vitro. Administration of 1,25-(OH)2D3 to -DEFAD and to -D control chicks led to the same increase in calcium transport in situ, whereas calcium transport in isolated brush-border membrane vesicles was not stimulated in the EFAD group, but responded normally in the control group. When the incubation temperature was increased to 34 degrees C, brush-border membrane vesicles from 1,25-(OH)2D3-treated essential fatty acid-deficient (+DE-FAD) chicks accumulated calcium at a faster rate than did vesicles from -DEFAD chicks. There was a marked decrease in the linoleic acid content and an increase in the oleic acid content of both the total lipid extract of the brush-border membrane as well as the phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine fractions, which could explain the temperature sensitivity of the in vitro system. When the diet of the EFAD chicks was supplemented with linoleic acid, the rate of calcium uptake into subsequently isolated vesicles from +DE-FAD chicks correlated with the amount of linoleic acid in the brush-border membranes. These results support the concept that the action of 1,25-(OH)2D3 on membrane lipid turnover and structure plays a critically important role in the 1,25-(OH)2D3-mediated cellular transport responses.

  6. Free cytosolic calcium and secretagogue-stimulated initial pancreatic exocrine secretion. (United States)

    Krims, P E; Pandol, S J


    In order to establish the role of secretagogue-induced changes in free cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in pancreatic enzyme secretion, we measured the effects of carbachol, cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK-OP), bombesin, substance P, and bromo-A23187 on amylase release and [Ca2+]i in guinea pig pancreatic acini loaded with the Ca2+-selective fluorescent indicator, fura-2. Evaluation of time courses and dose-response curves indicated that carbachol, CCK-OP, bombesin, and substance P cause extracellular Ca2+-independent transient increases in [Ca2+]i and transient bursts in amylase release (initial secretion). The potencies for the secretagogues to increase [Ca2+]i and initial amylase release were similar. Bromo-A23187 also caused an extracellular Ca2+-independent transient increase in [Ca2+]i and amylase release. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, sequential additions of substance P followed by carbachol caused transient increases in [Ca2+]i correlating with transient bursts in amylase release. In contrast, in acini first treated with carbachol, the ability of substance P to increase [Ca2+]i and amylase release was blocked. Sustained secretion caused by the secretagogues was dependent on extracellular Ca2+ but occurred at basal [Ca2+]i. Increasing [Ca2+]i during the sustained phase of stimulation by increasing the extracellular Ca2+ concentration or with bromo-A23187 did not increase the rate of sustained secretion.

  7. Stabilization of diastolic calcium signal via calcium pump regulation of complex local calcium releases and transient decay in a computational model of cardiac pacemaker cell with individual release channels. (United States)

    Maltsev, Alexander V; Maltsev, Victor A; Stern, Michael D


    Intracellular Local Ca releases (LCRs) from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) regulate cardiac pacemaker cell function by activation of electrogenic Na/Ca exchanger (NCX) during diastole. Prior studies demonstrated the existence of powerful compensatory mechanisms of LCR regulation via a complex local cross-talk of Ca pump, release and NCX. One major obstacle to study these mechanisms is that LCR exhibit complex Ca release propagation patterns (including merges and separations) that have not been characterized. Here we developed new terminology, classification, and computer algorithms for automatic detection of numerically simulated LCRs and examined LCR regulation by SR Ca pumping rate (Pup) that provides a major contribution to fight-or-flight response. In our simulations the faster SR Ca pumping accelerates action potential-induced Ca transient decay and quickly clears Ca under the cell membrane in diastole, preventing premature releases. Then the SR generates an earlier, more synchronized, and stronger diastolic LCR signal activating an earlier and larger inward NCX current. LCRs at higher Pup exhibit larger amplitudes and faster propagation with more collisions to each other. The LCRs overlap with Ca transient decay, causing an elevation of the average diastolic [Ca] nadir to ~200 nM (at Pup = 24 mM/s). Background Ca (in locations lacking LCRs) quickly decays to resting Ca levels (pump and release channels regulates LCRs and Ca transient decay to insure fail-safe pacemaker cell operation within a wide range of rates.

  8. The effect of verapamil and diltiazem on cardiac stimulant effect of adrenaline and calcium chloride on isolated frog heart


    Lakhavat Sudhakar, Naveen Kumar T, Tadvi NA, Venkata Rao Y


    Background: Calcium channel blockers block voltage dependent L-type of calcium channel and thus reduce the frequency of opening of these channels in response to depolarization. The result is a marked decrease in transmembrane calcium current associated with long lasting relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, reduction in contractility in cardiac muscle, decrease in pacemaker activity in the SA node and decrease in conduction velocity in the AV node. Among Calcium channel blockers verapamil, ...

  9. Presence of a thapsigargin-sensitive calcium pump in Trypanosoma evansi: Immunological, physiological, molecular and structural evidences. (United States)

    Pérez-Gordones, M C; Serrano, M L; Rojas, H; Martínez, J C; Uzcanga, G; Mendoza, M


    In higher eukaryotes, the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) is characterized for its high sensitivity to low concentrations of thapsigargin (TG), a very specific inhibitor. In contrast, SERCA-like enzymes with different sensitivities to TG have been reported in trypanosomatids. Here, we characterized a SERCA-like enzyme from Trypanosoma evansi and evaluated its interaction with TG. Confocal fluorescence microscopy using BODIPY FL TG and specific anti-SERCA antibodies localized the T. evansi SERCA-like enzyme in the ER and confirmed its direct interaction with TG. Moreover, the use of either 1 μM TG or 25 μM 2',5'-di (tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone prevented the reuptake of Ca(2+) and consequently produced a small increase in the parasite cytosolic calcium concentration in a calcium-free medium, which was released from the ER pool. A 3035 bp-sequence coding for a protein with an estimated molecular mass of 110.2 kDa was cloned from T. evansi. The corresponding gene product contained all the invariant residues and conserved motifs found in other P-type ATPases but lacked the calmodulin binding site. Modeling of the three-dimensional structure of the parasite enzyme revealed that the amino acid changes found in the TG-SERCA binding pocket do not compromise the interaction between the enzyme and the inhibitor. Therefore, we concluded that T. evansi possesses a SERCA-like protein that is inhibited by TG. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of the S1/ICT equilibrium in fucoxanthin by ultrafast pump-dump-probe and femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering spectroscopy. (United States)

    Redeckas, Kipras; Voiciuk, Vladislava; Vengris, Mikas


    Time-resolved multi-pulse spectroscopic methods-pump-dump-probe (PDP) and femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy-were used to investigate the excited state photodynamics of the carbonyl group containing carotenoid fucoxanthin (FX). PDP experiments show that S1 and ICT states in FX are strongly coupled and that the interstate equilibrium is rapidly (ICT are vibrationally distinct species. Identification of the FSRS modes on the S1 and ICT potential energy surfaces allows us to predict a possible coupling channel for the state interaction.

  11. Stabilization of diastolic calcium signal via calcium pump regulation of complex local calcium releases and transient decay in a computational model of cardiac pacemaker cell with individual release channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V Maltsev


    Full Text Available Intracellular Local Ca releases (LCRs from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR regulate cardiac pacemaker cell function by activation of electrogenic Na/Ca exchanger (NCX during diastole. Prior studies demonstrated the existence of powerful compensatory mechanisms of LCR regulation via a complex local cross-talk of Ca pump, release and NCX. One major obstacle to study these mechanisms is that LCR exhibit complex Ca release propagation patterns (including merges and separations that have not been characterized. Here we developed new terminology, classification, and computer algorithms for automatic detection of numerically simulated LCRs and examined LCR regulation by SR Ca pumping rate (Pup that provides a major contribution to fight-or-flight response. In our simulations the faster SR Ca pumping accelerates action potential-induced Ca transient decay and quickly clears Ca under the cell membrane in diastole, preventing premature releases. Then the SR generates an earlier, more synchronized, and stronger diastolic LCR signal activating an earlier and larger inward NCX current. LCRs at higher Pup exhibit larger amplitudes and faster propagation with more collisions to each other. The LCRs overlap with Ca transient decay, causing an elevation of the average diastolic [Ca] nadir to ~200 nM (at Pup = 24 mM/s. Background Ca (in locations lacking LCRs quickly decays to resting Ca levels (<100 nM at high Pup, but remained elevated during slower decay at low Pup. Release propagation is facilitated at higher Pup by a larger LCR amplitude, whereas at low Pup by higher background Ca. While at low Pup LCRs show smaller amplitudes, their larger durations and sizes combined with longer transient decay stabilize integrals of diastolic Ca and NCX current signals. Thus, the local interplay of SR Ca pump and release channels regulates LCRs and Ca transient decay to insure fail-safe pacemaker cell operation within a wide range of rates.

  12. Fibronectin-induced VEGF receptor and calcium channel transactivation stimulate GLUT-1 synthesis and trafficking through PPARγ and TC10 in mouse embryonic stem cells. (United States)

    Suh, Han Na; Han, Ho Jae


    Extracellular matrix (ECM) mediates interactions between integrin and growth factor receptor (GFR) or ion channel. Although this crosstalk promotes integration of the downstream signal pathways and then regulates cellular function, the effect of ECM on glucose transporter (GLUT) in stem cells has not been elucidated. Therefore, we examined the effect of fibronectin on GLUT-1 expression, trafficking, and its related signal pathways in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Fibronectin increased 2-deoxyglucose (DG) uptake and GLUT-1 protein expression that were blocked by transcription or translation inhibitors. Integrin α5β1-bound fibronectin increased 2-DG uptake through cluster formation with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 2, and then activated Ras and PI3K/Akt. In another pathway, integrin α5β1 displayed structural and functional interactions with calcium channels, and stimulated 2-DG uptake through calcium influx and PKC activation. Akt and PKC-induced PPARγ phosphorylation enhanced the decreased expression of PPARγ protein, and subsequently increased GLUT-1 protein synthesis and 2-DG uptake. Fibronectin stimulated TC10 activity and cytoskeleton (F-actin) rearrangement, followed by GLUT-1 trafficking. In conclusion, integrin-bound fibronectin stimulates GLUT-1 synthesis through VEGFR2/Ras/PI3K/Akt and calcium channel/Ca(2+)/PKC, which are merged at PPARγ and GLUT-1 trafficking through TC10 and F-actin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of the intracellular and the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPases in fractionated pig brain membranes using calcium pump inhibitors. (United States)

    Salvador, J M; Mata, A M


    The Ca2+-ATPase activity of isolated membranes and purified plasma membrane ATPase from pig brain was measured in the presence of specific inhibitors. The inhibition of the enzymatic activity by vanadate presents a lower affinity in microsomes than in the synaptic plasma membrane vesicles, showing K0.5 of 0.4 and 0.2 microM, respectively. The purified enzyme showed a higher sensitivity to vanadate with a K0.5 of 0.10 microM. Thapsigargin (Tg) and 2,5-di(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone (BHQ) were stronger inhibitors of the Ca2+-ATPase activity in microsomes than in the synaptic membrane vesicles. The activity of the purified enzyme was not affected by Tg and only partially by BHQ. Cyclopiazonic acid inhibited the enzymatic activity in all fractions, being more sensitive in microsomes. The microsome preparation incorporated 32P from [gamma-32P]ATP into two main proteins that appear at approx 110,000 and 140,000. According to the inhibition pattern, the lower phosphorylated band was identified as the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, being in a higher percentage than the upper band. Synaptic membrane vesicles also incorporated radioactive 32P into two protein bands. The 140,000 protein (upper band) shows the typical behavior of the purified plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase, being more abundant in this preparation than the organellar Ca2+-pump (lower band). This study highlights the heterogeneous nature of the Ca2+-ATPase activity measured in brain membrane fractions. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  14. Intracellular calcium release and protein kinase C activation stimulate sonic hedgehog gene expression during gastric acid secretion. (United States)

    El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Zavros, Yana; Tessier, Art; Waghray, Meghna; Lentz, Steve; Gumucio, Deborah; Todisco, Andrea; Merchant, Juanita L


    Hypochlorhydria during Helicobacter pylori infection inhibits gastric Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) expression. We investigated whether acid-secretory mechanisms regulate Shh gene expression through intracellular calcium (Ca2(+)(i))-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activation. We blocked Hedgehog signaling by transgenically overexpressing a secreted form of the Hedgehog interacting protein-1, a natural inhibitor of hedgehog ligands, which induced hypochlorhydria. Gadolinium, ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) + 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), PKC-overexpressing adenoviruses, and PKC inhibitors were used to modulate Ca(2+)(i)-release, PKC activity, and Shh gene expression in primary gastric cell, organ, and AGS cell line cultures. PKA hyperactivity was induced in the H(+)/K(+)-β-cholera-toxin-overexpressing mice. Mice that expressed secreted hedgehog-interacting protein-1 had lower levels of gastric acid (hypochlorhydria), reduced production of somatostatin, and increased gastrin gene expression. Hypochlorhydria in these mice repressed Shh gene expression, similar to the levels obtained with omeprazole treatment of wild-type mice. However, Shh expression also was repressed in the hyperchlorhydric H(+)/K(+)-β-cholera-toxin model with increased cAMP, suggesting that the regulation of Shh was not solely acid-dependent, but pertained to specific acid-stimulatory signaling pathways. Based on previous reports that Ca(2+)(i) release also stimulates acid secretion in parietal cells, we showed that gadolinium-, thapsigargin-, and carbachol-mediated release of Ca(2+)(i) induced Shh expression. Ca(2+)-chelation with BAPTA + EGTA reduced Shh expression. Overexpression of PKC-α, -β, and -δ (but not PKC-ϵ) induced an Shh gene expression. In addition, phorbol esters induced a Shh-regulated reporter gene. Secretagogues that stimulate

  15. Effect of lithium on superoxide production and intracellular free calcium mobilization in elastin peptide (kappa-elastin) and FMLP stimulated human PMNS. Effect of age. (United States)

    Fülöp, T; Varga, Z s; Jacob, M P; Robert, L


    The effect of lithium pretreatment on superoxide anion production and intracellular free calcium levels was investigated in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from middle-aged and old individuals after stimulation by elastin peptides or FMLP. K-elastin (KE) significantly stimulated the production of superoxide anion by PMNs from middle-aged subjects, while this stimulation decreased with age and was absent in PMNs of elderly arteriosclerotic patients. Li pretreatment slightly increased this stimulating effect of KE in PMNs from middle-aged subjects and elderly arteriosclerotic patients, while slightly decreased in healthy elderly subjects. Moreover, Li was able to increase superoxide anion production even in the absence of KE, but this effect decreased also in PMNs of healthy and arteriosclerotic elderly patients. FMLP significantly increased superoxide anion production in all age-groups, but this effect was further amplified by Li only in PMNs of middle-aged subjects. In aged individuals Li pretreatment slightly decreased the effect of FMLP and had no effect in arteriosclerotic patients. Ca-mobilization induced by KE was inhibited by Li pretreatement in each age group. This inhibition by Li was much weaker in FMLP-stimulated PMNs. Li pretreatment did however modify the shape of the Ca-transient curves in FMLP stimulated leukocytes suggesting a qualitative modification of ion channel regulation. No such shape change of Ca-transient curves was observed after KE stimulation of Li pretreated PMNs. It appears that the regulation of these two receptors is differently affected by Li treatment.

  16. Determination of the electron temperature in the modified ionosphere over HAARP using the HF pumped Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (SBS emission lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Bernhardt


    Full Text Available An ordinary mode electromagnetic wave can decay into an ion acoustic wave and a scattered electromagnetic wave by a process called stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS. The first detection of this process during ionospheric modification with high power radio waves was reported by Norin et al. (2009 using the HAARP transmitter in Alaska. Subsequent experiments have provided additional verification of this process and quantitative interpretation of the scattered wave frequency offsets to yield measurements of the electron temperatures in the heated ionosphere. Using the SBS technique, electron temperatures between 3000 and 4000 K were measured over the HAARP facility. The matching conditions for decay of the high frequency pump wave show that in addition to the production of an ion-acoustic wave, an electrostatic ion cyclotron wave may also be produced by the generalized SBS processes. Based on the matching condition theory, the first profiles of the scattered wave amplitude are produced using the stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS matching conditions. These profiles are consistent with maximum ionospheric interactions at the upper-hybrid resonance height and at a region just below the plasma resonance altitude where the pump wave electric fields reach their maximum values.

  17. Nitric Oxide Protects L-Type Calcium Channel of Cardiomyocyte during Long-Term Isoproterenol Stimulation in Tail-Suspended Rats. (United States)

    Yue, Zhi-Jie; Xu, Peng-Tao; Jiao, Bo; Chang, Hui; Song, Zhen; Xie, Man-Jiang; Yu, Zhi-Bin


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) on L-type calcium channel (LTCC) gating properties of cardiomyocytes during long-term isoproterenol (ISO) stimulation. Expression and activity of nNOS as well as S-nitrosylation of LTCC α1C subunit significantly decreased in the myocardium of SUS rats. Long-term ISO stimulation increased ROS in cardiomyocytes of SUS rats. ISO-enhanced calcium current (I Ca,L) in the SUS group was less than that in the CON group. The maximal I Ca,L decreased to about 80% or 60% of initial value at the 50th minute of ISO treatment in CON or SUS group, respectively. Specific inhibitor NAAN of nNOS reduced maximal I Ca,L to 50% of initial value in the CON group; in contrast, NO donor SNAP maintained maximal I Ca,L in SUS group to similar extent of CON group after 50 min of ISO treatment. Long-term ISO stimulation also changed steady-state activation (P < 0.01), inactivation (P < 0.01), and recovery (P < 0.05) characteristics of LTCC in SUS group. In conclusion, NO-induced S-nitrosylation of LTCC α1C subunit may competitively prevent oxidation from ROS at the same sites. Furthermore, LTCC can be protected by NO during long-term ISO stimulation.

  18. Nitric Oxide Protects L-Type Calcium Channel of Cardiomyocyte during Long-Term Isoproterenol Stimulation in Tail-Suspended Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jie Yue


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of nitric oxide (NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS on L-type calcium channel (LTCC gating properties of cardiomyocytes during long-term isoproterenol (ISO stimulation. Expression and activity of nNOS as well as S-nitrosylation of LTCC α1C subunit significantly decreased in the myocardium of SUS rats. Long-term ISO stimulation increased ROS in cardiomyocytes of SUS rats. ISO-enhanced calcium current (ICa,L in the SUS group was less than that in the CON group. The maximal ICa,L decreased to about 80% or 60% of initial value at the 50th minute of ISO treatment in CON or SUS group, respectively. Specific inhibitor NAAN of nNOS reduced maximal ICa,L to 50% of initial value in the CON group; in contrast, NO donor SNAP maintained maximal ICa,L in SUS group to similar extent of CON group after 50 min of ISO treatment. Long-term ISO stimulation also changed steady-state activation (P<0.01, inactivation (P<0.01, and recovery (P<0.05 characteristics of LTCC in SUS group. In conclusion, NO-induced S-nitrosylation of LTCC α1C subunit may competitively prevent oxidation from ROS at the same sites. Furthermore, LTCC can be protected by NO during long-term ISO stimulation.

  19. The effect of verapamil and diltiazem on cardiac stimulant effect of adrenaline and calcium chloride on isolated frog heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhavat Sudhakar, Naveen Kumar T, Tadvi NA, Venkata Rao Y


    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers block voltage dependent L-type of calcium channel and thus reduce the frequency of opening of these channels in response to depolarization. The result is a marked decrease in transmembrane calcium current associated with long lasting relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, reduction in contractility in cardiac muscle, decrease in pacemaker activity in the SA node and decrease in conduction velocity in the AV node. Among Calcium channel blockers verapamil, is cardio selective, nifedipine is vascular smooth muscle selective, while diltiazem exhibits intermediate selectivity. Methods: In the present study, the effect of two Ca++ channel blocker, Verapamil and Diltiazem were compared on the isolated frog heart by using adrenaline & calcium chloride as standard on frog heart contractility. Results and conclusion: Adrenaline and calcium chloride increased the amplitude of contraction of isolated perfused frog heart. The L- type of Ca2+ channel blockers verapamil and diltiazem produced dose dependent (2mg, 4mg, 8mg, and 16mg reduction in the amplitude of contraction produced by calcium chloride in isolated perfused frog heart. There was no statistical significant difference (p > 0.05 between the inhibitory effect of diltiazem and verapamil on calcium chloride induced contraction of isolated frog heart.

  20. β(3) adrenergic stimulation of the cardiac Na+-K+ pump by reversal of an inhibitory oxidative modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Henning; Liu, Chia-Chi; Garcia, Alvaro


    inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) current contributes to negative inotropy of β(3) adrenergic receptor (β(3) AR) activation, but effects on other determinants of excitation-contraction coupling are not known. Of these, the Na(+)-K(+) pump is of particular interest because of adverse effects attributed ...... to high cardiac myocyte Na(+) levels and upregulation of the β(3) AR in heart failure....

  1. ß(3) adrenergic stimulation of the cardiac Na+-K+ pump by reversal of an inhibitory oxidative modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Henning; Liu, Chia-Chi; Garcia, Alvaro


    inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) current contributes to negative inotropy of ß(3) adrenergic receptor (ß(3) AR) activation, but effects on other determinants of excitation-contraction coupling are not known. Of these, the Na(+)-K(+) pump is of particular interest because of adverse effects attributed ...... to high cardiac myocyte Na(+) levels and upregulation of the ß(3) AR in heart failure....

  2. A novel strontium(II)-modified calcium phosphate bone cement stimulates human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. (United States)

    Schumacher, M; Lode, A; Helth, A; Gelinsky, M


    In the present study, the in vitro effects of novel strontium-modified calcium phosphate bone cements (SrCPCs), prepared using two different approaches on human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), were evaluated. Strontium ions, known to stimulate bone formation and therefore already used in systemic osteoporosis therapy, were incorporated into a hydroxyapatite-forming calcium phosphate bone cement via two simple approaches: incorporation of strontium carbonate crystals and substitution of Ca(2+) by Sr(2+) ions during cement setting. All modified cements released 0.03-0.07 mM Sr(2+) under in vitro conditions, concentrations that were shown not to impair the proliferation or osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Furthermore, strontium modification led to a reduced medium acidification and Ca(2+) depletion in comparison to the standard calcium phosphate cement. In indirect and direct cell culture experiments with the novel SrCPCs significantly enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation were observed. In conclusion, the SrCPCs described here could be beneficial for the local treatment of defects, especially in the osteoporotic bone. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of electrical stimulation on leg muscle pump activity in spinal cord-injured and able-bodied individuals. (United States)

    van Beekvelt, M C; van Asten, W N; Hopman, M T


    The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in: (1) effective muscle pump activity (MPA) between voluntary and electrically (ES) induced contractions in able-bodied subjects (ABS); and (2) ES-induced MPA between spinal cord-injured (SCI) individuals and ABS. MPA was measured as relative volume changes in the calf using strain-gauge plethysmography during repeated muscle contractions in the supine position while venous outflow was impeded by a thigh cuff inflated to a range of pressures. Ten SCI individuals and ten ABS participated in this study. ABS showed no significant difference between voluntary and electrically induced MPA [58.1 (18.4)% versus 67.7 (8.7)%, respectively]. SCI individuals showed a significantly lower ES-induced MPA than ABS [21.5 (15.9)% versus 67.7 (8.7)%, respectively]. The low MPA in SCI individuals may be explained by: (1) extensive leg muscle atrophy and/or (2) an "atrophic" vascular system in the legs. The electrical current level seemed to influence MPA (43 mA, 21.5% versus 60 mA, 30.8%) for SCI individuals, whereas no influence of muscle contraction rate on MPA was observed in ABS. The results of this study demonstrate that although ES-induced leg muscle contractions result in adequate MPA in ABS, it leads to significantly less effective MPA in SCI individuals.

  4. Stimulation of NOX2 in isolated hearts reversibly sensitizes RyR2 channels to activation by cytoplasmic calcium. (United States)

    Donoso, Paulina; Finkelstein, José Pablo; Montecinos, Luis; Said, Matilde; Sánchez, Gina; Vittone, Leticia; Bull, Ricardo


    The response of ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels to cytoplasmic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]) is redox sensitive. Here, we report the effects of a mild oxidative stress on cardiac RyR (RyR2) channels in Langendorff perfused rat hearts. Single RyR2 channels from control ventricles displayed the same three responses to Ca(2+) reported in other mammalian tissues, characterized by low, moderate, or high maximal activation. A single episode of 5 min of global ischemia, followed by 1 min of reperfusion, enhanced 2.3-fold the activity of NOX2 compared to controls and changed the frequency distribution of the different responses of RyR2 channels to calcium, favoring the more active ones: high activity response increased and low activity response decreased with respect to controls. This change was fully prevented by perfusion with apocynin or VAS 2870 before ischemia and totally reversed by the extension of the reperfusion period to 15 min. In vitro activation of NOX2 in control SR vesicles mimicked the effect of the ischemia/reperfusion episode on the frequencies of emergence of single RyR2 channel responses to [Ca(2+)] and increased 2.2-fold the rate of calcium release in Ca(2+)-loaded SR vesicles. In vitro changes were reversed at the single channel level by DTT and in isolated SR vesicles by glutaredoxin. Our results indicate that in whole hearts a mild oxidative stress enhances the response of cardiac RyR2 channels to calcium via NOX2 activation, probably by S-glutathionylation of RyR2 protein. This change is transitory and fully reversible, suggesting a possible role of redox modification in the physiological response of cardiac RyR2 to cellular calcium influx. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prenatal acoustic stimulation influences neuronal size and the expression of calcium-binding proteins (calbindin D-28K and parvalbumin) in chick hippocampus. (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sraboni; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Wadhwa, Shashi


    Prenatal auditory enrichment by species-specific sounds and sitar music enhances the expression of immediate early genes, synaptic proteins and calcium binding proteins (CaBPs) as well as modifies the structural components of the brainstem auditory nuclei and auditory imprinting area in chicks. There is also facilitation of postnatal auditory preference of the chicks to maternal calls following both types of sound stimulation indicating prenatal perceptual learning. To examine whether the sound enrichment protocol also affects the areas related to learning and memory, we assessed morphological changes in the hippocampus at post-hatch day 1 of control and prenatally sound-stimulated chicks. Additionally, the proportions of neurons containing calbindin D-28K and parvalbumin immunoreactivity as well as their protein levels were determined. Fertilized eggs of domestic chick were incubated under normal conditions of temperature, humidity, forced draft of air as well as light and dark (12:12h) photoperiods. They were exposed to patterned sounds of species-specific and sitar music at 65 dB for 15 min per hour over a day/night cycle from day 10 of incubation till hatching. The hippocampal volume, neuronal nuclear size and total number of neurons showed a significant increase in the music-stimulated group as compared to the species-specific sound-stimulated and control groups. However, in both the auditory-stimulated groups the protein levels of calbindin and parvalbumin as well as the percentage of the immunopositive neurons were increased. The enhanced proportion of CaBPs in the sound-enriched groups suggests greater Ca(2+) influx, which may influence long-term potentiation and short-term memory.

  6. Sources of variability in cytosolic calcium transients triggered by stimulation of homogeneous uro-epithelial cell monolayers. (United States)

    Appleby, Peter A; Shabir, Saqib; Southgate, Jennifer; Walker, Dawn


    Epithelial tissue structure is the emergent outcome of the interactions between large numbers of individual cells. Experimental cell biology offers an important tool to unravel these complex interactions, but current methods of analysis tend to be limited to mean field approaches or representation by selected subsets of cells. This may result in bias towards cells that respond in a particular way and/or neglect local, context-specific cell responses. Here, an automated algorithm was applied to examine in detail the individual calcium transients evoked in genetically homogeneous, but asynchronous populations of cultured non-immortalized normal human urothelial cells when subjected to either the global application of an external agonist or a localized scratch wound. The recorded calcium transients were classified automatically according to a set of defined metrics and distinct sub-populations of cells that responded in qualitatively different ways were observed. The nature of this variability in the homogeneous cell population was apportioned to two sources: intrinsic variation in individual cell responses and extrinsic variability due to context-specific factors of the environment, such as spatial heterogeneity. Statistically significant variation in the features of the calcium transients evoked by scratch wounding according to proximity to the wound edge was identified. The manifestation of distinct sub-populations of cells is considered central to the coordination of population-level response resulting in wound closure.

  7. Arabidopsis calmodulin-like protein CML36 is a calcium (Ca2+) sensor that interacts with the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase isoform ACA8 and stimulates its activity. (United States)

    Astegno, Alessandra; Bonza, Maria Cristina; Vallone, Rosario; La Verde, Valentina; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Luoni, Laura; Molesini, Barbara; Dominici, Paola


    Calmodulin-like (CML) proteins are major EF-hand-containing, calcium (Ca2+)-binding proteins with crucial roles in plant development and in coordinating plant stress tolerance. Given their abundance in plants, the properties of Ca2+ sensors and identification of novel target proteins of CMLs deserve special attention. To this end, we recombinantly produced and biochemically characterized CML36 from Arabidopsis thaliana We analyzed Ca2+ and Mg2+ binding to the individual EF-hands, observed metal-induced conformational changes, and identified a physiologically relevant target. CML36 possesses two high-affinity Ca2+/Mg2+ mixed binding sites and two low-affinity Ca2+-specific sites. Binding of Ca2+ induced an increase in the α-helical content and a conformational change that lead to the exposure of hydrophobic regions responsible for target protein recognition. Cation binding, either Ca2+ or Mg2+, stabilized the secondary and tertiary structures of CML36, guiding a large structural transition from a molten globule apo-state to a compact holoconformation. Importantly, through in vitro binding and activity assays, we showed that CML36 interacts directly with the regulative N terminus of the Arabidopsis plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase isoform 8 (ACA8) and that this interaction stimulates ACA8 activity. Gene expression analysis revealed that CML36 and ACA8 are co-expressed mainly in inflorescences. Collectively, our results support a role for CML36 as a Ca2+ sensor that binds to and modulates ACA8, uncovering a possible involvement of the CML protein family in the modulation of plant-autoinhibited Ca2+ pumps. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Wafer-scale crack-free AlGaN on GaN through two-step selective-area growth for optically pumped stimulated emission (United States)

    Ko, Young-Ho; Bae, Sung-Bum; Kim, Sung-Bock; Kim, Dong Churl; Leem, Young Ahn; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Nam, Eun-Soo


    Crack-free AlGaN template has been successfully grown over entire 2-in. wafer by using 2-step selective-area growth (SAG). The GaN truncated structure was obtained by vertical growth mode with low growth temperature. AlGaN of second step was grown under lateral growth mode. Low pressure enhanced the relative ratio of lateral to vertical growth rate as well as absolute overall growth rate. High V/III ratio was favorable for lateral growth mode. Crack-free planar AlGaN was obtained under low pressure of 30 Torr and high V/III ratio of 4400. The AlGaN was crack-free over entire 2-in. wafer and had quite uniform Al-mole fraction. The dislocation density of the AlGaN with 20% Al-composition was as low as ~7.6×108 /cm2, measured by cathodoluminescence. GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum well (MQW) with cladding and waveguide layers were grown on the crack-free AlGaN template with low dislocation density. It was confirmed that the MQW on the AlGaN template emitted the stimulated emission at 355.5 nm through optical pumping experiment. The AlGaN obtained by 2-step SAG would provide high crystal quality for highly-efficient optoelectronic devices as well as the ultraviolet laser diode.

  9. Developmental Axon Stretch Stimulates Neuron Growth While Maintaining Normal Electrical Activity, Intracellular Calcium Flux, and Somatic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph R Loverde


    Full Text Available Elongation of nerve fibers intuitively occurs throughout mammalian development, and is synchronized with expansion of the growing body. While most tissue systems enlarge through mitosis and differentiation, elongation of nerve fibers is remarkably unique. The emerging paradigm suggests that axons undergo stretch as contiguous tissues enlarge between the proximal and distal segments of spanning nerve fibers. While stretch is distinct from growth, tension is a known stimulus which regulates the growth of axons. Here, we hypothesized that the axon stretch-growth process may be a natural form of injury, whereby regenerative processes fortify elongating axons in order to prevent disconnection. Harnessing the live imaging capability of our axon stretch-growth bioreactors, we assessed neurons both during and following stretch for biomarkers associated with injury. Utilizing whole-cell patch clamp recording, we found no evidence of changes in spontaneous action potential activity or degradation of elicited action potentials during real-time axon stretch at strains of up to 18 % applied over 5 minutes. Unlike traumatic axonal injury, functional calcium imaging of the soma revealed no shifts in free intracellular calcium during axon stretch. Finally, the cross-sectional areas of nuclei and cytoplasms were normal, with no evidence of chromatolysis following week-long stretch-growth limited to the lower of 25 % strain or 3 mm total daily stretch. The neuronal growth cascade coupled to stretch was concluded to be independent of the changes in membrane potential, action potential generation, or calcium flux associated with traumatic injury. While axon stretch-growth is likely to share overlap with regenerative processes, we conclude that developmental stretch is a distinct stimulus from traumatic axon injury.

  10. Developmental axon stretch stimulates neuron growth while maintaining normal electrical activity, intracellular calcium flux, and somatic morphology. (United States)

    Loverde, Joseph R; Pfister, Bryan J


    Elongation of nerve fibers intuitively occurs throughout mammalian development, and is synchronized with expansion of the growing body. While most tissue systems enlarge through mitosis and differentiation, elongation of nerve fibers is remarkably unique. The emerging paradigm suggests that axons undergo stretch as contiguous tissues enlarge between the proximal and distal segments of spanning nerve fibers. While stretch is distinct from growth, tension is a known stimulus which regulates the growth of axons. Here, we hypothesized that the axon stretch-growth process may be a natural form of injury, whereby regenerative processes fortify elongating axons in order to prevent disconnection. Harnessing the live imaging capability of our axon stretch-growth bioreactors, we assessed neurons both during and following stretch for biomarkers associated with injury. Utilizing whole-cell patch clamp recording, we found no evidence of changes in spontaneous action potential activity or degradation of elicited action potentials during real-time axon stretch at strains of up to 18% applied over 5 min. Unlike traumatic axonal injury, functional calcium imaging of the soma revealed no shifts in free intracellular calcium during axon stretch. Finally, the cross-sectional areas of nuclei and cytoplasms were normal, with no evidence of chromatolysis following week-long stretch-growth limited to the lower of 25% strain or 3 mm total daily stretch. The neuronal growth cascade coupled to stretch was concluded to be independent of the changes in membrane potential, action potential generation, or calcium flux associated with traumatic injury. While axon stretch-growth is likely to share overlap with regenerative processes, we conclude that developmental stretch is a distinct stimulus from traumatic axon injury.

  11. Lipoxin A4 stimulates calcium-activated chloride currents and increases airway surface liquid height in normal and cystic fibrosis airway epithelia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)


    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease characterised by a deficit in epithelial Cl(-) secretion which in the lung leads to airway dehydration and a reduced Airway Surface Liquid (ASL) height. The endogenous lipoxin LXA(4) is a member of the newly identified eicosanoids playing a key role in ending the inflammatory process. Levels of LXA(4) are reported to be decreased in the airways of patients with CF. We have previously shown that in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, LXA(4) produced a rapid and transient increase in intracellular Ca(2+). We have investigated, the effect of LXA(4) on Cl(-) secretion and the functional consequences on ASL generation in bronchial epithelial cells obtained from CF and non-CF patient biopsies and in bronchial epithelial cell lines. We found that LXA(4) stimulated a rapid intracellular Ca(2+) increase in all of the different CF bronchial epithelial cells tested. In non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia, LXA(4) stimulated whole-cell Cl(-) currents which were inhibited by NPPB (calcium-activated Cl(-) channel inhibitor), BAPTA-AM (chelator of intracellular Ca(2+)) but not by CFTRinh-172 (CFTR inhibitor). We found, using confocal imaging, that LXA(4) increased the ASL height in non-CF and in CF airway bronchial epithelia. The LXA(4) effect on ASL height was sensitive to bumetanide, an inhibitor of transepithelial Cl(-) secretion. The LXA(4) stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+), whole-cell Cl(-) currents, conductances and ASL height were inhibited by Boc-2, a specific antagonist of the ALX\\/FPR2 receptor. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence for a novel role of LXA(4) in the stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+) signalling leading to Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion and enhanced ASL height in non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia.

  12. Rebaudioside A potently stimulates insulin secretion from isolated mouse islets: studies on the dose-, glucose-, and calcium-dependency. (United States)

    Abudula, Reziwanggu; Jeppesen, Per Bendix; Rolfsen, Stig Eric D; Xiao, Jianzhong; Hermansen, Kjeld


    Extracts of leaves of the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (SrB), have been used for many years in traditional treatment of diabetes in South America. Stevia leaves contain diterpene glycosides, stevioside and rebaudioside A being the most abundant. Recently, it was demonstrated that stevioside stimulates the insulin secretion both in vitro and in vivo. Subsequently, we wanted to elucidate the influence of rebaudioside A on the insulin release from mouse islets using static incubations, as well as perifusion experiments. Rebaudioside A (10(-16) to 10(-6) mol/L) dose-dependently stimulated the insulin secretion in the presence of 16.7 mmol/L glucose (P 6.6 mmol/L. The effect of rebaudioside A is critically dependent on the presence of extracellular Ca2+, ie, rebaudioside A-induced insulin stimulation at high glucose disappears in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. In conclusion, rebaudioside A possesses insulinotropic effects and may serve a potential role as treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  13. Odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells by calcium silicate materials stimulating via FGFR/ERK signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chao-Hsin [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Hung, Chi-Jr; Huang, Tsui-Hsien [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Chang [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Kao, Chia-Tze [School of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Department of Dentistry, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Shie, Ming-You, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tunghai University, Taichung City, Taiwan (China)


    Bone healing needs a complex interaction of growth factors that establishes an environment for efficient bone formation. We examine how calcium silicate (CS) and tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) cements influence the behavior of human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) through fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and active MAPK pathways, in particular ERK. The hDPCs are cultured with β-TCP and CS, after which the cells' viability and odontogenic differentiation markers are determined by using PrestoBlue® assay and western blot, respectively. The effect of small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection targeting FGFR was also evaluated. The results showed that CS promoted cell proliferation and enhances FGFR expression. It was also found that CS increases ERK and p38 activity in hDPCs, and furthermore, raises the expression and secretion of DSP, and DMP-1. Additionally, statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) have been found in the calcium deposition in si-FGFR transfection and ERK inhibitor between CS and β-TCP; these variations indicated that ERK/MAPK signaling is involved in the silicon-induced odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs. The current study shows that CS substrates play a key role in odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs through FGFR and modulate ERK/MAPK activation. - Highlights: • CS influences the behavior of hDPCs through fibroblast growth factor receptor. • CS increases ERK and p38 activity in hDPCs. • ERK/MAPK signaling is involved in the Si-induced odontogenic differentiation of hDPCs. • Ca staining shows that FGFR regulates hDPC differentiation on CS, but not on β-TCP.

  14. Penis Pump (United States)

    ... appointment might be less involved. Choosing a penis pump Some penis pumps are available without a prescription, ... doesn't get caught in the ring. Penis pumps for penis enlargement Many advertisements in magazines and ...

  15. Selective potentiation of histamine H1-receptor stimulated calcium responses by 1,4-dithiothreitol in DDT1MF-2 cells. (United States)

    Dickenson, J M; Hill, S J


    The effect of 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT) on agonist-stimulated increases in intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) has been investigated in the smooth muscle cell line, DDT1MF-2, derived from hamster vas deferens. Pretreatment with DTT (1 mM) produced a large leftward parallel shift in concentration-response curve for histamine H1-receptor mediated increases in [Ca2+]i. The EC50 values for H1-receptor stimulated increases in [Ca2+]i in the absence and presence of DTT were 11.3 +/- 1.5 microM (N = 6) and 0.52 +/- 0.15 microM (N = 6), respectively. DTT had no significant effect on the maximum Ca2+ response elicited by histamine (100 microM). In the presence of DTT the partial H1-receptor agonist 2-pyridylethylamine (100 microM) increased [Ca2+]i from 112 +/- 14 nM to 237 +/- 24 nM (N = 10). In control cells 2-pyridylethylamine (100 microM) did not elicit a Ca2+ response. DTT had no significant effect on the maximum Ca2+ response elicited by 1 mM 2-pyridylethylamine. The enhancement of histamine H1-receptor Ca2+ responses by DTT was reversed by the sulphydryl oxidizing agent dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). DTT had no significant effect on adenosine A1-, bradykinin and ATP-receptor stimulated increases in [Ca2+]i. [3H]mepyramine binding experiments confirmed that DTT increased agonist affinity. DTT produced a small, but significant, leftward shift in concentration-response curve for histamine displacement of [3H]mepyramine binding. These data suggest that DTT potentiates H1-receptor mediated Ca2+ responses by increasing agonist affinity.

  16. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar


    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  17. Sweet Taste Receptor Expressed in Pancreatic β-Cells Activates the Calcium and Cyclic AMP Signaling Systems and Stimulates Insulin Secretion (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Masahiro; Yamada, Satoko; Hara, Akemi; Mogami, Hideo; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.; Lohse, Martin J.; Shigemura, Noriatsu; Ninomiya, Yuzo; Kojima, Itaru


    Background Sweet taste receptor is expressed in the taste buds and enteroendocrine cells acting as a sugar sensor. We investigated the expression and function of the sweet taste receptor in MIN6 cells and mouse islets. Methodology/Principal Findings The expression of the sweet taste receptor was determined by RT–PCR and immunohistochemistry. Changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) and cAMP ([cAMP]c) were monitored in MIN6 cells using fura-2 and Epac1-camps. Activation of protein kinase C was monitored by measuring translocation of MARCKS-GFP. Insulin was measured by radioimmunoassay. mRNA for T1R2, T1R3, and gustducin was expressed in MIN6 cells. In these cells, artificial sweeteners such as sucralose, succharin, and acesulfame-K increased insulin secretion and augmented secretion induced by glucose. Sucralose increased biphasic increase in [Ca2+]c. The second sustained phase was blocked by removal of extracellular calcium and addition of nifedipine. An inhibitor of inositol(1, 4, 5)-trisphophate receptor, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, blocked both phases of [Ca2+]c response. The effect of sucralose on [Ca2+]c was inhibited by gurmarin, an inhibitor of the sweet taste receptor, but not affected by a Gq inhibitor. Sucralose also induced sustained elevation of [cAMP]c, which was only partially inhibited by removal of extracellular calcium and nifedipine. Finally, mouse islets expressed T1R2 and T1R3, and artificial sweeteners stimulated insulin secretion. Conclusions Sweet taste receptor is expressed in β-cells, and activation of this receptor induces insulin secretion by Ca2+ and cAMP-dependent mechanisms. PMID:19352508

  18. Sweet taste receptor expressed in pancreatic beta-cells activates the calcium and cyclic AMP signaling systems and stimulates insulin secretion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Nakagawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sweet taste receptor is expressed in the taste buds and enteroendocrine cells acting as a sugar sensor. We investigated the expression and function of the sweet taste receptor in MIN6 cells and mouse islets. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The expression of the sweet taste receptor was determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Changes in cytoplasmic Ca(2+ ([Ca(2+](c and cAMP ([cAMP](c were monitored in MIN6 cells using fura-2 and Epac1-camps. Activation of protein kinase C was monitored by measuring translocation of MARCKS-GFP. Insulin was measured by radioimmunoassay. mRNA for T1R2, T1R3, and gustducin was expressed in MIN6 cells. In these cells, artificial sweeteners such as sucralose, succharin, and acesulfame-K increased insulin secretion and augmented secretion induced by glucose. Sucralose increased biphasic increase in [Ca(2+](c. The second sustained phase was blocked by removal of extracellular calcium and addition of nifedipine. An inhibitor of inositol(1, 4, 5-trisphophate receptor, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, blocked both phases of [Ca(2+](c response. The effect of sucralose on [Ca(2+](c was inhibited by gurmarin, an inhibitor of the sweet taste receptor, but not affected by a G(q inhibitor. Sucralose also induced sustained elevation of [cAMP](c, which was only partially inhibited by removal of extracellular calcium and nifedipine. Finally, mouse islets expressed T1R2 and T1R3, and artificial sweeteners stimulated insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS: Sweet taste receptor is expressed in beta-cells, and activation of this receptor induces insulin secretion by Ca(2+ and cAMP-dependent mechanisms.

  19. Effect of calcium ions on the evolution of biofouling by Bacillus subtilis in plate heat exchangers simulating the heat pump system used with treated sewage in the 2008 Olympic Village. (United States)

    Tian, Lei; Chen, Xiao Dong; Yang, Qian Peng; Chen, Jin Chun; Shi, Lin; Li, Qiong


    Heat pump systems using treated sewage water as the heat source were used in the Beijing Olympic Village for domestic heating and cooling. However, considerable biofouling occurred in the plate heat exchangers used in the heat pump system, greatly limiting the system efficiency. This study investigates the biofouling characteristics using a plate heat exchanger in parallel with a flow cell system to focus on the effect of calcium ions on the biofilm development. The interactions between the microorganisms and Ca(2+) enhances both the extent and the rate of biofilm development with increasing Ca(2+) concentration, leading to increased heat transfer and flow resistances. Three stages of biofouling development were identified in the presence of Ca(2+) from different biofouling mass growth rates with an initial stage, a rapid growth stage and an extended growth stage. Each growth stage had different biofouling morphologies influenced by the Ca(2+) concentration. The effects of Ca(2+) on the biofouling heat transfer and flow resistances had a synergistic effect related to both the biofouling mass and the morphology. The effect of Ca(2+) on the biofouling development was most prominent during the rapid growth stage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Intracellular calcium-release and protein kinase C-activation stimulate sonic hedgehog gene expression during gastric acid secretion (United States)

    El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Zavros, Yana; Tessier, Art; Waghray, Meghna; Lentz, Steve; Gumucio, Deborah; Todisco, Andrea; Merchant, Juanita L.


    Introduction Hypochlorhydria during Helicobacter pylori infection inhibits gastric Shh expression. We investigated whether acid-secretory mechanisms regulate Shh gene expression through Ca2+i-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) or cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA)-activation. Method We blocked Hedgehog signaling by transgenically overexpressing a secreted form of the Hedgehog interacting protein-1 (sHip-1), a natural inhibitor of hedgehog ligands, which induced hypochlorhydria. Gadolinium, EGTA+BAPTA, PKC-overexpressing adenoviruses, and PKC-inhibitors were used to modulate Ca2+i-release, PKC-activity and Shh gene expression in primary gastric cell, organ, and AGS cell line cultures. PKA hyperactivity was induced in the H+/K+-β-cholera-toxin overexpressing mice (Ctox). Results Mice that expressed sHip-1 had lower levels of gastric acid (hypochlorhydria), reduced production of somatostatin, and increased gastrin gene expression. Hypochlorhydria in these mice repressed Shh gene expression, similar to the levels obtained with omeprazole treatment of wild-type mice. However, Shh expression was also repressed in the hyperchlorhydric Ctox model with elevated cAMP, suggesting that the regulation of Shh was not solely acid-dependent, but pertained to specific acid-stimulatory signaling pathways. Based on previous reports that Ca2+i-release also stimulates acid secretion in parietal cells, we showed that gadolinium-, thapsigargin- and carbachol-mediated release of Ca2+i induced Shh expression. Ca2+-chelation with BAPTA+EGTA reduced Shh expression. Overexpression of PKC-α, -β and -δ (but not PKC-ε) induced Shh gene expression. In addition, phorbol esters induced a Shh-regulated reporter gene. Conclusion Secretagogues that stimulate gastric acid secretion induce Shh gene expression through increased Ca2+i-release and PKC activation. Shh might be the ligand transducing changes in gastric acidity to the regulation of G-cell secretion of gastrin. PMID:20816837

  1. Altered calcium pump and secondary deficiency of γ-sarcoglycan and microspan in sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes isolated from δ-sarcoglycan knockout mice (United States)

    Solares-Pérez, Alhondra; Álvarez, Rocío; Crosbie, Rachelle H.; Vega-Moreno, Jesús; Medina-Monares, Joel; Estrada, Francisco J.; Ortega, Alicia; Coral-Vazquez, Ramón


    Sarcoglycans (SGs) and sarcospan (SSPN) are transmembrane proteins of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. Mutations in the genes encoding SGs cause many inherited forms of muscular dystrophy. In this study, using purified membranes of wild-type (WT) and δ-SG knockout (KO) mice, we found the specific localization of the SG-SSPN isoforms in transverse tubules (TT) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes. Immunoblotting revealed that the absence of δ-SG isoforms in TT and SR results in a secondary deficiency of γ-SG and µSPN. Our results showed augmented ATP hydrolytic activity, ATP-dependent calcium uptake and passive calcium efflux, probably through SERCA1 in KO compared to WT mice. Furthermore, we found a conformational change in SERCA1 isolated from KO muscle as demonstrated by calorimetric analysis. Following these alterations with mechanical properties, we found an increase in force in KO muscle with the same rate of fatigue but with a decreased fatigue recovery compared to WT. Together our observations suggest, for the first time, that the δ-SG isoforms may stabilize the expression of γ-SG and µSPN in the TT and SR membranes and that this possible complex may play a role in the maintenance of a stable level of resting cytosolic calcium concentration in skeletal muscle. PMID:20638123

  2. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, HH


    Centrifugal Pumps describes the whole range of the centrifugal pump (mixed flow and axial flow pumps are dealt with more briefly), with emphasis on the development of the boiler feed pump. Organized into 46 chapters, this book discusses the general hydrodynamic principles, performance, dimensions, type number, flow, and efficiency of centrifugal pumps. This text also explains the pumps performance; entry conditions and cavitation; speed and dimensions for a given duty; and losses. Some chapters further describe centrifugal pump mechanical design, installation, monitoring, and maintenance. The

  3. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) IV mediates nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and release of HMGB1 during lipopolysaccharide stimulation of macrophages. (United States)

    Zhang, Xianghong; Wheeler, David; Tang, Ying; Guo, Lanping; Shapiro, Richard A; Ribar, Thomas J; Means, Anthony R; Billiar, Timothy R; Angus, Derek C; Rosengart, Matthew R


    The chromatin-binding factor high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) functions as a proinflammatory cytokine and late mediator of mortality in murine endotoxemia. Although serine phosphorylation of HMGB1 is necessary for nucleocytoplasmic shuttling before its cellular release, the protein kinases involved have not been identified. To investigate if calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) IV serine phosphorylates and mediates the release of HMGB1 from macrophages (Mphi) stimulated with LPS, RAW 264.7 cells or murine primary peritoneal Mphi were incubated with either STO609 (a CaMKIV kinase inhibitor), KN93 (a CaMKIV inhibitor), or we utilized cells from which CaMKIV was depleted by RNA interference (RNAi) before stimulation with LPS. We also compared the LPS response of primary Mphi isolated from CaMKIV(+/+) and CaMKIV(-/-) mice. In both cell types LPS induced activation and nuclear translocation of CaMKIV, which preceded HMGB1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. However, Mphi treated with KN93, STO609, or CaMKIV RNAi before LPS showed reduced nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HMGB1 and release of HMGB1 into the supernatant. Additionally, LPS induced serine phosphorylation of HMGB1, which correlated with an interaction between CaMKIV and HMGB1 and with CaMKIV phosphorylation of HMGB1 in vitro. In cells, both HMGB1 phosphorylation and interaction with CaMKIV were inhibited by STO609 or CaMKIV RNAi. Similarly, whereas CaMKIV(+/+) Mphi showed serine phosphorylation of HMGB1 in response to LPS, this phosphorylation was attenuated in CaMKIV(-/-) Mphi. Collectively, our results demonstrate that CaMKIV promotes the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HMGB1 and suggest that the process may be mediated through CaMKIV-dependent serine phosphorylation of HMGB1.

  4. Stimulating effects of a diet negative in dietary cation-anion difference on calcium absorption from the rumen in sheep. (United States)

    Wilkens, M R; Praechter, C; Breves, G; Schröder, B


    The concept of feeding anionic salts in late gestation is widely used to prevent milk fever in dairy cows. While the effects of these diets on renal Ca excretion and tissue responsiveness towards parathyroid hormone have clearly been demonstrated, data on a potential impact on gastrointestinal Ca absorption are conflicting. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of feeding a diet negative in dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on ruminal mineral concentrations, fermentation products, electrophysiological properties of rumen epithelia and Ca flux rates. For this purpose, sheep were kept for 3 weeks on diets that were either positive or negative in DCAD. The induction of a compensated hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis could be demonstrated by increased plasma Cl and enhanced concentrations of ionised Ca, while plasma concentrations of HCO3- and base excess were decreased with the low DCAD diet. Neither transmural potential differences nor fermentation products were affected, but ruminal concentrations of Cl and Mg as well as the relation of ionised to total Ca were increased. Ussing chamber experiments revealed alterations of electrophysiological parameters and an increase in the electroneutral component of Ca flux rates from the mucosal to the serosal side of rumen epithelium. As plasma calcitriol concentrations were not affected, it can be concluded that the administration of anionic salts results in a vitamin D-independent stimulation of ruminal Ca transport. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II at T286 enhances invasion and migration of human breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Chi, Mengna; Evans, Hamish; Gilchrist, Jackson; Mayhew, Jack; Hoffman, Alexander; Pearsall, Elizabeth Ann; Jankowski, Helen; Brzozowski, Joshua Stephen; Skelding, Kathryn Anne


    Calcium/calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a multi-functional kinase that controls a range of cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The biological properties of CaMKII are regulated by multi-site phosphorylation. However, the role that CaMKII phosphorylation plays in cancer cell metastasis has not been examined. We demonstrate herein that CaMKII expression and phosphorylation at T286 is increased in breast cancer when compared to normal breast tissue, and that increased CAMK2 mRNA is associated with poor breast cancer patient prognosis (worse overall and distant metastasis free survival). Additionally, we show that overexpression of WT, T286D and T286V forms of CaMKII in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells increases invasion, migration and anchorage independent growth, and that overexpression of the T286D phosphomimic leads to a further increase in the invasive, migratory and anchorage independent growth capacity of these cells. Pharmacological inhibition of CaMKII decreases MDA-MB-231 migration and invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that overexpression of T286D, but not WT or T286V-CaMKII, leads to phosphorylation of FAK, STAT5a, and Akt. These results demonstrate a novel function for phosphorylation of CaMKII at T286 in the control of breast cancer metastasis, offering a promising target for the development of therapeutics to prevent breast cancer metastasis.

  6. Acceleration of segmental bone regeneration in a rabbit model by strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate scaffold through stimulating VEGF and bFGF secretion from osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Zhipeng [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Suzhou Institute of Sichuan University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Xu [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Li, Li [Department of Oncology, the 452 Hospital of Chinese PLA, Chengdu, Sichuan Province 610021 (China); Wang, Qiguang [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Yu, Xixun, E-mail: [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Suzhou Institute of Sichuan University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Feng, Ting [The Joint Research Center of West China Second University Hospital of Sichuan University and University of Hong Kong, Chengdu 610041 (China)


    The development of suitable bioactive three-dimensional scaffold for the promotion of bone regeneration is critical in bone tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vivo osteogenesis of the porous strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate (SCPP) scaffolds for bone repair, as well as the relationship between osteogenic properties of SCPP scaffolds and the secretion of bFGF and VEGF from osteoblasts stimulated by SCPP. Besides, the advantages of scaffolds seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for bone repair were also studied. Firstly, the bone repair evaluation of scaffolds was performed on a rabbit segmental bony defects model over a period of 16 weeks by histology combined with X-ray microradiography. And then, in order to avoid the influence from the other factors such as hypoxia which emerge in vivo study and affect the secretion of VEGF and bFGF from host cells, human osteoblast-like cells (MG63) were seeded to SCPP, CPP and HA scaffolds in vitro to determine the ability of these scaffolds to stimulate the secretion of angiogenic growth factors (VEGF and bFGF) from MG63 and further explore the reason for the better osteogenic properties of SCPP scaffolds. The histological and X-ray microradiographic results showed that the SCPP scaffolds presented better osteogenic potential than CPP and HA scaffolds, when combined with MSCs, the SCPP scaffolds could further accelerate the bone repair. And the amounts of VEGF measured by ELISA assay in SCPP, CPP and HA groups after cultured for 7 days were about 364.989 pg/mL, 244.035 pg/mL and 232.785 pg/mL, respectively. Accordingly, the amounts of bFGF were about 27.085 pg/mL, 15.727 pg/mL and 8.326 pg/mL. The results revealed that the SCPP scaffolds significantly enhanced the bFGF and VEGF secretion compared with other scaffolds. The results presented in vivo and in vitro study demonstrated that the SCPP could accelerate bone formation through stimulating the secretion of VEGF and bFGF from

  7. Optimisation and validation of a high throughput screening compatible assay to identify inhibitors of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase pump--a novel therapeutic target for contraception and malaria. (United States)

    Mohamed, Tamer M A; Zakeri, Simon A; Baudoin, Florence; Wolf, Markus; Oceandy, Delvac; Cartwright, Elizabeth J; Gul, Sheraz; Neyses, Ludwig


    ATPases, which constitute a major category of ion transporters in the human body, have a variety of significant biological and pathological roles. However, the lack of high throughput assays for ATPases has significantly limited drug discovery in this area. We have recently found that the genetic deletion of the ATP dependent calcium pump PMCA4 (plasma membrane calcium/calmodulin dependent ATPase, isoform 4) results in infertility in male mice due to a selective defect in sperm motility. In addition, recent discoveries in humans have indicated that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the PMCA4 gene determines the susceptibility towards malaria plasmodium infection. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop specific PMCA4 inhibitors. In the current study, we aim to optimise and validate a high throughput screening compatible assay using recombinantly expressed PMCA4 and the HTRF® Transcreener® ADP (TR-FRET) assay to screen a drug library. PMCA4 membrane microsomes were prepared from HEK293 cells overexpressing PMCA4. Western blot quantification revealed nearly nine-fold increased expression of PMCA4 compared to LacZ (control virus)-infected cells. Maximal PMCA4 microsomal activity was achieved in the TR-FRET assay with 15ng/μl microsomal concentration, 30-minute pre-incubation with compounds at 37°C, and calcium buffering with 1mM EGTA providing 1μM free-calcium. Finally a dose-response curve for carboxyeosin (a non-specific PMCA inhibitor) under optimised conditions showed significant PMCA4 inhibition. Upon confirmation that the assay was suitable for high-throughput screening, we have screened the ChemBioNet small molecule library (~21,000 compounds) against the PMCA4 assay to identify those that are its apparent inhibitors. This screening yielded 1,494 primary hits. We have optimised the HTRF® Transcreener® ADP assay for high-throughput screening to identify PMCA4 inhibitors. The output of the screening campaign has provided preliminary chemical

  8. Calcium - urine (United States)

    Urinary Ca+2; Kidney stones - calcium in urine; Renal calculi - calcium in your urine; Parathyroid - calcium in urine ... Urine calcium level can help your provider: Decide on the best treatment for the most common type of kidney ...

  9. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA


    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  10. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation of gonadotropin subunit transcription: evidence for the involvement of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (Ca/CAMK II) activation in rat pituitaries. (United States)

    Haisenleder, D J; Burger, L L; Aylor, K W; Dalkin, A C; Marshall, J C


    The intracellular pathways mediating GnRH regulation of gonadotropin subunit transcription remain to be fully characterized, and the present study examined whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (Ca/CAMK II) plays a role in the rat pituitary. Preliminary studies demonstrated that a single pulse of GnRH given to adult rats stimulated a transient 2.5-fold rise in Ca/CAMK II activity (as determined by an increase in Ca/CAMK II phosphorylation), with peak values at 5 min, returning to basal 45 min after the pulse. Further studies examined the alpha, LHbeta, and FSHbeta transcriptional responses to GnRH or Bay K 8644+KCl (BK+KCl) pulses in vitro in the absence or presence of the Ca/CAMK II-specific inhibitor, KN-93. Gonadotropin subunit transcription was assessed by measuring primary transcripts (PTs) by quantitative RT-PCR. In time-course studies, both GnRH and BK+KCl pulses given alone increased all three subunit PTs after 6 h (2- to 4-fold). PT responses to GnRH increased over time (3- to 8-fold over basal at 24 h), although BK+KCl was ineffective after 24 h. KN-93 reduced the LHbeta and FSHbeta transcriptional responses to GnRH by 50-60% and completely suppressed the alphaPT response. In contrast, KN-93 showed no inhibitory effects on basal transcriptional activity or LH or FSH secretion. In fact, KN-93 tended to increase basal alpha, LHbeta, and FSHbeta PT levels and enhance LH secretory responses to GnRH. These results reveal that Ca/CAMK II plays a central role in the transmission of pulsatile GnRH signals from the plasma membrane to the rat alpha, LHbeta, and FSHbeta subunit genes.

  11. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski


    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  12. Calcium dynamics predict direction of synaptic plasticity in striatal spiny projection neurons. (United States)

    Jędrzejewska-Szmek, Joanna; Damodaran, Sriraman; Dorman, Daniel B; Blackwell, Kim T


    The striatum is a major site of learning and memory formation for sensorimotor and cognitive association. One of the mechanisms used by the brain for memory storage is synaptic plasticity - the long-lasting, activity-dependent change in synaptic strength. All forms of synaptic plasticity require an elevation in intracellular calcium, and a common hypothesis is that the amplitude and duration of calcium transients can determine the direction of synaptic plasticity. The utility of this hypothesis in the striatum is unclear in part because dopamine is required for striatal plasticity and in part because of the diversity in stimulation protocols. To test whether calcium can predict plasticity direction, we developed a calcium-based plasticity rule using a spiny projection neuron model with sophisticated calcium dynamics including calcium diffusion, buffering and pump extrusion. We utilized three spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) induction protocols, in which postsynaptic potentials are paired with precisely timed action potentials and the timing of such pairing determines whether potentiation or depression will occur. Results show that despite the variation in calcium dynamics, a single, calcium-based plasticity rule, which explicitly considers duration of calcium elevations, can explain the direction of synaptic weight change for all three STDP protocols. Additional simulations show that the plasticity rule correctly predicts the NMDA receptor dependence of long-term potentiation and the L-type channel dependence of long-term depression. By utilizing realistic calcium dynamics, the model reveals mechanisms controlling synaptic plasticity direction, and shows that the dynamics of calcium, not just calcium amplitude, are crucial for synaptic plasticity. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Arctic ocean shelf-basin interaction: An active continental shelf CO 2 pump and its impact on the degree of calcium carbonate solubility (United States)

    Anderson, L. G.; Tanhua, T.; Björk, G.; Hjalmarsson, S.; Jones, E. P.; Jutterström, S.; Rudels, B.; Swift, J. H.; Wåhlstöm, I.


    The Arctic Ocean has wide shelf areas with extensive biological activity including a high primary productivity and an active microbial loop within the surface sediment. This in combination with brine production during sea ice formation result in the decay products exiting from the shelf into the deep basin typically at a depth of about 150 m and over a wide salinity range centered around S ˜33. We present data from the Beringia cruise in 2005 along a section in the Canada Basin from the continental margin north of Alaska towards the north and from the International Siberian Shelf Study in 2008 (ISSS-08) to illustrate the impact of these processes. The water rich in decay products, nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), exits the shelf not only from the Chukchi Sea, as has been shown earlier, but also from the East Siberian Sea. The excess of DIC found in the Canada Basin in a depth range of about 50-250 m amounts to 90±40 g C m -2. If this excess is integrated over the whole Canadian Basin the excess equals 320±140×10 12 g C. The high DIC concentration layer also has low pH and consequently a low degree of calcium carbonate saturation, with minimum aragonite values of 60% saturation and calcite values just below saturation. The mean age of the waters in the top 300 m was calculated using the transit time distribution method. By applying a future exponential increase of atmospheric CO 2 the invasion of anthropogenic carbon into these waters will result in an under-saturated surface water with respect to aragonite by the year 2050, even without any freshening caused by melting sea ice or increased river discharge.

  14. Centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Gülich, Johann Friedrich


    This book gives an unparalleled, up-to-date, in-depth treatment of all kinds of flow phenomena encountered in centrifugal pumps including the complex interactions of fluid flow with vibrations and wear of materials. The scope includes all aspects of hydraulic design, 3D-flow phenomena and partload operation, cavitation, numerical flow calculations, hydraulic forces, pressure pulsations, noise, pump vibrations (notably bearing housing vibration diagnostics and remedies), pipe vibrations, pump characteristics and pump operation, design of intake structures, the effects of highly viscous flows, pumping of gas-liquid mixtures, hydraulic transport of solids, fatigue damage to impellers or diffusers, material selection under the aspects of fatigue, corrosion, erosion-corrosion or hydro-abrasive wear, pump selection, and hydraulic quality criteria. As a novelty, the 3rd ed. brings a fully analytical design method for radial impellers, which eliminates the arbitrary choices inherent to former design procedures. The d...

  15. Pumping life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitsel, Oleg; Dach, Ingrid; Hoffmann, Robert Daniel


    The name PUMPKIN may suggest a research centre focused on American Halloween traditions or the investigation of the growth of vegetables – however this would be misleading. Researchers at PUMPKIN, short for Centre for Membrane Pumps in Cells and Disease, are in fact interested in a large family o......’. Here we illustrate that the pumping of ions means nothing less than the pumping of life....

  16. Controlling cross pumping between C-N and C-H vibration in nitromethane by selective fluorescence-enhanced stimulated Raman scattering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Shenghan; Fang, Wenhui; Li, Tianyu; Li, Fangfang; Sun, Chenglin; Li, Zuowei; Men, Zhiwei


    To investigate the vibrational features of nitromethane (NM), which is a kind of energy material and a well known low-sensitivity and high explosive, experiments are performed to obtain the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS...

  17. Calcium Carbonate (United States)

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  18. Calcium supplements (United States)

    ... this page: // Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  19. Effect of calcium entry blockers on blood pressure and vasoconstrictor responses to alpha-1 adrenoceptor stimulation in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoolen, M.J.; Miller, C.R.; Chiu, A.T.; Timmermans, P.B. (E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company Inc., Wilmington, DE (USA))


    In order to investigate whether vascular alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonism plays a role in the antihypertensive effect of verapamil, tiapamil, and nifedipine, we studied their potencies to inhibit K(+)-induced 45Ca2+ influx in rat isolated aorta and ({sup 3}H)prazosin binding in rat brain membranes in vitro as well as their antihypertensive effect and functional alpha-1 adrenoceptor blockade in conscious spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) in vivo. Tiapamil proved 70 times less potent than verapamil in inhibiting calcium influx, but was equipotent in displacing ({sup 3}H)prazosin. Nifedipine proved 10 times more potent than verapamil as calcium channel blocker but displayed negligible affinity for alpha-1 adrenoceptors in vitro. In conscious SHR, the three calcium channel blockers dose-dependently reduced mean arterial pressure after oral administration. Only at maximal anti-hypertensive doses, the increases in diastolic pressure to intravenous injection of the selective alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist cirazoline were temporarily suppressed by nifedipine, verapamil, and tiapamil. No relationship existed between the relative potencies as calcium channel blocker and affinities for alpha-1 adrenoceptor binding sites in vitro with functional vascular alpha-1 adrenoceptor blockade in vivo. The data do not support the hypothesis that vascular alpha-1 adrenoceptor blockade plays a significant role in the anti-hypertensive effect of verapamil and related calcium channel blockers.

  20. Recent insights into the structure and mechanism of the sodium pump. (United States)

    Horisberger, J-D


    The sodium pump (or Na-K-ATPase) is essential to the function of animal cells. Publication of the related calcium pump (SERCA) structure together with several recent results from a variety of approaches allow us to propose a mechanistic model to answer the question: "How does the sodium pump pump?"

  1. Glucose stimulates neurotensin secretion from the rat small intestine by mechanisms involving SGLT1 and GLUT2 leading to cell depolarization and calcium influx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Bechmann, Louise Ellegaard; Hartmann, Bolette


    , suggesting that glucose stimulates secretion by initial uptake by this transporter. However, secretion was also sensitive to GLUT2 inhibition (by phloretin) and blockage of oxidative phosphorylation (2-4-dinitrophenol). Direct KATP channel closure by sulfonylureas stimulated secretion. Therefore, glucose...

  2. Impulse Pump (United States)


    links the flywheel to a pusher shaft. The energy release is achieved when the planetary gear carrier is decelerated using a caliper brake . The...flywheel. Through a cam roller contact point between the pusher shaft and the cam raceway on the plunger; the rotational motion of the pusher shaft... brakes , a barrel type cam and follower, a piston pump, a reservoir, and a nozzle to assemble the inventive pump. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

  3. Both short intense and prolonged moderate in vitro stimulation reduce the mRNA expression of calcium-regulatory proteins in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänttäri, Satu; Ørtenblad, Niels; Madsen, Klavs


    RNA expression of components involved in Ca(2+) regulation in oxidative and glycolytic skeletal muscle. The mRNA level of Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA1, 2), calsequestrin (CASQ1, 2), ryanodine receptor (RyR1), and dihydropyridine receptor (Cacna1) was assessed in rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL......) muscles at 4 h of recovery following in vitro stimulations (either short intensive (SHO) 60 Hz, 5 min, or prolonged moderate (PRO) 20 Hz, 40 min). Stimulation induced acute regulation of the mRNA level of Ca(2+)-regulating proteins in a manner that does not follow typical fibre-type-specific transitions......+)-regulating system in skeletal muscle. The down-regulation of both isoforms of SERCA and CASQ after a single electrical stimulation session suggests that adaptations to repeated stimulation involve further regulatory mechanisms in addition to acute mRNA responses....

  4. Calcium Modulation of Plant Plasma Membrane-Bound Atpase Activities (United States)

    Caldwell, C.


    The kinetic properties of barley enzyme are discussed and compared with those of other plants. Possibilities for calcium transport in the plasma membrane by proton pump and ATPase-dependent calcium pumps are explored. Topics covered include the ph phase of the enzyme; high affinity of barley for calcium; temperature dependence, activation enthalpy, and the types of ATPase catalytic sites. Attention is given to lipids which are both screened and bound by calcium. Studies show that barley has a calmodulin activated ATPase that is found in the presence of magnesium and calcium.

  5. Mechanisms of involvement in calmodulin in regulation of affinity for Ca/sup 2 +/ and maximum activity of Ca pump of erythrocyte membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlov, S.N.; Pokudin, N.I.; Sitozhevskii, A.V.


    The activity of the Ca pump of inside-out vesicles of human erythrocyte membranes was studied using /sup 45/Ca and membrane filters. It was found that trifluoperazine completely inhibits the increase in the maximum activity of the Ca pump caused by the addition of calmodulin and has no effect on the calmodulin-stimulated increase in the affinity of the Ca pump for Ca/sup 2 +/. A comparison of characteristic curves of the calmodulin-stimulated components of the activity of the Ca pump, inhibited and not inhibited by trifluoperazine, and the fluorescence intensity of N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine in the presence of calmodulin showed that the mechanisms of action of calmodulin on the maximum activity of the Ca pump and its affinity for Ca/sup 2 +/ differ significantly. In the first case the activation was due to the Ca-calmodulin complex and in the second to the calcium-free form of calmodulin. This conclusion is supported by data on the dependence of the activity of the Ca pump on the calmodulin concentration at low and saturating Ca/sup 2 +/ concentrations as well as by the results obtained in the case of moderate treatment of the membranes with trypsin.

  6. Presynaptic calcium dynamics of learning neurons


    Meyer-Hermann, Michael; Erler, Frido; Soff, Gerhard


    We present a new model for the dynamics of the presynaptic intracellular calcium concentration in neurons evoked by various stimulation protocols. The aim of the model is twofold: We want to discuss the calcium transients during and after specific stimulation protocols as they are used to induce long-term-depression and long-term-potentiation. In addition we would like to provide a general tool which allows the comparison of different calcium experiments. This may help to draw conclusions on ...

  7. Electrokinetic pump (United States)

    Hencken, Kenneth R.; Sartor, George B.


    An electrokinetic pump in which the porous dielectric medium of conventional electrokinetic pumps is replaced by a patterned microstructure. The patterned microstructure is fabricated by lithographic patterning and etching of a substrate and is formed by features arranged so as to create an array of microchannels. The microchannels have dimensions on the order of the pore spacing in a conventional porous dielectric medium. Embedded unitary electrodes are vapor deposited on either end of the channel structure to provide the electric field necessary for electroosmotic flow.

  8. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau


    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  9. Which Breast Pump for Which Mother: An Evidenced-Based Approach to Individualizing Breast Pump Technology (United States)

    Meier, Paula P.; Patel, Aloka L.; Hoban, Rebecca; Engstrom, Janet L.


    The majority of new mothers in the United States use breast pumps in the first four months post-birth in order to achieve their personal human milk feeding goals. Although these mothers seek guidance from health care professionals with respect to the type and use of breast pumps, there are few evidence-based guidelines to guide this professional advice. This paper reviews the evidence to facilitate professional individualization of breast pump recommendations using three categories of literature: the infant as the gold standard to which the pump is compared; the degree of maternal breast pump dependency (e.g., the extent to which the breast pump replaces the infant for milk removal and mammary gland stimulation); and the stage of lactation for which the pump replaces the infant. This review can also serve to inform public and private payers with respect to individualizing breast pump type to mother-dyad characteristics. PMID:26914013

  10. Pumps; Pumpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Praktische Energiekunde e.V., Muenchen (Germany). Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft; Hellriegel, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Praktische Energiekunde e.V., Muenchen (Germany). Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft; Pfitzner, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Praktische Energiekunde e.V., Muenchen (Germany). Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft


    The technical features of commercial pump types are described with regard to their technical, energy-related and economic parameters, and characteristic data are presented in the form of data sheets. This is to provide a basis for a comparative assessment of different technologies and technical variants. The chapter `System specifications` describes the various fields of application of pumps and the resulting specific requirements. The design and function of the different pump types are described in `Technical description`. `System and plant description dscribes the design and adaptation of pumps, i.e. the adaptation of the plant data to the system requirements. `Data compilation` provides a survey of the types and systematics of the compiled data as well as a decision aid for selecting the pumps best suited to the various applications. The `Data sheet` section describes the structure and handling of the data sheets as well as the data contained therein. The data sheets are contained in the apapendix of this report. The section `General analysis` compares typical technical, energy-related and economic characteristics of the different pump types. This is to enable a rough comparison of pump types and to facilitate decisions. The chapter `Example` illustrates the use of the data sheets by means of a selected example. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit hat zum Ziel, Technik seriengefertigter und marktgaengiger Pumpen in typisierter Form hinsichtlich ihrer technischen, energetischen und wirtschaftlichen Parameter zu beschreiben und ihre charakteristischen Kennwerte in Datenblaettern abzubilden. Damit wird ein grundlegendes Instrument fuer die vergleichende Beurteilung unterschiedlicher Techniken bzw. Technikvarianten hinsichtlich energetischer und wirtschaftlicher Kriterien geschaffen. Im Abschnitt `Systemanforderungen` erfolgt die Beschreibung der einzelnen Anwendungsbereiche fuer Pumpen mit den speziellen daraus resultierenden Anforderungen. Der Aufbau und

  11. Non-stimulated, agonist-stimulated and store-operated Ca2+ influx in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells and the effect of EGF-induced EMT on calcium entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity M Davis

    Full Text Available In addition to their well-defined roles in replenishing depleted endoplasmic reticulum (ER Ca(2+ reserves, molecular components of the store-operated Ca(2+ entry pathway regulate breast cancer metastasis. A process implicated in cancer metastasis that describes the conversion to a more invasive phenotype is epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. In this study we show that EGF-induced EMT in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells is associated with a reduction in agonist-stimulated and store-operated Ca(2+ influx, and that MDA-MB-468 cells prior to EMT induction have a high level of non-stimulated Ca(2+ influx. The potential roles for specific Ca(2+ channels in these pathways were assessed by siRNA-mediated silencing of ORAI1 and transient receptor potential canonical type 1 (TRPC1 channels in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells. Non-stimulated, agonist-stimulated and store-operated Ca(2+ influx were significantly inhibited with ORAI1 silencing. TRPC1 knockdown attenuated non-stimulated Ca(2+ influx in a manner dependent on Ca(2+ influx via ORAI1. TRPC1 silencing was also associated with reduced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and changes in the rate of Ca(2+ release from the ER associated with the inhibition of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+-ATPase (time to peak [Ca(2+](CYT = 188.7 ± 34.6 s (TRPC1 siRNA versus 124.0 ± 9.5 s (non-targeting siRNA; P<0.05. These studies indicate that EMT in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells is associated with a pronounced remodeling of Ca(2+ influx, which may be due to altered ORAI1 and/or TRPC1 channel function. Our findings also suggest that TRPC1 channels in MDA-MB-468 cells contribute to ORAI1-mediated Ca(2+ influx in non-stimulated cells.

  12. FocusStack and StimServer: a new open source MATLAB toolchain for visual stimulation and analysis of two-photon calcium neuronal imaging data. (United States)

    Muir, Dylan R; Kampa, Björn M


    Two-photon calcium imaging of neuronal responses is an increasingly accessible technology for probing population responses in cortex at single cell resolution, and with reasonable and improving temporal resolution. However, analysis of two-photon data is usually performed using ad-hoc solutions. To date, no publicly available software exists for straightforward analysis of stimulus-triggered two-photon imaging experiments. In addition, the increasing data rates of two-photon acquisition systems imply increasing cost of computing hardware required for in-memory analysis. Here we present a Matlab toolbox, FocusStack, for simple and efficient analysis of two-photon calcium imaging stacks on consumer-level hardware, with minimal memory footprint. We also present a Matlab toolbox, StimServer, for generation and sequencing of visual stimuli, designed to be triggered over a network link from a two-photon acquisition system. FocusStack is compatible out of the box with several existing two-photon acquisition systems, and is simple to adapt to arbitrary binary file formats. Analysis tools such as stack alignment for movement correction, automated cell detection and peri-stimulus time histograms are already provided, and further tools can be easily incorporated. Both packages are available as publicly-accessible source-code repositories.

  13. Entamoeba histolytica Dmc1 Catalyzes Homologous DNA Pairing and Strand Exchange That Is Stimulated by Calcium and Hop2-Mnd1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Kelso

    Full Text Available Meiosis depends on homologous recombination (HR in most sexually reproducing organisms. Efficient meiotic HR requires the activity of the meiosis-specific recombinase, Dmc1. Previous work shows Dmc1 is expressed in Entamoeba histolytica, a eukaryotic parasite responsible for amoebiasis throughout the world, suggesting this organism undergoes meiosis. Here, we demonstrate Dmc1 protein is expressed in E. histolytica. We show that purified ehDmc1 forms presynaptic filaments and catalyzes ATP-dependent homologous DNA pairing and DNA strand exchange over at least several thousand base pairs. The DNA pairing and strand exchange activities are enhanced by the presence of calcium and the meiosis-specific recombination accessory factor, Hop2-Mnd1. In combination, calcium and Hop2-Mnd1 dramatically increase the rate of DNA strand exchange activity of ehDmc1. The biochemical system described herein provides a basis on which to better understand the role of ehDmc1 and other HR proteins in E. histolytica.

  14. Heat pump


    Klíma, Martin


    Bakalářská práce popisuje a charakterizuje tepelné čerpadlo. Obsahuje souhrn jednotlivých druhů tepelných čerpadel z hlediska získávání energie, princip jejich funkce a popis odlišností mezi jednotlivými druhy kompresorů, použití pracovní látky a její vývin do budoucna. Závěrem je zde uveden můj vlastní názor na tepelné čerpadlo, které bych preferoval. Bachelor thesis describes and characterizes the heat pump. Summarizes the various types of heat pumps in terms of energy production, princi...

  15. Anti-Epileptic Effect of Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides by Inhibition of Intracellular Calcium Accumulation and Stimulation of Expression of CaMKII α in Epileptic Hippocampal Neurons (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Qiu; Li, Xiao-Jie; Qiu, Hong-Bin; Jiang, Zhi-Mei; Simon, Maria; Ma, Xiao-Ru; Liu, Lei; Liu, Jun-Xing; Wang, Fang-Fang; Liang, Yan-Feng; Wu, Jia-Mei; Di, Wei-Hua; Zhou, Shaobo


    Purpose To investigate the mechanism of the anti-epileptic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP), the changes of intracellular calcium and CaMK II α expression in a model of epileptic neurons were investigated. Method Primary hippocampal neurons were divided into: 1) Control group, neurons were cultured with Neurobasal medium, for 3 hours; 2) Model group I: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours; 3) Model group II: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours then cultured with the normal medium for a further 3 hours; 4) GLP group I: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium containing GLP (0.375 mg/ml) for 3 hours; 5) GLP group II: neurons were incubated with Mg2+ free medium for 3 hours then cultured with a normal culture medium containing GLP for a further 3 hours. The CaMK II α protein expression was assessed by Western-blot. Ca2+ turnover in neurons was assessed using Fluo-3/AM which was added into the replacement medium and Ca2+ turnover was observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope. Results The CaMK II α expression in the model groups was less than in the control groups, however, in the GLP groups, it was higher than that observed in the model group. Ca2+ fluorescence intensity in GLP group I was significantly lower than that in model group I after 30 seconds, while in GLP group II, it was reduced significantly compared to model group II after 5 minutes. Conclusion GLP may inhibit calcium overload and promote CaMK II α expression to protect epileptic neurons. PMID:25010576

  16. Anti-epileptic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides by inhibition of intracellular calcium accumulation and stimulation of expression of CaMKII α in epileptic hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Qiu Wang

    Full Text Available To investigate the mechanism of the anti-epileptic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP, the changes of intracellular calcium and CaMK II α expression in a model of epileptic neurons were investigated.Primary hippocampal neurons were divided into: 1 Control group, neurons were cultured with Neurobasal medium, for 3 hours; 2 Model group I: neurons were incubated with Mg(2+ free medium for 3 hours; 3 Model group II: neurons were incubated with Mg(2+ free medium for 3 hours then cultured with the normal medium for a further 3 hours; 4 GLP group I: neurons were incubated with Mg(2+ free medium containing GLP (0.375 mg/ml for 3 hours; 5 GLP group II: neurons were incubated with Mg(2+ free medium for 3 hours then cultured with a normal culture medium containing GLP for a further 3 hours. The CaMK II α protein expression was assessed by Western-blot. Ca(2+ turnover in neurons was assessed using Fluo-3/AM which was added into the replacement medium and Ca(2+ turnover was observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope.The CaMK II α expression in the model groups was less than in the control groups, however, in the GLP groups, it was higher than that observed in the model group. Ca(2+ fluorescence intensity in GLP group I was significantly lower than that in model group I after 30 seconds, while in GLP group II, it was reduced significantly compared to model group II after 5 minutes.GLP may inhibit calcium overload and promote CaMK II α expression to protect epileptic neurons.

  17. Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and the Antifracture Efficacy of Alendronate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Eiken, Pia Agnete; Eastell, Richard


    Background: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used in elderly patients and are frequently coadministered in users of oral bisphosphonates. Biologically, PPIs could affect the absorption of calcium, vitamin B12, and bisphosphonates and could affect the osteoclast proton pump, thus interacting...

  18. In vivo analysis of the calcium signature in the plant Golgi apparatus reveals unique dynamics. (United States)

    Ordenes, Viviana R; Moreno, Ignacio; Maturana, Daniel; Norambuena, Lorena; Trewavas, Anthony J; Orellana, Ariel


    The Golgi apparatus is thought to play a role in calcium homeostasis in plant cells. However, the calcium dynamics in this organelle is unknown in plants. To monitor the [Ca2+]Golgiin vivo, we obtained and analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana plants that express aequorin in the Golgi. Our results show that free [Ca2+] levels in the Golgi are higher than in the cytosol (0.70 μM vs. 0.05 μM, respectively). Stimuli such as cold shock, mechanical stimulation and hyperosmotic stress, led to a transient increase in cytosolic calcium; however, no instant change in the [Ca2+]Golgi concentration was detected. Nevertheless, a delayed increase in the [Ca2+]Golgi up to 2-3 μM was observed. Cyclopiazonic acid and thapsigargin inhibited the stimuli-induced [Ca2+]Golgi increase, suggesting that [Ca2+]Golgi levels are dependent upon the activity of Ca2+-ATPases. Treatment of these plants with the synthetic auxin analog, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), produced a slow decrease of free calcium in the organelle. Our results indicate that the plant Golgi apparatus is not involved in the generation of cytosolic calcium transients and exhibits its own dynamics modulated in part by the activity of Ca2+ pumps and hormones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Glucose Stimulates GLP-1 Secretion from Isolated Perfused Rat Small Intestine by SGLT1 and GLUT2 Mediated Uptake, Causing V-gated Calcium Channel Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Frost, Charlotte Rasmussen; Svendsen, Berit


    inhibition (1 mM phloretin) (Glu. 13.94 ± 2.5 vs. 30.90 ± 10.9 pM, Glu.+PT: 12.44 ± 1.3 vs. 17.18 ± 3.4 pM, P > 0.0001, n = 6), and KATP-channel closure by two sulfonylurea drugs stimulated GLP-1 release (tolbutamide: 14.7 ± 0.2 vs. 28.6 ± 5.2 pM; gliclazide: 15.2 ± 0.3 vs. 24.6 ± 2.4 pM, P

  20. The cardiac sodium pump: structure and function. (United States)

    McDonough, Alicia A; Velotta, Jeffrey B; Schwinger, Robert H G; Philipson, Kenneth D; Farley, Robert A


    Cardiac sodium pumps (Na,K-ATPase) influence cell calcium and contractility by generating the Na+ gradient driving Ca++ extrusion via the Na+/Ca++ exchanger (NCX), and are the receptors for cardiac glycosides such as digitalis which increases cardiac contractility by decreasing the Na+ gradient driving Ca++ extrusion. There are multiple isoforms of the sodium pump expressed in the heart indicating the potential for isoform specific expression patterns, function and regulation. Regarding isoform expression patterns, human heart expresses alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, beta1 and a small amount of beta2. Within the human heart, alpha3, beta1 and NCX levels are 30-50% lower in atria than ventricles, associated with increased sensitivity to inotropic stimulation. Distribution at the cellular level has been studied in the rat heart where both alpha1 and alpha2 are detected in the T-tubules along with NCX. Regarding isoform function, we focussed on human sodium pumps as cardiac glycoside receptors. A study of human sodium pump expressed alone (alpha1) or in combination (alpha1 with alpha2, or alpha1 with alpha2 and alpha3) in their native membranes aimed to determine whether different isoforms had distinct affinities for the cardiac glycoside ouabain by evaluating whether the ouabain binding data were best fit with a single site or two site model. The results indicated that the affinity of these human a subunit isoforms for ouabain is indistinguishable, and that changes in sensitivity to cardiac glycosides during heart failure are likely due to a decrease in the total number of pumps rather than a shift in expression to a more sensitive isoform. Regarding isoform regulation, we hypothesized that a primary decrease in cardiac Na,K-ATPase expression would be associated with a secondary increase in cardiac Na+/Ca++ exchanger expression as a homeostatic mechanism to blunt an increase in cell Ca++ stores (and visa versa with an increase in Na,K-ATPase). Supporting the hypothesis: in

  1. Paclitaxel induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells through different calcium--regulating mechanisms depending on external calcium conditions. (United States)

    Pan, Zhi; Avila, Andrew; Gollahon, Lauren


    Previously, we reported that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were a direct target for paclitaxel initiation of apoptosis. Furthermore, the actions of paclitaxel attenuated Bcl-2 resistance to apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum-mediated calcium release. To better understand the calcium-regulated mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated the role of extracellular calcium, specifically; whether influx of extracellular calcium contributed to and/or was necessary for paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that paclitaxel induced extracellular calcium influx. This mobilization of extracellular calcium contributed to subsequent cytosolic calcium elevation differently, depending on dosage. Under normal extracellular calcium conditions, high dose paclitaxel induced apoptosis-promoting calcium influx, which did not occur in calcium-free conditions. In the absence of extracellular calcium an "Enhanced Calcium Efflux" mechanism in which high dose paclitaxel stimulated calcium efflux immediately, leading to dramatic cytosolic calcium decrease, was observed. In the absence of extracellular calcium, high dose paclitaxel's stimulatory effects on capacitative calcium entry and apoptosis could not be completely restored. Thus, normal extracellular calcium concentrations are critical for high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, low dose paclitaxel mirrored controls, indicating that it occurs independent of extracellular calcium. Thus, extracellular calcium conditions only affect efficacy of high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis.

  2. Pump characteristics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Volk, Michael


    Providing a wealth of information on pumps and pump systems, Pump Characteristics and Applications, Third Edition details how pump equipment is selected, sized, operated, maintained, and repaired. The book identifies the key components of pumps and pump accessories, introduces the basics of pump and system hydraulics as well as more advanced hydraulic topics, and details various pump types, as well as special materials on seals, motors, variable frequency drives, and other pump-related subjects. It uses example problems throughout the text, reinforcing the practical application of the formulae

  3. Site-directed mutagenesis of the active site of diacylglycerol kinase alpha: calcium and phosphatidylserine stimulate enzyme activity via distinct mechanisms. (United States)

    Abe, Takahiro; Lu, Xiaolan; Jiang, Ying; Boccone, Clark E; Qian, Shaomin; Vattem, Krishna M; Wek, Ronald C; Walsh, James P


    Diacylglycerol kinases (DAGKs) catalyse ATP-dependent phosphorylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol that arises during stimulated phosphatidylinositol turnover. DAGKa is activated in vitro by Ca2+ and by acidic phospholipids. The regulatory region of DAGKa includes an N-terminal RVH motif and EF hands that mediate Ca2+-dependent activation. DAGKa also contains tandem C1 protein kinase C homology domains. We utilized yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which lacks an endogenous DAGK, to express DAGKa and to determine the enzymic activities of different mutant forms of pig DAGKa in vitro. Six aspartate residues conserved in all DAGKs were individually examined by site-directed mutagenesis. Five of these aspartate residues reside in conserved blocks that correspond to sequences in the catalytic site of phosphofructokinases. Mutation of D434 (Asp434) or D650 abolished all DAGKa activity, whereas substitution of one among D465, D497, D529 and D697 decreased the activity to 6% or less of that for wild-type DAGKa. Roles of homologous residues in phosphofructokinases suggested that the N-terminal half of the DAGK catalytic domain binds Mg-ATP and the C-terminal half binds diacylglycerol. A DAGKa mutant with its entire regulatory region deleted showed a much decreased activity that was not activated by Ca2+, but still exhibited PS (phosphatidylserine)-dependent activation. Moreover, mutations of aspartate residues at the catalytic domain had differential effects on activation by Ca2+ and PS. These results indicate that Ca2+ and PS stimulate DAGKa via distinct mechanisms.

  4. Altered calcium signaling in cancer cells. (United States)

    Stewart, Teneale A; Yapa, Kunsala T D S; Monteith, Gregory R


    It is the nature of the calcium signal, as determined by the coordinated activity of a suite of calcium channels, pumps, exchangers and binding proteins that ultimately guides a cell's fate. Deregulation of the calcium signal is often deleterious and has been linked to each of the 'cancer hallmarks'. Despite this, we do not yet have a full understanding of the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with cancer. Such an understanding could aid in guiding the development of therapies specifically targeting altered calcium signaling in cancer cells during tumorigenic progression. Findings from some of the studies that have assessed the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with tumorigenesis and/or processes important in invasion and metastasis are presented in this review. The potential of new methodologies is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Types of Breast Pumps (United States)

    ... Health and Consumer Devices Consumer Products Breast Pumps Types of Breast Pumps Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... a nipple and used for feeding a baby. Types of Breast Pumps There are three basic types ...

  6. Does Increased Expression of the Plasma Membrane Calcium-ATPase Isoform 2 Confer Resistance to Apoptosis on Breast Cancer Cells?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    VanHouten, Joshua N


    The plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoform 2 (PMCA2) is highly expressed on the apical membrane of mammary epithelial cells during lactation, and is the predominant pump responsible for calcium transport into milk...

  7. Calcium gluconate supplementation is effective to balance calcium homeostasis in patients with gastrectomy. (United States)

    Krause, M; Keller, J; Beil, B; van Driel, I; Zustin, J; Barvencik, F; Schinke, T; Amling, M


    We demonstrate histological evidence for hyperparathyroidism in patients with gastrectomy. This is, at least in part, explained by impaired calcium absorption, resulting in mineralization defects and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Additionally, we demonstrate improved bone mineralization in patients with gastrectomy after gluconate therapy and showed the effectiveness of calcium gluconate over carbonate to balance impaired calcium hemostasis in mice. Gastrectomy and hypochlorhydria due to long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy are associated with increased fracture risk because of intestinal calcium malabsorption. Hence, our objectives were to histologically investigate bone metabolism in patients with gastrectomy and to analyze the impact of calcium gluconate supplementation on skeletal integrity in the setting of impaired gastric acidification. Undecalcified bone biopsies of 26 gastrectomized individuals were histologically analyzed. In the clinical setting, we retrospectively identified 5 gastrectomized patients with sufficient vitamin D level, who were additionally supplemented with calcium gluconate and had a real bone mineral density (aBMD) follow-up assessments. A mouse model of achlorhydria (ATP4b-/-) was used to compare the effect of calcium gluconate and calcium carbonate supplementation on bone metabolism. Biopsies from gastrectomized individuals showed significantly increased osteoid, osteoclast, and osteoblast indices and fibroosteoclasia (p < 0.05) as well as impaired calcium distribution in mineralized bone matrix compared to healthy controls. Five gastrectomized patients with sufficient vitamin D level demonstrated a significant increase in aBMD after a treatment with calcium gluconate alone for at least 6 months (p < 0.05). Calcium gluconate was superior to calcium carbonate in maintaining calcium metabolism in a mouse model of achlorhydria. Gastrectomy is associated with severe osteomalacia, marrow fibrosis, and impaired calcium distribution

  8. Heat pump technology

    CERN Document Server

    Von Cube, Hans Ludwig; Goodall, E G A


    Heat Pump Technology discusses the history, underlying concepts, usage, and advancements in the use of heat pumps. The book covers topics such as the applications and types of heat pumps; thermodynamic principles involved in heat pumps such as internal energy, enthalpy, and exergy; and natural heat sources and energy storage. Also discussed are topics such as the importance of the heat pump in the energy industry; heat pump designs and systems; the development of heat pumps over time; and examples of practical everyday uses of heat pumps. The text is recommended for those who would like to kno

  9. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha


    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  10. Reconstruction of Cell Surface Densities of Ion Pumps, Exchangers, and Channels from mRNA Expression, Conductance Kinetics, Whole-Cell Calcium, and Current-Clamp Voltage Recordings, with an Application to Human Uterine Smooth Muscle Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolene Atia


    Full Text Available Uterine smooth muscle cells remain quiescent throughout most of gestation, only generating spontaneous action potentials immediately prior to, and during, labor. This study presents a method that combines transcriptomics with biophysical recordings to characterise the conductance repertoire of these cells, the 'conductance repertoire' being the total complement of ion channels and transporters expressed by an electrically active cell. Transcriptomic analysis provides a set of potential electrogenic entities, of which the conductance repertoire is a subset. Each entity within the conductance repertoire was modeled independently and its gating parameter values were fixed using the available biophysical data. The only remaining free parameters were the surface densities for each entity. We characterise the space of combinations of surface densities (density vectors consistent with experimentally observed membrane potential and calcium waveforms. This yields insights on the functional redundancy of the system as well as its behavioral versatility. Our approach couples high-throughput transcriptomic data with physiological behaviors in health and disease, and provides a formal method to link genotype to phenotype in excitable systems. We accurately predict current densities and chart functional redundancy. For example, we find that to evoke the observed voltage waveform, the BK channel is functionally redundant whereas hERG is essential. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that activation of calcium-activated chloride conductances by intracellular calcium release is the key factor underlying spontaneous depolarisations.

  11. Multiple pump housing (United States)

    Donoho, II, Michael R.; Elliott; Christopher M.


    A fluid delivery system includes a first pump having a first drive assembly, a second pump having a second drive assembly, and a pump housing. At least a portion of each of the first and second pumps are located in the housing.

  12. Regulating Intracellular Calcium in Plants: From Molecular Genetics to Physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heven Sze


    To grow, develop, adapt, and reproduce, plants have evolved mechanisms to regulate the uptake, translocation and sorting of calcium ions into different cells and subcellular compartments. Yet how plants accomplish this remarkable feat is still poorly understood. The spatial and temporal changes in intracellular [Ca2+] during growth and during responses to hormonal and environmental stimuli indicate that Ca2+ influx and efflux transporters are diverse and tightly regulated in plants. The specific goals were to determine the biological roles of multiple Ca pumps (ECAs) in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We had pioneered the use of K616 yeast strain to functionally express plant Ca pumps, and demonstrated two distinct types of Ca pumps in plants (Sze et al., 2000. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 51,433). ACA2 represented one type that was auto-inhibited by the N-terminal region and stimulated by calmodulin. ECA1 represented another type that was not sensitive to calmodulin and phylogenetically distinct from ACAs. The goal to determine the biological roles of multiple ECA-type Ca pumps in Arabidopsis has been accomplished. Although we demonstrated ECA1 was a Ca pump by functional expression in yeast, the in vivo roles of ECAs was unclear. A few highlights are described. ECA1 and/or ECA4 are Ca/Mn pumps localized to the ER and are highly expressed in all cell types. Using homozygous T-DNA insertional mutants of eca1, we demonstrated that the ER-bound ECA1 supports growth and confers tolerance of plants growing on medium low in Ca or containing toxic levels of Mn. This is the first genetic study to determine the in vivo function of a Ca pump in plants. A phylogenetically distinct ECA3 is also a Ca/Mn pump that is localized to endosome, such as post-Golgi compartments. Although it is expressed at lower levels than ECA1, eca3 mutants are impaired in Ca-dependent root growth and in pollen tube elongation. Increased secretion of wall proteins in mutants suggests that Ca and Mn

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores in dendritic spines. (United States)

    Segal, Menahem; Korkotian, Eduard


    Despite decades of research, the role of calcium stores in dendritic spines structure, function and plasticity is still debated. The reasons for this may have to do with the multitude of overlapping calcium handling machineries in the neuron, including stores, voltage and ligand gated channels, pumps and transporters. Also, different cells in the brain are endowed with calcium stores that are activated by different receptor types, and their differential compartmentalization in dendrites, spines and presynaptic terminals complicates their analysis. In the present review we address several key issues, including the role of calcium stores in synaptic plasticity, their role during development, in stress and in neurodegenerative diseases. Apparently, there is increasing evidence for a crucial role of calcium stores, especially of the ryanodine species, in synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival.

  14. Centrifugal pump handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pumps, Sulzer


    This long-awaited new edition is the complete reference for engineers and designers working on pump design and development or using centrifugal pumps in the field. This authoritative guide has been developed with access to the technical expertise of the leading centrifugal pump developer, Sulzer Pumps. In addition to providing the most comprehensive centrifugal pump theory and design reference with detailed material on cavitation, erosion, selection of materials, rotor vibration behavior and forces acting on pumps, the handbook also covers key pumping applications topics and operational


    Polyakova, E P; Ksenofontov, D A; Revyakin, A O; Ivanov, A A


    Experiments on goats and rabbits showed that zinc supplement to the diet leads to calcium concentration rise in muscle, bone and blood of animals. However, this rise was not adequate to increase in.zinc consumption. The bulk of alimentary zinc stayed in soluble fraction, dense endogen fraction and infusoria fraction of digesta and stimulated calcium release from food particles, it's accumulation in digesta fractions and calcium utilization on the whole. Authors estimate animal digesta as homeostatic, spatial organized, endogenic formation in which zinc and calcium are functionally dependent through enteral mucosa.

  16. Influence of calcium sources on microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation by Bacillus sp. CR2. (United States)

    Achal, Varenyam; Pan, Xiangliang


    Stimulation of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) is likely to be influenced by calcium sources. In order to study such influences, we performed MICCP using Bacillus sp. CR2 in nutrient broth containing urea, supplemented with different calcium sources (calcium chloride, calcium oxide, calcium acetate and calcium nitrate). The experiment lasted 7 days, during which bacterial growth, urease activity, calcite production and pH were measured. Our results showed that calcium chloride is the better calcium source for MICCP process, since it provides higher urease activity and more calcite production. The influences of calcium sources on MICCP were further studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. These analyses confirmed that the precipitate formed was CaCO3 and composed of predominantly calcite crystals with a little amount of aragonite and vaterite crystals. The maximum yield of calcite precipitation was achievable with calcium chloride followed by calcium nitrate as a calcium source. The results of present study may be applicable to media preparation during efficient MICCP process.

  17. The spatial pattern of atrial cardiomyocyte calcium signalling modulates contraction. (United States)

    Mackenzie, Lauren; Roderick, H Llewelyn; Berridge, Michael J; Conway, Stuart J; Bootman, Martin D


    We examined the regulation of calcium signalling in atrial cardiomyocytes during excitation-contraction coupling, and how changes in the distribution of calcium impacts on contractility. Under control conditions, calcium transients originated in subsarcolemmal locations and showed local regeneration through activation of calcium-induced calcium release from ryanodine receptors. Despite functional ryanodine receptors being expressed at regular (approximately 2 microm) intervals throughout atrial myocytes, the subsarcolemmal calcium signal did not spread in a fully regenerative manner through the interior of a cell. Rather, there was a diminishing centripetal propagation of calcium. The lack of regeneration was due to mitochondria and SERCA pumps preventing the inward movement of calcium. Inhibiting these calcium buffering mechanisms allowed the globalisation of action potential-evoked responses. In addition, physiological positive inotropic agents, such as endothelin-1 and beta-adrenergic agonists, as well as enhanced calcium current, calcium store loading and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate infusion also led to regenerative global responses. The consequence of globalising calcium signals was a significant increase in cellular contraction. These data indicate how calcium signals and their consequences are determined by the interplay of multiple subcellular calcium management systems.

  18. Calcium deficiency in the early stages after weaning is associated with the enhancement of a low level of adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis and reduction of adiponectin release in isolated rat mesenteric adipocytes. (United States)

    Shinoki, Aki; Hara, Hiroshi


    Dysregulation of visceral adipocytes increases the incidence of metabolic syndrome. Higher production of nonesterified fatty acid and changes in adipocytokine release may trigger insulin resistance. Many studies have suggested that calcium (Ca) deficiency is associated with insulin resistance; however, the mechanisms are poorly understood. We examined the effects of Ca deficiency on adrenaline-induced lipolysis and adipocytokine release in the early stages after weaning using freshly isolated adipocytes from mesenteric fat tissue of 3-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a normal-Ca (5 g/kg diet) or low-Ca (1 g/kg diet) diet for 4 weeks. The release rate of nonesterified fatty acid in the mesenteric adipocytes after stimulation with a low level of adrenaline (0.2 microg/mL) was much higher in the Ca-deficient group than in the control group. In contrast, adiponectin release in the mesenteric fat cells was lower in Ca-deficient rats. Leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion showed a similar tendency without significant intergroup differences, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 release was not affected by Ca deficiency. We found that Ca deficiency reduced the average size of fat cells through a large increase in the number of cells slightly smaller than the average size, which may be associated with the changes in the properties of the mesenteric adipose tissue. Our present results suggest that a low intake of Ca in the early stages after weaning is associated with changes in the properties of mesenteric adipocytes, which may be linked to insulin resistance in the future.

  19. Pump element for a tube pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention relates to a tube pump comprising a tube and a pump element inserted in the tube, where the pump element comprises a rod element and a first and a second non-return valve member positioned a distance apart on the rod element. The valve members are oriented in the same direction...... portion acts to alternately close and open the valve members thereby generating a fluid flow through the tube. The invention further relates to a pump element comprising at least two non-return valve members connected by a rod element, and for insertion in an at least partly flexible tube in such tube...... pump as mentioned above, thereby acting to generate a fluid flow through the tube upon repeated deformation of the tube between the two valve members. The pump element may comprise a connecting part for coupling to another tube and may comprise a sealing part establishing a fluid tight connection...

  20. Get Enough Calcium (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... women, don't get enough calcium. How much calcium do I need every day? Women: If you ...

  1. Calcium carbonate overdose (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  2. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child (United States)

    ... tube feeding; PEG tube care; Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Gather supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding ... pump (includes a feeding bag, drip chamber, roller clamp, ...

  3. Duodopa pump treatment in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsborg, Merete; Korbo, Lise; Regeur, Lisbeth


    Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) often develop motor complications including fluctuations and involuntary movements (dyskinesias). In Denmark, treatment has comprised Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) since the late 1990s, and as from 2002 use of a subcutaneous apomorphine pump. Monothe......Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) often develop motor complications including fluctuations and involuntary movements (dyskinesias). In Denmark, treatment has comprised Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) since the late 1990s, and as from 2002 use of a subcutaneous apomorphine pump...

  4. Insulin pump (image) (United States)

    The catheter at the end of the insulin pump is inserted through a needle into the abdominal ... with diabetes. Dosage instructions are entered into the pump's small computer and the appropriate amount of insulin ...

  5. Proton pump inhibitors (United States)

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by glands in ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is a ...

  6. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.


    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture,

  7. Rotary magnetic heat pump (United States)

    Kirol, Lance D.


    A rotary magnetic heat pump constructed without flow seals or segmented rotor accomplishes recuperation and regeneration by using split flow paths. Heat exchange fluid pumped through heat exchangers and returned to the heat pump splits into two flow components: one flowing counter to the rotor rotation and one flowing with the rotation.

  8. Proton-pump inhibitors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) work by binding irreversibly to the. H+/K+-ATPase pump of the parietal cell, leading to inhibition of acid production in approximately 70% of active pumps.1The result is a dramatic increase in gastric pH mitigating the deleterious effects of acid in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and.

  9. Coronary Calcium Scan (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Coronary Calcium Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Also known as Calcium Scan Test A coronary calcium scan is a CT scan of your heart that detects and measures the amount of calcium in the walls of your coronary arteries. Overview ...

  10. Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis and Calcium Nephrolithiasis (United States)

    Moe, Orson W.; Fuster, Daniel G.; Xie, Xiao-Song


    Calcium stones are commonly encountered in patients with congenital distal renal tubular acidosis, a disease of renal acidification caused by mutations in either the vacuolar H+-ATPase (B1 or a4 subunit), anion exchanger-1, or carbonic anhydrase II. Based on the existing database, we present two hypotheses. First, heterozygotes with mutations in B1 subunit of H+-ATPase are not normal but may harbor biochemical abnormalities such as renal acidification defects, hypercalciuria, and hypocitraturia which can predispose them to kidney stone formation. Second, we propose at least two mechanisms by which mutant B1 subunit can impair H+-ATPase: defective pump assembly and defective pump activity.

  11. Store-operated calcium entry and increased endothelial cell permeability. (United States)

    Norwood, N; Moore, T M; Dean, D A; Bhattacharjee, R; Li, M; Stevens, T


    We hypothesized that myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) links calcium release to activation of store-operated calcium entry, which is important for control of the endothelial cell barrier. Acute inhibition of MLCK caused calcium release from inositol trisphosphate-sensitive calcium stores and prevented subsequent activation of store-operated calcium entry by thapsigargin, suggesting that MLCK serves as an important mechanism linking store depletion to activation of membrane calcium channels. Moreover, in voltage-clamped single rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells, thapsigargin activated an inward calcium current that was abolished by MLCK inhibition. F-actin disruption activated a calcium current, and F-actin stabilization eliminated the thapsigargin-induced current. Thapsigargin increased endothelial cell permeability in the presence, but not in the absence, of extracellular calcium, indicating the importance of calcium entry in decreasing barrier function. Although MLCK inhibition prevented thapsigargin from stimulating calcium entry, it did not prevent thapsigargin from increasing permeability. Rather, inhibition of MLCK activity increased permeability that was especially prominent in low extracellular calcium. In conclusion, MLCK links store depletion to activation of a store-operated calcium entry channel. However, inhibition of calcium entry by MLCK is not sufficient to prevent thapsigargin from increasing endothelial cell permeability.

  12. Proton pump inhibitors and osteoporosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjarne Nesgaard; Johansen, Per Birger; Abrahamsen, Bo


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to provide an update on recent advances in the evidence based on proton pump inhibitors (PPI) as a possible cause of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. This review focuses, in particular, on new studies published in the last 18 months and a di......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to provide an update on recent advances in the evidence based on proton pump inhibitors (PPI) as a possible cause of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. This review focuses, in particular, on new studies published in the last 18 months...... and a discussion of these findings and how this has influenced our understanding of this association, the clinical impact and the underlying pathophysiology. RECENT FINDINGS: New studies have further strengthened existing evidence linking use of PPIs to osteoporosis. Short-term use does not appear to pose a lower...... risk than long-term use. There is a continued lack of conclusive studies identifying the pathogenesis. Direct effects on calcium absorption or on osteoblast or osteoclast action cannot at present plausibly explain the mechanism. SUMMARY: The use of PPIs is a risk factor for development of osteoporosis...

  13. Performance of a pump system for diode-pumped lasers (United States)

    Stratan, Aurel; Fenic, Constantin G.; Dabu, Razvan V.; Herisanu, Nicolae A.; Luculescu, C.; Sporea, Dan G.; Dumitru, Gabriel; Iordache, Gheorghe


    We have developed a laser-diode pump system for continuous-wave end-pumping of Nd:YAG lasers. The pump system includes a pair of 1 W diode-arrays mounted in coaxial enclosures, a driver unit and the pump optics. The array wavelength was temperature tuned to achieve the maximum absorption of the pump radiation in the Nd:YAG crystal. The characteristics of the pump system are presented and the pump-beam profile is investigated.

  14. SERCA pumps and human diseases. (United States)

    Hovnanian, A


    Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum (SER) Ca2+ ATPases represent a highly conserved family of Ca2+ pumps which actively transport Ca2+ from the cytosol to the SER against a large concentration gradient. In humans, 3 genes (ATP2A1-3) generate multiple isoforms (SERCAla,b, SERCA2a-c, SECA3a-f) by developmental or tissue-specific alternative splicing. These pumps differ by their regulatory and kinetic properties, allowing for optimized function in the tissue where they are expressed. They play a central role in calcium signalling through regenerating SER Ca2+ stores, maintaining appropriate Ca2+ levels in this organelle and shaping cytosolic and nuclear Ca2+ variations which govern cell response. Defects in ATP2A1 encoding SERCA1 cause recessive Brody myopathy, mutations in ATP2A2 coding for SERCA2 underlie a dominant skin disease, Darier disease and its clinical variants. SERCA2a expression is reduced in heart failure in human and in mice models. Gene-targeting studies in mouse confirmed the expected function of these isoforms in some cases, but also resulted in unexpected phenotypes: SERCA1 null mutants die from respiratory failure, SERCA2 heterozygous mutant mice develop skin cancer with age and SERCA3 null mice display no diabetes. These unique phenotypes have provided invaluable information on the role of these pumps in specific tissues and species, and have improved our understanding of Ca2+ regulated processes in muscles, the heart and the skin in human and in mice. Although the understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases is still incomplete, these recent advances hold the promise of improved knowledge on the disease processes and the identification of new targets for therapeutic interventions.

  15. Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zemel, Michael B; Thompson, Warren; Milstead, Anita; Morris, Kristin; Campbell, Peter


    ...+ influx and, as a consequence, stimulates lipogenesis, suppresses lipolysis, and increases lipid accumulation, whereas increasing dietary calcium inhibits these effects and markedly accelerates fat...

  16. Calcium source (image) (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  17. Calcium and bones (image) (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  18. Calcium hydroxide poisoning (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  19. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  20. Calcium blood test (United States)

    ... page: // Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  1. The effects of intracellular pH changes on resting cytosolic calcium in voltage-clamped snail neurones (United States)

    Willoughby, Debbie; Thomas, Roger C; Schwiening, Christof J


    We have investigated the effects of changing intracellular pH on intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in voltage-clamped neurones of the snail Helix aspersa. Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured using the fluorescent dye 8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulphonic acid (HPTS) and changed using weak acids and weak bases. Changes in [Ca2+]i were recorded using either fura-2 or calcium-sensitive microelectrodes. Acidification of the neurones with 5 mM or 20 mM propionate (∼0.2 or 0.3 pH units acidification, respectively) caused a small reduction in resting [Ca2+]i of 5 ± 2 nM (n = 4) and 7 ± 16 nM (n = 4), respectively. The removal of the 20 mM propionate after ∼40 min superfusion resulted in an alkalinization of ∼0.35 pH units and an accompanying rise in resting [Ca2+]i of 31 ± 9 nM (n = 4, P Helix neurones induced by superfusion with 3 mM concentrations of the weak bases trimethylamine (TMA), ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and procaine were accompanied by significant (P < 0.05) increases in resting [Ca2+]i of 42 ± 4 nM (n = 26), 30 ± 7 nM (n = 5) and 36 ± 4 nM (n = 3), respectively. The effect of TMA (0.5-6 mM) on [Ca2+]i was dose dependent with an increase in [Ca2+]i during pHi increases of less than 0.1 pH units (0.5 mM TMA). Superfusion of neurones with zero calcium (1 mM EGTA) Ringer solution inhibited depolarization-induced calcium increases but not the calcium increase produced by the first exposure to TMA (3 mM). In the prolonged absence of extracellular calcium (∼50 min) TMA-induced calcium rises were decreased by 64 ± 10% compared to those seen in the presence of external calcium (P < 0.05). The calcium rise induced by TMA (3 mM) was reduced by 60 ± 5% following a 10 min period of superfusion with caffeine (10 mM) to deplete the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stores of calcium (P < 0.05). Cyclopiazonic acid (10-30 μM CPA), an inhibitor of the ER calcium pump, inhibited the calcium rise produced by TMA (3 mM) and NH4Cl (3 mM) by 61 ± 4% compared

  2. Neutron stimulated emission computed tomography applied to the assessment of calcium deposition due to the presence of microcalcifications associated with breast cancer; Tomografia computadorizada de emissao estimulada por neutrons aplicada para avaliar a deposicao de calcio devido a presenca de microcalcificacoes associadas ao cancer de mama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Rodrigo S.S.; Yoriyaz, Helio [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, (SP) (Brazil)


    In this paper we presented an application of the Neutron Stimulated Emission Computed Tomography (NSECT), which uses a thin beam of fast neutrons to stimulate stable nuclei in a sample, emitting characteristic gamma radiation. The photon energy is unique and it is used to identify the emitting nuclei. This technique was applied for evaluating the calcium isotopic composition changing due to the development of breast microcalcifications. A particular situation was simulated in which clustered microcalcifications were modeled with diameters less than 1.40 mm. In this case, neutron beam breast spectroscopy was successful in detecting the counting changes in the photon emission spectra for energies, which are characteristics of 4{sup 0C}a isotope in a low deposited dose rate. (author)

  3. Detection of pump degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, R.H.; Casada, D.A.; Ayers, C.W. [and others


    This Phase II Nuclear Plant Aging Research study examines the methods of detecting pump degradation that are currently employed in domestic and overseas nuclear facilities. This report evaluates the criteria mandated by required pump testing at U.S. nuclear power plants and compares them to those features characteristic of state-of-the-art diagnostic programs and practices currently implemented by other major industries. Since the working condition of the pump driver is crucial to pump operability, a brief review of new applications of motor diagnostics is provided that highlights recent developments in this technology. The routine collection and analysis of spectral data is superior to all other technologies in its ability to accurately detect numerous types and causes of pump degradation. Existing ASME Code testing criteria do not require the evaluation of pump vibration spectra but instead overall vibration amplitude. The mechanical information discernible from vibration amplitude analysis is limited, and several cases of pump failure were not detected in their early stages by vibration monitoring. Since spectral analysis can provide a wealth of pertinent information concerning the mechanical condition of rotating machinery, its incorporation into ASME testing criteria could merit a relaxation in the monthly-to-quarterly testing schedules that seek to verify and assure pump operability. Pump drivers are not included in the current battery of testing. Operational problems thought to be caused by pump degradation were found to be the result of motor degradation. Recent advances in nonintrusive monitoring techniques have made motor diagnostics a viable technology for assessing motor operability. Motor current/power analysis can detect rotor bar degradation and ascertain ranges of hydraulically unstable operation for a particular pump and motor set. The concept of using motor current or power fluctuations as an indicator of pump hydraulic load stability is presented.

  4. A compact cryogenic pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gang; Caldwell, Shane; Clark, Jason A.; Gulick, Sidney; Hecht, Adam; Lascar, Daniel D.; Levand, Tony; Morgan, Graeme; Orford, Rodney; Savard, Guy; Sharma, Kumar S.; Van Schelt, Jonathon


    A centrifugal cryogenic pump has been designed at Argonne National Laboratory to circulate liquid nitrogen (LN2) in a closed circuit allowing the recovery of excess fluid. The pump can circulate LN2 at rates of 2-10 L/min, into a head of 0.5-3 m. Over four years of laboratory use the pump has proven capable of operating continuously for 50-100 days without maintenance.

  5. Direct Current-Induced Calcium Trafficking in Different Neuronal Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Wieraszko


    Full Text Available The influence of direct current (DC stimulation on radioactive calcium trafficking in sciatic nerve in vivo and in vitro, spinal cord, and synaptosomes was investigated. The exposure to DC enhanced calcium redistribution in all of these preparations. The effect was dependent on the strength of the stimulation and extended beyond the phase of exposure to DC. The DC-induced increase in calcium sequestration by synaptosomes was significantly reduced by cobalt and rupture of synaptosomes by osmotic shock. Although both anodal and cathodal currents were effective, the experiments with two electrodes of different areas revealed that cathodal stimulation exerted stronger effect. The exposure to DC induced not only relocation but also redistribution of calcium within segments of the sciatic nerve. Enzymatic removal of sialic acid by preincubation of synaptosomes with neuroaminidase, or carrying out the experiments in sodium-free environment, amplified DC-induced calcium accumulation.

  6. Optically pumped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Happer, William; Walker, Thad


    Covering the most important knowledge on optical pumping of atoms, this ready reference is backed by numerous examples of modelling computation for optical pumped systems. The authors show for the first time that modern scientific computing software makes it practical to analyze the full, multilevel system of optically pumped atoms. To make the discussion less abstract, the authors have illustrated key points with sections of MATLAB codes. To make most effective use of contemporary mathematical software, it is especially useful to analyze optical pumping situations in the Liouville spa

  7. Champagne Heat Pump (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.


    The term champagne heat pump denotes a developmental heat pump that exploits a cycle of absorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in an alcohol or other organic liquid. Whereas most heat pumps in common use in the United States are energized by mechanical compression, the champagne heat pump is energized by heating. The concept of heat pumps based on other absorption cycles energized by heat has been understood for years, but some of these heat pumps are outlawed in many areas because of the potential hazards posed by leakage of working fluids. For example, in the case of the water/ammonia cycle, there are potential hazards of toxicity and flammability. The organic-liquid/carbon dioxide absorption/desorption cycle of the champagne heat pump is similar to the water/ammonia cycle, but carbon dioxide is nontoxic and environmentally benign, and one can choose an alcohol or other organic liquid that is also relatively nontoxic and environmentally benign. Two candidate nonalcohol organic liquids are isobutyl acetate and amyl acetate. Although alcohols and many other organic liquids are flammable, they present little or no flammability hazard in the champagne heat pump because only the nonflammable carbon dioxide component of the refrigerant mixture is circulated to the evaporator and condenser heat exchangers, which are the only components of the heat pump in direct contact with air in habitable spaces.

  8. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid inserts the apical conjugate export pump, Mrp2, into canalicular membranes and stimulates organic anion secretion by protein kinase C-dependent mechanisms in cholestatic rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuers, U.; Bilzer, M.; Chittattu, A.; Kullak-Ublick, G. A.; Keppler, D.; Paumgartner, G.; Dombrowski, F.


    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) exerts anticholestatic effects by undefined mechanisms. Previous work suggested that UDCA stimulates biliary exocytosis via Ca(++)- and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent mechanisms. Therefore, the effect of taurine-conjugated UDCA (TUDCA) was studied in the experimental

  9. Voltage-gated calcium flux mediatesEscherichia colimechanosensation. (United States)

    Bruni, Giancarlo N; Weekley, R Andrew; Dodd, Benjamin J T; Kralj, Joel M


    Electrically excitable cells harness voltage-coupled calcium influx to transmit intracellular signals, typically studied in neurons and cardiomyocytes. Despite intense study in higher organisms, investigations of voltage and calcium signaling in bacteria have lagged due to their small size and a lack of sensitive tools. Only recently were bacteria shown to modulate their membrane potential on the timescale of seconds, and little is known about the downstream effects from this modulation. In this paper, we report on the effects of electrophysiology in individual bacteria. A genetically encoded calcium sensor expressed in Escherichia coli revealed calcium transients in single cells. A fusion sensor that simultaneously reports voltage and calcium indicated that calcium influx is induced by voltage depolarizations, similar to metazoan action potentials. Cytoplasmic calcium levels and transients increased upon mechanical stimulation with a hydrogel, and single cells altered protein concentrations dependent on the mechanical environment. Blocking voltage and calcium flux altered mechanically induced changes in protein concentration, while inducing calcium flux reproduced these changes. Thus, voltage and calcium relay a bacterial sense of touch and alter cellular lifestyle. Although the calcium effectors remain unknown, these data open a host of new questions about E. coli , including the identity of the underlying molecular players, as well as other signals conveyed by voltage and calcium. These data also provide evidence that dynamic voltage and calcium exists as a signaling modality in the oldest domain of life, and therefore studying electrophysiology beyond canonical electrically excitable cells could yield exciting new findings.

  10. Spatiotemporal intracellular calcium dynamics during cardiac alternans (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan G.; Karma, Alain


    Cellular calcium transient alternans are beat-to-beat alternations in the peak cytosolic calcium concentration exhibited by cardiac cells during rapid electrical stimulation or under pathological conditions. Calcium transient alternans promote action potential duration alternans, which have been linked to the onset of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Here we use a recently developed physiologically detailed mathematical model of ventricular myocytes to investigate both stochastic and deterministic aspects of intracellular calcium dynamics during alternans. The model combines a spatially distributed description of intracellular calcium cycling, where a large number of calcium release units are spatially distributed throughout the cell, with a full set of ionic membrane currents. The results demonstrate that ion channel stochasticity at the level of single calcium release units can influence the whole-cell alternans dynamics by causing phase reversals over many beats during fixed frequency pacing close to the alternans bifurcation. They also demonstrate the existence of a wide range of dynamical states. Depending on the sign and magnitude of calcium-voltage coupling, calcium alternans can be spatially synchronized or desynchronized, in or out of phase with action potential duration alternans, and the node separating out-of-phase regions of calcium alternans can be expelled from or trapped inside the cell. This range of states is found to be larger than previously anticipated by including a robust global attractor where calcium alternans can be spatially synchronized but out of phase with action potential duration alternans. The results are explained by a combined theoretical analysis of alternans stability and node motion using general iterative maps of the beat-to-beat dynamics and amplitude equations.

  11. Water Treatment Technology - Pumps. (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

  12. Liquid Hydrogen Pump (United States)


    S V 15 8 Inlet Nozzle Profile for Inducer Impeller 17 9 LH2 Pump Inl- Characteristics vs TSH 18 10 LH2 Test Pump Inlet Edge Loading, 2-Degree Turning...boundary condition. The inlet nozzle profile is shown in Figure 8. Inducer Diameter A parametric investigation was made to determine the optimum inlet

  13. Heat pump unit. Waermepumpenaggregat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gail, J.


    An internal combustion engine with an integrated heat pump and an electricity generator are combined in one engine housing. The internal combustion engine consists of a working cylinder parallel to the drive shaft with a double piston arrangement for swashplate operation, where at least the back of one piston works as the compressor of a heat pump. (orig.).

  14. Administration of Inulin-Supplemented Gluten-Free Diet Modified Calcium Absorption and Caecal Microbiota in Rats in a Calcium-Dependent Manner


    Urszula Krupa-Kozak; Markiewicz, Lidia?H.; Grzegorz Lamparski; Jerzy Juśkiewicz


    In coeliac disease (CD), the risk of adverse calcium balance and reduced bone density is induced mainly by the disease, but also by a gluten-free diet (GFD), the only accepted CD therapy. Prebiotics through the beneficial impact on intestinal microbiota may stimulate calcium (Ca) absorption. In the present study, we hypothesised that the dietary inulin in GFD would influence positively the intestinal microbiota, and by that will stimulate the absorption of calcium (Ca), especially in the cond...

  15. Review of magnetohydrodynamic pump applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Habahbeh, O.M; Al-Saqqa, M; Safi, M; Abo Khater, T


    Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) principle is an important interdisciplinary field. One of the most important applications of this effect is pumping of materials that are hard to pump using conventional pumps...

  16. Steam by-pass reciprocating rod pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterhouse, B. [Weatherford, Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    This article presented the design details of Weatherford's steam by-pass reciprocating rod rod pump which was designed to work under specific well conditions and individual applications, including Imperial Oil's Cold Lake bitumen recovery project located 230 km northeast of Edmonton, Alberta. Imperial Oil uses a cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) process to enhance bitumen recovery from the Clearwater oil sand reservoir. A typical wellbore reach can be up to 700 m and 80 degrees deviation at a target depth of 455 m TVD. These long well bore reaches along with high bottomhole angles and high produced fluid viscosities complicate the design of the artificial lift, which is essentially a modified conventional API pump. The hold-down section is a friction ring design incorporating stainless steel friction rings to provide positive holding force. The steam by-pass coupling is a reduced-diameter tube fitting between the API pump and the friction ring hold-down section. Three stages of the Imperial Cold Lake operation were described, namely the steam injection stage, soak phase stage and production stage. Typically, the steam by-pass pump is suspended in the tubing for the entire cycle. This presentation reviewed the operating steps of the pump, whose average run time in the field is about 15 months, depending on the potential for scaling or sand influx. tab., figs.

  17. Apparatus for Pumping a Fluid (United States)

    Boeyen, Robert Van; Reeh, Jonathan


    A fluid pump has been developed for mechanically pumped fluid loops for spacecraft thermal control. Lynntech's technology utilizes a proprietary electrochemically driven pumping mechanism. Conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps typically do not meet the stringent power and operational reliability requirements of space applications. Lynntech's developmental pump is a highly efficient solid-state pump with essentially no rotating or moving components (apart from metal bellows).

  18. Pumping machinery theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Hassan M


    Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice comprehensively covers the theoretical foundation and applications of pumping machinery. Key features: Covers characteristics of centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps and displacement pumpsConsiders pumping machinery performance and operational-type problemsCovers advanced topics in pumping machinery including multiphase flow principles, and two and three-phase flow pumping systemsCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine efficiency and energy consumptionCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine effi

  19. Transmitter modulation of spike-evoked calcium transients in arousal related neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne; Leonard, Christopher S


    -evoked intracellular calcium transients dampen excitability and stimulate NO production in these neurons. In this study, we investigated the action of several arousal-related neurotransmitters and the role of specific calcium channels in these LDT Ca(2+)-transients by simultaneous whole-cell recording and calcium...

  20. [Effect of ectopic excitation on pump function of the hen and dog right heart ventricle]. (United States)

    Kibler, N A; Kharin, S N; Tsvetkova, A S; Azarov, Ia E; Shmakov, D N


    The pump function of the right heart ventricle has been studied in anesthetized dogs and hens at sinus rhythm, supraventricular rhythm, and subepicardial ectopic excitation of base and apex of the right and left ventricles. Dynamics of the ventricle intracavital pressure was recorded by transmural catheterization. The pump function of the right ventricle in hen (as compared with sinus rhythm) retained to the greater degree at stimulation of the left ventricle apex and deteriorated significantly at stimulation of the right ventricle, whereas in dog (as compared with supraventricular rhythm) it retained to the greater degree at stimulation of the left ventricle base and deteriorated at stimulation of the right ventricle apex. Changes of the pump function of the right heart ventricle at ectopic ventricle stimulation are similar in birds and mammals. Differences in changes of dog and hen pump functions under effect of location of the ectopic excitation seem to be due to morphofunctional peculiarities of heart ventricles.

  1. A sodium-pump-mediated afterhyperpolarization in pyramidal neurons. (United States)

    Gulledge, Allan T; Dasari, Sameera; Onoue, Keita; Stephens, Emily K; Hasse, J Michael; Avesar, Daniel


    The sodium-potassium ATPase (i.e., the "sodium pump") plays a central role in maintaining ionic homeostasis in all cells. Although the sodium pump is intrinsically electrogenic and responsive to dynamic changes in intracellular sodium concentration, its role in regulating neuronal excitability remains unclear. Here we describe a physiological role for the sodium pump in regulating the excitability of mouse neocortical layer 5 and hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Trains of action potentials produced long-lasting (∼20 s) afterhyperpolarizations (AHPs) that were insensitive to blockade of voltage-gated calcium channels or chelation of intracellular calcium, but were blocked by tetrodotoxin, ouabain, or the removal of extracellular potassium. Correspondingly, the AHP time course was similar to the decay of activity-induced increases in intracellular sodium, whereas intracellular calcium decayed at much faster rates. To determine whether physiological patterns of activity engage the sodium pump, we replayed in vitro a place-specific burst of 15 action potentials recorded originally in vivo in a CA1 "place cell" as the animal traversed the associated place field. In both layer 5 and CA1 pyramidal neurons, this "place cell train" generated small, long-lasting AHPs capable of reducing neuronal excitability for many seconds. Place-cell-train-induced AHPs were blocked by ouabain or removal of extracellular potassium, but not by intracellular calcium chelation. Finally, we found calcium contributions to the AHP to be temperature dependent: prominent at room temperature, but largely absent at 35°C. Our results demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for the sodium-potassium ATPase in regulating the excitability of neocortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons.

  2. Substitutions in Calcium Aluminates and Calcium Aluminoferrites. (United States)


  3. ATP-driven calcium transport in membrane vesicles of Streptococcus sanguis. [Streptococcus sanguis; Streptococcus faecalis; Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houng, H.; Lynn, A.R.; Rosen, B.P.


    Calcium transport was investigated in membrane vesicles prepared from the oral bacterium Streptococcus sanguis. Procedures were devised for the preparation of membrane vesicles capable of accumulation /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/. Uptake was ATP dependent and did not require a proton motive force. Calcium transport in these vesicles was compared with /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ accumulation in membrane vesicles from Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. The data support the existence of an ATP-driven calcium pump in S. sanguis similar to that in S. faecalis. This pump, which catalyzes uptake into membrane vesicles, would be responsible for extrusion of calcium from intact cells.

  4. Nuclear-pumped lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Prelas, Mark


    This book focuses on Nuclear-Pumped Laser (NPL) technology and provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of NPLs, a review of research in the field, and exploration of large scale NPL system design and applications. Early chapters look at the fundamental properties of lasers, nuclear-pumping and nuclear reactions that may be used as drivers for nuclear-pumped lasers. The book goes on to explore the efficient transport of energy from the ionizing radiation to the laser medium and then the operational characteristics of existing nuclear-pumped lasers. Models based on Mathematica, explanations and a tutorial all assist the reader’s understanding of this technology. Later chapters consider the integration of the various systems involved in NPLs and the ways in which they can be used, including beyond the military agenda. As readers will discover, there are significant humanitarian applications for high energy/power lasers, such as deflecting asteroids, space propulsion, power transmission and mining....

  5. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.


    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  6. Breastfeeding FAQs: Pumping (United States)

    ... after maternity leave, try to start pumping a couple of weeks beforehand. If you wait until the day before you go back to work, you may be frustrated to find that your body doesn't respond to the ...

  7. An artificial molecular pump (United States)

    Cheng, Chuyang; McGonigal, Paul R.; Schneebeli, Severin T.; Li, Hao; Vermeulen, Nicolaas A.; Ke, Chenfeng; Stoddart, J. Fraser


    Carrier proteins consume fuel in order to pump ions or molecules across cell membranes, creating concentration gradients. Their control over diffusion pathways, effected entirely through noncovalent bonding interactions, has inspired chemists to devise artificial systems that mimic their function. Here, we report a wholly artificial compound that acts on small molecules to create a gradient in their local concentration. It does so by using redox energy and precisely organized noncovalent bonding interactions to pump positively charged rings from solution and ensnare them around an oligomethylene chain, as part of a kinetically trapped entanglement. A redox-active viologen unit at the heart of a dumbbell-shaped molecular pump plays a dual role, first attracting and then repelling the rings during redox cycling, thereby enacting a flashing energy ratchet mechanism with a minimalistic design. Our artificial molecular pump performs work repetitively for two cycles of operation and drives rings away from equilibrium toward a higher local concentration.

  8. Absorption heat pump system (United States)

    Grossman, Gershon


    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  9. Chiral Brownian heat pump


    van den Broek, Martijn; Van den Broeck, Christian


    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  10. Regenerative Hydride Heat Pump (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.


    Hydride heat pump features regenerative heating and single circulation loop. Counterflow heat exchangers accommodate different temperatures of FeTi and LaNi4.7Al0.3 subloops. Heating scheme increases efficiency.

  11. Chiral brownian heat pump. (United States)

    van den Broek, M; Van den Broeck, C


    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  12. Chiral Brownian heat pump


    Broek, M. van den; Broeck, C. Van Den


    We present the exact analysis of a chiral Brownian motor and heat pump. Optimization of the construction predicts, for a nanoscale device, frequencies of the order of kHz and cooling rates of the order of femtojoule per second.

  13. Duodopa pump treatment in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsborg, Merete; Korbo, Lise; Regeur, Lisbeth


    Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) often develop motor complications including fluctuations and involuntary movements (dyskinesias). In Denmark, treatment has comprised Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) since the late 1990s, and as from 2002 use of a subcutaneous apomorphine pump. Monothe......Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) often develop motor complications including fluctuations and involuntary movements (dyskinesias). In Denmark, treatment has comprised Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) since the late 1990s, and as from 2002 use of a subcutaneous apomorphine pump....... Monotherapy with continuous intestinal levodopa infusion to the duodenum (Duodopa) was introduced in 2004....

  14. Effect of crystalline family and orientation on stimulated Brillouin scattering in whispering-gallery mode resonators. (United States)

    Diallo, Souleymane; Aubry, Jean-Pierre; Chembo, Yanne K


    Ultra-high Q whispering-gallery mode resonators pumped by a continuous-wave laser are known to enhance stimulated Brillouin scattering when optimal resonance and phase-matching conditions are met. In crystalline resonators, this process depends critically on the crystal orientation and family, which impose the elastic constants defining the velocity of the acoustic waves. In this article, we investigate the effect of crystalline orientation and family on this velocity which is proportional to the Brillouin frequency down-shift. In particular, the study is based on the development of a model and numerical simulations of acoustic wave velocities that propagate along the periphery of four fluoride crystals, namely calcium, magnesium, lithium and barium fluoride. We find that depending on the crystal and its orientation, the frequency excursion around the Brillouin offset can vary from few tens of kHz to more than a GHz.

  15. Effects of somatostatin on intestinal calcium transport in the rat. (United States)

    Favus, M J; Berelowitz, M; Coe, F L


    The addition of somatostatin (SRIF) to rat descending colon in vitro increased the calcium secretory flux from serosa to mucosa (Js leads to m) and reduced tissue short-circuit current (Isc) but did not alter the absorptive flux from mucosa to serosa (Js leads to m). Js leads to m increased by 37% at 10(-9) M SRIF and by 48% at 10(-6) M. The response to SRIF was not altered by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], and SRIF did not interfere with stimulation of calcium Jm leads to s by 1,25(OH)2D3. Removal of sodium from the buffer abolished the stimulation of Js leads to m by SRIF without reducing basal Js leads to m. Secretory fluxes of mannitol and calcium were strongly correlated in the presence and absence of SRIF, suggesting that SRIF stimulates a paracellular transepithelial pathway for calcium. In the duodenum, SRIF altered neither calcium Js leads to m nor Isc. In the ileum, calcium Js leads to m increased and Isc decreased, as in the colon, but only by 28 and 12%, respectively. The maximal change in calcium Js leads to m caused by SRIF in these three intestinal segments was negatively correlated with the tissue concentration of immunoreactive SRIF. These results suggest that intestinal calcium secretion could, in part, be regulated by intestinal SRIF.

  16. Paclitaxel Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells through Different Calcium—Regulating Mechanisms Depending on External Calcium Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Pan


    Full Text Available Previously, we reported that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were a direct target for paclitaxel initiation of apoptosis. Furthermore, the actions of paclitaxel attenuated Bcl-2 resistance to apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum-mediated calcium release. To better understand the calcium-regulated mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated the role of extracellular calcium, specifically; whether influx of extracellular calcium contributed to and/or was necessary for paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that paclitaxel induced extracellular calcium influx. This mobilization of extracellular calcium contributed to subsequent cytosolic calcium elevation differently, depending on dosage. Under normal extracellular calcium conditions, high dose paclitaxel induced apoptosis-promoting calcium influx, which did not occur in calcium-free conditions. In the absence of extracellular calcium an “Enhanced Calcium Efflux” mechanism in which high dose paclitaxel stimulated calcium efflux immediately, leading to dramatic cytosolic calcium decrease, was observed. In the absence of extracellular calcium, high dose paclitaxel’s stimulatory effects on capacitative calcium entry and apoptosis could not be completely restored. Thus, normal extracellular calcium concentrations are critical for high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, low dose paclitaxel mirrored controls, indicating that it occurs independent of extracellular calcium. Thus, extracellular calcium conditions only affect efficacy of high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis.

  17. Paclitaxel Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells through Different Calcium—Regulating Mechanisms Depending on External Calcium Conditions (United States)

    Pan, Zhi; Avila, Andrew; Gollahon, Lauren


    Previously, we reported that endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores were a direct target for paclitaxel initiation of apoptosis. Furthermore, the actions of paclitaxel attenuated Bcl-2 resistance to apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum-mediated calcium release. To better understand the calcium-regulated mechanisms of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, we investigated the role of extracellular calcium, specifically; whether influx of extracellular calcium contributed to and/or was necessary for paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that paclitaxel induced extracellular calcium influx. This mobilization of extracellular calcium contributed to subsequent cytosolic calcium elevation differently, depending on dosage. Under normal extracellular calcium conditions, high dose paclitaxel induced apoptosis-promoting calcium influx, which did not occur in calcium-free conditions. In the absence of extracellular calcium an “Enhanced Calcium Efflux” mechanism in which high dose paclitaxel stimulated calcium efflux immediately, leading to dramatic cytosolic calcium decrease, was observed. In the absence of extracellular calcium, high dose paclitaxel’s stimulatory effects on capacitative calcium entry and apoptosis could not be completely restored. Thus, normal extracellular calcium concentrations are critical for high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. In contrast, low dose paclitaxel mirrored controls, indicating that it occurs independent of extracellular calcium. Thus, extracellular calcium conditions only affect efficacy of high dose paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. PMID:24549172

  18. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump (United States)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.


    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  19. Lunar Base Heat Pump (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.


    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  20. Pump Assisted Heat Pipe


    Miyazaki, Yoshiro; OSHIMA, Shigeto


    A labortory model of a pump assisted heat pipe has been fablicated and tested. An arterial heat pipe with axial grooves and a gear pump with a magnetic coupling have been developed for the model. The test has been carried out successfully. The reasonable thermal conductance has been obtained so far as the necessary working fluid flow rate is supplied. The necessary flow rate exceeds the theoretical one and the excess flow rate increases as the heat load increases.

  1. Molecular heat pump


    Segal, Dvira; Nitzan, Abraham


    We propose a novel molecular device that pumps heat against a thermal gradient. The system consists of a molecular element connecting two thermal reservoirs that are characterized by different spectral properties. The pumping action is achieved by applying an external force that periodically modulates molecular levels. This modulation affects periodic oscillations of the internal temperature of the molecule and the strength of its coupling to each reservoir resulting in a net heat flow in the...

  2. Satellite Propellant Pump Research (United States)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Veres, Joseph P.; Hah, Chunill; Nerone, Anthony L.; Cunningham, Cameron C.; Kraft, Thomas G.; Tavernelli, Paul F.; Fraser, Bryan


    NASA Glenn initiated a satellite propellant pump technology demonstration program. The goal was to demonstrate the technologies for a 60 percent efficient pump at 1 gpm flow rate and 500 psia pressure rise. The pump design and analysis used the in-house developed computer codes named PUMPA and HPUMP3D. The requirements lead to a 4-stage impeller type pump design with a tip diameter of 0.54 inches and a rotational speed of 57,000 rpm. Analyses indicated that flow cavitation was not a problem in the design. Since the flow was incompressible, the stages were identical. Only the 2-stage pump was designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested for demonstration. Water was selected as the surrogate fluid for hydrazine in this program. Complete mechanical design including stress and dynamic analyses were conducted. The pump was driven by an electric motor directly coupled to the impellers. Runs up to 57,000 rpm were conducted, where a pressure rise of 200 psia at a flow rate of 0.8 gpm was measured to validate the design effort.

  3. Energy efficiency in pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin [TUBITAK-MRC, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Yigit, K. Suleyman; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk [Engineering Faculty, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Kilic, Fatma Canka [Department of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Kocaeli University, Kullar, Kocaeli (Turkey)


    In this paper, ''energy efficiency'' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems. (author)


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Rotary blood pumps are used for cardiac assist and cardiopulmonary support since mechanical blood damage is less than with conventional roller pumps. The high shear rate in the rotary pump and the reduced anticoagulation of the patient during prolonged pumping enforces high demands on the

  5. Performance of Wind Pump Prototype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    based on combined efficiency of the rotor and the reciprocating pump was used to estimate the performance of the wind pump. One year wind speed data collected at 10 m height was extrapolated to the wind pump hub height using wind shear coefficient. The model assumed balanced rotor power and reciprocating pump, ...

  6. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi


    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  7. Calcium channel blocker overdose (United States)

    ... page: // Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used to ...

  8. Fenoprofen calcium overdose (United States)

    ... page: // Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  9. Calcium's Role in Mechanotransduction during Muscle Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Benavides Damm


    Full Text Available Mechanotransduction is a process where cells sense their surroundings and convert the physical forces in their environment into an appropriate response. Calcium plays a crucial role in the translation of such forces to biochemical signals that control various biological processes fundamental in muscle development. The mechanical stimulation of muscle cells may for example result from stretch, electric and magnetic stimulation, shear stress, and altered gravity exposure. The response, mainly involving changes in intracellular calcium concentration then leads to a cascade of events by the activation of downstream signaling pathways. The key calcium-dependent pathways described here include the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK activation. The subsequent effects in cellular homeostasis consist of cytoskeletal remodeling, cell cycle progression, growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, all necessary for healthy muscle development, repair, and regeneration. A deregulation from the normal process due to disuse, trauma, or disease can result in a clinical condition such as muscle atrophy, which entails a significant loss of muscle mass. In order to develop therapies against such diseased states, we need to better understand the relevance of calcium signaling and the downstream responses to mechanical forces in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this review is to discuss in detail how diverse mechanical stimuli cause changes in calcium homeostasis by affecting membrane channels and the intracellular stores, which in turn regulate multiple pathways that impart these effects and control the fate of muscle tissue.

  10. Calcium and Mitosis (United States)

    Hepler, P.


    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  11. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.


    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of

  12. The influence of extracellular and intracellular calcium on the secretion of renin (United States)

    Atchison, Douglas K.; Beierwaltes, William H.


    Changes in plasma, extracellular and intracellular calcium can affect renin secretion from the renal juxtaglomerular (JG) cells. Elevated intracellular calcium directly inhibits renin release from JG cells by decreasing the dominant second messenger intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) via actions on calcium-inhibitable adenylyl cyclases and calcium-activated phosphodiesterases. Increased extracellular calcium also directly inhibits renin release by stimulating the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) on JG cells, resulting in parallel changes in the intracellular environment and decreasing intracellular cAMP. In vivo, acutely elevated plasma calcium inhibits plasma renin activity (PRA) via parathyroid hormone-mediated elevations in renal cortical interstitial calcium that stimulate the JG cell CaSR. However, chronically elevated plasma calcium or CaSR activation may actually stimulate PRA. This elevation in PRA may be a compensatory mechanism resulting from calcium-mediated polyuria. Thus, changing the extracellular calcium in vitro or in vivo results in inversely related acute changes in cAMP, and therefore renin release, but chronic changes in calcium may result in more complex interactions dependent upon the duration of changes and the integration of the body’s response to these changes. PMID:22538344

  13. Heat driven pulse pump (United States)

    Benner, Steve M (Inventor); Martins, Mario S. (Inventor)


    A heat driven pulse pump includes a chamber having an inlet port, an outlet port, two check valves, a wick, and a heater. The chamber may include a plurality of grooves inside wall of the chamber. When heated within the chamber, a liquid to be pumped vaporizes and creates pressure head that expels the liquid through the outlet port. As liquid separating means, the wick, disposed within the chamber, is to allow, when saturated with the liquid, the passage of only liquid being forced by the pressure head in the chamber, preventing the vapor from exiting from the chamber through the outlet port. A plurality of grooves along the inside surface wall of the chamber can sustain the liquid, which is amount enough to produce vapor for the pressure head in the chamber. With only two simple moving parts, two check valves, the heat driven pulse pump can effectively function over the long lifetimes without maintenance or replacement. For continuous flow of the liquid to be pumped a plurality of pumps may be connected in parallel.

  14. Miniature Lightweight Ion Pump (United States)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P.


    This design offers a larger surface area for pumping of active gases and reduces the mass of the pump by eliminating the additional vacuum enclosure. There are three main components to this ion pump: the cathode and anode pumping elements assembly, the vacuum enclosure (made completely of titanium and used as the cathode and maintained at ground potential) containing the assembly, and the external magnet. These components are generally put in a noble diode (or differential) configuration of the ion pump technology. In the present state of the art, there are two cathodes, one made of titanium and the other of tantalum. The anodes are made up of an array of stainless steel cylinders positioned between the two cathodes. All the elements of the pump are in a vacuum enclosure. After the reduction of pressure in this enclosure to a few microns, a voltage is applied between the cathode and the anode elements. Electrons generated by the ionization are accelerated toward the anodes that are confined in the anode space by the axial magnetic field. For the generation of the axial field along the anode elements, the magnet is designed in a C-configuration and is fabricated from rare earth magnetic materials (Nd-B-Fe or Sm-Co) possessing high energy product values, and the yoke is fabricated from the high permeability material (Hiperco-50A composed of Fe-Co-V). The electrons in this region collide with the gas molecules and generate their positive ions. These ions are accelerated into the cathode and eject cathode material (Ti). The neutral atoms deposit on the anode surfaces. Because of the chemical activity of Ti, the atoms combine with chemically active gas molecules (e.g. N2, O2, etc.) and remove them. New layers of Ti are continually deposited, and the pumping of active gases is thus accomplished. Pumping of the inert gases is accomplished by their burial several atomic layers deep into the cathode. However, they tend to re-emit if the entrapping lattice atoms are

  15. Pumping approximately integrable systems (United States)

    Lange, Florian; Lenarčič, Zala; Rosch, Achim


    Weak perturbations can drive an interacting many-particle system far from its initial equilibrium state if one is able to pump into degrees of freedom approximately protected by conservation laws. This concept has for example been used to realize Bose-Einstein condensates of photons, magnons and excitons. Integrable quantum systems, like the one-dimensional Heisenberg model, are characterized by an infinite set of conservation laws. Here, we develop a theory of weakly driven integrable systems and show that pumping can induce large spin or heat currents even in the presence of integrability breaking perturbations, since it activates local and quasi-local approximate conserved quantities. The resulting steady state is qualitatively captured by a truncated generalized Gibbs ensemble with Lagrange parameters that depend on the structure but not on the overall amplitude of perturbations nor the initial state. We suggest to use spin-chain materials driven by terahertz radiation to realize integrability-based spin and heat pumps.

  16. Velocity pump reaction turbine (United States)

    House, P.A.

    An expanding hydraulic/two-phase velocity pump reaction turbine including a dual concentric rotor configuration with an inter-rotor annular flow channel in which the inner rotor is mechanically driven by the outer rotor. In another embodiment, the inner rotor is immobilized and provided with gas recovery ports on its outer surface by means of which gas in solution may be recovered. This velocity pump reaction turbine configuration is capable of potential energy conversion efficiencies of up to 70%, and is particularly suited for geothermal applications.

  17. Heat pump planning handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bonin, Jürgen


    The Heat Pump Planning Handbook contains practical information and guidance on the design, planning and selection of heat pump systems, allowing engineers, designers, architects and construction specialists to compare a number of different systems and options. Including detailed descriptions of components and their functions and reflecting the current state of technology this guide contains sample tasks and solutions as well as new model calculations and planning evaluations. Also economic factors and alternative energy sources are covered, which are essential at a time of rising heat costs. T

  18. Towards an optofluidic pump? (United States)

    Emile, Olivier; Emile, Janine


    Most of the vibrating mechanisms of optofluidic systems are based on local heating of membranes that induces liquid flow.We report here a new type of diaphragm pump in a liquid film based on the optical radiation pressure force. We modulate a low power laser that generates, at resonance, a symmetric vibration of a free standing soap film. The film lifetime strongly varies from 56 s at low power (2 mW) to 2 s at higher power (70 mW). Since the laser beam only acts mechanically on the interfaces, such a pump could be easily implemented on delicate microequipment on chips or in biological systems.

  19. Reactor coolant pump flywheel (United States)

    Finegan, John Raymond; Kreke, Francis Joseph; Casamassa, John Joseph


    A flywheel for a pump, and in particular a flywheel having a number of high density segments for use in a nuclear reactor coolant pump. The flywheel includes an inner member and an outer member. A number of high density segments are provided between the inner and outer members. The high density segments may be formed from a tungsten based alloy. A preselected gap is provided between each of the number of high density segments. The gap accommodates thermal expansion of each of the number of segments and resists the hoop stress effect/keystoning of the segments.

  20. Molecular heat pump. (United States)

    Segal, Dvira; Nitzan, Abraham


    We propose a molecular device that pumps heat against a thermal gradient. The system consists of a molecular element connecting two thermal reservoirs that are characterized by different spectral properties. The pumping action is achieved by applying an external force that periodically modulates molecular levels. This modulation affects periodic oscillations of the internal temperature of the molecule and the strength of its coupling to each reservoir resulting in a net heat flow in the desired direction. The heat flow is examined in the slow and fast modulation limits and for different modulation wave forms, thus making it possible to optimize the device performance.

  1. Regenerative adsorbent heat pump (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)


    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system is provided which can regenerate a high percentage of the sensible heat of the system and at least a portion of the heat of adsorption. A series of at least four compressors containing an adsorbent is provided. A large amount of heat is transferred from compressor to compressor so that heat is regenerated. The process and system are useful for air conditioning rooms, providing room heat in the winter or for hot water heating throughout the year, and, in general, for pumping heat from a lower temperature to a higher temperature.

  2. Pump arrangement Comprising a Savety Valve


    Richter, M.; Kruckow, J.


    A pump arrangement comprises a pump (20) having a pump inlet (22) and a pump outlet (24), which are designed to pump a fluid from the pump inlet to the pump outlet, and it further comprises a safety valve (40), which is disposed between the pump outlet (24) and an outlet (48) of the pump arrangement and comprises a valve set (42) and a valve cover (44). The valve seat, the pump outlet, and the pump inlet are structured in a first surface of a first single-piece part (14) of the pump arrangeme...



    Richter, Martin; Wackerle, Martin


    A pump arrangement comprises a microfluidic pump (20) having a pump inlet (22) and a pump outlet (24), which is configured to pump a fluid from the pump inlet to the pump outlet, wherein the pump inlet (22) and an inlet (46) of the pump arrangement are fluidically connected. The pump arrangement further comprises a safety valve arrangement having first safety valve (40), the first safety valve (40) being arranged between the pump outlet (24) and an outlet (48) of the pump arrangement and comp...

  4. The salutary effect of dietary calcium on bone mass in a rat model of simulated weightlessness (United States)

    Bikle, D. D.; Globus, R.; Halloran, B. P.; Morey-Holton, E.


    Whether supplementation of dietary calcium reduces the differences in bone mass of unweighed limbs and normally weighted limbs, and whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) respond differently to dietary calcium in unweighted animals in comparison with pair-fed controls was studied. The hind limbs of rats were unweighted by a tail suspension method and diets containing 0.1% to 2.4% calcium. After 2 weeks serum calcium, phosphorus, PTH and 1,25(OH)2D intestinal calcium transport were determined and bone mass, ash weight, and calcium in the tibia, L-1 vertebra, and humerus were measured. No significant differences in body weights were observed among the various groups. Suspended rats maintained constant levels of serum calcium and phosphate over the wide range of dietary calcium. Serum PTH and 1,25(OH)2D and intestinal calcium transport fell as dietary calcium was increased. Bone calcium in the tibia and vertebra from suspended rats remained less than that from pair-fed control. It is suggested that although no striking difference between suspended and control animals was observed in response to dieteary calcium, increasing dietary calcium may reduce the negative impact of unloading on the calcium content of the unweighted bones. The salutary effect of high dietary calcium appears to be due to inhibition of bone resorption rather than to stimulation of bone formation.

  5. Intestinal calcium and bile salts facilitate germination of Clostridium difficile spores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J Kochan


    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile (C. difficile is an anaerobic gram-positive pathogen that is the leading cause of nosocomial bacterial infection globally. C. difficile infection (CDI typically occurs after ingestion of infectious spores by a patient that has been treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. While CDI is a toxin-mediated disease, transmission and pathogenesis are dependent on the ability to produce viable spores. These spores must become metabolically active (germinate in order to cause disease. C. difficile spore germination occurs when spores encounter bile salts and other co-germinants within the small intestine, however, the germination signaling cascade is unclear. Here we describe a signaling role for Ca2+ during C. difficile spore germination and provide direct evidence that intestinal Ca2+ coordinates with bile salts to stimulate germination. Endogenous Ca2+ (released from within the spore and a putative AAA+ ATPase, encoded by Cd630_32980, are both essential for taurocholate-glycine induced germination in the absence of exogenous Ca2+. However, environmental Ca2+ replaces glycine as a co-germinant and circumvents the need for endogenous Ca2+ fluxes. Cd630_32980 is dispensable for colonization in a murine model of C. difficile infection and ex vivo germination in mouse ileal contents. Calcium-depletion of the ileal contents prevented mutant spore germination and reduced WT spore germination by 90%, indicating that Ca2+ present within the gastrointestinal tract plays a critical role in C. difficile germination, colonization, and pathogenesis. These data provide a biological mechanism that may explain why individuals with inefficient intestinal calcium absorption (e.g., vitamin D deficiency, proton pump inhibitor use are more prone to CDI and suggest that modulating free intestinal calcium is a potential strategy to curb the incidence of CDI.

  6. Pumps used as turbines power recovery, energy efficiency, CFD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović-Jovanović Jasmina B.


    Full Text Available As the global demand for energy grows, numerous studies in the field of energy efficiency are stimulated, and one of them is certainly the use of pumps in turbine operating mode. In order to reduce time necessary to determine pump characteristic in turbine operating mode problem was studied by computational fluid dynamics approach. The paper describes various problems faced during modeling (pump and turbine mode and the approaches used to resolve the problems. Since in the majority of applications, the turbine is a pump running in reverse, many attempts have been made to predict the turbine performance from the known pump performance, but only for best efficiency point. This approach does not provide reliable data for the design of the system with maximum energy efficiency and does not allow the determination of the head for a wide range of flow rates. This paper presents an example of centrifugal norm pump operating in both (pump and turbine regime and comparison of experimentally obtained results and computational fluid dynamics simulations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33040: Revitalization of existing and designing new micro and mini hydropower plants (from 100 to 1000 kW in the territory of South and Southeast Serbia

  7. Centrifugal blood pump 603

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Centrifugal blood pump 603 pressure obtained for real blood, as shown in figure 6, is a little higher than that for glycerin aqua Solution with the same viscosity as blood. This may indicate the effect of slight non-. Newtonian turbulent flow. The radial whirl motion of the impeller was observed by dual laser position sensors.

  8. Pump Flow Analysis (United States)


    Ingersoll-Rand Research, Inc.'s use of COSMIC's computer program MERIDL permits designers to evaluate performance and efficiency characteristics to be expected from the pump's impeller. It also provides information that enables a trained hydraulic engineer to make design improvements. Company was able to avoid the cost of developing new software and to improve some product design features.

  9. Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pound, C.R.


    This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

  10. Fuel Pumping System And Method (United States)

    Shafer, Scott F.; Wang, Lifeng


    A fuel pumping system that includes a pump drive is provided. A first pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a first flow of pressurized fuel. A second pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a second flow of pressurized fuel. A first solenoid is operatively connected to the first pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the first flow of pressurized fuel. A second solenoid is operatively connected to the second pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the second flow of pressurized fuel.

  11. Orbital Liquid Oxygen Pump Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed work will develop a pump, which is based on two novel and unique design features. The first feature is a lobed pumping mechanism which operates with...

  12. On ciliary pumping and sieving in bryozoans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Riisgård, H. U.


    Based on video-microscope observations of trajectories of particles in the feeding currents of individual isolated bryozoans Bowerbankia imbricata, Flustrellidra hispida and Electra pilosa the velocity fields above and in the lophophore have been determined. The flow into the lophophore, which...... in the absence of a particle. This is hypothesised to stimulate the sensing mechanism triggering observed flicks. The energy cost of pumping is estimated at 1 to 4% of the metabolic power of a "standard" zooid. Keywords: Feeding in bryozoans; Flow in lophophore; Ciliary sieving; Particle retention; Bryozoan...

  13. Cavitation wear of pump impellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Szala


    Full Text Available Cavitation is a common phenomenon in pump systems, negatively influencing their operating parameters and components such as impellers and, thus, causing considerable financial losses. This paper explains the problem of cavitation and cavitation erosion. The causes of cavitation in pump systems are analyzed. A selection of centrifugal pump impellers damaged by cavitation erosion are presented and examined. The authors also discuss ways of preventing cavitation and cavitation erosion in pump systems. Finally, relevant conclusions are drawn.

  14. Mechanistic studies of sodium pump. (United States)

    Faller, Larry D


    Sodium pump was the first ion pump discovered. A member of the family of active transporters that catalyze adenosine 5'-triphosphate hydrolysis by forming a phosphorylated enzyme intermediate, sodium pump couples the energy released to unequal countertransport of sodium and potassium ions. The ion gradient generated by the pump is important for a variety of secondary physiological processes ranging from metabolite transport to electrical excitation of nerve and muscle. Selected experiments relating structure to function are reviewed.

  15. Analytical solution of reaction-diffusion equations for calcium wave propagation in a starburst amacrine cell. (United States)

    Poznanski, R R


    A reaction-diffusion model is presented to encapsulate calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) as a potential mechanism for somatofugal bias of dendritic calcium movement in starburst amacrine cells. Calcium dynamics involves a simple calcium extrusion (pump) and a buffering mechanism of calcium binding proteins homogeneously distributed over the plasma membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum within starburst amacrine cells. The system of reaction-diffusion equations in the excess buffer (or low calcium concentration) approximation are reformulated as a nonlinear Volterra integral equation which is solved analytically via a regular perturbation series expansion in response to calcium feedback from a continuously and uniformly distributed calcium sources. Calculation of luminal calcium diffusion in the absence of buffering enables a wave to travel at distances of 120 μm from the soma to distal tips of a starburst amacrine cell dendrite in 100 msec, yet in the presence of discretely distributed calcium-binding proteins it is unknown whether the propagating calcium wave-front in the somatofugal direction is further impeded by endogenous buffers. If so, this would indicate CICR to be an unlikely mechanism of retinal direction selectivity in starburst amacrine cells.

  16. Improving pumping system efficiency at coal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livoti, W.C.; McCandless, S.; Poltorak, R. [Baldor Electric Co. (United States)


    The industry must employ ultramodern technologies when building or upgrading power plant pumping systems thereby using fuels more efficiently. The article discusses the uses and efficiencies of positive displacement pumps, centrifugal pumps and multiple screw pumps. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  17. Small Scroll Pump for Cryogenic Liquids Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a compact, reliable, light weight, electrically driven pump capable of pumping cryogenic liquids, based on scroll pump technology. This pump will...

  18. The sarcolipin-bound calcium pump stabilizes calcium sites exposed to the cytoplasm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Bublitz, Maike; Karlsen, Jesper Lykkegaard


    The contraction and relaxation of muscle cells is controlled by the successive rise and fall of cytosolic Ca(2+), initiated by the release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and terminated by re-sequestration of Ca(2+) into the sarcoplasmic reticulum as the main mechanism of Ca(2+) removal....... Re-sequestration requires active transport and is catalysed by the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), which has a key role in defining the contractile properties of skeletal and heart muscle tissue. The activity of SERCA is regulated by two small, homologous membrane proteins called...... report the crystal structure of rabbit SERCA1a (also known as ATP2A1) in complex with SLN at 3.1 Å resolution. The regulatory SLN traps the Ca(2+)-ATPase in a previously undescribed E1 state, with exposure of the Ca(2+) sites through an open cytoplasmic pathway stabilized by Mg(2+). The structure...

  19. Three-beam double stimulated Raman scatterings. (United States)

    Cho, Minhaeng


    Two-beam stimulated Raman scattering with pump and Stokes beams is manifest in both the Raman loss of the pump beam and the Raman gain of the Stokes beam, and it has been used in various label-free bioimaging applications. Here, a three-beam stimulated Raman scattering that involves pump, Stokes, and depletion beams is considered, where two stimulated Raman gain-loss processes are deliberately made to compete with each other. It is shown that the three-beam Raman scattering process can be described by coupled differential equations for the increased numbers of Stokes and depletion beam photons. From approximate solutions of the coupled differential equations and numerical calculation results, it is shown that a highly efficient suppression of the Stokes Raman gain is possible by using an intense depletion beam whose frequency difference from that of the pump beam is identical to another acceptor Raman mode frequency. I anticipate that the present work will provide a theoretical framework for super-resolution stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

  20. growth stimulant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of timing and duration of supplementation of LIVFIT VET ® (growth stimulant) as substitute for fish meal on the growth performance, haematology and clinical enzymes concentration of growing pigs.

  1. 21 CFR 880.5725 - Infusion pump. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infusion pump. 880.5725 Section 880.5725 Food and... Infusion pump. (a) Identification. An infusion pump is a device used in a health care facility to pump fluids into a patient in a controlled manner. The device may use a piston pump, a roller pump, or a...

  2. Key techniques for space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers (United States)

    He, Yang; Xiong, Sheng-jun; Liu, Xiao-long; Han, Wei-hua


    In space, the absence of atmospheric turbulence, absorption, dispersion and aerosol factors on laser transmission. Therefore, space-based laser has important values in satellite communication, satellite attitude controlling, space debris clearing, and long distance energy transmission, etc. On the other hand, solar energy is a kind of clean and renewable resources, the average intensity of solar irradiation on the earth is 1353W/m2, and it is even higher in space. Therefore, the space-based solar pumped lasers has attracted much research in recent years, most research focuses on solar pumped solid state lasers and solar pumped fiber lasers. The two lasing principle is based on stimulated emission of the rare earth ions such as Nd, Yb, Cr. The rare earth ions absorb light only in narrow bands. This leads to inefficient absorption of the broad-band solar spectrum, and increases the system heating load, which make the system solar to laser power conversion efficiency very low. As a solar pumped semiconductor lasers could absorb all photons with energy greater than the bandgap. Thus, solar pumped semiconductor lasers could have considerably higher efficiencies than other solar pumped lasers. Besides, solar pumped semiconductor lasers has smaller volume chip, simpler structure and better heat dissipation, it can be mounted on a small satellite platform, can compose satellite array, which can greatly improve the output power of the system, and have flexible character. This paper summarizes the research progress of space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers, analyses of the key technologies based on several application areas, including the processing of semiconductor chip, the design of small and efficient solar condenser, and the cooling system of lasers, etc. We conclude that the solar pumped vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers will have a wide application prospects in the space.

  3. Pocket pumped image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotov, I.V., E-mail: [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); O' Connor, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Murray, N. [Centre for Electronic Imaging, Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)


    The pocket pumping technique is used to detect small electron trap sites. These traps, if present, degrade CCD charge transfer efficiency. To reveal traps in the active area, a CCD is illuminated with a flat field and, before image is read out, accumulated charges are moved back and forth number of times in parallel direction. As charges are moved over a trap, an electron is removed from the original pocket and re-emitted in the following pocket. As process repeats one pocket gets depleted and the neighboring pocket gets excess of charges. As a result a “dipole” signal appears on the otherwise flat background level. The amplitude of the dipole signal depends on the trap pumping efficiency. This paper is focused on trap identification technique and particularly on new methods developed for this purpose. The sensor with bad segments was deliberately chosen for algorithms development and to demonstrate sensitivity and power of new methods in uncovering sensor defects.

  4. Solar-powered pump (United States)

    Kirsten, C. C. (Inventor)


    A solar powered pump particularly suited for intermittently delivering a stream of water is reported. The pump is characterized by a housing adapted to be seated in a source of water having a water discharge port disposed above the water line of the source, a sump including a valved inlet port through which water is introduced to the sump, disposed beneath the water line, a displacer supported for vertical reciprocation in said housing, an air passageway extended between the vertically spaced faces of the displacer, and a tipple disposed adjacent to the water discharge port adapted to be filled in response to a discharge of water from the housing. Air above a displacer is expanded in response to solar energy impinging on the housing and transferred into pressurizing relation with the sump for forcing water from the sump.

  5. Multiple source heat pump (United States)

    Ecker, Amir L.


    A heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating a fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid, at least three refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid, a second for effecting heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid, and a third for effecting heat exchange with ambient air; a compressor for compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve connected at the inlet side of a heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circuit and pump for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and directional flow of refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. Also disclosed are a variety of embodiments, modes of operation, and schematics therefor.

  6. SERCA pump level is a critical determinant of Ca(2+)homeostasis and cardiac contractility. (United States)

    Periasamy, M; Huke, S


    The control of intracellular calcium is central to regulation of cardiac contractility. A defect in SR Ca(2+)transport and SR Ca(2+)ATPase pump activity and expression level has been implicated as a major player in cardiac dysfunction. However, a precise cause-effect relationship between alterations in SERCA pump level and cardiac contractility could not be established from these studies. Progress in transgenic mouse technology and adenoviral gene transfer has provided new tools to investigate the role of SERCA pump level in the heart. This review focuses on how alterations in SERCA level affect Ca(2+)homeostasis and cardiac contractility. It discusses the consequences of altered SERCA pump levels for the expression and activity of other Ca(2+)handling proteins. Furthermore, the use of SERCA pump as a therapeutic target for gene therapy of heart failure is evaluated. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  7. Short-range intercellular calcium signaling in bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Niklas Rye


    into biological effects in bone. Intercellular calcium waves are increases in intracellular calcium concentration in single cells, subsequently propagating to adjacent cells, and can be a possible mechanism for the coupling of bone formation to bone resorption. The aim of the present studies was to investigate...... whether bone cells are capable of communicating via intercellular calcium signals, and determine by which mechanisms the cells propagate the signals. First, we found that osteoblastic cells can propagate intercellular calcium transients upon mechanical stimulation, and that there are two principally...... different mechanisms for this propagation. One mechanism involves the secretion of a nucleotide, possibly ATP, acting in an autocrine action to purinergic P2Y2 receptors on the neighboring cells, leading to intracellular IP3 generation and subsequent release of calcium from intracellular stores. The other...

  8. Calcium, calcium-sensing receptor and growth control in the colonic mucosa


    Varani, James


    A role for calcium in epithelial growth control is well-established in the colon and other tissues. In the colon, Ca2+ “drives” the differentiation process. This results in sequestration of ß-catenin in the cell surface / cytoskeletal complex, leaving ß-catenin unavailable to serve as a growth-promoting transcription enhancer in the nucleus. The signaling events that lead from Ca2+ stimulation to differentiation are not fully understood. A critical role for the extracellular calcium-sensing r...

  9. Pioneering Heat Pump Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschliman, Dave [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States); Lubbehusen, Mike [Indiana Inst. of Technology, Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States)


    This project was initiated at a time when ground coupled heat pump systems in this region were limited in size and quantity. There were economic pressures with costs for natural gas and electric utilities that had many organizations considering ground coupled heat pumps; The research has added to the understanding of how ground temperatures fluctuate seasonally and how this affects the performance and operation of the heat pumps. This was done by using a series of temperature sensors buried within the middle of one of the vertical bore fields with sensors located at various depths below grade. Trending of the data showed that there is a lag in ground temperature with respect to air temperatures in the shoulder months, however as full cooling and heating season arrives, the heat rejection and heat extraction from the ground has a significant effect on the ground temps; Additionally it is better understood that while a large community geothermal bore field serving multiple buildings does provide a convenient central plant to use, it introduces complexity of not being able to easily model and predict how each building will contribute to the loads in real time. Additional controllers and programming were added to provide more insight into this real time load profile and allow for intelligent shedding of load via a dry cooler during cool nights in lieu of rejecting to the ground loop. This serves as a means to ‘condition’ the ground loop and mitigate thermal creep of the field, as is typically observed; and It has been observed when compared to traditional heating and cooling equipment, there is still a cost premium to use ground source heat pumps that is driven mostly by the cost for vertical bore holes. Horizontal loop systems are less costly to install, but do not perform as well in this climate zone for heating mode

  10. Nonazeotropic Heat Pump (United States)

    Ealker, David H.; Deming, Glenn


    Heat pump collects heat from water circulating in heat-rejection loop, raises temperature of collected heat, and transfers collected heat to water in separate pipe. Includes sealed motor/compressor with cooling coils, evaporator, and condenser, all mounted in outer housing. Gradients of temperature in evaporator and condenser increase heat-transfer efficiency of vapor-compression cycle. Intended to recover relatively-low-temperature waste heat and use it to make hot water.

  11. Hydride heat pump (United States)

    Cottingham, James G.


    Method and apparatus for the use of hydrides to exhaust heat from one temperature source and deliver the thermal energy extracted for use at a higher temperature, thereby acting as a heat pump. For this purpose there are employed a pair of hydridable metal compounds having different characteristics working together in a closed pressure system employing a high temperature source to upgrade the heat supplied from a low temperature source.

  12. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter in Drosophila transfers calcium between the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in oxidative stress-induced cell death. (United States)

    Choi, Sekyu; Quan, Xianglan; Bang, Sunhoe; Yoo, Heesuk; Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Jiwon; Park, Kyu-Sang; Chung, Jongkyeong


    Mitochondrial calcium plays critical roles in diverse cellular processes ranging from energy metabolism to cell death. Previous studies have demonstrated that mitochondrial calcium uptake is mainly mediated by the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) complex. However, the roles of the MCU complex in calcium transport, signaling, and dysregulation by oxidative stress still remain unclear. Here, we confirmed that Drosophila MCU contains evolutionarily conserved structures and requires essential MCU regulator (EMRE) for its calcium channel activities. We generated Drosophila MCU loss-of-function mutants, which lacked mitochondrial calcium uptake in response to caffeine stimulation. Basal metabolic activities were not significantly affected in these MCU mutants, as observed in examinations of body weight, food intake, body sugar level, and starvation-induced autophagy. However, oxidative stress-induced increases in mitochondrial calcium, mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization, and cell death were prevented in these mutants. We also found that inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor genetically interacts with Drosophila MCU and effectively modulates mitochondrial calcium uptake upon oxidative stress. Taken together, these results support the idea that Drosophila MCU is responsible for endoplasmic reticulum-to-mitochondrial calcium transfer and for cell death due to mitochondrial dysfunction under oxidative stress. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Stirling Engine Heat Pump (United States)

    Kagawa, Noboru

    Recent advances in the feasibility studies related to the Stirling engines and Stirling engine heat pumps which have been considered attractive due to their promising role in helping to solve the global environmental and energy problems,are reviewed. This article begins to describe the brief history of the Stirling engines and theoretical thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling cycle in order to understand several advantages on the Stirling engine. Furthermore,they could throw light on our question why the dream engines had not been promoted to practical applications during two hundred years. The present review shows that the Stirling engines with several unique advantages including 30 to 40% thermal efficiency and preferable exhaust characteristics,had been designed and constructed by recent tackling for the development of the advanced automobile and other applications using them. Based on the current state of art,it is being provided to push the Stirling engines combined with heat pumps based on the reversed Rankine cycle to the market. At present,however, many problems, especially for the durability, cost, and delicate engine parts must be enforced to solve. In addition,there are some possibilities which can increase the attractiveness of the Stirling engines and heat pumps. The review closes with suggestions for further research.

  14. Electrocentrifugal pumping; Bombeo electrocentrifugo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Perez, Guillermo; Medellin Otero, Hector [Instituto Mexicano del Peroleo (Mexico)


    The exploitation of isolated oil deposits, in losing their own energy, enter a phase of secondary recovery. One of the technologies of new development in Mexico is the one of electrocentrifugal pumping , which consists of introducing the motor-pump as an integral part of the production pipe down to the well bottom and pumping directly up to central complexes, from where it is sent inland. In the present paper is intended to explain what this type of secondary recovery consists of. [Spanish] La explotacion de yacimientos aislados de petroleo, al perder su energia propia, entran en una fase de recuperacion secundaria. Una de las tecnologias de nuevo desarrollo en Mexico es la de bombeo electrocentrifugo, la cual consiste en introducir la motobomba como parte integral de la tuberia de produccion hasta el fondo del pozo y bombearlo directamente hasta los complejos centrales, de donde se envia a tierra. En el presente trabajo se pretende explicar en que consiste este tipo de recuperacion secundaria.

  15. A Magnetically Coupled Cryogenic Pump (United States)

    Hatfield, Walter; Jumper, Kevin


    Historically, cryogenic pumps used for propellant loading at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and other NASA Centers have a bellows mechanical seal and oil bath ball bearings, both of which can be problematic and require high maintenance. Because of the extremely low temperatures, the mechanical seals are made of special materials and design, have wearing surfaces, are subject to improper installation, and commonly are a potential leak path. The ball bearings are non-precision bearings [ABEC-1 (Annular Bearing Engineering Council)] and are lubricated using LOX compatible oil. This oil is compatible with the propellant to prevent explosions, but does not have good lubricating properties. Due to the poor lubricity, it has been a goal of the KSC cryogenics community for the last 15 years to develop a magnetically coupled pump, which would eliminate these two potential issues. A number of projects have been attempted, but none of the pumps was a success. An off-the-shelf magnetically coupled pump (typically used with corrosive fluids) was procured that has been used for hypergolic service at KSC. The KSC Cryogenics Test Lab (CTL) operated the pump in cryogenic LN2 as received to determine a baseline for modifications required. The pump bushing, bearings, and thrust rings failed, and the pump would not flow liquid (this is a typical failure mode that was experienced in the previous attempts). Using the knowledge gained over the years designing and building cryogenic pumps, the CTL determined alternative materials that would be suitable for use under the pump design conditions. The CTL procured alternative materials for the bearings (bronze, aluminum bronze, and glass filled PTFE) and machined new bearing bushings, sleeves, and thrust rings. The designed clearances among the bushings, sleeves, thrust rings, case, and case cover were altered once again using experience gained from previous cryogenic pump rebuilds and designs. The alternative material parts were assembled into

  16. Minimal model for calcium alternans due to SR release refractoriness (United States)

    Cantalapiedra, Inma R.; Alvarez-Lacalle, Enrique; Peñaranda, Angelina; Echebarria, Blas


    In the heart, rapid pacing rates may induce alternations in the strength of cardiac contraction, termed pulsus alternans. Often, this is due to an instability in the dynamics of the intracellular calcium concentration, whose transients become larger and smaller at consecutive beats. This alternation has been linked experimentally and theoretically to two different mechanisms: an instability due to (1) a strong dependence of calcium release on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) load, together with a slow calcium reuptake into the SR or (2) to SR release refractoriness, due to a slow recovery of the ryanodine receptors (RyR2) from inactivation. The relationship between calcium alternans and refractoriness of the RyR2 has been more elusive than the corresponding SR Ca load mechanism. To study the former, we reduce a general calcium model, which mimics the deterministic evolution of a calcium release unit, to its most basic elements. We show that calcium alternans can be understood using a simple nonlinear equation for calcium concentration at the dyadic space, coupled to a relaxation equation for the number of recovered RyR2s. Depending on the number of RyR2s that are recovered at the beginning of a stimulation, the increase in calcium concentration may pass, or not, over an excitability threshold that limits the occurrence of a large calcium transient. When the recovery of the RyR2 is slow, this produces naturally a period doubling bifurcation, resulting in calcium alternans. We then study the effects of inactivation, calcium diffusion, and release conductance for the onset of alternans. We find that the development of alternans requires a well-defined value of diffusion while it is less sensitive to the values of inactivation or release conductance.

  17. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine


    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  18. In vivo calcium imaging of evoked calcium waves in the embryonic cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail eYuryev


    Full Text Available The dynamics of intracellular calcium fluxes are instrumental in the proliferation, differentiation and migration of neuronal cells. Knowledge thus far of the relationship between these calcium changes and physiological processes in the developing brain has derived principally from ex vivo and in vitro experiments. Here, we present a new method to image intracellular calcium flux in the cerebral cortex of live rodent embryos, whilst attached to the dam through the umbilical cord. Using this approach we demonstrate induction of calcium waves by laser stimulation. These waves are sensitive to ATP-receptor blockade and are significantly increased by pharmacological facilitation of intracellular-calcium release. This approach is the closest to physiological conditions yet achieved for imaging of calcium in the embryonic brain and as such opens new avenues for the study of prenatal brain development. Furthermore, the developed method could open the possibilities of preclinical translational studies in embryos particularly important for developmentally related diseases such as schizophrenia and autism.

  19. Concurrent imaging of synaptic vesicle recycling and calcium dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan eLi


    Full Text Available Synaptic transmission involves the calcium-dependent release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles. Genetically encoded optical probes emitting different wavelengths of fluorescent light in response to neuronal activity offer a powerful approach to understand the spatial and temporal relationship of calcium dynamics to the release of neurotransmitter in defined neuronal populations. To simultaneously image synaptic vesicle recycling and changes in cytosolic calcium, we developed a red-shifted reporter of vesicle recycling based on a vesicular glutamate transporter, VGLUT1-mOrange2 (VGLUT1-mOr2, and a presynaptically-localized green calcium indicator, synaptophysin-GCaMP3 (SyGCaMP3 with a large dynamic range. The fluorescence of VGLUT1-mOr2 is quenched by the low pH of synaptic vesicles. Exocytosis upon electrical stimulation exposes the luminal mOr2 to the neutral extracellular pH and relieves fluorescence quenching. Re-acidification of the vesicle upon endocytosis again reduces fluorescence intensity. Changes in fluorescence intensity thus monitor synaptic vesicle exo- and endocytosis, as demonstrated previously for the green VGLUT1-pHluorin. To monitor changes in calcium, we fused the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin to the recently improved calcium indicator GCaMP3. SyGCaMP3 is targeted to presynaptic varicosities, and exhibits changes in fluorescence in response to electrical stimulation consistent with changes in calcium concentration. Using real-time imaging of both reporters expressed in the same synapses, we determine the time course of changes in VGLUT1 recycling in relation to changes in presynaptic calcium concentration. Inhibition of P/Q- and N-type calcium channels reduces calcium levels, as well as the rate of synaptic vesicle exocytosis and the fraction of vesicles released.

  20. Calcium and bones (United States)

    ... eat in their diet. Vitamin D is the hormone that helps the gut absorb more calcium. Many older adults have common risks that make bone health worse. Calcium intake in the diet (milk, cheese, yogurt) is low. Vitamin D levels are ...

  1. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt


    Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc......° = -34 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = -55 ± 9 J mol-1 K-1, were determined electrochemically. Calcium d-saccharate is sparingly soluble, with a solubility product, Ksp, of (6.17 ± 0.32) × 10-7 at 25 °C, only moderately increasing with the temperature: ΔHsol° = 48 ± 2 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = 42 ± 7 J mol-1...... K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d...

  2. Extracellular Calcium and Magnesium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The cause of preeclampsia remains unknown and calcium and magnesium supplement are being suggested as means of prevention. The objective of this study was to assess magnesium and calcium in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of Nigerian women with preedamp sia and eclampsia. Setting was ...

  3. PUMPSIM: a software package for simulating computer-controlled drug infusion pumps. (United States)

    Hamann, G E; Doyle, D J


    Advances in microcomputer technology have lead to the development of volumetric infusion pumps which can be controlled by a remote computer. Such pumps offer powerful capabilities for the administration of medications and fluids. Complex control strategies can be preprogrammed and the pump allowed to run with a minimum of supervision. The safety of patients is of the utmost importance. Therefore, great care must be taken to implement robust error avoidance, detection and correction protocols in the host control program. This paper describes a software simulator of a commercial infusion pump (Abbott Lifecare Model 4). Using the simulator in the development and debugging of control programs has several advantages over using the real pump: it provides detailed pump status information and it can stimulate various error and alarm conditions to comprehensively test the error recovery procedures of the control program.

  4. Towards loss compensated and lasing terahertz metamaterials based on optically pumped graphene. (United States)

    Weis, P; Garcia-Pomar, J L; Rahm, M


    We evidence by numerical calculations that optically pumped graphene is suitable for compensating inherent loss in terahertz (THz) metamaterials. We calculate the complex conductivity of graphene under optical pumping and determine the proper conditions for terahertz amplification in single layer graphene. It is shown that amplification in graphene occurs up to room temperature for moderate pump intensities at telecommunication wavelength λ = 1.5 μm. Furthermore, we investigate the coupling between a plasmonic split ring resonator (SRR) metamaterial and optically pumped graphene at a temperature T = 77 K and a pump intensity I = 300 mW/mm(2). We find that the loss of a SRR metamaterial can be compensated by optically stimulated amplification in graphene. Moreover, we show that a hybrid material consisting of asymmetric split-ring resonators and optically pumped graphene can emit coherent THz radiation at minimum output power levels of 60 nW/mm(2).

  5. Redox-dependent regulation of the Na⁺-K⁺ pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chia-Chi; Fry, Natasha A S; Hamilton, Elisha J


    By the time it was appreciated that the positive inotropic effect of cardiac glycosides is due to inhibition of the membrane Na(+)-K(+) pump, glycosides had been used for treatment of heart failure on an empiric basis for ~200 years. The subsequent documentation of their lack of clinical efficacy...... to stimulate the Na(+)-K(+) pump, effectively the only export route for intracellular Na(+) in the heart failure. A paradigm has emerged that implicates pump inhibition in the raised Na(+) levels in heart failure. It invokes protein kinase-dependent activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate...... oxidase (NADPH oxidase) and glutathionylation, a reversible oxidative modification, of the Na(+)-K(+) pump molecular complex that inhibits its activity. Since treatments of proven efficacy reverse the oxidative Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibition, the pump retains its status as a key pharmacological target...

  6. Experimental Study on Series Operation of Sliding Vane Pump and Centrifugal Pump


    Tao Li; Weiming Zhang; Ming Jiang; Zhengyang Li


    A platform for sliding vane pump and centrifugal pump tests is installed to study the series operation of them under different characteristics of pipeline. Firstly, the sliding vane pump and the centrifugal pump work independently, and the performance is recorded. Then, the two types of pumps are combined together, with the sliding vane pump acting as the feeding pump. Comparison is made between the performance of the independently working pump and the performance of series operation pump. Re...

  7. Supercritical waste oxidation pump investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurston, G.; Garcia, K.


    This report investigates the pumping techniques and pumping equipment that would be appropriate for a 5,000 gallon per day supercritical water oxidation waste disposal facility. The pumps must boost water, waste, and additives from atmospheric pressure to approximately 27.6 MPa (4,000 psia). The required flow ranges from 10 gpm to less than 0.1 gpm. For the higher flows, many commercial piston pumps are available. These pumps have packing and check-valves that will require periodic maintenance; probably at 2 to 6 month intervals. Several commercial diaphragm pumps were also discovered that could pump the higher flow rates. Diaphragm pumps have the advantage of not requiring dynamic seals. For the lower flows associated with the waste and additive materials, commercial diaphragm pumps. are available. Difficult to pump materials that are sticky, radioactive, or contain solids, could be injected with an accumulator using an inert gas as the driving mechanism. The information presented in this report serves as a spring board for trade studies and the development of equipment specifications.

  8. Sodium Pumps Mediate Activity-Dependent Changes in Mammalian Motor Networks. (United States)

    Picton, Laurence D; Nascimento, Filipe; Broadhead, Matthew J; Sillar, Keith T; Miles, Gareth B


    Ubiquitously expressed sodium pumps are best known for maintaining the ionic gradients and resting membrane potential required for generating action potentials. However, activity- and state-dependent changes in pump activity can also influence neuronal firing and regulate rhythmic network output. Here we demonstrate that changes in sodium pump activity regulate locomotor networks in the spinal cord of neonatal mice. The sodium pump inhibitor, ouabain, increased the frequency and decreased the amplitude of drug-induced locomotor bursting, effects that were dependent on the presence of the neuromodulator dopamine. Conversely, activating the pump with the sodium ionophore monensin decreased burst frequency. When more "natural" locomotor output was evoked using dorsal-root stimulation, ouabain increased burst frequency and extended locomotor episode duration, whereas monensin slowed and shortened episodes. Decreasing the time between dorsal-root stimulation, and therefore interepisode interval, also shortened and slowed activity, suggesting that pump activity encodes information about past network output and contributes to feedforward control of subsequent locomotor bouts. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from spinal motoneurons and interneurons, we describe a long-duration (∼60 s), activity-dependent, TTX- and ouabain-sensitive, hyperpolarization (∼5 mV), which is mediated by spike-dependent increases in pump activity. The duration of this dynamic pump potential is enhanced by dopamine. Our results therefore reveal sodium pumps as dynamic regulators of mammalian spinal motor networks that can also be affected by neuromodulatory systems. Given the involvement of sodium pumps in movement disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism, knowledge of their contribution to motor network regulation also has considerable clinical importance. The sodium pump is ubiquitously expressed and responsible for at least half of total

  9. Problems of energy efficiency of pumps and pumping systems (United States)

    Tverdokhleb, I.; Kostyuk, A.; Sokolov, S.


    The total energy consumption of various types of pumps is significant and the energy saving potential in this area is also huge. The transition from consideration of the characteristics of a separate pump to the features of its operation with a drive, taking into account the operation in different modes in conditions of a specific hydraulic network, allows obtaining a much greater potential for reducing energy consumption, significantly increasing the efficiency and reliability of pumping equipment.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free

  11. Reductions in calcium uptake induced in rat brain synaptosomes by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Howerton, T.C.; Hunt, W.A. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))


    Gamma irradiation (60Co) reduced KCl-stimulated voltage-dependent 45Ca2+ uptake in whole-brain, cortical, and striatal synaptosomes. The time course (3, 10, 30, and 60 s) of calcium uptake by irradiated (3 Gy) and nonirradiated synaptosomes, as well as the effect of KCl (15-65 mM), was measured in whole-brain synaptosomes. The fastest and highest rate of depolarization-dependent calcium uptake occurred at 3 s with 65 mM KCl. Irradiation reduced calcium uptake at all incubation times and KCl concentrations. Bay K 8644 enhancement of KCl-stimulated calcium influx was also reduced by radiation exposure. Nimodipine binding to dihydropyridine (DHP) L-type calcium channel receptors was not altered following radiation exposure. These results demonstrate an inhibitory effect of ionizing radiation on the voltage-sensitive calcium channels in rat brain synaptosomes that are not mediated by DHP receptors.

  12. Chemical heat pump (United States)

    Greiner, Leonard


    A chemical heat pump system is disclosed for use in heating and cooling structures such as residences or commercial buildings. The system is particularly adapted to utilizing solar energy, but also increases the efficiency of other forms of thermal energy when solar energy is not available. When solar energy is not available for relatively short periods of time, the heat storage capacity of the chemical heat pump is utilized to heat the structure as during nighttime hours. The design also permits home heating from solar energy when the sun is shining. The entire system may be conveniently rooftop located. In order to facilitate installation on existing structures, the absorber and vaporizer portions of the system may each be designed as flat, thin wall, thin pan vessels which materially increase the surface area available for heat transfer. In addition, this thin, flat configuration of the absorber and its thin walled (and therefore relatively flexible) construction permits substantial expansion and contraction of the absorber material during vaporization and absorption without generating voids which would interfere with heat transfer. The heat pump part of the system heats or cools a house or other structure through a combination of evaporation and absorption or, conversely, condensation and desorption, in a pair of containers. A set of automatic controls change the system for operation during winter and summer months and for daytime and nighttime operation to satisfactorily heat and cool a house during an entire year. The absorber chamber is subjected to solar heating during regeneration cycles and is covered by one or more layers of glass or other transparent material. Daytime home air used for heating the home is passed at appropriate flow rates between the absorber container and the first transparent cover layer in heat transfer relationship in a manner that greatly reduce eddies and resultant heat loss from the absorbant surface to ambient atmosphere.

  13. Proper Sizing of Circulation Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Nørgaard, Jørgen


    The paper describes the preliminary results from field tests of replacing various types of old pumps used for circulating water in heating systems in single- and double-family houses with new types of pumps. The tests were carried out in Denmark for the Danish Electricity Savings Trust......, but the results can be applied to Europe in general. Despite the small sample of houses involved in the test, 15 houses, some rather safe conclusions can be drawn from the results, which showed that newly developed pumps with power consumption around 5-8 W, can perform the task of circulating the water...... sufficiently to keep the houses satisfactorily warm during the heating season of the test. The old replaced pumps used 5-10 times more power. In Europe alone, a gradual replacement of the present vastly oversized pumps with such small but sufficient pumps can save the construction of 17 large power plants...

  14. Solar assisted heat pumps


    Godbold, R; Paurine, A; Maidment, GG


    Solar Assisted Heat Pumps have the potential to provide low carbon heat for domestic hot water generation and low temperature heating. They have advantages over conventional solar thermal systems because they can generate heating and hot water during periods of low or zero solar, whist still maintain the advantage of not needing to be connected to the gas grid. They are simple in nature and can be installed in a wide range of applications. They are also currently uncommon in the UK so a thoro...

  15. Absorption heat pump system (United States)

    Grossman, Gershon; Perez-Blanco, Horacio


    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  16. Centrifugal pumps and allied machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, HH


    This book will be of vital interest to all engineers and designers concerned with centrifugal pumps and turbines. Including statistical information derived from 20000 pumps and 700 turbines with capacities of 5gpm to 5000000gpm, this book offers the widest range and scope of information currently available. Statistical analyses suggest practical methods of increasing pump performance and provide valuable data for new design aspects.

  17. Mathematical model of heat pump


    Pitron, J.


    In this paper different energy states of a heat pump are described. Equations used for mathematical description of the heat pump in the Matlab Simulink are presented. Created model is used to calculate the energy flows in the system according to different input parameters. The simulation involves an accumulation tank, which is controlled by individual input and output parameters. Simulation results have been compared with the experimental measured values on a heat pump in a laboratory.

  18. Calcium in milk and fermentation by yoghurt bacteria increase the resistance of rats to Salmonella infection.


    Bovee-Oudenhoven, I; Termont, D; Dekker, R. (Rudolf); Van der Meer, R


    Calcium in milk products stimulates gastric acid secretion and inhibits the cytolytic activity of intestinal contents. Based on these effects, it was hypothesised that calcium might lessen the severity of food borne intestinal infections. The possible differential effects of a low calcium milk and normal milk products (milk, acidified milk, and pasteurised yoghurt) on the resistance of rats to a salmonella infection was therefore studied. Rats were infected orally with Salmonella enteritidis ...

  19. Regulation of the Na(+)-K+ pump activity and estimation of the reserve capacity in intact rat peritoneal mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben; Johansen, Torben


    Evidence is provided that regulation of the Na(+)-K+ pump activity in rat peritoneal mast cells occurs mainly through stimulation of the pump from inside the plasma membrane by sodium. It is demonstrated that there is a large reserve capacity for the exchange of intracellular sodium...... with extracellular potassium in these cells. The maximal pump activity was estimated to be 3230 pmol/10(6) cells per min and Km for extracellular potassium was 1.5 mM....

  20. Calcium sensing in exocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wu, Bingbing; Han, Weiping


    Neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones are released through regulated exocytosis of synaptic vesicles and large dense core vesicles. This complex and highly regulated process is orchestrated by SNAREs and their associated proteins. The triggering signal for regulated exocytosis is usually...... an increase in intracellular calcium levels. Besides the triggering role, calcium signaling modulates the precise amount and kinetics of vesicle release. Thus, it is a central question to understand the molecular machineries responsible for calcium sensing in exocytosis. Here we provide an overview of our...

  1. Comparative Analysis of Spontaneous and Stimulus-Evoked Calcium Transients in Proliferating and Differentiating Human Midbrain-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torben Johansen


    Full Text Available Spontaneous cytosolic calcium transients and oscillations have been reported in various tissues of nonhuman and human origin but not in human midbrain-derived stem cells. Using confocal microfluorimetry, we studied spontaneous calcium transients and calcium-regulating mechanisms in a human ventral mesencephalic stem cell line undergoing proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Spontaneous calcium transients were detected in a large fraction of both proliferating (>50% and differentiating (>55% cells. We provide evidence for the existence of intracellular calcium stores that respond to muscarinic activation of the cells, having sensitivity for ryanodine and thapsigargin possibly reflecting IP3 receptor activity and the presence of ryanodine receptors and calcium ATPase pumps. The observed calcium transient activity potentially supports the existence of a sodium-calcium antiporter and the existence of calcium influx induced by depletion of calcium stores. We conclude that the cells have developed the most important mechanisms governing cytosolic calcium homeostasis. This is the first comparative report of spontaneous calcium transients in proliferating and differentiating human midbrain-derived stem cells that provides evidence for the mechanisms that are likely to be involved. We propose that the observed spontaneous calcium transients may contribute to mechanisms involved in cell proliferation, phenotypic differentiation, and general cell maturation.

  2. Brain Stimulation Therapies (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  3. Radioprotective effect of calcium given with feed on exposure to tritium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazbekova, D.A.; Kalistratova, V.S.; Kulyamin, V.A.


    A 1.5-fold increase in calcium content of the rat diet attenuates the symptoms of radiation sickness induced by tritium and prolongs survival time. Elevation of blood serum nonspecific cholinesterase level and stimulation of lymphopoiesis were observed. The possible mechanisms of radioprotective action of calcium are discussed.

  4. The terrestrial silica pump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C Carey

    Full Text Available Silicon (Si cycling controls atmospheric CO(2 concentrations and thus, the global climate, through three well-recognized means: chemical weathering of mineral silicates, occlusion of carbon (C to soil phytoliths, and the oceanic biological Si pump. In the latter, oceanic diatoms directly sequester 25.8 Gton C yr(-1, accounting for 43% of the total oceanic net primary production (NPP. However, another important link between C and Si cycling remains largely ignored, specifically the role of Si in terrestrial NPP. Here we show that 55% of terrestrial NPP (33 Gton C yr(-1 is due to active Si-accumulating vegetation, on par with the amount of C sequestered annually via marine diatoms. Our results suggest that similar to oceanic diatoms, the biological Si cycle of land plants also controls atmospheric CO(2 levels. In addition, we provide the first estimates of Si fixed in terrestrial vegetation by major global biome type, highlighting the ecosystems of most dynamic Si fixation. Projected global land use change will convert forests to agricultural lands, increasing the fixation of Si by land plants, and the magnitude of the terrestrial Si pump.

  5. Lasers with nuclear pumping

    CERN Document Server

    Melnikov, S P; Sizov, A N; Miley, George H


    This book covers the history of lasers with nuclear pumping (Nuclear Pumped Lasers, NPLs). This book showcases the most important results and stages of NPL development in The Russian Federal Nuclear Center (VNIIEF) as well as other Russian and international laboratories, including laboratories in the United States. The basic science and technology behind NPLs along with potential applications are covered throughout the book. As such, this book: ·         Contains a historical overview of the extensive information developed over the past 40 years of work on NPLs ·         Covers the most important results and stages of NPL development, not just in the Russian Federal Nuclear Center, VNIIEF, but also in other laboratories in Russia, the United States , and some other scattered international laboratories ·         Systematizes the fragmented information accumulated over these years of very active research and development As the first comprehensive discussion of NPLs, students, research...

  6. Heat pump apparatus (United States)

    Nelson, Paul A.; Horowitz, Jeffrey S.


    A heat pump apparatus including a compact arrangement of individual tubular reactors containing hydride-dehydride beds in opposite end sections, each pair of beds in each reactor being operable by sequential and coordinated treatment with a plurality of heat transfer fluids in a plurality of processing stages, and first and second valves located adjacent the reactor end sections with rotatable members having multiple ports and associated portions for separating the hydride beds at each of the end sections into groups and for simultaneously directing a plurality of heat transfer fluids to the different groups. As heat is being generated by a group of beds, others are being regenerated so that heat is continuously available for space heating. As each of the processing stages is completed for a hydride bed or group of beds, each valve member is rotated causing the heat transfer fluid for the heat processing stage to be directed to that bed or group of beds. Each of the end sections are arranged to form a closed perimeter and the valve member may be rotated repeatedly about the perimeter to provide a continuous operation. Both valves are driven by a common motor to provide a coordinated treatment of beds in the same reactors. The heat pump apparatus is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  7. Bone repair in calcium-deficient rats: comparison of xylitol+calcium carbonate with calcium carbonate, calcium lactate and calcium citrate on the repletion of calcium. (United States)

    Hämäläinen, M M


    The potential value of xylitol in calcium therapy was evaluated by comparing the effect of dietary xylitol (50 g/kg diet) + calcium carbonate with the effects of calcium carbonate, calcium lactate and calcium citrate on bone repair of young male rats after the rats consumed for 3 wk a calcium-deficient diet (0.2 g Ca/kg diet). After this calcium-depletion period, the rats were fed for 2 wk one of four diets, each containing 5 g Ca/kg diet as one of the four dietary calcium sources. The diet of the control animals was supplemented with CaCO3 (5 g Ca/kg diet) throughout the study. The Ca-deficient rats showed low bone mass, low serum calcium and high serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, parathyroid hormone (1-34 fraction) and osteocalcin concentrations. They also excreted magnesium, phosphate and hydroxyproline in the urine in high concentrations, and had high bone alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activities. Most of these changes were reversed by the administered of the calcium salts. The highest recoveries of femoral dry weight, calcium, magnesium and phosphate were observed in the groups receiving xylitol+CaCO3 and calcium lactate. Calcium lactate and calcium citrate caused low serum phosphate concentration compared with rats receiving CaCO3 and with the age-matched Ca-replete controls. Xylitol-treated rats excreted more calcium and magnesium in urine than did the other rats, probably due to increased absorption of these minerals from the gut. These results suggest that dietary xylitol improves the bioavailability of calcium salts.

  8. Activation of a cGMP-sensitive calcium-dependent chloride channel may cause transition from calcium waves to whole-cell oscillations in smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian; Aalkjær, Christian; Nilsson, Holger


    In vitro, alpha-adreno receptor stimulation of rat mesenteric small arteries often leads to a rhythmic change in wall tension, vasomotion. Within the individual smooth muscle cells of the vascular wall, vasomotion is often preceded by a period of asynchronous calcium waves. Abruptly, these low......-frequency waves may transform into high-frequency whole-cell calcium oscillations. Simultaneously, multiple cells synchronize leading to rhythmic generation of tension. We present a mathematical model of vascular smooth muscle cells that aims at characterizing this sudden transition. Simulations show calcium...... waves sweeping through the cytoplasm when the SR is stimulated to release calcium. A rise in cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) leads to the experimentally observed transition from waves to whole-cell calcium oscillations. At the same time membrane potential starts to oscillate and the frequency...

  9. Activation of a cGMP-sensitive calcium-dependent chloride channel may cause transition from calcium waves to whole cell oscillations in smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; Aalkjær, Christian; Nilsson, Holger


    In vitro, alpha-adrenoreceptor stimulation of rat mesenteric small arteries often leads to a rhythmic change in wall tension, i.e., vasomotion. Within the individual smooth muscle cells of the vascular wall, vasomotion is often preceded by a period of asynchronous calcium waves. Abruptly, these low......-frequency waves may transform into high-frequency whole cell calcium oscillations. Simultaneously, multiple cells synchronize, leading to rhythmic generation of tension. We present a mathematical model of vascular smooth muscle cells that aims at characterizing this sudden transition. Simulations show calcium...... waves sweeping through the cytoplasm when the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is stimulated to release calcium. A rise in cGMP leads to the experimentally observed transition from waves to whole cell calcium oscillations. At the same time, membrane potential starts to oscillate and the frequency...

  10. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Calcium is among the most commonly used ions, in a multitude of biological functions, so much so that it is impossible to imagine life without calcium. In this article I have attempted to address the question as to how calcium has achieved this status with a brief mention of the history of calcium research in biology. It appears ...

  11. Calcium and Your Child (United States)

    ... Milk Allergy Figuring Out Food Labels What's a Vegetarian? Osteoporosis Minerals Your Bones Mineral Chart Vitamin D ... Need to Drink Milk? Lactose Intolerance Becoming a Vegetarian Soy Foods and Health Calcium Bones, Muscles, and ...

  12. Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriel


    The topic of calcium supplement and its effects on human lives is presented in the way of questions to the students. It enables the students to realize the relevance of chemistry outside the classroom surrounding.

  13. Magnesium, calcium and cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anghileri, Leopoldo J


    Magnesium ion (Mg(2+)) and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) control a diverse and important range of cellular processes, such as gene transcription, cell proliferation, neoplastic transformation, immune response and therapeutic treatment...

  14. About Variable Speed Heating and Cooling Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Popovici


    Full Text Available The present work has the purpose of underlying the advantages of variable speed heating and cooling pumps use for the perspective of general and particular pumping costs and efficiency. The study approaches comparisons between constant flow pumps and variable flow pumps in different given situations and comparatively analyses the pumping costs.

  15. About Variable Speed Heating and Cooling Pumps


    Popovici, Cătălin; Ignat, Jan


    The present work has the purpose of underlying the advantages of variable speed heating and cooling pumps use for the perspective of general and particular pumping costs and efficiency. The study approaches comparisons between constant flow pumps and variable flow pumps in different given situations and comparatively analyses the pumping costs.

  16. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard


    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid.......KEYWORDS: water, pump, design, vane, gear....

  17. The design of axial shaftless pump (United States)

    Schmirler, Michal; Netrebska, Hana

    The axial shaftless pump with a rotary casing has been proposed. The pump is unique in its small space requirements and the ability to draw a liquid with a high content of impurities and fibers. Modern motor with an external commutation was used to propel the pump rotor. The pump can be used for both pumping of liquids and marine propulsion.

  18. The design of axial shaftless pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmirler Michal


    Full Text Available The axial shaftless pump with a rotary casing has been proposed. The pump is unique in its small space requirements and the ability to draw a liquid with a high content of impurities and fibers. Modern motor with an external commutation was used to propel the pump rotor. The pump can be used for both pumping of liquids and marine propulsion.

  19. A high voltage, constant current stimulator for electrocutaneous stimulation through small electrodes. (United States)

    Poletto, C J; Van Doren, C L


    A high-voltage stimulator has been designed to allow transcutaneous stimulation of tactile fibers of the fingertip. The stimulator's output stage was based upon an improved Howland current pump topology, modified to allow high load impedances and small currents. The compliance voltage of approximately 800 V is achieved using commercially available high-voltage operational amplifiers. The output current accuracy is better than +/- 5% over the range of 1 to 25 mA for 30 microseconds or longer pulses. The rise time for square pulses is less than 1 microsecond. High-voltage, common-mode, latch-up power supply problems and solutions are discussed. The stimulator's input stage is optically coupled to the controlling computer and complies with applicable safety standards for use in a hospital environment. The design presented here is for monophasic stimulation only, but could be modified for biphasic stimulation.

  20. CC Cryostat Vacuum Pumping Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, J.B.; /Fermilab


    This report calculates the effect of the conductances of the pumping lines on the pumping speeds of the vacuum pumps being used to pump the inner vessel, and annular space, vacuum tight during the CC Cryostat testing. Effective pumping speeds were calculated for various values of pressure via the above stated formulas (see calculations). Conductances of valves, elbows, and tees were calculated with the help of ref. 1, and the volumes of the inner vessel and annular space were calculated wtth the aid of ref. 2. The major results of these calculations follow. The attached graphs show the effective pumping speed vs. pressure, as well as the pressure vs. pumpdown time for both the inner vessel pumpdown and the annular space pumpdown. Many intervals of pressure were chosen in order to give a complete picture of the effects on the pumping speed, and pumpdown time. An important rule of thumb is that the effective pumping speed be close to the intrinsic pump speed in the region of interest for the best efficiency. With an infinite conductance, these quantities become equal. In the case of the annular space pumpdown. the effective pumping speed is within approximately 15% of the intrinsic pump speed for pressures down to 6000{mu}, and at that point, the conductance effects slow the system down and provide a 49% difference at 1000{mu}. To Improve these numbers, the line length must be shortened, or even better, the line diameter increased. As far as pumpdown time is concerned, the actual pumpdown was completed in a reasonable amount of time, and would have been even better if the pumping system did not lag due to a leaK and its repair time. The inner vessel pumpdown shows a pumpdown time near 1 hour to reach 100{mu} pressure. The effective pumping speed matches to within 10% of the intrinsic pump speed to 6000{mu}, and then the conductance effects become more important and provide a 41% difference at 1000{mu}. The actual pumpdown was completed in a reasonable amount of time

  1. Sodium pump localization in epithelia. (United States)

    Bystriansky, Jason S; Kaplan, Jack H


    In epithelial cells, the sodium pump, in coordination with several other ion transporting proteins and channels, acts to regulate directional water and ion flux across the epithelial barrier. This function is dependant on the polarized localization of the sodium pump to a single plasma membrane domain. In most epithelial cell types the sodium pump is found in an exclusively basolateral position. Despite the clear importance of maintaining a polarized distribution of the sodium pump, surprisingly little is known about the specific mechanisms responsible for the targeting and trafficking of the sodium pump to the basolateral surface. We briefly discuss our current understanding of factors which may act to regulate the cellular distribution of the sodium pump, including the potential role of the sodium pump beta-subunit. Several previous, studies have suggested that the expression of the beta2 isoform (instead of beta1) may cause the apical localization of the sodium pump. This appeared to be confirmed by Wilson et al. Am J Pathol, 156: 253-268, 2000 who found that MDCK cells stably transfected with the beta2 subunit express the sodium pump at the apical surface. However, careful examination by Laughery et al.,Am J Physiol, 292: F1718-F1725, 2007, showed that the apical targeting of the pump was caused by the presence of butyrate in the cell growth media and was not due to the presence of the beta2 isoform. These findings are discussed below, along with potential explanations as to how butyrate may influence the polarity of the sodium pump in epithelial cells.

  2. Calcium signaling in lymphocytes and ELF fields. Evidence for an electric field metric and a site of interaction involving the calcium ion channel. (United States)

    Liburdy, R P


    Calcium influx increased during mitogen-activated signal transduction in thymic lymphocytes exposed to a 22 mT, 60 Hz magnetic field (E induced = 1.7 mV/cm, 37 degrees C, 60 min). To distinguish between an electric or a magnetic field dependence a special multi-ring annular cell culture plate based on Faraday's Law of Induction was employed. Studies show a dependence on the strength of the induced electric field at constant magnetic flux density. Moreover, exposure to a pure 60 Hz electric field or to a magnetically-induced electric field of identical strength resulted in similar changes in calcium transport. The first real-time monitoring of [Ca2+]i during application of a 60 Hz electric field revealed an increase in [Ca2+]i observed 100 s after mitogen stimulation; this suggests that the plateau phase rather than the early phase of calcium signaling was influenced. The hypothesis was tested by separating, in time, the early release of calcium from intracellular stores from the influx of extracellular calcium. In calcium-free buffer, 60 Hz field exerted little influence on the early release of calcium from intracellular stores. In contrast, addition of extracellular calcium during exposure enhanced calcium influx through the plasma membrane. Alteration of the plateau phase of calcium signaling implicates the calcium channel as a site of field interaction. In addition, an electric field exposure metric is mechanistically consistent with a cell-surface interaction site.

  3. Calcium Dynamics of Ex Vivo Long-Term Cultured CD8+ T Cells Are Regulated by Changes in Redox Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Rivet

    Full Text Available T cells reach a state of replicative senescence characterized by a decreased ability to proliferate and respond to foreign antigens. Calcium release associated with TCR engagement is widely used as a surrogate measure of T cell response. Using an ex vivo culture model that partially replicates features of organismal aging, we observe that while the amplitude of Ca2+ signaling does not change with time in culture, older T cells exhibit faster Ca2+ rise and a faster decay. Gene expression analysis of Ca2+ channels and pumps expressed in T cells by RT-qPCR identified overexpression of the plasma membrane CRAC channel subunit ORAI1 and PMCA in older T cells. To test whether overexpression of the plasma membrane Ca2+ channel is sufficient to explain the kinetic information, we adapted a previously published computational model by Maurya and Subramaniam to include additional details on the store-operated calcium entry (SOCE process to recapitulate Ca2+ dynamics after T cell receptor stimulation. Simulations demonstrated that upregulation of ORAI1 and PMCA channels is not sufficient to explain the observed alterations in Ca2+ signaling. Instead, modeling analysis identified kinetic parameters associated with the IP3R and STIM1 channels as potential causes for alterations in Ca2+ dynamics associated with the long term ex vivo culturing protocol. Due to these proteins having known cysteine residues susceptible to oxidation, we subsequently investigated and observed transcriptional remodeling of metabolic enzymes, a shift to more oxidized redox couples, and post-translational thiol oxidation of STIM1. The model-directed findings from this study highlight changes in the cellular redox environment that may ultimately lead to altered T cell calcium dynamics during immunosenescence or organismal aging.

  4. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.


    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate

  5. Performance of Wind Pump Prototype

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Energy demand for water pumping has been growing in the country for both drinking water and irrigation. The source of energy for ... stroke pump yielded more water and its efficiency curve elevated smoothly and reached peak at about 10 m/s and ..... Master Plan Report of Wind and Solar Energy in the Federal. Democratic ...

  6. High Temperature Thermoacoustic Heat Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tijani, H.; Spoelstra, S. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)


    Thermoacoustic technology can provide new types of heat pumps that can be deployed in different applications. Thermoacoustic heat pumps can for example be applied in dwellings to generate cooling or heating. Typically, space and water heating makes up about 60% of domestic and office energy consumption. The application of heat pumps can contribute to achieve energy savings and environmental benefits by reducing CO2 and NOx emissions. This paper presents the study of a laboratory scale thermoacoustic-Stirling heat pump operating between 10C and 80C which can be applied in domestics and offices. The heat pump is driven by a thermoacoustic-Stirling engine. The experimental results show that the heat pump pumps 250 W of heat at 60C at a drive ratio of 3.6 % and 200 W at 80C at a drive ratio of 3.5 %. The performance for both cases is about 40% of the Carnot performance. The design, construction, and performance measurements of the heat pump will be presented and discussed.

  7. Ion-Pumping Microbial Rhodopsins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki eKandori


    Full Text Available Rhodopsins are light-sensing proteins used in optogenetics. The word rhodopsin originates from the Greek words rhodo and opsis, indicating rose and sight, respectively. Although the classical meaning of rhodopsin is the red-colored pigment in our eyes, the modern meaning of rhodopsin encompasses photoactive proteins containing a retinal chromophore in animals and microbes. Animal and microbial rhodopsins possess 11-cis and all-trans retinal, respectively, to capture light in seven transmembrane α-helices, and photoisomerizations into all-trans and 13-cis forms, respectively, initiate each function. Ion-transporting proteins can be found in microbial rhodopsins, such as light-gated channels and light-driven pumps, which are the main tools in optogenetics. Light-driven pumps, such as archaeal H+ pump bacteriorhodopsin (BR and Cl- pump halorhodopsin (HR, were discovered in the 1970s, and their mechanism has been extensively studied. On the other hand, different kinds of H+ and Cl- pumps have been found in marine bacteria, such as proteorhodopsin (PR and Fulvimarina pelagi rhodopsin (FR, respectively. In addition, a light-driven Na+ pump was found, Krokinobacter eikastus rhodopsin 2 (KR2. These light-driven ion-pumping microbial rhodopsins are classified as DTD, TSA, DTE, NTQ and NDQ rhodopsins for BR, HR, PR, FR and KR2, respectively. Recent understanding of ion-pumping microbial rhodopsins is reviewed in this paper.

  8. Bone regeneration: molecular and cellular interactions with calcium phospate ceramics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrère, F.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Groot, K.


    Calcium phosphate bioceramics are widely used in orthopedic and dental applications and porous scaffolds made of them are serious candidates in the field of bone tissue engineering. They have superior properties for the stimulation of bone formation and bone bonding, both related to the specific

  9. lectrolytic deposition of lithium into calcium phosphate coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; de Groot, K.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan


    Objectives: Lithium ions stimulate the Wnt signaling pathway and the authors previously demonstrated that lithium enhances the proliferation of tissue cultured human mesenchymal stem cells. The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize a calcium phosphate/lithium coating by means of

  10. influence of calcium and magnesium based fertilizers on fungal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Magnesium that activates many dehy- drogenases and phosphate transfer enzymes. (Öpik and Rolfe, 2005) may stimulate the ef- fects of calcium and/or ABA on fruit yield since ABA regulates fruit maturation, seed stor- age reserve accumulation and induces protein synthesis in seeds (Davies, 2007; Taiz and. Zeiger, 2006).

  11. Thermally conductive cementitious grout for geothermal heat pump systems (United States)

    Allan, Marita


    A thermally conductive cement-sand grout for use with a geothermal heat pump system. The cement sand grout contains cement, silica sand, a superplasticizer, water and optionally bentonite. The present invention also includes a method of filling boreholes used for geothermal heat pump systems with the thermally conductive cement-sand grout. The cement-sand grout has improved thermal conductivity over neat cement and bentonite grouts, which allows shallower bore holes to be used to provide an equivalent heat transfer capacity. In addition, the cement-sand grouts of the present invention also provide improved bond strengths and decreased permeabilities. The cement-sand grouts can also contain blast furnace slag, fly ash, a thermoplastic air entraining agent, latex, a shrinkage reducing admixture, calcium oxide and combinations thereof.

  12. A third Na+-binding site in the sodium pump. (United States)

    Li, Ciming; Capendeguy, Oihana; Geering, Käthi; Horisberger, Jean-Daniel


    The sodium pump, or Na,K-ATPase, exports three intracellular sodium ions in exchange for two extracellular potassium ions. In the high resolution structure of the related calcium pump, two cation-binding sites have been identified. The two corresponding sites in the sodium pump are expected to be alternatively occupied by sodium and potassium. The position of a third sodium-specific site is still hypothetical. Here, we report the large effects of single residue substitutions on the voltage-dependent kinetics of the release of sodium to the extracellular side of the membrane. These mutations also alter the apparent affinity for intracellular sodium while one of them does not affect the intrinsic affinity for potassium. These results enable us to locate the third sodium-specific site of the sodium pump in a space between the fifth, sixth, and ninth transmembrane helices of the alpha-subunit and provide an experimental validation of the model proposed by Ogawa and Toyoshima [Ogawa, H. & Toyoshima, C. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 15977-15982].

  13. Microgravity contact pumping (United States)

    Lowry, Brian; Thiessen, David


    Phase separations by gravity are an integral part of the vast majority of macroscopic terrestrial chemical and metallurgical engineering processes. Captured droplets are an obvious workaround in microgravity or microscale environments. Either chambered liquid bridges or helical supports permit the easy conversion of macroscopic terrestrial processes such as distillation and stripping. Chambered systems pump by capillary forces and are extremely resistant to blowout or rupture. The chambering allows staged processes such as distillation. However, chambered systems require mechanical systems of valves and may be expensive to manufacture. Helical supports permit infinite near-open cylindrical volumes of fluid with a single interface, but cannot support flow rates as great as chambered systems. The two modes are characterized and compared.

  14. Electric fluid pump (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun


    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  15. Electric Turbo Pump (United States)

    Steckler, Jessica


    NASA is working in junction with another company on the Electric Turbo Pump. Analysis of the impeller, including the blades, volute housing, and associated components, will take place in ANSYS. Contours of the deformed and stress were recorded to assess the parts. Campbell diagrams will be considered as mentioned to find the operating regions of the impeller and volute housing, more specifically what speed is ideal to ensure that the impeller does not begin to vibrate at a frequency that will break it. More than one material will be examined as per request by the designer to determine which material is more cost efficient, easy to machine, and can withstand the stress values that will be placed on it.

  16. Dual source heat pump (United States)

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.


    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  17. Heat Pumps in Subarctic Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atlason, Reynir Smari; Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur; Unnthorsson, Runar


    Geothermal heat pumps use the temperature difference between inside and outside areas to modify a refrigerant, either for heating or cooling. Doing so can lower the need for external heating energy for a household to some extent. The eventual impact depends on various factors, such as the external...... source for heating or cooling and the temperature difference. The use of geothermal heat pumps, and eventual benefits has not been studied in the context of frigid areas, such as in Iceland. In Iceland, only remote areas do not have access to district heating from geothermal energy where households may...... the Icelandic energy authority for the analysis. Findings show that a majority of households (83%) used between 20 and 50 MWh annually prior to installing a heat pump system (mean = 37.8 MWh). On average, households used approximately 26 MWh after installing a heat pump. When installing a small pump (5 to 9 k...

  18. Regulation of adiposity by dietary calcium. (United States)

    Zemel, M B; Shi, H; Greer, B; Dirienzo, D; Zemel, P C


    Recent data from this laboratory demonstrate that increasing adipocyte intracellular Ca(2+) results in a coordinated stimulation of lipogenesis and inhibition of lipolysis. We have also noted that increasing dietary calcium of obese patients for 1 year resulted in a 4.9 kg loss of body fat (Pinhibition of lipolysis (EC(50) approximately 50 pM; Pagouti gene specifically in adipocytes on a low (0.4%) Ca/high fat/high sucrose diet either unsupplemented or with 25 or 50% of the protein replaced by non-fat dry milk or supplemented to 1.2% Ca with CaCO(3) for 6 wk. Weight gain and fat pad mass were reduced by 26-39% by the three high calcium diets (Pinhibition of adipocyte fatty acid synthase expression and activity (Pobesity risk.

  19. Calcium-sensing receptor in breast physiology and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonnam Kim


    Full Text Available The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR is expressed in normal breast epithelial cells and in breast cancer cells. During lactation, activation of the CaSR in mammary epithelial cells increases calcium transport into milk and inhibits parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP secretion into milk and into the circulation. The ability to sense changes in extracellular calcium allows the lactating breast to actively participate in the regulation of systemic calcium and bone metabolism, and to coordinate calcium usage with calcium availability during milk production. Interestingly, as compared to normal breast cells, in breast cancer cells, the regulation of PTHrP secretion by the CaSR becomes rewired due to a switch in its G-protein usage such that activation of the CaSR increases instead of decreases PTHrP production. In normal cells the CaSR couples to Gi to inhibit cAMP and PTHrP production, whereas in breast cancer cells, it couples to Gs to stimulate cAMP and PTHrP production. Activation of the CaSR on breast cancer cells regulates breast cancer cell proliferation, death and migration, in part, by stimulating PTHrP production. In this article, we discuss the biology of the CaSR in the normal breast and in breast cancer, and review recent findings suggesting that the CaSR activates a nuclear pathway of PTHrP action that stimulates cellular proliferation and inhibits cell death, helping cancer cells adapt to elevated extracellular calcium levels. Understanding the diverse actions mediated by the CaSR may help us better understand lactation physiology, breast cancer progression and osteolytic bone metastases.

  20. Abortive and propagating intracellular calcium waves: analysis from a hybrid model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Guisoni

    Full Text Available The functional properties of inositol(1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3 receptors allow a variety of intracellular Ca(2+ phenomena. In this way, global phenomena, such as propagating and abortive Ca(2+ waves, as well as local events such as puffs, have been observed. Several experimental studies suggest that many features of global phenomena (e.g., frequency, amplitude, speed wave depend on the interplay of biophysical processes such as diffusion, buffering, efflux and influx rates, which in turn depend on parameters such as buffer concentration, Ca(2+ pump density, cytosolic IP3 level, and intercluster distance. Besides, it is known that cells are able to modify some of these parameters in order to regulate the Ca(2+ signaling. By using a hybrid model, we analyzed different features of the hierarchy of calcium events as a function of two relevant parameters for the calcium signaling, the intercluster distance and the pump strength or intensity. In the space spanned by these two parameters, we found two modes of calcium dynamics, one dominated by abortive calcium waves and the other by propagating waves. Smaller distances between the release sites promote propagating calcium waves, while the increase of the efflux rate makes the transition from propagating to abortive waves occur at lower values of intercluster distance. We determined the frontier between these two modes, in the parameter space defined by the intercluster distance and the pump strength. Furthermore, we found that the velocity of simulated calcium waves accomplishes Luther's law, and that an effective rate constant for autocatalytic calcium production decays linearly with both the intercluster distance and the pump strength.

  1. [Microbial geochemical calcium cycle]. (United States)

    Zavarzin, G A


    The participation of microorganisms in the geochemical calcium cycle is the most important factor maintaining neutral conditions on the Earth. This cycle has profound influence on the fate of inorganic carbon, and, thereby, on the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. The major part of calcium deposits was formed in the Precambrian, when prokaryotic biosphere predominated. After that, calcium recycling based on biogenic deposition by skeletal organisms became the main process. Among prokaryotes, only a few representatives, e.g., cyanobacteria, exhibit a special calcium function. The geochemical calcium cycle is made possible by the universal features of bacteria involved in biologically mediated reactions and is determined by the activities of microbial communities. In the prokaryotic system, the calcium cycle begins with the leaching of igneous rock predominantly through the action of the community of organotrophic organisms. The release of carbon dioxide to the soil air by organotrophic aerobes leads to leaching with carbonic acid and soda salinization. Under anoxic conditions, of major importance is the organic acid production by primary anaerobes (fermentative microorganisms). Calcium carbonate is precipitated by secondary anaerobes (sulfate reducers) and to a smaller degree by methanogens. The role of the cyanobacterial community in carbonate deposition is exposed by stromatolites, which are the most common organo-sedimentary Precambrian structures. Deposition of carbonates in cyanobacterial mats as a consequence of photoassimilation of CO2 does not appear to be a significant process. It is argued that carbonates were deposited at the boundary between the "soda continent", which emerged as a result of subaerial leaching with carbonic acid, and the ocean containing Ca2+. Such ecotones provided favorable conditions for the development of the benthic cyanobacterial community, which was a precursor of stromatolites.

  2. Cellular Mechanisms of Calcium-Mediated Triggered Activity (United States)

    Song, Zhen

    Life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias continue to pose a major health problem. Ventricular fibrillation, which is a complex form of electrical wave turbulence in the lower chambers of the heart, stops the heart from pumping and is the largest cause of natural death in the United States. Atrial fibrillation, a related form of wave turbulence in the upper heart chambers, is in turn the most common arrhythmia diagnosed in clinical practice. Despite extensive research to date, mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias remain poorly understood. It is well established that both spatial disorder of the refractory period of heart cells and triggered activity (TA) jointly contribute to the initiation and maintenance of arrhythmias. TA broadly refers to the abnormal generation of a single or a sequence of abnormal excitation waves from a small submillimeter region of the heart in the interval of time between two normal waves generated by the heart's natural pacemaker (the sinoatrial node). TA has been widely investigated experimentally and occurs in several pathological conditions where the intracellular concentration of free Ca2+ ions in heart cells becomes elevated. Under such conditions, Ca2+ can be spontaneously released from intracellular stores, thereby driving an electrogenic current that exchanges 3Na+ ions for one Ca2+ ion across the cell membrane. This current in turn depolarizes the membrane of heart cells after a normal excitation. If this calcium-mediated "delayed after depolarization'' (DAD) is sufficiently large, it can generate an action potential. While the arrhythmogenic importance of spontaneous Ca2+ release and DADs is well appreciated, the conditions under which they occur in heart pathologies remain poorly understood. Calcium overload is only one factor among several other factors that can promote DADs, including sympathetic nerve stimulation, different expression levels of membrane ion channels and calcium handling proteins, and different mutations of those

  3. Reduced levels of intracellular calcium releasing in spermatozoa from asthenozoospermic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Juan F


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthenozoospermia is one of the most common findings present in infertile males characterized by reduced or absent sperm motility, but its aetiology remains unknown in most cases. In addition, calcium is one of the most important ions regulating sperm motility. In this study we have investigated the progesterone-evoked intracellular calcium signal in ejaculated spermatozoa from men with normospermia or asthenozoospermia. Methods Human ejaculates were obtained from healthy volunteers and asthenospermic men by masturbation after 4–5 days of abstinence. For determination of cytosolic free calcium concentration, spermatozoa were loaded with the fluorescent ratiometric calcium indicator Fura-2. Results Treatment of spermatozoa from normospermic men with 20 micromolar progesterone plus 1 micromolar thapsigargin in a calcium free medium induced a typical transient increase in cytosolic free calcium concentration due to calcium release from internal stores. Similar results were obtained when spermatozoa were stimulated with progesterone alone. Subsequent addition of calcium to the external medium evoked a sustained elevation in cytosolic free calcium concentration indicative of capacitative calcium entry. However, when progesterone plus thapsigargin were administered to spermatozoa from patients with asthenozoospermia, calcium signal and subsequent calcium entry was much smaller compared to normospermic patients. As expected, pretreatment of normospermic spermatozoa with both the anti-progesterone receptor c262 antibody and with progesterone receptor antagonist RU-38486 decreased the calcium release induced by progesterone. Treatment of spermatozoa with cytochalasin D or jasplakinolide decreased the calcium entry evoked by depletion of internal calcium stores in normospermic patients, whereas these treatments proved to be ineffective at modifying the calcium entry in patients with asthenozoospermia. Conclusion Our results suggest

  4. Temperature rise in superfluid helium pumps (United States)

    Kittel, Peter


    The temperature rise of a fountain effect pump (FEP) and of a centrifugal pump (CP) are compared. Calculations and estimates presented here show that under the operating conditions expected during the resupply of superfluid helium in space, a centrifugal pump will produce a smaller temperature rise than will a fountain effect pump. The temperature rise for the FEP is calculated assuming an ideal pump, while the temperature rise of the CP is estimated from the measured performance of a prototype pump. As a result of this smaller temperature rise and of the different operating characteristics of the two types of pumps, transfers will be more effective using a centrifugal pump.

  5. Mode instability thresholds for Tm-doped fiber amplifiers pumped at 790 nm


    Smith, Arlee V.; Smith, Jesse J.


    We use a detailed numerical model of stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering to compute mode instability thresholds in Tm$^{3+}$-doped fiber amplifiers. The fiber amplifies 2040 nm light using a 790 nm pump. The cross-relaxation process is strong, permitting power efficiencies of 60%. The predicted instability thresholds are compared with those in similar Yb$^{3+}$-doped fiber amplifiers with 976 nm pump and 1060 nm signal, and are found to be higher, even though the heat load is much higher i...

  6. Optical Sensors Using Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (United States)

    Christensen, Caleb A (Inventor); Zavriyev, Anton (Inventor)


    A method for enhancing a sensitivity of an optical sensor having an optical cavity counter-propagates beams of pump light within the optical cavity to produce scattered light based on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS). The properties of the pump light are selected to generate fast-light conditions for the scattered light, such that the scattered light includes counter-propagating beams of fast light. The method prevents the pump light from resonating within the optical cavity, while allowing the scattered light to resonate within the optical cavity. At least portions of the scattered light are interfered outside of the optical cavity to produce a beat note for a measurement of the optical sensor. The disclosed method is particularly applicable to optical gyroscopes.

  7. Calcium orthophosphates in dentistry. (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V


    Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or a cavity, remains a major public health problem in the most communities even though the prevalence of disease has decreased since the introduction of fluorides for dental care. Therefore, biomaterials to fill dental defects appear to be necessary to fulfill customers' needs regarding the properties and the processing of the products. Bioceramics and glass-ceramics are widely used for these purposes, as dental inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns or bridges. Calcium orthophosphates belong to bioceramics but they have some specific advantages over other types of bioceramics due to a chemical similarity to the inorganic part of both human and mammalian bones and teeth. Therefore, calcium orthophosphates (both alone and as components of various formulations) are used in dentistry as both dental fillers and implantable scaffolds. This review provides brief information on calcium orthophosphates and describes in details current state-of-the-art on their applications in dentistry and dentistry-related fields. Among the recognized dental specialties, calcium orthophosphates are most frequently used in periodontics; however, the majority of the publications on calcium orthophosphates in dentistry are devoted to unspecified "dental" fields.

  8. Evaluation of Na+/K+ pump function following repetitive activity in mouse peripheral nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldovan, Mihai; Krarup, Christian


    After conduction of prolonged trains of impulses the increased Na+/K+ pump activity leads to hyperpolarization. The aim of this study was to develop a mouse model to investigate the Na+/K+ pump function in peripheral nerve by measuring the decrease in excitability during activity-dependent hyperp......After conduction of prolonged trains of impulses the increased Na+/K+ pump activity leads to hyperpolarization. The aim of this study was to develop a mouse model to investigate the Na+/K+ pump function in peripheral nerve by measuring the decrease in excitability during activity...... change after repetitive stimulation of the mouse tibial nerve is an indicator of the Na+/K+ pump function in vivo. Evaluation of activity-dependent hyperpolarization may be an important indicator of axonal ability to cope with Na+ load....

  9. [Multisensory stimulation]. (United States)

    Etchepareborda, M C; Abad-Mas, L; Pina, J


    Diagnosis in early care (EC) involves a global study that covers the child's development, their personal history, family and surroundings. The specific aims of an intervention programme in EC could be summed up in four areas: the prevention of deficits or difficulties, the detection of problems linked with a socio-family deficiency or shortages, the stimulation of development, and help and assistance for families. Multisensory stimulation (MSS) of small children is essential for their future existence. The presentation of stimuli must follow a strict schedule; indeed, this observation is so important that if the critical moment for incorporating a stimulus is missed, providing the stimulus at another time will not have the same effect. Intellectual development during early childhood was taken into account when defining the fundamental aims of a therapeutic intervention programme in EC. To develop suitable therapy according to these concepts, an EMS (Snoezelen) room with certain special characteristics is required. This room must allow the stimuli offered in each moment and under each sensory modality to be controlled. Applying intervention programmes in a proper, specific and timely manner will enable us to accompany each child, as far as is possible in each case, in the development of his or her abilities and capabilities.

  10. A short introduction to the new principle of binding ration calcium with sodium zeolite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R J; Bjerrum, M J; Classen, H


    This paper summarise the development of the new principle of preventing parturient hypocalcaemia by reducing the bioavailability of ration calcium with calcium binders, based on the idea that a negative calcium balance would stimulate natural defence mechanisms against threatening hypocalcaemia...... seen in these animals, the final proof of concept was done on pregnant dry cows fed a supplement of synthetic sodium zeolite A from 4 weeks before expected calving until calving. By analysis of blood calcium levels, this supplementation was shown to have a stabilizing effect during the critical period...

  11. Effect of calcium on cell-wall degrading enzymes of Botrytis cinerea. (United States)

    Sasanuma, Izumi; Suzuki, Takuya


    Effective anti-Botrytis strategies leading to reduce pesticides on strawberries are examined to provide the protection that is harmless to humans, higher animals and plants. Calcium treatments significantly inhibited the spore germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. The intracellular polygalacturonase and CMCase showed low activities in B. cinerea cultivated by medium containing calcium. On the other hand, calcium-stimulated β-glucosidases production occurred. Our findings suggest that the calcium treatments keep CMCase activity low and cause low activities of cell-wall degrading enzymes of B. cinerea in the late stage of growth.

  12. Heat pumps for the home

    CERN Document Server

    Cantor, John


    In recent years, heat pumps have emerged as a promising new form of technology with a relatively low environmental impact. Moreover, they have presented householders with an opportunity to reduce their heating bills. Heat pumps can heat a building by 'pumping' heat from either the ground or the air outside: an intriguing process which utilizes principles that are somewhat analogous to those employed in the domestic refrigerator. Armed with the practical information contained in these pages, homeowners will have the necessary knowledge to take advantage of this potentially low-carbon t

  13. Calcium Signalling: Fishing Out Molecules of Mitochondrial Calcium Transport


    Hajnóczky, György; Csordás, György


    Cellular energy metabolism, survival and death are controlled by mitochondrial calcium signals originating in the cytoplasm. Now, RNAi studies link three proteins — MICU1, NCLX and LETM1 — to the previously unknown molecular mechanism of mitochondrial calcium transport.

  14. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate. (United States)

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.


    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  15. Extracellular Ca2+ is a danger signal activating the NLRP3 inflammasome through G protein-coupled calcium sensing receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossol, Manuela; Pierer, Matthias; Raulien, Nora


    Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome enables monocytes and macrophages to release high levels of interleukin-1ß during inflammatory responses. Concentrations of extracellular calcium can increase at sites of infection, inflammation or cell activation. Here we show that increased extracellular...... calcium activates the NLRP3 inflammasome via stimulation of G protein-coupled calcium sensing receptors. Activation is mediated by signalling through the calcium-sensing receptor and GPRC6A via the phosphatidyl inositol/Ca(2+) pathway. The resulting increase in the intracellular calcium concentration...

  16. The Yin and Yang of Calcium Effects on Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis (United States)

    Wu, Xin-Sheng


    A large number of studies suggest that calcium triggers and accelerates vesicle endocytosis at many synapses and non-neuronal secretory cells. However, many studies show that prolonging the duration of the stimulation train, which induces more calcium influx, slows down endocytosis; and several studies suggest that instead of triggering endocytosis, calcium actually inhibits endocytosis. Here we addressed this apparent conflict at a large nerve terminal, the calyx of Held in rat brainstem, in which recent studies suggest that transient calcium increase up to tens of micromolar concentration at the micro/nano domain triggers endocytosis. By dialyzing 0–1 μm calcium into the calyx via a whole-cell pipette, we found that slow endocytosis was inhibited by calcium dialysis in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, prolonged, small, and global calcium increase inhibits endocytosis, whereas transient and large calcium increase at the micro/nano domain triggers endocytosis and facilitates endocytosis. This yin and yang effect of calcium may reconcile apparent conflicts regarding whether calcium accelerates or inhibits endocytosis. Whether endocytosis is fast or slow depends on the net outcome between the yin and yang effect of calcium. PMID:24523554

  17. Regulation of calcium signals in the nucleus by a nucleoplasmic reticulum. (United States)

    Echevarría, Wihelma; Leite, M Fatima; Guerra, Mateus T; Zipfel, Warren R; Nathanson, Michael H


    Calcium is a second messenger in virtually all cells and tissues. Calcium signals in the nucleus have effects on gene transcription and cell growth that are distinct from those of cytosolic calcium signals; however, it is unknown how nuclear calcium signals are regulated. Here we identify a reticular network of nuclear calcium stores that is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope. This network expresses inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors, and the nuclear component of InsP3-mediated calcium signals begins in its locality. Stimulation of these receptors with a little InsP3 results in small calcium signals that are initiated in this region of the nucleus. Localized release of calcium in the nucleus causes nuclear protein kinase C (PKC) to translocate to the region of the nuclear envelope, whereas release of calcium in the cytosol induces translocation of cytosolic PKC to the plasma membrane. Our findings show that the nucleus contains a nucleoplasmic reticulum with the capacity to regulate calcium signals in localized subnuclear regions. The presence of such machinery provides a potential mechanism by which calcium can simultaneously regulate many independent processes in the nucleus.

  18. Calcium carbonate breath test for non-invasive estimation of gastric acid secretion. (United States)

    Shinkai, Hirohiko; Iijima, Katsunori; Koike, Tomoyuki; Nakagawa, Kenichiro; Maejima, Ryuhei; Endo, Hiroyuki; Ara, Nobuyuki; Asano, Naoki; Imatani, Akira; Ohara, Shuichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru


    Gastric acid measurement is useful in assessing the effectiveness of antisecretory drugs, however, the conventional tests involve invasive nasogastric intubation. Orally administered ¹³C-labeled calcium carbonate (Ca¹³CO₃) reacts with gastric acid to produce ¹³C-labeled carbon dioxide (¹³CO₂), which is then excreted in the breath. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of Ca¹³CO3 breath test for estimating gastric acid secretion in human noninvasively. First, the Ca¹³CO₃ breath test and the measurement of pooled gastric acid under a fasting condition were performed in 6 healthy volunteers to evaluate the correlation between the two parameters. Next, endoscopic gastric acid collection and the Ca¹³CO₃ breath test were performed on different days after pentagastrin injection in 20 subjects to evaluate the correlation between the tests and the reproducibility. Finally, the same studies were repeated in 4 subjects before and after 1-week rabeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, administration. The maximum CO₂ concentration (Cmax) correlated very well with the amount of pooled gastric acid (r = 0.95), suggesting that Ca¹³CO₃ breath test values well reflected the fasting intragastric acidity. The ¹³CO₂ concentration after pentagastrin injection correlated well with pentagastrin-stimulated maximal acid output (r = 0.79 at 20 min). The reproducibility of the Ca¹³CO₃ breath test under pentagastrin-stimulation was good (coefficient of variation = 0.11). Rabeprazole administration markedly reduced the values of the Ca¹³CO₃ breath test, suggesting that it can sensitively assess the efficacy of rabeprazole. The Ca¹³CO₃ breath test can potentially be a useful method for non-invasive estimation for gastric acid secretion in human.

  19. High Performance Space Pump Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PDT is proposing a High Performance Space Pump based upon an innovative design using several technologies. The design will use a two-stage impeller, high temperature...

  20. Transverse pumped laser amplifier architecture (United States)

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Manes, Kenneth; Deri, Robert; Erlandson, Al; Caird, John; Spaeth, Mary


    An optical gain architecture includes a pump source and a pump aperture. The architecture also includes a gain region including a gain element operable to amplify light at a laser wavelength. The gain region is characterized by a first side intersecting an optical path, a second side opposing the first side, a third side adjacent the first and second sides, and a fourth side opposing the third side. The architecture further includes a dichroic section disposed between the pump aperture and the first side of the gain region. The dichroic section is characterized by low reflectance at a pump wavelength and high reflectance at the laser wavelength. The architecture additionally includes a first cladding section proximate to the third side of the gain region and a second cladding section proximate to the fourth side of the gain region.

  1. Magnetic heat pump flow director (United States)

    Howard, Frank S. (Inventor)


    A fluid flow director is disclosed. The director comprises a handle body and combed-teeth extending from one side of the body. The body can be formed of a clear plastic such as acrylic. The director can be used with heat exchangers such as a magnetic heat pump and can minimize the undesired mixing of fluid flows. The types of heat exchangers can encompass both heat pumps and refrigerators. The director can adjust the fluid flow of liquid or gas along desired flow directions. A method of applying the flow director within a magnetic heat pump application is also disclosed where the comb-teeth portions of the director are inserted into the fluid flow paths of the heat pump.

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Pool Pumps (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Pool Pumps that are effective as of February 15,...

  3. Children's Bone Health and Calcium (United States)

    ... Email Share Dialog × Print Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information What is bone health and how ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  4. Long Term Osmotic Mini Pump Treatment with Alpha-MSH Improves Myocardial Function in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklos Szokol


    Full Text Available The present investigation evaluates the cardiovascular effects of the anorexigenic mediator alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH, in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Osmotic mini pumps delivering MSH or vehicle, for 6 weeks, were surgically implanted in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rats. Serum parameters, blood pressure, and weight gain were monitored along with oral glucose tolerance (OGTT. Echocardiography was conducted and, following sacrifice, the effects of treatment on ischemia/reperfusion cardiac injury were assessed using the isolated working heart method. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase activity was measured to evaluate levels of oxidative stress, and force measurements were performed on isolated cardiomyocytes to determine calcium sensitivity, active tension and myofilament co-operation. Vascular status was also evaluated on isolated arterioles using a contractile force measurement setup. The echocardiographic parameters ejection fraction (EF, fractional shortening (FS, isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT, mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE, and Tei-index were significantly better in the MSH-treated group compared to ZDF controls. Isolated working heart aortic and coronary flow was increased in treated rats, and higher Hill coefficient indicated better myofilament co-operation in the MSH-treated group. We conclude that MSH improves global heart functions in ZDF rats, but these effects are not related to the vascular status.

  5. Optically pumped polarized ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenski, A.N.


    Polarization transfer collisions between protons, atomic hydrogen, or deuterium and optically pumped alkali-metal vapour are implemented in the high current optically pumped polarized ion source (OPPIS) and the laser driven source (LDS) of nuclear polarized atoms for target applications. The OPPIS technique overcomes the limitations on intensity of the conventional atomic beam source technique and meets the requirements of the new generation of polarization experiments at multi-GeV accelerators and colliders. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  6. White noise flashing Brownian pump


    Gomez-Marin, A.; Sancho, J. M.


    A Brownian pump of particles powered by a stochastic flashing ratchet mechanism is studied. The pumping device is embedded in a finite region and bounded by particle reservoirs. In the steady state, we exactly calculate the spatial density profile, the concentration ratio between both reservoirs and the particle flux. A simple numerical scheme is presented allowing for the consistent evaluation of all such observable quantities.

  7. A laser pumped quantum discriminator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budkin, L.A.; Fateev, G.P.; Pikhtelev, A.I.; Puzanov, S.L.


    A method of laser pumping in a quantum discriminator employing alkaline metal vapors is investigated. A good qualitative correlation between computed and experimental relations of the quality parameter on the intensity of laser light is noted. It is demonstrated that the value of the quality parameter of the quantum discriminator with laser pumping may be increased by a factor of at least two compared to a traditional scheme.

  8. Switching model photovoltaic pumping system (United States)

    Anis, Wagdy R.; Abdul-Sadek Nour, M.

    Photovoltaic (PV) pumping systems are widely used due to their simplicity, high reliability and low cost. A directly-coupled PV pumping system is the most reliable and least-cost PV system. The d.c. motor-pump group is not, however, working at its optimum operating point. A battery buffered PV pumping system introduces a battery between the PV array and the d.c. motor-pump group to ensure that the motor-pump group is operating at its optimum point. The size of the battery storage depends on system economics. If the battery is fully charged while solar radiation is available, the battery will discharge through the load while the PV array is disconnected. Hence, a power loss takes place. To overcome the above mentioned difficulty, a switched mode PV pumping is proposed. When solar radiation is available and the battery is fully charged, the battery is disconnected and the d.c. motor-pump group is directly coupled to the PV array. To avoid excessive operating voltage for the motor, a part of the PV array is switched off to reduce the voltage. As a result, the energy loss is significantly eliminated. Detailed analysis of the proposed system shows that the discharged water increases by about 10% when compared with a conventional battery-buffered system. The system transient performance just after the switching moment shows that the system returns to a steady state in short period. The variations in the system parameters lie within 1% of the rated values.

  9. Natural gas vs. heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verrips, A.M.; Canney, W.A.

    Spokesmen for gas and electric utilities describe the relative merits of using natural gas and electric heat pumps. Both argue that their product is more economical and operates more efficiently than its competitor. Rising natural gas prices are responsible for making costs more competitive, although rates for both gas and electricity vary by region. The utilities also describe heat pump advantages in terms of installation ease and cost, reliability, maintenance, and thermal comfort. Both provide documentation to support their claims. 2 tables.

  10. Calcium homeostasis in digitonin-permeabilized bovine chromaffin cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, L.S.


    The regulation of cytosolic calcium was studied in digitonin-permeabilized chromaffin cells. Accumulation of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ by permeabilized cells was measured at various Ca2+ concentrations in the incubation solutions. In the absence of ATP, there was a small (10-15% of total uptake) but significant increase in accumulation of Ca2+ into both the vesicular and nonvesicular pools. In the presence of ATP, the permeabilized cells accumulated Ca2+ into carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP)-sensitive and -insensitive pools. The CCCP-sensitive pool--mainly mitochondria--was active when the calcium concentration was greater than 1 microM and was not saturated at 25 microM. The Ca2+ sequestered by the CCCP-insensitive pool could be inhibited by vanadate and released by inositol trisphosphate, a combination suggesting that this pool was the endoplasmic reticulum. The CCCP-insensitive pool had a high affinity for calcium, with an EC50 of approximately 1 microM. When the Ca2+ concentration was adjusted to the level in the cytoplasm of resting cells (0.1 microM), the presumed endoplasmic reticulum pool was responsible for approximately 90% of the ATP-stimulated calcium uptake. At a calcium level similar to the acetylcholine-stimulated level in intact cells (5-10 microM), most of the Ca2+ (greater than 95%) went into the CCCP-sensitive pool.

  11. Drosophila wing imaginal discs respond to mechanical injury via slow InsP3R-mediated intercellular calcium waves (United States)

    Restrepo, Simon; Basler, Konrad


    Calcium signalling is a highly versatile cellular communication system that modulates basic functions such as cell contractility, essential steps of animal development such as fertilization and higher-order processes such as memory. We probed the function of calcium signalling in Drosophila wing imaginal discs through a combination of ex vivo and in vivo imaging and genetic analysis. Here we discover that wing discs display slow, long-range intercellular calcium waves (ICWs) when mechanically stressed in vivo or cultured ex vivo. These slow imaginal disc intercellular calcium waves (SIDICs) are mediated by the inositol-3-phosphate receptor, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium pump SERCA and the key gap junction component Inx2. The knockdown of genes required for SIDIC formation and propagation negatively affects wing disc recovery after mechanical injury. Our results reveal a role for ICWs in wing disc homoeostasis and highlight the utility of the wing disc as a model for calcium signalling studies.

  12. Stable prenucleation calcium carbonate clusters


    Gebauer, Denis; Völkel, Antje; Cölfen, Helmut


    Calcium carbonate forms scales, geological deposits, biominerals, and ocean sediments. Huge amounts of carbon dioxide are retained as carbonate ions, and calcium ions represent a major contribution to water hardness. Despite its relevance, little is known about the precipitation mechanism of calcium carbonate, and specified complex crystal structures challenge the classical view on nucleation considering the formation of metastable ion clusters. We demonstrate that dissolved calcium carbonate...

  13. Assay for calcium channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glossmann, H.; Ferry, D.R.


    This chapter focuses on biochemical assays for Ca/sup 2 +/-selective channels in electrically excitable membranes which are blocked in electrophysiological and pharmacological experiments by verapamil, 1,4-dihydropyridines, diltiazen (and various other drugs), as well as inorganic di- or trivalent cations. The strategy employed is to use radiolabeled 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives which block calcium channels with ED/sub 50/ values in the nanomolar range. Although tritiated d-cis-diltiazem and verapamil can be used to label calcium channels, the 1,4-dihydropyridines offer numerous advantages. The various sections cover tissue specificity of channel labeling, the complex interactions of divalent cations with the (/sup 3/H)nimodipine-labeled calcium channels, and the allosteric regulation of (/sup 3/H)nimodipine binding by the optically pure enantiomers of phenylalkylamine and benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers. A comparison of the properties of different tritiated 1,4-dihydropyridine radioligands and the iodinated channel probe (/sup 125/I)iodipine is given.

  14. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about 500...

  15. 33 CFR 157.126 - Pumps. (United States)


    ... Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.126 Pumps. (a) Crude oil must be supplied to the COW machines by COW system pumps or cargo pumps. (b) The pumps under paragraph...) A sufficient pressure and flow is supplied to allow the simultaneous operation of those COW machines...

  16. 33 CFR 183.524 - Fuel pumps. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel pumps. 183.524 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.524 Fuel pumps. (a) Each diaphragm pump must not leak fuel from the pump if the primary diaphragm fails. (b) Each electrically...

  17. 14 CFR 29.991 - Fuel pumps. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 29.991 Section 29.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System Components § 29.991 Fuel pumps. (a... operation except the engine served by that pump. (b) The following fuel pump installation requirements apply...

  18. 14 CFR 23.991 - Fuel pumps. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 23.991 Section 23.991... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 23.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. For main pumps, the following apply: (1) For reciprocating engine...

  19. 14 CFR 25.991 - Fuel pumps. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel pumps. 25.991 Section 25.991... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.991 Fuel pumps. (a) Main pumps. Each fuel pump required for proper engine operation, or required to meet the fuel system...

  20. Method for optimising the energy of pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skovmose Kallesøe, Carsten; De Persis, Claudio


    The method involves determining whether pumps (pu1, pu5) are directly assigned to loads (v1, v3) as pilot pumps (pu2, pu3) and hydraulically connected upstream of the pilot pumps. The upstream pumps are controlled with variable speed for energy optimization. Energy optimization circuits are selected


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skovmose Kallesøe, Carsten; De Persis, Claudio


    The device for energy-optimization on operation of several centrifugal pumps controlled in rotational speed, in a hydraulic installation, begins firstly with determining which pumps as pilot pumps are assigned directly to a consumer and which pumps are hydraulically connected in series upstream of

  2. The abdominal circulatory pump.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Aliverti

    Full Text Available Blood in the splanchnic vasculature can be transferred to the extremities. We quantified such blood shifts in normal subjects by measuring trunk volume by optoelectronic plethysmography, simultaneously with changes in body volume by whole body plethysmography during contractions of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Trunk volume changes with blood shifts, but body volume does not so that the blood volume shifted between trunk and extremities (Vbs is the difference between changes in trunk and body volume. This is so because both trunk and body volume change identically with breathing and gas expansion or compression. During tidal breathing Vbs was 50-75 ml with an ejection fraction of 4-6% and an output of 750-1500 ml/min. Step increases in abdominal pressure resulted in rapid emptying presumably from the liver with a time constant of 0.61+/-0.1SE sec. followed by slower flow from non-hepatic viscera. The filling time constant was 0.57+/-0.09SE sec. Splanchnic emptying shifted up to 650 ml blood. With emptying, the increased hepatic vein flow increases the blood pressure at its entry into the inferior vena cava (IVC and abolishes the pressure gradient producing flow between the femoral vein and the IVC inducing blood pooling in the legs. The findings are important for exercise because the larger the Vbs the greater the perfusion of locomotor muscles. During asystolic cardiac arrest we calculate that appropriate timing of abdominal compression could produce an output of 6 L/min. so that the abdominal circulatory pump might act as an auxiliary heart.

  3. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk


    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...

  4. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.


    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  5. The influence of ouabain and alpha angelica lactone on calcium metabolism of dog cardiac microsomes (United States)

    Entman, Mark L.; Cook, Joseph W.; Bressler, Rubin


    The influence of ouabain and alpha angelica lactone on 45calcium accumulation in cardiac microsomes was studied. Calcium binding (accumulation in the absence of excess oxalate or phosphate) was augmented by both ouabain and alpha angelica lactone in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) but unaffected in its absence. Calcium turnover (defined as the change in 45Ca++ bound to the microsomes after the specific activity is changed) was studied to determine if the augmented bound pool was freely exchangeable at equilibrium. Ouabain and alpha angelica lactone augmented calcium turnover in both the presence and absence of ATP. Calcium-stimulated ATPase was increased by both agents. It is proposed that these two unsaturated lactones, with known cardiotonic activity, may exert their effects by providing an increased contraction-dependent calcium pool to be released upon systolic depolarization. PMID:4236805

  6. Dissociation of charge movement from calcium release and calcium current in skeletal myotubes by gabapentin. (United States)

    Alden, Kris J; García, Jesús


    The skeletal muscle L-type calcium channel or dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) plays an integral role in excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. Its activation initiates three sequential events: charge movement (Q(r)), calcium release, and calcium current (I(Ca,L)). This relationship suggests that changes in Q(r) might affect release and I(Ca,L). Here we studied the effect of gabapentin (GBP) on the three events generated by DHPRs in skeletal myotubes in culture. GBP specifically binds to the alpha(2)/delta(1) subunit of the brain and skeletal muscle DHPR. Myotubes were stimulated with a protocol that included a depolarizing prepulse to inactivate voltage-dependent proteins other than DHPRs. Gabapentin (50 microM) significantly increased Q(r) while decreasing the rate of rise of calcium transients. Gabapentin also reduced the maximum amplitude of the I(Ca,L) (as we previously reported) without modifying the kinetics of activation. Exposure of GBP-treated myotubes to 10 microM nifedipine prevented the increase of Q(r) promoted by this drug, indicating that the extra charge recorded originated from DHPRs. Our data suggest that GBP dissociates the functions of the DHPR from the initial voltage-sensing step and implicates a role for the alpha(2)/delta(1) subunit in E-C coupling.

  7. Measure Guideline. Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States); Easley, S. [Building Media and the Building America Retrofit Alliance (BARA), Wilmington, DE (United States)


    This measure guideline evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provides a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  8. Measure Guideline: Replacing Single-Speed Pool Pumps with Variable Speed Pumps for Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Easley, S.


    The report evaluates potential energy savings by replacing traditional single-speed pool pumps with variable speed pool pumps, and provide a basic cost comparison between continued uses of traditional pumps verses new pumps. A simple step-by-step process for inspecting the pool area and installing a new pool pump follows.

  9. Localization of the Proton Pump of Corn Coleoptile Microsomal Membranes by Density Gradient Centrifugation 1 (United States)

    Mandala, Suzanne; Mettler, Irvin J.; Taiz, Lincoln


    Previous studies characterizing an ATP-dependent proton pump in microsomal membrane vesicles of corn coleoptiles led to the conclusion that the proton pump was neither mitochondrial nor plasma membrane in origin (Mettler, Mandala, Taiz 1982 Plant Physiol 70: 1738-1742). To facilitate positive identification of the vesicles, corn coleoptile microsomal membranes were fractionated on linear sucrose and dextran gradients, with ATP-dependent [14C]methylamine uptake as a probe for proton pumping. On sucrose gradients, proton pumping activity exhibited a density of 1.11 grams/cubic centimeter and was coincident with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the presence of high magnesium, the ER shifted to a heavier density, while proton pumping activity showed no density shift. On linear dextran gradients, proton pumping activity peaked at a lighter density than the ER. The proton pump appears to be electrogenic since both [14C]SCN− uptake and 36Cl− uptake activities coincided with [14C] methylamine uptake on dextran gradients. On the basis of density and transport properties, we conclude that the proton pumping vesicles are probably derived from the tonoplast. Nigericin-stimulated ATPase activity showed a broad distribution which did not coincide with any one membrane marker. PMID:16662755

  10. Experimental Realization of a Quantum Spin Pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Susan; Potok, R.; M. Marcus, C.


    We demonstrate the operation of a quantum spin pump based on cyclic radio-frequency excitation of a GaAs quantum dot, including the ability to pump pure spin without pumping charge. The device takes advantage of bidirectional mesoscopic fluctuations of pumped current, made spin......-dependent by the application of an in-plane Zeeman field. Spin currents are measured by placing the pump in a focusing geometry with a spin-selective collector....

  11. Vacuum pumping for controlled thermonuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.S.; Fisher, P.W.


    Thermonuclear reactors impose unique vacuum pumping problems involving very high pumping speeds, handling of hazardous materials (tritium), extreme cleanliness requirements, and quantitative recovery of pumped materials. Two principal pumping systems are required for a fusion reactor, a main vacuum system for evacuating the torus and a vacuum system for removing unaccelerated deuterium from neutral beam injectors. The first system must pump hydrogen isotopes and helium while the neutral beam system can operate by pumping only hydrogen isotopes (perhaps only deuterium). The most promising pumping techniques for both systems appear to be cryopumps, but different cryopumping techniques can be considered for each system. The main vacuum system will have to include cryosorption pumps cooled to 4.2/sup 0/K to pump helium, but the unburned deuterium-tritium and other impurities could be pumped with cryocondensation panels (4.2/sup 0/K) or cryosorption panels at higher temperatures. Since pumping speeds will be limited by conductance through the ducts and thermal shields, the pumping performance for both systems will be similar, and other factors such as refrigeration costs are likely to determine the choice. The vacuum pumping system for neutral beam injectors probably will not need to pump helium, and either condensation or higher temperature sorption pumps can be used.

  12. Reduction of calcium flux from the extracellular region and endoplasmic reticulum by amorphous nano-silica particles owing to carboxy group addition on their surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Onodera


    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that amorphous nano-silica particles (nano-SPs modulate calcium flux, although the mechanism remains incompletely understood. We thus analyzed the relationship between calcium flux and particle surface properties and determined the calcium flux route. Treatment of Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts with nano-SPs with a diameter of 70 nm (nSP70 increased cytosolic calcium concentration, but that with SPs with a diameter of 300 or 1000 nm did not. Surface modification of nSP70 with a carboxy group also did not modulate calcium flux. Pretreatment with a general calcium entry blocker almost completely suppressed calcium flux by nSP70. Preconditioning by emptying the endoplasmic reticulum (ER calcium stores slightly suppressed calcium flux by nSP70. These results indicate that nSP70 mainly modulates calcium flux across plasma membrane calcium channels, with subsequent activation of the ER calcium pump, and that the potential of calcium flux by nano-SPs is determined by the particle surface charge.

  13. Reduction of calcium flux from the extracellular region and endoplasmic reticulum by amorphous nano-silica particles owing to carboxy group addition on their surface. (United States)

    Onodera, Akira; Yayama, Katsutoshi; Morosawa, Hideto; Ishii, Yukina; Tsutsumi, Yasuo; Kawai, Yuichi


    Several studies have reported that amorphous nano-silica particles (nano-SPs) modulate calcium flux, although the mechanism remains incompletely understood. We thus analyzed the relationship between calcium flux and particle surface properties and determined the calcium flux route. Treatment of Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts with nano-SPs with a diameter of 70 nm (nSP70) increased cytosolic calcium concentration, but that with SPs with a diameter of 300 or 1000 nm did not. Surface modification of nSP70 with a carboxy group also did not modulate calcium flux. Pretreatment with a general calcium entry blocker almost completely suppressed calcium flux by nSP70. Preconditioning by emptying the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium stores slightly suppressed calcium flux by nSP70. These results indicate that nSP70 mainly modulates calcium flux across plasma membrane calcium channels, with subsequent activation of the ER calcium pump, and that the potential of calcium flux by nano-SPs is determined by the particle surface charge.

  14. Calcium signaling in taste cells. (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F


    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A laser system according to the invention comprises pump generating means (xO2, xO3) for generating at least a first and a second, preferably focused, pump beam, and lasing means (xO6, xO7) for emitting radiation by being appropriately pumped. The lasing means (xO6, xO7) is disposed in a first......-switch (xO8; x17, x18) is disposed in the first and the second resonator, so that the first beam and the second beam both pass a Q-switch (xO8; x17, x18). The laser system (x01 ) has an output (x13) generated from said first beam (x21) and said second beam (x22), and at least a part of said output (x13...

  16. The predominant mechanism of intercellular calcium wave propagation changes during long-term culture of human osteoblast-like cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Zanne; Hiken, Jeffrey F; Steinberg, Thomas H


    Intercellular calcium waves (ICW) are calcium transients that spread from cell to cell in response to different stimuli. We previously demonstrated that human osteoblast-like cells in culture propagate ICW in response to mechanical stimulation by two mechanisms. One mechanism involves autocrine a...

  17. Redistribution of pump power and impairments in gain-equalized distributed fiber Raman amplifiers due to four-wave mixing and parametric amplification


    Soto, Marcelo A.; Olivares,Ricardo


    In this work, by using a comprehensive numerical model which rigorously describes the interaction between stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and four-wave mixing (FWM), we verify that FWM processes, including depletion and parametric gain, generate a redistribution of pump power in distributed fiber Raman amplifiers (DFRAs). As a consequence of pump–pump FWM, several FWM components can be generated, which act as new sources of SRS for Raman pumping. Due to new SRS–FWM interactions, a redistrib...

  18. Effects of Staphylococcus aureus-hemolysin A on calcium signalling in immortalized human airway epithelial cells. (United States)

    Eichstaedt, Stefanie; Gäbler, Karoline; Below, Sabine; Müller, Christian; Kohler, Christian; Engelmann, Susanne; Hildebrandt, Petra; Völker, Uwe; Hecker, Michael; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter


    Part of the innate defence of bronchial epithelia against bacterial colonization is secretion of salt and water which generally depends on coordinated actions of receptor-mediated cAMP- and calcium signalling. The hypothesis that Staphylococcus aureus-virulence factors interfere with endogenous signals in host cells was tested by measuring agonist-mediated changes in [Ca(2+)](i) in S9 cells upon pre-incubation with bacterial secretory products. S9 cells responded to mAChR-activation with calcium release from intracellular stores and capacitative calcium influx. Treatment of cells with culture supernatants of S. aureus (COL) or with recombinant alpha-hemolysin (Hla) resulted in time- and concentration-dependent changes in [Ca(2+)](i). High concentrations of Hla (2000 ng/ml) resulted in elevations in [Ca(2+)](i) elicited by accelerated calcium influx. A general Hla-mediated permeabilization of S9 cell membranes to small molecules, however, did not occur. Lower concentrations of Hla (200 ng/ml) induced a reduction in [Ca(2+)](i)-levels during the sustained plateau phase of receptor-mediated calcium signalling which was abolished by pre-incubation of cells with carboxyeosin, an inhibitor of the plasma membrane calcium-ATPase. This indicates that low concentrations of Hla change calcium signalling by accelerating pump-driven extrusion of Ca(2+) ions. In vivo, such a mechanism may result in attenuation of calcium-mediated cellular defence functions and facilitation of bacterial adherence to the bronchial epithelium.

  19. Microelectromechanical pump utilizing porous silicon (United States)

    Lantz, Jeffrey W [Albuquerque, NM; Stalford, Harold L [Norman, OK


    A microelectromechanical (MEM) pump is disclosed which includes a porous silicon region sandwiched between an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber. The porous silicon region is formed in a silicon substrate and contains a number of pores extending between the inlet and outlet chambers, with each pore having a cross-section dimension about equal to or smaller than a mean free path of a gas being pumped. A thermal gradient is provided along the length of each pore by a heat source which can be an electrical resistance heater or an integrated circuit (IC). A channel can be formed through the silicon substrate so that inlet and outlet ports can be formed on the same side of the substrate, or so that multiple MEM pumps can be connected in series to form a multi-stage MEM pump. The MEM pump has applications for use in gas-phase MEM chemical analysis systems, and can also be used for passive cooling of ICs.

  20. Ratiometric analysis of fura red by flow cytometry: a technique for monitoring intracellular calcium flux in primary cell subsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R Wendt

    Full Text Available Calcium flux is a rapid and sensitive measure of cell activation whose utility could be enhanced with better techniques for data extraction. We describe a technique to monitor calcium flux by flow cytometry, measuring Fura Red calcium dye by ratiometric analysis. This technique has several advantages: 1 using a single calcium dye provides an additional channel for surface marker characterization, 2 allows robust detection of calcium flux by minority cell populations within a heterogeneous population of primary T cells and monocytes 3 can measure total calcium flux and additionally, the proportion of responding cells, 4 can be applied to studying the effects of drug treatment, simultaneously stimulating and monitoring untreated and drug treated cells. Using chemokine receptor activation as an example, we highlight the utility of this assay, demonstrating that only cells expressing a specific chemokine receptor are activated by cognate chemokine ligand. Furthermore, we describe a technique for simultaneously stimulating and monitoring calcium flux in vehicle and drug treated cells, demonstrating the effects of the Gαi inhibitor, pertussis toxin (PTX, on chemokine stimulated calcium flux. The described real time calcium flux assay provides a robust platform for characterizing cell activation within primary cells, and offers a more accurate technique for studying the effect of drug treatment on receptor activation in a heterogeneous population of primary cells.


    Barton, J.


    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  2. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight (United States)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; hide


    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P platelet free calcium (intracellular calcium concentration) were also reduced (P metabolism (P metabolism are relatively impervious to dietary calcium in the short term, 2) increased ionized calcium did not normalize low-calcium-induced elevations of BP, and 3) parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  3. Physiological studies in heterozygous calcium sensing receptor (CaSR gene-ablated mice confirm that the CaSR regulates calcitonin release in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Christopher S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR regulates serum calcium by suppressing secretion of parathyroid hormone; it also regulates renal tubular calcium excretion. Inactivating mutations of CaSR raise serum calcium and reduce urine calcium excretion. Thyroid C-cells (which make calcitonin express CaSR and may, therefore, be regulated by it. Since calcium stimulates release of calcitonin, the higher blood calcium caused by inactivation of CaSR should increase serum calcitonin, unless CaSR mutations alter the responsiveness of calcitonin to calcium. To demonstrate regulatory effects of CaSR on calcitonin release, we studied calcitonin responsiveness to calcium in normal and CaSR heterozygous-ablated (Casr+/- mice. Casr+/- mice have hypercalcemia and hypocalciuria, and live normal life spans. Each mouse received either 500 μl of normal saline or one of two doses of elemental calcium (500 μmol/kg or 5 mmol/kg by intraperitoneal injection. Ionized calcium was measured at baseline and 10 minutes, and serum calcitonin was measured on the 10 minute sample. Results At baseline, Casr+/- mice had a higher blood calcium, and in response to the two doses of elemental calcium, had greater increments and peak levels of ionized calcium than their wild type littermates. Despite significantly higher ionized calcium levels, the calcitonin levels of Casr+/- mice were consistently lower than wild type at any ionized calcium level, indicating that the dose-response curve of calcitonin to increases in ionized calcium had been significantly blunted or shifted to the right in Casr+/- mice. Conclusions These results confirm that the CaSR is a physiological regulator of calcitonin; therefore, in response to increases in ionized calcium, the CaSR inhibits parathyroid hormone secretion and stimulates calcitonin secretion.

  4. Models of calcium signalling

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Geneviève; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James


    This book discusses the ways in which mathematical, computational, and modelling methods can be used to help understand the dynamics of intracellular calcium. The concentration of free intracellular calcium is vital for controlling a wide range of cellular processes, and is thus of great physiological importance. However, because of the complex ways in which the calcium concentration varies, it is also of great mathematical interest.This book presents the general modelling theory as well as a large number of specific case examples, to show how mathematical modelling can interact with experimental approaches, in an interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to the study of an important physiological control mechanism. Geneviève Dupont is FNRS Research Director at the Unit of Theoretical Chronobiology of the Université Libre de Bruxelles;Martin Falcke is head of the Mathematical Cell Physiology group at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin;Vivien Kirk is an Associate Professor in the Depar...

  5. Ionophores stimulate prostaglandin and thromboxane biosynthesis* (United States)

    Knapp, Howard R.; Oelz, Oswald; Roberts, L. Jackson; Sweetman, Brian J.; Oates, John A.; Reed, Peter W.


    The role of calcium in triggering prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis was studied in several systems with ionophores of different ion specificities. Divalent cationophore A23187 stimulates prostaglandin and thromboxane production by washed human platelets in a concentration-dependent manner (0.3-9 μM). A23187 also induces an antimycin A-insensitive burst in oxygen utilization which is partially blocked by 5 mM aspirin or 10 μM indomethacin. Under our conditions, A23187 (up to 10 μM) does not appear to damage platelet membranes since it does not cause appreciable loss of lactate dehydrogenase or β-glucuronidase. Mono- and divalent cationophore X537A also stimulates platelet thromboxane B2 production and oxygen utilization, but monovalent cationophores nigericin, monensin A, A204, and valinomycin have no effect. The synthesis of prostaglandins E2, D2, and F2α by rat renal medulla mince is stimulated by 1 and 5 μM A23187 without changes in tissue ATP content, lactate output, or K+ efflux. X537A, monensin A, and nigericin (all 5 μM) stimulate both prostaglandin output and K+ efflux from renal medulla, while 5 μM valinomycin or A204 has no effect on either. None of the ionophores stimulates renomedullary prostaglandin production if calcium is omitted from the incubation medium. A23187 also stimulates prostaglandin production by human lymphoma cells, rat stomach and trachea preparations, and guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These observations suggest a major role for Ca2+ in stimulating prostaglandin and thromboxane biosynthesis, and also indicate that prostaglandin and/or thromboxane release may partially mediate some of the previously described effects of ionophores on cells and tissues. PMID:270668

  6. Isolation of a plasma-membrane fraction from gastric smooth muscle. Comparison of the calcium uptake with that in endoplasmic reticulum. (United States)

    Raeymaekers, L; Wuytack, F; Eggermont, J; De Schutter, G; Casteels, R


    1. A plasma-membrane fraction was isolated from the smooth muscle of the pig stomach by using differential and sucrose-density-gradient centrifugations. When the centrifugation was carried out after preloading the crude microsomal fraction with Ca2+ in the presence of oxalate, the contamination of the plasma-membrane fraction by endoplasmic reticulum was decreased and a fraction enriched in endoplasmic reticulum vesicles filled with calcium oxalate crystals was obtained. 2. The plasmalemmal and endoplasmic-reticulum membranes could be distinguished by differences in the activity of marker enzymes and in the cholesterol content and by their different permeability to oxalate and phosphate. Oxalate and phosphate stimulated the Ca2+ uptake in the endoplasmic reticulum much more than in the plasmalemmal vesicles. In the plasma-membrane vesicles 40 mM-phosphate was more effective for stimulating the Ca2+ uptake than was 5 mM-oxalate, but the reverse was seen in the endoplasmic reticulum. 3. The high cholesterol/phospholipid ratio of the crude microsomal fraction are of the majority of the vesicles present in the crude microsomal fraction are of plasmalemmal origin. 4. The Ca2+ pump of the plasmalemmal and endoplasmic-reticulum vesicles could be differentiated by their different sensitivities to calmodulin. However, the two Ca2+-transport ATPases did not differ by their sensitivity to vanadate nor by the energization of the Ca2+ transport by different nucleoside triphosphates. PMID:6860302

  7. Characterization of transport of calcium by microsomal membranes from roots maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, M.A.


    This study investigates calcium transport by membranes of roots of maize isolated by differential centrifugation. The preparation was determined to be enriched in plasma membrane using market enzyme and electron microscopy. Using the /sup 45/Ca filtration technique and liquid scintillation counting, vesicular calcium uptake was shown to be stimulated by added calmodulin and specific for and dependent on ATP. Conditions for maximal calcium accumulation were found to be 30 min incubation in the presence of 5 mM ATP, 5 mM MgCl/sub 2/, 50 CaCl/sub 2/, at 23/sup 0/C, and at pH 6.5. Calcium uptake was inhibited by the ionophores A23187, X-537A, and ionomycin. Sodium fluoride, ruthenium red, and p-chloromercuribenzoate completely inhibited transport: diamide and vanadate produced slight inhibition; caffeine, caffeic acid, oligomycin, and ouabain produced little or no inhibition. Chlorpromazine, W7, trifluoperazine, and R 24 571 inhibit calcium uptake irrespective of added calmodulin, while W5 showed little effect on uptake. Verapamil, nifedipine, cinnarizine, flunarizine, lidoflazine, and diltiazem decreased calcium uptake by 17%-50%. Electron microscopic localization of calcium by pyroantimonate showed vesicles incubated with calmodulin and ATP showed the greatest amount of precipitate. These results suggest that these vesicles accumulate calcium in an ATP-dependent, calmodulin-stimulated manner.

  8. Heat pump cuts energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnwell, J.; Morris, C.P.


    It is shown how energy use can be cut by nearly half by using a heat pump installation in operation of a butane splitter. The technique has been used successfully for separation of other close boiling materials, i.e. ethane/ethylene, propane/propylene, and also for deisohexanizers. Compared to a conventional fractionator, the heat pump increases inside battery limit capital cost for which increase the payout time is less than one year. In this paper the effects of using a heat pump is evaluated as applied to a 35,000 bpsd butane splitter based on three alternative schemes: a conventional fractionation; overhead vapor recompression fractionation; and bottoms flash recompression fractionation. 2 refs.

  9. Diode pumped tunable dye laser (United States)

    Burdukova, O.; Gorbunkov, M.; Petukhov, V.; Semenov, M.


    A wavelength-tunable dye laser pumped by blue laser diodes (λ =445 nm) in a 200 ns pulsed mode has been developed. We used a 3-mirror cavity with transverse excitation and total internal reflection of laser beam in the active element. Tuning curves for 8 dyes in benzyl alcohol were measured in the range of 506-700 nm. Four dyes have their tuning range more than 60 nm, which is comparable to the tuning ranges of other dye lasers pumped by more expensive sources. The output energy obtained at the generation maximum of both DCM and coumarin 540A dyes was approximately 130 nJ while the pump energy was 2400 nJ.

  10. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raftery, M. Daniel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping 129Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the 131Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen.

  11. Optical pumping and xenon NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raftery, M.D.


    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of xenon has become an important tool for investigating a wide variety of materials, especially those with high surface area. The sensitivity of its chemical shift to environment, and its chemical inertness and adsorption properties make xenon a particularly useful NMR probe. This work discusses the application of optical pumping to enhance the sensitivity of xenon NMR experiments, thereby allowing them to be used in the study of systems with lower surface area. A novel method of optically-pumping [sup 129]Xe in low magnetic field below an NMR spectrometer and subsequent transfer of the gas to high magnetic field is described. NMR studies of the highly polarized gas adsorbed onto powdered samples with low to moderate surface areas are now possible. For instance, NMR studies of optically-pumped xenon adsorbed onto polyacrylic acid show that xenon has a large interaction with the surface. By modeling the low temperature data in terms of a sticking probability and the gas phase xenon-xenon interaction, the diffusion coefficient for xenon at the surface of the polymer is determined. The sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping also allows the NMR observation of xenon thin films frozen onto the inner surfaces of different sample cells. The geometry of the thin films results in interesting line shapes that are due to the bulk magnetic susceptibility of xenon. Experiments are also described that combine optical pumping with optical detection for high sensitivity in low magnetic field to observe the quadrupoler evolution of 131 Xe spins at the surface of the pumping cells. In cells with macroscopic asymmetry, a residual quadrupolar interaction causes a splitting in the [sup 131]Xe NMR frequencies in bare Pyrex glass cells and cells with added hydrogen.

  12. All metal progressing cavity pumps deployed in SAGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rae, M. [Shell Canada (Canada); Seince, L. [PCM Canada (Canada); Mitskopoulos, M. [Kudu industries (Canada)


    In Canada, 80% of oilsands reserves require in situ recovery and SAGD is to date the most used method. World-wide, SAGD and other enhanced recovery methods have been employed using the all metal progressive cavity pump (AMPCP) for 4 years now. Test results and the learning curve associated with use of this pump have been documented. This paper gives an overview of one run of an AMPCP in a SAGD application. This run was conducted in a producing well in Shell's Orion field in Cold Lake (AB) over a 14 month period. Results showed that the AMPCP can handle a wide range of temperatures, adjust its speed to fit production when downhole conditions change and that its run life was better than expected. This paper demonstrated the versatility and robustness of the AMPCP and showed that the combination of steam and chemical stimulation can optimize production.

  13. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia. (United States)

    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian


    Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent-to-treat population (N=2520), 752 patients with recorded dose data for calcium acetate (n=551)/calcium carbonate (n=201) at baseline and lanthanum carbonate at week 16 were studied. Elemental calcium intake, serum phosphate, corrected serum calcium, and serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were analyzed. Of the 551 patients with calcium acetate dose data, 271 (49.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day at baseline, and 142 (25.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) serum phosphate levels were 6.1 (5.89, 6.21) mg/dL at baseline and 6.2 (6.04, 6.38) mg/dL at 16 weeks; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.3 (9.16, 9.44) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Of the 201 patients with calcium carbonate dose data, 117 (58.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day, and 76 (37.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% CI) serum phosphate levels were 5.8 (5.52, 6.06) mg/dL at baseline and 5.8 (5.53, 6.05) mg/dL at week 16; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.7 (9.15, 10.25) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Calcium acetate/calcium carbonate phosphate binders, taken to control serum phosphate levels, may result in high levels of elemental calcium intake. This may lead to complications related to calcium balance.

  14. Dichroism for Orbital Angular Momentum using Stimulated Parametric Down Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Lowney, Joseph; Faccio, Daniele; Wright, Ewan M


    We theoretically analyze stimulated parametric down conversion as a means to produce dichroism based on the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of an incident signal field. The nonlinear interaction is shown to provide differential gain between signal states of differing OAM, the peak gain occurring at half the OAM of the pump field.

  15. Heat pumping in nanomechanical systems (United States)

    Arrachea, Liliana; Chamon, Claudio; Mucciolo, Eduardo; Capaz, Rodrigo


    We propose using phonon pumping mechanism to transfer heat from a cold to a hot body. The mechanism is based on inducing a traveling modulation of the acoustic phonon velocity along the medium connecting the two bodies. This phonon pumping can cool nanomechanical systems without the need for active feedback. We have derived an estimate of the lowest achievable temperature. We have also analyzed this mechanism in the framework of simple one-dimensional microscopic models, which can be exactly solved with non-equilibrium Green function techniques. J. S. Guggenheim Memorial Foundation.

  16. Vagus Nerve Stimulation (United States)

    Vagus nerve stimulation Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Vagus nerve stimulation is a procedure that involves implantation of a device that stimulates the vagus nerve with electrical impulses. There's one vagus nerve ...

  17. Aldosterone-stimulating somatic gene mutations are common in normal adrenal glands. (United States)

    Nishimoto, Koshiro; Tomlins, Scott A; Kuick, Rork; Cani, Andi K; Giordano, Thomas J; Hovelson, Daniel H; Liu, Chia-Jen; Sanjanwala, Aalok R; Edwards, Michael A; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E; Nanba, Kazutaka; Rainey, William E


    Primary aldosteronism (PA) represents the most common cause of secondary hypertension, but little is known regarding its adrenal cellular origins. Recently, aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs) with high expression of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) were found in both normal and PA adrenal tissue. PA-causing aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) harbor mutations in genes encoding ion channels/pumps that alter intracellular calcium homeostasis and cause renin-independent aldosterone production through increased CYP11B2 expression. Herein, we hypothesized that APCCs have APA-related aldosterone-stimulating somatic gene mutations. APCCs were studied in 42 normal adrenals from kidney donors. To clarify APCC molecular characteristics, we used microarrays to compare the APCC transcriptome with conventional adrenocortical zones [zona glomerulosa (ZG), zona fasciculata, and zona reticularis]. The APCC transcriptome was most similar to ZG but with an enhanced capacity to produce aldosterone. To determine if APCCs harbored APA-related mutations, we performed targeted next generation sequencing of DNA from 23 APCCs and adjacent normal adrenal tissue isolated from both formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and frozen tissues. Known aldosterone driver mutations were identified in 8 of 23 (35%) APCCs, including mutations in calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L-type, α1D-subunit (CACNA1D; 6 of 23 APCCs) and ATPase, Na(+)/(K+) transporting, α1-polypeptide (ATP1A1; 2 of 23 APCCs), which were not observed in the adjacent normal adrenal tissue. Overall, we show three major findings: (i) APCCs are common in normal adrenals, (ii) APCCs harbor somatic mutations known to cause excess aldosterone production, and (iii) the mutation spectrum of aldosterone-driving mutations is different in APCCs from that seen in APA. These results provide molecular support for APCC as a precursor of PA.

  18. Modeling of forward pump EDFA under pump power through MATLAB (United States)

    Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar; Sharma, Reena


    Optical fiber loss is a limiting factor for high-speed optical network applications. However, the loss can be compensated by variety of optical amplifiers. Raman amplifier and EDFA amplifier are widely used in optical communication systems. There are certain advantages of EDFA over Raman amplifier like amplifying the signal at 1550 nm wavelength at which the fiber loss is minimum. Apart from that there is no pulse walk-off problem with an EDFA amplifier. With the advent of optical amplifiers like EDFA, it is feasible to achieve a high bit rate beyond terabits in optical network applications. In our study, a MATLAB simulink-based forward pumped EDFA (operating in C-band 1525-1565 nm) simulation platform has been devised to evaluate the following performance parameters like gain, noise figure, amplified spontaneous emission power variations of a forward pumped EDFA operating in C-band (1525-1565 nm) as functions of Er3+ fiber length, injected pump power, signal input power, and Er3+ doping density. The effect of an input pump power on gain and noise figure was illustrated graphically. It is possible to completely characterize and optimize the EDFA performance using our dynamic simulink test bed.

  19. Limestone reaction in calcium aluminate cement–calcium sulfate systems


    Bizzozero, Julien; Scrivener, Karen


    This paper reports a study of ternary blends composed of calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and limestone. Compressive strength tests and hydration kinetics were studied as a function of limestone and calcium sulfate content. The phase evolution and the total porosity were followed and compared to thermodynamic simulation to understand the reactions involved and the effect of limestone on these binders. The reaction of limestone leads to the formation of hemicarboaluminate ...

  20. Mixed calcium-magnesium pre-nucleation clusters enrich calcium


    Verch, Andreas; Antonietti, Markus; Cölfen, Helmut


    It is demonstrated that magnesium and carbonate ions can form pre-nucleation clusters in analogy to calcium carbonate. If a mixed calcium and magnesium solution is brought in contact with carbonate ions, mixed pre-nucleation clusters form. The equilibrium constants for their formation are reported revealing that over the entire range of possible cation mixing ratios, calcium gets enriched over magnesium in the pre-nucleation clusters. This can explain high magnesium contents in amorphous calc...

  1. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of elliptical laser beam in collisionless plasma (United States)

    Singh, Arvinder; Walia, Keshav


    This paper presents an investigation of self-focusing of elliptical laser beam in collisionless plasma and its effect on stimulated Brillouin scattering. The pump beam interacts with a pre-excited ion-acoustic wave leading to Brillouin back-scattered process. The transverse intensity gradient of a pump beam generates a ponderomotive force, which modifies the background plasma density profile in a direction transverse to pump beam axis. This modification in density effects the incident laser beam, ion-acoustic wave and back-scattered beam. Non-linear differential equations for the beam width parameters of pump laser beam, ion-acoustic wave and back-scattered beam are set up and solved numerically. It is observed from the analysis that the focusing of waves enhances the SBS back-reflectivity.

  2. Nuclear-driven flashlamp pumping of the atomic iodine laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, G.H.


    This report is a study of the atomic iodine laser pumped with nuclear- excited XeBr fluorescence. Preliminary experiments, conducted in the TRIGA reactor investigated the fluorescence of the excimer XeBr under nuclear pumping with {sup 10}B and {sup 3}He, for use as a flashlamp gas to stimulate the laser. These measurements included a determination of the fluorescence efficiency (light emitted in the wavelength region of interest, divided by energy deposited in the gas) of XeBr under nuclear pumping, with varying excimer mixtures. Maximum fluorescence efficiencies were approximately 1%. In order to better understand XeBr under nuclear excitation, a kinetics model of the system was prepared. The model generated the time-dependant concentrations of 20 reaction species for three pulse sizes, a TRIGA pulse, a fast burst reactor pulse, and an e-beam pulse. The modeling results predicted fluorescence efficiencies significantly higher (peak efficiencies of approximately 10%) than recorded in the fluorescence experiments. The cause of this discrepancy was not fully determined. A ray tracing computer model was also prepared to evaluate the efficiency with which nuclear-induced fluorescence generated in one cavity of a laser could be coupled into another cavity containing an iodine lasant. Finally, an experimental laser cell was constructed to verify that nuclear-induced XeBr fluorescence could be used to stimulate a laser. Lasing was achieved at 1.31 micron in the TRIGA using C{sub 3}F{sub 7}I, a common iodine lasant. Peak laser powers were approximately 20 mW. Measured flashlamp pump powers at threshold agreed well with literature values, as did lasant pressure dependency on laser operation.

  3. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid inserts the bile salt export pump into canalicular membranes of cholestatic rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dombrowski, Frank; Stieger, Bruno; Beuers, Ulrich


    Ursodeoxycholic acid exerts anticholestatic effects in chronic cholestatic liver disease in humans as well as in experimental animal models of cholestasis. Its taurine conjugate, TUDCA, was recently shown to stimulate insertion of the apical conjugate export pump, Mrp2 (ABCC2), into canalicular

  4. Biological Reactions to Calcium Phosphate-coated Calcium Carbonate Particles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tetsunari NISHIKAWA; Kazuya MASUNO; Tomoharu OKAMURA; Kazuya TOMINAGA; Masahiro WATO; Mayu KOKUBU; Koichi IMAI; Shoji TAKEDA; Yoichro TAGUCHI; Masatoshi UEDA; Akio TANAKA


    [SYNOPSIS][Objectives]: In order to histopathologically investigate biological reactions to materials used for scaffolds, we examined the cytotoxicity to calcium particles in vitro and bioabsorption in vivo...

  5. Voltage sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) in cultured neuronal hybrid cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, C.L.; U' Prichard, D.C.; Noronha-Blob, L.


    Calcium entry via VSCC has been identified in selected, neuronal clonal cell lines using /sup 45/Ca uptake and the fluorescent calcium indicator, quin 2. VSCC in NG108-15 hybrid cells, differentiated with dibutyryl cyclic AMP (1 mM, 4 days) have been further characterized. Depolarization (50 mM K/sup +/, dp) resulted in a rapid (15 sec) influx of Ca/sup 2 +/. Intracellular calcium concentrations were elevated approx. 3 fold from 223 +- 68 nM to 666 +- 74 nM. Dp-sensitive calcium entry was voltage dependent, independent of Na/sup +/, stimulated (40%) by the agonist Bay K 8644 ( and blocked by divalent cations ( range) and organic calcium channel antagonists (nM range) Bay K 8644, in the absence of KCl, failed to stimulate Ca/sup 2 +/ influx. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and tetraethylammonium had no effect on VSCC activity. Blockage of VSCC by nimodipine was reversed by increasing Ca/sup 2 +/ ions. IC/sub 50/ values were right shifted from 6.5 nM (1mM/sup 0/Ca/sup 2 +/) to 840 nM (10 mM Ca/sup 2 +/). Ca/sup 2 +/ entry was also stimulated by veratridine (VE), in a Na/sup +//sub 0/-sensitive manner. VE-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ entry was voltage-independent, TTX-sensitive, and was only 25% of dp-sensitive Ca/sup 2 +/ entry. These results together indicate that VSCC in neuronal cells offer a useful system for studying ion channel regulation.

  6. Osteoporosis, calcium and physical activity.


    Martin, A. D.; Houston, C S


    Sales of calcium supplements have increased dramatically since 1983, as middle-aged women seek to prevent or treat bone loss due to osteoporosis. However, epidemiologic studies have failed to support the hypothesis that larger amounts of calcium are associated with increased bone density or a decreased incidence of fractures. The authors examine the evidence from controlled trials on the effects of calcium supplementation and physical activity on bone loss and find that weight-bearing activit...

  7. Proton pump inhibitors and gastroenteritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Hassing (Robert); A. Verbon (Annelies); H. de Visser (Herman); A. Hofman (Albert); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)


    textabstractAn association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and bacterial gastroenteritis has been suggested as well as contradicted. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the use of PPIs and occurrence of bacterial gastroenteritis in the prospective Rotterdam

  8. Novel Characteristics of Valveless Pumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Stine; Ottesen, Johnny T.


    This study investigates the occurrence of valveless pumping in a fluidfilled system consisting of two open tanks connected by an elastic tube. We show that directional flow can be achieved by introducing a periodic pinching applied at an asymmetrical location along the tube, and that the flow dir...

  9. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaccino, J.


    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  10. Human Aorta Is a Passive Pump (United States)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza


    Impedance pump is a simple valveless pumping mechanism that operates based on the principles of wave propagation and reflection. It has been shown in a zebrafish that a similar mechanism is responsible for the pumping action in the embryonic heart during early stages before valve formation. Recent studies suggest that the cardiovascular system is designed to take advantage of wave propagation and reflection phenomena in the arterial network. Our aim in this study was to examine if the human aorta is a passive pump working like an impedance pump. A hydraulic model with different compliant models of artificial aorta was used for series of in-vitro experiments. The hydraulic model includes a piston pump that generates the waves. Our result indicates that wave propagation and reflection can create pumping mechanism in a compliant aorta. Similar to an impedance pump, the net flow and the flow direction depends on the frequency of the waves, compliance of the aorta, and the piston stroke.

  11. Pierre Gorce working on a helium pump.

    CERN Multimedia


    This type of pump was designed by Mario Morpurgo, to circulate liquid helium in superconducting magnets wound with hollow conductors. M. Morpurgo, Design and construction of a pump for liquid helium, CRYIOGENICS, February 1977, p. 91

  12. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid


    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  13. Laser Sintered Calcium Phosphate Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vail, Neil


    ...) technology selective laser sintering (SLS). BME has successfully implemented a pilot facility to fabricate calcium phosphate implants using anatomical data coupled with the selective laser sintering process...

  14. The concentration of adrenaline and noradrenaline in the serum of dogs under the influence of calcium channels blockers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Tamara


    Full Text Available The most important characteristic of calcium channels is selective regulation of slow incoming stream of calcium into the cell tissue providing the slow increasement of action potential. Such tissues include smooth muscles of blood vessels, cardiocytes and heart noduses (AV and SA node. Different calcium antagonists have different effects on previous tissues due to their different chemical formula. Verapamile, Nifedipin and Diltiazem are the most frequently used of all. Their commonest characteristic is blocking the calcium channels causing vasodilatation of blood vessels as well as negative inotropic and chronotropic influence. By blocking the incoming calcium through slow channels of myofibrils of smooth muscles, the antagonists of calcium decrease the quantity of available calcium for contraction which causes vasodilatation. The most famous and most frequently used calcium antagonist is Verapamile. In terms of electrophysiology, Verapamile inhibits action potentials of heart noduses, especially the AV node, where the slow incoming of calcium is the most important for depolarization. Prolongation of the efective refractory period of SA node causes the heart frequency decreasement while prolongation of the effective refractory period of AV node slows down the work of chambers in case of flater and fibrillation of atriums. The molecules of calcium-bonding protein called kalmodulin are located in synaptic endings. Each kalmodulin can bond four calcium ions providing transfer into active calcium-kalmodulin complex which activates the kinase protein. Activated kinase protein starts the exocytosis of neurotransmitters into synaptic gap. Apart from activating kinase protein, calcium-kalmodulin complex also starts the activity of calcium pump presynaptic membrane which pumps calcium out of presynaptic ending stopping the further exocytosis of neurotransmitters into synaptic gap. Taking into consideration the fact that opening the calcium channels on

  15. In vivo calcium accumulation in presynaptic and postsynaptic dendrites of visual interneurons


    Dürr, Volker; Egelhaaf, Martin


    In this comparative in vivo study of dendritic calcium accumulation, we describe the time course and spatial integration properties of two classes of visual interneurons in the lobula plate of the blowfly. Calcium accumulation was measured during visual motion stimulation, ensuring synaptic activation of the neurons within their natural spatial and temporal operating range. The compared cell classes, centrifugal horizontal (CH) and horizontal system (HS) cells, are known to receive retinotopi...

  16. 21 CFR 73.1070 - Calcium carbonate. (United States)


    ... precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO3). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with calcium carbonate... precipitated calcium carbonate in the United States Pharmacopeia XX (1980). (c) Uses and restrictions. Calcium... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium carbonate. 73.1070 Section 73.1070 Food...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium carbonate. 184.1191 Section 184.1191 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1191 Calcium carbonate. (a) Calcium carbonate (CaCO3, CAS Reg... soda process”; (2) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide in the “Carbonation...

  18. A Bayesian approach to modelling heterogeneous calcium responses in cell populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne Tilūnaitė


    Full Text Available Calcium responses have been observed as spikes of the whole-cell calcium concentration in numerous cell types and are essential for translating extracellular stimuli into cellular responses. While there are several suggestions for how this encoding is achieved, we still lack a comprehensive theory. To achieve this goal it is necessary to reliably predict the temporal evolution of calcium spike sequences for a given stimulus. Here, we propose a modelling framework that allows us to quantitatively describe the timing of calcium spikes. Using a Bayesian approach, we show that Gaussian processes model calcium spike rates with high fidelity and perform better than standard tools such as peri-stimulus time histograms and kernel smoothing. We employ our modelling concept to analyse calcium spike sequences from dynamically-stimulated HEK293T cells. Under these conditions, different cells often experience diverse stimulus time courses, which is a situation likely to occur in vivo. This single cell variability and the concomitant small number of calcium spikes per cell pose a significant modelling challenge, but we demonstrate that Gaussian processes can successfully describe calcium spike rates in these circumstances. Our results therefore pave the way towards a statistical description of heterogeneous calcium oscillations in a dynamic environment.

  19. Intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium and low bone turnover in hypercalciuric postmenopausal osteoporosis. (United States)

    Odvina, Clarita V; Poindexter, John R; Peterson, Roy D; Zerwekh, Joseph E; Pak, Charles Y C


    Hypercalciuria of intestinal origin has been linked with bone loss in calcium nephrolithiasis and idiopathic osteoporosis. This retrospective data analysis was performed to explore potential pathogenetic link between intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium and postmenopausal osteoporosis. Data were retrieved from postmenopausal women who were evaluated for osteoporosis or osteopenia at the Mineral Metabolism Clinic of UT Southwestern Medical Center. A total of 319 patients underwent the test of calciuric response to oral calcium load to obtain an indirect measure of intestinal calcium absorption. Serum and urinary biochemistry and L2-L4 bone mineral density (BMD) were compared between five quintiles of calciuric response. There was a statistically significant trend toward a rise in 24-h urinary calcium and a decrease in urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and BMD, with increasing order of quintiles. The presentation of those in the 1st quintile was consistent with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency, with impaired calcium absorption, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and stimulated bone turnover (high normal urinary DPD). In contrast, patients in the 5th quintile displayed a picture of absorptive hypercalciuria of stone disease, with intestinal hyperabsorption of calcium, high or high normal urinary calcium and suppressed bone turnover (low or low normal urinary DPD). Thus, the assessment of intestinal calcium absorption in a seemingly homogeneous group of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or osteopenia revealed a spectrum of calciuric response whose extremes may represent two physiologically distinct subtypes that have important diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  20. Hybrid calcium phosphate coatings for implants (United States)

    Malchikhina, Alena I.; Shesterikov, Evgeny V.; Bolbasov, Evgeny N.; Ignatov, Viktor P.; Tverdokhlebov, Sergei I.


    Monophasic biomaterials cannot provide all the necessary functions of bones or other calcined tissues. It is necessary to create for cancer patients the multiphase materials with the structure and composition simulating the natural bone. Such materials are classified as hybrid, obtained by a combination of chemically different components. The paper presents the physical, chemical and biological studies of coatings produced by hybrid technologies (HT), which combine primer layer and calcium phosphate (CaP) coating. The first HT type combines the method of vacuum arc titanium primer layer deposition on a stainless steel substrate with the following micro-arc oxidation (MAO) in phosphoric acid solution with addition of calcium compounds to achieve high supersaturated state. MAO CaP coatings feature high porosity (2-8%, pore size 5-7 µm) and surface morphology with the thickness greater than 5 µm. The thickness of Ti primer layer is 5-40 µm. Amorphous MAO CaP coating micro-hardness was measured at maximum normal load Fmax = 300 mN. It was 3.1 ± 0.8 GPa, surface layer elasticity modulus E = 110 ± 20 GPa, roughness Ra = 0.9 ± 0.1 µm, Rz = 7.5 ± 0.2 µm, which is less than the titanium primer layer roughness. Hybrid MAO CaP coating is biocompatible, able to form calcium phosphates from supersaturated body fluid (SBF) solution and also stimulates osteoinduction processes. The second HT type includes the oxide layer formation by thermal oxidation and then CaP target radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS). Oxide-RFMS CaP coating is a thin dense coating with good adhesion to the substrate material, which can be used for metal implants. The RFMS CaP coating has thickness 1.6 ± 0.1 µm and consists of main target elements calcium and phosphorus and Ca/P ratio 2.4. The second HT type can form calcium phosphates from SBF solution. In vivo study shows that hybrid RFMS CaP coating is biocompatible and produces fibrointegration processes.

  1. Calcium signalling: fishing out molecules of mitochondrial calcium transport. (United States)

    Hajnóczky, György; Csordás, György


    Cellular energy metabolism, survival and death are controlled by mitochondrial calcium signals originating in the cytoplasm. Now, RNAi studies link three proteins - MICU1, NCLX and LETM1 - to the previously unknown molecular mechanism of mitochondrial calcium transport. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Outcome of Cardiac Rehabilitation Following Off-Pump Versus On-Pump Coronary Bypass Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Arefizadeh


    CONCLUSIONS: Regarding QOL and psychological status, there were no differences in the CR outcome between those who underwent off-pump bypass surgery and those who underwent on-pump surgery; nevertheless, the off-pump technique was superior to the on-pump method on METs improvement following CR.

  3. Off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting for ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Christian H; Penninga, Luit; Wetterslev, Jørn


    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is performed both without and with cardiopulmonary bypass, referred to as off-pump and on-pump CABG respectively. However, the preferable technique is unclear.......Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is performed both without and with cardiopulmonary bypass, referred to as off-pump and on-pump CABG respectively. However, the preferable technique is unclear....

  4. Calcium electroporation in three cell lines; a comparison of bleomycin and calcium, calcium compounds, and pulsing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gissel, Hanne; Hojman, Pernille


    BACKGROUND: Electroporation with calcium (calcium electroporation) can induce ATP depletion-associated cellular death. In the clinical setting, the cytotoxic drug bleomycin is currently used with electroporation (electrochemotherapy) for palliative treatment of tumors. Calcium electroporation off...

  5. 46 CFR 108.471 - Water pump. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water pump. 108.471 Section 108.471 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.471 Water pump. Each water pump in a foam extinguishing...

  6. High-Capacity, Portable Firefighting Pump (United States)

    Burns, Ralph A.


    Report describes an evaluation of firefighting module that delivers water at 5,000 gal/min (320 L/s). Is compact, self-contained, portable water pump. Besides firefighting, module used for flood control, pumping water into large vessels, and pump water from sinking ships.

  7. 46 CFR 182.520 - Bilge pumps. (United States)


    ...) Highly resistant to salt water, petroleum oil, heat, and vibration. (g) If a fixed hand pump is used to... chapter may serve as a fixed power bilge pump required by this subpart, provided it has the minimum flow... dedicated pump is driven by an independent source of power; and (3) The bilge system is permanently cross...

  8. Multiple stimulated emission fluorescence photoacoustic sensing and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gaoming [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Gao, Fei; Feng, Xiaohua; Zheng, Yuanjin, E-mail: [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Qiu, Yishen [Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China)


    Multiple stimulated emission fluorescence photoacoustic (MSEF-PA) phenomenon is demonstrated in this letter. Under simultaneous illumination of pumping light and stimulated emission light, the fluorescence emission process is speeded up by the stimulated emission effect. This leads to nonlinear enhancement of photoacoustic signal while the quantity of absorbed photons is more than that of fluorescent molecules illuminated by pumping light. The electronic states' specificity of fluorescent molecular can also be labelled by the MSEF-PA signals, which can potentially be used to obtain fluorescence excitation spectrum in deep scattering tissue with nonlinearly enhanced photoacoustic detection. In this preliminary study, the fluorescence excitation spectrum is reconstructed by MSEF-PA signals through sweeping the wavelength of exciting light, which confirms the theoretical derivation well.

  9. Assessing the energy efficiency of pumps and pump units background and methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Bernd Stoffel, em Dr-Ing


    Assessing the Energy Efficiency of Pumps and Pump Units, developed in cooperation with Europump, is the first book available providing the background, methodology, and assessment tools for understanding and calculating energy efficiency for pumps and extended products (pumps+motors+drives). Responding to new EU requirements for pump efficiency, and US DOE exploratory work in setting pump energy efficiency guidelines, this book provides explanation, derivation, and illustration of PA and EPA methods for assessing energy efficiency. It surveys legislation related to pump energy eff

  10. Limited effect of low frequency magnetic fields on the concentrations of calcium, magnesium and fluoride in saliva. (United States)

    Skomro, Piotr; Opalko, Krystyna; Bohdziewicz, Olga; Nocen, Iwona; Janiszewska-Olszowska, Joanna


    To assess the influence of low frequency magnetic fields on the contents of calcium, magnesium and fluoride in saliva. Sixty two patients were subjected to magnetic stimulation with low frequency magnetic fields of mean induction 3 microT at the first intervention and 4 microT at the following fourteen ones. Saliva was sampled before magnetic stimulation and after the 5th, 10th and 15th interventions. The contents of calcium and magnesium ions were measured by means of atomic absorption spectrometry. The content of fluoride was determined using an ion-selective electrode. No statistically significant differences were found between the calcium concentrations before magnetic stimulation and after 5, 10 and 15 interventions. Statistically significant differences in the magnesium concentrations were observed only between 10th and 15th interventions. No statistically significant differences in fluoride concentrations were found. Low frequency magnetic fields have no or weak influences on the content of calcium, magnesium and fluoride in saliva.

  11. Simvastatin Potently Induces Calcium-dependent Apoptosis of Human Leiomyoma Cells* (United States)

    Borahay, Mostafa A.; Kilic, Gokhan S.; Yallampalli, Chandrasekha; Snyder, Russell R.; Hankins, Gary D. V.; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Boehning, Darren


    Statins are drugs commonly used for the treatment of high plasma cholesterol levels. Beyond these well known lipid-lowering properties, they possess broad-reaching effects in vivo, including antitumor effects. Statins inhibit the growth of multiple tumors. However, the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we show that simvastatin inhibits the proliferation of human leiomyoma cells. This was associated with decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and multiple changes in cell cycle progression. Simvastatin potently stimulated leiomyoma cell apoptosis in a manner mechanistically dependent upon apoptotic calcium release from voltage-gated calcium channels. Therefore, simvastatin possesses antitumor effects that are dependent upon the apoptotic calcium release machinery. PMID:25359773

  12. Regulation of xanthine oxidoreductase protein expression by hydrogen peroxide and calcium. (United States)

    McNally, J Scott; Saxena, Archana; Cai, Hua; Dikalov, Sergey; Harrison, David G


    We have previously demonstrated that endothelial xanthine oxidase (XO) levels are dependent on the NADPH oxidase. We postulated that H2O2 may modulate the irreversible conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) to XO and sought to examine mechanisms involved. H2O2 (100 micromol/L) decreased bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) XDH protein expression, and metabolic labeling studies indicated that H2O2 stimulated conversion of XDH to XO. The decline in XDH was mimicked by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating compounds SIN-1 and Menadione, as well as by stimulating BAECs with angiotensin II (200 nmol/L). BAPTA-AM prevented the decline in XDH by H2O2, indicating that it was calcium-dependent. In keeping with calcium acting downstream of H2O2, the calcium ionophore A23187 (1 micromol/L) caused XDH-to-XO conversion, and this was not prevented by the antioxidants. In addition, XDH-to-XO conversion was blocked by 2-APB and NO donors and induced by thapsigargin and M-3M3FBS, implicating phospholipase C and endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores in this process. Endothelial XO and XDH expression are strongly dependent on H2O2 and calcium. Stimulation of XDH conversion to XO may represent a feed-forward mechanism whereby H2O2 can stimulate further production of ROS.

  13. Water Pump Development for the EVA PLSS (United States)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Goldman, Jeff; Morris, Kim; Trevino, Luis


    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design, fabricate, and test a preflight prototype pump for use in the Extravehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump will accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting noncondensable gas without becoming "air locked." The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, sealless, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. Although the planned flight unit will use a sensorless motor with custom designed controller, the preflight prototype to be provided for this project incorporates Hall effect sensors, allowing an interface with a readily available commercial motor controller. This design approach reduced the cost of this project and gives NASA more flexibility in future PLSS laboratory testing. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES will simulate the vacuum environment in which the flight pump will operate. Testing will verify that the pump meets design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure rise, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, and restart capability. Pump testing is currently

  14. Calcium influx factor (CIF) as a diffusible messenger for the activation of capacitative calcium entry in Xenopus oocytes. (United States)

    Kim, H Y; Hanley, M R


    Acid extracts of thapsigargin-treated Xenopus oocytes revealed Ca2(+)-dependent Cl- currents by microinjection into Xenopus oocytes. These currents were detected in highly purified fractions by carrying out a sequence of purification steps including gel filtration chromatography and high performance thin layer chromatography. The nature of the membrane currents evoked by the highly purified fractions were carried by chloride ions as blockade by the selective chloride channel blocker 1 mM niflumic acid. Injection of the Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) eradicated the current activities, indicating that the current responses are completely Ca2(+)-dependent. Moreover, the currents were sensitive to the removal of extracellular calcium, indicating the dependence on calcium entry through plasma membrane calcium entry channels. These results elucidate that the highly purified fractions aquired by thapsigargin-stimulated oocytes is an authentic calcium influx factor (CIF). Thus, the detection of increased CIF production from thapsigargin treatment in Xenopus oocytes would give strong support for the existence of CIF as a diffusible messenger for the activation of capacitative calcium entry pathways in Xenopus oocytes.

  15. Calcium wave signaling in cancer cells (United States)



    Ca2+ functions as an important signaling messenger right from beginning of the life to final moment of the end of the life. Ca2+ is needed at several steps of the cell cycle such as early G1, at the G1/S, and G2/M transitions. The Ca2+ signals in the form of time-dependent changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, [Ca2+]i, are presented as brief spikes organized into regenerative Ca2+ waves. Ca2+-mediated signaling pathways have also been shown to play important roles in carcinogenesis such as transformation of normal cells to cancerous cells, tumor formation and growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Since the global Ca2+ oscillations arise from Ca2+ waves initiated locally, it results in stochastic oscillations because although each cell has many IP3Rs and Ca2+ ions, the law of large numbers does not apply to the initiating event which is restricted to very few IP3Rs due to steep Ca2+ concentration gradients. The specific Ca2+ signaling information is likely to be encoded in a calcium code as the amplitude, duration, frequency, waveform or timing of Ca2+ oscillations and decoded again at a later stage. Since Ca2+ channels or pumps involved in regulating Ca2+ signaling pathways show altered expression in cancer, one can target these Ca2+ channels and pumps as therapeutic options to decrease proliferation of cancer cells and to promote their apoptosis. These studies can provide novel insights into alterations in Ca2+ wave patterns in carcinogenesis and lead to development of newer technologies based on Ca2+ waves for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. PMID:20875431

  16. ER calcium release promotes mitochondrial dysfunction and hepatic cell lipotoxicity in response to palmitate overload (United States)

    Egnatchik, Robert A.; Leamy, Alexandra K.; Jacobson, David A.; Shiota, Masakazu; Young, Jamey D.


    Palmitate overload induces hepatic cell dysfunction characterized by enhanced apoptosis and altered citric acid cycle (CAC) metabolism; however, the mechanism of how this occurs is incompletely understood. We hypothesize that elevated doses of palmitate disrupt intracellular calcium homeostasis resulting in a net flux of calcium from the ER to mitochondria, activating aberrant oxidative metabolism. We treated primary hepatocytes and H4IIEC3 cells with palmitate and calcium chelators to identify the roles of intracellular calcium flux in lipotoxicity. We then applied 13C metabolic flux analysis (MFA) to determine the impact of calcium in promoting palmitate-stimulated mitochondrial alterations. Co-treatment with the calcium-specific chelator BAPTA resulted in a suppression of markers for apoptosis and oxygen consumption. Additionally, 13C MFA revealed that BAPTA co-treated cells had reduced CAC fluxes compared to cells treated with palmitate alone. Our results demonstrate that palmitate-induced lipoapoptosis is dependent on calcium-stimulated mitochondrial activation, which induces oxidative stress. PMID:25061559

  17. A Simplified Heat Pump Model for use in Solar Plus Heat Pump System Simulation Studies


    Perers, Bengt; Anderssen, Elsa; Nordman, Roger; Kovacs, Peter


    Solar plus heat pump systems are often very complex in design, with sometimes special heat pump arrangements and control. Therefore detailed heat pump models can give very slow system simulations and still not so accurate results compared to real heat pump performance in a system. The idea here is to start from a standard measured performance map of test points for a heat pump according to EN 14825 and then determine characteristic parameters for a simplified correlation based model of the he...

  18. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones (United States)

    ... page: // Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  19. Calcium Supplements: Do Men Need Them Too? (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Should men take calcium supplements? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L. ... Most healthy men don't need to take calcium supplements. Calcium is important for men for optimal ...

  20. Drug delivery device including electrolytic pump

    KAUST Repository

    Foulds, Ian G.


    Systems and methods are provided for a drug delivery device and use of the device for drug delivery. In various aspects, the drug delivery device combines a “solid drug in reservoir” (SDR) system with an electrolytic pump. In various aspects an improved electrolytic pump is provided including, in particular, an improved electrolytic pump for use with a drug delivery device, for example an implantable drug delivery device. A catalytic reformer can be incorporated in a periodically pulsed electrolytic pump to provide stable pumping performance and reduced actuation cycle.

  1. Temperature Rises In Pumps For Superfluid Helium (United States)

    Kittel, Peter


    Report discusses increases in temperature of superfluid helium in centrifugal and fountain-effect pumps. Intended for use in transfers of superfluid helium in outer space. Increases in temperature significantly affect losses during transfers and are important in selection of temperatures of supply tanks. Purpose of study, increase in temperature in fountain-effect pump calculated on basis of thermodynamic considerations, starting from assumption of ideal pump. Results of recent tests of ceramic material intended for use in such pumps support this assumption. Overall, centrifugal pumps more effective because it produces smaller rise in temperature.

  2. Activation of the Na+/K(+)-pump in rat peritoneal mast cells following histamine release: a possible role in cell recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, T; Ferjan, I; Johansen, Torben


    1. The activity of the Na+/K(+)-pump in rat peritoneal mast cells was measured at various time intervals after induction of cellular histamine release by compound 48/80 or by the antigen-antibody reaction. The Na+/K(+)-pump activity was assessed as the ouabain-sensitive potassium uptake....... On the basis of the present results, we suggest a role for the Na+/K(+)-pump in the recovery process of the mast cell following histamine release....... of the cells using 86Rb+ as a tracer for potassium (K+(86Rb+)-uptake). 2. Stimulation of the cells with compound 48/80 induced a time and concentration dependent increase of the Na+/K(+)-pump activity. The pump activity was maximal 2 min after stimulation of the cells. Then, the activity gradually decreased...

  3. Automatic swirl angle measurements for pump intake design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fockert, A. de; Westende, J.M.C. van 't; Verhaart, F.I.H.


    Pre-swirl occurring in pump intake basins influences pump efficiency and lifetime. The exact effect on a pump depends on the pump design. In order to optimize the approach flow towards the pump, physical scale modelling is often applied following the guidelines formulated in pump intake design

  4. Calcium-ATPases: Gene disorders and dysregulation in cancer. (United States)

    Dang, Donna; Rao, Rajini


    Ca(2+)-ATPases belonging to the superfamily of P-type pumps play an important role in maintaining low, nanomolar cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels at rest and priming organellar stores, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, and secretory vesicles with high levels of Ca(2+) for a wide range of signaling functions. In this review, we introduce the distinct subtypes of Ca(2+)-ATPases and their isoforms and splice variants and provide an overview of their specific cellular roles as they relate to genetic disorders and cancer, with a particular emphasis on recent findings on the secretory pathway Ca(2+)-ATPases (SPCA). Mutations in human ATP2A2, ATP2C1 genes, encoding housekeeping isoforms of the endoplasmic reticulum (SERCA2) and secretory pathway (SPCA1) pumps, respectively, confer autosomal dominant disorders of the skin, whereas mutations in other isoforms underlie various muscular, neurological, or developmental disorders. Emerging evidence points to an important function of dysregulated Ca(2+)-ATPase expression in cancers of the colon, lung, and breast where they may serve as markers of differentiation or novel targets for therapeutic intervention. We review the mechanisms underlying the link between calcium homeostasis and cancer and discuss the potential clinical relevance of these observations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Stable prenucleation calcium carbonate clusters. (United States)

    Gebauer, Denis; Völkel, Antje; Cölfen, Helmut


    Calcium carbonate forms scales, geological deposits, biominerals, and ocean sediments. Huge amounts of carbon dioxide are retained as carbonate ions, and calcium ions represent a major contribution to water hardness. Despite its relevance, little is known about the precipitation mechanism of calcium carbonate, and specified complex crystal structures challenge the classical view on nucleation considering the formation of metastable ion clusters. We demonstrate that dissolved calcium carbonate in fact contains stable prenucleation ion clusters forming even in undersaturated solution. The cluster formation can be characterized by means of equilibrium thermodynamics, applying a multiple-binding model, which allows for structural preformation. Stable clusters are the relevant species in calcium carbonate nucleation. Such mechanisms may also be important for the crystallization of other minerals.

  6. Geothermal Heat Pump Benchmarking Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A benchmarking study was conducted on behalf of the Department of Energy to determine the critical factors in successful utility geothermal heat pump programs. A Successful program is one that has achieved significant market penetration. Successfully marketing geothermal heat pumps has presented some major challenges to the utility industry. However, select utilities have developed programs that generate significant GHP sales. This benchmarking study concludes that there are three factors critical to the success of utility GHP marking programs: (1) Top management marketing commitment; (2) An understanding of the fundamentals of marketing and business development; and (3) An aggressive competitive posture. To generate significant GHP sales, competitive market forces must by used. However, because utilities have functioned only in a regulated arena, these companies and their leaders are unschooled in competitive business practices. Therefore, a lack of experience coupled with an intrinsically non-competitive culture yields an industry environment that impedes the generation of significant GHP sales in many, but not all, utilities.

  7. A regenerative elastocaloric heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Eriksen, Dan; Dallolio, Stefano


    A large fraction of global energy use is for refrigeration and air-conditioning, which could be decarbonized if efficient renewable energy technologies could be found. Vapour-compression technology remains the most widely used system to move heat up the temperature scale after more than 100 years...... a regenerative elastocaloric heat pump that exhibits a temperature span of 15.3 K on the water side with a corresponding specific heating power up to 800 W kg−1 and maximum COP (coefficient-of-performance) values of up to 7. The efficiency and specific heating power of this device exceeds those of other devices...... based on caloric effects. These results open up the possibility of using the elastocaloric effect in various cooling and heat-pumping applications....

  8. Taylor dispersion in peristaltic pumping (United States)

    Saintillan, David; Chakrabarti, Brato


    The diffusivity of a Brownian tracer in unidirectional flow is generally enhanced due to shear by the classic phenomenon of Taylor dispersion. At long times, the average concentration of the tracer follows a simplified advection-diffusion equation with an effective shear-dependent dispersivity. In this work, we make use of Brenner's generalized Taylor theory for periodic domains to study dispersion in peristaltic pumping. In channels with small aspect ratios, asymptotic expansions are employed to obtain analytical expressions for the dispersivity at both small and high Peclet numbers. Channels of arbitrary aspect ratios are also considered using a boundary integral formulation for the flow coupled to a hyperbolic conservation equation for the effective dispersivity, which is solved by the finite-volume method. Our numerical results show good agreement with theoretical predictions and provide a basis for understanding passive scalar transport in peristaltic flow, for instance in the ureter or in microfluidic peristaltic pumps.

  9. Bidirectional resonant tunneling spin pump


    Ting, David Z. -Y.; Cartoixà Soler, Xavier


    We propose a mechanism for achieving bidirectional spin pumping in conventional nonmagnetic semiconductorresonant tunnelingheterostructures under zero magnetic field. The device is designed specifically to take advantage of the special spin configuration described by the Rashba effect in asymmetric quantum wells. It induces the simultaneous flow of oppositely spin-polarized current components in opposite directions through spin-dependent resonant tunneling, and can thus generate significant l...

  10. Proton Pump Inhibitors and Gastritis


    Suzuki, Masayuki; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Hibi, Toshifumi


    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are novel compounds that strongly inhibit the H+/K+-ATPase in the gastric parietal cells to cause profound suppression of acid secretion. Acid-generating ATPase, also known as vacuolar-type ATPase, is located in the lysozomes of leukocytes and osteoclasts and its activity is also reportedly influenced by treatment with PPIs. This concept is supported by the results of studies using autoradiography in which 3H-Lansoprazole uptake sites were clearly detected in the...

  11. Fluid pumping using magnetic cilia (United States)

    Hanasoge, Srinivas; Ballard, Matt; Alexeev, Alexander; Hesketh, Peter; Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering Team


    Using experiments and computer simulations, we examine fluid pumping by artificial magnetic cilia fabricated using surface micromachining techniques. An asymmetry in forward and recovery strokes of the elastic cilia causes the net pumping in a creeping flow regime. We show this asymmetry in the ciliary strokes is due to the change in magnetization of the elastic cilia combined with viscous force due to the fluid. Specifically, the time scale for forward stroke is mostly governed by the magnetic forces, whereas the time scale for the recovery stroke is determined by the elastic and viscous forces. These different time scales result in different cilia deformation during forward and backward strokes which in turn lead to the asymmetry in the ciliary motion. To disclose the physics of magnetic cilia pumping we use a hybrid lattice Boltzmann and lattice spring method. We validate our model by comparing the simulation results with the experimental data. The results of our study will be useful to design microfluidic systems for fluid mixing and particle manipulation including different biological particles. USDA and NSF.

  12. Charge-pump voltage converter (United States)

    Brainard, John P [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd R [Albuquerque, NM


    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  13. Pump probe spectroscopy of quasiparticle dynamics in cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segre, Gino P. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Pump probe spectroscopy is used to examine the picosecond response of a BSCCO thin film, and two YBCO crystals in the near infrared. The role of pump fluence and temperature have been closely examined in an effort to clarify the mechanism by which the quasiparticles rejoin the condensate. BSCCO results suggest that the recombination behavior is consistent with the d-wave density of states in that quasiparticles appear to relax to the nodes immediately before they rejoin the condensate. The first substantial investigation of polarized pump probe response in detwinned YBCO crystals is also reported. Dramatic doping dependent anisotropies along the a and b axes are observed in time and temperature resolved studies. Among many results, we highlight the discovery of an anomalous temperature and time dependence of a- axis response in optimally doped YBCO. We also report on the first observation of the photoinduced response in a magnetic field. We find the amplitude of the response, and in some cases, the dynamics considerably changed with the application of a 6T field. Finally, we speculate on two of the many theoretical directions stimulated by our results. We find that the two-fluid model suggests a mechanism to explain how changes at very low energies are visible to a high-energy probe. Also discussed are basic recombination processes which may play a role in the observed decay.

  14. Stimulated Brillouin scatter and stimulated ion Bernstein scatter during electron gyroharmonic heating experiments (United States)

    Fu, H.; Scales, W. A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Samimi, A.; Mahmoudian, A.; Briczinski, S. J.; McCarrick, M. J.


    Results of secondary radiation, Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE), produced during ionospheric modification experiments using ground-based high-power radio waves are reported. These results obtained at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility specifically considered the generation of Magnetized Stimulated Brillouin Scatter (MSBS) and Stimulated Ion Bernstein Scatter (SIBS) lines in the SEE spectrum when the transmitter frequency is near harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency. The heater antenna beam angle effect was investigated on MSBS in detail and shows a new spectral line postulated to be generated near the upper hybrid resonance region due to ion acoustic wave interaction. Frequency sweeping experiments near the electron gyroharmonics show for the first time the transition from MSBS to SIBS lines as the heater pump frequency approaches the gyroharmonic. Significantly far from the gyroharmonic, MSBS lines dominate, while close to the gyroharmonic, SIBS lines strengthen while MSBS lines weaken. New possibilities for diagnostic information are discussed in light of these new observations.

  15. A parametric study for improving the centrifugal pump impeller for use in viscous fluid pumping (United States)

    Shojaeefard, M. H.; Tahani, M.; Khalkhali, A.; Ehghaghi, M. B.; Fallah, H.; Beglari, M.


    Essentially, performance of centrifugal pumps is affected when pumping viscous fluids. In this paper a new idea is proposed to overcome the undesirable effects of viscosity on the pump performance parameters. This idea based on this matter that one specific impeller can be designed, made and installed on the pump for pumping of one fluid with specific viscosity. Therefore a specific pump can be used for pumping of different fluids with different viscosity, by replacement of pump impeller. Replacement of the impeller is more cost effective in comparison to the replacement of the whole of the pump. Passage width and outlet angle of impeller are considered as design variables and the effects of such variables investigated using experimentally validated numerical model. The H-Q, P-Q and η-Q graphs are extracted experimentally for the improved impeller, which show good improvement in comparison with original impeller.

  16. Damages on pumps and systems the handbook for the operation of centrifugal pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Merkle, Thomas


    Damage on Pumps and Systems. The Handbook for the Operation of Centrifugal Pumps offers a combination of the theoretical basics and practical experience for the operation of circulation pumps in the engineering industry. Centrifugal pumps and systems are extremely vulnerable to damage from a variety of causes, but the resulting breakdown can be prevented by ensuring that these pumps and systems are operated properly. This book provides a total overview of operating centrifugal pumps, including condition monitoring, preventive maintenance, life cycle costs, energy savings and economic aspects. Extra emphasis is given to the potential damage to these pumps and systems, and what can be done to prevent breakdown. Addresses specific issues about pumping of metal chips, sand, abrasive dust and other solids in fluidsEmphasis on economic and efficiency aspects of predictive maintenance and condition monitoring Uses life cycle costs (LCC) to evaluate and calculate the costs of pumping systems

  17. An economic evaluation comparison of solar water pumping system with engine pumping system for rice cultivation (United States)

    Treephak, Kasem; Thongpron, Jutturit; Somsak, Dhirasak; Saelao, Jeerawan; Patcharaprakiti, Nopporn


    In this paper we propose the design and economic evaluation of the water pumping systems for rice cultivation using solar energy, gasoline fuel and compare both systems. The design of the water and gasoline engine pumping system were evaluated. The gasoline fuel cost used in rice cultivation in an area of 1.6 acres. Under same conditions of water pumping system is replaced by the photovoltaic system which is composed of a solar panel, a converter and an electric motor pump which is compose of a direct current (DC) motor or an alternating current (AC) motor with an inverter. In addition, the battery is installed to increase the efficiency and productivity of rice cultivation. In order to verify, the simulation and economic evaluation of the storage energy battery system with batteries and without batteries are carried out. Finally the cost of four solar pumping systems was evaluated and compared with that of the gasoline pump. The results showed that the solar pumping system can be used to replace the gasoline water pumping system and DC solar pump has a payback less than 10 years. The systems that can payback the fastest is the DC solar pumping system without batteries storage system. The system the can payback the slowest is AC solar pumping system with batteries storage system. However, VAC motor pump of 220 V can be more easily maintained than the motor pump of 24 VDC and batteries back up system can supply a more stable power to the pump system.

  18. Calcium metabolism & hypercalcemia in adults. (United States)

    Lumachi, F; Motta, R; Cecchin, D; Ave, S; Camozzi, V; Basso, S M M; Luisetto, G


    Calcium is essential for many metabolic process, including nerve function, muscle contraction, and blood clotting. The metabolic pathways that contribute to maintain serum calcium levels are bone remodeling processes, intestinal absorption and secretion, and renal handling, but hypercalcemia occurs when at least 2 of these 3 metabolic pathways are altered. Calcium metabolism mainly depends on the activity of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Its secretion is strictly controlled by the ionized serum calcium levels through a negative feed-back, which is achieved by the activation of calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs) mainly expressed on the surface of the parathyroid cells. The PTH receptor in bone and kidney is now referred as PTHR1. The balance of PTH, calcitonin, and vitamin D has long been considered the main regulator of calcium metabolism, but the function of other actors, such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), Klotho, and TPRV5 should be considered. Primary hyperparathyroidism and malignancy are the most common causes of hypercalcemia, accounting for more than 90% of cases. Uncontrolled hypercalcemia may cause renal impairment, both temporary (alteration of renal tubular function) and progressive (relapsing nephrolithiasis), leading to a progressive loss of renal function, as well as severe bone diseases, and heart damages. Advances in the understanding of all actors of calcium homeostasis will be crucial, having several practical consequences in the treatment and prevention of hypercalcemia. This would allow to move from a support therapy, sometimes ineffective, to a specific and addressed therapy, especially in patients with chronic hypercalcemic conditions unsuitable for surgery.

  19. Association of the Igamma and Idelta charge movement with calcium release in frog skeletal muscle. (United States)

    Hui, Chiu Shuen


    Charge movement and calcium transient were measured simultaneously in stretched frog cut twitch fibers under voltage clamp, with the internal solution containing 20 mM EGTA plus added calcium and antipyrylazo III. When the nominal free [Ca2+]i was 10 nM, the shape of the broad I(gamma) hump in the ON segments of charge movement traces remained invariant when the calcium release rate was greatly diminished. When the nominal free [Ca2+]i was 50 nM, which was close to the physiological level, the I(gamma) humps were accelerated and a slow calcium-dependent I(delta) component (or state) was generated. The peak of ON I(delta) synchronized perfectly with the peak of the calcium release rate whereas the slow decay of ON I(delta) followed the same time course as the decay of calcium release rate. Suppression of calcium release by TMB-8 reduced the amount of Q(delta) concomitantly but not completely, and the effects were partially reversible. The same simultaneous suppression effects were achieved by depleting the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium store with repetitive stimulation. The results suggest that the mobility of Q(delta) needs to be primed by a physiological level of resting myoplasmic Ca2+. Once the priming is completed, more I(delta) is mobilized by the released Ca2+ during depolarization.

  20. Synchronous and asynchronous modes of synaptic transmission utilize different calcium sources. (United States)

    Wen, Hua; Hubbard, Jeffrey M; Rakela, Benjamin; Linhoff, Michael W; Mandel, Gail; Brehm, Paul


    Asynchronous transmission plays a prominent role at certain synapses but lacks the mechanistic insights of its synchronous counterpart. The current view posits that triggering of asynchronous release during repetitive stimulation involves expansion of the same calcium domains underlying synchronous transmission. In this study, live imaging and paired patch clamp recording at the zebrafish neuromuscular synapse reveal contributions by spatially distinct calcium sources. Synchronous release is tied to calcium entry into synaptic boutons via P/Q type calcium channels, whereas asynchronous release is boosted by a propagating intracellular calcium source initiated at off-synaptic locations in the axon and axonal branch points. This secondary calcium source fully accounts for the persistence following termination of the stimulus and sensitivity to slow calcium buffers reported for asynchronous release. The neuromuscular junction and CNS neurons share these features, raising the possibility that secondary calcium sources are common among synapses with prominent asynchronous release. DOI: