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Sample records for calcium chlorides

  1. An improved calcium chloride method preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we have reported a modified method for preparation and transformation of competent cells. This modified method, improved from a classical protocol, has made some modifications on the concentration of calcium chloride and competent bacteria solution, rotation speed in centrifugation and centrifugation time.

  2. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172.330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may...

  3. Effect of benzimidazole fungicides and calcium chloride on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fungicides benomyl, methyl-thiophanate, thiabendazole and calcium chloride on fungal decay of pears caused by Alternaria alternata and Penicillium expansum. Both in vitro and in vivo, the efficacy of fungicides alone against the two fungi was shown to be weak and without any practical interest. In vitro, CaCl2 alone was ...

  4. Increasing of Mechanical Parameters of Clay soil Using Calcium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshty, Seyyed Amir Hossein; Moosa Aniran, Mir; Firoozfar, Alireza; Kiamehr, Ramin

    2017-04-01

    Research on roads to increase the resistance of weak soils to build structures on it has been increased in recent years. The present article provide the effects of different mixtures containing calcium chloride solution and clay soil on mechanical parameters such as, compressibility, compressive strength, shear strength and durability characteristic. In this study also is investigated evaluation the effect of road subgrade based on proposed material. The used clay soil in this research was obtained from zanjan city where is located in northwestern of Iran. The obtained results show that the calcium chloride solution could play a major role in reducing the cost and required time for building roads and also building foundation on these types of soils.

  5. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-08-11

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

  6. Calcium chloride in neonatal parenteral nutrition: compatibility studies using laser methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K Huston

    Full Text Available We have previously reported results of precipitation studies for neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions containing calcium chloride and sodium phosphate using visual methods to determine compatibility. The purpose of this study was to do further testing of compatibility for solutions containing calcium chloride using more sensitive methods.Solutions of Trophamine (Braun Medical Inc, Irvine, CA and Premasol (Baxter Pharmaceuticals, Deerfield, IL were compounded with calcium chloride and potassium phosphate. Controls contained no calcium or phosphate. After incubation at 37° for 24 hours solutions without visual precipitation were analyzed to determine mean particle size using dynamic light scattering from a laser light source.Particle sizes were similar for control solutions and those without visual precipitation and a mean particle size <1000 nm. Compatible solutions were defined as those with added calcium and phosphate with no visual evidence of precipitation and mean particle size <1000 nm. In solutions containing 2.5-3% amino acids and 10 mmol/L of calcium chloride the maximum amount of potassium phosphate that was compatible was 7.5 mmol/L.Maximum amounts of phosphate that could be added to parenteral nutrition solutions containing Trophamine and calcium chloride were about 7.5-10 mmol/L less for a given concentration of calcium based upon laser methodology compared to visual techniques to determine compatibility. There were minor differences in compatibility when adding calcium chloride and potassium phosphate to Premasol versus Trophamine.

  7. Effect of Calcium Chloride on the Preparation of Low-fat Spreads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with lower bone mineral density [4]. Nutritionally sufficient levels of calcium in the diet are strongly related to the intake of dairy products, which are the richest sources of highly bioavailable calcium [5]. Therefore, the objective of this work was to study the effects of calcium chloride on sensory, morphological ...

  8. Foliar application of calcium chloride and borax affects the fruit skin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of foliar application of calcium chloride and borax calcium on fruit skin strength and cracking incidence in litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) fruit was investigated at 25 days interval and also the evaluation of fruit skin calcium and boron contents, skin strength, ion leakage from skin discs and fruit cracking in four ...

  9. Prediction of the Chloride Resistance of Concrete Modified with High Calcium Fly Ash Using Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michał; Glinicki, Michał A; Gibas, Karolina

    2015-12-11

    The aim of the study was to generate rules for the prediction of the chloride resistance of concrete modified with high calcium fly ash using machine learning methods. The rapid chloride permeability test, according to the Nordtest Method Build 492, was used for determining the chloride ions' penetration in concrete containing high calcium fly ash (HCFA) for partial replacement of Portland cement. The results of the performed tests were used as the training set to generate rules describing the relation between material composition and the chloride resistance. Multiple methods for rule generation were applied and compared. The rules generated by algorithm J48 from the Weka workbench provided the means for adequate classification of plain concretes and concretes modified with high calcium fly ash as materials of good, acceptable or unacceptable resistance to chloride penetration.

  10. Organoaqueous calcium chloride electrolytes for capacitive charge storage in carbon nanotubes at sub-zero-temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yun; Qin, Zhanbin; Guan, Li; Wang, Xiaomian; Chen, George Z

    2015-07-11

    Solutions of calcium chloride in mixed water and formamide are excellent electrolytes for capacitive charge storage in partially oxidised carbon nanotubes at unprecedented sub-zero-temperatures (e.g. 67% capacitance retention at -60 °C).

  11. Renin release from permeabilized juxtaglomerular cells is stimulated by chloride but not by low calcium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Skøtt, O

    1994-01-01

    The intracellular concentrations of calcium and chloride have been suggested to be involved in the control of renin secretion from juxtaglomerular (JG) cells. We have tested these propositions on permeabilized JG cells. Rat glomeruli with attached JG cells were isolated by the magnetic iron......M]. These maneuvers had no effect on renin release, while 1.5 mM calcium caused a stimulation, which was not inhibited by 50 mM sucrose. Isosmotic increases in the chloride concentration to 25, 60, and 132 mM resulted in prompt stimulations of renin release. Similarly, iodide and nitrate stimulated renin release. We...... conclude that renin release from permeabilized JG cells is unaffected by calcium concentrations in the nano- and micromolar range, while the release is stimulated by chloride or other permeant anions. We suggest that in intact JG cells an increase in calcium inhibits renin release through activation...

  12. Coagulation of β-conglycinin, glycinin and isoflavones induced by calcium chloride in soymilk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Hsuan; Yu, Chia-Jung; Li, Wen-Tai; Hsieh, Jung-Feng

    2015-08-01

    The coagulation of β-conglycinin (7S), glycinin (11S) and isoflavones induced by calcium chloride was investigated. Approximately 92.6% of the soymilk proteins were coagulated into the soymilk pellet fraction (SPF) after the addition of 5 mM calcium chloride. SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis indicated that most of the 7S (α’, α and β), 11S acidic (A1a, A1b, A2, A3 and A4) and 11S basic (B1a) proteins in the SSF were coagulated into the SPF after treatment with 5 mM calcium chloride. Isoflavones, including daidzein and genistein, were also coagulated into the SPF after the addition of 5 mM calcium chloride. The amounts of daidzein and genistein in the SSF decreased to 39.4 ± 1.6 and 11.8 ± 7.0%, respectively. HPLC analysis suggested that daidzein and genistein were bound with 7S and 11S proteins and then were coprecipitated into the SPF by 5 mM calcium chloride.

  13. Calcium-activated chloride channels in the apical region of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibattista, Michele; Amjad, Asma; Maurya, Devendra Kumar; Sagheddu, Claudia; Montani, Giorgia; Tirindelli, Roberto; Menini, Anna

    2012-07-01

    The rodent vomeronasal organ plays a crucial role in several social behaviors. Detection of pheromones or other emitted signaling molecules occurs in the dendritic microvilli of vomeronasal sensory neurons, where the binding of molecules to vomeronasal receptors leads to the influx of sodium and calcium ions mainly through the transient receptor potential canonical 2 (TRPC2) channel. To investigate the physiological role played by the increase in intracellular calcium concentration in the apical region of these neurons, we produced localized, rapid, and reproducible increases in calcium concentration with flash photolysis of caged calcium and measured calcium-activated currents with the whole cell voltage-clamp technique. On average, a large inward calcium-activated current of -261 pA was measured at -50 mV, rising with a time constant of 13 ms. Ion substitution experiments showed that this current is anion selective. Moreover, the chloride channel blockers niflumic acid and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid partially inhibited the calcium-activated current. These results directly demonstrate that a large chloride current can be activated by calcium in the apical region of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons. Furthermore, we showed by immunohistochemistry that the calcium-activated chloride channels TMEM16A/anoctamin1 and TMEM16B/anoctamin2 are present in the apical layer of the vomeronasal epithelium, where they largely colocalize with the TRPC2 transduction channel. Immunocytochemistry on isolated vomeronasal sensory neurons showed that TMEM16A and TMEM16B coexpress in the neuronal microvilli. Therefore, we conclude that microvilli of mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons have a high density of calcium-activated chloride channels that may play an important role in vomeronasal transduction.

  14. Effect of calcium chloride concentration on output force in electrical actuator made of sodium alginate gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuda; Zhao, Gang; Wei, Chengye; Liu, Shuang; Fu, Yu; Liu, Xvxiong

    2018-01-01

    As a kind of artificial muscle intelligent material, the biological gel electric driver has the advantages of low driving voltage, large strain, good biological compatibility, good flexibility, low price, etc. The application prospect is broad and it has high academic value. Alginate, as a common substance in sea, has characteristics of low cost, green and pollution-free. Therefore,this paper obtains biological gel electric actuator by sodium alginate and calcium chloride. Effects on output force of the electric actuator is researched by changing the crosslinking of calcium chloride concentration and the output force enhancement mechanism is analyzed in this paper.

  15. Physicochemical changes in dry-cured hams salted with potassium, calcium and magnesium chloride as a partial replacement for sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliño, M; Grau, R; Toldrá, F; Barat, J M

    2010-10-01

    The reduction of added sodium chloride in dry-cured ham has been proposed to reduce dietary sodium intake in Mediterranean countries. The effect of substituting sodium chloride with potassium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride on some physicochemical characteristics of dry-cured ham during processing was evaluated. The results showed that hams salted with a mixture of sodium and potassium chloride registered higher salt concentrations and lower water contents and thus, needed less time to reach the required weight loss at the end of the process. The opposite effect was observed when calcium and magnesium chloride were added to the salt mixture. The observed differences in the texture and colour parameters were mainly due to differences in water and salt content. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anoctamin Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels May Modulate Inhibitory Transmission in the Cerebellar Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Zhang

    Full Text Available Calcium-activated chloride channels of the anoctamin (alias TMEM16 protein family fulfill critical functions in epithelial fluid transport, smooth muscle contraction and sensory signal processing. Little is known, however, about their contribution to information processing in the central nervous system. Here we examined the recent finding that a calcium-dependent chloride conductance impacts on GABAergic synaptic inhibition in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We asked whether anoctamin channels may underlie this chloride conductance. We identified two anoctamin channel proteins, ANO1 and ANO2, in the cerebellar cortex. ANO1 was expressed in inhibitory interneurons of the molecular layer and the granule cell layer. Both channels were expressed in Purkinje cells but, while ANO1 appeared to be retained in the cell body, ANO2 was targeted to the dendritic tree. Functional studies confirmed that ANO2 was involved in a calcium-dependent mode of ionic plasticity that reduces the efficacy of GABAergic synapses. ANO2 channels attenuated GABAergic transmission by increasing the postsynaptic chloride concentration, hence reducing the driving force for chloride influx. Our data suggest that ANO2 channels are involved in a Ca2+-dependent regulation of synaptic weight in GABAergic inhibition. Thus, in balance with the chloride extrusion mechanism via the co-transporter KCC2, ANO2 appears to regulate ionic plasticity in the cerebellum.

  17. Effect of extracellular calcium chloride on sporangiospore-yeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To examine this model further, this study evaluated the ability of sporangiospores of Rhizopus stolonifer to undergo morphogenetic transformation in the presence of different levels of extracellular calcium (0.0, 0.20, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 1.5 and 1.8 mM). It was found that calcium supported yeast induction and proliferation to ...

  18. Preserved frontal lobe oxygenation following calcium chloride for treatment of anesthesia-induced hypotension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitchen, Carl-Christian; Nissen, Peter; Secher, Niels H

    2014-01-01

    Vasopressor agents may affect cerebral oxygenation (rScO2) as determined by near-infrared spectroscopy on the forehead. This case series evaluated the effect of calcium chloride vs. α and β-adrenergic receptor agonists on rScO2 in patients (n = 47) undergoing surgery during i.v. anesthesia. Mean ...

  19. Effect of Calcium Chloride and Cooling on Post-Harvest Brussels Cabbage (Brassica Oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Rincón Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the demand of crucifers has increased and particularly of Brussels sprouts (Brassica genus, species Brassica oleracea L.; mainly due to their functional properties; however, this vegetable is perishable and with inadequate techniques in postharvest handling, considerable losses are generated. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of calcium chloride and cooling on postharvest behavior of Brussels sprouts. A completely randomized design was performed, treatments corresponded to three storage temperatures (4°C, 8°C and temperature (18°C and three concentrations of calcium chloride (0%, 2% and 4% were used. Sprouts were harvested at commercial maturity on a farm irrigation district in Usochicamocha, Boyacá Department; of uniform size, excellent plant health and free from mechanical damage conditions. For 19 days of storage, weight loss, respiratory rate and total chlorophyll were measured. Sprouts stored at room temperature lasted 11days postharvest, while cooled lasted for 19 days. A significant effect in reducing weight loss between those sprouts which were stored at 4°C and 8°C and treated with calcium chloride solution at 4% was observed. For the respiratory rate was observed a significant reduction insprouts stored at 4°C. Therefore the most favorable temperature for the storage of Brussels sprouts is 4°C and calcium chloride solution 4%,useful information for producers and marketers.

  20. Relationship between magnesium extracted by 0.01 M calcium chloride extraction procedure and conventional procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van P.J.; Houba, V.J.G.; Reijneveld, J.A.; Beusichem, van M.L.

    2001-01-01

    A multinutrient soil extraction procedure in routine soil testing is attractive. Therefore, it has been suggested to convert conventional soil testing programs into a 0.01 M calcium chloride (CaCl2) multinutrient soil testing program using the relationship between test values of the 0.01 M CaCl2

  1. A comparative study of de-icing salts (sodium chloride and calcium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A greenhouse study was conducted on four roadside plants (Festuca rubra, Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata and Trifolium repens) to determine the effect of two de-icing salts {Sodium Chloride (NaCl) and calcium magnesium acetate, (CMA)} on their growth. Plants were grown in pots and supplied with solution of ...

  2. Examining the need for the use of calcium chloride in the processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was observed that the addition of calcium chloride to pasteurised milk in cheese making promoted greater curd firming and whey expulsion which produced a firmer textured cheese with a drier appearance, lower in moisture content and acidity , but higher in ash, butter fat and protein contents. Most of the sensory ...

  3. Optimization of metal working fluids treatment using calcium chloride by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HA. Jamali

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive use of metal working fluids degrades their chemical composition. They should be treated using a safe method. Chemical coagulation-flocculation process is one the treatment methods. Objective: The aim of this study was to optimize the coagulation-flocculation process using calcium chloride in metal working fluids treatment. Methods: This laboratory based study was performed in School of Health affiliated to Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Using calcium chloride and a six-compartment jar, the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation process was assessed for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD and turbidity and amount of released oil. Central composite design (CCD and response surface methodology (RSM were applied to optimize the treatment operation parameters (pH and dosage of coagulant. Quadratic models were developed for calculation of the three responses (COD, turbidity, and released oil. Findings: The optimum condition for coagulation-flocculation process was seen after treatment with 4.2 g/L calcium chloride at pH 3.71 in which COD and turbidity removal efficiency were 93% and 96.9%, respectively and the amount of released oil was 31.8 ml. The level of desirability was 91.2%. The values of laboratory study were in good agreement with the values predicted by the model. Conclusion: Metal working fluids treatment with calcium chloride was efficient in the removal of pollution parameters. Dosage of calcium chloride was similar to the conventional coagulants such as Alum, but its efficiency was higher.

  4. Effectiveness of calcium chloride in reduction of shoot necrosis incocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in vitro propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2012-01-01

    Various efforts have been developed for the optimization of the various stages in vitro micropropagation. The maturation stage and pre-acclimatization plantlets is an important stages that must be considered to produce vigorous plants and ready to be planted in the field. The purpose of this study was to reduced shoot tip necrosis in cocoa planlets to obtaine vigorous planlets from in vitro propagation through the addition of Calcium Chloride (CaCl2). The study used two stages of embryogenic ...

  5. Extraction of lithium from β-spodumene using chlorination roasting with calcium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Lucía I., E-mail: lbarbosa@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI-CONICET), Facultad de Química Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco 17, CP 5700 San Luis (Argentina); González, Jorge A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI-CONICET), Facultad de Química Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco 17, CP 5700 San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Padre Jorge Contreras 1300, Parque General San Martín, CP M5502JMA Mendoza (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI-CONICET), Facultad de Química Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco 17, CP 5700 San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-04-10

    Highlights: • β-Spodumene was roasted with calcium chloride to extract lithium. • The optimal conditions of the chlorination process are 900 °C and 120 min. • The products of the reaction are lithium chloride, anorthite, and silica. - Abstract: Chlorination roasting was used to extract lithium as lithium chloride from β-spodumene. The roasting was carried out in a fixed bed reactor using calcium chloride as chlorinating agent. The mineral was mixed with CaCl{sub 2} on a molar ratio of 1:2. Reaction temperature and time were investigated. The reactants and roasted materials were characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The mineral starts to react with CaCl{sub 2} at around 700 °C. The optimal conditions of lithium extraction were found to be 900 °C and 120 min of chlorination roasting, under which it is attained a conversion degree of 90.2%. The characterization results indicate that the major phases present in the chlorinating roasting residue are CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 8}, SiO{sub 2}, and CaSiO{sub 3}.

  6. Dynamic properties of calcium-activated chloride currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M De la Fuente, Ildefonso; Malaina, Iker; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Boyano, María Dolores; Pérez-Yarza, Gorka; Bringas, Carlos; Villarroel, Álvaro; Fedetz, María; Arellano, Rogelio; Cortes, Jesus M; Martínez, Luis

    2017-02-13

    Chloride is the most abundant permeable anion in the cell, and numerous studies in the last two decades highlight the great importance and broad physiological role of chloride currents mediated anion transport. They participate in a multiplicity of key processes, as for instance, the regulation of electrical excitability, apoptosis, cell cycle, epithelial secretion and neuronal excitability. In addition, dysfunction of Cl(-) channels is involved in a variety of human diseases such as epilepsy, osteoporosis and different cancer types. Historically, chloride channels have been of less interest than the cation channels. In fact, there seems to be practically no quantitative studies of the dynamics of chloride currents. Here, for the first time, we have quantitatively studied experimental calcium-activated chloride fluxes belonging to Xenopus laevis oocytes, and the main results show that the experimental Cl(-) currents present an informational structure characterized by highly organized data sequences, long-term memory properties and inherent "crossover" dynamics in which persistent correlations arise at short time intervals, while anti-persistent behaviors become dominant in long time intervals. Our work sheds some light on the understanding of the informational properties of ion currents, a key element to elucidate the physiological functional coupling with the integrative dynamics of metabolic processes.

  7. The effect of verapamil and diltiazem on cardiac stimulant effect of adrenaline and calcium chloride on isolated frog heart

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    Lakhavat Sudhakar, Naveen Kumar T, Tadvi NA, Venkata Rao Y

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers block voltage dependent L-type of calcium channel and thus reduce the frequency of opening of these channels in response to depolarization. The result is a marked decrease in transmembrane calcium current associated with long lasting relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, reduction in contractility in cardiac muscle, decrease in pacemaker activity in the SA node and decrease in conduction velocity in the AV node. Among Calcium channel blockers verapamil, is cardio selective, nifedipine is vascular smooth muscle selective, while diltiazem exhibits intermediate selectivity. Methods: In the present study, the effect of two Ca++ channel blocker, Verapamil and Diltiazem were compared on the isolated frog heart by using adrenaline & calcium chloride as standard on frog heart contractility. Results and conclusion: Adrenaline and calcium chloride increased the amplitude of contraction of isolated perfused frog heart. The L- type of Ca2+ channel blockers verapamil and diltiazem produced dose dependent (2mg, 4mg, 8mg, and 16mg reduction in the amplitude of contraction produced by calcium chloride in isolated perfused frog heart. There was no statistical significant difference (p > 0.05 between the inhibitory effect of diltiazem and verapamil on calcium chloride induced contraction of isolated frog heart.

  8. Spatial distribution of calcium-gated chloride channels in olfactory cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Donald A; Badamdorj, Dorjsuren; Kleene, Steven J

    2010-12-30

    In vertebrate olfactory receptor neurons, sensory cilia transduce odor stimuli into changes in neuronal membrane potential. The voltage changes are primarily caused by the sequential openings of two types of channel: a cyclic-nucleotide-gated (CNG) cationic channel and a calcium-gated chloride channel. In frog, the cilia are 25 to 200 µm in length, so the spatial distributions of the channels may be an important determinant of odor sensitivity. To determine the spatial distribution of the chloride channels, we recorded from single cilia as calcium was allowed to diffuse down the length of the cilium and activate the channels. A computational model of this experiment allowed an estimate of the spatial distribution of the chloride channels. On average, the channels were concentrated in a narrow band centered at a distance of 29% of the ciliary length, measured from the base of the cilium. This matches the location of the CNG channels determined previously. This non-uniform distribution of transduction proteins is consistent with similar findings in other cilia. On average, the two types of olfactory transduction channel are concentrated in the same region of the cilium. This may contribute to the efficient detection of weak stimuli.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation of ion sputtering of the solutions of sodium and calcium chlorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotkin, N. A.; Gurina, D. L.; Titov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The ionic sputtering of sodium chloride and calcium chloride solutions was studied by classical molecular dynamics method. It is shown that the ions of the solute transferred into the gas phase both in the form of hydrated ions and in the form of ion pairs in water clusters. The threshold character of the ions transfer process is established. The calculated transfer coefficients of water and anions are in a good agreement with the experimental data. The fraction of water molecules sputtered in the form of clusters increases with the energy inputted in the solution. The fraction of water clusters in the gas phase is 40% at the inputted energy is 45 kJ mol‑1.

  10. Effect of the number of calcium chloride sprays on 'Jonagold' apple quality

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Wójcik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine effect of frequency of calcium chloride (CaCl2) sprays on 'Jonagold' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) quality. The experiment was carried out in 1996-1998 in the Experimental Orchard of the Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture in Skierniewice. Apple trees were grafied on M.26 rootstock and planted in 1992 at a distance of 4 x 2 m on a sandy loam soil with high available phosphorus, potassium and magnesium contents. Four experimental treatments wer...

  11. Clinical evaluation of non-surgical sterilization of male cats with single intra-testicular injection of calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Kuladip; Samanta, Prabhat K

    2011-07-21

    Calcium chloride solution is an established injectable sterilant in dogs and other mammals. With cat populations a continuing problem, we sought to explore its first use in cats. Six cats per group were injected with 5%, 10% or 20% calcium chloride dihydrate in saline solution with lignocaine hydrochloride, a local anaesthetic. At the 60th day post-injection, cat testes were collected and showed complete testicular necrosis and replacement by fibrous tissue; very low sperm counts; and reduction of serum testosterone by at least 70% in 20% dose. Androgenic enzyme activities and their expressions were also reduced in all the treated groups along with intra-testicular testosterone concentration was also low. Increased testicular lipid peroxidation, with reduced antioxidants and mitochondrial membrane potential, were evident following calcium chloride treatments. However, there were no apparent changes in serum concentrations of cortisol, fasting blood sugar level, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, or total serum protein following calcium chloride injection, suggesting that this method of sterilization is not associated with any general stress response. Calcium chloride solution demonstrates potential for androgenesis-eliminating nonsurgical sterilization of male cats in addition to its proven efficacy in dogs and other mammals.

  12. The Influence of Calcium Chloride Salt Solution on the Transport Properties of Cementitious Materials

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    Yaghoob Farnam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical interaction between calcium chloride (CaCl2 and cementitious binder may alter the transport properties of concrete which are important in predicting the service life of infrastructure elements. This paper presents a series of fluid and gas transport measurements made on cementitious mortars before and after exposure to various solutions with concentrations ranging from 0% to 29.8% CaCl2 by mass. Fluid absorption, oxygen diffusivity, and oxygen permeability were measured on mortar samples prepared using Type I and Type V cements. Three primary factors influence the transport properties of mortar exposed to CaCl2: (1 changes in the degree of saturation, (2 calcium hydroxide leaching, and (3 formation of chemical reaction products (i.e., Friedel’s salt, Kuzel’s salt, and calcium oxychloride. It is shown that an increase in the degree of saturation decreases oxygen permeability. At lower concentrations (~12%, the formation of chemical reaction products (mainly calcium oxychloride is a dominant factor decreasing the fluid and gas transport in concrete.

  13. Ferrielectricity in the metal-organic ferroelectric tris-sarcosine calcium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. F.; Morrison, F. D.; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Lightfoot, P.; Clulow, Rebecca; Gherson, Aurora S. A.; Bumstead, Alice M.; Gardner, Jonathan; Capelli, Silvia C.; Probert, Michael R.; Sahoo, Satyaprakash; Young, J. S.; Katiyar, R. S.; Salje, E. K. H.

    2017-03-01

    We report a paradigm of ferrielectricity in a single-phase crystal, tris-sarcosine calcium chloride [TSCC; (CH3NHCH2COOH ) 3CaC l2 ]. Ferrielectricity is well known in smectic liquid crystals but almost unknown in true crystalline solids. C. F. Pulvari [Ferrielectricity, Phys. Rev. 120, 1670 (1960), 10.1103/PhysRev.120.1670] reported it in 1960 in mixtures of ferroelectrics and antiferroelectrics (AFEs), but only at high fields. Tris-sarcosine calcium chloride exhibits a second-order displacive phase transition near Tc=130 K that can be lowered to a quantum critical point at 0 K via Br or I substitution and phases previously predicted to be AFE at high pressure and low temperatures. Unusually, the size of the primitive unit cell does not increase in the so-called AFE phase. We measure hysteresis loops and polarization below T =64 K and provide clear Raman evidence for this paraelectric-ferrielectric transition.

  14. TMEM16 proteins: the long awaited calcium-activated chloride channels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Flores

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Currents mediated by calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs, observed for the first time in Xenopus oocytes, have been recorded in many cells and tissues ranging from different types of neurons to epithelial and muscle cells. CaCCs play a role in the regulation of excitability in neurons including sensory receptors. In addition, they are crucial mediators of chloride movements in epithelial cells where their activity regulates electrolyte and fluid transport. The roles of CaCCs, particularly in epithelia, are briefly reviewed with emphasis on their function in secretory epithelia. The recent identification by three independent groups, using different strategies, of TMEM16A as the molecular counterpart of the CaCC is discussed. TMEM16A is part of a family that has 10 other members in mice. The discovery of the potential TMEM16 anion channel activity opens the way for the molecular investigation of the role of these anion channels in specific cells and in organ physiology and pathophysiology. The identification of TMEM16A protein as a CaCC chloride channel molecule represents a great triumph of scientific perseverance and ingenuity. The varied approaches used by the three independent research groups also augur well for the solidity of the discovery.

  15. Synthesis of calcium silicates by Pechini method and exchanging ions of sodium alginate-calcium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Garay, K.A.; Martinez-Luevanos, A.; Cruz-Ortiz, B.R.; Garcia-Cerda, L.A.; Lopez-Badillo, C.M.

    2016-07-01

    Calcium silicates samples were synthesized using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and by Pechini methodology assisted with ion-exchange of sodium alginate, followed by a heat treatment of 800°C by two hours. A, B and C samples were obtained using 1.7×10−3M, 3.4×10−3M and 5.1×10−3M of TEOS, respectively, and without heat treatment; these samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR). Furthermore, samples A800, B800 and C800 obtained using a heat treatment of 800° by two hours were characterized by FTIR-ATR, absorption technique (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by scanning electron microscopy. The XRD patterns indicate that sample A800 contains olivine (Ca2SiO4) in orthorhombic phase and wollastonite-2M (CaSiO3); sample B800 showed the earlier phases and quartz (SiO2), whereas sample C800 contains wollastonite phases and larnite-2M (Ca2SiO4). (Author)

  16. Calcium-activated chloride current expression in axotomized sensory neurons: what for?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eBoudes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-activated chloride currents (CaCCs are activated by an increase in intracellular calcium concentration. Peripheral nerve injury induces the expression of CaCCs in a subset of adult sensory neurons in primary culture including mechano-and proprioceptors, though not nociceptors. Functional screenings of potential candidate genes established that Best1 is a molecular determinant for CaCC expression among axotomized sensory neurons, while Tmem16a accounts for inflammation-induced CaCC expression in nociceptors. In nociceptors, such CaCCs are preferentially activated under receptor-induced calcium mobilization contributing to cell excitability and pain. In axotomized mechano- and proprioceptors, CaCC activation does not promote electrical activity and prevents firing, a finding consistent with electrical silencing for growth competence of adult sensory neurons. In favor of a role in the process of neurite growth, CaCC expression is temporally correlated to neurons displaying a regenerative mode of growth. This perspective focuses on the molecular identity and role of CaCC in axotomized sensory neurons and the future directions to decipher the cellular mechanisms regulating CaCC during neurite (regrowth.

  17. Extracellular protons enable activation of the calcium-dependent chloride channel TMEM16A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rangel, Silvia; De Jesús-Pérez, José J; Aréchiga-Figueroa, Iván A; Rodríguez-Menchaca, Aldo A; Pérez-Cornejo, Patricia; Hartzell, H Criss; Arreola, Jorge

    2017-03-01

    The calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A provides a pathway for chloride ion movements that are key in preventing polyspermy, allowing fluid secretion, controlling blood pressure, and enabling gastrointestinal activity. TMEM16A is opened by voltage-dependent calcium binding and regulated by permeant anions and intracellular protons. Here we show that a low proton concentration reduces TMEM16A activity while maximum activation is obtained when the external proton concentration is high. In addition, protonation conditions determine the open probability of TMEM16A without changing its calcium sensitivity. External glutamic acid 623 (E623) is key for TMEM16A's ability to respond to external protons. At physiological pH, E623 is un-protonated and TMEM16A is activated when intracellular calcium increases; however, under acidic conditions E623 is partially protonated and works synergistically with intracellular calcium to activate the channel. These findings are critical for understanding physiological and pathological processes that involve changes in pH and chloride flux via TMEM16A. Transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A), also known as ANO1, the pore-forming subunit of a Ca(2+) -dependent Cl(-) channel (CaCC), is activated by direct, voltage-dependent, binding of intracellular Ca(2+) . Endogenous CaCCs are regulated by extracellular protons; however, the molecular basis of such regulation remains unidentified. Here, we evaluated the effects of different extracellular proton concentrations ([H(+) ]o ) on mouse TMEM16A expressed in HEK-293 cells using whole-cell and inside-out patch-clamp recordings. We found that increasing the [H(+) ]o from 10(-10) to 10(-5.5)  m caused a progressive increase in the chloride current (ICl ) that is described by titration of a protonatable site with pK = 7.3. Protons regulate TMEM16A in a voltage-independent manner, regardless of channel state (open or closed), and without altering its apparent Ca(2+) sensitivity. Noise analysis

  18. Phase change behaviour of some latent heat storage media based on calcium chloride hexahydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Bo [School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences, University of Kalmar, SE-39182 Kalmar (Sweden)

    2009-04-15

    Phase change behaviour of pure and some chemically modified calcium chloride hexahydrate materials suggested in the literature as suitable heat storage media was studied in storage systems with a low degree of mixing in order to evaluate their long-term reversibility. The influence of gravitation on the phase change properties of the pure system was elaborated by determining local salt concentrations in the liquid phase and changes in the volume of the system during repeated melting and crystallization, whereby the amounts of the different phases being present could be assessed. It was found that thermo gravitational effects are of minor importance in generating salt concentration gradients in the liquid phase when compared to the concentration gradients resulting from the sedimentation of the formed tetrahydrate and the hexahydrate during the phase change reactions. Due to these effects it was not possible to prevent irreversible tetrahydrate formation and deterioration in heat storage capability by adding a surplus of water to the hexahydrate materials, if seeds for the tetrahydrate were present during repeated melting and crystallization. Upon addition of SrCl{sub 2} . 6H{sub 2}O a solid solution of the two hexahydrates is formed and as a result the formation of the tetrahydrate is suppressed. Due to irreversible formation of SrCl{sub 2} . 2H{sub 2}O a state of true congruent melting seems, however, not possible to reach. Phase segregation effects also in this case lead to irreversible calcium chloride tetrahydrate formation if seeds for the latter are added during repeated melting and crystallization. If Ca(OH){sub 2} is also added, the tetrahydrate formation can be further suppressed. But, even in this case, irreversible tetrahydrate formation can not be prevented if the composition of the liquid phase corresponds to the hexahydrate. On addition of 5 wt% KCl or 5 wt% KCl + 2 wt% SrCl{sub 2} . 6H{sub 2}O or 5 wt% KCl + 0.4 wt% NaCl, repeated melting and

  19. Calcium-activated chloride current determines action potential morphology during calcium alternans in atrial myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaporis, Giedrius; Blatter, Lothar A

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac alternans--periodic beat-to-beat alternations in contraction, action potential (AP) morphology or cytosolic calcium transient (CaT) amplitude--is a high risk indicator for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, it remains an unresolved issue whether beat-to-beat alternations in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i ) or AP morphology are the primary cause of pro-arrhythmic alternans. Here we show that in atria AP alternans occurs secondary to CaT alternans. CaT alternans leads to complex beat-to-beat changes in Ca(2+)-regulated ion currents that determine alternans of AP morphology. We report the novel finding that alternans of AP morphology is largely sustained by the activity of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs). Suppression of the CaCCs significantly reduces AP alternans, while CaT alternans remains unaffected. The demonstration of a major role of CaCCs in the development of AP alternans opens new possibilities for atrial alternans and arrhythmia prevention. Cardiac alternans, described as periodic beat-to-beat alternations in contraction, action potential (AP) morphology or cytosolic Ca transient (CaT) amplitude, is a high risk indicator for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. We investigated mechanisms of cardiac alternans in single rabbit atrial myocytes. CaTs were monitored simultaneously with membrane currents or APs recorded with the patch clamp technique. Beat-to-beat alternations of AP morphology and CaT amplitude revealed a strong quantitative correlation. Application of voltage clamp protocols in the form of pre-recorded APs (AP-clamp) during pacing-induced CaT alternans revealed a Ca(2+)-dependent current consisting of a large outward component (4.78 ± 0.58 pA pF(-1) in amplitude) coinciding with AP phases 1 and 2 that was followed by an inward current (-0.42 ± 0.03 pA pF(-1); n = 21) during AP repolarization. Approximately 90% of the initial outward current was blocked by substitution of Cl(-) ions or application

  20. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of reduced-fat mortadella prepared with blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride as partial substitutes for sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, C N; Morgano, M A; Celeghini, R M S; Pollonio, M A R

    2011-12-01

    Blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride were used to partially replace sodium chloride (50-75%) in reduced-fat mortadella formulations. The presence of calcium chloride reduced the emulsion stability, cooking yield, elasticity and cohesiveness and increased hardness; however, it yielded the best sensory acceptance when 50% NaCl was replaced by 25% CaCl(2) and 25% KCl. There was no effect of the salt substitutes on mortadella color, appearance and aroma. All salt combinations studied showed stable lipid oxidation during its shelf life. The use of a blend with 1% NaCl, 0.5% KCl and 0.5% MgCl(2) resulted in the best emulsion stability, but the worst scores for flavor. This study suggests that it is possible to reduce the sodium chloride concentration by 50% in reduced-fat mortadella using the studied salt combinations with necessary adjustments to optimize the sensory properties (MgCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%) or emulsion stability (CaCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of calcium chloride in reduction of shoot necrosis incocoa (Theobroma cacao L. in vitro propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyani Pancaningtyas

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Various efforts have been developed for the optimization of the various stages in vitro micropropagation. The maturation stage and pre-acclimatization plantlets is an important stages that must be considered to produce vigorous plants and ready to be planted in the field. The purpose of this study was to reduced shoot tip necrosis in cocoa planlets to obtaine vigorous planlets from in vitro propagation through the addition of Calcium Chloride (CaCl2. The study used two stages of embryogenic development. The first was embryo maturation stage and the second was the shoot growth development stage. The study was arranged factorially in experiment design of Completely Randomized Design consisting of two factors i.e. concentration of CaCl2 consisted of 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/l and clones consisted of Sulawesi 1 and Sca 6. Each experiment was repeated three times, so the number of combination trials were 5x2x3=30 experimental units. The parameters observed included shoot growth percentage and vigorous planlets percentage. The results showed that the addition of CaCl2 at a concentration of 150 mg/l during maturition stage increased the embryos performance and percentage of shoot tip. However, it could not prevent the shoot tip necrosis. Whereas, the addition at a concentration of 50 mg/l during the shoot m growth development stage could reduced necrosis, suggested to increase the quality of in vitro planlets.Key words: Cocoa, necrosis, calcium chloride, somatic embryogenesis, embryos, planlets, in vitro.

  2. Tenderizing spent fowl meat with calcium chloride. 3. Biochemical characteristics of tenderized breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmahmudi; Sams, A R

    1997-03-01

    Biochemical characteristics of spent fowl meat injected with calcium chloride or sodium chloride were evaluated. Hot-boned breast fillets were injected to 10% (wt/wt) with 0.3 M CaCl2 or 0.6 M NaCl, tumbled, and aged 24 h. Tumbling was conducted at 20 C, -635 mm Hg, 20 rpm for 1 h. Hot-boned and cold-boned (24 h) fillets were used as controls. One fillet from each carcass was baked and sheared with an Allo-Kramer cell, whereas the other fillet was used for biochemical analysis. Shear values indicated that both CaCl2- and NaCl-treated samples had significantly (P 0.05) to cold-boned samples. The CaCl2 injection treatment significantly elevated (P 0.05) among all treatments, which indicated that CaCl2 or NaCl did not contribute to meat tenderness through degradative changes in collagen. Calpain data indicated that mu-calpain had disappeared by 24 h aging in all treatments. The m-calpain activity was significantly lower (P 0.05) to that of hot-boned controls. Sarcomeres of CaCl2-treated samples were significantly shorter (P 0.05) to those of hot-boned controls, and were shorter than those of NaCl-treated muscles. The sarcomere length and calpain data suggest that CaCl2 tenderized fillets by ionic strength and calcium-specific effects (possibly a proteolytic action), whereas the NaCl solution tenderized by ionic strength effect at a similar conductivity level to that of the CaCl2 solution.

  3. Activation and inhibition of TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Li Ni

    Full Text Available Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC encoded by family members of transmembrane proteins of unknown function 16 (TMEM16 have recently been intensely studied for functional properties as well as their physiological roles as chloride channels in various tissues. One technical hurdle in studying these channels is the well-known channel rundown that frequently impairs the precision of electrophysiological measurements for the channels. Using experimental protocols that employ fast-solution exchange, we circumvented the problem of channel rundown by normalizing the Ca(2+-induced current to the maximally-activated current obtained within a time period in which the channel rundown was negligible. We characterized the activation of the TMEM16A-encoded CaCC (also called ANO1 by Ca(2+, Sr(2+, and Ba(2+, and discovered that Mg(2+ competes with Ca(2+ in binding to the divalent-cation binding site without activating the channel. We also studied the permeability of the ANO1 pore for various anions and found that the anion occupancy in the pore-as revealed by the permeability ratios of these anions-appeared to be inversely correlated with the apparent affinity of the ANO1 inhibition by niflumic acid (NFA. On the other hand, the NFA inhibition was neither affected by the degree of the channel activation nor influenced by the types of divalent cations used for the channel activation. These results suggest that the NFA inhibition of ANO1 is likely mediated by altering the pore function but not through changing the channel gating. Our study provides a precise characterization of ANO1 and documents factors that can affect divalent cation activation and NFA inhibition of ANO1.

  4. A cyclic GMP-dependent calcium-activated chloride current in smooth-muscle cells from rat mesenteric resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Aalkjær, Christian; Nilsson, Holger

    2004-01-01

    M) in the pipette solution. The current was found to be a calcium-activated chloride current with an absolute requirement for cyclic GMP (EC50 6.4 microM). The current could be activated by the constitutively active subunit of PKG. Current activation was blocked by the protein kinase G antagonist Rp-8-Br-PET...... no voltage or time dependence. It was inhibited by nickel and zinc ions in the micromolar range, but was unaffected by cobalt and had a low sensitivity to inhibition by the chloride channel blockers niflumic acid, DIDS, and IAA-94. The properties of this current in mesenteric artery smooth-muscle cells...

  5. Control of postharvest decay on cherry tomatoes by marine yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum and calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Ren, X; Song, X; Yu, T; Lu, H; Wang, P; Wang, J; Zheng, X D

    2010-08-01

    In this study, the potential of calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) application to improve the efficacy of the marine antagonist Rhodosporidium paludigenum in controlling postharvest diseases of cherry tomatoes was assessed. CaCl(2) alone was found not to have any direct influence on the population growth of R. paludigenum in NYDB cultures or in cherry tomato wounds. However, the combined treatments with 1 x 10(8) cells ml(-1)R. paludigenum and CaCl(2) at the concentration from 0.5 to 2% showed high activities to reduce black rot caused by Alternaria alternata in cherry tomato wounds, significantly higher than those of R. paludigenum or CaCl(2) alone. Meanwhile, 0.5% CaCl(2) in combination with 1 x 10(8) cells ml(-1)R. paludigenum greatly inhibited the natural decay of cherry tomatoes in 21 days' storage at 25 degrees C. The combination of R. paludigenum and CaCl(2) enhances the inhibition of black rot and natural decay of postharvest cherry tomatoes. The results from this study provide a new way to improve the efficiency of R. paludigenum in maintaining the quality of postharvest fruits and vegetables. The marine yeast R. paludigenum combined with CaCl(2) has greatly potential use as an alternative to chemical fungicides in inhibiting postharvest decay on cherry tomatoes.

  6. Coadministration of calcium chloride with lead acetate can improve motility of cauda epididymal spermatozoa in Swiss white mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Golshan Iranpour

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead is an industrial heavy metal that can decrease sperm motility. Objective: The aim was to investigate the protective effects of calcium against lead on motility of spermatozoa. Materials and Methods: In total 40 adult male Swiss white mice were randomly divided into 5 groups (control, lead of 1PstP wk, lead of 2PndP wk, lead/calcium of 1Pst Pwk and lead/calcium of 2PndP wk. The lead groups of mice were injected by a single dose of lead acetate (200 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Lead/calcium groups of mice were injected by a single same dose of lead acetate along with three doses of 80 mg/kg calcium chloride. The control group of mice was injected only with same volume of distilled water through the same route. Mice of 1PstP and 2PndP wk groups were sacrificed through cervical dislocation one and two weeks after injections respectively. Results: Mean of the progressive motile spermatozoa of cauda epididymis in lead/calcium group of the first week was higher than the lead group of the first week and this difference was significant. There was not any significant difference among weight of testes and epididymides of all groups. Conclusion: It can be concluded that calcium can decrease the effects of lead on sperm motility.

  7. Effects of the Addition of Sodium Alginate and the Concentration of Calcium Chloride on the Properties of Composite Nonwoven Fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    Lou Ching-Wen; Lee Mong-Chuan; Chen Chih-Kuang; Wen Shih-Peng; Jian Bai-Chen; Lin Jia-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Nonwoven fabrics have merits, and for example, they can be simply and quickly processed with a variety of materials and an easily changeable manufacturing process. This study aims to examine the influences of the addition of sodium alginate (SA) and the concentration of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on the properties of the composite nonwoven fabrics. Chitosan (CS) micro-particles and SA solution are cross-linked with CaCl2 with various concentrations, combined with farir heat preservative staples...

  8. Effect of Postharvest Oxalic Acid and Calcium Chloride on Quality Attributes of Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fruits and vegetables have special importance as a very important part of the human food supply. And from the beginnings of life, man has used these products to supply a part of his food. Nowadays, horticultural products are widely used in the diet. Cherry is one of the deciduous trees in the temperate regions, which is potassium rich. Use of Oxalic acid significantly reduces frost injury in pomegranate fruits during storage at a temperature of 2° C. In fruit trees, the importance of calcium is due to a delay in fruit ripening process and this way products have better portability. Materials and Methods: Firmness test was measured using the FT011 model of penetrometer. For determination of titratable acidity, the 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (NaOH titration method was used. Total Soluble solids content (SSC of fruit was measured by a digital refractometer (PAL-1. For determination of vitamin C in fruit juices, titration method with the indicator, 2,6-di-chlorophenolindophenol was used. Fruit juice pH was measured using pH meter model HI 9811.In order to investigate the effect of postharvest soaking treatment with Oxalic acid on the qualitative specifications and storage life of single grain sweet cherry fruit a research was conducted. This experience was conducted in a completely randomized design with 3 replications separately for the two materials. In this experiment Oxalic acid, in four levels (0,4,6 and 8 mM and Calcium chloride in four levels (0, 40, 55 and 70 mM were applied on the single grain sweet cherry fruit in the form of soaking and sampleswith7-day intervals for a period of 28 days from the fridge out and quanti tate and qualitative traits such as stiffness, weight loss, Titratable acidity, total soluble solids, vitamin C and pH were measured. Results and Discussion: The results showed that compared with control ones all of the concentrations of Oxalic acid and Calcium chloride caused significant differences in the amount

  9. Physical properties of NaCl-free cucumber fermentation cover brine containing calcium chloride and glycerin, and apparent freezing injury of the brined fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of glycerin (2-20%) as a food-grade antifreeze agent and calcium chloride (1.1-20%), to reduce the freezing point and improve quality of cold-stored fermented cucumbers brined without sodium chloride (NaCl) was explored. Temperature and cover brine composition did not significantly affect th...

  10. Endocardial and transcutaneous cardiac pacing, calcium chloride, and epinephrine in postcountershock asystole and bradycardias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, J T; Adomian, G E; Garner, D; Rosborough, J P

    1985-09-01

    Clinically, asystole or a bradyarrhythmia may follow countershock of ventricular fibrillation (VF) in up to 40% of attempts. This study evaluated the effects of artificial cardiac pacing, calcium chloride (CaCl2), and epinephrine in postcountershock asystole/bradycardia. Micromanometer catheters were positioned in the aorta (Ao) and right atrium (RA) of ten dogs and VF induced by right ventricular (RV) stimulation. After 2 min of VF, a 400-J countershock was given. In six animals, asystole or a pulseless bradyarrhythmia followed one countershock. In four animals, up to three countershocks were needed to terminate VF and resulted in asystole or a pulseless bradyarrhythmia. Thirty seconds after termination of VF, cardiac pacing was begun in all animals using conventional RV endocardial pacing (RVEP) or a transcutaneous transthoracic pacing (TTP) technique. RVEP and TTP produced ventricular depolarizations, but electrical capture was never associated with Ao pressure fluctuations. After 2 min of pacing, CaCl2 was given and chest compressions and artificial ventilations (CPR) initiated. CaCl2 had no effect on CPR pressures. After 2 min of CPR, RVEP and TTP were again studied; capture without Ao pressure fluctuations was seen in all animals. Epinephrine was then given and CPR reinstituted. Epinephrine produced a significant increase in CPR Ao systolic pressure (58 +/- 13 to 84 +/- 24 mm Hg, p less than .001) and end-diastolic coronary perfusion pressure (Ao-RA) (9 +/- 4 to 34 +/- 8 mm Hg, p less than .001). Within 94 +/- 53 sec after epinephrine, spontaneous circulation was restored in eight animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Effect of the number of calcium chloride sprays on 'Jonagold' apple quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Wójcik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine effect of frequency of calcium chloride (CaCl2 sprays on 'Jonagold' apple (Malus domestica Borkh. quality. The experiment was carried out in 1996-1998 in the Experimental Orchard of the Research Institute of Pomology and Floriculture in Skierniewice. Apple trees were grafied on M.26 rootstock and planted in 1992 at a distance of 4 x 2 m on a sandy loam soil with high available phosphorus, potassium and magnesium contents. Four experimental treatments were applied: (i three sprays with CaCl2 solutions at 2, 10 and 18 weeks after full bloom, (ii six sprays with CaCl2 at 2, 6, 10, 14, 16 and 18 weeks after full bloom, (iii nine sprays with CaCl2 at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 weeks after full bloom and (iv control plot - trees unsprayed with CaCl2. The results showed that fruit Ca concentration increased with the number of CaCl2 sprays during the growing season. Apples nine-times sprayed with CaCl2 solutions were smaller, less mature at harvest and after storage, had lower titratable acidity and soluble solids contents after storage and were less sensitive to bitter pit, internal breakdown and Gloeosporium-rot compared to other treatments; however these effects were influenced by the growing season. Six CaCl2 sprays only in one year of the study increased fruit firmness after storage, fruit resistance to bitter pit and internal breakdown. Three CaCl2 sprays decreased bitter pit incidence; however this effect was found only in one investigated year.

  12. White mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with calcium chloride dihydrate: chemical analysis and biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany Mohamed Aly Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the chemical and biological properties of fast-set white mineral trioxide aggregate (FS WMTA, which was WMTA combined with calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl2·2H2O, compared to that of WMTA. Materials and Methods Surface morphology, elemental, and phase analysis were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX, and X-ray diffraction (XRD, respectively. The cytotoxicity and cell attachment properties were evaluated on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLFs using methyl-thiazol-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT assay and under SEM after 24 and 72 hours, respectively. Results Results showed that the addition of CaCl2·2H2O to WMTA affected the surface morphology and chemical composition. Although FS WMTA exhibited a non-cytotoxic profile, the cell viability values of this combination were lesser than WMTA, and the difference was significant in 7 out of 10 concentrations at the 2 time intervals (p < 0.05. HPLFs adhered over the surface of WMTA and at the interface, after 24 hours of incubation. After 72 hours, there were increased numbers of HPLFs with prominent cytoplasmic processes. Similar findings were observed with FS WMTA, but the cells were not as confluent as with WMTA. Conclusions The addition of CaCl2·2H2O to WMTA affected its chemical properties. The favorable biological profile of FS WMTA towards HPLFs may have a potential impact on its clinical application for repair of perforation defects.

  13. The effect of calcium chloride on growth, photosynthesis, and antioxidant responses of Zoysia japonica under drought conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengbin Xu

    Full Text Available Few attempts have been made to study the alleviating effects of signal molecules on zoysiagrass (Zoysiajaponica under drought stress. Calcium chloride has been shown to ameliorate the adverse effects of drought stress on many plants. It is necessary to investigate how to enhance drought tolerance of zoysiagrass using calcium chloride. The study elucidated the effects of calcium chloride on zoysiagrass under drought conditions by investigating the following parameters: biomass, chlorophyll (Chl content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant enzymes, proline content, and malondialdehyde (MDA content. Experimental conditions consisted of an aqueous CaCl2 solution at 5, 10, and 20 mM sprayed on zoysiagrass leaves for 3 d, following by an inducement of drought conditions by withholding water for 16 d. Under drought conditions, all CaCl2 pretreatments were found to increase the above-ground fresh biomass, as well as below-ground fresh and dry biomass. The resulting Chl (a, b, a+b contents of the 5 and 10 mM CaCl2 pretreatment groups were higher than those of the control. In the later stages of drought conditions, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm was higher in leaves treated with 10 mM CaCl2 than in the leaves of the other two treatment groups. Zoysiagrass pretreated with 10 mM CaCl2 possessed both the maximum observed Pn and antioxidant enzyme activities. Meanwhile, lower MDA and proline contents were recorded in the plants pretreated with 5 and 10 mM CaCl2 under drought conditions. As a whole, the drought tolerance of zoysiagrass was improved to some extent by the application of a moderate calcium concentration.

  14. Calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 promotes breast cancer progression by activating EGFR and CAMK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britschgi, Adrian; Bill, Anke; Brinkhaus, Heike; Rothwell, Christopher; Clay, Ieuan; Duss, Stephan; Rebhan, Michael; Raman, Pichai; Guy, Chantale T; Wetzel, Kristie; George, Elizabeth; Popa, M Oana; Lilley, Sarah; Choudhury, Hedaythul; Gosling, Martin; Wang, Louis; Fitzgerald, Stephanie; Borawski, Jason; Baffoe, Jonathan; Labow, Mark; Gaither, L Alex; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed

    2013-03-12

    The calcium-activated chloride channel anoctamin 1 (ANO1) is located within the 11q13 amplicon, one of the most frequently amplified chromosomal regions in human cancer, but its functional role in tumorigenesis has remained unclear. The 11q13 region is amplified in ∼15% of breast cancers. Whether ANO1 is amplified in breast tumors, the extent to which gene amplification contributes to ANO1 overexpression, and whether overexpression of ANO1 is important for tumor maintenance have remained unknown. We have found that ANO1 is amplified and highly expressed in breast cancer cell lines and primary tumors. Amplification of ANO1 correlated with disease grade and poor prognosis. Knockdown of ANO1 in ANO1-amplified breast cancer cell lines and other cancers bearing 11q13 amplification inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and reduced tumor growth in established cancer xenografts. Moreover, ANO1 chloride channel activity was important for cell viability. Mechanistically, ANO1 knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of its chloride-channel activity reduced EGF receptor (EGFR) and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII) signaling, which subsequently attenuated AKT, v-src sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (SRC), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in vitro and in vivo. Our results highlight the involvement of the ANO1 chloride channel in tumor progression and provide insights into oncogenic signaling in human cancers with 11q13 amplification, thereby establishing ANO1 as a promising target for therapy in these highly prevalent tumor types.

  15. Individual effects of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride salts on Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernandez, A

    2008-07-01

    A quantitative investigation on the individual effects of sodium (NaCl), potassium (KCl), calcium (CaCl2), and magnesium (MgCl2) chloride salts against Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two representative microorganisms of table olives and other fermented vegetables, was carried out. In order to assess their potential activities, both the kinetic growth parameters and dose-response profiles in synthetic media (deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth medium and yeast-malt-peptone-glucose broth medium, respectively) were obtained and analyzed. Microbial growth was monitored via optical density measurements as a function of contact time in the presence of progressive chloride salt concentrations. Relative maximum specific growth rate and lag-phase period were modeled as a function of the chloride salt concentrations. Moreover, for each salt and microorganism tested, the noninhibitory concentrations and the MICs were estimated and compared. All chloride salts exerted a significant antimicrobial effect on the growth cycle; particularly, CaCl2 showed a similar effect to NaCl, while KCl and MgCl2 were progressively less inhibitory. Microbial susceptibility and resistance were found to be nonlinearly dose related.

  16. Chlordetect: Commercial Calcium Aluminate Based Conductimetric Sensor for Chloride Presence Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Luque, Magda; Sánchez-Silva, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Chloride presence affects different environments (soil, water, concrete) decreasing their qualities. In order to assess chloride concentration this paper proposes a novel sensor for detecting and measuring it. This sensor is based on electric changes of commercial monocalcium aluminate (CA) when it interacts with chloride aqueous solutions. CA is used as a dielectric material between two coplanar capacitors. The geometry proposed for this sensor allows to assess the chloride content profile, or to make four times the same measurement. Besides, the experimental design gives us the possibility of study not just the chloride effect, but also the time and some geometric effects due to the sensor design. As a result, this sensor shows a limit of detection, sensitivity, and response time: 0.01 wt % Cl− and 0.06 wt % Cl−, and 2 min, respectively, comparable with other non invasive techniques as optical fibre sensors. PMID:28902147

  17. Alcohol diluent provides the optimal formulation for calcium chloride non-surgical sterilization in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoci, Raffaella; Aiudi, Giulio; Silvestre, Fabio; Lissner, Elaine A; Lacalandra, Giovanni M

    2014-10-14

    Surgical castration is widely used to sterilize male dogs, but has significant impacts on time to perform the operation, recovery of the animals as well as cost, which can limit population control programs. Previous research has shown intratesticular injection of calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl2) in saline to be a promising alternative to surgery. However, long-term azoospermia was not maintained at dosages low enough to avoid side effects. In the search for an optimized formulation, the current investigation is the first study on long-term sterilization effects of intratesticular injection of CaCl2 in either lidocaine solution or alcohol in dogs. CaCl2 at 20% concentration in lidocaine solution or alcohol was administered via intratesticular injection to groups of 21 dogs each. The treated animals were examined at 2, 6, and 12 months for sperm production, blood levels of testosterone, and side effects; at time zero and 12 months for testicular size and semen volume. The experimentally treated animals were compared to a control group receiving saline injection only. Testicles of dogs treated with CaCl2 in either diluent significantly decreased in size. After administration of CaCl2 in lidocaine solution, sterility was achieved for at least 12 months in 75% of treated dogs. However, optimal long-term contraceptive effectiveness was achieved with CaCl2 in alcohol, which resulted in azoospermia over the 12-month study period. Testosterone levels significantly decreased following treatment with CaCl2, and sexual activity disappeared. Although testosterone returned to baseline levels by 12 months for the group treated with CaCl2 in lidocaine, dogs injected with CaCl2 in alcohol had a 63.6% drop in testosterone level, which remained at the low end of physiological range throughout the study. No adverse effects were noted. A single, bilateral intratesticular injection of 20% CaCl2 in 95% ethanol was a reliable method for induction of sterilization in 18-28 kg male dogs

  18. Interactive role of nitric oxide and calcium chloride in enhancing tolerance to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Nasir; Siddiqui, Manzer H; Mohammad, Firoz; Naeem, M

    2012-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a small diffusible, ubiquitous bioactive molecule, acts as prooxidant as well as antioxidant, and also regulates remarkable spectrum of plant cellular mechanisms. The present work was undertaken to investigate the role of nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and/or calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) in the tolerance of excised mustard leaves to salt stress. After 24h, salt stressed leaves treated with SNP and/or CaCl(2), showed an improvement in the activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and nitrate reductase (NR), and leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and leaf ion concentration as compared with the leaves treated with NaCl only. Salinity stress caused a significant increase in H(2)O(2) content and membrane damage which is witnessed by enhanced levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and electrolyte leakage. By contrast, such increases were blocked by the application of 0.2mM SNP and 10mM CaCl(2) to salt stressed leaves. Application of SNP and/or CaCl(2) alleviated NaCl stress by enhancing the activities of antioxidative enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) and by enhancing proline (Pro) and glycinebetaine (GB) accumulation with a concomitant decrease in H(2)O(2) content, TBARS and electrolyte leakage, which is manifested in the tolerance of plants to salinity stress. Moreover, application of SNP with CaCl(2) was more effective to reduce the detrimental effects of NaCl stress on excised mustard leaves. In addition to this, ameliorating effect of SNP was not effective in presence of NO scavenger cPTIO [2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide]. To put all these in a nut shell, the results advocate that SNP in association with CaCl(2) plays a role in enhancing the tolerance of plants to salt stress by improving antioxidative defence system, osmolyte accumulation and ionic

  19. Investigating Seed Germination Indices and Absorption Rate of Sodium, Chloride, Calcium, and Potassium in Different Parts of Seedlings of Sweet Corn KSC 403 (Zea Mays L var. Saccharata Under Salinity Stress and Seed Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrolah alhossini,

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different levels of seed priming on germination indices and nutrient absorption at early growth stages of sweet corn (Golden Kernel Hybrid a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted with three replications in 2011. The experiment consists of 6 levels of primings (seeds without priming, priming with tap water, priming with distilled water, priming with sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and hydrous calcium chloride and five levels of salinity (zero, 4, 8, 12 and 16 ds/m sodium chloride. The characteristics studied were germination percentage, germination rate, root and shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedling, root to shoot ratio and determination of sodium, chloride, calcium, and potassium concentration in different parts of seedlings (stems, roots and seed. The results indicated that increasing salinity stress levels decreased all parameters measured. Priming seeds with hydrated calcium chloride responded to significantly to salinity stress better than other treatments. Results also showed that increasing concentration of sodium chloride salt, increased absorption rate of sodium but concentration of calcium and potassium were reduced. Because application of hydrous calcium chloride stimulates cell in using calcium under salinity conditions it leads to improved seedling growth parameters. To achieve a more accurate results slicing interaction effect of seed priming×salinity levels was performed. Hydrous calcium chloride treatments improved all traits under study except sodium and potassium concentration. This represents a better performance of seeds germination under salinity stress when seeds primed with hydrous calcium chloride.

  20. Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels (CaCCs) Regulate Action Potential and Synaptic Response in Hippocampal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wendy C.; Xiao, Shaohua; Huang, Fen; Harfe, Brian D.; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Central neurons respond to synaptic inputs from other neurons by generating synaptic potentials. Once the summated synaptic potentials reach threshold for action potential firing, the signal propagates leading to transmitter release at the synapse. The calcium influx accompanying such signaling opens calcium-activated ion channels for feedback regulation. Here we report a novel mechanism for modulating hippocampal neuronal signaling that involves calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs). We present the first evidence that CaCCs reside in hippocampal neurons and are in close proximity of calcium channels and NMDA receptors to shorten action potential duration, dampen excitatory synaptic potentials, impede temporal summation, and raise the threshold for action potential generation by synaptic potential. Having recently identified TMEM16A and TMEM16B as CaCCs, we further show that TMEM16B but not TMEM16A is important for hippocampal CaCC, laying the groundwork for deciphering the dynamic CaCC modulation of neuronal signaling in neurons important for learning and memory. PMID:22500639

  1. Precursor preparation for Ca-Al layered double hydroxide to remove hexavalent chromium coexisting with calcium and magnesium chlorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Lihua; He, Xiaoman; Qu, Jun; Li, Xuewei; Lei, Zhiwu; Zhang, Qiwu; Liu, Xinzhong

    2017-01-01

    Al(OH)3 and Ca(OH)2 powders are co-ground to prepare a precursor which hydrates into a layered double hydroxide (LDH) phase by agitation in aqueous solution with target hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) at room temperature, to achieve an obvious improvement in removal efficiency of Cr(VI) through an easy incorporation into the structure. Although the prepared precursor transforms into LDH phases also when agitated in the solutions of calcium and magnesium chlorides, it incorporates Cr(VI) preferentially to the chloride salts when they coexist. The adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies show that the phenomena occurring on the Al-Ca precursor fit a pseudo-second-order kinetics with a Langmuir adsorption capacity of 59.45 mg/g. Besides, characterizations of the prepared precursor and the samples after adsorption are also performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) to understand the reason of the preferential incorporation of Cr(VI) to the coexisting chloride salts during the LDH phase formation.

  2. Precursor preparation for Ca-Al layered double hydroxide to remove hexavalent chromium coexisting with calcium and magnesium chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lihua; He, Xiaoman; Qu, Jun; Li, Xuewei; Lei, Zhiwu; Zhang, Qiwu [School of Resources and Environment Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Liu, Xinzhong [College of Ecological Environment and Urban Construction, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350118 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Al(OH){sub 3} and Ca(OH){sub 2} powders are co-ground to prepare a precursor which hydrates into a layered double hydroxide (LDH) phase by agitation in aqueous solution with target hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) at room temperature, to achieve an obvious improvement in removal efficiency of Cr(VI) through an easy incorporation into the structure. Although the prepared precursor transforms into LDH phases also when agitated in the solutions of calcium and magnesium chlorides, it incorporates Cr(VI) preferentially to the chloride salts when they coexist. The adsorption isotherm and kinetic studies show that the phenomena occurring on the Al-Ca precursor fit a pseudo-second-order kinetics with a Langmuir adsorption capacity of 59.45 mg/g. Besides, characterizations of the prepared precursor and the samples after adsorption are also performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) to understand the reason of the preferential incorporation of Cr(VI) to the coexisting chloride salts during the LDH phase formation. - Graphical abstract: Activated Ca-Al hydroxides (C{sub 3}A) transformed into Ca-Al-OH compound when agitated in water. Ca-Al precursor (C{sub 3}A) was agitated in a hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) solution to form Al-Ca-CrO{sub 4} LDH product. Ca-Al-CrO{sub 4} LDH phase occurred preferentially to Ca-Al-MCl{sub 2} LDH phases in the solutions of calcium and magnesium chlorides, it incorporates Cr(VI) preferentially to the chloride salts when they coexist. - Highlights: • Activated Ca-Al hydroxides transformed into LDH when agitated in water with some inorganic substances. • Hexavalent Cr was incorporated in the LDH structure at high adsorption capacity. • Ca-Al-Cr LDH phase occurred preferentially to Ca-Al-MCl{sub 2} LDH phases with coexistence. • The prepared Ca-Al hydroxides had high performance as adsorbent even with high salinity of the solution.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of a Calcium Phosphate Ceramic for the Immobilization of Chloride-containing Intermediate Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, Brian; Donald, Ian W.; Scheele, Randall D.; Strachan, Denis M.

    2003-12-01

    Attention has recently been given to the immobilization of special categories of radioactive wastes, some of which contain high concentrations of actinide chlorides. Although vitrification in phosphate glass has been proposed, this was rejected because of the high losses of chloride. On the basis of non-radioactive and, more recently, radioactive studies, we have shown that calcium phosphate is an effective host for immobilizing the chloride constituents [1]. In this instance, the chlorine is retained as chloride, rather than evolved as a chlorine-bearing gas. The immobilized product is in the form of a free-flowing, non-hygroscopic powder, in which the chlorides are chemically combined within the mineral phases chlorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3Cl] and spodiosite [Ca2(PO4)Cl]. Data from studies on non-radioactive simulated waste consisting of a mixture of CaCl2 and SmCl3, and radioactive simulated waste composed of CaCl2 with PuCl3 or PuCl3 and AmCl3, are presented and compared. The XRD data confirm the presence of chlorapatite and spodiosite in the non-radioactive and radioactive materials. The durability of all specimens was measured with a modified MCC-1 test. Releases of Cl after 28 days were 1.6 x 10-3 g m-2 for the non-radioactive specimens and 7 x 10-3 g m-2 for the Pu-bearing specimens. Releases of Ca after 28 days were 0.3 x 10-3 and 2.0 x 10-3 g m-2 for the non-radioactive composition and the Pu composition, respectively, whilst release of Pu from the radioactive specimens was lower for the mixed Pu/Am specimen at 1.2 x 10-5g m-2. The release of Am from the mixed Pu/Am composition was exceptionally low at 2.4 x 10-7 g m-2. Overall, the release rate data suggest that the ceramics dissolve congruently, followed by precipitation of Sm, Pu and Am as less soluble phases, possibly oxides or phosphates. The differences in behaviour noted between non-radioactive and radioactive specimens are interpreted in terms of the crystal chemistry of the individual systems.

  4. The transition from proliferation to differentiation in colorectal cancer is regulated by the calcium activated chloride channel A1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang

    Full Text Available Breaking the balance between proliferation and differentiation in animal cells can lead to cancer, but the mechanisms maintaining this balance remain largely undefined. The calcium activated chloride channel A1 (CLCA1 is a member of the calcium sensitive chloride conductance family of proteins and is expressed mainly in the colon, small intestine and appendix. We show that CLCA1 plays a functional role in differentiation and proliferation of Caco-2 cells and of intestinal tissue. Caco-2 cells spontaneously differentiate either in confluent culture or when treated with butyrate, a molecule present naturally in the diet. Here, we compared CLCA1 expressional levels between patients with and without colorectal cancer (CRC and determined the functional role of CLCA1 in differentiation and proliferation of Caco-2 cells. We showed that: 1 CLCA1 and CLCA4 expression were down-regulated significantly in CRC patients; 2 CLCA1 expression was up-regulated in Caco-2 cells induced to differentiate by confluent culture or by treatment with sodium butyrate (NaBT; 3 Knockdown of CLCA1 with siRNA significantly inhibited cell differentiation and promoted cell proliferation in Caco-2 confluent cultures, and 4 In Caco-2 3D culture, suppression of CLCA1 significantly increased cell proliferation and compromised NaBT-induced inhibition of proliferation. In conclusion, CLCA1 may contribute to promoting spontaneous differentiation and reducing proliferation of Caco-2 cells and may be a target of NaBT-induced inhibition of proliferation and therefore a potential diagnostic marker for CRC prognosis.

  5. Biochemical changes and color properties of fresh-cut green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv.gina treated with calcium chloride during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezzan Kasim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcium chloride is widely used in industries as a firming agent, and also to extend shelf-life of vegetables. The aim of this study was to determine, the effect of different doses of calcium chloride on biochemical and color properties of fresh-cut green bean. Fresh-cut green beans were dipped for 90 seconds in 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 3% solution of calcium chloride at 25°C. The fresh-cut green bean samples were packaged in polystyrene foam dishes, wrapped with stretch film and stored in a cold room at 5±1°C temperature and 85-90% RH. Calcium chloride treatments did not retain the green color of samples. Whiteness index, browning index and total color difference (ΔE values of CaCl2 treated samples were high. Saturation index and hue angle were low compared to the control, especially at higher doses of CaCl2. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO enzyme activity in samples treated with CaCl2 at 3% doses, was low at the 7th days of storage than with other treatments. Fructose and sucrose content of samples increased in all treatment groups whereas glucose level decreased during the first 4th days of storage.

  6. Reducing of salivary α-amylase inhibition by using bovine serum albumin and calcium chloride for forensic saliva screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Jun; Ohmura, Masako

    2017-09-01

    Inhibiting salivary α-amylase is a critical issue of forensic saliva identification using the catalytic method. This study aims to identify human α-amylase inhibitors in forensic saliva screening by using a blue starch amylase test and to measure the extent of enzyme inhibition. Thus, in order to demonstrate the presence of inhibitors, we prepared positively charged metal ion sources or chelators that were mixed into the saliva stains. The results of this study show that ferric chloride (FeCl3), magnesium chloride, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and citric acid significantly decrease the α-amylase activity of saliva stains. We also verified this approach using blood, a magnesium-containing liquid supplement, and two citric acid-containing soft drinks that were contaminated with saliva stains as forensic mock samples; these samples also showed a significant reduction in salivary α-amylase activity. To establish an inhibitor-resistant blue starch amylase test, we applied bovine serum albumin (BSA) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) to the reaction system. The results show that salivary α-amylase inhibition of the forensic mock samples occurred under normal test conditions (i.e., 300ng/µL BSA, 0mM CaCl2), and that inhibition was significantly relieved under the BSA+CaCl2 conditions (i.e., 1000ng/µL BSA, 5mM CaCl2). Therefore, the results of this study demonstrate that both BSA and CaCl2 can be utilized as reaction stabilizers in forensic saliva screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. INVESTIGATION FOR THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT MAGNESIUM SULFATE DOSES ON THE CONTENT OF CALCIUM AND CHLORIDE IN BLOOD SERUM OF RATS OF BOTH GENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Voronkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted an investigation for the influence of different magnesium sulfate doses on the content of calcium and chloride in blood serum of rats of both genders. As the result of the study, we have established that peroral administration of magnesium sulfate at dose 1.7 g/kg leads to the significant decrease of chlorides content in blood serum of male rats, concerning the control group of animals, and at dose 5 g/kg to the decrease of concentration, chloride as well as calcium in rats of both genders.

  8. Calcium chloride and sodium phosphate in neonatal parenteral nutrition containing TrophAmine: precipitation studies and aluminum content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migaki, Evelyn A; Melhart, Brian J; Dewar, Christina J; Huston, Robert K

    2012-07-01

    The objectives were to determine concentrations of calcium chloride (CaCl) and sodium phosphate (NaPhos) that can be safely added to TrophAmine-based parenteral nutrition (PN) and to measure aluminum (Al) concentrations in PN solutions containing CaCl and NaPhos vs those containing calcium gluconate (CaGlu) and potassium phosphate (KPhos). In study A, PN solutions containing varying amounts of TrophAmine, CaCl, and NaPhos were compounded and then evaluated visually for precipitation. In study B, Al concentrations were measured in PN solutions containing CaCl and NaPhos (S1), CaGlu and NaPhos (S2), or CaGlu and KPhos (S3). Study A showed that a maximum phosphorus concentration of 15 mmol/L could be added to a solution containing 12.5 mmol/L of calcium without evidence of precipitation when the amino acid (AA) concentration reached ≥3 g/dL (3%). In study B, the mean (range) Al concentrations were S1 = 2.2 (1.9-2.4), S2 = 8.5 (7.8-9.3), and S3 = 11.7 (10.8-12.2) µmol/L (means of 6.0, 22.9, and 31.5 micrograms/dL, respectively). The data can provide a guide for compounding neonatal PN solutions containing TrophAmine, CaCl, and NaPhos. More studies are needed to determine the long-term effects of substituting CaCl for CaGlu in PN solutions for neonates. Substituting CaCl and NaPhos for CaGlu and KPhos significantly decreases Al concentrations in PN and potential Al exposure of neonatal patients.

  9. Impacts of sodium chlorite combined with calcium chloride, and calcium ascorbate on microbial population, browning, and quality of fresh-cut rose apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunthon Mola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial activity and browning were minimized and fresh-cut rose apple quality was maintained using sodium chlorite (SC combined with calcium chloride (CC and calcium ascorbate (CaAs and by investigating the optimal concentration and dipping time of SC for inhibiting microbial activity and browning. Fresh-cut rose apple samples were dipped in SC solution at 100 mg/L and 200 mg/L for 1 min and 3 min, with filtered water and non-dipped samples as controls. All samples were kept at 4 ± 2 °C for 9 d. The results showed that 200 mg/L SC for 3 min was the best treatment to inhibit microbial growth (total bacteria, yeast and molds, Escherichia coli and coliforms, delay browning and polyphenol oxidase (PPO activity of fresh-cut rose apples, but could not maintain the fresh firmness. A firmness experiment was conducted by dipping fresh-cut rose apples in 200 mg/L SC and in 200 mg/L SC combined with 20 g/L CC and 20 g/L CaAs (SC + CC + CaAs for 3 min before storage at 4 ± 2 °C for 9 d. Samples immersed in filtered water were used as the control. The combined treatment delayed microbial contamination and browning by reducing the PPO activity and the accumulation of phenolic content, and maintained the fresh firmness of fresh-cut rose apples. Thus, the combination treatment of SC + CC + CaAs solution can protect fresh-cut rose apples against microbial contamination and delay browning and maintain firmness.

  10. Study of betaine calcium chloride dihydrate (BCCD) by neutrons inelastic scattering; Etude du chlorure de betaine et de calcium dihydrate (BCCD) par diffusion inelastique de neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlinka, J.

    1995-06-27

    The aim of this work is to study the betaine calcium chloride dihydrate (BCCD) lattice dynamics by neutrons inelastic and coherent scattering. In the first part are summarized the main properties of the BCCD as they are determined in some previous experimental works. It has been more particularly emphasized on the structural and dynamical properties of this compound. The theoretical concepts used in incommensurate dielectric materials physics are given in the second part. They are at first introduced generally and then applied to BCCD. In the third part is described the experimental method used in this work : the neutrons inelastic scattering. The experimental results on the BCCD normal phase dynamics are then presented. These results and their interpretation allow to build up a semi-microscopic model introduced in the fifth part. The incommensurate lattice dynamics (at 20 K under the transition temperature towards the modulated phase) is studied in the last part. It has been shown that new aspects in relation to the previous works appear in BCCD. (O.L.). 121 refs., 25 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. ATP-sensitive voltage- and calcium-dependent chloride channels in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles from rabbit skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourie, J I

    1997-05-01

    Chloride channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) are thought to play an essential role in excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling by balancing charge movement during calcium release and uptake. In this study the nucleotide-sensitivity of Cl- channels in the SR from rabbit skeletal muscle was investigated using the lipid bilayer technique. Two distinct ATP-sensitive Cl- channels that differ in their conductance and kinetic properties and in the mechanism of ATP-induced channel inhibition were observed. The first, a nonfrequent 150 pS channel was inhibited by trans (luminal) ATP, and the second, a common 75 pS small chloride (SCl) channel was inhibited by cis (cytoplasmic) ATP. In the case of the SCl channel the ATP-induced reversible decline in the values of current (maximal current amplitude, Imax and integral current, I') and kinetic parameters (frequency of opening FO, probability of the channel being open PO, mean open TO and closed Tc times) show a nonspecific block of the voltage- and Ca2+-dependent SCl channel. ATP was a more potent blocker from the cytoplasmic side than from the luminal side of the channel. The SCl channel block was not due to Ca2+ chelation by ATP, nor to phosphorylation of the channel protein. The inhibitory action of ATP was mimicked by the nonhydrolyzable analogue adenylylimidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP) in the absence of Mg2+. The inhibitory potency of the adenine nucleotides was charge dependent in the following order ATP4- > ADP3- > > > AMP2-. The data suggest that ATP-induced effects are mediated via an open channel block mechanism. Modulation of the SCl channel by [ATP]cis and [Ca2+]cis indicates that (i) this channel senses the bioenergetic state of the muscle fiber and (ii) it is linked to the ATP-dependent cycling of the Ca2+ between the SR and the sarcoplasm.

  12. A functional tandem between transient receptor potential canonical channels 6 and calcium-dependent chloride channels in human epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Johanna; Dannhoffer, Luc; Antigny, Fabrice; Vachel, Laura; Jayle, Christophe; Vandebrouck, Clarisse; Becq, Frédéric; Norez, Caroline

    2015-10-15

    TRPC6 plays important human physiological functions, notably in artery and arterioles constriction, in regulation of vascular volume and in bronchial muscle constriction. It is implicated in pulmonary hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and seems to play a role in cancer development. Previously, we identified Guanabenz, an α2-adrenergic agonist used for hypertension treatment (Wytensin®), as an activator of calcium-dependent chloride channels (CaCC) in human Cystic Fibrosis (CF) nasal epithelial cells by transiently increasing [Ca2+]i via an influx of extracellular Ca2+. In this study, using assays to measure chloride channel activity, we show that guanabenz is an activator of CaCC in freshly dissociated human bronchial epithelial cells from three CF patients with various genotypes (F508del/F508del, F508del/R1066C, F508del/H1085R). We further characterised the effect of guanabenz and show that it is independent of α-adrenergic receptors, is inhibited by the TRPC family inhibitor SKF-96365 but not by the TRPV family inhibitor ruthenium red. Using western-blotting, Ca2+ measurements and iodide efflux assay, we found that TRPC1 siRNA has no effect on guanabenz induced responses whereas TRPC6 siRNA prevented the guanabenz-dependent Ca2+ influx and the CaCC-dependent activity stimulated by guanabenz. In conclusion, we show that TRPC6 channel is pivotal for the activation of CaCC by guanabenz through a α2-adrenergic-independent pathway in human airway epithelial cells. We suggest propose a functional coupling between TRPC6 and CaCC and guanabenz as a potential TRPC6 activator for exploring TRPC6 and CaCC channel functions and corresponding channelopathies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lead removal from cathode ray tube glass by the action of calcium hydroxide and poly(vinyl chloride)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grause, Guido, E-mail: grause@env.che.tohoku.ac.jp; Takahashi, Kenshi; Kameda, Tomohito; Yoshioka, Toshiaki, E-mail: yoshioka@env.che.tohoku.ac.jp

    2014-11-20

    Highlights: • About 99.9% of lead is removed from CRT glass by PbCl{sub 2} volatilization. • PVC is used as chlorination agent with the aid of Ca(OH){sub 2} as HCl absorbing material. • The residual calcium silicate has a lead content as low as 140 mg kg{sup −1}. • Lead leaching from the residue was below the detection limit. - Abstract: With the development of flat screen technology, the cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in TV sets became obsolete, leaving huge amounts of lead-containing CRT glass for disposal. We developed a novel lead volatilization process in which PbCl{sub 2} was generated in the presence of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as a chlorination agent and Ca(OH){sub 2} as an HCl absorber. PVC was incinerated in air atmosphere and the resulting HCl was captured by Ca(OH){sub 2} before exiting the reactor with the air flow. CaCl{sub 2} and Ca(OH){sub 2} reacted with the lead glass forming volatile PbCl{sub 2} and crystalline Ca-silicates. Since the reactivity of lead glass with gaseous HCl is negligible, the presence of Ca(OH){sub 2} was essential for the success of this method. At a temperature of 1000 °C, a molar Cl/Pb ratio of 16, and a molar Ca/Si ratio of about 2, approximately 99.9% of the lead was volatilized, leaving a residue with a lead content of 140 mg kg{sup −1}. The residual calcium silicate, with its low lead level, has the potential to be repurposed for other uses.

  14. Effect of immersion time of restorative glass ionomer cements and immersion duration in calcium chloride solution on surface hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, Maho; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Iwasaki, Naohiko; Wada, Takahiro; Uo, Motohiro

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of immersion time of restorative glass ionomer cements (GICs) and immersion duration in calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution on the surface hardness. Two high-viscosity GICs, Fuji IX GP and GlasIonomer FX-II, were selected. Forty-eight specimens were randomly divided into two groups. Sixty minutes after being mixed, half of them were immersed in a 42.7wt% CaCl2 solution for 10, 30, or 60min (Group 1); the remaining specimens were immersed after an additional 1-week of storage (Group 2). The surface hardness of the specimens was measured and analyzed with two-way ANOVA and the Tukey HSD test (α=0.05). The surface compositions were examined using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The surface hardness of Group 1 significantly increased as the immersion duration in CaCl2 increased; that of Group 2 significantly increased only after 60-minute CaCl2 immersion. After CaCl2 immersion, the amounts of Ca increased as the immersion duration increased. The surface hardness after CaCl2 immersion significantly correlated with the amount of Ca in Group 1, but not in Group 2. The binding energy of the Ca2p peak was similar to that of calcium polyalkenoate. These findings indicated that the Ca ions from the CaCl2 solution created chemical bonds with the carboxylic acid groups in the cement matrix. Immersion of GICs in CaCl2 solution at the early stage of setting was considered to enhance the formation of the polyacid salt matrix; as a result, the surface hardness increased. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Turn to calcium-fortified (or "calcium-set") tofu, soy milk, tempeh, soy yogurt, and cooked soybeans (edamame). Calcium-fortified foods. Look for calcium-fortified orange juice, soy or rice milk, breads, and cereal. Beans. You can get decent ...

  16. The simultaneous removal of calcium, magnesium and chloride ions from industrial wastewater using magnesium-aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Roya; Kahforoushan, Davood; Fatehifar, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a method for simultaneous removal of calcium, magnesium and chloride by using Mg0.80Al0.20O1.10 as a Magnesium-Aluminum oxide (Mg‒Al oxide) was investigated. Mg‒Al oxide obtained by thermal decomposition of the Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (Mg-Al LDH). The synthesized Mg‒Al oxide were characterized with respect to nitrogen physicosorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM) morphology. Due to high anion-exchange capacity of Mg‒Al oxide, it was employed in simultaneously removal of Cl(-), Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) from distiller waste of a sodium carbonate production factory. For this purpose, experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of quantity of Mg‒Al oxide, temperature and time on the removal process. The removal of Cl(-), Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) from wastewater was found 93.9%, 93.74% and 93.25% at 60°C after 0.5 h, respectively. Results showed that the removal of Cl(-), Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) by Mg‒Al oxide increased with increasing temperature, time and Mg‒Al oxide quantity.

  17. Effects of the Addition of Sodium Alginate and the Concentration of Calcium Chloride on the Properties of Composite Nonwoven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Ching-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonwoven fabrics have merits, and for example, they can be simply and quickly processed with a variety of materials and an easily changeable manufacturing process. This study aims to examine the influences of the addition of sodium alginate (SA and the concentration of calcium chloride (CaCl2 on the properties of the composite nonwoven fabrics. Chitosan (CS micro-particles and SA solution are cross-linked with CaCl2 with various concentrations, combined with farir heat preservative staples (FT/cotton (C nonwoven fabrics, and then freeze-dried to form CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics. Afterwards, physical property tests are performed on the resulting composite nonwoven fabrics to determine their properties as related to various concentrations of CaCl2. The addition of SA decreases the water vapor permeability of FT/C nonwoven fabrics by 15 %, but the concentrations of CaCl2 do not influence the water vapor permeability. Compared to FT/C nonwoven fabrics, CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics have significantly lower water absorbency and water vapor permeability, but a greater stiffness.

  18. Effects of crystallinity and surface modification of calcium phosphate nanoparticles on the loading and release of tetracycline hydro-chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaizhi; Yan, Dong; Menike Korale Gedara, Sriyani; Dingiri Marakkalage, Sajith Sudeepa Fernando; Gamage Kasun Methlal, Jothirathna; Han, YingChao; Dai, HongLian

    2017-03-01

    The influences of crystallinity and surface modification of calcium phosphate nanoparticles (nCaP) on their drug loading capacity and drug release profile were studied in the present investigation. The CaP nanoparticles with different crystallinity were prepared by precipitation method under different temperatures. CaP nanoparticles with lower crystallinity exhibited higher drug loading capacity. The samples were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, TEM and BET surface area analyzer respectively. The drug loading capacity of nCaP was evaluated to tetracycline hydro-chloride (TCH). The internalization of TCH loaded nCaP in cancer cell was observed by florescence microscope. nCaP could be stabilized and dispersed in aqueous solution by poly(acrylic acid) surface modification agent, leading to enhanced drug loading capacity. The drug release was conducted in different pH environment and the experimental data proved that nCaP were pH sensitive drug carrier, suggesting that nCaP could achieve the controlled drug release in intracellular acidic environment. Furthermore, nCaP with higher crystallinity showed lower drug release rate than that of lower crystallinity, indicating that the drug release profile could be adjusted by crystallinity of nCaP. nCaP with adjustable drug loading and release properties are promising candidate as drug carrier for disease treatment.

  19. The action and interaction of calcium and alkali chlorides on eggs of Limnaea stagnalis and their chemical interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geilenkirchen, W.L.M.

    1. 1. The action and interaction of CaCl2 and alkali chlorides on eggs of Limnaea stagnalis have been studied. 2. 2. CaCl2 antagonizes death caused by alkali chlorides. The number of normally developing embryos increases in all cases. 3. 3. Alkali chlorides antagonize death caused by CaCl2. With

  20. Presynaptic Localization and Possible Function of Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel Anoctamin 1 in the Mammalian Retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Jeon

    Full Text Available Calcium (Ca(2+-activated chloride (Cl(- channels (CaCCs play a role in the modulation of action potentials and synaptic responses in the somatodendritic regions of central neurons. In the vertebrate retina, large Ca(2+-activated Cl(- currents (ICl(Ca regulate synaptic transmission at photoreceptor terminals; however, the molecular identity of CaCCs that mediate ICl(Ca remains unclear. The transmembrane protein, TMEM16A, also called anoctamin 1 (ANO1, has been recently validated as a CaCC and is widely expressed in various secretory epithelia and nervous tissues. Despite the fact that tmem16a was first cloned in the retina, there is little information on its cellular localization and function in the mammalian retina. In this study, we found that ANO1 was abundantly expressed as puncta in 2 synaptic layers. More specifically, ANO1 immunoreactivity was observed in the presynaptic terminals of various retinal neurons, including photoreceptors. ICl(Ca was first detected in dissociated rod bipolar cells expressing ANO1. ICl(Ca was abolished by treatment with the Ca(2+ channel blocker Co(2+, the L-type Ca(2+ channel blocker nifedipine, and the Cl(- channel blockers 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino benzoic acid (NPPB and niflumic acid (NFA. More specifically, a recently discovered ANO1-selective inhibitor, T16Ainh-A01, and a neutralizing antibody against ANO1 inhibited ICl(Ca in rod bipolar cells. Under a current-clamping mode, the suppression of ICl(Ca by using NPPB and T16Ainh-A01 caused a prolonged Ca(2+ spike-like depolarization evoked by current injection in dissociated rod bipolar cells. These results suggest that ANO1 confers ICl(Ca in retinal neurons and acts as an intrinsic regulator of the presynaptic membrane potential during synaptic transmission.

  1. The effect of verapamil and diltiazem on cardiac stimulant effect of adrenaline and calcium chloride on isolated frog heart

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhavat Sudhakar, Naveen Kumar T, Tadvi NA, Venkata Rao Y

    2013-01-01

    Background: Calcium channel blockers block voltage dependent L-type of calcium channel and thus reduce the frequency of opening of these channels in response to depolarization. The result is a marked decrease in transmembrane calcium current associated with long lasting relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, reduction in contractility in cardiac muscle, decrease in pacemaker activity in the SA node and decrease in conduction velocity in the AV node. Among Calcium channel blockers verapamil, ...

  2. A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, I. W.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

    2007-03-01

    Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not feasible due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been sought including phosphate-based glasses, crystalline ceramics and hybrid glass/ceramic systems. These studies have shown that high losses of chloride or evolution of chlorine gas from the melt make vitrification an unacceptable solution unless suitable off-gas treatment facilities capable of dealing with these corrosive by-products are available. On the other hand, both sodium aluminosilicate and calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of retaining chloride in stable mineral phases, which include sodalite, Na 8(AlSiO 4) 6Cl 2, chlorapatite, Ca 5(PO 4) 3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca 2(PO 4)Cl. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and precursor powders are mixed and reacted in air at temperatures in the range 700-800 °C. The ceramic products are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that only require encapsulation in a relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal.

  3. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and blood vessels contract and expand, to secrete hormones and enzymes and to send messages through the nervous system. It is important to get plenty of calcium in the foods you eat. Foods rich in calcium include Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and yogurt Leafy, green vegetables Fish with ...

  4. Activation of a cGMP-sensitive calcium-dependent chloride channel may cause transition from calcium waves to whole-cell oscillations in smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian; Aalkjær, Christian; Nilsson, Holger

    2007-01-01

    In vitro, alpha-adreno receptor stimulation of rat mesenteric small arteries often leads to a rhythmic change in wall tension, vasomotion. Within the individual smooth muscle cells of the vascular wall, vasomotion is often preceded by a period of asynchronous calcium waves. Abruptly, these low......-frequency waves may transform into high-frequency whole-cell calcium oscillations. Simultaneously, multiple cells synchronize leading to rhythmic generation of tension. We present a mathematical model of vascular smooth muscle cells that aims at characterizing this sudden transition. Simulations show calcium...... waves sweeping through the cytoplasm when the SR is stimulated to release calcium. A rise in cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) leads to the experimentally observed transition from waves to whole-cell calcium oscillations. At the same time membrane potential starts to oscillate and the frequency...

  5. Activation of a cGMP-sensitive calcium-dependent chloride channel may cause transition from calcium waves to whole cell oscillations in smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; Aalkjær, Christian; Nilsson, Holger

    2007-01-01

    In vitro, alpha-adrenoreceptor stimulation of rat mesenteric small arteries often leads to a rhythmic change in wall tension, i.e., vasomotion. Within the individual smooth muscle cells of the vascular wall, vasomotion is often preceded by a period of asynchronous calcium waves. Abruptly, these low......-frequency waves may transform into high-frequency whole cell calcium oscillations. Simultaneously, multiple cells synchronize, leading to rhythmic generation of tension. We present a mathematical model of vascular smooth muscle cells that aims at characterizing this sudden transition. Simulations show calcium...... waves sweeping through the cytoplasm when the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is stimulated to release calcium. A rise in cGMP leads to the experimentally observed transition from waves to whole cell calcium oscillations. At the same time, membrane potential starts to oscillate and the frequency...

  6. Conservation of minimally processed pineapple using calcium chloride, edible coating and gamma radiation;Conservacao de abacaxi minimamente processado utilizando como coadjuvantes cloreto de calcio, pelicula comestivel e radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilon, Lucimeire

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a convenience type pineapple subjected to fresh-cut process and calcium chloride, wheat gluten and alginate-base edible coating and irradiation treatments. The fruits were washed, sanitized with Sumaveg (Sodium Dichloro-s-Triazinetrione) in a 200 mg L-1 chlorine-free solution at 7 deg C for 15 minutes, and then manually peeled. The peeled fruits were sliced into 1 cm thick slices, rinsed in 20 mg L-1 chlorine-free solution for 3 minutes and drained for 3 minutes. In the first experiment, the samples were treated with: 1% calcium chloride + vital wheat gluten solution; 1% calcium chloride + 1% alginate solution; and control. In the second experiment, the samples were treated with: 1% calcium chloride + vital wheat gluten solution + 2.3 kGy; 1% calcium chloride + 2.3kGy; irradiation with 2.3kGy; and control. The packing consisted of rigid polyethylene terephthalate (PET) trays with around 250 g of fruit. The irradiation was performed in a Cobalt-60 multipurpose irradiator with 92 kCi activity and dose value of 2.3 kGy h-1. The samples were stored at 5 +- 1 deg C and evaluated every other day for 12 days. In the first experiment pH and titratable acidity values showed slight variations but were similar between the treatments. There was a decrease in ascorbic acid values in all treatments. Browning was noticed in all treatments over the storage period. Although the values between the treatments were similar, the pineapple treated with calcium chloride + gluten showed firmer texture, less liquid loss, and lower values of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities and CO{sub 2} and ethylene production. Mesophiles and mold and yeast counts were also reduced. No Salmonella and E. coli were detected. Total coliform counts were low in all the treatments and appeared in just a few isolated samples during the storage period. Sensory analyses showed that the samples treated with calcium chloride + gluten had the lower scores for texture

  7. Angiotensin II modulates mouse skeletal muscle resting conductance to chloride and potassium ions and calcium homeostasis via the AT1 receptor and NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzoli, Anna; Liantonio, Antonella; Conte, Elena; Cannone, Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Pierno, Sabata; Mantuano, Paola; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Camerino, Giulia Maria; De Luca, Annamaria

    2014-10-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) plays a role in muscle wasting and remodeling; however, little evidence shows its direct effects on specific muscle functions. We presently investigated the acute in vitro effects of ANG II on resting ionic conductance and calcium homeostasis of mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers, based on previous findings that in vivo inhibition of ANG II counteracts the impairment of macroscopic ClC-1 chloride channel conductance (gCl) in the mdx mouse model of muscular dystrophy. By means of intracellular microelectrode recordings we found that ANG II reduced gCl in the nanomolar range and in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50 = 0.06 μM) meanwhile increasing potassium conductance (gK). Both effects were inhibited by the ANG II receptors type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist losartan and the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine; no antagonism was observed with the AT2 antagonist PD123,319. The scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) N-acetyl cysteine and the NADPH-oxidase (NOX) inhibitor apocynin also antagonized ANG II effects on resting ionic conductances; the ANG II-dependent gK increase was blocked by iberiotoxin, an inhibitor of calcium-activated potassium channels. ANG II also lowered the threshold for myofiber and muscle contraction. Both ANG II and the AT1 agonist L162,313 increased the intracellular calcium transients, measured by fura-2, with a two-step pattern. These latter effects were not observed in the presence of losartan and of the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 and the in absence of extracellular calcium, disclosing a Gq-mediated calcium entry mechanism. The data show for the first time that the AT1-mediated ANG II pathway, also involving NOX and ROS, directly modulates ion channels and calcium homeostasis in adult myofibers. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from dietary supplements are linked to a greater risk of kidney stones, especially among older adults. But calcium from foods does not appear to cause kidney stones. For most people, other factors (such as not drinking enough fluids) probably have ...

  9. Identical flow injection spectrophotometric manifold for determination of protein, phosphorus, calcium, chloride, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc in feeds or premixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J F; Feng, Y D; Jiang, G B

    2001-01-01

    A simple procedure using an identical manifold was developed for determination of nitrogen (protein) phosphorus, calcium, chloride, copper, manganese, iron, and zinc in feeds and feedstuffs. By changing appropriate reagents and detection wavelength, these 8 elements were determined successively with a simple identical double-line flow injection (FI) manifold. Fl spectrophotometric determinations were made by the blue indophenol reaction for ammonium, the molybdenum blue method for phosphate, the cresolphthalein complexone procedure for calcium, and the mercuric thiocyanate procedure for chloride. The chromogenic reagents for copper, iron, manganese, and zinc determination were bis(cyclohexanone)oxalydihydrazone (Cuprizone), 1,10-phenanthroline, formaldoxime, and xylenol orange, respectively. Sample digestion catalyst, Fl manifold, and some chemical parameters were optimized. The proposed procedure had a sampling rate of 90/h for each analyte. The determination ranges (mg/L) were 10-60 for N, 1-15 for P and Ca, 540 for Cl, and 0.5-15 for Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn, respectively. Results of the analyses of animal feed and feedstuff samples by this procedure did not differ significantly from those obtained by proven manual methods.

  10. Gravimetric Determination of Calcium as Calcium Carbonate Hydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrickson, Charles H.; Robinson, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravimetric determination of calcium as calcium carbonate is described. This experiment is suitable for undergraduate quantitative analysis laboratories. It is less expensive than determination of chloride as silver chloride. (BB)

  11. A cyclic GMP-dependent calcium-activated chloride current in smooth-muscle cells from rat mesenteric resistance arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matchkov, Vladimir; Aalkjær, Christian; Nilsson, Holger

    2004-01-01

    no voltage or time dependence. It was inhibited by nickel and zinc ions in the micromolar range, but was unaffected by cobalt and had a low sensitivity to inhibition by the chloride channel blockers niflumic acid, DIDS, and IAA-94. The properties of this current in mesenteric artery smooth-muscle cells...

  12. Three-day-old human unfertilized oocytes after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection can be activated by calcium ionophore a23187 or strontium chloride and develop to blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Han, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Ming-Hui; Wang, Shu-Yu; Jia, Chan-Wei; Yu, Lan; Ren, Guoqing; Wang, Li; Li, Wei

    2014-08-01

    Our objective was to observe the effectiveness of the calcium ionophore A23187 or strontium chloride on the activation and subsequent embryonic development of 3-day-old human unfertilized oocytes after in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A total of 279 3-day-old unfertilized oocytes after IVF or ICSI were randomized to be activated by the calcium ionophore A23187 (n=138) or strontium chloride (n=141). The activated oocytes were cultured in vitro for 3-5 days. Activation rate, pronucleus formation, cleavage rate, and developmental potential of parthenotes during culture were evaluated. A total of 170 unfertilized oocytes were activated; 65 developed to cleavage stage, 19 developed to greater than the eight-cell stage, and five blastocysts were obtained. The activation rate of the calcium ionophore A23187 group was higher than that of the strontium chloride group (75.4% and 46.8%, respectively; pstrontium chloride group, six developed to the two- to four- cell stage, 10 developed to the five- to eight-cell stage, four developed to greater than the eight-cell stage, and one blastocyst was obtained. Three-day-old unfertilized human oocytes after IVF or ICSI could be activated by the calcium ionophore A23187 or strontium chloride, and a small part of parthenogenetic embryos developed into blastocysts. The treatment with the calcium ionophore A23187 was better than that of strontium chloride in respect to the activation rate of 3-day-old unfertilized human oocytes after IVF or ICSI.

  13. Effect of Stepwise Blanching and Calcium Chloride Solution on Texture and Structural Properties of Jalapeño Peppers in Brine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinora Judith Palma-Zavala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Jalapeño peppers incur texture changes during thermal processing due to loss of turgor pressure, tissue softening, and pectin solubility in the cell wall, which affects their quality and acceptability as a processed product among consumers. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of stepwise blanching with calcium chloride solution on firmness, calcium absorption and microstructural changes of jalapeño peppers. Batches of 1 kg of pepper halves were blanched at 65 °C for 4 min at different concentrations of CaCl2 (0, 0.075, 0.15 and 0.3 mol/L. After blanching, the peppers were removed, placed in plastic bags and submerged in a water bath at 65 °C for different holding times (0, 15, 30 and 45 min. Then the peppers were blanched again in an acidified solution at 96 °C for 3 min to remove enzymatic activity. Afterwards, peppers were packed in glass containers with brine at 95 °C and pasteurized at 85 °C for 10 min. The product was stored for 10 days at room temperature, then analyzed for texture, calcium absorption, pH, acidity, and microstructural changes. Results showed that CaCl2 concentration and blanching improved firmness with a maximum value of 3.68 N, a 4.3-fold increase over control. Calcium absorption increased with CaCl2 concentration reaching a maximum of 0.68 g of Ca2+ per kg of samples. Microscopy showed reduced cell wall damage in the samples that were blanched in 0.3 mol/L of CaCl2 at 45 min of holding time. The optimum processing conditions determined in thisstudy can be used for improving the firmness of peppers.

  14. Calcium Chloride in Neonatal Parenteral Nutrition Solutions with and without Added Cysteine: Compatibility Studies Using Laser and Micro-Flow Imaging Methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K Huston

    Full Text Available Previous studies of compatibility of calcium chloride (CaCl2 and phosphates have not included particle counts in the range specified by the United States Pharmacopeia. Micro-flow imaging techniques have been shown to be comparable to light obscuration when determining particle count and size in pharmaceutical solutions.The purpose of this study was to do compatibility testing for parenteral nutrition (PN solutions containing CaCl2 using dynamic light scattering and micro-flow imaging techniques.Solutions containing TrophAmine (Braun Medical Inc, Irvine, CA, CaCl2, and sodium phosphate (NaPhos were compounded with and without cysteine. All solutions contained standard additives to neonatal PN solutions including dextrose, trace metals, and electrolytes. Control solutions contained no calcium or phosphate. Solutions were analyzed for particle size and particle count. Means of Z-average particle size and particle counts of controls were determined. Study solutions were compared to controls and United States Pharmacopeia (USP Chapter 788 guidelines. The maximum amount of Phos that was compatible in solutions that contained at least 10 mmol/L of Ca in 2.5% amino acids (AA was determined. Compatibility of these solutions was verified by performing analyses of 5 repeats of these solutions. Microscopic analyses of the repeats were also performed.Amounts of CaCl2 and NaPhos that were compatible in solutions containing 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, and 3% AA were determined. The maximum amount of NaPhos that could be added to TrophAmine solutions of > = 2.5% AA containing at least 10 mmol/L of CaCl2 was 7.5 mmol/L. Adding 50 mg/dL of cysteine increased the amount of NaPhos that could be added to solutions containing 10 mmol/L of CaCl2 to 10 mmol/L.Calcium chloride can be added to neonatal PN solutions containing NaPhos in concentrations that can potentially provide an intravenous intake of adequate amounts of calcium and phosphorus.

  15. Performance of Potassium Bicarbonate and Calcium Chloride Draw Solutions for Desalination of Saline Water Using Forward Osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nematzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Forward osmosis (FO has recently drawn attention as a promising membrane based method for seawater and brackish water desalination. In this study, we focus on the use of calciun chloride (CaCl2 and potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3 as inorganic salt draw solution candidates due to their appropriate performance in water flux and reverse salt diffusion as well as reasonable cost. The experiments were carried at 25 °C and cross-flow rate of 3 L min−1.  At the same osmotic pressure, the water flux of CaCl2 draw solution tested against deionized feed water, showed 20% higher permeation than KHCO3, which it was attributed to the lower internal concentration polarization (ICP. The reverse diffusion of CaCl2 was found higher than KHCO3 solution which it would be related to the smaller ionic size and the higher permeation of this salt through the membrane. The water flux for both draw solutions against 0.33 M NaCl feed solution was about 2.8 times lower than deionized feed water because of ICP. Higher concentrations of draw solution is required for increasing the water permeation from saline water feed towards the draw side.

  16. The Effect of Lupinus albus and Calcium Chloride on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Plasma Biochemistry and Meat Quality of Male Pigs Immunized Against Gonadotrophin Releasing Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Karen; Mullan, Bruce; Kim, Jae Cheol; Dunshea, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Two hundred and ninety-four pigs were used to assess the effect of two ingredients (Lupinus albus (albus lupins) or a combination of calcium chloride and sodium tri-polyphosphate (mineral salts)) on growth performance, body composition and objective meat quality of pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates) and entire male pigs in the late finishing phase. Pigs fed mineral salts ate less feed than those fed the control diet with no effect on growth rate (p > 0.05), backfat (p > 0.05) or fat deposition (p > 0.05). Pigs fed albus lupins had a reduced feed intake (p albus lupins who in turn had an improved feed conversion compared to the control diet. Immunocastrates had thicker backfat than entire males at the end of the experiment (p albus lupins to immunocastrated males reduced backfat thickness to similar to entire males fed the control diet (p = 0.01). With the exception of the increased muscle pH at 45 minutes post-exsanguination in mineral salts and albus lupins compared with the control diet (p = 0.03) there was no effect of diet on objective pork quality. Pork from IC males had a higher ultimate pH (p Albus lupins show potential in reducing the increase in feed intake and backfat associated with immunocastration. Mineral salts may be useful in situations where a reduction in feed intake and an improvement in feed conversion is desired and reducing fat deposition is not the objective.

  17. Effect of the Combination Hot Water - Calcium Chloride on the In Vitro Growth of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and the Postharvest Quality of Infected Papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayón-Reyna, Lidia Elena; López-Valenzuela, José Ángel; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; López-López, Martha Edith; Molina-Corral, Francisco Javier; Carrillo-López, Armando; Vega-García, Misael Odín

    2017-12-01

    Anthracnose of papaya fruit caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most economically important postharvest diseases. Hot water immersion (HW) and calcium chloride (Ca) treatments have been used to control papaya postharvest diseases; however, the effect of the combination HW-Ca on the pathogen growth and the development of the disease in infected papaya fruit has been scarcely studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the HW-Ca treatment on the in vitro growth of C. gloesporioides conidia and the quality of infected papaya. In vitro, the HW-Ca treated conidia showed reduced mycelial growth and germination. In vivo, the HW-Ca treatment of infected papaya delayed for 5 days the onset of the anthracnose symptoms and improved the papaya postharvest quality. The combined treatment HW-Ca was better than any of the individual treatments to inhibit the in vitro development of C. gloeosporioides and to reduce the negative effects of papaya anthracnose.

  18. Combined inhibitory effect against postharvest storage rots and their effects on postharvest quality parameters in cherry tomatoes by cassia oil and calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wu; Zheng, Xiaodong; Chen, Jiaping

    2013-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of cassia oil alone or in combination with calcium chloride (CaCl2) against Alternaria alternata in vitro and in vivo was assessed on cherry tomatoes. The results demonstrated that concentrations of CaCl2 ranging from 0.25 to 3% enhanced the inhibitory effects of 200 μl of cassia oil per liter on the growth of A. alternata in vitro. The combination of 0.25% CaCl2 and 500 μl of cassia oil per liter showed a significant inhibition effect on decay development in both wounded artificially infected and unwounded naturally infected fruit. Importantly, these treatments did not reduce the overall quality of tomatoes. Defense-related enzyme activities were also evaluated. The results indicated that cassia oil alone or in combination with CaCl2 significantly enhanced defense-related enzyme activities, such as peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. Together, these data suggest that the combination of cassia oil and CaCl2 may be an efficient method to limit cherry tomato decay caused by fungi.

  19. Enhanced inactivation of avian influenza virus at -20°C by disinfectants supplemented with calcium chloride or other antifreeze agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W; Rohonczy, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Avian influenza outbreaks have occurred during winter months, and effective disinfection of poultry premises at freezing temperatures is needed. The commercial disinfectants Virkon and Accel, supplemented with an antifreeze agent [propylene glycol (PG), methanol (MeOH), or calcium chloride (CaCl₂)], were evaluated for their effectiveness in killing avian influenza virus (AIV) at -20°C or 21°C. An AIV suspension was applied to stainless steel disks, air-dried, and covered with a disinfectant or antifreeze agent for 5 to 30 min. Virkon (2%) and Accel (6.25%) with 30% PG, 20% MeOH, or 20% CaCl₂ inactivated 6 log₁₀ AIV within 5 min at -20°C and 21°C. At these temperatures PG and MeOH alone did not kill AIV, but the 20% CaCl₂ solution alone inactivated 5 log10 AIV within 10 min. The results suggested that CaCl₂ is potentially useful to enhance the effectiveness of disinfection of poultry facilities after outbreaks of AIV infection in warm and cold seasons.

  20. Enhanced inactivation of avian influenza virus at −20°C by disinfectants supplemented with calcium chloride or other antifreeze agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W.; Rohonczy, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza outbreaks have occurred during winter months, and effective disinfection of poultry premises at freezing temperatures is needed. The commercial disinfectants Virkon and Accel, supplemented with an antifreeze agent [propylene glycol (PG), methanol (MeOH), or calcium chloride (CaCl2)], were evaluated for their effectiveness in killing avian influenza virus (AIV) at −20°C or 21°C. An AIV suspension was applied to stainless steel disks, air-dried, and covered with a disinfectant or antifreeze agent for 5 to 30 min. Virkon (2%) and Accel (6.25%) with 30% PG, 20% MeOH, or 20% CaCl2 inactivated 6 log10 AIV within 5 min at −20°C and 21°C. At these temperatures PG and MeOH alone did not kill AIV, but the 20% CaCl2 solution alone inactivated 5 log10 AIV within 10 min. The results suggested that CaCl2 is potentially useful to enhance the effectiveness of disinfection of poultry facilities after outbreaks of AIV infection in warm and cold seasons. PMID:26424918

  1. Up-Regulation of Interleukin-9 and the Interleukin-9-Associated Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel hCLCA1 in Nasal Mucosa Following In Vivo Allergen Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauber Hans-Peter

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-9 is a pleiotropic T helper 2-type cytokine that has been shown to be up-regulated in allergic airway disease, including asthma. IL-9 has been demonstrated to be a potent stimulus for the production and secretion of mucus from airway epithelial cells via induction of a calcium-activated chloride channel, hCLCA1. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of IL-9 and hCLCA1 following allergen challenge in the nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis patients. Nasal biopsies were obtained from allergic rhinitis patients out of allergen season both before (baseline and after local antigen challenge with either ragweed or diluent (control. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were used to assess IL-9 protein and hCLCA1 messenger ribonucleic acid. Eosinophils and T cells were detected using immunohistochemistry. IL-9 and hCLCA1 were very low at baseline, and expression was significantly up-regulated following ragweed challenge. Whereas the number of eosinophils increased after allergen challenge, T-cell counts did not change significantly. The results of this study demonstrate the relationship between specific allergen challenge and expression of both IL-9 and hCLCA1, suggesting a possible mechanism for the increased production of mucus from airway epithelial cells in allergic rhinitis.

  2. A dose-finding, long-term study on the use of calcium chloride in saline solution as a method of nonsurgical sterilization in dogs: evaluation of the most effective concentration with the lowest risk

    OpenAIRE

    Leoci, Raffaella; Aiudi, Giulio; Silvestre, Fabio; Lissner, Elaine A; Marino, Fabio; Lacalandra, Giovanni M

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine overpopulation is a global issue with serious health and welfare implications. Nonsurgical methods of sterilization could yield positive impacts on this problem, but no long-term data on such methods are available. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the effects of intratesticular injections of calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl2) in saline in dogs over a one year period. Five concentrations (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 60%) of CaCl2 in saline were administered ...

  3. Intercomparison 9711. pH, conductivity, alkalinity, nitrate + nitrite, chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, total aluminium, reactive and non-labile aluminium, dissolved organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand (ICP Waters report)

    OpenAIRE

    Hovind, H.

    1997-01-01

    47 laboratories in 22 countries participated in intercomparison 9711. One sample set for the determination of major ions, organic matter and aluminium fractions, were used. Based on the general target accuracy of + 20%, 78% of the results were acceptable. More than 80% of the result pairs were acceptable for chloride, sulfate, calcium, mangnesium, sodium, dissolved organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand. For pH only 43% of the result pairs were acceptable in relation to the extended target...

  4. Calcium chloride effects on salinity-induced oxidative stress, proline metabolism and indole alkaloid accumulation in Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleel, Cheruth Abdul; Manivannan, Paramasivam; Sankar, B; Kishorekumar, Ashok; Panneerselvam, Rajaram

    2007-09-01

    Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. plants were grown with NaCl and CaCl2 in order to study the effect of CaCl2 on NaCl-induced oxidative stress in terms of lipid peroxidation (TBARS content), H2O2 content, osmolyte concentration, proline (PRO)-metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzyme activities, and indole alkaloid accumulation. The plants were treated with solutions of 80 mM NaCl, 80 mM NaCl with 5 mM CaCl2 and 5 mM CaCl2 alone. Groundwater was used for irrigation of control plants. Plants were uprooted randomly on 90 days after sowing (DAS). NaCl-stressed plants showed increased TBARS, H2O2, glycine betaine (GB) and PRO contents, decreased proline oxidase (PROX) activity, and increased gamma-glutamyl kinase (gamma-GK) activity when compared to control. Addition of CaCl2 to NaCl-stressed plants lowered the PRO concentration by increasing the level of PROX and decreasing the gamma-GK activities. Calcium ions increased the GB contents. CaCl2 appears to confer greater osmoprotection by the additive role with NaCl in GB accumulation. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT) were increased under salinity and further enhanced due to CaCl2 treatment. The NaCl-with-CaCl2-treated C. roseus plants showed an increase in total indole alkaloid content in shoots and roots when compared to NaCl-treated and untreated plants.

  5. Water deficit stress mitigation by calcium chloride in Catharanthus roseus: effects on oxidative stress, proline metabolism and indole alkaloid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleel, C Abdul; Manivannan, P; Sankar, B; Kishorekumar, A; Gopi, R; Somasundaram, R; Panneerselvam, R

    2007-10-15

    The present investigation was conducted to determine whether CaCl(2) increases Catharanthus roseus drought tolerance and if such tolerance is correlated with changes in oxidative stress, osmoregulation and indole alkaloid accumulation. C. roseus plants were grown under water deficit environments with or without CaCl(2). Drought induced oxidative stress was measured in terms of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and H(2)O(2) contents, osmolyte concentration, proline (PRO) metabolizing enzymes and indole alkaloid accumulation. The plants under pot culture were subjected to 10, 15 and 20 days interval drought (DID) stress and drought stress with 5mM CaCl(2) and 5mM CaCl(2) alone from 30 days after planting (DAP) and regular irrigation was kept as control. The plants were uprooted on 41 DAS (10 DID), 46 DAS (15 DID) and 51 DAS (20 DID). Drought stressed plants showed increased LPO, H(2)O(2), glycine betaine (GB) and PRO contents and decreased proline oxidase (PROX) activity and increased gamma-glutamyl kinase (gamma-GK) activity when compared to control. Addition of CaCl(2) to drought stressed plants lowered the PRO concentration by increasing the level of PROX and decreasing the gamma-GK activities. Calcium ions increased the GB contents. CaCl(2) appears to confer greater osmoprotection by the additive role with drought in GB accumulation. The drought with CaCl(2)-treated C. roseus plants showed an increase in total indole alkaloid content in shoots and roots when compared to drought stressed and well-watered plants.

  6. Deep formation waters of Western Europe, Russia and North America characterised by sodium, calcium, magnesium and chloride concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozau, Elke; Hemme, Christina; Sattler, Carl-Diedrich; van Berk, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Deep formation water can be classified according to depth, temperature, and salinity (e.g., Graf et al. 1966, Kharaka & Hanor 2007). Most of the deep formation waters contain dissolved solids in excess of sea water. The hydrogeochemical development of formation water has been discussed for a long time. It is widely accepted that deep aquifers are influenced by the meteoric cycle and geochemical processes within the crust (e.g., Hebig et al. 2012). Similar hydrogeochemical signatures are found in deep formation waters of all continents and can be explained by general geochemical processes within the deep reservoirs (e.g., Land 1995). Therefore, data of deep formation waters from Western Europe, Russia, and North America are collected and classified by the major water components. The data are used to identify important hydrogeochemical processes (e.g., halite dissolution and albitisation) leading to different compositions of formation water. Two significant water types are identified: Na-Cl water and Na-Ca-Cl water. Based on the collected hydrogeochemical data, development trends are stated for the formation waters, and albitisation is favoured as the main process for calcium enrichment. Furthermore, differences of formation water according to stratigraphical units are shown for deep reservoirs of the North German Basin and the North Sea. References: Graf, D.L., 1982. Chemical osmosis, reverse chemical osmosis, and the origin of subsurface brines. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 46, 1431-1448. Hebig, K.H., Ito, N., Scheytt, T., Marui, A., 2012. Review: Deep groundwater research with focus on Germany. Hydrogeology Journal 20, 227-243. Kharaka, Y.K., Hanor, J.S., 2007. Deep fluids in continents: I. Sedimentary Basins. Treatise on Geochemistry 5, 1-48. Land, L.S., 1995. The role of saline formation water in the crustal cycling. Aquatic Geochemistry 1, 137-145. Acknowledgements: The presented data are results of the collaborative research program "gebo" (Geothermal energy

  7. Efeito do cloreto de cálcio na pós-colheita de goiaba Cortibel Calcium chloride application in the post-harvest of guavas Cortibel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Terra Werner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi prolongar o período de conservação e manter a qualidade de goiabas (Psidium guajava L. Cortibel, por meio da aplicação de diferentes concentrações de cloreto de cálcio. Os frutos foram separados em quatro lotes, o controle (sem cálcio e os tratamentos, que receberam a aplicação de CaCl2 a 1%, 2% e 3% (p/v por imersão durante 15 minutos para posterior análise de perda de massa fresca, pH, determinação de firmeza, sólidos solúveis totais, acidez total titulável, relação entre sólidos solúveis totais e acidez total titulável, quantidade de clorofilas a e b e carotenóides, teor de ácido ascórbico na casca e na polpa e atividade da pectinametilesterase. A concentração de 1% foi responsável pela menor perda de massa fresca, maior firmeza e menor atividade da pectinametilesterase, demonstrando que o cálcio é importante para conservação do fruto, uma vez que atua na regulação do seu amadurecimento. Essa concentração retardou a perda de coloração e manteve o maior teor de ácido ascórbico na casca sem, contudo, diferir estatisticamente das outras concentrações no teor de sólidos solúveis totais e pH. Além disso, verifica-se que maiores concentrações de cálcio não beneficiam as características pós-colheita de goiaba.The objective of this work was to extend the conservation period and maintain the quality of guavas (Psidium guajava L. Cortibel, through the application of different concentrations of calcium chloride. The fruits were divided into four lots, the control (without calcium and treatments, which received the application of CaCl2 to 1%, 2% and 3% (p/v by immersion for 15 minutes. The parameters evaluated were fresh weight loss, pH, determination of firmness, total soluble solids content, total titratable acidity, ratio total soluble solids and total titratable acidity, amount of chlorophyll a and b and carotenoid, ascorbic acid content in the rind and pulp and

  8. Can the diagnostic reliability of the thrombin generation test as a global haemostasis assay be improved? The impact of calcium chloride concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parunov, L A; Surov, S S; Liang, Y; Lee, T K; Ovanesov, M V

    2017-05-01

    Thrombin generation test (TGT) is a global haemostasis assay with a potential to predict bleeding tendencies and treatment effects in patients with haemophilia. Despite 15 years of clinical research, the diagnostic value of TGT remains controversial, possibly due to suboptimal sensitivity to coagulation deficiencies, robustness and reproducibility. The goal of this study was to explore the effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) concentration on the TGT's response to intrinsic coagulation factors (F) VIII, IX and XIa. Normal and factor-deficient plasmas supplemented with lacking coagulation factor and different CaCl2 levels were tested by calibrated thrombinography assay. Thrombin peak height (TPH) was strongly CaCl2 dependent, increasing sharply from no TG at 5 mm to a peak at 13.8 mm of CaCl2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.0, 14.5) in normal and normalized deficient plasmas and at 11.9 mm (CI: 9.7, 14.2) in deficient plasmas, and then decreasing slowly to a complete inhibition at 30-40 mm. In contrast, TG lag time, time to peak and endogenous thrombin potential were nearly insensitive to CaCl2 concentrations between 10 and 20 mm. The maximal difference between the TPH in deficient and supplemented plasmas was observed at 15.5 mm (CI: 12.8, 18.1). Variations in CaCl2 concentration in the assay mixture and sodium citrate concentrations in patient plasma samples may affect TGT responses, sensitivity and result in increased inter- and intra-laboratory variance. Implementation of TGT by clinical and quality control laboratories may require optimization of CaCl2 concentration. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Mixed with Normal Saline, Calcium Chloride or KY Jelly as Apical Plug in Simulated Open Apices: An In vitro Microleakage Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrvarzfar, Payman; Akhavan, Hengameh; Ghasemi, Sara; Khodaei, Fatemeh; Tour Savadkouhi, Sohrab; Dianat, Omid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) mixed with normal saline has short working time, delayed setting time, and poor consistency when used as an apical plug. A preliminary study suggested that substituting normal saline with KY Jelly or 5% calcium chloride (CaCl2) as a vehicle expedites the setting time of MTA. The present in vitro study compared the microleakage of ProRoot MTA mixed with normal saline (MS) to that of ProRoot MTA mixed with KY Jelly and/or 5% CaCl2 in simulated canals with open apices. Materials and methods: Thirty six single-rooted extracted human teeth were cleaned and shaped with ProTaper rotary system to make 36 standardized artificially created open apices. Teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=10) and two control groups (n=3). In group 1, MTA was mixed with normal saline (MS) and placed into the canals to form 4 to 5 mm apical plugs. In group 2, MTA was mixed with 5% CaCl2 (MC) and in group 3, MTA was mixed with KY Jelly (MK). The other two groups served as positive and negative controls. The remaining canal spaces in the experimental groups were backfilled with thermoplasticized gutta-percha without sealer. Dye penetration and clearing was used to evaluate the sealing ability of each group. The samples were then examined under stereomicroscope to measure the microleakage of different MTA mixtures in mm. Data were statistically analyzed using One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for determination of normal distribution and then by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests to detect any significance. Results: Positive and negative controls responded as expected. The MS group showed the least mean dye penetration value. There was a significant difference between MS with other groups (PMTA has the least amount of microleakage in canals with open apices. PMID:24396375

  10. The Effect of Lupinus albus and Calcium Chloride on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Plasma Biochemistry and Meat Quality of Male Pigs Immunized Against Gonadotrophin Releasing Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Moore

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and ninety-four pigs were used to assess the effect of two ingredients (Lupinus albus (albus lupins or a combination of calcium chloride and sodium tri-polyphosphate (mineral salts on growth performance, body composition and objective meat quality of pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates and entire male pigs in the late finishing phase. Pigs fed mineral salts ate less feed than those fed the control diet with no effect on growth rate (p > 0.05, backfat (p > 0.05 or fat deposition (p > 0.05. Pigs fed albus lupins had a reduced feed intake (p < 0.001 for all time periods, lower growth rate (p < 0.001 for all time periods, lower backfat (p < 0.005 and decreased fat deposition (p < 0.001 for all time periods compared to those fed the control diet or mineral salts. From day (d 0–28 pigs fed mineral salts had a better feed conversion ratio (p = 0.001 than those fed albus lupins who in turn had an improved feed conversion compared to the control diet. Immunocastrates had thicker backfat than entire males at the end of the experiment (p < 0.001, however, feeding albus lupins to immunocastrated males reduced backfat thickness to similar to entire males fed the control diet (p = 0.01. With the exception of the increased muscle pH at 45 minutes post-exsanguination in mineral salts and albus lupins compared with the control diet (p = 0.03 there was no effect of diet on objective pork quality. Pork from IC males had a higher ultimate pH (p < 0.001, was lighter (L*; p = 0.003, more yellow (p = 0.008 and had a higher drip loss (p < 0.001 compared to entire males. Albus lupins show potential in reducing the increase in feed intake and backfat associated with immunocastration. Mineral salts may be useful in situations where a reduction in feed intake and an improvement in feed conversion is desired and reducing fat deposition is not the objective.

  11. [Regulatory role of calcium activated chloride channel in pulmonary vascular structural remodeling in rats with pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K; Pang, Y S; Su, D Y; Ye, B B; Qin, S Y; Liu, D L; Han, Y L

    2016-09-01

    To explore the regulatory role of calcium activated chloride channel (CaCC) in vascular structural remodeling in pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by high pulmonary blood flow. An abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava shunting operation was used to induce high pulmonary blood flow and establish a PAH rat model.Seventy-five SD rats were randomly divided into normal, sham, shunt, niflumic acid (NFA) 1(0.2 mg/(kg·d))and NFA 2 (0.4 mg/(kg·d)) groups. There were 15 rats in each group. Pulmonary artery pressure and vascular structural remodeling were measured, arteriole contraction ratio among these groups were compared using vascular tone analysis system, and the electrophysiology of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) was recorded using patch clamp technology. Differences between multiple groups were compared through variance analysis and that between groups with q test. Compared with normal ((14.4±1.3 ) mmHg, 1 mmHg=0.133 kPa)and sham groups ((13.5±2.3 ) mmHg), mean pulmonary artery pressure in shunt group ((27.4±2.4 ) mmHg) increased significantly (Ppulmonary artery pressure in NFA 1 group ((21.2±2.0) mmHg) and NFA 2 group ((22.3±2.0) mmHg) decreased significantly (PPulmonary vascular structural remodeling including pulmonary artery stenosis presented in shunt group. Compared with normal ((114.3±1.2)%) and sham ((115.5±1.1)%) groups, arteriole contraction ratio to 10(-5) mol/L phenylephrine in shunt group ((132.6±1.4)%) increased significantly (Ppulmonary vascular structural remodeling alleviated in NFA 1 and NFA 2 groups. Arteriole contraction ratio in NFA 1 group ((126.4±1.3)%) and NFA 2 group ((124.6±1.0)%) decreased significantly compared with shunt group (Ppulmonary arterial hypertension induced by high pulmonary blood flow through regulating membrane potential. NFA attenuate pulmonary vascular structural remodeling and pulmonary pressure through decreasing CaCC current density of PASMC membrane.

  12. Efeito da aplicação do cloreto de cálcio nos frutos da manga 'Tommy Atkins' tratados hidrotermicamente Effect of calcium chloride application on mango fruit cv. Tommy Atkins hydrothermally treated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo Freire Júnior

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da aplicação de cloreto de cálcio, associado ao tratamento hidrotérmico em frutos de manga (Mangifera indica L.. Verificou-se que a associação do tratamento hidrotérmico à aplicação de cloreto de cálcio é viável, e que existe uma correlação positiva entre o Ca aplicado e a quantidade deste elemento na casca, porém com pouca penetração para a polpa do fruto, o que demonstra que o Ca age positivamente na diminuição dos sintomas da antracnose. Pelo contraste apresentado na aparência externa dos frutos, a aplicação de cloreto de cálcio a 4% mostrou melhores resultados, porém sem garantir a qualidade final exigida para a exportação dos frutos. A aplicação de cloreto de cálcio não se mostrou efetiva no aumento do período de conservação dos frutos.The aim of this work was to study the effects of the application of calcium chloride associated with hydrothermal treatment on post-harvest preservation of mango fruit (Mangifera indica L.. The Ca absorption by mango peel and flesh was investigated using the same conditions usually employed for the fruit exportation to the american market. It was verified that the association of heat treatment to Ca application was viable. There was a positive correlation between the amount of Ca applied and the amount of this element presented in the peel, although low penetration toward the flesh was observed. It was demonstrated that Ca reduces anthracnose symptoms. It was also verified, by observing the external appearance of the fruits, that the best results were obtained when 4% of calcium chloride was used, although such concentration did not guarantee the required quality for the fruit exportation. The calcium chloride application was not effective to increase the shelf-life of the fruits.

  13. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Gai-Fei; Feng, Nai-Qian; Song, Qi-Ming

    2014-04-30

    The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short), composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel's salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO₂(-) in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel's salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms.

  14. Mass concentration and ion composition of coarse and fine particles in an urban area in Beirut: effect of calcium carbonate on the absorption of nitric and sulfuric acids and the depletion of chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kouyoumdjian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of coarse (PM10-2.5 and fine (PM2.5 particles were determined between February 2004 and January 2005 in the city of Beirut, Lebanon. While low PM mass concentrations were measured in the rainy season, elevated levels were detected during sand storms originating from Arabian desert and/or Africa. Using ATR-FTIR and IC, it was shown that nitrate, sulfate, carbonate and chloride were the main anionic constituents of the coarse particles, whereas sulfate was mostly predominant in the fine particles in the form of (NH42SO4. Ammonium nitrate was not expected to be important because the medium was defined as ammonium poor. In parallel, the cations Ca2+ and Na+ dominated in the coarse, and NH4+, Ca2+ and Na+ in the fine particles. Coarse nitrate and sulfate ions resulted from the respective reactions of nitric and sulfuric acid with a relatively high amount of calcium carbonate. Both CaCO3 and Ca(NO32 crystals identified by ATR-FTIR in the coarse particles were found to be resistant to soaking in water for 24 h but became water soluble when they were formed in the fine particles suggesting, thereby, different growth and adsorption phenomena. The seasonal variational study showed that nitrate and sulfate ion concentrations increased in the summer due to the enhancement of photochemical reactions which facilitated the conversion of NO2 and SO2 gases into NO3- and SO42-, respectively. While nitrate was mainly due to local heavy traffic, sulfates were due to local and long-range transport phenomena. Using the air mass trajectory HYSPLIT model, it was found that the increase in the sulfate concentration correlated with wind vectors coming from Eastern and Central Europe. Chloride levels, on the other hand, were high when wind originated from the sea and low during sand storms. In addition to sea salt, elevated levels of chloride were also attributed to waste mass burning in proximity to the site. In comparison to other neighboring Mediterranean

  15. Chloride Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and bicarbonate , to help regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base balance . This test measures the level of chloride in ... and bicarbonate , to help regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base (pH) balance . Chloride and electrolyte tests may also be ordered ...

  16. Alleviating negative effects of irrigation-water salinity on growth and vase life of gerbera by foliar spray of calcium chloride and potassium silicate

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mohammadi Torkashvand

    2015-01-01

    The required water for greenhouses in Kishestan, Soume-e-Sara town, Guilan province, Iran, is mainly provided by underground resources that have inappropriate quality. One way to reduce the impact of salinity an plant growth is proper nutrition. This greenhouse research was conducted to evaluate the effect of water salinity and foliar spray of calcium (Ca) and silicon (Si) on growth and vase life of gerbera in a factorial experiment based on compeletly randomized design with two factors. The ...

  17. Acceleration of bone regeneration by activating Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway via lithium released from lithium chloride/calcium phosphate cement in osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Peng, Xiaozhong; Qin, Yongbao; Wang, Renchong; Tang, Jingli; Cui, Xu; Wang, Ting; Liu, Wenlong; Pan, Haobo; Li, Bing

    2017-03-01

    By virtue of its excellent bioactivity and osteoconductivity, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) has been applied extensively in bone engineering. Doping a trace element into CPC can change physical characteristics and enhance osteogenesis. The trace element lithium has been demonstrated to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. We investigated the fracture-healing effect of osteoporotic defects with lithium-doped calcium phosphate cement (Li/CPC) and the underlying mechanism. Li/CPC bodies immersed in simulated body fluid converted gradually to hydroxyapatite. Li/CPC extracts stimulated the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts upon release of lithium ions (Li+) at 25.35 ± 0.12 to 50.74 ± 0.13 mg/l through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in vitro. We also examined the effect of locally administered Li+ on defects in rat tibia between CPC and Li/CPC in vivo. Micro-computed tomography and histological staining showed that Li/CPC had better osteogenesis by increasing bone mass and promoting repair in defects compared with CPC (P osteoporosis.

  18. A dose-finding, long-term study on the use of calcium chloride in saline solution as a method of nonsurgical sterilization in dogs: evaluation of the most effective concentration with the lowest risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoci, Raffaella; Aiudi, Giulio; Silvestre, Fabio; Lissner, Elaine A; Marino, Fabio; Lacalandra, Giovanni M

    2014-10-14

    Canine overpopulation is a global issue with serious health and welfare implications. Nonsurgical methods of sterilization could yield positive impacts on this problem, but no long-term data on such methods are available. The objective of the current investigation was to determine the effects of intratesticular injections of calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl2) in saline in dogs over a one year period. Five concentrations (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 60%) of CaCl2 in saline were administered via intratesticular injection to groups of 10 dogs each. Total sperm count and motility, blood levels of testosterone, and side effects were examined at 0, 2, 6, and 12 months post-injection (PI). Testicular size and semen volume were examined at 0 and 12 months PI. Total sperm count, semen volume and testosterone showed significant dose-dependent decreases upon treatment with 10%-60% CaCl2 compared with either the control group (0% CaCl2) or baseline for each treatment group. Azoospermia was achieved for at least 12 months PI in 60% and 80% of treated dogs after administration of a 10% and 20% CaCl2, respectively. Treatment with 30% or 60% CaCl2 resulted in azoospermia in 100% of dogs, but more side effects were observed, while no side effects were noticed at lower doses. For each treatment group, testosterone levels had decreased an average of 35%-70% at 6 months following treatment. However, testosterone levels rebounded by the 12-month time point in all groups except the highest dosage group (60% CaCl2), which remained at the low end of physiological range throughout the study. Sperm motility dropped to zero or near zero in all dogs treated with CaCl2. Testicular size was significantly smaller at 12 months PI for all groups when compared to baseline. This first long-term study confirms reports of the efficacy of CaCl2 sterilization. However, at dosages free of adverse events, calcium chloride in saline may not provide permanent sterilization as previously believed. Future work should

  19. A novel TMEM16A splice variant lacking the dimerization domain contributes to calcium-activated chloride secretion in human sweat gland epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertongur-Fauth, Torsten; Hochheimer, Andreas; Buescher, Joerg Martin; Rapprich, Stefan; Krohn, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Sweating is an important physiological process to regulate body temperature in humans, and various disorders are associated with dysregulated sweat formation. Primary sweat secretion in human eccrine sweat glands involves Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) channels (CaCC). Recently, members of the TMEM16 family were identified as CaCCs in various secretory epithelia; however, their molecular identity in sweat glands remained elusive. Here, we investigated the function of TMEM16A in sweat glands. Gene expression analysis revealed that TMEM16A is expressed in human NCL-SG3 sweat gland cells as well as in isolated human eccrine sweat gland biopsy samples. Sweat gland cells express several previously described TMEM16A splice variants, as well as one novel splice variant, TMEM16A(acΔe3) lacking the TMEM16A-dimerization domain. Chloride flux assays using halide-sensitive YFP revealed that TMEM16A is functionally involved in Ca(2+) -dependent Cl(-) secretion in NCL-SG3 cells. Recombinant expression in NCL-SG3 cells showed that TMEM16A(acΔe3) is forming a functional CaCC, with basal and Ca(2+) -activated Cl(-) permeability distinct from canonical TMEM16A(ac). Our results suggest that various TMEM16A isoforms contribute to sweat gland-specific Cl(-) secretion providing opportunities to develop sweat gland-specific therapeutics for treatment of sweating disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Lipoxin A4 stimulates calcium-activated chloride currents and increases airway surface liquid height in normal and cystic fibrosis airway epithelia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease characterised by a deficit in epithelial Cl(-) secretion which in the lung leads to airway dehydration and a reduced Airway Surface Liquid (ASL) height. The endogenous lipoxin LXA(4) is a member of the newly identified eicosanoids playing a key role in ending the inflammatory process. Levels of LXA(4) are reported to be decreased in the airways of patients with CF. We have previously shown that in normal human bronchial epithelial cells, LXA(4) produced a rapid and transient increase in intracellular Ca(2+). We have investigated, the effect of LXA(4) on Cl(-) secretion and the functional consequences on ASL generation in bronchial epithelial cells obtained from CF and non-CF patient biopsies and in bronchial epithelial cell lines. We found that LXA(4) stimulated a rapid intracellular Ca(2+) increase in all of the different CF bronchial epithelial cells tested. In non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia, LXA(4) stimulated whole-cell Cl(-) currents which were inhibited by NPPB (calcium-activated Cl(-) channel inhibitor), BAPTA-AM (chelator of intracellular Ca(2+)) but not by CFTRinh-172 (CFTR inhibitor). We found, using confocal imaging, that LXA(4) increased the ASL height in non-CF and in CF airway bronchial epithelia. The LXA(4) effect on ASL height was sensitive to bumetanide, an inhibitor of transepithelial Cl(-) secretion. The LXA(4) stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+), whole-cell Cl(-) currents, conductances and ASL height were inhibited by Boc-2, a specific antagonist of the ALX\\/FPR2 receptor. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence for a novel role of LXA(4) in the stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+) signalling leading to Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion and enhanced ASL height in non-CF and CF bronchial epithelia.

  1. Interaction of calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H), the main components of cement, with alkaline chlorides, analogy with clays; Interaction des silicates de calcium hydrates, principaux constituants du ciment, avec les chlorures d'alcalins. Analogie avec les argiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viallis-Terrisse, H

    2000-10-06

    This work, belonging to a more general study on the structure and reactivity of cement, deals with the experimental and theoretical analysis of the interaction of alkaline chlorides with calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H), the main components of cement paste. The interaction of alkaline cations with C-S-H is interfacial, involving both electrostatic and surface complexation mechanisms. The C-S-H surface is constituted of silanol sites, partially dissociated due to the high pH of the interstitial solution. The calcium ions, present in large amounts in the equilibrium solution of C-S-H, constitute potential determining ions for the C-S-H surface. The alkaline ions seem to compete with calcium for the same surface sites. The adsorption isotherms show that caesium presents a better affinity than sodium and lithium for the C-S-H surface. Moreover, solid-state NMR suggests that caesium forms with the surface sites inner-sphere complexes, whereas sodium seems to keep its hydration sphere. These results are in agreement with zeta potential measurements, which let suppose a specific adsorption of caesium ions, and an indifferent behaviour of both other alkaline ions. A model for the C-S-H surface was proposed, from the electric double layer model, and mass action laws expressing the complexation of the different ionic species with the silanol sites. The whole study relies on a structural analogy with smectites, some clays presenting well-known cationic adsorption properties. The structural similarity between both minerals is enhanced by some similarities of reactivity, though significant behaviour differences could also be noted. (author)

  2. Chloride is essential for contraction of afferent arterioles after agonists and potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Ellekvist, Peter; Skøtt, O

    1997-01-01

    A depolarizing chloride efflux has been suggested to activate voltage-dependent calcium channels in renal afferent arteriolar smooth muscle cells in response to vasoconstrictors. To test this proposal, rabbit afferent arterioles were microperfused, and the contractile dose responses...... chloride. We conclude that norepinephrine and ANG II use different mechanisms for contraction and that extracellular chloride is essential for contraction in afferent arterioles after activation of voltage-dependent calcium channels. We suggest that a chloride influx pathway is activated concomitantly...

  3. Calcium/Thionyl Chloride Battery Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    insulated by pouring vermiculite around it immediately after activation with the 3:1 electrolyte. The S.S. vessel contained sufficient mass to act as a...of gassing. l.Og of Li reacted to the same stage in 20 minutes. Titration of the gas washing NaOH solution from the Ca ampoule revealed that the...solution had gone entirely acidic, requiring 51.8 ml more of NaOH to return the solution to neutrality. The scrubber solution from the Li ampoule required

  4. Calcium chloride improve ethanol production in recombinant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The T7-expression fadK genomes were introduced into Z. mobilis ATCC 31821 in order to increase ethanol production. The recombinant bacteria were named as Z.M.F-1, Z.M.F-2, Z.M.F-3, and Z.M.F-4. However, Z.M.F-4 had the highest ability of producing ethanol by selection. Compared with Z. mobilis ATCC 3182, there ...

  5. Calcium chloride improve ethanol production in recombinant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... However, Z.M.F-4 had the highest ability of producing ethanol by selection. Compared with Z. mobilis ATCC 3182, there was 7% increase in ethanol production for Z.M.F-4 with corn hydrolyaztes as fermentation medium. ... affect the ability of cells to perform efficient and con- sistent conversion of sugars to ...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1193 - Calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... chapter; 2.0 percent for plant protein products as defined in § 170.3(n)(33) of this chapter; 0.4 percent for processed vegetables and vegetable juices as defined in § 170.3(n)(36) of this chapter; and 0.05... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  7. An improved calcium chloride method preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... Transformation is one of the fundamental and essential molecular cloning techniques. In this paper, we have reported a modified method for preparation and transformation of competent cells. This modified method, improved from a classical protocol, has made some modifications on the concentration of.

  8. Tribenzylammonium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waly Diallo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title salt, C21H21NH+·Cl−, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving [(C6H5CH23NH]2[HPO4] and Sn(CH33Cl in ethanol. Both the cation and the anion are situated on a threefold rotation axis. The central N atom in the cation has a slightly distorted tetrahedral environment, with angles ranging from 107.7 to 111.16 (10°. In the crystal, the tribenzylammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of infinite chains along [001]. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin.

  9. Chloride Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the amount of ...

  10. Cor, capacidade de retenção de água e maciez da carne de cordeiro maturada e injetada com cloreto de cálcio Colour, water holding capacity and tenderness of lamb aged and injected with calcium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M.B.L. Zeola

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Os músculos Biceps femoris, Longissimus e Triceps brachii submetidos aos efeitos do tempo de maturação e da injeção com cloreto de cálcio de cordeiros Morada Nova foram estudados quanto às características de cor, capacidade de retenção de água e maciez. Os cordeiros foram abatidos ao atingirem 25kg de peso vivo. Os músculos apresentaram diferenças na cor (luminosidade-L*, teor de vermelho-a* e teor de amarelo-b* 24 horas após o abate. A maturação tendeu a escurecer a carne. O cloreto de cálcio não modificou a cor das carnes provenientes dos músculos Longissimus e Triceps brachii, entretanto as do Biceps femoris apresentaram-se mais vermelhas quando receberam cloreto de cálcio. Quanto à capacidade de retenção de água, a maturação afetou as carnes do Triceps brachii, mas não influenciou as carnes dos músculos Biceps femoris e Longissimus. O cloreto de cálcio não modificou a capacidade de retenção de água dos músculos avaliados. A maturação influiu sobre a maciez do Biceps femoris e do Longissimus.Biceps femoris, Longissimus and Triceps brachii muscles from Morada Nova lambs were submitted to ageing and calcium chloride injection. Colour, water holding capacity and tenderness were studied. Lambs were slaughtered weighting 25kg.. The muscles presented differences in colour (lightness-L*, redness-a* and yellowness- b* 24 hours after rigor mortis instalation. Ageing intensified redness of the meats. Calcium chloride did not modify the colour of Longissimus and Triceps brachii, however, Biceps femoris became more redness after receiving calcium chloride. In relation to water holding capacity, ageing affected meats from Triceps brachii. However, it did not affect Biceps femoris and Longissimus. The calcium chloride didn't modify the water holding capacity of the muscles. Ageing influenced tenderness of Biceps femoris and Longissimus.

  11. Calcium - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urinary Ca+2; Kidney stones - calcium in urine; Renal calculi - calcium in your urine; Parathyroid - calcium in urine ... Urine calcium level can help your provider: Decide on the best treatment for the most common type of kidney ...

  12. Influence of calcium sources on microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation by Bacillus sp. CR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achal, Varenyam; Pan, Xiangliang

    2014-05-01

    Stimulation of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) is likely to be influenced by calcium sources. In order to study such influences, we performed MICCP using Bacillus sp. CR2 in nutrient broth containing urea, supplemented with different calcium sources (calcium chloride, calcium oxide, calcium acetate and calcium nitrate). The experiment lasted 7 days, during which bacterial growth, urease activity, calcite production and pH were measured. Our results showed that calcium chloride is the better calcium source for MICCP process, since it provides higher urease activity and more calcite production. The influences of calcium sources on MICCP were further studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. These analyses confirmed that the precipitate formed was CaCO3 and composed of predominantly calcite crystals with a little amount of aragonite and vaterite crystals. The maximum yield of calcite precipitation was achievable with calcium chloride followed by calcium nitrate as a calcium source. The results of present study may be applicable to media preparation during efficient MICCP process.

  13. Influência do cloreto de cálcio no crescimento de explantes de Gypsophila paniculata L. (Caryophyllaceae, cultivados in vitro Influence of calcium chloride on the growth of Gypsophila paniculata L. (Caryophyllaceae explants, cultivated in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jun Takane

    1994-08-01

    presence of intense green color on the leaves. The explants inoculated with 440 mg/1 de CaCl2 did not have a satisfactory growth after 10 days of incubation, presenting estiolation and low intensify of green color in the leaves. The explants inoculated with 3,520 mg/1 of CaCl2, also did not present satisfactory growth after 60 days of inoculation, probably due to an excess of calcium in the medium or chloride toxicity.

  14. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium carbonate is a dietary supplement used when the amount of calcium taken in the diet is not ... for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve ...

  15. Calcium supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007477.htm Calcium supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. WHO SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the ...

  16. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  17. Neutron scattering techniques for betaine calcium chloride dihydrate under applied external field (temperature, electric field and hydrostatic pressure); Etude par diffusion de neutrons du chlorure de calcium et de betaine dihydrate sous champ externe applique (temperature, champ electrique et pression hydrostatique)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, O

    1997-11-17

    We have studied with neutron scattering techniques betaine calcium chloride dihydrate (BCCD), a dielectric aperiodic crystal which displays a Devil`s staircase type phase diagram made up of several incommensurate and commensurate phases, having a range of stability very sensitive to temperature, electric field and hydrostatic pressure. We have measured a global hysteresis of {delta}(T) of about 2-3 K in the two incommensurate phases. A structural study of the modulated commensurate phases 1/4 and 1/5 allows us to evidence that the atomic modulation functions are anharmonic. The relevance of the modelization of the modulated structure by polar Ising pseudo-spins is then directly established. On the basis of group theory calculation in the four dimensional super-space, we interpret this anharmonic modulation as a soliton regime with respect to the lowest-temperature non modulated ferroelectric phase. The continuous character of the transition to the lowest-temperature non modulated phase and the diffuse scattering observed in this phase are accounted for the presence of ferroelectric domains separated by discommensurations. Furthermore, we have shown that X-rays induce in BCCD a strong variation with time of irradiation of the intensity of satellite peaks, and more specifically for third order ones. This is why the `X-rays` structural model is found more harmonic than the `neutron` one. Under electric field applied along the vector b axis, we confirm that commensurate phases with {delta} = even/odd are favoured and hence are polar along this direction. We have evidenced at 10 kV / cm two new higher order commensurate phases in the phase INC2, corroborating the idea of a `complete` Devil`s air-case phase diagram. A phenomenon of generalized coexistence of phases occurs above 5 kV / cm. We have characterized at high field phase transitions between `coexisting` phases, which are distinguishable from classical lock-in transitions. Under hydrostatic pressure, our results

  18. Protein-Mediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Polowczyk; Anna Bastrzyk; Marta Fiedot

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is an important component in exoskeletons of many organisms. The synthesis of calcium carbonate was performed by mixing dimethyl carbonate and an aqueous solution of calcium chloride dihydrate. The precipitation product was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. In addition, the turbidity of the reaction solution was acquire...

  19. Chloride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vegetables. Foods with higher amounts of chloride include seaweed, rye, tomatoes, lettuce, celery, and olives. Chloride, combined ... RDA is an intake level based on scientific research evidence. Adequate Intake (AI): This level is established ...

  20. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    -Renal vascular reactivity is influenced by the level of dietary salt intake. Recent in vitro data suggest that afferent arteriolar contractility is modulated by extracellular chloride. In the present study, we assessed the influence of chloride on K+-induced contraction in isolated perfused rabbit...... afferent arterioles. In 70% of vessels examined, K+-induced contraction was abolished by acute substitution of bath chloride. Consecutive addition of Cl- (30, 60, 80, 100, 110, and 117 mmol/L) restored the sensitivity to K+, and half-maximal response was observed at 82 mmol/L chloride. The calcium channel....... The results show that K+-induced contraction of smooth muscle cells in the afferent arteriole is highly sensitive to chloride, whereas neurotransmitter release and ensuing contraction is not dependent on chloride. Thus, there are different activation pathways for depolarizing vasoconstrictors...

  1. Efeito da injeção de diferentes concentrações de cloreto de cálcio na textura e aceitabilidade de carne bovina maturada Effeet of different concentration of calcium chloride in texture and aceitability of aged beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Jordão Barrozo Heinemann

    2003-12-01

    taste of beef samples (m. Longissimus dorsi. Myofibril fragmentation increased and shear force decreased with increasing calcium chloride concentration. The effect of calcium chloride addition on sensory evaluation scores was best explained by a quadratic equation, indicating 181,14mM as the best solution concentration. The results demonstrated that calcium chloride solution addition, followed by vacuum aging, is a technological alternative to improve beef quality traits.

  2. Beyond-root calcium fertilization of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Słowik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were performed in the period 1977-1979 on the apple tree cultivar 'Fantazja', on rootstock A 2, M 7 and MM 106 on the effect of spraying with solution containing calcium on the incidence of bitter pit, breakdown, calcium content in the fruit flesh and other features of the fruits. Threefold spraying with calcium nitrate, calcium chloride or Anti-Stipp significantly limited the appearance of bitter pit and breakdown.

  3. Interactions between chloride and sulfate or silica removals from wastewater using an advanced lime-aluminum softening process: equilibrium modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed; Batchelor, Bill

    2007-05-01

    Interactions among chloride, sulfate, and silica removals from recycled industrial wastewater using an ultra-high lime with aluminum process (UHLA) were studied. An equilibrium model that is able to accurately predict the chemical behavior and interactions between chloride and sulfate or silica with UHLA at various initial conditions and chemical reagents was developed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was conducted to identify the precipitated solids formed in the UHLA process. Model predictions indicated that simultaneous removal of sulfate and chloride can be best described by the formation of a solid solution containing calcium chloroaluminate, calcium sulfoaluminate (ettringite), calcium monosulfate, tricalcium hydroxyaluminate, and tetracalcium hydroxyaluminate. However, simultaneous removal of silica and chloride can be best described by precipitation of calcium silicate and calcium aluminosilicate in addition to a solid solution containing calcium chloroaluminate, tricalcium hydroxyaluminate, and tetracalcium hydroxyaluminate. The XRD results indicated the presence of the same solids assumed by the equilibrium model.

  4. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents the state-of-the art: an analytical model which describes chloride profiles in concrete as function of depth...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....... makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...

  5. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...

  6. Acceptance of minerals and other compounds by calcium-deprived rats: 24-h tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, S E; Tordoff, M G

    1996-07-01

    We measured 24-h spontaneous intake of four to eight concentrations of 31 different solutions by groups of rats fed control or low-calcium diets. Relative to controls, those fed low-calcium diet had increased acceptance of one or more concentrations of sodium chloride, sodium acetate, and sodium bicarbonate, but not sodium gluconate. Differences in palatability between these sodium salts were unimportant because the rats fed low-calcium diet consumed more sodium chloride even if this was made less acceptable by adulteration with citric acid. The possibility that calcium-deprived rats have an enhanced general cation or mineral appetite was supported by findings of increased acceptance of one or more concentrations of nine of ten chloride minerals tested (aluminum chloride, ammonium chloride, ferric chloride, ferrous chloride, magnesium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, strontium chloride, zinc chloride). However, there were no differences in acceptance of any concentration of cesium chloride, magnesium sulfate, or lead acetate. Moreover, calcium-deprived rats drank more hydrochloric acid and malic acid than did controls. Thus the effect of calcium deficiency on intake was not confined to minerals. Acidity or bitterness did not appear important because there was no difference between the groups in intake of sulfuric acid, citric acid, or quinine hydrochloride. Consistent with the exacerbating effects of phosphates on calcium deprivation, deprived rats had decreased intakes of phosphates (sodium phosphate, potassium phosphate). However, they also had decreased intakes of sucrose and saccharin. It is clear that calcium deprivation does not induce a general increase in acceptance of all taste solutions, but there appears to be no simple explanation for what these animals consume.

  7. Intercomparison 9610, pH, conductivity, alkalinity, nitrate + nitrite, chloride, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, total aluminium, reactive and non-labile aluminium, dissolved organic carbon, and chemical oxygen demand (ICP Waters report)

    OpenAIRE

    Hovind, H.

    1996-01-01

    36 laboratories in 21 countries participated in intercomparison 9610. Two sample sets, one for the major ions and one for organic matter and aluminium fractions, were used. Based on the general target accuracy of + 20%, 70% of the results were acceptable. More than 80% of the result pairs were acceptable for conductivity, nitrate+nitrite, calcium, sodium and dissolved organic carbon. For pH only 55% of the result pairs were acceptable in relation to the extended target accuracy of + 0.2 units...

  8. Parâmetros de qualidade da carne de cordeiros submetida aos processos de maturação e injeção de cloreto de cálcio Quality parameters of aged and calcium chloride injected lamb meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivea Maria Brancacci Lopes Zeola

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados o pH e a temperatura dos músculos Biceps femoris, Longissimus e Triceps brachii de cordeiros "Morada Nova", durante o período de instalação do rigor mortis, e os efeitos da maturação e da injeção de cloreto de cálcio nas características qualitativas destes músculos. Os cordeiros foram abatidos ao atingirem 25kg de peso vivo. O declínio do pH e da temperatura dos músculos foram monitorados durante a instalação do rigor mortis nos tempos 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 e 24 horas após o abate, com as carcaças refrigeradas em câmara fria a 4°C. Após este período, os músculos foram retirados e submetidos aos respectivos tratamentos com posterior determinação da perda de peso durante a cocção e da maciez. A queda do pH para os músculos Biceps femoris e Longissimus mostrou-se dentro da faixa considerada normal para carne ovina, enquanto o músculo Triceps brachii apresentou pH, às 10, 12 e 24 horas, considerado acima da faixa descrita. O declínio da temperatura apresentou-se típico de condições de resfriamento habituais. O tempo de maturação e a injeção de cloreto de cálcio não afetaram a perda de peso durante a cocção. Em relação à maciez, o tempo de maturação nos músculos Biceps femoris e Longissimus propiciou carne mais tenra e a concentração de 0,3M de cloreto de cálcio melhorou a maciez do músculo Longissimus.Temperature and pH of Biceps femoris, Longissimus and Triceps brachii muscles from ‘Morada Nova' lambs during the rigor mortis and the effects of ageing and calcium chloride injection in qualitative characteristics of these muscles were studied. The lambs were slaughtered with 25kg live weight. The decline of pH and temperature of muscles were monitored during the onset of rigor mortis in times 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours after slaughter, with the carcasses refrigerated at 4°C. The muscles were removed and submitted to respective treatments with determination of cooking loss

  9. Reducing Severity of Late Blight (Phytophthora infestans and Improving Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. Tuber Yield with Pre-Harvest Application of Calcium Nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yewubnesh Wendimu Seifu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of pre-harvest application of calcium chloride alone, calcium nitrate alone, and combined application of calcium chloride and calcium nitrate (1:1 was evaluated in reducing the severity of P. infestans and improving potato tuber yield. Pot experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replications. The treatments consisted of combination of two potato varieties (Shenkola and Gera and three types of calcium nutrients (calcium chloride alone, calcium nitrate alone, and calcium chloride mixed with calcium nitrate, each at three levels (5, 10, and 15 g per liter per plant and the control treatment (0 g of calcium nutrients. In comparison to the control treatment, the application of calcium nutrients significantly decreased the severity of late blight disease and improved potato tuber yield. The effect of calcium nutrients on the severity of late blight disease and potato tuber yield differed among the two potato varieties. The maximum severity reduction (60% was noticed in the Gera potato variety with the application of calcium chloride mixed with calcium nitrate (1:1, supplied at 15 g per plant. However, the highest average tuber yield was obtained with the application of calcium nitrate at 15 g per plant, and average tuber yield was increased by 77% in both potato varieties. Hence, foliar application of either calcium nitrate alone or calcium nitrate mixed with calcium chloride was found to be more efficient than the application of calcium chloride alone. This result suggests that the nitrate ion present in the calcium nitrate may make a difference in terms of reducing the severity of late blight disease and improving potato tuber yield. The lowered severity of late blight disease and the increased tuber yield in potato plants sprayed with calcium nutrients may be because of the higher accumulation of calcium in the plant tissue.

  10. Chloride, alkali- en aardalkalimetaal opneming via de voeding; resultaten van 201 duplicaten van 24-uurs voeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaessen; H.A.M.G.; Kamp; C.G.van de

    1985-01-01

    Onderzocht werden 201 duplicaten van evenzovele 24-uurs voedingen op gehalte aan chloride, natrium, kalium, calcium, magnesium, rubidium en lithium en hieruit werd de opname van deze elementen per persoon en per etmaal berekend. De gemiddelde opname bedroeg voor chloride 5,08 gram, voor natrium

  11. Performance of separation Processes for Precipitated calcium carbonate Produced with an innovative Method from steelmaking slag and carbon Dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Teir, Sebastian; Auvinen, Toni; Said, Arshe; Kotiranta, Tuukka; Peltola, Heljä

    2016-01-01

    In this work, experiments were performed to determine the filterability of calcium carbon-ate produced with an alternative calcium carbonate production concept. The concept uses steelmaking slag as raw material and has potential to fix CO2 emissions and utilize steelmaking slag, simultaneously. As calcium carbonate is precipitated in a solution containing ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, and ammonia, the product needs to be washed and hence filtered. In this work, different separation pro...

  12. Qualidade de kiwis minimamente processados e submetidos a tratamento com ácido ascórbico, ácido cítrico e cloreto de cálcio Quality of kiwis minimally processed and treated with ascorbic acid, citric acid and calcium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Frutos e hortaliças minimamente processados devem apresentar atributos de conveniência e qualidade do produto fresco. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do processamento mínimo de frutos tratados com soluções a 1% de ácido ascórbico, ácido cítrico e cloreto de cálcio, durante armazenamento refrigerado, na qualidade do kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward. A perda de massa foi mínima durante o período de armazenamento. O ácido ascórbico fornecido pelo tratamento foi eficientemente absorvido pelos tecidos, mantendo os níveis de vitamina C cerca de 25% mais elevados nesses frutos do que nos demais tratamentos. A análise microbiológica detectou presença de bolores e leveduras e psicrotróficos, somente no tratamento com ácido cítrico, aos 8 e 10 dias, respectivamente. Não se detectaram coliformes totais e fecais e mesófilos, o que indica que o processamento foi realizado em boas condições higiênicas. Os kiwis minimamente processados e tratados com cloreto de cálcio apresentaram uma vida útil de dez dias. Nos demais tratamentos e no controle, esse tempo foi de seis dias.Minimally processed fruits and vegetables might present the same convenience and quality of fresh products. In this work, the influence of minimal processing of fruits treated with 1% solutions of ascorbic acid, citric acid and calcium chloride on the quality of kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward, during refrigerated storage were investigated. Mass loss was minimal over the storage period. Ascorbic acid furnished by the treatment was effectively absorbed by tissues, keeping the vitamin C levels 25% higher in those fruits, than in other treatments. Microbiological analysis detected the presence of the group molds and yeasts and psychrotrophic in citric acid treatment, at 8 and 10 days, respectively. Total and faecal coliforms and mesophyles were not found, indicating that processing was performed under good hygienic conditions. Minimally

  13. Induced calcium carbonate precipitation using Bacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifan, Mostafa; Samani, Ali Khajeh; Berenjian, Aydin

    2016-12-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation is an emerging process for the production of self-healing concrete. This study was aimed to investigate the effects and optimum conditions on calcium carbonate biosynthesis. Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sphaericus, yeast extract, urea, calcium chloride and aeration were found to be the most significant factors affecting the biomineralization of calcium carbonate. It was noticed that the morphology of microbial calcium carbonate was mainly affected by the genera of bacteria (cell surface properties), the viscosity of the media and the type of electron acceptors (Ca2+). The maximum calcium carbonate concentration of 33.78 g/L was achieved at the optimum conditions This value is the highest concentration reported in the literature.

  14. Comparative Effects of Chloride Channel Inhibitors on LRRC8/VRAC-Mediated Chloride Conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friard, Jonas; Tauc, Michel; Cougnon, Marc; Compan, Vincent; Duranton, Christophe; Rubera, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Chloride channels play an essential role in a variety of physiological functions and in human diseases. Historically, the field of chloride channels has long been neglected owing to the lack of powerful selective pharmacological agents that are needed to overcome the technical challenge of characterizing the molecular identities of these channels. Recently, members of the LRRC8 family have been shown to be essential for generating the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) current, a chloride conductance that governs the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) process. The inhibitory effects of six commonly used chloride channel inhibitors on VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride transport were tested in wild-type HEK-293 cells expressing LRRC8 proteins and devoid of other types of chloride channels (CFTR and ANO1/2). We explored the effectiveness of the inhibitors using the patch-clamp whole-cell approach and fluorescence-based quantification of cellular volume changes during hypotonic challenge. Both DCPIB and NFA inhibited VRAC current in a whole-cell configuration, with IC50 values of 5 ± 1 μM and 55 ± 2 μM, respectively. Surprisingly, GlyH-101 and PPQ-102, two CFTR inhibitors, also inhibited VRAC conductance at concentrations in the range of their current use, with IC50 values of 10 ± 1 μM and 20 ± 1 μM, respectively. T16Ainh-A01, a so-called specific inhibitor of calcium-activated Cl- conductance, blocked the chloride current triggered by hypo-osmotic challenge, with an IC50 of 6 ± 1 μM. Moreover, RVD following hypotonic challenge was dramatically reduced by these inhibitors. CFTRinh-172 was the only inhibitor that had almost no effect on VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride conductance. All inhibitors tested except CFTRinh-172 inhibited VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride conductance and cellular volume changes during hypotonic challenge. These results shed light on the apparent lack of chloride channel inhibitors specificity and raise the question of how these inhibitors

  15. Comparative Effects of Chloride Channel Inhibitors on LRRC8/VRAC-Mediated Chloride Conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Friard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride channels play an essential role in a variety of physiological functions and in human diseases. Historically, the field of chloride channels has long been neglected owing to the lack of powerful selective pharmacological agents that are needed to overcome the technical challenge of characterizing the molecular identities of these channels. Recently, members of the LRRC8 family have been shown to be essential for generating the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC current, a chloride conductance that governs the regulatory volume decrease (RVD process. The inhibitory effects of six commonly used chloride channel inhibitors on VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride transport were tested in wild-type HEK-293 cells expressing LRRC8 proteins and devoid of other types of chloride channels (CFTR and ANO1/2. We explored the effectiveness of the inhibitors using the patch-clamp whole-cell approach and fluorescence-based quantification of cellular volume changes during hypotonic challenge. Both DCPIB and NFA inhibited VRAC current in a whole-cell configuration, with IC50 values of 5 ± 1 μM and 55 ± 2 μM, respectively. Surprisingly, GlyH-101 and PPQ-102, two CFTR inhibitors, also inhibited VRAC conductance at concentrations in the range of their current use, with IC50 values of 10 ± 1 μM and 20 ± 1 μM, respectively. T16Ainh-A01, a so-called specific inhibitor of calcium-activated Cl- conductance, blocked the chloride current triggered by hypo-osmotic challenge, with an IC50 of 6 ± 1 μM. Moreover, RVD following hypotonic challenge was dramatically reduced by these inhibitors. CFTRinh-172 was the only inhibitor that had almost no effect on VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride conductance. All inhibitors tested except CFTRinh-172 inhibited VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride conductance and cellular volume changes during hypotonic challenge. These results shed light on the apparent lack of chloride channel inhibitors specificity and raise the question of how these

  16. Glucose oxidase release from calcium alginate gel capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandino; Macías; Cantero

    2000-08-01

    Diffusion of glucose oxidase within calcium alginate gel capsules has been assayed and the experimental data fitted to a simple semi-empirical power equation, which is used to analyse the solute release from polymeric devices. It was found that an increase in the concentration of sodium alginate and calcium chloride gives rise to a reduction in the enzyme leakage. This was verified when glucose oxidase (GOD) diffusion percentages were compared in capsules with thicknesses of the same order of magnitude but obtained under different experimental conditions. So, the use of sodium alginate and calcium chloride solutions of concentrations 0.5% w/v and 2.6% w/v, respectively, lead to a diffusion percentage of 25 +/- 2. This percentage was reduced to 8 +/- 3 when sodium alginate and calcium chloride concentrations were fixed at 1% w/v and 4% w/v, respectively, even though the thicknesses of the capsules were of the same order of magnitude.

  17. Blockade of chloride channels by DIDS stimulates renin release and inhibits contraction of afferent arterioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Skøtt, O

    1996-01-01

    arterioles with the chloride channel blocker 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS). Renin secretion was equally enhanced by omission of extracellular calcium and by addition of 0.5 mM DIDS. The inhibitory effect of calcium was blocked by DIDS. The stimulatory effects of low calcium [with......Calcium-activated chloride channels have been proposed to control renin release from juxtaglomerular cells and to be involved in the excitation-contraction coupling of the renal afferent arteriole. The hypothesis was tested on renin release from rat glomeruli and in microperfused rabbit afferent...... or without ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid] and DIDS were not additive. In the absence of chloride, basal renin release was suppressed and the stimulatory effect of DIDS was abolished. The DIDS-induced enhancement of renin release was not dependent on bicarbonate...

  18. Solubility of Calcium Phosphate in Concentrated Dairy Effluent Brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kezia, K; Lee, J; Zisu, B; Chen, G Q; Gras, S L; Kentish, S E

    2017-05-24

    The solubility of calcium phosphate in concentrated dairy brine streams is important in understanding mineral scaling on equipment, such as membrane modules, evaporators, and heat exchangers, and in brine pond operation. In this study, the solubility of calcium phosphate has been assessed in the presence of up to 300 g/L sodium chloride as well as lactose, organic acids, and anions at 10, 30, and 50 °C. As a neutral molecule, lactose has a marginal but still detectable effect upon calcium solubility. However, additions of sodium chloride up to 100 g/L result in a much greater increase in calcium solubility. Beyond this point, the concentrations of ions in the solution decrease significantly. These changes in calcium solubility can readily be explained through changes in the activity coefficients. There is little difference in calcium phosphate speciation between 10 and 30 °C. However, at 50 °C, the ratio of calcium to phosphate in the solution is lower than at the other temperatures and varies less with ionic strength. While the addition of sodium lactate has less effect upon calcium solubility than sodium citrate, it still has a greater effect than sodium chloride at an equivalent ionic strength. Conversely, when these organic anions are present in the solution in the acid form, the effect of pH dominates and results in much higher solubility and a calcium/phosphate ratio close to one, indicative of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate as the dominant solid phase.

  19. Calcium Electroporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gibot, Laure; Madi, Moinecha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calcium electroporation describes the use of high voltage electric pulses to introduce supraphysiological calcium concentrations into cells. This promising method is currently in clinical trial as an anti-cancer treatment. One very important issue is the relation between tumor cell kill...... efficacy-and normal cell sensitivity. METHODS: Using a 3D spheroid cell culture model we have tested the effect of calcium electroporation and electrochemotherapy using bleomycin on three different human cancer cell lines: a colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29), a bladder transitional cell carcinoma (SW780......), and a breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB231), as well as on primary normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-n). RESULTS: The results showed a clear reduction in spheroid size in all three cancer cell spheroids three days after treatment with respectively calcium electroporation (p

  20. Protein-Mediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polowczyk, Izabela; Bastrzyk, Anna; Fiedot, Marta

    2016-11-22

    Calcium carbonate is an important component in exoskeletons of many organisms. The synthesis of calcium carbonate was performed by mixing dimethyl carbonate and an aqueous solution of calcium chloride dihydrate. The precipitation product was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. In addition, the turbidity of the reaction solution was acquired to monitor the kinetics of the calcium carbonate structure's growth in the investigated system. In this study, samples of CaCO₃ particles obtained with individual proteins, such as ovalbumin, lysozyme, and a mixture of the proteins, were characterized and compared with a control sample, i.e., synthesized without proteins. The obtained data indicated that the addition of ovalbumin to the reaction changed the morphology of crystals from rhombohedral to 'stack-like' structures. Lysozyme, however, did not affect the morphology of calcium carbonate, yet the presence of the protein mixture led to the creation of more complex composites in which the calcium carbonate crystals were constructed in protein matrices formed by the ovalbumin-lysozyme interaction. It was also observed that in the protein mixture, ovalbumin has a major influence on the CaCO₃ formation through a strong interaction with calcium ions, which leads to the coalescence and creation of a steric barrier reducing particle growth. The authors proposed a mechanism of calcium carbonate grain growth in the presence of both proteins, taking into account the interaction of calcium ions with the protein.

  1. Moxifloxacinium chloride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Xiang Wu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 7-[(1S,6S-8-aza-2-azoniabicyclo[4.3.0]non-8-yl]-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-8-methoxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid chloride monohydrate}, C21H25FN3O4+·Cl−·H2O, crystallizes with two moxifloxacinium cations, two chloride ions and two uncoordinated water molecules in the unit cell. The crystal structure has a pseudo-inversion center except for the chloride ions. In both moxifloxacinium cations, the quinoline rings are approximately planar, the maximum atomic deviations being 0.107 (3 and 0.118 (3 Å. The piperidine rings adopt a chair conformation while the pyrrolidine rings display a half-chair conformation. In the crystal, the carboxyl groups, the protonated piperidyl groups, the uncoordinated water molecule and chloride anions participate in O—H...O, O—H...Cl and N—H...Cl hydrogen bonding; weak intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonding is also present in the crystal structure.

  2. Strontium-89 Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may harm the fetus.notify any health care professional (especially other doctors) giving you treatment that you will be taking strontium-89 chloride.do not have any vaccinations (e.g., measles or flu shots) without talking to your doctor.

  3. BESTROPHIN1 mutations cause defective chloride conductance in patient stem cell-derived RPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshfegh, Yasmin; Velez, Gabriel; Li, Yao; Bassuk, Alexander G; Mahajan, Vinit B; Tsang, Stephen H

    2016-07-01

    Bestrophin1 (BEST1) is expressed in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and mutations in the BEST1 gene commonly cause retinal dysfunction and macular degeneration. BEST1 is presumed to assemble into a calcium-activated chloride channel and be involved in chloride transport but there is no direct evidence in live human RPE cells to support this idea. To test whether BEST1 functions as a chloride channel in living tissue, BEST1-mutant RPE (R218H, L234P, A243T) were generated from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells and compared with wild-type RPE in a retinal environment, using a biosensor that visualizes calcium-induced chloride ion flux in the cell. Calcium stimulation elicited chloride ion export in normal RPE but not in RPE derived from three patients with BEST1 mutations. These data, along with three-dimensional modeling, provide evidence that BEST1 assembles into a key calcium-sensing chloride channel in human RPE. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Congenital chloride diarrhea: late presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Al Bishi, Laila; Mustafa,

    2011-01-01

    Laila Al Bishi1, Mustafa Al Toonisi2Pediatric Department, North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: We report the case of a male infant who presented with diarrhea at 6 months of age. He was failing to thrive, and biochemical investigation revealed hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by the stool chloride result. He was started on high-dose sodium chloride and potassium chloride to...

  5. Interactions between chloride and sulfate or silica removals using an advanced lime-aluminum softening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed; Batchelor, Bill

    2006-12-01

    An advanced softening process called the ultra-high lime with aluminum process (UHLA) was initiated in this research. The UHLA process has the ability to remove sulfate, silica, and chloride from waters such as recycled cooling water and desalination brines. Furthermore, it can remove other scale-forming materials, such as calcium, magnesium, carbonate, and phosphate. The purpose of this paper is to study the interactions among chloride, sulfate, and silica in the UHLA process. Results of equilibrium experiments indicated that sulfate is preferentially removed over chloride. Final chloride concentration increased with increasing initial sulfate concentration. However, initial chloride concentration was found to have negligible effect on final sulfate concentration. Silica was found to have only a small effect on chloride removal.

  6. Partial replacement of sodium chloride in Italian salami and the influence on the sensory properties and texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fieira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cured meat products, such as Italian salami, exhibit high levels of sodium from NaCl, added to ensure flavor and texture. Studies indicates a close relationship between the consumption of these products and hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride on the texture and sensory attributes of Italian salami and to quantify the levels of minerals in the finished product. Four formulations were prepared: without a starter culture (F1; with a starter culture (F2; partial replacement of 60% sodium chloride by  potassium chloride (F3; and partial replacement of sodium chloride by a mixture containing potassium chloride,  magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride (F4. Analyses of Na+, K+, Ca+2 and Mg+2 contents, texture profile and sensory attributes (acceptance test were carried out. Formulations F1, F2, F3 and F4 presented levels of Na+ 0.53, 0.44, 0.36 and 0.30, respectively. The formulations presented a reduction in the sodium chloride content over 25%, thus complying with the requirements of the current legislation. The addition of these salts affected certain important sensory attributes, such as flavor and global impression, and increased hardness and chewiness values.

  7. Extractive process for preparing high purity magnesium chloride hexahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezei Radouanne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers a method for the preparation of magnesium chloride hexahydrate (bischofite from Sebkha el Melah of Zarzis Tunisian natural brine. It is a five-stage process essentially based on crystallization by isothermal evaporation and chemical precipitation. The two first steps were dedicated to the crystallization of sodium chloride and potassiummagnesium double salts, respectively. Then, the resulting liquor was desulfated using calcium chloride solution. After that another isothermal evaporation stage was implemented in order to eliminate potassium ions in the form of carnallite, KCl.MgCl2.6H2O. At the end of this step, the recovered solution primarily composed of magnesium and chloride ions was treated by dioxan in order to precipitate magnesium chloride as MgCl2.6H2O.C4H8O2. This compound dried at constant temperature of 100°C gave good quality magnesium chloride hexahydrate. Besides this salt, the various by-products obtained from the different treatment stages are also useful.

  8. Get Enough Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Calcium Print This Topic En español Get Enough Calcium Browse Sections The Basics Overview Foods and Vitamins ... women, don't get enough calcium. How much calcium do I need every day? Women: If you ...

  9. Calcium carbonate overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tums overdose; Calcium overdose ... Calcium carbonate can be dangerous in large amounts. ... Some products that contain calcium carbonate are certain: ... and mineral supplements Other products may also contain calcium ...

  10. Development of a thresholding algorithm for calcium classification at multiple CT energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, LY.; Alssabbagh, M.; Tajuddin, A. A.; Shuaib, I. L.; Zainon, R.

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a thresholding method for calcium classification with different concentration using single-energy computed tomography. Five different concentrations of calcium chloride were filled in PMMA tubes and placed inside a water-filled PMMA phantom (diameter 10 cm). The phantom was scanned at 70, 80, 100, 120 and 140 kV using a SECT. CARE DOSE 4D was used and the slice thickness was set to 1 mm for all energies. ImageJ software inspired by the National Institute of Health (NIH) was used to measure the CT numbers for each calcium concentration from the CT images. The results were compared with a developed algorithm for verification. The percentage differences between the measured CT numbers obtained from the developed algorithm and the ImageJ show similar results. The multi-thresholding algorithm was found to be able to distinguish different concentrations of calcium chloride. However, it was unable to detect low concentrations of calcium chloride and iron (III) nitrate with CT numbers between 25 HU and 65 HU. The developed thresholding method used in this study may help to differentiate between calcium plaques and other types of plaques in blood vessels as it is proven to have a good ability to detect the high concentration of the calcium chloride. However, the algorithm needs to be improved to solve the limitations of detecting calcium chloride solution which has a similar CT number with iron (III) nitrate solution.

  11. [Determination of Chloride Salt Solution by NIR Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Jian-hong; Jiao, Ming-xing

    2015-07-01

    Determination of chloride salt solution by near infrared spectrum plays a very important role in Biomedicine. The near infrared spectrum analysis of Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride aqueous solution shows that the concentration change of chloride salt can affect hydrogen bond, resulting in the variation of near infrared spectrum of water. The temperature influence on NIR spectrum has been decreased by choosing reasonable wavelength range and the wavelength where the temperature effects are zero (isosbestic point). Chlorine salt prediction model was established based on partial least squares method and used for predicting the concentration of the chlorine ion. The impact on near infrared spectrum of the cation ionic radius, the number of ionic charge, the complex effect of ionic in water has also discussed in this article and the reason of every factor are analysed. Experimental results show that the temperature and concentration will affect the near-infrared spectrum of the solution, It is found that the effect of temperature plays the dominant role at low concentrations of chlorine salt; rather, the ionic dominates at high concentration. Chloride complexes are formed in aqueous solution, It has an effect on hydrogen bond of water combining with the cations in chlorine salt solution, Comparing different chloride solutions at the same concentration, the destruction effects of chloride complexes and catnions on the hydrogen bond of water increases in the sequences: CaCl2 >NaCl>KC. The modeling result shows that the determination coefficients (R2) = 99.97%, the root mean square error of cross validation (RM- SECV) = 4.51, and the residual prediction deviation (RPD) = 62.7, it meets the daily requirements of biochemical detection accuracy.

  12. Effect of calcium nitrite on the properties of concrete used in prestressed piles and beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluates the concretes in steam-cured prestressed piles and beams containing calcium nitrite as protection against chloride-induced corrosion of the steel strands and assesses their field performance over a 3-year period. Concretes contai...

  13. closed cycle solar refrigeration with the calcium chloride system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1986-09-01

    Sep 1, 1986 ... gives an option tree of the alternative schemes. When the energy of the vapour compression machine is solar, the electrical power for driving the compressor can be provided by photovoltaic panels. Alternatively, a concentrating or flat plate solar collector may be used to replace the boiler in a rankine cycle.

  14. Effects of Calcium chloride and magnesium sulphate treatments on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... mg/l solutions of CaCl2 and MgSO4 to investigate the effects of the divalent cations Ca2+ and Mg2+ on visually assessed ripening, the quality of pigments, the total lipids content and the water content. Treatments with both salts in the concentration range used retarded the ripening process in bananas and in pineapples.

  15. Effect of benzimidazole fungicides and calcium chloride on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... Blue mold rot caused by Penicillium expansum. Link and black spot caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler are among the main diseases found on pears and apples in storage (Amrani and Najim, 1985;. Bondoux, 1969, 1992; El Hassani, 1991; Maouni, 1980;. Ramdani, 1989; Selmaoui and Douira, ...

  16. Closed Cycle Solar Refrigeration with the Calcium Chloride System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A closed cycle solid absorption intermittent refrigerator, using CaC12 absorbent and NH3 refrigerant, was constructed and tested to obtain the instantaneous and cumulative available overall COP. The combined collector/absorber/generator unit had double glazing of 1.14 m2 exposed areas. The system was fitted with a ...

  17. Floride reduction from water by precipitation with Calcium Chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... reduction yield of fluoride, a study has been done on the influencing parameters (concentration, pH, temperature) to choose the best conditions. The remove of fluoride is favorable at low concentration of Ca(OH)2, at room temperature and normal acidity. Keywords: fluorine, defluoridation, drinkable water, precipitation ...

  18. closed cycle solar refrigeration with the calcium chloride system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1986-09-01

    Sep 1, 1986 ... machines. These include the vapour compression, the vapour absorption and the thermoelectric methods. Figure 1 gives an option tree of the alternative schemes. When the ... be liquid or solid, absorbs the refrigerant exothermically at low ..... Chiller, M.S. Thesis, Colorado. State University, USA (1984). 2.

  19. Electrochemical studies of calcium chloride-based molten salt systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, Jr., Thomas P. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Conductance and EMF studies of CaCl2-based melts were performed in the temperature range 790--990 C. Conductivity data collected using magnesia tubes and capillaries showed deviations from the data recommended by the National Bureau of Standards. These deviations are attributed to the slow dissolution of magnesia by the CaCl2-CaO melt. Conductivity data for molten CaCl2 using a pyrolytic boron nitride capillary were in reasonable agreement with the recommended data; however, undissolved CaO in CaCl2 may have caused blockage of the pyrolytic boron nitride capillary, resulting in fluctuations in the measured resistance. The utility of the AgCl/Ag reference electrode in CaCl2-AgCl and CaCl2-CaO-AgCl melts, using asbestos diaphragms and Vycor glass as reference half-cell membranes, was also investigated. Nernstian behavior was observed using both types of reference half-cell membranes in CaCl2-AgCl melts. The AgCl/Ag reference electrode also exhibited Nernstian behavior in CaCl2-CaO-AgCl melts using a Vycor reference half-cell membrane and a magnesia crucible. The use of CaCl2 as a solvent is of interest since it is used in plutonium metal purification, as well as various other commercial applications. 97 refs., 33 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Post Harvest Application of Calcium and Sodium Chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation was conducted on post harvest treatment formulations (CaCl2 and NaCl), rate and duration of applications, in a 3X3 factorial experiment, on the Days to Ripeness (D-to-R) and ... ANOVA assumptions were checked, cubic transformation was carried on firmness and TA, while others conformed to assumptions.

  1. Calcium paradox and calcium entry blockers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Slade, A.M.; Nayler, W.G.; Meijler, F.L.

    1984-01-01

    Reperfusion of isolated hearts with calcium-containing solution after a short period of calcium-free perfusion results in irreversible cell damage (calcium paradox). This phenomenon is characterized by an excessive influx of calcium into the cells, the rapid onset of myocardial contracture,

  2. Congenital chloride diarrhea: late presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Bishi L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Laila Al Bishi1, Mustafa Al Toonisi2Pediatric Department, North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: We report the case of a male infant who presented with diarrhea at 6 months of age. He was failing to thrive, and biochemical investigation revealed hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by the stool chloride result. He was started on high-dose sodium chloride and potassium chloride to control the electrolyte imbalance. The disease was difficult to control for a year after diagnosis. Late presentation is associated with severe chronic electrolyte disturbances and high-dose replacement therapy.Keywords: congenital chloride diarrhea, hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, high stool chloride

  3. Involvement of chloride in renin secretion from isolated rat glomeruli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Jensen, B L

    1992-01-01

    M) inhibited renin release reversibly. Substitution of Cl- with nitrate (101 mM) stimulated renin secretion. Substitution with iodide (15 or 101 mM) had no consistent effect. The stimulation induced by calcium-free solutions was high in May and low in September. In the absence of chloride, the response....... It is concluded that the renin secretory process has a demand for permeant anions. The stimulation caused by low external calcium involves at least two mechanisms: one is anion sensitive, powerful, varies with the season, and includes a recruitment phenomenon; another is anion insensitive and weak.......The sensitivity of renin release to changes in anion and calcium concentrations was assessed in superfused rat glomeruli with attached juxtaglomerular cells. Isosmotic substitution of Cl-with gluconate (1/12, 1/6, 1/3, 2/3, or total exchange), isethionate (15 or 101 mM), or sulfate (10 m...

  4. The solubility of magnesium chloride and calcium chloride in near-critical and supercritical water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusbrock, Ingo; Metz, Sybrand J.; Rexwinkel, Glenn; Versteeg, Geert F.

    Applications using supercritical water often encounter the presence of inorganic compounds in feed streams, most often with a minor concentration. These compounds can lead to damage of the equipment via erosion, scaling and corrosion or can influence and disturb the main reaction and processes

  5. Effect of Calcium chloride and Cadmium chloride on the enthalpy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This paper presents the effect of two dissolved inorganic salts, CaCl2 and CdCl2 on the enthalpy of mixing of the binary 1,4 dioxane + water system has been investigated at 303.15 .... liquid mixture taken in the calorimeter to obtain the enthalpy of mixing values in Joules per mole. The performance of the calorimeter and its ...

  6. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  7. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Coronary Calcium Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Also known as Calcium Scan Test A coronary calcium scan is a CT scan of your heart that detects and measures the amount of calcium in the walls of your coronary arteries. Overview ...

  8. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnenthal Eric

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Results Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150°C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. Conclusion The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual

  9. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

    2009-11-16

    This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 degrees C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not

  10. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  11. Preparation of Ultra-fine Calcium Carbonate by a Solvent-free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatment of calcium chloride with sodium carbonate under solvent-free conditions with a supersonic airflow and at a low heating temperature leads to the synthesis of ultra-fine calcium carbonate. The reaction not only involves mild conditions, a simple operation, and high yields but also gives a high conversion rate.

  12. Measurement of atmospheric vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, S S

    1979-02-01

    Methods for atmospheric vinyl chloride measurement have been reviewed. The lowest detection limits and most specific measurement are achieved by scrubbing atmospheric samples with activated charcoal, desorbing the vinyl chloride, and assaying it by gas chromatography (GC). NIOSH currently recommends collecting samples using tubes packed with 150 mg of coconut shell charcoal, desorbing with carbon disulfide, and analyzing by GC equipped with flame-ionization detection (FID); the method is capable of detecting less than 1 ppm vinyl chloride and has an apparent recovery of abo the ppb level with no loss of accuracy or precision. Some field methods, such as infrared analysis and conductivity measurement, are capable of detecting 1 ppm or lower but are subject to interferences by other contaminants; th-y could be useful for evaluating sources of vinyl chloride leaks and for continuous monitoring. Permeation tubes are superior to gravimetric or volumetric methods for generating atmospheres of known vinyl chloride concentration.

  13. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride, and/or polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section. (a...

  14. Calcium source (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getting enough calcium to keep bones from thinning throughout a person's life may be made more difficult if that person has ... as a tendency toward kidney stones, for avoiding calcium-rich food sources. Calcium deficiency also effects the ...

  15. Calcium and bones (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the growth, maintenance, and reproduction of the human ... body, are continually being re-formed and incorporate calcium into their structure. Calcium is essential for the ...

  16. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  17. Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition (CPPD) Fast Facts The risk of ... young people, too. Proper diagnosis depends on detecting calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the fluid of an affected ...

  18. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  19. Protein-Mediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Polowczyk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate is an important component in exoskeletons of many organisms. The synthesis of calcium carbonate was performed by mixing dimethyl carbonate and an aqueous solution of calcium chloride dihydrate. The precipitation product was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR measurements. In addition, the turbidity of the reaction solution was acquired to monitor the kinetics of the calcium carbonate structure’s growth in the investigated system. In this study, samples of CaCO3 particles obtained with individual proteins, such as ovalbumin, lysozyme, and a mixture of the proteins, were characterized and compared with a control sample, i.e., synthesized without proteins. The obtained data indicated that the addition of ovalbumin to the reaction changed the morphology of crystals from rhombohedral to ‘stack-like’ structures. Lysozyme, however, did not affect the morphology of calcium carbonate, yet the presence of the protein mixture led to the creation of more complex composites in which the calcium carbonate crystals were constructed in protein matrices formed by the ovalbumin-lysozyme interaction. It was also observed that in the protein mixture, ovalbumin has a major influence on the CaCO3 formation through a strong interaction with calcium ions, which leads to the coalescence and creation of a steric barrier reducing particle growth. The authors proposed a mechanism of calcium carbonate grain growth in the presence of both proteins, taking into account the interaction of calcium ions with the protein.

  20. Protein-Mediated Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polowczyk, Izabela; Bastrzyk, Anna; Fiedot, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Calcium carbonate is an important component in exoskeletons of many organisms. The synthesis of calcium carbonate was performed by mixing dimethyl carbonate and an aqueous solution of calcium chloride dihydrate. The precipitation product was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. In addition, the turbidity of the reaction solution was acquired to monitor the kinetics of the calcium carbonate structure’s growth in the investigated system. In this study, samples of CaCO3 particles obtained with individual proteins, such as ovalbumin, lysozyme, and a mixture of the proteins, were characterized and compared with a control sample, i.e., synthesized without proteins. The obtained data indicated that the addition of ovalbumin to the reaction changed the morphology of crystals from rhombohedral to ‘stack-like’ structures. Lysozyme, however, did not affect the morphology of calcium carbonate, yet the presence of the protein mixture led to the creation of more complex composites in which the calcium carbonate crystals were constructed in protein matrices formed by the ovalbumin-lysozyme interaction. It was also observed that in the protein mixture, ovalbumin has a major influence on the CaCO3 formation through a strong interaction with calcium ions, which leads to the coalescence and creation of a steric barrier reducing particle growth. The authors proposed a mechanism of calcium carbonate grain growth in the presence of both proteins, taking into account the interaction of calcium ions with the protein. PMID:28774065

  1. Toxicity of calcium salts to aqueous microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhina, K.G.; Dolganova, A.V.; Yakobi, L.K.

    1983-03-01

    This article investigates the toxicity of calcium to aqueous microogranisms by means of a procedure developed by VNII VODGEO (All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Water Supply, Sewer Systems, Hydrotechnical Facilities, and Engineering Hydrogeology), with certain changes in the preparation of the culture water. Proposes that with this method, calcium toxicity can be determined for groups of microorganisms that are among the most important in biochemical wastewater treatment and self-purification of water bodies (saprophytes, phase I and II nitrifiers). Finds that calcium in the form of the hydroxide and chloride is nontoxic under the following conditions: for protozoa in concentrations up to 2 g/liter, for saprophytic bacteria up to 3 g/liter, for phase I nitrifiers up to 1 g/liter, and for phase II nitrifiers up to 0.1 g/liter.

  2. Calcium-induced stabilization of -amylase against guanidine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) denaturation of native and Ca- depleted Bacillus licheniformis α-amylase (BLA) was investigated both in the absence and presence of 2 mM calcium chloride (CaCl2) using circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy and biological activity. In both states (Cadepleted and native form), ...

  3. INFLUENCIA DEL CLORURO DE CALCIO Y DE UN TIPO DE EMPAQUE SOBRE LAS PROPIEDADES FISICOQUÍMICAS Y LA TEXTURA DE LA FRESA (FRAGARIA X ANANASSA DUCH. DURANTE EL ALMACENAMIENTO INFLUENCE OF CALCIUM CHLORIDE AND A PACKING TYPE ON THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND THE TEXTURE OF THE STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA X ANANASSA DUCH DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auris Damely García Mendez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de analizar la influencia del cloruro de calcio (CaCl2, sobre la calidad de las fresas (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. de la variedad Capitola para el consumo fresco, se ensayó su aplicación a una concentración de 0,7%, empacando los frutos con y sin este tratamiento en un tipo de envase plástico con y sin cobertura termoplástica (Envoplast®, en condiciones de refrigeración comercial. Como resultado, se encontró que los frutos tratados y envasados con Envoplast®, tuvieron la menor pérdida de peso y cambios en la textura, °Brix acidez, durante un tiempo máximo de siete días de almacenamiento a 5+1 °C y 95+5% HR. Mientras los frutos no tratados, pero envasados sin la cobertura, presentaron un incremento progresivo de su deterioro en el lapso de tres días, atribuido al alto grado perecedero. En conclusión, el uso del CaCl2 al 0,7% y el tipo de envasado con una película de permeabilidad selectiva que promovió una atmósfera modificada pasiva, permitieron reducir las mermas de peso y la deshidratación de las fresas durante el almacenamiento sin que ocurriera daño por frío. Dada la influencia positiva de este tratamiento para mantener las características fisicoquímicas y de frescura en este producto, se recomendó su uso como alternativa de conservación en postcosecha.With the purpose of analyzing the influence of calcium chloride (CaCl2 on quality of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. Capitola variety for fresh consumption, is testing its implement a concentration of 0.7%, packing the fruits with and without this treatment in a type of container and non-coverage thermoplastic (Envoplast® commercial refrigeration conditions. As a result, it was found that processed and packaged fruit with Envoplast® had the least weight loss and changes in texture, acidity and °Brix, for a maximum of seven das time of storage at 5+1 °C and 95+5% RH. While the treated fruits, but packaged without coverage, had a progressive

  4. Efeito da adição de cloreto de cálcio sobre a qualidade espermática e atividade da aspartato amino transferase no sêmen resfriado de suíno Effect of adding calcium chloride on the spermatic quality and aminotransferase aspartate in cool swine semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pinheiro Lima

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de testar dois processos de resfriamento de sêmen suíno, analisar o efeito da adição de CaCl2 ao diluidor BTS e testar o método de avaliação do perfil enzimático da Aspartato Aminotransferase (AAT sobre a qualidade espermática. Foram utilizados 12 ejaculados suínos de animais procedentes do setor de Suinocultura - DZO/UFLA. Estes ejaculados foram diluídos e receberam diferentes concentrações de CaCl2 (A: 0,0; B: 2,5; C: 5,0 e D: 7,5 mM. As amostras dos ejaculados foram submetidas a três processos de resfriamento (1: convencional - 15º C ; 2: lento - 15º C/5º C; 3: rápido - 5º C, sendo que cada ejaculado ficou armazenado por um período de 72 horas para avaliações da qualidade espermática, constituindo os tratamentos experimentais. Os parâmetros seminais avaliados foram motilidade e vigor espermáticos e perfil enzimático da AAT. Houve diferença significativa (P0,05. Conclui-se que a adição de CaCl2 melhora a motilidade espermática das amostras dos ejaculados suínos e que o processo de resfriamento lento substitui o processo convencional sem afetar a qualidade espermática do sêmen submetido à refrigeração. A avaliação da AAT não é válida para sêmen resfriado.The study was carried out with objective to test two swine semen cooling processes and verify the effects of adding chloride of calcium (CaCl2 on semen dilutor BTS and also to test the evaluation method of Aspartate Aminotransferase (AAT enzymatic profile on the cooled swine semen spermatic quality. Were used twelve samples of ejaculation of breeders supplied by the Swine Breeding section at the DZO/UFLA. The samples were diluted and received different concentrations of CaCl2 (A: 0.0; B: 2.5; C 5.0; D 7.5mM. The samples of ejaculation were submitted to three processes of cooling: 1 - standard cooling (15º C; 2 - slow cooling (15º C/ 5º C; 3 - fast cooling (5º C, and each sample of ejaculation was stored for

  5. STUDY OF SODIUM, POTASSIUM, AND CALCIUM SALTS INFLUENCE ON PROTEIN STABILITY BY DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Tunieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study of protein stability depending on the various technological factors allows to directionally adjust the physicochemical properties of raw meat and the quality of finished meat products. The paper investigates the possibility of using the DSC to study the influence of monovalent and divalent salts on protein thermal stability. In order to determine the effect of sodium chloride and its substitutes, potassium and calcium salts, on the thermal stability of proteins, the studies were carried out with grinded pork longissimus muscle samples salted with sodium chloride at level of 2.0% and with salt compositions containing reduced by 50% level of sodium chloride (a mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides; a mixture of sodium, potassium, and calcium chlorides using the differential scanning calorimeter DSC Q 2000 in the temperature range of 5 °C to 100 °C and the temperature change rate of 1 K/min. It was found that the addition of potassium chloride instead of 50% of sodium chloride had no significant effect on actin and myosin resistance to thermal denaturation. Meat salting using the mixture of sodium, potassium, and calcium chlorides resulted in decrease of myofibrillar proteins stability indicating the destabilizing effect of calcium on actin and myosin. A negative correlation between the magnitude of the ionic strength and the temperature of myosin and actin denaturation has been found. The correlation coefficients were minus 0.99 and minus 0.95 for myosin and actin respectively. Reduction of denaturation temperature for myofibrillar proteins in the presence of calcium chloride opens perspectives to study the possibility of heat treatment at lower temperatures for meat products with reduced sodium content.

  6. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines using methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquate 336) as a catalyst under ultrasonic irradiations.

  7. STABILIZATION OF PERTUSSIS VACCINE IN THE PRESENCE OF BENZETHONIUM CHLORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, B. H.; Eldering, Grace; Graham, Bernice

    1964-01-01

    Olson, B. H. (Division of Laboratories, Michigan Department of Health, Lansing), Grace Eldering, and Bernice Graham. Stabilization of pertussis vaccine in the presence of benzethonium chloride. J. Bacteriol. 87:543–546. 1964.—Data are presented showing that pertussis vaccine preserved with benzethonium chloride (BC; Phemerol) was inactivated during storage. BC-preserved vaccine stored at 37 C showed no measurable mouse-protective potency at 16 weeks. That stored at 0 to 4 C lost approximately 80% of its potency within 1 year. Treatment of pertussis vaccines with aluminum, calcium, magnesium, choline, or dl-lysine before the addition of the BC prevented its uptake by the cells. Pertussis vaccines pretreated with 0.004 m Ca++ or 0.0004 m Al+++ retained 70% of the initial potency after 42 weeks of storage at 37 C. Similar vaccines showed no loss of protective antigens when stored for 1 year at 0 to 4 C. PMID:14127568

  8. Preparation of calcium chloride-loaded solid lipid particles and heat-triggered calcium ion release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Huangying; Kim, Jin-Chul [Kangwon National University, Chunchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    CaCl{sub 2}-loaded solid lipid particles (SLPs) were prepared by a melt/emulsification/solidification method. CaCl{sub 2} microparticles (1-5 μm) could be obtained in a mortar with aid of the dispersant (Tween 80/Span80 (35/65, w/w)) when the ratio of CaCl{sub 2} to dispersant was 2 : 0.1 (w/w). SLP was prepared by dispersing 0.42 g of micronized CaCl{sub 2} particles in 2 g of molten PBSA, emulsifying the mixture at 85 .deg. C in 40 ml of Tween 20 solution (0.5% w/v), and quenching the emulsion in an ice bath. The diameter of CaCl{sub 2}-loaded SLP was 10-150 μm. The unenveloped CaCl{sub 2} could be removed by dialysis and the specific loading of CaCl{sub 2} in SLP was 0.036mg/mg. An EDS spectrum of CaCl{sub 2}-loaded SLP, which was dialyzed, showed that the unenveloped CaCl{sub 2} was completely removed. Any excipients (dispersant, Tween 20, CaCl{sub 2}) had little effect on the melting point of SLPs. No appreciable amount of Ca2+ was released in 20-50 .deg. C for 22 h. But the release degree at 60 .deg. C was significant (about 2.3%) during the same period. The matrix of the lipid particle was in a liquid state at 60 .deg. C, so CaCl{sub 2} particles could move freely and contact the surrounding water, leading to the release. At 70 .deg. C, the release degree at a given time was a few times higher than that obtained at 60 .deg. C.

  9. Dynamic electrochemical measurement of chloride ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement,

  10. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... hydrochloric acid solution and crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  11. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  12. Incidence of cancer among vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldaas, S S; Langård, S L; Andersen, A

    1984-01-01

    The results of a follow up study of the incidence of cancer and the mortality in a cohort of 454 male workers producing vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride are presented. The study population was restricted to employees with more than one year's work experience in the study plant between 1950 and 1969 and the cohort was followed up from 1953 to the end of 1979. Twenty three new cases of cancer were observed compared with 20.2 expected; one case of liver angiosarcoma was found. Five cases of lung cancer were found (2.8 expected) and four cases of malignant melanoma of the skin were observed (0.8 expected). The possibility of a causal relationship between exposure to vinyl chloride and the development of malignant melanomas is discussed. PMID:6691932

  13. INFLUENCE OF POLYMERIC ADDITIVES ON CRYSTALLIZATION OF CALCIUM SULPHATE DIHYDRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustinova Yulia Valer’evna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, functional additives are widely spread in the production of inorganic dry mixtures. However, their impact on the microstructure of products, generated in the process of hardening of inorganic binders, is understudied. In this context, the goal of the work is the study of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO •2H O crystallization. Super plasticizer based on sulfonated melamine-formaldehyde resin, methylcellulose and vinyl acetate, ethylene and vinyl chloride copolymer powder were selected for studies. First, pure calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals were synthesized. Then, synthesized calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals were exposed to the X-ray analysis to determine the nature of influence of polymer additives on the shape and dimensions of crystals. Possible combinations of simple forms of CaSO •2H O were identified by the X-ray analysis and the special software. Electronic microscopy analysis was performed to validate models of calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals. All plasticizers influence the crystallization of calcium sulfate dihydrate. The influence of additives on the shape and dimensions of crystals of calcium sulfate dihydrate can be explained by the fact that molecules of sulfonated melamine-formaldehyde resins, methylcellulose, and copolymers of vinyl acetate, ethylene and vinyl chloride are absorbed by crystal faces. It is proven that the method of X-ray analysis can be used to predict the shape and habitus of crystals.

  14. Substitutions in Calcium Aluminates and Calcium Aluminoferrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS, *CEMENTS, * CALCIUM COMPOUNDS, * FERRITES , *SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY, X RAY DIFFRACTION, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, SUBSTITUTES, CHEMICAL ANALYSIS, ALKALI METAL COMPOUNDS.

  15. Chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environment - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Q; Shi, C.; Schutter, G. de; K. Audenaert; Deng, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environments. Chloride ion exist either in the pore solution, chemically bound to the hydration products, or physically held to the surface of the hydration products. Chloride binding of cement-based material is very complicated and influenced by many factors, such as chloride concentration, cement composition, hydroxyl concentration, cation of chloride salt, temperature, supplementary cementing m...

  16. Lubiprostone: a chloride channel activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Brian E; Levy, L Campbell

    2007-04-01

    In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women aged 18 and over. Lubiprostone is categorized as a prostone, a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite of prostaglandin E1. Lubiprostone activates a specific chloride channel (ClC-2) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to enhance intestinal fluid secretion, which increases GI transit and improves symptoms of constipation. This article reviews the role of chloride channels in the GI tract, describes the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discusses clinically important data on this new medication.

  17. Effect of Calcium Sprays on Mechanical Strength and Cell Wall Fractions of Herbaceous Peony (Paeonia Lactiflora Pall. Inflorescence Stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintao Ge

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an essential element and imparts significant structural rigidity to the plant cell walls, which provide the main mechanical support to the entire plant. In order to increase the mechanical strength of the inflorescence stems of herbaceous peony, the stems are treated with calcium chloride. The results shows that preharvest sprays with 4% (w/v calcium chloride three times after bud emergence are the best at strengthening “Da Fugui” peonies’ stems. Calcium sprays increased the concentrations of endogenous calcium, total pectin content as well as cell wall fractions in herbaceous peonies stems, and significantly increased the contents of them in the top segment. Correlation analysis showed that the breaking force of the top segment of peonies’ stems was positively correlated with the ratio of water insoluble pectin to water soluble pectin (R = 0.673 as well as lignin contents (R = 0.926 after calcium applications.

  18. Characterization of a calcium-soluble protein fraction from yellow mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal with potential application as an additive to calcium-rich drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluko, Rotimi E; Reaney, Martin; McIntosh, Tara; Ouellet, François; Katepa-Mupondwa, Felicitas

    2004-09-22

    A calcium-soluble protein isolate (CSPI) was prepared from the supernatant obtained after addition of 0.75 M calcium chloride to a pH 5.0 aqueous extract of yellow mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal. Total amino acid analysis showed that the CSPI has significantly higher (p proteins. Peptide mass fingerprinting of tryptic peptides of the major polypeptides by mass spectrometry indicated that the CSPI is composed mainly of cruciferin proteins with a contribution from napins (the major allergenic proteins of S. alba). The S. alba CSPI had significantly higher (p protein solubility and emulsion formation ability in the presence of 0.75 M calcium chloride when compared to similar isolates prepared from Brassica juncea (brown mustard) and soybean seed meals. We suggest that the S. alba CSPI could be used to prepare calcium-fortified high protein liquid products. However, the presence of allergenic proteins in this extract may limit its widespread food use.

  19. Calcium channel blocker overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002580.htm Calcium-channel blocker overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Calcium-channel blockers are a type of medicine used to ...

  20. Fenoprofen calcium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002649.htm Fenoprofen calcium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fenoprofen calcium is a type of medicine called a nonsteroidal ...

  1. Calcium and Mitosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, P.

    1983-01-01

    Although the mechanism of calcium regulation is not understood, there is evidence that calcium plays a role in mitosis. Experiments conducted show that: (1) the spindle apparatus contains a highly developed membrane system that has many characteristics of sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle; (2) this membrane system contains calcium; and (3) there are ionic fluxes occurring during mitosis which can be seen by a variety of fluorescence probes. Whether the process of mitosis can be modulated by experimentally modulating calcium is discussed.

  2. Calcium en cardioplegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruigrok, T.J.C.; Meijler, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary perfusion with a calcium-free solution, followed by reperfusion with a calcium containing solution, may result in acute myocardial cell death and in irreversible loss of the e1ectrical and mechanical activity of the heart. This phenomenon is known as the calcium paradox. A number of

  3. Chloride : The queen of electrolytes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O. B.

    Background: Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general

  4. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  5. [Headspace GC/MS analysis of residual vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride in polyvinyl chloride and polyvinylidene chloride products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Suzuki, Masako; Aoyama, Taiki

    2005-02-01

    A headspace GC/MS analysis method for the simultaneous determination of residual vinyl chloride (VC) and vinylidene chloride (VDC) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) products was developed. A test sample was swelled overnight with N,N-dimethylacetamide in a sealed vial. The vial was incubated for 1 hour at 90 degrees C, then the headspace gas was analyzed by GC/MS using a PLOT capillary column. The recoveries from spiked PVC and PVDC samples were 90.0-112.3% for VC and 85.2-108.3% for VDC. The determination limits were 0.01 microg/g for VC and 0.06/microg/g for VDC, respectively. By this method, VC was detected in two PVC water supply pipes at the levels of 0.61 and 0.01 microg/g. On the other hand, VC and VDC were not detected in any of the food container-packages or toys tested.

  6. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones. BHUPINDER KAUR and HARISH KUMAR. ∗. Department of Chemistry, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal 148 106, India e-mail: choprahk67@gmail.com. MS received 21 May 2012; revised 30 January ...

  7. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigier, Jean-François, E-mail: jean-francois.vigier@ec.europa.eu [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Laplace, Annabelle [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Renard, Catherine [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Miguirditchian, Manuel [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Abraham, Francis [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2016-06-15

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10{sup −4.0}, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl{sub 3} precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO{sub 2} powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation. - Highlights: • Precipitation of Uranium (III) is quantitative in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%). • The salt is oxoacid with a water dissociation constant of 10{sup −4.0} at 705 °C. • Volatility of uranium chloride is strongly reduced in reductive conditions. • Coprecipitation of U(III) and Nd(III) leads to a consecutive precipitation of the two elements.

  8. Chemische contaminanten in diervoeder additief Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.; Dam, ten G.

    2010-01-01

    Dit briefrapport beschrijft de resultaten van een onderzoek naar chemische contaminanten in Choline Chloride. De doelstellingen waren: 1) Inzicht te verkrijgen in het voorkomen van (gebromeerde) vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in het diervoederadditief Choline Chloride en het, op basis van de

  9. Prediction of Chloride Penetration into Hardening Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jie Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In marine and coastal environments, penetration of chloride ions is one of the main mechanisms causing concrete reinforcement corrosion. Currently, most of experimental investigations about submerged penetration of chloride ions are started after the four-week standard curing of concrete. The further hydration of cement and reduction of chloride diffusivity during submerged penetration period are ignored. To overcome this weak point, this paper presents a numerical procedure to analyze simultaneously cement hydration reaction and chloride ion penetration process. First, using a cement hydration model, degree of hydration and phase volume fractions of hardening concrete are determined. Second, the dependences of chloride diffusivity and chloride binding capacity on age of concrete are clarified. Third, chloride profiles in hardening concrete are calculated. The proposed numerical procedure is verified by using chloride submerged penetration test results of concrete with different mixing proportions.

  10. Performance of separation processes for precipitated calcium carbonate produced with an innovative method from steelmaking slag and carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian eTeir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, experiments were performed to determine the filterability of calcium carbonate produced with an alternative calcium carbonate production concept. The concept uses steelmaking slag as raw material and has potential to fix CO2 emissions and utilize steelmaking slag, simultaneously. As calcium carbonate is precipitated in a solution containing ammonium chloride, calcium chloride and ammonia, the product needs to be washed and hence filtered. In this work different separation processes, including washing, filtering and drying, were tested on two calcium carbonate slurries produced from steel converter slag and CO2 by a laboratory-scale pilot facility, with the aim of obtaining a solid product with a low chloride content using a minimum amount of washing water. The order of maximum filtration rates achievable of the calcium carbonate slurries was determined by experimental work. The tests included pressure filtration and vacuum filtration and the test series contained altogether 21 different filtration cycles with varying combinations of filtering, washing, and drying steps. The filtered cakes were analyzed by their residual moisture content, chloride content and conductivity, and the filtrates by their residual solids content, chloride content and conductivity. Pressure filtration gave a high capacity (400-460 kg/m2h and a low cake residual moisture content (12-14 wt-%. Vacuum filtration gave slightly higher filtration rates (500-610 kg/m2h at the lowest residual chloride contents of the cakes, but the cake residual moisture also stayed higher (25-26 wt-%. As the vacuum filtration tests used a filter cloth with higher permeability than that of the pressure filtration tests, a slightly higher filtration rate was expected. However, both filtration technologies seem suitable for filtering and washing calcium carbonate prepared with the studied method as a residual chloride content as low as 10 ppm of the filtered solids can be achieved

  11. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  12. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Nannhein, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Altos, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  13. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1959-08-01

    The removal of chlorides from aqueons solutions is described. The process involves contacting the aqueous chloride containing solution with a benzene solution about 0.005 M in phenyl mercuric acetate whereby the chloride anions are taken up by the organic phase and separating the organic phase from the aqueous solutions.

  14. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the Commission...

  16. Contribution of calcium oxalate to soil-exchangeable calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauer, Jenny M.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Acid deposition and repeated biomass harvest have decreased soil calcium (Ca) availability in many temperate forests worldwide, yet existing methods for assessing available soil Ca do not fully characterize soil Ca forms. To account for discrepancies in ecosystem Ca budgets, it has been hypothesized that the highly insoluble biomineral Ca oxalate might represent an additional soil Ca pool that is not detected in standard measures of soil-exchangeable Ca. We asked whether several standard method extractants for soil-exchangeable Ca could also access Ca held in Ca oxalate crystals using spike recovery tests in both pure solutions and soil extractions. In solutions of the extractants ammonium chloride, ammonium acetate, and barium chloride, we observed 2% to 104% dissolution of Ca oxalate crystals, with dissolution increasing with both solution molarity and ionic potential of cation extractant. In spike recovery tests using a low-Ca soil, we estimate that 1 M ammonium acetate extraction dissolved sufficient Ca oxalate to contribute an additional 52% to standard measurements of soil-exchangeable Ca. However, in a high-Ca soil, the amount of Ca oxalate spike that would dissolve in 1 M ammonium acetate extraction was difficult to detect against the large pool of exchangeable Ca. We conclude that Ca oxalate can contribute substantially to standard estimates of soil-exchangeable Ca in acid forest soils with low soil-exchangeable Ca. Consequently, measures of exchangeable Ca are unlikely to fully resolve discrepancies in ecosystem Ca mass balance unless the contribution of Ca oxalate to exchangeable Ca is also assessed.

  17. The role of chloride channels in rat corpus cavernosum: in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Kuo, Yuh-Chen; Liu, Shih-Ping; Chang, Hong-Chiang; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Hsieh, Ju-Ton

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies have identified the existence of outward, depolarizing chloride currents in isolated rat, rabbit, and human corpus cavernosum muscle cells. However, few articles have demonstrated the functional role of chloride channels in vivo in corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Aim. To investigate the role of calcium-dependent chloride channels in erectile function of rat corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Adult male Wistar rats were used to perform an in vivo study in a rat model of erection. Both crura of the rats were isolated to in order to record intracavernosal pressure (ICP) during basal conditions and electrical stimulation of erection, with and without intracorporeal injection of norepinephrine, chloride transport inhibitors, and chloride channel blockers. ICP. ICP increased as the amplitude of electrical stimulation increased, and decreased in a dose-dependent manner (during electrical stimulation) as norepinephrine injection strength increased. Injection into the corpus cavernosum of the Cl(-) channel blockers, niflumic acid, anthracene-9-carboxylic acid, and 4,4'-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene-disulfonic acid increased ICP. Injection into the corpus cavernosum of the Cl(-) channel transport inhibitors bumetanide, ethacrynic acid, and HCO(3)-free 4-(2-hydroxyethyl )-1-1- piperazine ethanesulphonic acid buffer, and also increase the ICP. The effects of both Cl(-) channel blockers and Cl(-) channel transport inhibitors on ICP were concentration-dependent. Our findings suggest that chloride channels play an important role in the regulation of corpus cavernous smooth muscle tone in vivo.

  18. Calcium influx factor (CIF) as a diffusible messenger for the activation of capacitative calcium entry in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H Y; Hanley, M R

    1999-06-30

    Acid extracts of thapsigargin-treated Xenopus oocytes revealed Ca2(+)-dependent Cl- currents by microinjection into Xenopus oocytes. These currents were detected in highly purified fractions by carrying out a sequence of purification steps including gel filtration chromatography and high performance thin layer chromatography. The nature of the membrane currents evoked by the highly purified fractions were carried by chloride ions as blockade by the selective chloride channel blocker 1 mM niflumic acid. Injection of the Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) eradicated the current activities, indicating that the current responses are completely Ca2(+)-dependent. Moreover, the currents were sensitive to the removal of extracellular calcium, indicating the dependence on calcium entry through plasma membrane calcium entry channels. These results elucidate that the highly purified fractions aquired by thapsigargin-stimulated oocytes is an authentic calcium influx factor (CIF). Thus, the detection of increased CIF production from thapsigargin treatment in Xenopus oocytes would give strong support for the existence of CIF as a diffusible messenger for the activation of capacitative calcium entry pathways in Xenopus oocytes.

  19. Calcium Binding Ability of Recombinant Buffalo Regucalcin: A Study Using Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishna, P; Thomas, Jobin; Shende, A M; Bhure, S K

    2017-04-01

    Regucalcin is a calcium regulating multifunctional protein reported to have many important functions like calcium homeostasis, anti-oxidative, anti-apoptotic and anti-cancerous functions. Although it is demonstrated as a calcium regulating protein, the calcium binding ability of regucalcin is still a controversy. The main reason for the controversy is that it lacks a typical EF hand motif which is common to most of the calcium binding proteins. Even though many studies reported regucalcin as a calcium binding protein, there are some studies reporting regucalcin as non-calcium binding also. In the present study, we investigated the calcium binding ability of recombinant buffalo regucalcin by assessing the secondary structural changes of the protein using circular dichroism spectroscopy after adding Ca(2+) to the protein solution. Two types of calcium binding studies were done, one with different concentration of calcium chloride (0.5 mM CaCl2, 1 mM CaCl2, 2 mM CaCl2) and other at different time interval (no incubation and 10 min incubation) after addition of calcium chloride. Significant structural changes were observed in both studies which prove the calcium binding ability of recombinant regucalcin. A constant increase in the α-helix (1.1% with 0.5 mM CaCl2, 1.4% with 1 mM CaCl2, 3.5% with 2 mM CaCl2) and a decrease in β-sheets (78.5% with 0.5 mM CaCl2, 77.4% with 1 mM CaCl2, 75.7% with 2 mM CaCl2) were observed with the increase in calcium chloride concentration. There was a rapid increase in α-helix and decrease in β-sheets immediately after addition of calcium chloride, which subsides after 10 min incubation.

  20. Effects of chloride channel blockers on hypotonicity-induced contractions of the rat trachea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Roberta R; Souza, Emmanuel P; Soares, Pedro M G; Meireles, Ana Vaneska P; Santos, Geam C M; Scarparo, Henrique C; Assreuy, Ana Maria S; Criddle, David N

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the inhibitory effects of blockers of volume-activated (Clvol) and calcium-activated (ClCa) chloride channels on hypotonic solution (HS)-induced contractions of rat trachea, comparing their effects with those of the voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) blocker nifedpine. HS elicited large, stable contractions that were partially dependent on the cellular chloride gradient; a reduction to 41.45±7.71% of the control response was obtained when extracellular chloride was removed. In addition, HS-induced responses were reduced to 26.8±5.6% of the control by 1 μM nifedipine, and abolished under calcium-free conditions, indicating a substantial requirement for extracellular calcium entry, principally via VDCCs. The established Clvol blockers tamoxifen (⩽10 μM) and 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (1–100 μM), at concentrations previously reported to inhibit Clvol in smooth muscle, did not significantly inhibit HS-induced contractions. In contrast, the recognized ClCa blocker niflumic acid (NFA; 1–100 μM) produced a reversible, concentration-dependent inhibition of HS responses, with a reduction to 36.6±6.4% of control contractions at the highest concentration. The mixed Clvol and ClCa blocker, 5-nitro 2-(3-phenylpropylamine) benzoic acid (NPPB; 10–100 μM) also elicited concentration-related inhibition of HS-induced contractions, producing a decrease to 35.9±11.3% of the control at 100 μM. Our results show that HS induces reversible, chloride-dependent contractions of rat isolated trachea that were inhibited by NFA and NPPB, while exhibiting little sensitivity to recognized blockers of Clvol. The data support the possibility that opening of calcium-activated chloride channels under hypotonic conditions in respiratory smooth muscle may ultimately lead to VDCC-mediated calcium entry and contraction. PMID:14691057

  1. Cell cycle dependence of chloride permeability in normal and cystic fibrosis lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubien, J K; Kirk, K L; Rado, T A; Frizzell, R A

    1990-06-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease characterized by abnormal regulation of epithelial cell chloride channels. Nonepithelial cells, including lymphocytes and fibroblasts, may exhibit a similar defect. Two independent techniques were used to assess the macroscopic chloride permeability (PCl) of freshly isolated B lymphocytes and of B and T lymphocyte cell lines. Values for PCl increased specifically during the G1 phase of the cell cycle and could be further enhanced by increasing intracellular adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) or calcium. In lymphocytes from CF patients, regulation of PCl during the cell cycle and by second messengers was absent. Characterization of the cell cycle-dependent expression of the chloride permeability defect in lymphocytes from CF patients increases the utility of these cells in the analysis of the functional consequences of mutations in the CF gene.

  2. Effect of Potassium Citrate on Calcium Phosphate Stones in a Model of Hypercalciuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplin, John R.; Frick, Kevin K.; Granja, Ignacio; Culbertson, Christopher D.; Ng, Adeline; Grynpas, Marc D.; Bushinsky, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Potassium citrate is prescribed to decrease stone recurrence in patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Citrate binds intestinal and urine calcium and increases urine pH. Citrate, metabolized to bicarbonate, should decrease calcium excretion by reducing bone resorption and increasing renal calcium reabsorption. However, citrate binding to intestinal calcium may increase absorption and renal excretion of both phosphate and oxalate. Thus, the effect of potassium citrate on urine calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation and stone formation is complex and difficult to predict. To study the effects of potassium citrate on urine supersaturation and stone formation, we utilized 95th-generation inbred genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rats. Rats were fed a fixed amount of a normal calcium (1.2%) diet supplemented with potassium citrate or potassium chloride (each 4 mmol/d) for 18 weeks. Urine was collected at 6, 12, and 18 weeks. At 18 weeks, stone formation was visualized by radiography. Urine citrate, phosphate, oxalate, and pH levels were higher and urine calcium level was lower in rats fed potassium citrate. Furthermore, calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation were higher with potassium citrate; however, uric acid supersaturation was lower. Both groups had similar numbers of exclusively calcium phosphate stones. Thus, potassium citrate effectively raises urine citrate levels and lowers urine calcium levels; however, the increases in urine pH, oxalate, and phosphate levels lead to increased calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate supersaturation. Potassium citrate induces complex changes in urine chemistries and resultant supersaturation, which may not be beneficial in preventing calcium phosphate stone formation. PMID:25855777

  3. Calcium channel blocker poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calcium channel blockers act at L-type calcium channels in cardiac and vascular smooth muscles by preventing calcium influx into cells with resultant decrease in vascular tone and cardiac inotropy, chronotropy and dromotropy. Poisoning with calcium channel blockers results in reduced cardiac output, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, hypotension and shock. The findings of hypotension and bradycardia should suggest poisoning with calcium channel blockers.Conclusions: Treatment includes immediate gastric lavage and whole-bowel irrigation in case of ingestion of sustainedrelease products. All patients should receive an activated charcoal orally. Specific treatment includes calcium, glucagone and insulin, which proved especially useful in shocked patients. Supportive care including the use of catecholamines is not always effective. In the setting of failure of pharmacological therapy transvenous pacing, balloon pump and cardiopulmonary by-pass may be necessary.

  4. Buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi: lowering acidity, elevating lactic acid bacterial population and dextransucrase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Seo Eun; Moon, Jin Seok; Jung, Jee Yun; Kim, Ji-Sun; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Kim, So-Young; Yoon, Hyang Sik; Han, Nam Soo

    2009-12-01

    This study investigates the buffering effects of calcium salts in kimchi on total acidity, microbial population, and dextransucrase activity. Calcium chloride or calcium carbonate was added in dongchimi-kimchi, a watery-radish kimchi, and their effects on various biochemical attributes were analyzed. The addition of 0.1% calcium chloride produced a milder decrease in the pH after 24 days of incubation, which allowed the lactic acid bacteria to survive longer than in the control. In particular, the heterofermentative Leuconostoc genus population was 10-fold higher than that in the control. When sucrose and maltose were also added along with the calcium salts, the dextransucrase activity in the kimchi was elevated and a higher concentration of isomaltooligosaccharides was synthesized when compared with the control. Calcium chloride was determined as a better activator compound of dextransucrase than calcium carbonate, probably because of its higher solubility. Therefore, the results of this study confirm the ability of the proposed approach to modulate the kimchi fermentation process and possibly enhance the quality of kimchi based on the addition of dietary calcium salts.

  5. Effect of calcium and carbonate concentrations on anionic membrane fouling during electrodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya-Farias, Monica; Bazinet, Laurent

    2006-04-01

    A previous study on electrodialysis of calcium and carbonate high concentration solutions demonstrated that calcium migrated through the cation-exchange membrane (CEM) was blocked by the anion-exchange membrane (AEM) where it formed another fouling. The aim of the present work was to complete the identification of the deposit formed on AEM during electrodialysis and to characterize its physical structure at the interface of the membrane. No fouling was found on the anionic membranes treated without calcium chloride in presence of sodium carbonate, while membranes used during ED process of solutions containing calcium chloride and sodium carbonate were slightly fouled. A thin layer of precipitates was observed on the anionic membrane surface. The appearance of precipitates was typical of a crystalline substance. The size and form of crystal increased in proportion to the concentration of calcium chloride in solution. Large and cubic crystals were the best defined on the membrane treated at 1600 mg/L of CaCl2. The precipitate was identified as calcium hydroxide. However, this fouling was not found to affect significantly the electrical conductivity and the thickness of the membranes. Furthermore, the fouling formed was reversible.

  6. 4-(Methylsulfonylpiperazin-1-ium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecular salt, C5H13N2O2S+·Cl−, the complete cation is generated by crystallographic mirror symmetry, with both N atoms, the S atom and one C atom lying on the reflecting plane. The chloride ion also lies on the mirror plane. The piperazinium ring adopts a chair conformation and the N—S bond adopts an equatorial orientation. In the crystal structure, the component ions are linked into a three-dimensional framework by intermolecular N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  7. Variations in Calcium and Alginate Ions Concentration in Relation to the Properties of Calcium Alginate Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Daemi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alginate belongs to a group of natural polymers called polysaccharides. They have carboxylic functional groups beside hydroxyls which are common in all polysaccharides. These materials show interesting properties due to theirfunctional groups. One of these properties is the ability of this polymer as a suitable carrier of protecting and transferring drugs and biomolecules. The particle sizes of these polymers are very important for their applications, so different techniques were used for preparation of these materials. In this way polymeric nanoparticles of calcium alginate which are excellent carriers in drug delivery systems were prepared by addition of calcium chloride solution to dilute solution of sodium alginate. Investigation of the size and distribution of nanoparticles were analyzed by SEM method. The concentration effects of both alginate and calcium ions on the size and distribution of  nanoparticles were studied in this research. Results showed that the size of nanoparticles obviously decreased with decreasing polymeric alginate concentration because of lower active sites in polymer chain. On the other hand, thesize and distribution of nanoparticles are significantly improved with increase of calcium cation concentrations. The mean particle size 40-70 nm and spherical shape are the main characteristics of the prepared nanoparticles.

  8. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  9. Calcium and bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eat in their diet. Vitamin D is the hormone that helps the gut absorb more calcium. Many older adults have common risks that make bone health worse. Calcium intake in the diet (milk, cheese, yogurt) is low. Vitamin D levels are ...

  10. Calcium D-saccharate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, André Castilho; Hedegaard, Martina Vavrusova; Skibsted, Leif Horsfelt

    2016-01-01

    Molar conductivity of saturated aqueous solutions of calcium d-saccharate, used as a stabilizer of beverages fortified with calcium d-gluconate, increases strongly upon dilution, indicating complex formation between calcium and d-saccharate ions, for which, at 25 °C, Kassoc = 1032 ± 80, ΔHassoc......° = -34 ± 6 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = -55 ± 9 J mol-1 K-1, were determined electrochemically. Calcium d-saccharate is sparingly soluble, with a solubility product, Ksp, of (6.17 ± 0.32) × 10-7 at 25 °C, only moderately increasing with the temperature: ΔHsol° = 48 ± 2 kJ mol-1, and ΔSassoc° = 42 ± 7 J mol-1...... K-1. Equilibria in supersaturated solutions of calcium d-saccharate seem only to adjust slowly, as seen from calcium activity measurements in calcium d-saccharate solutions made supersaturated by cooling. Solutions formed by isothermal dissolution of calcium d-gluconate in aqueous potassium d...

  11. Extracellular Calcium and Magnesium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. The cause of preeclampsia remains unknown and calcium and magnesium supplement are being suggested as means of prevention. The objective of this study was to assess magnesium and calcium in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of Nigerian women with preedamp sia and eclampsia. Setting was ...

  12. Urinary calcium excretion in treated and untreated essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quereda, C; Orte, L; Sabater, J; Navarro-Antolin, J; Villafruela, J J; Ortuño, J

    1996-07-01

    A high prevalence of hypercalciuria has been reported in patients with essential hypertension. Nevertheless, the clinical and therapeutic implications of this finding have scarcely been studied. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of hypercalciuria in an unselected population with essential hypertension and to analyze the relationship between the urinary calcium and the clinical and therapeutic status of these patients. This article presents a prospective study of 112 patients with essential hypertension and 49 healthy normotensive control subjects. Urinary excretion rates of calcium, sodium, chloride, potassium, urinary calcium/creatinine index, the fractional excretion of sodium, potassium and uric acid, the creatinine clearance and serum values of creatinine, urea, uric acid, electrolytes, total proteins, parathormone (intact molecule), plasma renin activity, aldosterone, glucose, and insulin (fasting and after an oral glucose load) were performed in every patient and control subject. Untreated hypertensive patients had a higher prevalence of hypercalciuria (35% had a urinary calcium/creatinine ratio > 0.20 versus 20% of treated hypertensives and 2% of control subjects; P < 0.001). Patients on thiazide or beta-blocker monotherapy had lower urinary excretion rates of calcium and urate than patients on calcium-antagonist monotherapy or untreated patients. Urinary calcium, sodium, and urate correlated positively both in treated and untreated essential hypertension patients. Patients with the higher urinary calcium levels also had higher excretion rates of sodium and urate, higher creatinine clearance rates, and lower serum creatinine and serum uric acid levels. It was concluded that hypercalciuria is a frequent finding of untreated essential hypertension. The association of high urinary calcium levels with high urinary urate excretion rates in the same patient may predispose to development of lithiasis in patients with essential hypertension

  13. Calcium hydroxide silylation reaction with trimethylchlorosilane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoselnov Anatoliy A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The silylation reaction of a calcium hydroxide with a trimethylchlorosilane is studied as a silylation model by the gas-liquid chromatography. The silylation process is divided into three stages. A material balance of these stages is calculated. The schemes of the reactions at each stage of the process are proposed. The modified calcium hydroxide obtained at three repetitive stages of the silylation reaction has been investigated by the x-ray phase analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis, electron microscopy in a combination with the elemental analysis. It has been determined that at the first stage of the interaction the processes of the trimethylchlorosilane hydrolysis and of the hydrolysis products condensation dominate, and at the same time an adsorption process of the trimethylchlorosilane and its derivatives starts. Further, the hydrolysis of the trimethylchlorosilane by the «new» portions of a water formed in the reaction of a calcium hydroxide with a hydrogen chloride takes place, simultaneously the secondary reactions of the Si-O-Ca – ties’ formation and cleavage occur including as a silylation-desilylation dynamic equilibrium process.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7773-01-5) is a pink, translucent, crystalline product. It is also known as manganese...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg..._locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation...

  16. Prediction of Chloride Penetration into Hardening Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Jie Fan; Xiao-Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    In marine and coastal environments, penetration of chloride ions is one of the main mechanisms causing concrete reinforcement corrosion. Currently, most of experimental investigations about submerged penetration of chloride ions are started after the four-week standard curing of concrete. The further hydration of cement and reduction of chloride diffusivity during submerged penetration period are ignored. To overcome this weak point, this paper presents a numerical procedure to analyze simult...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl chloride (VC monomer is a wellknown carcinogenic and mutagenic substance causes liver damages, angiosarcoma of the liver, acro – osteolysis, sclerodermalike changes in workers chronically exposed to this gas. There are following VC emitors to the environment: VC production plants, polymerization facilities and planes where polyvinyl products are fabricated. Because of that, the general population is coming into VC contact through polluted air, food and water. VC concentration in all mentioned sites is very low, often not detectable. There was found any health risk for the general population. The VC air concentration in the vicinity to antropogenic emitors is always higher. Such a situation may causes undesirable health effect for residents living in the neighbourhood. Epidemiological studies are performed to detect the adverse VC effect in selected cohorts. Non of the study did not confirmed cases of angiosarcoma among residents living near a vinyl chloride sites. VC production is growing permanently, so VC emission will be higher. Because of that health monitoring of general population and especially of selected groups seems to be necessary in the future.

  18. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free

  19. Effects of prohexadione-calcium with three rates of phosphorus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... aim was to evaluate the growth of plants treated with pro-Ca with three phosphorus rates (40, 80 and ... pro-Ca,. Prohexadione-calcium;. CCC, chlormequat chloride. Rajapakse, 2005). Moreover, alternative methods such as photoselective films, wind, vibrations, touching, .... No pesticides application or.

  20. Calcium ion binding to a soil fulvic acid using a Donnan Potential model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinsky, J.A. [State Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Mathuthu, A. [National Univ. of Science and Technology, Bulawayo (Zimbabwe). Dept. of Applied Chemistry; Ephraim, J.H. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Theme Research, Water and Environmental Studies; Reddy, M.M. [Geological Survey, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Calcium ion binding to a soil fulvic acid (Armadale Bh Horizon) was evaluated over a range of calcium ion concentrations, from pH 3.8 to 7.3, using potentiometric titrations and calcium ion electrode measurements. Fulvic acid concentration was constant (100 milligrams per liter) and calcium ion concentration varied up to 8 x 10{sup -4} moles per liter. Experiments discussed here included: (1) titrations of fulvic acid-calcium ion containing solutions with sodium hydroxide; and (2) titrations of fully neutralized fulvic acid with calcium chloride solutions. Apparent binding constants (expressed as the logarithm of the value, log {beta}{sub app}) vary with solution pH, calcium ion concentration, degree of acid dissociation, and ionic strength (from log {beta}{sub app}=2.5 to 3.9) and are similar to those reported by others. Fulvic acid charge, and the associated Donnan Potential, influences calcium ion-fulvic acid ion pair formation. A Donnan Potential correction term allowed calculation of intrinsic calcium ion-fulvic acid binding constants. Intrinsic binding constants vary from 1.2 to 2.5 (the average value is about log {beta}=1.6) and are similar to, but somewhat higher than, stability constants for calcium ion-carboxylic acid monodentate complexes. (orig.)

  1. Effects of metabolic acidosis and alkalosis on sodium and calcium transport in the dog kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, R A; Wong, N L; Dirks, J H

    1979-05-01

    Clearance and micropuncture studies have been performed in dogs to examine the effects of acute and chronic metabolic acidosis and acute alkalosis on tubular sodium and calcium transport. Acute metabolic acidosis, induced by the infusion of hydrochloric acid, decreased proximal fluid reabsorption and increased the fractional delivery of sodium and calcium to the distal tubule, but not to the final urine. In comparison with normal dogs, dogs with chronic metabolic acidosis (induced by feeding ammonium chloride) showed an increase in proximal fluid reabsorption and a dissociation of calcium from sodium reabsorption more distally, leading to an increased delivery of calcium relative to sodium at the distal tubule and in the final urine. The infusion of sodium bicarbonate to correct chronic metabolic acidosis, both in intact and thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) dogs, reduced proximal fluid reabsorption and caused a selective enhancement of calcium reabsorption relative to sodium in the more distal nephron, resulting in a reversal of the dissociation observed in acidosis, both at the distal tubule and in the final urine. By contrastin fusion of sodium chloride in parathyroid-intact acidotic dogs did not reduce proximal fluid reabsorption or enhance tubular calcium reabsorption. In nonacidotic dogs, both intact and TPTX, infusion of sodium bicarconate to induce acute alkalosis resulted in selhese data demonstrate the presence of a component of tubular calcium reabsorption situated beyond the proximal tubule, which is inhibited by chronic (but not acute) metabolic acidosis and enhanced by metabolic alkalosis (or bicarbonate infusion) independently of parathyroid hormone.

  2. Studies on magnetic properties of chemically synthesized crystalline calcium ferrite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, A.; Bera, A.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.; Saha, B.

    2016-05-01

    Spinel-type ferrites have taken a very important role for modern electronic industry. Most of these ferrites exhibit low-loss dielectric properties, high resistivity, low eddy current and also high temperature ferromagnetism. Calcium ferrite is one such important metal oxide which is environmentally safe, chemically stable, low cost and greatly abundant. This outstanding material of calcium ferrite is synthesized by a simple chemical precipitation method using NaOH as the precipitating agent. Ferric chloride anhydrous (FeCl3) and Calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl2.2H2O) were used as iron and calcium sources respectively. The samples were heated at 200°C for 8h to obtain homogeneous powder of Calcium ferrite. The powders were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Transmission electrical microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. The polycrystalline nature of the sample was confirmed by X-ray diffraction study. The magnetic properties of the sample were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. Magnetization curve of the prepared sample depicts that as synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles have saturation magnetic moment of 1.74 emu/g and the coercivity of 35.08 Oe with superparamagnetic behavior. The synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles with such magnetic properties will be a candidate material for different applications in electronics and exploring its functionality in the field of recently developing semiconductor device physics and spintronics.

  3. Studies on magnetic properties of chemically synthesized crystalline calcium ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debnath, A., E-mail: debnathanimesh@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania, West Tripura, 799046 India (India); Bera, A.; Saha, B. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania, West Tripura 799046 (India); Chattopadhyay, K. K. [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Spinel-type ferrites have taken a very important role for modern electronic industry. Most of these ferrites exhibit low-loss dielectric properties, high resistivity, low eddy current and also high temperature ferromagnetism. Calcium ferrite is one such important metal oxide which is environmentally safe, chemically stable, low cost and greatly abundant. This outstanding material of calcium ferrite is synthesized by a simple chemical precipitation method using NaOH as the precipitating agent. Ferric chloride anhydrous (FeCl{sub 3}) and Calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) were used as iron and calcium sources respectively. The samples were heated at 200°C for 8h to obtain homogeneous powder of Calcium ferrite. The powders were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Transmission electrical microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements. The polycrystalline nature of the sample was confirmed by X-ray diffraction study. The magnetic properties of the sample were investigated by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) measurements. Magnetization curve of the prepared sample depicts that as synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles have saturation magnetic moment of 1.74 emu/g and the coercivity of 35.08 Oe with superparamagnetic behavior. The synthesized calcium ferrite nanoparticles with such magnetic properties will be a candidate material for different applications in electronics and exploring its functionality in the field of recently developing semiconductor device physics and spintronics.

  4. Calcium sensing in exocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wu, Bingbing; Han, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    Neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones are released through regulated exocytosis of synaptic vesicles and large dense core vesicles. This complex and highly regulated process is orchestrated by SNAREs and their associated proteins. The triggering signal for regulated exocytosis is usually...... an increase in intracellular calcium levels. Besides the triggering role, calcium signaling modulates the precise amount and kinetics of vesicle release. Thus, it is a central question to understand the molecular machineries responsible for calcium sensing in exocytosis. Here we provide an overview of our...

  5. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-02-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  6. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs ...

  7. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a...

  9. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used as th...

  10. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, D.B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference

  11. Uptake of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride by PVC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froehling, P.E.; Koenhen, D.M.; Smolders, C.A.; Bantjes, A.

    1977-01-01

    The uptake of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMAC) by poly(vinyl chloride) has been investigated to provide a more quantitative basis for the preparation of blood-compatible surfaces based on TDMAC-heparin coatings. Sorption isotherms of TDMAC from toluene-cyclohexane and toluene-methanol

  12. Bone repair in calcium-deficient rats: comparison of xylitol+calcium carbonate with calcium carbonate, calcium lactate and calcium citrate on the repletion of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, M M

    1994-06-01

    The potential value of xylitol in calcium therapy was evaluated by comparing the effect of dietary xylitol (50 g/kg diet) + calcium carbonate with the effects of calcium carbonate, calcium lactate and calcium citrate on bone repair of young male rats after the rats consumed for 3 wk a calcium-deficient diet (0.2 g Ca/kg diet). After this calcium-depletion period, the rats were fed for 2 wk one of four diets, each containing 5 g Ca/kg diet as one of the four dietary calcium sources. The diet of the control animals was supplemented with CaCO3 (5 g Ca/kg diet) throughout the study. The Ca-deficient rats showed low bone mass, low serum calcium and high serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, parathyroid hormone (1-34 fraction) and osteocalcin concentrations. They also excreted magnesium, phosphate and hydroxyproline in the urine in high concentrations, and had high bone alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activities. Most of these changes were reversed by the administered of the calcium salts. The highest recoveries of femoral dry weight, calcium, magnesium and phosphate were observed in the groups receiving xylitol+CaCO3 and calcium lactate. Calcium lactate and calcium citrate caused low serum phosphate concentration compared with rats receiving CaCO3 and with the age-matched Ca-replete controls. Xylitol-treated rats excreted more calcium and magnesium in urine than did the other rats, probably due to increased absorption of these minerals from the gut. These results suggest that dietary xylitol improves the bioavailability of calcium salts.

  13. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used in continu......The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  14. Calcium – how and why?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Calcium is among the most commonly used ions, in a multitude of biological functions, so much so that it is impossible to imagine life without calcium. In this article I have attempted to address the question as to how calcium has achieved this status with a brief mention of the history of calcium research in biology. It appears ...

  15. Calcium and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Milk Allergy Figuring Out Food Labels What's a Vegetarian? Osteoporosis Minerals Your Bones Mineral Chart Vitamin D ... Need to Drink Milk? Lactose Intolerance Becoming a Vegetarian Soy Foods and Health Calcium Bones, Muscles, and ...

  16. Stoichiometry of Calcium Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriel

    2005-01-01

    The topic of calcium supplement and its effects on human lives is presented in the way of questions to the students. It enables the students to realize the relevance of chemistry outside the classroom surrounding.

  17. Magnesium, calcium and cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anghileri, Leopoldo J

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium ion (Mg(2+)) and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) control a diverse and important range of cellular processes, such as gene transcription, cell proliferation, neoplastic transformation, immune response and therapeutic treatment...

  18. Effect of Sodium Chloride Concentrations and Its Foliar Application Time on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Pomegranate Fruit (Punica granatum L. CV. “Malas Saveh”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rouhi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. belong to Punicaceae family is native to Iran and grown extensively in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide. Pomegranate is also important in human medicine and its components have a wide range of clinical applications. Cracking causes a major fruit loss, which is a serious commercial loss to farmers. Fruit cracking, seems to be a problem that lessens the marketability to a great extent. Fruit cracking is one of the physiological disorders wherever pomegranate trees are grown. It may be due to moisture imbalances as this fruit is very sensitive to variation in soil moisture prolonged drought causes hardening of skin and if this is followed by heavy irrigation the pulp grows then skin grows and cracks. Many factors i.e., climate, soil and irrigation, varieties, pruning, insects and nutrition statues influence the growth and production of fruit trees. Deficiencies of various nutrients are related to soil types, plants and even to various cultivars. Most nutrients are readily fixed in soil having different PH. Plant roots are unable to absorb these nutrients adequately from the dry topsoil. Foliar fertilization is particularly useful under conditions where the absorption of nutrients through the soil and this difficult situation to be present in the nutrients such as calcium. Since the calcium element is needed, so spraying them at the right time is correct way to save the plant requirements. Therefore, a research conducted on effect of sodium chloride concentrations and its foliar application time on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of pomegranate fruit (Punica granatum L. CV. “Malas Saveh”. Materials and Methods: An experiment conducted at Jarghoyeh, Esfahan, Iran in 2012. The factors were Sodium chloride (0, 5 and 10 g/L and times of spray (15, 45 and 75 days before harvest. The study was factorial experiment in the base of randomized complete blocks design with three replications

  19. Inadvertent injection of potassium chloride instead of sodium chloride during treatment of chronic low back ache with epidural injection leading to paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidural injection of steroid is given for back pain resistant to other conservative management. Normal saline (NS is used as diluent in 80 mg methylprednisolone and a local anesthetic. Due to a similar looking ampoule of NS and potassium chloride (KCl, there is a probability of accidental use of KCl instead of NS. We present a case of a 50 year old male patient having low back ache refractory to other conservative treatments. Epidural injection of steroid was given, but accidently KCl was mixed with methylprednisolone instead of NS. He developed severe cramps in the lower limbs, pruritus, and sweating, and finally paraplegia. Electrocardiography and blood showed features suggestive of hyperkalemia. He was given calcium gluconate and potassium chelating agent along with supportive measures. The patient recovered within 8 h. It is concluded that calcium gluconate and potassium chelating agent can be used if accidentally KCl is injected in epidural space.

  20. Experimental Investigation on Pore Structure Characterization of Concrete Exposed to Water and Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the pore structure characterization of concrete exposed to deionised water and 5% NaCl solution was evaluated using mercury intrusion porosity (MIP, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The effects of calcium leaching, fly ash incorporation, and chloride ions on the evolution of pore structure characteristics were investigated. The results demonstrate that: (i in ordinary concrete without any fly ash, the leaching effect of the cement products is more evident than the cement hydration effect. From the experimental data, Ca(OH2 is leached considerably with the increase in immersion time. The pore structure of concrete can also be affected by the formation of an oriented structure of water in concrete materials; (ii incorporation of fly ash makes a difference for the performance of concrete submersed in solutions as the total porosity and the pore connectivity can be lower. Especially when the dosage of fly ash is up to 30%, the pores with the diameter of larger than 100 nm show significant decrease. It demonstrates that the pore properties are improved by fly ash, which enhances the resistance against the calcium leaching; (iii chlorides have a significant impact on microstructure of concrete materials because of the chemical interactions between the chlorides and cement hydrates.

  1. [Calcium suppletion for patients who use gastric acid inhibitors: calcium citrate or calcium carbonate?].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, H.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Huls, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Various calcium supplements are available for patients who have an indication for calcium suppletion. American guidelines and UpToDate recommend prescribing calcium citrate to patients who use antacids The rationale for this advice is that water-insoluble calcium carbonate needs acid for adequate

  2. Effects of platinic chloride on Tetrahymena pyrifromis GL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jytte R.

    1992-01-01

    Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin......Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin...

  3. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  4. Effect of Calcium and Boron Foliar Application on Fruit Quality in Asian Pear Cultivar ‘KS10’

    OpenAIRE

    K. Khalaj; Ahmadi, N; M. K. Souri

    2015-01-01

    Calcium and boron as plant nutritional elements play major roles in plant physiological processes including regulating various cell and plant functions. Considering the importance of both elements, this study was conducted during 2010-2011 in the Experimental Asian Pear Orchard at Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University. Different concentrations of calcium chloride (0, 0.5 and 0.7 percent) and acid boric (0 and 0.5 percent) were used as foliar spray of Asian pear cultivar "KS10" du...

  5. Cyanidin Chloride inhibits ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis by suppressing RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis and associated signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianwen; Zhou, Lin; Liu, Qian; Tickner, Jennifer; Tan, Zhen; Li, Xiaofeng; Liu, Mei; Lin, Xixi; Wang, Tao; Pavlos, Nathan J; Zhao, Jinmin; Xu, Jiake

    2018-03-01

    Over-production and activation of osteoclasts is a common feature of osteolytic conditions such as osteoporosis, tumor-associated osteolysis, and inflammatory bone erosion. Cyanidin Chloride, a subclass of anthocyanin, displays antioxidant and anti-carcinogenesis properties, but its role in osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoporosis is not well understood. In this study, we showed that Cyanidin Chloride inhibits osteoclast formation, hydroxyapatite resorption, and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast marker gene expression; including ctr, ctsk, and trap. Further investigation revealed that Cyanidin Chloride inhibits RANKL-induced NF-κB activation, suppresses the degradation of IκB-α and attenuates the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). In addition, Cyanidin Chloride abrogated RANKL-induced calcium oscillations, the activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1), and the expression of c-Fos. Further, we showed that Cyanidin Chloride protects against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo. Together our findings suggest that Cyanidin Chloride is capable of inhibiting osteoclast formation, hydroxyapatite resorption and RANKL-induced signal pathways in vitro and OVX-induced bone loss in vivo, and thus might have therapeutic potential for osteolytic diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Microbial geochemical calcium cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarzin, G A

    2002-01-01

    The participation of microorganisms in the geochemical calcium cycle is the most important factor maintaining neutral conditions on the Earth. This cycle has profound influence on the fate of inorganic carbon, and, thereby, on the removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. The major part of calcium deposits was formed in the Precambrian, when prokaryotic biosphere predominated. After that, calcium recycling based on biogenic deposition by skeletal organisms became the main process. Among prokaryotes, only a few representatives, e.g., cyanobacteria, exhibit a special calcium function. The geochemical calcium cycle is made possible by the universal features of bacteria involved in biologically mediated reactions and is determined by the activities of microbial communities. In the prokaryotic system, the calcium cycle begins with the leaching of igneous rock predominantly through the action of the community of organotrophic organisms. The release of carbon dioxide to the soil air by organotrophic aerobes leads to leaching with carbonic acid and soda salinization. Under anoxic conditions, of major importance is the organic acid production by primary anaerobes (fermentative microorganisms). Calcium carbonate is precipitated by secondary anaerobes (sulfate reducers) and to a smaller degree by methanogens. The role of the cyanobacterial community in carbonate deposition is exposed by stromatolites, which are the most common organo-sedimentary Precambrian structures. Deposition of carbonates in cyanobacterial mats as a consequence of photoassimilation of CO2 does not appear to be a significant process. It is argued that carbonates were deposited at the boundary between the "soda continent", which emerged as a result of subaerial leaching with carbonic acid, and the ocean containing Ca2+. Such ecotones provided favorable conditions for the development of the benthic cyanobacterial community, which was a precursor of stromatolites.

  7. Encapsulation optimization of lemon balm antioxidants in calcium alginate hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi-Soulari, Samira; Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2016-11-01

    Calcium alginate hydrogel beads were used to encapsulate lemon balm extract. Chitosan layer was used to investigate the effect of hydrogel coating. To determine the interactions of antioxidant compounds of extract with encapsulation materials and its stability, microstructure of hydrogel beads was thoroughly monitored using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Total polyphenols content and antiradical activity of lemon balm extract were also evaluated before and after encapsulation. Three significant parameters (lemon balm extract, sodium alginate, and calcium chloride concentrations) were optimized by response surface methodology to obtain maximum encapsulation efficiency. The FTIR spectra showed no interactions between extract and polymers as there were no new band in spectra of alginate hydrogel after encapsulation of active compounds of lemon balm extract. The antioxidant activity of lemon balm extract did not change after encapsulation. Therefore, it was found that alginate is a suitable material for encapsulation of natural antioxidants. Sodium alginate solution concentration, 1.84%, lemon balm extract concentration, 0.4%, and calcium chloride concentration, 0.2% was determined to be the optimum condition to reach maximum encapsulation efficiency.

  8. Concrete Durability. Influence of chloride ions concentrations in mixing water and dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Villarino, Begoña

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The most aggressive situation which is responsible for most of the cases of steel reinforcement corrosion in concrete, takes place when chlorides are present in the environment. These chlorides destroy the passivating film of steel and promote the denominated pitting corrosion. In order to study the demonstrated corrosive action of chloride ions on concrete structures, a number of experiments have been designed, to quantify the effect of different amounts of this ion in concrete. Several mixes have been prepared with portland cement type II-C-35 to which it has been added, as an additive in mixing water, NaCl in increasing concentrations. The samples obtained were submerged in different dissolutions of NaCl. From the results obtained it is clear that the chloride content in mixing water does not affect the flux of calcium ions; however, its influence on the flux of chloride ions is significant. Likewise, it is confirmed that the existence of chloride ions in dissolution influences the migration of calcium and chloride ions.

    La situación más agresiva, y la responsable del mayor número de casos de corrosión de armaduras en el hormigón, se da cuando en el ambiente hay presencia de cloruros, pues éstos destruyen de forma puntual la capa pasivante del acero, lo que provoca la denominada corrosión por picaduras. Con objeto de estudiar la demostrada acción perniciosa de los cloruros sobre las estructuras de hormigón, se ha diseñado un conjunto de ensayos con el fin de cuantificar el efecto de las distintas cantidades de este ion en la masa de hormigón. Se han realizado diversas amasadas con cemento tipo II-C-35 a las que se añadió, como aditivo en el agua de amasado, NaCl en concentraciones crecientes. Las probetas obtenidas se sumergieron en disoluciones de NaCl de distintas concentraciones. De los resultados obtenidos se deduce que la presencia de cloruros en el agua de amasado no afecta al flujo de iones cálcicos, mientras

  9. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is based...... on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used...

  10. Calcium orthophosphates in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2013-06-01

    Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or a cavity, remains a major public health problem in the most communities even though the prevalence of disease has decreased since the introduction of fluorides for dental care. Therefore, biomaterials to fill dental defects appear to be necessary to fulfill customers' needs regarding the properties and the processing of the products. Bioceramics and glass-ceramics are widely used for these purposes, as dental inlays, onlays, veneers, crowns or bridges. Calcium orthophosphates belong to bioceramics but they have some specific advantages over other types of bioceramics due to a chemical similarity to the inorganic part of both human and mammalian bones and teeth. Therefore, calcium orthophosphates (both alone and as components of various formulations) are used in dentistry as both dental fillers and implantable scaffolds. This review provides brief information on calcium orthophosphates and describes in details current state-of-the-art on their applications in dentistry and dentistry-related fields. Among the recognized dental specialties, calcium orthophosphates are most frequently used in periodontics; however, the majority of the publications on calcium orthophosphates in dentistry are devoted to unspecified "dental" fields.

  11. Effects of Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride and Calcium Chloride on the Formation of α-Dicarbonyl Compounds, Furfurals and Development of Browning in Cookies during Baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-10-02

    Effect of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, NaHCO3, and NH4HCO3 on the formation of glucosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, diacetyl, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2-furfural and browning were investigated in cookies. Presence of 1.5% NaCl, 1% KCl, and 1% CaCl2 on flour basis had no effect on α-dicarbonyl compounds, except 1-deoxyglucosone increased in the presence of KCl and CaCl2. The increase in 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural formation in the presence of NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 did not relate to 3-deoxyglucosone formation and pH changes. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 increased browning in cookies. Model reaction systems indicated that NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 enhance browning by increasing furfurals in caramelization. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 decreased browning intensity in heated glucose-glycine system. Usage of CaCl2 in cookies may considerably increase furfurals but not α-dicarbonyl compounds. Sodium reduction can be obtained by replacement with potassium without sacrificing the desired consequences of caramelization in sugar rich bakeries.

  12. Chloride Accumulators NKCC1 and AE2 in Mouse GnRH Neurons: Implications for GABAA Mediated Excitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Taylor-Burds

    Full Text Available A developmental "switch" in chloride transporters occurs in most neurons resulting in GABAA mediated hyperpolarization in the adult. However, several neuronal cell subtypes maintain primarily depolarizing responses to GABAA receptor activation. Among this group are gonadotropin-releasing hormone-1 (GnRH neurons, which control puberty and reproduction. NKCC1 is the primary chloride accumulator in neurons, expressed at high levels early in development and contributes to depolarization after GABAA receptor activation. In contrast, KCC2 is the primary chloride extruder in neurons, expressed at high levels in the adult and contributes to hyperpolarization after GABAA receptor activation. Anion exchangers (AEs are also potential modulators of responses to GABAA activation since they accumulate chloride and extrude bicarbonate. To evaluate the mechanism(s underlying GABAA mediated depolarization, GnRH neurons were analyzed for 1 expression of chloride transporters and AEs in embryonic, pre-pubertal, and adult mice 2 responses to GABAA receptor activation in NKCC1-/- mice and 3 function of AEs in these responses. At all ages, GnRH neurons were immunopositive for NKCC1 and AE2 but not KCC2 or AE3. Using explants, calcium imaging and gramicidin perforated patch clamp techniques we found that GnRH neurons from NKCC1-/- mice retained relatively normal responses to the GABAA agonist muscimol. However, acute pharmacological inhibition of NKCC1 with bumetanide eliminated the depolarization/calcium response to muscimol in 40% of GnRH neurons from WT mice. In the remaining GnRH neurons, HCO3- mediated mechanisms accounted for the remaining calcium responses to muscimol. Collectively these data reveal mechanisms responsible for maintaining depolarizing GABAA mediated transmission in GnRH neurons.

  13. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of.... Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining access to the Commission...

  14. Calcium Signalling: Fishing Out Molecules of Mitochondrial Calcium Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Hajnóczky, György; Csordás, György

    2010-01-01

    Cellular energy metabolism, survival and death are controlled by mitochondrial calcium signals originating in the cytoplasm. Now, RNAi studies link three proteins — MICU1, NCLX and LETM1 — to the previously unknown molecular mechanism of mitochondrial calcium transport.

  15. Bicarbonate secretion and chloride absorption by rabbit cortical collecting ducts. Role of chloride/bicarbonate exchange.

    OpenAIRE

    Star, R A; Burg, M. B.; Knepper, M A

    1985-01-01

    Cortical collecting ducts (CCD) from rabbits treated with deoxycorticosterone (DOC) actively secrete bicarbonate at high rates. To investigate the mechanism of bicarbonate secretion, we measured bicarbonate and chloride transport in CCD from rabbits treated with DOC for 9-24 d. Removal of chloride (replaced with gluconate) from both perfusate and bath inhibited bicarbonate secretion without changing transepithelial voltage. Removal of chloride only from the bath increased bicarbonate secretio...

  16. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  17. Effect of calcium in brine on salt diffusion and water distribution of Mozzarella cheese during brining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, J; Pan, T; Guo, H Y; Ren, F Z

    2013-02-01

    A soft, pasty, high-moisture surface defect occurs with progressive brining of Mozzarella cheese. Addition of calcium is traditionally used to prevent this defect but the underlying mechanism is not clear. Mozzarella cheese was formed into a cylinder inside brine on its plane surface to ensure semi-infinite, unidirectional mass transfer and placed into brine containing 0, 0.1, or 0.25% (wt/wt) calcium chloride. To monitor the effect on cheese composition of calcium in brine, we measured calcium and water contents of the cheese during brining. The extent of calcium loss from the cheese decreased significantly with the addition of calcium. Addition of calcium to a final concentration of 0.25% decreased the loss of calcium from 94.13 to 18.22% from the outside region of the cheese after 30 d, and the water content of the cheese was decreased from 67.8 to 48.8%. To further elucidate the effect of calcium in brine, the Boltzmann method was used to determine the effective diffusion coefficient value, and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance was used to measure the cheese transversal relaxation time. The migration of calcium interfered with salt diffusion. At the end of brining, the amount of water bound to the protein of the cheese significantly increased. Addition of calcium to a final concentration of 0.25% diminished the proportion of bound water by 20.96%. In conclusion, addition of calcium hinders the diffusion of sodium and modifies the distribution of water in Mozzarella cheese during brining. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Methyl chloride via oxhydrochlorination of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, R.F. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Dow Corning is developing a route from methane to methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination (OHC) chemistry with joint support from the Gas Research Institute and the Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center. Dow Corning is the world`s largest producer of methyl chloride and uses it as an intermediate in the production of silicone materials. Other uses include production of higher hydrocarbons, methyl cellulose, quaternary ammonium salts and herbicides. The objective of this project is to demonstrate and develop a route to methyl chloride with reduced variable cost by using methane instead of methanol raw materials. Methyl chloride is currently produced from methanol, but U.S. demand is typically higher than available domestic supply, resulting in fluctuating prices. OHC technology utilizes domestic natural gas as a feedstock, which allows a lower-cost source of methyl chloride which is independent of methanol. In addition to other uses of methyl chloride, OHC could be a key step in a gas-to-liquid fuels process. These uses could divert significant methanol demand to methane. A stable and selective catalyst has been developed in the laboratory and evaluated in a purpose-built demonstration unit. Materials of construction issues have been resolved and the unit has been run under a range of conditions to evaluate catalyst performance and stability. Many technological advances have been made, especially in the areas of catalyst development, online FTIR analysis of the product stream, and recovery of methyl chloride product via an absorber/stripper system. Significant technological hurdles still remain including heat transfer, catalysts scaleup, orthogonality in modeling, and scaleable absorption data. Economics of the oxyhydrochlorination process have been evaluated an found to be unfavorable due to high capital and utility costs. Future efforts will focus on improved methane conversion at high methyl chloride selectivity.

  19. The kinetics of the hydrogen chloride oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Martinez Isai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen chloride (HCl oxidation has been investigated on technical membrane electrode assemblies in a cyclone flow cell. Influence of Nafion loading, temperature and hydrogen chloride mole fraction in the gas phase has been studied. The apparent kinetic parameters like reaction order with respect to HCl, Tafel slope and activation energy have been determined from polarization data. The apparent kinetic parameters suggest that the recombination of adsorbed Cl intermediate is the rate determining step.

  20. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method prov...

  1. High temperature alloy chloridation at 850 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, S.; Bekaddour, A. [Laboratoire de Recherches sur la Reactivite des Solides, UMR 5613 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 avenue Alain Savary, 21078 Dijon (France); Ched' Homme, S. [DTM/SRPU/LPPU, CEA Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Amilain-Basset, K.; Buisson, L. [Interface Caracterisation des Materiaux, Universite de Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon (France)

    2007-05-15

    The resistance of eight alloys against chloridation was tested at 850 C in Ar/Cl{sub 2} (2.5% Cl{sub 2}) for 15 min. Pre-oxidation treatments were performed for 1 h and 8 h at 850 C in order to produce a thin, adherent and protective oxide scale able to improve the chloridation behaviour of the tested materials. The chloridised sample morphologies were compared to the morphologies observed on the non pre-oxidised samples. The alloys containing a large amount of iron did not exhibit any chloridation resistance, even after pre-oxidation, and were severely damaged. The nickel based alloys gave interesting results but were also attacked by chloride, probably by the ''active oxidation'' mechanism. The duration of the pre-oxidation treatment plays an important role, since the 8 h pre-oxidation appears more beneficial than the 1 h pre-oxidation, to delay the chloridation, probably because of the best quality of the oxide layer grown during 8 h. For the nickel based materials, the effects of chloride appear less severe than for the iron-based alloys, but are not stopped. The ''active oxidation'' mechanism is proposed to be responsible for the degradation of the tested materials. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  2. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN HOT CALCIUM CHLORIDE-EXTRACTED BORON AND CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES OF SOME BRAZILIAN SOILS CORRELAÇÕES ENTRE BORO SOLÚVEL EM CLORETO DE CÁLCIO 0,01 mol L-1 A QUENTE E ATRIBUTOS QUÍMICOS E FÍSICOS DE ALGUNS SOLOS BRASILEIROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú Alleoni

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between soluble boron extracted with a hot CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1 solution and pH; organic carbon; exchangeable cations; cation exchange capacity (CEC; base saturation; total, free and amorphous iron and aluminum oxide contents; clay content; and specific surface area were performed for surface and subsurface samples of five soils. The soils were a Rhodic Hapludox, an Arenic Paleudalf and three Typic Hapludox, all representative soils of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. To quantify the relations between soluble boron and the different soil characteristics, simple linear correlations and multiple regressions, using a stepwise regression program, were performed. Hot-CaCl2 extractable boron (HCB was significantly correlated with clay content (r = 0.69*, specific surface area (r = 0.68*, CEC (r = 0.63* and total aluminum oxides (r = 0.70* in all five soils. In addition, there was a correlation between HCB and organic carbon (r = 0.75* in the four Oxisols. The correlation coefficient between the product (carbon x clay and soluble boron contents was also highly significant (r = 0.78**. Multiple regression analysis showed that total aluminum oxide, as well as exchangeable calcium and aluminum, were correlated with HCB, explaining 85% of the variation. The product (carbon x clay took into account the effect of textural gradient and showed high positive correlation with hot-CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1extractable boron.Teores de boro solúveis em CaCl2 0,01 mol L-1 a quente, de amostras superficiais e subsuperficiais de dois Latossolos argilosos, dois Latossolos de textura média e um Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, foram correlacionados com alguns de seus atributos químicos e físicos. As correlações entre boro solúvel e superfície específica (r = 0,68*, argila (r = 0,69*, CTC (r = 0,63* e alumínio total (r = 0,70* dos cinco solos e com o teor de carbono orgânico dos quatro Latossolos (r = 0,75* foram estatisticamente

  3. Potentiometric Determination of Free Chloride in Cement Paste – an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    selective electrode has been developed to analyze free chloride in the pore water extracted from cement paste.16 The accuracy and reliability of this ... Chloride analysis in fresh or hardened concrete and its raw materials is of great .... ular mass of chloride (35.45 g mol–1), Us = chloride ISE reading of each sample, Uå ...

  4. Children's Bone Health and Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Share Dialog × Print Children's Bone Health and Calcium: Condition Information What is bone health and how ... straight, walk, run, and lead an active life. Calcium is one of the key dietary building blocks ...

  5. Dolomite supplementation improves bone metabolism through modulation of calcium-regulating hormone secretion in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Nagasawa, Sakae; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Yagasaki, Hiroshi; Ito, Michio

    2005-01-01

    Dolomite, a mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate (CaMg (CO3)2), is used as a food supplement that supplies calcium and magnesium. However, the effect of magnesium supplementation on bone metabolism in patients with osteoporosis is a matter of controversy. We examined the effects of daily supplementation with dolomite on calcium metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Dolomite was administered daily to OVX rats for 9 weeks. The same amount of magnesium chloride as that supplied by the dolomite was given to OVX rats as a positive control. Histological examination revealed that ovariectomy decreased trabecular bone and increased adipose tissues in the femoral metaphysis. Dolomite or magnesium supplementation failed to improve these bone histological features. Calcium content in the femora was decreased in OVX rats. Neither calcium nor magnesium content in the femora in OVX rats was significantly increased by dolomite or magnesium administration. Urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion was significantly increased in OVX rats, and was not affected by the magnesium supplementation. Serum concentrations of magnesium were increased, and those of calcium were decreased, in OVX rats supplemented with dolomite or magnesium. However, there was a tendency toward decreased parathyroid hormone secretion and increased calcitonin secretion in OVX rats supplemented with dolomite or magnesium. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and osteocalcin levels were significantly increased in the supplemented OVX rats. These results suggest that increased magnesium intake improves calcium metabolism in favor of increasing bone formation, through the modulation of calcium-regulating hormone secretion.

  6. Increased renal calcium and magnesium transporter abundance in streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C-T; Lien, Y-H H; Lai, L-W; Chen, J-B; Lin, C-R; Chen, H-C

    2006-05-01

    Diabetes is associated with renal calcium and magnesium wasting, but the molecular mechanisms of these defects are unknown. We measured renal calcium and magnesium handling and investigated the effects of diabetes on calcium and magnesium transporters in the thick ascending limb and distal convoluted tubule in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Rats were killed 2 weeks after inducing diabetes, gene expression of calcium and magnesium transporters in the kidney was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the abundance of protein was assessed by immunoblotting. Our results showed that diabetic rats had significant increase in the fractional excretion for calcium and magnesium (both P diabetic rats. Sodium chloride cotransporter was also increased (207 +/- 10%). No change was found in paracellin-1 (cortex: 108 +/- 8%; medulla: 110 +/- 10%). Immunofluorescent studies of renal sections showed significant increase in calbindin-D28k (238 +/- 10%) and TRPV5 (211 +/- 10%), but no changes in paracellin-1 in Western blotting (cortex: 110 +/- 7%; medulla: 99 +/- 7%). Insulin administration completely corrected the hyperglycemia-associated hypercalciuria and hypermagnesiuria, and reversed the increase of calcium and magnesium transporter abundance. In conclusion, our results demonstrated increased renal calcium and magnesium transporter abundance in STZ-induced diabetic rats, which may represent a compensatory adaptation for the increased load of calcium and magnesium to the distal tubule.

  7. Stable prenucleation calcium carbonate clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Gebauer, Denis; Völkel, Antje; Cölfen, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Calcium carbonate forms scales, geological deposits, biominerals, and ocean sediments. Huge amounts of carbon dioxide are retained as carbonate ions, and calcium ions represent a major contribution to water hardness. Despite its relevance, little is known about the precipitation mechanism of calcium carbonate, and specified complex crystal structures challenge the classical view on nucleation considering the formation of metastable ion clusters. We demonstrate that dissolved calcium carbonate...

  8. Assay for calcium channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glossmann, H.; Ferry, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter focuses on biochemical assays for Ca/sup 2 +/-selective channels in electrically excitable membranes which are blocked in electrophysiological and pharmacological experiments by verapamil, 1,4-dihydropyridines, diltiazen (and various other drugs), as well as inorganic di- or trivalent cations. The strategy employed is to use radiolabeled 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives which block calcium channels with ED/sub 50/ values in the nanomolar range. Although tritiated d-cis-diltiazem and verapamil can be used to label calcium channels, the 1,4-dihydropyridines offer numerous advantages. The various sections cover tissue specificity of channel labeling, the complex interactions of divalent cations with the (/sup 3/H)nimodipine-labeled calcium channels, and the allosteric regulation of (/sup 3/H)nimodipine binding by the optically pure enantiomers of phenylalkylamine and benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers. A comparison of the properties of different tritiated 1,4-dihydropyridine radioligands and the iodinated channel probe (/sup 125/I)iodipine is given.

  9. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - Calcium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about 500...

  10. The Plasma Membrane Calcium Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1983-01-01

    Three aspect of cellular calcium metabolism in animal cells was discussed including the importance of the plasma membrane in calcium homeostasis, experiments dealing with the actual mechanism of the calcium pump, and the function of the pump in relationship to the mitochondria and to the function of calmodulin in the intact cell.

  11. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...

  12. Impregnating Coal With Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Voecks, Gerald E.; Gavalas, George R.

    1991-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive process proposed for impregnating coal with calcium carbonate to increase rates of gasification and combustion of coal and to reduce emission of sulfur by trapping sulfur in calcium sulfide. Process involves aqueous-phase reactions between carbon dioxide (contained within pore network of coal) and calcium acetate. Coal impregnated with CO2 by exposing it to CO2 at high pressure.

  13. Developing antimicrobial calcium alginate fibres from neem and papaya leaves extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, F; Khurshid, M F; Masood, R; Ibrahim, W

    2017-12-02

    The aim of this study was to evaluate an alternative approach to developing antimicrobial alginate fibres using plant extracts, such as those from neem and papaya leaves. Aqueous leaves extract from neem, papaya and their hybrid combinations were used as solvent to develop sodium alginate fibres. Sodium alginate polymer containing these extracts was extruded in a calcium chloride (CaCl2) bath to develop neem (NE), papaya (PE) and their hybrid combinations-based calcium alginate fibres (H-1 to H-5). The surface morphology, spectra, liquid absorption, tensile strength and antimicrobial activity of these developed fibres were measured. NE fibre showed greater tensile strength than PE. The liquid absorption property of all developed fibres decreased, but showed antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus and reduced bacterial growth up to 85% when compared with pure calcium alginate fibre. Neem, papaya and hybrid extract-based calcium alginate fibres have the potential to be used as wound dressings.

  14. Inhibitory effect of calcium channel blockers on proliferation of human glioma cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunert-Radek, J.; Stepien, H.; Lyson, K.; Pawlikowski, M.; Radek, A.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of 2 specific calcium channel blockers, verapamil and nimodipine, on the proliferation of human glioma tumour cells were investigated in vitro. Tumour tissues for primary cell cultures were obtained bioptically from 3 patients with the histopathological diagnosis of glioblastoma. The (/sup 3/H)-thymidine incorporation into glioma tumour cells DNA was used as a sensitive index of the cell proliferation. It was found that varapamil (10/sup 4/-10/sup 5/M) and nimodipine (10/sup 4/-10/sup 6/M) significantly inhibited the (/sup 3/H)-thymidine uptake in a dose-related manner. The inhibitory effect of both calcium channel antagonists was reversed by stimultancous addition of calcium chloride (5x10/sup 3/M). These results indicate that verapamil and nimodipine may exert an antiproliferative effect on glioma cells growth acting through a blokade of specific voltage-dependent calcium channels.

  15. Effect of acute acid loading on acid-base and calcium metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, Palle J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the acid-base and calcium metabolic responses to acute non-carbonic acid loading in idiopathic calcium stone-formers and healthy males using a quantitative organ physiological approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five-h ammonium chloride loading studies were performed in 12...... male recurrent idiopathic calcium stone-formers and 12 matched healthy men using a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Arterialized capillary blood, serum and urine were collected hourly for measurement of electrolytes, ionized calcium, magnesium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone and acid-base...... status. Concentrations of non-metabolizable base (NB) and acid (NA) were calculated from measured concentrations of non-metabolizable ions. RESULTS: The extracellular acid-base status in the stone-formers during basal conditions and acid loading was comparable to the levels in the healthy controls...

  16. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gils

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3- exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  17. Predicting effects on oxaliplatin clearance: in vitro, kinetic and clinical studies of calcium- and magnesium-mediated oxaliplatin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Catherine H; Khwaounjoo, Prashannata; Hill, Andrew G; Miskelly, Gordon M; McKeage, Mark J

    2017-06-22

    This study evaluated the impact of calcium and magnesium on the in vitro degradation and in vivo clearance of oxaliplatin. Intact oxaliplatin and Pt(DACH)Cl2 were measured in incubation solutions by HPLC-UV. A clinical study determined changes in plasma concentrations of calcium and magnesium in cancer patients and their impact on oxaliplatin clearance. Kinetic analyses modelled oxaliplatin degradation reactions in vitro and contributions to oxaliplatin clearance in vivo. Calcium and magnesium accelerated oxaliplatin degradation to Pt(DACH)Cl2 in chloride-containing solutions in vitro. Kinetic models based on calcium and magnesium binding to a monochloro-monooxalato ring-opened anionic oxaliplatin intermediate fitted the in vitro degradation time-course data. In cancer patients, calcium and magnesium plasma concentrations varied and were increased by giving calcium gluconate and magnesium sulfate infusions, but did not alter or correlate with oxaliplatin clearance. The intrinsic in vitro clearance of oxaliplatin attributed to chloride-, calcium- and magnesium-mediated degradation predicted contributions of vitro degradation of oxaliplatin by binding to a monochloro-monooxalato ring-opened anionic intermediate. Kinetic analysis of in vitro oxaliplatin stability data can be used for in vitro prediction of potential effects on oxaliplatin clearance in vivo.

  18. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  19. Biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings on recombinant spider silk fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Liang; Habibovic, Pamela; Van Blitterswijk, Clemens A [Department of Tissue Regeneration, University of Twente, PO Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Hedhammar, My; Johansson, Jan [Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, the Biomedical Centre, Box 575, 751 23 Uppsala (Sweden); Blom, Tobias; Leifer, Klaus [Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, S-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-08-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramic coatings, applied on surfaces of metallic and polymeric biomaterials, can improve their performance in bone repair and regeneration. Spider silk is biocompatible, strong and elastic, and hence an attractive biomaterial for applications in connective tissue repair. Recently, artificial spider silk, with mechanical and structural characteristics similar to those of native spider silk, has been produced from recombinant minispidroins. In the present study, supersaturated simulated body fluid was used to deposit calcium phosphate coatings on recombinant spider silk fibres. The mineralization process was followed in time using scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) detector and Raman spectroscope. Focused ion beam technology was used to produce a cross section of a coated fibre, which was further analysed by EDX. Preliminary in vitro experiments using a culture of bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on coated fibres were also performed. This study showed that recombinant spider silk fibres were successfully coated with a homogeneous and thick crystalline calcium phosphate layer. In the course of the mineralization process from modified simulated body fluid, sodium chloride crystals were first deposited on the silk surface, followed by the deposition of a calcium phosphate layer. The coated silk fibres supported the attachment and growth of hMSCs.

  20. Synergism between sodium chloride, sucrose and tricalcium phosphate in the osmotic dehydration of oca (Oxalis tuberosa with and without chitosan coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arroyo Portal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the synergistic effect of three solutes (sodium chloride, sucrose, tricalcium phosphate in different combinations of concentration, on the moisture, solid gain and calcium gain in oca (Oxalis tuberosa with and without chitosan (CR and SR. In both cases applied the Simplex with Extended Centroid mixture design. Were used cylinders of oca of 0.9 cm of diameter and 3.4 cm of length. The kinetics of moisture, solid gain and calcium gain for 48 hours was evaluated. The effective diffusivity of water, solids and calcium was determined. We found that in samples CR is greater loss of water and less solid gain compared with SR samples mainly as sodium chloride or sucrose participate independently, while for the gain of calcium, in all cases, the CR samples gain more of calcium than SR samples. The effective diffusivities found are: water, 1.19E-09 m2 /s in samples CR and 1.34E-09 m2 /s in SR samples; for solid, 3.67E-09 m2 /s in samples CR and 5.43E-09 m2 /s in SR samples; and, for calcium 3.32E-11 m2 /s in samples CR and 1.57E-09 m2 /s in SR samples.

  1. Mercury Control with Calcium-Based Sorbents and Oxidizing Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas K. Gale

    2005-07-01

    This Final Report contains the test descriptions, results, analysis, correlations, theoretical descriptions, and model derivations produced from many different investigations performed on a project funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, to investigate calcium-based sorbents and injection of oxidizing agents for the removal of mercury. Among the technologies were (a) calcium-based sorbents in general, (b) oxidant-additive sorbents developed originally at the EPA, and (c) optimized calcium/carbon synergism for mercury-removal enhancement. In addition, (d) sodium-tetrasulfide injection was found to effectively capture both forms of mercury across baghouses and ESPs, and has since been demonstrated at a slipstream treating PRB coal. It has been shown that sodium-tetrasulfide had little impact on the foam index of PRB flyash, which may indicate that sodium-tetrasulfide injection could be used at power plants without affecting flyash sales. Another technology, (e) coal blending, was shown to be an effective means of increasing mercury removal, by optimizing the concentration of calcium and carbon in the flyash. In addition to the investigation and validation of multiple mercury-control technologies (a through e above), important fundamental mechanism governing mercury kinetics in flue gas were elucidated. For example, it was shown, for the range of chlorine and unburned-carbon (UBC) concentrations in coal-fired utilities, that chlorine has much less effect on mercury oxidation and removal than UBC in the flyash. Unburned carbon enhances mercury oxidation in the flue gas by reacting with HCl to form chlorinated-carbon sites, which then react with elemental mercury to form mercuric chloride, which subsequently desorbs back into the flue gas. Calcium was found to enhance mercury removal by stabilizing the oxidized mercury formed on carbon surfaces. Finally, a model was developed to describe these mercury adsorption, desorption, oxidation, and removal mechanisms, including

  2. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantcheva, Adriana K; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A; Nissen, Poul

    2013-05-21

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding.

  3. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantcheva, Adriana K.; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Nissen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding. PMID:23641004

  4. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 entry by chloride channel inhibitors tamoxifen and NPPB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Kai [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Maoyun [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); College of pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Xiang, Yangfei; Ma, Kaiqi [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Jin, Fujun [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); College of pharmacy, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Xiao [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Shaoxiang [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Yifei, E-mail: twang-yf@163.com [Guangzhou Jinan Biomedicine Research and Development Center, National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • We analyze the anti-HSV potential of chloride channel inhibitors. • Tamoxifen and NPPB show anti-HSV-1 and anti-ACV-resistant HSV-1 activities. • HSV-1 infection induces intracellular chloride concentration increasing. • Tamoxifen and NPPB inhibit HSV-1 early infection. • Tamoxifen and NPPB prevent the fusion process of HSV-1. - Abstract: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection is very common worldwide and can cause significant health problems from periodic skin and corneal lesions to encephalitis. Appearance of drug-resistant viruses in clinical therapy has made exploring novel antiviral agents emergent. Here we show that chloride channel inhibitors, including tamoxifen and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenyl-propylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB), exhibited extensive antiviral activities toward HSV-1 and ACV-resistant HSV viruses. HSV-1 infection induced chloride ion influx while treatment with inhibitors reduced the increase of intracellular chloride ion concentration. Pretreatment or treatment of inhibitors at different time points during HSV-1 infection all suppressed viral RNA synthesis, protein expression and virus production. More detailed studies demonstrated that tamoxifen and NPPB acted as potent inhibitors of HSV-1 early entry step by preventing viral binding, penetration and nuclear translocation. Specifically the compounds appeared to affect viral fusion process by inhibiting virus binding to lipid rafts and interrupting calcium homeostasis. Taken together, the observation that tamoxifen and NPPB can block viral entry suggests a stronger potential for these compounds as well as other ion channel inhibitors in antiviral therapy against HSV-1, especially the compound tamoxifen is an immediately actionable drug that can be reused for treatment of HSV-1 infections.

  5. Lithium prevents early cytosolic calcium increase and secondary injurious calcium overload in glycolytically inhibited endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosche, Bert, E-mail: bert.bosche@uk-essen.de [Department of Neurology, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zülch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Medical Faculty of the University of Cologne (Germany); Schäfer, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.schaefer@sanofi.com [Institute of Physiology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen (Germany); Graf, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.graf@nf.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zülch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Medical Faculty of the University of Cologne (Germany); Härtel, Frauke V., E-mail: frauke.haertel@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Physiology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden (Germany); Schäfer, Ute, E-mail: ute.schaefer@medunigraz.at [Research Unit for Experimental Neurotraumatology, Medical University of Graz (Austria); Noll, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.noll@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Physiology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden (Germany)

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •We investigate free calcium as a central signalling element in endothelial cells. •Inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxy-D-glucose reduces cellular ATP. •This manoeuvre leads to a biphasic increase and overload of free calcium. •Pre-treatment with lithium for 24 h abolishes both phases of the calcium increase. •This provides a new strategy to protect endothelial calcium homeostasis and barrier function. -- Abstract: Cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) is a central signalling element for the maintenance of endothelial barrier function. Under physiological conditions, it is controlled within narrow limits. Metabolic inhibition during ischemia/reperfusion, however, induces [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} overload, which results in barrier failure. In a model of cultured porcine aortic endothelial monolayers (EC), we addressed the question of whether [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} overload can be prevented by lithium treatment. [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and ATP were analysed using Fura-2 and HPLC, respectively. The combined inhibition of glycolytic and mitochondrial ATP synthesis by 2-desoxy-D-glucose (5 mM; 2-DG) plus sodium cyanide (5 mM; NaCN) caused a significant decrease in cellular ATP content (14 ± 1 nmol/mg protein vs. 18 ± 1 nmol/mg protein in the control, n = 6 culture dishes, P < 0.05), an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} (278 ± 24 nM vs. 71 ± 2 nM in the control, n = 60 cells, P < 0.05), and the formation of gaps between adjacent EC. These observations indicate that there is impaired barrier function at an early state of metabolic inhibition. Glycolytic inhibition alone by 10 mM 2-DG led to a similar decrease in ATP content (14 ± 2 nmol/mg vs. 18 ± 1 nmol/mg in the control, P < 0.05) with a delay of 5 min. The [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} response of EC was biphasic with a peak after 1 min (183 ± 6 nM vs. 71 ± 1 nM, n = 60 cells, P < 0.05) followed by a sustained increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}. A 24-h pre-treatment with 10 mM of lithium

  6. Calcium signaling in taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F

    2015-09-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An automatic molecular dispenser of chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibrandi, Giuseppe; Amendola, Valeria; Bergamaschi, Greta; Dollenz, Riccardo; Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Licchelli, Maurizio; Lo Vecchio, Carmelo

    2013-03-11

    The combined activity of the 1.1.1-cryptand and of a dicopper(II) bistren cryptate complex including chloride makes the Cl(-) ion be continuously and slowly delivered to the solution, without any external intervention. The 1.1.1-cryptand slowly releases OH(-) ions, according to a defined kinetics, and each OH(-) ion displaces a Cl(-) ion from the cryptate. Chloride displacement induces a sharp colour change from bright yellow to aquamarine and can be conveniently monitored spectrophotometrically, even in diluted solutions. The 1.1.1-cryptand is the motor of a molecular dispenser (the dicopper(II) cryptate) delivering chloride ion automatically, from the inside of the solution. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  9. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; hide

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P platelet free calcium (intracellular calcium concentration) were also reduced (P metabolism (P metabolism are relatively impervious to dietary calcium in the short term, 2) increased ionized calcium did not normalize low-calcium-induced elevations of BP, and 3) parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  10. Models of calcium signalling

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Geneviève; Kirk, Vivien; Sneyd, James

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses the ways in which mathematical, computational, and modelling methods can be used to help understand the dynamics of intracellular calcium. The concentration of free intracellular calcium is vital for controlling a wide range of cellular processes, and is thus of great physiological importance. However, because of the complex ways in which the calcium concentration varies, it is also of great mathematical interest.This book presents the general modelling theory as well as a large number of specific case examples, to show how mathematical modelling can interact with experimental approaches, in an interdisciplinary and multifaceted approach to the study of an important physiological control mechanism. Geneviève Dupont is FNRS Research Director at the Unit of Theoretical Chronobiology of the Université Libre de Bruxelles;Martin Falcke is head of the Mathematical Cell Physiology group at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin;Vivien Kirk is an Associate Professor in the Depar...

  11. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammoni......J/mol. A simple kinetic model is proposed that accounts for the absorption of ammonia through the adsorbed state.......An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia...

  12. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammitzbóll, Andreas L; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata; Vegge, Tejs; Quaade, Ulrich J

    2013-04-28

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia desorption originating from the adsorbed state is directly observed below the bulk desorption temperature, as confirmed by density functional theory calculations. The desorption enthalpy of the adsorbed state of strontium chloride octa-ammine is determined with both techniques to be around 37-39 kJ∕mol. A simple kinetic model is proposed that accounts for the absorption of ammonia through the adsorbed state.

  13. Reaction between coal and ferric chloride (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochkanyan, R.O.; Khripunov, S.V.; Baranov, S.N.

    1988-05-01

    Investigates absorption of ferric chloride (III) with free and filled (hexahydrate) coordination spheres, and antimony chloride (V) by various rank coal (brown coal to anthracite). Determines magnitude of specific absorption due to dynamic pore formation. Confirms polyassociative structure of coal with donor-acceptor characteristics and its similarity with polyassociative frame matrix in clathrate forming compounds. Gives specifications of coal used and provides data on specific absorption, diffractograms and paramagnetic characteristics of coal and adduct, and others. States that coal exhibits properties of intermolecular donor-acceptor complex with charge transfer and with comparatively unstable bonds which determine their paramagnetism and high specific absorption. 9 refs.

  14. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  15. EFFECT OF CALCIUM ADDITION ON THE DEFLUORIDATION CAPACITY OF BONE CHAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    Dosage of small amounts of calcium chloride to fluoride water prior to contact with bone char which has already been saturated with fluoride is shown to provide an additional fluoride removal capacity. The additionally obtained removal capacity increases with slower filtration velocities and incr......Dosage of small amounts of calcium chloride to fluoride water prior to contact with bone char which has already been saturated with fluoride is shown to provide an additional fluoride removal capacity. The additionally obtained removal capacity increases with slower filtration velocities...... to be capable of reducing the fluoride concentration form 10 to about 0.5 mgF/L. The additionally saturated column is shown to be regenerated by simple adjustment of the pH of the water to 11 and allowing to flow for a few bed volumes. The useful regeneration capacity, where the fluoride concentration...

  16. Elemental calcium intake associated with calcium acetate/calcium carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rosamund J; Copley, J Brian

    2017-01-01

    Calcium-based and non-calcium-based phosphate binders have similar efficacy in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia; however, calcium-based binders may be associated with hypercalcemia, vascular calcification, and adynamic bone disease. A post hoc analysis was carried out of data from a 16-week, Phase IV study of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who switched to lanthanum carbonate monotherapy from baseline calcium acetate/calcium carbonate monotherapy. Of the intent-to-treat population (N=2520), 752 patients with recorded dose data for calcium acetate (n=551)/calcium carbonate (n=201) at baseline and lanthanum carbonate at week 16 were studied. Elemental calcium intake, serum phosphate, corrected serum calcium, and serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were analyzed. Of the 551 patients with calcium acetate dose data, 271 (49.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day at baseline, and 142 (25.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) serum phosphate levels were 6.1 (5.89, 6.21) mg/dL at baseline and 6.2 (6.04, 6.38) mg/dL at 16 weeks; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.3 (9.16, 9.44) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Of the 201 patients with calcium carbonate dose data, 117 (58.2%) had an elemental calcium intake of at least 1.5 g/day, and 76 (37.8%) had an intake of at least 2.0 g/day. Mean (95% CI) serum phosphate levels were 5.8 (5.52, 6.06) mg/dL at baseline and 5.8 (5.53, 6.05) mg/dL at week 16; mean (95% CI) corrected serum calcium levels were 9.7 (9.15, 10.25) mg/dL and 9.2 (9.06, 9.34) mg/dL, respectively. Calcium acetate/calcium carbonate phosphate binders, taken to control serum phosphate levels, may result in high levels of elemental calcium intake. This may lead to complications related to calcium balance.

  17. Divergent action of calcium channel blockers on ATP-binding cassette protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Wakino, Shu; Kanda, Takeshi; Yoshioka, Kyoko; Tatematsu, Satoru; Homma, Koichiro; Takamatsu, Ichiro; Sugano, Naoki; Hayashi, Koichi

    2005-12-01

    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are widely used in clinical practice, and have been reported to be effective in preventing the progression of atherosclerosis. We examined whether various types of calcium channel blockers affected the expression of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a factor contributing to anti-atherogenesis. Undifferentiated monocytic cell line, THP-1 cells were maintained in RPMI 1640 medium and treated with different kinds of calcium channel blockers. Among the calcium channel blockers tested, aranidipine and efonidipine increased ABCA1 protein expression without an increase in ABCA1 mRNA expression, whereas other calcium channel blockers (eg, nifedipine, amlodipine, and nicardipine) or T-type calcium channel blockers (eg, mibefradil and nickel chloride) failed to upregulate ABCA1 expression. H89, a protein kinase A inhibitor inhibited the aranidipine-induced ABCA1 protein expression, whereas genistein (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor), or AG490 (a JAK-2 inhibitor) had no effects. Neither of these inhibitors suppressed the efonidipine-induced ABCA1 protein expression. Intracellular cAMP levels were elevated only by aranidipine, but not by efonidipine. In conclusion, aranidipine and efonidipine have the ability to induce ABCA1 protein by distinct mechanisms; protein kinase A is involved in the aranidipine-induced ABCA1 upregulation. This non-class effect of calcium channel blockers may potentially offer beneficial action in the treatment of hypertensive subjects with atherosclerosis.

  18. Bromide, Chloride, and Sulfate Concentrations, and Specific Conductance, Lake Texoma, Texas and Oklahoma, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldys, Stanley

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Dallas Water Utilities Division, collected water-quality data from 11 sites on Lake Texoma, a reservoir on the Texas-Oklahoma border, during April 2007-September 2008. At 10 of the sites, physical properties (depth, specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity) were measured and samples were collected for analysis of selected dissolved constituents (bromide, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate); at one site, only physical properties were measured. The primary constituent of interest was bromide. Bromate can form when ozone is used to disinfect raw water containing bromide, and bromate is a suspected human carcinogen. Chloride and sulfate were of secondary interest. Only the analytical results for bromide, chloride, sulfate, and measured specific conductance are discussed in this report. Median dissolved bromide concentrations ranged from 0.28 to 0.60 milligrams per liter. The largest median dissolved bromide concentration (0.60 milligram per liter at site 11) was from the Red River arm of Lake Texoma. Dissolved bromide concentrations generally were larger in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma than in the Washita arm of the lake. Median dissolved chloride concentrations were largest in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma at site 11 (431 milligrams per liter) and smallest at site 8 (122 milligrams per liter) in the Washita arm. At site 11 in the Red River arm, the mean and median chloride concentrations exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 milligrams per liter for chloride established by the 'Texas Surface Water Quality Standards' for surface-water bodies designated for the public water supply use. Median dissolved sulfate concentrations ranged from 182 milligrams per liter at site 4 in the Big Mineral arm to 246 milligrams per liter at site 11 in the Red River arm. None of the mean or median sulfate concentrations

  19. Limestone reaction in calcium aluminate cement–calcium sulfate systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bizzozero, Julien; Scrivener, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports a study of ternary blends composed of calcium aluminate cement, calcium sulfate hemihydrate and limestone. Compressive strength tests and hydration kinetics were studied as a function of limestone and calcium sulfate content. The phase evolution and the total porosity were followed and compared to thermodynamic simulation to understand the reactions involved and the effect of limestone on these binders. The reaction of limestone leads to the formation of hemicarboaluminate ...

  20. Mixed calcium-magnesium pre-nucleation clusters enrich calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Verch, Andreas; Antonietti, Markus; Cölfen, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated that magnesium and carbonate ions can form pre-nucleation clusters in analogy to calcium carbonate. If a mixed calcium and magnesium solution is brought in contact with carbonate ions, mixed pre-nucleation clusters form. The equilibrium constants for their formation are reported revealing that over the entire range of possible cation mixing ratios, calcium gets enriched over magnesium in the pre-nucleation clusters. This can explain high magnesium contents in amorphous calc...

  1. Calcium homeostasis is altered in skeletal muscle of spontaneously hypertensive rats: cytofluorimetric and gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liantonio, Antonella; Camerino, Giulia M; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Cannone, Maria; Pierno, Sabata; De Bellis, Michela; Conte, Elena; Fraysse, Bodvael; Tricarico, Domenico; Conte Camerino, Diana

    2014-10-01

    Hypertension is often associated with skeletal muscle pathological conditions related to function and metabolism. The mechanisms underlying the development of these pathological conditions remain undefined. Because calcium homeostasis is a biomarker of muscle function, we assessed whether it is altered in hypertensive muscles. We measured resting intracellular calcium and store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibers from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) by cytofluorimetric technique and determined the expression of SOCE gene machinery by real-time PCR. Hypertension caused a phenotype-dependent dysregulation of calcium homeostasis; the resting intracellular calcium of extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles of SHRs were differently altered with respect to the related muscle of normotensive animals. In addition, soleus muscles of SHR showed reduced activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and decreased sarcolemmal calcium permeability at rest and after SOCE activation. Accordingly, we found an alteration of the expression levels of some SOCE components, such as stromal interaction molecule 1, calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1, and transient receptor potential canonical 1. The hypertension-induced alterations of calcium homeostasis in the soleus muscle of SHRs occurred with changes of some functional outcomes as excitability and resting chloride conductance. We provide suitable targets for therapeutic interventions aimed at counterbalancing muscle performance decline in hypertension, and propose the reported calcium-dependent parameters as indexes to predict how the antihypertensive drugs could influence muscle function. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Biological Reactions to Calcium Phosphate-coated Calcium Carbonate Particles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tetsunari NISHIKAWA; Kazuya MASUNO; Tomoharu OKAMURA; Kazuya TOMINAGA; Masahiro WATO; Mayu KOKUBU; Koichi IMAI; Shoji TAKEDA; Yoichro TAGUCHI; Masatoshi UEDA; Akio TANAKA

    2010-01-01

    [SYNOPSIS][Objectives]: In order to histopathologically investigate biological reactions to materials used for scaffolds, we examined the cytotoxicity to calcium particles in vitro and bioabsorption in vivo...

  3. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  6. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline...

  7. Detection of chloride ion concentration using chronopotentiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach is reported for the electrochemical measurement of chloride ions using chronopotentiometry. A current pulse is applied at the Ag/AgCl working electrode and the potential change is measured with respect to another identical Ag/AgCl electrode in the bulk electrolyte.

  8. Influence of compaction on chloride ingress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlopasa, J.

    2012-01-01

    Experiences from practice show the need for more of an understanding and optimization of the compaction process in order to design a more durable concrete structure. Local variations in compaction are very often the reason for initiation of local damage and initiation of chloride induced corrosion.

  9. Electrical conduction mechanism of polyvinyl chloride (PVC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The electrical conduction mechanism in polyvinyl chloride (PVC)– polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blend film has been studied at various temperatures in the range 313 K to 353 K. The results are presented in the form of I–V characteristics. Analysis has been made in the light of Poole–Frenkel, Fowler–Nordheim, ...

  10. Influence of nutrition on trypanosome isometamidium chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty six weaner wistar rats were used to study the effect of protein nutrition on trypanosome isometamidium chloride prophylaxis. Two groups of rats A and B (n = 18 per group) were maintained on 21% and 14.5% crude protein diet respectively for the twenty eight days. Thereafter, group A was sub-divided into groups A1, ...

  11. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy...

  12. Sodium chloride damage to porous building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    This research studied sodium chloride (NaCl) damage to porous building materials with the aim of: i) gaining a better understanding of the damage process and ii) developing an effective crystallization test. It has been definitely proven that NaCl modifies the hygric dilation of a material

  13. Liquid crystalline critical dynamics in decylammonium chloride

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K W; Lee, C E; Kang, K H; Rhee, C; Kang, J K

    1999-01-01

    Collective chain dynamics and phase transitions in a model biomembrane, decylammonium chloride (C sub 1 sub 0 H sub 2 sub 1 NH sub 3 Cl), were studied by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Our measurements sensitively reflect the critical dynamics associated with the smectic C to smectic A transition of the lipid bilayer.

  14. 1-Allyl-2,3-cyclopentenopyridinium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Partl

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H14N+·Cl−, was obtained by reaction of 2,3-cyclopentenopyridine and allyl chloride. A network of weak C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds is observed in the crystal structure.

  15. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N as 500 nM.

  16. Chloride salt mixtures affect Gordal cv. green Spanish-style table olive fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista Gallego, J; Arroyo López, F N; Romero Gil, V; Rodríguez Gómez, F; García García, P; Garrido Fernández, A

    2011-10-01

    This work studies the effects of different sodium (in the range of 4-10%), potassium (0-4%) and calcium (0-6%) chloride salt mixtures on the fermentation profile of Gordal olives processed according to the Spanish style. For this purpose, response surface methodology based on a simplex centroid mixture design with constrain (sum of salt percentages = 10%) was used. All treatments reached appropriate titratable acidity levels, but this parameter could not be related to the initial chloride salt concentration. The presence of CaCl(2) led to lower initial and after-fermentation pHs, delayed sugar diffusion into the brine, its maximum concentration and titratable acidity formation. CaCl(2) also delayed Enterobacteriaceae and yeast sprang, decreasing their overall growth. This chloride salt also showed a tendency to reduce overall lactic acid bacteria growth. KCl had a similar behaviour to NaCl but, in general, increased overall microbial growth. Thus, a partial substitution of NaCl in Spanish-style green olives with KCl and CaCl(2) does not substantially modify the fermentation profile but does produce some changes, which, when properly managed, could help to improve product processing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interrelationship between phosphorus, sodium, and chloride in the diet of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, O M; Miles, R D; Harms, R H

    1984-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted with commercial egg production type hens to determine the effects of dietary phosphorus, sodium, and chloride levels as related to levels of plasma calcium and phosphorus, blood acid-base balance, and production characteristics. Sodium and chloride were supplied to the diet as sodium bicarbonate and hydrochloric acid, respectively. In Experiment 1, five treatment groups were fed diets ad libitum containing .2, .6, 1.0, 1.4, and 1.8% total phosphorus. The remaining treatment group was fed a diet containing .4% total phosphorus from 1400 to 2030 hr and 1.4% total phosphorus from 600 to 1100 hr. In Experiment 2, a 3 X 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was used that consisted of three levels of total phosphorus (.2, .6, and 1.4%) and four levels of added sodium (0, .06, .22, and .45%) provided by sodium bicarbonate. Three other treatment groups were fed diets containing .36% supplemental chloride supplied by hydrochloric acid and either .2, .6, or 1.4% total phosphorus. Egg production was decreased in hens fed diets containing 1.8% total phosphorus. Egg specific gravity was decreased by both low and high phosphorus levels. Hens fed .4% total phosphorus in the afternoon produced eggs with higher specific gravity as compared with hens fed 1.4% total phosphorus during the entire experiment. At 1.4% dietary phosphorus, a significant increase in specific gravity was observed when .2 or .8% sodium bicarbonate was added to the diet. Increasing dietary phosphorus resulted in elevated plasma phosphorus and calcium concentration. Plasma phosphorus of hens fed .2 through 1.8% total phosphorus declined slowly from oviposition until 6 hr after oviposition and then reached a peak at 21 hr after oviposition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Osteoporosis, calcium and physical activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, A. D.; Houston, C S

    1987-01-01

    Sales of calcium supplements have increased dramatically since 1983, as middle-aged women seek to prevent or treat bone loss due to osteoporosis. However, epidemiologic studies have failed to support the hypothesis that larger amounts of calcium are associated with increased bone density or a decreased incidence of fractures. The authors examine the evidence from controlled trials on the effects of calcium supplementation and physical activity on bone loss and find that weight-bearing activit...

  19. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  20. Cardiovascular Effects of Calcium Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Reid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%–31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%–20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  1. Laser Sintered Calcium Phosphate Bone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vail, Neil

    1999-01-01

    ...) technology selective laser sintering (SLS). BME has successfully implemented a pilot facility to fabricate calcium phosphate implants using anatomical data coupled with the selective laser sintering process...

  2. Pathology of angiosarcoma of the liver among vinyl chloride-polyvinyl chloride workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L B; Popper, H

    1975-01-31

    We described the histologic features of 13 hepatic angiosarcomas which developed in workers engaged in the polymerization of vinyl chloride to polyvinyl chloride. Although the histologic features varied considerably in different portions of the angiosarcoma in the same liver and in the angiosarcomas of the liver from different patients, many features were similar such as sinusoidal, papillary, and cavernous growth patterns coincident with the precursor lesions of proliferation and atypia of sinusoidal lining cells.

  3. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    OpenAIRE

    van Gils, C.; M.-C. Eckhardt; Nielsen, P E; Nybo, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl?/HCO3 ? exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90?mmol/L) and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves whe...

  4. 21 CFR 73.1070 - Calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO3). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with calcium carbonate... precipitated calcium carbonate in the United States Pharmacopeia XX (1980). (c) Uses and restrictions. Calcium... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium carbonate. 73.1070 Section 73.1070 Food...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium carbonate. 184.1191 Section 184.1191 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1191 Calcium carbonate. (a) Calcium carbonate (CaCO3, CAS Reg... soda process”; (2) By precipitation of calcium carbonate from calcium hydroxide in the “Carbonation...

  6. Electrolytic reduction of mixed (Fe, Ti) oxide using molten calcium chloride electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panigrahi, Mrutyunjay, E-mail: mp@mail.tagen.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Iizuka, Atsushi; Shibata, Etsuro; Nakamura, Takashi [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aobaku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tan et al. have electrolyzed mixtures of TiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to produce alloys containing Fe-Ti intermetallic phases such as FeTi and Fe{sub 2}Ti using the FFC process. However, the produced alloys have a porous structure with many carbon impurities, e.g., titanium carbide (TiC). Most of the carbon contamination could be caused by the presence of carbon particles in the porous alloy structure. They did not mention any obvious ways of excluding carbon and other impurities, and only suggested that the use of mixed oxides with refined structures or using a single phase, namely ilmenite (FeO{center_dot}TiO{sub 2}), were methods of decreasing impurities in the formed alloys. For future industrialization, there is an urgent need for obvious ways of producing purer Fe-Ti alloys with dense structures, rather than porous structures, as these absorb carbon impurities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finally, we successfully reduced to a highly purified Fe-Ti intermetallic alloy of FeTi and {beta}-Ti (FeTi{sub 4}) phases. FeTi phases of size around 5-10 {mu}m were dispersed in a matrix of the {beta}-Ti (FeTi{sub 4}) phase. The carbon content of the electrolyzed alloy was as low as less than 0.01 mass%. It was suggested that the dense structure of the alloy of FeTi and {beta}-Ti (FeTi{sub 4}) avoided the inclusion of carbon particle impurities, unlike the porous alloy structure. - Abstract: The production of high-purity metals or alloys using effective technologies is critical for future industrialization. With this aim in mind, a fundamental study of electrolysis in molten CaCl{sub 2} electrolytes was conducted to develop a new production process for ferrotitanium (Fe-Ti) intermetallic alloys. Mixed solid oxides of TiO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were used in a molar ratio of 5.44:1.00. In this composition of Ti and Fe, FeTi and {beta}-Ti containing iron can co-exist in equilibrium. A mixed solid (Fe, Ti) oxide was reduced electrochemically in a molten CaCl{sub 2} electrolyte at 950 Degree-Sign C. The metallic samples formed by electrolytic reduction of the mixed solid (Fe, Ti) oxide were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron-probe microanalysis, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, ion chromatography, and oxygen and carbon analyzers. The oxide pellets were successfully reduced to a highly purified dense intermetallic solid of {beta}-Ti (FeTi{sub 4}) and FeTi containing low levels of impurities, for example, less than 0.01 mass% of carbon.

  7. Physical properties and biological effects of mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with methylcellulose and calcium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Na Lee

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: Methylcellulose (MC is a chemical compound derived from cellulose. MTA mixed with MC reduces setting time and increases plasticity. This study assessed the influence of MC as an anti-washout ingredient and CaCl2 as a setting time accelerator on the physical and biological properties of MTA. Material and Methods: Test materials were divided into 3 groups; Group 1(control: distilled water; Group 2: 1% MC/CaCl2; Group 3: 2% MC/CaCl2. Compressive strength, pH, flowability and cell viability were tested. The gene expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP was detected by RT-PCR and real time PCR. The expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP and mineralization behavior were evaluated using an ALP staining and an alizarin red staining. Results: Compressive strength, pH, and cell viability of MTA mixed with MC/CaCl2 were not significantly different compared to the control group. The flowability of MTA with MC/CaCI2 has decreased significantly when compared to the control (p<.05. The mRNA level of BSP has increased significantly in MTA with MC/CaCl2 compared to the control (p<.05. This study revealed higher expression of ALP and mineralization in cells exposed to MTA mixed with water and MTA mixed with MC/CaCl2 compared to the control (p<.05. Conclusions: MC decreased the flowability of MTA and did not interrupt the physical and biological effect of MTA. It suggests that these cements may be useful as a root-end filling material.

  8. Effect of Calcium Chloride on the Preparation of Low-fat Spreads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of CaCl2 on the preparation of low-fat spreads from buffalo and cow butter. Methods: Buffalo and cow butter-based low-fat spreads (B-LFS and C-LFS) were treated with CaCl2 (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08%) at pH 5.5 and stored at 4°C. They were sampled after 3, 30, 60, and 90 days, and ...

  9. Biochemical Application and Laboratory Analysis of Calcium and Chloride Ions in Human Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulino, Vincenzo; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise suitable for advanced placement biology or chemistry classes. Discusses the theoretical approach, preparation and standardization of reagents, and results. Emphasizes standard analytical procedure and chelometric titration. (CW)

  10. FLUORIDE REDUCTION FROM WATER BY PRECIPITATION WITH CALCIUM CHLORIDE AND LIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Atia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El Oued is known for some diseases caused by fluoride concentration in drinkable water. To reduce it, we have chosen a sample with the highest content of fluoride among many sources in order to precipitate it with Ca(OH2 and CaCl2. In order to get better reduction yield of fluoride, a study has been done on the influencing parameters (concentration, pH, temperature to choose the best conditions. The remove of fluoride is favorable at low concentration of Ca(OH2, at room temperature and normal acidity.

  11. FLUORIDE REDUCTION FROM WATER BY PRECIPITATION WITH CALCIUM CHLORIDE AND LIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Atia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El Oued is known for some diseases caused by fluoride concentration in drinkable water. To reduce it, we have chosen a sample with the highest content of fluoride among many sources in order to precipitate it with Ca(OH2 and CaCl2. In order to get better reduction yield of fluoride, a study has been done on the influencing parameters (concentration, pH, temperature to choose the best conditions. The remove of fluoride is favorable at low concentration of Ca(OH2, at room temperature and normal acidity.

  12. influence of foliar applications of calcium chloride and borax on fruit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. A Rab

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... Shah SSH (2003). Fruit orchard survey in district Haripur. Project for. Horticulture Promotion (East), Abbottabad, NWFP, Pakistan. pp. 14-. 15. Song LY, Jiang H, Gao CLi (2006). Effects of adenosine triphosphate on browning and quality of jarvested litchi fruit. Am. J. Food Technol. 1: 173-178. Underhill SJR ...

  13. Dependences of the osmotic coefficients of aqueous calcium chloride solutions on concentration at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudakov, A. M.; Sergievskii, V. V.; Nagovitsyna, O. A.

    2017-12-01

    A model that considers the contributions from hydration, ion association, and electrostatic interactions to the nonideality of 2‒1 electrolyte solutions is substantiated. The parameters of the model's equations are the mean ion hydration number, the spread of the distribution of hydrated ion stoichiometric coefficients in the standard state, and the number of association. The model is successfully used to describe literature experimental data on the concentration dependence of osmotic coefficients of aqueous CaCl2 solutions at temperatures ranging from 0 to 100°C. The modeling of the above systems shows that as the temperature rises, the hydration number falls slightly, the distribution of the hydration number broadens, and the ion paring of the salt rises by the first degree.

  14. JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase limits calcium-dependent chloride secretion across colonic epithelial cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnellan, Fergal

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimmune agonists induce epithelial Cl(-) secretion through elevations in intracellular Ca2+ or cAMP. Previously, we demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation and subsequent ERK MAPK activation limits secretory responses to Ca2+-dependent, but not cAMP-dependent, agonists. Although JNK MAPKs are also expressed in epithelial cells, their role in regulating transport function is unknown. Here, we investigated the potential role for JNK in regulating Cl(-) secretion in T(84) colonic epithelial cells. Western blot analysis revealed that a prototypical Ca2+-dependent secretagogue, carbachol (CCh; 100 microM), induced phosphorylation of both the 46-kDa and 54-kDa isoforms of JNK. This effect was mimicked by thapsigargin (TG), which specifically elevates intracellular Ca2+, but not by forskolin (FSK; 10 microM), which elevates cAMP. CCh-induced JNK phosphorylation was attenuated by the EGFR inhibitor, tyrphostin-AG1478 (1 microM). Pretreatment of voltage-clamped T(84) cells with SP600125 (2 microM), a specific JNK inhibitor, potentiated secretory responses to both CCh and TG but not to FSK. The effects of SP600125 on CCh-induced secretion were not additive with those of the ERK inhibitor, PD98059. Finally, in apically permeabilized T(84) cell monolayers, SP600125 potentiated CCh-induced K+ conductances but not Na+\\/K+ATPase activity. These data demonstrate a novel role for JNK MAPK in regulating Ca2+ but not cAMP-dependent epithelial Cl(-) secretion. JNK activation is mediated by EGFR transactivation and exerts its antisecretory effects through inhibition of basolateral K+ channels. These data further our understanding of mechanisms regulating epithelial secretion and underscore the potential for exploitation of MAPK-dependent signaling in treatment of intestinal transport disorders.

  15. Effect of Cyclic Carbonation on Chloride Ingression in GGBS Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Backus, Jonathon; McPolin, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Carbonation and chloride ingress are the two main causes of corrosion in reinforced concrete structures. An investigation to monitor the ingress of chlorides and the effect of carbonation on chloride ingression during an accelerated 12 month cyclic wetting and drying exposure regime that simulates conditions in which multiple mode transport mechanisms are active was conducted on ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) concrete. The penetration of chloride and carbon dioxide was evaluated ...

  16. Concrete with Improved Chloride Binding and Chloride Resistivity by Blended Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Kopecskó

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Durability and service life of concrete structures can be endangered by chloride ions. Two phenomena help to keep control of chloride effects. On one hand cements are able to bind chloride ions by their aluminate clinker phases or by the clinker substituting materials. On the other hand resistivity of concrete against chloride penetration can be improved by careful selection of concrete constituents and production. Detailed results of two series of extensive experimental studies are presented herein. Chloride ion binding capacity of tested cements in decreasing sequence was the following: (1 CEM III/B 32,5 N-S; (2 CEM III/A 32,5 N; (3 CEM II/B 32,5 R; (4 CEM II/B-M (V-L 32,5 R; (5 CEM I 42,5 N. Test results indicated that the increasing substitution of clinkers by GGBS improves the chloride resistivity in concrete made with the same water to cement ratio. The application of air entraining agent increases considerably the values of Dnssm. Based on the migration coefficients (Dnssm the following sequence of efficiency was found (from the best: CEM III/B 32,5 N > CEM V/A (S-V 32,5 N > CEM III/A 32,5 N > CEM II/B-S 42,5 R > CEM II/A-S 42,5 N > CEM I 42,5 N.

  17. Calcium signalling: fishing out molecules of mitochondrial calcium transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajnóczky, György; Csordás, György

    2010-10-26

    Cellular energy metabolism, survival and death are controlled by mitochondrial calcium signals originating in the cytoplasm. Now, RNAi studies link three proteins - MICU1, NCLX and LETM1 - to the previously unknown molecular mechanism of mitochondrial calcium transport. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Calcium electroporation in three cell lines; a comparison of bleomycin and calcium, calcium compounds, and pulsing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; Gissel, Hanne; Hojman, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electroporation with calcium (calcium electroporation) can induce ATP depletion-associated cellular death. In the clinical setting, the cytotoxic drug bleomycin is currently used with electroporation (electrochemotherapy) for palliative treatment of tumors. Calcium electroporation off...

  19. 21 CFR 177.1980 - Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers. 177.1980... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1980 Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  20. Potentiometric Determination of Free Chloride in Cement Paste – an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Corrosion of rebar in concrete is commonly associated with, and to a large degree influenced by, the free chloride concentration in the pore water. The amount of chloride in concrete is important because chloride can promote corrosion of steel reinforcement when moisture and oxygen are present. A potentiometric ...

  1. Accelerated testing for chloride threshold of reinforcing steel in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Put, M. van; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2017-01-01

    Testing for the chloride threshold (also called critical chloride content) for corrosion initiation of steel in concrete has been found difficult and, at best, time consuming. Nevertheless, the chloride threshold is an important parameter in service life design of new structures and for evaluation

  2. 21 CFR 177.1950 - Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. 177.1950... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1950 Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  3. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17...) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid must comply with the following special requirements: (a) The tank car must comply with...

  4. Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Steel in Concrete: An Overview on Chloride Diffusion and Prediction of Corrosion Initiation Time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muhammad Umar Khan; Shamsad Ahmad; Husain Jubran Al-Gahtani

    2017-01-01

    .... However, such models do not include the effects of various significant factors such as chloride binding by the cement, multidirectional ingress of chloride, and variation of [subscript] D c [/subscript...

  5. Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Steel in Concrete: An Overview on Chloride Diffusion and Prediction of Corrosion Initiation Time

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Umar Khan; Shamsad Ahmad; Husain Jubran Al-Gahtani

    2017-01-01

    Initiation of corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete (RC) structures subjected to chloride exposures mainly depends on coefficient of chloride diffusion, Dc, of concrete. Therefore, Dc is one of the key parameters needed for prediction of initiation of reinforcement corrosion. Fick’s second law of diffusion has been used for long time to derive the models for chloride diffusion in concrete. However, such models do not include the effects of various significant factors such as chloride bind...

  6. Tgf-beta downregulation of distinct chloride channels in cystic fibrosis-affected epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Sun

    Full Text Available The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR and Calcium-activated Chloride Conductance (CaCC each play critical roles in maintaining normal hydration of epithelial surfaces including the airways and colon. TGF-beta is a genetic modifier of cystic fibrosis (CF, but how it influences the CF phenotype is not understood.We tested the hypothesis that TGF-beta potently downregulates chloride-channel function and expression in two CF-affected epithelia (T84 colonocytes and primary human airway epithelia compared with proteins known to be regulated by TGF-beta.TGF-beta reduced CaCC and CFTR-dependent chloride currents in both epithelia accompanied by reduced levels of TMEM16A and CFTR protein and transcripts. TGF-beta treatment disrupted normal regulation of airway-surface liquid volume in polarized primary human airway epithelia, and reversed F508del CFTR correction produced by VX-809. TGF-beta effects on the expression and activity of TMEM16A, wtCFTR and corrected F508del CFTR were seen at 10-fold lower concentrations relative to TGF-beta effects on e-cadherin (epithelial marker and vimentin (mesenchymal marker expression. TGF-beta downregulation of TMEM16A and CFTR expression were partially reversed by Smad3 and p38 MAPK inhibition, respectively.TGF-beta is sufficient to downregulate two critical chloride transporters in two CF-affected tissues that precedes expression changes of two distinct TGF-beta regulated proteins. Our results provide a plausible mechanism for CF-disease modification by TGF-beta through effects on CaCC.

  7. Calcium modified edible Canna (Canna edulis L) starch for controlled released matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, A. P.; Ridwan, M.; Darmawan, T. A.; Darusman, F.; Gadri, A.

    2017-07-01

    Canna edulis L starch was modified with calcium chloride in order to form controlled released matrix. Present study aim to analyze modified starch characteristic. Four different formulation of ondansetron granules was used to provide dissolution profile of controlled released, two formula consisted of 15% and 30% modified starch, one formula utilized matrix reference standards and the last granules was negative control. Methocel-hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose was used as controlled released matrix reference standards in the third formula. Calcium starch was synthesized in the presence of sodium hydroxide to form gelatinized mass and calcium chloride as the cross linking agent. Physicochemical and dissolution properties of modified starch for controlled released application were investigated. Modified starch has higher swelling index, water solubility and compressibility index. Three of four different formulation of granules provide dissolution profile of controlled released. The profiles indicate granules which employed calcium Canna edulis L starch as matrix are able to resemble controlled drug released profile of matrix reference, however their bigger detain ability lead to lower bioavailability.

  8. Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000490.htm Calcium, vitamin D, and your bones To use the sharing ... and maintain strong bones. How Much Calcium and Vitamin D do I Need? Amounts of calcium are ...

  9. Calcium Supplements: Do Men Need Them Too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Should men take calcium supplements? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L. ... Most healthy men don't need to take calcium supplements. Calcium is important for men for optimal ...

  10. Calcium Unresponsive Hypocalcemic Tetany: Gitelman Syndrome with Hypocalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav Desai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gitelman’s syndrome (GS is autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder characterized by hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalciuria, metabolic alkalosis, and hyperreninemic hyperaldosteronism. It is usually associated with normal serum calcium. We report a patient presented with hypocalcemic tetany, and evaluation showed Gitelman’s syndrome with hypocalcemia. Case Report. A 28-year-old woman presented with cramps of the arms, legs, fatigue, and carpal spasms of one week duration. She has history of similar episodes on and off for the past two years. Her blood pressure was 98/66 mmHg. Chvostek’s sign and Trousseau’s sign were positive. Evaluation showed hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypocalciuria. Self-medication, diuretic use, laxative abuse, persistent vomiting, and diarrhoea were ruled out. Urinary prostaglandins and genetic testing could not be done because of nonavailability. To differentiate Gitelman syndrome from Bartter’s syndrome (BS, thiazide loading test was done. It showed blunted fractional chloride excretion. GS was confirmed and patient was treated with spironolactone along with magnesium, calcium, and potassium supplementation. Symptomatically, she improved and did not develop episodes of tetany again. Conclusion. In tetany patient along with serum calcium measurement, serum magnesium, serum potassium, and arterial blood gases should be measured. Even though hypocalcemia in Gitelman syndrome is rare, it still can occur.

  11. Conformational changes in gastric mucoproteins induced by caesium chloride and guanidinium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snary, David; Allen, Adrian; Pain, Roger H.

    1974-01-01

    1. Caesium chloride and guanidinium chloride were shown to cause conformational changes in the high-molecular-weight mucoprotein A of water-soluble gastric mucus with no change in molecular weight. 2. Increasing concentrations of CsCl decrease the viscosity of the mucoprotein bringing about a transition which is essentially complete in 0.1m-CsCl. The shear-dependence of viscosity of the mucoprotein is abolished by low concentrations of CsCl. The normally highly expanded molecule becomes contracted in CsCl to a molecule having the same symmetry but a smaller volume and decreased solvation, in keeping with an increased sedimentation coefficient (18.7S→33S). 3. This contracted form does not revert to the native conformation on removal of the CsCl. 4. A mechanism is discussed in terms of the effect of the Cs+ and Cl−ions on water structure and the water–mucoprotein interaction. 5. Guanidinium chloride causes the CsCl-treated material to expand, in keeping with a decrease in s025,w (33S→26S). This is analogous to the known unfolding effect of guanidinium chloride on proteins and suggests that guanidinium chloride solubilizes groups involved in stabilizing the contracted structure. Removal of the guanidinium chloride results in a limited aggregation of four mucoprotein molecules. 6. These results show that caution must be exercised before interpreting the physical properties of mucoproteins which have been treated with CsCl and/or guanidinium chloride. PMID:4463954

  12. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete...... mixtures are tested 7, 14, and 28 days after casting. The development of degree of hydration is followed for 20 corresponding paste mixtures. Both when SAP is added with extra water to compensate the SAP water absorption in fresh concrete and without extra water, the internal curing water held by SAP may...... contribute to increase the degree of hydration. No matter if SAP is added with or without extra water, it appears that the so-called gel space ratio can be used as a key parameter to link age and mixture proportions (water-to-cement ratio and SAP dosage) to the resulting chloride migration coefficient...

  13. STABILISATION OF SILTY CLAY SOIL USING CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMADHER T. ABOOD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the effect of adding different chloride compounds including (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 on the engineering properties of silty clay soil. Various amounts of salts (2%, 4%, and 8% were added to the soil to study the effect of salts on the compaction characteristics, consistency limits and compressive strength. The main findings of this study were that the increase in the percentage of each of the chloride compounds increased the maximum dry density and decrease the optimum moisture content. The liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index decreased with the increase in salt content. The unconfinedcompressive strength increased as the salt content increased.

  14. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of new pyridinium and benzimidazolium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, J; Rogoza, J; Mirska, I

    2001-04-01

    A novel class of pyridinium and benzimidazolium chloride has been obtained in high yield. The antimicrobial activities of three homologous series of pyridinium and benzimidazolium chlorides against cocci, rods, fungi and bacillus have been measured. The antimicrobial activities of N,N'-bis[3-(1-alkoxymethyl)pyridinium chloride]methylenediamines, 1-undecyloxymethyl-3-(1-benzimidazolmethylamino)pyridinium, 1-undecyloxymethyl- and 1-dodecyloxymethyl-3-[1(benzotriazol-1-yl)methylamino]pyridinium chlorides exhibited strong activity and wide antibacterial spectra similar to the activity of benzalkonium chloride.

  15. Stable prenucleation calcium carbonate clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Denis; Völkel, Antje; Cölfen, Helmut

    2008-12-19

    Calcium carbonate forms scales, geological deposits, biominerals, and ocean sediments. Huge amounts of carbon dioxide are retained as carbonate ions, and calcium ions represent a major contribution to water hardness. Despite its relevance, little is known about the precipitation mechanism of calcium carbonate, and specified complex crystal structures challenge the classical view on nucleation considering the formation of metastable ion clusters. We demonstrate that dissolved calcium carbonate in fact contains stable prenucleation ion clusters forming even in undersaturated solution. The cluster formation can be characterized by means of equilibrium thermodynamics, applying a multiple-binding model, which allows for structural preformation. Stable clusters are the relevant species in calcium carbonate nucleation. Such mechanisms may also be important for the crystallization of other minerals.

  16. Cerebroprotective activity of U-50488H: Relationship to interactions with excitatory amino acids and calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho Ochoa, M.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the anticonvulsant and cerebroprotective activity of U-50488H was evaluated using {sup 45}Ca{sup ++} uptake in rat Ficoll purified synaptosomes, ({sup 3}H)-2-deoxyglucose uptake in selected mouse brain regions, ({sup 3}H)kainic acid binding to mouse forebrain synaptic membranes and incidence of KA-induced lesions in the CA3 region of the mouse hippocampus. U-50488H causes reduction in K{sup +}-evoked {sup 45}Ca{sup ++} uptake. These effects are comparable to those of the calcium channel blockers verapamil and nifedipine and seem to be related to calcium dependent mechanisms. Changes in saturability, specificity and dissociation constant values of kainic acid receptor binding were demonstrated in the presence of U-50488H at concentrations similar to those used in {sup 45}Ca{sup ++} uptake studies and in the presence of calcium and chloride ions.

  17. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  18. Pharmacological actions of pure muscarine chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, P. J.

    1957-01-01

    The action of chromatographically pure crystalline muscarine chloride, prepared from Amanita muscaria, has been compared with acetylcholine chloride (ACh) on a number of different organs from a variety of species. Muscarine caused spasm in vivo and in vitro of muscles of the gut, uterus, urinary bladder, and bronchus. It also caused contraction of the horse ureter and carotid artery chain in vitro and slowed the isolated auricles of the guinea-pig and rabbit, and the frog heart. Muscarine caused a drop in blood pressure, although in vitro it produced either constriction or dilatation of the blood vessels of the rabbit ear. All these actions resembled those of acetylcholine, though muscarine was usually more potent. Muscarine effects were readily prevented by atropine sulphate. It had a slight action on the frog rectus abdominis muscle, causing a contracture at high concentrations. Muscarine was destroyed neither by pepsin nor by boiling at any pH. It was inactive by mouth in a monkey in a quantity many times that which would cause poisoning by ingestion of Amanita muscaria in the human being. Muscarine neither inhibited nor was hydrolysed by either true- or pseudo-cholinesterase. Muscarine chloride did not cause paralysis of the neuromuscular junctions of the rat diaphragm or of the cat gastrocnemius. PMID:13413151

  19. Environmental and energy gains from using molten magnesium–sodium–potassium chlorides for electro-metallisation of refractory metal oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The molten eutectic mixture of magnesium, sodium and potassium chlorides (MgCl2–NaCl–KCl has inappreciable solubility for oxide ions, and can help disengage a carbon anode from the oxide ions generated at a metal oxide cathode, and effectively avoid carbon dioxide formation. This “disengaging strategy” was successfully demonstrated in electro-reduction of solid oxides of zirconium and tantalum. It has led to significantly higher current efficiency (93%, and lower energy consumption (1.4 kW h kg−1 in electrolysis of tantalum oxide to tantalum metal compared to the conventional electrolysis in molten calcium chloride (e.g. 78% and 2.4 kW h/kg-Ta.

  20. The role of calcium in growth induced by indole-3-acetic acid and gravity in the leaf-sheath pulvinus of oat (Avena sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, T. G.; Burg, J.; Ghosheh, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1992-01-01

    Leaf-sheath pulvini of excised segments from oat (Avena sativa L.) were induced to grow by treatment with 10 micromoles indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gravistimulation, or both, and the effects of calcium, EGTA, and calcium channel blockers on growth were evaluated. Unilaterally applied calcium (10 mM CaCl2) significantly inhibited IAA-induced growth in upright pulvini but had no effect on growth induced by either gravity or gravity plus IAA. Calcium alone had no effect on upright pulvini. The calcium chelator EGTA alone (10 mM) stimulated growth in upright pulvini. However, EGTA had no effect on either IAA- or gravity-induced growth but slightly diminished growth in IAA-treated gravistimulated pulvini. The calcium channel blockers lanthanum chloride (25 mM), verapamil (2.5 mM), and nifedipine (2.5 mM) greatly inhibited growth as induced by IAA (> or = 50% inhibition) or IAA plus gravity (20% inhibition) but had no effect on gravistimulated pulvini. Combinations of channel blockers were similar in effect on IAA action as individual blockers. Since neither calcium ions nor EGTA significantly affected the graviresponse of pulvini, we conclude that apoplastic calcium is unimportant in leaf-sheath pulvinus gravitropism. The observation that calcium ions and calcium channel blockers inhibit IAA-induced growth, but have no effect on gravistimulated pulvini, further supports previous observations that gravistimulation alters the responsiveness of pulvini to IAA.

  1. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series...... of inhibitors (thiocyanate, furosemide, phloretin, and acetazolamide) also affects chloride exchange diffusion, hyperpolarization current as well as chloride influx during hyperpolarization. Although in some cases, effects on the short circuit current were also observed none of the effects on chloride transport....... On the basis of these findings, and the results reported in the previous paper (Hviid Larsen and Kristensen 1977) it is considered probable that the membrane molecules responsible to chloride exchange diffusion under short circuit conditions, are rearranged under the influence of a hyperpolarizing clamping...

  2. Quantitative estimation of carbonation and chloride penetration in reinforced concrete by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Shuzo, E-mail: eto@criepi.denken.or.jp [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-6-1 Nagasaka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 240-0196 (Japan); Matsuo, Toyofumi; Matsumura, Takuro; Fujii, Takashi [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-6-1 Nagasaka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 240-0196 (Japan); Tanaka, Masayoshi Y. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 2-6-1 Nagasaka, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 240-0196 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    The penetration profile of chlorine in a reinforced concrete (RC) specimen was determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The concrete core was prepared from RC beams with cracking damage induced by bending load and salt water spraying. LIBS was performed using a specimen that was obtained by splitting the concrete core, and the line scan of laser pulses gave the two-dimensional emission intensity profiles of 100 × 80 mm{sup 2} within one hour. The two-dimensional profile of the emission intensity suggests that the presence of the crack had less effect on the emission intensity when the measurement interval was larger than the crack width. The chlorine emission spectrum was measured without using the buffer gas, which is usually used for chlorine measurement, by collinear double-pulse LIBS. The apparent diffusion coefficient, which is one of the most important parameters for chloride penetration in concrete, was estimated using the depth profile of chlorine emission intensity and Fick's law. The carbonation depth was estimated on the basis of the relationship between carbon and calcium emission intensities. When the carbon emission intensity was statistically higher than the calcium emission intensity at the measurement point, we determined that the point was carbonated. The estimation results were consistent with the spraying test results using phenolphthalein solution. These results suggest that the quantitative estimation by LIBS of carbonation depth and chloride penetration can be performed simultaneously. - Highlights: • We estimated the carbonation depth and the apparent diffusion coefficient of chlorine sodium in the reinforced concrete with cracking damage by LIBS. • Two-dimensional profile measurement of the emission intensity in each element was performed to visualize the chloride penetration and the carbonation in the reinforced concrete. • Apparent diffusion coefficient of chlorine and sodium can be estimated using the Fick

  3. Calcium metabolism & hypercalcemia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumachi, F; Motta, R; Cecchin, D; Ave, S; Camozzi, V; Basso, S M M; Luisetto, G

    2011-01-01

    Calcium is essential for many metabolic process, including nerve function, muscle contraction, and blood clotting. The metabolic pathways that contribute to maintain serum calcium levels are bone remodeling processes, intestinal absorption and secretion, and renal handling, but hypercalcemia occurs when at least 2 of these 3 metabolic pathways are altered. Calcium metabolism mainly depends on the activity of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Its secretion is strictly controlled by the ionized serum calcium levels through a negative feed-back, which is achieved by the activation of calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs) mainly expressed on the surface of the parathyroid cells. The PTH receptor in bone and kidney is now referred as PTHR1. The balance of PTH, calcitonin, and vitamin D has long been considered the main regulator of calcium metabolism, but the function of other actors, such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), Klotho, and TPRV5 should be considered. Primary hyperparathyroidism and malignancy are the most common causes of hypercalcemia, accounting for more than 90% of cases. Uncontrolled hypercalcemia may cause renal impairment, both temporary (alteration of renal tubular function) and progressive (relapsing nephrolithiasis), leading to a progressive loss of renal function, as well as severe bone diseases, and heart damages. Advances in the understanding of all actors of calcium homeostasis will be crucial, having several practical consequences in the treatment and prevention of hypercalcemia. This would allow to move from a support therapy, sometimes ineffective, to a specific and addressed therapy, especially in patients with chronic hypercalcemic conditions unsuitable for surgery.

  4. Effect of potassium and calcium loading on healthy subjects under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Naexu, Konstantin A.; Federenko, Youri F.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the acute responses to the electrolyte challenges under hypokinesia and physical exercise (PE) of different intensities with fluid and salt supplementation (FSS). The studies were performed on 12 physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesia (decreased number of steps per day) with a set of PE with FSS. The volunteers were divided into two equal groups. The first group was subjected to a set of intensive PE and the second group was submitted to a set of moderate PE. Both groups of subjects consumed daily water and salt supplements that aimed to increase the body hydration level. For simulation of the hypokinetic effect all subjects were kept under an average of 3000 steps per day. Functional tests with a potassium chloride (KCl) and calcium lactate (Cal) load were performed during the hypokinetic period of 364 days and the 60-day prehypokinetic period that served as control, while both groups of subjects consumed daily calcium and potassium supplements. The concentration of electrolyte and hormone levels in the blood and their excretion rate in urine were determined. Renal excretion of calcium and potassium and the blood concentration thereof increased markedly in both groups of subjects. With the potassium chloride load tests the increased potassium excretion was accompanied by higher aldosterone and insulin blood levels, and with the calcium lactate load tests the increased calcium excretion was accompanied by a decreased parathyroid content in the blood. FSS and PE, regardless of intensity, failed to attenuate calcium and potassium losses. Additional intake of KCl and Cal also failed to normalize potassium and calcium abnormalities. It was concluded that during the KCl and Cal loading tests, the increased losses of potassium and calcium in the hypokinetic subjects were due to the inability of their bodies to retain these electrolytes, and that electrolyte abnormalities could

  5. Calcium and Calcium Supplements: Achieving the Right Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duyff RL. American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. 4th ed. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons; 2012:140. Rosen HN. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation in osteoporosis. http://www.uptodate.com/home/index. ...

  6. Stability study of carboplatin infusion solutions in 0.9% sodium chloride in polyvinyl chloride bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Alan L; Zhang, Yang-Ping; Kawedia, Jitesh D; Trinh, Van A; Tran, Huyentran; Smith, Judith A; Kramer, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Carboplatin is a platinum-containing compound with efficacy against various malignancies. The physico-chemical stability of carboplatin in dextrose 5% water (D5W) has been thoroughly studied; however, there is a paucity of stability data in clinically relevant 0.9% sodium chloride infusion solutions. The manufacturer's limited stability data in sodium chloride solutions hampers the flexibility of carboplatin usage in oncology patients. Hence, the purpose of this study is to determine the physical and chemical stability of carboplatin-sodium chloride intravenous solutions under different storage conditions. The physico-chemical stability of 0.5 mg/mL, 2.0 mg/mL, and 4.0 mg/mL carboplatin-sodium chloride solutions prepared in polyvinyl chloride bags was determined following storage at room temperature under ambient fluorescent light and under refrigeration in the dark. Concentrations of carboplatin were measured at predetermined time points up to seven days using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. All tested solutions were found physically stable for at least seven days. The greatest chemical stability was observed under refrigerated storage conditions. At 4℃, all tested solutions were found chemically stable for at least seven days, with nominal losses of ≤6%. Following storage at room temperature exposed to normal fluorescent light, the chemical stability of 0.5 mg/mL, 2.0 mg/mL, and 4.0 mg/mL solutions was three days, five days, and seven days, respectively. The extended physico-chemical stability of carboplatin prepared in sodium chloride reported herein permits advance preparation of these admixtures, facilitating pharmacy utility and operations. Since no antibacterial preservative is contained within these carboplatin solutions, we recommend storage, when prepared under specified aseptic conditions, no greater than 24 h at room temperature or three days under refrigeration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate in Martian meteorite EETA79001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, J. L.; Wentworth, S. J.

    1987-01-01

    Chips of glassy Lithology C of EETA79001 were studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to determine the mineralogy and petrogenesis of the glass that was shown by others to contain trapped Mars-like gases. Calcium carbonite was identified as massive to acicular crystals for which Ca, C, and O were the major elements. Calcium sulfate was identified as prismatic-acicular crystals with Ca and S as the major elements.

  8. Twenty years of fluorescence imaging of intracellular Chloride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eArosio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chloride homeostasis has a pivotal role in controlling neuronal excitability in the adult brain and during development. The intracellular concentration of chloride is regulated by the dynamic equilibrium between passive fluxes through membrane conductances and the active transport mediated by importers and exporters. In cortical neurons, chloride fluxes are coupled to network activity by the opening of the ionotropic GABAA receptors that provides a direct link between the activity of interneurons and chloride fluxes. These molecular mechanisms are not evenly distributed and regulated over the neuron surface and this fact can lead to a compartmentalized control of the intracellular concentration of chloride. The inhibitory drive provided by the activity of the GABAA receptors depends on the direction and strength of the associated currents, which are ultimately dictated by the gradient of chloride, the main charge carrier flowing through the GABAA channel. Thus, the intracellular distribution of chloride determines the local strength of ionotropic inhibition and influences the interaction between converging excitation and inhibition. The importance of chloride regulation is also underlined by its involvement in several brain pathologies, including epilepsy and disorders of the autistic spectra.The full comprehension of the physiological meaning of GABAergic activity on neurons requires the measure of the spatiotemporal dynamics of chloride fluxes across the membrane. Nowadays, there are several available tools for the task, and both synthetic and genetically encoded indicators have been successfully used for chloride imaging. Here, we will review the available sensors analyzing their properties and outlining desirable future developments.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1187 - Calcium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium alginate. 184.1187 Section 184.1187 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1187 Calcium alginate. (a) Calcium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005.... Calcium alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH control...

  10. Extracellular and Intracellular Regulation of Calcium Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bronner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An organism with an internal skeleton must accumulate calcium while maintaining body fluids at a well-regulated, constant calcium concentration. Neither calcium absorption nor excretion plays a significant regulatory role. Instead, isoionic calcium uptake and release by bone surfaces causes plasma calcium to be well regulated. Very rapid shape changes of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, in response to hormonal signals, modulate the available bone surfaces so that plasma calcium can increase when more low-affinity bone calcium binding sites are made available and can decrease when more high-affinity binding sites are exposed. The intracellular free calcium concentration of body cells is also regulated, but because cells are bathed by fluids with vastly higher calcium concentration, their major regulatory mechanism is severe entry restriction. All cells have a calcium-sensing receptor that modulates cell function via its response to extracellular calcium. In duodenal cells, the apical calcium entry structure functions as both transporter and a vitamin D–responsive channel. The channel upregulates calcium entry, with intracellular transport mediated by the mobile, vitamin D–dependent buffer, calbindin D9K, which binds and transports more than 90% of the transcellular calcium flux. Fixed intracellular calcium binding sites can, like the body's skeleton, take up and release calcium that has entered the cell, but the principal regulatory tool of the cell is restricted entry.

  11. Lubiprostone: chloride channel activator for chronic constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkin, Anastasia; Chagan, Larisa

    2006-12-01

    Chronic constipation is a common and costly health problem occurring in approximately 4.5 million Americans. Current management of constipation is suboptimal and requires a stepwise approach using a combination of laxatives to decrease symptoms. The objective of this review was to describe the efficacy and safety of a new therapeutic entity, lubiprostone, recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation. Computerized searches of MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were conducted (1966-July 10, 2006). Search terms utilized were lubiprostone, RU-0211, and chronic constipation. References of selected articles were searched for additional articles or abstracts. All relevant published literature regarding lubiprostone was included in this review. Pertinent abstracts presented at meetings of the American College of Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases Week were also included. Lubiprostone activates a chloride channel (ie, subtype 2) and increases chloride and fluid secretion into the intestines, resulting in relief of constipation. It is poorly absorbed after oral administration, and its metabolism occurs primarily in the stomach and jejunum. Lubiprostone was evaluated in 6 placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized Phase II or III clinical trials. Overall, in clinical trials, >1400 patients were exposed to 24 mug of lubiprostone BID for up to 48 weeks. It improved the number of bowel movements, stool consistency, bloating, and global assessment of constipation compared with placebo (P lubiprostone was given with food. Lubiprostone is the first in its class of chloride channel activators that results in improvement of symptoms of constipation. It has not been compared with other laxatives but, based on the available placebo-controlled studies, its efficacy is superior to placebo and its safety is acceptable. Considering the currently available laxatives, lubiprostone will become an

  12. Calcium phosphates for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canillas, M.; Pena, P.; Aza, A.H. de; Rodriguez, M.A.

    2017-07-01

    The history of calcium phosphates in the medicine field starts in 1769 when the first evidence of its existence in the bone tissue is discovered. Since then, the interest for calcium phosphates has increased among the scientific community. Their study has been developed in parallel with new advances in materials sciences, medicine or tissue engineering areas. Bone tissue engineering is the field where calcium phosphates have had a great importance. While the first bioceramics are selected according to bioinert, biocompatibility and mechanical properties with the aim to replace bone tissue damaged, calcium phosphates open the way to the bone tissue regeneration challenge. Nowadays, they are present in the majority of commercial products directed to repair or regenerate damaged bone tissue. Finally, in the last few decades, they have been suggested and studied as drug delivering devices and as vehicles of DNA and RNA for the future generation therapies. (Author)

  13. Polysulfide calcium as multyfunctional product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Abramova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A modified method of producing of polysulfide calcium, the influence of various factors on the degree of polysulfide of product, as well as possible directions for its use as a multifunctional compound were considered.

  14. [Calcium metabolism after the menopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanovitch, D; Klotz, H P

    1976-02-16

    The authors recall the antagonism between estradiol and parathormone. Estradiol tends to lower serum calcium and fix calcium in the bones as shown by one of us 25 years ago. The mechanism of this action of estrogen on calcium metabolism has been determined by numerous authors but some points are still not clear, e.g. the interferences between estrogen and calcitonin. Classically, parathormone is known to increase bony reabsorption and raise serum calcium. After the menopause the gradual reduction in estradiol secretion leads to post-menopausal osteoporosis. It is better to administer estrogens prophylactically to women after the menopause provided a cervical smear and mammography have been carried out to eliminate latent carcinoma of the breast or uterine cervix.

  15. Calcium-sensing beyond neurotransmitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Han, Weiping

    2009-01-01

    Neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones are released through the regulated exocytosis of SVs (synaptic vesicles) and LDCVs (large dense-core vesicles), a process that is controlled by calcium. Synaptotagmins are a family of type 1 membrane proteins that share a common domain structure. Most....... Also, we discuss potential roles of synaptotagmins in non-traditional endocrine systems....... synaptotagmins are located in brain and endocrine cells, and some of these synaptotagmins bind to phospholipids and calcium at levels that trigger regulated exocytosis of SVs and LDCVs. This led to the proposed synaptotagmin-calcium-sensor paradigm, that is, members of the synaptotagmin family function...... as calcium sensors for the regulated exocytosis of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones. Here, we provide an overview of the synaptotagmin family, and review the recent mouse genetic studies aimed at understanding the functions of synaptotagmins in neurotransmission and endocrine-hormone secretion...

  16. Interaction between vanadyl chloride solutions and aerosil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skopenko, V.V.; Golub, A.A. (Kievskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR))

    1980-08-01

    Interaction of aqueous and methanol solutions of vanadyl chloride with aerosil in the presence of bases is studied. The complexes prepared are studied using the methods of electron-reflective, ESR- and IR spectroscopy. It is shown that in aqueous solutions the exchange of hydrogen ions of aerosil surface proceeds in a greater degree than in methanol. ''Highly acid'' protons are most easily substituted and their concentration equals 0.05 mgxion/g SiO/sub 2/. On the basis of electron spectra a supposition is made on distorted-octahedral surrounding of vanadium (4) ions on aerosil surface.

  17. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Güler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzalkonium chloride (BAC is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is to draw attention to the fact that BAC application to the scalp for treating pediculosis capitis may resemble the herpes encephalitis clinical picture.

  18. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg....../m(3) rapid-hardening Portland cement, w/c = 0.5, maturity minimum 6 months) stored at 65% and 85% RH, as well as in vacuum-saturated mortar samples, illustrate the applicability of the method. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. N-(2-Benzoylethylpropan-2-aminium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Aydın

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, C12H18NO+·Cl−, N—H...Cl interactions between the free chloride anions and the organic cations connect the molecules into hydrogen-bond dimers, forming a R22(8 motif. The dimers are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains extending along [301]. The carbonyl group is co-planar with the phenyl ring [C—C—C=O torsion angle = −3.3 (7°]. The side chain has an E conformation.

  20. Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Steel in Concrete: An Overview on Chloride Diffusion and Prediction of Corrosion Initiation Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umar Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Initiation of corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete (RC structures subjected to chloride exposures mainly depends on coefficient of chloride diffusion, Dc, of concrete. Therefore, Dc is one of the key parameters needed for prediction of initiation of reinforcement corrosion. Fick’s second law of diffusion has been used for long time to derive the models for chloride diffusion in concrete. However, such models do not include the effects of various significant factors such as chloride binding by the cement, multidirectional ingress of chloride, and variation of Dc with time due to change in the microstructure of concrete during early period of cement hydration. In this paper, a review is presented on the development of chloride diffusion models by incorporating the effects of the key factors into basic Fick’s second law of diffusion. Determination of corrosion initiation time using chloride diffusion models is also explained. The information presented in this paper would be useful for accurate prediction of corrosion initiation time of RC structures subjected to chloride exposure, considering the effects of chloride binding, effect of time and space on Dc, and interaction effect of multidirectional chloride ingress.

  1. The combination of lanthanum chloride and the calcimimetic calindol delays the progression of vascular smooth muscle cells calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciceri, Paola; Volpi, Elisa; Brenna, Irene; Elli, Francesca [Renal Division and Laboratory of Experimental Nephrology, Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy); Borghi, Elisa [Dipartimento di Salute Pubblica, Microbiologia e Virologia, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy); Brancaccio, Diego [Renal Division and Laboratory of Experimental Nephrology, Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy); Cozzolino, Mario, E-mail: mario.cozzolino@unimi.it [Renal Division and Laboratory of Experimental Nephrology, Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia, Universita di Milano, Milan (Italy)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanum reduces the progression of high phosphate-induced calcium deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcium receptor agonists and the calcimimetic calindol reduce calcium deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanum and calindol cooperate on reducing calcium deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lanthanum and calindol may interact with the same receptor. -- Abstract: Phosphate (Pi)-binders are commonly used in dialysis patients to control high Pi levels, that associated with vascular calcification (VC). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lanthanum chloride (LaCl{sub 3}) on the progression of high Pi-induced VC, in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Pi-induced Ca deposition was inhibited by LaCl{sub 3}, with a maximal effect at 100 {mu}M (59.0 {+-} 2.5% inhibition). Furthermore, we studied the effects on VC of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) agonists. Gadolinium chloride, neomycin, spermine, and the calcimimetic calindol significantly inhibited Pi-induced VC (55.9 {+-} 2.2%, 37.3 {+-} 4.7%, 30.2 {+-} 5.7%, and 63.8 {+-} 5.7%, respectively). To investigate the hypothesis that LaCl{sub 3} reduces the progression of VC by interacting with the CaSR, we performed a concentration-response curve of LaCl{sub 3} in presence of a sub-effective concentration of calindol (10 nM). Interestingly, this curve was shifted to the left (IC{sub 50} 9.6 {+-} 2.6 {mu}M), compared to the curve in the presence of LaCl{sub 3} alone (IC{sub 50} 19.0 {+-} 4.8 {mu}M). In conclusion, we demonstrated that lanthanum chloride effectively reduces the progression of high phosphate-induced vascular calcification. In addition, LaCl{sub 3} cooperates with the calcimimetic calindol in decreasing Ca deposition in this in vitro model. These results suggest the potential role of lanthanum in the treatment of VC induced by high Pi.

  2. Chloride Ingress in Concrete Cracks under Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Olesen, John Forbes

    2005-01-01

    , there is increasing focus on the need for modeling the ingress of chloride into cracked concrete. Present models quantify chloride ingress in static cracks only, although several structural applications display dynamic loading conditions in an environment containing chlorides, e.g. marine structures and car parks....... Preliminary investigations have been undertaken to quantify the effect of dynamic load application on the chloride ingress into concrete cracks. Specimens were designed allowing ingress of a chloride solution into a single crack of a saturated unreinforced mortar beam. One set of specimens was subjected...... to a load frequency of ten applications per minute and a second set to one application per hour simulating static cracks, however limiting the ingress hampering effects of autogenous healing and a possible dense precipitation on the crack faces. The averaged chloride exposure interval of the crack faces...

  3. Calcium affects on vascular endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vaishali B

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium is one of the most abundant minerals in the body and its metabolism is one of the basic biologic processes in humans. Although historically linked primarily to bone structural development and maintenance, calcium is now recognized as a key component of many physiologic pathways necessary for optimum health including cardiovascular, neurological, endocrine, renal, and gastrointestinal systems. A recent meta-analysis published in August 2011 showed a potential increase in cardiovascular events related to calcium supplementation. The possible mechanism of action of this correlation has not been well elucidated. This topic has generated intense interest due to the widespread use of calcium supplements, particularly among the middle aged and elderly who are at the most risk from cardiac events. Prior studies did not control for potential confounding factors such as the use of statins, aspirin or other medications. These controversial results warrant additional well-designed studies to investigate the relationship between calcium supplementation and cardiovascular outcomes. The purpose of this review is to highlight the current literature in regards to calcium supplementation and cardiovascular health; and to identify areas of future research.

  4. Clogging and Cementation Caused by Calcium or Iron Biogrouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V.; Chu, J.; Naeimi, M.

    2012-12-01

    Chemical grouts are often used to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of soil for seepage control purposes. However, chemical grouts can be expensive and environmentally unfriendly. Therefore, two new biogrouts were tested for their bioclogging and biocementation properties. The first was calcium-based biogrout, which contained urease-producing bacteria, calcium chloride and urea for the crystallization of calcite due to enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The second was iron-based biogrout, which consisted of urease-producing bacteria, ferric chelate, and urea for the precipitation of ferric hydroxide and carbonate due to enzymatic hydrolysis of urea. The permeability of sand (P, 10^-5 m/s), treated with calcium-based biogrout, linearly decreased as a function of the content of precipitated calcium (C, % w/w) according to the following equation: P = 5.1 - 4.0 C. Meanwhile, the permeability of sand treated with iron-based biogrout dropped to 2.7x10^-6 m/s at content of precipitated iron (F, % w/w) about 0.35 % w/w , by the equation: P = 5.1 - 14.6 F , and then slowly decreased to 1.4x10^-7 m/s at content of precipitated iron 1.8% w/w by the following equation: P = 0.36 - 0.23F. Both biogrouts have approximately same efficiency in the reduction of permeability of sand to low values. However, the mechanisms of bioclogging are probably different because the reduction of permeability by calcium-based biogrout was described by linear function of precipitated calcium but the reduction of permeability by iron-based biogrout showed two steps of the clogging. Different functions and mechanisms were related probably to the different type of precipitates. The images of biogrouted sand samples show that calcium-based biogrout produced white amorphous or crystallised calcium carbonate, while iron-based biogrout produced gel-like brown precipitate without visible crystals. The unconfined compressive strengths of the sand treated with different biogrouts (Y, kPa) increased by power

  5. The genotoxicity of sodium saccharin and sodium chloride in relation to their cancer-promoting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, J

    1985-01-01

    The literature indicates that sodium saccharin is non-reactive to DNA and inactive as a gene mutagen in vitro. At elevated dose levels it is capable of producing structural disturbances in eukaryotic chromosomes in vitro, and it shows intermittent activity as a very weak germ-cell and somatic-cell mutagen in vivo. Its possible mode of action in these respects is speculated on and related to its ability to promote bladder tumours in rats at elevated dose levels. A review of the toxicology of sodium chloride reveals a profile of genotoxic activities almost identical to that of sodium saccharin. It is suggested that the recorded genotoxic and cancer-promoting activities of these chemicals will only become apparent at elevated dose levels that define them as significant contributors to the biological medium (solvent) rather than as trace xenobiotic toxins (solutes). The possible activity of acid saccharin, or of its potassium, calcium and ammonium salts, as ionic genotoxins requires urgent evaluation.

  6. Chloride ingress profiles measured by electron probe micro analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole mejlhede; Coats, Alison M.; Glasser, Fred P.

    1996-01-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA...... is demonstated to determine chloride ingress in cement paste on a micrometer scale. Potential chloride ingress routes such as cracks or the paste-aggregate interface may also be characterized by EPMA. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd...

  7. Congenital chloride diarrhea: a review of twelve Arabian children

    OpenAIRE

    Elrefae, Fawaz; Elhassanien, Ahmed Farag; Alghiaty, Hesham Abdel-Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Fawaz Elrefae,1 Ahmed Farag Elhassanien,2 Hesham Abdel-Aziz Alghiaty3 1Pediatric Gastroenterology, Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait; 2Faculty of Medicine, Elmansoura University, El Mansoura, El Dakahleya, Egypt; 3Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt Background: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by sustained watery diarrhea (due to defect of active Chloride/HCO3 exchange in the ileum and colon) with high fecal chloride. Objective: To spo...

  8. Rapid responses to reverse T₃ hormone in immature rat Sertoli cells: calcium uptake and exocytosis mediated by integrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Zanatta

    Full Text Available There is increasing experimental evidence of the nongenomic action of thyroid hormones mediated by receptors located in the plasma membrane or inside cells. The aim of this work was to characterize the reverse T₃ (rT₃ action on calcium uptake and its involvement in immature rat Sertoli cell secretion. The results presented herein show that very low concentrations of rT₃ are able to increase calcium uptake after 1 min of exposure. The implication of T-type voltage-dependent calcium channels and chloride channels in the effect of rT₃ was evidenced using flunarizine and 9-anthracene, respectively. Also, the rT₃-induced calcium uptake was blocked in the presence of the RGD peptide (an inhibitor of integrin-ligand interactions. Therefore, our findings suggest that calcium uptake stimulated by rT₃ may be mediated by integrin αvβ₃. In addition, it was demonstrated that calcium uptake stimulated by rT₃ is PKC and ERK-dependent. Furthermore, the outcomes indicate that rT₃ also stimulates cellular secretion since the cells manifested a loss of fluorescence after 4 min incubation, indicating an exocytic quinacrine release that seems to be mediated by the integrin receptor. These findings indicate that rT₃ modulates the calcium entry and cellular secretion, which might play a role in the regulation of a plethora of intracellular processes involved in male reproductive physiology.

  9. Nuclear calcium controls the apoptotic-like cell death induced by d-erythro-sphinganine in tobacco cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaud, Christophe; Da Silva, Daniel; Cotelle, Valérie; Thuleau, Patrice; Xiong, Tou Cheu; Jauneau, Alain; Brière, Christian; Graziana, Annick; Bellec, Yannick; Faure, Jean-Denis; Ranjeva, Raoul; Mazars, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Studies performed in animals have highlighted the major role of sphingolipids in regulating the balance between cell proliferation and cell death. Sphingolipids have also been shown to induce cell death in plants via calcium-based signalling pathways but the contribution of free cytosolic and/or nuclear calcium in the overall process has never been evaluated. Here, we show that increase in tobacco BY-2 cells of the endogenous content of Long Chain Bases (LCBs) caused by external application of d-erythro-sphinganine (DHS) is followed by immediate dose-dependent elevations of cellular free calcium concentration within the first minute in the cytosol and 10min later in the nucleus. Cells challenged with DHS enter a death process through apoptotic-like mechanisms. Lanthanum chloride, a general blocker of calcium entry, suppresses the cellular calcium variations and the PCD induced by DHS. Interestingly, dl-2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid (AP5) and [(+)-dizocilpine] (MK801), two inhibitors of animal and plant ionotropic glutamate receptors, suppress DHS-induced cell death symptoms by selectively inhibiting the variations of nuclear calcium concentration. The selective action of these compounds demonstrates the crucial role of nuclear calcium signature in controlling DHS-induced cell death in tobacco cells. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of temperature on the durability of class C fly ash belite cement in simulated radioactive liquid waste: synergy of chloride and sulphate ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, A; Goñi, S; Allegro, V R

    2009-06-15

    The durability of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) in simulated radioactive liquid waste (SRLW) rich in a mixed sodium chloride and sulphate solution is presented here. The effect of the temperature and potential synergic effect of chloride and sulfate ions are discussed. This study has been carried out according to the Koch-Steinegger test, at the temperature of 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C during a period of 180 days. The durability has been evaluated by the changes of the flexural strength of mortar, fabricated with this cement, immersed in a simulated radioactive liquid waste rich in sulfate (0.5M), chloride (0.5M) and sodium (1.5M) ions--catalogued like severely aggressive for the traditional Portland cement--and demineralised water, which was used as reference. The reaction mechanism of sulphate, chloride and sodium ions with the mortar was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the chloride binding and formation of Friedel's salt was inhibited by the presence of sulphate. Sulphate ion reacts preferentially with the calcium aluminate hydrates forming non-expansive ettringite which precipitated inside the pores; the microstructure was refined and the mechanical properties enhanced. This process was faster and more marked at 40 degrees C.

  11. Fault locator of an allyl chloride plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savković-Stevanović Jelenka B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Process safety analysis, which includes qualitative fault event identification, the relative frequency and event probability functions, as well as consequence analysis, was performed on an allye chloride plant. An event tree for fault diagnosis and cognitive reliability analysis, as well as a troubleshooting system, were developed. Fuzzy inductive reasoning illustrated the advantages compared to crisp inductive reasoning. A qualitative model forecast the future behavior of the system in the case of accident detection and then compared it with the actual measured data. A cognitive model including qualitative and quantitative information by fuzzy logic of the incident scenario was derived as a fault locator for an ally! chloride plant. The obtained results showed the successful application of cognitive dispersion modeling to process safety analysis. A fuzzy inductive reasoner illustrated good performance to discriminate between different types of malfunctions. This fault locator allowed risk analysis and the construction of a fault tolerant system. This study is the first report in the literature showing the cognitive reliability analysis method.

  12. N,N-Dimethyldehydroabietylammonium chloride ethanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Zhi Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 1-[(1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthren-1-yl]-N,N-dimethylmethanaminium chloride ethanol monosolvate}, C22H36N+·Cl−·C2H6O, was synthesized from dehydroabietylamine by N-methylation with formaldehyde/formic acid and transformation into the hydrochloride. The dehydroabietyl moiety exhibits the usual conformation with the two cyclohexane rings in chair and half-chair conformations and a trans-ring junction. The crystal structure is built up from columns of the dehydroabietyl moieties stacked along the a axis. These columns are held together by the chloride ions via N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl interactions, which establish a two-dimensional network parallel to (010. The ethanol solvent molecules are located between the columns and anchored via O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  13. Purification of Food-grade Magnesium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Lianmin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the varying weights of bischofite dissolved in the distilled water was investigated. The effects of the temperature on the rate of evaporation and the thermal precipitation time on the purity of the crystal products were fully investigated. Two validation tests including magnifying tests and recycling residue were also studied. Our results demonstrate that the contents of NaCl, KCl and CaSO4in the filtrate reached a minimum value after the pretreatment of 350 g bischofite dissolved in 100 mldistilled water. In the crystal products from the second evaporating stage of the validation tests, the contents of MgCl2·6H2O, SO4 and NaCl+KCl are 99%, ≤0.1±0.01%and ≤0.8±0.04%, respectively. The content of magnesium chloride in the solution was increased to a greater extent, and the impurities reduced correspondingly through thedissolution pretreatments of bischofite. This could decrease energy consumption for the impurity removing stage, evaporation and crystallization process, and thus reduce costs for the industrial production of food-grade magnesium chloride

  14. The sodium chloride primary pressure gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, A. L.; Chhabildas, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The failure of a central force model for sodium chloride is discussed. It is noted that it does not closely satisfy the Cauchy conditions at low temperatures, and that it fails the central force requirement of the Love condition. The available shock data for sodium chloride and its analysis is examined, and two reasons why the Hugoniot transformation pressure is likely to be less than 231 kbar are discussed. The important (but unjustified) theoretical assumptions made in converting Hugoniot to isothermal data is discussed; it is noted that serious error can enter for very large pressures for a given material and that at such high pressures the isothermal data should thus be considered only semiquantitative even if the Hugoniot data itself is accurate. An alternate method of estimating the isothermal transformation pressure from the Hugoniot transformation pressure is used. This method is based on the temperature derivative of the transformation pressure. On this basis it is concluded that an upper bound for the isothermal transformation of NaCl (to a CsCl-type structure) at room temperature is 257 kbar; it is noted that the actual value may be considerably less than this.

  15. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Ekman, Tom; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    1999-01-01

    Durability studies are carried out by subjecting FRC-beams to combined mechanical and environmental load. Mechanical load is obtained by exposing beams to 4-point bending until a predefined crack width is reached, using a newly developed test setup. Exposure to a concentrated chloride solution is...... as main reinforcement. The effect of the cracks, the fibres and the concrete quality on the chloride penetration is studied....... is used as environmental load. The chloride penetration is characterized both qualitatively (UV-test) and quantitatively (chloride profile) and by microscopy. The test programme involves three different concrete qualities. Both steel fibres and polypropylene fibres are used in the concrete beams as well...

  16. Surface Chloride Concentration of Concrete under Shallow Immersion Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of chloride ions in the surface layer of concrete is investigated in this study. In real concrete structure, chloride ions from the service environment can penetrate into concrete and deposit in the surface layer, to form the boundary condition for further diffusion towards the interior. The deposit amount of chloride ions in the surface layer is normally a function of time, rather than a constant. In the experimental investigation, concrete specimens with different mix proportions are immersed in NaCl solution with a mass concentration of 5%, to simulate the shallow immersion condition in sea water, and the surface chloride concentrations are measured at different ages. It is found that the surface chloride concentration increases following the increasing immersion durations, and varies from a weight percentage of 0.161%–0.781% in concretes with different mix proportions. The w/c (water-to-cement ratio influences the surface chloride concentration significantly, and the higher the w/c is, the higher the surface chloride concentration will be, at the same age. However, following the prolonging of immersion duration, the difference in surface chloride concentration induced by w/c becomes smaller and smaller. The incorporation of fly ash leads to higher surface chloride concentration. The phenomena are explained based on pore structure analyses.

  17. On barium oxide solubility in barium-containing chloride melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V. [Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High Temperature Electrochemistry

    2016-11-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl{sub 2}-NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl{sub 2}-MCl systems.

  18. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid by Metal Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beixiao Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl3, FeCl3 and CuCl2 and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl3, exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 °C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  20. Calcium Disorders in the Emergency Department: Independent Risk Factors for Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Sauter

    Full Text Available Calcium disorders are common in both intensive care units and in patients with chronic kidney disease and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. It is unknown whether calcium abnormalities in unselected emergency department admissions have an impact on in-hospital mortality.This cross-sectional analysis included all admissions to the Emergency Department at the Inselspital Bern, Switzerland from 2010 to 2011. For hyper- and hypocalcaemic patients with a Mann-Whitney U-test, the differences between subgroups divided by age, length of hospital stay, creatinine, sodium, chloride, phosphate, potassium and magnesium were compared. Associations between calcium disorders and 28-day in-hospital mortality were assessed using the Cox proportional hazard regression model.8,270 patients with calcium measurements were included in our study. Overall 264 (3.2% patients died. 150 patients (6.13% with hypocalcaemia and 7 patients with hypercalcaemia (6.19% died, in contrast to 104 normocalcaemic patients (1.82%. In univariate analysis, calcium serum levels were associated with sex, mortality and pre-existing diuretic therapy (all p<0.05. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, hypocalcaemia and hypercalcaemia were independent risk factors for mortality (HR 2.00 and HR 1.88, respectively; both p<0.01.Both hypocalcaemia and hypercalcaemia are associated with increased 28-day in-hospital mortality in unselected emergency department admissions.

  1. Calcium Phosphate: A potential host for halide contaminated plutonium wastes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, Brian L.; Donald, Ian W.; Fong, Shirley K.; Gerrard, Lee A.; Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.

    2009-07-06

    The presence of significant quantities of fluoride and chloride in four types of legacy wastes from plutonium pyrochemical reprocessing required the development of a new wasteform which could adequately immobilize the halides in addition to the Pu and Am. Using a simulant chloride-based waste (Type I waste) and Sm as the surrogate for the Pu3+ and Am3+ present in the waste, AWE developed a process which utilised Ca3(PO4)2 as the host material. The waste was successfully incorporated into two crystalline phases, chlorapatite, [Ca5(PO4)3Cl], and spodiosite, [Ca2(PO4)Cl]. Radioactive studies performed at PNNL with 239Pu and 241Am confirmed the process. A slightly modified version of the process in which CaHPO4 was used as the host was successful in immobilizing a more complex multi-cation oxide–based waste (Type II) which contained significant concentrations of Cl and F in addition to 239Pu and 241Am. This waste resulted in the formation of cation-doped whitlockite, Ca3-xMgx(PO4)2, β-calcium phosphate, β-Ca2P2O7 and chlor-fluorapatite rather than the chlorapatite and spodiosite formed with Type I waste.

  2. Calcium: the molecular basis of calcium action in biology and medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pochet, Roland; Donato, Rosario

    2000-01-01

    ... of Calcium Calcium Signalling in Excitable Cells Ca2+ Release in Muscle Cells by N. Macrez and J. Mironneau Calcium Signalling in Neurons Exemplified by Rat Sympathetic Ganglion Cells by S.J. M...

  3. Acid Chlorides as Formal Carbon Dianion Linchpin Reagents in the Aluminum Chloride-Mediated Dieckmann Cyclization of Dicarboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaly, Ahlam M; Bar, Sukanta; Schindler, Corinna S

    2017-08-04

    The development of acid chlorides as formal dianion linchpin reagents that enable access to cyclic 2-alkyl- and 2-acyl-1,3-alkanediones from dicarboxylic acids is described herein. Mechanistic experiments relying on (13)C-labeling studies confirm the role of acid chlorides as carbon dianion linchpin reagents and have led to a revised reaction mechanism for the aluminum(III)-mediated Dieckmann cyclization of dicarboxylic acids with acid chlorides.

  4. Exogenous Magnesium Chloride Reduces the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times of Lupus Anticoagulant-Positive Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Tokutake

    Full Text Available The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT assay is a basic hemostatic assay based on the time it takes for clots to form in plasma samples after the addition of calcium chloride. It is used to screen for various coagulation disorders. Several previous reports have suggested that magnesium (Mg might contribute to coagulation reactions by binding to specific coagulation proteins. We investigated the effects of Mg on the APTT. In healthy controls, the APTT was significantly prolonged in proportion to the increase in the concentration of magnesium chloride in the range from 2.1 to 16.7 mmol/L. Among eight samples from patients with various disorders that exhibited prolonged APTT, two samples demonstrated shorter APTT when Mg was added, both of which were from patients that were positive for lupus anticoagulant. When we examined 206 clinical APTT samples, we found that Mg shortened the APTT of two samples. These two samples were also from lupus anticoagulant-positive patients (p-value: <0.003. Our findings regarding the unique effects of exogenous Mg on the APTT of lupus anticoagulant-positive patients might shed light on the role of Mg in APTT assays and lead to the development of a novel screening method for lupus anticoagulant.

  5. Exogenous Magnesium Chloride Reduces the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times of Lupus Anticoagulant-Positive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokutake, Takayoshi; Baba, Hisami; Shimada, Yuji; Takeda, Wataru; Sato, Keijiro; Hiroshima, Yuki; Kirihara, Takehiko; Shimizu, Ikuo; Nakazawa, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Ishida, Fumihiro

    2016-01-01

    The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay is a basic hemostatic assay based on the time it takes for clots to form in plasma samples after the addition of calcium chloride. It is used to screen for various coagulation disorders. Several previous reports have suggested that magnesium (Mg) might contribute to coagulation reactions by binding to specific coagulation proteins. We investigated the effects of Mg on the APTT. In healthy controls, the APTT was significantly prolonged in proportion to the increase in the concentration of magnesium chloride in the range from 2.1 to 16.7 mmol/L. Among eight samples from patients with various disorders that exhibited prolonged APTT, two samples demonstrated shorter APTT when Mg was added, both of which were from patients that were positive for lupus anticoagulant. When we examined 206 clinical APTT samples, we found that Mg shortened the APTT of two samples. These two samples were also from lupus anticoagulant-positive patients (p-value: <0.003). Our findings regarding the unique effects of exogenous Mg on the APTT of lupus anticoagulant-positive patients might shed light on the role of Mg in APTT assays and lead to the development of a novel screening method for lupus anticoagulant.

  6. Effects of barium, lanthanum and gadolinium on endogenous chloride and potassium currents in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokimasa, T; North, R A

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of multivalent cations on membrane currents recorded from Xenopus oocytes were studied. 2. The hyperpolarization-activated chloride current was reversibly blocked by lanthanum; half-maximal block occurred at a concentration of 8 microM. Zinc, cadmium, cobalt and nickel were less potent than lanthanum, and gadolinium, manganese, barium and strontium had no effect at a concentration of 100 microM. 3. The calcium-activated chloride current was blocked by gadolinium (50 microM), and lanthanum, cadmium, cobalt, nickel and manganese were equally effective. The actions of gadolinium and lanthanum were almost irreversible, while partial (30-80%) recovery was observed with the other cations. Zinc (100 microM) had no effect. 4. In lanthanum (100 microM), membrane depolarizations from -70 mV activated an outward potassium current that was partially blocked by barium (0.1-2 mM). The barium-sensitive current was confined to potentials less negative than -70 mV. The current consisted of a time-independent as well as a time-dependent component, the latter of which had voltage dependence similar to the M-current. 5. It is proposed that lanthanum, gadolinium and barium can usefully separate these endogenous membrane currents in Xenopus oocytes. PMID:8930835

  7. Presynaptic calcium signalling in cerebellar mossy fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Jörntell, Henrik; Midtgaard, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Whole-cell recordings were obtained from mossy fibre terminals in adult turtles in order to characterize the basic membrane properties. Calcium imaging of presynaptic calcium signals was carried out in order to analyse calcium dynamics and presynaptic GABA B inhibition. A tetrodotoxin (TTX....... Calcium imaging using Calcium-Green dextran revealed a stimulus-evoked all-or-none TTX-sensitive calcium signal in simple and complex rosettes. All compartments of a complex rosette were activated during electrical activation of the mossy fibre, while individual simple and complex rosettes along an axon...... appeared to be isolated from one another in terms of calcium signalling. CGP55845 application showed that GABA B receptors mediated presynaptic inhibition of the calcium signal over the entire firing frequency range of mossy fibres. A paired-pulse depression of the calcium signal lasting more than 1 s...

  8. Inhibition of ANO1/TMEM16A Chloride Channel by Idebenone and Its Cytotoxicity to Cancer Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohan Seo

    Full Text Available The expression levels of anoctamin 1 (ANO1, TMEM16A, a calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC, are significantly increased in several tumors, and inhibition of ANO1 is known to reduce cell proliferation and migration. Here, we performed cell-based screening of a collection of natural products and drug-like compounds to identify inhibitors of ANO1. As a result of the screening, idebenone, miconazole and plumbagin were identified as novel ANO1 inhibitors. Electrophysiological studies showed that idebenone, a synthetic analog of coenzyme Q10, completely blocked ANO1 activity in FRT cells expressing ANO1 without any effect on intracellular calcium signaling and CFTR, a cAMP-regulated chloride channel. The CaCC activities in PC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells expressing abundant endogenous ANO1 were strongly blocked by idebenone. Idebenone inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in PC-3 and CFPAC-1 cells, but not in A549 cells, which do not express ANO1. These data suggest that idebenone, a novel ANO1 inhibitor, has potential for use in cancer therapy.

  9. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect....... Thus, orally administered DDC enhanced cadmium-induced duodenal and ileal tissue damage and inhibition of peristalsis, as indicated by an increased intestinal transit time. At low cadmium doses, the whole-body retention of cadmium was increased by oral DDC administration. Intraperitoneally administered...... DDC increased cadmium-induced acute mortality and testicular necrosis, and it enhanced cadmium-induced reduction of intestinal motility and increased the whole-body retention of cadmium, indicating increased intestinal cadmium absorption. Also, DDC changed the organ distribution of absorbed cadmium...

  10. Calcium metabolism and cardiovascular function after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Daniel C.; Yue, Qi; Dierickx, Jacqueline; Roullet, Chantal; Otsuka, Keiichi; Watanabe, Mitsuaki; Coste, Sarah; Roullet, Jean Baptiste; Phanouvang, Thongchan; Orwoll, Eric; hide

    2002-01-01

    To determine the influence of dietary calcium on spaceflight-induced alterations in calcium metabolism and blood pressure (BP), 9-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats, fed either high- (2%) or low-calcium (0.02%) diets, were flown on an 18-day shuttle flight. On landing, flight animals had increased ionized calcium (P parathyroid hormone levels (P animals (P = 0.057). However, mean arterial pressure was elevated (P animals fed low- compared with high-calcium diets (P parathyroid hormone was paradoxically increased in the high-calcium-fed flight animals after landing.

  11. 33 Effects of Sodium Chloride Solutions on Compressive Strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    Keywords: Sodium chloride, concrete, compressive strength. Introduction. Sodium chloride or rock salt could be used as a deicing agent to melt ice at temperatures below 20oF; it has a characteristic sharp taste and is readily soluble in water. (encyclopedia.com, 2010). It has been known to be relatively benign on concrete.

  12. Biological denitrification of fertiliser wastewater at high chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater from the fertiliser industry is characterised by high chloride concentration, normally varying between 60 and 76 g/ℓ. Experiments with biological denitrification were performed in laboratory-scale \\'fill and draw\\' reactors with synthetic fertiliser wastewater, with chloride concentrations up to 96.7 g Cl/ℓ at 37oC; the ...

  13. Biological denitrification of fertiliser wastewater at high chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-04-02

    Apr 2, 2004 ... Wastewater from the fertiliser industry is characterised by high chloride concentration, normally varying between 60 and 76 g/ l. Experiments with biological denitrification were performed in laboratory-scale 'fill and draw' reactors with synthetic fertiliser wastewater, with chloride concentrations up to 96.7 g ...

  14. System reliability of concrete structures subjected to chloride ingress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leira, B.J.; Thöns, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    are obtained based on measurements from the Gimsøystraumen bridge in Norway. These probability distributions are subsequently employed as input to a prediction model for chloride concentration at the steel reinforcement for a single but arbitrary position along the reinforcement. In order to address chloride...

  15. Protective effect of methanol-methylene chloride extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The anti-hyperglycemic effect of the methanol-methylene chloride extract of the leaves of this plant was investigated in streptozotocin ... methanol/methylene chloride (1:1) for 7 days. (with occasional stirring) at room temperature. ..... muscle and promote hepatic production of glucose22,23, whereas reduction of plasma.

  16. An insight into the passivation of cupronickel alloys in chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cupronickels offer enhanced corrosion protection in marine environments by the formation of passive films on the surface. Cyclic voltammetric studies were carried on cupronickels in chloride solutions at H 6.3 to understand the role of chloride ions in passive film formation. Increase in nickel content of the alloy and of ...

  17. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of new 1-benzylbenzimidazolium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, J; Arndt, A; Brycki, B

    1997-08-01

    1-Benzylbenzimidazole reacts with chloromethylalkyl ethers or sulfides or chloromethylcycloalkyl ethers to produce 3-alkoxymethyl-1-benzylbenzimidazolium or 3-alkylthiomethyl-1-benzylbenzimidazolium or 1-benzyl-3-cycloalkoxymethylbenzimidazolium chlorides in very good yields. All the 1-benzylbenimidazolium chlorides showed antimicrobial activity. The relationship between chemical structure and antimicrobial activity was analyzed by quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR).

  18. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of new quaternary ammonium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brycki, B; Skrzypczak, A; Mirska, I; Pernak, J

    1996-06-01

    Decyldimethylamine reacts readily with chloromethylalkyl ethers of sulfides, chloromethylbenzyl ethers or sulfides and chloromethylcycloalkyl ethers to give quaternary ammonium chlorides in very good yields. All the chlorides studied showed antimicrobial activity. The relationship between the chemical structure and antimicrobial activity was analyzed by rough sets.

  19. determination of serum chloride ion concentration in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yusif

    Increased level of chloride indicates dehydration but can occur with other problems causing high blood sodium or hyperventilated. (Anderson and Scotti, 1980). Decreased levels of serum chloride also occur with disorders that result in low blood sodium, prolonged vomiting or gastric sunction, chronic diarrhea, with loss of ...

  20. Experimental and numerical investigation of chloride ingress in cracked concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Šavija, B.

    2014-01-01

    Chloride induced corrosion of reinforcing steel is recognized as the most common deterioration mechanism affecting reinforced concrete structures. As such, it has been in focus of research for more than thirty years. Numerous studies of chloride ingress, corrosion initiation, and corrosion

  1. In-situ measurement of chloride ion concentration in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar

    2015-01-01

    Chloride ions are one of the major contributors to degradation of reinforcement-concrete. The presence of these ions initiate pitting corrosion in the reinforcement steel and ultimately results in the failure of the construction. Thus, the chloride ion concentration inside concrete is a crucial

  2. Microwave Mapping Demonstration Using the Thermochromic Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu D.; Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    An update to the thermochromic cobalt(II) chloride equilibrium demonstration is described. Filter paper that has been saturated with aqueous cobalt(II) chloride is heated for seconds in a microwave oven, producing a color change. The resulting pink and blue map is used to colorfully demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle and to illuminate the…

  3. 46 CFR 151.50-75 - Ferric chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferric chloride solution. 151.50-75 Section 151.50-75... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-75 Ferric chloride solution... solution must be lined with rubber, corrosion resistant plastic, or a material approved by the Commandant...

  4. Lattice dynamical calculations for bcc caesium chloride | Taura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In general, the obtained results agree reasonably well with the experimental data of the bcc Caesium Chloride. Keywords: Bcc caesium chloride; Lattice dynamics; Phonon dispersion; Density of state; Specific heat. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, Volume 20 (March, 2012), pp 261 – 266 ...

  5. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method proved to be useful for exploring cement hydration-induced changes in the diffusion coefficient of cement paste.

    Se ha desarrollado un método para medir el coeficiente de difusión de los iones cloruro en la pasta de cemento, partiendo de una aplicación analítica de la segunda ley de Fick en un sistema de coordinadas cilíndrico. Este método, que es natural, demostró ser capaz de producir resultados de difusividad en tan solo un mes. Se consiguió reducir el tiempo de ensayo mediante el aprovechamiento de la tridimensionalidad del flujo desde el exterior al interior de la probeta. A fin de determinar la concentración de saturación, se sometieron las pastas de cemento Portland a una disolución de cloruros concentrada. Este método resultó ser útil en el estudio de los cambios del coeficiente de difusión de la pasta de cemento provocados por las reacciones de hidratación que tienen lugar en esta.

  6. [Regulatory mechanism of calcium metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozono, Keiichi

    It is often difficult for terrestrial animals to take enough calcium. To maintain serum or extracellular calcium levels is very important for muscle and nerve function. Two major regulators to increase the serum calcium levels are parathyroid hormone(PTH)and vitamin D. PTH binds to the G protein coupling receptor, PTH1R, and increases intracellular cAMP levels. Impirement in the PTH signalling causes many diseases such as pseudohypoparathyroidism and acrodysostosis with hormone resistance. Vitamin D is activated to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D[1,25(OH)2D]by two steps of hydroxylation which occurs in the Liver and Kidney. Then, 1,25(OH)2D binds to vitamin D receptor(VDR), which works as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. Hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia are caused by various disorders including abnormal regulation of PTH and vitamin D production and their signal transduction.

  7. Calcium signaling and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mauro Cunha Xavier; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki; Goulart, Vânia A M; Tonelli, Fernanda M P; Gomes, Katia N; Ulrich, Henning; Resende, Rodrigo R

    2015-11-01

    Cell proliferation is orchestrated through diverse proteins related to calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling inside the cell. Cellular Ca(2+) influx that occurs first by various mechanisms at the plasma membrane, is then followed by absorption of Ca(2+) ions by mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and, finally, there is a connection of calcium stores to the nucleus. Experimental evidence indicates that the fluctuation of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum provides a pivotal and physiological role for cell proliferation. Ca(2+) depletion in the endoplasmatic reticulum triggers Ca(2+) influx across the plasma membrane in an phenomenon called store-operated calcium entries (SOCEs). SOCE is activated through a complex interplay between a Ca(2+) sensor, denominated STIM, localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and a Ca(2+) channel at the cell membrane, denominated Orai. The interplay between STIM and Orai proteins with cell membrane receptors and their role in cell proliferation is discussed in this review. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Calcium regulation of muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szent-Györgyi, A G

    1975-07-01

    Calcium triggers contraction by reaction with regulatory proteins that in the absence of calcium prevent interaction of actin and myosin. Two different regulatory systems are found in different muscles. In actin-linked regulation troponin and tropomyosin regulate actin by blocking sites on actin required for complex formation with myosin; in myosin-linked regulation sites on myosin are blocked in the absence of calcium. The major features of actin control are as follows: there is a requirement for tropomyosin and for a troponin complex having three different subunits with different functions; the actin displays a cooperative behavior; and a movement of tropomyosin occurs controlled by the calcium binding on troponin. Myosin regulation is controlled by a regulatory subunit that can be dissociated in scallop myosin reversibly by removing divalent cations with EDTA. Myosin control can function with pure actin in the absence of tropomyosin. Calcium binding and regulation of molluscan myosins depend on the presence of regulatory light chains. It is proposed that the light chains function by sterically blocking myosin sites in the absence of calcium, and that the "off" state of myosin requires cooperation between the two myosin heads. Both myosin control and actin control are widely distributed in different organisms. Many invertebrates have muscles with both types of regulation. Actin control is absent in the muscles of molluscs and in several minor phyla that lack troponin. Myosin control is not found in striated vertebrate muscles and in the fast muscles of crustacean decapods, although regulatory light chains are present. While in vivo myosin control may not be excluded from vertebrate striated muscles, myosin control may be absent as a result of mutations of the myosin heavy chain.

  9. Genetically encoded optical sensors for monitoring of intracellular chloride and chloride-selective channel activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bregestovski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This review briefly discusses the main approaches for monitoring chloride (Cl−, the most abundant physiological anion. Noninvasive monitoring of intracellular Cl− ([Cl−]i is a challenging task owing to two main difficulties: (i the low transmembrane ratio for Cl−, approximately 10:1; and (ii the small driving force for Cl−, as the Cl− reversal potential (ECl is usually close to the resting potential of the cells. Thus, for reliable monitoring of intracellular Cl−, one has to use highly sensitive probes. From several methods for intracellular Cl− analysis, genetically encoded chloride indicators represent the most promising tools. Recent achievements in the development of genetically encoded chloride probes are based on the fact that yellow fluorescent protein (YFP exhibits Cl−-sensitivity. YFP-based probes have been successfully used for quantitative analysis of Cl− transport in different cells and for high-throughput screening of modulators of Cl−-selective channels. Development of a ratiometric genetically encoded probe, Clomeleon, has provided a tool for noninvasive estimation of intracellular Cl− concentrations. While the sensitivity of this protein to Cl− is low (EC50 about 160 mM, it has been successfully used for monitoring intracellular Cl− in different cell types. Recently a CFP–YFP-based probe with a relatively high sensitivity to Cl− (EC50 about 30 mM has been developed. This construct, termed Cl-Sensor, allows ratiometric monitoring using the fluorescence excitation ratio. Of particular interest are genetically encoded probes for monitoring of ion channel distribution and activity. A new molecular probe has been constructed by introducing into the cytoplasmic domain of the Cl−-selective glycine receptor (GlyR channel the CFP–YFP-based Cl-Sensor. This construct, termed BioSensor-GlyR, has been successfully expressed in cell lines. The new genetically encoded chloride probes offer means of screening

  10. Determination of the heat capacities of Lithium/BCX (bromide chloride in thionyl chloride) batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Stephen A.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    1989-01-01

    Heat capacities of twelve different Lithium/BCX (BrCl in thionyl chloride) batteries in sizes AA, C, D, and DD were determined. Procedures and measurement results are reported. The procedure allowed simple, reproducible, and precise determinations of heat capacities of industrially important Lithium/BCX cells, without interfering with performance of the cells. Use of aluminum standards allowed the accuracy of the measurements to be maintained. The measured heat capacities were within 5 percent of calculated heat capacity values.

  11. Intradermal administration of magnesium sulphate and magnesium chloride produces hypesthesia to mechanical but hyperalgesia to heat stimuli in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikemoto Tatsunori

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although magnesium ions (Mg2+ are known to display many similar features to other 2+ charged cations, they seem to have quite an important and unique role in biological settings, such as NMDA blocking effect. However, the role of Mg2+ in the neural transmission system has not been studied as sufficiently as calcium ions (Ca2+. To clarify the sensory effects of Mg2+ in peripheral nervous systems, sensory changes after intradermal injection of Mg2+ were studied in humans. Methods Magnesium sulphate, magnesium chloride and saline were injected into the skin of the anterior region of forearms in healthy volunteers and injection-induced irritating pain ("irritating pain", for short, tactile sensation, tactile pressure thresholds, pinch-pain changes and intolerable heat pain thresholds of the lesion were monitored. Results Flare formation was observed immediately after magnesium sulphate or magnesium chloride injection. We found that intradermal injections of magnesium sulphate and magnesium chloride transiently caused irritating pain, hypesthesia to noxious and innocuous mechanical stimulations, whereas secondary hyperalgesia due to mechanical stimuli was not observed. In contrast to mechanical stimuli, intolerable heat pain-evoking temperature was significantly decreased at the injection site. In addition to these results, spontaneous pain was immediately attenuated by local cooling. Conclusion Membrane-stabilizing effect and peripheral NMDA-blocking effect possibly produced magnesium-induced mechanical hypesthesia, and extracellular cation-induced sensitization of TRPV1 channels was thought to be the primary mechanism of magnesium-induced heat hyperalgesia.

  12. Levels of CEA among vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.A. (City Univ. of New York, NY); Snyder, J.; Lewinson, T.; Woo, C.; Lilis, R.; Selikoff, I.J

    1978-09-01

    In 1974, vinyl chloride exposed workers were found to have an increased risk of malignant disease (hemangiosarcoma of the liver). We have examined 1,147 workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer in three VC/PVC polymerization plants, and 269 workers from a PVC extrusion plant manufacturing PVC textile leather, exposed to much lower concentrations of vinyl chloride. Included among the comprehensive clinical and laboratory studies conducted was the CEA titer. We obtained, respectively, 1,115 and 248 CEA titers. Multiple factors were demonstrated which affected the distribution of CEA titers. Cigarette use had the greatest effect, followed by history of specific past illnesses and alcohol intake history. After removing these possible confounding effects, the distribution of CEA titers among the polymerization workers was significantly different from the extrusion plant group and from an unexposed comparison group. Of the six job categories analyzed, only production and maintenance workers had CEA titer distributions significantly different from the comparison group and the extrusion workers. The investigation demonstrates that occupational exposures in VC/PVC polymerization plants can cause elevations in the CEA titers of otherwise healthy individuals. Prospective follow-up is necessary before conclusions can be drawn concerning the usefulness of the CEA titer as a predictive indicator of possible increased risk.

  13. Can total cardiac calcium predict the coronary calcium score?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Gregg S; Crudu, Vitalie; Parameswaran-Chandrika, Anoop; Romero-Corral, Abel; Purushottam, Bhaskar; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2011-01-21

    Mitral annular calcification (MAC) shares the same risk factors as atherosclerosis and is associated with coronary artery disease as well as cardiovascular events. However, sensitivity and positive predictive value are low. We hypothesized that a global echocardiographic calcium score would better predict coronary atherosclerotic burden, as assessed by coronary artery calcium score (CAC), than MAC alone. An echocardiographic score was devised to measure global cardiac calcification in a semi-quantitative manner; this included calcification in the aortic valve and root, the mitral valve and annulus, and the sub-mitral apparatus. This score, and a simplified version, were compared with a similar calcification score by CT scan, as well as the CAC. There was a good correlation between the two global calcification scores; the echocardiographic score also correlated with CAC. Using CAC >400 as a measure of severe coronary atherosclerosis, an echocardiographic score ≥5 had a positive predictive value of 60%. Importantly, the simplified score performed equally well (≥3 had a positive predictive value of 62%). Global cardiac calcification, assessed by CT scan or echocardiography, correlates with the extent of coronary calcium. A semi-quantitative calcium score can be easily applied during routine echocardiographic interpretation and can alert the reader to the possibility of severe coronary atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris (maleato)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    stoichiometric quantities of aqueous solutions of calcium maleate, iron(III) maleate and maleic acid. The reaction mixture was concentrated on a water bath until a brown coloured product formed after the addition of excess of acetone. The complex was vacuum dried and its identity was established by chemical analysis.

  15. Calcium ferrite formation from the thermolysis of calcium tris ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Various physico-chemical techniques i.e. TG, DTG, DTA, Mössbauer, XRD, IR etc have been used to study the decomposition behaviour from ambient to 900°C and ferrite formation. Three consecutive decomposition steps leading to the formation of -Fe2O3 and calcium carbonate have been observed at various stages of ...

  16. Estimation of presynaptic calcium currents and endogenous calcium buffers at the frog neuromuscular junction with two different calcium fluorescent dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry eSamigullin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available At the frog neuromuscular junction, under physiological conditions, the direct measurement of calcium currents and of the concentration of intracellular calcium buffers—which determine the kinetics of calcium concentration and neurotransmitter release from the nerve terminal—has hitherto been technically impossible. With the aim of quantifying both Ca2+ currents and the intracellular calcium buffers, we measured fluorescence signals from nerve terminals loaded with the low-affinity calcium dye Magnesium Green or the high-affinity dye Oregon Green BAPTA-1, simultaneously with microelectrode recordings of nerve-action potentials and end-plate currents. The action-potential-induced fluorescence signals in the nerve terminals developed much more slowly than the postsynaptic response. To clarify the reasons for this observation and to define a spatiotemporal profile of intracellular calcium and of the concentration of mobile and fixed calcium buffers, mathematical modeling was employed. The best approximations of the experimental calcium transients for both calcium dyes were obtained when the calcium current had an amplitude of 1.6 ± 0.08 рА and a half-decay time of 1.2 ± 0.06 ms, and when the concentrations of mobile and fixed calcium buffers were 250 ± 13 µM and 8 ± 0.4 mM, respectively. High concentrations of endogenous buffers define the time course of calcium transients after an action potential in the axoplasm, and may modify synaptic plasticity.

  17. Calcium fertilization increases the concentration of calcium in sapwood and calcium oxalate in foliage of red spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle; Jon H. Connolly; Rakesh Minocha; Jody Jellison

    2009-01-01

    Calcium cycling plays a key role in the health and productivity of red spruce forests in the northeastern US. A portion of the flowpath of calcium within forests includes translocation as Ca2+ in sapwood and accumulation as crystals of calcium oxalate in foliage. Concentrations of Ca in these tree tissues have been used as markers of...

  18. Calcium release from experimental dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulus, Zuzanna; Buchwald, Tomasz; Voelkel, Adam

    2016-11-01

    The calcium release from calcium phosphate-containing experimental dental restorative materials was examined. The possible correlation of ion release with initial calcium content, solubility and degree of curing (degree of conversion) of examined materials was also investigated. Calcium release was measured with the use of an ion-selective electrode in an aqueous solution. Solubility was established by the weighing method. Raman spectroscopy was applied for the determination of the degree of conversion, while initial calcium content was examined with the use of energy-dispersive spectroscopy. For examined materials, the amount of calcium released was found to be positively correlated with solubility and initial calcium content. It was also found that the degree of conversion does not affect the ability of these experimental composites to release calcium ions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia and calcium sensing receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrgan, Monija; Nielsen, Sanne; Brixen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a lifelong, benign autosomal dominant disease characterized by hypercalcemia, normal to increased parathyroid hormone level, and a relatively low renal calcium excretion. Inactivation of the calcium-sensing receptor in heterozygous patients results in...

  20. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bone Health Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download ... also helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin ...

  1. Microstructure-based simulation of time-dependent chloride diffusivity in saturated cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mingzhong; Ye, Guang; Van Breugel, K.

    2010-01-01

    For accurately predicting the service life and evaluating the durability of reinforced concrete structure exposed to chloride environments, it is highly desirable to determine the chloride diffusivity in cement paste. Because of continuous cement hydration and chloride binding during the process of chloride diffusion, chloride diffusivity varies with time. In this paper, a computational approacht for predicting the time-depending chloride diffusivity in cement paste is presented. HYMOSTRUC3D,...

  2. Microwave-assisted biomimetic synthesis of hydroxyapatite using different sources of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, S; Altınsoy, I; ÇelebiEfe, G; Ipek, M; Özacar, M; Bindal, C

    2017-07-01

    In this study, some properties of biomimetic synthesized hydroxyapatite by using different sources of calcium were investigated. Biomimetic synthesis of hydroxyapatite was carried out in microwave oven using 1.5 simulated body fluid (SBF) solution having different calcium sources with 800W power for 15min. As phosphorus source di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate ((NH4)2HPO4) while for each sample as a calcium sources calcium chloride (CaCl2), calcium nitrate tetra hydrate (Ca(NO3)2·4H2O) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) were utilized, respectively. For comparison, precipitation process was also performed in only 1.5 SBF solution without calcium and phosphorus sources. The presence of phases in synthesized hydroxyapatite was confirmed by XRD. The crystallinity and crystalline size of the phases in as synthesized powders were also calculated by using XRD data. It was found that the unique phase is hydroxyapatite (HAp, Ca5(PO4)3(OH)) by using the calcium nitrate tetra hydrate and calcium hydroxide sources, while the dominant phases are tri-calcium phosphates (TCP) and HAp for CaCl2 source and 1.5SBF which does not contain any additional Ca source. SEM studies revealed that nano-hexagonal rods and nano-spherical hydroxyapatites could be synthesized by using this process. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis revealed that the Ca/P ratio near to be as 1.5 which is the value for HAp in bone. Raman and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) results combined with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicates that dominantly the present of single phase is HAp. The crystal size and fraction crystallinity of as synthesized HAp powders were changed between 29.5 and 45.4nm and 0.53-2.37, respectively. Results showed that microwave assisted biomimetic synthesis is a promising method for obtaining HAp powders in shorter process time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Local calcium elevation and cell elongation initiate guided motility in electrically stimulated osteoblast-like cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Ozkucur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigation of the mechanisms of guided cell migration can contribute to our understanding of many crucial biological processes, such as development and regeneration. Endogenous and exogenous direct current electric fields (dcEF are known to induce directional cell migration, however the initial cellular responses to electrical stimulation are poorly understood. Ion fluxes, besides regulating intracellular homeostasis, have been implicated in many biological events, including regeneration. Therefore understanding intracellular ion kinetics during EF-directed cell migration can provide useful information for development and regeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the initial events during migration of two osteogenic cell types, rat calvarial and human SaOS-2 cells, exposed to strong (10-15 V/cm and weak (< or = 5 V/cm dcEFs. Cell elongation and perpendicular orientation to the EF vector occurred in a time- and voltage-dependent manner. Calvarial osteoblasts migrated to the cathode as they formed new filopodia or lamellipodia and reorganized their cytoskeleton on the cathodal side. SaOS-2 cells showed similar responses except towards the anode. Strong dcEFs triggered a rapid increase in intracellular calcium levels, whereas a steady state level of intracellular calcium was observed in weaker fields. Interestingly, we found that dcEF-induced intracellular calcium elevation was initiated with a local rise on opposite sides in calvarial and SaOS-2 cells, which may explain their preferred directionality. In calcium-free conditions, dcEFs induced neither intracellular calcium elevation nor directed migration, indicating an important role for calcium ions. Blocking studies using cadmium chloride revealed that voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs are involved in dcEF-induced intracellular calcium elevation. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, these data form a time scale of the morphological and physiological

  4. Effect of Calcium and Boron Foliar Application on Fruit Quality in Asian Pear Cultivar ‘KS10’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Khalaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium and boron as plant nutritional elements play major roles in plant physiological processes including regulating various cell and plant functions. Considering the importance of both elements, this study was conducted during 2010-2011 in the Experimental Asian Pear Orchard at Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University. Different concentrations of calcium chloride (0, 0.5 and 0.7 percent and acid boric (0 and 0.5 percent were used as foliar spray of Asian pear cultivar "KS10" during growing season. The results showed that foliar application of calcium and boron led to the improvement in physicochemical characteristics of pear fruits. Under treatment conditions, fruit tissue hardness increased, while total soluble solids decreased. Various concentrations of calcium resulted in decreasing fruit softening, although after 3-months' storage all treatments showed low fruit firmness. Total phenolic compounds decreased more significantly in control fruits compared to in fruits sprayed with calcium and/or boron during the storage. The highest and lowest levels of polyphenol oxidase activity were found in elements-sprayed fruits and non-sprayed ones respectively. In brief, calcium and boron application resulted in improving postharvest characteristics of Asian pear fruits and reducing internal browning symptoms.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1229 - Calcium stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1229 Calcium stearate. (a) Calcium stearate (Ca(C17H35COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 1529-23-0) is the calcium salt of stearic acid derived from edible sources. It is prepared as... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium stearate. 184.1229 Section 184.1229 Food...

  6. Bioactive and Hemocompatible Calcium Sulphoaluminate Cement

    OpenAIRE

    Acuña-Gutiérrez, Iván Omar; Escobedo-Bocardo, José Concepción; Almanza-Robles, José Manuel; Cortés-Hernández, Dora Alicia; Saldívar-Ramírez, Mirna María Guadalupe; Reséndiz-Hernández, Perla Janet; Zugasti-Cruz, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Calcium sulphoaluminate cement (CSAC) is an attractive candidate for biomedical applications due to its appropriate mechanical properties and high calcium content. In vitro bioactivity and hemocompatibility of calcium sulphoaluminate cement were assessed. The cement was prepared from a mixture of calcium sulphoaluminate (CSA) clinker, gypsum and water. Cement samples were immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C for different periods of time (7, 14 and 21 days). The analyses of these...

  7. Calcium Balance in Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hill Gallant, Kathleen M.; Spiegel, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review The kidneys play a critical role in the balance between the internal milieu and external environment. Kidney failure is known to disrupt a number of homeostatic mechanisms that control serum calcium and normal bone metabolism. However, our understanding of calcium balance throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease is limited and the concept of balance itself, especially with a cation as complex as calcium, is often misunderstood. Both negative and positive calcium balan...

  8. Calcium Balance in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Spiegel, David M

    2017-06-01

    The kidneys play a critical role in the balance between the internal milieu and external environment. Kidney failure is known to disrupt a number of homeostatic mechanisms that control serum calcium and normal bone metabolism. However, our understanding of calcium balance throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease is limited and the concept of balance itself, especially with a cation as complex as calcium, is often misunderstood. Both negative and positive calcium balance have important implications in patients with chronic kidney disease, where negative balance may increase risk of osteoporosis and fracture and positive balance may increase risk of vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Here, we examine the state of current knowledge about calcium balance in adults throughout the stages of chronic kidney disease and discuss recommendations for clinical strategies to maintain balance as well as future research needs in this area. Recent calcium balance studies in adult patients with chronic kidney disease show that neutral calcium balance is achieved with calcium intake near the recommended daily allowance. Increases in calcium through diet or supplements cause high positive calcium balance, which may put patients at risk for vascular calcification. However, heterogeneity in calcium balance exists among these patients. Given the available calcium balance data in this population, it appears clinically prudent to aim for recommended calcium intakes around 1000 mg/day to achieve neutral calcium balance and avoid adverse effects of either negative or positive calcium balance. Assessment of patients' dietary calcium intake could further equip clinicians to make individualized recommendations for meeting recommended intakes.

  9. Electrochemical Induced Calcium Phosphate Precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei, Yang; Song, Bingnan; Weijden, van der Renata D.; Saakes, M.; Buisman, Cees J.N.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for living organisms and cannot be replaced or substituted. In this paper, we present a simple yet efficient membrane free electrochemical system for P removal and recovery as calcium phosphate (CaP). This method relies on in situ formation of hydroxide

  10. Evaluation of cation-anion diets in calcium metabolism in ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alix Mendes de Almeida Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB on the calcium metabolism in male Nellore steers with a mean age of 10 months. Three experimental diets were tested: a cationic diet, a diet consisting of Tifton hay only, and an anionic diet with +15.2, +23.9 and −10.0 mEq/100 g DM of DCAB values in the diet. The anionic diet was calculated as the addition of salts of ammonium chloride and magnesium sulfate. Based on the isotope dilution technique, the negative DCAB value used in this study (−10.0 mEq/100 g DM does not affect calcium metabolism, especially endogenous losses and true absorption.

  11. 21 CFR 582.7187 - Calcium alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium alginate. 582.7187 Section 582.7187 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium alginate. (a) Product. Calcium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. Abnormalities of serum calcium and magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal hypocalcemia is defined as a total serum calcium concentration of <7 mg/dL or an ionized calcium concentration of <4 mg/dL (1mmol/L). In very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, ionized calcium values of 0.8 to 1 mmol/L are common and not usually associated with clinical symptoms. In larger in...

  13. Modularized study of human calcium signalling pathway

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR

    When there is an extracellular change, cells get the message either by introduction of calcium ions into ... as it precipitates phosphate, the established energy currency of cells. Prolonged high intracellular calcium ... trigger proteins upon binding with free calcium ion(s) change their confirmation to modulate enzymes and ion ...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1191 Calcium carbonate. (a) Product. Calcium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium carbonate. 582.1191 Section 582.1191 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5191 - Calcium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Supplements 1 § 582.5191 Calcium carbonate. (a) Product. Calcium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium carbonate. 582.5191 Section 582.5191 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL...

  16. Mechanism of store-operated calcium entry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Activation of receptors coupled to the phospholipase C/IP3 signalling pathway results in a rapid release of calcium from its intracellular stores, eventually leading to depletion of these stores. Calcium store depletion triggers an influx of extracellular calcium across the plasma membrane, a mechanism known as the ...

  17. Mitochondrial Calcium Sparkles Light Up Astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVicar, Brian A; Ko, Rebecca W Y

    2017-02-27

    Discrete calcium signals in the fine processes of astrocytes are a recent discovery and a new mystery. In a recent issue of Neuron, Agarwal et al. (2017) report that calcium efflux from mitochondria during brief openings of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) contribute to calcium microdomains. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 21 CFR 182.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium phosphate. 182.1217 Section 182.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1217 - Calcium phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium phosphate. 582.1217 Section 582.1217 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1217 Calcium phosphate. (a) Product. Calcium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b...

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Calcium supplementation to prevent pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Calcium supplementation to prevent pre-eclampsia - a systematic review. G J Hofmeyr, A Roodt, A N Atallah, L Duley. Background. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy may prevent high blood pressure and preterm labour. Objective. To assess the effects of calcium supplementation.