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Sample records for calcineurin phosphatase inhibition

  1. Inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase promotes exocytosis of renin from juxtaglomerular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kirsten; Friis, Ulla Glenert; Gooch, Jennifer L

    2010-01-01

    To examine the role of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin in regulation of renin release, we assayed exocytosis using whole-cell patch clamp of single juxtaglomerular cells in culture. The calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporine A (CsA), significantly increased juxtaglomerular...... cell membrane capacitance, an index of cell surface area and an established measure of exocytosis in single-cell assays. This effect was mimicked by intracellular delivery of a calcineurin inhibitory peptide, the calcium chelator ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), or the calmodulin inhibitor W-13...... after CsA treatment of the A-alpha knockout, while renin mRNA was suppressed. We conclude that calcineurin and calcium/calmodulin suppress exocytosis of renin from juxtaglomerular cells independent of PKA....

  2. Calcineurin phosphatase activity and immunosuppression. A review on the role of calcineurin phosphatase activity and the immunosuppressive effect of cyclosporin A and tacrolimus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Anker; Koefoed-Nielsen, P.B.; Karamperis, N.

    2003-01-01

    The mode of immunosuppressive action of tacrolimus (FK506) and cyclosporin A has been elucidated. Both drugs bind to proteins in the cytoplasm to form complexes, which in turn inhibit the phosphatase activity of calcineurin, an important limiting step in the activation of T cells. The association...

  3. Calcineurin Inhibition Blocks Within-, but Not Between-Session Fear Extinction in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Corrêa, Suellen; Moulin, Thiago C.; Carneiro, Clarissa F. D.; Gonçalves, Marina M. C.; Junqueira, Lara S.; Amaral, Olavo B.

    2015-01-01

    Memory extinction involves the formation of a new associative memory that inhibits a previously conditioned association. Nonetheless, it could also depend on weakening of the original memory trace if extinction is assumed to have multiple components. The phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) has been described as being involved in extinction but not in…

  4. Effects of cyclosporine on osteoclast activity: inhibition of calcineurin activity with minimal effects on bone resorption and acid transport activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John P; McKenna, Margaret A; Thames, Allyn M; McDonald, Jay M

    2003-03-01

    Cyclosporine results in rapid and profound bone loss in transplant patients, an effect ascribed to osteoclasts. Cyclosporine, complexed with the appropriate immunophilin, inhibits calcineurin (the calcium/calmodulin dependent serine/threonine phosphatase) activity. We tested the hypothesis that cyclosporine inhibits calcineurin activity in osteoclasts, resulting in stimulation of osteoclast activity. We compared the effects of cyclosporine A and the calmodulin antagonist, tamoxifen, on bone resorption by avian osteoclasts. Tamoxifen inhibits bone resorption approximately 60%, whereas cyclosporine A only inhibited bone resorption 12%. One-hour treatment with 100 nM cyclosporine inhibited osteoclast calcineurin activity 70% in whole cell lysates, whereas 10 microM tamoxifen only inhibited calcineurin activity 25%. We compared the effects of cyclosporine A and tamoxifen on acid transport activity in isolated membrane vesicles and in isolated membrane vesicles obtained from osteoclasts treated with cyclosporine A or tamoxifen under conditions that inhibit calcineurin activity. Direct addition of cyclosporine A in the acid transport assay, or pretreatment of cells with cyclosporine A followed by membrane isolation, had no effect on acid transport activity in membrane vesicles. In contrast, direct addition of tamoxifen to membranes inhibits acid transport activity, an effect that can be prevented by addition of exogenous calmodulin. Furthermore, acid transport activity was also inhibited in membrane vesicles isolated from cells treated with tamoxifen. In conclusion, cyclosporine A inhibits osteoclast calcineurin activity; however, calcineurin inhibition does not correspond to a significant effect on acid transport activity in isolated membrane vesicles or bone resorption by osteoclasts.

  5. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of calcineurin corrects the BDNF transport defect in Huntington's disease

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    Pineda Jose R

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is an inherited neurogenerative disease caused by an abnormal expansion of glutamine repeats in the huntingtin protein. There is currently no treatment to prevent the neurodegeneration caused by this devastating disorder. Huntingtin has been shown to be a positive regulator of vesicular transport, particularly for neurotrophins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. This function is lost in patients with HD, resulting in a decrease in neurotrophic support and subsequent neuronal death. One promising line of treatment is therefore the restoration of huntingtin function in BDNF transport. Results The phosphorylation of huntingtin at serine 421 (S421 restores its function in axonal transport. We therefore investigated whether inhibition of calcineurin, the bona fide huntingtin S421 phosphatase, restored the transport defects observed in HD. We found that pharmacological inhibition of calcineurin by FK506 led to sustained phosphorylation of mutant huntingtin at S421. FK506 restored BDNF transport in two complementary models: rat primary neuronal cultures expressing mutant huntingtin and mouse cortical neurons from HdhQ111/Q111 HD knock-in mice. This effect was the result of specific calcineurin inhibition, as calcineurin silencing restored both anterograde and retrograde transport in neurons from HdhQ111/Q111 mice. We also observed a specific increase in calcineurin activity in the brain of HdhQ111/Q111 mice potentially accounting for the selective loss of huntingtin phosphorylation and contributing to neuronal cell death in HD. Conclusion Our results validate calcineurin as a target for the treatment of HD and provide the first demonstration of the restoration of huntingtin function by an FDA-approved compound.

  6. 24-h monitoring of calcineurin phosphatase activity in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed-Nielsen, P.B.; Karamperis, N.; Jørgensen, Kaj Anker

    2005-01-01

    remain to be described. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CaN displays circadian variation or sex difference is present in healthy subjects. Twenty subjects had blood samples drawn every 4 h for a 24-h period. CaN activity was determined in whole blood as the release of 32P from...... a phosphorylated peptide. Activity of the 32P was quantitated by liquid scintillation and results converted to units CaN utilizing a calibration curve. We found no circadian variation in CaN activity and no difference between the two sexes. The clinical importance of these findings is that blood samples...... for calcineurin activity can be drawn without taking the exact time of day into consideration, but only considering the time of drug intake Udgivelsesdato: 2005/9...

  7. The phosphatase calcineurin PP2BAβ mediates part of mineralocorticoid receptor transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiferth, Anja; Ruhs, Stefanie; Mildenberger, Sigrid; Gekle, Michael; Grossmann, Claudia

    2012-06-01

    Recently it was shown that the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) may exert part of its transcriptional activity by mediation of calcineurin (PP2B). Here we investigated the mechanism of interaction of MR with calcineurin and provide a new MR signaling pathway with potential physiological and pathophysiological relevance. MR → calcineurin crosstalk was assessed in a heterologous expression system (human embryonic kidney cells), which provides the opportunity for detailed mechanistic investigation. SiRNA knockdown experiments show that activated MR, but not GR, reduces CREB- and enhances NFaT-mediated transcriptional activation via the catalytic calcineurin subunit PP2BAβ but not via PP2BAα. Altered PP2BAβ expression, elevated cytosolic Ca(2+), activation of mitogen-activated kinase [p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2], or protein kinase C do not seem to be involved, whereas inhibition of the chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) abrogated the effect of MR. Coimmunoprecipitation indicates the existence of protein complexes harboring MR and PP2BAβ independent of MR activation but dependent on HSP90. Activated MR alters the subcellular distribution of PP2BAβ, enhancing its nuclear fraction, and reduces mRNA expression of the endogenous inhibitor CAIN (calcineurin inhibitor) but not of RCAN1 (regulator of calcineurin). Overall, transcriptional relevant MR → calcineurin crosstalk occurs via the catalytic subunit PP2BAβ, enables glucocorticoid response element-independent genomic signaling of MR, and is of potential pathophysiological relevance. Mechanistically, the crosstalk results from HSP90-mediated cytosolic protein complex formation, altered subcellular distribution, and altered endogenous inhibitor expression.

  8. Calcineurin regulates homologous desensitization of natriuretic peptide receptor-A and inhibits ANP-induced testosterone production in MA-10 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henesy, Michelle B; Britain, Andrea L; Zhu, Bing; Amable, Lauren; Honkanen, Richard E; Corbin, Jackie D; Francis, Sharron H; Rich, Thomas C

    2012-01-01

    Receptor desensitization is a ubiquitous regulatory mechanism that defines the activatable pool of receptors, and thus, the ability of cells to respond to environmental stimuli. In recent years, the molecular mechanisms controlling the desensitization of a variety of receptors have been established. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie desensitization of natriuretic peptide receptors, including natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A). Here we report that calcineurin (protein phosphatase 2B, PP2B, PPP3C) regulates homologous desensitization of NPR-A in murine Leydig tumor (MA-10) cells. We demonstrate that both pharmacological inhibition of calcineurin activity and siRNA-mediated suppression of calcineurin expression potentiate atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-induced cGMP synthesis. Treatment of MA-10 cells with inhibitors of other phosphoprotein phosphatases had little or no effect on ANP-induced cGMP accumulation. In addition, overexpression of calcineurin blunts ANP-induced cGMP synthesis. We also present data indicating that the inhibition of calcineurin potentiates ANP-induced testosterone production. To better understand the contribution of calcineurin in the regulation of NPR-A activity, we examined the kinetics of ANP-induced cGMP signals. We observed transient ANP-induced cGMP signals, even in the presence of phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Inhibition of both calcineurin and phosphodiesterase dramatically slowed the decay in the response. These observations are consistent with a model in which calcineurin mediated dephosphorylation and desensitization of NPR-A is associated with significant inhibition of cGMP synthesis. PDE activity hydrolyzes cGMP, thus lowering intracellular cGMP toward the basal level. Taken together, these data suggest that calcineurin plays a previously unrecognized role in the desensitization of NPR-A and, thereby, inhibits ANP-mediated increases in testosterone production.

  9. Mineralocorticoid receptor inhibits CREB signaling by calcineurin activation.

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    Grossmann, Claudia; Wuttke, Martin; Ruhs, Stefanie; Seiferth, Anja; Mildenberger, Sigrid; Rabe, Sindy; Schwerdt, Gerald; Gekle, Michael

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the interaction of MR with cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) and provide a mechanistic explanation and insights into the cellular relevance. MR --> CREB crosstalk was assessed in vascular smooth muscle cells and heterologous expression systems. Experiments were designed in a way that only one variable changed at a time and the respective vehicles served as controls. MR, but not GR, activation (aldosterone or hydrocortisone, IC(50), approximately 0.3 nM) inhibits CREB transcriptional activity induced by stimulation of beta1/2-adrenoceptors and adenylyl cyclase or addition of membrane-permeable cAMP up to 70% within 2 h after addition. The MR DNA-binding domain is not required for this inhibition. cAMP formation is virtually unchanged, whereas MR exerts a robust inhibition of CREB(S133) phosphorylation via calcineurin/PP2B activation without changes in PP2B-Aalpha or beta expression. In parallel, the PP2B-sensitive NFaT-pathway is activated. The inhibitory crosstalk attenuates CREB-induced glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase expression. Overall, transcriptional relevant MR --> CREB crosstalk occurs at the level of CREB phosphorylation by enhanced calcineurin activity, enables GRE-independent genomic signaling of MR, and is of potential pathophysiological relevance.

  10. Direct inhibition of calcineurin by caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycosides from Teucrium chamaedrys and Nepeta cataria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Thomas A K; Veitch, Nigel C; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2011-10-11

    Teucrium chamaedrys L. and Nepeta cataria L. (Lamiaceae) are species with traditional uses that relate to the treatment of inflammation. Extracts of both species were found to inhibit calcineurin; an important regulator of T-cell mediated inflammation that has received little attention in ethnopharmacological research. Extracts and isolated compounds were tested against calcineurin in its calmodulin-activated and basal un-activated state. Active compounds were isolated using Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration and HPLC then identified using NMR spectroscopy. Activity-guided fractionation of Teucrium chamaedrys and Nepeta cataria led to the isolation of the caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycosides teucrioside, verbascoside and lamiuside A (teupolioside). The three compounds inhibited calcineurin both in the presence and absence of calmodulin, suggesting a direct interaction with calcineurin. Calcineurin inhibition should be considered as a potential mode of action when investigating the immunomodulatory activity of caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside containing plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pharmacodynamic monitoring of calcineurin inhibition therapy : investigation of the calcineurin activity marker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, Huub Harmen van

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decades, restoration of renal function by renal allograft transplantation has evolved into the preferred treatment option for patients with end stage renal disease. The introduction of the calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) cyclosporine and tacrolimus have significantly contributed to this

  12. Loss of calcineurin in the spinal dorsal horn contributes to neuropathic pain, and intrathecal administration of the phosphatase provides prolonged analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletic, Gordana; Lippitt, Jennifer A; Sullivan, Kristine M; Miletic, Vjekoslav

    2013-10-01

    Calcineurin (protein phosphatase 3) regulates synaptic plasticity in the brain. The development of neuropathic pain appears dependent on some of the same mechanisms that underlie brain synaptic plasticity. In this study, we examined whether calcineurin regulates chronic constriction injury (CCI)-elicited plasticity in the spinal dorsal horn. CCI animals exhibited mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity 7 days after ligation of the sciatic nerve. Neither control uninjured nor sham-operated animals exhibited pain behavior. Calcineurin activity and content of its Aα isoform were significantly decreased in the ipsilateral postsynaptic density (PSD) of dorsal horn neurons in CCI animals. Calcineurin activity and content in the contralateral PSD of CCI animals or either side of the dorsal horn in sham animals were not modified. The pain behavior in CCI animals was attenuated by intrathecal application of exogenous calcineurin. The treatment was long-lasting as a single injection provided analgesia for 4 days by restoring the phosphatase's activity and Aα content in the PSD. No signs of toxicity were detected up to 14 days after the single intrathecal injection. Intrathecal application of the calcineurin inhibitor FK-506 elicited pain behavior in control uninjured animals and significantly reduced calcineurin activity in the PSD. CCI may elicit neuropathic pain at least in part as a result of the loss of calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation in the dorsal horn. Addition of the phosphatase by intrathecal injection reverses the injury-elicited loss and provides prolonged pain relief. Clinical therapy with calcineurin may prove to be a novel, effective, and safe approach in the management of well-established neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Age-related decline in activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin and kinase CaMK-IV in rat T cells.

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    Pahlavani, M A; Vargas, D M

    1999-12-07

    We have previously shown that the DNA binding activity of the transcription factor NFAT which plays a predominant role in IL-2 transcription decreases with age. Because the transactivation (dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation) of the NFAT-c (cytoplasmic component of the NFAT complex) is mediated by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin (CaN), and because Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMK-II and IV/Gr) have been shown to play a critical role in calcium signaling in T cells, it was of interest to determine what effect aging has on the activation and the levels of these calcium regulating enzymes. The induction of calcineurin phosphatase activity, and CaMK-II and IV/Gr activities, were studied in splenic T cells isolated from Fischer 344 rats at 6, 15, and 24 months of age. In addition, the changes in the protein levels of these enzymes were measured by Western blot. The calcineurin phosphatase activity and CaMK-II and IV kinase activities were at a maximum after the cells were incubated with anti-CD3 antibody for 5-10 minutes. The induction of calcineurin activity by anti-CD3 and by calcium ionophore (A23187) declined 65 and 55%, respectively, between 6 and 24 months of age. The induction of CaMK-IV activity, but not CaMK-II activity by anti-CD3, was significantly less (by 54%) in T cells from old rats compared to T cells from young rats. The decline in the activation of these enzymes with age was not associated with changes in their corresponding protein levels. These results demonstrate that alterations in calcineurin phosphatase activity and CaMK-IV activity may contribute to the well-documented age-related decline in T cell function.

  14. Role of metabolites and calcineurin inhibition on C2 monitoring in renal transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamperis, N.; Koefoed-Nielsen, P.; Bagger, Sorensen A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many transplantation centres have switched to C2 monitoring of cyclosporin-treated renal transplant patients. The rationale is that the C2 correlates best with AUC0-4 (area under the concentration-time curve), which again correlates with rejection and nephrotoxicity. It has also been...... metabolites were added to whole blood from healthy volunteers and the calcineurin phosphatase activity (CaN) was determined. Twenty renal transplant patients at varying times after transplantation had blood samples drawn in the morning before and 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after intake of their usual dose of cyclosporin...

  15. E2/ER β Enhances Calcineurin Protein Degradation and PI3K/Akt/MDM2 Signal Transduction to Inhibit ISO-Induced Myocardial Cell Apoptosis

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    Kuan-Ho Lin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Secretion of multifunctional estrogen and its receptor has been widely considered as the reason for markedly higher frequency of heart disease in men than in women. 17β-Estradiol (E2, for instance, has been reported to prevent development of cardiac apoptosis via activation of estrogen receptors (ERs. In addition, protein phosphatase such as protein phosphatase 1 (PP1 and calcineurin (PP2B are also involved in cardiac hypertrophy and cell apoptosis signaling. However, the mechanism by which E2/ERβ suppresses apoptosis is not fully understood, and the role of protein phosphatase in E2/ERβ action also needs further investigation. In this study, we observed that E2/ERβ inhibited isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial cell apoptosis, cytochrome c release and downstream apoptotic markers. Moreover, we found that E2/ERβ blocks ISO-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells through the enhancement of calcineurin protein degradation through PI3K/Akt/MDM2 signaling pathway. Our results suggest that supplementation with estrogen and/or overexpression of estrogen receptor β gene may prove to be effective means to treat stress-induced myocardial damage.

  16. Calcineurin phosphatase as a negative regulator of fear memory in hippocampus: control on nuclear factor-κB signaling in consolidation and reconsolidation.

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    de la Fuente, Verónica; Federman, Noel; Fustiñana, María Sol; Zalcman, Gisela; Romano, Arturo

    2014-12-01

    Protein phosphatases are important regulators of neural plasticity and memory. Some studies support that the Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) is, on the one hand, a negative regulator of memory formation and, on the other hand, a positive regulator of memory extinction and reversal learning. However, the signaling mechanisms by which CaN exerts its action in such processes are not well understood. Previous findings support that CaN negatively regulate the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway during extinction. Here, we have studied the role of CaN in contextual fear memory consolidation and reconsolidation in the hippocampus. We investigated the CaN control on the NF-κB signaling pathway, a key mechanism that regulates gene expression in memory processes. We found that post-training intrahippocampal administration of the CaN inhibitor FK506 enhanced memory retention one day but not two weeks after training. Accordingly, the inhibition of CaN by FK506 increased NF-κB activity in dorsal hippocampus. The administration of the NF-κB signaling pathway inhibitor sulfasalazine (SSZ) impeded the enhancing effect of FK506. In line with our findings in consolidation, FK506 administration before memory reactivation enhanced memory reconsolidation when tested one day after re-exposure to the training context. Strikingly, memory was also enhanced two weeks after training, suggesting that reinforcement during reconsolidation is more persistent than during consolidation. The coadministration of SSZ and FK506 blocked the enhancement effect in reconsolidation, suggesting that this facilitation is also dependent on the NF-κB signaling pathway. In summary, our results support a novel mechanism by which memory formation and reprocessing can be controlled by CaN regulation on NF-κB activity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Regulation of ENA1 Na+-ATPase Gene Expression by the Ppz1 Protein Phosphatase Is Mediated by the Calcineurin Pathway

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    Ruiz, Amparo; Yenush, Lynne; Ariño, Joaquín

    2003-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains lacking the Ppz1 protein phosphatase are salt tolerant and display increased expression of the ENA1 Na+-ATPase gene, a major determinant for sodium extrusion, while cells devoid of the similar Ppz2 protein do not show these phenotypes. However, a ppz1 ppz2 mutant displays higher levels of ENA1 expression than the ppz1 strain. We show here that the increased activity of the ENA1 promoter in a ppz1 ppz2 mutant maps to two regions: one region located at −751 to −667, containing a calcineurin-dependent response element (CDRE), and one downstream region (−573 to −490) whose activity responds to intracellular alkalinization. In contrast, the increased ENA1 expression in a ppz1 mutant is mediated solely by an intact calcineurin/Crz1 signaling pathway, on the basis that (i) this effect maps to a single region that contains the CDRE and (ii) it is blocked by the calcineurin inhibitor FK506, as well as by deletion of the CNB1 or CRZ1 gene. The calcineurin dependence of the increased ENA1 expression of a ppz1 mutant would suggest that Ppz1 could negatively regulate calcineurin activity. In agreement with this notion, a ppz1 strain is calcium sensitive, and this mutation does not result in a decrease in the calcium hypertolerance of a cnb1 mutant. It has been shown that ENA1 can be induced by alkalinization of the medium and that a ppz1 ppz2 strain has a higher intracellular pH. However, we present several lines of evidence that show that the gene expression profile of a ppz1 mutant does not involve an alkalinization effect. In conclusion, we have identified a novel role for calcineurin, but not alkalinization, in the control of ENA1 expression in ppz1 mutants. PMID:14555476

  18. Covalent inhibition of the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase.

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    Ahmed, Vanessa F; Bottini, Nunzio; Barrios, Amy M

    2014-02-01

    Covalent inhibitors of lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (LYP) were identified from a screen of the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecules Repository (MLSMR). Both of the two lead compounds identified have phosphotyrosine-mimetic benzoic acid moieties as well as electrophilic acrylonitrile groups. Inhibition kinetics of both compounds are consistent with covalent modification of the enzyme, with nanomolar KI and reciprocal millisecond kinact values, representing the best efficiency ratios (kinact /KI ) among currently reported covalent LYP inhibitors. Covalent inhibitors can provide longer efficacy and better selectivity than more conventional noncovalent inhibitors, and these lead compounds are an important step toward the development of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-targeted covalent therapeutic compounds. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Compensatory renal hypertrophy following uninephrectomy is calcineurin-independent.

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    Williams, Clintoria R; Wynne, Brandi M; Walker, Makeeva; Hoover, Robert S; Gooch, Jennifer L

    2014-12-01

    Calcineurin is a calcium-dependent phosphatase that is involved in many cellular processes including hypertrophy. Inhibition or genetic loss of calcineurin blocks pathological cardiac hypertrophy and diabetic renal hypertrophy. However, calcineurin does not appear to be involved in physiological cardiac hypertrophy induced by exercise. The role of calcineurin in a compensatory, non-pathological model of renal hypertrophy has not been tested. Therefore, in this study, we examined activation of calcineurin and the effect of calcineurin inhibition or knockout on compensatory hypertrophy following uninephrectomy (UNX). UNX induces ~15% increase in the size of the remaining kidney; the data show no change in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Nox4 or transforming growth factor-β expression confirming the model as one of compensatory hypertrophy. Next, analyses of the remaining kidney reveal that total calcineurin activity is increased, and, to a lesser extent, transcriptional activity of the calcineurin substrate nuclear factor of activated T cell is up-regulated following UNX. However, inhibition of calcineurin with cyclosporine failed to prevent compensatory renal hypertrophy. Likewise, hypertrophy was comparable to WT in mice lacking either isoform of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin (CnAα-/- or CnAβ-/-). In conclusion, similar to its role in the heart, calcineurin is required for pathological but not compensatory renal hypertrophy. This separation of signalling pathways could therefore help further define key factors necessary for pathological hypertrophy including diabetic nephropathy. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  20. Calcineurin inhibition at the clinical phase of prion disease reduces neurodegeneration, improves behavioral alterations and increases animal survival.

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    Abhisek Mukherjee

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a long pre-symptomatic phase followed by rapid and progressive clinical phase. Although rare in humans, the unconventional infectious nature of the disease raises the potential for an epidemic. Unfortunately, no treatment is currently available. The hallmark event in prion diseases is the accumulation of a misfolded and infectious form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc. Previous reports have shown that PrP(Sc induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes in calcium homeostasis in the brain of affected individuals. In this study we show that the calcium-dependent phosphatase Calcineurin (CaN is hyperactivated both in vitro and in vivo as a result of PrP(Sc formation. CaN activation mediates prion-induced neurodegeneration, suggesting that inhibition of this phosphatase could be a target for therapy. To test this hypothesis, prion infected wild type mice were treated intra-peritoneally with the CaN inhibitor FK506 at the clinical phase of the disease. Treated animals exhibited reduced severity of the clinical abnormalities and increased survival time compared to vehicle treated controls. Treatment also led to a significant increase in the brain levels of the CaN downstream targets pCREB and pBAD, which paralleled the decrease of CaN activity. Importantly, we observed a lower degree of neurodegeneration in animals treated with the drug as revealed by a higher number of neurons and a lower quantity of degenerating nerve cells. These changes were not dependent on PrP(Sc formation, since the protein accumulated in the brain to the same levels as in the untreated mice. Our findings contribute to an understanding of the mechanism of neurodegeneration in prion diseases and more importantly may provide a novel strategy for therapy that is beneficial at the clinical phase of the disease.

  1. Arctigenin Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation and Function by Suppressing Both Calcineurin-Dependent and Osteoblastic Cell-Dependent NFATc1 Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Teruhito Yamashita; Shunsuke Uehara; Nobuyuki Udagawa; Feng Li; Shigetoshi Kadota; Hiroyasu Esumi; Yasuhiro Kobayashi; Naoyuki Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Arctigenin, a lignan-derived compound, is a constituent of the seeds of Arctium lappa. Arctigenin was previously shown to inhibit osteoclastogenesis; however, this inhibitory mechanism has yet to be elucidated. Here, we showed that arctigenin inhibited the action of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), a key transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis. NFATc1 in osteoclast precursors was activated through two distinct pathways: the calcineurin-dependent and osteoblasti...

  2. E2/ER β inhibit ISO-induced cardiac cellular hypertrophy by suppressing Ca2+-calcineurin signaling.

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    Tsai, Cheng-Yen; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Lin, Yueh-Min; Liu, Chien-Nam; Chen, Yi-Hui; Day, Cecilia-Hsuan; Shen, Chia-Yao; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular incidences are markedly higher in men than in pre-menstrual women. However, this advantage in women declines with aging and therefore can be correlated with the sex hormone 17β-Estradiol (E2) which is reported to protect heart cells by acting though estrogen receptors (ERs). In this study we have determined the effect of E2/ERβ against ISO induced cellular hypertrophy in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cells. The results confirm that ISO induced cardiac-hypertrophy by elevating the levels of hypertrophy associated proteins, ANP and BNP and further by upregulating p-CaMKII, calcineurin, p-GATA4 and NFATc3 which was correlated with a significant enlargement of the H9c2 cardiomyoblast. However, overexpression of ERβ and/or administration of E2 inhibited ISO-induced hypertrophy in H9c2 cells. In addition, E2/ERβ also inhibited ISO-induced NFATc3 translocation, and reduced the protein level of downstream marker, BNP. Furthermore, by testing with the calcineurin inhibitor (CsA), it was confirmed that calcineurin acted as a key mediator for the anti-hypertrophic effect of E2/ERβ. In cells treated with calcium blocker (BATPA), the inhibitory effect of E2/ERβ on ISO-induced Ca2+ influx and hypertrophic effects were totally blocked suggesting that E2/ERβ inhibited calcineurin activity to activate I-1 protein and suppress PP1, then induce PLB protein phosphorylation and activation, resulting in Ca2+ reuptake into sarcoplasmic reticulum through SR Ca2+ cycling modification. In conclusion, E2/ERβ suppresses the Ca2+ influx and calcineurin activity induced by ISO to enhance the PLB protein activity and SR Ca2+ cycling.

  3. Immunophilins interact with calcineurin in the absence of exogenous immunosuppressive ligands.

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    Cardenas, M E; Hemenway, C; Muir, R S; Ye, R; Fiorentino, D; Heitman, J

    1994-01-01

    The peptidyl-prolyl isomerases FKBP12 and cyclophilin A (immunophilins) form complexes with the immunosuppressants FK506 and cyclosporin A that inhibit the phosphatase calcineurin. With the yeast two hybrid system, we detect complexes between FKBP12 and the calcineurin A catalytic subunit in both the presence and absence of FK506. Mutations in FKBP12 surface residues or the absence of the calcineurin B regulatory subunit perturb the FK506-dependent, but not the ligand-independent, FKBP12-calcineurin complex. By affinity chromatography, both FKBP12 and cyclophilin A bind calcineurin A in the absence of ligand, and FK506 and cyclosporin A respectively potentiate these interactions. Both in vivo and in vitro, the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase active sites are dispensable for ligand-independent immunophilin-calcineurin complexes. Lastly, by genetic analyses we demonstrate that FKBP12 modulates calcineurin functions in vivo. These findings reveal that immunophilins interact with calcineurin in the absence of exogenous ligands and suggest that immunosuppressants may take advantage of the inherent ability of immunophilins to interact with calcineurin. Images PMID:7529175

  4. Cardiac CaM Kinase II Genes δ and γ Contribute to Adverse Remodeling but Redundantly Inhibit Calcineurin-Induced Myocardial Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreusser, Michael M.; Lehmann, Lorenz H.; Keranov, Stanislav; Hoting, Marc-Oscar; Oehl, Ulrike; Kohlhaas, Michael; Reil, Jan-Christian; Neumann, Kay; Schneider, Michael D.; Hill, Joseph A.; Dobrev, Dobromir; Maack, Christoph; Maier, Lars S.; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Katus, Hugo A.; Olson, Eric N.; Backs, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background Ca2+-dependent signaling through CaM Kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin was suggested to contribute to adverse cardiac remodeling. However, the relative importance of CaMKII versus calcineurin for adverse cardiac remodeling remained unclear. Methods and Results We generated double-knockout mice (DKO) lacking the 2 cardiac CaMKII genes δ and γ specifically in cardiomyocytes. We show that both CaMKII isoforms contribute redundantly to phosphorylation not only of phospholamban, ryanodine receptor 2, and histone deacetylase 4, but also calcineurin. Under baseline conditions, DKO mice are viable and display neither abnormal Ca2+ handling nor functional and structural changes. On pathological pressure overload and β-adrenergic stimulation, DKO mice are protected against cardiac dysfunction and interstitial fibrosis. But surprisingly and paradoxically, DKO mice develop cardiac hypertrophy driven by excessive activation of endogenous calcineurin, which is associated with a lack of phosphorylation at the auto-inhibitory calcineurin A site Ser411. Likewise, calcineurin inhibition prevents cardiac hypertrophy in DKO. On exercise performance, DKO mice show an exaggeration of cardiac hypertrophy with increased expression of the calcineurin target gene RCAN1-4 but no signs of adverse cardiac remodeling. Conclusions We established a mouse model in which CaMKII’s activity is specifically and completely abolished. By the use of this model we show that CaMKII induces maladaptive cardiac remodeling while it inhibits calcineurin-dependent hypertrophy. These data suggest inhibition of CaMKII but not calcineurin as a promising approach to attenuate the progression of heart failure. PMID:25124496

  5. Regulatory T-Cell Augmentation or Interleukin-17 Inhibition Prevents Calcineurin Inhibitor-Induced Hypertension in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, Valorie L; Pakanati, Abhinandan R; Hernandez, Marcos; Young, Kristina J; Bounds, Kelsey R; Mitchell, Brett M

    2017-07-01

    The immunosuppressive calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine A and tacrolimus alter T-cell subsets and can cause hypertension, vascular dysfunction, and renal toxicity. We and others have reported that cyclosporine A and tacrolimus decrease anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells and increase proinflammatory interleukin-17-producing T cells; therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of these effects using noncellular therapies would prevent the hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and renal glomerular injury induced by calcineurin inhibitor therapy. Daily treatment of mice with cyclosporine A or tacrolimus for 1 week significantly decreased CD4 + /FoxP3 + regulatory T cells in the spleen and lymph nodes, as well as induced hypertension, vascular injury and dysfunction, and glomerular mesangial expansion in mice. Daily cotreatment with all-trans retinoic acid reported to increase regulatory T cells and decrease interleukin-17-producing T cells, prevented all of the detrimental effects of cyclosporine A and tacrolimus. All-trans retinoic acid also increased regulatory T cells and prevented the hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and glomerular injury in genetically modified mice that phenocopy calcineurin inhibitor-treated mice (FKBP12-Tie2 knockout). Treatment with an interleukin-17-neutralizing antibody also increased regulatory T-cell levels and prevented the hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and glomerular injury in cyclosporine A-treated and tacrolimus-treated mice and FKBP12-Tie2 knockout mice, whereas an isotype control had no effect. Augmenting regulatory T cells and inhibiting interleukin-17 signaling using noncellular therapies prevents the cardiovascular and renal toxicity of calcineurin inhibitors in mice. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Inhibition and structural changes of liver alkaline phosphatase by tramadol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minai-Tehrani, Dariush; Eslami, Mahya; Khazaei, Nafsa; Katebian, Elmira; Azizi, Leila; Yazdi, Fatemeh; Hosseini, Akram Sadat; Taheri, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    Tramadol is a potent analgesic drug which interacts with mu-opioid and has low effect on other opioid receptors. Unlike other opioids, it has no clinically significant effect on respiratory or cardiovascular parameters. Alakaline phosphatase is a hydrolase enzyme that prefers alkaline condition and removes phosphate group from different substrates. In this study, the interaction between tramadol and calf liver alkaline phosphatase was investigated. The results showed that tramadol can bind to alakaline phosphatase and inhibit the enzyme in an un-competitive manner. Ki and IC50 values of tramadol were determined as about 91 and 92 μM, respectively. After enzyme purification, structural changes on alakaline phosphatase-drug interaction were studied by circular dichroism and fluorescence measurement. These data revealed the alteration in the content of secondary structures and also conformational changes in enzyme occurred when the drug bound to enzyme-substrate complex.

  7. Chemical inhibition of bacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase suppresses capsule production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, Alistair J; Salim, Angela A; Zhang, Hua; Capon, Robert J; Morona, Renato

    2012-01-01

    Capsule polysaccharide is a major virulence factor for a wide range of bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. The biosynthesis of Wzy-dependent capsules in both gram-negative and -positive bacteria is regulated by a system involving a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) and a protein tyrosine kinase. However, how the system functions is still controversial. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen, the system is present in all but 2 of the 93 serotypes found to date. In order to study this regulation further, we performed a screen to find inhibitors of the phosphatase, CpsB. This led to the observation that a recently discovered marine sponge metabolite, fascioquinol E, inhibited CpsB phosphatase activity both in vitro and in vivo at concentrations that did not affect the growth of the bacteria. This inhibition resulted in decreased capsule synthesis in D39 and Type 1 S. pneumoniae. Furthermore, concentrations of Fascioquinol E that inhibited capsule also lead to increased attachment of pneumococci to a macrophage cell line, suggesting that this compound would inhibit the virulence of the pathogen. Interestingly, this compound also inhibited the phosphatase activity of the structurally unrelated gram-negative PTP, Wzb, which belongs to separate family of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Furthermore, incubation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, which contains a homologous phosphatase, resulted in decreased capsule synthesis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that PTPs are critical for Wzy-dependent capsule production across a spectrum of bacteria, and as such represents a valuable new molecular target for the development of anti-virulence antibacterials.

  8. Chemical inhibition of bacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase suppresses capsule production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair J Standish

    Full Text Available Capsule polysaccharide is a major virulence factor for a wide range of bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. The biosynthesis of Wzy-dependent capsules in both gram-negative and -positive bacteria is regulated by a system involving a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP and a protein tyrosine kinase. However, how the system functions is still controversial. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen, the system is present in all but 2 of the 93 serotypes found to date. In order to study this regulation further, we performed a screen to find inhibitors of the phosphatase, CpsB. This led to the observation that a recently discovered marine sponge metabolite, fascioquinol E, inhibited CpsB phosphatase activity both in vitro and in vivo at concentrations that did not affect the growth of the bacteria. This inhibition resulted in decreased capsule synthesis in D39 and Type 1 S. pneumoniae. Furthermore, concentrations of Fascioquinol E that inhibited capsule also lead to increased attachment of pneumococci to a macrophage cell line, suggesting that this compound would inhibit the virulence of the pathogen. Interestingly, this compound also inhibited the phosphatase activity of the structurally unrelated gram-negative PTP, Wzb, which belongs to separate family of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Furthermore, incubation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, which contains a homologous phosphatase, resulted in decreased capsule synthesis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that PTPs are critical for Wzy-dependent capsule production across a spectrum of bacteria, and as such represents a valuable new molecular target for the development of anti-virulence antibacterials.

  9. Arctigenin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function by suppressing both calcineurin-dependent and osteoblastic cell-dependent NFATc1 pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Teruhito; Uehara, Shunsuke; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Li, Feng; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Arctigenin, a lignan-derived compound, is a constituent of the seeds of Arctium lappa. Arctigenin was previously shown to inhibit osteoclastogenesis; however, this inhibitory mechanism has yet to be elucidated. Here, we showed that arctigenin inhibited the action of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), a key transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis. NFATc1 in osteoclast precursors was activated through two distinct pathways: the calcineurin-dependent and osteoblastic cell-dependent pathways. Among the several lignan-derived compounds examined, arctigenin most strongly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast-like cell formation in mouse bone marrow macrophage (BMM) cultures, in which the calcineurin-dependent NFATc1 pathway was activated. Arctigenin suppressed neither the activation of nuclear factor κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases nor the up-regulation of c-Fos expression in BMMs treated with RANKL. However, arctigenin suppressed RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression. Interestingly, the treatment of osteoclast-like cells with arctigenin converted NFATc1 into a lower molecular weight species, which was translocated into the nucleus even in the absence of RANKL. Nevertheless, arctigenin as well as cyclosporin A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor, suppressed the NFAT-luciferase reporter activity induced by ionomycin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in BMMs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed that arctigenin inhibited the recruitment of NFATc1 to the promoter region of the NFATc1 target gene. Arctigenin, but not CsA suppressed osteoclast-like cell formation in co-cultures of osteoblastic cells and bone marrow cells, in which the osteoblastic cell-dependent NFATc1 pathway was activated. The forced expression of constitutively active NFATc1 rescued osteoclastogenesis in BMM cultures treated with CsA, but not that treated with arctigenin. Arctigenin also suppressed the pit

  10. Arctigenin Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation and Function by Suppressing Both Calcineurin-Dependent and Osteoblastic Cell-Dependent NFATc1 Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Teruhito; Uehara, Shunsuke; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Li, Feng; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Arctigenin, a lignan-derived compound, is a constituent of the seeds of Arctium lappa. Arctigenin was previously shown to inhibit osteoclastogenesis; however, this inhibitory mechanism has yet to be elucidated. Here, we showed that arctigenin inhibited the action of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), a key transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis. NFATc1 in osteoclast precursors was activated through two distinct pathways: the calcineurin-dependent and osteoblastic cell-dependent pathways. Among the several lignan-derived compounds examined, arctigenin most strongly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast-like cell formation in mouse bone marrow macrophage (BMM) cultures, in which the calcineurin-dependent NFATc1 pathway was activated. Arctigenin suppressed neither the activation of nuclear factor κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases nor the up-regulation of c-Fos expression in BMMs treated with RANKL. However, arctigenin suppressed RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression. Interestingly, the treatment of osteoclast-like cells with arctigenin converted NFATc1 into a lower molecular weight species, which was translocated into the nucleus even in the absence of RANKL. Nevertheless, arctigenin as well as cyclosporin A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor, suppressed the NFAT-luciferase reporter activity induced by ionomycin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in BMMs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed that arctigenin inhibited the recruitment of NFATc1 to the promoter region of the NFATc1 target gene. Arctigenin, but not CsA suppressed osteoclast-like cell formation in co-cultures of osteoblastic cells and bone marrow cells, in which the osteoblastic cell-dependent NFATc1 pathway was activated. The forced expression of constitutively active NFATc1 rescued osteoclastogenesis in BMM cultures treated with CsA, but not that treated with arctigenin. Arctigenin also suppressed the pit

  11. Arctigenin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function by suppressing both calcineurin-dependent and osteoblastic cell-dependent NFATc1 pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruhito Yamashita

    Full Text Available Arctigenin, a lignan-derived compound, is a constituent of the seeds of Arctium lappa. Arctigenin was previously shown to inhibit osteoclastogenesis; however, this inhibitory mechanism has yet to be elucidated. Here, we showed that arctigenin inhibited the action of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1, a key transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis. NFATc1 in osteoclast precursors was activated through two distinct pathways: the calcineurin-dependent and osteoblastic cell-dependent pathways. Among the several lignan-derived compounds examined, arctigenin most strongly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast-like cell formation in mouse bone marrow macrophage (BMM cultures, in which the calcineurin-dependent NFATc1 pathway was activated. Arctigenin suppressed neither the activation of nuclear factor κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases nor the up-regulation of c-Fos expression in BMMs treated with RANKL. However, arctigenin suppressed RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression. Interestingly, the treatment of osteoclast-like cells with arctigenin converted NFATc1 into a lower molecular weight species, which was translocated into the nucleus even in the absence of RANKL. Nevertheless, arctigenin as well as cyclosporin A (CsA, a calcineurin inhibitor, suppressed the NFAT-luciferase reporter activity induced by ionomycin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in BMMs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed that arctigenin inhibited the recruitment of NFATc1 to the promoter region of the NFATc1 target gene. Arctigenin, but not CsA suppressed osteoclast-like cell formation in co-cultures of osteoblastic cells and bone marrow cells, in which the osteoblastic cell-dependent NFATc1 pathway was activated. The forced expression of constitutively active NFATc1 rescued osteoclastogenesis in BMM cultures treated with CsA, but not that treated with arctigenin. Arctigenin also suppressed the

  12. Correlations between calcineurin phosphatase inhibition and cyclosporine metabolites concentrations in kidney transplant recipients: implications for immunoassays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamperis, N; Koefoed-Nielsen, PB; Brahe, P

    2006-01-01

    Cyclosporine exhibits a wide spectrum of metabolites that vary considerably in the extent to which they interfere with the various parent drug monitoring immunoassays. There is no consensus regarding the clinical significance of metabolites. Cyclosporine exerts its immunosuppressive action...... transplant patients were included in the study. Blood samples were drawn before, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hr after oral intake of cyclosporine. Parent drug and metabolites were determined by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MSMS). Additionally, cyclosporine concentration was determined...

  13. The Down syndrome critical region protein RCAN1 regulates long-term potentiation and memory via inhibition of phosphatase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffer, Charles A; Dey, Asim; Sachan, Nita; Wong, Helen; Patterson, Richard J; Shelton, John M; Richardson, James A; Klann, Eric; Rothermel, Beverly A

    2007-11-28

    Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1/MCIP1/DSCR1) regulates the calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin. Because it is located on human chromosome 21, RCAN1 has been postulated to contribute to mental retardation in Down syndrome and has been reported to be associated with neuronal degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. The studies herein are the first to assess the role of RCAN1 in memory and synaptic plasticity by examining the behavioral and electrophysiological properties of RCAN1 knock-out mice. These mice exhibit deficits in spatial learning and memory, reduced associative cued memory, and impaired late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP), phenotypes similar to those of transgenic mice with increased calcineurin activity. Consistent with this, the RCAN1 knock-out mice display increased enzymatic calcineurin activity, increased abundance of a cleaved calcineurin fragment, and decreased phosphorylation of the calcineurin substrate dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein-32. We propose a model in which RCAN1 plays a positive role in L-LTP and memory by constraining phosphatase signaling.

  14. Lycopene inhibits regulator of calcineurin 1-mediated apoptosis by reducing oxidative stress and down-regulating Nucling in neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seiyoung; Hwang, Sinwoo; Yu, Ji Hoon; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2017-05-01

    Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) is located on the Down syndrome critical region (DSCR) locus in human chromosome 21. Oxidative stress and overexpression of RCAN1 are implicated in neuronal impairment in Down's syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Serum level of lycopene, an antioxidant pigment, is low in DS and AD patients, which may be related to neuronal damage. The present study is to investigate whether lycopene inhibits apoptosis by reducing ROS levels, NF-κB activation, expression of the apoptosis regulator Nucling, cell viability, and indices of apoptosis (cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation) in RCAN1-overexpressing neuronal cells. Cells transfected with either pcDNA or RCAN1 were treated with or without lycopene. Lycopene decreased intracellular and mitochondrial ROS levels, NF-κB activity, and Nucling expression while it reversed decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration, and glycolytic function in RCAN1-overexpressing cells. Lycopene inhibited cell death, DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation, and cytochrome c release in RCAN1-overexpressing cells. Lycopene inhibits RCAN1-mediated apoptosis by reducing ROS levels and by inhibiting NF-κB activation, Nucling induction, and the increase in apoptotic indices in neuronal cells. Consumption of lycopene-rich foods may prevent oxidative stress-associated neuronal damage in some pathologic conditions such as DS or AD. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Novel interaction between the TAK1-TAB1-TAB2 and the RCAN1-calcineurin regulatory pathways defines a signaling nodal control point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qinghang; Busby, Jennifer Caldwell; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2009-01-01

    The calcium-activated protein phosphatase calcineurin is controlled by regulator of calcineurin (RCAN) in yeast up through mammals. The physiologic function of RCAN proteins remains an area of ongoing investigation because both positive and negative calcineurin regulatory effects have been reported. Here, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen with RCAN1 as bait, identifying TAK1 binding protein 2 (TAB2) as an interacting partner. TAB2 directly interacted with RCAN1 in vitro and in vivo, recruiting TAK1, TAB1 and calcineurin, forming a macromolecular signaling complex. Overexpression of TAK1 and TAB1, or active TAK1-ΔN, promoted direct phosphorylation of RCAN1 in vitro and in vivo. TAK1 phosphorylated RCAN1 at two novel sites, serine 94 and 136, switching RCAN1 from an inhibitor to a facilitator of calcineurin-NFAT signaling, enhancing NFATc1 nuclear translocation, NFAT transcriptional activation and the hypertrophic growth of cultured cardiomyocytes. Remarkably, Rcan1/2 or Tab2 deficient mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cultures each failed to show an interaction between the TAK1-TAB1-TAB2 and the calcineurin-NFAT signaling modules. We also observed a reciprocal negative feedback mechanism whereby sustained calcineurin activation inhibited TAK1 signaling through dephosphorylation of TAK1 and TAB1, an effect that was absent in Rcan1/2 deficient MEFs. Functionally, TAK1 was indispensable for the cardiomyocyte growth response induced by prohypertrophic stimuli. TAK1-dependent growth was also blocked by inhibition of calcineurin activity with Cain. Finally, a dominant interfering fragment of RCAN1 that disrupts the TAK1-TAB1-TAB2, calcineurin-NFAT complex also blocked cardiomyocyte hypertrophy to several stimuli. These results describe a novel signaling relationship between two central regulatory pathways whereby TAK1-TAB1-TAB2 selectively induces calcineurin-NFAT signaling through direct phosphorylation of RCAN1, while calcineurin activation diminishes TAK1

  16. Calcineurin activity in children with Mental handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindu, L Hema; Rani, P Usha; Reddy, P P

    2007-09-01

    Calcineurin, a Ca(2+)-Calmodulin dependent protein phosphatase, is important for Ca(2+) mediated signal transduction. The main objective of this study was to examine the potential role of calcineurin in idiopathic mental handicap. Calcineurin levels were estimated in 20 children in the age group of 5-16 years with idiopathic mental handicap attending the Special. Education Centre for the Mentally Handicapped in Hyderabad. The results of the present study showed decreased activity of serum calcineurin in children with idiopathic mental handicap compared to those of normal subjects in the same age group. The observations thus suggest impaired calcineurin activity in children with mental handicap. Calcineurin that is involved in biosynthesis and release of neurotransmitters at the synaptic terminal brain is affected thereby causing brain damage and leading to mental handicap. Impaired calcineurin activity was already indicated in many human diseases such as Down's syndrome, Alzheimers, Brain ischemia, cardiac hypertrophy etc. It is therefore necessary to check the calcineurin levels in children with mental handicap to understand the role of calcineurin in the causation of Mental handicap.

  17. Estradiol upregulates calcineurin expression via overexpression of estrogen receptor alpha gene in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Li Lin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease primarily affecting women (9:1 compared with men. To investigate the influence of female sex hormone estrogen on the development of female-biased lupus, we compared the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα gene and protein levels as well as expression of T-cell activation gene calcineurin in response to estrogen in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs from SLE patients and normal controls. PBLs were isolated from 20 female SLE patients and 6 normal female controls. The amount of ERα protein in PBL was measured by flow cytometry. The expression of ERα and calcineurin messenger RNA was measured by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Calcineurin phosphatase activity was measured by calcineurin assay kit. The expression of ERα messenger RNA and ERα protein was significantly increased (p=0.001 and p=0.023, respectively in PBL from SLE patients compared with that from normal controls. In addition, the basal calcineurin in PBL from SLE patients was significantly higher (p=0.000 than that from normal controls, and estrogen-induced expression of calcineurin was increased (p=0.007 in PBL from SLE patients compared with that from normal controls, a 3.15-fold increase. This increase was inhibited by the ERα antagonism ICI 182,780. The effects of ER antagonism were also found in calcineurin activity. These data suggest that overexpression of ERα gene and enhanced activation of calcineurin in response to estrogen in PBL may contribute to the pathogenesis of female dominant in SLE.

  18. Regulator of Calcineurin 1 Gene Isoform 4, Down-regulated in Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Prevents Proliferation, Migration, and Invasive Activity of Cancer Cells and Metastasis of Orthotopic Tumors by Inhibiting Nuclear Translocation of NFAT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haojie; Wang, Cun; Jin, Guangzhi; Ruan, Haoyu; Gu, Dishui; Wei, Lin; Wang, Hui; Wang, Ning; Arunachalam, Einthavy; Zhang, Yurong; Deng, Xuan; Yang, Chen; Xiong, Yi; Feng, Hugang; Yao, Ming; Fang, Jingyuan; Gu, Jianren; Cong, Wenming; Qin, Wenxin

    2017-09-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome have a low risk for many solid tumors, prompting the search for tumor suppressor genes on human chromosome 21 (HSA21). We aimed to identify and explore potential mechanisms of tumor suppressors on HSA21 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We compared expression of HSA21 genes in 14 pairs of primary HCC and adjacent noncancer liver tissues using the Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). HCC tissues and adjacent normal liver tissues were collected from 108 patients at a hospital in China for real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analyses; expression levels of regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) isoform 4 (RCAN1.4) were associated with clinical features. We overexpressed RCAN1.4 from lentiviral vectors in MHCC97H and HCCLM3 cells and knocked expression down using small interfering RNAs in SMMC7721 and Huh7 cells. Cells were analyzed in proliferation, migration, and invasion assays. HCC cells that overexpressed RCAN1.4 or with RCAN1.4 knockdown were injected into livers or tail veins of nude mice; tumor growth and numbers of lung metastases were quantified. We performed bisulfite pyrosequencing and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction analyses to analyze CpG island methylation. We measured phosphatase activity of calcineurin in HCC cells. RCAN1.4 mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased in primary HCC compared with adjacent noncancer liver tissues. Reduced levels of RCAN1.4 mRNA were significantly associated with advanced tumor stages, poor differentiation, larger tumor size, and vascular invasion. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients with HCCs with lower levels of RCAN1.4 mRNA had shorter time of overall survival and time to recurrence than patients whose tumors had high levels of RCAN1.4 mRNA. In HCC cell lines, expression of RCAN1.4 significantly reduced proliferation, migration, and invasive activity. HCC cells that overexpressed RCAN1.4 formed smaller

  19. Allosteric inhibition of SHP2 phosphatase inhibits cancers driven by receptor tyrosine kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying-Nan P.; LaMarche, Matthew J.; Chan, Ho Man; Fekkes, Peter; Garcia-Fortanet, Jorge; Acker, Michael G.; Antonakos, Brandon; Chen, Christine Hiu-Tung; Chen, Zhouliang; Cooke, Vesselina G.; Dobson, Jason R.; Deng, Zhan; Fei, Feng; Firestone, Brant; Fodor, Michelle; Fridrich, Cary; Gao, Hui; Grunenfelder, Denise; Hao, Huai-Xiang; Jacob, Jaison; Ho, Samuel; Hsiao, Kathy; Kang, Zhao B.; Karki, Rajesh; Kato, Mitsunori; Larrow, Jay; La Bonte, Laura R.; Lenoir, Francois; Liu, Gang; Liu, Shumei; Majumdar, Dyuti; Meyer, Matthew J.; Palermo, Mark; Perez, Lawrence; Pu, Minying; Price, Edmund; Quinn, Christopher; Shakya, Subarna; Shultz, Michael D.; Slisz, Joanna; Venkatesan, Kavitha; Wang, Ping; Warmuth, Markus; Williams, Sarah; Yang, Guizhi; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Ji-Hu; Zhu, Ping; Ramsey, Timothy; Keen, Nicholas J.; Sellers, William R.; Stams, Travis; Fortin, Pascal D.

    2016-06-29

    The non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, encoded by PTPN11, has an important role in signal transduction downstream of growth factor receptor signalling and was the first reported oncogenic tyrosine phosphatase1. Activating mutations of SHP2 have been associated with developmental pathologies such as Noonan syndrome and are found in multiple cancer types, including leukaemia, lung and breast cancer and neuroblastoma1, 2, 3, 4, 5. SHP2 is ubiquitously expressed and regulates cell survival and proliferation primarily through activation of the RAS–ERK signalling pathway2, 3. It is also a key mediator of the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) immune checkpoint pathways6, 7. Reduction of SHP2 activity suppresses tumour cell growth and is a potential target of cancer therapy8, 9. Here we report the discovery of a highly potent (IC50 = 0.071 μM), selective and orally bioavailable small-molecule SHP2 inhibitor, SHP099, that stabilizes SHP2 in an auto-inhibited conformation. SHP099 concurrently binds to the interface of the N-terminal SH2, C-terminal SH2, and protein tyrosine phosphatase domains, thus inhibiting SHP2 activity through an allosteric mechanism. SHP099 suppresses RAS–ERK signalling to inhibit the proliferation of receptor-tyrosine-kinase-driven human cancer cells in vitro and is efficacious in mouse tumour xenograft models. Together, these data demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of SHP2 is a valid therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancers.

  20. Chemical Inhibition of Bacterial Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Suppresses Capsule Production

    OpenAIRE

    Standish, Alistair J.; Salim, Angela A; Hua Zhang; Capon, Robert J.; Renato Morona

    2012-01-01

    Capsule polysaccharide is a major virulence factor for a wide range of bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. The biosynthesis of Wzy-dependent capsules in both gram-negative and -positive bacteria is regulated by a system involving a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) and a protein tyrosine kinase. However, how the system functions is still controversial. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen, the system is present in all but 2 of the 93 serotypes found to dat...

  1. Regulator of Calcineurin (RCAN-1) Regulates Thermotaxis Behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weixun; Bell, Harold W; Ahnn, Joohong; Lee, Sun-Kyung

    2015-11-06

    Regulator of calcineurin (RCAN) is a calcineurin-interacting protein that inhibits calcineurin phosphatase when overexpressed, often upregulated under neuropathological conditions with impaired learning and memory processes, such as Down syndrome or Alzheimer's disease. Thermotactic behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a form of memory in which calcineurin signaling plays a pivotal role in the thermosensation of AFD neurons. In this study, we found that rcan-1 deletion mutants exhibited cryophilic behavior dependent on tax-6, which was rescued by expressing rcan-1 in AFD neurons. Interaction between RCAN-1 and TAX-6 requires the conserved PxIxIT motif of RCAN-1, without which thermotactic behavior could not be fully rescued. In addition, the loss of crh-1/CREB suppressed the thermotaxis phenotypes of rcan-1 and tax-6 mutants, indicating that crh-1 is crucial in thermotaxis memory in these mutants. Taken together, our results suggest that rcan-1 is an inhibitory regulator of tax-6 and that it acts in the formation of thermosensory behavioral memory in C. elegans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The calcineurin activity profiles of cyclosporin and tacrolimus are different in stable renal transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed-Nielsen, PB; Karamperis, N; Hojskov, C

    2006-01-01

    Cyclosporin and tacrolimus remain the cornerstone immunosuppressive drugs in organ transplantation. Dosing and monitoring these drugs is based on pharmacokinetic protocols, but measuring a pharmacodynamic parameter, calcineurin phosphatase (CaN) activity, could be a valuable supplement...... in determining optimal doses. Forty stable renal transplant patients were investigated three times in a 6-month period. Blood samples were drawn at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after oral intake of tacrolimus (FK) or cyclosporin at days 1 and 180. At day 90, one blood sample at trough level (FK) or C2 level (cyclosporin A...... significantly different effects on calcineurin activity in renal transplant patients with stable, well-functioning grafts and that tacrolimus-treated patients can maintain good, stable graft function with minimal CaN inhibition....

  3. Free Fatty Acids Inhibit Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B and Activate Akt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisuke Shibata

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Accumulating evidence has suggested that free fatty acids (FFAs interact with protein kinases and protein phosphatases. The present study examined the effect of FFAs on protein phosphatases and Akt. Methods: Activities of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B were assayed under the cell-free conditions. Phosphorylation of Akt was monitored in MSTO-211H human malignant pleural mesothelioma cells without and with knocking-down phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K or 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1. Results: In the cell-free assay, unsaturated FFAs (uFFAs such as oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid and saturated FFAs (sFFAs such as stearic, palmitic, myristic, and behenic acid markedly reduced PTP1B activity, with the potential for uFFAs greater than that for sFFAs. All the investigated sFFAs inhibited PP2A activity, but otherwise no inhibition was obtained with uFFAs. Both uFFAs and sFFAs had no effect on PP1 activity. Oleic acid phosphorylated Akt both on Thr308 and Ser473, while stearic acid phosphorylated Akt on Thr308 alone. The effects of oleic and stearic acid on Akt phosphorylation were abrogated by the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin or the PDK1 inhibitor BX912 and also by knocking-down PI3K or PDK1. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that uFFAs and sFFAs could activate Akt through a pathway along a PI3K/PDK1/Akt axis in association with PTP1B inhibition.

  4. The Functional Role of Calcineurin in Hypertrophy, Regeneration, and Disorders of Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Kunihiro Sakuma; Akihiko Yamaguchi

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal muscle uses calcium as a second messenger to respond and adapt to environmental stimuli. Elevations in intracellular calcium levels activate calcineurin, a serine/threonine phosphatase, resulting in the expression of a set of genes involved in the maintenance, growth, and remodeling of skeletal muscle. In this review, we discuss the effects of calcineurin activity on hypertrophy, regeneration, and disorders of skeletal muscle. Calcineurin is a potent regulator of muscle remodeling, e...

  5. Structural basis of Rap phosphatase inhibition by Phr peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Gallego del Sol

    Full Text Available Two-component systems, composed of a sensor histidine kinase and an effector response regulator (RR, are the main signal transduction devices in bacteria. In Bacillus, the Rap protein family modulates complex signaling processes mediated by two-component systems, such as competence, sporulation, or biofilm formation, by inhibiting the RR components involved in these pathways. Despite the high degree of sequence homology, Rap proteins exert their activity by two completely different mechanisms of action: inducing RR dephosphorylation or blocking RR binding to its target promoter. However the regulatory mechanism involving Rap proteins is even more complex since Rap activity is antagonized by specific signaling peptides (Phr through a mechanism that remains unknown at the molecular level. Using X-ray analyses, we determined the structure of RapF, the anti-activator of competence RR ComA, alone and in complex with its regulatory peptide PhrF. The structural and functional data presented herein reveal that peptide PhrF blocks the RapF-ComA interaction through an allosteric mechanism. PhrF accommodates in the C-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat domain of RapF by inducing its constriction, a conformational change propagated by a pronounced rotation to the N-terminal ComA-binding domain. This movement partially disrupts the ComA binding site by triggering the ComA disassociation, whose interaction with RapF is also sterically impaired in the PhrF-induced conformation of RapF. Sequence analyses of the Rap proteins, guided by the RapF-PhrF structure, unveil the molecular basis of Phr recognition and discrimination, allowing us to relax the Phr specificity of RapF by a single residue change.

  6. Structural Basis of Rap Phosphatase Inhibition by Phr Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego del Sol, Francisca; Marina, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Two-component systems, composed of a sensor histidine kinase and an effector response regulator (RR), are the main signal transduction devices in bacteria. In Bacillus, the Rap protein family modulates complex signaling processes mediated by two-component systems, such as competence, sporulation, or biofilm formation, by inhibiting the RR components involved in these pathways. Despite the high degree of sequence homology, Rap proteins exert their activity by two completely different mechanisms of action: inducing RR dephosphorylation or blocking RR binding to its target promoter. However the regulatory mechanism involving Rap proteins is even more complex since Rap activity is antagonized by specific signaling peptides (Phr) through a mechanism that remains unknown at the molecular level. Using X-ray analyses, we determined the structure of RapF, the anti-activator of competence RR ComA, alone and in complex with its regulatory peptide PhrF. The structural and functional data presented herein reveal that peptide PhrF blocks the RapF-ComA interaction through an allosteric mechanism. PhrF accommodates in the C-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat domain of RapF by inducing its constriction, a conformational change propagated by a pronounced rotation to the N-terminal ComA-binding domain. This movement partially disrupts the ComA binding site by triggering the ComA disassociation, whose interaction with RapF is also sterically impaired in the PhrF-induced conformation of RapF. Sequence analyses of the Rap proteins, guided by the RapF-PhrF structure, unveil the molecular basis of Phr recognition and discrimination, allowing us to relax the Phr specificity of RapF by a single residue change. PMID:23526880

  7. Mechanism of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B-mediated inhibition of leptin signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, I K; Hansen, J A; Andersen, H S

    2005-01-01

    Upon leptin binding, the leptin receptor is activated, leading to stimulation of the JAK/STAT signal transduction cascade. The transient character of the tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 suggests the involvement of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) as negative regulators...... PTP1B mediates the cessation of the leptin signal transduction. Leptin-induced activation of a STAT3 responsive reporter was dose-dependently inhibited by co-transfection with PTP1B. No inhibition was observed when a catalytically inactive mutant of PTP1B was used or when other PTPs were co...

  8. Fundamental role of the fostriecin unsaturated lactone and implications for selective protein phosphatase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Suzanne B; Hardouin, Christophe; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Soenen, Danielle R; Gauss, C-M; Hwang, Inkyu; Swingle, Mark R; Bonness, Kathy M; Honkanen, Richard E; Boger, Dale L

    2003-12-24

    Key derivatives and analogues of fostriecin were prepared and examined that revealed a fundamental role for the unsaturated lactone and confirmed the essential nature of the phosphate monoester. Thus, an identical 200-fold reduction in protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibition is observed with either the saturated lactone (7) or with an analogue that lacks the entire lactone (15). This 200-fold increase in PP2A inhibition attributable to the unsaturated lactone potentially may be due to reversible C269 alkylation within the PP beta12-beta13 active site loop accounting for PP2A/4 potency and selectivity.

  9. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) inhibits inflammatory signaling via expression of regulator of calcineurin activity 1 (RCAN1): Anti-inflammatory mechanism of PDTC through RCAN1 induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Kim, Seon Sook; Seo, Su Ryeon

    2017-11-01

    Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a thiol compound that elicits anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NF-κB signaling. In this study, we report that regulator of calcineurin activity 1 (RCAN1) expression is induced by PDTC treatment and that increased RCAN1 expression is dependent on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of p38 MAPK and JNK signaling. We also report that the ability of PDTC to induce RCAN1 is mediated by activator protein-1 (AP-1)-dependent gene transcription, and identified a functional AP-1 binding site in the RCAN1 promoter by producing mutations and conducting chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses. Moreover, we show that the PDTC-mediated inhibitory effect on NF-κB signaling is significantly perturbed by knocking out RCAN1. Our data provide the first evidence that PDTC prevents in vivo expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines by inducing RCAN1 expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Calcineurin signaling in the heart: The importance of time and place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Valentina; Rothermel, Beverly A

    2017-02-01

    The calcium-activated protein phosphatase, calcineurin, lies at the intersection of protein phosphorylation and calcium signaling cascades, where it provides an essential nodal point for coordination between these two fundamental modes of intracellular communication. In excitatory cells, such as neurons and cardiomyocytes, that experience rapid and frequent changes in cytoplasmic calcium, calcineurin protein levels are exceptionally high, suggesting that these cells require high levels of calcineurin activity. Yet, it is widely recognized that excessive activation of calcineurin in the heart contributes to pathological hypertrophic remodeling and the progression to failure. How does a calcium activated enzyme function in the calcium-rich environment of the continuously contracting heart without pathological consequences? This review will discuss the wide range of calcineurin substrates relevant to cardiovascular health and the mechanisms calcineurin uses to find and act on appropriate substrates in the appropriate location while potentially avoiding others. Fundamental differences in calcineurin signaling in neonatal verses adult cardiomyocytes will be addressed as well as the importance of maintaining heterogeneity in calcineurin activity across the myocardium. Finally, we will discuss how circadian oscillations in calcineurin activity may facilitate integration with other essential but conflicting processes, allowing a healthy heart to reap the benefits of calcineurin signaling while avoiding the detrimental consequences of sustained calcineurin activity that can culminate in heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Calcineurin Antagonizes AMPK to Regulate Lipolysis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Xie, Cangsang; Diao, Zhiqing; Liang, Bin

    2017-06-26

    Calcineurin is a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase, and the target of immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus (TAC). The dysfunction of calcineurin, or clinical applications of tacrolimus, have been reported to be associated with dyslipidemia. The underlying mechanisms of calcineurin and tacrolimus in lipid metabolism are largely unknown. Here, we showed that mutations of tax-6 and cnb-1, which respectively encode the catalytic subunit and the regulatory subunit of calcineurin, together with tacrolimus treatment, consistently led to decreased fat accumulation and delayed growth in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In contrast, disruption of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) encoded by aak-1 and aak-2 reversed the above effects in worms. Moreover, calcineurin deficiency and tacrolimus treatment consistently activated the transcriptional expression of the lipolytic gene atgl-1, encoding triglyceride lipase. Furthermore, RNAi knockdown of atgl-1 recovered the decreased fat accumulation in both calcineurin deficient and tacrolimus treated worms. Collectively, our results reveal that immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus and their target calcineurin may antagonize AMPK to regulate ATGL and lipolysis, thereby providing potential therapy for the application of immunosuppressive agents.

  12. Calcineurin Antagonizes AMPK to Regulate Lipolysis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Calcineurin is a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase, and the target of immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus (TAC. The dysfunction of calcineurin, or clinical applications of tacrolimus, have been reported to be associated with dyslipidemia. The underlying mechanisms of calcineurin and tacrolimus in lipid metabolism are largely unknown. Here, we showed that mutations of tax-6 and cnb-1, which respectively encode the catalytic subunit and the regulatory subunit of calcineurin, together with tacrolimus treatment, consistently led to decreased fat accumulation and delayed growth in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In contrast, disruption of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK encoded by aak-1 and aak-2 reversed the above effects in worms. Moreover, calcineurin deficiency and tacrolimus treatment consistently activated the transcriptional expression of the lipolytic gene atgl-1, encoding triglyceride lipase. Furthermore, RNAi knockdown of atgl-1 recovered the decreased fat accumulation in both calcineurin deficient and tacrolimus treated worms. Collectively, our results reveal that immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus and their target calcineurin may antagonize AMPK to regulate ATGL and lipolysis, thereby providing potential therapy for the application of immunosuppressive agents.

  13. Expression of a constitutively active calcineurin encoded by an intron-retaining mRNA in follicular keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Fujimura

    Full Text Available Hair growth is a highly regulated cyclical process. Immunosuppressive immunophilin ligands such as cyclosporin A (CsA and FK506 are known as potent hair growth modulatory agents in rodents and humans that induce active hair growth and inhibit hair follicle regression. The immunosuppressive effectiveness of these drugs has been generally attributed to inhibition of T cell activation through well-characterized pathways. Specifically, CsA and FK506 bind to intracellular proteins, principally cyclophilin A and FKBP12, respectively, and thereby inhibit the phosphatase calcineurin (Cn. The calcineurin (Cn/NFAT pathway has an important, but poorly understood, role in the regulation of hair follicle development. Here we show that a novel-splicing variant of calcineurin Aß CnAß-FK, which is encoded by an intron-retaining mRNA and is deficient in the autoinhibitory domain, is predominantly expressed in mature follicular keratinocytes but not in the proliferating keratinocytes of rodents. CnAß-FK was weakly sensitive to Ca(2+ and dephosphorylated NFATc2 under low Ca(2+ levels in keratinocytes. Inhibition of Cn/NFAT induced hair growth in nude mice. Cyclin G2 was identified as a novel target of the Cn/NFATc2 pathway and its expression in follicular keratinocytes was reduced by inhibition of Cn/NFAT. Overexpression of cyclin G2 arrested the cell cycle in follicular keratinocytes in vitro and the Cn inhibitor, cyclosporin A, inhibited nuclear localization of NFATc2, resulting in decreased cyclin G2 expression in follicular keratinocytes of rats in vivo. We therefore suggest that the calcineurin/NFAT pathway has a unique regulatory role in hair follicle development.

  14. The Functional Role of Calcineurin in Hypertrophy, Regeneration, and Disorders of Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle uses calcium as a second messenger to respond and adapt to environmental stimuli. Elevations in intracellular calcium levels activate calcineurin, a serine/threonine phosphatase, resulting in the expression of a set of genes involved in the maintenance, growth, and remodeling of skeletal muscle. In this review, we discuss the effects of calcineurin activity on hypertrophy, regeneration, and disorders of skeletal muscle. Calcineurin is a potent regulator of muscle remodeling, enhancing the differentiation through upregulation of myogenin or MEF2A and downregulation of the Id1 family and myostatin. Foxo may also be a downstream candidate for a calcineurin signaling molecule during muscle regeneration. The strategy of controlling the amount of calcineurin may be effective for the treatment of muscular disorders such as DMD, UCMD, and LGMD. Activation of calcineurin produces muscular hypertrophy of the slow-twitch soleus muscle but not fast-twitch muscles.

  15. Phosphotyrosine phosphatase and tyrosine kinase inhibition modulate airway pressure-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, J C; Ivey, C L; Tucker, A

    1998-11-01

    We determined whether drugs which modulate the state of protein tyrosine phosphorylation could alter the threshold for high airway pressure-induced microvascular injury in isolated perfused rat lungs. Lungs were ventilated for successive 30-min periods with peak inflation pressures (PIP) of 7, 20, 30, and 35 cmH2O followed by measurement of the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), a sensitive index of hydraulic conductance. In untreated control lungs, Kfc increased by 1.3- and 3.3-fold relative to baseline (7 cmH2O PIP) after ventilation with 30 and 35 cmH2O PIP. However, in lungs treated with 100 microM phenylarsine oxide (a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor), Kfc increased by 4.7- and 16.4-fold relative to baseline at these PIP values. In lungs treated with 50 microM genistein (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor), Kfc increased significantly only at 35 cmH2O PIP, and the three groups were significantly different from each other. Thus phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibition increased the susceptibility of rat lungs to high-PIP injury, and tyrosine kinase inhibition attenuated the injury relative to the high-PIP control lungs.

  16. Sodium arsenite induces chromosome endoreduplication and inhibits protein phosphatase activity in human fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong-Nan Huang; I-Ching Ho; Ling-Hui Yih [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Taiwan (China)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Arsenic, strongly associated with increased risks of human cancers, is a potent clastogen in a variety of mammalian cell systems. The effect of sodium arsenite (a trivalent arsenic compound) on chromatid separation was studied in human skin fibroblasts (HFW). Human fibroblasts were arrested in S phase by the aid of serum starvation and aphidicolin blocking and then these cells were allowed to synchronously progress into G2 phase. Treatment of the G2-enriched HFW cells with sodium arsenite (0-200 {mu}M) resulted in arrest of cells in the G2 phase, interference with mitotic division, inhibition of spindle assembly, and induction of chromosome endoreduplication in their second mitosis. Sodium arsenite treatment also inhibited the activities of serine/threonine protein phosphatases and enhanced phosphorylation levels of a small heat shock protein (HSP27). These results suggest that sodium arsenite may mimic okadaic acid to induce chromosome endoreduplication through its inhibitory effect on protein phosphatase activity. 61 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 reverses alcohol-induced ciliary dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Michael E; Pavlik, Jacqueline A; Sisson, Joseph H; Wyatt, Todd A

    2015-03-15

    Airway mucociliary clearance is a first-line defense of the lung against inhaled particles and debris. Among individuals with alcohol use disorders, there is an increase in lung diseases. We previously identified that prolonged alcohol exposure impairs mucociliary clearance, known as alcohol-induced ciliary dysfunction (AICD). Cilia-localized enzymes, known as the ciliary metabolon, are key to the pathogenesis of AICD. In AICD, cyclic nucleotide-dependent ciliary kinases, which modulate phosphorylation to regulate cilia beat, are desensitized. We hypothesized that alcohol activates cilia-associated protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) activity, driving phosphorylation changes of cilia motility regulatory proteins. To test this hypothesis we identified the effects of prolonged alcohol exposure on phosphatase activity, cilia beat, and kinase responsiveness and cilia-associated phosphorylation targets when stimulated by β-agonist or cAMP. Prolonged alcohol activated PP1 and blocked cAMP-dependent cilia beat and protein kinase A (PKA) responsiveness and phosphorylation of a 29-kDa substrate of PKA. Importantly, prolonged alcohol-induced phosphatase activation was inhibited by the PP1 specific inhibitor, inhibitor-2 (I-2), restoring cAMP-stimulated cilia beat and PKA responsiveness and phosphorylation of the 29-kDa substrate. The I-2 inhibitory effect persisted in tissue, cell, and isolated cilia-organelle models, highlighting the association of ciliary metabolon-localized enzymes to AICD. Prolonged alcohol exposure drives ciliary metabolon-localized PP1 activation. PP1 activation modifies phosphorylation of a 29-kDa protein related to PKA activity. These data reinforce our previous findings that alcohol is acting at the level of the ciliary metabolon to cause ciliary dysfunction and identifies PP1 as a therapeutic target to prevent or reverse AICD.

  18. Coumarins from Angelica decursiva inhibit α-glucosidase activity and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Yousof; Jannat, Susoma; Jung, Hyun Ah; Jeong, Hyong Oh; Chung, Hae Young; Choi, Jae Sue

    2016-05-25

    In the present study, we investigated the anti-diabetic potential of six natural coumarins, 4-hydroxy Pd-C-III (1), 4'-methoxy Pd-C-I (2), decursinol (3), decursidin (4), umbelliferone 6-carboxylic acid (5), and 2'-isopropyl psoralene (6) isolated from Angelica decursiva and evaluated their inhibitory activities against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), α-glucosidase, and ONOO(-)-mediated protein tyrosine nitration. Coumarins 1-6 showed potent PTP1B and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities with ranges of IC50 values of 5.39-58.90 μM and 65.29-172.10 μM, respectively. In the kinetic study for PTP1B enzyme inhibition, compounds 1, 5, and 6 were competitive, whereas 2 and 4 showed mixed type, and 3 displayed noncompetitive type inhibition. For α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited good mixed-type, while 2, 5, and 6 showed noncompetitive and 4 displayed competitive type inhibition. Furthermore, these coumarins also effectively suppressed ONOO(-)-mediated tyrosine nitration in a dose-dependent manner. To further investigate PTP1B inhibition, we generated a 3D structure of PTP1B using Autodock 4.2 and simulated the binding of compounds 1-6. Docking simulations showed that different residues of PTP1B interacted with different functional groups of compounds 1-6 through hydrogen and hydrophobic interactions. In addition, the binding energies of compounds 1-6 were negative, suggesting that hydrogen bonding may stabilize the open form of the enzyme and potentiate tight binding of the active site of PTP1B, thereby resulting in more effective PTP1B inhibition. These results demonstrate that the whole plant of A. decursiva and its coumarins are useful as potential functional food ingredients for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A induces serine/threonine phosphorylation, subcellular redistribution, and functional inhibition of STAT3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woetmann, A; Nielsen, M; Christensen, S T

    1999-01-01

    STAT3. We show that an inhibitor of protein phosphatases (PPs) PP1/PP2A, calyculin A, induces (i) phosphorylation of STAT3 on serine and threonine residues, (ii) inhibition of STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and DNA binding activity, and (iii) relocation of STAT3 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm......, whereas inhibitors of serine/threonine kinases, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase-1 extracellular-regulated kinase-kinase, mitogen-activated protein p38 kinase, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, did not. In conclusion, we provide evidence that PP2A plays a crucial role in the regulation of STAT3....... Similar results were obtained with other PP2A inhibitors (okadaic acid, endothall thioanhydride) but not with inhibitors of PP1 (tautomycin) or PP2B (cyclosporine A). Pretreatment with the broad serine/threonine kinase inhibitor staurosporine partly blocked the calyculin A-induced STAT3 phosphorylation...

  20. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B by lupeol and lupenone isolated from Sorbus commixta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Minkyun; Kim, Bo Yeon; Osada, Hiroyuki; Ahn, Jong Seog

    2009-08-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) appears to be an attractive target for the development of new drugs for type 2 diabetes and obesity. In our preliminary test, a MeOH extract of the stem barks of Sorbus commixta Hedl. (Rosaceae) showed strong PTP1B inhibitory activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract resulted in the isolation of two lupane-type triterpenes, lupenone (1) and lupeol (2). Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited PTP1B with IC(50) values of 13.7 +/- 2.1 and 5.6 +/- 0.9 microM, respectively. Kinetic studies revealed that both the compounds 1 and 2 are non-competitive inhibitors of PTP1B that decrease V(max) values with no effect on K(m) values.

  1. Hypoxia-inhibited dual-specificity phosphatase-2 expression in endometriotic cells regulates cyclooxygenase-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Hsing; Lin, Shih-Chieh; Hsiao, Kuei-Yang; Tsai, Shaw-Jenq

    2011-11-01

    Endometriosis is one of the most common gynaecological diseases that significantly reduces the life qualify of affected women and their families. Aberrant expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and thus over-production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2) ) has been shown to play critical roles in the development of this disease. However, the mechanism responsible for COX-2 over-expression remains obscure. Here, we provide evidence for what we believe is a novel mechanism in regulating COX-2 expression in endometriotic stromal cells. Dual-specificity phosphatase-2 (DUSP2), a nuclear phosphatase that inactivates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), is markedly down-regulated in stromal cells of ectopic endometriotic tissues, which results in prolonged activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK and increased COX-2 expression. Expression of DUSP2 is inhibited by hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) at the transcriptional level. Treatment of normal endometrial stromal cells with hypoxia, or chemicals that cause HIF-1α accumulation, results in DUSP2 down-regulation, prolonged ERK phosphorylation and COX-2 over-expression. In contrast, forced expression of DUSP2 under hypoxia abolishes HIF-1α-induced ERK phosphorylation and COX-2 expression. Furthermore, suppression of DUSP2 by HIF-1α in eutopic endometrial stromal cells increases sensitivity of cox-2 gene to interleukin-1β stimulation, a phenomenon resembling endometriotic stromal cell characteristics. Taken together, these data suggest that DUSP2 is an important molecule in endometrial physiology and that hypoxia-inhibited DUSP2 expression is a critical factor for the development of endometriosis. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Characterization of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibition by Chlorogenic Acid and Cichoric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipchock, James M; Hendrickson, Heidi P; Douglas, Bonnie B; Bird, Kelly E; Ginther, Patrick S; Rivalta, Ivan; Ten, Nicholas S; Batista, Victor S; Loria, J Patrick

    2017-01-10

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a known regulator of the insulin and leptin signaling pathways and is an active target for the design of inhibitors for the treatment of type II diabetes and obesity. Recently, cichoric acid (CHA) and chlorogenic acid (CGA) were predicted by docking methods to be allosteric inhibitors that bind distal to the active site. However, using a combination of steady-state inhibition kinetics, solution nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, and molecular dynamics simulations, we show that CHA is a competitive inhibitor that binds in the active site of PTP1B. CGA, while a noncompetitive inhibitor, binds in the second aryl phosphate binding site, rather than the predicted benzfuran binding pocket. The molecular dynamics simulations of the apo enzyme and cysteine-phosphoryl intermediate states with and without bound CGA suggest CGA binding inhibits PTP1B by altering hydrogen bonding patterns at the active site. This study provides a mechanistic understanding of the allosteric inhibition of PTP1B.

  3. Intra-prelimbic cortical inhibition of striatal-enriched tyrosine phosphatase suppresses cocaine seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemsen, Ben M; Lombroso, Paul J; McGinty, Jacqueline F

    2018-01-01

    Cocaine self-administration in rats results in dysfunctional neuroadaptations in the prelimbic (PrL) cortex during early abstinence. Central to these adaptations is decreased phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), which plays a key role in cocaine seeking. Normalizing ERK phosphorylation in the PrL cortex immediately after cocaine self-administration decreases subsequent cocaine seeking. The disturbance in ERK phosphorylation is accompanied by decreased phosphorylation of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP), indicating increased STEP activity. STEP is a well-recognized ERK phosphatase but whether STEP activation during early abstinence mediates the decrease in p-ERK and is involved in relapse is unknown. Here, we show that a single intra-PrL cortical microinfusion of the selective STEP inhibitor, TC-2153, immediately after self-administration suppressed post-abstinence context-induced relapse under extinction conditions and cue-induced reinstatement, but not cocaine prime-induced drug seeking or sucrose seeking. Moreover, an intra-PrL cortical TC-2153 microinfusion immediately after self-administration prevented the cocaine-induced decrease in p-ERK within the PrL cortex during early abstinence. Interestingly, a systemic TC-2153 injection at the same timepoint failed to suppress post-abstinence context-induced relapse or cue-induced reinstatement, but did suppress cocaine prime-induced reinstatement. These data indicate that the STEP-induced ERK dephosphorylation in the PrL cortex during early abstinence is a critical neuroadaptation that promotes relapse to cocaine seeking and that systemic versus intra-PrL cortical inhibition of STEP during early abstinence differentially suppresses cocaine seeking. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase modulates nociception: evidence from genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azkona, Garikoitz; Saavedra, Ana; Aira, Zigor; Aluja, David; Xifró, Xavier; Baguley, Tyler; Alberch, Jordi; Ellman, Jonathan A; Lombroso, Paul J; Azkue, Jon J; Pérez-Navarro, Esther

    2016-02-01

    The information from nociceptors is processed in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord by complex circuits involving excitatory and inhibitory interneurons. It is well documented that GluN2B and ERK1/2 phosphorylation contributes to central sensitization. Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) dephosphorylates GluN2B and ERK1/2, promoting internalization of GluN2B and inactivation of ERK1/2. The activity of STEP was modulated by genetic (STEP knockout mice) and pharmacological (recently synthesized STEP inhibitor, TC-2153) approaches. STEP(61) protein levels in the lumbar spinal cord were determined in male and female mice of different ages. Inflammatory pain was induced by complete Freund's adjuvant injection. Behavioral tests, immunoblotting, and electrophysiology were used to analyze the effect of STEP on nociception. Our results show that both genetic deletion and pharmacological inhibition of STEP induced thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia, which were accompanied by increased pGluN2B(Tyr1472) and pERK1/2(Thr202/Tyr204)levels in the lumbar spinal cord. Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase heterozygous and knockout mice presented a similar phenotype. Furthermore, electrophysiological experiments showed that TC-2153 increased C fiber-evoked spinal field potentials. Interestingly, we found that STEP(61) protein levels in the lumbar spinal cord inversely correlated with thermal hyperalgesia associated with age and female gender in mice. Consistently, STEP knockout mice failed to show age-related thermal hyperalgesia, although gender-related differences were preserved. Moreover, in a model of inflammatory pain, hyperalgesia was associated with increased phosphorylation-mediated STEP(61) inactivation and increased pGluN2B(Tyr1472) and pERK1/2(Thr202/Tyr204)levels in the lumbar spinal cord. Collectively, the present results underscore an important role of spinal STEP activity in the modulation of nociception.

  5. Yeast Endosulfines Control Entry into Quiescence and Chronological Life Span by Inhibiting Protein Phosphatase 2A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Bontron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The TORC1 and PKA protein kinases are central elements of signaling networks that regulate eukaryotic cell proliferation in response to growth factors and/or nutrients. In yeast, attenuation of signaling by these kinases following nitrogen and/or carbon limitation activates the protein kinase Rim15, which orchestrates the initiation of a reversible cellular quiescence program to ensure normal chronological life span. The molecular elements linking Rim15 to distal readouts including the expression of Msn2/4- and Gis1-dependent genes involve the endosulfines Igo1/2. Here, we show that Rim15, analogous to the greatwall kinase in Xenopus, phosphorylates endosulfines to directly inhibit the Cdc55-protein phosphatase 2A (PP2ACdc55. Inhibition of PP2ACdc55 preserves Gis1 in a phosphorylated state and consequently promotes its recruitment to and activation of transcription from promoters of specific nutrient-regulated genes. These results close a gap in our perception of and delineate a role for PP2ACdc55 in TORC1-/PKA-mediated regulation of quiescence and chronological life span.

  6. Epithelial calcineurin controls microbiota-dependent intestinal tumor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuker, Kenneth; Muff, Stefanie; Wang, Jun; Künzel, Sven; Bosse, Esther; Zeissig, Yvonne; Luzzi, Giuseppina; Basic, Marijana; Strigli, Anne; Ulbricht, Andrea; Kaser, Arthur; Arlt, Alexander; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; van den Brink, Gijs R; Schafmayer, Clemens; Egberts, Jan-Hendrik; Becker, Thomas; Bianchi, Marco E; Bleich, André; Röcken, Christoph; Hampe, Jochen; Schreiber, Stefan; Baines, John F; Blumberg, Richard S; Zeissig, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation-associated pathways are active in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and contribute to the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Calcineurin, a phosphatase required for the activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) family of transcription factors, shows increased expression in CRC. We therefore investigated the role of calcineurin in intestinal tumor development. We demonstrate that calcineurin and NFAT factors are constitutively expressed by primary IECs and selectively activated in intestinal tumors as a result of impaired stratification of the tumor-associated microbiota and toll-like receptor signaling. Epithelial calcineurin supports the survival and proliferation of cancer stem cells in an NFAT-dependent manner and promotes the development of intestinal tumors in mice. Moreover, somatic mutations that have been identified in human CRC are associated with constitutive activation of calcineurin, whereas nuclear translocation of NFAT is associated with increased death from CRC. These findings highlight an epithelial cell–intrinsic pathway that integrates signals derived from the commensal microbiota to promote intestinal tumor development. PMID:27043494

  7. Regulation of gap junction conductance by calcineurin through Cx43 phosphorylation: implications for action potential conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabr, Rita I; Hatch, Fiona S; Salvage, Samantha C; Orlowski, Alejandro; Lampe, Paul D; Fry, Christopher H

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are associated with raised intracellular [Ca 2+ ] and slowed action potential conduction caused by reduced gap junction (GJ) electrical conductance (Gj). Ventricular GJs are composed of connexin proteins (Cx43), with Gj determined by Cx43 phosphorylation status. Connexin phosphorylation is an interplay between protein kinases and phosphatases but the precise pathways are unknown. We aimed to identify key Ca 2+ -dependent phosphorylation sites on Cx43 that regulate cardiac gap junction conductance and action potential conduction velocity. We investigated the role of the Ca 2+ -dependent phosphatase, calcineurin. Intracellular [Ca 2+ ] was raised in guinea-pig myocardium by a low-Na solution or increased stimulation. Conduction velocity and Gj were measured in multicellular strips. Phosphorylation of Cx43 serine residues (S365 and S368) and of the intermediary regulator I1 at threonine35 was measured by Western blot. Measurements were made in the presence and absence of inhibitors to calcineurin, I1 or protein phosphatase-1 and phosphatase-2.Raised [Ca 2 + ] i decreased Gj, reduced Cx43 phosphorylation at S365 and increased it at S368; these changes were reversed by calcineurin inhibitors. Cx43-S368 phosphorylation was reversed by the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine. Raised [Ca 2+ ] i also decreased I1 phosphorylation, also prevented by calcineurin inhibitors, to increase activity of the Ca 2+ -independent phosphatase, PPI. The PP1 inhibitor, tautomycin, prevented Cx43-365 dephosphorylation, Cx43-S368 phosphorylation and Gj reduction in raised [Ca 2+ ] i . PP2A had no role. Conduction velocity was reduced by raised [Ca 2+ ] i and reversed by calcineurin inhibitors. Reduced action potential conduction and Gj in raised [Ca 2+ ] are regulated by calcineurin-dependent Cx43-S365 phosphorylation, leading to Cx43-S368 dephosphorylation. The calcineurin action is indirect, via I1 dephosphorylation and subsequent activation of PP1.

  8. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP signalling exerts chondrogenesis promoting and protecting effects: implication of calcineurin as a downstream target.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Juhász

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is an important neurotrophic factor influencing differentiation of neuronal elements and exerting protecting role during traumatic injuries or inflammatory processes of the central nervous system. Although increasing evidence is available on its presence and protecting function in various peripheral tissues, little is known about the role of PACAP in formation of skeletal components. To this end, we aimed to map elements of PACAP signalling in developing cartilage under physiological conditions and during oxidative stress. mRNAs of PACAP and its receptors (PAC1,VPAC1, VPAC2 were detectable during differentiation of chicken limb bud-derived chondrogenic cells in micromass cell cultures. Expression of PAC1 protein showed a peak on days of final commitment of chondrogenic cells. Administration of either the PAC1 receptor agonist PACAP 1-38, or PACAP 6-38 that is generally used as a PAC1 antagonist, augmented cartilage formation, stimulated cell proliferation and enhanced PAC1 and Sox9 protein expression. Both variants of PACAP elevated the protein expression and activity of the Ca-calmodulin dependent Ser/Thr protein phosphatase calcineurin. Application of PACAPs failed to rescue cartilage formation when the activity of calcineurin was pharmacologically inhibited with cyclosporine A. Moreover, exogenous PACAPs prevented diminishing of cartilage formation and decrease of calcineurin activity during oxidative stress. As an unexpected phenomenon, PACAP 6-38 elicited similar effects to those of PACAP 1-38, although to a different extent. On the basis of the above results, we propose calcineurin as a downstream target of PACAP signalling in differentiating chondrocytes either in normal or pathophysiological conditions. Our observations imply the therapeutical perspective that PACAP can be applied as a natural agent that may have protecting effect during joint inflammation and/or may promote

  9. The calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus as a new therapy in severe cherubism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlub, Natacha; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Galmiche, Louise; L'Herminé, Aurore Coulomb; Dainese, Linda; Ulinski, Tim; Fauroux, Brigitte; Pavlov, Ioana; Badoual, Cécile; Marlin, Sandrine; Deckert, Marcel; Leboulanger, Nicolas; Berdal, Ariane; Descroix, Vianney; Picard, Arnaud; Coudert, Amélie E

    2015-05-01

    Cherubism is a rare genetic disorder characterized by extensive growth of a bilateral granuloma of the jaws, resulting in facial disfigurement. Cherubism is caused by gain-of-function mutations in the SH3BP2 gene, leading to overactivation of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1)-dependent osteoclastogenesis. Recent findings in human and mouse cherubism have suggested that calcineurin inhibitors might be drug candidates in cherubism medical treatment. A 4-year-old boy with aggressive cherubism was treated with the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus for 1 year, and clinical, radiological, and molecular data were obtained. Immunohistologic analysis was performed to compare preoperative and postoperative NFATc1 staining and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. Real-time PCR was performed to analyze the relative expression levels of OPG and RANKL. After tacrolimus therapy, the patient showed significant clinical improvement, including stabilization of jaw size and intraosseous osteogenesis. Immunohistologic analyses on granuloma showed that tacrolimus caused a significant reduction in the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and NFATc1 nuclear staining in multinucleated giant cells. Molecular analysis showed that tacrolimus treatment also resulted in increased OPG expression. We present the first case of effective medical therapy in cherubism. Tacrolimus enhanced bone formation by stimulating osteogenesis and inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  10. Arctigenin inhibits triple-negative breast cancers by targeting CIP2A to reactivate protein phosphatase 2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiuyue; Qin, Shanshan; Yuan, Xiaoning; Zhang, Liang; Ji, Juanli; Liu, Xuewen; Ma, Wenjing; Zhang, Yunfei; Liu, Pengfei; Sun, Zhiting; Zhang, Jingxuan; Liu, Ying

    2017-07-01

    We have shown that a novel STAT3 inhibitor arctigenin (Atn) induces significant cytotoxicity in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. This study further delineated molecular mechanisms where by Atn triggered cytotoxicity in TNBC cells. We found Atn can also inhibit metastasis in TNBC cells through cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) pathway. CIP2A is an endogenous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), which can increase the migration and invasion of various cancer cells. PP2A is a tumor suppressor, which is functionally defective in various cancers. Atn-induced metastasis inhibition was associated with reactivation of PP2A, downregulation of CIP2A and Akt phosphorylation. Silencing CIP2A enhanced Atn-induced metastasis inhibition and apoptosis in TNBCs. Furthermore, ectopic expression of CIP2A or inhibition of PP2A in TNBC cells abolished the effects of Atn. In conclusion, we found that enhancement of PP2A activity by inhibition of CIP2A, at least in part, promotes the anti-metastasis effect induced by Atn. Our findings disclose the novel therapeutic mechanism of this targeted agent, and suggest the therapeutic potential and feasibility of developing PP2A enhancers as a novel anticancer strategy.

  11. Oral voclosporin: novel calcineurin inhibitor for treatment of noninfectious uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roesel M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Martin Roesel1, Christoph Tappeiner2, Arnd Heiligenhaus1,3, Carsten Heinz1,31Department of Ophthalmology, St Franziskus-Hospital, Muenster, Germany; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Inselspital, University of Bern, Switzerland; 3University Duisburg-Essen, GermanyAbstract: Voclosporin, a novel immunomodulatory drug inhibiting the calcineurin enzyme, was developed to prevent organ graft rejection and to treat autoimmune diseases. The chemical structure of voclosporin is similar to that of cyclosporine A, with a difference in one amino acid, leading to superior calcineurin inhibition and less variability in plasma concentration. Compared with placebo, voclosporin may significantly reduce inflammation and prevent recurrences of inflammation in patients with noninfectious uveitis. Future studies have to show if these advantages are accompanied by greater clinical efficacy and fewer side effects compared with the classic calcineurin inhibitors.Keywords: uveitis, immunosuppression, voclosporin

  12. Receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha specifically inhibits insulin-increased prolactin gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, K K; Sap, J; Stanley, F M

    1998-01-01

    A physiologically relevant response to insulin, stimulation of prolactin promoter activity in GH4 pituitary cells, was used as an assay to study the specificity of protein-tyrosine phosphatase function. Receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPalpha) blocks the effect of insulin...... to increase prolactin gene expression but potentiates the effects of epidermal growth factor and cAMP on prolactin promoter activity. RPTPalpha was the only protein-tyrosine phosphatase tested that did this. Thus, the effect of RPTPalpha on prolactin-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) promoter activity...... is specific by two criteria. A number of potential RPTPalpha targets were ruled out by finding (a) that they are not affected or (b) that they are not on the pathway to insulin-increased prolactin-CAT activity. The negative effect of RPTPalpha on insulin activation of the prolactin promoter is not due...

  13. Role of calcineurin (CN) in kidney glomerular podocyte: CN inhibitor ameliorated proteinuria by inhibiting the redistribution of CN at the slit diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, Ayako; Fukusumi, Yoshiyasu; Hasegawa, Eriko; Tomita, Masayuki; Watanabe, Toru; Narita, Ichiei; Kawachi, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Although calcineurin (CN) is distributed in many cell types and functions in regulating cell functions, the precise roles ofCNremained in each type of the cells are not well understood yet. ACNinhibitor (CNI) has been used for steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. ACNIis assumed to ameliorate proteinuria by preventing the overproduction of T-cell cytokines. However, recent reports suggest thatCNIhas a direct effect on podocyte. It is accepted that a slit diaphragm (SD), a unique cell-cell junction of podocytes, is a critical barrier preventing a leak of plasma protein into urine. Therefore, we hypothesized thatCNIhas an effect on theSD In this study, we analyzed the expression ofCNin physiological and in the nephrotic model caused by the antibody against nephrin, a critical component of theSD We observed thatCNis expressed at theSDin normal rat and human kidney sections and has an interaction with nephrin. The staining ofCNat theSDwas reduced in the nephrotic model, whileCNactivity in glomeruli was increased. We also observed that the treatment with tacrolimus, aCNI, in this nephrotic model suppressed the redistribution ofCN, nephrin, and otherSDcomponents and ameliorated proteinuria. These observations suggested that the redistribution and the activation ofCNmay participate in the development of theSDinjury. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  14. Inhibition of striatal-enriched tyrosine phosphatase 61 in the dorsomedial striatum is sufficient to increased ethanol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcq, Emmanuel; Hamida, Sami Ben; Wu, Su; Phamluong, Khanky; Kharazia, Viktor; Xu, Jian; Lombroso, Paul; Ron, Dorit

    2014-06-01

    The STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase 61 (STEP61 ) inhibits the activity of the tyrosine kinase Fyn and dephosphorylates the GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, whereas the protein kinase A phosphorylation of STEP61 inhibits the activity of the phosphatase (Pharmacol. Rev., 64, , p. 65). Previously, we found that ethanol activates Fyn in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) leading to GluN2B phosphorylation, which, in turn, underlies the development of ethanol intake (J. Neurosci., 30, , p. 10187). Here, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of STEP61 by ethanol is upstream of Fyn/GluN2B. We show that exposure of mice to ethanol increased STEP61 phosphorylation in the DMS, which was maintained after withdrawal and was not observed in other striatal regions. Specific knockdown of STEP61 in the DMS of mice enhanced ethanol-mediated Fyn activation and GluN2B phosphorylation, and increased ethanol intake without altering the level of water, saccharine, quinine consumption or spontaneous locomotor activity. Together, our data suggest that blockade of STEP61 activity in response to ethanol is sufficient for the activation of the Fyn/GluN2B pathway in the DMS. Being upstream of Fyn and GluN2B, inactive STEP61 in the DMS primes the induction of ethanol intake. We show that ethanol-mediated inhibition of STEP61 in the DMS leads to Fyn activation and GluN2B phosphorylation. (a) Under basal conditions, active STEP61 inhibits Fyn activity and dephosphorylates GluN2B. (b) Ethanol leads to the phosphorylation of STEP61 on a specific inhibitory site. The inhibition of STEP61 activity contributes to the activation of Fyn in response to ethanol, which, in turn, phosphorylates GluN2B. These molecular adaptations in the DMS promote ethanol drinking. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  15. Asp1 from Schizosaccharomyces pombe binds a [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster which inhibits inositol pyrophosphate 1-phosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanchen; Nair, Vasudha S; Holland, Ashley A; Capolicchio, Samanta; Jessen, Henning J; Johnson, Michael K; Shears, Stephen B

    2015-10-27

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are widely distributed protein cofactors that are vital to cellular biochemistry and the maintenance of bioenergetic homeostasis, but to our knowledge, they have never been identified in any phosphatase. Here, we describe an iron-sulfur cluster in Asp1, a dual-function kinase/phosphatase that regulates cell morphogenesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Full-length Asp1, and its phosphatase domain (Asp1(371-920)), were each heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The phosphatase activity is exquisitely specific: it hydrolyzes the 1-diphosphate from just two members of the inositol pyrophosphate (PP-InsP) signaling family, namely, 1-InsP7 and 1,5-InsP8. We demonstrate that Asp1 does not hydrolyze either InsP6, 2-InsP7, 3-InsP7, 4-InsP7, 5-InsP7, 6-InsP7, or 3,5-InsP8. We also recorded 1-phosphatase activity in a human homologue of Asp1, hPPIP5K1, which was heterologously expressed in Drosophila S3 cells with a biotinylated N-terminal tag, and then isolated from cell lysates with avidin beads. Purified, recombinant Asp1(371-920) contained iron and acid-labile sulfide, but the stoichiometry (0.8 atoms of each per protein molecule) indicates incomplete iron-sulfur cluster assembly. We reconstituted the Fe-S cluster in vitro under anaerobic conditions, which increased the stoichiometry to approximately 2 atoms of iron and acid-labile sulfide per Asp1 molecule. The presence of a [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster in Asp1(371-920) was demonstrated by UV-visible absorption, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. We determined that this [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster is unlikely to participate in redox chemistry, since it rapidly degraded upon reduction by dithionite. Biochemical and mutagenic studies demonstrated that the [2Fe-2S](2+) cluster substantially inhibits the phosphatase activity of Asp1, thereby increasing its net kinase activity.

  16. Ca(2+) calmodulin kinase and calcineurin mediate IGF-1-induced skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptor alpha(1S) transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z; Wang, Z M; Delbono, O

    2004-01-15

    The skeletal muscle L-type Ca(2+) channel or dihydropyridine(DHP)-sensitive receptor is a key molecule involved in membrane voltage-sensing, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release, and muscle contraction. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) increases skeletal muscle L-type Ca(2+) channel or dihydropyridine-sensitive receptor DHPRalpha(1S) transcriptional activity by acting on the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) element of the promoter region; however, the cellular signaling mediating this process is not known. In this study, we investigated the signaling pathway whereby IGF-1 enhances the expression of DHPRalpha(1S) in C2C12 myotubes, using a molecular, pharmacological and electrophysiological approach. We found that inhibition of the Ca(2+)/Calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase or calcineurin, influenced IGF-1-induced increase in DHPRalpha(1S) expression, as detected by recording the luminescence of the DHPRalpha(1S) promoter-luciferase fusion construct and by immunoblot analysis of the DHPR alpha1 subunit. IGF-1 significantly increased CaM kinase and calcineurin activity and the cellular levels of phosphorylated CREB in a time-dependent manner. The role of CaM kinase and calcineurin in DHPRalpha(1S) expression was confirmed by functional recording of the effects of the inhibition of the kinase and phosphatase on IGF-1-mediated enhancement of charge movement. These results support the conclusion that IGF-1 controls CREB phosphorylation by activating a phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cascade, which ultimately modulates the DHPRalpha(1S) gene transcription.

  17. Calcineurin is universally involved in vesicle endocytosis at neuronal and non-neuronal secretory cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin-Sheng; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Wei-Dong; Wang, Dongsheng; Luo, Fujun; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Calcium influx triggers and accelerates endocytosis in nerve terminals and non-neuronal secretory cells. Whether calcium/calmodulin-activated calcineurin, which dephosphorylates endocytic proteins, mediates this process is highly controversial for different cell types, developmental stages, and endocytic forms. At three preparations where controversies arose, including large calyx-type synapses, conventional cerebellar synapses and neuroendocrine chromaffin cells containing large dense-core vesicles, we reported that calcineurin gene knockout consistently slowed down endocytosis, regardless of cell types, developmental stages, or endocytic forms (rapid or slow). In contrast, calcineurin and calmodulin blockers slowed down endocytosis at relatively small calcium influx, but did not inhibit endocytosis at large calcium influx, resulting in false-negative results. These results suggest that calcineurin is universally involved in endocytosis. They may also help explain the controversies in pharmacological studies. We therefore suggest including calcineurin as a key player in mediating calcium-triggered and -accelerated vesicle endocytosis. PMID:24835995

  18. Identification of alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactants leaching from an acrylonitrile butadiene rubber as novel inhibitors of calcineurin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Noboru; Shibuguchi, Nao; Ishikawa, Ryoki; Tanaka, Susumu; Tokita, Yoshiharu; Nakajima-Shimada, Junko; Hosaka, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    Calcineurin (CN) is a Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM) dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase and plays important role in several cellular functions in both higher and lower eukaryotes. Here we report inhibition of CN by linear alkylbenzene sulfonate. The clue to the finding was obtained while identifying the inhibitory material leaching from acrylonitrile butadiene rubber used for packing. Using standard dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C12-LAS), we obtained strong inhibition of CN with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 9.3 µM, whereas analogs such as p-octylbenzene sulfonate and SDS hardly or only slightly affected CN activity. Three alkaline phosphatases, derived from shrimp, bacteria, and calf-intestine, which exhibit similar enzymatic activities to CN, were not inhibited by C12-LAS at concentrations of up to 100 µM. Furthermore, C12-LAS did not inhibit Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent myosin light chain kinase activity when tested at concentrations of up to 36 µM. The results indicate that C12-LAS is a potent selective inhibitor of CN activity.

  19. The Role of Calcineurin/NFAT in SFRP2 Induced Angiogenesis—A Rationale for Breast Cancer Treatment with the Calcineurin Inhibitor Tacrolimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siamakpour-Reihani, Sharareh; Caster, Joseph; Bandhu Nepal, Desh; Courtwright, Andrew; Hilliard, Eleanor; Usary, Jerry; Ketelsen, David; Darr, David; Shen, Xiang Jun; Patterson, Cam; Klauber-DeMore, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Tacrolimus (FK506) is an immunosuppressive drug that binds to the immunophilin FKBPB12. The FK506-FKBP12 complex associates with calcineurin and inhibits its phosphatase activity, resulting in inhibition of nuclear translocation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT). There is increasing data supporting a critical role of NFAT in mediating angiogenic responses stimulated by both vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and a novel angiogenesis factor, secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2). Since both VEGF and SFRP2 are expressed in breast carcinomas, we hypothesized that tacrolimus would inhibit breast carcinoma growth. Using IHC (IHC) with antibodies to FKBP12 on breast carcinomas we found that FKBP12 localizes to breast tumor vasculature. Treatment of MMTV-neu transgenic mice with tacrolimus (3 mg/kg i.p. daily) (n = 19) resulted in a 73% reduction in the growth rate for tacrolimus treated mice compared to control (n = 15), p = 0.003; which was associated with an 82% reduction in tumor microvascular density (pTacrolimus (1 µM) inhibited SFRP2 induced endothelial tube formation by 71% (p = 0.005) and inhibited VEGF induced endothelial tube formation by 67% (p = 0.004). To show that NFATc3 is required for SFRP2 stimulated angiogenesis, NFATc3 was silenced with shRNA in endothelial cells. Sham transfected cells responded to SFRP2 stimulation in a tube formation assay with an increase in the number of branch points (ptacrolimus inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and breast carcinoma growth in vivo. This provides a rationale for examining the therapeutic potential of tacrolimus at inhibiting breast carcinoma growth in humans. PMID:21673995

  20. Squalene Inhibits ATM-Dependent Signaling in γIR-Induced DNA Damage Response through Induction of Wip1 Phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatewaki, Naoto; Konishi, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Yuki; Nishida, Miyako; Saito, Masafumi; Eitsuka, Takahiro; Sakamaki, Toshiyuki; Ikekawa, Nobuo; Nishida, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase plays a crucial role as a master controller in the cellular DNA damage response. Inhibition of ATM leads to inhibition of the checkpoint signaling pathway. Hence, addition of checkpoint inhibitors to anticancer therapies may be an effective targeting strategy. A recent study reported that Wip1, a protein phosphatase, de-phosphorylates serine 1981 of ATM during the DNA damage response. Squalene has been proposed to complement anticancer therapies such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy; however, there is little mechanistic information supporting this idea. Here, we report the inhibitory effect of squalene on ATM-dependent DNA damage signals. Squalene itself did not affect cell viability and the cell cycle of A549 cells, but it enhanced the cytotoxicity of gamma-irradiation (γIR). The in vitro kinase activity of ATM was not altered by squalene. However, squalene increased Wip1 expression in cells and suppressed ATM activation in γIR-treated cells. Consistent with the potential inhibition of ATM by squalene, IR-induced phosphorylation of ATM effectors such as p53 (Ser15) and Chk1 (Ser317) was inhibited by cell treatment with squalene. Thus, squalene inhibits the ATM-dependent signaling pathway following DNA damage through intracellular induction of Wip1 expression.

  1. Calcineurin mediates homeostatic synaptic plasticity by regulating retinoic acid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Kristin L; Zhang, Zhenjie; Ganesan, Subhashree; Hintze, Maik; Shin, Maggie M; Tang, Yitai; Cho, Ahryon; Graef, Isabella A; Chen, Lu

    2015-10-20

    Homeostatic synaptic plasticity is a form of non-Hebbian plasticity that maintains stability of the network and fidelity for information processing in response to prolonged perturbation of network and synaptic activity. Prolonged blockade of synaptic activity decreases resting Ca(2+) levels in neurons, thereby inducing retinoic acid (RA) synthesis and RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity; however, the signal transduction pathway that links reduced Ca(2+)-levels to RA synthesis remains unknown. Here we identify the Ca(2+)-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) as a key regulator for RA synthesis and homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Prolonged inhibition of CaN activity promotes RA synthesis in neurons, and leads to increased excitatory and decreased inhibitory synaptic transmission. These effects of CaN inhibitors on synaptic transmission are blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of RA synthesis or acute genetic deletion of the RA receptor RARα. Thus, CaN, acting upstream of RA, plays a critical role in gating RA signaling pathway in response to synaptic activity. Moreover, activity blockade-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity is absent in CaN knockout neurons, demonstrating the essential role of CaN in RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Interestingly, in GluA1 S831A and S845A knockin mice, CaN inhibitor- and RA-induced regulation of synaptic transmission is intact, suggesting that phosphorylation of GluA1 C-terminal serine residues S831 and S845 is not required for CaN inhibitor- or RA-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Thus, our study uncovers an unforeseen role of CaN in postsynaptic signaling, and defines CaN as the Ca(2+)-sensing signaling molecule that mediates RA-dependent homeostatic synaptic plasticity.

  2. Comparison of Protein Phosphatase Inhibition Assay with LC-MS/MS for Diagnosis of Microcystin Toxicosis in Veterinary Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline E. Moore

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins are acute hepatotoxins of increasing global concern in drinking and recreational waters and are a major health risk to humans and animals. Produced by cyanobacteria, microcystins inhibit serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1. A cost-effective PP1 assay using p-nitrophenyl phosphate was developed to quickly assess water and rumen content samples. Significant inhibition was determined via a linear model, which compared increasing volumes of sample to the log-transformed ratio of the exposed rate over the control rate of PP1 activity. To test the usefulness of this model in diagnostic case investigations, samples from two veterinary cases were tested. In August 2013 fifteen cattle died around two ponds in Kentucky. While one pond and three tested rumen contents had significant PP1 inhibition and detectable levels of microcystin-LR, the other pond did not. In August 2013, a dog became fatally ill after swimming in Clear Lake, California. Lake water samples collected one and four weeks after the dog presented with clinical signs inhibited PP1 activity. Subsequent analysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS detected microcystin congeners -LR, -LA, -RR and -LF but not -YR. These diagnostic investigations illustrate the advantages of using functional assays in combination with LC-MS/MS.

  3. Comparison of Protein Phosphatase Inhibition Assay with LC-MS/MS for Diagnosis of Microcystin Toxicosis in Veterinary Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Caroline E.; Juan, Jeanette; Lin, Yanping; Gaskill, Cynthia L.; Puschner, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Microcystins are acute hepatotoxins of increasing global concern in drinking and recreational waters and are a major health risk to humans and animals. Produced by cyanobacteria, microcystins inhibit serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). A cost-effective PP1 assay using p-nitrophenyl phosphate was developed to quickly assess water and rumen content samples. Significant inhibition was determined via a linear model, which compared increasing volumes of sample to the log-transformed ratio of the exposed rate over the control rate of PP1 activity. To test the usefulness of this model in diagnostic case investigations, samples from two veterinary cases were tested. In August 2013 fifteen cattle died around two ponds in Kentucky. While one pond and three tested rumen contents had significant PP1 inhibition and detectable levels of microcystin-LR, the other pond did not. In August 2013, a dog became fatally ill after swimming in Clear Lake, California. Lake water samples collected one and four weeks after the dog presented with clinical signs inhibited PP1 activity. Subsequent analysis using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detected microcystin congeners -LR, -LA, -RR and -LF but not -YR. These diagnostic investigations illustrate the advantages of using functional assays in combination with LC-MS/MS. PMID:27005635

  4. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP1B) and α-glucosidase by geranylated flavonoids from Paulownia tomentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yeong Hun; Uddin, Zia; Jin, Young Min; Li, Zuopeng; Curtis-Long, Marcus John; Kim, Kwang Dong; Cho, Jung Keun; Park, Ki Hun

    2017-12-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and α-glucosidase are important targets to treat obesity and diabetes, due to their deep correlation with insulin and leptin signalling, and glucose regulation. The methanol extract of Paulownia tomentosa fruits showed potent inhibition against both enzymes. Purification of this extract led to eight geranylated flavonoids (1-8) displaying dual inhibition of PTP1B and α-glucosidase. The isolated compounds were identified as flavanones (1-5) and dihydroflavonols (6-8). Inhibitory potencies of these compounds varied accordingly, but most of the compounds were highly effective against PTP1B (IC50 = 1.9-8.2 μM) than α-glucosidase (IC50 = 2.2-78.9 μM). Mimulone (1) was the most effective against PTP1B with IC50 = 1.9 μM, whereas 6-geranyl-3,3',5,5',7-pentahydroxy-4'-methoxyflavane (8) displayed potent inhibition against α-glucosidase (IC50 = 2.2 μM). All inhibitors showed mixed type Ι inhibition toward PTP1B, and were noncompetitive inhibitors of α-glucosidase. This mixed type behavior against PTP1B was fully demonstrated by showing a decrease in Vmax, an increase of Km, and Kik/Kiv ratio ranging between 2.66 and 3.69.

  5. Single Laboratory Validation of A Ready-to-Use Phosphatase Inhibition Assay for Detection of Okadaic Acid Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Mata

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A phosphatase inhibition assay for detection of okadaic acid (OA toxins in shellfish, OkaTest, was single laboratory validated according to international recognized guidelines (AOAC, EURACHEM. Special emphasis was placed on the ruggedness of the method and stability of the components. All reagents were stable for more than 6 months and the method was highly robust under normal laboratory conditions. The limit of detection and quantification were 44 and 56 µg/kg, respectively; both below the European legal limit of 160 µg/kg. The repeatability was evaluated with 2 naturally contaminated samples. The relative standard deviation (RSD calculated was 1.4% at a level of 276 µg/kg and 3.9% at 124 µg/kg. Intermediate precision was estimated by testing 10 different samples (mussel and scallop on three different days and ranged between 2.4 and 9.5%. The IC50 values of the phosphatase used in this assay were determined for OA (1.2 nM, DTX-1 (1.6 nM and DTX-2 (1.2 nM. The accuracy of the method was estimated by recovery testing for OA (mussel, 78–101%; king scallop, 98–114%, DTX-1 (king scallop, 79–102% and DTX-2 (king scallop, 93%. Finally, the method was qualitatively compared to the mouse bioassay and LC-MS/MS.

  6. Single laboratory validation of a ready-to-use phosphatase inhibition assay for detection of okadaic acid toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smienk, Henry G F; Calvo, Dolores; Razquin, Pedro; Domínguez, Elena; Mata, Luis

    2012-05-01

    A phosphatase inhibition assay for detection of okadaic acid (OA) toxins in shellfish, OkaTest, was single laboratory validated according to international recognized guidelines (AOAC, EURACHEM). Special emphasis was placed on the ruggedness of the method and stability of the components. All reagents were stable for more than 6 months and the method was highly robust under normal laboratory conditions. The limit of detection and quantification were 44 and 56 µg/kg, respectively; both below the European legal limit of 160 µg/kg. The repeatability was evaluated with 2 naturally contaminated samples. The relative standard deviation (RSD) calculated was 1.4% at a level of 276 µg/kg and 3.9% at 124 µg/kg. Intermediate precision was estimated by testing 10 different samples (mussel and scallop) on three different days and ranged between 2.4 and 9.5%. The IC(50) values of the phosphatase used in this assay were determined for OA (1.2 nM), DTX-1 (1.6 nM) and DTX-2 (1.2 nM). The accuracy of the method was estimated by recovery testing for OA (mussel, 78-101%; king scallop, 98-114%), DTX-1 (king scallop, 79-102%) and DTX-2 (king scallop, 93%). Finally, the method was qualitatively compared to the mouse bioassay and LC-MS/MS.

  7. The M. tuberculosis HAD phosphatase (Rv3042c) interacts with host proteins and is inhibited by Clofazimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shree, Sonal; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Saxena, Richa; Kumar, Harish; Agarwal, Aparna; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Srivastava, Kanchan; Srivastava, Kishore Kumar; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    2016-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis codes for a HAD-phosphatase, Rv3042c (MtSerB2), that has earlier been characterized as a metabolic enzyme. Here we demonstrate that MtSerB2 is secreted into the cytosol of infected macrophages and is found in bronchoalveolar lavage samples of tuberculosis patients. MtSerB2 induces significant cytoskeleton rearrangements through cofilin activation and affects the expression of genes that regulate actin dynamics. It specifically interacts with HSP90, HSP70 and HSP27 that block apoptotic pathways and not with other HSPs. It actively dephosphorylates MAPK-p38 and NF-kappa B p65 that play crucial roles in inflammatory and immune responses. This in turn leads to down-regulation of Interleukin 8, a chemotactic and inflammatory cytokine. Finally, during evaluation of inhibitors against MtSerB2 we found that Clofazimine, a drug being evaluated for XDR and MDR tuberculosis, inhibits MtSerB2 phosphatase activity and reverses the above effects and interactions with host proteins. Overall, the study identifies that MtSerB2 has new functions that might help the pathogen to evade the host's immune response.

  8. Taking out the garbage: cathepsin D and calcineurin in neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Aufschnaiter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular homeostasis requires a tightly controlled balance between protein synthesis, folding and degradation. Especially long-lived, post-mitotic cells such as neurons depend on an efficient proteostasis system to maintain cellular health over decades. Thus, a functional decline of processes contributing to protein degradation such as autophagy and general lysosomal proteolytic capacity is connected to several age-associated neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases. These so called proteinopathies are characterized by the accumulation and misfolding of distinct proteins, subsequently driving cellular demise. We recently linked efficient lysosomal protein breakdown via the protease cathepsin D to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin. In a yeast model for Parkinson's disease, functional calcineurin was required for proper trafficking of cathepsin D to the lysosome and for recycling of its endosomal sorting receptor to allow further rounds of shuttling. Here, we discuss these findings in relation to present knowledge about the involvement of cathepsin D in proteinopathies in general and a possible connection between this protease, calcineurin signalling and endosomal sorting in particular. As dysregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis as well as lysosomal impairment is connected to a plethora of neurodegenerative disorders, this novel interplay might very well impact pathologies beyond Parkinson's disease.

  9. Glutathione-Responsive Selenosulfide Prodrugs as a Platform Strategy for Potent and Selective Mechanism-Based Inhibition of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjin, Caroline Chandra; Otley, Kate D; Baguley, Tyler D; Kurup, Pradeep; Xu, Jian; Nairn, Angus C; Lombroso, Paul J; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2017-12-27

    Dysregulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation has been implicated in a number of human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. As a result of their essential role in regulating protein tyrosine phosphorylation levels, protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) have emerged as important yet challenging therapeutic targets. Here we report on the development and application of a glutathione-responsive motif to facilitate the efficient intracellular delivery of a novel class of selenosulfide phosphatase inhibitors for the selective active site directed inhibition of the targeted PTP by selenosulfide exchange with the active site cysteine. The strategy leverages the large difference in extracellular and intracellular glutathione levels to deliver selenosulfide phosphatase inhibitors to cells. As an initial exploration of the prodrug platform and the corresponding selenosulfide covalent inhibitor class, potent and selective inhibitors were developed for two therapeutically relevant PTP targets: the Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence factor mPTPA and the CNS-specific tyrosine phosphatase, striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP). The lead selenosulfide inhibitors enable potent and selective inhibition of their respective targets over a panel of human PTPs and a representative cysteine protease. Kinetic parameters of the inhibitors were characterized, including reversibility of inhibition and rapid rate of GSH exchange at intracellular GSH concentrations. Additionally, active site covalent inhibitor-labeling with an mPTPA inhibitor was rigorously confirmed by mass spectrometry, and cellular activity was demonstrated with a STEP prodrug inhibitor in cortical neurons.

  10. Transgenic overexpression of active calcineurin in beta-cells results in decreased beta-cell mass and hyperglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Glucose modulates beta-cell mass and function through an initial depolarization and Ca(2+ influx, which then triggers a number of growth regulating signaling pathways. One of the most important downstream effectors in Ca(2+ signaling is the calcium/Calmodulin activated serine threonine phosphatase, calcineurin. Recent evidence suggests that calcineurin/NFAT is essential for beta-cell proliferation, and that in its absence loss of beta-cells results in diabetes. We hypothesized that in contrast, activation of calcineurin might result in expansion of beta-cell mass and resistance to diabetes.To determine the role of activation of calcineurin signaling in the regulation of pancreatic beta-cell mass and proliferation, we created mice that expressed a constitutively active form of calcineurin under the insulin gene promoter (caCn(RIP. To our surprise, these mice exhibited glucose intolerance. In vitro studies demonstrated that while the second phase of Insulin secretion is enhanced, the overall insulin secretory response was conserved. Islet morphometric studies demonstrated decreased beta-cell mass suggesting that this was a major component responsible for altered Insulin secretion and glucose intolerance in caCn(RIP mice. The reduced beta-cell mass was accompanied by decreased proliferation and enhanced apoptosis.Our studies identify calcineurin as an important factor in controlling glucose homeostasis and indicate that chronic depolarization leading to increased calcineurin activity may contribute, along with other genetic and environmental factors, to beta-cell dysfunction and diabetes.

  11. The mechanism of allosteric inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Li

    Full Text Available As the prototypical member of the PTP family, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B is an attractive target for therapeutic interventions in type 2 diabetes. The extremely conserved catalytic site of PTP1B renders the design of selective PTP1B inhibitors intractable. Although discovered allosteric inhibitors containing a benzofuran sulfonamide scaffold offer fascinating opportunities to overcome selectivity issues, the allosteric inhibitory mechanism of PTP1B has remained elusive. Here, molecular dynamics (MD simulations, coupled with a dynamic weighted community analysis, were performed to unveil the potential allosteric signal propagation pathway from the allosteric site to the catalytic site in PTP1B. This result revealed that the allosteric inhibitor compound-3 induces a conformational rearrangement in helix α7, disrupting the triangular interaction among helix α7, helix α3, and loop11. Helix α7 then produces a force, pulling helix α3 outward, and promotes Ser190 to interact with Tyr176. As a result, the deviation of Tyr176 abrogates the hydrophobic interactions with Trp179 and leads to the downward movement of the WPD loop, which forms an H-bond between Asp181 and Glu115. The formation of this H-bond constrains the WPD loop to its open conformation and thus inactivates PTP1B. The discovery of this allosteric mechanism provides an overall view of the regulation of PTP1B, which is an important insight for the design of potent allosteric PTP1B inhibitors.

  12. Calcineurin inhibitor minimisation versus continuation of calcineurin inhibitor treatment for liver transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penninga, Luit; Wettergren, Andre; Chan, An-Wen

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic success of liver transplantation has been largely attributable to the development of effective immunosuppressive treatment regimens. In particular, calcineurin inhibitors were essential in reducing acute rejection and improving early survival. Currently, more than 90% of all liver...... transplant recipients are treated with the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine or tacrolimus. Unfortunately, calcineurin inhibitors cause adverse events, such as nephrotoxicity, and because of this, minimisation (reduction and withdrawal) regimens of calcineurin inhibitor have been developed and studied...

  13. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection in humanized mice and metabolic stability of protein phosphatase-1-targeting small molecule 1E7-03

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xionghao; Kumari, Namita; DeMarino, Catherine; Kont, Yasemin Saygideğer; Ammosova, Tatiana; Kulkarni, Amol; Jerebtsova, Marina; Vazquez-Meves, Guelaguetza; Ivanov, Andrey; Dmytro, Kovalskyy; Üren, Aykut; Kashanchi, Fatah; Nekhai, Sergei

    2017-01-01

    We recently identified the protein phosphatase-1 - targeting compound, 1E7-03 which inhibited HIV-1 in vitro. Here, we investigated the effect of 1E7-03 on HIV-1 infection in vivo by analyzing its metabolic stability and antiviral activity of 1E7-03 and its metabolites in HIV-1 infected NSG-humanized mice. 1E7-03 was degraded in serum and formed two major degradation products, DP1 and DP3, which bound protein phosphatase-1 in vitro. However, their anti-viral activities were significantly redu...

  14. Downregulation of Calcineurin Gene Is Associated with Glucantime(®) Resiatance in Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagher Khadem Erfan, Mohammad; Mohebali, Mehdi; Kazemi-Rad, Elham; Hajjaran, Homa; Edrissian, Gholamhossein; Mamishi, Setareh; Saffari, Mojtaba; Raoofian, Reza; Heidari, Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Pentavalent antimonials are the first line drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Unresponsiveness of Leishmania spp. to antimonial drugs is a serious problem in some endemic areas. Investigations on molecular mechanisms involved in drug resistance are essential for monitoring and managing of the disease. Cal-cineurin is an essential protein phosphatase for number of signal transduction pathways in eukaryotic cells and it has a mediated role in apoptosis. This study aimed to determine of biomarker(s) in Glucantime(®) resiatance strain of L. infan-tum. We used cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) and real time-RT PCR assays to compare gene expression profiles at the mRNA levels in resistant and susceptible L. infantum field isolates. The cDNA-AFLP results showed downlegulation of calcineurin in resis-tant isolate in comparison with susceptible one. Significant downregulation of cal-cineurin (0.42 fold) (Presistant isolate compared to susceptible one by Real time-RT PCR. This is the first report of calcineurin implication in Glucantime(®) drug resistance of field (natural) isolate of L. infantum. Downregulation of calcineurin could protect parasites from antimonial-induced apoptosis.

  15. The Ca2+/calcineurin-dependent signaling pathway in the gray mold Botrytis cinerea: the role of calcipressin in modulating calcineurin activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Harren

    Full Text Available In the gray mold fungus Botrytis cinerea the Gα subunit Bcg1 of a heterotrimeric G protein is an upstream activator of the Ca(2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase calcineurin. In this study we focused on the functional characterization of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin (BcCnA and its putative regulator calcipressin (BcRcn1. We deleted the genes encoding both proteins to examine their role concerning growth, differentiation and virulence. The ΔbccnA mutant shows a severe growth defect, does not produce conidia and is avirulent, while the loss of BcRcn1 caused retardation of hyphal growth and delayed infection of host plants, but had no impact on conidiation and sclerotia formation. Expression of several calcineurin-dependent genes and bccnA itself is positively affected by BcRcn1. Complementation of the Δbcrcn1 mutant with a GFP-BcRcn1 fusion construct revealed that BcRcn1 is localized in the cytoplasm and accumulates around the nuclei. Furthermore, we showed that BcCnA physically interacts with BcRcn1 and the regulatory subunit of calcineurin, BcCnB. We investigated the impact of several protein domains characteristic for modulation and activation of BcCnA via BcRcn1, such as the phosphorylation sites and the calcineurin-docking site, by physical interaction studies between BcCnA and wild-type and mutated copies of BcRcn1. Based on the observed phenotypes we conclude that BcRcn1 acts as a positive modulator of BcCnA and the Ca(2+/calcineurin-mediated signal transduction in B. cinerea, and that both proteins regulate fungal development and virulence.

  16. The Crz1/Sp1 transcription factor of Cryptococcus neoformans is activated by calcineurin and regulates cell wall integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Lev

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans survives host temperature and regulates cell wall integrity via a calcium-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin. However, downstream effectors of C. neoformans calcineurin are largely unknown. In S. cerevisiae and other fungal species, a calcineurin-dependent transcription factor Crz1, translocates to nuclei upon activation and triggers expression of target genes. We now show that the C. neoformans Crz1 ortholog (Crz1/Sp1, previously identified as a protein kinase C target during starvation, is a bona fide target of calcineurin under non-starvation conditions, during cell wall stress and growth at high temperature. Both the calcineurin-defective mutant, Δcna1, and a CRZ1/SP1 mutant (Δcrz1 were susceptible to cell wall perturbing agents. Furthermore, expression of the chitin synthase encoding gene, CHS6, was reduced in both mutants. We tracked the subcellular localization of Crz1-GFP in WT C. neoformans and Δcna1 in response to different stimuli, in the presence and absence of the calcineurin inhibitor, FK506. Exposure to elevated temperature (30-37°C vs 25°C and extracellular calcium caused calcineurin-dependent nuclear accumulation of Crz1-GFP. Unexpectedly, 1M salt and heat shock triggered calcineurin-independent Crz1-GFP sequestration within cytosolic and nuclear puncta. To our knowledge, punctate cytosolic distribution, as opposed to nuclear targeting, is a unique feature of C. neoformans Crz1. We conclude that Crz1 is selectively activated by calcium/calcineurin-dependent and independent signals depending on the environmental conditions.

  17. Anti-thyroid and antifungal activities, BSA interaction and acid phosphatase inhibition of methimazole copper(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza, Nora M; Islas, María S; Ariza, Santiago T; Jori, Nadir; Martínez Medina, Juan J; Lavecchia, Martín J; López Tévez, Leonor L; Lezama, Luis; Rojo, Teófilo; Williams, Patricia A M; Ferrer, Evelina G

    2015-03-05

    It has been reported that various metal coordination compounds have improved some biological properties. A high activity of acid phosphatase (AcP) is associated to several diseases (osteoporosis, Alzheimer's, prostate cancer, among others) and makes it a target for the development of new potential inhibitors. Anti-thyroid agents have disadvantageous side effects and the scarcity of medicines in this area motivated many researchers to synthesize new ones. Several copper(II) complexes have shown antifungal activities. In this work we presented for a first time the inhibition of AcP and the anti-thyroid activity produced by methimazole-Cu(II) complexes. Cu-Met ([Cu(MeimzH)2(H2O)2](NO3)2·H2O) produces a weak inhibition action while Cu-Met-phen ([Cu(MeimzH)2(phen)(H2O)2]Cl2) shows a strong inhibition effect (IC50 = 300 μM) being more effective than the reported behavior of vanadium complexes. Cu-Met-phen also presented a fairly good anti-thyroid activity with a formation constant value, Kc=1.02 × 10(10)M(-1) being 10(6) times more active than methimazole (Kc = 4.16 × 10(4)M(-1)) in opposition to Cu-Met which presented activity (Kc=9.54 × 10(3)M(-1)) but in a lesser extent than that of the free ligand. None of the complexes show antifungal activity except Cu-phen (MIC = 11.71 μgmL(-1) on Candidaalbicans) which was tested for comparison. Besides, albumin interaction experiments denoted high affinity toward the complexes and the calculated binding constants indicate reversible binding to the protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase inhibits the translocation of bacteria of gut-origin in mice with peritonitis: mechanism of action

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Shan-Wen; Zhu, Jing; Zuo, Shuai; Ma, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Zi-Yi; Zhang, Jun-Ling; Chen, Guo-Wei; Liu, Yu-Cun; Wang, Peng-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Exogenous intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), an enzyme produced endogenously at the brush edge of the intestinal mucosa, may mitigate the increase in aberrant intestinal permeability increased during sepsis...

  19. Small molecules targeted to a non-catalytic "RVxF" binding site of protein phosphatase-1 inhibit HIV-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ammosova

    Full Text Available HIV-1 Tat protein recruits host cell factors including CDK9/cyclin T1 to HIV-1 TAR RNA and thereby induces HIV-1 transcription. An interaction with host Ser/Thr protein phosphatase-1 (PP1 is critical for this function of Tat. PP1 binds to a Tat sequence, Q(35VCF(38, which resembles the PP1-binding "RVxF" motif present on PP1-binding regulatory subunits. We showed that expression of PP1 binding peptide, a central domain of Nuclear Inhibitor of PP1, disrupted the interaction of HIV-1 Tat with PP1 and inhibited HIV-1 transcription and replication. Here, we report small molecule compounds that target the "RVxF"-binding cavity of PP1 to disrupt the interaction of PP1 with Tat and inhibit HIV-1 replication. Using the crystal structure of PP1, we virtually screened 300,000 compounds and identified 262 small molecules that were predicted to bind the "RVxF"-accommodating cavity of PP1. These compounds were then assayed for inhibition of HIV-1 transcription in CEM T cells. One of the compounds, 1H4, inhibited HIV-1 transcription and replication at non-cytotoxic concentrations. 1H4 prevented PP1-mediated dephosphorylation of a substrate peptide containing an RVxF sequence in vitro. 1H4 also disrupted the association of PP1 with Tat in cultured cells without having an effect on the interaction of PP1 with the cellular regulators, NIPP1 and PNUTS, or on the cellular proteome. Finally, 1H4 prevented the translocation of PP1 to the nucleus. Taken together, our study shows that HIV- inhibition can be achieved through using small molecules to target a non-catalytic site of PP1. This proof-of-principle study can serve as a starting point for the development of novel antiviral drugs that target the interface of HIV-1 viral proteins with their host partners.

  20. Hypothermic Preconditioning Reverses Tau Ontogenesis in Human Cortical Neurons and is Mimicked by Protein Phosphatase 2A Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Rzechorzek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothermia is potently neuroprotective, but the molecular basis of this effect remains obscure. Changes in neuronal tau protein are of interest, since tau becomes hyperphosphorylated in injury-resistant, hypothermic brains. Noting inter-species differences in tau isoforms, we have used functional cortical neurons differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells (hCNs to interrogate tau modulation during hypothermic preconditioning at clinically-relevant temperatures. Key tau developmental transitions (phosphorylation status and splicing shift are recapitulated during hCN differentiation and subsequently reversed by mild (32 °C to moderate (28 °C cooling — conditions which reduce oxidative and excitotoxic stress-mediated injury in hCNs. Blocking a major tau kinase decreases hCN tau phosphorylation and abrogates hypothermic neuroprotection, whilst inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A mimics cooling-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and protects normothermic hCNs from oxidative stress. These findings indicate a possible role for phospho-tau in hypothermic preconditioning, and suggest that cooling drives human tau towards an earlier ontogenic phenotype whilst increasing neuronal resilience to common neurotoxic insults. This work provides a critical step forward in understanding how we might exploit the neuroprotective benefits of cooling without cooling patients.

  1. Benzene Polyphosphates as Tools for Cell Signalling: Inhibition of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate 5-Phosphatase and Interaction with the PH Domain of Protein Kinase Bα

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Stephen J; Vandeput, Fabrice; Trusselle, Melanie N.; Safrany, Stephen T.; Erneux, Christophe; Potter, Barry V. L.

    2009-01-01

    Novel benzene polyphosphates were synthesised as inositol polyphosphate mimics and evaluated against both type-I inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase, which only binds soluble inositol polyphosphates, and the PH domain of protein kinase Bα (PKBα), which can bind both soluble inositol polyphosphates and inositol phospholipids. The most potent trisphosphate 5-phosphatase inhibitor is benzene 1,2,4-trisphosphate 2, (IC50 of 14 μm) a potential mimic of d-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and the most potent tetrakisphosphate Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase inhibitor is benzene 1,2,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, with an IC50 of 4 μm. Biphenyl 2,3′,4,5′,6-pentakisphosphate 4 was the most potent inhibitor evaluated against type I Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase (IC50 of 1 μm). All new benzene polyphosphates are resistant to dephosphorylation by type I Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase. Unexpectedly, all benzene polyphosphates studied bind to the PH domain of PKBα with apparent higher affinity than type 1 Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase. The most potent ligand for PKBα PH domain is biphenyl 2,3′,4,5′,6-pentakisphosphate 4 (Ki = 27 nm), measured by inhibition of biotinylated diC8-PtdIns(3,4)P2 binding. The ca 80-fold enhancement of binding relative to parent benzene trisphosphate is rationalised by the involvement of a cation–π interaction. These new molecular tools will be of potential use in structural and cell signalling studies. PMID:18574825

  2. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase inhibits the translocation of bacteria of gut-origin in mice with peritonitis: mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Shan-Wen; Zhu, Jing; Zuo, Shuai; Ma, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Zi-Yi; Zhang, Jun-Ling; Chen, Guo-Wei; Liu, Yu-Cun; Wang, Peng-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Exogenous intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), an enzyme produced endogenously at the brush edge of the intestinal mucosa, may mitigate the increase in aberrant intestinal permeability increased during sepsis. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the inhibitory effect of IAP on acute intestinal inflammation and to study the molecular mechanisms underlying IAP in ameliorating intestinal permeability. We used an in vivo imaging method to evaluate disease status and the curative effect of IAP. Two Escherichia coli (E.coli) B21 strains, carrying EGFP labeled enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and RFP labeled red fluorescent protein (RFP), were constructed as tracer bacteria and were administered orally to C57/B6N mice to generate an injection peritonitis (IP) model. The IP model was established by injecting inflammatory lavage fluid. C57/B6N mice bearing the tracer bacteria were subsequently treated with (IP+IAP group), or without IAP (IP group). IAP was administered to the mice via tail vein injections. The amount of tracer bacteria in the blood, liver, and lungs at 24 h post-injection was analyzed via flow cytometry (FCM), in vivo imaging, and Western blotting. Intestinal barrier function was measured using a flux assay with the macro-molecule fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran, molecular weight 40kD, (FD40). To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of IAP, we examined the levels of ERK phosphorylation, and the expression levels of proteins in the ERK-SP1-VEGF and ERK-Cdx-2-Claudin-2 pathways. We observed that IAP inhibited the expression of Claudin-2, a type of cation channel-forming protein, and VEGF, a cytokine that may increase intestinal permeability by reducing the levels of dephosphorylated ERK. In conclusion, exogenous IAP shows a therapeutic effect in an injection peritonitis model. This including inhibition of bacterial translocation. Moreover, we have established an imaging methodology for live-animals can

  3. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase inhibits the translocation of bacteria of gut-origin in mice with peritonitis: mechanism of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    Full Text Available Exogenous intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP, an enzyme produced endogenously at the brush edge of the intestinal mucosa, may mitigate the increase in aberrant intestinal permeability increased during sepsis. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the inhibitory effect of IAP on acute intestinal inflammation and to study the molecular mechanisms underlying IAP in ameliorating intestinal permeability. We used an in vivo imaging method to evaluate disease status and the curative effect of IAP. Two Escherichia coli (E.coli B21 strains, carrying EGFP labeled enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP and RFP labeled red fluorescent protein (RFP, were constructed as tracer bacteria and were administered orally to C57/B6N mice to generate an injection peritonitis (IP model. The IP model was established by injecting inflammatory lavage fluid. C57/B6N mice bearing the tracer bacteria were subsequently treated with (IP+IAP group, or without IAP (IP group. IAP was administered to the mice via tail vein injections. The amount of tracer bacteria in the blood, liver, and lungs at 24 h post-injection was analyzed via flow cytometry (FCM, in vivo imaging, and Western blotting. Intestinal barrier function was measured using a flux assay with the macro-molecule fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran, molecular weight 40kD, (FD40. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of IAP, we examined the levels of ERK phosphorylation, and the expression levels of proteins in the ERK-SP1-VEGF and ERK-Cdx-2-Claudin-2 pathways. We observed that IAP inhibited the expression of Claudin-2, a type of cation channel-forming protein, and VEGF, a cytokine that may increase intestinal permeability by reducing the levels of dephosphorylated ERK. In conclusion, exogenous IAP shows a therapeutic effect in an injection peritonitis model. This including inhibition of bacterial translocation. Moreover, we have established an imaging methodology for live

  4. Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Inhibits the Translocation of Bacteria of Gut-Origin in Mice with Peritonitis: Mechanism of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Shan-Wen; Zhu, Jing; Zuo, Shuai; Ma, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Zi-Yi; Zhang, Jun-Ling; Chen, Guo-Wei; Liu, Yu-Cun; Wang, Peng-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Exogenous intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), an enzyme produced endogenously at the brush edge of the intestinal mucosa, may mitigate the increase in aberrant intestinal permeability increased during sepsis. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the inhibitory effect of IAP on acute intestinal inflammation and to study the molecular mechanisms underlying IAP in ameliorating intestinal permeability. We used an in vivo imaging method to evaluate disease status and the curative effect of IAP. Two Escherichia coli (E.coli) B21 strains, carrying EGFP labeled enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and RFP labeled red fluorescent protein (RFP), were constructed as tracer bacteria and were administered orally to C57/B6N mice to generate an injection peritonitis (IP) model. The IP model was established by injecting inflammatory lavage fluid. C57/B6N mice bearing the tracer bacteria were subsequently treated with (IP+IAP group), or without IAP (IP group). IAP was administered to the mice via tail vein injections. The amount of tracer bacteria in the blood, liver, and lungs at 24 h post-injection was analyzed via flow cytometry (FCM), in vivo imaging, and Western blotting. Intestinal barrier function was measured using a flux assay with the macro-molecule fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran, molecular weight 40kD, (FD40). To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of IAP, we examined the levels of ERK phosphorylation, and the expression levels of proteins in the ERK-SP1-VEGF and ERK-Cdx-2-Claudin-2 pathways. We observed that IAP inhibited the expression of Claudin-2, a type of cation channel-forming protein, and VEGF, a cytokine that may increase intestinal permeability by reducing the levels of dephosphorylated ERK. In conclusion, exogenous IAP shows a therapeutic effect in an injection peritonitis model. This including inhibition of bacterial translocation. Moreover, we have established an imaging methodology for live-animals can

  5. The phosphatase JKAP/DUSP22 inhibits t-cell receptor signalling and autoimmunity by inactivating Lck

    Science.gov (United States)

    JNK pathway-associated phosphatase (JKAP, also known as DUSP22 or JSP-1) is a JNK activator. The in vivo role of JKAP in immune regulation remains unclear. Here we report that JKAP directly inactivates Lck by dephosphorylating tyrosine-394 residue during T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling. JKAP-knocko...

  6. The Small C-terminal Domain Phosphatase 1 Inhibits Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion by Dephosphorylating Ser(P)68-Twist1 to Accelerate Twist1 Protein Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tong; Fu, Junjiang; Shen, Tao; Lin, Xia; Liao, Lan; Feng, Xin-Hua; Xu, Jianming

    2016-05-27

    Twist1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that strongly promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, migration, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells. The MAPK-phosphorylated Twist1 on its serine 68 (Ser(P)(68)-Twist1) has a significantly enhanced stability and function to drive cancer cell invasion and metastasis. However, the phosphatase that dephosphorylates Ser(P)(68)-Twist1 and destabilizes Twist1 has not been identified and characterized. In this study, we screened a serine/threonine phosphatase cDNA expression library in HEK293T cells with ectopically coexpressed Twist1. We found that the small C-terminal domain phosphatase 1 (SCP1) specifically dephosphorylates Ser(P)(68)-Twist1 in both cell-free reactions and living cells. SCP1 uses its amino acid residues 43-63 to interact with the N terminus of Twist1. Increased SCP1 expression in cells decreased Ser(P)(68)-Twist1 and total Twist1 proteins, whereas knockdown of SCP1 increased Ser(P)(68)-Twist1 and total Twist1 proteins. Furthermore, the levels of SCP1 are negatively correlated with Twist1 protein levels in several cancer cell lines. SCP1-dephosphorylated Twist1 undergoes fast degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Importantly, an increase in SCP1 expression in breast cancer cells with either endogenous or ectopically expressed Twist1 largely inhibits the Twist1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype and the migration and invasion capabilities of these cells. These results indicate that SCP1 is the phosphatase that counterregulates the MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of Ser(68)-Twist1. Thus, an increase in SCP1 expression and activity may be a useful strategy for eliminating the detrimental roles of Twist1 in cancer cells. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Presynaptic Dopamine D2 Receptors Modulate [3H]GABA Release at StriatoPallidal Terminals via Activation of PLC → IP3 → Calcineurin and Inhibition of AC → cAMP → PKA Signaling Cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jijón-Lorenzo, Rafael; Caballero-Florán, Isaac Hiram; Recillas-Morales, Sergio; Cortés, Hernán; Avalos-Fuentes, José Arturo; Paz-Bermúdez, Francisco Javier; Erlij, David; Florán, Benjamín

    2018-02-21

    Striatal dopamine D2 receptors activate the PLC → IP3 → Calcineurin-signaling pathway to modulate the neural excitability of En+ Medium-sized Spiny GABAergic neurons (MSN) through the regulation of L-type Ca 2+ channels. Presynaptic dopaminergic D2 receptors modulate GABA release at striatopallidal terminals through L-type Ca 2+ channels as well, but their signaling pathway is still undetermined. Since D2 receptors are Gi/o-coupled and negatively modulate adenylyl cyclase (AC), we investigated whether presynaptic D2 receptors modulate GABA release through the same signaling cascade that controls excitability in the striatum or by the inhibition of AC and decreased PKA activity. Activation of D2 receptors stimulated formation of [ 3 H]IP 1 and decreased Forskolin-stimulated [ 3 H]cAMP accumulation in synaptosomes from rat Globus Pallidus. D2 receptor activation with Quinpirole in the presence of L 745,870 decreased, in a dose-dependent manner, K + -induced [ 3 H]GABA release in pallidal slices. The effect was prevented by the pharmacological blockade of Gi/o βγ subunit effects with Gallein, PLC with U 73122, IP3 receptor activation with 4-APB, Calcineurin with FK506. In addition, when release was stimulated with Forskolin to activate AC, D2 receptors also decreased K + -induced [ 3 H]GABA release, an effect occluded with the effect of the blockade of PKA with H89 or stimulation of release with the cAMP analog 8-Br-cAMP. These data indicate that D2 receptors modulate [ 3 H]GABA release at striatopallidal terminals by activating the PLC → IP3 → Calcineurin-signaling cascade, the same one that modulates excitability in soma. Additionally, D2 receptors inhibit release when AC is active. Both mechanisms appear to converge to regulate the activity of presynaptic L-type Ca 2+ channels. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antihelminthic drug niclosamide inhibits CIP2A and reactivates tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2A in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong-Ok; Choe, Min Ho; Yoon, Yi Na; Ahn, Jiyeon; Yoo, Minjin; Jung, Kwan-Young; An, Sungkwan; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Oh, Jeong Su; Kim, Jae-Sung

    2017-11-15

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a critical tumor suppressor complex responsible for the inactivation of various oncogenes. Recently, PP2A reactivation has emerged asan anticancer strategy. Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A), an endogenous inhibitor of PP2A, is upregulated in many cancer cells, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. We demonstrated that the antihelminthic drug niclosamide inhibited the expression of CIP2A and reactivated the tumor suppressor PP2A in NSCLC cells. We performed a drug-repurposing screen and identified niclosamide asa CIP2A suppressor in NSCLC cells. Niclosamide inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, and tumor sphere formation, and induced mitochondrial dysfunction through increased mitochondrial ROS production in NSCLC cells; however, these effects were rescued by CIP2A overexpression, which indicated that the antitumor activity of niclosamide was dependent on CIP2A. We found that niclosamide increased PP2A activity through CIP2A inhibition, which reduced the phosphorylation of several oncogenic proteins. Moreover, we found that a niclosamide analog inhibited CIP2A expression and increased PP2A activity in several types of NSCLC cells. Finally, we showed that other well-known PP2A activators, including forskolin and FTY720, did not inhibit CIP2A and that their activities were not dependent on CIP2A. Collectively, our data suggested that niclosamide effectively suppressed CIP2A expression and subsequently activated PP2A in NSCLC cells. This provided strong evidence for the potential use of niclosamide asa PP2A-activating drug in the clinical treatment of NSCLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase (CaMKP/PPM1F) interacts with neurofilament L and inhibits its filament association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, Hana [Laboratory of Molecular Brain Science, Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8521 (Japan); Katoh, Tsuyoshi [Department of Biochemistry, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, 078-8510 (Japan); Nakagawa, Ryoko; Ishihara, Yasuhiro [Laboratory of Molecular Brain Science, Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8521 (Japan); Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Kameshita, Isamu [Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Kagawa, 761-0795 (Japan); Taniguchi, Takanobu [Department of Biochemistry, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, 078-8510 (Japan); Hirano, Tetsuo; Yamazaki, Takeshi [Laboratory of Molecular Brain Science, Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8521 (Japan); Ishida, Atsuhiko, E-mail: aishida@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Brain Science, Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, 739-8521 (Japan)

    2016-09-02

    Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase (CaMKP/PPM1F) is a Ser/Thr phosphatase that belongs to the PPM family. Growing evidence suggests that PPM phosphatases including CaMKP act as a complex with other proteins to regulate cellular functions. In this study, using the two-dimensional far-western blotting technique with digoxigenin-labeled CaMKP as a probe, in conjunction with peptide mass fingerprinting analysis, we identified neurofilament L (NFL) as a CaMKP-binding protein in a Triton-insoluble fraction of rat brain. We confirmed binding of fluorescein-labeled CaMKP (F-CaMKP) to NFL in solution by fluorescence polarization. The analysis showed that the dissociation constant of F-CaMKP for NFL is 73 ± 17 nM (n = 3). Co-immunoprecipitation assay using a cytosolic fraction of NGF-differentiated PC12 cells showed that endogenous CaMKP and NFL form a complex in cells. Furthermore, the effect of CaMKP on self-assembly of NFL was examined. Electron microscopy revealed that CaMKP markedly prevented NFL from forming large filamentous aggregates, suggesting that CaMKP-binding to NFL inhibits its filament association. These findings may provide new insights into a novel mechanism for regulating network formation of neurofilaments during neuronal differentiation. - Highlights: • NFL was identified as a CaMKP-binding protein in an insoluble fraction of rat brain. • CaMKP bound to NFL in solution with a K{sub d} value of 73 ± 17 nM. • A CaMKP-NFL complex was found in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells. • CaMKP-binding to NFL inhibited its filament association. • CaMKP may regulate network formation of neurofilaments in neurons.

  10. Theophylline Represses IL-8 Secretion from Airway Smooth Muscle Cells Independently of Phosphodiesterase Inhibition. Novel Role as a Protein Phosphatase 2A Activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Brijeshkumar S; Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Rumzhum, Nowshin N; Oliver, Brian G; Verrills, Nicole M; Ammit, Alaina J

    2016-06-01

    Theophylline is an old drug experiencing a renaissance owing to its beneficial antiinflammatory effects in chronic respiratory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Multiple modes of antiinflammatory action have been reported, including inhibition of the enzymes that degrade cAMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE). Using primary cultures of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, we recently revealed that PDE4 inhibitors can potentiate the antiinflammatory action of β2-agonists by augmenting cAMP-dependent expression of the phosphatase that deactivates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-MAPK phosphatase (MKP)-1. Therefore, the aim of this study was to address whether theophylline repressed cytokine production in a similar, PDE-dependent, MKP-1-mediated manner. Notably, theophylline did not potentiate cAMP release from ASM cells treated with the long-acting β2-agonist formoterol. Moreover, theophylline (0.1-10 μM) did not increase formoterol-induced MKP-1 messenger RNA expression nor protein up-regulation, consistent with the lack of cAMP generation. However, theophylline (at 10 μM) was antiinflammatory and repressed secretion of the neutrophil chemoattractant cytokine IL-8, which is produced in response to TNF-α. Because theophylline's effects were independent of PDE4 inhibition or antiinflammatory MKP-1, we then wished to elucidate the novel mechanisms responsible. We investigated the impact of theophylline on protein phosphatase (PP) 2A, a master controller of multiple inflammatory signaling pathways, and show that theophylline increases TNF-α-induced PP2A activity in ASM cells. Confirmatory results were obtained in A549 lung epithelial cells. PP2A activators have beneficial effects in ex vivo and in vivo models of respiratory disease. Thus, our study is the first to link theophylline with PP2A activation as a novel mechanism to control respiratory inflammation.

  11. Calcineurin inhibitors in heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Anne

    2004-05-01

    The use of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs; cyclosporine and tacrolimus) has dramatically increased medium-term life expectancy after heart transplantation but has had only limited impact on long-term outcomes for heart transplant recipients. The original oil-based formulation of cyclosporine has been superceded by a microemulsion formulation (Neoral), which has more predictable pharmacokinetics and allows more precise dose-tailoring. Cyclosporine microemulsion and tacrolimus (Prograf) have a similar efficacy in the prevention of acute rejection of heart transplants, but their use is accompanied by nephrotoxicity and by cardiovascular side effects. The efficacy of immunosuppression can be improved by adjunctive therapy, such as azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF; Cellcept), corticosteroids, and induction therapy. One of the most important predictors of patient mortality at >5 years after heart transplantation is cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV)/late graft failure, which accounts for 31% of deaths. Neither cyclosporine nor tacrolimus have been shown to prevent the development of CAV. In terms of efficacy, MMF provides a modest advantage over azathioprine in preventing CAV, and the combination of cyclosporine plus MMF results in significantly lower mortality than cyclosporine plus azathioprine. Overall, CNIs have multiple cardiovascular side effects, such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia and new-onset diabetes after transplantation, although cyclosporine and tacrolimus have somewhat different cardiovascular side-effect profiles. The challenge in choosing the best immunosuppressive regimen is to balance efficacy and safety to optimize graft and patient survival over the course of many decades. Because cyclosporine and tacrolimus have similar efficacy against acute rejection the choice of CNI for heart transplant recipients should be based on the relative risk of cardiovascular and renal side effects.

  12. Modulation of yeast alkaline cation tolerance by Ypi1 requires calcineurin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquina, Maribel; González, Asier; Barreto, Lina; Gelis, Samuel; Muñoz, Iván; Ruiz, Amparo; Alvarez, Mari Carmen; Ramos, José; Ariño, Joaquín

    2012-04-01

    Ypi1 was discovered as an essential protein able to act as a regulatory subunit of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae type 1 protein phosphatase Glc7 and play a key role in mitosis. We show here that partial depletion of Ypi1 causes lithium sensitivity and that high levels of this protein confer a lithium-tolerant phenotype to yeast cells. Remarkably, this phenotype was independent of the role of Ypi1 as a Glc7 regulatory subunit. Lithium tolerance in cells overexpressing Ypi1 was caused by a combination of increased efflux of lithium, mediated by augmented expression of the alkaline cation ATPase ENA1, and decreased lithium influx through the Trk1,2 high-affinity potassium transporters. Deletion of CNB1, encoding the regulatory subunit of the calcineurin phosphatase, blocked Ypi1-induced expression of ENA1, normalized Li(+) fluxes, and abolished the Li(+) hypertolerant phenotype of Ypi1-overexpressing cells. These results point to a complex role of Ypi1 on the regulation of cation homeostasis, largely mediated by the calcineurin phosphatase.

  13. Calcineurin/Nfatc1 signaling links skin stem cell quiescence to hormonal signaling during pregnancy and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jill; Fletcher, Sean; Roth, Eve; Wu, Christine; Chun, Andrew; Horsley, Valerie

    2014-05-01

    In most tissues, the prevailing view is that stem cell (SC) niches are generated by signals from within the nearby tissue environment. Here, we define genetic changes altered in hair follicle (HF) SCs in mice treated with a potent SC activator, cyclosporine A (CSA), which inhibits the phosphatase calcineurin (CN) and the activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (Nfatc1). We show that CN/Nfatc1 regulates expression of prolactin receptor (Prlr) and that canonical activation of Prlr and its downstream signaling via Jak/Stat5 drives quiescence of HF SCs during pregnancy and lactation, when serum prolactin (Prl) levels are highly elevated. Using Prl injections and genetic/pharmacological loss-of-function experiments in mice, we show that Prl signaling stalls follicular SC activation through its activity in the skin epithelium. Our findings define a unique CN-Nfatc1-Prlr-Stat5 molecular circuitry that promotes persistent SC quiescence in the skin.

  14. Calcineurin interacts with the serotonin transporter C-terminus to modulate its plasma membrane expression and serotonin uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimandi, Mathieu; Seyer, Pascal; Park, C Sehwan; Vandermoere, Franck; Chanrion, Benjamin; Bockaert, Joël; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Marin, Philippe

    2013-10-09

    Homeostasis of serotonergic transmission critically depends on the rate of serotonin reuptake via its plasma membrane transporter (SERT). SERT activity is tightly regulated by multiple mechanisms, including physical association with intracellular proteins and post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, but these mechanisms remain partially understood. Here, we show that SERT C-terminal domain recruits both the catalytic and regulatory subunits of the Ca(2+)-activated protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) and that the physical association of SERT with CaN is promoted by CaN activity. Coexpression of constitutively active CaN with SERT increases SERT cell surface expression and 5-HT uptake in HEK-293 cells. It also prevents the reduction of 5-HT uptake induced by an acute treatment of cells with the protein kinase C activator β-PMA and concomitantly decreases PMA-elicited SERT phosphorylation. In addition, constitutive activation of CaN in vivo favors 5-HT uptake in the adult mouse brain, whereas CaN inhibition reduces cerebral 5-HT uptake. Constitutive activation of CaN also decreases immobility in the forced swim test, indicative of an antidepressant-like effect of CaN. These results identify CaN as an important regulator of SERT activity in the adult brain and provide a novel molecular substrate of clinical interest for the understanding of increased risk of mood disorders in transplanted patients treated with immunosuppressive CaN inhibitors.

  15. Small-molecule protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibition as a neuroprotective treatment after spinal cord injury in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Shojiro; Arnold, Sheila A; Mahoney, Edward T; Sithu, Srinivas D; Zhang, Y Ping; D'Souza, Stanley E; Shields, Christopher B; Hagg, Theo

    2008-07-16

    Spinal cord injury causes progressive secondary tissue degeneration, leaving many injured people with neurological disabilities. There are no satisfactory neuroprotective treatments. Protein tyrosine phosphatases inactivate neurotrophic factor receptors and downstream intracellular signaling molecules. Thus, we tested whether the peroxovanadium compound potassium bisperoxo(1,10-phenanthroline)oxovanadate (V) [bpV(phen)], a stable, potent and selective protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, would be neuroprotective after a thoracic spinal cord contusion in adult rats. Intrathecal bpV(phen) infusions through a lumbar puncture rescued dorsal column sensory axons innervating the nucleus gracilis and white matter at the injury epicenter. At the most effective dose, essentially all of these axons and most of the white matter at the epicenter were spared (vs approximately 60% with control infusions). bpV(phen) treatments started 4 h after contusion were fully effective. This treatment greatly improved and normalized sensorimotor function in a grid-walking test and provided complete axonal protection over 6 weeks. The treatment rescued sensory-evoked potentials that disappeared after dorsal column transection. bpV(phen) affected early degenerative mechanisms, because the main effects were seen at 7 d and lasted beyond the treatment period. The neuroprotection appeared to be mediated by rescue of blood vessels. bpV(phen) reduced apoptosis of cultured endothelial cells. These results show that a small molecule, used in a clinically relevant manner, reduces loss of long-projecting axons, myelin, blood vessels, and function in a model relevant to the most common type of spinal cord injury in humans. They reveal a novel mechanism of spinal cord degeneration involving protein tyrosine phosphatases that can be targeted with therapeutic drugs.

  16. High on Cannabis and Calcineurin Inhibitors: A Word of Warning in an Era of Legalized Marijuana

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi Hauser; Tanmay Sahai; Rocco Richards; Todd Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus, a potent immunosuppressant medication, acts by inhibiting calcineurin, which eventually leads to inhibition of T-cell activation. The drug is commonly used to prevent graft rejection in solid organ transplant and graft-versus-host disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Tacrolimus has a narrow therapeutic index with variable oral bioavailability and metabolism via cytochrome P-450 3A enzyme. Toxicity can occur from overdosing or from drug-drug interactions with the...

  17. Pyruvate prevents the inhibition of the long-term potentiation induced by amyloid-β through protein phosphatase 2A inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaonan; Takata, Toshihiro; Bai, Xiaojuan; Ou, Fengrong; Yokono, Koichi; Sakurai, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers are derived from proteolytic cleavage of amyloid-β protein precursor and can impair memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in vivo and in vitro. They are recognized as the primary neurotoxic agents in Alzheimer's disease. Pyruvate has a protective effect against Aβ-induced neuronal cell death in hippocampal slice cultures. However, whether pyruvate also has a protective effect against the inhibition of neuronal plasticity induced by Aβ remains to be elucidated. This study examined the effect of pyruvate on the Aβ-induced inhibition of LTP in the rat hippocampus. We found that pyruvate prevented the Aβ-induced inhibition of LTP as strong as fostriecin, a specific protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibitor. Pyruvate prevented the Aβ block of Ca(2+)/calmodulin dependent protein kinase 2 (CaMK2) autophosphorylation and the Aβ-induced PP2A activation. Pyruvate, but not lactate, decreased reactive oxygen species levels in CA1 slices exposed to Aβ. We propose that pyruvate could prevent the Aβ-induced inhibition of LTP by the re-autophosphorylation of CaMK2 through PP2A inactivation. The reduction of reactive oxygen species production is considered to be the upstream mechanism of this observed pyruvate protection.

  18. Calcineurin /NFAT activation-dependence of leptin synthesis and vascular growth in response to mechanical stretch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Soudani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims- Hypertension and obesity are important risk factors of cardiovascular disease. They are both associated with high leptin levels and have been shown to promote vascular hypertrophy, through the RhoA/ROCK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Calcineurin/NFAT activation also induces vascular hypertrophy by upregulating various genes. This study aimed to decipher whether a crosstalk exists between the RhoA/ROCK pathway, Ca+2/calcineurin/NFAT pathway, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the process of mechanical stretch-induced vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC hypertrophy and leptin synthesis. Methods and Results- Rat portal vein (RPV organ culture was used to investigate the effect of mechanical stretch and exogenous leptin (3.1 nM on VSMC hypertrophy and leptin synthesis. Results showed that stretching the RPV significantly upregulated leptin secretion, mRNA and protein expression, which were inhibited by the calcium channel blocker nifedipine (10 μM, the selective calcineurin inhibitor FK506 (1 nM and the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 (1 μM. The transcription inhibitor actinomycin D (0.1M and the translation inhibitor cycloheximide (1 mM significantly decreased stretch-induced leptin protein expression. Mechanical stretch or leptin caused an increase in wet weight changes and protein synthesis, considered as hypertrophic markers, while they were inhibited by FK506 (0.1 nM; 1 nM. In addition, stretch or exogenous leptin significantly increased calcineurin activity and MCIP1 expression whereas leptin induced NFAT nuclear translocation in VSMCs. Moreover, in response to stretch or exogenous leptin, the Rho inhibitor C3 exoenzyme (30 ng/mL, the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 (10 μM, and the actin depolymerization agents Latrunculin B (50 nM and cytochalasin D (1 μM reduced calcineurin activation and NFAT nuclear translocation. ERK1/2 phosphorylation was inhibited by FK506 and C3. Conclusions- Mechanical stretch-induced VSMC hypertrophy and leptin

  19. Downregulation of Calcineurin Gene is Associated with Glucantime Resiatance in Leishmania Infantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rafooian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pentavalent antimonials are the first line drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Unresponsiveness of Leishmania spp. to antimonial drugs is a serious problem in some endemic areas. Investigations on molecular mechanisms involved in drug resistance are essential for monitoring and managing of the disease. Calcineu­rin is an essential protein phosphatase for number of signal transduction pathways in eukaryotic cells and it has a mediated role in apoptosis. This study aimed to determine of biomarker(s in Glucantime® resiatance strain of L. infan­tum.Methods: We used cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP and real time-RT PCR assays to compare gene expression profiles at the mRNA levels in resistant and susceptible L. infantum field isolates.Results: The cDNA-AFLP results showed downlegulation of calcineurin in resis­tant isolate in comparison with susceptible one. Significant downregulation of calcineu­rin (0.42 fold (P<0.05 was found in resistant isolate compared to suscepti­ble one by Real time-RT PCR.Conclusion: This is the first report of calcineurin implication in Glucantime® drug resistance of field (natural isolate of L. infantum. Downregulation of calcineurin could protect parasites from antimonial-induced apoptosis.

  20. Mefloquine effectively targets gastric cancer cells through phosphatase-dependent inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanwei [Department of General Surgery, Shiyan Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei Province (China); Chen, Sen [Department of Academic Affairs, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei Province (China); Xue, Rui [Department of Anesthesiology, Renmin Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei Province (China); Zhao, Juan [Department of Oncology, Xiangyang Central Hospital, Shiyan, Hubei Province (China); Di, Maojun, E-mail: maoojun_di@163.com [Department of General Surgery, Shiyan Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei Province (China)

    2016-02-05

    Deregulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway has been recently identified to play a crucial role in the progress of human gastric cancer. In this study, we show that mefloquine, a FDA-approved anti-malarial drug, effectively targets human gastric cancer cells. Mefloquine potently inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of a panel of human gastric cancer cell lines, with EC{sub 50} ∼0.5–0.7 μM. In two independent gastric cancer xenograft mouse models, mefloquine significantly inhibits growth of both tumors. The combination of mefloquine with paclitaxel enhances the activity of either drug alone in in vitro and in vivo. In addition, mefloquine potently decreased phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, mTOR and rS6. Overexpression of constitutively active Akt significantly restored mefloquine-mediated inhibition of mTOR phosphorylation and growth, and induction of apoptosis, suggesting that mefloquine acts on gastric cancer cells via suppressing PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. We further show that mefloquine-mediated inhibition of Akt/mTOR singaling is phosphatase-dependent as pretreatment with calyculin A does-dependently reversed mefloquine-mediated inhibition of Akt/mTOR phosphorylation. Since mefloquine is already available for clinic use, these results suggest that it is a useful addition to the treatment armamentarium for gastric cancer. - Highlights: • Mefloquine targets a panel of gastric cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. • Combination of mefloquine and paclitaxel is synergistic. • Mefloquine acts on gastric cancer via inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. • Mefloquine can be repurposed for gastric cancer treatment.

  1. Combinational siRNA delivery using hyaluronic acid modified amphiphilic polyplexes against cell cycle and phosphatase proteins to inhibit growth and migration of triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Manoj B; Meenakshi Sundaram, Daniel Nisakar; K C, Remant Bahadur; Maranchuk, Robert; Montazeri Aliabadi, Hamidreza; Hugh, Judith C; Löbenberg, Raimar; Uludağ, Hasan

    2018-01-15

    Triple-negative breast cancer is an aggressive form of breast cancer with few therapeutic options if it recurs after adjuvant chemotherapy. RNA interference could be an alternative therapy for metastatic breast cancer, where small interfering RNA (siRNA) can silence the expression of aberrant genes critical for growth and migration of malignant cells. Here, we formulated a siRNA delivery system using lipid-substituted polyethylenimine (PEI) and hyaluronic acid (HA), and characterized the size, ζ-potential and cellular uptake of the nanoparticulate delivery system. Higher cellular uptake of siRNA by the tailored PEI/HA formulation suggested better interaction of complexes with breast cancer cells due to improved physicochemical characteristics of carrier and HA-binding CD44 receptors. The siRNAs against specific phosphatases that inhibited migration of MDA-MB-231 cells were then identified using library screen against 267 protein-tyrosine phosphatases, and siRNAs to inhibit cell migration were further validated. We then assessed the combinational delivery of a siRNA against CDC20 to decrease cell growth and a siRNA against several phosphatases shown to decrease migration of breast cancer cells. Combinational siRNA therapy against CDC20 and identified phosphatases PPP1R7, PTPN1, PTPN22, LHPP, PPP1R12A and DUPD1 successfully inhibited cell growth and migration, respectively, without interfering the functional effect of the co-delivered siRNA. The identified phosphatases could serve as potential targets to inhibit migration of highly aggressive metastatic breast cancer cells. Combinational siRNA delivery against cell cycle and phosphatases could be a promising strategy to inhibit both growth and migration of metastatic breast cancer cells, and potentially other types of metastatic cancer. The manuscript investigated the efficacy of a tailored polymeric siRNA delivery system formulation as well as combinational siRNA therapy in metastatic breast cancer cells to inhibit

  2. The second catalytic domain of protein tyrosine phosphatase delta (PTP delta) binds to and inhibits the first catalytic domain of PTP sigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M J; Fladd, C; Batt, J; Rotin, D

    1998-05-01

    The LAR family protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), including LAR, PTP delta, and PTP sigma, are transmembrane proteins composed of a cell adhesion molecule-like ectodomain and two cytoplasmic catalytic domains: active D1 and inactive D2. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen with the first catalytic domain of PTP sigma (PTP sigma-D1) as bait to identify interacting regulatory proteins. Using this screen, we identified the second catalytic domain of PTP delta (PTP delta-D2) as an interactor of PTP sigma-D1. Both yeast two-hybrid binding assays and coprecipitation from mammalian cells revealed strong binding between PTP sigma-D1 and PTP delta-D2, an association which required the presence of the wedge sequence in PTP sigma-D1, a sequence recently shown to mediate D1-D1 homodimerization in the phosphatase RPTP alpha. This interaction was not reciprocal, as PTP delta-D1 did not bind PTP sigma-D2. Addition of a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-PTP delta-D2 fusion protein (but not GST alone) to GST-PTP sigma-D1 led to approximately 50% inhibition of the catalytic activity of PTP sigma-D1, as determined by an in vitro phosphatase assay against p-nitrophenylphosphate. A similar inhibition of PTP sigma-D1 activity was obtained with coimmunoprecipitated PTP delta-D2. Interestingly, the second catalytic domains of LAR (LAR-D2) and PTP sigma (PTP sigma-D2), very similar in sequence to PTP delta-D2, bound poorly to PTP sigma-D1. PTP delta-D1 and LAR-D1 were also able to bind PTP delta-D2, but more weakly than PTP sigma-D1, with a binding hierarchy of PTP sigma-D1 > PTP delta-D1 > LAR-D1. These results suggest that association between PTP sigma-D1 and PTP delta-D2, possibly via receptor heterodimerization, provides a negative regulatory function and that the second catalytic domains of this and likely other receptor PTPs, which are often inactive, may function instead to regulate the activity of the first catalytic domains.

  3. DNA-PKcs controls calcineurin mediated IL-2 production in T lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ara Kim Wiese

    Full Text Available Loss of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs activity in mammals results in severe combined immuno-deficiency (SCID. This SCID phenotype has been postulated to be due solely to the function of DNA-PKcs in V(DJ recombination, a process critical for lymphocyte maturation. However; we show that DNA-PKcs is required for IL-2 production via regulation of the calcineurin signaling pathway. Reducing DNA-PKcs activity in activated T cells either by shRNA or an inhibitor significantly reduced IL-2 production by blocking calcineurin activity and the translocation of NFAT into the nucleus. Additionally, we show that DNA-PKcs exerts its effect on calcineurin by altering the expression of the endogenous calcineurin inhibitor Cabin1 through activation of the kinase CHK2, a known Cabin1 regulator. The discovery of DNA-PKcs as a potent regulator of IL-2 production will drive continued investigation of small molecule inhibition of this enzyme within the clinic.

  4. The calcineurin inhibitor Sarah (Nebula exacerbates Aβ42 phenotypes in a Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soojin Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Expression of the Down syndrome critical region 1 (DSCR1 protein, an inhibitor of the Ca2+-dependent phosphatase calcineurin, is elevated in the brains of individuals with Down syndrome (DS or Alzheimer's disease (AD. Although increased levels of DSCR1 were often observed to be deleterious to neuronal health, its beneficial effects against AD neuropathology have also been reported, and the roles of DSCR1 on the pathogenesis of AD remain controversial. Here, we investigated the role of sarah (sra; also known as nebula, a Drosophila DSCR1 ortholog, in amyloid-β42 (Aβ42-induced neurological phenotypes in Drosophila. We detected sra expression in the mushroom bodies of the fly brain, which are a center for learning and memory in flies. Moreover, similar to humans with AD, Aβ42-expressing flies showed increased Sra levels in the brain, demonstrating that the expression pattern of DSCR1 with regard to AD pathogenesis is conserved in Drosophila. Interestingly, overexpression of sra using the UAS-GAL4 system exacerbated the rough-eye phenotype, decreased survival rates and increased neuronal cell death in Aβ42-expressing flies, without modulating Aβ42 expression. Moreover, neuronal overexpression of sra in combination with Aβ42 dramatically reduced both locomotor activity and the adult lifespan of flies, whereas flies with overexpression of sra alone showed normal climbing ability, albeit with a slightly reduced lifespan. Similarly, treatment with chemical inhibitors of calcineurin, such as FK506 and cyclosporin A, or knockdown of calcineurin expression by RNA interference (RNAi, exacerbated the Aβ42-induced rough-eye phenotype. Furthermore, sra-overexpressing flies displayed significantly decreased mitochondrial DNA and ATP levels, as well as increased susceptibility to oxidative stress compared to that of control flies. Taken together, our results demonstrating that sra overexpression augments Aβ42 cytotoxicity in Drosophila suggest that DSCR1

  5. The calcineurin inhibitor Sarah (Nebula) exacerbates Aβ42 phenotypes in a Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soojin; Bang, Se Min; Hong, Yoon Ki; Lee, Jang Ho; Jeong, Haemin; Park, Seung Hwan; Liu, Quan Feng; Lee, Im-Soon; Cho, Kyoung Sang

    2016-03-01

    Expression of the Down syndrome critical region 1 (DSCR1) protein, an inhibitor of the Ca(2+)-dependent phosphatase calcineurin, is elevated in the brains of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) or Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although increased levels of DSCR1 were often observed to be deleterious to neuronal health, its beneficial effects against AD neuropathology have also been reported, and the roles of DSCR1 on the pathogenesis of AD remain controversial. Here, we investigated the role of sarah (sra; also known as nebula), a Drosophila DSCR1 ortholog, in amyloid-β42 (Aβ42)-induced neurological phenotypes in Drosophila. We detected sra expression in the mushroom bodies of the fly brain, which are a center for learning and memory in flies. Moreover, similar to humans with AD, Aβ42-expressing flies showed increased Sra levels in the brain, demonstrating that the expression pattern of DSCR1 with regard to AD pathogenesis is conserved in Drosophila. Interestingly, overexpression of sra using the UAS-GAL4 system exacerbated the rough-eye phenotype, decreased survival rates and increased neuronal cell death in Aβ42-expressing flies, without modulating Aβ42 expression. Moreover, neuronal overexpression of sra in combination with Aβ42 dramatically reduced both locomotor activity and the adult lifespan of flies, whereas flies with overexpression of sra alone showed normal climbing ability, albeit with a slightly reduced lifespan. Similarly, treatment with chemical inhibitors of calcineurin, such as FK506 and cyclosporin A, or knockdown of calcineurin expression by RNA interference (RNAi), exacerbated the Aβ42-induced rough-eye phenotype. Furthermore, sra-overexpressing flies displayed significantly decreased mitochondrial DNA and ATP levels, as well as increased susceptibility to oxidative stress compared to that of control flies. Taken together, our results demonstrating that sra overexpression augments Aβ42 cytotoxicity in Drosophila suggest that DSCR1

  6. The effect of calcineurin activator, extracted from Chinese herbal medicine, on memory and immunity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Yin, Jiang-Hua; Wei, Qun

    2003-07-01

    Calcineurin (CN) is a highly abundant phosphatase in the brain and it is the only Ca(2+)- and calmodulin-dependent protein serine/threonine phosphatase. There is considerable evidence to suggest that CN plays an essential role in activity-dependent modulation of synaptic efficacy. It has been shown recently that inhibitors of CN, such as CsA or FK506, impair memory formation in day-old chicks. In our present study, extract of Fructus cannabis (EFC) with activation of CN, extracted from Chinese traditional medicine, was used to determine the effects on memory and immunity. In the step-down-type passive avoidance test, the plant extract (0.2 g/kg) significantly improved amnesia induced by chemical drugs in mice, and greatly enhanced the ability of cell-mediated type hypersensitivity and nonspecific immune responses in normal mice. The present study provided pharmacological evidence for Chinese herbal medicine screening from molecular model.

  7. Root development in mice lacking functional tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase gene: inhibition of acellular cementum formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beertsen, W; VandenBos, T; Everts, V

    1999-06-01

    Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) is richly present in developing teeth including the cells of the periodontal ligament. Here, we investigated tooth and root development in mice lacking the TNAP gene. Heterozygous mutants were obtained from The Jackson Laboratory, Animal Resources (Bar Harbor, ME, USA) and bred. TNAP-deficient mice and their littermates were killed from 6 to 25 days after birth and their molar blocks processed for light and electron microscopy. It was observed that the eruption of the incisors into the oral cavity was delayed for 2 to 3 days. Also, the onset of mineralization of the mantle dentin in the roots of the developing molars was delayed for 2 to 3 days. Yet, dentin and enamel formation in the homozygous mutants showed a more or less normal pattern, with the exception of localized enamel hypoplasias. The most conspicuous finding was the defective formation of acellular cementum along the molar roots. Instead of a continuous layer, the cementum was deposited as very thin and irregularly shaped patches around the bases of the periodontal ligament fibers. Sharpey's fibers were short and poorly developed. In contrast, the development of the alveolar bone, the periodontal ligament, and the cellular cementum was seemingly unaffected. It is concluded that TNAP represents an essential factor in mantle dentin mineralization and in the formation of acellular cementum.

  8. CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors Modulate Kinase and Phosphatase Activity During Extinction of Conditioned Fear in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cannich, Astrid; Carsten T. Wotjak; Kamprath, Kornelia; Hermann, Heike; Lutz, Beat; Marsicano, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) play a central role in both short-term and long-term extinction of auditory-cued fear memory. The molecular mechanisms underlying this function remain to be clarified. Several studies indicated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase with its downstream effector AKT, and the phosphatase calcineurin as potential molecular substrates of extinction behavior. To test the involvement of these kinase and phosphatase activit...

  9. Protein phosphatase 1 and LTD: synapses are the architects of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, J

    2001-12-20

    NMDAR-dependent long-term depression involves the activation of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and 2B (calcineurin) and the subsequent dephosphorylation of synaptic proteins. In this issue of Neuron, Morishita et al. (2001) provide evidence that precise targeting of PP1 to synaptic substrates is critical for the expression of LTD.

  10. Modelling studies determing the mode of action of anthelmintics inhibiting in vitro trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) of Anisakis simplex s.l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Molcan, Tomasz; Paukszto, Łukasz; Jastrzębski, Jan Paweł; Myszczyński, Kamil

    2017-11-21

    The trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) enzyme is involved in the synthesis of trehalose, the main sugar in the energy metabolism of nematodes. TPP is a member of the HAD-like hydrolase superfamily and shows a robust and specific phosphatase activity for the substrate trehalose-6-phosphate. The presence of conserved active sites of TPP in closely related nematodes and its absence in humans makes it a promising target for antiparasitic drugs. In the present study, homology modeling, molecular docking and MD simulation techniques were used to explore the structure and dynamics of TPP. In the active site, a magnesium ion is stabilized by 3 coordinate bonds formed by D189, D191 and D400. The key amino acids involved in ligand binding by the enzyme are C198, Y201,T357, D191 and Y197. This study relied on docking to select potential inhibitors of TPP which were tested in vitro for sensitivity to anthelmintic drugs such as levamisole and ivermectin targeting Anisakis simplex. The higher toxicity of LEV than IVM was demonstrated after 96 h, 30% of larvae were motile in cultures with 100 μg/ml of LEV and 1000 μg/ml of IVM. We identified drug combination of LEV-IVM against in vitro A. simplex as agonistic effect (CI = 1.1). Levamisole appeared to be a more effective drug which inhibited enzyme activity after 48 h and expression of mRNA after 96 h at a concentration of 10 μg/ml. This preliminary study predicted the structure of TPP, and the results of an in vitro experiment involving A. simplex will contribute to the development of effective inhibitors with potential antiparasitic activity in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of Protein Phosphatase-2A (PP2A) by I1PP2A Leads to Hyperphosphorylation of Tau, Neurodegeneration, and Cognitive Impairment in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaochuan; Blanchard, Julie; Tung, Yunn Chyn; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) deficiency is a cause of the abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau, which composes neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. We previously reported that both mRNA and protein expression of inhibitor I of PP2A (I(1)(PP2A)) are elevated in AD brain and that this inhibitor induces a dose-dependent inhibition of PP2A activity and tau hyperphosphorylation in NIH3T3 cells. However, whether I(1)(PP2A) can induce AD neurofibrillary degeneration and cognitive impairment was not known. In the present study, we infected the brains of rat pups within 24 hours of birth with adeno-associated virus serotype 1 (AAV1) carrying I(1)(PP2A). In the adult AAV1-I(1)(PP2A) rats, we found a decrease in PP2A activity and abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau in the brain. Immunohistochemistry showed a significant reduction of MAP2 and synapsin 1 in AAV1- I(1)(PP2A) animals, suggesting that I(1)(PP2A) can induce a loss of dendritic and synaptic plasticity markers. Behavioral tests revealed that infection with AAV1- I(1)(PP2A) induced deficits in exploratory activity, spatial reference memory, and memory consolidation in adult rats. These studies suggest that I(1)(PP2A) can inhibit PP2A activity, and in turn induce AD neurofibrillary degeneration and cognitive deficits in rats.

  12. A sensitive dual colorimetric and fluorescence system for assaying the activity of alkaline phosphatase that relies on pyrophosphate inhibition of the peroxidase activity of copper ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Soo; Lee, Chang Yeol; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2014-09-21

    A novel and highly sensitive colorimetric and fluorescence assay for the accurate determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity has been developed. The assay takes advantage of the inhibition of the peroxidase activity of Cu(2+) ions caused by complexation with pyrophosphate (PPi), a natural substrate for ALP. This inhibition disappears when PPi undergoes ALP catalyzed hydrolysis to generate phosphate, which does not bind to Cu(2+) ions. Thus, ALP causes generation of uncomplexed Cu(2+) ions, which promote multiple oxidation reactions of Amplex UltraRed in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in conjunction with the production of intense fluorescence and colorimetric signals. By employing the fluorescence and colorimetric assay strategies, ALP can be detected at respective concentrations as low as 4.3 pM and 5.4 pM, detection limits that are much lower than those associated with previously described methods. The practical diagnostic capability of the assay system has been demonstrated by its use to detect ALP in human blood serum.

  13. Inhibition of the tyrosine phosphatase STEP61 restores BDNF expression and reverses motor and cognitive deficits in phencyclidine-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Kurup, Pradeep; Baguley, Tyler D; Foscue, Ethan; Ellman, Jonathan A; Nairn, Angus C; Lombroso, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase 61 (STEP61) have opposing functions in the brain, with BDNF supporting and STEP61 opposing synaptic strengthening. BDNF and STEP61 also exhibit an inverse pattern of expression in a number of brain disorders, including schizophrenia (SZ). NMDAR antagonists such as phencyclidine (PCP) elicit SZ-like symptoms in rodent models and unaffected individuals, and exacerbate psychotic episodes in SZ. Here we characterize the regulation of BDNF expression by STEP61, utilizing PCP-treated cortical culture and PCP-treated mice. PCP-treated cortical neurons showed both an increase in STEP61 levels and a decrease in BDNF expression. The reduction in BDNF expression was prevented by STEP61 knockdown or use of the STEP inhibitor, TC-2153. The PCP-induced increase in STEP61 expression was associated with the inhibition of CREB-dependent BDNF transcription. Similarly, both genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of STEP prevented the PCP-induced reduction in BDNF expression in vivo and normalized PCP-induced hyperlocomotion and cognitive deficits. These results suggest a mechanism by which STEP61 regulates BDNF expression, with implications for cognitive functioning in CNS disorders.

  14. Blue light-induced apoplastic acidification of Arabidopsis thaliana guard cells : Inhibition by ABA is mediated through protein phosphatases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, MRG; Staal, M; Prins, HBA

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) inhibits blue light-induced apoplastic acidification of guard cells. The signal transduction pathway of ABA, mediating this response, was studied using ABA-insensitive (abi) mutants of Arapidopsis thaliana. Apoplastic acidification was monitored with a flat

  15. Functional characterization of calcineurin homologs PsCNA1/PsCNB1 in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici using a host-induced RNAi system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available Calcineurin plays a key role in morphogenesis, pathogenesis and drug resistance in most fungi. However, the function of calcineurin genes in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst is unclear. We identified and characterized the calcineurin genes PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 in Pst. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 form a calcium/calmodulin regulated protein phosphatase belonging to the calcineurin heterodimers composed of subunits A and B. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that both PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 expression reached their maximum in the stage of haustorium formation, which is one day after inoculation. Using barely stripe mosaic virus (BSMV as a transient expression vector in wheat, the expression of PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 in Pst was suppressed, leading to slower extension of fungal hyphae and reduced production of urediospores. The immune-suppressive drugs cyclosporin A and FK506 markedly reduced the germination rates of urediospores, and when germination did occur, more than two germtubes were produced. These results suggest that the calcineurin signaling pathway participates in stripe rust morphogenetic differentiation, especially the formation of haustoria during the early stage of infection and during the production of urediospores. Therefore PsCNA1 and PsCNB1 can be considered important pathogenicity genes involved in the wheat-Pst interaction.

  16. Lipid Emulsion Inhibits Vasodilation Induced by a Toxic Dose of Bupivacaine via Attenuated Dephosphorylation of Myosin Phosphatase Target Subunit 1 in Isolated Rat Aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Seong-Ho; Byon, Hyo-Jin; Kwon, Seong-Chun; Park, Jungchul; Lee, Youngju; Hwang, Yeran; Baik, Jiseok; Choi, Mun-Jeoung; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Lipid emulsions are widely used for the treatment of systemic toxicity that arises from local anesthetics. The goal of this in vitro study was to examine the cellular mechanism associated with the lipid emulsion-mediated attenuation of vasodilation induced by a toxic dose of bupivacaine in isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta. The effects of lipid emulsion on vasodilation induced by bupivacaine, mepivacaine, and verapamil were assessed in isolated aorta precontracted with phenylephrine, the Rho kinase stimulant NaF, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu). The effects of Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 on contraction induced by phenylephrine or NaF were assessed. The effects of bupivacaine on intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) and tension induced by NaF were simultaneously measured. The effects of bupivacaine alone and lipid emulsion plus bupivacaine on myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) phosphorylation induced by NaF were examined in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. In precontracted aorta, the lipid emulsion attenuated bupivacaine-induced vasodilation but had no effect on mepivacaine-induced vasodilation. Y-27632 attenuated contraction induced by either phenylephrine or NaF. The lipid emulsion attenuated verapamil-induced vasodilation. Compared with phenylephrine-induced precontracted aorta, bupivacaine-induced vasodilation was slightly attenuated in NaF-induced precontracted aorta. The magnitude of the bupivacaine-induced vasodilation was higher than that of a bupivacaine-induced decrease in [Ca2+]i. Bupivacaine attenuated NaF-induced MYPT1 phosphorylation, whereas lipid emulsion pretreatment attenuated the bupivacaine-induced inhibition of MYPT1 phosphorylation induced by NaF. Taken together, these results suggest that lipid emulsions attenuate bupivacaine-induced vasodilation via the attenuation of inhibition of MYPT1 phosphorylation evoked by NaF. PMID:26664257

  17. Protein phosphatase 2A inhibition and subsequent cytoskeleton reorganization contributes to cell migration caused by microcystin-LR in human laryngeal epithelial cells (Hep-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beilei; Liu, Jinghui; Huang, Pu; Xu, Kailun; Wang, Hanying; Wang, Xiaofeng; Guo, Zonglou; Xu, Lihong

    2017-03-01

    The major toxic mechanism of Microcystin-LR is inhibition of the activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), resulting in a series of cytotoxic effects. Our previous studies have demonstrated that microcystin-LR (MCLR) induced very different molecular effects in normal cells and the tumor cell line SMMC7721. To further explore the MCLR toxicity mechanism in tumor cells, human laryngeal epithelial cells (Hep-2) was examined in this study. Western blot, immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and transwell migration assay were used to detect the effects of MCLR on PP2A activity, PP2A substrates, cytoskeleton, and cell migration. The results showed that the protein level of PP2A subunits and the posttranslational modification of the catalytic subunit were altered and that the binding of the AC core enzyme as well as the binding of PP2A/C and α4, was also affected. As PP2A substrates, the phosphorylation of MAPK pathway members, p38, ERK1/2, and the cytoskeleton-associated proteins, Hsp27, VASP, Tau, and Ezrin were increased. Furthermore, MCLR induced reorganization of the cytoskeleton and promoted cell migration. Taken together, direct covalent binding to PP2A/C, alteration of the protein levels and posttranslational modification, as well as the binding of subunits, are the main pattern for the effects of MCLR on PP2A in Hep-2. A dose-dependent change in p-Tau and p-Ezrin due to PP2A inhibition may contribute to the changes in the cytoskeleton and be related to the cell migration in Hep-2. Our data provide a comprehensive exposition of the MCLR mechanism on tumor cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 890-903, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Knockdown of Phospholipase Cε (PLCε) Inhibits Cell Proliferation via Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome 10 (PTEN)/AKT Signaling Pathway in Human Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Fan, Yanru; Du, Zhongbo; Fan, Jiaxin; Hao, Yanni; Wang, Jinhua; Wu, Xiaohou; Luo, Chunli

    2018-01-13

    BACKGROUND Phospholipase Cε (PLCε), a member of the plc family, has been extensively studied to reveal its role in the regulation of different cell functions, but understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited. In the present study, we explored the effects of PLCε on PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) in cell proliferation in prostate cancer cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS We assessed PLCε and PTEN expression in human benign prostate tissues compared to prostate cancer tissues by immunohistochemistry. Lentivirus-shPLCε (LV-shPLCε) was designed to silence PLCε expression in DU145 and PC3 cell lines, and the effectiveness was tested by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. MTT assay and colony formation assay were conducted to observe cell proliferation. Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays were used to detect changed PTEN expression in DU145. RESULTS We observed that PLCε expression was reduced in human benign prostate tissues compared to prostate cancer tissues, while PTEN expression showed the opposite trend. Silencing of the PLCε gene significantly inhibited cell proliferation in DU145 and PC3 cell lines. DU145 is a PTEN-expressing cell, while PC3 is PTEN-deficient. After infection by LV-shPLCε, we noticed that PTEN expression was up-regulated in DU145 cells but not in PC3 cells. Furthermore, we found that PLCε gene knockdown decreased P-AKT protein levels, but AKT protein levels were not affected. Immunofluorescence assays showed that PTEN expression had an intracellular distribution change in the DU145 cell line, and Western blot analysis showed that PTEN was obviously up-regulated in cell nucleus and cytoplasm. CONCLUSIONS PLCε is an oncogene, and knockdown of expression of PLCe inhibits PCa cells proliferation via the PTEN/AKT signaling pathway.

  19. Forgetting of long-term memory requires activation of NMDA receptors, L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, and calcineurin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachser, Ricardo Marcelo; Santana, Fabiana; Crestani, Ana Paula; Lunardi, Paula; Pedraza, Lizeth Katherine; Quillfeldt, Jorge Alberto; Hardt, Oliver; de Oliveira Alvares, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying memory consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction have been well characterized. However, the neurobiological underpinnings of forgetting processes remain to be elucidated. Here we used behavioral, pharmacological and electrophysiological approaches to explore mechanisms controlling forgetting. We found that post-acquisition chronic inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (LVDCC), and protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN), maintains long-term object location memory that otherwise would have been forgotten. We further show that NMDAR activation is necessary to induce forgetting of object recognition memory. Studying the role of NMDAR activation in the decay of the early phase of long-term potentiation (E-LTP) in the hippocampus, we found that ifenprodil infused 30 min after LTP induction in vivo blocks the decay of CA1-evoked postsynaptic plasticity, suggesting that GluN2B-containing NMDARs activation are critical to promote LTP decay. Taken together, these findings indicate that a well-regulated forgetting process, initiated by Ca2+ influx through LVDCCs and GluN2B-NMDARs followed by CaN activation, controls the maintenance of hippocampal LTP and long-term memories over time. PMID:26947131

  20. PTD-mediated intracellular delivery of mutant NFAT minimum DNA binding domain inhibited the proliferation of T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Zhao, Qianqian; Peng, Xin; Xia, Sheng; Shen, Weihong; Zong, Yangyong; Cheng, Jing; Wu, Weijiang; Zhang, Miaomiao; Du, Fengyi; Xu, Wenrong; Qian, Hui; Shao, Qixiang

    2014-03-01

    The nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) family of calcium-regulated transcription factors plays a key role in the development and function of the immune system. Calcineurin, a protein phosphatase, activates NFAT by dephosphorylation. The activated NFAT is translocated into the nucleus, where it up-regulates the expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and other target genes. Calcineurin inhibitors such as cyclosporine A (CsA) and FK506 are effective immunosuppressant drugs and dramatically increase the success rate of organ transplantation procedures. However, since calcineurin is expressed in most tissues in the body and calcineurin inhibition alters many cellular processes besides immune cell activation, the therapeutic use of calcineurin inhibitors is limited by serious side effects. Thus inhibiting NFAT by other mechanisms such as blocking its binding to DNA could be a more selective and safer approach to target NFAT for therapeutic applications. In peripheral T cells, productive immune responses are dependent upon the cooperative binding of the NFAT/AP-1 transcriptional complex to the promoter regions of genes such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), while NFAT in the absence of AP-1 leads to T cell anergy. Protein transduction domains (PTDs) are able to penetrate cell membranes and can be used to transport exogenous proteins across the cell and nuclear membranes. In this study, we constructed a fusion protein of PTD and a minimum DNA binding domain of human NFAT1 (PTD-ΔNFATminiDBD), which contains two mutations (R466A and T533G) in the AP-1 binding sites. The delivery and functions of this fusion protein in T cells were investigated. The results indicated that PTD-ΔNFATminiDBD could be effectively delivered into T cells and transported into the nucleus. PTD-ΔNFATminiDBD attenuated IL-2 production in T cells and then inhibited T cell proliferation, likely through competing against endogenous NFAT for binding to the IL-2 gene promoter. These results demonstrated that

  1. Alkaline Phosphatases From Camel Small Intestine | Fahmy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... activity of camel intestinal IAP2 and IAP5 was studied. The camel intestinal alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes IAP2 and IAP5 were inhibited by EDTA and phenylalanine. Keywords: Camel; Small intestine; Alkaline phosphatase ; Purification; Characterization Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Vol.

  2. Intestinal Alkaline Phosphatase Inhibits the Translocation of Bacteria of Gut-Origin in Mice with Peritonitis: Mechanism of Action: e0124835

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei Wang; Shan-Wen Chen; Jing Zhu; Shuai Zuo; Yuan-Yuan Ma; Zi-Yi Chen; Jun-Ling Zhang; Guo-Wei Chen; Yu-Cun Liu; Peng-Yuan Wang

    2015-01-01

      Exogenous intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), an enzyme produced endogenously at the brush edge of the intestinal mucosa, may mitigate the increase in aberrant intestinal permeability increased during sepsis...

  3. Covalent NEDD8 conjugation increases RCAN1 protein stability and potentiates its inhibitory action on calcineurin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hye Noh

    Full Text Available Similar to ubiquitin, regulatory roles for NEDD8 (neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 8 are being clarified during cell growth, signal transduction, immune response, and development. However, NEDD8 targets and their functional alterations are not well known. Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1/DSCR1P1 is located near the Down syndrome critical region on the distal part of chromosome 21, and its gene product is an endogenous inhibitor of calcineurin signaling. RCAN1 is modified by ubiquitin and consequently undergoes proteasomal degradation. Here we report that NEDD8 is conjugated to RCAN1 (RCAN1-1S via three lysine residues, K96, K104, and K107. Neddylation enhances RCAN1 protein stability without affecting its cellular location. In addition, we found that neddylation significantly inhibits proteasomal degradation of RCAN1, which may underlie the ability of NEDD8 to enhance RCAN1 stability. Furthermore, neddylation increases RCAN1 binding to calcineurin, which potentiates its inhibitory activity toward downstream NFAT signaling. The present study provides a new regulatory mechanism of RCAN1 function and highlights an important role for diverse RCAN1-involved cellular physiology.

  4. Covalent NEDD8 conjugation increases RCAN1 protein stability and potentiates its inhibitory action on calcineurin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Eun Hye; Hwang, Hee Sook; Hwang, Hee Sun; Min, Boram; Im, Eunju; Chung, Kwang Chul

    2012-01-01

    Similar to ubiquitin, regulatory roles for NEDD8 (neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 8) are being clarified during cell growth, signal transduction, immune response, and development. However, NEDD8 targets and their functional alterations are not well known. Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1/DSCR1P1) is located near the Down syndrome critical region on the distal part of chromosome 21, and its gene product is an endogenous inhibitor of calcineurin signaling. RCAN1 is modified by ubiquitin and consequently undergoes proteasomal degradation. Here we report that NEDD8 is conjugated to RCAN1 (RCAN1-1S) via three lysine residues, K96, K104, and K107. Neddylation enhances RCAN1 protein stability without affecting its cellular location. In addition, we found that neddylation significantly inhibits proteasomal degradation of RCAN1, which may underlie the ability of NEDD8 to enhance RCAN1 stability. Furthermore, neddylation increases RCAN1 binding to calcineurin, which potentiates its inhibitory activity toward downstream NFAT signaling. The present study provides a new regulatory mechanism of RCAN1 function and highlights an important role for diverse RCAN1-involved cellular physiology.

  5. Isoflurane induced cognitive impairment in aged rats through hippocampal calcineurin/NFAT signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Cheng; Li, Zhengqian; Qian, Min; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Jun; Guo, Xiangyang, E-mail: puthmzk@163.com

    2015-05-15

    Calcineurin (CaN) over-activation constrains synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Upon CaN activation, NFAT imports into the nucleus and guides its downstream genes, which also affect neuronal and synaptic function. Aberrant CaN/NFAT signaling involves in neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, but its role in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) remains uninvestigated. Inhaled anesthetic isoflurane facilitates the development of POCD, and the present study investigated the role of CaN/NFAT signaling in isoflurane induced cognitive impairment of aged rats, and the therapeutic effects of CaN inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA). The results indicated that hippocampal CaN activity increased and peaked at 6 h after isoflurane exposure, and NFAT, especially NFATc4, imported into the nucleus following CaN activation. Furthermore, phamacological inhibition of CaN by CsA markedly attenuated isoflurane induced aberrant CaN/NFATc4 signaling in the hippocampus, and rescued relevant spatial learning and memory impairment of aged rats. Overall, the study suggests hippocampal CaN/NFAT signaling as the upstream mechanism of isoflurane induced cognitive impairment, and provides potential therapeutic target and possible treatment methods for POCD. - Highlights: • Isoflurane induces hippocampal calcineurin activation. • Isoflurane induces hippocampal NFAT, especially NFATc4, nuclear import. • Cyclosporine A attenuates isoflurane induced aberrant calcineurin/NFAT signaling. • Cyclosporine A rescues isoflurane induced cognitive impairment. • Calcineurin/NFAT signaling is the upstream mechanism of isoflurane induced synaptic dysfunction and cognitive impairment.

  6. Compensatory Internalization of Pma1 in V-ATPase Mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Requires Calcium- and Glucose-Sensitive Phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velivela, Swetha Devi; Kane, Patricia M

    2017-12-18

    Loss of V-ATPase activity in organelles, whether through V-ATPase inhibition or V-ATPase ( vma) mutations, triggers a compensatory downregulation of the essential plasma membrane proton pump, Pma1 in S. cerevisiae We have previously determined that the a-arrestin Rim8 and ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 are essential for Pma1 ubiquination and endocytosis in response to loss of V-ATPase activity. Here, we show that Pma1 endocytosis in V-ATPase mutants does not require Rim101 pathway components upstream and downstream of Rim8, indicating that Rim8 is acting independently in Pma1 internalization. We find that two phosphatases, the calcium-responsive phosphatase, calcineurin and glucose-sensitive phosphatase, Glc7 (PP1) and one of the Glc7 regulatory subunits, Reg1, exhibit negative synthetic genetic interactions with vma mutants, and demonstrate that both phosphatases are essential for ubiquitination and endocytic downregulation of Pma1 in these mutants.  Although both acute and chronic loss of V-ATPase activity trigger internalization of approximately 50% of surface Pma1, a comparable reduction in Pma1 expression in a pma1-007 mutant neither compensates for loss of V-ATPase activity nor stops further Pma1 endocytosis. The results indicate that cell surface level of Pma1 is not directly sensed and that internalized Pma1 may play a role in compensating for loss of V-ATPase-dependent acidification.  Taken together, these results provide new insights into crosstalk between two major proton pumps central to cellular pH control. Copyright © 2017, Genetics.

  7. Does Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonism Prevent Calcineurin Inhibitor-Induced Nephrotoxicity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Aas Mortensen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcineurin inhibitors have markedly reduced acute rejection rates in renal transplantation, thus significantly improved short-term outcome. The beneficial effects are, however, tampered by acute and chronic nephrotoxicity leading to interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, which impairs long-term allograft survival. The mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone induces fibrosis in numerous organs, including the kidney. Evidence from animal models suggests a beneficial effect of aldosterone antagonism in reducing calcineurin inhibitor-induced nephrotoxicity. This review summarizes current evidence of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism in animal models of calcineurin inhibitor-induced nephrotoxicity and the results from studies of mineralocorticoid antagonism in renal transplant patients.

  8. Association between the PPP3CC gene, coding for the calcineurin gamma catalytic subunit, and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellivier Frank

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcineurin is a neuron-enriched phosphatase that regulates synaptic plasticity and neuronal adaptation. Activation of calcineurin, overall, antagonizes the effects of the cyclic AMP activated protein/kinase A. Thus, kinase/phosphatase dynamic balance seems to be critical for transition to long-term cellular responses in neurons, and disruption of this equilibrium should induce behavioral impairments in animal models. Genetic animal models, as well as post-mortem studies in humans have implicated calcineurin dependent calcium and cyclic AMP regulated phosphorylation/dephosphorylation in both affective responses and psychosis. Recently, genetic association between schizophrenia and genetic variation of the human calcineurin A gamma subunit gene (PPP3CC has been reported. Methods Based on the assumption of the common underlying genetic factor in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD, we performed association analysis of CC33 and CCS3 polymorphisms of the PPP3CC gene reported to be associated with schizophrenia in a French sample of 115 BPAD patients and 97 healthy controls. Results Carrying 'CT' or 'TT' genotypes of the PPP3CC-CC33 polymorphism increased risk to develop BPAD comparing to carry 'CC' genotype (OR = 1.8 [1.01–3.0]; p = 0.05. For the PPP3CC-CCS3 polymorphism, 'AG' or 'GG' carriers have an increased risk to develop BPAD than 'AA' carriers (OR = 2.8 [1.5–5.2]. The CC33 and CCS3 polymorphisms were observed in significant linkage disequilibrium (D' = 0.91, r2 = 0.72. Haplotype frequencies were significantly different in BPAD patients than in controls (p = 0.03, with a significant over-transmission of the 'TG' haplotype in BPAD patients (p = 0.001. Conclusion: We suggest that the PPP3CC gene might be a susceptibility gene for BPAD, in accordance with current neurobiological hypotheses that implicate dysregulation of signal-transduction pathways, such as those regulated by calcineurin, in the etiology of

  9. Calcineurin inhibitors suppress cytokine production from memory T cells and differentiation of naïve T cells into cytokine-producing mature T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenshiro Tsuda

    Full Text Available T cells have been classified as belonging to the Th1 or Th2 subsets according to the production of defining cytokines such as IFN-γ and IL-4. The discovery of the Th17 lineage and regulatory T cells shifted the simple concept of the Th1/Th2 balance into a 4-way mechanistic pathway of local and systemic immunological activity. Clinically, the blockage of cytokine signals or non-specific suppression of cytokine predominance by immunosuppressants is the first-line treatment for inflammatory T cell-mediated disorders. Cyclosporine A (CsA and Tacrolimus (Tac are commonly used immunosuppressants for the treatment of autoimmune disease, psoriasis, and atopic disorders. Many studies have shown that these compounds suppress the activation of the calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin, thereby inhibiting T-cell activation. Although CsA and Tac are frequently utilized, their pharmacological mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated.In the present study, we focused on the effects of CsA and Tac on cytokine secretion from purified human memory CD4(+T cells and the differentiation of naïve T cells into cytokine-producing memory T cells. CsA or Tac significantly inhibited IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17 production from memory T cells. These compounds also inhibited T cell differentiation into the Th1, Th2, and Th17 subsets, even when used at a low concentration. This study provided critical information regarding the clinical efficacies of CsA and Tac as immunosuppressants.

  10. Calcium/calcineurin synergizes with prostratin to promote NF-κB dependent activation of latent HIV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K Chan

    Full Text Available Attempts to eradicate HIV have been thwarted by the persistence of a small pool of quiescent memory CD4 T cells that harbor a transcriptionally silent, integrated form of the virus that can produce infectious virions following an anamnestic immune response. Transcription factors downstream of T-cell receptor activation, such as NF-κB/Rel and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT transcription members, are considered important regulators of HIV transcription during acute HIV infection. We now report studies exploring their precise role as antagonists of HIV latency using cell and primary CD4 T cell models of HIV-1 latency. Surprisingly, RNA interference studies performed in J-Lat CD4 T cells suggested that none of the NFATs, including NFATc1, NFATc2, NFATc3, and NFAT5, played a key role in the reactivation of latent HIV. However, cyclosporin A markedly inhibited the reactivation response. These results were reconciled when calcium signaling through calcineurin was shown to potentiate prostratin induced activation of NF-κB that in turn stimulated the latent HIV long terminal repeat (LTR. Similar effects of calcineurin were confirmed in a primary CD4 T cell model of HIV latency. These findings highlight an important role for calcineurin in NF-κB-dependent induction of latent HIV transcription. Innovative approaches exploiting the synergistic actions of calcineurin and prostratin in the absence of generalized T-cell activation merit exploration as a means to attack the latent viral reservoir.

  11. Calcineurin in skin : rising star or fallen angel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musson, Ruben Eduardus Antonius

    2012-01-01

    Transplant recipients generally require lifelong treatment with immunosuppressive medication to prevent rejection of the graft by their immune system. Inhibitors of the enzyme calcineurin, including cyclosporin A and tacrolimus, constitute a very potent class of immunosuppressants that has

  12. Roles of the calcineurin and CaMK signaling pathways in fast-to-slow fiber type transformation of cultured adult mouse skeletal muscle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiaodong; Brown, Lisa D; Liu, Yewei; Schneider, Martin F

    2007-08-20

    Two Ca2+-dependent signaling pathways, mediated by the Ca2+-activated phosphatase calcineurin and by the Ca2+-activated kinase Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK), are both believed to function in fast-to-slow skeletal muscle fiber type transformation, but questions about the relative importance of the two pathways still remain. Here, the differential gene expression during fast-to-slow fiber type transformation was studied using cultured adult flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) fibers and a custom minimicroarray system containing 21 fiber type-specific marker genes. After 3 days of culture, unstimulated fibers showed a generally slower gene expression profile; 3 days of electric field stimulation of cultured FDB fibers with a slow fiber-type pattern transformed the fibers to an even slower gene expression profile. Unstimulated FDB fibers overexpressing constitutively active calcineurin featured a slower gene expression profile, except four genes, indicating that transformation occurred, but was incomplete with activation of the calcineurin pathway alone. In both unstimulated FDB fibers and slow-type electrically stimulated FDB fibers, blocking of CaMK pathway with KN93 generated a faster gene expression profile compared with the negative control KN92, indicating that CaMK pathway functions during the transformation induced by both unstimulated culturing and slow fiber-type electrical stimulation. Moreover, neither the calcineurin nor the CaMK pathway alone could maximally activate the transformation, and coordination of the two pathways is required to accomplish a complete fast-to-slow fiber type transformation.

  13. Regulator of calcineurin 1 mediates pathological vascular wall remodeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Vanesa; Méndez-Barbero, Nerea; Jesús Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis; Roqué, Mercè; Novensá, Laura; Belén García-Redondo, Ana; Salaices, Mercedes; Vila, Luis; Arbonés, María L.

    2011-01-01

    Artery wall remodeling, a major feature of diseases such as hypertension, restenosis, atherosclerosis, and aneurysm, involves changes in the tunica media mass that reduce or increase the vessel lumen. The identification of molecules involved in vessel remodeling could aid the development of improved treatments for these pathologies. Angiotensin II (AngII) is a key effector of aortic wall remodeling that contributes to aneurysm formation and restenosis through incompletely defined signaling pathways. We show that AngII induces vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and vessel remodeling in mouse models of restenosis and aneurysm. These effects were prevented by pharmacological inhibition of calcineurin (CN) or lentiviral delivery of CN-inhibitory peptides. Whole-genome analysis revealed >1,500 AngII-regulated genes in VSMCs, with just 11 of them requiring CN activation. Of these, the most sensitive to CN activation was regulator of CN 1 (Rcan1). Rcan1 was strongly activated by AngII in vitro and in vivo and was required for AngII-induced VSMC migration. Remarkably, Rcan1−/− mice were resistant to AngII-induced aneurysm and restenosis. Our results indicate that aneurysm formation and restenosis share mechanistic elements and identify Rcan1 as a potential therapeutic target for prevention of aneurysm and restenosis progression. PMID:21930771

  14. [Alkaline phosphatase activity and properties in the organs of swine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, S

    1980-01-01

    The activity and the physico-chemical properties of alkaline phosphatase in the liver, lung, spleen, kidney, intestine, bone and placenta of a total of 24 clinically healthy swine was investigated. Liver, spleen, kidney, lung, bone and placental alkaline phosphatase proved to be thermostable, not sensitive to 1-phenylalanine, but sensitive to 1-arginine, 1-homoarginine and imidazol. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is thermostable, sensitive to 1-phenylalanine, 1-arginine, 1-homoarginine and imidazol resistant. Urea inhibits more bone alkaline phosphatase and less alkaline phosphatase of the remaining organs. Following electrophoresis on agarose gel alkaline phosphatase of swine liver and kidney is divided into two fractions, while alkaline phosphatase of the remaining organs has only one fraction. Liver alkaline phosphatase is fastest, while kidney alkaline phosphatase is the slowest.

  15. Chimeric design, synthesis, and biological assays of a new nonpeptide insulin-mimetic vanadium compound to inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Scior

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Scior1, José Antonio Guevara-García2, FJ Melendez2, Hassan H Abdallah3, Quoc-Tuan Do4, Philippe Bernard41Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Pue, Puebla, Mexico; 2Faculty of Basic Sciences, Technology and Engineering, Laboratory of Research in Bioinorganic and Bioremediation, Universidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala, Apizaco, Tlaxcala, México; 3School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 4GreenPharma S.A., 3 Allée du Titane, Orléans, FranceAbstract: Prior to its total synthesis, a new vanadium coordination compound, called TSAG0101, was computationally designed to inhibit the enzyme protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B. The PTP1B acts as a negative regulator of insulin signaling by blocking the active site where phosphate hydrolysis of the insulin receptor takes place. TSAG001, [VVO2(OH(picolinamide], was characterized by infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy; IR: ν/cm-1 3,570 (NH, 1,627 (C=O, coordinated, 1,417 (C-N, 970/842 (O=V=O, 727 δ (pyridine ring; 13C NMR: 5 bands between 122 and 151 ppm and carbonyl C shifted to 180 ppm; and 1H NMR: 4 broad bands from 7.6 to 8.2 ppm and NH2 shifted to 8.8 ppm. In aqueous solution, in presence or absence of sodium citrate as a biologically relevant and ubiquitous chelator, TSAG0101 undergoes neither ligand exchange nor reduction of its central vanadium atom during 24 hours. TSAG0101 shows blood glucose lowering effects in rats but it produced no alteration of basal- or glucose-induced insulin secretion on β cells during in vitro tests, all of which excludes a direct mechanism evidencing the extrapancreatic nature of its activity. The lethal dose (LD50 of TSAG0101 was determined in Wistar mice yielding a value of 412 mg/Kg. This value is one of the highest among vanadium compounds and classifies it as a mild toxicity agent when compared with literature data. Due to its nonsubstituted, small-sized scaffold design

  16. Regulator of Calcineurin 1 in Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ulrike; Solominidou, Eleni; Korkmaz, Yüksel; Rüttermann, Stefan; Klocke, Astrid; Flemmig, Thomas Frank; Beikler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and NF-kB pathway associated processes are involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory disorders, for example, periodontal disease. The activation of these pathways is controlled by the regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1). The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of RCAN1 in periodontal disease. Healthy and inflamed periodontal tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence using specific rabbit polyclonal anti-RCAN1 antibodies. For expression analysis human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used. HUVEC were incubated for 2 h with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) or with wild type and laboratory strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). Expression analysis of rcan1 and cox2 was done by real time PCR using specific primers for rcan1.4 and cox2. The expression of rcan1 was found to be significantly suppressed in endothelial cells of chronically inflamed periodontal tissues compared to healthy controls. Rcan1 and cox2 were significantly induced by VEGF and wild type and laboratory P. gingivalis strains. Interestingly, the magnitude of the rcan1 and cox2 induction was strain dependent. The results of this study indicate that RCAN1 is suppressed in endothelial cells of chronically inflamed periodontal tissues. During an acute infection, however, rcan1 seems to be upregulated in endothelial cells, indicating a modulating role in immune homeostasis of periodontal tissues.

  17. Alkaline Phosphatase: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharma, Ujjawal; Pal, Deeksha; Prasad, Rajendra

    .... Alkaline phosphatase is divided into four isozymes depending upon the site of tissue expression that are Intestinal ALP, Placental ALP, Germ cell ALP and tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase or liver/bone/kidney (L/B/K) ALP...

  18. Calcineurin inhibitor-associated early renal insufficiency in cardiac transplant recipients: risk factors and strategies for prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, David A; Galin, Ira D; Gass, Alan L

    2004-01-01

    Cardiac transplantation is the definitive treatment for eligible patients with end-stage cardiac failure. Techniques have evolved to reduce surgical mortality to under 5%. Immediate and subsequent long-term survival is more dependent on acute and chronic rejection and the complications of immunosuppressive therapy. Ten-year survival is greater than 50%.The success of transplantation over the last 20 years has been largely due to the advances in immunosuppression. The most notable and dramatic milestone was the introduction of cyclosporine in the early 1980s, which resulted in a significant improvement in allograft and patient survival. Cyclosporine is a peptide that inhibits the immune system by suppressing T-helper cell activation via inhibition of calcineurin, a critical intracellular enzyme. Tacrolimus has a similar (but not identical) mechanism of action, and was introduced in the 1990s. Drugs such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus, generically referred to as calcineurin inhibitors, have become the cornerstones of immunosuppressive protocols. As a group, calcineurin inhibitors have adverse effects, including neurotoxicity, hypertension, and nephrotoxicity, which complicate their use. Early renal insufficiency manifests as postoperative oliguria (cardiac output, and mechanical obstruction to urine flow. Given that there is no highly efficacious treatment for this syndrome, ways to avoid its occurrence are desirable. One paper is referenced that suggests that avoidance of rapid changes in tacrolimus level during the first three days of therapy is associated with a low occurrence of early renal insufficiency.

  19. The R3 receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase subfamily inhibits insulin signalling by dephosphorylating the insulin receptor at specific sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Takafumi; Higashi, Satoru; Takeuchi, Yasushi; Gaudio, Eugenio; Trapasso, Francesco; Fusco, Alfredo; Noda, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    The autophosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues occurs in the cytoplasmic region of the insulin receptor (IR) upon insulin binding, and this in turn initiates signal transduction. The R3 subfamily (Ptprb, Ptprh, Ptprj and Ptpro) of receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) is characterized by an extracellular region with 6-17 fibronectin type III-like repeats and a cytoplasmic region with a single phosphatase domain. We herein identified the IR as a substrate for R3 RPTPs by using the substrate-trapping mutants of R3 RPTPs. The co-expression of R3 RPTPs with the IR in HEK293T cells suppressed insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the IR. In vitro assays using synthetic phosphopeptides revealed that R3 RPTPs preferentially dephosphorylated a particular phosphorylation site of the IR: Y960 in the juxtamembrane region and Y1146 in the activation loop. Among four R3 members, only Ptprj was co-expressed with the IR in major insulin target tissues, such as the skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue. Importantly, the activation of IR and Akt by insulin was enhanced, and glucose and insulin tolerance was improved in Ptprj-deficient mice. These results demonstrated Ptprj as a physiological enzyme that attenuates insulin signalling in vivo, and indicate that an inhibitor of Ptprj may be an insulin-sensitizing agent. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  20. High on Cannabis and Calcineurin Inhibitors: A Word of Warning in an Era of Legalized Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Naomi; Sahai, Tanmay; Richards, Rocco; Roberts, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Tacrolimus, a potent immunosuppressant medication, acts by inhibiting calcineurin, which eventually leads to inhibition of T-cell activation. The drug is commonly used to prevent graft rejection in solid organ transplant and graft-versus-host disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Tacrolimus has a narrow therapeutic index with variable oral bioavailability and metabolism via cytochrome P-450 3A enzyme. Toxicity can occur from overdosing or from drug-drug interactions with the simultaneous administration of cytochrome P-450 3A inhibitors and possibly P-glycoprotein inhibitors. Tacrolimus toxicity can be severe and may include multiorgan damage. We present a case of suspected tacrolimus toxicity in a postallogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient who was concurrently using oral marijuana. This case represents an important and growing clinical scenario with the increasing legalization and use of marijuana throughout the United States.

  1. High on Cannabis and Calcineurin Inhibitors: A Word of Warning in an Era of Legalized Marijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Hauser

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tacrolimus, a potent immunosuppressant medication, acts by inhibiting calcineurin, which eventually leads to inhibition of T-cell activation. The drug is commonly used to prevent graft rejection in solid organ transplant and graft-versus-host disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Tacrolimus has a narrow therapeutic index with variable oral bioavailability and metabolism via cytochrome P-450 3A enzyme. Toxicity can occur from overdosing or from drug-drug interactions with the simultaneous administration of cytochrome P-450 3A inhibitors and possibly P-glycoprotein inhibitors. Tacrolimus toxicity can be severe and may include multiorgan damage. We present a case of suspected tacrolimus toxicity in a postallogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patient who was concurrently using oral marijuana. This case represents an important and growing clinical scenario with the increasing legalization and use of marijuana throughout the United States.

  2. Is a flavonoid-rich diet with steamer cooking safe during calcineurin inhibitors therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, I; Palmery, M

    2014-10-01

    Dietary therapy is recommended for decreasing the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome and the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in subjects on calcineurin inhibitors. However, food-drug interactions may occur particularly with patients on such immunosuppressive therapy. This article comments on the benefit/risk assessment of a flavonoid-rich diet and steam-cooking of such food during calcineurin inhibitors therapy. Patients are commonly advised against consuming citrus fruits and juices, grape juice and green tea. High vegetable intake may however increase the risk of food-diet interactions by inhibiting drug metabolic enzymes and transporters. Vegetable glucosinolates are potential interactants and may lead to adverse effects of drugs with narrow therapeutic indices and in the presence of genetic polymorphism. Examples of food components with potential drug interactants include all members of the Brassicaceae family. The potential additive and synergistic effects of flavonoids with other molecules in interfering with drug bioavailability need to be taken into account. The risk is highest with drugs with a narrow therapeutic index and in subjects with genetic polymorphisms of proteins involved in the disposition of those drugs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Individualized dosing of calcineurin inhibitors in renal transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Press, Rogier Raphael

    2011-01-01

    Calcineurin inhibitors are crucial in the prevention of acute rejection in the first year after renal transplantation. Unfortunately, these drugs (ciclosporin A, tacrolimus) are characterized by serious clinical toxicity and between patient variability in their effect. Therefore, the dose of these

  4. Parathyroid-Specific Deletion of Klotho Unravels a Novel Calcineurin-Dependent FGF23 Signaling Pathway That Regulates PTH Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olauson, Hannes; Lindberg, Karolina; Amin, Risul; Sato, Tadatoshi; Jia, Ting; Goetz, Regina; Mohammadi, Moosa; Andersson, Göran; Lanske, Beate; Larsson, Tobias E.

    2013-01-01

    Klotho acts as a co-receptor for and dictates tissue specificity of circulating FGF23. FGF23 inhibits PTH secretion, and reduced Klotho abundance is considered a pathogenic factor in renal secondary hyperparathyroidism. To dissect the role of parathyroid gland resident Klotho in health and disease, we generated mice with a parathyroid-specific Klotho deletion (PTH-KL−/−). PTH-KL−/− mice had a normal gross phenotype and survival; normal serum PTH and calcium; unaltered expression of the PTH gene in parathyroid tissue; and preserved PTH response and sensitivity to acute changes in serum calcium. Their PTH response to intravenous FGF23 delivery or renal failure did not differ compared to their wild-type littermates despite disrupted FGF23-induced activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway. Importantly, calcineurin-NFAT signaling, defined by increased MCIP1 level and nuclear localization of NFATC2, was constitutively activated in PTH-KL−/− mice. Treatment with the calcineurin-inhibitor cyclosporine A abolished FGF23-mediated PTH suppression in PTH-KL−/− mice whereas wild-type mice remained responsive. Similar results were observed in thyro-parathyroid explants ex vivo. Collectively, we present genetic and functional evidence for a novel, Klotho-independent, calcineurin-mediated FGF23 signaling pathway in parathyroid glands that mediates suppression of PTH. The presence of Klotho-independent FGF23 effects in a Klotho-expressing target organ represents a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of FGF23 endocrine action. PMID:24348262

  5. Overexpression of protein tyrosine phosphatase-alpha (PTP-alpha) but not PTP-kappa inhibits translocation of GLUT4 in rat adipose cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, L N; Chen, H; Li, Y

    1999-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) are likely to play important roles in insulin action. We recently demonstrated that the nontransmembrane PTPase PTP1B can act as a negative modulator of insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4. We now examine the role of PTP-alpha and PTP-kappa (two...... transmembrane PTPases) in this metabolic action of insulin. Rat adipose cells were transfected with either PTP-alpha or PTP-kappa and effects of these PTPases on the translocation of a cotransfected epitope-tagged GLUT4 were studied. Cells overexpressing wild-type PTP-alpha had significantly lower levels...... of cell surface GLUT4 in response to insulin and a threefold decrease in insulin sensitivity when compared with control cells expressing only tagged GLUT4. Co-overexpression of PTP-alpha and PTP1B did not have additive effects, suggesting that these PTPases share common substrates. Cells overexpressing...

  6. Bifunctional coating based on carboxymethyl chitosan with stable conjugated alkaline phosphatase for inhibiting bacterial adhesion and promoting osteogenic differentiation on titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Dong; Neoh, Koon Gee, E-mail: chenkg@nus.edu.sg; Kang, En-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Alkaline phosphatase was immobilized on carboxymethyl chitosan coating on Ti. • The coating is bifunctional; resists bacterial adhesion and enhances cell functions. • Osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts and stem cells is enhanced on the coating. • The coating remains stable and functional after ethanol treatment and autoclaving. - Abstract: In this work, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was covalently immobilized on carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS)-coated polydopamine (PDA)-functionalized Ti to achieve a bifunctional surface. Our results showed ∼89% reduction in Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion on this surface compared to that on pristine Ti. The ALP-modified Ti supported cell proliferation, and significantly enhanced cellular ALP activity and calcium deposition of osteoblasts, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). The extent of enhancement in the functions of these cells is dependent on the surface density of immobilized ALP. The substrate prepared using an ALP solution of 50 μg/cm{sup 2} resulted in 44%, 54% and 129% increase in calcium deposited by osteoblasts, hMSCs and hADSCs, respectively, compared to those cultured on pristine Ti. The ALP-modified substrates also promoted the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs and hADSCs by up-regulating gene expressions of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osterix (OSX), and osteocalcin (OC) in the two types of stem cells. The surface-immobilized ALP was stable after being subjected to 1 h immersion in 70% ethanol and autoclaving at 121 °C for 20 min. However, the enzymatic bioactivity of the surface-immobilized ALP was reduced by about 50% after these substrates were immersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or PBS containing lysozyme for 14 days.

  7. Antidiabetic effect of propolis: reduction of expression of glucose-6-phosphatase through inhibition of Y279 and Y216 autophosphorylation of GSK-3α/β in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li-Jung; Lee, Hwanghee Blaise; Bae, Hyeun-Jong; Lee, Seong-Gene

    2010-10-01

    Propolis is a sticky, resinous material that honey bees collect from various plants, and mix with wax and other secretions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of propolis through an analysis of the expression and enzyme activity of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and to elucidate the mechanism by which propolis inhibits G6Pase gene expression. When HepG2 cells were incubated in high glucose media (25 mm), G6Pase expression was induced. Propolis significantly reduced the expression and enzyme activity of G6Pase; however, the hypoglycemic effect was not abolished by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002, and by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, U0126. Propolis inhibited the activity of GSK3α and β via the inhibition of serine and tyrosine phosphorylation, specifically, Y279 for GSK3α and Y216 for GSK3β. The phosphorylations of Y279 and Y216 occur through autophosphorylation by GSK3α/β and are involved in their own activity. Although propolis showed antioxidant activity, antidiabetic effect of propolis was not influenced by hydrogen peroxide and N-acetylcysteine. These results suggest that propolis inhibits the expression of G6Pase by inhibiting the autophosphorylation of Y279 and Y216 of GSK3α and β, respectively, which are involved in the activation of GSK3. These findings suggest that propolis may be a potential antidiabetic agent for the treatment of insulin-insensitive diabetes. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Inhibition of SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) ameliorates palmitate induced-apoptosis through regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway and ROS production in HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgani-Firuzjaee, Sattar [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Adeli, Khosrow [Division of Clinical Biochemistry, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Meshkani, Reza, E-mail: rmeshkani@tums.ac.ir [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-21

    The serine–threonine kinase Akt regulates proliferation and survival by phosphorylating a network of protein substrates; however, the role of a negative regulator of the Akt pathway, the SH2-domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) in apoptosis of the hepatocytes, remains unknown. In the present study, we studied the molecular mechanisms linking SHIP2 expression to apoptosis using overexpression or suppression of SHIP2 gene in HepG2 cells exposed to palmitate (0.5 mM). Overexpression of the dominant negative mutant SHIP2 (SHIP2-DN) significantly reduced palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, as these cells had increased cell viability, decreased apoptotic cell death and reduced the activity of caspase-3, cytochrome c and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene led to a massive apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The protection from palmitate-induced apoptosis by SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by a decrease in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, SHIP2 inhibition was accompanied by an increased Akt and FOXO-1 phosphorylation, whereas overexpression of the wild-type SHIP2 gene had the opposite effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that SHIP2 expression level is an important determinant of hepatic lipoapotosis and its inhibition can potentially be a target in treatment of hepatic lipoapoptosis in diabetic patients. - Highlights: • Lipoapoptosis is the major contributor to the development of NAFLD. • The PI3-K/Akt pathway regulates apoptosis in different cells. • The role of negative regulator of this pathway, SHIP2 in lipoapoptosis is unknown. • SHIP2 inhibition significantly reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. • SHIP2 inhibition prevents palmitate induced-apoptosis by regulating Akt/FOXO1 pathway.

  9. Bifunctional coating based on carboxymethyl chitosan with stable conjugated alkaline phosphatase for inhibiting bacterial adhesion and promoting osteogenic differentiation on titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dong; Neoh, Koon Gee; Kang, En-Tang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was covalently immobilized on carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS)-coated polydopamine (PDA)-functionalized Ti to achieve a bifunctional surface. Our results showed ∼89% reduction in Staphylococcus epidermidis adhesion on this surface compared to that on pristine Ti. The ALP-modified Ti supported cell proliferation, and significantly enhanced cellular ALP activity and calcium deposition of osteoblasts, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). The extent of enhancement in the functions of these cells is dependent on the surface density of immobilized ALP. The substrate prepared using an ALP solution of 50 μg/cm2 resulted in 44%, 54% and 129% increase in calcium deposited by osteoblasts, hMSCs and hADSCs, respectively, compared to those cultured on pristine Ti. The ALP-modified substrates also promoted the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs and hADSCs by up-regulating gene expressions of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osterix (OSX), and osteocalcin (OC) in the two types of stem cells. The surface-immobilized ALP was stable after being subjected to 1 h immersion in 70% ethanol and autoclaving at 121 °C for 20 min. However, the enzymatic bioactivity of the surface-immobilized ALP was reduced by about 50% after these substrates were immersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or PBS containing lysozyme for 14 days.

  10. A dimeric urea of the bisabolene sesquiterpene from the Okinawan marine sponge Axinyssa sp. inhibits protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B activity in Huh-7 human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdjul, Delfly B; Kanno, Syu-Ichi; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Ukai, Kazuyo; Namikoshi, Michio

    2016-01-15

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) plays an important role as a negative regulator of the insulin and leptin signaling pathways. Therefore, this enzyme is regarded as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Our screening program for PTP1B inhibitors led to the isolation of four sesquiterpenes and sterol: N,N'-bis[(6R,7S)-7-amino-7,8-dihydro-α-bisabolen-7-yl]urea (1), (6R,7S)-7-amino-7,8-dihydro-α-bisabolene (2), (1R,6S,7S,10S)-10-isothiocyanato-4-amorphene (3), axinisothiocyanate J (4), and axinysterol (5) from the marine sponge Axinyssa sp. collected at Iriomote Island. Of these, compound 1 was the most potent inhibitor of PTP1B activity (IC50=1.9μM) without cytotoxicity at 50μM in two human cancer cell lines, hepatoma Huh-7 and bladder carcinoma EJ-1 cells. Compound 1 also moderately enhanced the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation levels of Akt in Huh-7 cells. Therefore, compound 1 has potential as a new type of anti-diabetic drug candidate possessing PTP1B inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Computational Insight into Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibition: A Case Study of the Combined Ligand- and Structure-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B is an attractive target for treating cancer, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. In our work, the way of combined ligand- and structure-based approach was applied to analyze the characteristics of PTP1B enzyme and its interaction with competitive inhibitors. Firstly, the pharmacophore model of PTP1B inhibitors was built based on the common feature of sixteen compounds. It was found that the pharmacophore model consisted of five chemical features: one aromatic ring (R region, two hydrophobic (H groups, and two hydrogen bond acceptors (A. To further elucidate the binding modes of these inhibitors with PTP1B active sites, four docking programs (AutoDock 4.0, AutoDock Vina 1.0, standard precision (SP Glide 9.7, and extra precision (XP Glide 9.7 were used. The characteristics of the active sites were then described by the conformations of the docking results. In conclusion, a combination of various pharmacophore features and the integration information of structure activity relationship (SAR can be used to design novel potent PTP1B inhibitors.

  12. Persistently elevated alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Jitin; Gorard, David A

    2012-08-24

    A 32-year-old overweight asymptomatic man was found to have a persistently raised serum alkaline phosphatase at 250-300 U/l (normal range liver function tests were unremarkable apart from an initial marginally elevated alanine transaminase, which normalised with weight reduction. Abdominal imaging revealed a fatty liver but an extensive serological search for significant hepatobiliary disease was negative. Subsequent isoenzyme electrophoresis revealed normal liver and bone fractions of alkaline phosphatase but a grossly elevated intestinal fraction. Elevated intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase should be considered in the investigation of unexplained alkaline phosphatase, particularly when the usual associated hepatobiliary and bony pathologies are not present. Although an elevated intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase can be linked to significant gastrointestinal pathology, this case report highlights that it can be a benign biochemical finding.

  13. Calcineurin and Protein kinase G regulate C. elegans behavioral quiescence during locomotion in liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmons Scott W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most rhythmic motor behaviors in nature are episodic i.e. they alternate between different behavioral states, including quiescence. Electrophysiological studies in invertebrate behavioral switching, maintenance and quiescence have elucidated several neuronal mechanisms that generate a temporal pattern in behavior. However, the genetic bases of these processes are less well studied. We have previously uncovered a novel episodic behavior exhibited by C. elegans in liquid media where they alternate between distinct phases of rhythmic swimming and quiescence. Here, we have investigated the effect of several genes and their site of action on the behavioral quiescence exhibited in liquid by the nematode C. elegans. Results We have previously reported that high cholinergic signaling promotes quiescence and command interneurons are critical for timing the quiescence bout durations. We have found that in addition to command interneurons, sensory neurons are also critical for quiescence. We show that the protein phosphatase calcineurin homolog tax-6 promotes swimming whereas the protein kinase G homolog egl-4 promotes quiescence. tax-6 expression in the sensory neurons is sufficient to account for its effect. egl-4 also acts in multiple sensory neurons to mediate its effect on quiescence. In addition our data is consistent with regulation of quiescence by egl-4 acting functionally downstream of release of acetylcholine (ACh by motor neurons. Conclusions Our study provides genetic evidence for mechanisms underlying the maintenance of a behavioral state operating at multiple neuronal levels through the activities of a kinase and a phosphatase. These results in a genetically tractable organism establish a framework for further dissection of the mechanism of quiescence during episodic behaviors.

  14. Haematopoietic protein tyrosine phosphatase (HePTP) phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase in T-cells: dynamics and subcellular location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nika, Konstantina; Hyunh, Huong; Williams, Scott; Paul, Surojit; Bottini, Nunzio; Taskén, Kjetil; Lombroso, Paul J; Mustelin, Tomas

    2004-01-01

    The HePTP (haematopoietic protein tyrosine phosphatase) is a negative regulator of the ERK2 (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2) and p38 MAP kinases (mitogen-activated protein kinases) in T-cells. This inhibitory function requires a physical association of HePTP through an N-terminal KIM (kinase-interaction motif) with ERK and p38. We previously reported that PKA (cAMP-dependent protein kinase) phosphorylates Ser-23 within the KIM of HePTP, resulting in dissociation of HePTP from ERK2. Here we follow the phosphorylation of this site in intact T-cells. We find that HePTP is phosphorylated at Ser-23 in resting T-cells and that this phosphorylation increases upon treatment of the cells with agents that elevate intracellular cAMP, such as prostaglandin E2. HePTP phosphorylation occurred at discrete regions at the cell surface. Phosphorylation was reduced by inhibitors of PKA and increased by inhibitors of protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A, but not by inhibitors of calcineurin. In vitro, PP1 efficiently dephosphorylated HePTP at Ser-23, while PP2A was much less efficient. Activation of PP1 by treatment of the cells with ceramide suppressed Ser-23 phosphorylation, as did transfection of the catalytic subunit of PP1. Phosphorylation at Ser-23 is also increased in a transient manner upon T-cell antigen receptor ligation. In contrast, treatment of cells with phorbol ester had no effect on HePTP phosphorylation at Ser-23. We conclude from these results that HePTP is under continuous control by PKA and a serine-specific phosphatase, probably PP1, in T-cells and that this basal phosphorylation at Ser-23 can rapidly change in response to external stimuli. This, in turn, will affect the ability of HePTP to inhibit the ERK and p38 MAP kinases. PMID:14613483

  15. Aspirin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in porcine alveolar macrophages by modulating protein kinase C and protein tyrosine phosphatase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Yuzhong; Chen, Fanglin; Zhang, Anmei; Zhu, Bo; Sun, Jianguo; Xie, Qichao; Chen, Zhengtang

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin has been demonstrated to be effective in inhibiting COX-2 and PGE2 in Alveolar macrophages (AMs). However, the mechanisms have not been fully understood. In the present study, we found that pretreatment with aspirin inhibited LPS-induced COX-2 and PGE2 upregulation, IκBα degradation, NFκB activation and the increase of PKC activity, but elevated LPS-induced the decrease of PTP activity. The PKC inhibitor calphostin C dramatically reduced the COX-2 mRNA and PGE2 levels, but the PTP inh...

  16. Degradation of regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) is mediated by both chaperone-mediated autophagy and ubiquitin proteasome pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heng; Wang, Pin; Song, Weihong; Sun, Xiulian

    2009-10-01

    Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1), a gene identified from the critical region of Down syndrome, has been implied in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). RCAN1 expression was shown to be increased in AD brains; however, the mechanism of RCAN1 gene regulation is not well defined. The present study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanism of RCAN1 protein degradation. In addition to being degraded through the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, we found that lysosomal inhibition markedly increased RCAN1 protein expression in a time- and dosage-dependent manner. Inhibition of macroautophagy reduced RCAN1 expression, indicating that RCAN1 degradation is not through a macroautophagy pathway. However, disruption of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) increased RCAN1 expression. Two CMA recognition motifs were identified in RCAN1 protein to mediate its degradation through a CMA-lysosome pathway. A promoter assay further demonstrated that inhibition of RCAN1 degradation in cells reduced calcineurin-NFAT activity. Dysfunctions of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome pathways have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, elucidation of RCAN1 degradation by a ubiquitin proteasome pathway and CMA-lysosome pathway in the present study may greatly advance our understanding of AD pathogenesis.

  17. Development of a gene therapy strategy to target hepatocellular carcinoma based inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A using the α-fetoprotein promoter enhancer and pgk promoter: an in vitro and in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Current therapies are insufficient, making HCC an intractable disease. Our previous studies confirmed that inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer. Unfortunately, constitutive expression of PP2A in normal tissues limits the application of PP2A inhibition. Thus, a HCC-specific gene delivery system should be developed. The α-fetoprotein (AFP promoter is commonly used in HCC-specific gene therapy strategies; however, the utility of this approach is limited due to the weak activity of the AFP promoter. It has been shown that linking the AFP enhancer with the promoter of the non-tissue-specific, human housekeeping phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk gene can generate a strong and HCC-selective promoter. Methods We constructed a HCC-specific gene therapy system to target PP2A using the AFP enhancer/pgk promoter, and evaluated the efficiency and specificity of this system both in vitro and in vivo. Results AFP enhancer/pgk promoter-driven expression of the dominant negative form of the PP2A catalytic subunit α (DN-PP2Acα exerted cytotoxic effects against an AFP-positive human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 and Hep3B, but did not affect AFP-negative human hepatoma cells (SK-HEP-1 or normal human liver cells (L-02. Moreover, AFP enhancer/pgk promoter driven expression of DN-PP2Acα inhibited the growth of AFP-positive HepG2 tumors in nude mice bearing solid tumor xenografts, but did not affect AFP-negative SK-HEP-1 tumors. Conclusions The novel approach of AFP enhancer/pgk promoter-driven expression of DN-PP2Acα may provide a useful cancer gene therapy strategy to selectively target HCC.

  18. A chronoamperometric screen printed carbon biosensor based on alkaline phosphatase inhibition for W(IV) determination in water, using 2-phospho-L-ascorbic acid trisodium salt as a substrate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvarado-Gámez, Ana Lorena; Alonso-Lomillo, María Asunción; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Arcos-Martínez, María Julia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a chronoamperometric method to determine tungsten in water using screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles and cross linked alkaline phosphatase immobilized...

  19. Phosphatase activity of Poa pratensis seeds. II. Purification and characterization of acid phosphatase Ia2 and Ia3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lorenc-Kubis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two acid phosphatases (Ia2, Ia3 have been isolated from Poa pratensis seeds and partially purified. Both enzymes showed maximal activity at pH 4,9. They exhibited high activity towards p-nitrophenyl phosphate, inorganic pyrophosphate and phenyl phosphate, much less activity towards glucose-6 phosphate, and mononucleotides. Phosphatases a2 and a3 differed in their activity towards ADP. Orthophosphate, fluoride and Zn2+ were effective inhibitors. EDTA, β-mercaptoethanol and Mg2+ activated phophatase a2 but had no effect on phosphatase a3. Zn2+ inhibited the activity of phosphatase a2 noncompetitively, whereas phosphatase a3 showed inhibition of mixed type. Trypsin, chymotrypsin and pronase had no effect on the enzyme activities of both molecular forms.

  20. Aspirin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in porcine alveolar macrophages by modulating protein kinase C and protein tyrosine phosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yuzhong; Chen, Fanglin; Zhang, Anmei; Zhu, Bo; Sun, Jianguo; Xie, Qichao; Chen, Zhengtang

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin has been demonstrated to be effective in inhibiting COX-2 and PGE(2) in Alveolar macrophages (AMs). However, the mechanisms have not been fully understood. In the present study, we found that pretreatment with aspirin inhibited LPS-induced COX-2 and PGE(2) upregulation, IκBα degradation, NFκB activation and the increase of PKC activity, but elevated LPS-induced the decrease of PTP activity. The PKC inhibitor calphostin C dramatically reduced the COX-2 mRNA and PGE(2) levels, but the PTP inhibitor peroxovanadium (POV) significantly increased the COX-2 mRNA and PGE(2) levels. Furthermore, the PTP inhibitor mitigated the inhibitory effect of aspirin on COX-2 and PGE(2) upregulation and NF-κB activation, whereas the PKC inhibitor enhanced the inhibitory effects of aspirin on the production of COX-2 and PGE(2). Our data indicate a novel mechanism by which aspirin acts as a potent anti-inflammatory agent in alveolus macrophages and ALI.

  1. Therapeutic effect of γ-secretase inhibition in KrasG12V-driven non-small cell lung carcinoma through derepression of DUSP1 phosphatase and inhibition of ERK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraver, Antonio; Muñoz-Martin, Maribel; Gomez-Lopez, Gonzalo; Cañamero, Marta; Mulero, Francisca; Megías, Diego; Sanchez-Carbayo, Marta; Shen, Jie; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montserrat; Palomero, Teresa; Ferrando, Adolfo; Serrano, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Here, we have investigated the role of the Notch pathway in the generation and maintenance of KrasG12V-driven non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs). We demonstrate by genetic means that γ-secretase and RBPJ are essential in the formation of NSCLCs. Importantly, pharmacologic treatment of mice carrying autochthonous NSCLCs with a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) blocks cancer growth. Treated carcinomas present reduced HES1 levels and, interestingly, reduced phosphorylated ERK without changes in phosphorylated MEK. Mechanistically, we show that HES1 directly binds and represses the promoter of DUSP1, encoding a dual phosphatase active against phospho-ERK. Accordingly, GSI treatment upregulates DUSP1 and decreases phospho-ERK. These data provide proof for the in vivo therapeutic potential of γ-secretase inhibitors in primary NSCLCs. PMID:22897852

  2. Expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPalpha) in human breast cancer correlates with low tumor grade, and inhibits tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardini, E; Agresti, R; Tagliabue, E

    2000-01-01

    of Src family kinases, and regulation of integrin signaling, cell adhesion, and growth factor responsiveness. To explore its potential contribution to human neoplasia, we surveyed RPTPalpha protein levels in primary human breast cancer. We found RPTPalpha levels to vary widely among tumors, with 29......% of cases manifesting significant overexpression. High RPTPalpha protein levels correlated significantly with low tumor grade and positive estrogen receptor status. Expression of RPTPalpha in breast carcinoma cells led to growth inhibition, associated with increased accumulation in G0 and G1, and delayed...... tumor growth and metastasis. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a study correlating expression level of a specific bona fide PTP with neoplastic disease status in humans....

  3. A Chronoamperometric Screen Printed Carbon Biosensor Based on Alkaline Phosphatase Inhibition for W(VI) Determination in Water, Using 2-Phospho-l-Ascorbic Acid Trisodium Salt as a Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Gámez, Ana Lorena; Alonso-Lomillo, María Asunción; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Arcos-Martínez, María Julia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a chronoamperometric method to determine tungsten in water using screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles and cross linked alkaline phosphatase immobilized in the working electrode. Enzymatic activity over 2-phospho-l-ascorbic acid trisodium salt, used as substrate, was affected by tungsten ions, which resulted in a decrease of chronoamperometric current, when a potential of 200 mV was applied on 10 mM of substrate in a Tris HCl buffer pH 8.00 and 0.36 M of KCl. Calibration curves for the electrochemical method validation, give a reproducibility of 5.2% (n = 3), a repeatability of 9.4% (n = 3) and a detection limit of 0.29 ± 0.01 μM. Enriched tap water, purified laboratory water and bottled drinking water, with a certified tungsten reference solution traceable to NIST, gave a recovery of 97.1%, 99.1% and 99.1% respectively (n = 4 in each case) and a dynamic range from 0.6 to 30 μM. This study was performed by means of a Lineweaver–Burk plot, showing a mixed kinetic inhibition. PMID:25621602

  4. A Chronoamperometric Screen Printed Carbon Biosensor Based on Alkaline Phosphatase Inhibition for W(VI Determination in Water, Using 2-Phospho-l-Ascorbic Acid Trisodium Salt as a Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lorena Alvarado-Gámez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a chronoamperometric method to determine tungsten in water using screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles and cross linked alkaline phosphatase immobilized in the working electrode. Enzymatic activity over 2-phospho-l-ascorbic acid trisodium salt, used as substrate, was affected by tungsten ions, which resulted in a decrease of chronoamperometric current, when a potential of 200 mV was applied on 10 mM of substrate in a Tris HCl buffer pH 8.00 and 0.36 M of KCl. Calibration curves for the electrochemical method validation, give a reproducibility of 5.2% (n = 3, a repeatability of 9.4% (n = 3 and a detection limit of 0.29 ± 0.01 µM. Enriched tap water, purified laboratory water and bottled drinking water, with a certified tungsten reference solution traceable to NIST, gave a recovery of 97.1%, 99.1% and 99.1% respectively (n = 4 in each case and a dynamic range from 0.6 to 30 µM. This study was performed by means of a Lineweaver–Burk plot, showing a mixed kinetic inhibition.

  5. The Regulator of Calcineurin 1 (RCAN1/DSCR1) Activates the cAMP Response Element-binding Protein (CREB) Pathway*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon Sook; Seo, Su Ryeon

    2011-01-01

    cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is one of the best known transcription factors in the development and function of the nervous system. In this report, we found that the regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1), which is overexpressed in the brain of patients with Down syndrome, increased the phosphorylation of CREB and cAMP response element-mediated gene transcription in response to the activation of the intracellular cAMP pathway. Furthermore, we found that the increased activation of CREB signaling by RCAN1 depended on the ability of RCAN1 to inhibit calcineurin activity. Our data provide the first evidence that RCAN1 acts as an important regulatory component in the control of CREB signaling. PMID:21890628

  6. The regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1/DSCR1) activates the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon Sook; Seo, Su Ryeon

    2011-10-28

    cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is one of the best known transcription factors in the development and function of the nervous system. In this report, we found that the regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1), which is overexpressed in the brain of patients with Down syndrome, increased the phosphorylation of CREB and cAMP response element-mediated gene transcription in response to the activation of the intracellular cAMP pathway. Furthermore, we found that the increased activation of CREB signaling by RCAN1 depended on the ability of RCAN1 to inhibit calcineurin activity. Our data provide the first evidence that RCAN1 acts as an important regulatory component in the control of CREB signaling.

  7. Specific calcineurin targeting in macrophages confers resistance to inflammation via MKP-1 and p38

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolano, Amelia; Martínez-Martínez, Sara; Alfranca, Arántzazu; Urso, Katia; Izquierdo, Helena M; Delgado, Mario; Martín, Francisco; Sabio, Guadalupe; Sancho, David; Gómez-del Arco, Pablo; Redondo, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages contribute to tissue homeostasis and influence inflammatory responses by modulating their phenotype in response to the local environment. Understanding the molecular mechanisms governing this plasticity would open new avenues for the treatment for inflammatory disorders. We show that deletion of calcineurin (CN) or its inhibition with LxVP peptide in macrophages induces an anti-inflammatory population that confers resistance to arthritis and contact hypersensitivity. Transfer of CN-targeted macrophages or direct injection of LxVP-encoding lentivirus has anti-inflammatory effects in these models. Specific CN targeting in macrophages induces p38 MAPK activity by downregulating MKP-1 expression. However, pharmacological CN inhibition with cyclosporin A (CsA) or FK506 did not reproduce these effects and failed to induce p38 activity. The CN-inhibitory peptide VIVIT also failed to reproduce the effects of LxVP. p38 inhibition prevented the anti-inflammatory phenotype of CN-targeted macrophages, and mice with defective p38-activation were resistant to the anti-inflammatory effect of LxVP. Our results identify a key role for CN and p38 in the modulation of macrophage phenotype and suggest an alternative treatment for inflammation based on redirecting macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory status. PMID:24596247

  8. Alkaline phosphatase: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ujjawal; Pal, Deeksha; Prasad, Rajendra

    2014-07-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP; E.C.3.I.3.1.) is an ubiquitous membrane-bound glycoprotein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters at basic pH values. Alkaline phosphatase is divided into four isozymes depending upon the site of tissue expression that are Intestinal ALP, Placental ALP, Germ cell ALP and tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase or liver/bone/kidney (L/B/K) ALP. The intestinal and placental ALP loci are located near the end of long arm of chromosome 2 and L/B/K ALP is located near the end of the short arm of chromosome 1. Although ALPs are present in many mammalian tissues and have been studied for the last several years still little is known about them. The bone isoenzyme may be involved in mammalian bone calcification and the intestinal isoenzyme is thought to play a role in the transport of phosphate into epithelial cells of the intestine. In this review, we tried to provide an overview about the various forms, structure and functions of alkaline phosphatase with special focus on liver/bone/kidney alkaline phosphatase.

  9. Endothelial Regulator of Calcineurin 1 Promotes Barrier Integrity and Modulates Histamine-Induced Barrier Dysfunction in Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Ballesteros-Martinez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis, the most serious and life-threatening allergic reaction, produces the release of inflammatory mediators by mast cells and basophils. Regulator of calcineurin 1 (Rcan1 is a negative regulator of mast-cell degranulation. The action of mediators leads to vasodilation and an increase in vascular permeability, causing great loss of intravascular volume in a short time. Nevertheless, the molecular basis remains unexplored on the vascular level. We investigated Rcan1 expression induced by histamine, platelet-activating factor (PAF, and epinephrine in primary human vein (HV-/artery (HA-derived endothelial cells (ECs and human dermal microvascular ECs (HMVEC-D. Vascular permeability was analyzed in vitro in human ECs with forced Rcan1 expression using Transwell migration assays and in vivo using Rcan1 knockout mice. Histamine, but neither PAF nor epinephrine, induced Rcan1-4 mRNA and protein expression in primary HV-ECs, HA-ECs, and HMVEC-D through histamine receptor 1 (H1R. These effects were prevented by pharmacological inhibition of calcineurin with cyclosporine A. Moreover, intravenous histamine administration increased Rcan1 expression in lung tissues of mice undergoing experimental anaphylaxis. Functional in vitro assays showed that overexpression of Rcan1 promotes barrier integrity, suggesting a role played by this molecule in vascular permeability. Consistent with these findings, in vivo models of subcutaneous and intravenous histamine-mediated fluid extravasation showed increased response in skin, aorta, and lungs of Rcan1-deficient mice compared with wild-type animals. These findings reveal that endothelial Rcan1 is synthesized in response to histamine through a calcineurin-sensitive pathway and may reduce barrier breakdown, thus contributing to the strengthening of the endothelium and resistance to anaphylaxis. These new insights underscore its potential role as a regulator of sensitivity to anaphylaxis in humans.

  10. PKC signaling regulates drug resistance of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans via circuitry comprised of Mkc1, calcineurin, and Hsp90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantelle L LaFayette

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens exploit diverse mechanisms to survive exposure to antifungal drugs. This poses concern given the limited number of clinically useful antifungals and the growing population of immunocompromised individuals vulnerable to life-threatening fungal infection. To identify molecules that abrogate resistance to the most widely deployed class of antifungals, the azoles, we conducted a screen of 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds. Three out of seven hits that abolished azole resistance of a resistant mutant of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a clinical isolate of the leading human fungal pathogen Candida albicans were inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC, which regulates cell wall integrity during growth, morphogenesis, and response to cell wall stress. Pharmacological or genetic impairment of Pkc1 conferred hypersensitivity to multiple drugs that target synthesis of the key cell membrane sterol ergosterol, including azoles, allylamines, and morpholines. Pkc1 enabled survival of cell membrane stress at least in part via the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK cascade in both species, though through distinct downstream effectors. Strikingly, inhibition of Pkc1 phenocopied inhibition of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 or its client protein calcineurin. PKC signaling was required for calcineurin activation in response to drug exposure in S. cerevisiae. In contrast, Pkc1 and calcineurin independently regulate drug resistance via a common target in C. albicans. We identified an additional level of regulatory control in the C. albicans circuitry linking PKC signaling, Hsp90, and calcineurin as genetic reduction of Hsp90 led to depletion of the terminal MAPK, Mkc1. Deletion of C. albicans PKC1 rendered fungistatic ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors fungicidal and attenuated virulence in a murine model of systemic candidiasis. This work establishes a new role for PKC signaling in drug resistance, novel circuitry through which

  11. Regulatory effect of calcineurin inhibitor, tacrolimus, on IL-6/sIL-6R-mediated RANKL expression through JAK2-STAT3-SOCS3 signaling pathway in fibroblast-like synoviocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated whether the calcineurin inhibitor, tacrolimus, suppresses receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) through regulation of IL-6/Janus activated kinase (JAK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) signaling. Methods The expression of RANKL, JAK2, STAT3, and SOCS3 proteins was assessed by western blot analysis, real-time PCR and ELISA in IL-6 combined with soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R)-stimulated rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-FLS with or without tacrolimus treatment. The effects of tacrolimus on synovial inflammation and bone erosion were assessed using mice with arthritis induced by K/BxN serum. Immunofluorescent staining was performed to identify the effect of tacrolimus on RANKL and SOCS3. The tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining assay was performed to assess the effect of tacrolimus on osteoclast differentiation. Results We found that RANKL expression in RA FLS is regulated by the IL-6/sIL-6R/JAK2/STAT3/SOCS3 pathway. Inhibitory effects of tacrolimus on RANKL expression in a serum-induced arthritis mice model were identified. Tacrolimus inhibits RANKL expression in IL-6/sIL-6R-stimulated FLS by suppressing STAT3. Among negative regulators of the JAK/STAT pathway, such as CIS1, SOCS1, and SOCS3, only SOCS3 is significantly induced by tacrolimus. As compared to dexamethasone and methotrexate, tacrolimus more potently suppresses RANKL expression in FLS. By up-regulating SOCS3, tacrolimus down-regulates activation of the JAK-STAT pathway by IL-6/sIL-6R trans-signaling, thus decreasing RANKL expression in FLS. Conclusions These data suggest that tacrolimus might affect the RANKL expression in IL-6 stimulated FLS through STAT3 suppression, together with up-regulation of SOCS3. PMID:23406906

  12. Cdc14 phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machín, Félix; Quevedo Rodriguez, Oliver; Ramos-Pérez, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    master cell cycle phosphatase in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cdc14. Transient inactivation is expected to better mimic the pharmacological action of drugs. Interestingly, we have found that yeast cells tolerate badly a relatively brief inactivation of Cdc14 when cells are already committed...

  13. Acid phosphatases activity in cheese and starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A T; Alichanidis, E

    1975-06-01

    The acid phosphatase activity levels in a number of Greek cheeses and in Cheddar cheeses were found to be unaffected by storage for up to 18 months and 12 months respectively. In Cheddar cheese, starter organisms made an insignificant contribution to this activity. Studies of acid phosphatase prepared from Streptococcus cremoris-lactis NCDO 762 starter cultures showed that the enzyme was of high molecular weight and largely particle-bound. The pH of optimum activity was 5-2 and the enzyme was inhibited by F-minus,Al-3+, a number of heavy metals, oxidizing agents and sulphydryl-modifying reagents. Kinetic measurements at pH 5-2 gave a Km value for p-nitrophenyl phosphate of 1-2 mM. Orthophosphate, pyrophosphate and isoelectrically precipitated casein behaved as competitive inhibitors to the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate with Ki values of 1-2 mM, 1-0 mM, 1-0 MM and 1-1 mM respectively. In spite of this binding to the enzyme, casein provided a very poor substrate for the starter acid phosphatase. The properties of acid phosphatase present in Cheddar cheese made with Str. cremoris NCDO 924 starter were consistent with the enzyme being exclusively of milk origin and small differences between this and the acid phosphatase previously isolated from bovine milk were attributable to the binding of peptides produced during the cheese maturation to the enzyme molecules. It was concluded that in cheese, phosphatase action was due largely to the enzyme of milk origin, with that provided by the starter being of minor importance.

  14. Nebula/DSCR1 upregulation delays neurodegeneration and protects against APP-induced axonal transport defects by restoring calcineurin and GSK-3β signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian L Shaw

    Full Text Available Post-mortem brains from Down syndrome (DS and Alzheimer's disease (AD patients show an upregulation of the Down syndrome critical region 1 protein (DSCR1, but its contribution to AD is not known. To gain insights into the role of DSCR1 in AD, we explored the functional interaction between DSCR1 and the amyloid precursor protein (APP, which is known to cause AD when duplicated or upregulated in DS. We find that the Drosophila homolog of DSCR1, Nebula, delays neurodegeneration and ameliorates axonal transport defects caused by APP overexpression. Live-imaging reveals that Nebula facilitates the transport of synaptic proteins and mitochondria affected by APP upregulation. Furthermore, we show that Nebula upregulation protects against axonal transport defects by restoring calcineurin and GSK-3β signaling altered by APP overexpression, thereby preserving cargo-motor interactions. As impaired transport of essential organelles caused by APP perturbation is thought to be an underlying cause of synaptic failure and neurodegeneration in AD, our findings imply that correcting calcineurin and GSK-3β signaling can prevent APP-induced pathologies. Our data further suggest that upregulation of Nebula/DSCR1 is neuroprotective in the presence of APP upregulation and provides evidence for calcineurin inhibition as a novel target for therapeutic intervention in preventing axonal transport impairments associated with AD.

  15. Nebula/DSCR1 upregulation delays neurodegeneration and protects against APP-induced axonal transport defects by restoring calcineurin and GSK-3β signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jillian L; Chang, Karen T

    2013-01-01

    Post-mortem brains from Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients show an upregulation of the Down syndrome critical region 1 protein (DSCR1), but its contribution to AD is not known. To gain insights into the role of DSCR1 in AD, we explored the functional interaction between DSCR1 and the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which is known to cause AD when duplicated or upregulated in DS. We find that the Drosophila homolog of DSCR1, Nebula, delays neurodegeneration and ameliorates axonal transport defects caused by APP overexpression. Live-imaging reveals that Nebula facilitates the transport of synaptic proteins and mitochondria affected by APP upregulation. Furthermore, we show that Nebula upregulation protects against axonal transport defects by restoring calcineurin and GSK-3β signaling altered by APP overexpression, thereby preserving cargo-motor interactions. As impaired transport of essential organelles caused by APP perturbation is thought to be an underlying cause of synaptic failure and neurodegeneration in AD, our findings imply that correcting calcineurin and GSK-3β signaling can prevent APP-induced pathologies. Our data further suggest that upregulation of Nebula/DSCR1 is neuroprotective in the presence of APP upregulation and provides evidence for calcineurin inhibition as a novel target for therapeutic intervention in preventing axonal transport impairments associated with AD.

  16. Calcineurin as a marker of myocardial hypertrophy in children with valvular congenital heart diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kamenshchyk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify interrelations between the calcineurin levels in children with valvular congenital heart diseases without heart failure and the echocardiography parameters of myocardial hypertrophy. Results: It was established the significantly decreased calcineurin level in congenial valvular heart diseases in children as well as an absence of correlations of the left ventricle myocardial mass and index with negative ones to the dimensions of right ventricle in comparison to healthy children of corresponding age. Conclusion: The obtained data testifies the importance of calcineurin system activity in the formation of pathologic myocardial hypertrophy in children with valvular congenital heart diseases and without manifestation of heart failure.

  17. Inhibition of Alkaline Phosphatase by Several Diuretics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    P.C., Bailie, M.D., Weaver, W.J., Taylor, D.G. and Hook, J.B. (1974) J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 190, 515-522 6 Gemba , M. and Yamaimoto, K. (1975) Japan...The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 4th ed., p. 860, MacMillan, London 9 Zins. G.R., Walk , R.A., Gussin, R.Z. and Ross, C.R. (1968) J

  18. Atrogin-1 inhibits Akt-dependent cardiac hypertrophy in mice via ubiquitin-dependent coactivation of Forkhead proteins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Hui-Hua; Willis, Monte S; Lockyer, Pamela; Miller, Nathaniel; McDonough, Holly; Glass, David J; Patterson, Cam

    2007-01-01

    .... Atrogin-1, also known as muscle atrophy F-box, is an F-box protein that inhibits pathologic cardiac hypertrophy by participating in a ubiquitin ligase complex that triggers degradation of calcineurin...

  19. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Labrune Philippe; Gajdos Vincent; Eberschweiler Pascale; Hubert-Buron Aurélie; Petit François; Vianey-Saban Christine; Boudjemline Alix; Piraud Monique; Froissart Roseline

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency), or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI), is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, betw...

  20. Direct determination of phosphatase activity from physiological substrates in cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyuan Ren

    Full Text Available A direct and continuous approach to determine simultaneously protein and phosphate concentrations in cells and kinetics of phosphate release from physiological substrates by cells without any labeling has been developed. Among the enzymes having a phosphatase activity, tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP performs indispensable, multiple functions in humans. It is expressed in numerous tissues with high levels detected in bones, liver and neurons. It is absolutely required for bone mineralization and also necessary for neurotransmitter synthesis. We provided the proof of concept that infrared spectroscopy is a reliable assay to determine a phosphatase activity in the osteoblasts. For the first time, an overall specific phosphatase activity in cells was determined in a single step by measuring simultaneously protein and substrate concentrations. We found specific activities in osteoblast like cells amounting to 116 ± 13 nmol min(-1 mg(-1 for PPi, to 56 ± 11 nmol min(-1 mg(-1 for AMP, to 79 ± 23 nmol min(-1 mg(-1 for beta-glycerophosphate and to 73 ± 15 nmol min(-1 mg(-1 for 1-alpha-D glucose phosphate. The assay was also effective to monitor phosphatase activity in primary osteoblasts and in matrix vesicles. The use of levamisole--a TNAP inhibitor--served to demonstrate that a part of the phosphatase activity originated from this enzyme. An IC50 value of 1.16 ± 0.03 mM was obtained for the inhibition of phosphatase activity of levamisole in osteoblast like cells. The infrared assay could be extended to determine any type of phosphatase activity in other cells. It may serve as a metabolomic tool to monitor an overall phosphatase activity including acid phosphatases or other related enzymes.

  1. Direct determination of phosphatase activity from physiological substrates in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhongyuan; Do, Le Duy; Bechkoff, Géraldine; Mebarek, Saida; Keloglu, Nermin; Ahamada, Saandia; Meena, Saurabh; Magne, David; Pikula, Slawomir; Wu, Yuqing; Buchet, René

    2015-01-01

    A direct and continuous approach to determine simultaneously protein and phosphate concentrations in cells and kinetics of phosphate release from physiological substrates by cells without any labeling has been developed. Among the enzymes having a phosphatase activity, tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) performs indispensable, multiple functions in humans. It is expressed in numerous tissues with high levels detected in bones, liver and neurons. It is absolutely required for bone mineralization and also necessary for neurotransmitter synthesis. We provided the proof of concept that infrared spectroscopy is a reliable assay to determine a phosphatase activity in the osteoblasts. For the first time, an overall specific phosphatase activity in cells was determined in a single step by measuring simultaneously protein and substrate concentrations. We found specific activities in osteoblast like cells amounting to 116 ± 13 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for PPi, to 56 ± 11 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for AMP, to 79 ± 23 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for beta-glycerophosphate and to 73 ± 15 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) for 1-alpha-D glucose phosphate. The assay was also effective to monitor phosphatase activity in primary osteoblasts and in matrix vesicles. The use of levamisole--a TNAP inhibitor--served to demonstrate that a part of the phosphatase activity originated from this enzyme. An IC50 value of 1.16 ± 0.03 mM was obtained for the inhibition of phosphatase activity of levamisole in osteoblast like cells. The infrared assay could be extended to determine any type of phosphatase activity in other cells. It may serve as a metabolomic tool to monitor an overall phosphatase activity including acid phosphatases or other related enzymes.

  2. Regulator of Calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) Facilitates Neuronal Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiulian; Wu, Yili; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Zhuohua; Zhou, Weihui; Tong, Yigang; Yuan, Junying; Xia, Kun; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Flavell, Richard A.; Song, Weihong

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) will inevitably develop Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology sometime after middle age, which may be attributable to genes triplicated in individuals with DS. The characteristics of AD neuropathology include neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss in various brain regions. The mechanism underlying neurodegeneration in AD and DS remains elusive. Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of DS. Our data show that RCAN1 expression is elevated in the cortex of DS and AD patients. RCAN1 expression can be activated by the stress hormone dexamethasone. A functional glucocorticoid response element was identified in the RCAN1 isoform 1 (RCAN1-1) promoter region, which is able to mediate the up-regulation of RCAN1 expression. Here we show that overexpression of RCAN1-1 in primary neurons activates caspase-9 and caspase-3 and subsequently induces neuronal apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that the neurotoxicity of RCAN1-1 is inhibited by knock-out of caspase-3 in caspase-3−/− neurons. Our study provides a novel mechanism by which RCAN1 functions as a mediator of stress- and Aβ-induced neuronal death, and overexpression of RCAN1 due to an extra copy of the RCAN1 gene on chromosome 21 contributes to AD pathogenesis in DS. PMID:21216952

  3. Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) facilitates neuronal apoptosis through caspase-3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiulian; Wu, Yili; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Zhuohua; Zhou, Weihui; Tong, Yigang; Yuan, Junying; Xia, Kun; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Flavell, Richard A; Song, Weihong

    2011-03-18

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) will inevitably develop Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology sometime after middle age, which may be attributable to genes triplicated in individuals with DS. The characteristics of AD neuropathology include neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss in various brain regions. The mechanism underlying neurodegeneration in AD and DS remains elusive. Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of DS. Our data show that RCAN1 expression is elevated in the cortex of DS and AD patients. RCAN1 expression can be activated by the stress hormone dexamethasone. A functional glucocorticoid response element was identified in the RCAN1 isoform 1 (RCAN1-1) promoter region, which is able to mediate the up-regulation of RCAN1 expression. Here we show that overexpression of RCAN1-1 in primary neurons activates caspase-9 and caspase-3 and subsequently induces neuronal apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that the neurotoxicity of RCAN1-1 is inhibited by knock-out of caspase-3 in caspase-3(-/-) neurons. Our study provides a novel mechanism by which RCAN1 functions as a mediator of stress- and Aβ-induced neuronal death, and overexpression of RCAN1 due to an extra copy of the RCAN1 gene on chromosome 21 contributes to AD pathogenesis in DS.

  4. Suppression or induction of apoptosis by opposing pathways downstream from calcium-activated calcineurin

    OpenAIRE

    Lotem, Joseph; Kama, Rachel; Sachs, Leo

    1999-01-01

    Ca2+-mobilizing compounds such as the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 or the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin can suppress or induce apoptosis in the same cells. The use of different calcineurin inhibitors has shown that both suppression and induction of apoptosis by the Ca2+-mobilizing compounds were mediated by calcineurin activation. Ca2+-mobilizing compounds activated p38 and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Induction of apoptosis by the Ca2+-mobilizing comp...

  5. Micro-RNA Feedback Loops Modulating the Calcineurin/NFAT Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichina Kannambath

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT is a family of transcription factors important for innate and adaptive immune responses. NFAT activation is tightly regulated through the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway. There is increasing evidence on non-coding RNAs such as miRNAs playing a crucial role in regulating transcription factors and signaling pathways. However, not much is known about microRNAs (miRNAs targeting the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway involved in immune response in human. In this study, a comprehensive pathway level analysis has been carried out to identify miRNAs regulating the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway. Firstly, by incorporating experimental data and computational predictions, 191 unique miRNAs were identified to be targeting the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway in humans. Secondly, combining miRNA expression data from activated T cells and computational predictions, 32 miRNAs were observed to be induced by NFAT transcription factors. Finally, 11 miRNAs were identified to be involved in a feedback loop to modulate the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway activity. This data demonstrate the potential role of miRNAs as regulators of the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway. The present study thus emphasizes the importance of pathway level analysis to identify miRNAs and understands their role in modulating signaling pathways and transcription factor activity.

  6. The multiple faces of calcineurin signaling in Caenorhabditis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analyses of cna-1/tax-6 and cnb-1 interacting proteins and regulators of the phosphatase in this fascinating worm model have an immense scope to identify potential drug targets in various parasitic nematodes, which cause many diseases inflicting huge economic loss; and also for many human diseases, particularly ...

  7. Imaging findings in a child with calcineurin inhibitor-induced pain syndrome after bone marrow transplant for beta thalassemia major

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyala, Rama S.; Arnold, Staci D.; Bhatia, Monica; Dastgir, Jahannaz [Columbia University Medical Center, Morgan Stanley Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Calcineurin inhibitor-induced pain syndrome is an entity recognized in patients on immunosuppressive therapy after transplantation. Diagnosis is characterized by onset of pain beginning in the setting of an elevated calcineurin-inhibitor trough level. Reducing the medication dose relieves symptoms. Imaging findings can be nonspecific, including bone marrow edema and periosteal reaction. We present the unique case of calcineurin inhibitor-induced pain syndrome in a child and review the imaging findings. (orig.)

  8. NGF upregulates the plasminogen activation inhibitor-1 in neurons via the calcineurin/NFAT pathway and the Down syndrome-related proteins DYRK1A and RCAN1 attenuate this effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefos, Georgios C; Soppa, Ulf; Dierssen, Mara; Becker, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is a key regulator of the plasminogen activation system. Although several lines of evidence support a significant role of PAI-1 in the brain, the regulation of its expression in neurons is poorly understood. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that NGF induces the upregulation of PAI-1 via the calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway and analysed whether the overexpression of the Down syndrome-related proteins DYRK1A and RCAN1 modulated the effect of NGF on PAI-1 expression. NGF upregulated PAI-1 mRNA levels in primary mouse hippocampal neurons cultured for 3 days in vitro and in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12. Reporter gene assays revealed that NGF activated the calcineurin/NFAT pathway in PC12 cells. Induction of PAI-1 by NGF was sensitive to the calcineurin inhibitor FK506 and the specific inhibition of NFAT activation by the cell permeable VIVIT peptide. Activation of calcineurin/NFAT signalling through other stimuli resulted in a much weaker induction of PAI-1 expression, suggesting that other NGF-induced pathways are involved in PAI-1 upregulation. Overexpression of either DYRK1A or RCAN1 negatively regulated NFAT-dependent transcriptional activity and reduced the upregulation of PAI-1 levels by NGF. The present results show that the calcineurin/NFAT pathway mediates the upregulation of PAI-1 by NGF. The negative effect of DYRK1A and RCAN1 overexpression on NGF signal transduction in neural cells may contribute to the altered neurodevelopment and brain function in Down syndrome.

  9. NGF upregulates the plasminogen activation inhibitor-1 in neurons via the calcineurin/NFAT pathway and the Down syndrome-related proteins DYRK1A and RCAN1 attenuate this effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios C Stefos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 is a key regulator of the plasminogen activation system. Although several lines of evidence support a significant role of PAI-1 in the brain, the regulation of its expression in neurons is poorly understood. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that NGF induces the upregulation of PAI-1 via the calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT pathway and analysed whether the overexpression of the Down syndrome-related proteins DYRK1A and RCAN1 modulated the effect of NGF on PAI-1 expression. RESULTS: NGF upregulated PAI-1 mRNA levels in primary mouse hippocampal neurons cultured for 3 days in vitro and in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12. Reporter gene assays revealed that NGF activated the calcineurin/NFAT pathway in PC12 cells. Induction of PAI-1 by NGF was sensitive to the calcineurin inhibitor FK506 and the specific inhibition of NFAT activation by the cell permeable VIVIT peptide. Activation of calcineurin/NFAT signalling through other stimuli resulted in a much weaker induction of PAI-1 expression, suggesting that other NGF-induced pathways are involved in PAI-1 upregulation. Overexpression of either DYRK1A or RCAN1 negatively regulated NFAT-dependent transcriptional activity and reduced the upregulation of PAI-1 levels by NGF. CONCLUSION: The present results show that the calcineurin/NFAT pathway mediates the upregulation of PAI-1 by NGF. The negative effect of DYRK1A and RCAN1 overexpression on NGF signal transduction in neural cells may contribute to the altered neurodevelopment and brain function in Down syndrome.

  10. IGF-1 induces skeletal myocyte hypertrophy through calcineurin in association with GATA-2 and NF-ATc1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaro, A.; McCullagh, K. J.; Naya, F. J.; Olson, E. N.; Rosenthal, N.

    1999-01-01

    Localized synthesis of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) has been broadly implicated in skeletal muscle growth, hypertrophy and regeneration. Virally delivered IGF-1 genes induce local skeletal muscle hypertrophy and attenuate age-related skeletal muscle atrophy, restoring and improving muscle mass and strength in mice. Here we show that the molecular pathways underlying the hypertrophic action of IGF-1 in skeletal muscle are similar to those responsible for cardiac hypertrophy. Transfected IGF-1 gene expression in postmitotic skeletal myocytes activates calcineurin-mediated calcium signalling by inducing calcineurin transcripts and nuclear localization of calcineurin protein. Expression of activated calcineurin mimics the effects of IGF-1, whereas expression of a dominant-negative calcineurin mutant or addition of cyclosporin, a calcineurin inhibitor, represses myocyte differentiation and hypertrophy. Either IGF-1 or activated calcineurin induces expression of the transcription factor GATA-2, which accumulates in a subset of myocyte nuclei, where it associates with calcineurin and a specific dephosphorylated isoform of the transcription factor NF-ATc1. Thus, IGF-1 induces calcineurin-mediated signalling and activation of GATA-2, a marker of skeletal muscle hypertrophy, which cooperates with selected NF-ATc isoforms to activate gene expression programs.

  11. Calcineurin signaling and membrane lipid homeostasis regulates iron mediated multidrug resistance mechanisms in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Hameed

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that iron deprivation enhances drug susceptibility of Candida albicans by increasing membrane fluidity which correlated with the lower expression of ERG11 transcript and ergosterol levels. The iron restriction dependent membrane perturbations led to an increase in passive diffusion and drug susceptibility. The mechanisms underlying iron homeostasis and multidrug resistance (MDR, however, are not yet resolved. To evaluate the potential mechanisms, we used whole genome transcriptome and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS based lipidome analyses of iron deprived Candida cells to examine the new cellular circuitry of the MDR of this pathogen. Our transcriptome data revealed a link between calcineurin signaling and iron homeostasis. Among the several categories of iron deprivation responsive genes, the down regulation of calcineurin signaling genes including HSP90, CMP1 and CRZ1 was noteworthy. Interestingly, iron deprived Candida cells as well as iron acquisition defective mutants phenocopied molecular chaperone HSP90 and calcineurin mutants and thus were sensitive to alkaline pH, salinity and membrane perturbations. In contrast, sensitivity to above stresses did not change in iron deprived DSY2146 strain with a hyperactive allele of calcineurin. Although, iron deprivation phenocopied compromised HSP90 and calcineurin, it was independent of protein kinase C signaling cascade. Notably, the phenotypes associated with iron deprivation in genetically impaired calcineurin and HSP90 could be reversed with iron supplementation. The observed down regulation of ergosterol (ERG1, ERG2, ERG11 and ERG25 and sphingolipid biosynthesis (AUR1 and SCS7 genes followed by lipidome analysis confirmed that iron deprivation not only disrupted ergosterol biosynthesis, but it also affected sphingolipid homeostasis in Candida cells. These lipid compositional changes suggested extensive remodeling of the membranes in iron

  12. Cdk1, PKCδ and calcineurin-mediated Drp1 pathway contributes to mitochondrial fission-induced cardiomyocyte death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaja, Ivan [Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226 (United States); Bai, Xiaowen, E-mail: xibai@mcw.edu [Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226 (United States); Liu, Yanan; Kikuchi, Chika; Dosenovic, Svjetlana; Yan, Yasheng; Canfield, Scott G. [Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226 (United States); Bosnjak, Zeljko J. [Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226 (United States); Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226 (United States)

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Drp1-mediated increased mitochondrial fission but not fusion is involved the cardiomyocyte death during anoxia-reoxygenation injury. • Reactive oxygen species are upstream initiators of mitochondrial fission. • Increased mitochondrial fission is resulted from Cdk1-, PKCδ-, and calcineurin-mediated Drp1 pathways. - Abstract: Myocardial ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Mitochondrial fission has been shown to be involved in cardiomyocyte death. However, molecular machinery involved in mitochondrial fission during I/R injury has not yet been completely understood. In this study we aimed to investigate molecular mechanisms of controlling activation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1, a key protein in mitochondrial fission) during anoxia-reoxygenation (A/R) injury of HL1 cardiomyocytes. A/R injury induced cardiomyocyte death accompanied by the increases of mitochondrial fission, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activated Drp1 (pSer616 Drp1), and decrease of inactivated Drp1 (pSer637 Drp1) while mitochondrial fusion protein levels were not significantly changed. Blocking Drp1 activity with mitochondrial division inhibitor mdivi1 attenuated cell death, mitochondrial fission, and Drp1 activation after A/R. Trolox, a ROS scavenger, decreased pSer616 Drp1 level and mitochondrial fission after A/R. Immunoprecipitation assay further indicates that cyclin dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) and protein kinase C isoform delta (PKCδ) bind Drp1, thus increasing mitochondrial fission. Inhibiting Cdk1 and PKCδ attenuated the increases in pSer616 Drp1, mitochondrial fission, and cardiomyocyte death. FK506, a calcineurin inhibitor, blocked the decrease in expression of inactivated pSer637 Drp1 and mitochondrial fission. Our findings reveal the following novel molecular mechanisms controlling mitochondrial fission during A/R injury of cardiomyocytes: (1) ROS are upstream initiators of

  13. The effects of calcineurin inhibitors on prostanoid synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øzbay, Aygen; Stubbe, Jane; Jespersen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-derived prostacyclin (PGI) and increase thromboxane synthesis in humans. Ten healthy men underwent 5-h infusions of CsA, Tac, and saline in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. Blood and urine samples were collected before and after the infusion of each drug/saline, to measure PGI......The calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) cyclosporine (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tac) are implicated in post-transplant complications such as cardiovascular morbidity. Prostanoids are fatty acid-derived compounds essential for controlling cardiovascular homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that CNIs suppress...... and thromboxane metabolites. CsA decreased whole-blood COX-2 activity by 39% (P = 0.05) and basal plasma 6-keto-PGF(1α) levels by 31%, only nonsignificantly. Urine excretion of PGI-M and TxB(2) did not change significantly after CsA infusion. Tac decreased TxB(2) in the COX-1 ex vivo assay by 30% (P = 0...

  14. Differential expression of members of the RCAN family of calcineurin regulators suggests selective functions for these proteins in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, Sílvia; Martí, Eulàlia; de la Luna, Susana; Arbonés, Maria L

    2007-09-01

    RCANs, also called Down Syndrome Critical Region-1 (DSCR1)-like proteins, Modulatory Calcineurin Interacting Proteins (MCIPs) or calcipressins, are regulators of calcineurin, a Ca(2+)-dependent protein phosphatase involved in several neuronal functions. Despite the potential importance of the RCAN proteins in brain physiology, very little is known about their relative abundance and distribution patterns in the central nervous system. In this study we report the expression and distribution of RCAN mRNA transcripts and proteins in the mouse brain. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that all Rcan mRNAs (Rcan1-1, Rcan1-2, Rcan2-1, Rcan2-3 and Rcan3) and their corresponding protein products (RCAN1-L, RCAN1-S, RCAN2-L, RCAN2-S and RCAN3) are present in every adult mouse brain region examined. All protein isoforms are also expressed in these same brain regions at early postnatal stages. Within regions, RCAN1-L, RCAN1-S, RCAN2-L and RCAN3 are differentially expressed depending on the region and developmental stage, whereas RCAN2-S is distributed homogeneously. Detailed immunohistochemical analysis revealed significant differences in the cellular and subcellular distributions of RCAN proteins. In the adult, RCAN1 was mainly expressed in the neuropil throughout the brain. Although at lower levels, RCAN3 was also detected throughout the neuropil. In contrast, RCAN2 was highly expressed in scattered neurons, in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Interestingly, RCAN2 is the only member of the RCAN family that was detected in glial cells. Finally, the expression patterns of RCANs at early postnatal stages differed from those of the adult, in different brain areas, in both their distributions and relative abundance, suggesting that the expression of these proteins could be regulated during neuronal differentiation. The nonoverlapping expression patterns of the RCAN proteins shown here highlight the existence of different physiological scenarios and therefore suggest

  15. Long-term habituation of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia requires gene transcription, calcineurin and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eEsdin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Although habituation is possibly the simplest form of learning, we still do not fully understand the neurobiological basis of habituation in any organism. To advance the goal of a comprehensive understanding of habituation, we have studied long-term habituation (LTH of the gill-withdrawal reflex (GWR in the marine snail Aplysia californica. Previously, we showed that habituation of the GWR in a reduced preparation lasts for up to 12 hr, and depends on protein synthesis, as well as activation of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A and postsynaptic glutamate receptors. Here, we have used the reduced preparation to further analyze the mechanisms of LTH in Aplysia. We found that LTH of the GWR depends on RNA synthesis because it was blocked by both the irreversible transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin-D and the reversible transcriptional inhibitor, 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole riboside (DRB. In addition, LTH requires activation of protein phosphatase 2B (calcineurin, because it was disrupted by ascomycin. Finally, LTH was blocked by nitrendipine, which indicates that activation of L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is required for this form of learning. Together with our previous results, the present results indicate that exclusively presynaptic mechanisms, although possibly sufficient for short-term habituation, are insufficient for LTH. Rather, LTH must involve postsynaptic, as well as presynaptic, mechanisms.

  16. Alkaline phosphatase: beyond the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Nicole J; Kidney, Beverly A

    2007-09-01

    The alkaline phosphatases comprise a heterogeneous group of enzymes that are widely distributed in mammalian cells. They often are associated with cell membranes, but their exact physiologic function is unknown. Despite this, alkaline phosphatase activity is a very useful serum biochemical indicator of liver disease, particularly cholestatic disease. However, increases in the activity of alkaline phosphatase in serum and other body fluids may reflect physiologic or pathologic changes beyond those of hepatic origin. For example, nonhepatic increases in serum alkaline phosphatase activity are found in young animals, in pregnant and lactating females, and in association with high fat diets. Bone disease, endocrine disease, neoplasia, and other disorders can result in increased alkaline phosphatase activity. In addition, alkaline phosphatase activity may be increased due to induction by certain drugs such as glucocorticoids and anticonvulsants. In this article, we will review the physiologic and pathologic factors influencing the activity of alkaline phosphatase in serum and other body fluids, with an emphasis on disorders beyond liver disease.

  17. Calcineurin Inhibitors in the Treatment of Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Laurin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of review: Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. Glucocorticoids have been evaluated in the treatment of primary FSGS in numerous retrospective studies. Evidence suggesting a role for including calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs in early therapy remains limited. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature examining the efficacy of CNIs in the treatment of primary FSGS both as first-line therapy and as an adjunctive agent in steroid-resistant patients, with respect to remission in proteinuria and renal survival. Sources of information: PubMed and EMBASE were searched from inception to August 2014 for prospective controlled trials, and case-control and cohort studies. Findings: After systematically applying our inclusion criteria, a total of 152 titles and abstracts were identified. Six randomized controlled trials and 2 cohort studies were reviewed. Three randomized controlled trials compared CNIs with placebo or supportive therapy. The pooled relative “risk” of proteinuria remission associated with cyclosporine was 7.0 (95% confidence interval, 2.9-16.8 compared with placebo/supportive therapy. There was very low heterogeneity among these studies with an I -squared of 0%. Three studies compared CNIs with another immunosuppressive agent. All prospective trials were conducted in patients with primary FSGS deemed steroid-resistant. Limitations: The relatively small number of included studies and their heterogeneity with respect to treatment protocols, and possible publication bias, limit conclusions drawn from this systematic review. Implications: The efficacy of CNIs has been evaluated in steroid-resistant primary FSGS patients. There is no evidence supporting their role as first-line therapy. Further studies are needed to determine this role.

  18. Calcineurin Inhibitors in the Treatment of Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Laurin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of review: Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. Glucocorticoids have been evaluated in the treatment of primary FSGS in numerous retrospective studies. Evidence suggesting a role for including calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs in early therapy remains limited. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature examining the efficacy of CNIs in the treatment of primary FSGS both as first-line therapy and as an adjunctive agent in steroid-resistant patients, with respect to remission in proteinuria and renal survival. Sources of information: PubMed and EMBASE were searched from inception to August 2014 for prospective controlled trials, and case-control and cohort studies. Findings: After systematically applying our inclusion criteria, a total of 152 titles and abstracts were identified. Six randomized controlled trials and 2 cohort studies were reviewed. Three randomized controlled trials compared CNIs with placebo or supportive therapy. The pooled relative “risk” of proteinuria remission associated with cyclosporine was 7.0 (95% confidence interval, 2.9-16.8 compared with placebo/supportive therapy. There was very low heterogeneity among these studies with an I-squared of 0%. Three studies compared CNIs with another immunosuppressive agent. All prospective trials were conducted in patients with primary FSGS deemed steroid-resistant. Limitations: The relatively small number of included studies and their heterogeneity with respect to treatment protocols, and possible publication bias, limit conclusions drawn from this systematic review. Implications: The efficacy of CNIs has been evaluated in steroid-resistant primary FSGS patients. There is no evidence supporting their role as first-line therapy. Further studies are needed to determine this role.

  19. Synergistic Effects of Calcineurin Inhibitors and Steroids on Steroid Sensitivity of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hironori; Iwamoto, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Yuki; Hirano, Toshihiko; Konno, Osamu; Kihara, Yu; Chiba, Naokazu; Yokoyama, Takayoshi; Takano, Kiminori; Toraishi, Tatsunori; Okuyama, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Chie; Tanaka, Sachiko; Onda, Kenji; Soga, Akiko; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kawaguchi, Takashi; Kawachi, Shigeyuki; Unezaki, Sakae; Shimazu, Motohide

    2015-02-08

    The steroid receptor (SR) complex contains FKBP51 and FKBP52, which bind to tacrolimus (TAC) and cyclophilin 40, which, in turn, bind to cyclosporine (CYA); these influence the intranuclear mobility of steroid-SR complexes. Pharmacodynamic interactions are thought to exist between steroids and calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) on the SR complex. We examined the effect of CNIs on steroid sensitivity. Methylprednisolone (MPSL) sensitivity was estimated as the concentration inhibiting mitosis in 50% (IC50) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and as the area under the MPSL concentration-proliferation suppressive rate curves (CPS-AUC) in 30 healthy subjects. MPSL sensitivity was compared between the additive group (AG) as the MPSL sensitivity that was a result of addition of the proliferation suppressive rate of CNIs to that of MPSL and the mixed culture group (MCG) as MPSL sensitivity of mixed culture with both MPSL and CNIs in identical patients. IC50 values of MPSL and cortisol sensitivity were examined before and 2 months after CNI administration in 23 renal transplant recipients. IC50 and CPS-AUC values of MPSL were lower in the MCG than in the AG with administration of TAC and CYA. The CPS-AUC ratio of MCG and AG was lower in the TAC group. IC50 values of MPSL and cortisol tended to be lower after administration of TAC and CYA, and a significant difference was observed in the IC50 of cortisol after TAC administration. Steroid sensitivity increased with both TAC and CYA. Furthermore, TAC had a greater effect on increasing sensitivity. Thus, concomitant administration of CNIs and steroids can increase steroid sensitivity.

  20. Topical immunomodulators for management of oral mucosal conditions, a systematic review; part I: calcineurin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elad, Sharon; Epstein, Joel B; Yarom, Noam; Drucker, Scott; Tzach, Rinat; von Bültzingslöwen, Inger

    2010-12-01

    Topical immunomodulators have been used for the management of oral mucosal diseases. Topical immunomodulating preparations may have utility in local management of oral disease which is resistant to topical steroids and oral findings of an immunologic-mediated systemic disease with primary or persisting, oral mucosal involvement. This paper is the first part of a systematic review of topical immunomodulators for the management of various oral indications focused on calcineurin inhibitors. The literature search revealed that data are available for cyclosporine, tacrolimus and pimecrolimus. In addition to the review of scientific evidence, this paper presents the potential market, the mechanism of action, the competitive environment and future development options. The reader will find weighted conclusions for the topical use of the calcineurin inhibitors in the management of oral diseases. Topical calcineurin inhibitors may be useful as a second-line treatment in several oral diseases, particularly oral lichen planus.

  1. Structural Genomics of Protein Phosphatases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almo,S.; Bonanno, J.; Sauder, J.; Emtage, S.; Dilorenzo, T.; Malashkevich, V.; Wasserman, S.; Swaminathan, S.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; et al

    2007-01-01

    The New York SGX Research Center for Structural Genomics (NYSGXRC) of the NIGMS Protein Structure Initiative (PSI) has applied its high-throughput X-ray crystallographic structure determination platform to systematic studies of all human protein phosphatases and protein phosphatases from biomedically-relevant pathogens. To date, the NYSGXRC has determined structures of 21 distinct protein phosphatases: 14 from human, 2 from mouse, 2 from the pathogen Toxoplasma gondii, 1 from Trypanosoma brucei, the parasite responsible for African sleeping sickness, and 2 from the principal mosquito vector of malaria in Africa, Anopheles gambiae. These structures provide insights into both normal and pathophysiologic processes, including transcriptional regulation, regulation of major signaling pathways, neural development, and type 1 diabetes. In conjunction with the contributions of other international structural genomics consortia, these efforts promise to provide an unprecedented database and materials repository for structure-guided experimental and computational discovery of inhibitors for all classes of protein phosphatases.

  2. NMDA-mediated activation of the tyrosine phosphatase STEP regulates the duration of ERK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Surojit; Nairn, Angus C; Wang, Ping; Lombroso, Paul J

    2003-01-01

    The intracellular mechanism(s) by which a cell determines the duration of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation is not well understood. We have investigated the role of STEP, a striatal-enriched tyrosine phosphatase, in the regulation of ERK activity in rat neurons. Glutamate-mediated activation of NMDA receptors leads to the rapid but transient phosphorylation of ERK in cultured neurons. Here we show that activation of NMDA receptors led to activation of STEP, which limited the duration of ERK activity as well as its translocation to the nucleus and its subsequent downstream nuclear signaling. In neurons, STEP is phosphorylated and inactive under basal conditions. NMDA-mediated influx of Ca(2+), but not increased intracellular Ca(2+) from other sources, leads to activation of the Ca(2+)-dependent phosphatase calcineurin and the dephosphorylation and activation of STEP. We have identified an important mechanism involved in the regulation of ERK activity in neurons that highlights the complex interplay between serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases and phosphatases.

  3. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrune Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency, or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI, is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea. Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty, generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency. GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib. Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21 and SLC37A4 (11q23 respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most

  4. Influence of triethyl phosphate on phosphatase activity in shooting range soil: Isolation of a zinc-resistant bacterium with an acid phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Sandra; Brigmon, Robin L

    2017-03-01

    Phosphatase-mediated hydrolysis of organic phosphate may be a viable means of stabilizing heavy metals via precipitation as a metal phosphate in bioremediation applications. We investigated the effect of triethyl phosphate (TEP) on soil microbial-phosphatase activity in a heavy-metal contaminated soil. Gaseous TEP has been used at subsurface sites for bioremediation of organic contaminants but not applied in heavy-metal contaminated areas. Little is known about how TEP affects microbial activity in soils and it is postulated that TEP can serve as a phosphate source in nutrient-poor groundwater and soil/sediments. Over a 3-week period, TEP amendment to microcosms containing heavy-metal contaminated soil resulted in increased activity of soil acid-phosphatase and repression of alkaline phosphatase, indicating a stimulatory effect on the microbial population. A soil-free enrichment of microorganisms adapted to heavy-metal and acidic conditions was derived from the TEP-amended soil microcosms using TEP as the sole phosphate source and the selected microbial consortium maintained a high acid-phosphatase activity with repression of alkaline phosphatase. Addition of 5mM zinc to soil-free microcosms had little effect on acid phosphatase but inhibited alkaline phosphatase. One bacterial member from the consortium, identified as Burkholderia cepacia sp., expressed an acid-phosphatase activity uninhibited by high concentrations of zinc and produced a soluble, indigo pigment under phosphate limitation. The pigment was produced in a phosphate-free medium and was not produced in the presence of TEP or phosphate ion, indicative of purple acid-phosphatase types that are pressed by bioavailable phosphate. These results demonstrate that TEP amendment was bioavailable and increased overall phosphatase activity in both soil and soil-free microcosms supporting the possibility of positive outcomes in bioremediation applications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. The calcineurin activity profiles of cyclosporin and tacrolimus are different in stable renal transplant patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed-Nielsen, PB; Karamperis, N; Hojskov, C

    2006-01-01

    , CsA) was drawn. CaN activity was determined in whole blood as the release of 32P from a phosphorylated peptide. Activity of the 32P was quantitated by liquid scintillation and results converted to Units CaN, utilizing a calibration curve with CaN. We demonstrated that calcineurin activity profiles...

  6. Calcineurin regulates progressive motility activation of Rhinella (Bufo) arenarum sperm through dephosphorylation of PKC substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapf, Dario; O'Brien, Emma; Maidagán, Paula M; Morales, Enrique S; Visconti, Pablo E; Arranz, Silvia E

    2014-10-01

    Animals with external fertilization, as amphibians, store their sperm in a quiescent state in the testis. When spermatozoa are released into natural fertilization media, the hypotonic shock triggers activation of sperm motility. Rhinella (Bufo) arenarum sperm are immotile in artificial seminal plasma (ASP, resembling testicular plasma tonicity) but acquire in situ flagellar beating upon dilution. However, if components from the egg shelly coat are added to this medium, motility shifts to a progressive pattern. Recently, we have shown that the signal transduction pathway required for in situ motility activation involves a rise in intracellular cAMP through a transmembrane adenylyl cyclase and activation of PKA, mostly in the midpiece and in the sperm head. In this report, we demonstrate that activation of calcineurin (aka PP2B and PPP3) is required for the shift from in situ to progressive sperm motility. The effect of calcineurin is manifested by dephosphorylation of PKC substrates, and can be promoted by intracellular calcium rise by Ca(2+) ionophore. Both phosphorylated PKC substrates and calcineurin localized to the flagella, indicating a clear differentiation between compartmentalization of PKA and calcineurin pathways. Moreover, no crosstalk is observed between these signaling events, even though both pathways are required for progressive motility acquisition as discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Down's syndrome suppression of tumour growth and the role of the calcineurin inhibitor DSCR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kwan-Hyuck; Zaslavsky, Alexander; Lynch, Ryan C; Britt, Carmella; Okada, Yoshiaki; Siarey, Richard J; Lensch, M William; Park, In-Hyun; Yoon, Sam S; Minami, Takashi; Korenberg, Julie R; Folkman, Judah; Daley, George Q; Aird, William C; Galdzicki, Zygmunt; Ryeom, Sandra

    2009-06-25

    The incidence of many cancer types is significantly reduced in individuals with Down's syndrome, and it is thought that this broad cancer protection is conferred by the increased expression of one or more of the 231 supernumerary genes on the extra copy of chromosome 21. One such gene is Down's syndrome candidate region-1 (DSCR1, also known as RCAN1), which encodes a protein that suppresses vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated angiogenic signalling by the calcineurin pathway. Here we show that DSCR1 is increased in Down's syndrome tissues and in a mouse model of Down's syndrome. Furthermore, we show that the modest increase in expression afforded by a single extra transgenic copy of Dscr1 is sufficient to confer significant suppression of tumour growth in mice, and that such resistance is a consequence of a deficit in tumour angiogenesis arising from suppression of the calcineurin pathway. We also provide evidence that attenuation of calcineurin activity by DSCR1, together with another chromosome 21 gene Dyrk1a, may be sufficient to markedly diminish angiogenesis. These data provide a mechanism for the reduced cancer incidence in Down's syndrome and identify the calcineurin signalling pathway, and its regulators DSCR1 and DYRK1A, as potential therapeutic targets in cancers arising in all individuals.

  8. Calcineurin inhibitor sparing with mycophenolate in kidney transplantation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Jason

    2009-02-27

    Limiting the exposure of kidney transplant recipients to calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) has potential merit, but there is no clear consensus on the utility of current strategies. In an attempt to aid clarification, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials that assessed CNI sparing (minimization or elimination) with mycophenolate as sole adjunctive immunosuppression.

  9. Induction of apoptosis by cannabinoids in prostate and colon cancer cells is phosphatase dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreevalsan, Sandeep; Joseph, Sonia; Jutooru, Indira; Chadalapaka, Gayathri; Safe, Stephen H

    2011-11-01

    We hypothesized that the anticancer activity of cannabinoids was linked to induction of phosphatases. The effects of cannabidiol (CBD) and the synthetic cannabinoid WIN-55,212 (WIN) on LNCaP (prostate) and SW480 (colon) cancer cell proliferation were determined by cell counting; apoptosis was determined by cleavage of poly(ADP)ribose polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 (Western blots); and phosphatase mRNAs were determined by real-time PCR. The role of phosphatases and cannabinoid receptors in mediating CBD- and WIN-induced apoptosis was determined by inhibition and receptor knockdown. CBD and WIN inhibited LNCaP and SW480 cell growth and induced mRNA expression of several phosphatases, and the phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate significantly inhibited cannabinoid-induced PARP cleavage in both cell lines, whereas only CBD-induced apoptosis was CB1 and CB2 receptor-dependent. Cannabinoid receptor agonists induce phosphatases and phosphatase-dependent apoptosis in cancer cell lines; however, the role of the CB receptor in mediating this response is ligand-dependent.

  10. CXCL12 and [N33A]CXCL12 in 5637 and HeLa cells: regulating HER1 phosphorylation via calmodulin/calcineurin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Rigo

    Full Text Available In the human neoplastic cell lines 5637 and HeLa, recombinant CXCL12 elicited, as expected, downstream signals via both G-protein-dependent and β-arrestin-dependent pathways responsible for inducing a rapid and a late wave, respectively, of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In contrast, the structural variant [N33A]CXCL12 triggered no β-arrestin-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2, and signaled via G protein-dependent pathways alone. Both CXCL12 and [N33A]CXCL12, however, generated signals that transinhibited HER1 phosphorylation via intracellular pathways. 1 Prestimulation of CXCR4/HER1-positive 5637 or HeLa cells with CXCL12 modified the HB-EGF-dependent activation of HER1 by delaying the peak phosphorylation of tyrosine 1068 or 1173. 2 Prestimulation with the synthetic variant [N33A]CXCL12, while preserving CXCR4-related chemotaxis and CXCR4 internalization, abolished HER1 phosphorylation. 3 In cells knockdown of β-arrestin 2, CXCL12 induced a full inhibition of HER1 like [N33A]CXCL12 in non-silenced cells. 4 HER1 phosphorylation was restored as usual by inhibiting PCK, calmodulin or calcineurin, whereas the inhibition of CaMKII had no discernable effect. We conclude that both recombinant CXCL12 and its structural variant [N33A]CXCL12 may transinhibit HER1 via G-proteins/calmodulin/calcineurin, but [N33A]CXCL12 does not activate β-arrestin-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation and retains a stronger inhibitory effect. Therefore, we demonstrated that CXCL12 may influence the magnitude and the persistence of signaling downstream of HER1 in turn involved in the proliferative potential of numerous epithelial cancer. In addition, we recognized that [N33A]CXCL12 activates preferentially G-protein-dependent pathways and is an inhibitor of HER1.

  11. The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase- and Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-binding Domains of the Alpha4 Protein Are Both Required for Alpha4 to Inhibit PP2A Degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeNoue-Newton, Michele; Watkins, Guy R.; Zou, Ping; Germane, Katherine L.; McCorvey, Lisa R.; Wadzinski, Brian E.; Spiller, Benjamin W. (Vanderbilt)

    2012-04-30

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is regulated through a variety of mechanisms, including post-translational modifications and association with regulatory proteins. Alpha4 is one such regulatory protein that binds the PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) and protects it from polyubiquitination and degradation. Alpha4 is a multidomain protein with a C-terminal domain that binds Mid1, a putative E3 ubiquitin ligase, and an N-terminal domain containing the PP2Ac-binding site. In this work, we present the structure of the N-terminal domain of mammalian Alpha4 determined by x-ray crystallography and use double electron-electron resonance spectroscopy to show that it is a flexible tetratricopeptide repeat-like protein. Structurally, Alpha4 differs from its yeast homolog, Tap42, in two important ways: (1) the position of the helix containing the PP2Ac-binding residues is in a more open conformation, showing flexibility in this region; and (2) Alpha4 contains a ubiquitin-interacting motif. The effects of wild-type and mutant Alpha4 on PP2Ac ubiquitination and stability were examined in mammalian cells by performing tandem ubiquitin-binding entity precipitations and cycloheximide chase experiments. Our results reveal that both the C-terminal Mid1-binding domain and the PP2Ac-binding determinants are required for Alpha4-mediated protection of PP2Ac from polyubiquitination and degradation.

  12. Structural Basis of Response Regulator Dephosphorylation by Rap Phosphatases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V Parashar; N Mirouze; D Dubnau; M Neiditch

    2011-12-31

    Bacterial Rap family proteins have been most extensively studied in Bacillus subtilis, where they regulate activities including sporulation, genetic competence, antibiotic expression, and the movement of the ICEBs1 transposon. One subset of Rap proteins consists of phosphatases that control B. subtilis and B. anthracis sporulation by dephosphorylating the response regulator Spo0F. The mechanistic basis of Rap phosphatase activity was unknown. Here we present the RapH-Spo0F X-ray crystal structure, which shows that Rap proteins consist of a 3-helix bundle and a tetratricopeptide repeat domain. Extensive biochemical and genetic functional studies reveal the importance of the observed RapH-Spo0F interactions, including the catalytic role of a glutamine in the RapH 3-helix bundle that inserts into the Spo0F active site. We show that in addition to dephosphorylating Spo0F, RapH can antagonize sporulation by sterically blocking phosphoryl transfer to and from Spo0F. Our structure-function analysis of the RapH-Spo0F interaction identified Rap protein residues critical for Spo0F phosphatase activity. This information enabled us to assign Spo0F phosphatase activity to a Rap protein based on sequence alone, which was not previously possible. Finally, as the ultimate test of our newfound understanding of the structural requirements for Rap phosphatase function, a non-phosphatase Rap protein that inhibits the binding of the response regulator ComA to DNA was rationally engineered to dephosphorylate Spo0F. In addition to revealing the mechanistic basis of response regulator dephosphorylation by Rap proteins, our studies support the previously proposed T-loop-Y allostery model of receiver domain regulation that restricts the aromatic 'switch' residue to an internal position when the {beta}4-{alpha}4 loop adopts an active-site proximal conformation.

  13. Long-term depression of nociceptive synapses by non-nociceptive afferent activity: role of endocannabinoids, Ca²+, and calcineurin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Sharleen; Burrell, Brian D

    2012-06-15

    Activity in non-nociceptive afferents is known to produce long-lasting decreases in nociceptive signaling, often referred to as gate control, but the cellular mechanisms mediating this form of neuroplasticity are poorly understood. In the leech, activation of non-nociceptive touch (T) mechanosensory neurons induces a heterosynaptic depression of nociceptive (N) synapses that is endocannabinoid-dependent. This heterosynaptic, endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression (ecLTD) is observed where the T- and N-cells converge on a common postsynaptic target, in this case the motor neuron that innervates the longitudinal muscles (L-cells) that contributes to a defensive withdrawal reflex. Depression in the nociceptive synapse required both presynaptic and postsynaptic increases in intracellular Ca²⁺. Activation of the Ca²⁺-sensitive protein phosphatase calcineurin was also required, but only in the presynaptic neuron. Heterosynaptic ecLTD was unaffected by antagonists for NMDA or metabotropic glutamate receptors, but was blocked by the 5-HT₂ receptor antagonist ritanserin. Depression was also blocked by the CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant, but this is thought to represent an effect on a TRPV-like receptor. This heterosynaptic, endocannabinoid-dependent modulation of nociceptive synapses represents a novel mechanism for regulating how injury-inducing or painful stimuli are transmitted to the rest of the central nervous system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Next-generation calcineurin inhibitors in development for the prevention of organ rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheith O

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Osama Gheith, Torki Al-Otaibi, Hany MansourDepartment of Nephrology, Hamed Al-Essa Organ Transplant Center, Ibn Sina Hospital, Shuwaikh, KuwaitAbstract: Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs remain the cornerstone of immunosuppression after renal transplantation despite their adverse effects. Some CNIs have well known negative impacts on the cardiovascular system, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT, neurotoxicity, hypertrichosis, and nephrotoxicity. Many clinical trials dealing with CNI avoidance or elimination were associated with higher risk of rejection of the transplanted organ. New generation CNIs are concerned with modifying CNI molecules so that they become more potent and are suitable for patients with suboptimal adherence with less adverse effects. In this review, we address these issues.Keywords: calcineurin inhibitors, organ transplant, rejection

  15. Regulator of Calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) Facilitates Neuronal Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activation*

    OpenAIRE

    Sun,, Xiucong; Wu, De; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Zhuohua; Zhou, Weihui; Tong,; Yuan, Junying; Xia, Kun; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Flavell, Richard A.; Song

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) will inevitably develop Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology sometime after middle age, which may be attributable to genes triplicated in individuals with DS. The characteristics of AD neuropathology include neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss in various brain regions. The mechanism underlying neurodegeneration in AD and DS remains elusive. Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of DS. Our data s...

  16. Lifetime Cost-Effectiveness of Calcineurin Inhibitor Withdrawal After De Novo Renal Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Earnshaw, Stephanie R.; Graham, Christopher N.; Irish, William D.; Sato, Reiko; Schnitzler, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    After renal transplantation, immunosuppressive regimens associated with high short-term survival rates are not necessarily associated with high long-term survival rates, suggesting that regimens may need to be optimized over time. Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) withdrawal from a sirolimus-based immunosuppressive regimen may maximize the likelihood of long-term graft and patient survival by minimizing CNI-associated nephrotoxicity. In this study, a lifetime Markov model was created to compare the...

  17. Purification and characterization of an alkaline phosphatase induced by phosphorus starvation in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, L.; Gutierrez, N.; Maya, V.; Parra, C.; Martinez B, E.; Coello, P., E-mail: pcoello@servidor.unam.mx [UNAM, Facultad de Quimica, Departamento de Bioquimica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Two phosphatase isoforms from roots of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) showed an increase in activity in response to phosphate deficiency. One of them (APIII) was chosen for further purification through ionic exchange chromatography and preparative electrophoresis. The estimated molecular mass of APIII was 35 kDa by both SDS-Page and gel filtration analyses, suggesting a monomeric form of the active enzyme. The phosphatase was classified as an alkaline phosphatase based on the requirement of ph 8 for optimum catalysis. It not only exhibited broad substrate specificity, with the most activity against pyrophosphate, but also effectively catalyzed the hydrolysis of polyphosphate, glucose-1-phosphate and phospho enol-pyruvate. Activity was completely inhibited by molybdate, vanadate and phosphate but was only partially inhibited by fluoride. Although divalent cations were not essential for the pyro phosphatase activity of this enzyme, the hydrolysis of pyro phosphatase increased substantially in the presence of Mg{sup 2+}.

  18. Static stretch promotes MEF2A nuclear translocation and expression of neonatal myosin heavy chain in C2C12 myocytes in a calcineurin- and p38-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Cyril; Loughna, Paul T

    2005-03-01

    Although the effects of mechanical stimuli have been studied extensively in fully differentiated skeletal muscle and have been shown to promote changes in phenotype, including altered myosin heavy chain isoform expression, the effects of a change in mechanical environment have been poorly studied at earlier stages of skeletal muscle differentiation. In particular, the early events elicited by mechanical stimuli upon differentiating myocytes have not been investigated. In the present study, the effect of static stretch on the activation of transcriptional factors MEF2A and NFATc1, which have been shown to be involved in the differentiation and phenotype regulation of skeletal muscle, have been examined. Furthermore, putative second messenger signaling pathways that could be involved in the dephosphorylation and hence activation of these factors were also examined. We have demonstrated that static stretch application produces a robust increase in p38 phosphorylation preceding MEF2A, but not NFATc1, nuclear translocation as well as deactivation of GSK-3beta via its phosphorylation. Using SB-203580 and cyclosporine A drugs to inhibit both p38- or/and calcineurin-dependent signals, respectively, we have shown that MEF2A phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation are regulated by p38 and calcineurin in a biphasic, time-dependent manner. Moreover, we also present evidence for another kinase that is involved in the stretch-related signal triggering MEF2A hyperphosphorylation, impairing its nuclear translocation, and that is related to p38. Finally, we have shown that static stretch application overnight promotes neonatal myosin heavy chain expression, which is inhibited by an inactivation of both p38 and calcineurin.

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of basixilimab induction and calcineurin-sparing protocols in "old to old" programs using Markov models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emparan, C; Wolters, H; Laukötter, M; Dame, C; Senninger, N

    2003-06-01

    Markov models are employed in economic analyses to evaluate all possible expectations in a dilemna. The introduction of a new clinical protocol (basiliximab induction with calcineurin-sparing protocols) for a group of kidney transplant recipients receiving organs from marginal donors was validated with a Markov simulation model. Calcineurin-sparing protocols using anti-IL-2/antibody induction (Simulect) show a beneficial effect on initial kidney function, reducing transplantation costs reception based upon mean length of stay, mean admission cost, and incidences of delayed graft function and complications during the first month after transplant. A Markov simulation model was established following three different chains. A calcineurin-free regimen with basiliximab induction (chain A), a calcineurin-sparing protocol with basiliximab induction (chain B), and a conventional immunosuppressive regimen (chain C). After designing the Markov chain and cohorts, 31 patients from the "old to old" program were assigned to each chain eight to chain A, (eight to chain B, and 15 to chain C). A month after transplantation a cost-benefit study was performed guided by the three branches of the Markov model. The Markov model showed a benefit of induction therapies in elderly patients. A cost-benefit model showed that after a month there was a clear benefit from Calcineurin=free plus basiliximab induction therapies, with a slight benefit from calcineurin-sparing protocols. Markov models are extremely useful when introducing new clinical therapies. In our transplant program, a cost-effective analysis of outcomes in old patients using the Markov model showed a clear benefit of calcineurin-sparing protocols with basixilimab induction.

  20. Decreased calcineurin immunoreactivity in the postmortem brain of a patient with schizophrenia who had been prescribed the calcineurin inhibitor, tacrolimus, for leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada A

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Akira Wada,1,2 Yasuto Kunii,1 Jyunya Matsumoto,1 Mizuki Hino,1 Atsuko Nagaoka,1 Shin-ichi Niwa,3 Hirooki Yabe1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima City, Fukushima, 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 3Department of Psychiatry, Aizu Medical Center, Fukushima Medical University, Aizuwakamatsu City, Fukushima, Japan Background: The calcineurin (CaN inhibitor, tacrolimus, is widely used in patients undergoing allogeneic organ transplantation and in those with certain allergic diseases. Recently, several reports have suggested that CaN is also associated with schizophrenia. However, little data are currently available on the direct effect of tacrolimus on the human brain.Case: A 23-year-old Japanese female experienced severe delusion of persecution, delusional mood, suspiciousness, aggression, and excitement. She visited our hospital and was diagnosed with schizophrenia. When she was 27 years old, she had severe general fatigue, persistent fever, systemic joint pain, gingival bleeding, and breathlessness and was diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia. Later she underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT, she was administered methotrexate and cyclosporin A to prevent graft versus host disease (GVHD. Three weeks after BMT, she showed initial symptoms of GVHD and was prescribed tacrolimus instead of cyclosporin A. Seven months after BMT at the age of 31 years, she died of progression of GVHD. Pathological anatomy was examined after her death, including immunohistochemical analysis of her brain using anti-CaN antibodies. For comparison, we used our previous data from both a schizophrenia group and a healthy control group. No significant differences were observed in the percentage of CaN-immunoreactive neurons among the schizophrenia group, healthy control group, and the tacrolimus case (all P>0.5, analysis of covariance. Compared with the

  1. Effects of mTOR and calcineurin inhibitors combined therapy in Epstein-Barr virus positive and negative Burkitt lymphoma cells.

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    Wowro, Sylvia J; Schmitt, Katharina R L; Tong, Giang; Berger, Felix; Schubert, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is a severe complication in solid organ transplant recipients, which is highly associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in pediatric patients and occasionally presents as Burkitt- or Burkitt-like lymphoma. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been described as a possible antitumor target whose inhibition may influence lymphoma development and proliferation after pediatric transplantation. We treated Epstein-Barr virus positive (Raji and Daudi) and negative (Ramos) human Burkitt lymphoma derived cells with mTOR inhibitor everolimus alone and in combination with clinically relevant immunosuppressive calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus or cyclosporin A). Cell proliferation, toxicity, and mitochondrial metabolic activity were analyzed. The effect on mTOR Complex 1 downstream targets p70 S6 kinase, eukaryotic initiation factor 4G, and S6 ribosomal protein activation was also investigated. We observed that treatment with everolimus alone significantly decreased Burkitt lymphoma cell proliferation and mitochondrial metabolic activity. Everolimus in combination with cyclosporin A had a stronger suppressive effect in Epstein-Barr virus negative but not in Epstein-Barr virus positive cells. In contrast, tacrolimus completely abolished the everolimus-mediated suppressive effects. Moreover, we showed a significant decrease in activation of mTOR Complex 1 downstream targets after treatment with everolimus that was attenuated when combined with tacrolimus, but not with cyclosporin A. For the first time we showed the competitive effect between everolimus and tacrolimus when used as combination therapy on Burkitt lymphoma derived cells. Thus, according to our in vitro data, the combination of calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A with everolimus is preferred to the combination of tacrolimus and everolimus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum and tissue alkaline phosphatases in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierek-Jaszczuk, D; Geldermann, H

    1985-01-01

    The alkaline phosphatases from serum, liver, bone and intestine of pigs were separated by starch and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Treatments with neuraminidase, urea, heat, L-homoarginine and L-phenylalanine were performed. Variants of serum alkaline phosphatases were derived from different tissues and hence must be under the control of at least two different loci. Within the intestinal phosphatases, polymorphic electrophoretic patterns were observed among 195 animals.

  3. TRESK background K(+ channel is inhibited by PAR-1/MARK microtubule affinity-regulating kinases in Xenopus oocytes.

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    Gabriella Braun

    Full Text Available TRESK (TWIK-related spinal cord K(+ channel, KCNK18 is a major background K(+ channel of sensory neurons. Dominant-negative mutation of TRESK is linked to familial migraine. This important two-pore domain K(+ channel is uniquely activated by calcineurin. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase directly binds to the channel and activates TRESK current several-fold in Xenopus oocytes and HEK293 cells. We have recently shown that the kinase, which is responsible for the basal inhibition of the K(+ current, is sensitive to the adaptor protein 14-3-3. Therefore we have examined the effect of the 14-3-3-inhibited PAR-1/MARK, microtubule-associated-protein/microtubule affinity-regulating kinase on TRESK in the Xenopus oocyte expression system. MARK1, MARK2 and MARK3 accelerated the return of TRESK current to the resting state after the calcium-dependent activation. Several other serine-threonine kinase types, generally involved in the modulation of other ion channels, failed to influence TRESK current recovery. MARK2 phosphorylated the primary determinant of regulation, the cluster of three adjacent serine residues (S274, 276 and 279 in the intracellular loop of mouse TRESK. In contrast, serine 264, the 14-3-3-binding site of TRESK, was not phosphorylated by the kinase. Thus MARK2 selectively inhibits TRESK activity via the S274/276/279 cluster, but does not affect the direct recruitment of 14-3-3 to the channel. TRESK is the first example of an ion channel phosphorylated by the dynamically membrane-localized MARK kinases, also known as general determinants of cellular polarity. These results raise the possibility that microtubule dynamics is coupled to the regulation of excitability in the neurons, which express TRESK background potassium channel.

  4. Regulator of calcineurin 1 gene transcription is regulated by nuclear factor-kappaB.

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    Zheng, Lanlan; Liu, Heng; Wang, Pin; Song, Weihong; Sun, Xiulian

    2014-02-01

    Regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) has been implicated in pathogenesis of neurodegeneration and various cancers. Recently, we showed that RCAN1 expression was elevated in Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's disease and its expression transpose over induced neuronal apoptosis. As NF-κB is an important transcription factor involved in cell survival and RCAN1 played vital roles in cell viability, we examined whether NF-κB regulates RCAN1 gene expression. Our results here showed that the RCAN1 isoform 4 gene transcription can be activated by NF-κB signaling. NF-κB activated RCAN1 isoform 4 gene promoter. Luciferase assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation identified a NF-κB responsive element in the region of -576-554bp of the RCAN1 isoform 4 promoter. Activation of RCAN1 gene expression by NF-κB is independent from the calcineurin-NFAT signaling since the NF-κB responsive element was distinct from the NFAT binding sites that was previously identified in the region of -350-166bp. Indeed, activation of calcineurin-NFAT signaling decreased NF-κB transcriptional activity, while activation of NF-κB elevated NFAT transcriptional activity. RCAN1 isoform 4 gene transcription was repressed by its own protein expression in a negative feedback loop. Our findings about RCAN1 gene transcription regulated by NF-κB further supported the vital roles of RCAN1 in cellular functions and its involvement in AD pathogenesis.

  5. Calcineurin inhibitors differentially alter the circadian rhythm of T-cell functionality in transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyking, Sarah; Budich, Karin; van Bentum, Kai; Thijssen, Stephan; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim; Fliser, Danilo; Sester, Martina; Sester, Urban

    2015-02-06

    Graft survival in transplant recipients depends on pharmacokinetics and on individual susceptibility towards immunosuppressive drugs. Nevertheless, pharmacodynamic changes in T-cell functionality in response to drugs and in relation to pharmacokinetics are poorly characterized. We therefore investigated the immunosuppressive effect of calcineurin inhibitors and steroids on general T-cell functionality after polyclonal stimulation of whole blood samples. General T-cell functionality in the absence or presence of immunosuppressive drugs was determined in vitro directly from whole blood based on cytokine induction after stimulation with the polyclonal stimulus Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B. In addition, diurnal changes in leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets, and on T-cell function after intake of immunosuppressive drugs were analyzed in 19 patients during one day and compared to respective kinetics in six immunocompetent controls. Statistical analysis was performed using non-parametric and parametric tests. Susceptibility towards calcineurin inhibitors showed interindividual differences. When combined with steroids, tacrolimus led to more pronounced increase in the inhibitory activity as compared to cyclosporine A. While circadian alterations in leukocyte subpopulations and T-cell function in controls were related to endogenous cortisol levels, T-cell functionality in transplant recipients decreased after intake of the morning medication, which was more pronounced in patients with higher drug-dosages. Interestingly, calcineurin inhibitors differentially affected circadian rhythm of T-cell function, as patients on cyclosporine A showed a biphasic decrease in T-cell reactivity after drug-intake in the morning and evening, whereas T-cell reactivity in patients on tacrolimus remained rather stable. The whole blood assay allows assessment of the inhibitory activity of immunosuppressive drugs in clinically relevant concentrations. Circadian alterations in T-cell function

  6. Treatment With Dimethyl Fumarate Attenuates Calcineurin Inhibitor-induced Nephrotoxicity.

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    Takasu, Chie; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Li, Shiri; Robles, Lourdes; Vo, Kelly; Takasu, Mizuki; Pham, Christine; Liu, Shuman; Farzaneh, Seyed H; Foster, Clarence E; Stamos, Michael J; Ichii, Hirohito

    2015-06-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunosuppressive drug which has been widely used to prevent rejection after organ transplantation. However, its therapeutic use is limited by nephrotoxicity, in part mediated by oxidative stress. The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of dimethyl fumarate (DMF) on CsA-induced nephrotoxicity by enhancing the antioxidant defense system. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with CsA (n = 8, 20 mg/kg per day intraperitoneally) or CsA + DMF (n = 7, 50 mg/kg per day orally) for 28 days. Renal function, histopathology, malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase levels, and antioxidant enzyme expression were determined. The DMF cotreatment ameliorated CsA-induced renal dysfunction as evidenced by significant decrease in serum creatinine (CsA 0.79 ± 0.02 mg/dL vs CsA + DMF 0.62 ± 0.04 mg/dL, P = 0.001) and urea (CsA 66.9 ± 0.4 mg/dL vs CsA + DMF 53.3 ± 2.6 mg/dl, P fumarate also significantly decreased serum MDA and renal tissue MDA and myeloperoxidase contents. The protein expression of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1, a major cellular antioxidant and detoxifying enzyme, was significantly enhanced by DMF administration in kidney. Administration of DMF has a protective potential against CsA nephrotoxicity. The protection afforded by DMF is mediated in part through inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation and enhancing the antioxidant capacity.

  7. Protein phosphatases and Alzheimer's disease.

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    Braithwaite, Steven P; Stock, Jeffry B; Lombroso, Paul J; Nairn, Angus C

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is characterized by progressive loss of cognitive function, linked to marked neuronal loss. Pathological hallmarks of the disease are the accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the form of amyloid plaques and the intracellular formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Accumulating evidence supports a key role for protein phosphorylation in both the normal and pathological actions of Aβ as well as the formation of NFTs. NFTs contain hyperphosphorylated forms of the microtubule-binding protein tau, and phosphorylation of tau by several different kinases leads to its aggregation. The protein kinases involved in the generation and/or actions of tau or Aβ are viable drug targets to prevent or alleviate AD pathology. However, it has also been recognized that the protein phosphatases that reverse the actions of these protein kinases are equally important. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of serine/threonine and tyrosine protein phosphatases in the pathology of AD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The regulator of calcineurin (RCAN1) an important factor involved in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torac, E; Gaman, L; Atanasiu, V

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, one of the main causes of cardiovascular diseases, is a complex process that involves manifold factors. Besides the vascular lipids accumulation, inflammatory factors could be considered as a proatherogenic factor - RCAN1. RCAN1 is a regulator of calcineurin, both of them being calcium dependent proteins. Recent studies have shown that RCAN1 has an important role in heart valve development. In the same time researchers found that, the atherosclerotic plaques have an up-regulated RCAN1 gene expression. In the near future, it is desirable to elucidate the RCAN1 function and classify it as a possible biochemical marker to diagnose infancy atherosclerosis.

  9. Everolimus Initiation With Early Calcineurin Inhibitor Withdrawal in De Novo Heart Transplant Recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, A K; Andersson, B; Gustafsson, F

    2016-01-01

    In a randomized, open-label trial, de novo heart transplant recipients were randomized to everolimus (3-6 ng/mL) with reduced-exposure calcineurin inhibitor (CNI; cyclosporine) to weeks 7-11 after transplant, followed by increased everolimus exposure (target 6-10 ng/mL) with cyclosporine withdrawal.......2 mL/min (SD 17.4 mL/min) in the everolimus and CNI groups, respectively, a difference of 18.3 mL/min (95% CI 11.1-25.6 mL/min; p independent determinant of mGFR at month 36. Coronary intravascular...

  10. Pediatric reference intervals for alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierk, Jakob; Arzideh, Farhad; Haeckel, Rainer; Cario, Holger; Frühwald, Michael C; Groß, Hans-Jürgen; Gscheidmeier, Thomas; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Krebs, Alexander; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Neumann, Michael; Ruf, Hans-Georg; Steigerwald, Udo; Streichert, Thomas; Rascher, Wolfgang; Metzler, Markus; Rauh, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation of alkaline phosphatase activity in children is challenging due to extensive changes with growth and puberty leading to distinct sex- and age-specific dynamics. Continuous percentile charts from birth to adulthood allow accurate consideration of these dynamics and seem reasonable for an analyte as closely linked to growth as alkaline phosphatase. However, the ethical and practical challenges unique to pediatric reference intervals have restricted the creation of such percentile charts, resulting in limitations when clinical decisions are based on alkaline phosphatase activity. We applied an indirect method to generate percentile charts for alkaline phosphatase activity using clinical laboratory data collected during the clinical care of patients. A total of 361,405 samples from 124,440 patients from six German tertiary care centers and one German laboratory service provider measured between January 2004 and June 2015 were analyzed. Measurement of alkaline phosphatase activity was performed on Roche Cobas analyzers using the IFCC's photometric method. We created percentile charts for alkaline phosphatase activity in girls and boys from birth to 18 years which can be used as reference intervals. Additionally, data tables of age- and sex-specific percentile values allow the incorporation of these results into laboratory information systems. The percentile charts provided enable the appropriate differential diagnosis of changes in alkaline phosphatase activity due to disease and changes due to physiological development. After local validation, integration of the provided percentile charts into result reporting facilitates precise assessment of alkaline phosphatase dynamics in pediatrics.

  11. Localization of some phosphatases in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonino, G.J.M.; Steyn-Parvé, Elizabeth P.

    1963-01-01

    1. 1. The localization of some phosphatases has been studied in yeast cells that were either fragmented by shaking intact cells with glass beads or by hypotonic or isotonic disruption of protoplasts prepared from intact cells. 2. 2. The non-specific acid phosphatase with optimum activity at pH

  12. Searching for the role of protein phosphatases in eukaryotic microorganisms

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    da-Silva A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Preference for specific protein substrates together with differential sensitivity to activators and inhibitors has allowed classification of serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PPs into four major types designated types 1, 2A, 2B and 2C (PP1, PP2A, PP2B and PP2C, respectively. Comparison of sequences within their catalytic domains has indicated that PP1, PP2A and PP2B are members of the same gene family named PPP. On the other hand, the type 2C enzyme does not share sequence homology with the PPP members and thus represents another gene family, known as PPM. In this report we briefly summarize some of our studies about the role of serine/threonine phosphatases in growth and differentiation of three different eukaryotic models: Blastocladiella emersonii, Neurospora crassa and Dictyostelium discoideum. Our observations suggest that PP2C is the major phosphatase responsible for dephosphorylation of amidotransferase, an enzyme that controls cell wall synthesis during Blastocladiella emersonii zoospore germination. We also report the existence of a novel acid- and thermo-stable protein purified from Neurospora crassa mycelia, which specifically inhibits the PP1 activity of this fungus and mammals. Finally, we comment on our recent results demonstrating that Dictyostelium discoideum expresses a gene that codes for PP1, although this activity has never been demonstrated biochemically in this organism.

  13. Photocarcinogenicity of selected topically applied dermatological drugs: calcineurin inhibitors, corticosteroids, and vitamin D analogs

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    Catharina Margrethe Lerche

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Topical therapies constitute the mainstay of dermatological treatments for skin disorders, such as atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, psoriasis, or acne. Since some of these diseases are often chronic, treatment duration may last for years and may even last the patient’s entire lifetime. Obviously, such long-term therapy may raise safety concerns, which also include the potential photocarcinogenic effect. Most patients are exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR during leisure, work, vacations, or in tanning beds. Additionally, the patients may receive UVR via UVB phototherapy or psoralens plus UVA radiation (PUVA. The use of immunosuppressant’s, such as corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors, has markedly increased. Patients with skin diseases have benefited from both systemic and topical treatment of both new and established drugs. The issue of a black box warning by the US Food and Drug Administration has increased concerns about photocarcinogenesis, which raises the question: “Are these drugs safe?” This review focuses on the mechanism of action and photocarcinogenic potential of commonly used topical treatments, such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and vitamin D analogs.

  14. Topical calcineurin inhibitors in pediatric atopic dermatitis: a critical analysis of current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlow, Seth J

    2007-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease in children. Despite good skin care and trigger avoidance, many children with AD require pharmacologic treatment to manage their disease. In recent years, topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs) have been used as an alternative to topical corticosteroids to treat some children with AD. However, revisions to the US labeling for TCIs (i.e. a boxed warning and a medication guide) have generated concern among pediatricians regarding TCI safety and raised questions about the appropriate use of TCIs in the pediatric population. Data from several well designed studies support the efficacy of TCIs in the treatment of AD. Safety concerns arise from a small number of reported malignancies, animal toxicology studies, and the potential adverse effects (including immunosuppression and risk of lymphoma) observed in patients who received systemically administered calcineurin inhibitors for suppression of solid-organ transplant rejection. Several factors indicate that these effects do not occur with topical administration: (i) systemic levels following topical administration are at least 10-fold lower than with oral administration; (ii) the small number of lymphomas reported to date in persons exposed to TCI use are not consistent with the types seen in transplant patients or other immunosuppressed patients; and (iii) no adverse effects on the immune system (as assessed by measures including vaccination response and skin delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction) have been observed in clinical trials of TCIs in children with AD. Overall, TCIs have an established safety and efficacy profile as long-term maintenance therapy in children with AD.

  15. Structure determination of T-cell protein-tyrosine phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, L.F.; Møller, K. B.; Pedersen, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    homologous T cell protein-tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP) has received much less attention, and no x-ray structure has been provided. We have previously co-crystallized PTP1B with a number of low molecular weight inhibitors that inhibit TC-PTP with similar efficiency. Unexpectedly, we were not able to co...... the high degree of functional and structural similarity between TC-PTP and PTP1B, we have been able to identify areas close to the active site that might be addressed to develop selective inhibitors of each enzyme....

  16. Protein Phosphatase Methyl-Esterase PME-1 Protects Protein Phosphatase 2A from Ubiquitin/Proteasome Degradation.

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    Ryotaro Yabe

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A is a conserved essential enzyme that is implicated as a tumor suppressor based on its central role in phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways. Protein phosphatase methyl esterase (PME-1 catalyzes specifically the demethylation of the C-terminal Leu309 residue of PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac. It has been shown that PME-1 affects the activity of PP2A by demethylating PP2Ac, but also by directly binding to the phosphatase active site, suggesting loss of PME-1 in cells would enhance PP2A activity. However, here we show that PME-1 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs exhibit lower PP2A activity than wild type MEFs. Loss of PME-1 enhanced poly-ubiquitination of PP2Ac and shortened the half-life of PP2Ac protein resulting in reduced PP2Ac levels. Chemical inhibition of PME-1 and rescue experiments with wild type and mutated PME-1 revealed methyl-esterase activity was necessary to maintain PP2Ac protein levels. Our data demonstrate that PME-1 methyl-esterase activity protects PP2Ac from ubiquitin/proteasome degradation.

  17. Dexamethasone-induced cardiac deterioration is associated with both calcium handling abnormalities and calcineurin signaling pathway activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Salvi Guimarães, Fabiana; de Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro; Bozi, Luis Henrique Marchesi; Souza, Pâmela R; Antonio, Ednei Luiz; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Dexamethasone is a potent and widely used anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drug. However, recent evidences suggest that dexamethasone cause pathologic cardiac remodeling, which later impairs cardiac function. The mechanism behind the cardiotoxic effect of dexamethasone is elusive. The present study aimed to verify if dexamethasone-induced cardiotoxicity would be associated with changes in the cardiac net balance of calcium handling protein and calcineurin signaling pathway activation. Wistar rats (~400 g) were treated with dexamethasone (35 µg/g) in drinking water for 15 days. After dexamethasone treatment, we analyzed cardiac function, cardiomyocyte diameter, cardiac fibrosis, and the expression of proteins involved in calcium handling and calcineurin signaling pathway. Dexamethasone-treated rats showed several cardiovascular abnormalities, including elevated blood pressure, diastolic dysfunction, cardiac fibrosis, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Regarding the expression of proteins involved in calcium handling, dexamethasone increased phosphorylation of phospholamban at threonine 17, reduced protein levels of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, and had no effect on protein expression of Serca2a. Protein levels of NFAT and GATA-4 were increased in both cytoplasmic and nuclear faction. In addition, dexamethasone increased nuclear protein levels of calcineurin. Altogether our findings suggest that dexamethasone causes pathologic cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction, which is associated with impaired calcium handling and calcineurin signaling pathway activation.

  18. Early conversion from calcineurin inhibitor- to everolimus-based therapy following kidney transplantation : Results of the randomized ELEVATE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Fijter, Johan W; Holdaas, Hallvard; Øyen, Ole; Sanders, Jan Stephan; Sundar, Sankaran; Bemelman, Frederike J; Sommerer, Claudia; Pascual, Julio; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Pongskul, Cholatip; Oppenheimer, Frederic; Toselli, Lorenzo; Russ, Graeme; Wang, Zailong; Lopez, Patricia; Kochuparampil, Jossy; Cruzado, Josep M; van der Giet, Markus

    In a 24-month, multicenter, open-label, randomized trial, 715 de novo kidney transplant recipients were randomized at 10-14 weeks to convert to everolimus (n=359) or remain on standard calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy (n=356; 231 tacrolimus; 125 cyclosporine), all with mycophenolic acid and

  19. Systematic Review on Role of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibitors as an Alternative to Calcineurin Inhibitors in Renal Transplant: Challenges and Window to Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jayant; Bridson, Julie M; Sharma, Ajay; Halawa, Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    This review focuses on the current limited evidence of graft function and graft survival in various immunosuppressive regimens involving mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors with or without calcineurin inhibitors. We evaluated the current literature for describing the role of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors as an alternative to calcineurin inhibitors by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Crossref, and Scopus databases using medical subject heading terms. Our detailed analyses of all relevant literature showed use of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor-based de novo regimens, early calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal with subsequent introduction of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor-based regimens, and late conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor-based regimen to mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor-based regimens. Notably, early calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal with subsequent introduction of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor-based regimen seemed to be a more practical and realistic approach toward immunosuppressive treatment of renal transplant recipients. However, in view of the high rejection rate observed in these studies, it is advisable not to offer these regimens to patients with moderate to high immunologic risk. The present evidences suggest that treatment with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors allows early and substantial calcineurin inhibitor minimization. The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors everolimus and sirolimus are preferred due to their complementary mechanisms of action and favorable nephrotoxicity profile, which have opened the way for calcineurin inhibitor reduction/withdrawal in the early posttransplant period.

  20. Phosphatases: The New Brakes for Cancer Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxiu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K pathway plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of processes such as cell growth, proliferation, survival, and metabolism in all cells and tissues. Dysregulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway occurs in patients with many cancers and other disorders. This aberrant activation of PI3K/Akt pathway is primarily caused by loss of function of all negative controllers known as inositol polyphosphate phosphatases and phosphoprotein phosphatases. Recent studies provided evidence of distinct functions of the four main phosphatases—phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN, Src homology 2-containing inositol 5′-phosphatase (SHIP, inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B, and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A—in different tissues with respect to regulation of cancer development. We will review the structures and functions of PTEN, SHIP, INPP4B, and PP2A phosphatases in suppressing cancer progression and their deregulation in cancer and highlight recent advances in our understanding of the PI3K/Akt signaling axis.

  1. Protein tyrosine phosphatases as potential therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rong-Jun; Yu, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Ruo-Yu; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2014-10-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a key regulatory process in virtually all aspects of cellular functions. Dysregulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a major cause of human diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, autoimmune disorders, and neurological diseases. Indeed, protein tyrosine phosphorylation-mediated signaling events offer ample therapeutic targets, and drug discovery efforts to date have brought over two dozen kinase inhibitors to the clinic. Accordingly, protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are considered next-generation drug targets. For instance, PTP1B is a well-known targets of type 2 diabetes and obesity, and recent studies indicate that it is also a promising target for breast cancer. SHP2 is a bona-fide oncoprotein, mutations of which cause juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and solid tumors. In addition, LYP is strongly associated with type 1 diabetes and many other autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes recent findings on several highly recognized PTP family drug targets, including PTP1B, Src homology phosphotyrosyl phosphatase 2(SHP2), lymphoid-specific tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), CD45, Fas associated phosphatase-1 (FAP-1), striatal enriched tyrosine phosphatases (STEP), mitogen-activated protein kinase/dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (MKP-1), phosphatases of regenerating liver-1 (PRL), low molecular weight PTPs (LMWPTP), and CDC25. Given that there are over 100 family members, we hope this review will serve as a road map for innovative drug discovery targeting PTPs.

  2. Multisystemic functions of alkaline phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchet, René; Millán, José Luis; Magne, David

    2013-01-01

    Human and mouse alkaline phosphatases (AP) are encoded by a multigene family expressed ubiquitously in multiple tissues. Gene knockout (KO) findings have helped define some of the precise exocytic functions of individual isozymes in bone, teeth, the central nervous system, and in the gut. For instance, deficiency in tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) in mice (Alpl (-/-) mice) and humans leads to hypophosphatasia (HPP), an inborn error of metabolism characterized by epileptic seizures in the most severe cases, caused by abnormal metabolism of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (the predominant form of vitamin B6) and by hypomineralization of the skeleton and teeth featuring rickets and early loss of teeth in children or osteomalacia and dental problems in adults caused by accumulation of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). Enzyme replacement therapy with mineral-targeting TNAP prevented all the manifestations of HPP in mice, and clinical trials with this protein therapeutic are showing promising results in rescuing life-threatening HPP in infants. Conversely, TNAP induction in the vasculature during generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), type II diabetes, obesity, and aging can cause medial vascular calcification. TNAP inhibitors, discussed extensively in this book, are in development to prevent pathological arterial calcification. The brush border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) plays an important role in fatty acid (FA) absorption, in protecting gut barrier function, and in determining the composition of the gut microbiota via its ability to dephosphorylate lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Knockout mice (Akp3 (-/-)) deficient in duodenal-specific IAP (dIAP) become obese, and develop hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). These changes are accompanied by upregulation in the jejunal-ileal expression of the Akp6 IAP isozyme (global IAP, or gIAP) and concomitant upregulation of FAT/CD36, a phosphorylated fatty acid

  3. Long-term results of conversion from calcineurin inhibitors to sirolimus in 150 maintenance kidney transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrouste, Cyril; Kamar, Nassim; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Guitard, Joëlle; Esposito, Laure; Lavayssière, Laurence; Nogier, Marie-Béatrice; Cointault, Olivier; Ribes, David; Rostaing, Lionel

    2012-04-01

    This retrospective single-center study evaluated long-term renal function after conversion from calcineurin inhibitors to sirolimus-based immunosuppression in kidney transplant recipients. From 2001 to 2009, one hundred fifty kidney transplant recipients were converted from calcineurin inhibitors to sirolimus at least 3 months after transplant. After a mean follow-up of 171 weeks, 56.7% of converted patients remained on sirolimus. The 5-year survival rate of the patients (including intent-to-treat) and grafts was 85.5% and 83.6%. Patients on sirolimus showed significant improvement in renal function with a creatinine clearance of 50.9 ± 20.7 and 52.9 ± 20.8 mL/minute at month 0 and month 24. Independent predictive factors associated with a stable estimated glomerular filtration rate at the last follow-up of sirolimus patients were (1) having a living donor, (2) absence of anti-HLA alloantibodies at month 0, and (3) cyclosporine versus tacrolimus used before conversion. Adverse effects were reported in 134 patients (89.3%). They included (1) hospitalization for infection (n=52), (2) de novo proteinuria (n=40), and (3) eight patients with biopsy-proven acute rejection. Sirolimus was stopped and replaced by calcineurin inhibitors in 37 patients after a mean of 16 months treatment. After stopping sirolimus, renal-allograft function remained stable at 2 years. Conversion of calcineurin inhibitors to sirolimus in kidney transplant recipients was associated with improved renal function. The reintroduction of calcineurin inhibitors was safe in patients who were withdrawn from sirolimus owing to adverse effects.

  4. Protein phosphatase 2A isotypes regulate cell surface expression of the T cell receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst; Menné, C; Kastrup, J

    2001-01-01

    show that inhibition of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase PP2A family had a biphasic effect on TCR expression. Thus, low concentrations of PP2A inhibitors induced TCR down-regulation, whereas higher concentrations of PP2A inhibitors induced TCR up-regulation. The effect of PP2A inhibition...... regulatory role for PP2A in both exocytosis and endocytosis....

  5. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localised pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key component of plant innate immunity. Most known plant PRRs are receptor kinases and initiation of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) signalling requires phosphorylation of the PR...

  6. Par-4: A New Activator of Myosin Phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterkind, Susanne; Lee, Eunhee; Sundberg, Eric; Poythress, Ransom H.; Tao, Terence C.; Preuss, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Myosin phosphatase (MP) is a key regulator of myosin light chain (LC20) phosphorylation, a process essential for motility, apoptosis, and smooth muscle contractility. Although MP inhibition is well studied, little is known about MP activation. We have recently demonstrated that prostate apoptosis response (Par)-4 modulates vascular smooth muscle contractility. Here, we test the hypothesis that Par-4 regulates MP activity directly. We show, by proximity ligation assays, surface plasmon resonance and coimmunoprecipitation, that Par-4 interacts with the targeting subunit of MP, MYPT1. Binding is mediated by the leucine zippers of MYPT1 and Par-4 and reduced by Par-4 phosphorylation. Overexpression of Par-4 leads to increased phosphatase activity of immunoprecipitated MP, whereas small interfering RNA knockdown of endogenous Par-4 significantly decreases MP activity and increases MYPT1 phosphorylation. LC20 phosphorylation assays demonstrate that overexpression of Par-4 reduces LC20 phosphorylation. In contrast, a phosphorylation site mutant, but not wild-type Par-4, interferes with zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK)-mediated MP inhibition. We conclude from our results Par-4 operates through a “padlock” model in which binding of Par-4 to MYPT1 activates MP by blocking access to the inhibitory phosphorylation sites, and inhibitory phosphorylation of MYPT1 by ZIPK requires “unlocking” of Par-4 by phosphorylation and displacement of Par-4 from the MP complex. PMID:20130087

  7. Protein kinase and phosphatase activities of thylakoid membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, H.; Shaw, E.K.; Bennett, J.

    1987-01-01

    Dephosphorylation of the 25 and 27 kDa light-harvesting Chl a/b proteins (LHCII) of the thylakoid membranes is catalyzed by a phosphatase which differs from previously reported thylakoid-bound phosphatases in having an alkaline pH optimum (9.0) and a requirement for Mg/sup 2 +/ ions. Dephosphorylation of the 8.3 kDa psb H gene product requires a Mg/sup 2 +/ ion concentration more than 200 fold higher than that for dephosphorylation of LHC II. The 8.3 kDa and 27 kDa proteins appear to be phosphorylated by two distinct kinases, which differ in substrate specificity and sensitivity to inhibitors. The plastoquinone antagonist 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-benzoquinone (DBMIB) inhibits phosphorylation of the 27 kDa LHC II much more readily than phosphorylation of the 8.3 kDa protein. A similar pattern of inhibition is seen for two synthetic oligopeptides (MRKSATTKKAVC and ATQTLESSSRC) which are analogs of the phosphorylation sites of the two proteins. Possible modes of action of DBMIB are discussed. 45 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. High throughput phenotyping of left and right ventricular cardiomyopathy in calcineurin transgene mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreth, Kristin; Afonso, Luciana Caminha; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Katus, Hugo A; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Lehman, Lorenz; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Consistent protocols for the assessment of diastolic and systolic cardiac function to assure the comparability of existing data on preclinical models are missing. Calcineurin transgene (CN) mice are a preclinical model for hypertrophic and failing hearts. We aimed at evaluating left and right ventricular structural and functional remodeling in CN hearts with an optimized phenotyping protocol. We developed a protocol using techniques and indices comparable to those from human diagnostics for comprehensive in vivo cardiac screening using high-frequency echocardiography, Doppler, electrocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques. We measured left and right ventricular dimensions and function, pulmonary and mitral flow pattern and the hearts electrophysiology non-invasively in high-throughput. Phenotyping CN hearts revealed new symptom occurrence and allowed insights into the diverse phenotype of hypertrophic failing hearts.

  9. Calcineurin inhibitors acutely improve insulin sensitivity without affecting insulin secretion in healthy human volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øzbay, Aygen; Møller, Niels; Juhl, Claus

    2012-01-01

    of ciclosporin and tacrolimus. We document that both drugs acutely increase insulin sensitivity, while first phase and pulsatile insulin secretion remain unaffected. This study demonstrates that ciclosporin and tacrolimus have similar acute effects on glucose metabolism in healthy humans. AIM The introduction...... and tacrolimus has been attributed to both beta cell dysfunction and impaired insulin sensitivity. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: This is the first trial to investigate beta cell function and insulin sensitivity using gold standard methodology in healthy human volunteers treated with clinically relevant doses...... of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) ciclosporin (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tac) has improved the outcome of organ transplants, but complications such as new onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT) cause impairment of survival rates. The relative contribution of each CNI to the pathogenesis and development...

  10. Insulin Increases Expression of TRPC6 Channels in Podocytes by a Calcineurin-Dependent Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Shengqiang; Liu, Ying; Li, Xinming

    2016-01-01

    and protein in podocytes. Insulin increased TRPC6 transcripts in a time and dose-dependent manner. The insulin-induced elevation of TRPC6 transcripts was blocked in the presence of tacrolimus, cyclosporine A, and NFAT-inhibitor (each p ... of NOX4, another target gene of the calcineurin-NFAT pathway, were affected in a similar way. Immunoblotting showed that the administration of 100 nmol/L insulin increased TRPC6-proteins 2-fold within 48 hours. Insulin increased the activity of NFATc1 in nuclear extracts (p tacrolimus...... administration was accompanied by an elevated transplasmamembrane cation influx. Insulin-stimulated surface expression of TRPC6 as well as transplasmamembrane cation influx could be reduced by pretreatment with tacrolimus. CONCLUSION: Insulin increases the expression of TRPC6 channels in podocytes by activation...

  11. Synthesis of benzopentathiepin analogs and their evaluation as inhibitors of the phosphatase STEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Tyler D; Nairn, Angus C; Lombroso, Paul J; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2015-03-01

    Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) is a brain specific protein tyrosine phosphatase that has been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. We recently reported the benzopentathiepin TC-2153 as a potent inhibitor of STEP in vitro, cells and animals. Herein, we report the synthesis and evaluation of TC-2153 analogs in order to define what structural features are important for inhibition and to identify positions tolerant of substitution for further study. The trifluoromethyl substitution is beneficial for inhibitor potency, and the amine is tolerant of acylation, and thus provides a convenient handle for introducing additional functionality such as reporter groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Calcium controls smooth muscle TRPC gene transcription via the CaMK/calcineurin-dependent pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Sara; Diez, Amalia; Puyet, Antonio; Camello, Pedro J; Camello-Almaraz, Cristina; Bautista, Jose M; Pozo, María J

    2007-01-01

    Transient receptor potential protein family C (TRPC) has been proposed as a candidate for channels involved in capacitative Ca(2+) entry (CCE) mechanisms, but the modulation of their gene expression remains unexplored. In this study we show that guinea pig gallbladder smooth muscle contains mRNA encoding TRPC1, TRPC2, TRPC3, and TRPC4 proteins whose abundance depends on cytosolic Ca(2+) level ([Ca(2+)](i)). Thus lowering the levels of cellular calcium with the chelators EGTA and BAPTA AM results in a downregulation of TRPC1-TRPC4 gene and protein expression. In contrast, activation of Ca(2+) influx through L-type Ca(2+) channels and Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores induced an increase in TRPC1-TRPC4 mRNA and protein abundance. Activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMK) and phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein accounts for the increase in TRPC mRNA transcription in response to L-type channel-mediated Ca(2+) influx . In addition to this mechanism, activation of TRPC gene expression by intracellular Ca(2+) release also involves calcineurin pathway. According to the proposed role for these channels, activation of CCE induced an increase in TRPC1 and TRPC3 mRNA abundance, which depends on the integrity of the calcineurin and CaMK pathways. These findings show for the first time an essential autoregulatory role of Ca(2+) in Ca(2+) homeostasis at the level of TRPC gene and protein expression.

  13. Carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium requires Ca2+ and calcineurin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Dana M

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inside bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus retinal pigment epithelial cells, pigment granules move in response to extracellular signals. During the process of aggregation, pigment motility is directed toward the cell nucleus; in dispersion, pigment is directed away from the nucleus and into long apical processes. A number of different chemicals have been found to initiate dispersion, and carbachol (an acetylcholine analog is one example. Previous research indicates that the carbachol-receptor interaction activates a Gq-mediated pathway which is commonly linked to Ca2+ mobilization. The purpose of the present study was to test for involvement of calcium and to probe calcium-dependent mediators to reveal their role in carbachol-mediated dispersion. Results Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion was blocked by the calcium chelator BAPTA. In contrast, the calcium channel antagonist verapamil, and incubation in Ca2+-free medium failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion. The calcineurin inhibitor cypermethrin blocked carbachol-induced dispersion; whereas, two protein kinase C inhibitors (staurosporine and bisindolylmaleimide II failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusion A rise in intracellular calcium is necessary for carbachol-induced dispersion; however, the Ca2+ requirement is not dependent on extracellular sources, implying that intracellular stores are sufficient to enable pigment granule dispersion to occur. Calcineurin is a likely Ca2+-dependent mediator involved in the signal cascade. Although the pathway leads to the generation of diacylglycerol and calcium (both required for the activation of certain PKC isoforms, our evidence does not support a significant role for PKC.

  14. Nutritional intervention restores muscle but not kidney phenotypes in adult calcineurin Aα null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Madsen

    Full Text Available Mice lacking the α isoform of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin (CnAα were first reported in 1996 and have been an important model to understand the role of calcineurin in the brain, immune system, bones, muscle, and kidney. Research using the mice has been limited, however, by failure to thrive and early lethality of most null pups. Work in our laboratory led to the rescue of CnAα-/- mice by supplemental feeding to compensate for a defect in salivary enzyme secretion. The data revealed that, without intervention, knockout mice suffer from severe caloric restriction. Since nutritional deprivation is known to significantly alter development, it is imperative that previous conclusions based on CnAα-/- mice are revisited to determine which aspects of the phenotype were attributable to caloric restriction versus a direct role for CnAα. In this study, we find that defects in renal development and function persist in adult CnAα-/- mice including a significant decrease in glomerular filtration rate and an increase in blood urea nitrogen levels. These data indicate that impaired renal development we previously reported was not due to caloric restriction but rather a specific role for CnAα in renal development and function. In contrast, we find that rather than being hypoglycemic, rescued mice are mildly hyperglycemic and insulin resistant. Examination of muscle fiber types shows that previously reported reductions in type I muscle fibers are no longer evident in rescued null mice. Rather, loss of CnAα likely alters insulin response due to a reduction in insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS2 expression and signaling in muscle. This study illustrates the importance of re-examining the phenotypes of CnAα-/- mice and the advances that are now possible with the use of adult, rescued knockout animals.

  15. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes (granular...

  16. TORC1 regulates Pah1 phosphatidate phosphatase activity via the Nem1/Spo7 protein phosphatase complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Dubots

    Full Text Available The evolutionarily conserved target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1 controls growth-related processes such as protein, nucleotide, and lipid metabolism in response to growth hormones, energy/ATP levels, and amino acids. Its deregulation is associated with cancer, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. Among other substrates, mammalian TORC1 directly phosphorylates and inhibits the phosphatidate phosphatase lipin-1, a central enzyme in lipid metabolism that provides diacylglycerol for the synthesis of membrane phospholipids and/or triacylglycerol as neutral lipid reserve. Here, we show that yeast TORC1 inhibits the function of the respective lipin, Pah1, to prevent the accumulation of triacylglycerol. Surprisingly, TORC1 regulates Pah1 in part indirectly by controlling the phosphorylation status of Nem1 within the Pah1-activating, heterodimeric Nem1-Spo7 protein phosphatase module. Our results delineate a hitherto unknown TORC1 effector branch that controls lipin function in yeast, which, given the recent discovery of Nem1-Spo7 orthologous proteins in humans, may be conserved.

  17. Deleting the para-nitrophenyl phosphatase (pNPPase), PHO13, in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae improves growth and ethanol production on D-xylose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Van Vleet; Thomas W. Jeffries; Lisbeth Olsson

    2008-01-01

    Overexpression of D-xylulokinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for assimilation of xylose results in growth inhibition that is more pronounced at higher xylose concentrations. Mutants deficient in the para-nitrophenyl phosphatase, PHO13, resist growth inhibition on xylose. We studied this inhibition under aerobic growth conditions in well-controlled...

  18. Role of the Ca2+-Calcineurin-Nuclear Factor of Activated T cell Pathway in Mitofusin-2-Mediated Immune Function of Jurkat Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Ping Xu

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that MFN2 may regulate T cell immune functions primarily through the Ca2+-calcineurin-NFAT pathway. MFN2 may represent a potential therapeutic target for T cell immune dysfunction-related diseases.

  19. Amyloid-β precursor protein facilitates the regulator of calcineurin 1-mediated apoptosis by downregulating proteasome subunit α type-5 and proteasome subunit β type-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yili; Deng, Yu; Zhang, Shuting; Luo, Yawen; Cai, Fang; Zhang, Zhuohua; Zhou, Weihui; Li, Tingyu; Song, Weihong

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, inevitably develop characteristic Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, including neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss. Amyloid-β protein, the major component of neuritic plaques, is the proteolytic product of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP). APP and the regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) genes on chromosome 21 play a pivotal role in promoting plaque formation and neuronal apoptosis. However, the mechanism underlying AD pathogenesis in DS is not well defined. In this study, we demonstrated that APP significantly increased RCAN1 level in both cells and transgenic mice. Overexpression of APP significantly reduced the expression of 2 proteasome subunits, proteasome subunit α type-5 and proteasome subunit β type-7, leading to the inhibition of proteasomal degradation of RCAN1. Furthermore, knockdown of RCAN1 expression attenuated APP-induced neuronal apoptosis. Taken together, the results clearly showed that APP has a previously unknown function in regulating RCAN1-mediated neuronal apoptosis through the proteasome pathway. Our study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which overexpression of APP and RCAN1 causes neurodegeneration and AD pathogenesis in DS, and it provides new insights into the potential of targeting APP-induced proteasomal impairment and RCAN1 accumulation for AD and DS treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Specific dephosphorylation by phosphatases 1 and 2A of a nuclear protein structurally and immunologically related to nucleolin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, H R; Mieskes, G; Issinger, O G

    1989-01-01

    to a complete dephosphorylation of N-60. The two other phosphatases tested (2B and 2C) did not dephosphorylate protein N-60 to the same extent as phosphatases 1 and 2Ac. In the case of nucleolin only 18% phosphate was released by all four phosphatases tested. The activity of both phosphatases, 1 and 2A, could......A new nuclear substrate (N-60) for phosphatase 1 and 2Ac has been described. In contrast to nucleolin (C23), to which it is structurally and immunologically related, N-60 becomes dephosphorylated to 51% and 41% by phosphatases 1 and 2Ac, respectively, within 10 min. Incubation up to 20 min led...... be blocked by tumour promoter okadaic acid (100 nM) when N-60 was used as a substrate. These results support the notion that the observed okadaic-acid-induced hyperphosphorylation of N-60 in intact human fibroblasts may be caused by specific inhibition of phosphatases involved in the process of r...

  1. Prophylactic treatment with alkaline phosphatase in cardiac surgery induces endogenous alkaline phosphatase release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, Suzanne; Brands, Ruud; Hamad, Mohamed A. Soliman; Seinen, Willem; Schamhorst, Volkher; Wulkan, Raymond W.; Schoenberger, Jacques P.; van Oeveren, Wim

    Introduction: Laboratory and clinical data have implicated endotoxin as an important factor in the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. We assessed the effects of the administration of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (bIAP), an endotoxin detoxifier, on alkaline phosphatase levels

  2. Plasma NGAL and glomerular filtration rate in cardiac transplant recipients treated with standard or reduced calcineurin inhibitor levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Finn; Gude, Einar; Sigurdardottir, Vilborg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Predictors of renal recovery following conversion from calcineurin inhibitor- to proliferation signal inhibitor-based therapy are lacking. We hypothesized that plasma NGAL (P-NGAL) could predict improvement in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after conversion to everolimus. PATIENTS & METHODS......: P-NGAL was measured in 88 cardiac transplantation patients (median 5 years post-transplant) with renal dysfunction randomized to continuation of conventional calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression or switching to an everolimus-based regimen. RESULTS: P-NGAL correlated with measured GFR (m...... for baseline mGFR. CONCLUSION: P-NGAL and GFR correlate with renal dysfunction in long-term heart transplantation recipients. P-NGAL did not predict improvement of renal function after conversion to everolimus-based immunosuppression....

  3. Comparative genomics of MAP kinase and calcium-calcineurin signalling components in plant and human pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispail, Nicolas; Soanes, Darren M; Ant, Cemile; Czajkowski, Robert; Grünler, Anke; Huguet, Romain; Perez-Nadales, Elena; Poli, Anna; Sartorel, Elodie; Valiante, Vito; Yang, Meng; Beffa, Roland; Brakhage, Axel A; Gow, Neil A R; Kahmann, Regine; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Lenasi, Helena; Perez-Martin, José; Talbot, Nicholas J; Wendland, Jürgen; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2009-04-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades and the calcium-calcineurin pathway control fundamental aspects of fungal growth, development and reproduction. Core elements of these signalling pathways are required for virulence in a wide array of fungal pathogens of plants and mammals. In this review, we have used the available genome databases to explore the structural conservation of three MAPK cascades and the calcium-calcineurin pathway in ten different fungal species, including model organisms, plant pathogens and human pathogens. While most known pathway components from the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae appear to be widely conserved among taxonomically and biologically diverse fungi, some of them were found to be restricted to the Saccharomycotina. The presence of multiple paralogues in certain species such as the zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae and the incorporation of new functional domains that are lacking in S. cerevisiae signalling proteins, most likely reflect functional diversification or adaptation as filamentous fungi have evolved to occupy distinct ecological niches.

  4. Calcineurin Orchestrates Hyphal Growth, Septation, Drug Resistance and Pathogenesis of Aspergillus fumigatus: Where Do We Go from Here?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen R Juvvadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on fungal pathogens belonging to the ascomycota phylum are critical given the ubiquity and frequency with which these fungi cause infections in humans. Among these species, Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive aspergillosis, a leading cause of death in immunocompromised patients. Fundamental to A. fumigatus pathogenesis is hyphal growth. However, the precise mechanisms underlying hyphal growth and virulence are poorly understood. Over the past 10 years, our research towards the identification of molecular targets responsible for hyphal growth, drug resistance and virulence led to the elucidation of calcineurin as a key signaling molecule governing these processes. In this review, we summarize our salient findings on the significance of calcineurin for hyphal growth and septation in A. fumigatus and propose future perspectives on exploiting this pathway for designing new fungal-specific therapeutics.

  5. Role of calcineurin in Ca2+-induced release of catecholamines and neuropeptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hens, JJH; De Wit, M; Ghijsen, WEJM; Leenders, AGM; Boddeke, HWGM; Kissmehl, R; Wiegant, VM; Weller, U; Gispen, WH; De Graan, PNE

    1998-01-01

    Neurotransmission requires rapid docking, fusion, and recycling of neurotransmitter vesicles. Several of the proteins involved in this complex Ca2+-regulated mechanism have been identified as substrates for protein kinases and phosphatases, e.g., the synapsins, synaptotagmin, rabphilin3A,

  6. Effect of Calcineurin Inhibitor-Free Everolimus-Based Immunosuppressive Regimen on Albuminuria and Glomerular Filtration Rate after Heart Transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Laerke M; Andreassen, Arne K; Andersson, Bert

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Albuminuria in maintenance heart transplantation (HTx) is associated with poor renal response when switching to a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-lowered or CNI-free immunosuppressive regimen using everolimus (EVR), but the significance of albuminuria associated with EVR treatment after....... CONCLUSIONS: The effects of EVR with early CNI withdrawal after HTx on albuminuria and renal function seem dissociated; hence, the clinical significance of albuminuria in this setting is uncertain and should not necessarily rule out EVR-based immunosuppression....

  7. Catalytic and substrate promiscuity: distinct multiple chemistries catalysed by the phosphatase domain of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bharath; Marks, Hanna; Mitra, Sreyoshi; Smalley, David M; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2016-07-15

    The presence of latent activities in enzymes is posited to underlie the natural evolution of new catalytic functions. However, the prevalence and extent of such substrate and catalytic ambiguity in evolved enzymes is difficult to address experimentally given the order-of-magnitude difference in the activities for native and, sometimes, promiscuous substrate/s. Further, such latent functions are of special interest when the activities concerned do not fall into the domain of substrate promiscuity. In the present study, we show a special case of such latent enzyme activity by demonstrating the presence of two mechanistically distinct reactions catalysed by the catalytic domain of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase isoform δ (PTPRδ). The primary catalytic activity involves the hydrolysis of a phosphomonoester bond (C─O─P) with high catalytic efficiency, whereas the secondary activity is the hydrolysis of a glycosidic bond (C─O─C) with poorer catalytic efficiency. This enzyme also displays substrate promiscuity by hydrolysing diester bonds while being highly discriminative for its monoester substrates. To confirm these activities, we also demonstrated their presence on the catalytic domain of protein tyrosine phosphatase Ω (PTPRΩ), a homologue of PTPRδ. Studies on the rate, metal-ion dependence, pH dependence and inhibition of the respective activities showed that they are markedly different. This is the first study that demonstrates a novel sugar hydrolase and diesterase activity for the phosphatase domain (PD) of PTPRδ and PTPRΩ. This work has significant implications for both understanding the evolution of enzymatic activity and the possible physiological role of this new chemistry. Our findings suggest that the genome might harbour a wealth of such alternative latent enzyme activities in the same protein domain that renders our knowledge of metabolic networks incomplete. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the

  8. Defining Starch Binding by Glucan Phosphatases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Kyle; Raththagala, Madushi; Wilkens, Casper

    2015-01-01

    Starch is a vital energy molecule in plants that has a wide variety of uses in industry, such as feedstock for biomaterial processing and biofuel production. Plants employ a three enzyme cyclic process utilizing kinases, amylases, and phosphatases to degrade starch in a diurnal manner. Starch...... is comprised of the branched glucan amylopectin and the more linear glucan amylose. Our lab has determined the first structures of these glucan phosphatases and we have defined their enzymatic action. Despite this progress, we lacked a means to quickly and efficiently quantify starch binding to glucan...... phosphatases. The main objective of this study was to quantify the binding affinity of different enzymes that are involved in this cyclic process. We established a protocol to quickly, reproducibly, and quantitatively measure the binding of the enzymes to glucans utilizing Affinity Gel Electrophoresis (AGE...

  9. Everolimus as primary immunosuppression in kidney transplantation: experience in conversion from calcineurin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fructuoso, Ana I; Ruiz, Juan C; Calvo, Natividad; Rodrigo, Emilio; Perez-Flores, Isabel; Gómez-Alamillo, Carlos; Fernández-Pérez, Cristina; Arias, Manuel; Barrientos, Alberto

    2012-02-27

    We analyzed our clinical experience with everolimus (EVL) and identified prognostic factors for a successful conversion. Retrospective study of 220 kidney recipients consecutively converted to EVL with calcineurin inhibitor elimination. We studied risk factors for proteinuria at 1 year after conversion, decline in renal function, and graft survival. Baseline creatinine clearance was 52.4±17.8 mL/min vs. 53.4±20.1 mL/min 1 year after conversion (P=0.150). Median proteinuria increased from 304 mg/day (interquartile range 160-507) to 458 mg/day (interquartile range 238-892; Pproteinuria ≥900 mg/day (P75) at 1-year postconversion were creatinine clearance less than 60 mL/min (odds ratio [OR] 3.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-9.89), serum triglycerides ≥150 mg/day (OR 4.35; 95% CI: 1.70-11.17), no treatment with prednisone (OR 3.04; 95% CI: 1.22-7.59), baseline proteinuria ≥550 mg/day (OR 10.37; 95% CI: 3.99-26.99), and conversion ≥3 years after transplant (OR 5.77; 95% CI: 1.89-17.59). An interaction was observed between baseline proteinuria and time to conversion: in patients with baseline proteinuria ≥550 mg/day, the risk of developing proteinuria ≥900 mg/day was 77.1% if they were converted after ≥3 years posttransplant. However, this risk was 29.8% in the subgroup converted before (P=0.02). Actuarial graft survival at 1 and 4 years postconversion was 98.2% and 86.5%, respectively. Baseline proteinuria ≥550 mg/day was a risk factor for graft loss in patients converted after the third year but not in patients converted before this time. EVL discontinuation rate was 24% in the first year postconversion. Conversion to EVL and elimination of calcineurin inhibitors is safe. Success depends on not making late conversions and not converting patients with high baseline proteinuria.

  10. Changes in Cx43 and NaV1.5 expression precede the occurrence of substantial fibrosis in calcineurin-induced murine cardiac hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda S C Fontes

    Full Text Available In mice, the calcium-dependent phosphatase calcineurin A (CnA induces a transcriptional pathway leading to pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Interestingly, induction of CnA has been frequently noticed in human hypertrophic and failing hearts. Independently, the arrhythmia vulnerability of such hearts has been regularly associated with remodeling of parameters determining electrical conduction (expression level of connexin43 (Cx43 and NaV1.5, connective tissue architecture, for which the precise molecular basis and sequence of events is still unknown. Recently, we observed reduced Cx43 and NaV1.5 expression in 4-week old mouse hearts, overexpressing a constitutively active form of CnA (MHC-CnA model, but the order of events is still unknown. Therefore, three key parameters of conduction (Cx43, NaV1.5 and connective tissue expression were characterized in MHC-CnA ventricles versus wild-type (WT during postnatal development on a weekly basis. At postnatal week 1, CnA overexpression induced cardiac hypertrophy in MHC-CnA. Moreover, protein and RNA levels of both Cx43 and NaV1.5 were reduced by at least 50% as compared to WT. Cx43 immunoreactive signal was reduced at week 2 in MHC-CnA. At postnatal week 3, Cx43 was less phosphorylated and RNA level of Cx43 normalized to WT values, although the protein level was still reduced. Additionally, MHC-CnA hearts displayed substantial fibrosis relative to WT, which was accompanied by increased RNA levels for genes previously associated with fibrosis such as Col1a1, Col1a2, Col3a1, Tgfb1, Ctgf, Timp1 and microRNA miR-21. In MHC-CnA, reduction in Cx43 and NaV1.5 expression thus coincided with overexpression of CnA and hypertrophy development and preceded significant presence of fibrosis. At postnatal week 4 the alterations in conductional parameters observed in the MHC-CnA model lead to abnormal conduction and arrhythmias, similar to those observed in cardiac remodeling in heart failure patients. The MHC

  11. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase prevents metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Nasrin Alam, Sayeda; Moaven, Omeed; Patel, Palak; Malo, Nondita S; Ray, Madhury; Abtahi, Seyed M; Muhammad, Nur; Raychowdhury, Atri; Teshager, Abeba; Mohamed, Mussa M Rafat; Moss, Angela K; Ahmed, Rizwan; Hakimian, Shahrad; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Hohmann, Elizabeth; Warren, H Shaw; Bhan, Atul K; Malo, Madhu S; Hodin, Richard A

    2013-04-23

    Metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of related disorders that includes obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver. Recently, gut-derived chronic endotoxemia has been identified as a primary mediator for triggering the low-grade inflammation responsible for the development of metabolic syndrome. In the present study we examined the role of the small intestinal brush-border enzyme, intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), in preventing a high-fat-diet-induced metabolic syndrome in mice. We found that both endogenous and orally supplemented IAP inhibits absorption of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides) that occurs with dietary fat, and oral IAP supplementation prevents as well as reverses metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, IAP supplementation improves the lipid profile in mice fed a standard, low-fat chow diet. These results point to a potentially unique therapy against metabolic syndrome in at-risk humans.

  12. Predictive factors of allosensitization in renal transplant patients switched from calcineurin to mTOR inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz San Millán, Juan Carlos; López-Hoyos, Marcos; Segundo, David San; Quintela, Estrella; Rodrigo, Emilio; Gómez-Alamillo, Carlos; Romón, Iñigo; Arias, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    Conversion of kidney-transplant recipients from calcineurin inhibitors to mTOR inhibitors has been suggested to be a risk factor for increased alloimmune response. We have analyzed the development of new HLA-antibodies (HLA-Abs) early after conversion in 184 patients converted in stable phase at our hospital and compared with a control group of nonconverted comparable 63 transplants. Using single-antigen solid-phase immunoassay analysis, a preconversion and a 3-6 months postconversion sera were prospectively analyzed in every patient for the appearance of new HLA-Abs. Renal function at 2 years postconversion and cumulative graft survival were compared between groups. In 16 patients, new HLA-Abs (3-DSA and 13-NonDSA), not present at the moment of conversion, were detected (8.7% vs. 3.1% in the control group). The type of mTORi used, type of CNI preconversion, the presence of steroids, time of conversion, or indication for conversion did not have influence on this effect but the presence of HLA-Abs before conversion highly correlated with the appearance of new specificities. Patients with de novo HLA-Abs showed a trend to worst graft function and survival. In conclusion, conversion to mTORi can be followed by early appearance of de novo HLA-Abs, especially in patients with HLA-Abs preconversion, and this complication should be screened early after conversion. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  13. Acute Calcineurin Inhibitor Nephrotoxicity Secondary to Turmeric Intake: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayeri, A; Wu, S; Adams, E; Tanner, C; Meshman, J; Saini, I; Reid, W

    Tacrolimus, also known as FK-506, is a potent immunosuppressant agent with a host of drug-drug and food-drug interactions. We present the first case of a probable food-drug interaction between the herb turmeric and tacrolimus leading to acute calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity. A 56-year-old man with a history of orthotopic liver transplantation presented to the emergency department from the clinic with worsening edema in the setting of an elevated creatinine level of 4.2 mg/dL. Before the current presentation, the patient had been recently discharged on a previously tolerated low-dose regimen of tacrolimus with a whole-blood tacrolimus level within the desired range. Tacrolimus level on the day of re-hospitalization was elevated to 29.9 ng/mL in the absence of any changes to the patient's medication regimen. On further prompting, the patient identified recent high-dose intake of turmeric with his food. Tacrolimus was held from the patient's medication regimen, and he was discharged on hospital day 4 with objective evidence of improving renal function. Our report builds on the previous studies that described the effects of turmeric or its active ingredient on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus. The appropriate reconciliation of herbal agents such as turmeric can be worthwhile in patients with unexplained changes in tacrolimus levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lifetime Cost-Effectiveness of Calcineurin Inhibitor Withdrawal After De Novo Renal Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Stephanie R.; Graham, Christopher N.; Irish, William D.; Sato, Reiko; Schnitzler, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    After renal transplantation, immunosuppressive regimens associated with high short-term survival rates are not necessarily associated with high long-term survival rates, suggesting that regimens may need to be optimized over time. Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) withdrawal from a sirolimus-based immunosuppressive regimen may maximize the likelihood of long-term graft and patient survival by minimizing CNI-associated nephrotoxicity. In this study, a lifetime Markov model was created to compare the cost-effectiveness of a sirolimus-based CNI withdrawl regimen (sirolimus plus steroids) with other common CNI-containing regimens in adult de novo renal transplantation patients. Long-term graft survival was estimated by renal function and data from published studies and the US transplant registry, including short- and long-term outcomes, utility weights, and health-state costs were incorporated. Drug costs were based on average daily consumption and wholesale acquisition costs. The model suggests that treatment with sirolimus plus steroids is more efficacious and less costly than regimens consisting of a CNI, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids; therefore, CNI withdrawal not only shows potential for long-term clinical benefits but also is expected to be cost-saving over a patient's life compared with the most commonly prescribed CNI-containing regimens. PMID:18562571

  15. Relationship between pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcineurin inhibitors in renal transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albring, Antje; Wendt, Laura; Harz, Nino; Engler, Harald; Wilde, Benjamin; Kribben, Andreas; Lindemann, Monika; Schedlowski, Manfred; Witzke, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) cyclosporine A (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tac) are immunosuppressive drugs, which are typically employed in the field of organ transplantation. Both drugs have narrow therapeutic indices, highly variable pharmacokinetics, and are associated with severe adverse effects. In current clinical routine, the dose finding of CNIs is based on the measurement of their blood concentrations. However, this method is limited in its ability to determine the biological impact of the drug. Alternative monitoring strategies, focusing on the pharmacodynamics of CNIs, could help to personalize drug dosing and optimize the treatment with CNIs. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic of the CNIs CsA (n = 9) and Tac (n = 8) in stable renal transplant patients during a 12-h dosing period. We observed a significant decrease in the drug-blood concentration during the course of the day and in parallel a significant recovery of T cell function. In addition, our data document that analysis of intracellular interleukin (IL)-2 production and determination of the IL-2 release are accurate parameters for monitoring the pharmacodynamics of CNIs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Hyperphosphatemia, Phosphoprotein Phosphatases, and Microparticle Release in Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Nima; Burton, James O; Herbert, Karl E; Tregunna, Barbara-Emily; Brown, Jeremy R; Ghaderi-Najafabadi, Maryam; Brunskill, Nigel J; Goodall, Alison H; Bevington, Alan

    2015-09-01

    Hyperphosphatemia in patients with advanced CKD is thought to be an important contributor to cardiovascular risk, in part because of endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction induced by inorganic phosphate (Pi). Such patients also have an elevated circulating concentration of procoagulant endothelial microparticles (MPs), leading to a prothrombotic state, which may contribute to acute occlusive events. We hypothesized that hyperphosphatemia leads to MP formation from ECs through an elevation of intracellular Pi concentration, which directly inhibits phosphoprotein phosphatases, triggering a global increase in phosphorylation and cytoskeletal changes. In cultured human ECs (EAhy926), incubation with elevated extracellular Pi (2.5 mM) led to a rise in intracellular Pi concentration within 90 minutes. This was mediated by PiT1/slc20a1 Pi transporters and led to global accumulation of tyrosine- and serine/threonine-phosphorylated proteins, a marked increase in cellular Tropomyosin-3, plasma membrane blebbing, and release of 0.1- to 1-μm-diameter MPs. The effect of Pi was independent of oxidative stress or apoptosis. Similarly, global inhibition of phosphoprotein phosphatases with orthovanadate or fluoride yielded a global protein phosphorylation response and rapid release of MPs. The Pi-induced MPs expressed VE-cadherin and superficial phosphatidylserine, and in a thrombin generation assay, they displayed significantly more procoagulant activity than particles derived from cells incubated in medium with a physiologic level of Pi (1 mM). These data show a mechanism of Pi-induced cellular stress and signaling, which may be widely applicable in mammalian cells, and in ECs, it provides a novel pathologic link between hyperphosphatemia, generation of MPs, and thrombotic risk. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  17. Phosphatases, DNA damage checkpoints and checkpoint deactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heideker, Johanna; Lis, Ewa T; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2007-12-15

    Cells have evolved intricate and specialized responses to DNA damage, central to which are the DNA damage checkpoints that arrest cell cycle progression and facilitate the repair process. Activation of these damage checkpoints relies heavily on the activity of Ser/Thr kinases, such as Chk1 and Chk2 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad53), which are themselves activated by phosphorylation. Only more recently have we begun to understand how cells disengage the checkpoints to reenter the cell cycle. Here, we review progress toward understanding the functions of phosphatases in checkpoint deactivation in S. cerevisiae, focusing on the non-redundant roles of the type 2A phosphatase Pph3 and the PP2C phosphatases Ptc2 and Ptc3 in the deactivation of Rad53. We discuss how these phosphatases may specifically recognize different phosphorylated forms of Rad53 and how each may independently regulate different facets of the checkpoint response. In conjunction with the independent dephosphorylation of other checkpoint proteins, such regulation may allow a more tailored response to DNA damage that is coordinated with the repair process, ultimately resulting in the resumption of growth.

  18. Activities of alkaline phosphatase, glutamate oxaloacetate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline phosphatase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase activities were assessed in rats highly infected with federe strain of Trypanosoma brucei and treated with honey. Therapeutic effect of honey on parasitaemia was also assessed. Results show an extension in the life span of ...

  19. Protein tyrosine phosphatases in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W.J.; Elson, A.; Harroch, S.; Pulido, R.; Stoker, A.; den Hertog, J.

    2013-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) represent a super-family of enzymes that play essential roles in normal development and physiology. In this review, we will discuss the PTPs that have a causative role in hereditary diseases in humans. In addition, recent progress in the development and analysis

  20. Persistently increased intestinal fraction of alkaline phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, E; Baatrup, G; Berg, H

    1984-01-01

    Persistent elevation of the intestinal fraction of the alkaline phosphatase (API) as an isolated finding has to our knowledge not been reported previously. It was found in a boy followed during a period of 5.5 years. The only symptom was transient periodic fatigue observed at home, but not apparent...

  1. Studying Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatases in Zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hale, Alexander James; den Hertog, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are a large family of signal transduction regulators that have an essential role in normal development and physiology. Aberrant activation or inactivation of PTPs is at the basis of many human diseases. The zebrafish, Danio rerio, is being used extensively to

  2. Enzyme kinetic characterization of protein tyrosine phosphatases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Günther H.J.; Branner, S.; Møller, K. B.

    2003-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play a central role in cellular signaling processes, resulting in an increased interest in modulating the activities of PTPs. We therefore decided to undertake a detailed enzyme kinetic evaluation of various transmembrane and cytosolic PTPs (PTPalpha, PTPbeta...

  3. Osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase in Sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    specific alkaline phosphatase (b-AP) total protein levels were evaluated as indicators of bone turnover in twenty patients with sickle cell haemoglobinopathies and in twenty normal healthy individuals. The serum bonespecific alkaline phosphatase ...

  4. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulates interleukin-4-mediated STAT6 signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woetmann, Anders; Brockdorff, Johannes; Lovato, Paola

    2002-01-01

    of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) induces serine phosphorylation of STAT6 and severely inhibits DNA binding of STAT6. In contrast, IL-4-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Janus kinase-1 and STAT6 is not affected, suggesting that PP2A acts downstream of Janus kinases in IL-4 signaling. In conclusion, we...... provide the first evidence that PP2A plays a crucial role in the regulation of STAT6 function....... tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT6, which in turn leads to transcription of IL-4-specific genes. In addition, serine phosphorylation of STAT6 has recently been reported. Here we study the functional role of STAT6 serine phosphorylation and the kinases and phosphatases involved. We show that inhibition...

  5. Tyrosine phosphatase STEP is a tonic brake on induction of long-term potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelkey, Kenneth A; Askalan, Rand; Paul, Surojit; Kalia, Lorraine V; Nguyen, Tri Hung; Pitcher, Graham M; Salter, Michael W; Lombroso, Paul J

    2002-03-28

    The functional roles of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in the developed CNS have been enigmatic. Here we show that striatal enriched tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) is a component of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) complex. Functionally, exogenous STEP depressed NMDAR single-channel activity in excised membrane patches. STEP also depressed NMDAR-mediated synaptic currents whereas inhibiting endogenous STEP enhanced these currents. In hippocampal slices, administering STEP into CA1 neurons did not affect basal glutamatergic transmission evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation but prevented tetanus-induced long-term potentiation (LTP). Conversely, inhibiting STEP in CA1 neurons enhanced transmission and occluded LTP induction through an NMDAR-, Src-, and Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism. Thus, STEP acts as a tonic brake on synaptic transmission by opposing Src-dependent upregulation of NMDARs.

  6. HDHD1, which is often deleted in X-linked ichthyosis, encodes a pseudouridine-5'-phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preumont, Alice; Rzem, Rim; Vertommen, Didier; Van Schaftingen, Emile

    2010-10-15

    Pseudouridine, the fifth-most abundant nucleoside in RNA, is not metabolized in mammals, but is excreted intact in urine. The purpose of the present work was to search for an enzyme that would dephosphorylate pseudouridine 5'-phosphate, a potential intermediate in RNA degradation. We show that human erythrocytes contain a pseudouridine-5'-phosphatase displaying a Km ≤ 1 μM for its substrate. The activity of the partially purified enzyme was dependent on Mg2+, and was inhibited by Ca2+ and vanadate, suggesting that it belonged to the 'haloacid dehalogenase' family of phosphatases. Its low molecular mass (26 kDa) suggested that this phosphatase could correspond to the protein encoded by the HDHD1 (haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolase domain-containing 1) gene, present next to the STS (steroid sulfatase) gene on human chromosome Xp22. Purified human recombinant HDHD1 dephosphorylated pseudouridine 5'-phosphate with a kcat of 1.6 s-1, a Km of 0.3 μM and a catalytic efficiency at least 1000-fold higher than that on which it acted on other phosphate esters, including 5'-UMP. The molecular identity of pseudouridine-5'-phosphatase was confirmed by the finding that its activity was negligible (X-linked ichthyosis patients harbouring a combined deletion of the STS gene (the X-linked ichthyosis gene) and the HDHD1 gene. Furthermore, pseudouridine-5'-phosphatase activity was 1.5-fold higher in erythrocytes from women compared with men, in agreement with the HDHD1 gene undergoing only partial inactivation in females. In conclusion, HDHD1 is a phosphatase specifically involved in dephosphorylation of a modified nucleotide present in RNA.

  7. Structural Insights of Glucan Phosphatase Dynamics using Amide Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Simon; Kim, Youngjun; Li, Sheng; Durrant, Eric S.; Pace, Rachel M.; Woods, Virgil L.; Gentry, Matthew S.

    2009-01-01

    Laforin and Starch Excess 4 (SEX4) are founding members of a class of phosphatases that dephosphorylate phosphoglucans. Each protein contains a carbohydrate binding module (CBM) and a dual specificity phosphatase (DSP) domain. The gene encoding laforin is mutated in a fatal neurodegenerative disease called Lafora disease (LD). In the absence of laforin function, insoluble glucans accumulate that are hyperphosphorylated and exhibit sparse branching. It is hypothesized that these accumulations trigger the neurodegeneration and premature death of LD patients. We recently demonstrated that laforin removes phosphate from phosphoglucans and hypothesized that this function inhibits insoluble glucan accumulation. Loss of SEX4 function in plants yields a similar cellular phenotype; cells accumulate an excess amount of insoluble, hyperphosphorylated glucans. While multiple groups have shown that these phosphatases dephosphorylate phosphoglucans, there is no structure of a glucan phosphatase and little is known about the mechanism whereby they perform this action. We utilized hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS) and structural modeling to probe the conformational and structural dynamics of the glucan phosphatase SEX4. We found that the enzyme does not undergo a global conformational change upon glucan binding, but instead undergoes minimal rearrangement upon binding. The CBM undergoes increased protection from deuteration when bound to glucans, confirming its role in glucan binding. More interestingly, we identified structural components of the DSP that also undergo increased protection from deuteration upon glucan addition. To determine the position of these regions, we generated a homology model of the SEX4 DSP. The homology model shows that all of these regions are adjacent the DSP active site. Therefore, our results suggest that these regions of the DSP participate in presenting the phosphoglucan to the active site and provide the first structural analysis

  8. Changes of Available Phosphorus and phosphatase activity in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were significant differences between phosphatase activities in rhizosphere of plant species. The highest and lowest means of alkaline phosphatase activity were found in rhizosphere of Trifolium repens and. Ocimum basilicum respectively. The highest and lowest means of acid phosphatase activity were found in ...

  9. Replica plate screening method for detecting phosphatase activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of phosphatase activity with colony development, and the ability to distinguish between activity arising from cell-bound and cell-free enzyme. Phosphatase activity was confrrmed by staining the replica plate with fast blue RR salt. This enzyme probe was successfully used to detect phosphatase producing basidiomycetes.

  10. Possible involvement of hyphal phosphatase in phosphate efflux from intraradical hyphae isolated from mycorrhizal roots colonized by Gigaspora margarita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Tomoko; Saito, Masanori

    2004-06-01

    We developed a method for separating physiologically active intraradical hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi from mycorrhizal roots, allowing the hyphae to be used for physiological and biochemical experiments. In the present study, the phosphate efflux from the intraradical hyphae in vitro was examined in relation to hyphal phosphatase activity. Onion seedlings (Allium cepa) were planted in the soil inoculated with Gigaspora margarita. Six weeks after transplanting, the intraradical hyphae were isolated from the mycorrhizal roots using plant cell-wall digestion enzymes. The hyphae were incubated briefly at 25 degrees C in a buffer solution (50 mM Tris/HCl, pH 7.4), then incubated for 2 h and gently shaken with various inhibitors. Phosphate efflux, the amount of phosphate released to the buffer, was analysed by EnzChek phosphate assay kit. Hyphal phosphatase activity was stained histochemically and the proportion of phosphatase-active arbuscules was examined for each inhibitor. Phosphate effluxes were to some degree reduced by all inhibitors used, while the phosphatase inhibitor, BeSO4, greatly reduced the efflux. The degree of inhibition in the arbuscular phosphatase by each chemical was closely correlated to the decrease in the phosphate efflux. These results suggest that hyphal phosphatase may be partially involved in the phosphate efflux process from intraradical hyphae.

  11. Characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Ser/Thr phosphatase T1 and comparison to its mammalian homolog PP5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jung-Min

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein Ser/Thr phosphatase 5 (PP5 and its Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog protein phosphatase T1 (Ppt1p each contain an N-terminal domain consisting of several tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs and a C-terminal catalytic domain that is related to the catalytic subunits of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, and calcineurin. Analysis of yeast Ppt1p could provide important clues to the function of PP5 and its homologs, however it has not yet been characterized at the biochemical or cellular level. Results The specific activity of recombinant Ppt1p toward the artificial substrates 32P-myelin basic protein (MBP and 32P-casein was similar to that of PP5. Dephosphorylation of 32P-MBP, but not 32P-casein, was stimulated by unsaturated fatty acids and by arachidoyl coenzyme A. Limited proteolysis of Ppt1p removed the TPR domain and abrogated lipid stimulation. The remaining catalytic fragment exhibited a two-fold increase in activity toward 32P-MBP, but not 32P-casein. Removal of the C terminus increased Ppt1p activity toward both substrates two fold, but did not prevent further stimulation of activity toward 32P-MBP by lipid treatment. Ppt1p was localized throughout the cell including the nucleus. Levels of PPT1 mRNA and protein peaked in early log phase growth. Conclusions Many characteristics of Ppt1p are similar to those of PP5, including stimulation of phosphatase activity with some substrates by lipids, and peak expression during periods of rapid cell growth. Unlike PP5, however, proteolytic removal of the TPR domain or C-terminal truncation only modestly increased its activity. In addition, C-terminal truncation did not prevent further activation by lipid. This suggests that these regions play only a minor role in controlling its activity compared to PP5. Ppt1p is present in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, indicating that it may function in multiple compartments. The observation that Ppt1p is most highly expressed during early log

  12. Influence of Coexisting Crude Drugs on the Inhibitory Activity of Sinomeni Caulis et Rhizoma on Mouse Plasma Alkaline Phosphatase

    OpenAIRE

    MASAMI, HOUGA; FUMIHIKO, YOSHIZAKI; Mie, Suzuki; TOSHIO, ANDO; Tohoku College of Pharmacy

    1995-01-01

    A hot water extract of Sinomeni Caulis et Rhizoma inhibited the mouse plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Sinomenine and other alkaloids in this crude drug were found as the active principles. In this work, to study the influence of coexisting crude drugs in Chinese medicinal prescriptions, a mixture of Sinomeni Caulis et Rhizoma and one of 28 crude drugs was extracted with hot water and the ALP inhibiting activities of the extracts were compared. Angelicae Radix, Astragali Radix, Atr...

  13. Calcineurin inhibitors recruit protein kinases JAK2 and JNK, TLR signaling and the UPR to activate NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses in kidney tubular cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Guerrero, Cristian, E-mail: cristian.gonzalez@fjd.es [Renal and Vascular Pathology Laboratory, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria-Fundación Jiménez Díaz (IIS-FJD), Av. Reyes Católicos 2, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ocaña-Salceda, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.ocana@fjd.es [Renal and Vascular Pathology Laboratory, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria-Fundación Jiménez Díaz (IIS-FJD), Av. Reyes Católicos 2, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Berzal, Sergio, E-mail: sberzal@fjd.es [Renal and Vascular Pathology Laboratory, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria-Fundación Jiménez Díaz (IIS-FJD), Av. Reyes Católicos 2, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Carrasco, Susana, E-mail: scarrasco@fjd.es [Renal and Vascular Pathology Laboratory, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria-Fundación Jiménez Díaz (IIS-FJD), Av. Reyes Católicos 2, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernández-Fernández, Beatriz, E-mail: bfernandez@fjd.es [Nephrology, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria-Fundación Jiménez Díaz (IIS-FJD), Av. Reyes Católicos 2, 28040 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2013-11-01

    The calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) cyclosporine (CsA) and tacrolimus are key drugs in current immunosuppressive regimes for solid organ transplantation. However, they are nephrotoxic and promote death and profibrotic responses in tubular cells. Moreover, renal inflammation is observed in CNI nephrotoxicity but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We have now studied molecular pathways leading to inflammation elicited by the CNIs in cultured and kidney tubular cells. Both CsA and tacrolimus elicited a proinflammatory response in tubular cells as evidenced by a transcriptomics approach. Transcriptomics also suggested several potential pathways leading to expression of proinflammatory genes. Validation and functional studies disclosed that in tubular cells, CNIs activated protein kinases such as the JAK2/STAT3 and TAK1/JNK/AP-1 pathways, TLR4/Myd88/IRAK signaling and the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) to promote NF-κB activation and proinflammatory gene expression. CNIs also activated an Nrf2/HO-1-dependent compensatory response and the Nrf2 activator sulforaphane inhibited JAK2 and JNK activation and inflammation. A murine model of CsA nephrotoxicity corroborated activation of the proinflammatory pathways identified in cell cultures. Human CNIs nephrotoxicity was also associated with NF-κB, STAT3 and IRE1α activation. In conclusion, CNIs recruit several intracellular pathways leading to previously non-described proinflammatory actions in renal tubular cells. Identification of these pathways provides novel clues for therapeutic intervention to limit CNIs nephrotoxicity. - Highlights: • Molecular mechanisms modulating CNI renal inflammation were investigated. • Kinases, immune receptors and ER stress mediate the inflammatory response to CNIs. • Several intracellular pathways activate NF-κB in CNIs-treated tubular cells. • A NF-κB-dependent cytokine profile characterizes CNIs-induced inflammation. • CNI nephrotoxicity was associated to inflammatory

  14. [ATPase and phosphatase activity of drone brood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnarchuk, L I; Stakhman, O S

    2004-01-01

    Most researches on insect enzymes concern carbohydrate and nitrogenous exchange. Data on ATPase activity for larval material of drone brood are absent in the available literature. The drone brood is one of the least investigated apiproducts. Allowing for the important role of ATPase in the vital functions of the insect cells our work was aimed at the study of ATPase of the drone blood activity and that of alkaline and acid phosphatases. When studying liophylised preparations of the drone brood homogenate we have found out high activity of Mg2+, Na+, K+-, Ca2+- and Mg2+-ATPase and of alkaline and acid phosphatase, that is the possible explanation of the high-intensity power and plastic processes proceeding during growth and development of larvae.

  15. Biochemical characterization of phosphatase, -galactosidase and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phosphatase activity on different phosphorylated substrates showed it ability to hydrolyze greatly para-nitrophenylphosphate (100 ± 2.3%) and ATP (95.3 ± 2.6%) and in lesser extent sodium phytate (15.2 ± 1.8%). As for natural substrates as lactose and the three different mannobioses linked (α -1,2; α -1,3 α -1,6), that ...

  16. Purification of acidic phosphatase from mustard seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    ### INTRODUCTION Phosphate esters are widely distributed in any organism. Nucleic acids, metabolic intermediates like glucose-6-phosphate, energy-rich substrates (AMP, creatine phosphate) are some obvious examples. While many metabolic intermediates are activated through the transfer of phosphate groups (e.g., by kinases) it is equally important that phosphate esters can also be rapidly broken down. The hydrolytic removal of phosphate groups from phosphoesters is catalyzed by phosphatases...

  17. Role of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaut, Pierre-Alain; Besnier, Marie; Gomez, Elodie; Richard, Vincent

    2016-12-01

    Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is mostly involved in negative regulation of signaling mediated by Tyrosine Kinase Receptors, especially the insulin and leptin receptors. This enzyme thus plays a major role in the development of diseases associated with insulin resistance, such as obesity and diabetes. PTP1B inhibition is currently considered as an attractive treatment of insulin resistance and associated metabolic disorders. In parallel, emerging evidence also suggests that PTP1B is widely expressed in cardiovascular tissues, notably in the heart and the endothelium, and that it could also be a potential treatment of several cardiovascular diseases. PTP1B is especially present in endothelial cells, and appears to contribute to endothelial dysfunction. Indeed, preclinical evidence shows that pharmacological inhibition of gene deletion of PTP1B reduces endothelial dysfunction in various cardiovascular diseases associated or not with insulin resistance. In parallel, because PTP1B also negatively modulates VEGF signaling, inhibition of this enzyme also tends to favor cardiac angiogenesis. Importantly, blocking PTP1B also results in beneficial effects on cardiac dysfunction and remodeling not only in metabolic diseases but also in the context of heart failure, thus this enzyme represents an attractive new target for the treatment of this disease. This beneficial effect in heart failure may to a large extent result from the endothelial protective and/or proangiogenic effects of PTP1B blockade. Finally, PTP1B inhibition also reduces cardiac dysfunction, but also systemic inflammation and mortality in experimental models of septic shock, and thus may also constitute a new treatment of this disease. Altogether, accumulating preclinical evidence suggests that PTP1B represents an interesting molecular target to treat both cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, which often share the same risk factors. This concept now deserves to be tested in clinical studies that

  18. Modulation of Yeast Alkaline Cation Tolerance by Ypi1 Requires Calcineurin

    OpenAIRE

    Marquina, Maribel; González, Asier; Barreto, Lina; Gelis, Samuel; Muñoz, Iván; Ruiz, Amparo; Álvarez, Mari Carmen; Ramos, José; Ariño, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    Ypi1 was discovered as an essential protein able to act as a regulatory subunit of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae type 1 protein phosphatase Glc7 and play a key role in mitosis. We show here that partial depletion of Ypi1 causes lithium sensitivity and that high levels of this protein confer a lithium-tolerant phenotype to yeast cells. Remarkably, this phenotype was independent of the role of Ypi1 as a Glc7 regulatory subunit. Lithium tolerance in cells overexpressing Ypi1 was caused by a combi...

  19. Protein Phosphatase-1 Regulates Expression of Neuregulin-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ammosova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1, a cellular serine/threonine phosphatase, is targeted to cellular promoters by its major regulatory subunits, PP1 nuclear targeting subunit, nuclear inhibitor of PP1 (NIPP1 and RepoMan. PP1 is also targeted to RNA polymerase II (RNAPII by NIPP1 where it can dephosphorylate RNAPII and cycle-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9. Here, we show that treatment of cells with a small molecule activator of PP1 increases the abundance of a neuregulin-1 (NRG-1-derived peptide. NRG-1 mRNA and protein levels were increased in the cells stably or transiently expressing mutant NIPP1 (mNIPP1 that does not bind PP1, but not in the cells expressing NIPP1. Expression of mNIPP1 also activated the NRG-1 promoter in an NF-κB-dependent manner. Analysis of extracts from mNIPP1 expressing cells by glycerol gradient centrifugation showed a redistribution of PP1 and CDK9 between large and small molecular weight complexes, and increased CDK9 Thr-186 phosphorylation. This correlated with the increased CDK9 activity. Further, RNAPII co-precipitated with mNIPP1, and phosphorylation of RNAPII C-terminal domain (CTD Ser-2 residues was greater in cells expressing mNIPP1. In mNIPP1 expressing cells, okadaic acid, a cell-permeable inhibitor of PP1, did not increase Ser-2 CTD phosphorylation inhibited by flavopiridol, in contrast to the NIPP1 expressing cells, suggesting that PP1 was no longer involved in RNAPII dephosphorylation. Finally, media conditioned with mNIPP1 cells induced the proliferation of wild type 84-31 cells, consistent with a role of neuregulin-1 as a growth promoting factor. Our study indicates that deregulation of PP1/NIPP1 holoenzyme activates NRG-1 expression through RNAPII and CDK9 phosphorylation in a NF-κB dependent manner.

  20. Paralysis of skeletal muscle by butanedione monoxime, a chemical phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, M W; Gage, P W; Neering, I R; Dulhunty, A F; Lamb, G D

    1988-01-01

    The chemical phosphatase butanedione monoxime (BDM) reversibly inhibited twitches and tetanic contractions in bundles of rat soleus fibres in a dose-dependent manner (2-20 mM) but had no effect on the amplitude or time course of action potentials. In addition, BDM reversibly reduced the amplitude of potassium contractures demonstrating a depressant effect on contraction not mediated by action potentials. BDM had no effect on asymmetric charge movement but depressed calcium currents across the surface membrane in voltage-clamped fibres. The most significant effect of BDM on excitation-contraction coupling was a reduction in the amplitude of the calcium transient associated with contraction in aequorin-injected fibres. While these experiments do not eliminate the possibility of a direct effect of BDM on contractile filaments, reduction of calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, at least at low concentrations of BDM (below 2 mM), would seem to be the main mechanism for the inhibition of contractions in rat skeletal muscle.

  1. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors isolated from Artemisia roxburghiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Muhammad Raza; Ishtiaq; Hizbullah, Syed Muhammad; Habtemariam, Solomon; Zarrelli, Armando; Muhammad, Akhtar; Collina, Simona; Khan, Inamulllah

    2016-08-01

    Artemisia roxburghiana is used in traditional medicine for treating various diseases including diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of active constituents by using protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a validated target for management of diabetes. Various compounds were isolated as active principles from the crude methanolic extract of aerial parts of A. roxburghiana. All compounds were screened for PTP1B inhibitory activity. Molecular docking simulations were performed to investigate the mechanism behind PTP1B inhibition of the isolated compound and positive control, ursolic acid. Betulinic acid, betulin and taraxeryl acetate were the active PTP1B principles with IC50 values 3.49 ± 0.02, 4.17 ± 0.03 and 87.52 ± 0.03 µM, respectively. Molecular docking studies showed significant molecular interactions of the triterpene inhibitors with Gly220, Cys215, Gly218 and Asp48 inside the active site of PTP1B. The antidiabetic activity of A. roxburghiana could be attributed due to PTP1B inhibition by its triterpene constituents, betulin, betulinic acid and taraxeryl acetate. Computational insights of this study revealed that the C-3 and C-17 positions of the compounds needs extensive optimization for the development of new lead compounds.

  2. Alkaline phosphatase retained in HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells vs. alkaline phosphatase released to culture medium: difference of aberrant glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, Azin; Yazdanparast, Razieh

    2005-05-06

    Liver tissue is the source of 90% of serum alkaline phosphatase (AP). The serum levels and structures of tumor marker proteins change under many disease conditions as well as cancer. The study was aimed at determining the type of alkaline phosphatase (AP) present in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Alkaline phosphatase rich extracts of healthy human liver, HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells, as well as the condition medium of HepG2 cells were prepared by extraction with 40% n-butanol and 30-50% acetone precipitation, and subjected to various chromatographic procedures. Lectin affinity chromatography of the samples with concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B showed considerable differences in the elution patterns. Non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the culture medium yielded a relatively slow migrating band of activity that coincided with none of the three bands of activity produced by the normal liver extract, nor with the bands of the cell pellet extract. Inhibition patterns were established by measuring the enzyme activities in the presence of varying concentrations of L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, L-homoarginine, and levamisole. The APs from the cell line were neuraminidase sensitive. According to the results the main AP produced and released to the medium by HepG2 cell line is an aberrantly glycosylated tissue non-specific AP. In addition, the differences between the cell-pellet AP and the culture medium AP seemed to stem from different sugar moieties in their structures.

  3. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Genes Mediating Salt Tolerance through Calcineurin/CchA-Independent Signaling in Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to changes in the environment is crucial for the viability of all organisms. Although the importance of calcineurin in the stress response has been highlighted in filamentous fungi, little is known about the involvement of ion-responsive genes and pathways in conferring salt tolerance without calcium signaling. In this study, high-throughput RNA-seq was used to investigate salt stress-induced genes in the parent, ΔcnaB, and ΔcnaBΔcchA strains of Aspergillus nidulans, which differ greatly in salt adaption. In total, 2,884 differentially expressed genes including 1,382 up- and 1,502 downregulated genes were identified. Secondary transporters, which were upregulated to a greater extent in ΔcnaBΔcchA than in the parent or ΔcnaB strains, are likely to play important roles in response to salt stress. Furthermore, 36 genes were exclusively upregulated in the ΔcnaBΔcchA under salt stress. Functional analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that genes involved in transport, heat shock protein binding, and cell division processes were exclusively activated in ΔcnaBΔcchA. Overall, our findings reveal that secondary transporters and stress-responsive genes may play crucial roles in salt tolerance to bypass the requirement for the CchA-calcineurin pathway, contributing to a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that influence fungal salt stress adaption in Aspergillus.

  4. Protein Phosphatase 2A Dephosphorylates CaBP4 and Regulates CaBP4 Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeseleer, Françoise; Sokal, Izabela; Gregory, Frederick D.; Lee, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. CaBP4 is a neuronal Ca2+-binding protein that is expressed in the retina and in the cochlea, and is essential for normal photoreceptor synaptic function. CaBP4 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C zeta (PKCζ) in the retina at serine 37, which affects its interaction with and modulation of voltage-gated Cav1 Ca2+ channels. In this study, we investigated the potential role and functional significance of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in CaBP4 dephosphorylation. Methods. The effect of protein phosphatase inhibitors, light, and overexpression of PP2A subunits on CaBP4 dephosphorylation was measured in in vitro assays. Pull-down experiments using retinal or transfected HEK293 cell lysates were used to investigate the association between CaBP4 and PP2A subunits. Electrophysiologic recordings of cotransfected HEK293 cells were performed to analyze the effect of CaBP4 dephosphorylation in modulating Cav1.3 currents. Results. PP2A inhibitors, okadaic acid (OA), and fostriecin, but not PP1 selective inhibitors, NIPP-1, and inhibitor 2, block CaBP4 dephosphorylation in retinal lysates. Increased phosphatase activity in light-dependent conditions reverses phosphorylation of CaBP4 by PKCζ. In HEK293 cells, overexpression of PP2A enhances the rate of dephosphorylation of CaBP4. In addition, inhibition of protein phosphatase activity by OA increases CaBP4 phosphorylation and potentiates the modulatory effect of CaBP4 on Cav1.3 Ca2+ channels in HEK293T cells. Conclusions. This study provides evidence that CaBP4 is dephosphorylated by PP2A in the retina. Our findings reveal a novel role for protein phosphatases in regulating CaBP4 function in the retina, which may fine tune presynaptic Ca2+ signals at the photoreceptor synapse. PMID:23341017

  5. Downregulation of the mitochondrial phosphatase PTPMT1 is sufficient to promote cancer cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie M Niemi

    Full Text Available Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase localized to the Mitochondrion 1 (PTPMT1 is a dual specificity phosphatase exclusively localized to the mitochondria, and has recently been shown to be a critical component in the cardiolipin biosynthetic pathway. The downregulation of PTPMT1 in pancreatic beta cells has been shown to increase cellular ATP levels and insulin production, however, the generalized role of PTPMT1 in cancer cells has not been characterized. Here we report that downregulation of PTPMT1 activity is sufficient to induce apoptosis of cancer cells. Additionally, the silencing of PTPMT1 decreases cardiolipin levels in cancer cells, while selectively increasing ATP levels in glycolytic media. Additionally, sublethal downregulation of PTPMT1 synergizes with low doses of paclitaxel to promote cancer cell death. Our data suggest that inhibition of PTPMT1 causes a metabolic crisis in cancer cells that induces cell death, and may be a mechanism by which cancer cells can be sensitized to currently available therapies.

  6. Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling studies on novel quinonoid inhibitors of CDC25 phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evain-Bana, Emilie; Schiavo, Lucie; Bour, Christophe; Lanfranchi, Don Antoine; Berardozzi, Simone; Ghirga, Francesca; Bagrel, Denyse; Botta, Bruno; Hanquet, Gilles; Mori, Mattia

    2017-12-01

    The cell division cycle 25 phosphatases (CDC25A, B, and C; E.C. 3.1.3.48) are key regulator of the cell cycle in human cells. Their aberrant expression has been associated with the insurgence and development of various types of cancer, and with a poor clinical prognosis. Therefore, CDC25 phosphatases are a valuable target for the development of small molecule inhibitors of therapeutic relevance. Here, we used an integrated strategy mixing organic chemistry with biological investigation and molecular modeling to study novel quinonoid derivatives as CDC25 inhibitors. The most promising molecules proved to inhibit CDC25 isoforms at single digit micromolar concentration, becoming valuable tools in chemical biology investigations and profitable leads for further optimization. [Formula: see text].

  7. A Kinase-Phosphatase Network that Regulates Kinetochore-Microtubule Attachments and the SAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallardi, Giulia; Cordeiro, Marilia Henriques; Saurin, Adrian Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The KMN network (for KNL1, MIS12 and NDC80 complexes) is a hub for signalling at the outer kinetochore. It integrates the activities of two kinases (MPS1 and Aurora B) and two phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A-B56) to regulate kinetochore-microtubule attachments and the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). We will first discuss each of these enzymes separately, to describe how they are regulated at kinetochores and why this is important for their primary function in controlling either microtubule attachments or the SAC. We will then discuss why inhibiting any one of them individually produces secondary effects on all the others. This cross-talk may help to explain why all enzymes have been linked to both processes, even though the direct evidence suggests they each control only one. This chapter therefore describes how a network of kinases and phosphatases work together to regulate two key mitotic processes.

  8. Effects of Newly Synthesized DCP-LA-Phospholipids on Protein Kinase C and Protein Phosphatases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kanno

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA selectively activates PKCε and inhibits protein phosphatase 1 (PP1. In the present study, we have newly synthesized phosphatidyl-ethanolamine, -serine, -choline, and -inositol containing DCP-LA at the α and β position (diDCP-LA-PE, -PS, PC, and -PI, respectively, and examined the effects of these compounds on activities of PKC isozymes and protein phosphatases. Methods: Activities of PKC isozymes PKCα, -βΙ, -βΙΙ, -γ, -δ, -ε-, ι, and -ζ and protein phosphatases PP1, PP2A, and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B were assayed under the cell-free conditions. Results: All the compounds activated PKC, with the different potential, but only PKCγ inhibition was obtained with diDCP-LA-PC. Of compounds diDCP-LA-PE alone significantly activated PKCι and -ζ. diDCP-LA-PE and diDCP-LA-PI suppressed PP1 activity, but otherwise diDCP-LA-PI enhanced PP2A activity. diDCP-LA-PE, diDCP-LA-PS, and diDCP-LA-PI strongly reduced PTP1B activity, while diDCP-LA-PC enhanced the activity. Conclusion: All the newly synthesized DCP-LA-phospholipids serve as a PKC activator and of them diDCP-LA-PE alone has the potential to activate the atypical PKC isozymes PKCι and -ζ. diDCP-LA-PE and diDCP-LA-PI serve as an inhibitor for PP1 and PTP1B, diDCP-LA-PS as a PTP1B inhibitor, diDCP-LA-PI as a PP2A enhancer, and diDCP-LA-PC as a PTP1B enhancer.

  9. Molecular Regulation of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint by Kinases and Phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manic, G; Corradi, F; Sistigu, A; Siteni, S; Vitale, I

    2017-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a surveillance mechanism contributing to the preservation of genomic stability by monitoring the microtubule attachment to, and/or the tension status of, each kinetochore during mitosis. The SAC halts metaphase to anaphase transition in the presence of unattached and/or untensed kinetochore(s) by releasing the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) from these improperly-oriented kinetochores to inhibit the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). The reversible phosphorylation of a variety of substrates at the kinetochore by antagonistic kinases and phosphatases is one major signaling mechanism for promptly turning on or turning off the SAC. In such a complex network, some kinases act at the apex of the SAC cascade by either generating (monopolar spindle 1, MPS1/TTK and likely polo-like kinase 1, PLK1), or contributing to generate (Aurora kinase B) kinetochore phospho-docking sites for the hierarchical recruitment of the SAC proteins. Aurora kinase B, MPS1 and budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 1 (BUB1) also promote sister chromatid biorientation by modulating kinetochore microtubule stability. Moreover, MPS1, BUB1, and PLK1 seem to play key roles in APC/C inhibition by mechanisms dependent and/or independent on MCC assembly. The protein phosphatase 1 and 2A (PP1 and PP2A) are recruited to kinetochores to oppose kinase activity. These phosphatases reverse the phosphorylation of kinetochore targets promoting the microtubule attachment stabilization, sister kinetochore biorientation and SAC silencing. The kinase-phosphatase network is crucial as it renders the SAC a dynamic, graded-signaling, high responsive, and robust process thereby ensuring timely anaphase onset and preventing the generation of proneoplastic aneuploidy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Serum alkaline phosphatase and mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddhu, S; Baird, B; Ma, X; Cheung, A K; Greene, T

    2010-08-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is typically considered as an innocent by-stander, but emerging data suggest that alkaline phosphatase might play a pathogenic role in vascular calcification and thus contribute to increased mortality in hemodialysis patients. Longitudinal analyses of the existing HEMO Study database. 1,827 HEMO Study participants. Serum alkaline phosphatase level. OUTCOME AND MEASUREMENTS: All-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Based on the median serum alkaline phosphatase of 97 IU/l, participants were divided into low ( or = 97 IU/l) serum alkaline phosphatase groups. The lower serum alkaline phosphatase group was associated with older age, male gender, non-black race and shorter dialysis years as well as higher serum calcium, higher serum calcium-phosphorus product and lower parathyroid hormone levels. Mean serum liver enzyme values were in the normal range in both groups, but the high alkaline phosphatase group had slightly higher values. In a multivariate time-dependent Cox model using baseline and follow-up values of serum alkaline phosphatase levels, adjusted for demographics, HEMO Study groups, comorbidity, bone metabolism parameters and liver enzymes, each doubling of serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly associated with increased hazard of all-cause (hazard ratio 1.44, 95% CI 1.30 - 1.59) and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.16 - 1.57). Nonstandardized measurements of alkaline phosphatase. Serum alkaline phosphatase is associated with increased mortality in hemodialysis patients, independent of bone metabolism parameters and liver enzymes. Alkaline phosphatase might be a potential therapeutic target in hemodialysis patients.

  11. Antiinflammatory effects of dexamethasone are partly dependent on induction of dual specificity phosphatase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sonya M; Lawrence, Toby; Kleiman, Anna; Warden, Paul; Medghalchi, Mino; Tuckermann, Jan; Saklatvala, Jeremy; Clark, Andrew R

    2006-08-07

    Glucocorticoids (GCs), which are used in the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases, inhibit the expression of many inflammatory mediators. They can also induce the expression of dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1; otherwise known as mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK] phosphatase 1), which dephosphorylates and inactivates MAPKs. We investigated the role of DUSP1 in the antiinflammatory action of the GC dexamethasone (Dex). Dex-mediated inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK was abrogated in DUSP1-/- mouse macrophages. Dex-mediated suppression of several proinflammatory genes (including tumor necrosis factor, cyclooxygenase 2, and interleukin 1alpha and 1beta) was impaired in DUSP1-/- mouse macrophages, whereas other proinflammatory genes were inhibited by Dex in a DUSP1-independent manner. In vivo antiinflammatory effects of Dex on zymosan-induced inflammation were impaired in DUSP1-/- mice. Therefore, the expression of DUSP1 is required for the inhibition of proinflammatory signaling pathways by Dex in mouse macrophages. Furthermore, DUSP1 contributes to the antiinflammatory effects of Dex in vitro and in vivo.

  12. MicroRNA-199b targets the nuclear kinase Dyrk1a in an auto-amplification loop promoting calcineurin/NFAT signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Costa Martins, P.A.; Salic, K.; Gladka, M.M.; Armand, A.S.; Leptidis, S.; el Azzouzi, H.; Hansen, A.; Coenen-de Roo, C.J.; Bierhuizen, M.F.A.; van der Nagel, R.; van Kuik, J.; de Weger, R.; de Bruin, A.; Condorelli, G.; Arbones, M.L.; Eschenhagen, T.; de Windt, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) are a class of single-stranded, non-coding RNAs of about 22 nucleotides in length. Increasing evidence implicates miRs in myocardial disease processes. Here we show that miR-199b is a direct calcineurin/NFAT target gene that increases in expression in mouse and human heart failure,

  13. Long-term outcomes of thoracic transplant recipients following conversion to everolimus with reduced calcineurin inhibitor in a multicenter, open-label, randomized trial lv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullestad, Lars; Eiskjaer, Hans; Gustafsson, Finn

    2016-01-01

    The NOCTET study randomized 282 patients ≥1 year after heart or lung transplantation to continue conventional calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy or to start everolimus with reduced-exposure CNI. Last follow-up, at ≥5 years postrandomization (mean: 5.6 years) was attended by 72/140 everolimus...

  14. Multiple roles of the DSCR1 (Adapt78 or RCAN1) gene and its protein product calcipressin 1 (or RCAN1) in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C D; Ermak, G; Davies, K J A

    2005-11-01

    The DSCR1 (Adapt78) gene is transiently induced by stresses to temporarily protect cells against further potentially lethal challenges. However, chronic expression of the DSCR1 (Adapt78) gene has now been implicated in several pathological conditions including Alzheimer's disease, Down syndrome and cardiac hypertrophy. Calcipressin 1 has been shown to function through direct binding and inhibition of the serine threonine protein phosphatase Calcineurin. Pharmacological inhibition of calcineurin, by the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin A and FK506, affects a wide variety of diseases. It is, therefore, likely that this endogenous calcineurin inhibitor, calcipressin 1, may also play a role in a variety of human diseases.

  15. Serum proteins, trace metals and phosphatases in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatnagar M

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum proteins, zinc, copper, acid phosphatase (AcPase and alkaline phosphatase (AlPase were studied in both active and remission phases of psoriasis. Data were compared with healthy controls, ?1, ? and ? globulins were high in active phase while ?1 and ? globulins were at par in remission phase. Serum copper was low but zinc and alkaline phosphatase were significantly high in both active and remission phases of the disease. Acid phosphatase level was at par in all the experimental groups. Study suggests a positive correlation of globulin, zinc and Alpase in active and remission phase of psoriasis.

  16. Inorganic Phosphate as an Important Regulator of Phosphatases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fernanda Dick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular metabolism depends on the appropriate concentration of intracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi. Pi starvation-responsive genes appear to be involved in multiple metabolic pathways, implying a complex Pi regulation system in microorganisms and plants. A group of enzymes is required for absorption and maintenance of adequate phosphate levels, which is released from phosphate esters and anhydrides. The phosphatase system is particularly suited for the study of regulatory mechanisms because phosphatase activity is easily measured using specific methods and the difference between the repressed and derepressed levels of phosphatase activity is easily detected. This paper analyzes the protein phosphatase system induced during phosphate starvation in different organisms.

  17. Histochemical and electrophoretic studies on phosphatases of some Indian trematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, M; Siddiqi, A H

    1982-06-01

    The isoenzymes of acid and alkaline phosphatases and their histochemical localization were studied by polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis in four species of trematodes: Gigantocotyle explanatum from the liver and Gastrothylax crumenifer from the rumen of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and Echinostoma malayanum and Fasciolopsis buski from the small intestine of the pig (Sus scrofa). Both acid and alkaline phosphatases were present in the tegument, gastrodermis, suckers, testes, ovary, eggs, vitellaria and uterus but alkaline phosphatase activity was demonstrated only in the parenchyma and excretory ducts. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed two to four isoenzymes for both acid and alkaline phosphatase.

  18. Syndecan-4 is essential for development of concentric myocardial hypertrophy via stretch-induced activation of the calcineurin-NFAT pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra V Finsen

    Full Text Available Sustained pressure overload leads to compensatory myocardial hypertrophy and subsequent heart failure, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Further unraveling of the cellular processes involved is essential for development of new treatment strategies. We have investigated the hypothesis that the transmembrane Z-disc proteoglycan syndecan-4, a co-receptor for integrins, connecting extracellular matrix proteins to the cytoskeleton, is an important signal transducer in cardiomyocytes during development of concentric myocardial hypertrophy following pressure overload. Echocardiographic, histochemical and cardiomyocyte size measurements showed that syndecan-4(-/- mice did not develop concentric myocardial hypertrophy as found in wild-type mice, but rather left ventricular dilatation and dysfunction following pressure overload. Protein and gene expression analyses revealed diminished activation of the central, pro-hypertrophic calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT signaling pathway. Cardiomyocytes from syndecan-4(-/--NFAT-luciferase reporter mice subjected to cyclic mechanical stretch, a hypertrophic stimulus, showed minimal activation of NFAT (1.6-fold compared to 5.8-fold increase in NFAT-luciferase control cardiomyocytes. Accordingly, overexpression of syndecan-4 or introducing a cell-permeable membrane-targeted syndecan-4 polypeptide (gain of function activated NFATc4 in vitro. Pull-down experiments demonstrated a direct intracellular syndecan-4-calcineurin interaction. This interaction and activation of NFAT were increased by dephosphorylation of serine 179 (pS179 in syndecan-4. During pressure overload, phosphorylation of syndecan-4 was decreased, and association between syndecan-4, calcineurin and its co-activator calmodulin increased. Moreover, calcineurin dephosphorylated pS179, indicating that calcineurin regulates its own binding and activation. Finally, patients with hypertrophic myocardium due to aortic stenosis had

  19. The Effect of Everolimus Initiation and Calcineurin Inhibitor Elimination on Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy in De Novo Recipients: One-Year Results of a Scandinavian Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, S; Andreassen, A K; Andersson, B; Gustafsson, F; Eiskjaer, H; Bøtker, H E; Rådegran, G; Gude, E; Ioanes, D; Solbu, D; Sigurdardottir, V; Dellgren, G; Erikstad, I; Solberg, O G; Ueland, T; Aukrust, P; Gullestad, L

    2015-07-01

    Early initiation of everolimus with calcineurin inhibitor therapy has been shown to reduce the progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) in de novo heart transplant recipients. The effect of de novo everolimus therapy and early total elimination of calcineurin inhibitor therapy has, however, not been investigated and is relevant given the morbidity and lack of efficacy of current protocols in preventing CAV. This 12-month multicenter Scandinavian trial randomized 115 de novo heart transplant recipients to everolimus with complete calcineurin inhibitor elimination 7-11 weeks after HTx or standard cyclosporine immunosuppression. Ninety-five (83%) patients had matched intravascular ultrasound examinations at baseline and 12 months. Mean (± SD) recipient age was 49.9 ± 13.1 years. The everolimus group (n = 47) demonstrated significantly reduced CAV progression as compared to the calcineurin inhibitor group (n = 48) (ΔMaximal Intimal Thickness 0.03 ± 0.06 and 0.08 ± 0.12 mm, ΔPercent Atheroma Volume 1.3 ± 2.3 and 4.2 ± 5.0%, ΔTotal Atheroma Volume 1.1 ± 19.2 mm(3) and 13.8 ± 28.0 mm(3) [all p-values ≤ 0.01]). Everolimus patients also had a significantly greater decline in levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 as compared to the calcineurin inhibitor group (p = 0.02). These preliminary results suggest that an everolimus-based CNI-free can potentially be considered in suitable de novo HTx recipients. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  20. Effecf of pH and some cations on activity of acid phosphatase secreted from Ustilago sp. isolated from acid sulphate soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chairatana Nilnond

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Acid phosphatase secreted from Ustilago sp. is able to hydrolyze organic phosphorus. These soil yeast microorganisms were isolated from rice roots grown in acid sulphate soil that generally contains highamount of aluminum (Al, iron (Fe and manganese (Mn ions. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to examine the effect of pH and some cations on acid phosphatase activity. Two isolates of Ustilago sp., AR101and AR102, were cultured in 100 mL of modified Pikovskaya's broth containing Na-phytate, pH 4, and acid phosphatase activity was determined at pH 2.0-7.0. Effect of Al, Fe, and Mn, including calcium (Ca ions,on growth of AR101 and AR102, secreted acid phosphatase activity, and the ability of acid phosphatase on the phosphorus release from Na-phytate by Ustilago sp. were investigated. It was found that the optimum pH for acid phosphatase activity was 3.5-4.5. The activity of acid phosphatase secreted from AR101 (3,690nmol min-1 mL-1 was remarkably higher than that from AR102 (956 nmol min-1 mL-1. Aluminum, iron, manganese and calcium ions in the medium did not affect the growth of either isolate. The activity of secretedacid phosphatase of AR101 was inhibited by Al and Ca ion, and synthesis of acid phosphatase of Ustilago sp. AR102 was possibly stimulated by Fe ion. Both AR101 and AR102 solubilized Na-phytate, resulting in therelease of P. However, some amount of released P was then precipitated with Al and Fe ions as the highly insoluble Fe- or Al- phosphate.

  1. Targeting phosphatase-dependent proteoglycan switch for rheumatoid arthritis therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doody, Karen M; Stanford, Stephanie M; Sacchetti, Cristiano; Svensson, Mattias N D; Coles, Charlotte H; Mitakidis, Nikolaos; Kiosses, William B; Bartok, Beatrix; Fos, Camille; Cory, Esther; Sah, Robert L; Liu-Bryan, Ru; Boyle, David L; Arnett, Heather A; Mustelin, Tomas; Corr, Maripat; Esko, Jeffrey D; Tremblay, Michel L; Firestein, Gary S; Aricescu, A Radu; Bottini, Nunzio

    2015-05-20

    Despite the availability of several therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that target the immune system, a large number of RA patients fail to achieve remission. Joint-lining cells, called fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), become activated during RA and mediate joint inflammation and destruction of cartilage and bone. We identify RPTPσ, a transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase, as a therapeutic target for FLS-directed therapy. RPTPσ is reciprocally regulated by interactions with chondroitin sulfate or heparan sulfate containing extracellular proteoglycans in a mechanism called the proteoglycan switch. We show that the proteoglycan switch regulates FLS function. Incubation of FLS with a proteoglycan-binding RPTPσ decoy protein inhibited cell invasiveness and attachment to cartilage by disrupting a constitutive interaction between RPTPσ and the heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-4. RPTPσ mediated the effect of proteoglycans on FLS signaling by regulating the phosphorylation and cytoskeletal localization of ezrin. Furthermore, administration of the RPTPσ decoy protein ameliorated in vivo human FLS invasiveness and arthritis severity in the K/BxN serum transfer model of RA. Our data demonstrate that FLS are regulated by an RPTPσ-dependent proteoglycan switch in vivo, which can be targeted for RA therapy. We envision that therapies targeting the proteoglycan switch or its intracellular pathway in FLS could be effective as a monotherapy or in combination with currently available immune-targeted agents to improve control of disease activity in RA patients. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Phosphatase and Tensin Homologue: Novel Regulation by Developmental Signaling

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    Travis J. Jerde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN is a critical cell endogenous inhibitor of phosphoinositide signaling in mammalian cells. PTEN dephosphorylates phosphoinositide trisphosphate (PIP3, and by so doing PTEN has the function of negative regulation of Akt, thereby inhibiting this key intracellular signal transduction pathway. In numerous cell types, PTEN loss-of-function mutations result in unopposed Akt signaling, producing numerous effects on cells. Numerous reports exist regarding mutations in PTEN leading to unregulated Akt and human disease, most notably cancer. However, less is commonly known about nonmutational regulation of PTEN. This review focuses on an emerging literature on the regulation of PTEN at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels. Specifically, a focus is placed on the role developmental signaling pathways play in PTEN regulation; this includes insulin-like growth factor, NOTCH, transforming growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein, wnt, and hedgehog signaling. The regulation of PTEN by developmental mediators affects critical biological processes including neuronal and organ development, stem cell maintenance, cell cycle regulation, inflammation, response to hypoxia, repair and recovery, and cell death and survival. Perturbations of PTEN regulation consequently lead to human diseases such as cancer, chronic inflammatory syndromes, developmental abnormalities, diabetes, and neurodegeneration.

  3. Nutrient modulated alkaline phosphatase and associated processes in diazotrophic cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Meenakshee

    2006-01-01

    Nutrient regulation of alkaline phosphatase (phosphomonoesterase - PMEase) was studied in some diazotrophic cyanobacterial strains like Anabaena variabilis, Anabaena torulosa, Calothrix brevissima, Scytonema javanicum and Hapalosiphon intricatus, in response to the macronutrients (Phosphate, Calcium and Magnesium) and the micronutrients (Zinc, Copper, Iron and Manganese). The phosphate grown cells of cyanobacterial strains when transferred to the phosphate deficient medium, showed expression of cellular PMEase activity and released the enzyme extracellularly. The increased concentration of phosphate inhibited enzyme activity severely in a concentration dependent manner. The phosphate depletion stimulated spore formation in A. variabilis and H. intricatus, whereas its addition enhanced spore's differentiation in A. torulosa. The switch-on time detected for both cellular and extracellular PMEase varies among the strains. The increase in ionic concentration of Ca2+ enhanced the PMEase activity more profoundly than Mg2+ in diazotrophic strains. The lower level of micronutrients either promoted or had no effect on photosynthetic inhibitors (DCMU) and respiratory electron transport chain inhibitor (sodium azide). It revealed that the energy for the synthesis of PMEase enzyme is mostly derived from photosynthesis and the role of respiratory energy is marginal. The Phosphate (Pi) uptake function in the strains was found to be substrate concentration dependent.

  4. Role of Striatal-Enriched Tyrosine Phosphatase in Neuronal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamceva, Marija; Benedict, Jessie; Nairn, Angus C; Lombroso, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) is a CNS-enriched protein implicated in multiple neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. STEP regulates key signaling proteins required for synaptic strengthening as well as NMDA and AMPA receptor trafficking. Both high and low levels of STEP disrupt synaptic function and contribute to learning and behavioral deficits. High levels of STEP are present in human postmortem samples and animal models of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia and in animal models of fragile X syndrome. Low levels of STEP activity are present in additional disorders that include ischemia, Huntington's chorea, alcohol abuse, and stress disorders. Thus the current model of STEP is that optimal levels are required for optimal synaptic function. Here we focus on the role of STEP in Alzheimer's disease and the mechanisms by which STEP activity is increased in this illness. Both genetic lowering of STEP levels and pharmacological inhibition of STEP activity in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease reverse the biochemical and cognitive abnormalities that are present. These findings suggest that STEP is an important point for modulation of proteins required for synaptic plasticity.

  5. Role of Striatal-Enriched Tyrosine Phosphatase in Neuronal Function

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    Marija Kamceva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP is a CNS-enriched protein implicated in multiple neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders. STEP regulates key signaling proteins required for synaptic strengthening as well as NMDA and AMPA receptor trafficking. Both high and low levels of STEP disrupt synaptic function and contribute to learning and behavioral deficits. High levels of STEP are present in human postmortem samples and animal models of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and schizophrenia and in animal models of fragile X syndrome. Low levels of STEP activity are present in additional disorders that include ischemia, Huntington’s chorea, alcohol abuse, and stress disorders. Thus the current model of STEP is that optimal levels are required for optimal synaptic function. Here we focus on the role of STEP in Alzheimer’s disease and the mechanisms by which STEP activity is increased in this illness. Both genetic lowering of STEP levels and pharmacological inhibition of STEP activity in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease reverse the biochemical and cognitive abnormalities that are present. These findings suggest that STEP is an important point for modulation of proteins required for synaptic plasticity.

  6. Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Kurup, Pradeep; Nairn, Angus C; Lombroso, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia among the elderly, affecting millions of people worldwide and representing a substantial economic burden. AD is a progressive disease associated with memory loss and impaired cognitive function. The neuropathology is characterized by cortical accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Amyloid plaques are small, aggregated peptides called beta amyloid (Aβ) and NFTs are aggregates of hyperphosphorylated Tau protein. Because Aβ disrupts multiple intracellular signaling pathways, resulting in some of the clinical symptoms of AD, understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms has implications for the diagnosis and treatment of AD. Recent studies have demonstrated that Aβ regulates striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) (PTPN5). Aβ accumulation is associated with increases in STEP levels and activity that in turn disrupts glutamate receptor trafficking to and from the neuronal membrane. These findings indicate that modulating STEP levels or inhibiting its activity may have beneficial effects for patients with AD, making it an important target for drug discovery. This article reviews the biology of STEP and its role in AD as well as the potential clinical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Phosphatase activity as a criterion for differentiation of oral mycoplasmas.

    OpenAIRE

    Shibata, K.; Totsuka, M; Watanabe, T.

    1986-01-01

    Phosphatase activity was found to be applicable as a criterion for the differentiation of Mycoplasma salivarium and Mycoplasma orale, predominant constituents of oral mycoplasmal flora. Therefore, a simple procedure for the phosphatase activity assay was established as a screening test for the differentiation of oral mycoplasmas.

  8. Human placental alkaline phosphatase in liver and intestine.

    OpenAIRE

    Garattini, E; Margolis, J; Heimer, E; Felix, A.; Udenfriend, S

    1985-01-01

    Three distinct forms of human alkaline phosphatase, presumably isozymes, are known, each apparently associated with a specific tissue. These are placental, intestinal, and liver (kidney and bone). We have used a specific immunoassay and HPLC to show that placental alkaline phosphatase is also present in extracts of liver and intestine in appreciable amounts.

  9. Extracellular release of acid phosphatase from blood stream forms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acid phosphatase (ACP) activity was demonstrated in blood stream form of Trypanosome brucei brucei harvested from infected Wister rats by Ion Exchange DEAE Cellulose 52 chromatography. Whole parasite extract (WPE) and Excretory Secretory Extract (ESE) were prepared and analyzed for acid phosphatase activity.

  10. Downregulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-BL represses adipogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glondu-Lassis, M.; Dromard, M.; Chavey, C.; Puech, C.; Fajas, L.; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.; Freiss, G.

    2009-01-01

    The insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway is a major regulator of adipose tissue growth and differentiation. We recently demonstrated that human protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) L1, a large cytoplasmic phosphatase also known as PTP-BAS/PTPN13/PTP-1E, is a negative

  11. Email Changes of Available Phosphorus and phosphatase activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: A large proportion of P is found in organic forms. Phosphatase, plays an essential role in the mineralization of organic phosphorus. Agronomy species can affect phosphatase activity in rhizosphere. The aim of our study was to determine the effects of some agronomy species (Gramineae, Leguminose, ...

  12. Effect of Calcineurin Inhibitor-Free, Everolimus-Based Immunosuppressive Regimen on Albuminuria and Glomerular Filtration Rate After Heart Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lærke Marie; Andreassen, Arne Kristian; Andersson, Bert; Gude, Einar; Eiskjær, Hans; Rådegran, Göran; Dellgren, Göran; Gullestad, Lars; Gustafsson, Finn

    2017-11-01

    Albuminuria in maintenance heart transplantation (HTx) is associated with poor renal response when switching to a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-lowered or CNI-free immunosuppressive regimen using everolimus (EVR), but the significance of albuminuria associated with EVR treatment after early CNI withdrawal in de novo HTx is unknown. We tested if measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR, by chrome-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid clearance) was associated with urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) post-HTx in a subgroup of patients included in the Scandinavian Heart Transplant Everolimus De Novo Study With Early Calcineurin Inhibitor Avoidance trial, where de novo HTx patients (n = 115) were randomized to EVR with complete CNI elimination 7 to 11 weeks post-HTx or standard CNI immunosuppression. In 66 patients, UACR measures were available at 1 year. In 7 patients in the EVR group, a CNI was reintroduced within 12 months. Median mGFR was significantly higher in the EVR group both 1 and 3 years post-HTx (P = 0.0004 and P = 0.03, respectively). Median UACR at 1 year was significantly higher in the EVR group (P = 0.002). There was no correlation between log(UACR) at 1 year and mGFR at 1 or 3 years (r = -0.01, P = 0.9 and r = 0.15, P = 0.26, respectively) and in the EVR group between log(UACR) at 1 year and change in mGFR (Δ1-3 years) (r = 0.27, P = 0.14). Excluding patients in the EVR group in whom a CNI was reintroduced did not significantly change the results. The effects of EVR with early CNI withdrawal after HTx on albuminuria and renal function seem dissociated; hence, the clinical significance of albuminuria in this setting is uncertain and should not necessarily rule out EVR-based immunosuppression.

  13. A Dictyostelium secreted factor requires a PTEN-like phosphatase to slow proliferation and induce chemorepulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Herlihy

    Full Text Available In Dictyostelium discoideum, AprA and CfaD are secreted proteins that inhibit cell proliferation. We found that the proliferation of cells lacking CnrN, a phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN-like phosphatase, is not inhibited by exogenous AprA and is increased by exogenous CfaD. The expression of CnrN in cnrN cells partially rescues these altered sensitivities, suggesting that CnrN is necessary for the ability of AprA and CfaD to inhibit proliferation. Cells lacking CnrN accumulate normal levels of AprA and CfaD. Like cells lacking AprA and CfaD, cnrN cells proliferate faster and reach a higher maximum cell density than wild type cells, tend to be multinucleate, accumulate normal levels of mass and protein per nucleus, and form less viable spores. When cnrN cells expressing myc-tagged CnrN are stimulated with a mixture of rAprA and rCfaD, levels of membrane-associated myc-CnrN increase. AprA also causes chemorepulsion of Dictyostelium cells, and CnrN is required for this process. Combined, these results suggest that CnrN functions in a signal transduction pathway downstream of AprA and CfaD mediating some, but not all, of the effects of AprA and CfaD.

  14. A Dictyostelium secreted factor requires a PTEN-like phosphatase to slow proliferation and induce chemorepulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Sarah E; Tang, Yitai; Gomer, Richard H

    2013-01-01

    In Dictyostelium discoideum, AprA and CfaD are secreted proteins that inhibit cell proliferation. We found that the proliferation of cells lacking CnrN, a phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-like phosphatase, is not inhibited by exogenous AprA and is increased by exogenous CfaD. The expression of CnrN in cnrN cells partially rescues these altered sensitivities, suggesting that CnrN is necessary for the ability of AprA and CfaD to inhibit proliferation. Cells lacking CnrN accumulate normal levels of AprA and CfaD. Like cells lacking AprA and CfaD, cnrN cells proliferate faster and reach a higher maximum cell density than wild type cells, tend to be multinucleate, accumulate normal levels of mass and protein per nucleus, and form less viable spores. When cnrN cells expressing myc-tagged CnrN are stimulated with a mixture of rAprA and rCfaD, levels of membrane-associated myc-CnrN increase. AprA also causes chemorepulsion of Dictyostelium cells, and CnrN is required for this process. Combined, these results suggest that CnrN functions in a signal transduction pathway downstream of AprA and CfaD mediating some, but not all, of the effects of AprA and CfaD.

  15. Therapeutic reactivation of protein phosphatase 2A in acute myeloid leukemia

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    Kavitha eRamaswamy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A is a serine/threonine phosphatase that is required for normal cell growth and development. PP2A is a potent tumor suppressor, which is inactivated in cancer cells as a result of genetic deletions and mutations. In myeloid leukemias, genes encoding PP2A subunits are generally intact. Instead, PP2A is functionally inhibited by post-translational modifications of its catalytic C subunit, and interactions with negative regulators by its regulatory B and scaffold A subunits. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of genetic and functional inactivation of PP2A in human cancers, with a particular focus on human acute myeloid leukemias (AML. By analyzing expression of genes encoding PP2A subunits using transcriptome sequencing, we find that PP2A dysregulation in AML is characterized by silencing and overexpression of distinct A scaffold and B regulatory subunits, respectively. We review the mechanisms of functional PP2A activation by drugs such as fingolimod, forskolin, OP449, and perphenazine. This analysis yields two non-mutually exclusive mechanisms for therapeutic PP2A re-activation: i allosteric activation of the phosphatase activity, and ii stabilization of active holo-enzyme assembly and displacement of negative regulatory factors from A and B subunits. Future studies should allow the development of specific and potent pharmacologic activators of PP2A, and definition of susceptible disease subsets based on specific mechanisms of PP2A dysregulation.

  16. Involvement of Phosphatases in Proliferation, Maturation, and Hemoglobinization of Developing Erythroid Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan Fibach

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of RBCs is triggered by the action of erythropoietin (Epo through its binding to surface receptors (Epo-R on erythroid precursors in the bone marrow. The intensity and the duration of the Epo signal are regulated by several factors, including the balance between the activities of kinesase and phosphatases. The Epo signal determines the proliferation and maturation of the precursors into hemoglobin (Hb-containing RBCs. The activity of various protein tyrosine phosphatases, including those involved in the Epo pathway, can be inhibited by sodium orthovanadate (Na3VO4, vanadate. Adding vanadate to cultured erythroid precursors of normal donors and patients with β-thalassemia enhanced cell proliferation and arrested maturation. This was associated with an increased production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF. Increased HbF in patients with β-hemoglobinopathies (β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease ameliorates the clinical symptoms of the disease. These results raise the possibility that specific and nontoxic inhibitors of phosphatases may be considered as a therapeutic modality for elevating HbF in patients with β-hemoglobinopathies as well as for intensifying the Epo response in other forms of anemia.

  17. Phosphatase activity and organic phosphorus turnover on a high Arctic glacier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stibal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Arctic glacier surfaces harbour abundant microbial communities consisting mainly of heterotrophic and photoautotrophic bacteria. The microbes must cope with low concentrations of nutrients and with the fact that both the dissolved and debris-bound nutrient pools are dominated by organic phases. Here we provide evidence that phosphorus (P is deficient in the supraglacial environment on a Svalbard glacier, we quantify the enzymatic activity of phosphatases in the system and we estimate the contribution of the microbes to the cycling of the dominant organic P in the supraglacial environment. Incubation of cryoconite debris revealed significant phosphatase activity in the samples (19–67 nmol MUP g−1 h−1. It was inhibited by inorganic P during incubations and had its optimum at around 30°C. The phosphatase activity measured at near-in situ temperature and substrate concentration suggests that the available dissolved organic P can be turned over by microbes within ~3–11 h on the glacier surface. By contrast, the amount of potentially bioavailable debris-bound organic P is sufficient for a whole ablation season. However, it is apparent that some of this potentially bioavailable debris-bound P is not accessible to the microbes.

  18. Protein Phosphatase 2A Mediates Oxidative Stress Induced Apoptosis in Osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chong-xin; Lv, Bo; Wang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common bone diseases, which is characterized by a systemic impairment of bone mass and fragility fractures. Age-related oxidative stress is highly associated with impaired osteoblastic dysfunctions and subsequent osteoporosis. In osteoblasts (bone formation cells), reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continuously generated and further cause lipid peroxidation, protein damage, and DNA lesions, leading to osteoblastic dysfunctions, dysdifferentiations, and apoptosis. Although much progress has been made, the mechanism responsible for oxidative stress induced cellular alternations and osteoblastic toxicity is still not fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a major protein phosphatase in mammalian cells, mediates oxidative stress induced apoptosis in osteoblasts. Our results showed that lipid peroxidation products (4-HNE) may induce dramatic oxidative stress, inflammatory reactions, and apoptosis in osteoblasts. These oxidative stress responses may ectopically activate PP2A phosphatase activity, which may be mediated by inactivation of AKT/mTOR pathway. Moreover, inhibition of PP2A activity by okadaic acid might partly prevent osteoblastic apoptosis under oxidative conditions. These findings may reveal a novel mechanism to clarify the role of oxidative stress for osteoblastic apoptosis and provide new possibilities for the treatment of related bone diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  19. Hematopoietic cell phosphatase is recruited to CD22 following B cell antigen receptor ligation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankester, A. C.; van Schijndel, G. M.; van Lier, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell phosphatase is a nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase that is preferentially expressed in hematopoietic cell lineages. Motheaten mice, which are devoid of (functional) hematopoietic cell phosphatase, have severe disturbances in the regulation of B cell activation and

  20. Inositol monophosphate phosphatase genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    Parish Tanya

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacteria use inositol in phosphatidylinositol, for anchoring lipoarabinomannan (LAM, lipomannan (LM and phosphatidylinosotol mannosides (PIMs in the cell envelope, and for the production of mycothiol, which maintains the redox balance of the cell. Inositol is synthesized by conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to inositol-1-phosphate, followed by dephosphorylation by inositol monophosphate phosphatases (IMPases to form myo-inositol. To gain insight into how Mycobacterium tuberculosis synthesises inositol we carried out genetic analysis of the four IMPase homologues that are present in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. Results Mutants lacking either impA (Rv1604 or suhB (Rv2701c were isolated in the absence of exogenous inositol, and no differences in levels of PIMs, LM, LAM or mycothiol were observed. Mutagenesis of cysQ (Rv2131c was initially unsuccessful, but was possible when a porin-like gene of Mycobacterium smegmatis was expressed, and also by gene switching in the merodiploid strain. In contrast, we could only obtain mutations in impC (Rv3137 when a second functional copy was provided in trans, even when exogenous inositol was provided. Experiments to obtain a mutant in the presence of a second copy of impC containing an active-site mutation, in the presence of porin-like gene of M. smegmatis, or in the absence of inositol 1-phosphate synthase activity, were also unsuccessful. We showed that all four genes are expressed, although at different levels, and levels of inositol phosphatase activity did not fall significantly in any of the mutants obtained. Conclusions We have shown that neither impA, suhB nor cysQ is solely responsible for inositol synthesis. In contrast, we show that impC is essential for mycobacterial growth under the conditions we used, and suggest it may be required in the early stages of mycothiol synthesis.

  1. The angiotensin-calcineurin-NFAT pathway mediates stretch-induced up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases-2/-9 in atrial myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygili, Erol; Rana, Obaida R; Meyer, Christian; Gemein, Christopher; Andrzejewski, Michael G; Ludwig, Andreas; Weber, Christian; Schotten, Ulrich; Krüttgen, Alexander; Weis, Joachim; Schwinger, Robert H G; Mischke, Karl; Rassaf, Tienush; Kelm, Malte; Schauerte, Patrick

    2009-07-01

    During atrial fibrillation, arterial hypertension and systolic or diastolic heart failure, atrial myocytes are exposed to increased baseline stretch. Atrial stretch has been shown to induce cellular hypertrophy and extracellular matrix remodeling (ECM) via angiotensin-II dependent pathways and the matrix metalloproteinases system (MMPs). We hypothesized that atrial myocytes exposed to static stretch may increase their ECM remodeling activity via up-regulation of MMP-2/-9. We then tested the hypothesis that the membrane bound angiotensin-II type 1 (AT1) receptor and the intracellular calcineurin (Cn)-NFAT signaling pathway are potential mediators of stretch-induced MMP alterations, since Cn-NFAT is one important contributor to myocyte hypertrophy. Neonatal rat atrial myocytes (NRAM) were cultured under conditions of static stretch by 21%. The differential effects of selective AT1 receptor blockade by losartan, Cn blockade by Cyclosporine-A (CsA) or NFAT inhibition by 11R-VIVIT (VIV), were analyzed. Stretch resulted in a significant up-regulation of active-MMP-2/-9 protein amount (active-MMP-2 ng/microg: control 8.95 +/- 0.64 vs. stretch 13.11 +/- 0.74 / active-MMP-9 ng/microg: control 1.45 +/- 0.18 vs. stretch 1.94 +/- 0.21, all n = 5) and enzyme activity (MMP-2 in %: control 1 +/- 0.0 vs. stretch 1.87 +/- 0.25, n = 7) associated with a significant increase of the membrane-type-1-MMP (MT1-MMP) protein expression (MT1-MMP in %: control 1 +/- 0.0 vs. stretch 2.17 +/- 0.21, n = 8). These observations were accompanied by an activation of the Cn-NFAT pathway (Cn-activity in nmol PO(4) release/20 microg protein/30 min: control 0.37 +/- 0.08 vs. stretch 0.65 +/- 0.09, n = 3 / NFATc1-DNA binding activity in %: control 1 +/- 0.0 vs. stretch 1.53 +/- 0.17, n = 3). Losartan, CsA or VIV abolished stretch-induced alterations in MMP-2/-9 and MT1-MMP expression and enzyme activity by normalizing the Cn-activity and the DNA binding activity of NFATc1. Our results present new

  2. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  3. ELEVATE: an innovative study design to assess the efficacy, safety, and evolution of cardiovascular parameters in de novo kidney transplant recipients after early conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor to everolimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Giet M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Markus van der Giet,1 Josep M Cruzado,2 Johan W de Fijter,3 Hallvard Holdaas,4 Zailong Wang,5 Antonio Speziale,6 Guido Junge61Department of Nephrology, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charite'-Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Nephrology, University Hospital of Bellvitge, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; 3Department of Nephrology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands; 4Section of Nephrology, Department of Transplant Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; 5Biometrics and Statistical Science, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 6Research and Development, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, SwitzerlandAbstract: Progressive decline in allograft function and cardiovascular mortality after kidney transplantation remain major clinical challenges that can potentially be addressed by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR inhibitors, everolimus and sirolimus. mTOR inhibitors maintain immunosuppressive efficacy after minimization of calcineurin inhibitor (CNI therapy and can achieve significant long-term improvements in renal function. Recently, data have accumulated that suggest mTOR inhibitors may offer cardioprotective effects. In animal models, inhibition of mTOR leads to regression of cardiac hypertrophy, and the limited data consistently point to a remodeling benefit following heart transplantation. Experimentally, mTOR inhibitors restrict atherogenesis, confirmed clinically by intravascular ultrasound data demonstrating lower rates of transplant vasculopathy in heart transplant recipients on everolimus. Lastly, mTOR inhibitors appear to ameliorate arterial stiffness, a known risk factor for post-transplant cardiovascular events, but data remain sparse. The ELEVATE study will examine the renal effect of early conversion from CNI therapy to everolimus after kidney transplantation. Key secondary endpoints include the change in left ventricular mass index, the first time

  4. Target of rapamycin complex 1 and Tap42-associated phosphatases are required for sensing changes in nitrogen conditions in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinmei; Yan, Gonghong; Liu, Sichi; Jiang, Tong; Zhong, Mingming; Yuan, Wenjie; Chen, Shaoxian; Zheng, Yin; Jiang, Yong; Jiang, Yu

    2017-12-01

    In yeast target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) and Tap42-associated phosphatases regulate expression of genes involved in nitrogen limitation response and the nitrogen discrimination pathway. However, it remains unclear whether TORC1 and the phosphatases are required for sensing nitrogen conditions. Utilizing temperature sensitive mutants of tor2 and tap42, we examined the role of TORC1 and Tap42 in nuclear entry of Gln3, a key transcription factor in yeast nitrogen metabolism, in response to changes in nitrogen conditions. Our data show that TORC1 is essential for Gln3 nuclear entry upon nitrogen limitation and downshift in nitrogen quality. However, Tap42-associated phosphatases are required only under nitrogen limitation condition. In cells grown in poor nitrogen medium, the nitrogen permease reactivator kinase (Npr1) inhibits TORC1 activity and alters its association with Tap42, rendering Tap42-associated phosphatases unresponsive to nitrogen limitation. These findings demonstrate a direct role for TORC1 and Tap42-associated phosphatases in sensing nitrogen conditions and unveil an Npr1-dependent mechanism that controls TORC1 and the phosphatases in response to changes in nitrogen quality. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Protein phosphatase 2Cm is a critical regulator of branched-chain amino acid catabolism in mice and cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Gang; Sun, Haipeng; She, Pengxiang; Youn, Ji-Youn; Warburton, Sarah; Ping, Peipei; Vondriska, Thomas M; Cai, Hua; Lynch, Christopher J; Wang, Yibin

    2009-06-01

    The branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids required for protein homeostasis, energy balance, and nutrient signaling. In individuals with deficiencies in BCAA, these amino acids can be preserved through inhibition of the branched-chain-alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex, the rate-limiting step in their metabolism. BCKD is inhibited by phosphorylation of its E1alpha subunit at Ser293, which is catalyzed by BCKD kinase. During BCAA excess, phosphorylated Ser293 (pSer293) becomes dephosphorylated through the concerted inhibition of BCKD kinase and the activity of an unknown intramitochondrial phosphatase. Using unbiased, proteomic approaches, we have found that a mitochondrial-targeted phosphatase, PP2Cm, specifically binds the BCKD complex and induces dephosphorylation of Ser293 in the presence of BCKD substrates. Loss of PP2Cm completely abolished substrate-induced E1alpha dephosphorylation both in vitro and in vivo. PP2Cm-deficient mice exhibited BCAA catabolic defects and a metabolic phenotype similar to the intermittent or intermediate types of human maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a hereditary disorder caused by defects in BCKD activity. These results indicate that PP2Cm is the endogenous BCKD phosphatase required for nutrient-mediated regulation of BCKD activity and suggest that defects in PP2Cm may be responsible for a subset of human MSUD.

  6. Calcineurin inhibitors affect B cell antibody responses indirectly by interfering with T cell help.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidt, S.; Roelen, D.L.; Eijsink, C.; Eikmans, M.; Kooten, C. van; Claas, F.H.; Mulder, A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary In general, humoral immune responses depend critically upon T cell help. In transplantation, prevention or treatment of humoral rejection therefore require drugs that ideally inhibit both B cell and T helper cell activity. Here, we studied the effects of commonly used immunosuppressive drugs

  7. SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) inhibition ameliorates high glucose-induced de-novo lipogenesis and VLDL production through regulating AMPK/mTOR/SREBP1 pathway and ROS production in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgani-Firuzjaee, Sattar; Meshkani, Reza

    2015-12-01

    Hepatic de-novo lipogenesis and production of triglyceride rich very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) is increased in the state of insulin resistance, however, the role of a negative regulator of the insulin signaling pathway, the SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase (SHIP2) in this process, remains unknown. In the present study, we studied the molecular mechanisms linking SHIP2 expression to metabolic dyslipidemia using overexpression or suppression of SHIP2 gene in HepG2 cells exposed to high glucose (33 mM). The results showed that high glucose induced SHIP2 mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 cells. Overexpression of the dominant negative mutant SHIP2 (SHIP2-DN) ameliorated high glucose-induced de-novo lipogenesis and secretion of apoB containing lipoprotein in HepG2 cells, as demonstrated by a reduction in both secreted apoB and MTP expression, and decreased triglyceride levels and the expression of lipogenic genes such as SREBP1c, FAS and ACC. Overexpression of the SHIP2-DN decreased high glucose-induced apoB containing lipoproteins secretion via reduction in ROS generation, JNK phosphorylation and Akt activation. Furthermore, using the specific inhibitor and activator, it was found that the AMPK/mTOR/SREBP1 is the signaling pathway that mediates the effects of SHIP2 modulation on hepatic de-novo lipogenesis. Taken together, these findings suggest that SHIP2 is an important regulator of hepatic lipogenesis and lipoprotein secretion in insulin resistance state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Control of Acid Phosphatases Expression from Aspergillus niger by Soil Characteristics

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    Ely Nahas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis work studied the acid phosphatase (APase activity from culture medium (extracellular, eAPase and mycelial extract (intracellular, iAPase ofAspergillus niger F111. The influence of fungus growth and phosphate concentration of the media on the synthesis and secretion of phosphatase was demonstrated. The effects of pH, substrate concentration and inorganic and organic compounds added to the reaction mixture on APase activity were also studied. Both enzymes were repressed by high concentrations of phosphate. Overexpression of iAPase in relation to eAPase was detected; iAPase activity was 46.1 times higher than eAPase. The maximal activity of eAPase was after 24h of fungus growth and for iAPase was after 96h. Optimal pH and substrate concentrations were 4.5 and 8.0 mM, respectively. Michaelis-Menten constant (Km for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate was 0.57 mM with Vmax = 14,285.71 U mg-1 mycelium for the iAPase and 0.31 mM with V max = 147.06 U mg-1 mycelium for eAPase. Organic substances had little effect on acid phosphatases when compared with the salts. Both the APases were inhibited by 10 mM KH 2PO4 and 5 mM (NH42MoO4; eAPase was also inhibited by 1 mM CoCl2.

  9. Regulation of the Formation of Acid Phosphatases by Inorganic Phosphate in Aspergillus ficuum1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, T. R.; Wodzinski, R. J.; Ware, J. H.

    1969-01-01

    Two types of extracellular acid phosphatases are synthesized by Aspergillus ficuum NRRL 3135: a nonspecific orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase (EC 3.1.3.2) with an optimum pH of 2.0, and an enzyme with restricted specificity, a mesoinositol-hexaphosphate phosphohydrolase (EC 3.1.3.8; phytase) with an optimum pH of 5.5. Although the pH 5.5 enzyme is termed a phytase, both enzymes hydrolyze phytin. Synthesis of the enzymes is repressed by high orthophosphate concentrations in the fermentation medium. The highest total level for each enzyme is synthesized in low orthophosphate medium. In high orthophosphate medium, more pH 5.5 enzyme is produced than pH 2.0 enzyme. In low orthophosphate medium, more pH 5.5 enzyme is produced than pH 2.0 enzyme during the early stages of growth, but the reverse occurs after 5 days. The enzymes are differentiated by heat denaturation at acid and alkaline pH levels. They are separated into two distinct fractions on Sephadex G-100 followed by carboxymethylcellulose column chromatography. This indicates that the two enzymes are structurally different. The Km for both enzymes is 1.25 mm when calcium phytate is the substrate. Orthophosphate competitively inhibits the pH 2.0 (Ki = 1.1 × 10−2m) but not the pH 5.5 phosphatase. Neither enzyme is denatured by 50% (w/v) urea or inhibited by 0.01 m tartrate. Thus, they differ from human prostatic phosphatase. PMID:4311867

  10. Regulation of the formation of acid phosphatases by inorganic phosphate in Aspergillus ficuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, T R; Wodzinski, R J; Ware, J H

    1969-12-01

    Two types of extracellular acid phosphatases are synthesized by Aspergillus ficuum NRRL 3135: a nonspecific orthophosphoric monoester phosphohydrolase (EC 3.1.3.2) with an optimum pH of 2.0, and an enzyme with restricted specificity, a mesoinositol-hexaphosphate phosphohydrolase (EC 3.1.3.8; phytase) with an optimum pH of 5.5. Although the pH 5.5 enzyme is termed a phytase, both enzymes hydrolyze phytin. Synthesis of the enzymes is repressed by high orthophosphate concentrations in the fermentation medium. The highest total level for each enzyme is synthesized in low orthophosphate medium. In high orthophosphate medium, more pH 5.5 enzyme is produced than pH 2.0 enzyme. In low orthophosphate medium, more pH 5.5 enzyme is produced than pH 2.0 enzyme during the early stages of growth, but the reverse occurs after 5 days. The enzymes are differentiated by heat denaturation at acid and alkaline pH levels. They are separated into two distinct fractions on Sephadex G-100 followed by carboxymethylcellulose column chromatography. This indicates that the two enzymes are structurally different. The K(m) for both enzymes is 1.25 mm when calcium phytate is the substrate. Orthophosphate competitively inhibits the pH 2.0 (K(i) = 1.1 x 10(-2)m) but not the pH 5.5 phosphatase. Neither enzyme is denatured by 50% (w/v) urea or inhibited by 0.01 m tartrate. Thus, they differ from human prostatic phosphatase.

  11. Prevalence of a calcium-based alkaline phosphatase associated with the marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus and other ocean bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathuria, Satish; Martiny, Adam C

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate plays a key role in regulating primary productivity in several regions of the world's oceans and here dissolved organic phosphate can be an important phosphate source. A key enzyme for utilizing dissolved organic phosphate is alkaline phosphatase and the phoA-type of this enzyme has a zinc cofactor. As the dissolved zinc concentration is low in phosphate depleted environments, this has led to the hypothesis that some phytoplankton may be zinc-P co-limited. Recently, it was shown that many marine bacteria contain an alternative form of alkaline phosphatase called phoX, but it is unclear which marine lineages carry this enzyme. Here, we describe the occurrence in low phosphate environments of phoX that is associated with uncultured Prochlorococcus and SAR11 cells. Through heterologous expression, we demonstrate that phoX encodes an active phosphatase with a calcium cofactor. The enzyme also functions with magnesium and copper, whereas cobalt, manganese, nickel and zinc inhibit enzyme activity to various degrees. We also find that uncultured SAR11 cells and cyanophages contain a different alkaline phosphatase related to a variant present in several Prochlorococcus isolates. Overall, the results suggest that many bacterial lineages including Prochlorococcus and SAR11 may not be subject to zinc-P co-limitation. © 2010 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Inactivation of LAR family phosphatase genes Ptprs and Ptprf causes craniofacial malformations resembling Pierre-Robin sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Katherine; Uetani, Noriko; Hendriks, Wiljan; Tremblay, Michel L; Bouchard, Maxime

    2013-08-01

    Leukocyte antigen related (LAR) family receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) regulate the fine balance between tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation that is crucial for cell signaling during development and tissue homeostasis. Here we show that LAR RPTPs are required for normal development of the mandibular and maxillary regions. Approximately half of the mouse embryos lacking both Ptprs (RPTPσ) and Ptprf (LAR) exhibit micrognathia (small lower jaw), cleft palate and microglossia/glossoptosis (small and deep tongue), a phenotype closely resembling Pierre-Robin sequence in humans. We show that jaw bone and cartilage patterning occurs aberrantly in LAR family phosphatase-deficient embryos and that the mandibular arch harbors a marked decrease in cell proliferation. Analysis of signal transduction in embryonic tissues and mouse embryonic fibroblast cultures identifies an increase in Bmp-Smad signaling and an abrogation of canonical Wnt signaling associated with loss of the LAR family phosphatases. A reactivation of β-catenin signaling by chemical inhibition of GSK3β successfully resensitizes LAR family phosphatase-deficient cells to Wnt induction, indicating that RPTPs are necessary for normal Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation. Together these results identify LAR RPTPs as important regulators of craniofacial morphogenesis and provide insight into the etiology of Pierre-Robin sequence.

  13. RPM-1 uses both ubiquitin ligase and phosphatase-based mechanisms to regulate DLK-1 during neuronal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott T Baker

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Pam/Highwire/RPM-1 (PHR proteins are key regulators of neuronal development that function in axon extension and guidance, termination of axon outgrowth, and synapse formation. Outside of development, the PHR proteins also regulate axon regeneration and Wallerian degeneration. The PHR proteins function in part by acting as ubiquitin ligases that degrade the Dual Leucine zipper-bearing Kinase (DLK. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans PHR protein, Regulator of Presynaptic Morphology 1 (RPM-1, also utilizes a phosphatase-based mechanism to regulate DLK-1. Using mass spectrometry, we identified Protein Phosphatase Magnesium/Manganese dependent 2 (PPM-2 as a novel RPM-1 binding protein. Genetic, transgenic, and biochemical studies indicated that PPM-2 functions coordinately with the ubiquitin ligase activity of RPM-1 and the F-box protein FSN-1 to negatively regulate DLK-1. PPM-2 acts on S874 of DLK-1, a residue implicated in regulation of DLK-1 binding to a short, inhibitory isoform of DLK-1 (DLK-1S. Our study demonstrates that PHR proteins function through both phosphatase and ubiquitin ligase mechanisms to inhibit DLK. Thus, PHR proteins are potentially more accurate and sensitive regulators of DLK than originally thought. Our results also highlight an important and expanding role for the PP2C phosphatase family in neuronal development.

  14. Design, synthesis, biological activity and molecular dynamics studies of specific protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors over SHP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Su-Xia; Li, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Wen-Bo; Ma, Ying; Wang, Run-Ling; Cheng, Xian-Chao; Wang, Shu-Qing; Liu, Wei

    2013-06-17

    Over expressing in PTPN1 (encoding Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, PTP1B), a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) that plays an overall positive role in insulin signaling, is linked to the pathogenesis of diabetes and obesity. The relationship between PTP1B and human diseases exhibits PTP1B as the target to treat these diseases. In this article, small weight molecules of the imidazolidine series were screened from databases and optimized on silicon as the inhibitors of PTP1B based on the steric conformation and electronic configuration of thiazolidinedione (TZD) compounds. The top three candidates were tested using an in vitro biological assay after synthesis. Finally, we report a novel inhibitor, Compound 13, that specifically inhibits PTP1B over the closely related phosphatase Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) at 80 μΜ. Its IC50 values are reported in this paper as well. This compound was further verified by computer analysis for its ability to combine the catalytic domains of PTP1B and SHP-2 by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations.

  15. Design, Synthesis, Biological Activity and Molecular Dynamics Studies of Specific Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibitors over SHP-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over expressing in PTPN1 (encoding Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, PTP1B, a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP that plays an overall positive role in insulin signaling, is linked to the pathogenesis of diabetes and obesity. The relationship between PTP1B and human diseases exhibits PTP1B as the target to treat these diseases. In this article, small weight molecules of the imidazolidine series were screened from databases and optimized on silicon as the inhibitors of PTP1B based on the steric conformation and electronic configuration of thiazolidinedione (TZD compounds. The top three candidates were tested using an in vitro biological assay after synthesis. Finally, we report a novel inhibitor, Compound 13, that specifically inhibits PTP1B over the closely related phosphatase Src homology 2 (SH2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP-2 at 80 μΜ. Its IC50 values are reported in this paper as well. This compound was further verified by computer analysis for its ability to combine the catalytic domains of PTP1B and SHP-2 by molecular dynamics (MD simulations.

  16. Alkaline Phosphatase, an Unconventional Immune Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany A. Rader

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen an increase in the number of studies focusing on alkaline phosphatases (APs, revealing an expanding complexity of function of these enzymes. Of the four human AP (hAP proteins, most is known about tissue non-specific AP (TNAP and intestinal AP (IAP. This review highlights current understanding of TNAP and IAP in relation to human health and disease. TNAP plays a role in multiple processes, including bone mineralization, vitamin B6 metabolism, and neurogenesis, is the genetic cause of hypophosphatasia, influences inflammation through regulation of purinergic signaling, and has been implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. IAP regulates fatty acid absorption and has been implicated in the regulation of diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome. IAP and TNAP can dephosphorylate bacterial-derived lipopolysaccharide, and IAP has been identified as a potential regulator of the composition of the intestinal microbiome, an evolutionarily conserved function. Endogenous and recombinant bovine APs and recombinant hAPs are currently being explored for their potential as pharmacological agents to treat AP-associated diseases and mitigate multiple sources of inflammation. Continued research on these versatile proteins will undoubtedly provide insight into human pathophysiology, biochemistry, and the human holobiont.

  17. Calcium-activated-calcineurin reduces the In vitro and In vivo sensitivity of fluconazole to Candida albicans via Rta2p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jia

    Full Text Available Due to the emergence of drug-resistance, first-line therapy with fluconazole (FLC increasingly resulted in clinical failure for the treatment of candidemia. Our previous studies found that in vitro RTA2 was involved in the calcineurin-mediated resistance to FLC in C. albicans. In this study, we found that calcium-activated-calcineurin significantly reduced the in vitro sensitivity of C. albicans to FLC by blocking the impairment of FLC to the plasma membrane via Rta2p. Furthermore, we found that RTA2 itself was not involved in C. albicans virulence, but the disruption of RTA2 dramatically increased the therapeutic efficacy of FLC in a murine model of systemic candidiasis. Conversely, both re-introduction of one RTA2 allele and ectopic expression of RTA2 significantly reduced FLC efficacy in a mammalian host. Finally, we found that calcium-activated-calcineurin, through its target Rta2p, dramatically reduced the efficacy of FLC against candidemia. Given the critical roles of Rta2p in controlling the efficacy of FLC, Rta2p can be a potential drug target for antifungal therapies.

  18. Control of Homeostatic Synaptic Plasticity by AKAP-Anchored Kinase and Phosphatase Regulation of Ca2+-Permeable AMPA Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Jennifer L; Scott, John D; Dell'Acqua, Mark L

    2018-02-13

    Neuronal information processing requires multiple forms of synaptic plasticity mediated by NMDA and AMPA-type glutamate receptors (NMDAR, AMPAR). These plasticity mechanisms include long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD), which are Hebbian, homosynaptic mechanisms locally regulating synaptic strength of specific inputs, and homeostatic synaptic scaling, which is a heterosynaptic mechanism globally regulating synaptic strength across all inputs. In many cases, LTP and homeostatic scaling regulate AMPAR subunit composition to increase synaptic strength via incorporation of Ca 2+ -permeable receptors (CP-AMPAR) containing GluA1, but lacking GluA2, subunits. Previous work by our group and others demonstrated that anchoring of the kinase PKA and the phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) to A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) 150 play opposing roles in regulation of GluA1 Ser845 phosphorylation and CP-AMPAR synaptic incorporation during hippocampal LTP and LTD. Here, using both male and female knock-in mice that are deficient in PKA or CaN anchoring, we show that AKAP150-anchored PKA and CaN also play novel roles in controlling CP-AMPAR synaptic incorporation during homeostatic plasticity in hippocampal neurons. We found that genetic disruption of AKAP-PKA anchoring prevented increases in Ser845 phosphorylation and CP-AMPAR synaptic recruitment during rapid homeostatic synaptic scaling-up induced by combined blockade of action potential firing and NMDAR activity. In contrast, genetic disruption of AKAP-CaN anchoring resulted in basal increases in Ser845 phosphorylation and CP-AMPAR synaptic activity that blocked subsequent scaling-up by preventing additional CP-AMPAR recruitment. Thus, the balanced, opposing phospho-regulation provided by AKAP-anchored PKA and CaN is essential for control of both Hebbian and homeostatic plasticity mechanisms that require CP-AMPARs. Significance statement: Neuronal circuit function is shaped by multiple forms of activity

  19. Transfer of iron from uteroferrin (purple acid phosphatase) to transferrin related to acid phosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttleman, P R; Roberts, R M

    1990-07-25

    There is continuing controversy as to whether iron can be exchanged from the purple phosphatase, uteroferrin (Uf), to fetal transferrin (Tf) and whether this process might be of physiological relevance during pregnancy in the pig. Here, iron transfer from Uf to apoTf at pH 7.1 was followed by measuring the loss of acid phosphatase activity from native Uf as a function of incubation conditions and time. In the presence of apoTf and 1 mM ascorbate (but not in the presence of either agent alone), 50% of enzyme activity was lost in about 12 h. Loss of activity was accompanied by bleaching of Uf purple color and the appearance of the characteristic visual absorption spectrum of Fe-Tf. Citrate could replace ascorbate in the reaction. Loss of Uf iron did not occur at pH 5.3, at which pH Tf cannot bind Fe. [59Fe]Uf was prepared and shown to be identical in its enzymatic and physical properties with unmodified Uf. Transfer of 59Fe from Uf to apo-Tf was promoted by conditions identical to those which led to loss of purple color and acid phosphatase activity. However, the results suggested that only one of the two iron atoms at the bi-iron center on Uf was readily lost, and that exchange of the second iron occurred more slowly. Loss of iron made Uf more susceptible to denaturation. A third technique, quantitation of the g' = 4.3 signal of iron specifically bound to Tf by EPR, was also tested as a means assaying accumulation of Fe-Tf, but the method was too insensitive to measure the kinetics of iron transfer at physiological protein concentrations. We conclude that iron can be transferred directly from Uf to apoTf in the presence of low molecular weight chelators, and that the process is likely to be of physiological significance.

  20. SAV1 promotes Hippo kinase activation through antagonizing the PP2A phosphatase STRIPAK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sung Jun [Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, United States; Ni, Lisheng [Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, United States; Osinski, Adam [Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, United States; Tomchick, Diana R. [Department of Biophysics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, United States; Brautigam, Chad A. [Department of Biophysics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, United States; Department of Microbiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, United States; Luo, Xuelian [Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, United States; Department of Biophysics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, United States

    2017-10-24

    The Hippo pathway controls tissue growth and homeostasis through a central MST-LATS kinase cascade. The scaffold protein SAV1 promotes the activation of this kinase cascade, but the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we discover SAV1-mediated inhibition of the PP2A complex STRIPAKSLMAP as a key mechanism of MST1/2 activation. SLMAP binding to autophosphorylated MST2 linker recruits STRIPAK and promotes PP2A-mediated dephosphorylation of MST2 at the activation loop. Our structural and biochemical studies reveal that SAV1 and MST2 heterodimerize through their SARAH domains. Two SAV1–MST2 heterodimers further dimerize through SAV1 WW domains to form a heterotetramer, in which MST2 undergoes trans-autophosphorylation. SAV1 directly binds to STRIPAK and inhibits its phosphatase activity, protecting MST2 activation-loop phosphorylation. Genetic ablation of SLMAP in human cells leads to spontaneous activation of the Hippo pathway and alleviates the need for SAV1 in Hippo signaling. Thus, SAV1 promotes Hippo activation through counteracting the STRIPAKSLMAP PP2A phosphatase complex.

  1. Type One Protein Phosphatase 1 and Its Regulatory Protein Inhibitor 2 Negatively Regulate ABA Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Xie, Shaojun; Batelli, Giorgia; Wang, Bangshing; Duan, Cheng-Guo; Wang, Xingang; Xing, Lu; Lei, Mingguang; Yan, Jun; Zhu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant growth, development and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The core ABA signaling pathway consists of three major components: ABA receptor (PYR1/PYLs), type 2C Protein Phosphatase (PP2C) and SNF1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2). Nevertheless, the complexity of ABA signaling remains to be explored. To uncover new components of ABA signal transduction pathways, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen for SnRK2-interacting proteins. We found that Type One Protein Phosphatase 1 (TOPP1) and its regulatory protein, At Inhibitor-2 (AtI-2), physically interact with SnRK2s and also with PYLs. TOPP1 inhibited the kinase activity of SnRK2.6, and this inhibition could be enhanced by AtI-2. Transactivation assays showed that TOPP1 and AtI-2 negatively regulated the SnRK2.2/3/6-mediated activation of the ABA responsive reporter gene RD29B, supporting a negative role of TOPP1 and AtI-2 in ABA signaling. Consistent with these findings, topp1 and ati-2 mutant plants displayed hypersensitivities to ABA and salt treatments, and transcriptome analysis of TOPP1 and AtI-2 knockout plants revealed an increased expression of multiple ABA-responsive genes in the mutants. Taken together, our results uncover TOPP1 and AtI-2 as negative regulators of ABA signaling. PMID:26943172

  2. Selective binding modes and allosteric inhibitory effects of lupane triterpenes on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tiantian; Yu, Haibo; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2016-02-11

    Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been recognized as a promising therapeutic target for treating obesity, diabetes, and certain cancers for over a decade. Previous drug design has focused on inhibitors targeting the active site of PTP1B. However, this has not been successful because the active site is positively charged and conserved among the protein tyrosine phosphatases. Therefore, it is important to develop PTP1B inhibitors with alternative inhibitory strategies. Using computational studies including molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, and binding free energy calculations, we found that lupane triterpenes selectively inhibited PTP1B by targeting its more hydrophobic and less conserved allosteric site. These findings were verified using two enzymatic assays. Furthermore, the cell culture studies showed that lupeol and betulinic acid inhibited the PTP1B activity stimulated by TNFα in neurons. Our study indicates that lupane triterpenes are selective PTP1B allosteric inhibitors with significant potential for treating those diseases with elevated PTP1B activity.

  3. Phosphorylcholine Phosphatase: A Peculiar Enzyme of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Domenech

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa synthesizes phosphorylcholine phosphatase (PchP when grown on choline, betaine, dimethylglycine or carnitine. In the presence of Mg2+ or Zn2+, PchP catalyzes the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP or phosphorylcholine (Pcho. The regulation of pchP gene expression is under the control of GbdR and NtrC; dimethylglycine is likely the metabolite directly involved in the induction of PchP. Therefore, the regulation of choline metabolism and consequently PchP synthesis may reflect an adaptive response of P. aeruginosa to environmental conditions. Bioinformatic and biochemistry studies shown that PchP contains two sites for alkylammonium compounds (AACs: one in the catalytic site near the metal ion-phosphoester pocket, and another in an inhibitory site responsible for the binding of the alkylammonium moiety. Both sites could be close to each other and interact through the residues 42E, 43E and 82YYY84. Zn2+ is better activator than Mg2+ at pH 5.0 and it is more effective at alleviating the inhibition produced by the entry of Pcho or different AACs in the inhibitory site. We postulate that Zn2+ induces at pH 5.0 a conformational change in the active center that is communicated to the inhibitory site, producing a compact or closed structure. However, at pH 7.4, this effect is not observed because to the hydrolysis of the [Zn2+L2−1L20(H2O2] complex, which causes a change from octahedral to tetrahedral in the metal coordination geometry. This enzyme is also present in P. fluorescens, P. putida, P. syringae, and other organisms. We have recently crystallized PchP and solved its structure.

  4. Imaging of alkaline phosphatase activity in bone tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence P Gade

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a paradigm for quantitative molecular imaging of bone cell activity. We hypothesized the feasibility of non-invasive imaging of the osteoblast enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP using a small imaging molecule in combination with (19Flourine magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((19FMRSI. 6, 8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (DiFMUP, a fluorinated ALP substrate that is activatable to a fluorescent hydrolysis product was utilized as a prototype small imaging molecule. The molecular structure of DiFMUP includes two Fluorine atoms adjacent to a phosphate group allowing it and its hydrolysis product to be distinguished using (19Fluorine magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((19FMRS and (19FMRSI. ALP-mediated hydrolysis of DiFMUP was tested on osteoblastic cells and bone tissue, using serial measurements of fluorescence activity. Extracellular activation of DiFMUP on ALP-positive mouse bone precursor cells was observed. Concurringly, DiFMUP was also activated on bone derived from rat tibia. Marked inhibition of the cell and tissue activation of DiFMUP was detected after the addition of the ALP inhibitor levamisole. (19FMRS and (19FMRSI were applied for the non-invasive measurement of DiFMUP hydrolysis. (19FMRS revealed a two-peak spectrum representing DiFMUP with an associated chemical shift for the hydrolysis product. Activation of DiFMUP by ALP yielded a characteristic pharmacokinetic profile, which was quantifiable using non-localized (19FMRS and enabled the development of a pharmacokinetic model of ALP activity. Application of (19FMRSI facilitated anatomically accurate, non-invasive imaging of ALP concentration and activity in rat bone. Thus, (19FMRSI represents a promising approach for the quantitative imaging of bone cell activity during bone formation with potential for both preclinical and clinical applications.

  5. Acid phosphatases in seeds and developing of squash (Cucurbita ficifolia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2014-01-01

    ... (imbition through seedlings development) in extracts from cotyledons of squash (Cucurbita ficifolia). It has been shown that the activity of acid phosphatase was initially low and than increased to a maximum after 6 days of imbition...

  6. ATR kinase regulates its attenuation via PPM1D phosphatase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debadrita Bhattacharya

    2018-02-07

    phosphatase regulatory circuitry employed by cells for timely attenuation of protein-phosphorylation signals during transient replication stress, a process that rapidly proliferating cells are constantly subjected to. 2. Material and methods.

  7. Research on Phosphatases of Belladona Leaves and Their Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khorsand

    1957-01-01

    Full Text Available Through experimentation with several leaves it has been possible for us to point out the existance of two different acid phosphatases. We have studied in more detail the phosphatases of belldon a leaves (Atropa Belladona L. Solanacees. The great part of the phosphatase activity is water extractable. We have compared the activity of the soluble fraction with that not directly extractable by means of water. The insoluble fraction could not be solubilized in a satisfaetC'fY m.anner.The digestion by papaine produced a slight solubilizing effect; on the other hand salt solutions, neutral or alkaline, or water glycerol mixtures had no solubilizing effect on the enzyme, It has been possible to demonstrate the existence of two different phosphatases in the insoluble fraction: the first of the type II,

  8. INHIBITORY POTENTIAL OF POLYHYDROXYLATED FULLERENES AGAINST PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobzar, O L; Trush, V V; Tanchuk, V Yu; Vovk, A I

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of PTP1B by polyhydroxylated fullerenes was studied in silico and in vitro. The enzyme kinetics in the presence of polyhydroxy small gap fullerenes showed that reciprocal value of maximum velocity non-linearly increases with increasing the inhibitor concentration. Analysis of the dose-dependent curve of PTP1B inhibition suggests an apparent positive cooperativity with involvement of at least two binding sites for the hydroxylated fullerene cages. Molecular docking calculations indicated that highly hydroxylated fullerene C60 may occupy the active site and additional allosteric binding site with similar affinity. In silico analysis of a number of fullerenols with 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 hydroxyl groups showed that the inhibitory activity may depend on the degree of hydroxylation of the nanoparticles surface. These data provide some understanding of the mechanisms of inhibitory action of fullerenols on activity of protein tyrosine phosphatases.

  9. Acid phosphatases in seeds and developing of squash (Cucurbita ficifolia)

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2014-01-01

    Changes in protein content and acid phosphatase activity were followed during germination (imbition through seedlings development) in extracts from cotyledons of squash (Cucurbita ficifolia). It has been shown that the activity of acid phosphatase was initially low and than increased to a maximum after 6 days of imbition. Acid phosphates were isolated from cotyledons of seeds and from 6-, 10- and 22-days old seedlings by extraction the proteins with 0.1 M acetate buffer pH 5.1, precipitation ...

  10. Detection of phosphatase activity in aquatic and terrestrial cyanobacterial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Olivera B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria, as highly adaptable microorganisms, are characterized by an ability to survive in different environmental conditions, in which a significant role belongs to their enzymes. Phosphatases are enzymes produced by algae in relatively large quantities in response to a low orthophosphate concentration and their activity is significantly correlated with their primary production. The activity of these enzymes was investigated in 11 cyanobacterial strains in order to determine enzyme synthesis depending on taxonomic and ecological group of cyanobacteria. The study was conducted with 4 terrestrial cyanobacterial strains, which belong to Nostoc and Anabaena genera, and 7 filamentous water cyanobacteria of Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Phormidium and Microcystis genera. The obtained results showed that the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases strongly depended on cyanobacterial strain and the environment from which the strain originated. Higher activity of alkaline phosphatases, ranging from 3.64 to 85.14 μmolpNP/s/dm3, was recorded in terrestrial strains compared to the studied water strains (1.11-5.96 μmolpNP/s/dm3. The activity of acid phosphatases was higher in most tested water strains (1.67-6.28 μmolpNP/s/dm3 compared to the activity of alkaline phosphatases (1.11-5.96 μmolpNP/s/dm3. Comparing enzyme activity of nitrogen fixing and non-nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, it was found that most nitrogen fixing strains had a higher activity of alkaline phosphatases. The data obtained in this work indicate that activity of phosphatases is a strain specific property. The results further suggest that synthesis and activity of phosphatases depended on eco-physiological characteristics of the examined cyanobacterial strains. This can be of great importance for the further study of enzymes and mechanisms of their activity as a part of cyanobacterial survival strategy in environments with extreme conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  11. Hydrolysis of dinitrobenzamide phosphate prodrugs: the role of alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wing-Yee; Balasubramanian, Amit; Helsby, Nuala A

    2009-01-01

    Phosphate prodrugs which undergo hydrolysis in vivo have been used to improve the solubility and pharmacokinetic properties of a number of drugs. Dinitrobenzamide mustards (DNBM) are examples of such drugs. We investigated the ability of purified alkaline phosphatase isoforms to dephosphorylate three DNBM phosphate prodrugs. In addition, the relative rate of dephosphorylation of these phosphate prodrugs in a number of tissues was determined. These phosphate prodrugs are indeed substrates for alkaline phosphatase, with time dependent formation of the hydrolysis product. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) had the highest activity for these substrates and compound P2 was the most rapidly metabolised. Similarly, compound P2 had the shortest half life in mouse serum (t1/2 = 1.15 h) compared with P1 (t1/2 = 13.34 h) and P3 (t1/2 = 4.4 h). However, serum has very low dephosphorylase activity for these substrates compared with intestine and liver homogenates. In addition, there is little or no difference in the relative rate of dephosphorylation of each of the three compounds in mouse tissues in contrast to the pattern observed with purified alkaline phosphatase and mouse serum. Hence additional phosphatase enzymes may be involved in the metabolism of phosphate prodrugs in vivo.

  12. Protein phosphatase 2A plays a critical role in interleukin-2-induced beta 2-integrin dependent homotypic adhesion in human CD4+ T cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockdorff, J; Nielsen, M; Svejgaard, A

    1997-01-01

    A, blocks PP1/PP2A activity and IL-2 induced adhesion, whereas cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2B (PP2B), does not, suggesting that PP1 and/or PP2A are involved in IL-2 induced adhesion. Endothall, which preferentially inhibits PP2A, strongly inhibited cytokine...... modulates enzymatic activity and/or subcellular distribution of serine/threonine phosphatases 1 and 2A (PP1/PP2A) in T cells, we examined the role of these phosphatases in IL-2 induced homotypic adhesion in antigen specific human CD4+ T cell lines. We show that calyculin A, a potent inhibitor of PP1 and PP2...... induced adhesion, whereas the structurally related compound 1,4-dimethylendothall had no effect on either phosphatase activity or the adhesion response. Okadaic acid, which preferentially inhibits PP2A, almost completely blocked IL-2-induced adhesion, whereas tautomycin, a potent inhibitor of PP1, had...

  13. Fluorescence quenching based alkaline phosphatase activity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yaqi; Hu, Qiong; Zhou, Baojing; Zhang, Yonghui; He, Minhui; Xu, Ting; Li, Feng; Kong, Jinming

    2018-01-01

    Simple and fast detection of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity is of great importance for diagnostic and analytical applications. In this work, we report a turn-off approach for the real-time detection of ALP activity on the basis of the charge transfer induced fluorescence quenching of the Cu(BCDS)22- (BCDS = bathocuproine disulfonate) probe. Initially, ALP can enzymatically hydrolyze the substrate ascorbic acid 2-phosphate to release ascorbic acid (AA). Subsequently, the AA-mediated reduction of the Cu(BCDS)22- probe, which displays an intense photoluminescence band at the wavelength of 402nm, leads to the static quenching of fluorescence of the probe as a result of charge transfer. The underlying mechanism of the fluorescence quenching was demonstrated by quantum mechanical calculations. The Cu(BCDS)22- probe features a large Stokes shift (86nm) and is highly immune to photo bleaching. In addition, this approach is free of elaborately designed fluorescent probes and allows the detection of ALP activity in a real-time manner. Under optimal conditions, it provides a fast and sensitive detection of ALP activity within the dynamic range of 0-220mUmL-1, with a detection limit down to 0.27mUmL-1. Results demonstrate that it is highly selective, and applicable to the screening of ALP inhibitors in drug discovery. More importantly, it shows a good analytical performance for the direct detection of the endogenous ALP levels of undiluted human serum and even whole blood samples. Therefore, the proposed charge transfer based approach has great potential in diagnostic and analytical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Alkaline phosphatase activity and properties in the organs of cattle and sheep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, S

    1979-01-01

    Alkaline-phosphatase activity and the physico-chemical properties of the liver, lung, spleen, kidney, intestine, bone and placenta of 25 clinically healthy cattle and 30 clinically healthy sheep were investigated. High alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in kidneys and intestines. The alcaline phosphatase of cattle and sheep liver, spleen, kidney, lung, bone and placenta was thermo-labile and sensitive to l-arginine, l-homoarginine and imidazole, but was not sensitive to l-phenylalanine. Bone phosphatase of cattle and sheep was sensitive to urea. Intestinal phosphatase of cattle proved thermostable, sensitive to l-phenylalanine and not sensitive to l-arginine, l-homoarginine, imidasol and urea. Agarose gel electrophoresis of alkaline phosphatase indicated the presence of one fraction only and liver alkaline phosphatase proved to be the fastest. Sheep liver alkaline phosphatase had two fractions while sheep intestinal and placental alkaline phosphatase had three fractions and some of them were faster than liver alkaline phosphatase.

  15. The Calcineurin Inhibitor Tacrolimus Reduces Proteinuria in Membranous Nephropathy Accompanied by a Decrease in Angiopoietin-Like-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lei; Ma, Jing; Cui, Rui; Chen, Xiao; Wei, Shi-Yao; Wei, Qiu-Ju; Li, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Tacrolimus is an anticalcineurinic agent with potent immunosuppressive activity that has recently been shown to have the added benefit of reducing proteinuria in membranous nephropathy (MN) patients. However, its potential mechanisms remain unknown. To reveal the mechanism, rat cohorts were administered tacrolimus or vehicle from days 7 to 28 after the induction of passive Heymann nephritis (PHN). PHN induction resulted in heavy proteinuria and increased expression of desmin, a marker of injured podocytes. We also showed that the glomerular expression of angiopoietin-like-4 (Angptl4) was markedly upregulated in PHN rats and human MN followed by an increase in urine Angptl4 excretion. In addition, increased Angptl4 expression may be related to podocyte injury and proteinuria. Furthermore, upregulated Angptl4 expression primarily colocalized with podocytes rather than endothelial or mesangial cells, indicating that podocytes may be the source of Angptl4, which then gradually migrated to the glomerular basement membrane over time. However, tacrolimus treatment markedly reduced glomerular and urinary Angptl4, accompanied by a reduction in the established proteinuria and the promotion of podocyte repair. Additionally, glomerular immune deposits and circulating IgG levels induced by PHN clearly decreased following tacrolimus treatment. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration that the calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus can reduce Angptl4 in podocytes accompanied by a decrease in established proteinuria and promotion of podocyte repair in MN. PMID:25165975

  16. A calcineurin inhibitory protein overexpressed in Down's syndrome interacts with the product of a ubiquitously expressed transcript

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.C.S. Silveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The Down's syndrome candidate region 1 (DSCR1 protein, encoded by a gene located in the human chromosome 21, interacts with calcineurin and is overexpressed in Down's syndrome patients. As an approach to clarifying a putative function for this protein, in the present study we used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify DSCR1 partners. The two-hybrid system is a method that allows the identification of protein-protein interactions through reconstitution of the activity of the yeast GAL 4 transcriptional activator. The gene DSCR1 fused to the GAL 4 binding domain (BD was used to screen a human fetal brain cDNA library cloned in fusion with the GAL 4 activation domain (AD. Three positive clones were found and sequence analysis revealed that all the plasmids coded for the ubiquitously expressed transcript (UXT. UXT, which is encoded in human Xp11, is a 157-amino acid protein present in both cytosol and nucleus of the cells. This positive interaction of DSCR1 and UXT was confirmed in vivo by mating the yeast strain AH109 (MATaexpressing AD-UXT with the strain Y187 (MATalpha expressing BD-DSCR1, and in vitro by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. These results may help elucidate a new function for DSCR1 and its participation in Down's syndrome pathogenesis.

  17. Hypothyroidism following developmental iodine deficiency reduces hippocampal neurogranin, CaMK II and calmodulin and elevates calcineurin in lactational rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Liu, Wanyang; Wang, Yi; Xi, Qi; Chen, Jie

    2010-11-01

    Developmental iodine deficiency (ID) leads to inadequate thyroid hormone that impairs learning and memory with an unclear mechanism. Here, we show that hippocampal neurogranin, calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), calmodulin (CaM) and calcineurin (CaN) are implicated in the brain impairment in lactational rat hippocampus following developmental ID and hypothyroidism. Three developmental rat models were created by administrating dam rats with either iodine-deficient diet or propylthiouracil (PTU, 5 ppm or 15 ppm)-added drinking water from gestational day (GD) 6 till postnatal day (PN) 21. Then, the neurogranin, CaMKII, CaM and CaN in the hippocampus were detected with immunohistochemistry and western blotting on PN14 and PN21. The iodine-deficient and hypothyroid pups showed significantly lower level of neurogranin, CaMKII and CaM and significantly increased CaN in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions than the controls on PN14 and PN21 (P<0.05, respectively). Data indicate that, in lactational rats, hippocampal neurogranin, CaMKII, CaM and CaN are involved in the brain impairment by developmental ID and hypothyroidism. Copyright © 2010 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase regulates the PTPα/Fyn signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Kurup, Pradeep; Foscue, Ethan; Lombroso, Paul J

    2015-08-01

    The tyrosine kinase Fyn has two regulatory tyrosine residues that when phosphorylated either activate (Tyr(420)) or inhibit (Tyr(531)) Fyn activity. Within the central nervous system, two protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) target these regulatory tyrosines in Fyn. PTPα dephosphorylates Tyr(531) and activates Fyn, while STEP (STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase) dephosphorylates Tyr(420) and inactivates Fyn. Thus, PTPα and STEP have opposing functions in the regulation of Fyn; however, whether there is cross talk between these two PTPs remains unclear. Here, we used molecular techniques in primary neuronal cultures and in vivo to demonstrate that STEP negatively regulates PTPα by directly dephosphorylating PTPα at its regulatory Tyr(789). Dephosphorylation of Tyr(789) prevents the translocation of PTPα to synaptic membranes, blocking its ability to interact with and activate Fyn. Genetic or pharmacologic reduction in STEP61 activity increased the phosphorylation of PTPα at Tyr(789), as well as increased translocation of PTPα to synaptic membranes. Activation of PTPα and Fyn and trafficking of GluN2B to synaptic membranes are necessary for ethanol (EtOH) intake behaviors in rodents. We tested the functional significance of STEP61 in this signaling pathway by EtOH administration to primary cultures as well as in vivo, and demonstrated that the inactivation of STEP61 by EtOH leads to the activation of PTPα, its translocation to synaptic membranes, and the activation of Fyn. These findings indicate a novel mechanism by which STEP61 regulates PTPα and suggest that STEP and PTPα coordinate the regulation of Fyn. STEP61 , PTPα, Fyn, and NMDA receptor (NMDAR) have been implicated in ethanol intake behaviors in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) in rodents. Here, we report that PTPα is a novel substrate for STEP61. Upon ethanol exposure, STEP61 is phosphorylated and inactivated by protein kinase A (PKA) signaling in the DMS. As a result of STEP61

  19. Trypanosoma rangeli: an alkaline ecto-phosphatase activity is involved with survival and growth of the parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos-Santos, André L A; Dick, Claudia F; Silveira, Thaís S; Fonseca-de-Souza, André L; Meyer-Fernandes, José R

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether an alkaline ecto-phosphatase activity is present in the surface of Trypanosoma rangeli. Intact short epimastigote forms were assayed for ecto-phosphatase activity to study kinetics and modulators using β-glycerophosphate (β-GP) and p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) as substrates. Its role in parasite development and differentiation was also studied. Competition assays using different proportions of β-GP and pNPP evidenced the existence of independent and non-interacting alkaline and acid phosphatases. Hydrolysis of β-GP increased progressively with pH, whereas the opposite was evident using pNPP. The alkaline enzyme was inhibited by levamisole in a non-competitive fashion. The Ca(2+) present in the reaction medium was enough for full activity. Pretreatment with PI-PLC decreased the alkaline but not the acid phosphatase evidence that the former is catalyzed by a GPI-anchored enzyme, with potential intracellular signaling ability. β-GP supported the growth and differentiation of T. rangeli to the same extent as high orthophosphate (Pi). Levamisole at the IC50 spared significantly parasite growth when β-GP was the sole source of Pi and stopped it in the absence of β-GP, indicating that the alkaline enzyme can utilize phosphate monoesters present in serum. These results demonstrate the existence of an alkaline ecto-phosphatase in T. rangeli with selective requirements and sensitivity to inhibitors that participates in key metabolic processes in the parasite life cycle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Substrate-based fragment identification for the development of selective, nonpeptidic inhibitors of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Tyler D; Xu, Hai-Chao; Chatterjee, Manavi; Nairn, Angus C; Lombroso, Paul J; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2013-10-10

    High levels of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) activity are observed in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Overexpression of STEP results in the dephosphorylation and inactivation of many key neuronal signaling molecules, including ionotropic glutamate receptors. Moreover, genetically reducing STEP levels in AD mouse models significantly reversed cognitive deficits and decreased glutamate receptor internalization. These results support STEP as a potential target for drug discovery for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Herein, a substrate-based approach for the discovery and optimization of fragments called substrate activity screening (SAS) has been applied to the development of low molecular weight (<450 Da) and nonpeptidic, single-digit micromolar mechanism-based STEP inhibitors with greater than 20-fold selectivity across multiple tyrosine and dual specificity phosphatases. Significant levels of STEP inhibition in rat cortical neurons are also observed.

  1. Discovery and evaluation of the hybrid of bromophenol and saccharide as potent and selective protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renshuai; Yu, Rilei; Xu, Qi; Li, Xiangqian; Luo, Jiao; Jiang, Bo; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Shuju; Wu, Ning; Shi, Dayong

    2017-07-07

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a key negative regulator of insulin signaling pathway. Inhibition of PTP1B is expected to improve insulin action. Appropriate selectivity and permeability are the gold standard for excellent PTP1B inhibitors. In this work, molecular hybridization-based screening identified a selective competitive PTP1B inhibitor. Compound 10a has IC50 values of 199 nM against PTP1B, and shows 32-fold selectivity for PTP1B over the closely related phosphatase TCPTP. Molecule docking and molecular dynamics studies reveal the reason of selectivity for PTP1B over TCPTP. Moreover, the cell permeability and cellular activity of compound 10a are demonstrated respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Phosphatase inhibitor 2 promotes acetylation of tubulin in the primary cilium of human retinal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Weiping

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary cilia are flagella-like projections from the centriole of mammalian cells that have a key role in cell signaling. Human diseases are linked to defects in primary cilia. Microtubules make up the axoneme of cilia and are selectively acetylated and this is thought to contribute to the stability of the structure. However, mechanisms to regulate tubulin acetylation in cilia are poorly understood. Results Endogenous phosphatase inhibitor-2 (I-2 was found concentrated in cilia of human epithelial cells, and was localized to cilia early in the process of formation, prior to the full acetylation of microtubules. Knockdown of I-2 by siRNA significantly reduced the acetylation of microtubules in cilia, without a net decrease in whole cell tubulin acetylation. There was a reduction in the percentage of I-2 knockdown cells with a primary cilium, but no apparent alteration in the cilium length, suggesting no change in microtubule-based transport processes. Inhibition of either histone deacetylases with trichostatin A, or protein phosphatase-1 with calyculin A in I-2 knockdown cells partially rescued the acetylation of microtubules in cilia and the percentage of cells with a primary cilium. Conclusion The regulatory protein I-2 localizes to the primary cilium where it affects both Ser/Thr phosphorylation and is required for full tubulin acetylation. Rescue of tubulin acetylation in I-2 knockdown cells by different chemical inhibitors shows that deacetylases and phosphatases are functionally interconnected to regulate microtubules. As a multifunctional protein, I-2 may link cell cycle progression to structure and stability of the primary cilium.

  3. Genome-Wide Identification and Functional Analysis of the Calcineurin B-like Protein and Calcineurin B-like Protein-Interacting Protein Kinase Gene Families in Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa

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    Xin Yin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The calcineurin B-like protein (CBL–CBL-interacting protein kinase (CIPK complex has been identified as a primary component in calcium sensors that perceives various stress signals. Turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa has been widely cultivated in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau for a century as a food crop of worldwide economic significance. These CBL–CIPK complexes have been demonstrated to play crucial roles in plant response to various environmental stresses. However, no report is available on the genome-wide characterization of these two gene families in turnip. In the present study, 19 and 51 members of the BrrCBL and BrrCIPK genes, respectively, are first identified in turnip and phylogenetically grouped into three and two distinct clusters, respectively. The expansion of these two gene families is mainly attributable to segmental duplication. Moreover, the differences in expression patterns in quantitative real-time PCR, as well as interaction profiles in the yeast two-hybrid assay, suggest the functional divergence of paralog genes during long-term evolution in turnip. Overexpressing and complement lines in Arabidopsis reveal that BrrCBL9.2 improves, but BrrCBL9.1 does not affect, salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Thus, the expansion of the BrrCBL and BrrCIPK gene families enables the functional differentiation and evolution of some new gene functions of paralog genes. These paralog genes then play prominent roles in turnip's adaptation to the adverse environment of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Overall, the study results contribute to our understanding of the functions of the CBL–CIPK complex and provide basis for selecting appropriate genes for the in-depth functional studies of BrrCBL–BrrCIPK in turnip.

  4. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in human cataractous lens epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasavada Abhay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior lens epithelial cells undergo a variety of degenerative and proliferative changes during cataract formation. Acid phosphatase is primarily responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue repair. The lipid hydroperoxides that are obtained by lipid peroxidation of polysaturated or unsaturated fatty acids bring about deterioration of biological membranes at cellular and tissue levels. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation activities were studied on the lens epithelial cells of nuclear cataract, posterior subcapsular cataract, mature cataract, and mixed cataract. Of these, mature cataractous lens epithelium showed maximum activity for acid phosphatase (516.83 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and maximum levels of lipid peroxidation (86.29 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. In contrast, mixed cataractous lens epithelium showed minimum activity of acid phosphatase (222.61 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and minimum levels of lipid peroxidation (54.23 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. From our study, we correlated the maximum activity of acid phosphatase in mature cataractous lens epithelium with the increased areas of superimposed cells associated with the formation of mature cataract. Likewise, the maximum levels of lipid peroxidation in mature cataractous lens epithelium was correlated with increased permeability of the plasma membrane. Conversely, the minimum levels of lipid peroxidation in mixed cataractous lens epithelium makes us presume that factors other than lipid peroxidation may also account for the formation of mixed type of cataract.

  5. New Functions of the Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatases in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erneux, Christophe; Ghosh, Somadri; Ramos, Ana Raquel; Edimo, William's Elong

    2016-01-01

    Inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases act on inositol phosphates and phosphoinositides as substrates. They are 10 different isoenzymes and several splice variants in the human genome that are involved in a series of human pathologies such as the Lowe syndrome, the Joubert and MORM syndromes, breast cancer, glioblastoma, gastric cancer and several other type of cancers. Inositol 5-phosphatases can be amplified in human cancer cells, whereas the 3- and 4- phosphatase tumor suppressor PTEN and INPP4B, repectively are often repressed or deleted. The inositol 5-phosphatases are critically involved in a complex network of higly regulated phosphoinositides, affecting the lipid content of PI(3, 4, 5)P3, PI(4, 5)P2 and PI(3, 4)P2. This has an impact on the normal behavior of many intracellular target proteins e.g. protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) or actin binding proteins and final biological responses. The production of PI(3, 4P)2 by dephosphorylation of the substrate PI(3, 4, 5)P3 is particularly important as it produces a new signal messenger in the control of cell migration, invasion and endocytosis. New inhibitors/activators of inositol 5- phosphatases have recently been identified for the possible control of their activity in several human pathologies such as inflamation and cancer.

  6. Cloning and expression of a widely expressed receptor tyrosine phosphatase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sap, J; D'Eustachio, P; Givol, D

    1990-01-01

    and Bmp-2a loci. The corresponding mRNA (3.0 kilobases) is expressed in most murine tissues and most abundantly expressed in brain and kidney. Antibodies against a synthetic peptide of R-PTP-alpha identified a 130-kDa protein in cells transfected with the R-PTP-alpha cDNA.......We describe the identification of a widely expressed receptor-type (transmembrane) protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase; EC 3.1.3.48). Screening of a mouse brain cDNA library under low-stringency conditions with a probe encompassing the intracellular (phosphatase) domain of the CD45 lymphocyte...... antigen yielded cDNA clones coding for a 794-amino acid transmembrane protein [hereafter referred to as receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (R-PTP-alpha)] with an intracellular domain displaying clear homology to the catalytic domains of CD45 and LAR (45% and 53%, respectively). The 142-amino acid...

  7. Renal function in heart transplant patients after switch to combined mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor and calcineurin inhibitor therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmschrott M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Matthias Helmschrott,1 Rasmus Rivinius,1 Thomas Bruckner,2 Hugo A Katus,1 Andreas O Doesch1 1Department of Cardiology, Angiology, Pneumology, 2Institute for Medical Biometry and Informatics, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Background: A calcineurin inhibitor (CNI-based immunosuppression combined with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORs seems to be attractive in patients after heart transplantation (HTX in special clinical situations, for example, in patients with adverse drug effects of prior immunosuppression. Previous studies in patients after HTX detected advantageous effects regarding renal function of a tacrolimus (TAC-based vs cyclosporine-A (CSA-based immunosuppression (in combination with mycophenolate mofetil. However, data regarding renal function after HTX in mTOR/CNI patients remain limited. Aim: Primary end point of the present study was to analyze renal function in HTX patients 1 year after switch to an mTOR/CNI-based immunosuppression. Methods: Data of 80 HTX patients after change to mTOR/CNI-based immunosuppression were retrospectively analyzed. Renal function was assessed by measured serum creatinine and by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR calculated from Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Results: Twenty-nine patients received mTOR/CSA-based treatment and 51 patients received mTOR/TAC-based therapy. At time of switch and at 1-year follow-up, serum creatinine and eGFR did not differ significantly between both study groups (all P=not statistically significant. Analysis of variances with repeated measurements detected a similar change of renal function in both study groups. Conclusion: The present study detected no significant differences between both mTOR/CNI study groups, indicating a steady state of renal function in HTX patients after switch of immunosuppressive regimen. Keywords: heart transplantation, cyclosporine A, tacrolimus, risk factors

  8. Long-term glomerular filtration rate in liver allograft recipients according to the type of calcineurin inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niel, O R P; Berthoux, F; Albano, L; Dahan, P; Aoudia, R; Gugenheim, J; Cassuto, E

    2009-10-01

    The calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) cyclosporine micro emulsion (CyA-ME) and tacrolimus (Tac) both display renal and vascular toxicities. We undertook a single-center retrospective study among 149 surviving liver transplant recipients. The primary outcome was kidney function over 10 years posttransplant, evaluating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula with subsequent Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative staging. The secondary outcomes included correlations between CNI trough levels (C0), GFR, and items of cardiovascular toxicity. At 1 and 5 years, the mean GFRs were 74.2 and 76.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2) under Tac versus 62.8 and 66.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2) under CyA-ME (P < .001). The mean value in favor of Tac was + 10 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Distribution of GFR stages showed more Tac patients at stage 1 or 2 and more at stage 4 or 5 under CyA-ME. There was no significant correlation between CNI-C0 and GFR. Switches between CNI or to mycophenolate mofetil did not show any significant GFR improvement. Patients under CyA-ME displayed significantly higher blood pressures with 3 requiring dialysis versus none under Tac. In conclusion, we observed that liver transplant patients under Tac maintained significantly better renal function with less progression to dialysis as compared with CyA-ME, indicating a lower renal and vascular (lower BP) toxicity.

  9. Calcineurin Inhibitors Associated Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in Solid Organ Transplantation: Report of 2 Cases and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Turun; Rao, Zhengsheng; Tan, Qiling; Qiu, Yang; Liu, Jinpeng; Huang, Zhongli; Wang, Xianding; Lin, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a rare neurologic side effect of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) with poorly understood clinical features.We report cases of 2 patients with PRES developing after kidney transplantation and summarize PRES clinical features through a literature review.The 1st case was a 28-year-old man who received a kidney transplant from a deceased donor. Initial immunosuppressive therapy consisted of tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil/prednisolone. He developed headache and blurred vision with visual field loss15 days after transplantation and generalized seizures 4 days later. The 2nd case was a 34-year-old man who received a living kidney transplant. His initial immunosuppressive therapy comprised tacrolimus/mycophenolate mofetil/prednisolone. Two months after transplantation, he developed seizures. Both patients were diagnosed with PRES based on neurological symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings; they recovered after switching from tacrolimus to either a cyclosporine or a lower tacrolimus dose. CNI-associated PRES is an acute neurological syndrome with seizures, encephalopathy, visual abnormalities, headache, focal neurological deficits, and nausea/vomiting. It is always accompanied by hypertension. A fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal MRI scan typically shows reversible subcortical white matter changes in the posterior cerebral hemisphere that usually occur within the 1st month after transplantation. CNI-associated PRES has a generally favorable prognosis with early diagnosis and prompt treatment including alternating or discontinuing CNIs and blood pressure control.CNI-associated PRES should be considered in patients exhibiting acute neurological symptoms after transplantation. Early diagnosis and immediate treatment are critical for a favorable prognosis.

  10. Carvedilol reverses cardiac insufficiency in AKAP5 knockout mice by normalizing the activities of calcineurin and CaMKII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Matta, Shannon M; Sullivan, Ryan D; Bahouth, Suleiman W

    2014-11-01

    Cardiac β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) are key regulators of cardiac haemodynamics and size. The scaffolding protein A-kinase anchoring protein 79/150 (AKAP5) is a key regulator of myocardial signalling by β-ARs. We examined the function of AKAP5 in regulating cardiac haemodynamics and size, and the role of β-ARs and Ca(2+)-regulated intracellular signalling pathways in this phenomenon. We used echocardiographic, histological, genetic, and biochemical methods to examine the effect of ablation of AKAP5 on cardiac haemodynamics, size, and signalling in mice. AKAP5(-/-) mice exhibited enhanced signs of cardiac dilatation and dysfunction that progressed with age. Infusions of isoprenaline worsened cardiac haemodynamics in wild-type (WT) mice only, but increased the ratio of heart-to-body weight equally in WT and in AKAP5(-/-) mice. Mechanistically, loss of AKAP5 was associated with enhanced activity of cardiac calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin (CaN) as indexed by nuclear factor of activated T-cell-luciferase activity. Loss of AKAP5 interfered with the recycling of cardiac β1-ARs, which was mediated in part by CaN binding to AKAP5. Carvedilol reversed cardiac hypertrophy and haemodynamic deficiencies in AKAP5(-/-) mice by normalizing the activities of cardiac CaN and CaMKII. These findings identify a novel cardioprotective role for AKAP5 that is mediated by regulating the activities of cardiac CaN and CaMKII and highlight a significant role for cardiac β-ARs in this phenomenon. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A single-staggered dose of calcineurin inhibitor may be associated with neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity immediately after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbani, Lucio; Mazzoni, Alessandro; Bindi, Lucia; Biancofiore, Gianni; Bisà, Massimo; Meacci, Luca; Esposito, Massimo; Mozzo, Roberto; Colombatto, Piero; Bianco, Irene; Grazzini, Tiziana; Coletti, Laura; De Simone, Paolo; Catalano, Gabriele; Montin, Umberto; Tincani, Giovanni; Balzano, Emanuele; Petruccelli, Stefania; Carrai, Paola; Tascini, Carlo; Menichetti, Francesco; Scatena, Fabrizio; Filipponi, Franco

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the incidence of neuro-nephrotoxicity after a single-staggered dose of calcineurin inhibitors (CI) with different immunosuppressive approaches. From January to December 2006, all liver transplantation (LT) recipients at risk of renal or neurological complications treated with extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) + mycophenolate mofetil + steroids and staggered introduction of CI (ECP group) were compared with a historical control group on standard CI-based immunosuppression. The ECP group included 24 patients with a mean model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of 19.9 +/- 11.1. The control group consisted of 18 patients with a mean MELD score of 12.5 +/- 5.2 (p = 0.012). In the ECP group CI were introduced at a mean of 9.2 +/- 6.2 d (4-31 d) after LT. Five patients in the ECP group presented acute neuro-nephrotoxicity after the first CI administration on post-transplant d 4, 5, 6, 6, and 14. Overall patient survival at one, six, and 12 months was 100%, 95.8%, and 95.8% in the ECP group vs. 94.4%, 77.7%, and 72.2% in the control group (p < 0.001). In conclusion, we showed that CI toxicity may occur after a single-staggered dose administration, ECP seems to be a valuable tool for managing CI-related morbidity regardless of the concomitant immunosuppressive regimen, being associated with a lower mortality rate in the early post-transplant course.

  12. A mutation in protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit A affects auxin transport in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbers, C.; DeLong, A.; Deruere, J.; Bernasconi, P.; Soll, D.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin controls processes such as cell elongation, root hair development and root branching. Tropisms, growth curvatures triggered by gravity, light and touch, are also auxin-mediated responses. Auxin is synthesized in the shoot apex and transported through the stem, but the molecular mechanism of auxin transport is not well understood. Naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) and other inhibitors of auxin transport block tropic curvature responses and inhibit root and shoot elongation. We have isolated a novel Arabidopsis thaliana mutant designated roots curl in NPA (rcn1). Mutant seedlings exhibit altered responses to NPA in root curling and hypocotyl elongation. Auxin efflux in mutant seedlings displays increased sensitivity to NPA. The rcn1 mutation was transferred-DNA (T-DNA) tagged and sequences flanking the T-DNA insert were cloned. Analysis of the RCN1 cDNA reveals that the T-DNA insertion disrupts a gene for the regulatory A subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-A). The RCN1 gene rescues the rcn1 mutant phenotype and also complements the temperature-sensitive phenotype of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PP2A-A mutation, tpd3-1. These data implicate protein phosphatase 2A in the regulation of auxin transport in Arabidopsis.

  13. Rif1 controls DNA replication timing in yeast through the PP1 phosphatase Glc7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattarocci, Stefano; Shyian, Maksym; Lemmens, Laure; Damay, Pascal; Altintas, Dogus Murat; Shi, Tianlai; Bartholomew, Clinton R; Thomä, Nicolas H; Hardy, Christopher F J; Shore, David

    2014-04-10

    The Rif1 protein, originally identified as a telomere-binding factor in yeast, has recently been implicated in DNA replication control from yeast to metazoans. Here, we show that budding yeast Rif1 protein inhibits activation of prereplication complexes (pre-RCs). This inhibitory function requires two N-terminal motifs, RVxF and SILK, associated with recruitment of PP1 phosphatase (Glc7). In G1 phase, we show both that Glc7 interacts with Rif1 in an RVxF/SILK-dependent manner and that two proteins implicated in pre-RC activation, Mcm4 and Sld3, display increased Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK) phosphorylation in rif1 mutants. Rif1 also interacts with Dbf4 in yeast two-hybrid assays, further implicating this protein in direct modulation of pre-RC activation through the DDK. Finally, we demonstrate Rif1 RVxF/SILK motif-dependent recruitment of Glc7 to telomeres and earlier replication of these regions in cells where the motifs are mutated. Our data thus link Rif1 to negative regulation of replication origin firing through recruitment of the Glc7 phosphatase. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. BDNF Induces Striatal-Enriched Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 61 Degradation Through the Proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Ana; Puigdellívol, Mar; Tyebji, Shiraz; Kurup, Pradeep; Xu, Jian; Ginés, Silvia; Alberch, Jordi; Lombroso, Paul J; Pérez-Navarro, Esther

    2016-08-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes synaptic strengthening through the regulation of kinase and phosphatase activity. Conversely, striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) opposes synaptic strengthening through inactivation or internalization of signaling molecules. Here, we investigated whether BDNF regulates STEP levels/activity. BDNF induced a reduction of STEP61 levels in primary cortical neurons, an effect that was prevented by inhibition of tyrosine kinases, phospholipase C gamma, or the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). The levels of pGluN2B(Tyr1472) and pERK1/2(Thr202/Tyr204), two STEP substrates, increased in BDNF-treated cultures, and blockade of the UPS prevented STEP61 degradation and reduced BDNF-induced GluN2B and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Moreover, brief or sustained cell depolarization reduced STEP61 levels in cortical neurons by different mechanisms. BDNF also promoted UPS-mediated STEP61 degradation in cultured striatal and hippocampal neurons. In contrast, nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3 had no effect on STEP61 levels. Our results thus indicate that STEP61 degradation is an important event in BDNF-mediated effects.

  15. STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) Regulates the PTPα/Fyn Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Kurup, Pradeep; Foscue, Ethan; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase Fyn has two regulatory tyrosine residues that when phosphorylated either activate (Tyr420) or inhibit (Tyr531) Fyn activity. Within the central nervous system, two protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) target these regulatory tyrosines in Fyn. PTPα dephosphorylates Tyr531 and activates Fyn, while STEP (STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase) dephosphorylates Tyr420 and inactivates Fyn. Thus, PTPα and STEP have opposing functions in the regulation of Fyn; however, whether there is cross talk between these two PTPs remains unclear. Here, we used molecular techniques in primary neuronal cultures and in vivo to demonstrate that STEP negatively regulates PTPα by directly dephosphorylating PTPα at its regulatory Tyr789. Dephosphorylation of Tyr789 prevents the translocation of PTPα to synaptic membranes, blocking its ability to interact with and activate Fyn. Genetic or pharmacologic reduction of STEP61 activity increased the phosphorylation of PTPα at Tyr789, as well as increased translocation of PTPα to synaptic membranes. Activation of PTPα and Fyn and trafficking of GluN2B to synaptic membranes are necessary for ethanol intake behaviors in rodents. We tested the functional significance of STEP61 in this signaling pathway by ethanol administration to primary cultures as well as in vivo, and demonstrated that the inactivation of STEP61 by ethanol leads to the activation of PTPα, its translocation to synaptic membranes, and the activation of Fyn. These findings indicate a novel mechanism by which STEP61 regulates PTPα and suggest that STEP and PTPα coordinate the regulation of Fyn. PMID:25951993

  16. The role of protein tyrosine phosphatases in the regulation of allergic asthma: implication of TC-PTP and PTP-1B in the modulation of disease development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouliot, Philippe; Bergeron, Sébastien; Marette, André; Olivier, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is an important early event in the signal transduction of numerous cell receptors involved in the immune response. The implication of protein tyrosine kinases in allergic asthma is well recognized, but the role of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) remains poorly understood. However, we recently reported that global inhibition of PTPs during either the allergen-sensitization phase or the allergen-challenge phase reduced the development of asthma and that this correlated with an increased T helper 1 (Th1) response in both lung and spleen tissues. Therefore, in this study we investigated individual roles of PTPs involved in regulating the immune response. We observed that genetic deficiency for PTP-1B resulted in increased recruitment of lung inflammatory cells, while protein tyrosine phosphatase-phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted (PTP-PEST)-deficient mice exhibited a phenotype similar to that of wild-type mice. Importantly, we found that a heterozygous mutation of T cell PTP (TC-PTP) dramatically abrogates immunoglobulin E production and reduces the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the lung, conferring an important role for TC-PTP in the development of allergic asthma. As opposed to other studies on Src homology phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) deficiency, specific acute SHP-1 inhibition during allergen challenge did not affect disease outcome. Collectively, our results underscore the importance of PTPs in the development of allergic asthma. PMID:19930043

  17. Transcription of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase type 3 gene, ATP2A3, is regulated by the calcineurin/NFAT pathway in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadri, Lahouaria; Pavoine, Catherine; Lipskaia, Larissa; Yacoubi, Sabrina; Lompré, Anne-Marie

    2006-02-15

    Histamine, known to induce Ca2+ oscillations in endothelial cells, was used to alter Ca2+ cycling. Treatment of HUVEC (human umbilical-vein endothelial cell)-derived EA.hy926 cells with histamine for 1-3 days increased the levels of SERCA (sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase) 3, but not of SERCA 2b, transcripts and proteins. Promoter-reporter gene assays demonstrated that this increase in expression was due to activation of SERCA 3 gene transcription. The effect of histamine was abolished by mepyramine, but not by cimetidine, indicating that the H1 receptor, but not the H2 receptor, was involved. The histamine-induced up-regulation of SERCA 3 was abolished by cyclosporin A and by VIVIT, a peptide that prevents calcineurin and NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T-cells) from interacting, indicating involvement of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway. Histamine also induced the nuclear translocation of NFAT. NFAT did not directly bind to the SERCA 3 promoter, but activated Ets-1 (E twenty-six-1), which drives the expression of the SERCA 3 gene. Finally, cells treated with histamine and loaded with fura 2 exhibited an improved capacity in eliminating high cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations, in accordance with an increase in activity of a low-affinity Ca2+-ATPase, like SERCA 3. Thus chronic treatment of endothelial cells with histamine up-regulates SERCA 3 transcription. The effect of histamine is mediated by the H1R (histamine 1 receptor) and involves activation of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway. By increasing the rate of Ca2+ sequestration, up-regulation of SERCA 3 counteracts the cytosolic increase in Ca2+ concentration.

  18. Biochemical characterization and inhibitory effects of dinophysistoxin-1, okadaic acid and microcystine l-r on protein phosphatase 2a purified from the mussel Mytilus chilensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIELLA RIVAS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatases are involved in many cellular processes. One of the most abundant and best studied members of this class is protein phosphatase type-2A (PP2A. In this study, PP2A was purified from the mussel Mytilus chilensis. Using both SDS-PAGE and size exclusion gel filtration under denaturant conditions, it was confirmed that the PP2A fraction was essentially pure. The isolated enzyme is a heterodimer and the molecular estimated masses of the subunits are 62 and 28 kDa. The isolated PP2A fraction has a notably high p-NPP phosphatase activity, which is inhibited by NaCl. The hydrolytic p-NPP phosphatase activity is independent of the MgCl2 concentration. The time courses of the inhibition of the PP2A activity of p-NPP hydrolysis by increasing concentrations of three phycotoxins that are specific inhibitors of PP2A are shown. Inhibitions caused by Okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1, 35-methylokadiac acid and Microcystine L-R are dose-dependent with inhibition constants (Ki of 1.68, 0.40 and 0.27 nM respectively. Microcystine L-R, the most potent phycotoxin inhibitor of PP2A isolated from Mytilus chilensis with an IC50 = 0.25 ng/ml, showed the highest specific inhibition effect an the p-NPP hydrolisis. The calculated IC50 for DTX1 and OA was 0.75 ng/ml and 1.8 ng/ml respectively.

  19. Alkaline phosphatase and mortality in patients on peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinhui; Guo, Qunying; Feng, Xiaoran; Wang, Juan; Wu, Juan; Mao, Haiping; Huang, Fengxian; Yu, Xueqing; Yang, Xiao

    2014-04-01

    Elevated total serum alkaline phosphatase levels have been associated with higher mortality in the general population, CKD patients, and hemodialysis patients. However, in peritoneal dialysis patients, this association has received little attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between alkaline phosphatase and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients. In this single center retrospective cohort study, 1021 incident peritoneal dialysis patients from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2010 with baseline serum alkaline phosphatase values were enrolled. Collected baseline data included demographic characteristics and clinical and laboratory measurements. All patients were followed until December 31, 2012. The associations of total serum alkaline phosphatase levels with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were assessed using multivariable-adjusted Cox models. Of 1021 patients, mean age was 47.5 (± 15.5) years, 59.1% of patients were men, and 22.8% of patients were diabetic. The median serum alkaline phosphatase level was 64 U/L (interquartile range=52-82 U/L). During a median 31-month (interquartile range=19-45 months) follow-up period, 203 patients died, of which 109 deaths were caused by cardiovascular disease. After adjusting for demographics, comorbid conditions, liver function, and bone metabolism parameters, the highest alkaline phosphatase quartile was significantly associated with a hazard ratio for all-cause mortality of 1.70 (95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 2.74, P=0.03) and a hazard ratio for cardiovascular mortality of 1.94 (95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 3.72, P=0.04). Each 10 U/L higher baseline alkaline phosphatase level was associated with 4% (95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 1.08, P=0.04) and 7% (95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.11, P=0.003) higher risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively. Higher total serum alkaline phosphatase levels at the commencement of peritoneal

  20. Recurrent non-melanoma skin cancer: remission of field cancerization after conversion from calcineurin inhibitor- to proliferation signal inhibitor-based immunosuppression in a cardiac transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorell, J; Hunziker, T; Martinelli, M; Koestner, S C; Mohacsi, P J

    2010-11-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are the most common malignancies after solid organ transplantation. Their incidence increases with time after transplantation. Calcineurin-inhibitors (CNIs) and azathioprine are known as skin neoplasia-initiating and -enhancing immunosuppressants. In contrast, increasing clinical experience suggests a relevant antiproliferative effect of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, also named proliferation signal inhibitors (PSIs). We report the case of a cardiac allograft recipient with an impressive and consolidated reduction of recurrent NMSC, observed after conversion from CNI-therapy to a PSI-based protocol. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Glucose-induced posttranslational activation of protein phosphatases PP2A and PP1 in yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castermans, Dries; Somers, Ils; Kriel, Johan; Louwet, Wendy; Wera, Stefaan; Versele, Matthias; Janssens, Veerle; Thevelein, Johan M

    2012-01-01

    The protein phosphatases PP2A and PP1 are major regulators of a variety of cellular processes in yeast and other eukaryotes. Here, we reveal that both enzymes are direct targets of glucose sensing. Addition of glucose to glucose-deprived yeast cells triggered rapid posttranslational activation of both PP2A and PP1. Glucose activation of PP2A is controlled by regulatory subunits Rts1, Cdc55, Rrd1 and Rrd2. It is associated with rapid carboxymethylation of the catalytic subunits, which is necessary but not sufficient for activation. Glucose activation of PP1 was fully dependent on regulatory subunits Reg1 and Shp1. Absence of Gac1, Glc8, Reg2 or Red1 partially reduced activation while Pig1 and Pig2 inhibited activation. Full activation of PP2A and PP1 was also dependent on subunits classically considered to belong to the other phosphatase. PP2A activation was dependent on PP1 subunits Reg1 and Shp1 while PP1 activation was dependent on PP2A subunit Rts1. Rts1 interacted with both Pph21 and Glc7 under different conditions and these interactions were Reg1 dependent. Reg1-Glc7 interaction is responsible for PP1 involvement in the main glucose repression pathway and we show that deletion of Shp1 also causes strong derepression of the invertase gene SUC2. Deletion of the PP2A subunits Pph21 and Pph22, Rrd1 and Rrd2, specifically enhanced the derepression level of SUC2, indicating that PP2A counteracts SUC2 derepression. Interestingly, the effect of the regulatory subunit Rts1 was consistent with its role as a subunit of both PP2A and PP1, affecting derepression and repression of SUC2, respectively. We also show that abolished phosphatase activation, except by reg1Δ, does not completely block Snf1 dephosphorylation after addition of glucose. Finally, we show that glucose activation of the cAMP-PKA (protein kinase A) pathway is required for glucose activation of both PP2A and PP1. Our results provide novel insight into the complex regulatory role of these two major protein

  2. Cyclosporin versus tacrolimus for liver transplanted patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddad, E M; McAlister, V C; Renouf, E

    2006-01-01

    Most liver transplant recipients receive either cyclosporin or tacrolimus to prevent rejection. Both drugs inhibit calcineurin phosphatase which is thought to be the mechanism of their anti-rejection effect and principle toxicities. The drugs have different pharmacokinetic profiles and potencies....... Several randomised clinical trials have compared cyclosporin and tacrolimus in liver transplant recipients, but it remains unclear which is superior....

  3. Halenaquinone and xestoquinone derivatives, inhibitors of Cdc25B phosphatase from a Xestospongia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shugeng; Foster, Caleb; Brisson, Marni; Lazo, John S; Kingston, David G I

    2005-02-15

    Separation of an extract of a Xestospongia sp., guided by bioassay against Cdc25B, led to the isolation of nine compounds, halenaquinone (1), xestoquinone (2), adociaquinones A (3) and B (4), 3-ketoadociaquinones A (5) and B (6), tetrahydrohalenaquinones A (7) and B (8), and 13-O-methyl xestoquinol sulfate (9). The structures of the new natural products 6 and 9 were established on the basis of extensive one- and two-dimensional NMR studies. Compounds 1, 4, and 6 inhibited recombinant human Cdc25B in vitro with IC50 values of 0.7, 0.07, and 0.2 microM, respectively, and were 19- to 150-fold less active against two related protein phosphatases. Compound 4 blocked cell cycle progression through mitosis.

  4. Effect of copper on acid phosphatase activity in yeast Yarrowia lipolytica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hiroyasu; Inouhe, Masahiro; Tohoyama, Hiroshi; Joho, Masanori [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan). Dept. of Biology

    2007-01-15

    Acid phosphatase (APase) activity of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica increased with increasing Cu{sup 2+} concentrations in the medium. Furthermore, the enzyme in soluble form was stimulated in vitro by Cu{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} and inhibited by Ag{sup +} and Cd{sup 2+}. The most effective ion was Cu{sup 2+}, especially for the enzyme from cultures in medium containing Cu{sup 2+}, whereas APase activity in wall-bound fragments was only slightly activated by Cu{sup 2+}. The content of cellular phosphate involving polyphosphate was decreased by adding Cu{sup 2+}, regardless of whether or not the medium was rich in inorganic phosphate. Overproduction of the enzyme stimulated by Cu{sup 2+} might depend on derepression of the gene encoding the APase isozyme. (orig.)

  5. A Disposable Alkaline Phosphatase-Based Biosensor for Vanadium Chronoamperometric Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Gámez, Ana Lorena; Alonso-Lomillo, María Asunción; Domínguez-Renedo, Olga; Arcos-Martínez, María Julia

    2014-01-01

    A chronoamperometric method for vanadium ion determination, based on the inhibition of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase, is reported. Screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were used as transducers for the immobilization of the enzyme. The enzymatic activity over 4-nitrophenyl phosphate sodium salt is affected by vanadium ions, which results in a decrease in the chronoamperometric current registered. The developed method has a detection limit of 0.39 ± 0.06 μM, a repeatability of 7.7% (n = 4) and a reproducibility of 8% (n = 3). A study of the possible interferences shows that the presence of Mo(VI), Cr(III), Ca(II) and W(VI), may affect vanadium determination at concentration higher than 1.0 mM. The method was successfully applied to the determination of vanadium in spiked tap water. PMID:24569772

  6. A Disposable Alkaline Phosphatase-Based Biosensor for Vanadium Chronoamperometric Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lorena Alvarado-Gámez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A chronoamperometric method for vanadium ion determination, based on the inhibition of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase, is reported. Screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles were used as transducers for the immobilization of the enzyme. The enzymatic activity over 4-nitrophenyl phosphate sodium salt is affected by vanadium ions, which results in a decrease in the chronoamperometric current registered. The developed method has a detection limit of 0.39 ± 0.06 µM, a repeatability of 7.7% (n = 4 and a reproducibility of 8% (n = 3. A study of the possible interferences shows that the presence of Mo(VI, Cr(III, Ca(II and W(VI, may affect vanadium determination at concentration higher than 1.0 mM. The method was successfully applied to the determination of vanadium in spiked tap water.

  7. Halenaquinone inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Sachiko; Takeuchi, Tomoharu; Kawabata, Tetsuro; Kato, Hikaru; Yamakuma, Michiko; Matsuo, Kanae; El-Desoky, Ahmed H; Losung, Fitje; Mangindaan, Remy E P; de Voogd, Nicole J; Arata, Yoichiro; Yokosawa, Hideyoshi

    2014-11-15

    Halenaquinone was isolated from the marine sponge Petrosia alfiani as an inhibitor of osteoclastogenic differentiation of murine RAW264 cells. It inhibited the RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand)-induced upregulation of TRAP (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase) activity as well as the formation of multinuclear osteoclasts. In addition, halenaquinone substantially suppressed RANKL-induced IκB degradation and Akt phosphorylation. Thus, these results suggest that halenaquinone inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis at least by suppressing the NF-κB and Akt signaling pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute effect of tea, wine, beer, and polyphenols on ecto-alkaline phosphatase activity in human vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrão, Maria R; Keating, Elisa; Faria, Ana; Azevedo, Isabel; Martins, Maria J

    2006-07-12

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an ecto-enzyme widely distributed across species. It modulates a series of transmembranar transport systems, has an important role in bone mineralization, and can also be involved in vascular calcification. Polyphenol-rich diets seem to have protective effects on human health, namely, in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to investigate the effects of polyphenols and polyphenol-rich beverages upon membranar alkaline phosphatase (ecto-ALP) activity in intact human vascular smooth muscle cells (AALTR). The ecto-ALP activity was determined at pH 7.8, with p-nitrophenyl phosphate as the substrate, by absorbance spectrophotometry at 410 nm. Cell viability was assessed by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) method, and the polyphenol content of beverages was assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. All polyphenols tested inhibited ecto-ALP activity, in a concentration-dependent way. Teas, wines, and beers also inhibited ecto-ALP activity, largely according to their polyphenol content. All tested compounds and beverages improved or did not change AALTR cell viability. Stout beer was an exception to the described behavior. Although more studies must be done, the inhibition of AALTR ecto-ALP activity by polyphenolic compounds and polyphenol-containing beverages may contribute to their cardiovascular protective effects.

  9. On the regulation of protein phosphatase 2A and its role in controlling entry into and exit from mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tim

    2013-05-01

    The process of mitosis involves a comprehensive reorganization of the cell: chromosomes condense, the nuclear envelope breaks down, the mitotic spindle is assembled, cells round up and release their ties to the substrate and so on and so forth. This reorganization is triggered by the activation of the protein kinase, Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 1 (CDK1). The end of mitosis is marked by the proteolysis of the cyclin subunit of CDK1, which terminates kinase activity. At this point, the phosphate moieties that altered the properties of hundreds of proteins to bring about the cellular reorganization are removed by protein phosphatases. At least one protein phosphatase, PP2A-B55, is completely shut off in mitosis. Depletion of this particular form of PP2A accelerates entry into mitosis, and blocks exit from mitosis. Control of this phosphatase is achieved by an inhibitor protein (α-endosulfine or ARPP-19) that becomes inhibitory when phosphorylated by a protein kinase called Greatwall, which is itself a substrate of CDK1. Failure to inhibit PP2A-B55 causes arrest of the cell cycle in G2 phase. I will discuss the role of this control mechanism in the control of mitosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Procyanidins Negatively Affect the Activity of the Phosphatases of Regenerating Liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Stadlbauer

    Full Text Available Natural polyphenols like oligomeric catechins (procyanidins derived from green tea and herbal medicines are interesting compounds for pharmaceutical research due to their ability to protect against carcinogenesis in animal models. It is nevertheless still unclear how intracellular pathways are modulated by polyphenols. Monomeric polyphenols were shown to affect the activity of some protein phosphatases (PPs. The three phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRLs are close relatives and promising therapeutic targets in cancer. In the present study we show that several procyanidins inhibit the activity of all three members of the PRL family in the low micromolar range, whereas monomeric epicatechins show weak inhibitory activity. Increasing the number of catechin units in procyanidins to more than three does not further enhance the potency. Remarkably, the tested procyanidins showed selectivity in vitro when compared to other PPs, and over 10-fold selectivity toward PRL-1 over PRL-2 and PRL-3. As PRL overexpression induces cell migration compared to control cells, the effect of procyanidins on this phenotype was studied. Treatment with procyanidin C2 led to a decrease in cell migration of PRL-1- and PRL-3-overexpressing cells, suggesting the compound-dependent inhibition of PRL-promoted cell migration. Treatment with procyanidin B3 led to selective suppression of PRL-1 overexpressing cells, thereby corroborating the selectivity toward PRL-1- over PRL-3 in vitro. Together, our results show that procyanidins negatively affect PRL activity, suggesting that PRLs could be targets in the polypharmacology of natural polyphenols. Furthermore, they are interesting candidates for the development of PRL-1 inhibitors due to their low cellular toxicity and the selectivity within the PRL family.

  11. Biosynthesis of phytases and phosphatases by Aspergillus niger 551

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARyw

    2012-02-16

    Feb 16, 2012 ... Key words: Aspergillus niger, phytase, phosphatase, amylase, protease, starch. ... biological production of phytases is of great significance in research. The researchers focus their attention mainly on finding appropriate strains and on their ... substrate, 200 μl of the enzyme extract and 200 μl 25 mMol of.

  12. Biocatalysis with Sol-Gel Encapsulated Acid Phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Suhasini; Tran, Vu; Ho, Maggie K.-M.; Phan, Chieu; Chin, Elizabeth; Wemmer, Zeke; Sommerhalter, Monika

    2010-01-01

    This experiment was performed in an upper-level undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course. Students learned how to immobilize an enzyme in a sol-gel matrix and how to perform and evaluate enzyme-activity measurements. The enzyme acid phosphatase (APase) from wheat germ was encapsulated in sol-gel beads that were prepared from the precursor…

  13. Defining carbohydrate binding of glucan phosphatases via Affinity gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Kyle; Raththagala, Madushi; Wilkens, Casper

    2016-01-01

    was to determine a technique to measure carbohydrate binding quickly and efficiently. We established a protocol to reproducibly and quantitatively measure the binding of the enzymes to glucans utilizing Affinity Gel Electrophoresis (AGE). The results show that the various glucan phosphatases possess differing...

  14. Chromatographic separation of alkaline phosphatase from dental enamel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, D; Kirkeby, S; Salling, E

    1989-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) was prepared from partly mineralized bovine enamel by extraction in phosphate buffer, centrifugation and various chromatographic techniques. Chromatofocusing showed that the enamel enzyme possessed five isoelectric points at the acid pH level ranging from pH 5.7 to pH 4...

  15. Small phosphatidate phosphatase (TtPAH2) of Tetrahymena ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Phosphatidate phosphatases (PAH) play a central role in lipid metabolism and intracellular signaling. Herein, we report thepresence of a low-molecular-weight PAH homolog in the single-celled ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. In vitro phosphataseassay showed that TtPAH2 belongs to the magnesium-dependent ...

  16. Lipid accumulation and alkaline phosphatase activity in human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) controls intracellular lipid accumulation in human preadipocytes, but it is not known whether ALP is expressed in all body fat depots, or whether it has a similar role at all sites. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting and subjects: Subjects undergoing breast reduction and abdominal fat ...

  17. Extraction and partial purification of mouse uterine alkaline phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, R N; Kay, D J; Capper, W J

    1979-04-01

    Alkaline phosphatase in uterine homogenates from day 7 pregnant mice was solubilized using 0.2% (v/v) Triton X-100 and extracted wtih 20% (v/v) n-butanol. The procedure, which resulted in 182-fold purification, included ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-cellulose anion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G200 gel filtration. Solubilization with Triton X-100 was an important step in the procedure since extraction with n-butanol alone only partially solubilized the enzyme and gave low extraction yields, much of the enzyme activity remaining in association with negatively charged residues. However, butanol extraction of Triton X-100-treated homogenates gave high yields of enzyme and eliminated p-nitrophenyl phosphatases which displayed activity in the pH range 3.0--7.5, together with a large proportion of inactive protein. The activity of the purified enzyme preparations was electrophoretically homogeneous on cellulose acetate membranes, suggesting that the alkaline phosphatase in the mouse uterus exists in a single isozymic form. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis revealed that the purified preparations contained at least one protein as an impurity. Attempts to further purify the alkaline phosphatase by isoelectric focusing were unsuccessful since the enzyme was found to have an isoelectric point of about 5.0 and at this pH it was rapidly inactivated.

  18. Alkaline phosphatase activity in gingival crevicular fluid during canine retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, P; Kharbanda, Op; Duggal, R; Singh, N; Parkash, H

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate alkaline phosphatase activity in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during orthodontic tooth movement in humans. Postgraduate orthodontic clinic. Ten female patients requiring all first premolar extractions were selected and treated with standard edgewise mechanotherapy. Canine retraction was done using 100 g sentalloy springs. Maxillary canine on one side acted as experimental site while the contralateral canine acted as control. Gingival crevicular fluid was collected from mesial and distal of canines before initiation of canine retraction (baseline), immediately after initiation of retraction, and on 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day and the alkaline phosphatase activity was estimated. The results show significant (p alkaline phosphatase activity on the 7th, 14th and 21st day on both mesial and distal aspects of the compared experimental and control sides. The peak in enzyme activity occurred on the 14th day of initiation of retraction followed by a significant fall in activity especially on the mesial aspect. The study showed that alkaline phosphatase activity could be successfully estimated in the GCF using calorimetric estimation assay kits. The enzyme activity showed variation according to the amount of tooth movement.

  19. ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE IS A PROTECTIVE ENZYME DURING LIVER FIBROGENESIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, Marlies; Post, E.; Cetintas, A.; Reker-Smit, C.; Beljaars, L.; Poelstra, K.

    Background and Aim: Serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) levels serve as a marker for many liver diseases. Recent studies indicate that AP may act as a protective enzyme by dephosphorylation of LPS because dephosphorylation blocks toxicity of this product. Gut-derived LPS is known to aggravate liver

  20. Kinetic Studies of Alkaline Phosphatase from the Liver of Agama ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: Kinetic studies were carried out on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) extracted from the liver of Agama agama lizard. Incubation of ALP extract with para – nitrophenyl phosphate formed the basis for the determination of enzyme activity. Spectrophotometric method was used to assay the enzyme, and the kinetic ...

  1. Dephosphorylation of endotoxin by alkaline phosphatase in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelstra, Klaas; Bakker, W.W; Klok, P.A; Kamps, J.AAM; Hardonk, M.J; Meijer, D.K F

    1997-01-01

    Natural substrates for alkaline phosphatase (AP) are at present not identified despite extensive investigations. Difficulties in imagining a possible physiological function involve its extremely high pH optimum for the usual exogenous substrates and its localization as an ecto-enzyme. As endotoxin

  2. Normal serum alkaline phosphatase in the presence of extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Normal serum alkaline phosphatase in this patient in the presence of extensive skeletal metastases may be due to the combination of the following factors: relative hypogonadism, osteoporosis, low serum zinc and magnesium. This case report may provide a possible explanation for the observation that about 10% of men ...

  3. Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor gene deleted or mutated in many human cancers such as glioblastoma, spinal tumors, prostate, bladder, adrenals, thyroid, breast, endometrium, and colon cancers. They result from loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for the PTEN ...

  4. Hepatic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase enzyme levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening for serological markers of chronic HBV infection, as well as hepatic transaminase enzyme levels in all newly diagnosed HIV‑positive patients is therefore recommended before commencement of HAART. Keywords: Alkaline phosphatase enzyme, hepatitis B virus surface antigen, hepatic transaminase enzymes, ...

  5. A physiologic function for alkaline phosphatase : Endotoxin detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelstra, Klaas; Bakker, W.W; Klok, P.A; Hardonk, M.J; Meijer, D.K F

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP), a common enzyme present in many species including humans, has been studied extensively. Although the enzyme is routinely applied as a marker for liver function, its biologic relevance is poorly understood. The reason for this is obvious: the pH optimum of AP in vitro, as

  6. Kinetic studies of alkaline phosphatase extracted from rabbit (Lepus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Studies were carried out to ascertain some kinetic properties of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) extracted from Lepus townsendii liver. Incubation of ALP extract with 4-nitrophenylphosphate (4-NPP) formed the basis for determination of enzyme activity. Spectrophotometric method was used to assay the enzyme activity, and the ...

  7. Kinetic studies of alkaline phosphatase extracted from rabbit ( Lepus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out to ascertain some kinetic properties of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) extracted from Lepus townsendii liver. Incubation of ALP extract with 4-nitrophenylphosphate (4-NPP) formed the basis for determination of enzyme activity. Spectrophotometric method was used to assay the enzyme activity, and the ...

  8. Phosphorylation by alkaline phosphatase: immobilization and synthetic potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babich, L.; Peralta, J.L.V.M.; Hartog, A.F.; Wever, R.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatases (AP, E.C. 3.1.3.1) are hydrolytic enzymes that naturally hydrolyse phosphomonoesters but in a so-called transphosphorylation reaction these enzymes are also able to transfer a phosphate group from phosphorylated compounds to alcoholic functions. This transphosphorylation catalysed by

  9. 113Cd nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study of the inhibitory effect of methylvinylether/maleic acid (PVM/MA) copolymer on the alkaline phosphatase of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afflitto, J; Smith, K A; Patel, M; Esposito, A; Jensen, E; Gaffar, A

    1991-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of PVM/MA copolymer on the alkaline phosphatase (AP) of E. coli was investigated. Kinetic studies indicated that enzyme inhibition was characterized by a reduction in both the Vmax and the Km. Addition of 1 mM zinc or magnesium ions to the reaction prevented inhibition of the enzyme by the copolymer. The inhibitory effect of the copolymer on alkaline phosphatase was also investigated using 113Cd NMR after exchange of the active center metal ions with 113Cd. The resulting Cd(II)6AP exhibited characteristic 113Cd resonances reflecting the environment of the A, B, and C metal binding sites of the enzyme's active center. Addition of copolymer resulted in a 113Cd NMR spectrum which indicated removal of 113Cd from the C site and formation of two distinct forms of the enzyme. Possible explanations for the 113Cd NMR results are discussed.

  10. Phosphatase acitivity as biosignatures in terrestrial extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Jun; Nakamoto, Saki; Hara, Masashi; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kaneko, Takeo; Mita, Hajime; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Takano, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Kensei

    Since phosphate esters are essential for the terrestrial life, phosphatase activity can be a can-didate for biosignatures of biological activity. It has been recognized that terrestrial biosphere expands to such extreme environments as deep subsurface lithosphere, high temperature hot springs and stratosphere. We analyzed phosphatase activities in the samples obtained in ex-treme environments such as submarine hydrothermal systems and Antarctica , and discussed whether they can be used as biosignatures for extant life. Core samples and chimney samples were collected at Tarama Knoll in Okinawa Trough in 2009, both in a part of the Archaean Park Project. Surface soil samples are obtained at the Sites 1-8 near Showa Base in Antarctica during the 47th Japan Antarctic exploration mission in 2005-6. Alkaline Phosphatase activ-ity in sea water and in soil was measured spectrometrically by using 25 mM p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pH 8.0) as a substrate. Phosphatase activities in extracts were measured fluoro-metrically by using 4-methylumberyferryl phosphate as a substrate. Concentration of amino acids and their enantiomeric ratios were also determined by HPLC . Significant enzymatic ac-tivities were revealed in both some of the hydrothermal sub-vent systems and Antarctica soils, which is crucial evidence of vigorous microbial oasis. It is consistent with the fact that large enantiomeric excess of L-form amino acids were found in the same core sequences. Optimum temperatures of ALP in the chimney, Antarctica soil and YNU campus soil were 353 K, 313 K, and 333 K, respectively. The present results suggested that phosphatase activities,, together with amino acids, can be used as possible biosignatures for extant life.

  11. The role of the mammalian DNA end-processing enzyme polynucleotide kinase 3'-phosphatase in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA strand-breaks (SBs with non-ligatable ends are generated by ionizing radiation, oxidative stress, various chemotherapeutic agents, and also as base excision repair (BER intermediates. Several neurological diseases have already been identified as being due to a deficiency in DNA end-processing activities. Two common dirty ends, 3'-P and 5'-OH, are processed by mammalian polynucleotide kinase 3'-phosphatase (PNKP, a bifunctional enzyme with 3'-phosphatase and 5'-kinase activities. We have made the unexpected observation that PNKP stably associates with Ataxin-3 (ATXN3, a polyglutamine repeat-containing protein mutated in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3, also known as Machado-Joseph Disease (MJD. This disease is one of the most common dominantly inherited ataxias worldwide; the defect in SCA3 is due to CAG repeat expansion (from the normal 14-41 to 55-82 repeats in the ATXN3 coding region. However, how the expanded form gains its toxic function is still not clearly understood. Here we report that purified wild-type (WT ATXN3 stimulates, and by contrast the mutant form specifically inhibits, PNKP's 3' phosphatase activity in vitro. ATXN3-deficient cells also show decreased PNKP activity. Furthermore, transgenic mice conditionally expressing the pathological form of human ATXN3 also showed decreased 3'-phosphatase activity of PNKP, mostly in the deep cerebellar nuclei, one of the most affected regions in MJD patients' brain. Finally, long amplicon quantitative PCR analysis of human MJD patients' brain samples showed a significant accumulation of DNA strand breaks. Our results thus indicate that the accumulation of DNA strand breaks due to functional deficiency of PNKP is etiologically linked to the pathogenesis of SCA3/MJD.

  12. MAPK Phosphatase AP2C3 Induces Ectopic Proliferation of Epidermal Cells Leading to Stomata Development in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanaviciute, Vaiva; Magyar, Zoltan; Ayatollahi, Zahra; Unterwurzacher, Verena; Choopayak, Chonnanit; Boniecka, Justyna; Murray, James A. H.; Bogre, Laszlo; Meskiene, Irute

    2010-01-01

    In plant post-embryonic epidermis mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling promotes differentiation of pavement cells and inhibits initiation of stomata. Stomata are cells specialized to modulate gas exchange and water loss. Arabidopsis MAPKs MPK3 and MPK6 are at the core of the signaling cascade; however, it is not well understood how the activity of these pleiotropic MAPKs is constrained spatially so that pavement cell differentiation is promoted only outside the stomata lineage. Here we identified a PP2C-type phosphatase termed AP2C3 (Arabidopsis protein phosphatase 2C) that is expressed distinctively during stomata development as well as interacts and inactivates MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6. AP2C3 co-localizes with MAPKs within the nucleus and this localization depends on its N-terminal extension. We show that other closely related phosphatases AP2C2 and AP2C4 are also MAPK phosphatases acting on MPK6, but have a distinct expression pattern from AP2C3. In accordance with this, only AP2C3 ectopic expression is able to stimulate cell proliferation leading to excess stomata development. This function of AP2C3 relies on the domains required for MAPK docking and intracellular localization. Concomitantly, the constitutive and inducible AP2C3 expression deregulates E2F-RB pathway, promotes the abundance and activity of CDKA, as well as changes of CDKB1;1 forms. We suggest that AP2C3 downregulates the MAPK signaling activity to help maintain the balance between differentiation of stomata and pavement cells. PMID:21203456

  13. MAPK phosphatase AP2C3 induces ectopic proliferation of epidermal cells leading to stomata development in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Umbrasaite

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In plant post-embryonic epidermis mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling promotes differentiation of pavement cells and inhibits initiation of stomata. Stomata are cells specialized to modulate gas exchange and water loss. Arabidopsis MAPKs MPK3 and MPK6 are at the core of the signaling cascade; however, it is not well understood how the activity of these pleiotropic MAPKs is constrained spatially so that pavement cell differentiation is promoted only outside the stomata lineage. Here we identified a PP2C-type phosphatase termed AP2C3 (Arabidopsis protein phosphatase 2C that is expressed distinctively during stomata development as well as interacts and inactivates MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6. AP2C3 co-localizes with MAPKs within the nucleus and this localization depends on its N-terminal extension. We show that other closely related phosphatases AP2C2 and AP2C4 are also MAPK phosphatases acting on MPK6, but have a distinct expression pattern from AP2C3. In accordance with this, only AP2C3 ectopic expression is able to stimulate cell proliferation leading to excess stomata development. This function of AP2C3 relies on the domains required for MAPK docking and intracellular localization. Concomitantly, the constitutive and inducible AP2C3 expression deregulates E2F-RB pathway, promotes the abundance and activity of CDKA, as well as changes of CDKB1;1 forms. We suggest that AP2C3 downregulates the MAPK signaling activity to help maintain the balance between differentiation of stomata and pavement cells.

  14. Ginsenoside Rd attenuates beta-amyloid-induced tau phosphorylation by altering the functional balance of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta and protein phosphatase 2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Liu, Zhirong; Liu, Juanfang; Tai, Xuhui; Hu, Xinghua; Liu, Xuedong; Wu, Zhongliang; Zhang, Guangyun; Shi, Ming; Zhao, Gang

    2013-06-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles are aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau that are one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau phosphorylation is regulated by a balance of kinase and phosphatase activities. Our previous study has demonstrated that ginsenoside Rd, one of the principal active ingredients of Pana notoginseng, inhibits okadaic acid-induced tau phosphorylation in vivo and in vitro, but the underlying mechanism(s) is unknown. In this study, we showed that ginsenoside Rd pretreatment inhibited tau phosphorylation at multiple sites in beta-amyloid (Aβ)-treated cultured cortical neurons, and in vivo in both a rat and transgenic mouse model. Ginsenoside Rd not only reduced Aβ-induced increased expression of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3β), the most important kinase involved in tau phosphorylation, but also inhibited its activity by enhancing and attenuating its phosphorylation at Ser9 and Tyr216, respectively. Moreover, ginsenoside Rd enhanced the activity of protein phosphatase 2A (PP-2A), a key phosphatase involved in tau dephosphorylation. Finally, an in vitro biochemical assay revealed that ginsenoside Rd directly affected GSK-3β and PP-2A activities. Thus, our findings provide the first evidence that ginsenoside Rd attenuates Aβ-induced pathological tau phosphorylation by altering the functional balance of GSK-3β and PP-2A. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of arsenic compounds on protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, Kanwal [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Chen, Zhe [Zhejiang Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou (China); Wang, Wen Wen; Wang, Yan Wei [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Sakamoto, Akira [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba 260‐8675 (Japan); Zhang, Yan Fang [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Naranmandura, Hua, E-mail: narenman@zju.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Biochemical Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Suzuki, Noriyuki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba 260‐8675 (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Arsenic binding to biomolecules is considered one of the major toxic mechanisms, which may also be related to the carcinogenic risks of arsenic in humans. At the same time, arsenic is also known to activate the phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways including the epidermal growth factor receptor, the mitogen-activated protein kinase and insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 pathways. These signaling pathways originate at the level of receptor tyrosine kinases whose phosphorylation status is regulated by opposing protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity. Reversible tyrosine phosphorylation, which is governed by the balanced action of protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases, regulates important signaling pathways that are involved in the control of cell proliferation, adhesion and migration. In the present study, we have focused on the interaction of cellular PTPs with toxic trivalent arsenite (iAs{sup III}) and its intermediate metabolites such as monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA{sup III}) in vitro, and then determined the arsenic binding site in PTP by the use of recombinant PTPs (e.g., PTP1B and CD45). Interestingly, the activities of PTP1B (cytoplasm-form) or CD45 (receptor-linked form) were observed to be strongly inhibited by both methylated metabolites (i.e., MMA{sup III} and DMA{sup III}) but not by iAs{sup III}. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has clearly confirmed that the organic intermediate, DMA{sup III} directly bound to the active site cysteine residue of PTP1B (e.g., Cys215), resulting in inhibition of enzyme activity. These results suggest that arsenic exposure may disturb the cellular signaling pathways through PTP inactivation. Highlights: ► This study focused on the interaction of PTPs with trivalent arsenicals in vitro. ► We for the first time confirmed that DMA{sup III} strongly inhibited activity of PTP1B. ► DMA{sup III} directly

  16. Conservation of the active site motif in Aspergillus niger (ficuum) pH 6.0 optimum acid phosphatase and kidney bean purple acid phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, E J; Ullah, A H

    1998-02-13

    Aspergillus niger (ficuum) and the kidney bean purple acid phosphatases retained all the essential amino acids in the active site despite a low degree of total sequence homology. This high degree of homology in the sequence motif of A. niger fungal acid phosphatase (Apase6) active site with Kidney bean metallo phosphoesterase (KBPAP) and the absence of the RHG-XRXP sequence motif indicates Apase6 to be a metallophosphoesterase rather than a histidine acid phosphatase.

  17. Calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling in cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) particles-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) secretion in MLO-Y4 osteocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhue, Vbenosawemwinghaye; Kanaji, Arihiko; Caicedo, Marco S; Virdi, Amarjit S; Sumner, Dale R; Hallab, Nadim J; Jahr, Holger; Sena, Kotaro

    2011-12-01

    Aseptic loosening is the devastating long term complication of total hip arthroplasty and orthopedic implant debris has been shown to trigger an intense inflammatory reaction leading to resorption of the bone matrix. Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), have been implicated in this process and osteocytes may play a role in its production. We previously demonstrated that cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) particles upregulate TNFα production by MLO-Y4 osteocytes in vitro, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. Based on previous studies by others, we hypothesized that the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway mediates CoCrMo particle-induced TNFα production in MLO-Y4 osteocytes. MLO-Y4 osteocytes exposed to CoCrMo particle treatment resulted in a rapid and significant increase in calcineurin activity. We also demonstrate that CoCrMo particle-induced upregulation of TNFα is reduced to control levels with calcineurin-NFAT inhibitors and this was also confirmed at mRNA level. Moreover, we demonstrate the localization of NFATs in MLO-Y4 osteocytes and that NFAT1 and 2 translocate to the nucleus upon CoCrMo particle treatment. Our results suggest that calcineurin-NFAT signaling is involved in TNFα production by MLO-Y4 osteocytes after CoCrMo particle treatment. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  18. [Research progress of several protein tyrosine phosphatases in diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Sun, Jin-Peng; Liu, Jing; Yu, Xiao

    2010-04-25

    Diabetes mellitus is caused by deficiency of insulin secretion from the pancreatic islet beta cells and/or insulin resistance in liver, muscle and adipocytes, resulting in glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Several protein tyrosine phosphatases, such as PTP1B (PTPN1), TCPTP (PTPN2), LYP (PTPN22), PTPIA-2, PTPMEG2 (PTPN9) or OSTPTP are involved in insulin signaling pathway, insulin secretion and autoreactive attack to pancreatic beta cells. Genetic mutation or overexpression of these phosphotases has been found to cause or increase the risk of diabetes mellitus. Some population with high risk for type 2 diabetes has overexpressed PTP1B, a prototypical tyrosine phosphatase which down-regulates insulin and leptin signal transduction. Animal PTP1B knockout model and PTP1B specific inhibitor cellular studies indicate PTP1B may serve as a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes. TCPTP shares more than 70% sequence identity with PTP1B in their catalytic domain. TCPTP dephosphorylates tyrosine phosphorylated substrates overlapping with PTP1B but also has its own distinct dephosphorylation sites and functions. Recent research indicates TCPTP may have role in type 1 diabetes via dysregultaion of cytokine-mediated immune responses or pancreatic beta cell apoptosis. The tyrosine phosphatase LYP, which down-regulates LCK activity in T cell response, can become mutated as R620W which is highly correlated to type 1 diabetes. LYP R620W may be a gain of function mutation which suppresses TCR signaling. Patients bearing the R620W mutant have impaired T cell responses and increased populations of (CD45RO+CD45RA-) CD4+ T cells. A detailed elucidation of mechanism of R620W in type 1 diabetes and specific LYP inhibitor development will help characterize LYP R620W as a therapeutic target. A receptor tyrosine phosphatase, PTPIA-2/beta is a major autoantigen of type 1 diabetes. A diagnosis kit identifying PTPIA-2/beta autoantibodies is valuable in early detection and prevention of type

  19. Application of a microcystin extraction method specific for enzyme inhibition assays; Aplicacion de un metodo de extraccion de microcistinas para ensayos de inhibicion enzimatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevilla Miguel, E.; Simienk, H.; Calvin Tienza, V.; Razquin Casquero, P.; Peleato Sanchez, M. L.; Mata Vallespin, L.

    2009-07-01

    A method for the determination of intracellular and dissolved microcystins in non treated water is proposed. The results obtained with this method, based on a phosphatase inhibition assay, are compared with those for HPLC- UV. Potential interferences of the phosphatase inhibition assays like pigments or the endogenous phosphatase activity present in cyanobacteria did not have any adverse effect on assay results. Besides, the recovery of microcystins in field samples with the proposed method was found to be high than 90% in all tested samples. A number of samples from different origins and appearances were also analyzed for their microcystin content. (Author) 27 refs.

  20. Promiscuity and electrostatic flexibility in the alkaline phosphatase superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabis, Anna; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2016-04-01

    Catalytic promiscuity, that is, the ability of single enzymes to facilitate the turnover of multiple, chemically distinct substrates, is a widespread phenomenon that plays an important role in the evolution of enzyme function. Additionally, such pre-existing multifunctionality can be harnessed in artificial enzyme design. The members of the alkaline phosphatase superfamily have served extensively as both experimental and computational model systems for enhancing our understanding of catalytic promiscuity. In this Opinion, we present key recent computational studies into the catalytic activity of these highly promiscuous enzymes, highlighting the valuable insight they have provided into both the molecular basis for catalytic promiscuity in general, and its implications for the evolution of phosphatase activity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. INTRACELLULAR DISTRIBUTION OF ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE IN RAT LIVER CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Arthur J.; Dounce, Alexander L.

    1955-01-01

    1. Cytochemical studies of the intracellular distribution of alkaline phosphatase in rat liver have been made, using a fractionation procedure recently developed in this laboratory (8) and a similar but modified method not described previously. Aqueous media were used in both cases. 2. The alkaline phosphatase was found to consist of two forms, one of which is strongly activated by magnesium and one of which is not sensitive to this metal. 3. The form of the enzyme that is not activated by magnesium occurs mainly in the nuclear fraction, where it seems to be rather firmly bound. Some of this form of the enzyme is also found in the microsomes, but very little if any occurs in the soluble supernatant fraction. 4. The form of alkaline phosphatase which is activated by magnesium occurs mainly in the soluble supernatant fraction, but what is believed are significant amounts also occur in nuclei. A significant portion of this form of the enzyme can be extracted from the isolated nuclei with cold, isotonic saline solution. Some activity of this form of the enzyme is also found in the microsomal fraction. 5. Mitochondria appear to contain relatively little alkaline phosphatase of either kind. 6. The concept of a porous nuclear membrane has been invoked to explain some of the results obtained in this work. It is postulated that part at least of the form of the enzyme that is activated by magnesium is free to diffuse back and forth through pores in the nuclear membrane, whereas this is considered not to be possible for the form of the enzyme that is insensitive to magnesium as a result of the firm binding of the latter to nuclear substance. PMID:13242596

  2. Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase in rheumatoid arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Spooner, R J; Smith, D. H.; Bedford, D.; Beck, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) were assayed in 98 consecutive patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Twenty-three patients had increased GGT activities and 45 an increased AP activity. Twelve patients showed an increase in both enzyme activities and AP isoenzyme studies were performed on seven of this group. In three subjects an increase in the bone isoenzyme was observed and in three others the increase in activity was attributed to the liver isoenzyme. The ...

  3. Biosynthesis of phytases and phosphatases by Aspergillus niger 551

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the Aspergillus niger 551 strain to produce phytases and phosphatases in 24 days shake cultures at a pH adjusted to 5.5 and a changing (uncontrolled) pH, in a medium containing 0.5% of glucose and 4% of starch. The fermentation process of the culture performed ...

  4. Kinetic studies of alkaline phosphatase extracted from rabbit (Lepus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Double reciprocal plot of ALP assay in the presence of inhibitor NaH2PO4 ( ) and the control ( ) analysis. [I]: concentration of inhibitor = 0.67 mM. Table 2. Kinetic constants of alkaline phosphatase extracted from L. townsendii liver. Km (mM ). Ki (mM). Vmax (µM/min-1). 0.5 ± 0.25. 0.9 ± 0.33. 20 ± 0.63. Values are Mean ± S.D ...

  5. Inorganic Phosphate as an Important Regulator of Phosphatases

    OpenAIRE

    Dick, Claudia Fernanda; Dos-Santos, André Luiz Araújo; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Cellular metabolism depends on the appropriate concentration of intracellular inorganic phosphate (Pi). Pi starvation-responsive genes appear to be involved in multiple metabolic pathways, implying a complex Pi regulation system in microorganisms and plants. A group of enzymes is required for absorption and maintenance of adequate phosphate levels, which is released from phosphate esters and anhydrides. The phosphatase system is particularly suited for the study of regulatory mechanisms becau...

  6. Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of novel chalcone sulfonamide hybrids as potent intestinal alkaline phosphatase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejaz, Syeda Abida; Saeed, Aamer; Siddique, Muhammad Nasir; Nisa, Zaib Un; Khan, Samiullah; Lecka, Joanna; Sévigny, Jean; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2017-02-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (e5'NT) belong to same family that hydrolyze the extracellular nucleotides and ensure the bioavailability of nucleotides and nucleosides at purinergic receptors. During pathophysiological conditions, the over expression of AP and e5'NT lead to an increased production of adenosine that enhance tumor proliferation, invasiveness, neoangiogenesis and disrupts the body antitumor response. As both enzymes are abundantly expressed in above mentioned conditions, therefore it is of great interest to synthesize and develop potent inhibitors of these enzymes that augment the antitumor therapy. Herein we reported the synthesis and biological activity of a new series of chalcone-sulfonamide hybrids (4a-j). These derivatives were then evaluated for their inhibitory potential against two members of ecto-nucleotidase family, e5'NT (human and rat) and APs isozyme (intestinal and tissue nonspecific). Only six derivatives were found to inhibit both human and rat e5'NT enzymes. Compounds 4e and 4d showed maximum inhibition of human and rat e5'NT with an IC50±SEM=0.26±0.01 and 0.33±0.004μM, respectively. Moreover, on APs, these derivatives were identified as the selective inhibitors of calf intestinal AP (c-IAP). The derivative 4a exhibited maximum inhibition of c-IAP with an IC50±SEM=0.12±0.02μM. In conclusion, these chalcone-sulfonamide hybrids exhibited dual inhibition of both family of isozymes but was more selective towards c-IAP enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Studies on rabbit kidney brush border membranes: relationship between phosphate transport, alkaline phosphatase and NAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusufi, A N; Dousa, T P

    1987-01-01

    In previous studies we found that intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (NiAm) to rats resulted in increased NAD+ content in proximal tubules, inhibition of brush border membrane (BBM) transport of phosphate (Pi) and decreased activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP). We now studied the effect of NiAm injection on rabbit kidney BBM prepared either directly by Ca2+ precipitation method, or prepared indirectly from sheets of BBM. In BBM vesicles prepared directly from NiAm-injected rabbits, Na+-dependent Pi uptake was inhibited, but no inhibition was found in BBM vesicles prepared by an indirect method. Incubation of both directly prepared BBM vesicles and of BBM sheets with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released about 85% of AP from BBM. In BBM vesicles prepared indirectly from BBM sheets, incubation with PI-PLC increased by 100% the capacity for Pi transport, but PI-PLC had no effect on Pi transport if rabbits were injected with NiAm. On the other hand, incubation of directly prepared BBM vesicles with PI-PLC did not alter Pi transport capacity both in controls and in NiAm-treated rabbits, although it released AP. Treatment with NiAm decreases significantly AP activity both in BBM vesicles prepared directly or prepared indirectly from BBM sheets. These results suggest that NiAm-induced inhibition of BBM transport system for Pi is reversed by prolonged washing and incubation in the course of indirect preparation of BBM vesicles. Results also suggest that an increase in tissue NAD+ decreases susceptibility of BBM to treatment with PI-PLC in altering Pi transport. Removal of the majority of AP from BBM does not impair Na+-gradient-dependent Pi transport system.

  8. Protein phosphatase 1 and its complexes in carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Joao; da Cruz E Silva, Odete A B; Fardilha, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms and the signaling pathways that underlie the pathology of cancer progression is crucial for the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic tools. A major common mechanism used by cells to regulate intracellular signal transduction pathways is reversible protein phosphorylation which results in profound changes in cellular responses. This mechanism relies on the coordinated action of two families of proteins: protein kinases and protein phosphatases. Interestingly, there are 3 to 5 times fewer phosphatases than kinases, suggesting that the specificity of substrates is not only due to the variety of the catalytic subunits but also to the diversity of the regulatory subunits. This is particularly true for PhosphoProtein Phosphatase 1 (PPP1) for which more than 200 PPP1 Interacting Proteins (PIPs) have thus far been identified. PIPs can act as targeting subunits, substrates and activity regulators. Many PPP1/PIPs complexes are involved in signaling pathways that regulate cellular growth, cell cycle and apoptosis; processes known to be deregulated in cancer. This review will describe the cellular pathways, many of which involve PPP1/PIP complexes, that when deregulated lead to cancer. Furthermore, the possibility of PPP1/PIP complexes being considered novel targets to cancer diagnostic and therapy will be addressed.

  9. Acid phosphatases in seeds and developing of squash (Cucurbita ficifolia

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    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in protein content and acid phosphatase activity were followed during germination (imbition through seedlings development in extracts from cotyledons of squash (Cucurbita ficifolia. It has been shown that the activity of acid phosphatase was initially low and than increased to a maximum after 6 days of imbition. Acid phosphates were isolated from cotyledons of seeds and from 6-, 10- and 22-days old seedlings by extraction the proteins with 0.1 M acetate buffer pH 5.1, precipitation with ethanol and by affinity chromatography on con A-Sepharose. Two glycoprotein enzymes AcPase Ba and AcPase Bb which differ in their affinity to immobilized con A were obtained. Both acid phosphatates retained the enzyme activity after binding to free con A. Rocket affinity electrophoresis of AcPase Ba and AcPase Bb, isolated from cotyledons of seeds and seedlings, revealed differences in their ability to bind to con A during seeds germination and seedling develop-ment indicating changes in their sugar component. Con A was found to activate both enzymes. The enzymes cross-reacted with monospecific antibodies raised against grass seed acid phosphatate Ba indicating an antigenic relationship between squash and grass acid phosphatases.

  10. Displacement affinity chromatography of protein phosphatase one (PP1 complexes

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    Gourlay Robert

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein phosphatase one (PP1 is a ubiquitously expressed, highly conserved protein phosphatase that dephosphorylates target protein serine and threonine residues. PP1 is localized to its site of action by interacting with targeting or regulatory proteins, a majority of which contains a primary docking site referred to as the RVXF/W motif. Results We demonstrate that a peptide based on the RVXF/W motif can effectively displace PP1 bound proteins from PP1 retained on the phosphatase affinity matrix microcystin-Sepharose. Subsequent co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that each identified binding protein was either a direct PP1 interactor or was in a complex that contains PP1. Our results have linked PP1 to numerous new nuclear functions and proteins, including Ki-67, Rif-1, topoisomerase IIα, several nuclear helicases, NUP153 and the TRRAP complex. Conclusion This modification of the microcystin-Sepharose technique offers an effective means of purifying novel PP1 regulatory subunits and associated proteins and provides a simple method to uncover a link between PP1 and additional cellular processes.

  11. Proton shuttles and phosphatase activity in soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vivo, Marco; Ensing, Bernd; Dal Peraro, Matteo; Gomez, German A; Christianson, David W; Klein, Michael L

    2007-01-17

    Recently, a novel metal Mg2+-dependent phosphatase activity has been discovered in the N-terminal domain of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), opening a new branch of fatty acid metabolism and providing an additional site for drug targeting. Importantly, the sEH N-terminal fold belongs to the haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) superfamily, which comprises a vast majority of phosphotransferases. Herein, we present the results of a computational study of the sEH phosphatase activity, which includes classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations. On the basis of experimental results, a two-step mechanism has been proposed and herein investigated: (1) phosphoenzyme intermediate formation and (2) phosphoenzyme intermediate hydrolysis. Building on our earlier work, we now provide a detailed description of the reaction mechanism for the whole catalytic cycle along with its free energy profile. The present computations suggest metaphosphate-like transition states for these phosphoryl transfers. They also reveal that the enzyme promotes water deprotonation and facilitates shuttling of protons via a metal-ligand connecting water bridge (WB). These WB-mediated proton shuttles are crucial for the activation of the solvent nucleophile and for the stabilization of the leaving group. Moreover, due to the conservation of structural features in the N-terminal catalytic site of sEH and other members of the HAD superfamily, we suggest a generalization of our findings to these other metal-dependent phosphatases.

  12. Benomyl inhibits phosphorus transport but not fungal alkaline phosphatase activity in a Glomus–cucumber symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John; Thingstrup, Ida; Jakobsen, Iver

    1996-01-01

    compartment systems where nylon mesh was used to separate n root-free hyphal compartment (HC) and a root + hyphal compartment(RHC) from The main root compartment (RC). Non-mycorrhizal control plants were grown in similar growth units. After 6 wk benomyl was applied to the plants in three ways: as soil...

  13. Effect of chlorination on the protein phosphatase inhibition activity for several microcystins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microcystins are of particular concern due to their toxicity to both humans and animals and are likely the most prominent cyanotoxin observed in freshwater. Although a number of studies have investigated the fate of microcystins and other algal toxins through drinking water trea...

  14. Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase controls responses to aversive stimuli: implication for ethanol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legastelois, Rémi; Darcq, Emmanuel; Wegner, Scott A; Lombroso, Paul J; Ron, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    The STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP) is a brain-specific phosphatase whose dysregulation in expression and/or activity is associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders. We recently showed that long-term excessive consumption of ethanol induces a sustained inhibition of STEP activity in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of mice. We further showed that down-regulation of STEP expression in the DMS, and not in the adjacent dorsolateral striatum, increases ethanol intake, suggesting that the inactivation of STEP in the DMS contributes to the development of ethanol drinking behaviors. Here, we compared the consequence of global deletion of the STEP gene on voluntary ethanol intake to the consumption of an appetitive rewarding substance (saccharin) or an aversive solution (quinine or denatonium). Whereas saccharin intake was similar in STEP knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) littermate mice, the consumption of ethanol as well as quinine and denatonium was increased in STEP KO mice. These results suggested that the aversive taste of these substances was masked upon deletion of the STEP gene. We therefore hypothesized that STEP contributes to the physiological avoidance towards aversive stimuli. To further test this hypothesis, we measured the responses of STEP KO and WT mice to lithium-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA) and found that whereas WT mice developed lithium place aversion, STEP KO mice did not. In contrast, conditioned place preference (CPP) to ethanol was similar in both genotypes. Together, our results indicate that STEP contributes, at least in part, to the protection against the ingestion of aversive agents.

  15. Striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase controls responses to aversive stimuli: implication for ethanol drinking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Legastelois

    Full Text Available The STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP is a brain-specific phosphatase whose dysregulation in expression and/or activity is associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders. We recently showed that long-term excessive consumption of ethanol induces a sustained inhibition of STEP activity in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS of mice. We further showed that down-regulation of STEP expression in the DMS, and not in the adjacent dorsolateral striatum, increases ethanol intake, suggesting that the inactivation of STEP in the DMS contributes to the development of ethanol drinking behaviors. Here, we compared the consequence of global deletion of the STEP gene on voluntary ethanol intake to the consumption of an appetitive rewarding substance (saccharin or an aversive solution (quinine or denatonium. Whereas saccharin intake was similar in STEP knockout (KO and wild type (WT littermate mice, the consumption of ethanol as well as quinine and denatonium was increased in STEP KO mice. These results suggested that the aversive taste of these substances was masked upon deletion of the STEP gene. We therefore hypothesized that STEP contributes to the physiological avoidance towards aversive stimuli. To further test this hypothesis, we measured the responses of STEP KO and WT mice to lithium-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA and found that whereas WT mice developed lithium place aversion, STEP KO mice did not. In contrast, conditioned place preference (CPP to ethanol was similar in both genotypes. Together, our results indicate that STEP contributes, at least in part, to the protection against the ingestion of aversive agents.

  16. Type 2C protein phosphatase ABI1 is a negative regulator of strawberry fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hai-Feng; Lu, Dong; Sun, Jing-Hua; Li, Chun-Li; Xing, Yu; Qin, Ling; Shen, Yuan-Yue

    2013-04-01

    Although a great deal of progress has been made toward understanding the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in fruit ripening, many components in the ABA signalling pathway remain to be elucidated. Here, a strawberry gene homologous to the Arabidopsis gene ABI1, named FaABI1, was isolated and characterized. The 1641bp cDNA includes an intact open reading frame that encodes a deduced protein of 546 amino acids, in which putative conserved domains were determined by homology analysis. Transcriptional analysis showed that the levels of FaABI1 mRNA expression declined rapidly during strawberry fruit development as evidenced by real-time PCR, semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and northern blotting analyses, suggesting that the Ser/Thr protein phosphatase PP2C1 encoded by FaABI1 may be involved in fruit ripening as a negative regulator. The results of Tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing and PBI121 vector-mediated overexpression suggested that the down- and up-regulation of FaABI1 mRNA expression levels in degreening strawberry fruit could promote and inhibit ripening, respectively. Furthermore, alteration of FaABI1 expression could differentially regulate the transcripts of a set of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including ABI3, ABI4, ABI5, SnRK2, ABRE1, CHS, PG1, PL, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS, and UFGT. Taken together, the data provide new evidence for an important role for ABA in regulating strawberry fruit ripening in the processes of which the type 2C protein phosphatase ABI1 serves as a negative regulator. Finally, a possible core mechanism underlying ABA perception and signalling transduction in strawberry fruit ripening is discussed.

  17. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase promotes gut bacterial growth by reducing the concentration of luminal nucleotide triphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, Madhu S; Moaven, Omeed; Muhammad, Nur; Biswas, Brishti; Alam, Sayeda N; Economopoulos, Konstantinos P; Gul, Sarah Shireen; Hamarneh, Sulaiman R; Malo, Nondita S; Teshager, Abeba; Mohamed, Mussa M Rafat; Tao, Qingsong; Narisawa, Sonoko; Millán, José Luis; Hohmann, Elizabeth L; Warren, H Shaw; Robson, Simon C; Hodin, Richard A

    2014-05-15

    The intestinal microbiota plays a pivotal role in maintaining human health and well-being. Previously, we have shown that mice deficient in the brush-border enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) suffer from dysbiosis and that oral IAP supplementation normalizes the gut flora. Here we aimed to decipher the molecular mechanism by which IAP promotes bacterial growth. We used an isolated mouse intestinal loop model to directly examine the effect of exogenous IAP on the growth of specific intestinal bacterial species. We studied the effects of various IAP targets on the growth of stool aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as on a few specific gut organisms. We determined the effects of ATP and other nucleotides on bacterial growth. Furthermore, we examined the effects of IAP on reversing the inhibitory effects of nucleotides on bacterial growth. We have confirmed that local IAP bioactivity creates a luminal environment that promotes the growth of a wide range of commensal organisms. IAP promotes the growth of stool aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and appears to exert its growth promoting effects by inactivating (dephosphorylating) luminal ATP and other luminal nucleotide triphosphates. We observed that compared with wild-type mice, IAP-knockout mice have more ATP in their luminal contents, and exogenous IAP can reverse the ATP-mediated inhibition of bacterial growth in the isolated intestinal loop. In conclusion, IAP appears to promote the growth of intestinal commensal bacteria by inhibiting the concentration of luminal nucleotide triphosphates. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Facile dimethyl amino group triggered cyclic sulfonamides synthesis and evaluation as alkaline phosphatase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Huma Aslam; Khatoon, Memoona; Al-Rashida, Mariya; Bano, Huma; Iqbal, Nafees; Zaib-Un-Nisa; Yousuf, Sammer; Khan, Khalid Mohammed; Hameed, Abdul; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2017-04-01

    Owing to the biological importance of cyclic sulfonamides (sultams), herein we report a new, facile and cost-effective method for the synthesis of sultams that makes use of a reaction between dansyl amide and easily accessible benzaldehydes under mildly acidic conditions. All compounds were obtained in good yields (69-96%). Consequently a series of cyclic sulfonamides (7a-7n) was synthesized and characterized using FTIR, MS and NMR spectroscopy, crystal structure of compound 7b has also been determined. All compounds were evaluated for their potential to inhibit alkaline phosphatase (bTNAP and bIAP). All compounds were found to be excellent inhibitors of bTNAP with IC50 values in lower micro-molar range (0.11-6.63μM). Most of the compounds were selective inhibitors of bTNAP over bIAP. Only six compounds were found to be active against bIAP (IC50 values in the range 0.38-3.48μM). Molecular docking studies were carried out to identify and rationalize the structural elements necessary for efficient AP inhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel Mixed-Type Inhibitors of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B. Kinetic and Computational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Jazmín Sarabia-Sánchez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlas of Diabetes reports 415 million diabetics in the world, a number that has surpassed in half the expected time the twenty year projection. Type 2 diabetes is the most frequent form of the disease; it is characterized by a defect in the secretion of insulin and a resistance in its target organs. In the search for new antidiabetic drugs, one of the principal strategies consists in promoting the action of insulin. In this sense, attention has been centered in the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B, a protein whose overexpression or increase of its activity has been related in many studies with insulin resistance. In the present work, a chemical library of 250 compounds was evaluated to determine their inhibition capability on the protein PTP1B. Ten molecules inhibited over the 50% of the activity of the PTP1B, the three most potent molecules were selected for its characterization, reporting Ki values of 5.2, 4.2 and 41.3 µM, for compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Docking and molecular dynamics studies revealed that the three inhibitors made interactions with residues at the secondary binding site to phosphate, exclusive for PTP1B. The data reported here support these compounds as hits for the design more potent and selective inhibitors against PTP1B in the search of new antidiabetic treatment.

  20. A conserved phosphatase destroys toxic glycolytic side products in mammals and yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, François; Baldin, Francesca; Gerin, Isabelle; Bolsée, Jennifer; Noël, Gaëtane; Graff, Julie; Veiga-da-Cunha, Maria; Stroobant, Vincent; Vertommen, Didier; Houddane, Amina; Rider, Mark H; Linster, Carole L; Van Schaftingen, Emile; Bommer, Guido T

    2016-08-01

    Metabolic enzymes are very specific. However, most of them show weak side activities toward compounds that are structurally related to their physiological substrates, thereby producing side products that may be toxic. In some cases, 'metabolite repair enzymes' eliminating side products have been identified. We show that mammalian glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase, two core glycolytic enzymes, produce 4-phosphoerythronate and 2-phospho-L-lactate, respectively. 4-Phosphoerythronate strongly inhibits an enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, whereas 2-phospho-L-lactate inhibits the enzyme producing the glycolytic activator fructose 2,6-bisphosphate. We discovered that a single, widely conserved enzyme, known as phosphoglycolate phosphatase (PGP) in mammals, dephosphorylates both 4-phosphoerythronate and 2-phospho-L-lactate, thereby preventing a block in the pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis. Its yeast ortholog, Pho13, similarly dephosphorylates 4-phosphoerythronate and 2-phosphoglycolate, a side product of pyruvate kinase. Our work illustrates how metabolite repair enzymes can make up for the limited specificity of metabolic enzymes and permit high flux in central metabolic pathways.

  1. Propolis inhibits osteoclast maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Roberta; Antony, Kathryn; Johnson, Kristie; Zuo, Jian; Shannon Holliday, L

    2009-12-01

    Propolis, a natural product produced by the honey bee, has been successfully used in medicine as an anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent. Traumatic injuries to the teeth, especially avulsion injuries, present a challenging situation for the clinician because of post-treatment complications, such as inflammatory and/or replacement resorption. Agents that reduce osteoclast numbers and activity may be useful in the treatment of traumatic injuries to the teeth. In this study, we evaluated propolis as an anti-resorptive agent. Calcitriol-stimulated mouse marrow cultures, which contain both osteoclasts and osteoblasts, were exposed to the ethanol extracts of propolis or vehicle control and stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-activity to identify osteoclasts. A significant, dose-dependent reduction in multinuclear TRAP+ cells was demonstrated, although the propolis treatment accommodated cell growth and survival (P Propolis also reduced the formation of actin rings in pure cultures of RAW 264.7 osteoclast-like cells, suggesting that it exerts direct actions on osteoclast maturation. In summary, our data suggest that propolis inhibits late stages of osteoclast maturation including fusion of osteoclasts precursors to form giant cells and formation of actin rings. This supports the hypothesis that it may prove useful as a medicament to reduce resorption associated with traumatic injuries to the teeth.

  2. Short-term treatment with the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A decreases HPA axis activity and plasma noradrenaline levels in healthy male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albring, Antje; Wendt, Laura; Harz, Nino; Engler, Harald; Wilde, Benjamin; Witzke, Oliver; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2014-11-01

    Treatment with the selective calcineurin inhibitor and immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A (CsA) is associated with neurotoxicity and neurocognitive impairments. Whether and to what extent CsA is inducing alterations of the neuroendocrine status is unknown so far. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of short-term CsA treatment on hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and catecholamine release as well as state anxiety in healthy male subjects. Treatment with CsA significantly reduced plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and noradrenaline whereas adrenaline levels and state anxiety remained unaffected. Future studies should analyze the mechanisms of CsA-induced effects on neuroendocrine variables, neurocognitive functions and mood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression profile of IGF-I-calcineurin-NFATc3-dependent pathway genes in skeletal muscle during early development between duck breeds differing in growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jingting; Li, Huifang; Shan, Yanju; Xu, Wenjuan; Chen, Wenfeng; Song, Chi; Song, Weitao

    2015-06-01

    The insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-calcineurin (CaN)-NFATc signaling pathways have been implicated in the regulation of myocyte hypertrophy and fiber-type specificity. In the present study, the expression of the CnAα, NFATc3, and IGF-I genes was quantified by RT-PCR for the first time in the breast muscle (BM) and leg muscle (LM) on days 13, 17, 21, 25, and 27 of embryonic development, as well as at 7 days posthatching (PH), in Gaoyou and Jinding ducks, which differ in their muscle growth rates. Consistent expression patterns of CnAα, NFATc3, and IGF-I were found in the same anatomical location at different development stages in both duck breeds, showing significant differences in an age-specific fashion. However, the three genes were differentially expressed in the two different anatomical locations (BM and LM). CnAα, NFATc3, and IGF-I messenger RNA (mRNA) could be detected as early as embryonic day 13 (ED13), and the highest level appeared at this stage in both BM and LM. Significant positive relationships were observed in the expression of the studied genes in the BM and LM of both duck breeds. Also, the expression of these three genes showed a positive relationship with the percentage of type IIb fibers and a negative relationship with the percentage of type I fibers and type IIa fibers. Our data indicate differential expression and coordinated developmental regulation of the selected genes involved in the IGF-I-calcineurin-NFATc3 pathway in duck skeletal muscle during embryonic and early PH growth and development; these data also indicate that this signaling pathway might play a role in the regulation of myofiber type transition.