WorldWideScience

Sample records for calcination

  1. Spray calcination of nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, W.F.; Blair, H.T.; Romero, L.S.

    1976-01-01

    The spray calciner is a relatively simple machine; operation is simple and is easily automated. Startup and shutdown can be performed in less than an hour. A wide variety of waste compositions and concentrations can be calcined under easily maintainable conditions. Spray calcination of all commercial fuel reprocessor high-level liquid wastes and mixed high and intermediate-level wastes have been demonstrated. Wastes have been calcined containing over 2M sodium. Thus waste generated during plant startup and shutdown can be blended with normal waste and calcined. Spray calcination of ILLW has also been demonstrated. A remotely replaceable atomizing nozzle has been developed for use in plant scale equipment. The 6 mm (0.25 inch) orifice and ceramic tip offer freedom from plugging and erosion thus nozzle replacement should be required only after several months operation. Calciner capacity of over 75 l/h (20 gal/h) has been demonstrated in pilot scale equipment. Sintered stainless steel filters are effective in deentraining over 99.9 percent of the solids that result from calcining the feedstock. Since such a small amount of radionuclides escape the calciner the volume of recycle required from the effluent treatment system is very small. The noncondensable off-gas volume is also low, less than 0.5 m/sup 3//min (15 scfm) for a liquid feedrate of 75 l/hr (20 gal/hr). Calcine holdup in the calciner is less than 1 kg, thus the liquid feedrate is directly relatable to calcine flowrate. The calcine produced is very fine and reactive. Successful remote operation and maintenance of a heated wall spray calciner has been demonstrated while processing actual high-level waste. During these operations radionuclide volatilization from the calciner was acceptably low. 8 figures. (DLC)

  2. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  3. Dissolution Kinetics of Alumina Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas

    2001-09-01

    Dissolution kinetics of alumina type non-radioactive calcine was investigated as part of ongoing research that addresses permanent disposal of Idaho High Level Waste (HLW). Calcine waste was produced from the processing of nuclear fuel at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Acidic radioactive raffinates were solidified at ~500°C in a fluidized bed reactor to form the dry granular calcine material. Several Waste Management alternatives for the calcine are presented in the Idaho High Level Waste Draft EIS. The Separations Alternative addresses the processing of the calcine so that the HLW is ready for removal to a national geological repository by the year 2035. Calcine dissolution is the key front-end unit operation for the separations alternative.

  4. Investigation on Calcination Behaviors of Coal Gangue by Fluidized Calcination in Comparison with Static Calcination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to comprehensively utilize coal gangue, we present fluidized calcination as a new thermal technology for activating coal gangue and systematical study was conducted in comparison with static calcination. The calcined products obtained by different calcination methods under various temperatures were characterized by the means of X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermal gravimetry-differential scanning calorimeter (TG-DSC, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS. Chemical and physical characteristics such as aluminium leaching rate, chemical oxygen demand and whiteness of calcined products were also investigated. The results show that aluminium leaching rate could reach to the maximal value 74.42% at 500 °C by fluidized calcination, while the maximal value of 66.33% could be reached at 600 °C by static calcination. Products by fluidized calcination obtained higher whiteness and lower chemical oxygen demand (COD under the same calcination temperature. The well-crystallized kaolinite transform to amorphous meta-kaolinite under 600 °C and mullite presence under 1000 °C according to phase transformation, chemical bond variation and microstructure evolution analysis. Fluidized calcination was more efficiently for combustion of carbon/organic matter and dehydroxylation of kaolinite, which might applied in coal gangue industry in future.

  5. Alternative calcination development status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    The Programmatic Spent Nuclear Fuel and (INEEL) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, dated June 1, 1995, specifies that high-level waste stored in the underground tanks at the ICPP continue to be calcined while other options to treat the waste are studied. Therefore, the High-Level Waste Program has funded a program to develop new flowsheets to increase the liquid waste processing rate. Simultaneously, a radionuclide separation process, as well as other options, are also being developed, which will be compared to the calcination treatment option. Two alternatives emerged as viable candidates; (1) elevated temperature calcination (also referred to as high temperature calcination), and (2) sugar-additive calcination. Both alternatives were determined to be viable through testing performed in a lab-scale calcination mockup. Subsequently, 10-cm Calciner Pilot Plant scoping tests were successfully completed for both flowsheets. The results were compared to the standard 500 C, high-ANN flow sheet (baseline flowsheet). The product and effluent streams were characterized to help elucidate the process chemistry and to investigate potential environmental permitting issues. Several supplementary tests were conducted to gain a better understanding of fine-particles generation, calcine hydration, scrub foaming, feed makeup procedures, sugar/organic elimination, and safety-related issues. Many of the experiments are only considered to be scoping tests, and follow-up experiments will be required to establish a more definitive understanding of the flowsheets. However, the combined results support the general conclusion that flowsheet improvements for the NWCF are technically viable.

  6. Dissolution properties of calcined gangue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huajian Li; Henghu Sun; Xuchu Tie; Xuejun Xiao

    2006-01-01

    To study the dissolution mechanism of gangue, dissolution characteristics of the gangue samples calcined at different temperatures in alkaline solutions and alkali metal silicate solutions with respect to Si and A1 ions were analyzed by identical coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP). The results show that the extent of dissolution of A1 and Si varies with calcination temperature. It shows that the samples have a higher degree of dissolution in NaOH than in KOH medium. Si and A1 appear to have synchro-dissolution behavior in alkaline solution, which means that Si and A1 could dissolve from the mineral surface in certain linked forms. The result that a higher degree of dissolution exists in sodium silicate solution and a lower degree of dissolution exists in sodium-potassium silicate solution of A1 is proved by the 29Si NMR spectra and the mean connectivity degree of these alkali metal silicate solutions.

  7. XANES analysis of dried and calcined bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendran, Jayapradhi [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Texas at Arlington (United States); Gialanella, Stefano [Materials Science and Industrial Technology Department, University of Trento (Italy); Aswath, Pranesh B., E-mail: aswath@uta.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Texas at Arlington (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The structure of dried and calcined bones from chicken, bovine, deer, pig, sheep and chamois was examined using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The oxygen K-edge absorption edge indicates that the surface of dried bone has a larger proportion of carbonate than the interior that is made up of phosphates. The phosphorus L and K edge clearly indicate that pyrophosphates, α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) and hydrogen phosphates of Ca do not exist in either the dried bone or calcined bone and phosphorus exists as either β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) or hydroxyapatite, both in the dried and calcined conditions. The Ca K-edge analysis indicates that β-TCP is the likely form of phosphate in both the dried and calcined conditions. - Highlights: • For the first time bones of five different species of vertebrates have been compared in both the dried and calcined states. • O, P and Ca edges detail the local coordination of these atoms in dried and calcined bone. • O K-edge shows that the surface of bone has more CO{sub 3} while the interior has more PO{sub 4}. • P and Ca edges eliminate the presence of pyrophosphates and confirmed the presence of HA and β-TCP. • The stability of these phosphates on calcination has been examined using XANES.

  8. Calcined solids storage facility closure study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlmeir, M.M.; Tuott, L.C.; Spaulding, B.C. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is currently mandated under a {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} (or {open_quotes}Batt Agreement{close_quotes}) between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. Under this agreement, all high-level waste must be treated as necessary to meet the disposal criteria and disposed of or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. In order to comply with this agreement, all calcined waste produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility and stored in the Calcined Solids Facility must be treated and disposed of by 2035. Several treatment options for the calcined waste have been studied in support of the High-Level Waste Environmental Impact Statement. Two treatment methods studied, referred to as the TRU Waste Separations Options, involve the separation of the high-level waste (calcine) into TRU waste and low-level waste (Class A or Class C). Following treatment, the TRU waste would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for final storage. It has been proposed that the low-level waste be disposed of in the Tank Farm Facility and/or the Calcined Solids Storage Facility following Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure. In order to use the seven Bin Sets making up the Calcined Solids Storage Facility as a low-level waste landfill, the facility must first be closed to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) standards. This study identifies and discusses two basic methods available to close the Calcined Solids Storage Facility under the RCRA - Risk-Based Clean Closure and Closure to Landfill Standards. In addition to the closure methods, the regulatory requirements and issues associated with turning the Calcined Solids Storage Facility into an NRC low-level waste landfill or filling the bin voids with clean grout are discussed.

  9. Activity and Structure of Calcined Coal Gangue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Coal gangue was activated by means of calcination in seven temperature ranges. Systematic research was made about activation mechanism and structural evolution. Glycerin-ethanol method, SEM, MIP and XRD were used to determine the variation of structure and activation of coal gangue during the calcination.The experimental results show that because of heat treatment in the range of calcination temperature, mineral composition and microstructure of coal gangue are changed. In addition, its activity is improved evidently. The amount of lime absorbed by the sample calcined at 700 C is 2-4 times that by uncalcined coal gangue in the course of hydration. When NaOH is added to coal gangue-lime system, hydration reaction of the system is sped up and the microstructure of hydrating samples of coal gangue is improved.

  10. Bin Set 1 Calcine Retrieval Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. D. Adams; S. M. Berry; K. J. Galloway; T. A. Langenwalter; D. A. Lopez; C. M. Noakes; H. K. Peterson; M. I. Pope; R. J. Turk

    1999-10-01

    At the Department of Energy's Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, as an interim waste management measure, both mixed high-level liquid waste and sodium bearing waste have been solidified by a calculation process and are stored in the Calcine Solids Storage Facilities. This calcined product will eventually be treated to allow final disposal in a national geologic repository. The Calcine Solids Storage Facilities comprise seven ''bit sets.'' Bin Set 1, the first to be constructed, was completed in 1959, and has been in service since 1963. It is the only bin set that does not meet current safe-shutdown earthquake seismic criteria. In addition, it is the only bin set that lacks built-in features to aid in calcine retrieval. One option to alleviate the seismic compliance issue is to transport the calcine from Bin Set 1 to another bin set which has the required capacity and which is seismically qualified. This report studies the feasibility of retrieving the calcine from Bi n Set 1 and transporting it into Bin Set 6 which is located approximately 650 feet away. Because Bin Set 1 was not designed for calcine retrieval, and because of the high radiation levels and potential contamination spread from the calcined material, this is a challenging engineering task. This report presents preconceptual design studies for remotely-operated, low-density, pneumatic vacuum retrieval and transport systems and equipment that are based on past work performed by the Raytheon Engineers and Constructors architectural engineering firm. The designs presented are considered feasible; however, future development work will be needed in several areas during the subsequent conceptual design phase.

  11. 1st International Conference on Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete

    CERN Document Server

    Favier, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    This volume focuses on research and practical issues linked to Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete. The main subjects are geology of clays, hydration and performance of blended systems with calcined clays, alkali activated binders, economic and environmental impacts of the use of calcined clays in cement based materials. Topics addressed in this book include the influence of processing on reactivity of calcined clays, influence of clay mineralogy on reactivity, geology of clay deposits, Portland-calcined clay systems, hydration, durability, performance, Portland-calcined clay-limestone systems, hydration, durability, performance, calcined clay-alkali systems, life cycle analysis, economics and environmental impact of use of calcined clays in cement and concrete, and field applications. This book compiles the different contributions of the 1st International Conference on Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete, which took place in Lausanne, Switzerland, June, 23-25, 2015.The papers present the latest  res...

  12. Experimental and modeling study of flash calcination of kaolinite rich clay particles in a gas suspension calciner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebremariam, Abraham Teklay; Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse;

    2015-01-01

    Calcination of kaolinite particles under appropriate conditions to produce materials that can replace part of the CO2 intensive clinker is gaining an increasing interest in cement industry worldwide. This paper presents a study of flash calcination of kaolinite rich clay particles in a pilot scale...... gas suspension calciner, with the aim to derive useful guidelines on smart calcination for obtaining products of the best pozzolanic properties. Calcination tests are performed in the calciner under six different operation conditions. The raw feed and the calcined clay samples are all characterized...... experimentally and a mathematical model is also developed to predict the conversion of the clay particles. The model properly accounts for the particle–ambient flow interaction and numerically solves all the processes occurring within the clay particles. The model predictions are compared against...

  13. Calcination-Digestion-Desliming of Phosphorus Ore Bearing Rare Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qin; Zhang Jie; Wang Jing; Qiu Yue qin

    2004-01-01

    The recoveries of phosphorus and RE of ore from Zhijin in Guizhou were studied.The influences of the calcination temperature, resident time, the digested time and water volume of the calcinating on concentrate yield by desliming were also investigated by orthogonal design.Appropriate calcination temperature is initial condition that makes carbonate mineral decomposition.The recovery of phosphorus is 83.02% and rare earth is 90.56% in phosphorus concentrate when calcined temperature is 900 ℃, other conditions include: calcined time is 30 min, digestion water volume is 300 ml, digestion time is 20 min.The results show that the pre-treatment of the ore is favorable for the separation and enrichment of rare earth from phosphorus ore, and a process of calcination-digestion-desliming was promised.

  14. Experimental Test Plan for Grouting H-3 Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan K. Herbst

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 4400 cubic meters of solid high-level waste called calcine are stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Under the Idaho Cleanup Project, dual disposal paths are being investigated. The first path includes calcine retrieval, package "as-is", and ship to the Monitored Geological Repository (MGR). The second path involves treatment of the calcine with such methods as vitrification or grouting. This test plan outlines the hot bench scale tests to grout actual calcine and verify that the waste form properties meet the waste acceptance criteria. This is a necessary sequential step in the process of qualifying a new waste form for repository acceptance. The archive H-3 calcine samples at the Contaminated Equipment Maintenance Building attached to New Waste Calcining Facility will be used in these tests at the Remote Analytical Laboratory. The tests are scheduled for the second quarter of fiscal year 2007.

  15. Calcination of kaolinite clay particles for cement production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebremariam, Abraham Teklay; Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Kaolinite rich clay particles calcined under certain conditions can attain favorable pozzolanic properties and can be used to substitute part of the CO2 intensive clinker in cement production. To better guide calcination of a clay material, a transient one-dimensional single particle model...

  16. Characterization and Dissolution Kinetics Testing of Radioactive H-3 Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy Gerry; Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas

    2002-09-01

    Characterization and dissolution kinetics testing were performed with Idaho radioactive H-3 calcine. Calcine dissolution is the key front-end unit operation for the Separations Alternative identified in the Idaho High Level Waste Draft EIS. The impact of the extent of dissolution on the feasibility of Separations must be clearly quantified.

  17. Modeling of calcination of single kaolinitic clay particle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebremariam, Abraham Teklay; Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse

    The present work aims at modeling of the calcination (dehydroxylation) process of clay particles, specifically kaolinite, and its thermal transformation. For such purpose, 1D single particle calcination model was developed based on the concept of shrinking core model to assess the dehydroxylation...

  18. Summary of Calcine Disposal Development Using Hot Isostatic Pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Ken [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wahlquist, Dennis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hart, Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McCartin, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, has demonstrated the effectiveness of the hot isostatic press (HIP) process for treatment of hazardous high-level waste known as calcine that is stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at Idaho National Laboratory. HIP trials performed with simulated calcines at Idaho National Laboratory’s Materials and Fuels Complex and an Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization facility from 2007 to 2010 produced a dense, monolithic waste form with increased chemical durability and effective (storage) volume reductions of ~10 to ~70% compared to granular calcine forms. In December 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy signed an amended Record of Decision selecting HIP technology as the treatment method for the 4,400 m3 of granular zirconia and alumina calcine stored at INTEC. Testing showed that HIP treatment reduces the risks associated with radioactive and hazardous constituent release, post-production handling, and long-term (repository) storage of calcines and would result in estimated storage cost savings in the billions of dollars. Battelle Energy Alliance has the ability to complete pilot-scale HIP processing of INTEC calcine, which is the next necessary step in implementing HIP processing as a calcine treatment method.

  19. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of Powders (P25 via Calcination Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available P25 TiO2 powders were calcined at different temperatures in a muffle furnace in air. The P25 powders before and after calcination treatment were characterized with XRD FTIR, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra, SEM, TEM, HRTEM, and N2 adsorption-desorption measurements. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the photocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange aqueous solution under UV light irradiation in air. The results showed that calcination treatment obviously influenced the microstructures and photocatalytic activity of the P25 TiO2 powders. The synergistic effect of the phase structure, BET surface area, and crystallinity on the photocatalytic of TiO2 powders (P25 after calcination was investigated. An optimal calcination temperature ( was determined. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 powders calcined at was nearly 2 times higher than that of the uncalcined P25 TiO2. The highest photocatalytic activities of the calcined samples at for 4 h might be ascribed to the enhancement of anatase crystallization and the optimal mass ratio (ca. 1 : 2 of rutile to anatase.

  20. Assessment of soda ash calcination treatment of Turkish trona ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezer Sibel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trona is relatively rare, non-metallic mineral, Na2CO3 · NaHCO3 · 2H2O. The pure material contains 70.3% sodium carbonate and by calcination the excess CO2 and water can be driven off, yielding natural soda ash. The terms soda ash and sodium carbonate are used interchangeably. Trona calcining is a key process step in production of soda ash (sodium carbonate anhydrate from the relatively cheap trona ore. The calcination reaction may proceeds in a sequence of steps. Depending on the conditions, it may result in formation of either sodium carbonate monohydrate (Na2CO3 · H2O, sodium sesquicarbonate or weigschederite (Na2CO3 · 3NaHCO3. The Beypazarı Turkish trona deposit is the second largest deposit in the world with the content of 84% trona. The decomposition of trona appeared to be a single stage process across the temperature range studied (150-200 °C with the representative samples of different size fractions in the draught up metallurgical furnace. The optimum particle size and calcination time were −6.35 mm and 30 minutes, respectively, at calcination temperature of 175 °C in a metallurgical furnace. Microwave-induced dry calcination of trona was possible and 5 minutes of calcination time at a power level of 900 was sufficient for complete calcination of −6.35 mm feed. This includes short time calcinations with the goal of improving economics and simplifying the thermal process.

  1. Structural Integrity Program for INTEC Calcined Solids Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Bryant

    2008-08-30

    This report documents the activities of the structural integrity program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center relevant to the high-level waste Calcined Solids Storage Facilities and associated equipment, as required by DOE M 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual'. Based on the evaluation documented in this report, the Calcined Solids Storage Facilities are not leaking and are structurally sound for continued service. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Calcined Solids Storage Facilities.

  2. Talc-based cementitious products: Effect of talc calcination

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the use of calcined talc for cementitious products making. The calcination is used to enhance the availability of magnesium from talc to react with phosphate for cement phase formation. It is shown that previous calcination of talc leads to products having enhanced mechanical performance due to the formation of more cement phase than in products based on raw talc. Talc fired at 900 °C was found to be the one in which magnesium release was maximal. Firing at temperature high...

  3. CSER 97-004: PFP production denitration calciner system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillesland, K.E.

    1997-09-11

    The plutonium stabilization program at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) includes conversion of acidic plutonium nitrate solution into plutonium oxide. Conversion is facilitated through use of a vertical calciner installed in Glovebox HC-23OC-2, which is located in RM 230C of this facility. This evaluation supports the Criticality Prevention Specification for the calcining process inside this glovebox. As the product of the calciner is a high density plutonium oxide, a number of limits are required to insure criticality safety. The containers allowed are product receiver vessels and 0.5 C slip lid cans and polyjars. The limits allow for two ``unit masses`` of 2 V total volume each, separated by a distance of at least 25.4 cm (10 in.). This evaluation allows for operation of the calciner for product densities not in excess of 5.5 g Pu/cm{sup 3}.

  4. Calcine Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staiger, Merle Daniel; M. C. Swenson

    2005-01-01

    This report documents an inventory of calcined waste produced at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center during the period from December 1963 to May 2000. The report was prepared based on calciner runs, operation of the calcined solids storage facilities, and miscellaneous operational information that establishes the range of chemical compositions of calcined waste stored at Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. The report will be used to support obtaining permits for the calcined solids storage facilities, possible treatment of the calcined waste at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and to ship the waste to an off-site facility including a geologic repository. The information in this report was compiled from calciner operating data, waste solution analyses and volumes calcined, calciner operating schedules, calcine temperature monitoring records, and facility design of the calcined solids storage facilities. A compact disk copy of this report is provided to facilitate future data manipulations and analysis.

  5. Crystallographic transformation of limestone during calcination under CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Jose Manuel; Medina, Santiago

    2015-09-14

    The calcination reaction of limestone (CaCO3) to yield lime (CaO) is at the heart of many industrial applications as well as natural processes. In the recently emerged calcium-looping technology, CO2 capture is accomplished by the carbonation of CaO in a gas-solid reactor (carbonator). CaO is derived by the calcination of limestone in a calciner reactor under necessarily high CO2 partial pressure and high temperature. In situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been employed in this work to gain further insight into the crystallographic transformation that takes place during the calcination of limestone under CO2, at partial pressures (P) close to the equilibrium pressure (Peq) and at high temperature. Calcination under these conditions becomes extremely slow. The in situ XRD analysis presented here suggests the presence of an intermediate metastable CaO* phase stemming from the parent CaCO3 structure. According to the reaction mechanism proposed elsewhere, the exothermicity of the CaO* → CaO transformation and high values of P/Peq inhibit the nucleation of CaO at high temperatures. The wt% of CaO* remains at a relatively high level during slow calcination. Two diverse stages have been identified in the evolution of CaO crystallite size, L. Initially, L increases with CaCO3 conversion, following a logarithmic law. Slow calcination allows the crystallite size to grow up from a few nanometers at nucleation up to around 100 nm near the end of conversion. Otherwise, quick calcination at relatively lower CO2 concentrations limits CaO crystallite growth. Once calcination reaches an advanced state, the presence of CaO* drops to zero and the rate of increase of the CaO crystallite size is significantly hindered. Arguably, the first stage in CaO crystallite growth is driven by aggregation of the metastable CaO* nanocrystals, due to surface attractive forces, whereas the second one is consistent with sintering of the aggregated CaO crystals, and persists with time after full

  6. CSER 99-001: PFP LAB Dentirating calciner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MILLER, E.M.; DOBBIN, K.D.

    1999-02-22

    A criticality safety evaluation report was prepared for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) laboratory denigrating calciner, located in Glovebox 188-1, that converts Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} solutions to the high fired stable oxide PuO{sub 2}. Fissile mass limits and volume limits are set for the glovebox for testing operations and training operators using only nitric acid feed to a plutonium oxide bed in the calciner.

  7. Adsorption removal of thiocyanate from aqueous solution by calcined hydrotalcite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-jiang; YANG Min; ZHANG Xiao-jin; WU Tao; CAO Nan; WEI Na; BI Yan-jun; WANG Jing

    2006-01-01

    A hydrotalcite with Mg/Al molar ratio 2 was prepared by co-precipitation method and was characterized by XRD,TG/DTA, Zeta potential and BET surface area. The hydrotalcite was calcined at 500℃, with the dehydration from interlayer, the dehydroxilation from the brucite-like layer and the decomposition of carbonate successively, transformed into the mixed oxide type.The removal of thiocyanate from aqueous solution by using the original hydrotalcite and calcined hydrotalcite (HTC-500) was investigated. The results showed that the thiocyanate adsorption capacity of calcined hydrotalcite was much higher than that of the original form. Calcined hydrotalcite was particularly effective at removing thiocyanate, and that the effective range of pH for the thiocyanate removal are between 5.5-10.0. The experimental data of thiocyanate removal fit nicely with Langmuir isotherm, and the saturated adsorption uptake was 96.2 mg SCN-/g HTC-500. The adsorption ofthiocyanate by calcined hydrotalcite follows first-order kinetics. And the intercalation to the structure recovery for calcined hydrotalcite. But the presence of additional anions could affect the adsorption behavior of thiocyanate.

  8. Adsorption removal of thiocyanate from aqueous solution by calcined hydrotalcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Jiang; Yang, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Jin; Wu, Tao; Cao, Nan; Wei, Na; Bi, Yan-Jun; Wang, Jing

    2006-01-01

    A hydrotalcite with Mg/Al molar ratio 2 was prepared by co-precipitation method and was characterized by XRD, TG/DTA, Zeta potential and BET surface area. The hydrotalcite was calcined at 500 degrees C, with the dehydration from interlayer, the dehydroxilation from the brucite-like layer and the decomposition of carbonate successively, transformed into the mixed oxide type. The removal of thiocyanate from aqueous solution by using the original hydrotalcite and calcined hydrotalcite (HTC-500) was investigated. The results showed that the thiocyanate adsorption capacity of calcined hydrotalcite was much higher than that of the original form. Calcined hydrotalcite was particularly effective at removing thiocyanate, and that the effective range of pH for the thiocyanate removal are between 5.5-10.0. The experimental data of thiocyanate removal fit nicely with Langmuir isotherm, and the saturated adsorption uptake was 96.2 mg SCN-/g HTC-500. The adsorption of thiocyanate by calcined hydrotalcite follows first-order kinetics. And the intercalation to the structure recovery for calcined hydrotalcite. But the presence of additional anions could affect the adsorption behavior of thiocyanate.

  9. Structure transition of nano-titania during calcination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国华; 王大伟; 徐铸德; 陈卫祥

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the structure transition during calcination, nano-titania powders prepared by hydrolyzing precipitation approach and calcined at 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 ℃ were characterized by XRD, TEM and electron diffraction(ED), respectively. The results show that titania powders calcined below 500 ℃ are almost composed of anatase, rutile appears below 500 ℃ and its ratio increases gradually with increase of calcin temperature;nano-titania particles are smaller than 40 nm mostly and the dispersion is related to calcining temperature; the interplanar distances of nano-anatase single crystalline change gradually when calcing temperature increases to 500 ℃; so do that of nano-rutile single crystalline when calcining temperature charges from 600 to 700 ℃. The conclusions can be drawn that the temperature of transformation from anatase to rutile is below 500 ℃ and the process carries on gradually. Both inter-planar distances and the structure of nano-titania transform gradually with increasing calcing temperature.

  10. The Kinetics of Calcination of High Calcium Limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Okonkwo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of calcination of a high calcium type of limestone was studied. Ukpilla limestone found in the central region of Nigeria was studied. The limestone composition shows that the limestone has 51.29% calcium oxide and 41.53% loss on ignition and magnesium oxide content of 2.23%. The following parameters were determined; diffusion coefficient of lime layer, and mass transfer coefficient, conductivity of lime layer and beat transfer coefficient, convective parameter and diffusive parameter for temperatures 9000C, 10000C, 10600C and 10800C. The reaction was found to be limited by mass and heat transfers across the tune layer of the calcining article, theoptimal temperature of calcination was found to be 10600C. Diffusivity and mass transfer coefficient decreases with increase in calcination temperature. The thermal conductivity increases with increase in temperature. The diffusive and convective parameter decreases with increase in temperature. The reactivity of lime calcined at different temperatures were determined. The reactivity of the lime increases with decrease in calcination temperature.

  11. Mechanism of boron uptake by hydrocalumite calcined at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Xinhong, E-mail: qxinhong@gmail.com [Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Kyushu University,Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Sasaki, Keiko; Takaki, Yu; Hirajima, Tsuyoshi [Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Kyushu University,Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Ideta, Keiko; Miyawaki, Jin [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8180 (Japan)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Higher sorption density of borate was observed at higher calcination temperature. • Sorption of borate by Ca-Al-LDH was mainly through DR mechanism. • Removal of borate by Ca-LDH-300 and Ca-LDH-500 were through forming of ettringite. • Boron was mainly adsorbed and intercalated into hydration of Ca-Al-LDH-900. - Abstract: Hydrocalumite (Ca-Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH)) was prepared and applied for the removal of borate. The properties of Ca-Al-LDH calcined at different temperatures were diverse, which affected the sorption density and mechanism of boron species. The sorption density increased with increase in calcined temperature and the sample calcined at 900 °C (Ca-Al-LDH-900) showed the maximum sorption density in this work. The solid residues after sorption were characterized by {sup 11}B NMR, {sup 27}Al NMR, SEM, and XRD to investigate the sorption mechanism. Dissolution–reprecipitation was the main mechanism for sorption of borate in Ca-Al-LDH. For Ca-Al-LDH calcined at 300 and 500 °C, regeneration occurred in a short time and the newly forming LDHs were decomposed to release Ca{sup 2+} ions and formed ettringite with borate. Two stages occurred in the sorption of boron by Ca-Al-LDH calcined at 900 °C. In the first stage, boron species adsorbed on the alumina gel resulting from the hydration of calcined products. In this stage, borate was included as an interlayer anion into the newly forming LDHs in the following stage, and then immobilized as HBO{sub 3}{sup 2−} into the interlayer, most the LDHs.

  12. High Temperature Calcination - MACT Upgrade Equipment Pilot Plant Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard D. Boardman; B. H. O& #39; Brien; N. R. Soelberg; S. O. Bates; R. A. Wood; C. St. Michel

    2004-02-01

    About one million gallons of acidic, hazardous, and radioactive sodium-bearing waste are stored in stainless steel tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), which is a major operating facility of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Calcination at high-temperature conditions (600 C, with alumina nitrate and calcium nitrate chemical addition to the feed) is one of four options currently being considered by the Department of Energy for treatment of the remaining tank wastes. If calcination is selected for future processing of the sodium-bearing waste, it will be necessary to install new off-gas control equipment in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to comply with the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards for hazardous waste combustors and incinerators. This will require, as a minimum, installing a carbon bed to reduce mercury emissions from their current level of up to 7,500 to <45 {micro}g/dscm, and a staged combustor to reduce unburned kerosene fuel in the off-gas discharge to <100 ppm CO and <10 ppm hydrocarbons. The staged combustor will also reduce NOx concentrations of about 35,000 ppm by 90-95%. A pilot-plant calcination test was completed in a newly constructed 15-cm diameter calciner vessel. The pilot-plant facility was equipped with a prototype MACT off-gas control system, including a highly efficient cyclone separator and off-gas quench/venturi scrubber for particulate removal, a staged combustor for unburned hydrocarbon and NOx destruction, and a packed activated carbon bed for mercury removal and residual chloride capture. Pilot-plant testing was performed during a 50-hour system operability test January 14-16, followed by a 100-hour high-temperature calcination pilot-plant calcination run January 19-23. Two flowsheet blends were tested: a 50-hour test with an aluminum-to-alkali metal molar ratio (AAR) of 2.25, and a 50-hour test with an AAR of 1.75. Results of the testing

  13. Human health risk characterization of petroleum coke calcining facility emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Davinderjit; Johnson, Giffe T; Harbison, Raymond D

    2015-12-01

    Calcining processes including handling and storage of raw petroleum coke may result in Particulate Matter (PM) and gaseous emissions. Concerns have been raised over the potential association between particulate and aerosol pollution and adverse respiratory health effects including decrements in lung function. This risk characterization evaluated the exposure concentrations of ambient air pollutants including PM10 and gaseous pollutants from a petroleum coke calciner facility. The ambient air pollutant levels were collected through monitors installed at multiple locations in the vicinity of the facility. The measured and modeled particulate levels in ambient air from the calciner facility were compared to standards protective of public health. The results indicated that exposure levels were, on occasions at sites farther from the facility, higher than the public health limit of 150 μg/m(3) 24-h average for PM10. However, the carbon fraction demonstrated that the contribution from the calciner facility was de minimis. Exposure levels of the modeled SO2, CO, NOx and PM10 concentrations were also below public health air quality standards. These results demonstrate that emissions from calcining processes involving petroleum coke, at facilities that are well controlled, are below regulatory standards and are not expected to produce a public health risk.

  14. Calcined Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staiger, M. Daniel, Swenson, Michael C.

    2011-09-01

    This comprehensive report provides definitive volume, mass, and composition (chemical and radioactivity) of calcined waste stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Calcine composition data are required for regulatory compliance (such as permitting and waste disposal), future treatment of the caline, and shipping the calcine to an off-Site-facility (such as a geologic repository). This report also contains a description of the calcine storage bins. The Calcined Solids Storage Facilities (CSSFs) were designed by different architectural engineering firms and built at different times. Each CSSF has a unique design, reflecting varying design criteria and lessons learned from historical CSSF operation. The varying CSSF design will affect future calcine retrieval processes and equipment. Revision 4 of this report presents refinements and enhancements of calculations concerning the composition, volume, mass, chemical content, and radioactivity of calcined waste produced and stored within the CSSFs. The historical calcine samples are insufficient in number and scope of analysis to fully characterize the entire inventory of calcine in the CSSFs. Sample data exist for all the liquid wastes that were calcined. This report provides calcine composition data based on liquid waste sample analyses, volume of liquid waste calcined, calciner operating data, and CSSF operating data using several large Microsoft Excel (Microsoft 2003) databases and spreadsheets that are collectively called the Historical Processing Model. The calcine composition determined by this method compares favorably with historical calcine sample data.

  15. Total oxidation of toluene over calcined trimetallic hydrotalcites type catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacio, Luz A. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, IBB - Centro de Engenharia Biologica e Quimica, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Grupo Catalizadores y Adsorbentes, Universidad de Antioquia 1-317, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Velasquez, Juliana; Echavarria, Adriana [Grupo Catalizadores y Adsorbentes, Universidad de Antioquia 1-317, A.A. 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Faro, Arnaldo [Departamento de Fisicoquimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, CT bloco A, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ramoa Ribeiro, F. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, IBB - Centro de Engenharia Biologica e Quimica, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ribeiro, M. Filipa, E-mail: filipa.ribeiro@ist.utl.pt [Instituto Superior Tecnico, IBB - Centro de Engenharia Biologica e Quimica, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-05-15

    Two trimetallic ZnCuAl and MnCuAl hydrotalcites have been successfully synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The manganese based material was identified as a new hydrotalcite phase. Both lamellar precursors were calcined at 450 and 600 deg. C and the resulting catalysts were tested on reaction of total oxidation of toluene. The solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption and H{sub 2} temperature-programmed reduction. It was found that ZnCuAl materials are composed of copper and zinc oxides supported on alumina; while MnCuAl ones comprise basically spinel phases, which were not completely identified. The catalytic behavior of the calcined samples showed that Mn hydrotalcite calcined at 450 deg. C exhibited the best catalytic performance that corresponds to 100% toluene conversion into CO{sub 2} at about 300 deg. C.

  16. Apatite formation on calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangdaeng, S; Sata, V; Aguiar, J B; Pacheco-Torgal, F; Chindaprasirt, P

    2015-06-01

    In this study, calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer was investigated for use as biomaterial. Sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used as activators. In vitro test was performed with simulated body fluid (SBF) for bioactivity characterization. The formation of hydroxyapatite bio-layer on the 28-day soaked samples surface was tested using SEM, EDS and XRD analyses. The results showed that the morphology of hydroxyapatite was affected by the source material composition, alkali concentration and curing temperature. The calcined kaolin-white Portland cement geopolymer with relatively high compressive strength could be fabricated for use as biomaterial. The mix with 50% white Portland cement and 50% calcined kaolin had 28-day compressive strength of 59.0MPa and the hydroxyapatite bio-layer on the 28-day soaked sample surface was clearly evident.

  17. Talc-based cementitious products: Effect of talc calcination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Ngally Sabouang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the use of calcined talc for cementitious products making. The calcination is used to enhance the availability of magnesium from talc to react with phosphate for cement phase formation. It is shown that previous calcination of talc leads to products having enhanced mechanical performance due to the formation of more cement phase than in products based on raw talc. Talc fired at 900 °C was found to be the one in which magnesium release was maximal. Firing at temperature higher than 900 °C leads to the stabilization of enstatite, which decreased the magnesium availability. The cement phase is struvite, which was better detected on the X-ray patterns of the products involving fired talc. All the products have very rapid setting time and low shrinkage.

  18. Dissolution kinetics of ulexite prepared under different calcination temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirkiran, N.; Kuenkuel, A. [Inonu University, Malatya (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering. Dept. of Chemical Engineering]. E-mail: ndemirkiran@inonu.edu.tr

    2008-10-15

    Ulexite is one of the boron minerals used as a raw material in the production of boron compounds. It contains a substantial amount of hydration water. Using calcination methods, the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} grade of ulexite can be increased. In this study, the effect of calcination temperature on dissolution kinetics of ulexite in ammonium chloride solutions was investigated in a batch reactor employing the parameters of concentration, solid-to-liquid ratio and reaction temperature. It was found that the dissolution rate increased with increasing concentration and reaction temperature and with decreasing solid-to-liquid ratio. The highest dissolution rate was obtained with the sample calcined at 413 K. It was determined that the dissolution rate fit to the second order pseudo-homogeneous model. The activation energy of this dissolution process was found to be 64.3 kJ/mo L. (author)

  19. Morphology, crystal structure and hydration of calcined and modified anhydrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-qing Niu; Ji-chun Chen

    2014-01-01

    The effects of calcination and modification on the morphology (shapes and textures) and crystal structure of anhydrite powders were studied. The results show that, calcination at 100°C causes anhydrite to disintegrate into smaller crystals, accompanied by a slight in-crease in d-spacing. Without calcination and modification, the solidification time and curing time of anhydrite are 15 and 77 h, respectively. After the treatment, however, the solidification time and curing time are shortened significantly to 9.5 and 14 min, respectively. The com-pressive and flexural strengths of hydration products made from the treated anhydrite reach 10.2 and 2.0 MPa, respectively. The much shorter solidification and curing time make it possible to use anhydrite as a building and construction material.

  20. Synthesis of NaY Zeolite Using Mixed Calcined Kaolins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subagjo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Kaolin is one of several types of clay minerals. The most common crystalline phase constituting kaolin minerals is kaolinite, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH4. Kaolin is mostly used for manufacturing traditional ceramics and also to synthesize zeolites or molecular sieves. The Si-O and Al-O structures in kaolin are inactive and inert, so activation by calcination is required. This work studies the conversion of kaolin originating from Bangka island in Indonesia into calcined kaolin phase as precursor in NaY zeolite synthesis. In the calcination process, the kaolinite undergoes phase transformations from metakaolin to mullite. The Bangka kaolin is 74.3% crystalline, predominantly composed of kaolinite, and 25.7% amorphous, with an SiO2/Al2O3 mass ratio of 1.64. Thermal characterization using simultaneous DSC/TGA identified an endothermic peak at 527°C and an exothermic peak at 1013°C. Thus, three calcination temperatures (700, 1013, and 1050 °C were selected to produce calcined kaolins with different phase distributions. The best product, with 87.8% NaY zeolite in the 54.7% crystalline product and an SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratio of 5.35, was obtained through hydrothermal synthesis using mixed calcined kaolins with a composition of K700C : K1013C : K1050C = 10 : 85 : 5 in %-mass, with seed addition, at a temperature of 93 °Cand a reaction time of 15 hours.

  1. Corrosion experience in calcination of liquid nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, C A

    1980-01-01

    The Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory became operational in 1963. Since that time, approximately 13,337,137 litres (3,523,375 gallons) of liquid nuclear wastes, generated during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel materials, have been reduced to dry granular solids. The volume reduction is about seven or eight gallons of liquid waste to one gallon of dry granular solids. This paper covers some of the corrosion experiences encountered in over fifteen years of operating that calcination facility. 7 figures, 7 tables.

  2. Flash calcination of kaolinite rich clay and impact of process conditions on the quality of the calcines: A way to reduce CO2 footprint from cement industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebremariam, Abraham Teklay; Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    deplete metakaolin into unwanted products (e.g., mullite), which limits the use of the calcines as a supplementary cementitious material. With this regard, a dynamic model of flash calcination of kaolinite rich clay particles is developed using gPROMS (general PROcess Modeling System) to predict...... suspension calciner. The model is validated by the experimental data (e.g., the degree of dehydroxylation and the density of the calcines). Based on the model, the impacts of process conditions and feed properties on the quality of the calcination products are thoroughly examined....

  3. Calcine Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. Staiger

    1999-06-01

    A potential option in the program for long-term management of high-level wastes at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, calls for retrieving calcine waste and converting it to a more stable and less dispersible form. An inventory of calcine produced during the period December 1963 to May 1999 has been prepared based on calciner run, solids storage facilities operating, and miscellaneous operational information, which gives the range of chemical compositions of calcine waste stored at INTEC. Information researched includes calciner startup data, waste solution analyses and volumes calcined, calciner operating schedules, solids storage bin capacities, calcine storage bin distributor systems, and solids storage bin design and temperature monitoring records. Unique information on calcine solids storage facilities design of potential interest to remote retrieval operators is given.

  4. Process Design Concepts for Stabilization of High Level Waste Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. R. Thomas; A. K. Herbst

    2005-06-01

    The current baseline assumption is that packaging ¡§as is¡¨ and direct disposal of high level waste (HLW) calcine in a Monitored Geologic Repository will be allowed. The fall back position is to develop a stabilized waste form for the HLW calcine, that will meet repository waste acceptance criteria currently in place, in case regulatory initiatives are unsuccessful. A decision between direct disposal or a stabilization alternative is anticipated by June 2006. The purposes of this Engineering Design File (EDF) are to provide a pre-conceptual design on three low temperature processes under development for stabilization of high level waste calcine (i.e., the grout, hydroceramic grout, and iron phosphate ceramic processes) and to support a down selection among the three candidates. The key assumptions for the pre-conceptual design assessment are that a) a waste treatment plant would operate over eight years for 200 days a year, b) a design processing rate of 3.67 m3/day or 4670 kg/day of HLW calcine would be needed, and c) the performance of waste form would remove the HLW calcine from the hazardous waste category, and d) the waste form loadings would range from about 21-25 wt% calcine. The conclusions of this EDF study are that: (a) To date, the grout formulation appears to be the best candidate stabilizer among the three being tested for HLW calcine and appears to be the easiest to mix, pour, and cure. (b) Only minor differences would exist between the process steps of the grout and hydroceramic grout stabilization processes. If temperature control of the mixer at about 80„aC is required, it would add a major level of complexity to the iron phosphate stabilization process. (c) It is too early in the development program to determine which stabilizer will produce the minimum amount of stabilized waste form for the entire HLW inventory, but the volume is assumed to be within the range of 12,250 to 14,470 m3. (d) The stacked vessel height of the hot process vessels

  5. Isotopic variability of mercury in ore, mine-waste calcine, and leachates of mine-waste calcine from areas mined for mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Sarah J; Gray, John E; Wanty, Richard B; Macalady, Donald L

    2009-10-01

    The isotopic composition of mercury (Hg) was determined in cinnabar ore, mine-waste calcine (retorted ore), and leachates obtained from water leaching experiments of calcine from two large Hg mining districts in the U.S. This study is the first to report significant mass-dependent Hg isotopic fractionation between cinnabar ore and resultant calcine. Data indicate that delta202Hg values relative to NIST 3133 of calcine (up to 1.52 per thousand) in the Terlingua district, Texas, are as much as 3.24 per thousand heavier than cinnabar (-1.72 per thousand) prior to retorting. In addition, delta202Hg values obtained from leachates of Terlingua district calcines are isotopically similar to, or as much as 1.17 per thousand heavier than associated calcines, most likely due to leaching of soluble, byproduct Hg compounds formed during ore retorting that are a minor component in the calcines. As a result of the large fractionation found between cinnabar and calcine, and because calcine is the dominant source of Hg contamination from the mines studied, delta202Hg values of calcine may be more environmentally important in these mined areas than the primary cinnabar ore. Measurement of the Hg isotopic composition of calcine is necessary when using Hg isotopes for tracing Hg sources from areas mined for Hg, especially mine water runoff.

  6. Analytical comparison between unprepared and calcined magnetitum(Cishi)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; JIN Tongshun; YOU Juan; WANG Lu; WU Qinan

    2007-01-01

    The phases, chemical composition, surface appearance,crystal size,specific surface and thermal behavior of the unprepared and calcined forms of the mineral Magnetitum(Cishi),used as Chinese traditional medicine,were characterized by using X-ray powder diffraction,scan electron microscopy,inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectometry(ICP)and thermogravimetrie(TG).The results indicated that after calcination the main phase Fe304 of the calcined Magnetitum(Duan Cishi)remained,while the Fe203 phase disappeared.The contents of the harmful chemical elements Cd and Pb were obviously reduced,while the crystal size increased from 24.5 to 35.7 nm and surface loosened.There were different TG curves for unprepared and calcined Magnetitum(Cishi)samples on heating.The former showed two weight-losing steps(at 367.9-422.1℃ and 568.8-594.1℃),and the latter only one.These results might serve as a base for quality evaluation of Magnetitum (Cishi).

  7. Restart plan for the prototype vertical denitration calciner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-09-01

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The Restart Plan will govern the transition of the test program from the completion of the activity based startup review; through equipment checkout and surrogate material runs; to resumption of the testing program and transition to unrestricted testing.

  8. Effect of fly ash calcination in geopolymer synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadhi, Tjokorde Walmiki; Jatiningrum, Mirna; Arisiani, Gresia

    2015-12-01

    Geopolymer, a largely amorphous class of inorganic polymer consisting of aluminosilicate repeat units, is an environmentally attractive engineering material due to its ability to consume aluminosilicate waste as raw materials. This work studies the effect of the calcination temperature of a coal fly ash generated by a low-efficiency boiler on the mechanical strength of geopolymer mortar synthesized using a mixture of the fly ash, potassium hydroxide as the alkali activator, and locally available sand as the filler aggregate. The calcination temperature is varied between 500-700 °C, with a calcination period of 2 hours in an electric furnace. Two sand samples with different particle size distributions are used. The key response variable is the compressive strength at room temperature, measured after curing at 80 °C for 7 and 14 days. Uncalcined ash, with a carbon content of approximately 31.0%, is not amenable for geopolymer synthesis. Analysis of experimental data using the ANOVA method for general factorial design identifies significant main effects for all three experimental variables. Two-way interactions are significant, except that between sand type and curing period. Higher calcination temperature significantly improves the strength of the mortar. However, the strength of the obtained geopolymer mortars are still significantly lower than that of ordinary Portland cement mortar.

  9. Screening Level Risk Assessment for the New Waste Calcining Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. L. Abbott; K. N. Keck; R. E. Schindler; R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; M. B. Heiser

    1999-05-01

    This screening level risk assessment evaluates potential adverse human health and ecological impacts resulting from continued operations of the calciner at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The assessment was conducted in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, Guidance for Performing Screening Level Risk Analyses at Combustion Facilities Burning Hazardous Waste. This screening guidance is intended to give a conservative estimate of the potential risks to determine whether a more refined assessment is warranted. The NWCF uses a fluidized-bed combustor to solidify (calcine) liquid radioactive mixed waste from the INTEC Tank Farm facility. Calciner off volatilized metal species, trace organic compounds, and low-levels of radionuclides. Conservative stack emission rates were calculated based on maximum waste solution feed samples, conservative assumptions for off gas partitioning of metals and organics, stack gas sampling for mercury, and conservative measurements of contaminant removal (decontamination factors) in the off gas treatment system. Stack emissions were modeled using the ISC3 air dispersion model to predict maximum particulate and vapor air concentrations and ground deposition rates. Results demonstrate that NWCF emissions calculated from best-available process knowledge would result in maximum onsite and offsite health and ecological impacts that are less then EPA-established criteria for operation of a combustion facility.

  10. KINETICS OF SORPTION OF FLUORIDE ON CALCINED MAGNESITE IN BATCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singano, J. J.; Mashauri, D. A.; Mtalo, F. W.;

    1997-01-01

    A series of sorption of fluoride on calcined magnesite are obtained from thermostatic pH-chemostat and jar test experiments. The fluoride removal is observed not to start instantly, as normal, but after a lag time of up to ½ an hour of contact time. A model for sorption kinetics is developed, bas...

  11. Calcined Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. Staiger

    2007-06-01

    This report provides a quantitative inventory and composition (chemical and radioactivity) of calcined waste stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. From December 1963 through May 2000, liquid radioactive wastes generated by spent nuclear fuel reprocessing were converted into a solid, granular form called calcine. This report also contains a description of the calcine storage bins.

  12. Pollution and Prevention of Pb during Cement Calcination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Emission pollution and prevention measures of Pb during cement calcination were discussed. The content of Pb and the variation of composition were explored by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and X-ray diffraction. The results show that a number of Pb emits during cement calcination, F and C1 promote the emission of Pb, and Pb is enriched in kiln dust. The smaller the particle of kiln dust, the higher the content of Pb. When utilizing the raw materials with a high content of Pb, a more efficient dust collector should be used and the kiln dust should be used as the addition of cement. Pb in clinker is enriched in the intermediate phase. The reduction of silica modulus is useful to increase the solidification content of Pb in clinker. The solidification content of Pb in calcium sulphoaluminate mineral is higher than that in calcium aluminate mineral.

  13. Calcined sodium silicate as solid base catalyst for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng; Peng, Zhen-Gang; Dai, Jian-Ying; Xiu, Zhi-Long [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, School of Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2010-03-15

    This paper examined the use of calcined sodium silicate as a novel solid base catalyst in the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol. The calcined sodium silicate was characterized by DTA-TG, Hammett indicator method, XRD, SEM, BET, IR and FT-IR. It catalyzed the transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel with a yield of almost 100% under the following conditions: sodium silicate of 3.0 wt.%, a molar ratio of methanol/oil of 7.5:1, reaction time of 60 min, reaction temperature of 60 C, and stirring rate of 250 rpm. The oil containing 4.0 wt.% water or 2.5 wt.% FFA could also be transesterified by using this catalyst. The catalyst can be reused for at least 5 cycles without loss of activity. (author)

  14. Sorption of aspartic and glutamic aminoacids on calcined hydrotalcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvério, Fabiano; Dos Reis, Márcio José; Tronto, Jairo; Valim, João Barros

    2013-12-01

    Sorption of aspartic and glutamic aminoacids by regeneration of calcined hydrotalcite is reported. Hydrotalcite was synthesized by coprecipitation and calcined at 773 K. Sorption experiments were performed at 298 K and 310 K, and the results reveal that at low aminoacids equilibrium concentrations, intercalation of hydroxyl anions takes place while at high equilibrium concentrations, the sorption process occur by means re-hydration and aminoacids intercalation of hydrotalcite. The results also suggested that Asp and Glu sorption is a temperature dependent process. The amount of sorbed amino acid decreases as the temperature increase. The effect is more pronounced for Glu sorption probably due to its higher hydrophobic character, which makes the sorption more difficult in comparison with sorption of Asp at higher temperature.

  15. Mathematical modeling of a rotary hearth coke calciner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde C. Meisingset

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a rotary hearth coke calciner is developed. The model is based on first principles including the most important dynamic phenomena. The model is a thermodynamic model involving heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions. Fundamental mass and energy balance equations for the coke phase, the gas phase and the lining are formulated. For the gas phase, a stationary model is used. The equations are solved numerically, and simulated temperature profiles are shown in this paper.

  16. Atmospheric pressure plasma assisted calcination of composite submicron fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvecká, Veronika; Kováčik, Dušan; Tučeková, Zlata; Zahoranová, Anna; Černák, Mirko

    2016-08-01

    The plasma assisted calcination of composite organic/inorganic submicron fibers for the preparation of inorganic fibers in submicron scale was studied. Aluminium butoxide/polyvinylpyrrolidone fibers prepared by electrospinning were treated using low-temperature plasma generated by special type of dielectric barrier discharge, so called diffuse coplanar surface barrier discharge (DCSBD) at atmospheric pressure in ambient air, synthetic air, oxygen and nitrogen. Effect of plasma treatment on base polymer removal was investigated by using Attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Influence of working gas on the base polymer reduction was studied by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and CHNS elemental analysis. Changes in fibers morphology were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High efficiency of organic template removal without any degradation of fibers was observed after plasma treatment in ambient air. Due to the low-temperature approach and short exposure time, the plasma assisted calcination is a promising alternative to the conventional thermal calcination. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  17. Mathematical modeling of an in-line low-NOx calciner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliuta, Ion; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Jensen, Lars Skaarup

    2002-01-01

    The reduction of the NOx content in in-line-calciner-type kiln systems can be made by optimization of the primary filing in the rotary kiln and of the secondary firing in the calciner. Because the optimization of calciner offers greater opportunities the mathematical modeling of this reactor...... is very important. A heterogeneous, dynamic mathematical model for an in-line low-NOx calciner based on non-isothermal diffusion reaction models for char combustion and limestone calcination has been developed. The importance of the rate at which preheated combustion air was mixed into the main flow...

  18. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J.A.; Pincock, L.F.; Christiansen, I.N.

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has received spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim storage since 1951 and reprocessing since 1953. Until recently, the major activity of the ICPP has been the reprocessing of SNF to recover fissile uranium; however, changing world events have raised questions concerning the need to recover and recycle this material. In April 1992, DOE chose to discontinue reprocessing SNF for uranium recovery and shifted its focus toward the management and disposition of radioactive wastes accumulated through reprocessing activities. Currently, 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste) and 3,800 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) of calcine waste are in inventory at the ICPP. Legal drivers and agreements exist obligating the INEL to develop, demonstrate, and implement technologies for safe and environmentally sound treatment and interim storage of radioactive liquid and calcine waste. Candidate treatment processes and waste forms are being evaluated using the Technology Evaluation and Analysis Methodology (TEAM) Model. This process allows decision makers to (1) identify optimum radioactive waste treatment and disposal form alternatives; (2) assess tradeoffs between various optimization criteria; (3) identify uncertainties in performance parameters; and (4) focus development efforts on options that best satisfy stakeholder concerns. The Systems Analysis technology evaluation presented in this document supports the DOE in selecting the most effective radioactive liquid and calcine waste management plan to implement in compliance with established regulations, court orders, and agreements.

  19. Experimental Results of NWCF Run H4 Calcine Dissolution Studies Performed in FY-98 and -99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy Gerry; Herbst, Ronald Scott; Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Sierra, Tracy Laureena

    2001-08-01

    Dissolution experiments were performed on actual samples of NWCF Run H-4 radioactive calcine in fiscal years 1998 and 1999. Run H-4 is an aluminum/sodium blend calcine. Typical dissolution data indicates that between 90-95 wt% of H-4 calcine can be dissolved using 1gram of calcine per 10 mLs of 5-8M nitric acid at boiling temperature. Two liquid raffinate solutions composed of a WM-188/aluminum nitrate blend and a WM-185/aluminum nitrate blend were converted into calcine at the NWCF. Calcine made from each blend was collected and transferred to RAL for dissolution studies. The WM-188/aluminum nitrate blend calcine was dissolved with resultant solutions used as feed material for separation treatment experimentation. The WM-185/aluminum nitrate blend calcine dissolution testing was performed to determine compositional analyses of the dissolved solution and generate UDS for solid/liquid separation experiments. Analytical fusion techniques were then used to determine compositions of the solid calcine and UDS from dissolution. The results from each of these analyses were used to calculate elemental material balances around the dissolution process, validating the experimental data. This report contains all experimental data from dissolution experiments performed using both calcine blends.

  20. Nano-porous pottery using calcined waste sediment from tap water production as an additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangsuk, Supin; Khunthon, Srichalai; Nilpairach, Siriphan

    2010-10-01

    A suspension of sediment from a lagoon in a tap water production plant was collected for this experiment. The suspension was spray dried and calcined at 700 °C for 1 h. After calcining, 30 wt.% of the sediment were mixed with pottery clay. Samples with and without calcined sediment were sintered at 900, 1000 and 1100 °C. The results show that calcined sediment can be used as an additive in pottery clay. The samples with calcined sediment show higher porosity, water absorption and flexural strength, especially for 900 and 1000 °C. At 900 °C, samples with calcined sediment show a porosity of 50% with an average pore size of 68 nm, water absorption of 31% and flexural strength of 12.61 MPa.

  1. Effects of calcination temperature on the pore size and wall crystalline structure of mesoporous alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong-Xi; Zheng, Ting-Ting; Bo, Qi-Bing; Du, Miao; Forsling, Willis

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, mesoporous alumina with different pore sizes and wall crystalline structures was synthesized at calcination temperatures over 550 degrees C. The characterization of the samples calcined at 550, 800, 1100, and 1300 degrees C, respectively, was performed using TEM, XRD, FTIR, TG/DTA, and N2 adsorption/desorption techniques. The correlation between pore size and wall crystalline structure on calcination temperature was systematically investigated.

  2. Feasibility of Carbonaceous Nanomaterial-Assisted Photocatalysts Calcined at Different Temperatures for Indoor Air Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Kuen Jo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the characteristics and photocatalytic activity of multiwall carbon nanotube-assisted TiO2 (MWNT-TiO2 nanocomposites calcined at different temperatures to assess their potential indoor air applications. It was confirmed that the composites calcined at low temperatures (300 and 400°C contained TiO2 nanoparticles bound intimately to the MWNT networks. Meanwhile, almost no MWNTs were observed when the calcination temperature was increased to 500 and 600°C. The MWNT-TiO2 composites calcined at low temperatures showed higher photocatalytic decomposition efficiencies for aromatic hydrocarbons at indoor concentrations than those calcined at high temperatures. The mean efficiencies for benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and o-xylene (BTEX by the composite calcined at 300°C were 32, 70, 79, and 79%, respectively, whereas they were 33, 71, 78, and 78% for the composite calcined at 400°C, respectively. In contrast, the efficiencies decreased to close to zero when the calcination temperature was increased to 600°C. Moreover, the MWNT-TiO2 exhibited superior photocatalytic performance for the decomposition efficiencies compared to TiO2 under conventional UV-lamp irradiations. Consequently, these carbonaceous nanomaterial-assisted photocatalysts can be applied effectively to indoor air applications depending upon the calcination temperature.

  3. Non-Isothermal Calcination Kinetics of Phosphate Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Bayrakçeken

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of thermal decomposition of the phosphate rock was studied by means of thermal analysis techniques (TG/DTG in inert nitrogen (N2 atmosphere at heating rates of 2, 5, 10, and 20 K min-1. TG and DTG measurements indicated that calcination of the phosphate rock has single-stage degradation in between 873-1173 K. Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose (KAS and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO isoconversional methods were applied to the data obtained from TG and DTG curves and the activation energies were found as 170 ve 187 kJmol-1, respectively. It was determined that the thermal decomposition mechanism of phosphate rock was occurred via nucleation and growth (-ln(1-α2/3 mechanism. Pre-exponentional factor (lnA was determined as 20.47.

  4. Ignition Dynamic Parameters for Coke in Cement Calciners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The mathematical ignition model was established and researches of ignition dynamic parameters for coke in some typical coal samples from cement plants was carried out according to circumstances of coal combusted in cement plants.In order to get the ignitioin temperature Tpi of carbon particles more accurately,the temperature rising experimental method was used and the actual heating circumstances for pulverized coal in calciners(in cement plants)were also considered.With this method,the accurate determination of the ignition temperature of coke in coal was achieved,so as to get some ignition dynamic parameters.These research results provide a theoretical basis for investigating coal ignition characteristics more scientifically and more accurately.

  5. Microstructural changes in porous hematite nanoparticles upon calcination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Rune; Knudsen, Kenneth D.; Molenbroek, Alfons M.

    2011-01-01

    This combined study using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and adsorption isotherm techniques demonstrates radical changes in the microstructure of porous hematite (-Fe2O3) nanoparticles upon calcination in air. TEM...... images of the as-synthesized hematite sample show that it consists of subrounded nanoparticles [50 (8)–61 (11) nm in average minimum and maximum diameters] with an apparent porous structure of nanosized pores/ channels or cracks. SANS data confirm the presence of two characteristic sizes, one originating...... data reveal that the crystallite size increases significantly, and the SANS and adsorption isotherm studies suggest that the specific surface area decreases by a factor of 5–6. The TEM images show that the particles are sintered into larger agglomerates, but they also show that parts of the porous...

  6. STUDY ON HIGH ACID LEACHING REACTIVE CALCINED KAOLIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Leaching experiments on metakaolin show that the final Al extraction ratio reached in a batch reaction is strikingly influenced by the inferior pore structure geometry of the metakaolin pellets. By calcining kaolin particles adhered in low humidity state,a variety of metakaolin pellet,inside which a large openings structure developed,has been prepared. The structure remarkably benefits leachant ion transference,so,the variety has high acid leaching reactivity,even coarse as the pellets are,its aluminum extracted ratio still has a linear relationship with leaching time,and the leaching kinetics is maintained zero order up to a significant conversion degree. A revised Pellet-Particle Model has been developed to interpret the structure influence on Al extraction ratio.

  7. Test Plan for Radioactive Testing of a Vertical Direct Denitration Calciner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COMPTON, J.A.

    1999-10-05

    A vertical calciner will be used to demonstrate the direct denitration process for converting plutonium-bearing liquors to stable plutonium rich solids. The calciner and some of its associated equipment were previously tested with non-radioactive chemicals to demonstrate operability.

  8. Processing of Spent Ion Exchange Resins in a Rotary Calciner - 12212

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kascheev, Vladimir; Musatov, Nikolay [Joint Stock Company ' A.A. Bochvar High-Technology Scientific Research Institute of Inorganic Materials' (VNIINM), Rogova st., 5A (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    Processing Russian nuclear ion exchange resin KU-2 using a 'Rotary' calciner was conducted. The resulting product is a dry free flowing powder (moisture content 3 wt.%, Angle of repose of ≅ 20 deg.). Compared with the original exchange resin the volume of the final product is about 3 times less.. Rotary calciner product can be stored in metal drums or in special reinforced concrete cubicles. After thermal treatment in a rotary calciner, the spent resin product can be solidified in cement yielding the following attributes: - The cemented waste is only a 35% increase over the volume of powder product; - The volume of cement calciner product is almost 9 times less (8.7) than the volume of cement solidified resin; - The mechanical strength of cemented calciner product meets the radioactive waste regulations in Russia. (authors)

  9. Modeling of in-line low-NOx calciners - a parametric study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliuta, Ion; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Jensen, Anker;

    2002-01-01

    Simulations with a heterogeneous model of an in-line low-NOx calciner, based on non-isothermal diffusion-reaction models for char combustion and limestone calcination combined with a kinetic model for NO formation and reduction, are reported. The analysis shows that the most important hydrodynamic...... parameter is the mixing rate of preheated combustion air into the sub-stoichiometric suspension leaving the reducing zone and the most important combustion parameter is the char reactivity. Also, the calcination rate modifies very much the temperature in the calciner, char and limestone conversion...... and NO emission. Carbon monoxide is a key component for the reduction of NO and reliable data for the kinetics of NO reduction by CO over CaO are very important for the prediction of the NO emission. The internal surface area of char and limestone particles influences the combustion and calcination rates...

  10. LITERATURE REVIEW OF PUO2 CALCINATION TIME AND TEMPERATURE DATA FOR SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, G.

    2012-03-06

    The literature has been reviewed in December 2011 for calcination data of plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) from plutonium oxalate Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} precipitation with respect to the PuO{sub 2} specific surface area (SSA). A summary of the literature is presented for what are believed to be the dominant factors influencing SSA, the calcination temperature and time. The PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} calcination data from this review has been regressed to better understand the influence of calcination temperature and time on SSA. Based on this literature review data set, calcination temperature has a bigger impact on SSA versus time. However, there is still some variance in this data set that may be reflecting differences in the plutonium oxalate preparation or different calcination techniques. It is evident from this review that additional calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} needs to be collected and evaluated to better define the relationship. The existing data set has a lot of calcination times that are about 2 hours and therefore may be underestimating the impact of heating time on SSA. SRNL recommends that more calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} be collected and this literature review data set be augmented to better refine the relationship between PuO{sub 2} SSA and its calcination parameters.

  11. Calcination/dissolution chemistry development Fiscal year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1995-09-01

    The task {open_quotes}IPC Liaison and Chemistry of Thermal Reconstitution{close_quotes} is a $300,000 program that was conducted in Fiscal Year (FY) 1995 with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Research and Development (EM-53) Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program supported under technical task plan (TTP) RL4-3-20-04. The principal investigator was Cal Delegard of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The task encompassed the following two subtasks related to the chemistry of alkaline Hanford Site tank waste: (1) Technical Liaison with the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Science (IPC/RAS) and its research into the chemistry of transuranic elements (TRU) and technetium (Tc) in alkaline media. (2) Laboratory investigation of the chemistry of calcination/dissolution (C/D) (or thermal reconstitution) as an alternative to the present reference Hanford Site tank waste pretreatment flowsheet, Enhanced Sludge Washing (ESW). This report fulfills the milestone for the C/D subtask to {open_quotes}Provide End-of-Year Report on C/D Laboratory Test Results{close_quotes} due 30 September 1995. A companion report, fulfilling the milestone to provide an end-of-year report on the IPC/RAS liaison, also has been prepared.

  12. Immobilization of Penicillin G Acylase on Calcined Layered Double Hydroxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Ling-ling; HE Jing; Evans D. G.; DUAN Xue

    2003-01-01

    A hydrotalcite-like Mg2+/Al3+ layered double hydroxide(LDH) material was prepared by means of a modified coprecipitation method involving a rapid mixing step followed by a separate aging process. LDH calcined at 500 ℃, denoted as CLDH, was characterized by XRD, IR and BET surface area measurements. CLDH has a poor crystalline MgO-like structure with a high surface area and porosity. CLDH was used as a support for the immobilization of penicillin G acylase(PGA). The effect of varying the immobilization conditions, such as pH, contact time and the ratio of enzyme to support, on the activity of the immobilized enzyme in the hydrolysis of penicillin G has been studied. It was found that the activity of the immobilized enzyme decreased slightly with decreasing pH and reached a maximum after a contact time of 24 h. The activity of the immobilized enzyme increased with increasing the ratio of enzyme to support. It was found that the adsorption of PGA inhibited the expected reaction of CLDH with an aqueous medium to regenerate a LDH phase. Its original activity(36%) after 15 cycles of reuse of the immobilized enzyme was retained, but no further loss in the activity was observed.

  13. SYNTHESIS OF SnO2 NANOCRYSTALS BY SOLID STATE REACTION FOLLOWED BY CALCINATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanmin Gao; Li Pang; Hongwei Che; Xiaoping Zhou

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline SnO2 was synthesized by direct mixing and grinding of SnCl4·5H2O and NaOH at roomtemperature, followed by calcination at different temperatures for different times in air. Product samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope, revealing that the amorphous precursor SnO2 was transformed to crystals at 200 ℃ for 3 h, and that the average particle size increased upon raising the calcining temperature or prolonging the calcining time. The mechanism of the phase transformation of the products is discussed.

  14. Effect of Heat Treatment Temperature on Properties of Chinese Calcined Flint Clay Based Plastic Refractories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; DAI Wenyong; YU Xinfeng; LI Liang

    2009-01-01

    Effects of different heat treatment temperatures on properties of Chinese calcined flint clay based plastic refractories were investigated using Chinese calcined flint clay as starting material,aluminum sulfate and fireclay as binding system.The results showed that with temperature rising,Chinese calcined flint clay based plastic refractories shrinked firstly and then expanded.The modulus of rupture (MOR) and the cold crushing strength (CCS) increased firstly and then decreased from 110 ℃ to 600 ℃,then increased obviously.Thermal expansion coefficient increased from 110 ℃ to 760 ℃,decreased from 760 ℃ to 1 300 ℃,and increased from 1 300 ℃ to 1 500 ℃.

  15. 煤矸石煅烧实验研究%Coal Gangue Calcined Experimental Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏星

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the three major factors affecting coal gangue calcined whitening and structure changes before and after calcination,points out that the calcination process selection is the ket section,but the factors is associated,mutual penetration,should not be ignored.%论述了影响煤矸石煅烧增白的三大因素及煅烧前后的结构变化,指出煅烧工艺选择是关键,但各因素又是相关连、互相渗透的,都不应忽视。

  16. Mechanism of Calcined Phosphogypsum for the Volume Change of Blended Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes an investigation into the volume change of cement mortar specimen at the three kinds of different curing schedules including 20℃ and 5% Na2SO4 solution curing, tap water standard curing, 50% RH curing for 90 days. The testing results of hydration heat, chemical shrinking and XRD prove that calcined phosphogypsum has evident excitation effect on the activity of high calcium ash and steel slag. Simultaneously, calcined phosphogypsum has the function of decreasing volume shrinkage to blended cement possessing steel slag and high calcium ash. In sulfate curing, calcined phosphogypsum can avoid the phenomenon of protrude apex of the blended cement.

  17. Thermodynamic Modeling of the Chemical Composition of Calcine at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Frazee; J. D. Christian

    2004-02-01

    To send calcine produced at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to the Yucca Mountain Project for disposal, characterization information will be required. To sample calcine from its existing storage location would require extensive personnel exposure. Sufficient analyses of the chemical composition of the calcine would be extremely difficult and very expensive. In support of characterization development, the chemical composition of calcine from Bin 3 of Calcine Solid Storage Facility II was thermodynamic modeled. This calcine was produced in the Waste Calcination Facility during its second processing campaign, operating with indirect heating at 400 C and 0.744 bar (0.734 atm) during processing of aluminum high-level liquid waste (first cycle extraction raffinate from reprocessing aluminum-clad fuels) from tanks WM-180 and -182 from December 27, 1966 through August 26, 1967. The current modeling effort documents the input compositional data (liquid feed and calciner off-gas) for Batches 300 - 620 and a methodology for estimating the calcine chemical composition. The results, along with assumptions and limitations of the thermodynamic calculations, will serve as a basis for benchmarking subsequent calculations. This will be done by comparing the predictions against extensive analytical results that are currently being obtained on representative samples of the modeled calcine. A commercial free-energy minimization program and database, HSC 5.1, was used to perform the thermodynamic calculations. Currently available experimental data and process information on the calcine were used to make judgments about specific phases and compounds to include and eliminate in the thermodynamic calculations. Some off-gas species were eliminated based on kinetics restrictions evidenced by experimental data and other estimates, and some calcine components and off-gas compounds were eliminated as improbable species (unreliable thermodynamic data). The current Yucca

  18. Test Plan for Radioactive Testing of a Vertical Direct Denitration Calciner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COMPTON, J.A.

    2000-02-03

    Stored solutions containing plutonium and nitric acid and possibly uranium thorium and minor amounts of other substances will be used for development and demonstration of a vertical calciner direct denitration process for conversion of those to stable storable PuO{sub 2} rich solids. Some of those solutions are quite dilute and very impure these require either pretreatment to make them suitable for calciner feed or an alternate stabilization method. Untreated scrap solutions containing some amounts of sulfate phosphate sodium and/or potassium may also be tested for suitability of direct denitration for conversion directly to PuO{sub 2}-rich solids. A vertical calciner will be used to demonstrate the direct denitration process for converting plutonium-bearing liquors to stable plutonium rich solids. The calciner and some of its associated equipment were previously tested with non-radioactive chemicals to demonstrate operability.

  19. Decomposition of bastnasite and monazite mixed rare earth minerals calcined byalkali liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yanhui; LIU Haijiao; MENG Zhijun; CUI Jianguo; ZHAO Wenyi; LI Liangcai

    2012-01-01

    The process of decomposion of the bastnasite and monazite rare earth concentrates by alkali solutions was investigated.The mixed slurries of the rare earth concentrates and the alkali solutions were calcined at different temperatures in a rotary tubular electric furnace.The effects of calcination temperature on the decomposing ratio of rare earth,the oxidation ratio of cerium,the stripping of fluorine and phosphorous after calcinations,and the adaptability of the process to the mixed rare earth concentrates of different grade were studied.The results showed that the decomposition ratio of rare earth and the oxidation ratio of cerium could reach 95.8% and 93.7%,respectively,while the calcinating temperature was above 300 ℃.

  20. Test Plan for Radioactive Testing of a Vertical Direct Denitration Calciner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COMPTON, J.A.

    2000-02-03

    Stored solutions containing plutonium and nitric acid and possibly uranium thorium and minor amounts of other substances will be used for development and demonstration of a vertical calciner direct denitration process for conversion of those to stable storable PuO{sub 2} rich solids. Some of those solutions are quite dilute and very impure these require either pretreatment to make them suitable for calciner feed or an alternate stabilization method. Untreated scrap solutions containing some amounts of sulfate phosphate sodium and/or potassium may also be tested for suitability of direct denitration for conversion directly to PuO{sub 2}-rich solids. A vertical calciner will be used to demonstrate the direct denitration process for converting plutonium-bearing liquors to stable plutonium-rich solids. The calciner and some of its ancillary equipment were previously tested with non-radioactive chemicals to demonstrate operability.

  1. Kinetics Analysis on Mixing Calcination Process of Fly Ash and Ammonium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Wang; Laishi Li; Dezhou Wei

    2014-01-01

    abstract The further development of the extraction of alumina that is produced in the calcination process of ammonium sulfate mixed with fly ash was limited because of the lack of systematic theoretical study. In order to aggrandize the research of the calcination process, the kinetics and reaction mechanism of the calcinations were studied. The result suggests that there are two stages in the calcination process, and the alumina extraction rate increases swiftly in the initial stage, but slows down increasing in the later stage. The apparent activation energy of the initial and later stages equals to 13.31 and 35.65 kJ·mol-1, respectively. In the initial stage, ammonium sulfate reacts directly with mullite in the fly ash to form ammonium aluminum sulfate, while in the later stage, alumi-num sulfate is formed by the reaction between ammonium aluminum sulfate and ammonium sulfate.

  2. Bovine Calcined Bone for the Repair of Radial Defect in a Rabbit Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the bovine calcined bone's ability of repairing segmental bone defect and seek a new artificial bone substitute material, the bovine calcined bone (450℃,32 h) was implanted into the 10-mm middle radial defect of rabbits with tricalcium phosphate ceramics as the control. By using the methods of histology, radiology and biomechanics their osteogenic ability were measured. It was found that the bovine calcined bone's ability of repairing bone defect was better than that of tricalcium phosphate ceramics. The histological Nilsson′s scores at 3rd, 5th, 9th week after operation were significantly increased (P<0.01). At 12th week after operation the bending strength of radius in experimental group was much higher than that of control group and turned normal. It was suggested that bovine calcined bone is an ideal artificial bone substitute material with good ability of repairing segmental bone defect and some degree of mechanical strength.

  3. Synthesis of Dy2O3 nanoparticles via hydroxide precipitation:effect of calcination temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahaa M. Abu-Zied; Abdullah M. Asiri

    2014-01-01

    This work described the preparation of dysprosium oxide, Dy2O3, nanoparticles using the homogeneous precipitation method. Dy3+ions were precipitated using NaOH solution. The obtained product was filtered, dried, and then calcined for 1 h at the temperature range of 300-700 °C in static air. The calcination temperature of the Dy-precursor was chosen based on its decomposi-tion as indicated by the TGA analysis. The crystalline structure and surface morphology of the calcined solids were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray pho-toelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The obtained results revealed that Dy2O3 with crystallites size of 11-21 nm was formed at 500 °C. Such value increased to 25-37 nm for the sample calcined at 700 °C.

  4. Effect of Calcination Conditions on the Performance of Co-precipitation Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Kai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fe-Co-Ce composite catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation method, and the effect of calcination temperature and calcination time on the performances of the Fe-Co-Ce composite catalysts were investigated. The results indicated that the optimum calcination temperature and calcination time of the Fe-Co-Ce composite catalysts were 450 °C and 7 h, respectively. Using the catalysts which prepared under the optimum calcination conditions catalytic wet oxidation of methyl orange simulated wastewater, after 90 min, the COD, COD removal rate, absorbance, decolorization rate and pH of the methyl orange simulated wastewater were 737.7, 70.5%, 0.348, 95.3%, and 5.31, respectively. According to the analyses of the SEM, FTIR, and TG-DTA curves, the components of the catalysts which prepared under the optimum calcination conditions distributed evenly, and the chemical compositions of the catalysts including C-O, -OH, and H-O-H, showing a good thermal stability.

  5. Origin of Activity and Stability Enhancement for Ag3PO4 Photocatalyst after Calcination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyu Dong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pristine Ag3PO4 microspheres were synthesized by a co-precipitation method, followed by being calcined at different temperatures to obtain a series of calcined Ag3PO4 photocatalysts. This work aims to investigate the origin of activity and stability enhancement for Ag3PO4 photocatalyst after calcination based on the systematical analyses of the structures, morphologies, chemical states of elements, oxygen defects, optical absorption properties, separation and transfer of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, and active species. The results indicate that oxygen vacancies (VO˙˙ are created and metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are formed by the reaction of partial Ag+ in Ag3PO4 semiconductor with the thermally excited electrons from Ag3PO4 and then deposited on the surface of Ag3PO4 microspheres during the calcination process. Among the calcined Ag3PO4 samples, the Ag3PO4-200 sample exhibits the best photocatalytic activity and greatly enhanced photocatalytic stability for photodegradation of methylene blue (MB solution under visible light irradiation. Oxygen vacancies play a significantly positive role in the enhancement of photocatalytic activity, while metallic Ag has a very important effect on improving the photocatalytic stability. Overall, the present work provides some powerful evidences and a deep understanding on the origin of activity and stability enhancement for the Ag3PO4 photocatalyst after calcination.

  6. Effect of Calcination Temperature on Morphological and Topography of Nickel-Alumina Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwani Khairul Ilman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dip coating process promises good potential of nickel-alumina catalyst deposition on metal substrate for various applications especially in gas conversion reaction. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different calcination temperature on nickel-alumina catalysts thin film formation. Four different calcination temperature were used, which are 300°C, 400°C, 500°C and 600°C. The calculation process was conducted for a duration of 90 minutes. The deposited thin films were characterized using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM and X-ray diffraction (XRD equipment. The AFM result showed that the surface roughness of the nickel-alumina increase proportionally from 56 to 275 nm when the calcination temperature increased from 300 to 600°C. From an observation at high calcination temperature, the atom of grains assisted diffusion at the crystallite point causing grain with lower surface energy become larger. As the calcination temperature increase, the surface profile becomes rough and uneven representing high surface roughness. Thus, the effect of calcination temperature greatly influences the surface roughness of the nickel-alumina thin film.

  7. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume III: Engineering design files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The following information was calculated to support cost estimates and radiation exposure calculations for closure activities at the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). Within the estimate, volumes were calculated to determine the required amount of grout to be used during closure activities. The remaining calcine on the bin walls, supports, piping, and floor was also calculated to approximate the remaining residual calcine volumes at different stages of the removal process. The estimates for remaining calcine and vault void volume are higher than what would actually be experienced in the field, but are necessary for bounding purposes. The residual calcine in the bins may be higher than was is experienced in the field as it was assumed that the entire bin volume is full of calcine before removal activities commence. The vault void volumes are higher as the vault roof beam volumes were neglected. The estimations that follow should be considered rough order of magnitude, due to the time constraints as dictated by the project`s scope of work. Should more accurate numbers be required, a new analysis would be necessary.

  8. Characterization of magnetic biochar amended with silicon dioxide prepared at high temperature calcination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baig Shams Ali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Calcination is considered to increase the hardness of composite material and prevent its breakage for the effective applications in environmental remediation. In this study, magnetic biochar amended with silicon dioxide was calcined at high temperature under nitrogen environment and characterized using various techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis revealed elimination of Fe3O4 peaks under nitrogen calcination and formation of Fe3Si and iron as major constituents of magnetic biochar-SiO2 composite, which demonstrated its superparamagnetic behavior (>80 A2·kg−1 comparable to magnetic biochar. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA revealed that both calcined samples generated higher residual mass (>96 % and demonstrated better thermal stability. The presence of various bands in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR was more obvious and the elimination of H–O–H bonding was observed at high temperature calcination. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM images revealed certain morphological variation among the samples and the presence of more prominent internal and external pores, which then judged the surface area and pore volume of samples. Findings from this study suggests that the selective calcination process could cause useful changes in the material composites and can be effectively employed in environmental remediation measures.

  9. Adsorptive removal of phosphate from aqueous solutions using raw and calcinated dolomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, S; Gürses, A; Ejder, M; Açikyildiz, M

    2006-02-06

    This study explored the feasibility of utilizing raw and calcinated dolomite under CO2 atmosphere for phosphate removal in laboratory experiments. The experimental work emphasized the evaluation of phosphate adsorption characteristics of this adsorbent material. Studies were conducted to delineate the effect of contact time, initial phosphate concentration, temperature, pH, stirring speed, adsorbent dose and calcination temperature. Phosphate removal decreased with increasing temperature and slightly increased with increasing of pH. The observed decrease in the adsorption capacity with increase of the temperature from 20 to 40 and to 60 degrees C indicates that the low temperatures favor the phosphate removal by adsorption onto dolomite. Phosphate removal was seen to decrease with increasing calcination temperature due to the structural changes occurring in the structure and pore size distribution of dolomite samples during calcination. The experimental data obtained were applied to the Freundlich, Langmuir, BET, Halsey, Harkins-Jura, Smith and Henderson isotherm equations to test the fit of these equations to raw and calcinated dolomite samples. By considering the experimental results and adsorption models applied in this study, it can be concluded that adsorption of phosphate occurs predominantly through physical interactions, and the dolomite sample has a heteroporous structure. The large values of the constants for Henderson equation and the high value of y(m) obtained from BET equation indicate the microporous structure is more stable in raw and calcinated dolomite samples.

  10. Carbon dioxide absorption and release properties of pyrolysis products of dolomite calcined in vacuum atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Kuzuya, Toshihiro; Hirai, Shinji; Li, Jihua; Li, Te

    2014-01-01

    The decomposition of dolomite into CaO and MgO was performed at 1073 K in vacuum and at 1273 K in an Ar atmosphere. The dolomite calcined in vacuum was found to have a higher specific surface area and a higher micropore volume when compared to the dolomite calcined in the Ar atmosphere. These pyrolysis products of dolomite were reacted with CO2 at 673 K for 21.6 ks. On the absorption of CO2, the formation of CaCO3 was observed. The degree of absorption of the dolomite calcined in vacuum was determined to be above 50%, which was higher than the degree of absorption of the dolomite calcined in the Ar atmosphere. The CO2 absorption and release procedures were repeated three times for the dolomite calcined in vacuum. The specific surface area and micropore volume of calcined dolomite decreased with successive repetitions of the CO2 absorption and release cycles leading to a decrease in the degree of absorption of CO2.

  11. Influence of Light Calcining Hydration of Magnesite on MgO Sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Huan; YU Jingkun; KUANG Shibo

    2009-01-01

    Sintered magnesia clinker (also called sintered MgO ) was prepared with Mg(OH)2 (prepared by light calcining hydration of magnesite) and magnesite as starting materials, respectively, by the technical process : light calcining (850 ℃ 1 h )→grinding → molding →firing ( 1 600 ℃ 3 h ). The morphology and struc-ture of light calcined MgO powders prepared with mag-nesite or Mg(OH)2 were analyzed by XRD, SEM and FT-IR. The sinterability and microstructure of sintered magnesia prepared with magnesite or Mg(OH)2 were re-searched. The results showed that: (1) light calcined MgO powders prepared with magnesite or Mg (OH)2 were both face-centered cubic structure. The light cal-cined MgO prepared with magnesitehad the residual of functional group CO32- , and that prepared with Mg (OH)2 didn't have CO32-, and was easy to break, which reduced the grinding time. (2) Because of the high activity of the light calcined MgO prepared with Mg(OH)2 and the catalysis of the water residual in the decomposing process of Mg(OH)2, the apparent porosity of sintered magnesia decreased to 0.6% from 2.0% of before hydration, closed porosity decreased to 2.8% from 6.1%, and bulk density increased to 3.46 g·cm-3 from 3.29 g·cm-3

  12. Transportation and transformation of mercury in a calcine profile in the Wanshan Mercury Mine, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Runsheng; Gu, Chunhao; Feng, Xinbin; Zheng, Lirong; Hu, Ningning

    2016-12-01

    Calcination of Hg ores has resulted in serious contamination of mercury (Hg) in the environment. To understand the mobilization of Hg in the calcine pile, the speciation of Hg in a profile of a large calcine pile in the Wanshan Mercury Mine, SW China was investigated using the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES), to understand the mobilization of Hg in the calcine pile. Higher concentrations of Hg were observed at the 30-50 cm depth of the profile, corresponding to a cemented layer. This layer is observed in the entire pile, and was formed due to cementation of calcines. Hg species in calcines include cinnabar (α-HgS), metacinnabar (β-HgS), elemental Hg(0), and minor mercuric chloride (HgCl2), but these Hg species show dramatic changes in the profile. Variations in Hg speciation suggest that extensive mobilization of Hg can occur during weathering processes. We show that the cemented layer can prevent the leaching of Hg and the emission of Hg(0) from the pile. High MeHg concentrations were found near the cemented layer, indicating Hg methylation occurs. This study provides important insights into the environmental risk of Hg in mining areas.

  13. Design and performance of a full-scale spray calciner for nonradioactive high-level-waste-vitrification studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, F.A.

    1981-06-01

    In the spray calcination process, liquid waste is spray-dried in a heated-wall spray dryer (termed a spray calciner), and then it may be combined in solid form with a glass-forming frit. This mixture is then melted in a continuous ceramic melter or in an in-can melter. Several sizes of spray calciners have been tested at PNL- laboratory scale, pilot scale and full scale. Summarized here is the experience gained during the operation of PNL's full-scale spray calciner, which has solidified approx. 38,000 L of simulated acid wastes and approx. 352,000 L of simulated neutralized wastes in 1830 h of processing time. Operating principles, operating experience, design aspects, and system descriptions of a full-scale spray calciner are discussed. Individual test run summaries are given in Appendix A. Appendices B and C are studies made by Bechtel Inc., under contract by PNL. These studies concern, respectively, feed systems for the spray calciner process and a spray calciner vibration analysis. Appendix D is a detailed structural analysis made at PNL of the spray calciner. These appendices are included in the report to provide a complete description of the spray calciner and to include all major studies made concerning PNL's full-scale spray calciner.

  14. Determination of the Rate of Formation of Hydroceramic Waste Forms made with INEEL Calcined Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry Scheetz; Johnson Olanrewaju

    2001-10-15

    The formulation, synthesis, characterization and hydration kinetics of hydroceramic waste forms designed as potential hosts for existing INEEL calcine high-level wastes have been established as functions of temperature and processing time. Initial experimentations were conducted with several aluminosilicate pozzolanic materials, ranging from fly ash obtained from various power generating coal and other combustion industries to reactive alumina, natural clays and ground bottled glass powders. The final selection criteria were based on the ease of processing, excellent physical properties and chemical durability (low-leaching) determined from the PCT test produced in hydroceramic. The formulation contains vermiculite, Sr(NO32), CsC1, NaOH, thermally altered (calcined natural clay) and INEEL simulated calcine high-level nuclear wastes and 30 weight percent of fluorinel blend calcine and zirconia calcine. Syntheses were carried out at 75-200 degree C at autogeneous water pressure (100% relative humidity) at various time intervals. The resulting monolithic compact products were hard and resisted breaking when dropped from a 5 ft height. Hydroceramic host mixed with fluorinel blend calcine and processed at 75 degree C crumbled into rice hull-side grains or developed scaly flakes. However, the samples equally possessed the same chemical durability as their unbroken counterparts. Phase identification by XRD revealed that hydroceramic host crystallized type zeolite at 75-150 degree C and NaP1 at 175-200 degree C in addition to the presence of quartz phase originating from the clay reactant. Hydroceramic host mixed with either fluorinel blend calcine or zirconia calcine crystallized type A zeolite at 75-95 degree C, formed a mixture of type A zeolite and hydroxysodalite at 125-150 degree C and hydroxysodalite at 175-200 degree C. Quartz, calcium fluoride and zirconia phases from the clay reactant and the two calcine wastes were also detected. The PCT test solution

  15. Influence of acid leaching and calcination on iron removal of coal kaolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-wang Zhu; Wei-qiang Zeng; Xiu-lin Xu; Le-ming Cheng; Xiao Jiang; Zheng-lun Shi

    2014-01-01

    Calcination and acid leaching of coal kaolin were studied to determine an effective and economical preparation method of calcined kaolin. Thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated that 900°C was the suitable temperature for the calcination. Leaching tests showed that hydrochloric acid was more effective for iron dissolution from raw coal kaolin (RCK), whereas oxalic acid was more effective on iron dissolution from calcined coal kaolin (CCK). The iron dissolution from CCK was 28.78wt%, which is far less effective than the 54.86wt% of RCK under their respective optimal conditions. Through analysis by using Mössbauer spectroscopy, it is detected that nearly all of the structural ferrous ions in RCK were removed by hydrochloric acid. However, iron sites in CCK changed slightly by oxalic acid leaching because nearly all ferrous ions were transformed into ferric species after firing at 900°C. It can be concluded that it is difficult to remove the structural ferric ions and ferric oxides evolved from the structural ferrous ions. Thus, iron removal by acids should be conducted prior to calcination.

  16. Effect of Calcined Temperature on the Solubility of Trace Elements from Manifanshi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Hanlie; TIE Liyun; BIAN Qiujuan; ZHOU Yong

    2006-01-01

    A medical stone manifanshi were researched by using polarized light microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) methods. The XRD pattern of the raw Manifanshi indicates that it is dominantly composed of plagioclase, orthoclase, quartz, and that of the calcined Manifanshi at 1000 ℃ shows that the distortion of crystal structure in both plagioclase and orthoclase takes place at the calcined temperature. The polarized light microscopy observation suggests that the Manifanshi is naturally weathered monzo-granite porphyry. Chemical analyses reveal that the Manifanshi contains a number of healthful trace elements and rare toxic trace elements, therefore, it is a high quality Manifanshi. The solubility of trace elements was determined by measuring the concentration of trace elements from Manifanshi calcined under varying temperature conditions by ICP method, the results suggest that the calcined product at 1000 ℃ shows the ideal result in ionic concentrations and dissolution rate of trace elements in water, which is contributed to the distortion of the crystal structure of feldspar at the calcined temperature.

  17. Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter high-level waste solidification technical manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E. (ed.)

    1980-09-01

    This technical manual summarizes process and equipment technology developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory over the last 20 years for vitrification of high-level liquid waste by the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process. Pacific Northwest Laboratory experience includes process development and demonstration in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale equipment using nonradioactive synthetic wastes. Also, laboratory- and pilot-scale process demonstrations have been conducted using actual high-level radioactive wastes. In the course of process development, more than 26 tonnes of borosilicate glass have been produced in 75 canisters. Four of these canisters contained radioactive waste glass. The associated process and glass chemistry is discussed. Technology areas described include calciner feed treatment and techniques, calcination, vitrification, off-gas treatment, glass containment (the canister), and waste glass chemistry. Areas of optimization and site-specific development that would be needed to adapt this base technology for specific plant application are indicated. A conceptual Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter system design and analyses are provided in the manual to assist prospective users in evaluating the process for plant application, to provide equipment design information, and to supply information for safety analyses and environmental reports. The base (generic) technology for the Spray Calciner/In-Can Melter process has been developed to a point at which it is ready for plant application.

  18. Effects of nanosized metallic palladium loading and calcination on characteristics of composite silica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉程; 吴侠; 李广海; 张立德

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of nanosized metallic palladium loading and calcination on the characteristics of composite silica,the silica was prepared by sol-gel technique,leading to an amorphous solid with mesoporosity,and the pore size distribution is narrow,centered at 3-5 nm.The composite silica was formed by impregnating palladium precursor into the porous network with sequel calcination in hydrogen.The results show that the nanosized palladium as guest phase in the composite silica is subjected to the mesoporous structure and calcination,resulting in the changes of optical adsorption that red-shifted to higher wavelength with the palladium loading and the heating temperature.The tailoring of the optical properties can be ascribed to the effect of the nanosized metal particles and interactions occurred between palladium and silica.

  19. Ce - promoted catalyst from hydrotalcites for CO2 reforming of methane: calcination temperature effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Daza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ce-promoted Ni-catalysts from hydrotalcites were obtained. The effect of calcination temperature on the chemical and physical properties of the catalysts was studied. Several techniques were used to determine the chemical and physical characteristics of oxides. The apparent activation energies of reduction were determined. Catalytic experiments at 48 L g-1h-1 without pre-reduction in CO2 reforming of methane were performed. The spinel-like phase in these oxides was only formed at 1000 ºC. The reduction of Ni2+ in the oxides was clearly affected by the calcination temperature which was correlated with catalytic performance. The catalyst calcined at 700 ºC showed the greatest activity.

  20. Effect of fly ash preliminary calcination on the properties of geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temuujin, J; van Riessen, A

    2009-05-30

    The influence of preliminary calcination of fly ashes on the geopolymerisation process has been studied. Preliminary calcination at 500 and 800 degrees C causes decarbonation of the fly ash while it also leads to a decrease of the amorphous content of the fly ashes from 60 to 57%. Geopolymer prepared using raw fly ash exhibited a compressive strength 55.7(9.2)MPa, while for 500 and 800 degrees C calcined samples it reduced to 54(5.8) and 44.4(5.4)MPa, respectively. The decrease in compressive strength of the geopolymers is discussed in terms of partial surface crystallisation of the fly ash particles. Reactivity of the fly ash also has been correlated with the shrinkage rate and presence of efflorescence on the surface of geopolymers.

  1. Mensuration of microstructure multi-fractal spectra of calcined limestone particle surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianyu Shang; Songling Wang; Chunbo Wang; Chunchang Song

    2010-01-01

    The microstructure of the surface of a calcined limestone particle is multi-fractal.We develop an analytic method that surveys the boundary curve multi-fractal dimensions with SEM,gets a three-dimensional surface structure α-f(α)curve via zero-sets,and finally calculates the multi-fractal spectrum values of the particle surface's microstructural topography.After analyzing two spectra from limestone particles calcined at 850 ℃ and 900 ℃,it was shown that the microstructural topographies of the surfaces of calcined limestone multi-particle system have some degree of self-similarity.This mensuration method is proposed to describe the multi-fractal characteristics of a micro-scale particle's surface topography.

  2. Numerical study of co-firing pulverized coal and biomass inside a cement calciner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulčić, Hrvoje; von Berg, Eberhard; Vujanović, Milan; Duić, Neven

    2014-07-01

    The use of waste wood biomass as fuel is increasingly gaining significance in the cement industry. The combustion of biomass and particularly co-firing of biomass and coal in existing pulverized-fuel burners still faces significant challenges. One possibility for the ex ante control and investigation of the co-firing process are computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical analysis of co-firing pulverized coal and biomass in a cement calciner. Numerical models of pulverized coal and biomass combustion were developed and implemented into a commercial CFD code FIRE, which was then used for the analysis. Three-dimensional geometry of a real industrial cement calciner was used for the analysis. Three different co-firing cases were analysed. The results obtained from this study can be used for assessing different co-firing cases, and for improving the understanding of the co-firing process inside the calculated calciner.

  3. Heavy metal removal from acid mine drainage by calcined eggshell and microalgae hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the use of calcined eggshells and microalgae for the removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage (AMD) and the simultaneous enhancement of biomass productivity. The experiment was conducted over a period of 6 days in a hybrid system containing calcined eggshells and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. The results show that the biomass productivity increased to ~8.04 times its initial concentration of 0.367 g/L as measured by an optical panel photobioreactor (OPPBR) and had a light transmittance of 95 % at a depth of 305 mm. On the other hand, the simultaneous percent removal of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, As, and Cd from the AMD effluent was found to be 99.47 to 100 %. These results indicate that the hybrid system with calcined eggshells and microalgae was highly effective for heavy metal removal in the AMD.

  4. Effect of Different Calcination Duration on Physicochemical Properties of Vanadium Phosphate Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium phosphate catalysts have been prepared by calcining VOHPO44·0.5H2O which were prepared via two methods i.e. organic (VPO method and dihydrate (VPD method routes for different duration under anaerobic atmosphere. Increasing the calcinations duration led to a decrease in total surface area. It is also promote the formation of V5+ phase in the catalysts. Scanning electron microscopy clearly revealed that the morphologies of all catalysts composed of plate-like crystallites that were arranged into the characteristic of rosette cluster. However, by increasing the pretreatment duration in an inert environment, the rosette-shape of the clusters which normally obtained in reaction condition was collapsed. Prolong the duration of N2 calcination also resulted in an increment in the amount of oxygen desorbed (from O2-TPD and removed (obtained from H2-TPR.

  5. Effects of Calcination Condition on Porous Reduced Titanium Oxides and Oxynitrides via Preceramic Polymer Route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, George; Sato, Tatsuya; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Ren, Yang; Kobayashi, Yoji; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Abe, Takeshi; Nakanishi, Kazuki

    2015-03-16

    The preceramic polymer route from titanium-based inorganic-organic hybrid networks provides electro conductive N-doped reduced titanium oxides (TinO2n–1) and titanium oxynitrides (TiOxNy) with a monolithic shape as well as well-defined porous structure. This methodology demonstrates advantageously lower temperature of crystal phase transition compared to the reduction of TiO2 by carbon or H2. In this study, effects of calcination condition on various features of the products have been explored by adopting three different atmospheric conditions and varying the calcination temperature. The detailed crystallographic and elemental analyses disclose the distinguished difference in phase transition behavior with respect to calcination atmosphere. Correlation between the crystallization and nitridation behaviors, porous properties and electric conductivities in the final products has been discussed.

  6. ICPP radioactive liquid and calcine waste technologies evaluation final report and recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    Using a formalized Systems Engineering approach, the Latched Idaho Technologies Company developed and evaluated numerous alternatives for treating, immobilizing, and disposing of radioactive liquid and calcine wastes at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. Based on technical analysis data as of March, 1995, it is recommended that the Department of Energy consider a phased processing approach -- utilizing Radionuclide Partitioning for radioactive liquid and calcine waste treatment, FUETAP Grout for low-activity waste immobilization, and Glass (Vitrification) for high-activity waste immobilization -- as the preferred treatment and immobilization alternative.

  7. Study of as-synthesized and calcined hydrocalumites as possible antacid agents

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carlos F Linares; Freddy Ocanto; Pablo Bretto; Maricela Monsalve

    2014-06-01

    A hydrocalumite-type solid was synthesized by the homogeneous co-precipitation method by using Ca and Al nitrate solutions in a basic medium (NaOH). This solid was calcined at 700 and 900 °C, respectively. Then, solids were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT–IR spectroscopy and BET surface area measurements. Finally, these solids were tested as antacids by using a synthetic gastric juice. Results showed that calcined samples were able to neutralize the synthetic gastric juice in more extension as an as-synthesized hydrocalumite; however, the last solid showed better conditions as a potential antacid.

  8. Study of structural transformations and phases formation upon calcination of Zn–Ni–Al hydrotalcite nanosheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhanshuang Li; Yanchao Song; Jun Wang; Qi Liu; Piaoping Yang; Milin Zhang

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we describe a general process for the synthesis of highly crystalline Zn–Ni–Al hydrotalcitelike materials. The structure and thermal decomposition of the prepared samples are studied by XRD, FT–IR, TG–DSC, SEM, TEM and N2 adsorption/desorption. The morphology of large-sized, porous and hexagonal platelike Zn–Ni–Al hydrotalcite is affected by calcination temperature. BET specific surface area and pore volume are observed to increase with increase of the calcination temperature up to 700°C followed by a further decrease with increasing temperature.

  9. Influence of calcinated and non calcinated nanobioglass particles on hardness and bioactivity of sol-gel-derived TiO2-SiO2 nano composite coatings on stainless steel substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadash, Mohammad Saleh; Karbasi, Saeed; Esfahani, Mojtaba Nasr; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Reza; Vali, Hojatollah

    2011-04-01

    Thick films of calcinated and non calcinated nanobioglass (NBG)-titania composite coatings were prepared on stainless steel substrates by alkoxide sol-gel process. Dip-coating method was used for the films preparation. The morphology, structure and composition of the nano composite films were evaluated using environmental scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope. The SEM investigation results showed that prepared thick NBG-titania films are smooth and free of macrocracking, fracture or flaking. The grain size of these films was uniform and nano scale (50-60 nm) which confirmed with TEM. Also FTIR confirmed the presence of Si-O-Si bands on the calcinated NBG-titania films. The hardness of the prepared films (TiO(2)-calcinated NBG and TiO(2)-Non calcinated NBG) was compared by using micro hardness test method. The results verified that the presence of calcinated NBG particles in NBG-titania composite enhanced gradually the mechanical data of the prepared films. The in vitro bioactivity of these films was discussed based on the analysis of the variations of Ca and P concentrations in the simulated body fluid (SBF) and their surface morphologies against immersion time. Surface morphology and Si-O-Si bands were found to be of great importance with respect to the bioactivity of the studied films. The results showed that calcinated NBG-titania films have better bioactivity than non calcinated NBG-titania films.

  10. 石油焦煅烧技术方案比较%Comparison of calcination technical schemes of petroleum coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆二军; 刘慧

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents comparisons of different calcination technologies,such as the vertical shaft calciner, rotary kiln,rotary hearth furnace and electrically calcined furnace. The comparisons from process performance perspective, thermodynamic principle, calcination technology, calcination product quality, environment of engineering construction and the main technical and economic indexes etc., are made. The characteristics of different calcination technologies in the production of anode used in aluminum industry are discussed, the advantages and disadvantages of different calcination technology are analyzed, and further optimizing for the design and operation of the main calcination technology is pointed out.%对罐式炉、回转窑、回转床、电煅炉等炭素煅烧处理方式从工艺流程、热工原理、煅烧工艺技术、煅烧质量、工程建设环境及主要技术经济指标等方面进行综合比较;基于目前生石油焦质量与供应等情况,讨论了石油焦煅烧技术对生产铝用阳极焦的适应性;分析了不同煅烧方式的优缺点,提出了对主要煅烧技术需进一步优化设计与工艺操作的建议.

  11. Effect of sulfuric acid concentration of bentonite and calcination time of pillared bentonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Ady; Wijaya, Karna; Trisunaryati, Wega; Mudasir

    2016-04-01

    An activation of natural clay has been developed. Activation was applied by refluxing the natural bentonite in variation of the sulfuric acid concentration and calcination time of pillared bentonite (PLC). Calcination was applied using oven in microwave 2,45 GHz. Determination of acidity was applied by measuring the amount of adsorbed ammonia and pyridine. Morphological, functional groups and chrystanility characterizations were analyzed using SEM, TEM, FTIR and XRD. Porosity was analyzed using SSA. The results showed that the greater of the concentration of sulfuric acid and calcination time was, the greater the acidity of bentonite as well as the pore diameter were. FTIR spectra showed no fundamental changes in the structure of the natural bentonite, SEM, and TEM images were showing an increase in space or field due to pillarization while the XRD patterns showed a shift to a lower peak. Optimization was obtained at a concentration of 2 M of sulfuric acid and calcination time of 20 minutes, keggin ion of 2.2 and suspension of 10 mmol, respectively each amounted to 11.7490 mmol/gram of ammonia and 2.4437 mmol/gram of pyridine with 154.6391 m2/gram for surface area, 0.130470 m3/gram of pore volume and 3.37484 nm of pore diameter.

  12. Calcined eggshell (CES): An efficient natural catalyst for Knoevenagel condensation under aqueous condition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suresh Patil; Swati D Jadhav; M B Deshmukh

    2013-07-01

    A convenient, eco-friendly and economic method for Knoevenagel condensation of aromatic aldehydes with active methylene compounds using calcined eggshell (CES) as an efficient natural catalyst in aqueous medium has been reported. CES is a new, ecologically safe and inexpensive green catalyst obtained from renewable resources.

  13. Restart Plan for the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner [SD Coversheet has Incorrect Document Number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-07-26

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The Restart Plan will govern the transition of the test program from the completion of the activity based startup review; through equipment checkout and surrogate material runs; to resumption of the testing program and transition to unrestricted testing.

  14. Effect of the rate of calcination of kaolin on the properties of metakaolin-based geopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B. Kenne Diffo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kaolin samples of the same mass were treated at 700 °C for the same duration of 30 min by varying the rate of calcination (1, 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20 °C/min in order to obtain metakaolins which were used to produce geopolymers. Depending on the nature of each type of material, kaolin, metakaolins and geopolymers were characterized using thermal analysis, chemical analysis, XRD, FTIR, particle size distribution, specific surface area, bulk density, setting time and compressive strength. FTIR and XRD analyses showed that metakaolins except at 1 °C/min contained residual kaolinite whose quantity increased with the rate of calcination of kaolin and which influenced the characteristics of geopolymers. Thus as the rate of calcination of kaolin increased, the setting time increased (226 min (rate of 1 °C/min–773 min (rate of 20 °C/min while the compressive strength reduced (49.4 MPa (rate of 1 °C/min–20.8 MPa (rate of 20 °C/min. From the obtained results the production of geopolymers having high compressive strength along with low setting time requires that the calcination of kaolin be carried out at a low rate.

  15. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: electrospinning and calcination of hydroxyapatite/polyvinyl butyral nanofibers and growth kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakaria, S.M.; Zein, S.H. Sharif; Othman, M.R.; Jansen, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Electrospinning of hydroxyapatite (HA)/polyvinyl butyral solution resulted in the formation of fibers with average diameter of 937-1440 nm. These fibers were converted into HA nanoparticles with size <100 nm after undergoing calcination treatment at 600 degrees C. The diameter of the fiber was fo

  16. Effect of Boric Acid on Properties of Calcined Flint Clay-Bauxite Castables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; DAI Wenyong

    2010-01-01

    In order to prolong the working time of calcined flint clay-bauxite castables during construction at high temperature,boric acid was added into the castables.The effect of boric acid on working time and curing cold crushing strength of the castables at 25 ℃ and 35 ℃were investigated.After 24 h curing in mould and another 24 h curing at 110 ℃ after demoulding,the specimens were heat treated at 1 000 ℃,1 300 ℃,and1 500 ℃ for 3 h,respectively.The permanent linear change,bulk density,modulus of rupture,and cold crushing strength were determined.The result shows that there is no need to add boric acid when calcined flint clay-bauxite ca.stables works at 25 ℃ ; when calcined flint clay-bauxite castables works at 35 ℃,boric acid can increase the working time of the castables,but decrease the curing cold crushing strength a little.Adding boric acid into calcined flint clay-bauxite castables doesn' t worsen performance of the castablcs.

  17. Calcination/acid-activation treatment of an anodic oxidation TiO2/Ti film catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Zhongping; JIANG Yanli; JIANG Zhaohua; ZHU Hongkui; BAI Xuefeng

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of calcination/acid-activation on the composition, structure, and photocatalytic (PC) re-duction property of an anodic oxidation TiO2/Ti film catalyst. The surface morphology and phase composition were examined by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The catalytic property of the film catalysts was evaluated through the removal rate of potassium chromate during the PC reduction process. The results showed that the film catalysts were composed of anatase and mtile TiO2 with a mi-cro-porous surface structure. The calcination treatment increased the content of TiO2 in the film, changed the relative ratio of anatase and rutile TiO2, and decreased the size of the micro pores of the film cat.a/ysts. The removal rate of potassium chromate was related to the tech-nique parameters of calcination/acid-activation treatment. When the anodic oxidation TiO2Ti film catalyst was calcined at 873 K for 30 min and then acid-activated in the concentrated H2SO4 for 60 min, it presented the highest catalytic property, with the removal rate of potassium chromate of 96.3% during the PC reduction process under the experimental conditions.

  18. Effect of calcination methods on electrochemical performance of NiO used as electrode materials for supercapacitor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L Wang; X Y Qin

    2014-05-01

    Ni(OH)2 precursors were prepared via the precipitation transformation method, which was originated from Na2C2O4, NiSO4.6H2O and urea. NiO samples were successfully obtained by calcining Ni(OH)2 precursor with different calcination methods. Some were calcination in a tube furnace under the nitrogen flow and others were calcination in a muffle furnace. The products were well-characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The influence of calcination methods on electrochemical performance of NiO samples were investigated. Moreover, the possible reason was proposed. The charge storage mechanism of NiO positive electrode in aqueous electrolyte was discussed. The electrochemical test showed that the as-prepared NiO prepared in a tube furnace can exhibit a good pseudocapacitance behaviour due to the higher utilization of active material.

  19. Extraction of potassium from K-feldspar via the CaCl2 calcination route☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Yuan; Chun Li; Bin Liang; Li Lü; Hairong Yue; Haoyi Sheng; Longpo Ye; Heping Xie

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of potassium from K-feldspar via a calcium chloride calcination route was studied with a focus on the effects of the calcination atmosphere, calcination temperature and time, mass ratio of CaCl2 to K-feldspar ore and particle size of the K-feldspar ore. The results demonstrated that a competing high-temperature hydrolysis reaction of calcium chloride with moisture in a damp atmosphere occurred concurrently with the conversion reaction of K-feldspar with CaCl2, thus reducing the amount of potassium extracted. The conversion reaction started at approximately 600 °C and accelerated with increasing temperature. When the temperature rose above 900 °C, the extraction of potassium gradually decreased due to the volatilization of the product, KCl. As much as approximately 41%of the potassium was volatilized in 40 min at 1100 °C. The mass ratio of CaCl2/K-feldspar ore significantly affected the extraction. At a mass ratio of 1.15 and 900 °C, the potassium extraction reached 91%in 40 min, while the extraction was reduced to only 22%at the theoretical mass ratio of 0.2. Optimal process conditions are as follows:ore particle size of 50–75μm, tablet forming pressure of 3 MPa, dry nitrogen atmosphere, mass ratio of CaCl2/ore 1.15:1, calcination temperature of 900 °C, and calcination time of 40 min. The XRD analysis revealed that a complex phase transition of the product SiO2 was also accompanied by the con-version reaction of K-feldspar/CaCl2. The SiO2 product formed at the initial stage was in the quartz phase at 900 °C and was gradually transformed into cristobalite after 30 min.

  20. Influence of the Calcination Temperature on the Combustion Synthesized Perovskite LaMnO3 Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Shelke

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple combustion method based on principles of propellent chemistry in which Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA as fuel and nitrates as oxidizer were used for synthesizing the perovskite like LaMnO3 powders. The oxidizer to fuel ratio was maintained at 5 : 1. The darkish black powder obtained was calcined at 800 °C and 1000 °C for 5 hour. The combustion and thermal decomposition of the precursor were investigated using the TG-DTA and Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR techniques. The X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern of all three samples i.e., un-heated LaMnO3 powder (LMO-UH, calcined at 800 °C (LMO-800 and at 1000 °C (LMO-1000 were carried out. The single phase orthorhombic crystal structure was revealed to crystallize at LMO-800 and LMO-1000 with elevation in the crystalline size. A small impurity peak at 28.7° was seen of Mn3O4 for LMO-UH, which vanished after calcining it. The strong absorption in FT-IR spectra found at around 615 cm – 1 was due to the formation of metal-oxygen (M-O bond. Moreover a small shift in this M-O bond with increase in calcination temperature suggested the strained LaMnO3 compound. Elemental analysis using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF indicated the presence of La and Mn with increase in the Mn contents after calcinations. The oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen content in the sample were determined from the ONH analysis indicating a decrease in the oxygen content for LMO-800. Well defined porous-foam like morphology of the sample was achieved from scanning electron microscopic (SEM study, which become compact with calcination process. Magnetic properties were found to transform from the ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic phase for LMO-UH sample, while reduction in magnetization values and coercivity at low temperatures was obtained for LMO-800 and LMO-1000 samples.

  1. A facile thermal-treatment route to synthesize ZnO nanosheets and effect of calcination temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif Mohammed Al-Hada

    Full Text Available A facile thermal-treatment route was successfully used to synthesize ZnO nanosheets. Morphological, structural, and optical properties of obtained nanoparticles at different calcination temperatures were studied using various techniques. The FTIR, XRD, EDX, SEM and TEM images confirmed the formation of ZnO nanosheets through calcination in the temperature between 500 to 650 °C. The SEM images showed a morphological structure of ZnO nanosheets, which inclined to crumble at higher calcination temperatures. The XRD and FTIR spectra revealed that the samples were amorphous at 30 °C but transformed into a crystalline structure during calcination process. The average particle size and degree of crystallinity increased with increasing calcination temperature. The estimated average particle sizes from TEM images were about 23 and 38 nm for the lowest and highest calcination temperature i.e. 500 and 650 °C, respectively. The optical properties were determined by UV-Vis reflection spectrophotometer and showed a decrease in the band gap with increasing calcination temperature.

  2. Effect of Reaction Rate and Calcination Time on CaNb2O6 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Dudhe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties of CaNb2O6 nanoparticles synthesized by coprecipitation method under controlled reaction rate and extended calcination time were studied. Analysis of the X-ray diffraction pattern shows single orthorhombic phase of the material with lattice parameters: a=15.0147 Å, b=5.74148 Å, and c=5.30296 Å. The morphology and size of particles was found to be improved due to the controlled reaction rate and extended calcination time. The average sizes of the particles were estimated as 40 nm and 90 nm for sintering temperatures 650°C and 800°C, respectively. The material was found to possess dielectric constant which is inversely proportional to the frequency. Surprisingly, the material shows ferroelectric behavior, the possible origin of which is discussed here.

  3. Ce-doped titania nanoparticles: The effects of doped amount and calcination temperature on photocatalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianwen; Zou, Yajun; Ma, Dandan

    2017-01-01

    A series of Ce-doped TiO2 nanoparticles with different doped amount and calcination temperature were prepared by sol-gel method. These obtained samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), and their photocatalytic activities were evaluated by the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. Results showed that Ce doping inhibits the growth of crystal size and the phase transformation from anatase to rutile, leads to lattice distortion and expansion of TiO2. Furthermore, Ce doping brings the red-shift of absorption profile and the increase of photons absorption in the range of 400-600 nm. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange shows that Ce doping improves the photocatalytic activity of TiO2. The optimal doped amount is 0.05 mol% and the optimal calcined temperature is 600 °C for the maximum photocatalytic degradation efficiency in our experiment.

  4. Influence of Calcination on the Physical Characteristics and Nitrogen Removal Performance of Clinoptilolites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Hai; JIN Xin; DONG Yingbo; HUO Hanxin; LIU Quanli

    2014-01-01

    The influences of roasting activation on the particle morphology, microscopic structure, and adsorption properties of natural clinoptilolites were investigated. The experimental results show that the optimal modified conditions include a calcination temperature at 400℃, a roasting time of 0.5 h, and furnace cooling. The ammonia nitrogen removal rate from analog renewable water of the modified clinoptilolites reached 72%in the optimized conditions, which is 12%higher than that of natural ones. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the surface morphology changed, the micro-hole size increased, and the surface became smoother and more uniform after calcination. The single-point total adsorption average pore width increased from 7.74 nm to 10.64 nm.

  5. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: electrospinning and calcination of hydroxyapatite/polyvinyl butyral nanofibers and growth kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Siti Maisurah; Sharif Zein, Sharif Hussein; Othman, Mohd Roslee; Jansen, John A

    2013-07-01

    Electrospinning of hydroxyapatite (HA)/polyvinyl butyral solution resulted in the formation of fibers with average diameter of 937-1440 nm. These fibers were converted into HA nanoparticles with size <100 nm after undergoing calcination treatment at 600°C. The diameter of the fiber was found to be influenced by applied voltage and spinning distance. The injection flowrate did not affect the diameter significantly. The electrospinning method successfully reduced the commercial HA particle size in the range of 400-1100 nm into <100 nm. The dispersion of the finally calcined HA nanoparticles was improved significantly after anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate surfactant was introduced. The experimental data of HA growth kinetics were subjected to the integral method of analysis, and the rate law of the reaction was found to follow the first order reaction.

  6. High-Temperature Release of SO2 from Calcined Cement Raw Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Rooma; Larsen, Morten B.; Glarborg, Peter

    2011-01-01

    During combustion of alternative fuels in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns, local reducing conditions may occur and cause reductive decomposition of sulfates from calcined cement raw materials. Decomposition of sulfates is problematic because it increases the gas-phase SO2...... concentration, which may cause deposit formation in the kiln system. In this study, the release of sulfur from calcined cement raw materials under both oxidizing and reducing conditions is investigated. The investigations include thermodynamic equilibrium calculations in the temperature interval of 800–1500 °C...... and experiments in a tube furnace reactor in the temperature interval of 900–1100 °C. The investigated conditions resemble actual conditions in the material inlet end of cement rotary kilns. It was found that the sulfates CaSO4, K2SO4, and Na2SO4 were all stable under oxidizing conditions but began to decompose...

  7. EFFECT OF CALCINATION TEMPERATURE OF TUNISIAN CLAYS ON THE PROPERTIES OF GEOPOLYMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essaidi N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymers are amorphous three dimensional aluminosilicate materials that may be synthesized at room or slightly higher temperature by alkaline activation of aluminosilicates obtained from industrial wastes, calcined clays and natural minerals. Among the different family of geopolymers, two Tunisian clays (a kaolinite clay from Tabarka and illito/kaolinitic clay from Medenine are tested for their feasibility of geopolymers at low temperature. The unfired and calcined clays were dissolved in strongly alkaline solution in order to produce consolidated materials whose pastes were characterized by their compressive strength. Hardened geopolymer samples were also submitted to X-Ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The geopolymer strength is related to the structure and reactivity of the clay generated by thermal treatment and to the role of associated minerals in clays. The amorphous character of obtained geopolymers and the displacement of the IR wavenumber are signature of geopolymerisation reaction.

  8. A parametric study of a solar calcinator using computational fluid dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidaros, D.K.; Baxevanou, C.A.; Vlachos, N.S. [University of Thessaly, Volos (Greece). Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and Turbomachines, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    2007-11-15

    In this work a horizontal rotating solar calcinator is studied numerically using computational fluid dynamics. The specific solar reactor is a 10 kW model designed and used for efficiency studies. The numerical model is based on the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the gas flow, and on Lagrangean dynamics for the discrete particles. All necessary mathematical models were developed and incorporated into a computational fluid dynamics model with the influence of turbulence simulated by a two-equation (RNG k-{epsilon}) model. The efficiency of the reactor was calculated for different thermal inputs, feed rates, rotational speeds and particle diameters. The numerically computed degrees of calcination compared well with equivalent experimental results. (author)

  9. Bone mineral change during experimental calcination: an X-ray diffraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Sergio; García-Lorenzo, Mari Luz

    2014-11-01

    The effects of calcination (400-1200°C) on pig bones have been studied using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondary modifications, such as color change and weight loss. The characterisation by powder XRD confirmed the presence of the crystalline phase of hydroxyapatite, and comparison of the results obtained at different temperatures suggested that at 650°C, all the organic components and carbonate substitutions were completely removed. Accordingly, these samples were white. In addition, the crystallinity degree and the crystallite size progressively increased with the calcination temperature until 650°C, remaining stable until 1200°C. Below 650°C, bone samples presented organic compounds, resulting in background noise in the diffractogram and gray or black color. In addition, impurities in the lattice correspond to low crystallite sizes.

  10. Prediction model of microwave calcining of ammonium diuranate using incremental improved back-propagation neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingwei LI; Bingguo LIU; Jinhui PENG; Wei LI; Daifu HUANG; Libo ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    The incremental improved Back-Propagation (BP) neural network prediction model using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm based on optimizing theory is put forward,which can solve the problems existing in the process of calcinations for ammonium diuranate (ADU) by microwave heating,such as long testing cycle,high testing quantity,difficulty of optimization for process parameters. Many training data probably were offered by the way of increment batch and the limitation of the system memory could make the training data infeasible when the sample scale was large. The prediction model of the nonlinear system is built,which can effectively predict the experiment of microwave calcining of ADU,and the incremental improved BP neural network is very useful in overcoming the local minimum problem,finding the global optinal solution and accelerating the convergence speed.

  11. Preparation of ITO nano-powders by hydrothermal-calcining process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Ying-ying; QIN Li-ping; LIU Xue-ying

    2006-01-01

    Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) nano-powders were prepared by hydrothermal-calcining process. Using SnCl4·5H2O and In as starting materials, the crystallites were characterized by XRD, TEM and BET. The effects of the conditions on the product were investigated. The results show that the phase of hydrothermal precursor obtained by hydrothermal process is related to the temperature of hydrothermal reaction, I. E. , the phases are amorphous In(OH)3 in 160 - 180℃; In(OH)3 crystal in 200℃ and (In1-xSnx)OOH crystal in 200 - 300℃. ITO nano-powders with hexagonal structure and average size of 65 nm are obtained by calcining the precursor derived from the hydrothermal process at 350 - 650℃. The BET of ITO crystal can reach 84. 023 4 m2·g-1.

  12. Limestone Calcination Nearby Equilibrium: Kinetics, CaO Crystal Structure, Sintering and Reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Valverde, J.M.; Sánchez-Jiménez, P.E.; Pérez-Maqueda, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. In this work, we analyze limestone calcination kinetics at environmental conditions involving a CO2 partial pressure P close to the equilibrium pressure Peq by means of in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. In contrast with previous empirical observations carried out mostly at conditions far from equilibrium (P/Peq « 1), our results show that the decarbonation rate decreases as the temperature in increased while P/Peq is kept co...

  13. In-situ investigation of the calcination process of mixed oxide xerogels with Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panitz, J.C. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The controlled calcination of materials derived by sol-gel reactions is important for the evolution of the final structure. Raman spectroscopy is an ideal tool for the identification of surface species under in-situ conditions, as demonstrated in the following for the example of a molybdenum oxide-silica xerogel. Raman spectra of this particular sample were recorded at temperatures as high as 1173 K, and compared with those of a reference material.(author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  14. Preparation of NiO nanoflakes under different calcination temperatures and their supercapacitive and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiangshan; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The NiO nanocrystals were successfully prepared by calcinating Ni(OH)2 precursor synthesized via a facile ion diffusion controlled by ion exchange membrane without adding any solvent or template. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) isotherm, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) analysis were used to investigate the crystallinity, morphology, surface and porosity characteristics, chemical composition and optical properties in more detail. The pseudocapacitive behavior of the NiO samples was investigated by cyclic voltammograms (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests in 2 M KOH. The results analysis reveals that both specific capacitance and surface area decrease with the increase of calcination temperatures. Among the NiO samples, the NiO-400 nanoflakes calcinated at 400 °C possess the highest specific capacitance of 381 F g-1 at a current density of 2 A g-1, but much lower than the Ni(OH)2 sample. In addition, the UV-vis analysis shows that there is a red shift of absorption peak for the three NiO samples with the increasing temperature and the NiO-400 has a broad band gap of 3.3 eV, which renders the material highly interesting for application in photocatalyst.

  15. Test Plan for Radioactive Testing of a Vertical Direct Denitration Calciner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COMPTON, J.A.

    1999-08-13

    The prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner (VDC) is installed in glovebox 188 in the Plutonium Process Support Laboratory (PPSL). Safety analysis contained in WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 (FSAR) Rev. 0-L and Addendum to WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021, ''Laboratory Prototype Calciner'' establishes the prototype VDC needs to be shut down if a seismic event of greater than 0.07 g occurs. Shut down is to be automatic upon detection of the seismic event. This requires tie-in of various valves and power for the prototype VDC into the existing Seismic Shutdown System for the Ventilation Supply Fans described in FSAR 5.4.1.2.4. The proposed changes covered by this USQ evaluation include: (1) the physical tie-in modifications, including drawings and Engineering Change Notice (ECN), (2) the work package for accomplishing the modifications, (3) the changes to the System Description Documents, (4) the changes to the Safety Equipment List necessitated by the modifications, and (5) the changes to the failure modes and effects analysis. WHC-SDCP-OSR-010, Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements Limiting Condition for Operation (LCO) 3.2.3 has been revised to include the requirement for the existing seismic shutdown system to also shut down the laboratory calciner in the event of detection of a greater than 0.07 g seismic event.

  16. Test Plan for Radioactive Testing of a Vertical Direct Denitration Calciner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COMPTON, J.A.

    1999-08-31

    The prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner (VDC) is installed in glovebox 188 in the Plutonium Process Support Laboratory (PPSL). Safety analysis contained in WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 (FSAR) Rev. 0-L and Addendum to WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021, ''Laboratory Prototype Calciner'' establishes the prototype VDC needs to be shut down if a seismic event of greater than 0.07 g occurs. Shut down is to be automatic upon detection of the seismic event. This requires tie-in of various valves and power for the prototype VDC into the existing Seismic Shutdown System for the Ventilation Supply Fans described in FSAR 5.4.1.2.4. The proposed changes covered by this USQ evaluation include: (1) the physical tie-in modifications, including drawings and Engineering Change Notice (ECN), (2) the work package for accomplishing the modifications, (3) the changes to the System Description Documents, (4) the changes to the Safety Equipment List necessitated by the modifications, and (5) the changes to the failure modes and effects analysis. WHC-SDCP-OSR-010, Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements Limiting Condition for Operation (LCO) 3.2.3 has been revised to include the requirement for the existing seismic shutdown system to also shut down the laboratory calciner in the event of detection of a greater than 0.07 g seismic event.

  17. Effect of Calcination at Synthesis of Mg-Al Hydrotalcite Using co-Precipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niar Kurnia Julianti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydrotalcite in catalysis has wide attention in academic research and industrial parties. Based on its utilization, hydrotalcite can be active catalyst or support. This research is focused on the investigation of characteristic like spesific surface area of Mg-Al hydrotalcite which is prepared with different temperature of calcination. Synthesis of Mg-Al hydrotalcites with Mg/Al molar ratio 3:1 were prepared by co-precipitation method. Mg(NO33.6H2O and Al(NO33.9H2O as precursors of Mg-Al hydrotalcite. Na2CO3 was used as precipitant agent and NaOH was used as buffer solution. The solution was mixed and aging for 5 hours at 650oC. The dried precipitate was calcined at 2500oC, 3500oC, 4500oC, 5500oC and 6500oC. The characterization of functional group was determined by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR. The Identical peaks diffractogram were analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. The spesific surface area was determined by adsorption-desorption of nitrogen. The largest surface area that obtained from the calcination temperature of 650oC is 156.252 m2/g.

  18. High-level waste vitrification by spray calcination/in-can melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E.; Bonner, W.F. (comp.)

    1976-11-01

    Federal regulations require that high-level liquid waste (HLLW) be converted to a solid for custody in a Federal repository. The Spray Solidification/In-Can Melting process has been developed and is being demonstrated for commercial application. The bases used are similar to those of the NFS plant and to anticipated regulations for waste canister receipt at a Federal repository. The reference NFS flowsheet combines plant HA Column Wastes, Low-Level Wastes, and various HLLW process recycle streams to produce a borosilicate glass. After the canister is filled and sealed, the lid weld will be inspected and decontaminated. Equipment and instrumentation for feed supply to the calciner, calcination, melting, welding, weld inspection, canister decontamination, and in-cell canister storage are being designed and demonstrated. Preliminary facility layouts, equipment design data, and instrumentation needs are provided for major process equipment systems. Additional demonstration work is being performed to verify and complete the plant scale equipment design, including full-scale nonradioactive equipment testing, nonradioactive facility mockup for equipment remote operation and maintenance demonstration, and pilot plant production of waste glass from commercial fuel HLLW. The technology for spray calcination and in-can melting is ready for commercial application. Required additional work is described. A preliminary evaluation is made of materials that may be released from the process from normal and abnormal operations in the facility. 34 figures, 20 tables. (DLC)

  19. Stabilization of As-, Pb-, and Cu-contaminated soil using calcined oyster shells and steel slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Wazne, Mahmoud; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Chang, Yoon-Young; Baek, Kitae; Ok, Yong Sik; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2015-07-01

    In this study, As-, Pb-, and Cu-contaminated soil was stabilized using calcined oyster shells (COS) and steel slag (SS). The As-contaminated soil was obtained from a timber mill site where chromate copper arsenate (CCA) was used as a preservative. On the other hand, Pb- and Cu-contaminated soil was obtained from a firing range. These two soils were thoroughly mixed to represent As-, Pb-, and Cu-contaminated soil. Calcined oyster shells were obtained by treating waste oyster shells at a high temperature using the calcination process. The effectiveness of stabilization was evaluated by 1-N HCl extraction for As and 0.1-N HCl extraction for Pb and Cu. The treatment results showed that As, Pb, and Cu leachability were significantly reduced upon the combination treatment of COS and SS. The sole treatment of SS (10 wt%) did not show effective stabilization. However, the combination treatment of COS and SS showed a significant reduction in As, Pb, and Cu leachability. The best stabilization results were obtained from the combination treatment of 15 wt% COS and 10 wt% SS. The SEM-EDX results suggested that the effective stabilization of As was most probably achieved by the formation of Ca-As and Fe-As precipitates. In the case of Pb and Cu, stabilization was most probably associated with the formation of pozzolanic reaction products such as CSHs and CAHs.

  20. Effect of calcination temperature on structural properties and photocatalytic activity of Mn-C-codoped TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jianbo; Xin, Wei; Liu, Guanglong; Lin, Die; Zhu, Duanwei, E-mail: liugl@mail.hzau.edu.cn [Laboratory of Eco-Environmental Engineering Research, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University (HZAU), Wuhan (China)

    2016-03-15

    Mn-C-codoped TiO{sub 2} catalysts were synthesized by modified sol-gel method based on the self-assembly technique using polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) as template and carbon precursor and the effect of calcination temperature on their structural properties and photocatalytic activity were investigated. The XRD results showed undoped and Mn-C-codoped TiO{sub 2} calcined at 400 deg C only include anatase phase and the rutile phase appears when the calcination temperature reached to 600 deg C. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy demonstrates that the absorption spectra are strongly modified by the calcination temperature. Moreover, the Mn-C-TiO{sub 2} calcined at 400 deg C showed the lowest PL intensity due to a decrease in the recombination rate of photogenerated electrons and holes under light irradiation. The photocatalytic activity of Mn-C-codoped TiO{sub 2} were evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under the simulate daylight irradiation and all the prepared Mn-C-codoped TiO{sub 2} samples exhibited high photocatalytic activities for photocatalytic decolorisation of methyl orange aqueous solution. At 400 deg C, the Mn-C-codoped TiO{sub 2} samples showed the highest photocatalytic activity due to synergetic effects of good crystallize ation, appropriate phase composition and slower recombination rate of photogenerated charge carriers, which further confirms the calcination temperature could affect the properties of Mn-C-codoped TiO2 significantly. (author)

  1. Role of Calcination Temperature on the Hydrotalcite Derived MgO–Al2O3 in Converting Ethanol to Butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Biological Process Development Group and Inst. for Integrated Catalysis; Gray, Michel [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Biological Process Development Group; Job, Heather [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Biological Process Development Group; Santosa, Daniel [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Biological Process Development Group; Li, Xiaohong Shari [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Inst. for Integrated Catalysis; Devaraj, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab. (EMSL); Karkamkar, Abhi [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Biological Process Development Group; Wang, Yong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Chemical and Biological Process Development Group and Inst. for Integrated Catalysis; ; Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2015-10-09

    In the base catalyzed ethanol condensation reactions, the calcined MgO-Al2O3 derived hydrotalcites used broadly as catalytic material and the calcination temperature plays a big role in determining the catalytic activity. The characteristic of the hydrotalcite material treated between catalytically relevant temperatures 450ºC and 800ºC have been studied with respect to the physical, chemical, and structural properties and compared with catalytic activity testing. With the increasing calcination temperature, the total measured catalytic basicity dropped linearly with the calcination temperature and the total measured acidity stayed the same for all the calcination temperatures except 800ºC. However, the catalyst activity testing does not show any direct correlation between the measured catalytic basicity and the catalyst activity to the ethanol condensation reaction to form 1-butanol. The highest ethanol conversion of 44 percent with 1-butanol selectivity of 50 percent was achieved for the 600ºC calcined hydrotalcite material.

  2. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF Co-Fe MIXED OXIDES OBTAINED BY CALCINATION OF LAYERED DOUBLE HYDROXIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Pérez Bernal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Solids containing Co(II and Fe(III with molar ratios of 2/1, 3/2, 1/1, 2/3 and 1/2 have been synthetised by coprecipitation at constant pH. All they displayed a hydrotalcite-like structure with interlayer carbonate, which crystallinity decreases as the iron content was increased. No other crystalline phase was identified, even in the Fe-rich samples. They have been characterised by powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis (differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and temperature-programmed reduction, in addition to specific surface area assessment by nitrogen adsorption at -196°C. A minor oxidation of Co(II to Co(III is observed in the Co-rich samples, although it reverses again to Co(II upon calcination in oxygen at ca. 850°C. Thermal decomposition takes place in a single step up to ca. 350°C, and the specific surface area increases with the iron content, probably because of the presence of hydrated amorphous iron oxides. The solids calcined at 1200°C in air contain crystalline CoO, Co3O4 and CoFe2O4 (spinel, this one being the dominant phase, and only phase detected for large Fe contents. Metallic species are more easily reduced in the original solids than in the calcined ones, and in all cases iron seems to be reduced at a higher temperature than cobalt.

  3. Adsorption of phosphate ions from an aqueous solution by calcined nickel-cobalt binary hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Ueta, Erimi; Toda, Megumu; Otani, Masashi; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2017-01-01

    Different molar ratios of a Ni/Co binary hydroxide (NiCo82, NiCo91, and Ni100) were prepared and calcined at 270 °C (NiCo82-270, NiCo91-270, and Ni100-270). The properties of the adsorbents and the amount of adsorbed phosphate ions were evaluated. The adsorbents calcined at 270 °C had a nickel oxide structure. The amount of adsorbed phosphate ions, the amount of hydroxyl groups, and the specific surface area of the calcined adsorbents at 270 °C were greater than those of the uncalcined adsorbents. The amount of adsorbed phosphate ions was related to the amount of hydroxyl groups and the specific surface area; the correlation coefficients were 0.966 and 0.953, respectively. The adsorption isotherm data for NiCo91 and NiCo91-270 were fit to both the Freundlich and Langmuir equations. The amount of adsorbed phosphate ions increased with increasing temperature. The experimental data fit the pseudo-second-order model better than the pseudo-first-order model. A neutral pH was optimal for phosphate ion adsorption. In addition, the phosphate ions that were adsorbed onto NiCo91-270 could be recovered using sodium hydroxide, and the adsorbent was useful for the repetitive adsorption/desorption of phosphate ions. Collectively, these results suggest that NiCo91-270 is prospectively useful for the adsorption of phosphate ions from aqueous solutions.

  4. Structure and Pozzolanic Activity of Calcined Coal Gangue during the Process of Mechanical Activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei; LI Dongxu; CHEN Jianhua; YANG Nanru

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing coal gangue's chemical and mineral compositions, the structure change of coal gangue during the mechanical activation was investigated by XRD, FTIR,NMR, and the mechanical strength of the cement doped coal gangue with various specific surface area was tested. The experimental results indicate that, the lattice structure of metakaolin in coal gangue samples calcined at 700 ℃ disorganizes gradually and becomes disordered, and the lattice structure of α-quartz is distorted slightly. The pozzolanic activity of the coal gangue increases obviously with its structural disorganization.

  5. Effects of Composition and Calcination Temperature on Photocatalytic Evolution over from Glycerol and Water Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Cancan Fan; Xitao Wang; Huanxin Sang; Fen Wang

    2012-01-01

    A series of sulfide coupled semiconductors supported on SiO2, (), was prepared by incipient wet impregnation method. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, XPS, TPR, and UV/Vis DRS. Characterization results show that the chemical actions between ZnS and CdS resulted in the formation of solid solutions on the surface of the support and the formation of them is affected by the molar ratio of ZnS/CdS and calcination temperature. Performance of photocatalysts was tested in the home made ...

  6. Calcined Solution-Based PVP Influence on ZnO Semiconductor Nanoparticle Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimah Mohamed Kamari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A water-based solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP at various concentrations and zinc nitrates were used in conjunction with calcination to produce zinc oxide semiconductor nanoparticles. The extent to which the zinc oxide semiconductor nanoparticles had become crystallized was measured using X-ray diffraction (XRD, whilst morphological characteristics were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM supported by XRD results were used to evaluate the average particle size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR was then carried out in order to identify the composition phase, since this suggested that the samples contained metal oxide bands and that all organic compounds had been effectively removed after calcination. A UV-VIS spectrophotometer was used to determine the energy band gap and illustrate optical features. Additionally, photoluminescence (PL spectra revealed that the intensity of photoluminescence decreased with a decrease in particle size. The obtained results have mainly been inclusive for uses by several semiconductor applications in different fields, such as environmental applications and studies, since an absorption process for energy wavelengths could efficiently occur.

  7. Preparation of Nanosized LaCoO3 through Calcination of a Hydrothermally Synthesized Precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tepech-Carrillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for obtaining nanosized LaCoO3 crystals from calcination of a precursor powder synthesized by a hydrothermal route is reported. Details concerning the evolution of the microstructure and formation mechanism of the perovskite phase were studied by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. It was found that the morphology of the sample progressively turns from a mix of fibers and rods to interconnected nanocrystals. It is determined that LaCoO3 phase is produced by a reaction of cobalt and lanthanum oxides, the latter produced by a two-step dehydration process of La(OH3. Finally, it was found that nearly stoichiometric LaCoO3 nanocrystals can be obtained at temperatures as low as 850°C. Nevertheless, whether higher calcination temperatures are used, appropriate reaction times and a controlled atmosphere are required in order to avoid formation of lanthanum carbonates and high density of lattice defects.

  8. Adsorption of methyl orange from aqueous solutions by calcined ZnMgAl hydrotalcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Dong; Zhou, Liangqin; Fu, Dayou

    2017-02-01

    The calcined ZnMgAl hydrotalcite was used for degration of methyl orange (MO). The adsorbent was characterized by XRD, SEM, and FT-IR. The results reveal that the ZnMgAl layered structures were disappeared after calcining for 5 h at 500 °C, then were recovered to layer hydrotalcite structure after adsorbing MO anions. The several important affecting factors of adsorption behavior, including the initial pH value of solution, adsorbent dosage, and the initial concentration of solution, were also discussed. The adsorption kinetic processes were fitted with the equations of pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion, respectively, in which the pseudo-second-order equation fitting results was the better. The equilibrium isotherm of MO was described by both Langmuir and Freundlich model, but better complys with the Langmuir model ( R 2 > 0.98). The possible adsorption mechanism has been presumed. The adsorption experiments indicated that the ZnMgAl hydrotalcite had good adsorption ability to methyl orange in wastewater.

  9. Calcined Mg-Fe layered double hydroxide as an absorber for the removal of methyl orange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Peng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, methyl orange (MO was effectively removed from aqueous solution with the calcined product of hydrothermal synthesized Mg/Fe layered double hydroxide (Mg/Fe-LDH. The structure, composition, morphology and textural properties of the Mg/Fe-LDH before and after adsorption were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption apparatus and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was confirmed that MO had been absorbed by calcined Mg/Fe-LDH which had strong interactions with MO. The adsorption of MO onto the Mg/Fe-LDH was systematically investigated by batch tests. The adsorption capacity of the Mg/Fe-LDH toward MO was found to be 194.9 mg • g−1. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm studies revealed that the adsorption of MO onto Mg/Fe-LDH was a spontaneous and endothermic process. These results indicate that Mg/Fe-LDH is a promising material for the removal of MO.

  10. Calcined Mg-Fe layered double hydroxide as an absorber for the removal of methyl orange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Chao [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, Hunan (China); State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Dai, Jing [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yu, Jianying, E-mail: Yujianyingwhut@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yin, Jian [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, Hunan (China)

    2015-05-15

    In this work, methyl orange (MO) was effectively removed from aqueous solution with the calcined product of hydrothermal synthesized Mg/Fe layered double hydroxide (Mg/Fe-LDH). The structure, composition, morphology and textural properties of the Mg/Fe-LDH before and after adsorption were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption apparatus and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was confirmed that MO had been absorbed by calcined Mg/Fe-LDH which had strong interactions with MO. The adsorption of MO onto the Mg/Fe-LDH was systematically investigated by batch tests. The adsorption capacity of the Mg/Fe-LDH toward MO was found to be 194.9 mg • g{sup −1}. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm studies revealed that the adsorption of MO onto Mg/Fe-LDH was a spontaneous and endothermic process. These results indicate that Mg/Fe-LDH is a promising material for the removal of MO.

  11. 焙烧短窑研制浅谈%Synopsis Discussing Manufacture of Short Calcining Kiln

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段玉新

    2014-01-01

    介绍了红土镍矿资源现状、红土镍矿的处理工艺方法及焙烧短窑的研发背景。焙烧短窑作为新兴的环保设备,具有螺旋往返快速均匀给料、液压倾翻排料、还原时间可控、热效率高、利用率高的特点,在稀有贵重金属冶炼方面具有非常广泛的应用前景。%T his article briefly introduces present situation of nickeliferous laterites , the processes for pro-ducing nicheliferous laterites and background of inventing short calcining kiln . It is the newly arisen envi-ronmental protection equipments , It has the characteristics of quickly and evenly feeding , discharging with hydraulic pressure , controling deoxidize time ,supernal thermal efficiency and widely using . The short cal-cining kiln have widely using in smelting of the rare noble metal .

  12. Grain Growth Kinetics of BaTiO3 Nanocrystals During Calcining Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao-lan; He, Xi; Yang, Hai-ping; Qu, Yi-xin; Qiu, Guan-zhou

    2008-06-01

    BaTiO3 nanocrystals were synthesized by sol-gel method using barium acetate (Ba(CH3COO)2) and tetra-butyl titanate (Ti(OC4H9)4) as raw materials. Xerogel precursors and products were characterized by means of thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The influence of the calcination temperature and duration on the lattice constant, the lattice distortion, and the grain size of BaTiO3 nanocrystals was discussed based on the XRD results. The grain growth kinetics of BaTiO3 nanocrystals during the calcination process were simulated with a conventional grain growth model which only takes into account diffusion, and an isothermal model proposed by Qu and Song, which takes into account both diffusion and surface reactions. Using these models, the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy of the rate constant were estimated. The simulation results indicate that the isothermal model is superior to the conventional one in describing the grain growth process, implying that both diffusion and surface reactions play important roles in the grain growth process.

  13. Manganese oxide phases and morphologies: A study on calcination temperature and atmospheric dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Augustin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese oxides are one of the most important groups of materials in energy storage science. In order to fully leverage their application potential, precise control of their properties such as particle size, surface area and Mnx+ oxidation state is required. Here, Mn3O4 and Mn5O8 nanoparticles as well as mesoporous α-Mn2O3 particles were synthesized by calcination of Mn(II glycolate nanoparticles obtained through an economical route based on a polyol synthesis. The preparation of the different manganese oxides via one route facilitates assigning actual structure–property relationships. The oxidation process related to the different MnOx species was observed by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD measurements showing time- and temperature-dependent phase transformations occurring during oxidation of the Mn(II glycolate precursor to α-Mn2O3 via Mn3O4 and Mn5O8 in O2 atmosphere. Detailed structural and morphological investigations using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and powder XRD revealed the dependence of the lattice constants and particle sizes of the MnOx species on the calcination temperature and the presence of an oxidizing or neutral atmosphere. Furthermore, to demonstrate the application potential of the synthesized MnOx species, we studied their catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction in aprotic media. Linear sweep voltammetry revealed the best performance for the mesoporous α-Mn2O3 species.

  14. Grain Growth Kinetics of BaTiO3 Nanocrystals During Calcining Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-lan Song; Xi He; Hai-ping Yang; Yi-xin Qu; Guan-zhou Qiu

    2008-01-01

    BaTiO3 nanocrystals were synthesized by sol-gel method using barium acetate (Ba(CH3COO)2) and tetra- butyl titanate (Ti(OC4H9)4) as raw materials. Xerogel precursors and products were characterized by means of thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmis- sion electron microscope (TEM). The influence of the calcination temperature and duration on the lattice constant, the lattice distortion, and the grain size of BaTiO3 nanocrystals was discussed based on the XRD results. The grain growth kinetics of BaTiO3 nanocrystals during the calcination process were simulated with a conventional grain growth model which only takes into account diffusion, and an isothermal model proposed by Qu and Song, which takes into account both diffusion and surface reactions. Using these models, the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy of the rate constant were estimated. The simulation results indicate that the isothermal model is superior to the conventional one in describing the grain growth process, implying that both diffusion and surface reactions play important roles in the grain growth process.

  15. Implementation of industrial waste ferrochrome slag in conventional and low cement castables: Effect of calcined alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattem Hemanth Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new class of conventional and low-cement ferrochrome slag-based castables were prepared from 40 wt.% ferrochrome slag and 45 wt.% calcined bauxite. Rest fraction varied between high alumina cement (HAC acting as hydraulic binder and calcined alumina as pore filling additive. Standard ASTM size briquettes were prepared for crushing and bending strengths evaluation, and the samples were then subjected to firing at 800, 1100 and 1300 °C for a soaking period of 3 h. The microstructure and refractory properties of the prepared castables have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, cold crushing strength, modulus of rupture and permanent linear changes (PLCs test. Castables show good volume stability (linear change <0.7% at 1300 °C. The outcomes of these investigations were efficacious and in accordance with previously reported data of similar compositions. High thermo-mechanical and physico-chemical properties were attained pointing out an outstanding potential to increase the refractory lining working life of non-recovery coke oven and reheating furnaces.

  16. Effects of Composition and Calcination Temperature on Photocatalytic Evolution over from Glycerol and Water Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cancan Fan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of sulfide coupled semiconductors supported on SiO2, (, was prepared by incipient wet impregnation method. The photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, XPS, TPR, and UV/Vis DRS. Characterization results show that the chemical actions between ZnS and CdS resulted in the formation of solid solutions on the surface of the support and the formation of them is affected by the molar ratio of ZnS/CdS and calcination temperature. Performance of photocatalysts was tested in the home made reactor under both UV light and solar-simulated light irradiation by detecting the rate of the photocatalytic H2 evolution from glycerol solution. The hydrogen production rates are related to the catalyst composition, surface structure, photoabsorption property, as well as the amount of solid solution. The maximum rate of hydrogen production, 550 μmol·h−1 under UV light irradiation and 210 μmol·h−1 under solar-simulated light irradiation, was obtained over Cd0.8Zn0.2S/SiO2 solid solution calcined at 723 K.

  17. Adsorption of perchlorate from aqueous solution by the calcination product of Mg/(Al-Fe) hydrotalcite-like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yiqiong; Gao, Naiyun; Chu, Wenhai; Zhang, Yongji; Ma, Yan

    2012-03-30

    The calcination products containing Mg(II), Al(III), and Fe(III) in the brucite-like layers with varying Mg/Al/Fe molar ratios at 550°C were used as the adsorbent to remove perchlorate from aqueous solution, while the Mg/(Al-Fe) hydrotalcite compounds were synthesized by co-precipitation method at a constant pH value. The Mg/(Al-Fe) hydrotalcite compounds (HMAF) were characterized by XRD, FT-IR and TG-DTA. The characteristics showed that the layered double hydroxides structures in the HMAF were lost during calcination at 550°C, but were reconstructed subsequent to adsorption of perchlorate, indicating that the 'memory effect' appeared to play an important role in perchlorate adsorption. Batch adsorption studies were conducted under various equilibration conditions, such as molar ratios of Mg/Al/Fe, calcined temperature, different initial solution pH, adsorbent dose, initial perchlorate concentration, and co-existing anions. It was found that the existence of ferric iron in calcined Mg/(Al-Fe) hydrotalcite compound (CHMAF) was favorable to removal of perchlorate from water, and the best ratio of Mg/Al/Fe is 3:0.8:0.2 (CHMAF5%). This study demonstrated that the calcination product of Mg/(Al-Fe) hydrotalcite-like compound was a promising adsorbent for control of the perchlorate pollution in water.

  18. Effects of calcinations temperature and precursor concentration on crystallinity of NiO nanocrystalline powder synthesized via Ethylene Glycol route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorlaily, Prawistin; Nugraha, Mohamad Insan; Iskandar, Ferry; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal

    2015-04-01

    Nickel Oxide (NiO) nanocrystalline has been successfully synthesized by Ethylene Glycol (EG) route. The samples were prepared using NiCl2.6H2O as precursor, EG as solvent and agglomeration preventing agent, and ammonium bicarbonate as precipitant. In this research, the effect of calcination temperature and precursor concentration were investigated. The experimental result showed that crystallite sizes of NiO were 4.8 nm, 9.1 nm, and 15.3 nm when the calcinations temperature was 300°C, 400°C, and 500°C respectively. It was obvious that when calcinations temperature increased, the crystallite size of NiO increased, then the calculated activation energy for NiO nanocrystalline growth during calcinations is 21.33 kJmol-1.In the effect of precursor concentration,by using concentrations 0.25 M, 0.5 M, and 1 M, crystallite sizes increase with the increasing concentration as 17.4 nm, 15.7 nm, and 24.8 nm respectively. These result implied that crystallite size of NiO powder can be controlled not only by calcinations temperature but also controlled by precursor concentration.

  19. Calcinated calcium killing of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, M L; Inatsu, Y; Kawasaki, S; Nazuka, E; Isshiki, K

    2002-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of calcinated calcium, 200 ppm chlorine water (1% active chlorine), and sterile distilled water in killing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes on the surfaces of spot-inoculated tomatoes. Inoculated tomatoes were sprayed with calcinated calcium, chlorinated water, or sterile distilled water (control) and hand rubbed for 30 s. Populations of E coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes in the rinse water and in the residual (0.1% peptone) wash solution were determined. Treatment with 200 ppm chlorine and calcinated calcium resulted in 3.40- and 7.85-log10 reductions of E. coli O157:H7, respectively, and 2.07- and 7.36-log10 reductions of Salmonella, respectively. Treatment with 200 ppm chlorine and calcinated calcium reduced L monocytogenes numbers by 2.27 and 7.59 log10 CFU per tomato, respectively. The findings of this study suggest that calcinated calcium could be useful in controlling pathogenic microorganisms in fresh produce.

  20. Relevant influence of limestone crystallinity on CO₂ capture in the Ca-looping technology at realistic calcination conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, J M; Sanchez-Jimenez, P E; Perez-Maqueda, L A

    2014-08-19

    We analyze the role of limestone crystallinity on its CO2 capture performance when subjected to carbonation/calcination cycles at conditions mimicking the Ca-looping (CaL) technology for postcombustion CO2 capture. The behavior of raw and pretreated limestones (milled and thermally annealed) is investigated by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests under realistic sorbent regeneration conditions, which necessarily involve high CO2 partial pressure in the calciner and quick heating rates. The pretreatments applied lead to contrasting effects on the solid crystal structure and, therefore, on its resistance to solid-state diffusion. Our results show that decarbonation at high CO2 partial pressure is notably promoted by decreasing solid crystallinity. CaO regeneration is fully achieved under high CO2 partial pressure at 900 °C in short residence times for the milled limestone whereas complete regeneration for raw limestone requires a minimum calcination temperature of about 950 °C. Such a reduction of the calcination temperature and the consequent mitigation of multicyclic capture capacity decay would serve to enhance the efficiency of the CaL technology. On the other hand, the results of our study suggest that the use of highly crystalline limestones would be detrimental since excessively high calcination temperatures should be required to attain full decarbonation at realistic conditions.

  1. Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville vicinity, Butte County, Idaho -- Photographs, written historical and descriptive data. Historical American engineering record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report describes the history of the Old Waste Calcining Facility. It begins with introductory material on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the Materials Testing Reactor fuel cycle, and the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The report then describes management of the wastes from the processing plant in the following chapters: Converting liquid to solid wastes; Fluidized bed waste calcining process and the Waste Calcining Facility; Waste calcining campaigns; WCF gets a new source of heat; New Waste Calcining Facility; Last campaign; Deactivation and the RCRA cap; Significance/context of the old WCF. Appendices contain a photo key map for HAER photos, a vicinity map and neighborhood of the WCF, detailed description of the calcining process, and chronology of WCF campaigns.

  2. Study on Effects of Calcine Conditions on Physic-chemical Character of Calcined Kaolinite%煅烧条件对煤系煅烧高岭土物化性能影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of material fines,calcinating temperature,raising temperature's velocity,addition agent as well as hydrogenant condition on physic-chemical character of calcined kaolinite are investigated.%研究了煤系高岭土在煅烧过程中原料细度、煅烧温度、恒温时间、升温速度、添加剂及还原气氛对产品物化性能的影响。

  3. Effects of precoating and calcination on microstructure of 3D silica fiber reinforced silicon nitride based composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Gong-jin; ZHANG Chang-rui; HU Hai-feng

    2006-01-01

    Three-dimensional silica fiber reinforced silicon nitride based composites were fabricated by preceramic polymer infiltration and pyrolysis method using perhydropolysilazane as a precursor. The effects of precoating and high temperature calcination on the microstructures of the composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. For the composite without a precoating, the fracture surface is plain, and the fiber/matrix interfaces become very unclear after calcination at 1 600 ℃ due to intense interfacial reactions. The composite with a precoating shows tough fracture surface with distinct fiber pull-outs, and the fiber/matrix interfaces are still clear after calcination at 1 600 ℃. It is the appropriate precoating process that contributes to the good interfacial microstructures for the composite.

  4. Process optimization for Ni(II) removal from wastewater by calcined oyster shell powders using Taguchi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hsing Yuan; Li, Jun Yan

    2015-09-15

    Waste oyster shells cause great environmental concerns and nickel is a harmful heavy metal. Therefore, we applied the Taguchi method to take care of both issues by optimizing the controllable factors for Ni(II) removal by calcined oyster shell powders (OSP), including the pH (P), OSP calcined temperature (T), Ni(II) concentration (C), OSP dose (D), and contact time (t). The results show that their percentage contribution in descending order is P (64.3%) > T (18.9%) > C (8.8%) > D (5.1%) > t (1.7%). The optimum condition is pH of 10 and OSP calcined temperature of 900 °C. Under the optimum condition, the Ni(II) can be removed almost completely; the higher the pH, the more the precipitation; the higher the calcined temperature, the more the adsorption. The latter is due to the large number of porosities created at the calcination temperature of 900 °C. The porosities generate a large amount of cavities which significantly increase the surface area for adsorption. A multiple linear regression equation obtained to correlate Ni(II) removal with the controllable factors is: Ni(II) removal(%) = 10.35 × P + 0.045 × T - 1.29 × C + 19.33 × D + 0.09 × t - 59.83. This equation predicts Ni(II) removal well and can be used for estimating Ni(II) removal during the design stage of Ni(II) removal by calcined OSP. Thus, OSP can be used to remove nickel effectively and the formula for removal prediction is developed for practical applications.

  5. Application of coal-water slurry on the rotary calcining kiln of pedgion magnesium reduction process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua-qing; XIE Shui-sheng; LIU Jin-ping; WU Peng-yue; HUANG Guo-jie

    2006-01-01

    Energy saving has been an important concept in modern industry especially to the countries and regions with energy shortage such as China and Japan. Utilization of Coal-Water Slurry (CWS) can improve the burning efficiency of coal and reduce the pollutions of soot, sulfide and the nitride by burning lump coal directly. The CWS is a promising energy saving technique and the effectual substitute of oil. The study on the preparation and application of the CWS has made progresses in many aspects. The present paper studied the basal problems for applying the CWS on the rotary kilns during the calcining-dolomite process in the magnesium factory, summarized the key points for the application process of the CWS and gave the corresponding solutions.

  6. Effect of calcination temperature on phase transformation of HfO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, S. K., E-mail: surya@pu.ac.in [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014 (India); Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014 (India); Kaur, Charanpreet [Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014 (India); Kaur, Ramneek; Kaur, Jagdish [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014 (India)

    2015-08-28

    Oxides nanomaterials exhibit unique physical, chemical and structural properties and motivated a big research that focus in the integration of these materials for various optoelectronic device applications. In present work, hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) nanoparticles (NPs) have been synthesized using precipitation method. Hafnium tetrachloride and sodium hydroxide has been used as starting precursors. Prepared oxide material has been characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The phase transformation from amorphous to monoclinic is observed with the increase in calcination temperature from 500 °C and 800 °C. In FTIR spectra, the characteristic bands at ν ∼ 758.53 and 509.57 cm{sup −1} reveals the monoclinic phase of prepared HfO{sub 2} NPs. UV-Vis spectroscopy shows an absorption peak at 204 nm and the bandgap calculated is 6.07 eV.

  7. Twofold role of calcined hydrotalcites in the degradation of methyl parathion pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Alvaro; Fetter, Geolar; Villafuerte-Castrejon, María Elena; Tejeda-Cruz, Adriana; Bosch, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Methyl parathion (MP) is a very toxic organophosphate pesticide used as a non-systematic insecticide and acaricide on many corps. As MP and its by-products are highly toxic, they have to be retained to avoid pollution of rivers and lakes. Highly efficient sorbents are hydrotalcites (HTs) (or anionic clays). We have correlated the degradation of an aqueous solution of MP at room temperature, with the basicity of the adsorbing materials. It was found that the metal composition of hydrotalcites determines both the surface electronic properties (basic or acidic) and the sorption capacity. Depending on the basic strength, some calcined hydrotalcites can catalyze the transformation of MP to p-nitrophenol (p-NP) and retain its by-products. Such a process has the advantage of being able to be carried out at room temperature and at the pH of the pesticide solution.

  8. Twofold role of calcined hydrotalcites in the degradation of methyl parathion pesticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Sampieri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Methyl parathion (MP is a very toxic organophosphate pesticide used as a non-systematic insecticide and acaricide on many corps. As MP and its by-products are highly toxic, they have to be retained to avoid pollution of rivers and lakes. Highly efficient sorbents are hydrotalcites (HTs (or anionic clays. We have correlated the degradation of an aqueous solution of MP at room temperature, with the basicity of the adsorbing materials. It was found that the metal composition of hydrotalcites determines both the surface electronic properties (basic or acidic and the sorption capacity. Depending on the basic strength, some calcined hydrotalcites can catalyze the transformation of MP to p-nitrophenol (p-NP and retain its by-products. Such a process has the advantage of being able to be carried out at room temperature and at the pH of the pesticide solution.

  9. Enhancement of biohydrogen production from brewers' spent grain by calcined-red mud pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jishi; Zang, Lihua

    2016-06-01

    This paper investigated the utilization of calcined-red mud (CRM) pretreatment to enhance fermentative hydrogen yields from brewers' spent grain (BSG). The BSG samples were treated with different concentrations (0.0-20g/L) of CRM at 55°C for 48h, before the biohydrogen process with heat-treated anaerobic sludge inoculum. The highest specific hydrogen production of 198.62ml/g-VS was obtained from the BSG treated with 10g/L CRM, with the corresponding lag time of 10.60h. Hydrogen yield increments increased by 67.74%, compared to the control tests without CRM. The results demonstrated that the CRM could hydrolyze more cellulose and further provided adequate broth and suitable pH value for efficient fermentative hydrogen. The model-based analysis showed that the modified Gompertz model presented a better fit for the experimental data than the first-order model.

  10. Effect of calcining temperature on electrical and dielectric properties of cadmium stannate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawant, V.S.; Shinde, S.S.; Deokate, R.J.; Bhosale, C.H.; Chougule, B.K. [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India); Rajpure, K.Y., E-mail: rajpure@yahoo.com [Electrochemical Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (India)

    2009-04-15

    The cadmium stannate samples were prepared by chemical co-precipitation method using stannic chloride pentahydrate (SnCl{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O) and cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) as precursors by carefully controlling the preparative parameters. The effect of calcining temperature on the phase, microstructure, morphological and electrical properties of cadmium stannate has been investigated. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicate the conversion of rhombohedral to spinel cubic crystal structure and polycrystallinity of the samples. SEM study of Cd{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} sample shows randomly distributed cubic crystals of varying sizes. The dc resistivity was measured as a function of temperature. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were studied as a function of frequency. To understand the conduction mechanism in the samples AC conductivity was measured.

  11. Physical Properties of Calcined Kaolin (Kibi,Ghana) Aggregate Refractory Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Amoako-Appiagyei

    1998-01-01

    Properties of refractories affect their perfor-mance and deformation behaviour as well as their ultimate failure mode,Therefore in ordr to assess the capabilities of materials,used for refractory lin-ings,in service their properties must be evaluated.In this work the evaluation of some physical properties of calcined kaloin(Kibi,Ghana)aggregate re-fractory bodies showed an average porosity and spe-cific gravity of 24% and 2.78 respectively,An av-erage cold crushing strength of 19.6 MPa was also obtained .Thermal expansion and behaviour under a constant hot load of 196 kPa also showed good resis-tance to high temperature deformation.

  12. Characterization of red mud derived from a combined Bayer Process and bauxite calcination method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Lin, Chuxia; Wu, Yonggui

    2007-07-19

    Red mud can be derived from the processing of bauxite using different methods. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the combined Bayer Process and bauxite calcination red mud (BPBCRM) differs markedly from those of the pure Bayer Process red mud (PBPRM). In this study, red mud derived from a combined Bayer Process and bauxite calcination method was characterized. The results show that pH of the red mud decreased with increasing duration of storage time. Na dominated among the soluble cations, but the concentration of soluble Na decreased with increasing duration of storage time as a result of leaching. Cation exchange capacity also decreased with increasing duration of storage time, probably due to a decrease in pH causing a reduction in negatively charged sites on the red mud particles. Ca was the predominant exchangeable cation in the fresh red mud but the concentration of exchangeable Ca markedly decreased in the old red mud, which was dominated by exchangeable Na. The degree of crystallization and thermal stability of the red mud increased with increasing duration of storage. The acid neutralizing capacity of red mud obtained from this study was about 10 mol kg(-1), which is much greater than the reported values for the pure Bayer Process red mud. Column filtering experiment indicates that the red mud also had a very strong capacity to remove Cu, Zn and Cd from the filtering solution. It is conservatively estimated that the simultaneous removal rates of Cd, Zn and Cu by red mud are over 22,250 mg kg(-1), 22,500 mg kg(-1) and 25,000 mg kg(-1), respectively. The affinity of these metals to the red mud was in the following decreasing order: Cu>Zn>Cd. In general, the fresh red mud retained more heavy metals than the old red mud did.

  13. Surface complexation modeling calculation of Pb(II) adsorption onto the calcined diatomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Cui; Zhang, Ji-Lin; Sun, De-Hui; Liu, Gui-Xia

    2015-12-01

    Removal of noxious heavy metal ions (e.g. Pb(II)) by surface adsorption of minerals (e.g. diatomite) is an important means in the environmental aqueous pollution control. Thus, it is very essential to understand the surface adsorptive behavior and mechanism. In this work, the Pb(II) apparent surface complexation reaction equilibrium constants on the calcined diatomite and distributions of Pb(II) surface species were investigated through modeling calculations of Pb(II) based on diffuse double layer model (DLM) with three amphoteric sites. Batch experiments were used to study the adsorption of Pb(II) onto the calcined diatomite as a function of pH (3.0-7.0) and different ionic strengths (0.05 and 0.1 mol L-1 NaCl) under ambient atmosphere. Adsorption of Pb(II) can be well described by Freundlich isotherm models. The apparent surface complexation equilibrium constants (log K) were obtained by fitting the batch experimental data using the PEST 13.0 together with PHREEQC 3.1.2 codes and there is good agreement between measured and predicted data. Distribution of Pb(II) surface species on the diatomite calculated by PHREEQC 3.1.2 program indicates that the impurity cations (e.g. Al3+, Fe3+, etc.) in the diatomite play a leading role in the Pb(II) adsorption and dominant formation of complexes and additional electrostatic interaction are the main adsorption mechanism of Pb(II) on the diatomite under weak acidic conditions.

  14. Stabilized γ-BIMNVOX solid electrolyte: Ethylene glycol–citrate sol–gel synthesis, microwave-assisted calcination, and structural and electrical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Areqi, Niyazi A.S., E-mail: niyazi.alareqi@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz University, Taiz, Republic of Yemen (Yemen); Beg, Saba [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India); Al-Alas, Ahlam [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Science, Taiz University, Taiz, Republic of Yemen (Yemen); Hafeez, Shehla [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002 (India)

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •γ-BIMNVOX was synthesized by ethylene glycol–citrate sol–gel route. •γ-BIMNVOX crystallizes by 25-min microwave-assisted calcination. •Smaller particle sizes for microwave calcined BIMNVOX samples. •Best oxide-ion performance for microwave calcined BIMNVOX samples. -- Abstract: Samples of γ-BIMNVOX (Bi{sub 2}V{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 5.5−x/2}; 0.13 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.20) system were synthesized by an ethylene glycol–citrate sol–gel route. The resulting xerogels were then calcined by the microwave heating using a modified domestic microwave oven operated at 2.45 GHz. Microwave-assisted calcination samples in comparison with other conventionally calcined samples were characterized in terms of phase crystallization, stabilization and particle size using simultaneous thermogravimetric–differential thermal analysis (TG–DTA), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The AC impedance spectroscopy was employed for electrical characterization. It was found that the microwave-assisted calcination route successfully produces better crystalline stabilized γ-BIMNVOX samples with appreciably small average particle sizes after only 25 min of microwave heating. The electrical properties of microwave calcined γ-BIMNVOX system make it an advanced low-temperature solid electrolyte suitable for use in oxide-ion based electrochemical applications.

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis of boehmites with various particle sizes and transition to α-Al2O3 powders by calcination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Boehmite powders with various particle sizes have been prepared by hydrothermal method and the α-Al2 O3 powders yielded after subsequent calcination have been studied. Dispersive crystalline boehmite powders of 30-100 nm, 0.4-0. 6μm and 1μm in size were obtained respectively by changing the hydrothermal precursors and the pH value of hydrothermal slurry. Calcination of boehmite powders of 30-100 nm at 1250℃ for 1h resulted in the formation of single-phase α-Al2O3,and the products consisted of vermicular particles. The boehmite powders of 0.4-0.6μm were also fully converted to α-Al2O3 at 1250℃, and the products consisted of plate-like particles with the same size of 0. 4-0. 6μm. The boehmite powders of 1μm calcined at 1350℃ for 2h were still composed of a little proportions of transition aluminas besides α-Al2 O3, and the particles sintered severely. The reaction processes for the formation of crystalline boehmites under hydrothermal conditions and α-Al2O3 powders during calcination have been discussed.

  16. Influence of calcination temperature on sol-gel synthesized single-phase bismuth titanate for high dielectric capacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiruramanathan, Pandirengan; Marikani, Arumugam [Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Physics; Madhavan, Durairaj [Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Bharadwaj, Suresh; Awasthi, Anand Mohan [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore (India). Thermodynamics Lab.

    2016-05-15

    An inexpensive sol-gel combustion method using citric acid as fuel has been used to synthesize bismuth titanate, Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} nanopowders. Thermogravimetric analysis proved that a calcination temperature of 900 C is sufficient for the preparation of single-phase bismuth titanate. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to examine the influence of calcination temperature on the structural growth of the Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} nanopowder. The average crystallite size estimated by using the Scherrer method and the Williamson-Hall method was found to increase with calcination temperature. Photoluminescence behavior as a function of calcination temperature was observed at two different excitation wavelengths of 300 nm and 420 nm. The morphology of the particles analyzed using images obtained from field emission scanning electron microscopy displayed irregular, random sized, and spherical-shaped structures. The stoichiometry and purity of the nanopowder are confirmed by energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The broadband dielectric results established the highest dielectric constant (ε{sub r} = 450) for a frequency of 100 Hz achieved with a potential capacitance of 138 pF m{sup -2}. This establishes Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} as a promising dielectric material for achieving high energy density capacitors for the next-generation passive devices.

  17. Synthesis of titanium dioxide by ultrasound assisted sol-gel technique: effect of calcination and sonication time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinjari, D V; Prasad, Krishnamurthy; Gogate, P R; Mhaske, S T; Pandit, A B

    2015-03-01

    Nanostructured titanium dioxide has been synthesized using both conventional and ultrasound assisted sol-gel technique with an objective of understanding the role of cavitational effects in the synthesis process. The experiments were conducted at a constant calcination temperature of 750 °C and the calcination time was varied from 30 min to 3 h to study the effect of calcination time on the properties of the synthesized TiO₂. The TiO₂ specimens were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The influence of the sonication time on the phase transformation process from anatase to rutile and also on the crystallite size and percentage crystallinity of the synthesized TiO₂ has also been investigated. It was observed that 100% phase transformation occurred after 3 h of calcination for the ultrasound assisted sol-gel synthesized TiO₂. The study on the phase transformation via variation of sonication time yielded interesting results. It was observed that as the sonication time increased, an initial increase in the rutile content is obtained and beyond optimum sonication time, the rutile content decreased. In general, the ultrasound assisted process results in synthesis of TiO₂ material with higher rutile content as compared to the conventional sol-gel process.

  18. Effect of calcination temperature and reaction conditions on methane partial oxidation using lanthanum-based perovskite as oxygen donor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Xiaoping; YU Changchun; LI Ranjia; WU Qiong; SHI Kaijiao; HAO Zhengping

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of calcination temperature, reaction temperature, and different amounts of replenished lattice oxygen on the partial oxidation of methane (POM) to synthesis gas using perovskite-type LaFeO3 oxide as oxygen donor instead of gaseous oxygen, which was prepared by the sol-gel method, and the oxides were characterized by XRD, TG/DTA, and BET. The results indicated that the particle size increased with the calcination temperature increasing, while BET and CH4 conversion declined with the calcination temperature increasing using LaFeO3 oxide as oxygen donor in the absence of gaseous oxygen. CO selectivity remained at a high level such as above 92%, and increased slightly as the calcination temperature increased. Exposure of LaFeO3 oxides to methane atmosphere enhanced the oxygen migration of in the bulk with time online owing to the loss of lattice oxygen and reduction of the oxidative stated Fe ion simultaneously. The high reaction temperature was favorable to the migration of oxygen species from the bulk toward the surface for the synthesis gas production with high CO selectivity. The product distribution and evolution for POM by sequential redox reaction was determined by amounts of replenished lattice oxygen with gaseous oxygen. The optimal process should decline the total oxidation of methane, and increase the selectivity of partial oxidation of methane.

  19. Effect of Calcination Temperature on Catalytic Activity and Textual Property of Cu/HMOR Catalysts in Dimethyl Ether Carbonylation Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Zhang; Yu-ping Li; Song-bai Qiu; Tie-jun Wang; Long-long Ma; Qi Zhang; Ming-yue Ding

    2013-01-01

    The effect of calcination temperature on the catalytic activity for the dimethyl ether (DME) carbonylation into methyl acetate (MA) was investigated over mordenite supported copper (Cu/HMOR) prepared by ion-exchange process.The results showed that the catalytic activity was obviously affected by the calcination temperature.The maximal DME conversion of 97.2% and the MA selectivity of 97.9% were obtained over the Cu/HMOR calcined at 430 ℃ under conditions of 210 ℃,1.5 MPa,and GSHV of 4883 h-1.The obtained Cu/HMOR catalysts were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction,N2 absorption,NH3 temperature program desorption,CO temperature program desorption,and Raman techniques.Proper calcination temperature was effective to promote copper ions migration and diffusion,and led the support HMOR to possess more acid activity sites,which exhibited the complete decomposing of copper nitrate,large surface area and optimum micropore structure,more amount of CO adsorption site and proper amount of weak acid centers.

  20. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2013-08-15

    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel

  1. Mercury and methylmercury contents in mine-waste calcine, water, and sediment collected from the Palawan Quicksilver mine, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J.E.; Greaves, I.A.; Bustos, D.M.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    The Palawan Quicksilver mine, Philippines, produced about 2,900 t of mercury during mining of cinnabar ore from 1953 to 1976. More than 2,000,000 t of mine-waste calcines (retorted ore) were produced during mining, much of which were used to construct a jetty in nearby Honda Bay. Since 1995, high Hg contents have been found in several people living near the mine, and 21 of these people were treated for mercury poisoning. Samples of mine-waste calcine contain high total Hg concentrations ranging from 43-660 ??g/g, whereas total Hg concentrations in sediment samples collected from a mine pit lake and local stream vary from 3.7-400 ??g/g. Mine water flowing through the calcines is acidic, pH 3.1-4.3, and total Hg concentrations ranging from 18-31 ??g/l in this water significantly exceed the 1.0-??g/l drinking water standard for Hg recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Total Hg contents are generally lower in water samples collected from surrounding domestic wells, the mine pit lake, Honda Bay, and the nearby stream, varying from 0.008-1.4 ??g/l. Methylmercury concentrations in water draining mine calcines range from <0.02-1.4 ng/l, but methylmercury is highest in the pit lake water, ranging from 1.7-3.1 ng/l. Mercury methylation at the Palawan mine is similar to or higher than that found in other mercury mines worldwide. Much of the methylmercury generated in Palawan mine-waste calcines and those in Honda Bay is transferred to water, and then to marine fish and seafood. A food source pathway of Hg to humans is most likely in this coastal, high fish-consuming population.

  2. Infrared Spectral Analysis for Calcined Borax%煅硼砂的红外光谱分析与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翠; 任丽莉; 王栋; 周平; 张倩; 王伯涛

    2011-01-01

    对煅硼砂饮片进行质量评价.以18个不同含水量的煅硼砂样品为研究对象,使用傅里叶红外光谱仪采集样品的红外吸收图谱,并对红外图谱进行分析,再根据分析结果对煅硼砂饮片进行质量评价.发现煅硼砂的红外光谱主要包括OH、BO3-3和BO5-4振动引起的三个吸收带,OH振动吸收带的位置及宽度依赖于含水量的高低,含水量越高,吸收带越宽;BO3-3及BO5-4振动吸收带的数目也取决于含水量的高低,含水量越高,氢键作用越强,B原子的对称性越低,红外吸收峰数目越多.结论:因含水量与煅硼砂样品的质量直接相关,故红外光谱法可为煅硼砂的质量分析与评价研究提供一种灵敏、客观的方法和手段.%To valuate the quality of calcined borax which is sold in the market, 18 samples of calcined borax were studied using the Fourier transform infrared, and samples with different water content were selected and analyzed. Then, the results of analysis were used to evaluate the quality of calcined borax. Results show that the infrared spectra of calcined borax include OH vibration, BO3-3 vibration and BQ5-4 vibration absorption bands. The position and width of OH vibration absorption band depend on the level of water content, and the more the water content, the wider the absorption band. The number of BO3-3 vibration and BO5-4 vibration bands also depend on the level of water content, and the more the water content, and the stronger the hydrogen bond and the lower the symmetry of B atoms, the more the number of infrared absorption peaks. It was concluded that because the quality of calcined borax has direct correlation with water content, the infrared spectroscopy is an express and objective approach to quality analysis and evaluation of calcined borax.

  3. Development of a high energy efficient pressure calciner. Final report, June 1, 1994--July 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, J.F.

    1997-12-18

    During the life of this contract, the design, procurement, and construction of a pilot, self-fluidizing, pressure calciner for the production of smelting grade alumina was completed. Initial operating characteristics were determined, and the first half of the first DOX was completed. A design capacity of at least 100 kg/hr of product had been chosen to insure a 100:1 maximum scale-up ratio for the semi-commercial unit. Detailed numerical analysis was made for the heat exchanger design to set the active tube length at 8.5 m (28 ft). The instrumentation and data logging system was designed to obtain the detailed engineering parameters for design of the semi-commercial unit. The pressure feed, discharge, and burner systems were chosen from existing commercial designs to reduce the development work required. Auxiliary equipment, steam condenser, cooling tower, and product cooler, were chosen to simplify operation during the experimental program. Self-fluidizing capabilities were determined to exist both from temperature profiles and heat transfer coefficient calculations.

  4. The effect of calcination on reactive milling of anthracite as potential precursor for graphite production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess-Clifford, Caroline E.; Van Essendelft, Dirk T. [The EMS Energy Institute, C211 Coal Utilization Laboratory, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Narayanan, Deepa L. [Puget Sound Energy, 10885 NE 4th PSE-09S, Bellevue, WA 98004 (United States); Jain, Puja; Lueking, Angela D. [Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 120 Hosler, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Sakti, Apurba [School of Earth Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    The effect of a pretreatment using reactive ball milling and calcination on the graphitizability of an anthracite coal is explored. A thermal anneal of Buck Mountain anthracite at 1400 C in argon increased the L{sub c} crystallite dimension (from 12 to 20 A) and led to an increase in the oxidation temperature of the product. Ball milling of the coal reduced particle size with a nominal effect on carbon order and the degree of graphitization after the 1400 C thermal anneal (L{sub c} from 18 to 29 A). Ball milling in cyclohexene led to a substantial increase in the graphitizability at 1400 C (L{sub c} from 12 to 50 A). The enhanced reactivity was due to both carbon structure and introduced metal. The products of the mechano-chemical pretreatment and thermal anneal consisted of nanographene ribbons and multi-walled nanopolyhedral particles. It oxidized at moderate temperatures and had a high (74.3%) degree of graphitization based on X-ray diffraction analysis; the derived material has potential as filler for production of graphite. (author)

  5. Research about the pozzolanic activity of waste materials from calcined clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez de Rojas, M. I.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available To recycle and reutilise waste materials and find definite applications for their use, it is necessary to have a deep knowledge of them. The aim of this study is to study the possibility of using waste materials from calcined clay, actually ceramic tile, once crushed and grounded, as pozzolanic material. For this purpose, different tests are carried out in order to establish the pozzolanic activity of this material. At the same time, these results are compared to those of other industrial by-products, fly ash and silica fume, which are pozzolanic materials usually employed to elaborate mortars and concretes.

    Para llevar a cabo labores encaminadas al reciclado y revalorización de residuos es necesario un conocimiento profundo de los mismos, de forma que se busquen aplicaciones concretas de uso. El objetivo de este estudio es investigar la posibilidad de utilizar materiales de desecho procedentes de arcilla cocida, concretamente teja cerámica, una vez triturada y molida, como puzolana. Para ello, se efectúan diferentes ensayos dirigidos a establecer la actividad puzolanica del material. A su vez, estos resultados son comparados con otros residuos industriales, ceniza volante y humo de sílice, habituales en la elaboración de morteros y hormigones.

  6. Environmental assessment: Closure of the Waste Calcining Facility (CPP-633), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to close the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF). The WCF is a surplus DOE facility located at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Six facility components in the WCF have been identified as Resource Conservation and Recovery Ace (RCRA)-units in the INEL RCRA Part A application. The WCF is an interim status facility. Consequently, the proposed WCF closure must comply with Idaho Rules and Standards for Hazardous Waste contained in the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act (IDAPA) Section 16.01.05. These state regulations, in addition to prescribing other requirements, incorporate by reference the federal regulations, found at 40 CFR Part 265, that prescribe the requirements for facilities granted interim status pursuant to the RCRA. The purpose of the proposed action is to reduce the risk of radioactive exposure and release of hazardous constituents and eliminate the need for extensive long-term surveillance and maintenance. DOE has determined that the closure is needed to reduce potential risks to human health and the environment, and to comply with the Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act (HWMA) requirements.

  7. Strength of Limestone-based Non-calcined Cement and its Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zongshou; ZHAO Qian

    2009-01-01

    A new type of cement was prepared with ground limestone powder,blastfurnace slag,steel slag and gypsum without calcination.The fraction of ground limestone powder in the cement was as high as 40 wt%-60 wt%without Portland clinker.All of its physical properties can meet the requirements of masonry cement standards.The impact of limestone content on physical properties of the cement and determined its impact on law was investigated.The steel slag can excit the aquation activity of this cement effectively,and the influence of its quantity on the strength of the materials was studied,which shows that the optimum quantity of mixing is 10%.By way of changing the different content of the lime stone by quartzy sample,the law of the compression strength and the PH value was determined,confirming that the lime stone can promote the early aquation of the slag and improve the early strength.The main hydration product of this cement is calcium aluminate hydrate, ettringite and calcium silicate hydrate,as indicated by XRD and SEM analysis.

  8. Kinetics of Hg(II) adsorption and desorption in calcined mussel shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rodríguez, Susana; Fernández-Calviño, David; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María José; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza

    2010-08-15

    The potential use of calcined mussel shells to purify water contaminated with mercury was evaluated. The Hg(II) adsorption and desorption kinetics were studied in batch-type and stirred-flow chamber experiments. The adsorption/desorption experiments revealed some differences between the batches of shells used. The batch of shells that displayed the greatest capacity to adsorb Hg(II), via a highly irreversible reaction, also contained more Fe and Al than the other batches. The results of the stirred-flow chamber experiments indicated a high degree of irreversibility in the process of Hg(II) adsorption in the mussel shell, and that Hg(II) was rapidly retained. The results of these experiments also revealed that the efficiency of depuration differed depending on the length of time that the system was used: when the system was operated for 55 min, depurating 162 mL of inflowing water g(-1) mussel shell, a 90% reduction in the initial concentration of Hg(II) was obtained; use of the system for 90 min, depurating 265 mL water g(-1) mussel shell, produced a 75% reduction in the initial Hg(II), and use of the system for 162.5 min, depurating 487 mL of water g(-1) mussel shell, resulted in a 50% reduction in the initial Hg(II).

  9. Mineral Phase and Physical Properties of Red Mud Calcined at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-sheng Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different characterizations were carried out on red mud uncalcined and samples calcined in the range of 100°C–1400°C. In the present paper, the phase composition and structural transition of red mud heated from room temperature are indicated by XRD, TG-DTA, and SEM techniques. The mean particle diameter, density, and bond strength of these samples also have been investigated. The results indicate the decomposition of gibbsite into Al2O3 and H2O between 300°C and 550°C and calcite into CaO and CO2 in the interval of 600–800°C. Tricalcium aluminate and gehlenite are formed in the range of 800–900°C. Combined with the SEM images, the results of physical property testing show that the particle size and the strength each has a continuous rise during the heat treatment from 150°C to 1350°C. But the value of density will undergo a little drop before 450°C and then increases to a higher value at the temperature of 1200°C. These obtained results provide an important base for the further studies of comprehensive utilization of red mud.

  10. [XPS study on the influence of calcination conditions to cerium ion valence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yan; Yan, Jian-ping; Nie, Zuo-ren

    2010-01-01

    For the system of Ce(NO3)2.6H2O and urea solution during homogeneous precipitation method, X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectrum (IR) and especially X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to study and characterize the product structure, variety of cerium ion valence, compound surface character and kernel electronic configurations. The results of XRD and IR showed that calcination temperature had a great effect on the cerium ion valence. The products are orthorhombic Ce2 O(CO3)2.H2O with valence III by using homogeneous precipitation method directly. When heated from the temperature 200 degrees C to 250 degrees C, the product of CeO(CO3)2.H2O with valence VI was finally changed into stable CeO2 with valence IV. XPS was used to study the surface character and kernel electronic configurations of the three different compounds through fine scanning of O(1s), Ce(3d) and Ce(4d) apices, and the results approved that the compounds with different valences are caused by the different valence electronic configurations of the products.

  11. Chloride adsorption by calcined layered double hydroxides in hardened Portland cement paste

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using calcined layered double hydroxides (CLDHs) to prevent chloride-induced deterioration in reinforced concrete. CLDHs not only adsorbed chloride ions in aqueous solution with a memory effect but also had a much higher binding capacity than the original layered double hydroxides (LDHs) in the cement matrix. We investigated this adsorption in hardened cement paste in batch cultures to determine adsorption isotherms. The measured and theoretical binding capacities (153 mg g -1 and 257 mg g-1, respectively) of the CLDHs were comparable to the theoretical capacity of Friedel\\'s salt (2 mol mol-1 or 121 mg g-1), which belongs to the LDH family among cementitious phases. We simulated chloride adsorption by CLDHs through the cement matrix using the Fickian model and compared the simulation result to the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) chlorine map. Based on our results, it is proposed that the adsorption process is governed by the chloride transport through the cement matrix; this process differs from that in an aqueous solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the CLDH rebuilds the layered structure in a cementitious environment, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of applying CLDHs to the cement and concrete industries. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Advanced mineral calciner for regeneration of lime. Final report, March 1995--May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namazian, M.; Nickeson, R.; Lovas, B.; Miller, G.; Kelly, J.

    1997-12-31

    There are approximately 800 pulp, paper and paperboard mills in the United States. Pulp and paper is the ninth largest industry in US, uses 2.8 quads of energy per year and ranks third among all domestic US industries in the cost of energy consumed. A significant fraction of the energy consumed in pulp and paper plants is needed to recover chemicals that are used in breaking down the wood chips into pulp. In particular, 0.1 quads of energy per year are used to regenerate lime. Furthermore, pulp and paper plant operations generate 9,870 tons of NOx per year. Additionally over two million tons of spent lime are sent to landfills each year. In addition, growth in paper demand and changes in plant processes (e.g., bleaching), as a result of environmental pressures, will continue to drive the need for more lime regeneration capacity. Unless the increased capacity can be delivered productively and inexpensively, the growth in pulp and paper may occur in overseas markets. Furthermore, if new environmental constraints cannot be met at low cost, existing US pulp and paper production capacity may also move off-shore. The advanced mineral calciner (AMC) technology was developed to address this lime regeneration need. Prior to describing the technology, and the program of work that was used to test the concept, conventional lime regeneration systems and their limitations are described.

  13. Stabilization of lead and copper contaminated firing range soil using calcined oyster shells and fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Park, Jae-Woo; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Hyun, Seunghun; Koutsospyros, Agamemnon; Park, Jeong-Hun; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-12-01

    A stabilization/solidification treatment scheme was devised to stabilize Pb and Cu contaminated soil from a firing range using renewable waste resources as additives, namely waste oyster shells (WOS) and fly ash (FA). The WOS, serving as the primary stabilizing agent, was pre-treated at a high temperature to activate quicklime from calcite. Class C FA was used as a secondary additive along with the calcined oyster shells (COS). The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated by means of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and the 0.1 M HCl extraction tests following a curing period of 28 days. The combined treatment with 10 wt% COS and 5 wt% FA cause a significant reduction in Pb (>98 %) and Cu (>96 %) leachability which was indicated by the results from both extraction tests (TCLP and 0.1 M HCl). Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analyses are used to investigate the mechanism responsible for Pb and Cu stabilization. SEM-EDX results indicate that effective Pb and Cu immobilization using the combined COS-FA treatment is most probably associated with ettringite and pozzolanic reaction products. The treatment results suggest that the combined COS-FA treatment is a cost effective method for the stabilization of firing range soil.

  14. Synthesis and calcinations effects on size analysis of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanospheres and their superparamagnetic behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anandha Babu, G. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630004, Tamil Nadu (India); Ravi, G., E-mail: gravicrc@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630004, Tamil Nadu (India); Hayakawa, Y. [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, Hamamatsu 432-8011 (Japan); Kumaresavanji, M. [IFIMUP and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Porto, 687 Rua Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2015-02-01

    Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized by microwave process using citric acid as a capping agent. Interestingly, when calcination temperature is increased to 600 °C, nanoparticles were formed into nanospheres of about less than 20 nm observed from SEM images. The particles were aggregated into bigger size of about 65 nm when the calcination temperature was increased to 800 °C. The samples calcined at 400 °C and 800 °C show superparamagnetism above the blocking temperature and the existence of small ferromagnetism is observed when Tcalcination temperature of the sample. - Highlights: • Spinel Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles are synthesized by fast and effective microwave route. • Tuning of size and morphology of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was investigated by calcination temperatures. • Well defined sphere morphology was achieved for the calcinations of 600 °C. • The prepared Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} was modified into moderate size of less than 20 nm for 600 °C. • The 600 °C calcined sample completely obeys superparamagnetism nature from 5K–300K.

  15. Phase and morphology evolution of (Na1-xKxNbO3 powders related to calcinations and K2CO3 content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Milne

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium-potassium niobate ((Na1-xKxNbO3 powders with x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 were prepared following the conventional mixed oxide method and characterized by TG-DTA, XRD and SEM techniques.The effects of calcination temperature, dwell time and K2CO3 content on phase formation behavior and morphology of the powders were investigated. The calcination temperature and dwell time were found tohave a pronounced effect on the phase formation of the calcined sodium-potassium niobate powders. It was found that the crystallized phase depended on calcination conditions. The high calcination temperature andlong dwell time clearly favored particle growth and the formation of large and hard agglomerates. All the (Na1-xKxNbO3 powders showed a similar orthorhombic phase structure. The K2CO3 content significantlyaffected the calcination temperature and particle size and shape. Large particle size, cubic shape and a lower calcined condition were observed in (Na1-xKxNbO3 powder with low K2CO3 content (x = 0.2.

  16. Effect of calcining temperature and time on the characteristics of Sb-doped SnO2 nanoparticles synthesized by the sol-gel method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohua Zhong; Baoping Yang; Xiaoliang Zhang; Junhong Jia; Gewen Yi

    2012-01-01

    Spherical Sb-doped SnO2 (ATO) nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel route,employing SnCl4·5H2O and SbCl3 as precursors in an ethanol solution.The influences of the calcining temperature and calcining time on the crystallite size,crystallinity,lattice parameters,lattice distortion ratio and the resistivity of the ATO nanoparticles were synthetically investigated.The results suggested that the ATO nanoparticles were crystallized in a tetragonal cassiterite structure of SnO2 with a highly (110)-plane-preferred orientation.The calcining temperature had a dominating effect on the crystallite size,crystallinity,lattice distortion ratios and resistivity of the ATO.As the calcining temperature increased,the average crystallite size increased,the crystallinity was promoted accompanied by a decrease in the lattice distortion ratio and a corresponding decrease in the resistivity of the ATO.X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) analysis revealed that Sb ions could not entirely supplant the Sn ions in the SnO2 lattice for a calcining time of less than 0.5 h,even at a calcining temperature of 1000℃.The ATO nanoparticles calcined at 1000℃ for 3.0h possessed the lowest resistivity of 10.18Ωcm.

  17. [Based on Curing Age of Calcined Coal Gangue Fine Aggregate Mortar of X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zuo-chao; Xia, Jun-wu; Duan, Xiao-mu; Cao, Ji-chang

    2016-03-01

    By using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and environmental scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis method, we stud- ied the activity of coal gangue fine aggregate under different calcination temperature. In view of the activity of the highest-700 degrees C high temperature calcined coal gangue fine aggregate mortar of hydration products, microstructure and strength were discussed in this paper, and the change laws of mortar strength with curing age (3, 7, 14, 28, 60 and 90 d) growth were analyzed. Test results showed that coal gangue fine aggregate with the increase of calcination temperature, the active gradually increases. When the calcination temperature reaches 700 degrees C, the activity of coal gangue fine aggregate is the highest. When calcining temperature continues to rise, activity falls. After 700 degrees C high temperature calcined coal gangue fine aggregate has obvious ash activity, the active components of SiO2 and Al2 O3 can be with cement hydration products in a certain degree of secondary hydration reaction. Through on the top of the activity of different curing age 700 degrees C high temperature calcined coal gangue fine aggregate mortar, XRD and SEM analysis showed that with the increase of curing age, secondary hydration reaction will be more fully, and the amount of hydration products also gradually increases. Compared with the early ages of the cement mortar, the products are more stable hydration products filling in mortar microscopic pore, which can further improve the microstructure of mortar, strengthen the interface performance of the mortar. The mortar internal structure is more uniform, calcined coal gangue fine aggregate and cement mortar are more of a strong continuous whole, which increase the later strength of hardened cement mortar, 700 degrees C high temperature calcined coal gangue fine aggregate pozzolanic effect is obvious.

  18. Effects of Calcination Temperature on the Acidity and Catalytic Performances of HZSM-5 Zeolite Catalysts for the Catalytic Cracking of n-Butane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiangyin Lu; Zhen Zhao; Chunming Xu; Aijun Duan; Pu Zhang

    2005-01-01

    The acidic modulations of a series of HZSM-5 catalysts were successfully made by calcination at different treatment temperatures, i.e. 500, 600, 650, 700 and 800 ℃, respectively. The results indicated that the total acid amounts, their density and the amount of B-type acid of HZSM-5 catalysts rapidly decreased, while the amounts of L-type acid had almost no change and thus the ratio of L/B was obviously enhanced with the increase of calcination temperature (excluding 800 ℃). The catalytic performances of modified HZSM-5 catalysts for the cracking of n-butane were also investigated. The main properties of these catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, N2 adsorption at low temperature, NH3-TPD, FTIR of pyridine adsorption and BET surface area measurements. The results showed that HZSM-5 zeolite pretreated at 800 ℃ had very low catalytic activity for n-butane cracking. In the calcination temperature range of 500-700 ℃, the total selectivity to olefins, propylene and butene were increased with the increase of calcination temperature, while, the selectivity for arene decreased with the calcination temperature.The HZSM-5 zeolite calcined at 700 ℃ produced light olefins with high yield, at the reaction temperature of 650 ℃ the yields of total olefins and ethylene were 52.8% and 29.4%, respectively. Besides, the more important role is that high calcination temperature treatment improved the duration stability of HZSM-5zeolites. The effect of calcination temperature on the physico-chemical properties and catalytic performance of HZSM-5 for cracking of n-butane was explored. It was found that the calcination temperature had large effects on the surface area, crystallinity and acid properties of HZSM-5 catalyst, which further affected the catalytic performance for n-butane cracking.

  19. Effect of calcination method on the product distribution from catalytic degradation of polystyrene in the presence of 1% Pd/Al2O3 catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Anita; Kun, Lim Sheo; Kait, Chong Fai; Yahya, Noorhana; Daud, Hanita

    2012-11-01

    Incipient wetness impregnation method was used to prepare 1% Pd/Al2O3 catalyst which was calcined at 500 °C for 16 hr as well as in a domestic microwave at 650W for 5 and 10 min. These catalysts were tested in the catalytic degradation of polystyrene (PS) into liquid fuels at catalyst to PS ratio of 0.2 (w/w). The organic liquid product (OLP) collected was analysed using Gas Chromatography (GC). Results show that the conventional calcined catalyst gives petrol as the main product while kerosene was the main product for the microwave calcined catalysts.

  20. Influence of calcination atmosphere on photocatalytic reactivity of K2La2Ti3O10 for water splitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The layered perovskite type oxide K2La2Ti3O10 powders were prepared under air, Ar and H2 calcination atmospheres by sol-gel method and characterized by X-ray diffractometry, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The influence of the calcination atmosphere on the photocatalytic reactivity of K2La2Ti3O10 for hydrogen production was investigated.The photocatalytic reactivity of K2La2Ti3O10 prepared under air, Ar and H2 atmospheres was compared with that prepared under ultraviolet and visible light radiation using I- as electronic donor. The results show that K2La2Ti3O10 prepared under Ar and H2atmospheres has higher photocatalytic activity for hydrogen production than that prepared under air atmosphere. The hydrogen

  1. Characterization and use of in natura and calcined rice husks for biosorption of heavy metals ions from aqueous effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. A. Vieira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal removal by adsorption using rice husks as a bioadsorbent was evaluated as an alternative for wastewater treatment. Batch equilibrium experiments and kinetic sorption studies were performed using monocomponent solutions of Ni(II, Cd(II, Zn(II, Pb(II and Cu(II in surface samples of in natura(RH and calcined rice husks (RHA. RHA showed higher potential for removing lead and copper. Experimental data for adsorption isotherms of lead and copper were adjusted by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevick (D-R models, being better represented by the Langmuir model. The calcination of RH increased its surface area, improving its adsorption properties. From a morphological analysis obtained by SEM and diffraction patterns (XRD, a longitudinal fibrous and amorphous structure was observed for RH. TGA resultsindicated a total mass loss of around 60% for RH and 24.5% for RHA.

  2. Studies of the Catalytic Activity and Deactivation of Calcined Layered Double Hydroxides in the Reaction of Ethanol with Propylene Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The reaction of ethanol with propylene oxide over calcined layered double hydroxides(CLDH) was investigated. The results show that CLDH has a good activity and a good selectivity, but the activity and the selectivity of CLDH decrease when CLDH reforms LDH- the so called "memory effect". The influence of the "memory effect" on the CLDH returning to LDH was studied by the hydration reaction. It is shown that the "memory effect" is not complete, and the decreases of the Mg/Al molar ratio of LDH and the crystallite size due to the increase of the hydration reaction time result in the drop of the activity and the selectivity.Keyworcds Ethanol, Propylene oxide, Calcined layered double hydroxide, "Memory effect", Hydration

  3. Comparative studies on physico-mechanical properties of composite materials of low density polyethylene and raw/calcined kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Mallik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the preparation of the composite materials of low density polyethylene (LDPE as the base mixed separately with raw kaolin and the same calcined at 800 °C under the same variation in weight percentage using single-screw extruder and a mixing machine operated at a temperature between 190 and 200 °C. Some of the mechanical and physical properties such as Young's modulus, elongation at break, shore hardness and water absorption were determined at different weight fractions of filler (0, 2, 7, 10 and 15%. It was found that the addition of filler increases the mechanical properties. Absorption test was done in water at different immersion times for different composites. The degree of water absorption of composite materials was found to decrease with increasing wt% of kaolin filler (0–15% according to Fick's law. Calcined kaolin produces better mechanical properties than raw kaolin.

  4. CFD Modelling and Experimental Testing of Thermal Calcination of Kaolinite Rich Clay Particles - An Effort towards Green Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebremariam, Abraham Teklay

    Cement industry is one of the major industrial emitters of greenhouse gases, generating 5-7% of the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Consequently, use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) to replace part of the CO2-intensive cement clinker is an attractive way to mitigate CO2 emissions...... from cement industry. SCMs based on industrial byproducts like fly ashes and slags are subject to availability problems. Yet clays are the most ubiquitous material on earth's crust. Thus, properly calcined clays are a very promising candidate for SCMs to produce green cements. Calcination...... PROcess Modeling System) software, which is suspended during the project due to the adjustment made by the project consortium. The model results from both C++ and gPROMS software show good similarity. Various experiments have been performed to derive key kinetic data, to collect data from a gas suspension...

  5. Effect of calcination temperature on the structural and electrical properties of cobalt ferrite synthesized by combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandekar, M.S. [Ferrite Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Solapur University, Solapur 413255, MS (India); Kambale, R.C. [Composite Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, MS (India); Patil, J.Y. [Ferrite Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Solapur University, Solapur 413255, MS (India); Kolekar, Y.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, MS (India); Suryavanshi, S.S., E-mail: sssuryavanshi@rediffmail.com [Ferrite Materials Laboratory, Department of Physics, Solapur University, Solapur 413255, MS (India)

    2011-02-03

    Research highlights: > The CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared by autocombustion method with hexamine as a fuel. > TGA measurements confirm the stable phase formation of the phase above 700 deg. C. > Effect of calcination temperature on the structural and electrical properties of cobalt ferrite was investigated. > The particle size strongly affects the electrical property. > ac conductivity measurement reveals the conduction in the present phase is of small polaron type. - Abstract: In this paper, the structural and electrical properties of cobalt ferrite synthesized by combustion route with hexamine as a fuel are reported for the first time. Thermogravemetric analysis (TGA) confirm the stable phase formation of the phase above 700 deg. C. Structural characterizations of all the samples were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. It reveals an increase in the particle size with the calcination temperature (i.e. 700, 800 and 900 deg. C). Infrared (IR) spectroscopy confirms the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes within the spinel lattice. DC resistivity as function of temperature indicates that all the samples obey the semiconducting behavior and it decreases with calcination temperature. The variation of dielectric constant ({epsilon}{sub r}) and ac conductivity ({sigma}{sub ac}), for all the samples have been studied as a function of applied frequency in the range from 20 Hz to 1 MHz. The dielectric constant increases with the calcination temperature and all the samples exhibit usual dielectric dispersion which is due to the Maxwell-Wagner-type interfacial polarization. The ac conductivity measurement suggests that the conduction is due to small polaron hopping.

  6. Tailoring the Microstructure of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Support by Calcination and Milling of YSZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifi, Amir Reza; Laguna-Bercero, Miguel A.; Sandhu, Navjot Kaur; Etsell, Thomas H.; Sarkar, Partha

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the effects of calcination and milling of 8YSZ (8 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia) used in the nickel-YSZ anode on the performance of anode supported tubular fuel cells were investigated. For this purpose, two different types of cells were prepared based on a Ni-YSZ/YSZ/Nd2NiO4+δ-YSZ configuration. For the anode preparation, a suspension was prepared by mixing NiO and YSZ in a ratio of 65:35 wt% (Ni:YSZ 50:50 vol.%) with 30 vol.% graphite as the pore former. As received Tosoh YSZ or its calcined form (heated at 1500 °C for 3 hours) was used in the anode support as the YSZ source. Electrochemical results showed that optimization of the fuel electrode microstructure is essential for the optimal distribution of gas within the support of the cell, especially under electrolysis operation where the performance for an optimized cell (calcined YSZ) was enhanced by a factor of two. In comparison with a standard cell (containing as received YSZ), at 1.5 V and 800 °C the measured current density was -1380 mA cm-2 and -690 mA cm-2 for the cells containing calcined and as received YSZ, respectively. The present study suggests that the anode porosity for improved cell performance under SOEC is more critical than SOFC mode due to more complex gas diffusion under electrolysis mode where large amount of steam needs to be transfered into the cell.

  7. Effects of Calcination Temperature on Preparation of Boron-Doped TiO2 by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Boron-doped TiO2 photocatalyst was prepared by a modified sol-gel method. Being calcinated at temperatures from 300°C to 600°C, all the 3% B-TiO2 samples presented anatase TiO2 phase, and TiO2 crystallite sizes were calculated to be 7.6, 10.3, 13.6, and 27.3 nm, respectively. The samples were composed of irregular particles with rough surfaces in the size range within 3 μm. Ti atoms were in an octahedron skeleton and existed mainly in the form of Ti4+, while the Ti-O-B structure was the main boron existing form in the 3% B-TiO2 sample. When calcination temperature increased from 300°C to 600°C, specific surface area decreased sharply from 205.6 m2/g to 31.8 m2/g. The average pore diameter was 10.53 nm with accumulative pore volume of 0.244 mL/g for the 3% B-TiO2 sample calcinated at 400°C, which performed optimal photocatalytic degradation activity. After 90 min of UV-light irradiation, degradation rate of methyl orange was 96.7% on the optimized photocatalyst.

  8. Enhanced remediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soil by incorporating a calcined-hydrotalcite-based permeable reactive barrier with electrokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Xu, Yunfeng; Li, Wentao; Zhou, Jizhi; Zhao, Jun; Qian, Guangren; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2012-11-15

    This paper describes the enhanced Cr(VI)-contaminated soil remediation via a combination of electrokinetics (EK) with a calcined-hydrotalcite-based permeable reactive barrier (PRB). First, this combination proved to be feasible, and remarkably facilitated Cr(VI) remediation in a column test. Then, lightly-to-severely (0.16-1.65 mg/g) Cr(VI)-contaminated soil was remediated in a simulated test with the calcined hydrotalcite as the PRB under an voltage of 10-30 V (i.e. an electric field intensity of 0.7-2.0 V/cm). The observations demonstrated that both PRB and EK are critical to efficient remediation and the high de-contamination efficiency is supposedly attributed to the synergistic effect, for which EK concentrates anionic chromate to the anode region and PRB media (calcined hydrotalcite) absorbs and immobilizes it. Thus we have shown that the combined PRB-EK system is highly adaptive and effective in remediation of a larger area contaminated with chromate and various anionic pollutants.

  9. Process for capturing CO2 arising from the calcination of the CaCO3 used in cement manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, N; Alonso, M; Grasa, G; Abanades, J Carlos

    2008-09-15

    This paper outlines a new CaCO3 calcination method for producing a stream of CO2 (suitable for permanent geological storage after purification and compression). The process is based on the use of very hot CaO particles (T >1000 degrees C) to transfer heat from a circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC) to a calciner (fluidized with CO2 and/or steam). Since the fluidized bed combustor and calciner have separate atmospheres, the CO2 resulting from the decomposition of CaCO3 can be captured, while the CO2 generated in the combustion of the fuel in air is emitted to the atmosphere. We demonstrate that with this system it is possible to reduce the CO2 emissions of a cement plant by around 60%. Furthermore, since the key pieces of equipment are similar to the commercial CFBCs used in power generation plants, it is possible to establish the additional investment required for the system and to estimate the cost per ton of CO2 avoided for this process to be about 19 $/tCO2 avoided.

  10. SMALL-SCALE TESTING OF PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.; Scogin, J.; Daniel, G.; King, W.

    2012-06-25

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, SRNL conducted a series of experiments to produce calcined plutonium (Pu) oxide and measure the physical properties and water adsorption of that material. This data will help define the process operating conditions and material handling steps for HB-Line. An anion exchange column experiment produced 1.4 L of a purified 52.6 g/L Pu solution. Over the next nine weeks, seven Pu(IV) oxalate precipitations were performed using the same stock Pu solution, with precipitator feed acidities ranging from 0.77 M to 3.0 M nitric acid and digestion times ranging from 5 to 30 minutes. Analysis of precipitator filtrate solutions showed Pu losses below 1% for all precipitations. The four larger precipitation batches matched the target oxalic acid addition time of 44 minutes within 4 minutes. The three smaller precipitation batches focused on evaluation of digestion time and the oxalic acid addition step ranged from 25-34 minutes because of pump limitations in the low flow range. Following the precipitations, 22 calcinations were performed in the range of 610-690 C, with the largest number of samples calcined at either 650 or 635 C. Characterization of the resulting PuO{sub 2} batches showed specific surface areas in the range of 5-14 m{sup 2}/g, with 16 of the 22 samples in the range of 5-10 m2/g. For samples analyzed with typical handling (exposed to ambient air for 15-45 minutes with relative humidities of 20-55%), the moisture content as measured by Mass Spectrometry ranged from 0.15 to 0.45 wt % and the total mass loss at 1000 C, as measured by TGA, ranged from 0.21 to 0.58 wt %. For the samples calcined between 635 and 650 C, the moisture content without extended exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.38 wt %, and the TGA mass loss ranged from 0.26 to 0.46 wt %. Of these latter samples, the samples

  11. The decrease of carbonation efficiency of CaO along calcination-carbonation cycles: Experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouquet, E.; Leyssens, G.; Schonnenbeck, C.; Gilot, P. [Laboratoire de Gestion des Risques et Environnement, Mulhouse (France)

    2009-05-15

    Successive calcination-carbonation cycles, using CaO as sorbent, have been performed either in a classical fixed bed reactor or using a thermogravimetric analyser. Significant differences in carbonation efficiencies were obtained, possibly due to different conditions prevailing for CaO sintering during the calcination stage. The effect of the presence of CO{sub 2} on sintering was confirmed. A simple model of the decay of the carbonation capacity along cycles based on the specific surface area of non-sintered micrograins of CaO is able to predict the decrease of the extent of conversion obtained after 40 carbonations along calcination-carbonation cycles. The asymptotic extent of conversion is obtained when all the micrograins present within a grain are sintered. A detailed model of the carbonation shows that the voids present between the micrograins are filled up by carbonate when a critical thickness of the carbonate layer around each micrograin reaches 43 nm. Then, carbonation becomes controlled by diffusion at the scale of the whole grain, with the CO{sub 2} diffusion coefficient decreasing (at 650 {sup o}C) from 2 x 10{sup -12} to 6.5 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}/s as carbonation proceeds from 50% conversion to 76% (first cycle). This scale change for diffusion is responsible for the drastic decrease of the carbonation rate after the voids between micrograins are filled up.

  12. Maximizing Sustainability of Concrete through the Control of Moisture Rise and Drying Shrinkage Using Calcined Clay Pozzolan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Solomon Ankrah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ghanaian concrete industry is really a booming industry due to many infrastructural developments and the surge in residential development. However, many developmental projects that utilize concrete do suffer from the negative impact of moisture rise including paint peeling-off, bacterial and fungi growth, and microcracks as well as unpleasant looks on buildings. Such negative outlook resulting from the effects of moisture rise affects the longevity of concrete and hence makes concrete less sustainable. This study seeks to develop materials that could minimize the rise of moisture or ions through concrete medium. The experimental works performed in this study included pozzolanic strength activity index, water sorptivity, and shrinkage test. Calcined clay produced from clay was used as pozzolan to replace Portland cement at 20%. The strength activity test showed that the cement containing the calcined material attained higher strength activity indices than the control. The thermal gravimetric analysis showed that the pozzolan behaved partly as a filler material and partly as a pozzolanic material. The sorptivity results also showed that the blended mix resulted in lower sorptivity values than the control mortar. The study recommends that calcined clay and Portland cement mixtures could be used to produce durable concrete to maximize sustainability.

  13. Mesoporous Titania Powders: The Role of Precursors, Ligand Addition and Calcination Rate on Their Morphology, Crystalline Structure and Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Masolo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the influence of the use of different titania precursors, calcination rate, and ligand addition on the morphology, texture and phase content of synthesized mesoporous titania samples, parameters which, in turn, can play a key role in titania photocatalytic performances. The powders, obtained through the evaporation-induced self-assembly method, are characterized by means of ex situ X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD measurements, N2 physisorption isotherms and transmission electron microscopy. The precursors are selected basing on two different approaches: the acid-base pair, using TiCl4 and Ti(OBu4, and a more classic route with Ti(OiPr4 and HCl. For both precursors, different specimens were prepared by resorting to different calcination rates and with and without the addition of acetylacetone, that creates coordinated species with lower hydrolysis rates, and with different calcination rates. Each sample was employed as photoanode and tested in the water splitting reaction by recording I-V curves and comparing the results with commercial P25 powders. The complex data framework suggests that a narrow pore size distribution, due to the use of acetylacetone, plays a major role in the photoactivity, leading to a current density value higher than that of P25.

  14. Synthesis of type A zeolite from calcinated kaolin; Sintese de zeolita tipo A a partir de caulim calcinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, E.C.; Neves, R.F.; Souza, J.A.S. [Universidade Federal do Para (PPEQ/UFPA), Abaetetuba, PA (Brazil). Instituto de Engenharia Quimica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao; Moraes, C.G.; Macedo, E.N., E-mail: mersone7@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Para (PRODERNA/UFPA), Abaetetuba, PA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Recursos Naturais da Amazonia

    2011-07-01

    The mineral production has caused great concern in environmental and industrial scenario due to the effects caused to the environment. The industries of processing kaolin for paper are important economically for the state of Para, but produce huge quantities of tailings, which depend on large areas to be stocked. This material is rich in silico-aluminates can be recycled and used as raw material for other industries. The objective is to synthesize zeolite A at different temperatures of calcination and synthesis. The starting materials and synthesis of zeolite A have been identified and characterized through analysis of X-ray diffraction (DRX) and scanning electron microscopy (MEV). The synthesis process of zeolite A, using as source of silica and the aluminum metakaolin, which was calcined at temperatures of 700 ° C and 800 ° C for 2 hours of landing in a burning furnace type muffle. Observed in relation to the calcination of kaolin as the main phase, the metakaolin. This is just a removal of water from its structure, so we opted for the lower temperature, less energy consumption. The synthesis process of zeolite A, produced good results for the formation of zeolites type A, which were characterized with high purities. (author)

  15. Low Temperature Synthesis of Single-crystal Alpha Alumina Platelets by Calcining Bayerite and Potassium Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinghua Su; Jiangong Li

    2011-01-01

    Single-crystal alpha alumina (α-Al2O3) platelets were synthesized by calcining a powder mixture of bayerite (α-AI(OH)3) and potassium sulfate (K2SO4) at 900℃. The crystalline phase evolutions and morphologies of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized samples mainly consisted of single-crystal α-Al2O3 platelets with a diameter of 0.5-1.5 μm and a thickness of 50-150 nm. Moreover, with 3, 5, and 8 wt% (referred to the obtained alumina) α-Al2O3 seeds adding into the powder mixture of bayerite and potassium sulfate, the average diameter of α-Al2O3 platelets can be reduced to 450, 240, and 220 nm, respectively. It is found that the sequence of the phase transformation is the bayerite (α-Al(OH)3) → boehmite (γ-AIOOH) →γ-Al2O3 → α-Al2O3. Further analysis indicated that K2SO4 can promote the phase transformation from α-Al2O3 to α-Al2O3 and the formation of single-crystal α-Al2O3 platelets might be attributed to the liquid phase K3AI(SO4)3.

  16. Chloride adsorption by calcined layered double hydroxides in hardened Portland cement paste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seyoon [School of Engineering, Kings College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Moon, Juhyuk, E-mail: juhyuk.moon@stonybrook.edu [Civil Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical Engineering, State University of New York at Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Bae, Sungchul [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Duan, Xiaonan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Giannelis, Emmanuel P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Center for Refining and Petrochemicals, The Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Monteiro, Paulo M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using calcined layered double hydroxides (CLDHs) to prevent chloride-induced deterioration in reinforced concrete. CLDHs not only adsorbed chloride ions in aqueous solution with a memory effect but also had a much higher binding capacity than the original layered double hydroxides (LDHs) in the cement matrix. We investigated this adsorption in hardened cement paste in batch cultures to determine adsorption isotherms. The measured and theoretical binding capacities (153 mg g{sup −1} and 257 mg g{sup −1}, respectively) of the CLDHs were comparable to the theoretical capacity of Friedel's salt (2 mol mol{sup −1} or 121 mg g{sup −1}), which belongs to the LDH family among cementitious phases. We simulated chloride adsorption by CLDHs through the cement matrix using the Fickian model and compared the simulation result to the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) chlorine map. Based on our results, it is proposed that the adsorption process is governed by the chloride transport through the cement matrix; this process differs from that in an aqueous solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that the CLDH rebuilds the layered structure in a cementitious environment, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of applying CLDHs to the cement and concrete industries. - Highlights: • We examine the adsorption equilibrium and kinetics of CLDH in the hydrated cement. • CLDH capacity to bind chloride ions in the hydrated cement paste is determined. • We model chloride adsorption by CLDH through the cement matrix. • CLDH reforms the layered structure with ion adsorption in the cement matrix.

  17. Calcination products of gibbsite studied by X-ray diffraction, XPS and solid-state NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malki, A. [Laboratoire des structures, propriétés et interactions inter atomiques (LASPI2A), Faculté des sciences et technologies, Université Abbes Laghrour, Khenchela 40000 (Algeria); Mekhalif, Z.; Detriche, S.; Fonder, G. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Electrochimie des Surfaces, Facultés Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium); Boumaza, A., E-mail: charif_boumaza@yahoo.com [Laboratoire des structures, propriétés et interactions inter atomiques (LASPI2A), Faculté des sciences et technologies, Université Abbes Laghrour, Khenchela 40000 (Algeria); Djelloul, A. [Laboratoire des structures, propriétés et interactions inter atomiques (LASPI2A), Faculté des sciences et technologies, Université Abbes Laghrour, Khenchela 40000 (Algeria)

    2014-07-01

    The changes caused by heat treatment of gibbsite powder at 300–1473 K were studied using the X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoemission (XPS) spectra and {sup 27}Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 27}Al MAS NMR). XRD analysis indicates that the transformation sequence involves the formation of κ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as an intermediate phase between χ- and α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The crystallite size of χ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is as small as 10 nm. XPS analysis indicates that the ratio of aluminium atoms to oxygen atoms in χ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and κ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} increases, whereas the expected ratio is observed in α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The percentage of AlO{sub 4} units in the transition aluminas follows the same behaviour as the ratio of Al/O. - Graphical abstract: The percentage of AlO{sub 4} units in transition aluminas follows the same behaviour as the ratio of Al/O. - Highlights: • Calcination products of gibbsite studied by XRD, XPS and solid-state NMR. • The crystallite size of χ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is as small as 10 nm. • The Al/O atomic ratio determined by XPS is larger than 2/3 in χ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and κ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. • The percentage of AlO{sub 4} in the aluminas follows the same behaviour as the Al/O atomic ratio.

  18. Extended Development Work to Validate a HLW Calcine Waste Form via INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James A. King; Vince Maio

    2011-09-01

    To accomplish calcine treatment objectives, the Idaho Clean-up Project contractor, CWI, has chosen to immobilize the calcine in a glass-ceramic via the use of a Hot-Isostatic-Press (HIP); a treatment selection formally documented in a 2010 Record of Decision (ROD). Even though the HIP process may prove suitable for the calcine as specified in the ROD and validated in a number of past value engineering sessions, DOE is evaluating back-up treatment methods for the calcine as a result of the technical, schedule, and cost risk associated with the HIPing process. Consequently DOE HQ has requested DOE ID to make INL's bench-scale cold-crucible induction melter (CCIM) available for investigating its viability as a process alternate to calcine treatment. The waste form is the key component of immobilization of radioactive waste. Providing a solid, stable, and durable material that can be easily be stored is the rationale for immobilization of radioactive waste material in glass, ceramic, or glass-ceramics. Ceramic waste forms offer an alternative to traditional borosilicate glass waste forms. Ceramics can usually accommodate higher waste loadings than borosilicate glass, leading to smaller intermediate and long-term storage facilities. Many ceramic phases are known to possess superior chemical durability as compared to borosilicate glass. However, ceramics are generally multiphase systems containing many minor phase that make characterization and prediction of performance within a repository challenging. Additionally, the technologies employed in ceramic manufacture are typically more complex and expensive. Thus, many have proposed using glass-ceramics as compromise between in the more inexpensive, easier to characterize glass waste forms and the more durable ceramic waste forms. Glass-ceramics have several advantages over traditional borosilicate glasses as a waste form. Borosilicate glasses can inadvertently devitrify, leading to a less durable product that could

  19. Performance of Cobalt-Based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts Using Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma as an Alternative to Thermal Calcination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Suli; Huang, Chengdu; Lv, Jing; Li, Zhenhua

    2012-01-01

    Co-based catalysts were prepared by using dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) plasma as an alternative method to conventional thermal calcination. The characterization results of N2-physisorption, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the catalysts prepared by DBD plasma had a higher specific surface area, lower reduction temperature, smaller particle size and higher cobalt dispersion as compared to calcined catalysts. The DBD plasma method can prevent the sintering and aggregation of active particles on the support due to the decreased treatment time (0.5 h) at lower temperature compared to the longer thermal calcination at higher temperature (at 500° C for 5 h). As a result, the catalytic performance of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on DBD plasma treated Co/SiO2 catalyst showed an enhanced activity, C5+ selectivity and catalytic stability as compared to the conventional thermal calcined Co/SiO2 catalyst.

  20. Catalyst used in 1,2-epoxyalkane preparation is obtained by heating tetraalkyl ammonium salts, tetraalkyl siloxanes and amines, calcining and treating with a tetraalkoxy compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    NOVELTY - The catalyst, used in 1,2-epoxyalkane preparation, is obtained by heat treating an aqueous composition comprising tetraalkyl ammonium salts, tetraalkyl siloxanes and amines, removing the template by calcining and treating with a tetraalkoxy compound......NOVELTY - The catalyst, used in 1,2-epoxyalkane preparation, is obtained by heat treating an aqueous composition comprising tetraalkyl ammonium salts, tetraalkyl siloxanes and amines, removing the template by calcining and treating with a tetraalkoxy compound...

  1. The Influence of Calcined Clay Pozzolan, Low-Cao Steel Slag and Granite Dust On the Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sarfo-Ansah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of low CaO steel slag, calcined clay and granite dust on the alkali-silica reaction was investigated over a period of 35 days under accelerated curing conditions. The mineral admixtures were used to replace varying portions of high alkali Portland limestone cement up to an admixture content of 25% in order to study their effect on the alkali-silica reaction (ASR. Portland limestone cement used for the study had a total Na2Oeq of 4.32. XRD analysis of hydrated mortar bar samples confirmed the formation of an expansive sodium silica gel in the reference Portland cement mortar bar as the agent responsible for ASR. Stable calcium silicates were formed in the mortar bars containing calcined clay in increasing quantities whilst the presence of the sodium silicate gel decreased.The occurrence of these stable silicates in hydrated samples containing steel slag and granite dust was however minimal, compared to calcined clay cement mortars. The highest expansion was recorded for granite dust mortar bars, reaching a maximum of 25.98% at 35 days. Mortar-bar expansion decreased as calcined clay content in the cement increased;mortar bars with 25% calcined clay were the least expansive recording expansion less than 0.1% at all test ages. Whilst the expansion was reduced by between 42.5% and 107.8% at 14 days with increasing calcined clay content, expansion rather increased between 36.8% and 169.5% at 14 days with increasing granite dust content.Steel slag mortar bars experienced reduction in 14 days expansion between 14.3% - 46.2%.The study confirms that steel slag and calcined clay pozzolan have greater influence on ASR in mortar bars than granite dust and shows that calcined clay and low CaO steel slag could be considered as remedial admixtures for ASR at replacement levels of 25% and 15% respectively.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Au/Pd Modified-TiO2 Photocatalysts for Phenol and Toluene Degradation under Visible Light—The Effect of Calcination Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cybula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rutile loaded with Au/Pd nanoparticles was prepared using a water-in-oil microemulsion system of water/AOT/cyclohexane followed by calcination. The effect of calcination temperature (from 350 to 700°C on the structure of Au/Pd nanoparticles deposited at rutile matrix and the photocatalytic properties of Au/Pd-TiO2 was investigated in two model reactions (toluene degradation in gas phase and phenol degradation in aqueous phase. Toluene was irradiated over Au/Pd-TiO2 using light emitting diodes (LEDs, λmax⁡ = 415 nm. The sample 0.5 mol% Pd/TiO2 exhibited the highest activity under visible light irradiation in gas and aqueous phase reaction among all photocatalysts calcined at 350°C, while the sample modified only with gold nanoparticles showed the lowest activity. The Au/Pd-TiO2 sample calcinated at 350°C possesses the highest photocatalytic activity when degrading phenol under visible light, which is 14 times higher than that of the one calcinated at 450°C. It was observed that increasing temperature from 350 to 700°C during calcination step caused segregation of metals and finally resulted in photoactivity drop.

  3. Limestone calcination under calcium-looping conditions for CO2 capture and thermochemical energy storage in the presence of H2O: an in situ XRD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Jose Manuel; Medina, Santiago

    2017-03-02

    This work reports an in situ XRD analysis of whether the calcination/carbonation behavior of natural limestone (CaCO3) is affected by the addition of H2O to the calciner at a very low concentration under relevant Calcium-Looping (CaL) conditions for CO2 capture in coal fired power plants (CFPP) and Thermochemical Energy Storage (TCES) in Concentrated Solar Power plants (CSP). Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of steam in the calciner at a high concentration yields a significant increase in the reaction rate. However, a further undesired consequence is the serious deterioration of the CaO mechanical strength, which would lead to particle attrition and mass loss in any CaL process based on the use of circulating fluidized beds. The results presented in this manuscript on the time evolution of the wt% and crystallite size of the phases involved in the calcination/carbonation reactions indicate that the calcination rate is still notably increased by the presence of H2O at very low concentrations whereas the reactivity toward carbonation and crystal structure of the formed CaO are not essentially affected, which suggests that the CaO mechanical strength is not impaired. Thus, the benefit of using steam for calcination in the CaL process could be still retained while at the same time particle attrition would not be promoted.

  4. SMALL-SCALE TESTING OF PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.; Scogin, J.; Daniel, G.; King, W.

    2012-06-25

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, SRNL conducted a series of experiments to produce calcined plutonium (Pu) oxide and measure the physical properties and water adsorption of that material. This data will help define the process operating conditions and material handling steps for HB-Line. An anion exchange column experiment produced 1.4 L of a purified 52.6 g/L Pu solution. Over the next nine weeks, seven Pu(IV) oxalate precipitations were performed using the same stock Pu solution, with precipitator feed acidities ranging from 0.77 M to 3.0 M nitric acid and digestion times ranging from 5 to 30 minutes. Analysis of precipitator filtrate solutions showed Pu losses below 1% for all precipitations. The four larger precipitation batches matched the target oxalic acid addition time of 44 minutes within 4 minutes. The three smaller precipitation batches focused on evaluation of digestion time and the oxalic acid addition step ranged from 25-34 minutes because of pump limitations in the low flow range. Following the precipitations, 22 calcinations were performed in the range of 610-690 C, with the largest number of samples calcined at either 650 or 635 C. Characterization of the resulting PuO{sub 2} batches showed specific surface areas in the range of 5-14 m{sup 2}/g, with 16 of the 22 samples in the range of 5-10 m2/g. For samples analyzed with typical handling (exposed to ambient air for 15-45 minutes with relative humidities of 20-55%), the moisture content as measured by Mass Spectrometry ranged from 0.15 to 0.45 wt % and the total mass loss at 1000 C, as measured by TGA, ranged from 0.21 to 0.58 wt %. For the samples calcined between 635 and 650 C, the moisture content without extended exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.38 wt %, and the TGA mass loss ranged from 0.26 to 0.46 wt %. Of these latter samples, the samples

  5. Adsorption of a cationic dye (Yellow Basic 28 ontothe calcined mussel shells: Kinetics, Isotherm and Thermodynamic Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane EL Ouahabi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to valorise the mussel shells and evaluate the adsorption capacity of calcined mussel shells for the cationic dyes.  The adsorbent was characterized by DRX, FTIR, BET and SEM, respectively. The adsorption of Yellow Basic28 on calcined mussel shells was investigated using the parameters such as concentrations (10-50mg/L, pH (3-10, ionic strength (0-2 mol / L and temperature (288 - 318 °C.  The adsorption rate data were analysed according to the first and second-order kinetic models.  The adsorption kinetics was found to be best represented by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.  The experimental isotherm data were analyzed using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Elovich and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm equations on the dye-adsorbent system. The experimental data yielded excellent fits with Freundlich isotherm equation (R² = 0.966. It was indicative of the heterogeneity of the adsorption sites on the CMS particles.  Various thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy of adsorption ΔH°, free energy change ΔG°and entropy ΔS° were estimated.  The positive value of ΔH°(30.321 kJ/mol and negative values of ΔG° (from -5.392 to -2.873 kJ/mol show the process is endothermic and spontaneous.  The negative value of entropy ΔS° (-87.172 J/mol K suggest the decreased randomness at the solid-liquid interface during the adsorption of dyes onto calcined mussel shells.

  6. Elimination of phosphate and zirconium in the high-activity fraction resulting from TRUEX partitioning of ICPP zirconium calcines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, K.N.; Tillotson, R.D.; Tullock, P.A. [and others

    1997-07-01

    Laboratory testing was undertaken with the aim of developing a TRUEX flowsheet that would efficiently remove actinides from solutions of dissolved zirconium calcine and minimize the glass volume produced from the ensuing high-activity fraction. A TRUEX flowsheet is recommended for testing in the 2-cm centrifugal contactor pilot-plant based on the results from this testing. These laboratory tests show that zirconium recovery in the high activity fraction is minimized by scrubbing with an optimized NHF concentration of 0.2 M. This NH4F concentration in the scrub allowed the HEDPA strip concentration to be reduced from 0.04 M to 0.004 M because HEDPA is not consumed by zirconium. Complete TRU stripping was also achieved in these laboratory tests with 0.004 M HEDPA. Data from the small-scale laboratory batch contact tests were used in the Generic TRUEX Model (GTM) to evaluate the proposed flowsheet under counter-current conditions. GTM results indicate the raffinate will meet the Class A non-TRU limit of < 10 nCi/g in six extraction stages (O/A = 1), and quantitative actinide recovery will be achieved with the 0.004 M HEDPA in six strip stages (O/A = 1). Only 6.6 % of the initial zirconium concentration is anticipated to be recovered with the actinides, indicating the four scrub stages (O/A = 3) efficiently removes zirconium from the TRUEX solvent. In addition to recommending an improved TRUEX flowsheet for testing in the 2-cm centrifugal contactor pilot-plant, this work has shown that small reductions in zirconium extraction drastically improves flowsheet performance. These small changes in zirconium extraction can be accomplished by modifying the calcine dissolution parameters. Therefore, further calcine dissolution testing followed by TRUEX testing with the resulting feed solutions is also recommended.

  7. Microwave Sintering of W-15Cu Ultrafine Composite Powder Prepared by Spray Drying & Calcining-continuous Reduction Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Jingping; SHI Xiaoliang; WANG Shuwei; YANG Xingyong; ZHANG Qiaoxin; WANG Yufu

    2011-01-01

    The effects of microwave sintering and conventional H2 sintering on the microstructure and properties of W-l5Cu alloy using ultrafine W-15Cu composite powder fabricated by spray drying & calcining-continuous reduction technology were investigated. In comparison to the conventional H2 sintering processing, microwave sintefing to W-15Cu can be achieved at lower sintefing temperature and shorter sintering time. Furthermore, higher performances in microwave sintered compacts were obtained, but high microwave sintering temperature or long microwave sintering time could result in coarser microstructures.

  8. Electrochemical characterization for lithium vanadium phosphate with different calcination temperatures prepared by the sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yongchao [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Shengping, E-mail: spwang@cug.edu.cn [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tao, Du; Dai, Yu [Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yu, Jingxian [ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP), School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2015-09-15

    Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C (LVP/C) composite materials were synthesized via a sol–gel method with oxalic acid as the chelating agent and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as the supplementary carbon source. The oxalic acid and PEG serve as double carbon sources. This study focused on the effect of different calcination temperatures on the electrochemical properties of Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. The diffraction peaks for all of the samples are well indexed to monoclinic Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} with a P2{sub 1}/n space group. The TGA data indicate that the residual carbon content of LVP/C-700 is the highest (i.e., 2.31 wt.%), and as the calcination temperature increased, the residual carbon content of the material gradually decreased. SEM and TEM analyses indicated that the LVP particles that were calcined at 700 °C exhibit a uniform particle size distribution and the carbon coating exhibited a complete and orderly moderate thickness. The LVP/C-700 material exhibits the best electrochemical performance in the voltage range of 3.0 to 4.3 V and 0.1 C where the initial discharge capacity can reach 128.98 mAh g{sup −} {sup 1}. Even after 200 cycles, the discharge capacity was 119.31 mAh g{sup −} {sup 1}, and the capacity retention rate was 92.49%. - Highlights: • Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C composite materials have been synthesized via a sol–gel method with double carbon sources. • The different calcination temperatures affect the grain growth and crystallinity of the Li{sub 3}V{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}/C materials. • The LVP/C-700 material exhibites the largest lithium ion diffusivity and electronic conductivity.

  9. Effect of Calcination Temperature on Structural Properties and Photocatalytic Activity of Ceria Nanoparticles Synthesized Employing Chitosan as Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela B. Sifontes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceria nanoparticles were synthesized employing chitosan as template and thermal treatment at different temperatures (350, 650, and 960°C. The effect of calcination temperature on structural properties and photocatalytic activity of ceria nanopowder was also tested. Degradation of an azo dye, Congo Red (CR as a model aqueous pollutant, was investigated by means of photocatalysis of ceria nanoparticles under visible light irradiation. The influence of catalyst amount, initial CR concentrations, and degradation reaction kinetics were studied. The results were compared with commercial CeO2 at the same degradation conditions.

  10. Effect of Calcinated Oyster Shell Powder on Growth, Yield, Spawn Run, and Primordial Formation of King Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus Eryngii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chan Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the calcium (Ca absorption efficacy of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii grown on sawdust medium supplemented with Ca-sources, including oyster shell powder, and to determine the efficacy of oyster shell powder as a calcium supplement on growth, yield, spawn run and primordial formation of P. eryngii. Optimum calcination of oyster shell powder was achieved at the temperature of 620.56 °C. A 1% supplementation of oyster shell powder in sawdust medium did not suppress the mycelial growth of P. eryngii. Also the supplementation of 2% calcinated oyster shell powder to sawdust medium potentially increased the calcium content up to a level of 315.7 ± 15.7 mg/100 g in the fruiting body of P. eryngii, without extension of duration of spawn run and the retardation of the days to primordial formation. These results suggest that the shellfish by-products, including oyster shell powder, can be utilized to develop calcium enriched king oyster mushrooms.

  11. Photocatalytic Activity and Photocurrent Properties of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays Influenced by Calcination Temperature and Tube Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jian; Zhang, Min; Yan, Guotian; Yang, Jianjun

    2012-06-01

    In this article, titanium oxide nanotube arrays (TiO2-NTAs) were fabricated by anodic oxidation in an ethylene glycol (EG) electrolyte solution containing 0.25 wt.% NH4F. By varying anodized time and annealed temperature, the obtained nanotube arrays behaved different photocatalytic (PC) activities and photocurrent properties. These samples were characterized by scanning electronic microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). It was indicated in SEM images that TiO2 nanotube manifests highly ordered structure which, however, has been completely destroyed when the temperature comes to 800°C. XRD manifested that TiO2 nanotubes with various kinds of length all possessed anatase crystallite when annealed at 500°C; meanwhile, with certain length, TiO2-NTAs annealed at series calcination temperature range of 300-600°C also presented anatase crystallite, which is gradually enhanced with the increment of temperature. At 700°C, mixed structure was observed which was made up of proportions of overwhelming anatase and toothful rutile. Methyl blue (MB) degradation and photocurrent measurement testified that TiO2-NTAs under 4 h oxidation and 3 h of 600°C calcination manifested the highest activity and photocurrent density.

  12. A comparative study of thermal calcination and an alkaline hydrolysis method in the isolation of hydroxyapatite from Thunnus obesus bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Jayachandran; Qian, Zhong Ji; Ryu, BoMi; Thomas, Noel Vinay; Kim, Se Kwon

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HAp) was isolated from Thunnus obesus bone using alkaline hydrolysis and thermal calcination methods. The obtained ceramic has been characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area diffraction analysis, cytotoxic analysis and cell proliferation analysis. The results indicate that there are significant differences between the ceramics and T. obesus bone. FT-IR and TGA results affirmed that the collagen and organic moieties have been eliminated by both the proposed methods. XRD results were in agreement with JCPDS data. TEM and selective area diffraction images have signified that the thermal calcination method produces good crystallinity with dimensions 0.3-1.0 µm, whereas the alkaline hydrolysis method produces nanostructured HAp crystals with 17-71 nm length and 5-10 nm width. Biocompatibility of HAp crystals was evaluated by cytotoxicity and cell proliferation with human osteoblast-like cell MG-63.

  13. Continuous production of biodiesel from cottonseed oil and methanol using a column reactor packed with calcined sodium silicate base catalyst☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Gui; Sichen Chen; Zhi Yun

    2016-01-01

    Sodium silicate and that calcined at 400 °C for 2 h were used to catalyze the transesterification of cottonseed oil with methanol. Calcined sodium silicate (CSS) catalyst exhibited much higher catalytic activity and stability. A maximum biodiesel yield of 98.9%was achieved at methanol/oil mole ratio of 12:1, reaction temperature 65 °C, reaction time 3.0 h, and CSS/oil mass ratio of 2 wt%. After 7 consecutive reactions without any treatment, biodiesel yield reduced to 82.5%. Considering technological and economic feasibility, CSS base catalyst supported onθrings was prepared for continuous transesterification. The maximum yield was 99.1%under optimum conditions (reaction temperature 55 °C, methanol velocity 1 ml·min−1, oil velocity 3 ml·min−1, and 5 tower sec-tions). These results indicate that this new continuous biodiesel production process and apparatus present a great potential for industrial application in biodiesel.

  14. Sorption Removal of Pb(Ⅱ) from Solution by Uncalcined and Calcined MgAl-Layered Double Hydroxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG, Shu-Qin; HOU, Wan-Guo

    2007-01-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) with a Mg/Al molar ratio of 1∶1 was synthesized by using a co-precipitation method and its calcined product (CLDH) was obtained by calcination of the MgAl-LDH at 500 ℃. The sorption removal of Pb2+ from solution was investigated, finding that both LDH and CLDH show good sorption ability and they could be used as a new type of environmental sorbent for the removal of Pb2+ from water. The sorption kinetics and the sorption isotherms of Pb2+ on both LDH and CLDH can be described by the pseudo-second order kinetics and Freundlich isotherm, respectively, under the studied conditions. The sorption amounts of Pb2+ on LDH and CLDH are independent of pH in a pH range of about 3-10. The presence of NaNO3 may inhibit the sorption of Pb2+ on LDH while hardly affect that on CLDH. The sorption mechanism of Pb2+ on LDH and CLDH may be attributed to the surface precipitation and the surface complex adsorption. The surface complex adsorption may be further distinguished to the chemical binding adsorption forming the inner-sphere surface complexes and the electrostatic binding adsorption forming the outer-sphere surface complexes. The sorption mechanism of Pb2+ on LDH may be attributed to the surface precipitation and the electrostatic binding adsorption, while that on CLDH may be attributed to the surface precipitation and the chemical binding adsorption.

  15. Effect of Different Calcination Temperatures on the Structural and Photocatalytic Performance of Bi-TiO2/SBA-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The new novel material Bi-TiO2/SBA-15 was synthesized by an easy wet impregnation method. A combination of XRD, XPS, Raman, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm measurement, TEM, and solid state UV-Vis spectroscopy has been used to characterize the Bi-TiO2/SBA-15 material. It was found that SBA-15 retained the ordered hexagonal mesostructure after incorporation of TiO2 and Bi. The photodecomposition of rhodamine B (RhB in aqueous medium was selected to evaluate the photocatalytic performance of Bi-TiO2/SBA-15 under visible light irradiation (λ≥420 nm. The experiment results indicated that Bi-TiO2/SBA-15 exhibited higher photocatalytic activities than pure TiO2 and Bi2O3. The influences of calcination temperature were studied. It strongly influenced the activity of the samples. The sample calcined at 550°C shows the highest photocatalytic activity in the decomposition of RhB under visible light. The catalyst preserved almost its initial photocatalytic activity after six reuses.

  16. Reaction process of monazite and bastnaesite mixed rare earth minerals calcined by CaO-NaCl-CaCl2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The decomposition reactions of monazite and bastnaesite mixed rare earth minerals calcined by CaO-NaCl-CaCl2 were studied by means of TG-DTA and XRD. The results show that the process of the minerals decomposed by CaO involves two steps.The first step occurs in the temperature range of 425-540 ℃, and the main reactions are bastnaesite decomposition, i.e. REOF reacts with CaO to produce RE2O3 and CaF2, and Ce2O3 is oxidized to CeO2. During this step, CaCO3 is formed at about 500 ℃. The second step takes place in the temperature range of 610-700 ℃, and the reactions are monazite decomposition into RE2O3,Ca5F(PO4)3 and Ca3(PO4)2 by CaO and CaF2. In this process, the decomposition ability is improved because CaO from CaCO3decomposing has high chemical activity. In calcining process, the new formed Ca5F(PO4)3 restrains fluorine that can escape in form of gaseous compound. The decomposition ratio of the mixed rare earth minerals reaches 90.8% at 700 ℃.

  17. Effect of Grain and Calcinations Kaolin Additives on Some Mechanical and Physical properties on Low DensityPolyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanaib Y. Shnean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a composite material was prepared from Low-density polyethylene (LDPE with different weight percent of grain and calcinations kaolin at temperature of (850oC using single screw extruder and a mixing machine operated at a temperature between (190-200oC. Some of mechanical and physical properties such as tensile strength, tensile strength at break, Young modulus, and elongation at break, shore hardness and water absorption were determined at different weight fraction of filler (0, 2, 7, 10 and 15%. It was found that the addition of filler increases the modulus of elasticity, elongation at break, shore hardness and impact strength; on other hand, it decreases the tensile strength and tensile strength at a break. Absorption test was carried out in water at different immersion times and different composite .The results of absorption show that it obeys Fick’s law and after the addition of kaolin the amount of absorption decrease. Calcinations kaolin filler produces better mechanical properties , than grain kaolin fillers.

  18. Effects of Calcination Temperature and Acid-Base Properties on Mixed Potential Ammonia Sensors Modified by Metal Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Shimizu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mixed potential sensors were fabriated using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ as a solid electrolyte and a mixture of Au and various metal oxides as a sensing electrode. The effects of calcination temperature ranging from 600 to 1,000 °C and acid-base properties of the metal oxides on the sensing properties were examined. The selective sensing of ammonia was achieved by modification of the sensing electrode using MoO3, Bi2O3 and V2O5, while the use of WO3, Nb2O5 and MgO was not effective. The melting points of the former group were below 820 °C, while those of the latter group were higher than 1,000 °C. Among the former group, the selective sensing of ammonia was strongly dependent on the calcination temperature, which was optimum around melting point of the corresponding metal oxides. The good spreading of the metal oxides on the electrode is suggested to be one of the important factors. In the former group, the relative response of ammonia to propene was in the order of MoO3 > Bi2O3 > V2O5, which agreed well with the acidity of the metal oxides. The importance of the acidic properties of metal oxides for ammonia sensing was clarified.

  19. Carbothermic reduction of electric arc furnace dust and calcination of waelz oxide by semi-pilot scale rotary furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morcali M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a common outline about the known recycling techniques from electric arc furnace dusts and describes an investigation of a pyrometallurgical process for the recovery of zinc and iron from electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD. In the waelz process, the reduction of zinc and iron from the waste oxides using solid carbon (lignite coal was studied. In the reduction experiments; temperature, time and charge type (powder and pellet were investigated in detail. It was demonstrated that zinc and iron recovery (% increases with increasing temperature as well as time. Pelletizing was found to be a better method than using the powder as received for the zinc recovery and iron conversion (. In the calcination (roasting process, crude zinc oxide, which evaporated from non-ferric metals were collected as condensed product (crude waelz oxide, was heated in air atmosphere. Lead, cadmium as well as chlorine and other impurities were successfully removed from crude waelz oxide by this method. In the calcination experiments; temperature and time are investigated in detail. It was demonstrated that zinc purification (% increases with increasing temperature. The highest zinc refining (% was obtained at 1200°C for 120 minutes. A kinetic study was also undertaken to determine the activation energy of the process. Activation energies were 242.77 kJ/mol for the zinc recovery with powder forms, 261.99 kJ/mol for the zinc recovery with pellet forms respectively. It was found that, initially, the reaction was chemically controlled.

  20. Relevance of the Physicochemical Properties of Calcined Quail Eggshell (CaO as a Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marques Correia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The CaO solid derived from natural quail eggshell was calcined and employed as catalyst to produce biodiesel via transesterification of sunflower oil. The natural quail eggshell was calcined at 900°C for 3 h, in order to modify the calcium carbonate present in its structure in CaO, the activity phase of the catalyst. Both precursor and catalyst were characterized using Hammett indicators method, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG, CO2 temperature-programmed desorption (CO2-TPD, X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS, Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, N2 adsorption-desorption at −196°C, and distribution particle size. The maximum biodiesel production was of 99.00 ± 0.02 wt.% obtained in the following transesterification reaction conditions: XMR (sunflower oil/methanol molar ratio of 1 : 10.5 mol : mol, XCAT (catalyst loading of 2 wt.%, XTIME (reaction time of 2 h, stirring rate of 1000 rpm, and temperature of 60°C.

  1. Effect of calcinated oyster shell powder on growth, yield, spawn run, and primordial formation of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ung-Kyu; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Kim, Young-Chan

    2011-03-10

    This study was conducted to evaluate the calcium (Ca) absorption efficacy of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) grown on sawdust medium supplemented with Ca-sources, including oyster shell powder, and to determine the efficacy of oyster shell powder as a calcium supplement on growth, yield, spawn run and primordial formation of P. eryngii. Optimum calcination of oyster shell powder was achieved at the temperature of 620.56 °C. A 1% supplementation of oyster shell powder in sawdust medium did not suppress the mycelial growth of P. eryngii. Also the supplementation of 2% calcinated oyster shell powder to sawdust medium potentially increased the calcium content up to a level of 315.7 ± 15.7 mg/100 g in the fruiting body of P. eryngii, without extension of duration of spawn run and the retardation of the days to primordial formation. These results suggest that the shellfish by-products, including oyster shell powder, can be utilized to develop calcium enriched king oyster mushrooms.

  2. Heavy metal removal and speciation transformation through the calcination treatment of phosphorus-enriched sewage sludge ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rundong; Zhao, Weiwei; Li, Yanlong; Wang, Weiyun; Zhu, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the heavy metal (Cd, As, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, and Ni) control problem during the thermochemical recovery of phosphorus (P) from sewage sludge (SS), P-enriched sewage sludge ash (PSSA) was calcined at 1100°C. The effect of organic chlorinating agent (PVC) and inorganic chlorinating agent (MgCl2) on the fixed rate of P removal and the speciation transformation of heavy metal was studied. The removal of heavy metals Cd, Pb, As, Zn, and Cr exhibited an increasing tendency with the addition of chlorinating agent (PVC). However, an obvious peak under 100gCl/kg of PSSA appeared for Cu, owing to the presence of carbon and hydrogen in PVC. MgCl2 was found to be more effective than PVC in the removal of most heavy metals, such that up to 98.9% of Cu and 97.3% of Zn was effectively removed. Analyses of heavy metal forms showed that Pb and Zn occurred in the residue fraction after calcination. Meanwhile, the residue fraction of Cr, Ni, Cd, and Cu exhibited a decreasing tendency with the increase in the added chlorinating agent (MgCl2). Losses of P from PSSA were around 16.6% without the addition of chlorinating agent, which were greatly reduced to around 7.7% (PVC) and to only 1.7% (MgCl2).

  3. Effects of calcination temperature and acid-base properties on mixed potential ammonia sensors modified by metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satsuma, Atsushi; Katagiri, Makoto; Kakimoto, Shiro; Sugaya, Satoshi; Shimizu, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    Mixed potential sensors were fabriated using yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as a solid electrolyte and a mixture of Au and various metal oxides as a sensing electrode. The effects of calcination temperature ranging from 600 to 1,000 °C and acid-base properties of the metal oxides on the sensing properties were examined. The selective sensing of ammonia was achieved by modification of the sensing electrode using MoO(3), Bi(2)O(3) and V(2)O(5), while the use of WO(3,) Nb(2)O(5) and MgO was not effective. The melting points of the former group were below 820 °C, while those of the latter group were higher than 1,000 °C. Among the former group, the selective sensing of ammonia was strongly dependent on the calcination temperature, which was optimum around melting point of the corresponding metal oxides. The good spreading of the metal oxides on the electrode is suggested to be one of the important factors. In the former group, the relative response of ammonia to propene was in the order of MoO(3) > Bi(2)O(3) > V(2)O(5), which agreed well with the acidity of the metal oxides. The importance of the acidic properties of metal oxides for ammonia sensing was clarified.

  4. An interdisciplinary physical-chemical approach for characterization of arsenic in a calciner residue dump in Cornwall (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Elteren, Johannes Teun; Slejkovec, Zdenka; Arcon, Iztok; Glass, Hylke-Jan

    2006-02-01

    During the later stages of hard-rock mining in Cornwall, UK, widespread processing and refining of arsenic in purpose-built calciners resulted in severe, localized contamination of soils with arsenic. Several physical-chemical techniques were applied to characterize arsenic in a calciner residue dump: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), sequential extraction combined with hyphenated speciation methods, and X-ray absorption spectroscopic (XAS) methods such as XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) and EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure). Arsenic was predominantly present in pentavalent form, bound to amorphous or poorly-crystalline hydrous oxides of Fe (probably alpha-hematite). A small amount of a non-classified crystalline iron arsenate phase was found, viz. Fe2(As(AsO4)3). There was also evidence for the presence of some arsenate bound to quartz (alpha-SiO2). The overall results make us believe that the normally assumed relative safety, from a mobility point of view, is questionable since only a small fraction of arsenic is found in a crystalline iron arsenate form.

  5. Effect of calcination temperatures on the electrochemical performances of nickel oxide/reduction graphene oxide (NiO/RGO) composites synthesized by hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Guan, Hongtao; Dong, Chengjun; Xiao, Xuechun; Wang, Yude

    2016-11-01

    A series of NiO/RGO composites based on NiO nanoparticles anchored on layered RGO surfaces were proposed by the same hydrothermal method combined with different calcination temperatures (250, 300, 400 and 500 °C). The effects of calcination temperatures on the capacitive behaviors have been discussed by investigating the components, morphologies, surface conditions of the NiO/RGO composites. The specific capacitance values of NiO/RGO composites calcined at 250, 300, 400 and 500 °C are 950, 553, 375 and 205 F/g at the current density of 1 A/g and the corresponding capacitance retention are 91.3%, 83.9%, 71.9% and 67.3% after 1000 cycles at the current density of 10 A/g. The results suggest the calcination temperature plays an important role in the electrochemical performances of NiO/RGO composites and the electrochemical performances were deteriorated with the increasing calcination temperatures.

  6. Effect of calcination temperature on physical parameters and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania spheres using chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel beads as a template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, R. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, College of Life Science, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China); State Laboratory of Silica Materials and Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhu, H.-Y., E-mail: zhuhuayue@126.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, College of Life Science, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China); Chen, H.-H. [State Laboratory of Silica Materials and Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yao, J. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, College of Life Science, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China); Fu, Y.-Q. [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Evolutionary Ecology and Conservation, College of Life Science, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China); Zhang, Z.-Y. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Taizhou University, Taizhou 318000 (China); Xu, Y.-M., E-mail: xuym@css.zju.edu.cn [State Laboratory of Silica Materials and Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Mesoporous titania spheres were prepared using CS/PVA hydrogel beads as a template. • The titania spheres prepared was mesoporous structure. • The photocatalytic activity of the mesoporous titania spheres calcined at 500 °C was highest. - Abstract: Mesoporous titania spheres were prepared by modified sol–gel method using chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel beads as a template. Effects of calcination temperature on physical parameters were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania spheres prepared was also evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of phenol as a model molecule under UV irradiation. With increasing calcination temperature, average crystallite size and pore size increased. In contrast, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) specific surface areas, porosity and pore volumes steadily decreased. Results of characterization proved that prepared titania spheres with highly organized pores were mesoporous structure. The photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania spheres calcined at 500 °C was more effective than those calcined at other temperatures, which were attributed to the porous structure, large BET surface area, crystalline, and smaller crystallite size. This work may provide new insights into the preparation of novel mesoporous titania spheres and further practical applications in the treatment of wastewater.

  7. Effect of calcination temperature on structure and performance of Ni/TiO2-SiO2 catalyst for CO2 reforming of methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanbing Zhang; Jiankang Wang; Xiaolai Wang

    2008-01-01

    The influence of calcination temperature on the structure and catalytic behavior of Ni/TiO2-SiO2 catalyst, for CO2 reforming of methane to synthesis gas under atmospheric pressure, was investigated. The results showed that the Ni/TiO2-SiO2 catalyst calcined at 700 ℃ had high and stable activity while the catalysts calcined at 550 and 850 ℃ had low and un-stable activity. Depending on the calcination temperature, one, two, or three of the following Ni-contalning species, NiO,Ni2.44Ti0.72Si0.07O4, and NiTiO3 were identified by combining the temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results. Their reducibility decreased in the sequence: NiO>Ni2.44Ti0.72Si0.07O4>NiTiO3. It suggests that high and stable activities observed over the Ni/TiO2-SiO2 catalyst calcined at 700 ℃ were induced by the formation of Ni2.44Ti0.72Si0.07O4 and smaller NiO species crystallite size.

  8. 浅谈回转床煅烧炉结构及其特点%Shallow Talk on Rotary Hearth Calciner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊英红

    2014-01-01

    It introduces the main components of rotary hearth calciner made by NFC ( Shenyang) Metallurgi-cal Machinery Co . , Ltd . , and briefly describes the use of calsining . And then it detailedly introduces rota-ry hearth calciner system and the development process and characteristics . It compares the rotary hearth calciner with the rotary calcination kiln and briefly analyzes the futural development direction of rotary hearth calciner .%介绍了沈冶金公司承制的回转床煅烧炉的主要组成部分,并对煅烧的用途进行简单描述,对回转床煅烧炉的发展历程及回转床煅烧炉系统及特点进行了较详细的介绍;最后将回转床煅烧炉与煅烧回转窑进行了比较并且对未来发展方向进行简要分析。

  9. Evaluation of blends bauxite-calcination-method red mud with other industrial wastes as a cementitious material: Properties and hydration characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Na, E-mail: zhangna06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Lab of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu Xiaoming [School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Sun Henghu [School of Engineering and Computer Science, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA 95211 (United States); Li Longtu [State Key Lab of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Red mud is generated from alumina production, and its disposal is currently a worldwide problem. In China, large quantities of red mud derived from bauxite calcination method are being discharged annually, and its utilization has been an urgent topic. This experimental research was to evaluate the feasibility of blends red mud derived from bauxite calcination method with other industrial wastes for use as a cementitious material. The developed cementitious material containing 30% of the bauxite-calcination-method red mud possessed compressive strength properties at a level similar to normal Portland cement, in the range of 45.3-49.5 MPa. Best compressive strength values were demonstrated by the specimen RSFC2 containing 30% bauxite-calcination-method red mud, 21% blast-furnace slag, 10% fly ash, 30% clinker, 8% gypsum and 1% compound agent. The mechanical and physical properties confirm the usefulness of RSFC2. The hydration characteristics of RSFC2 were characterized by XRD, FTIR, {sup 27}Al MAS-NMR and SEM. As predominant hydration products, ettringite and amorphous C-S-H gel are principally responsible for the strength development of RSFC2. Comparing with the traditional production for ordinary Portland cement, this green technology is easier to be implemented and energy saving. This paper provides a key solution to effectively utilize bauxite-calcination-method red mud.

  10. Evaluation of blends bauxite-calcination-method red mud with other industrial wastes as a cementitious material: properties and hydration characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Liu, Xiaoming; Sun, Henghu; Li, Longtu

    2011-01-15

    Red mud is generated from alumina production, and its disposal is currently a worldwide problem. In China, large quantities of red mud derived from bauxite calcination method are being discharged annually, and its utilization has been an urgent topic. This experimental research was to evaluate the feasibility of blends red mud derived from bauxite calcination method with other industrial wastes for use as a cementitious material. The developed cementitious material containing 30% of the bauxite-calcination-method red mud possessed compressive strength properties at a level similar to normal Portland cement, in the range of 45.3-49.5 MPa. Best compressive strength values were demonstrated by the specimen RSFC2 containing 30% bauxite-calcination-method red mud, 21% blast-furnace slag, 10% fly ash, 30% clinker, 8% gypsum and 1% compound agent. The mechanical and physical properties confirm the usefulness of RSFC2. The hydration characteristics of RSFC2 were characterized by XRD, FTIR, (27)Al MAS-NMR and SEM. As predominant hydration products, ettringite and amorphous C-S-H gel are principally responsible for the strength development of RSFC2. Comparing with the traditional production for ordinary Portland cement, this green technology is easier to be implemented and energy saving. This paper provides a key solution to effectively utilize bauxite-calcination-method red mud.

  11. Influence of calcination temperature on the structure and morphology of HAp bioceramics; Influencia da temperatura de calcinacao na estrutura e morfologia de bioceramica de HAp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, C.M.L.; Santos, P.T.A.; Rodrigues, P.A.; Costa, A.C.F.M. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of calcination temperature on the structure and morphology of samples of hydroxyapatite (HAp) synthesized by the wet method. For hydroxyapatite was used as precursor solutions of calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid 1M solution of calcium hydroxide was stirred and heated to 80 ° C and then dropwise with a solution of phosphoric acid. After the liquid was evaporated without an oven at 110 ° C and sieved. The sample of PA as synthesized was submitted to calcination at 900 °C and 1100 °C / 2 hours. The samples as synthesized and after calcination were characterized by XRD, XRF, FTIR, SEM. The XRD showed the presence of phase hydroxyapatite for samples without calcining and both calcination temperatures studied. FTIR spectra showed bands group and PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}. Through the SEM micrograph, there is the formation of agglomerates in the form of porous flakes approximately spherical shape. (author)

  12. Influence of calcination temperature on selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3 over CeO2-ZrO2-WO3 catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军燕; 宋忠贤; 宁平; 张秋林; 刘昕; 李昊; 黄真真

    2015-01-01

    A series of CeO2-ZrO2-WO3 catalysts for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 were prepared by hydro-thermal method. The influence of calcination temperature on the catalytic activity, microstructure, surface acidity and redox behavior of CeO2-ZrO2-WO3 catalyst was investigated using various characterization methods. It was found that the CeO2-ZrO2-WO3 catalyst calcined at 600 ºC showed the best catalytic performance and excellent N2 selectivity, and yielded more than 90% NO conversion in a wide temperature range of 250–500 ºC with a space velocity (GHSV) of 60000 h–1. As the calcination temperature was increased from 400 to 600 ºC, the NO conversion obviously increased, but decreased at higher calcination temperature. The results implied that the higher surface area, the strongest synergistic interaction, the superior redox property and the highly dispersed or amorphous WO3 species contributed to the excellent SCR activity of the CeO2-ZrO2-WO3 catalyst calcined at 600 ºC.

  13. Effect of calcination temperature on the morphology and electrochemical properties of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} for lithium-ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yan [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Yudao Street 29, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China); Zhang Xiaogang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Yudao Street 29, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China)], E-mail: azhangxg@163.com

    2009-07-01

    A simple approach to synthesize Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} in mass production by using hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, C{sub 6}H{sub 12}N{sub 4}) as a precipitator via hydrothermal treatment has been developed. The samples were calcinated at different temperatures ranging from 300 to 600 deg. C and characterized by XRD and SEM. The structure became agglomerative and collapsed with an increase in calcination temperature. Evaluation of the electrochemical performance in combination with SEM and BET analysis suggests that there is an optimum calcination temperature for Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. It is found that the retention capacity of well crystallized Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} hollow microspheres has a higher specific surface area at 300 deg. C and is almost above 94% after the 5th cycle at different current densities of 40 and 60 mA g{sup -1}, which shows good long-life stability and favorable electrochemical behaviors. Using EIS analysis, we demonstrated that lithium-ion conduction inside the SEI layers and charge transfer at the electrode/electrolyte interface became hindered with an increased calcination temperature, which was in good agreement with the electrochemical behaviors of three Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} electrodes. It is proposed that drastic capacity fading and the variation of resistive components (SEI layers and charge transfer) can be influenced by morphologies due to the calcination temperature.

  14. Technology Optimization Research of Calcining Asbestos Tailings with Ammonium Sulfate%石棉尾矿硫酸铵焙烧工艺优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘姝抒; 宋贝; 胡志波; 牛保军; 郑水林

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos tailings were preprocessed by ball-milling and calcining. This paper studied the influence of calcination temperature, calcination time and milling time on the roasting effect of asbestos tailings and ammonium sulfate. The result showed that the optimum conditions were that calcination temperature was 500℃, calcination time was 1 h, milling time was 18 min. Through being preprocessed, the leaching ratio of MgO was up from 70.03%to 95.29%.%对石棉尾矿进行预先煅烧和研磨处理,研究了煅烧温度、煅烧时间和研磨时间对石棉尾矿硫酸铵焙烧效果的影响,得到最佳的预处理条件:煅烧温度为500℃,煅烧时间为1 h,研磨时间为18 min。经过预处理后,石棉尾矿硫酸铵焙烧氧化镁溶出率从70.03%提高到95.29%。

  15. Spring 2009 Semiannual (III.H. and I.U.) Report for the HWMA/RCRA Post-Closure Permit for the INTEC Waste Calcining Facility at the INL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, Ann M.

    2009-05-31

    The Waste Calcining Facility is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. In 1999, the Waste Calcining Facility was closed under and approved Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Closure plan. Vessels and spaces were grouted and then covered with a concrete cap. This permit sets forth procedural requirements for groundwater characterization and monitoring, maintenance, and inspections of the Waste Calcining Facility to ensure continued protection of human health and the environment.

  16. Preferential oxidation of CO in excess H2 over CeO2/CuO catalyst: Effect of calcination temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiming Gao; Ming Zhou; Hao Deng; Yong Yue

    2012-01-01

    Different from the classical configuration CuO/CeO2 catalyst,the inverse configuration CeO2/CuO catalyst (atomic ratio of Ce/Cu=10/100)was prepared by impregnation method.Five calcination temperatures were selected to investigate the interaction between CeO2 and CuO support.It is found that as calcination temperature increased from 500 to 900 ℃,sintering of CeO2 particles on the support occurred together with the diffusion of a portion of Ce4+ ions into CuO crystals,forming solid solution.Formation of interface complex Ce-O-Cu was suggested by TPR measurements.The catalyst calcined at 700℃ gives the highest activity for preferential oxidation of CO in excess H2 stream.

  17. Effect of support calcination temperature on the Ru-Ce-B/ZrO_2 catalysts for benzene selective hydrogenation to cyclohexene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jianhua; LI Lichao

    2011-01-01

    The effect of support calcination temperature on the benzene selective hydrogenation performance of the Ru-Ce-B/ZrO2 catalysts was investigated.It was found that with increasing calcination temperature,the surface area decreased,on the contrary,the pore size and the amount of monoclinic phase increased.With increasing support calcination temperature,the activity of the catalyst roughly decreased and cyclohexene selectivity increased.The activity decreased due to the decrease of the surface areas.The increase of the cyclohexene selectivity was correlated not only with the decrease of the surface areas but also with the increase of monoclinic phases,rich in surface hydroxyl,and the enlarged pore size of zirconia.This suggests the monoclinic zirconia with a medium surface area,rather than a big one,and a mesoporous structure,even including some macropores,is an ideal support of the catalyst for benzene selective hydrogenation.

  18. HYDROESTERIFICATION OF ACETYLENE WITH METHYL FORMATE TO METHYL ACRYLATE OVER A NiO/Al203 CATALYST: EFFECTS OF NiO LOADING AND CALCINATION TEMPERATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xinhan; Yang Xiangui; Zhang Jiaqi; Liu Zhaotie

    2001-01-01

    Hydroesterification of acetylene with methyl formate (MF) was studied over a series of nickel-supported catalysts with NiO loading varing from 0.8 wt% to 18.7 wt% and calcination temperature ranging from 623 K to 873 K. The catalyst was studied by TPR, XPS, XRD and BET. The interactions between impregnated Ni2+ and alumina during catalyst preparation produced different kinds of nickel species such as NiO crystallites and NiAl2O4-like species, and their distributions varied with NiO loading and calcination temperature, which leads to different activities of catalyst in hydroesterification of acetylene with methyl formate. Experimental results indicated that 10wt% NiO/Al2O3 calcined at 773 K is suitable for the hydroesterification of acetylene with methyl formate.

  19. Transesterification of edible, non-edible and used cooking oils for biodiesel production using calcined layered double hydroxides as reusable base catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Sivashunmugam; Antonyraj, Churchil A; Kannan, S

    2012-04-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were produced from edible, non-edible and used cooking oils with different fatty acid contents by transesterification with methanol using calcined layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as solid base catalysts. Among the catalysts, calcined CaAl2-LDH (hydrocalumite) showed the highest activity with >90% yield of FAME using low methanol:oil molar ratio (catalyzed process for production of biodiesel in high yields from a wide variety of triglyceride oils including used oils is possible using optimized conditions.

  20. Study on X-ray diffraction and finger print of Calcined Borax%煅硼砂X射线衍射指纹图谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翠; 张倩; 周平; 王伯涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish fingerprint of Calcined Borax, and to provide a new method for evaluating the quality of Calcined Borax. Methods: Adopting X-ray diffraction techniques to analyze Calcined Borax qualitatively and comparing the semblance of the public peaks. Results: Obtaining X-ray diffraction patterns of 8 samples about Calcined Borax, the geometric and topological characteristics of 7 samples is consistent. Using the X-ray diffraction patterns of that 7 samples obtain X-ray diffraction fingerprint of Calcined Borax. And accord to the fingerprints and the intensity of each characteristic peak in X-ray diffraction patterns of Calcined Borax to calculate the similarity of different samples which use the cosine law and the correlation coefficient method. We found that similarity of common peaks in different samples of X-ray diffraction pattern is high, which is consistent with the results of the cluster analysis. Conclusion: For analysis of calcined borax it has good specificity and feasible by X-ray diffraction fingerprint and it can be used to distinguish and evaluate Calcined Borax.%目的:建立中药煅硼砂X射线衍射指纹图谱,为煅硼砂质量评价提供新方法.方法:采用X射线衍射技术对煅硼砂样品进行定性分析,并对各样品共有峰进行相似度分析.结果:获得了8个煅硼砂样品的X射线衍射图谱,其中7个样品衍射图谱几何拓扑特征基本一致;利用该7批煅硼砂样品X衍射图谱得到煅硼砂的X射线衍射指纹图谱;并以指纹图谱为对照,根据煅硼砂X射线衍射图谱中各特征峰峰高强度,以夹角余弦法和相关系数法计算各样品X射线衍射图谱的相似度,发现不同样品X射线衍射图谱共有峰相似度均较高,与聚类分析结果一致.结论:X射线衍射指纹图谱分析方法专属性强,准确可靠,可实现对煅硼砂的鉴别和质量评价.

  1. Effect of different alcohols, gelatinizing times, calcination and microwave on characteristics of TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Mahmoud; Mozaffari, Masoud; Esmaeili, Sahar

    2017-02-01

    In this work, nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TiO2) were synthesized by means of TiCl4 as precursor. Effects of alcohol type, calcination, gelatinizing time and microwave exposure on the particle size, morphology, crystallinity and particle phase are studied using XRD patterns and SEM images. Results showed that alcohols such as ethanol increased the particle size; calcination increased the particle size and improved the crystallinity of particles. Microwave exposure of particles resulted in smaller particles; adding water increased the impact of microwave. Effect of microwave exposure in rutile phase formation is also observed during this study.

  2. Effectiveness factors for a commercial steam reforming (Ni) catalyst and for a calcined dolomite used downstream biomass gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella, J.; Narvaez, I.; Orio, A. [Madrid Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chem. Eng.

    1996-12-31

    A commercial steam reforming catalyst from BASF, the G1-25 S one, and a calcined dolomite, Norte-1, from Cantabria-Spain, have been used, once crushed and sieved to different particle fractions between 1.0 and 4.0 mm. The materials have been tested downstream small pilot biomass gasifiers, bubbling fluidized bed type, gasifying with air and with steam. The Thiele modulus and the effectiveness factor have been calculated at temperatures of 750-850 deg C. It is experimentally shown that diffusion control plays an important part when particle size is larger than ca. 0.5 mm. This has to be taken into account when comparing the quality of the solids for tar elimination. (author) (5 refs.)

  3. Thermal and catalytic cracking of ethylene in presence of CaO, MgO, zeolite and calcined dolomite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taralas, G.; Sjoestroem, K.; Jaeraas, S.; Bjoernbom, E. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1993-12-31

    The subject of the present work is to study the effect of catalysts such as calcined dolomite (CaO.MgO), CaO (quicklime), MgO and Zeolite (EKZ-4) on the cracking of ethylene in the presence and absence of steam. N-heptane, toluene, naphthalene, thiophene have been some suitable model compounds for studies of the thermal and catalytic decomposition of tar. Previous results showed that the reaction scheme of the thermal decomposition of n-heptane was consistent with the high yield of ethylene observed in thermal decomposition of n-heptane. The effect of the reactor wall and the ferric impurities in the dolomite are also subjects of the research in this study. The results may also throw some additional light on the nature of the gas-phase thermal and catalytic reactions occurring in the use of dolomite as tar cracking catalysts. 28 refs

  4. Report for the HWMA/RCRA Post Closure Permit for the INTEC Waste Calcining Facility at the INL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idaho Cleanup Project

    2006-06-01

    The Waste Calcining Facility (WCF) is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. In 1998, the WCF was closed under an approved Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) Closure Plan. Vessels and spaces were grouted and then covered with a concrete cap. The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a final HWMA/RCRA post-closure permit on September 15, 2003, with an effective date of October 16, 2003. This permit sets forth procedural requirements for groundwater characterization and monitoring, maintenance, and inspections of the WCF to ensure continued protection of human health and the environment. The post-closure permit also includes semiannual reporting requirements under Permit Conditions III.H. and I.U. These reporting requirements have been combined into this single semiannual report.

  5. New ceramic membranes from calcinated clay; Nouveaux supports membranaires a base de chamotte d'argile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Moudden, N.; El Ghazouali, A.; Rakib, S.; Sghyar, M.; Rafiq, M. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. des Materiaux et Protection de L' environnement, Fes Atlas (Morocco); Larbot, A.; Cot, L. [Laboratoire des Materiaux et Procedes Membranaires, UMR 5635-CNRS, ENSCM UM, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2001-04-01

    The aim of the present work is to obtain porous tubular ceramic membranes from natural material. The clay powders were calcinated in air at 900 deg C for two hours. The resulting powders mixed with certain organic additives could be extruded to fabricate a porous tubular configuration with highly uniform porous structures. The mean pore diameter, measured by mercury porosimetry, is equal to 9 {mu}m and the porosity is 38% (heat treatment at 1130 deg C for two hours). Many ceramic membrane manufactures have used this type of large-pore membrane as supports for finer-pore membranes (micro-filtration or ultrafiltration). Porous membranes possess very good mechanical strength and negligible flow resistance for the membrane/support, while containing pores which allow a high degree of permeation. (authors)

  6. Hydrothermal conversion of FAU zeolite into LEV zeolite in the presence of non-calcined seed crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiki, Ayako; Honda, Koutaro; Fujimoto, Ayumi; Shibata, Shohei; Ide, Yusuke; Sadakane, Masahiro; Sano, Tsuneji

    2011-06-01

    Hydrothermal conversion of Faujasite-type (FAU) zeolite into Levynite (LEV) zeolite without the use of an organic structure-directing agent (OSDA) was successfully achieved in the presence of non-calcined seed crystals. The interzeolite conversion depended strongly upon the alkalinity (OH -/SiO 2) of the starting gel, the Si/Al ratio of the starting FAU zeolite and the type of alkaline metal employed. Successful conversion of FAU zeolites into pure LEV zeolite was achieved only for FAU zeolites with Si/Al ratios in the range of 19-26, under highly alkaline conditions (OH -/SiO 2=0.6) by using NaOH as an alkali source. Although the yield of LEV zeolite prepared by this method was lower (18-26%) than that of the conventional hydrothermal synthesis with the use of SDA, the obtained LEV zeolite exhibited a unique core/shell structure.

  7. 循环率对循环流化床分解炉性能的影响%Effect of recirculation ratio on the operation of CFB calciners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 徐德龙; 冯绍航; 陈延信

    2005-01-01

    流化床反应器在水泥工业用于生料的预分解.为了提高物料分解率,开发出一种新型的循环流化床反应器并已用于水泥生产.这种循环流化床反应器中的固气比要高于传统的预分解反应器.在建立物料氧化钙平衡的基础上,建立了关于物料循环率和碳酸盐分解率之间相互关系的数学模型.模型的计算结果与现场测试结果吻合很好.此外还提出了分解炉热稳定性的概念,并给出了相应热稳定系数的表达式.结果证明:使用循环流化床分解炉可有效改进固体物料的最终分解率.当操作温度一定(850℃)时,循环率每增加100%,入窑物料的终分解率可提高8%~9%.外循环方案有助于改善分解炉的热稳定性并降低分解炉的操作温度;在终分解率不变的情况下,物料循环率每增加100%,分解炉的操作温度可降低30~50℃.%Fluidized bed reactors have been used as calciners in cement industry for calcination of cement raw meal.Aiming at enhancing calcining rate, a new kind of circulating fluidized bed(CFB) reactor was developed and applied in cement plants. Inside this kind of CFB reactor, the mass ratio of solid to gas (S/G) was much higher than traditional one. Based on the balance of calcium oxide material, a mathematical model concerning the relationship between recirculation ratio of material and calcining rate of carbonate was developed. The computing results by using such relationship showed reasonable agreement with experiments. The concept of thermal stability of calciner was put forwarded, and the corresponding mathematical expression of thermal stability coefficient was determined. It was proved that application of CFB calciner improved the final calcination degree of solid material. At fixed operating temperature (850 ℃), the calcining rate of the carbonate into rotary kiln may be enhanced by 8%~9% with 100%increase of recirculation ratio. Meanwhile application of external re

  8. Effect of calcination temperature on physical parameters and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania spheres using chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel beads as a template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, R.; Zhu, H.-Y.; Chen, H.-H.; Yao, J.; Fu, Y.-Q.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Xu, Y.-M.

    2014-11-01

    Mesoporous titania spheres were prepared by modified sol-gel method using chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel beads as a template. Effects of calcination temperature on physical parameters were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, thermogravimetry and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania spheres prepared was also evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of phenol as a model molecule under UV irradiation. With increasing calcination temperature, average crystallite size and pore size increased. In contrast, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface areas, porosity and pore volumes steadily decreased. Results of characterization proved that prepared titania spheres with highly organized pores were mesoporous structure. The photocatalytic activity of mesoporous titania spheres calcined at 500 °C was more effective than those calcined at other temperatures, which were attributed to the porous structure, large BET surface area, crystalline, and smaller crystallite size. This work may provide new insights into the preparation of novel mesoporous titania spheres and further practical applications in the treatment of wastewater.

  9. Influence of calcination temperature on the morphology and energy storage properties of cobalt oxide nanostructures directly grown over carbon cloth substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Rakhi, R. B.

    2013-09-23

    Nanostructured and mesoporous cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanowire in flower-like arrangements have been directly grown over flexible carbon cloth collectors using solvothermal synthesis for supercapacitor applications. Changes in the morphology and porosity of the nanowire assemblies have been induced by manipulating the calcination temperature (200–300 °C) of the one-dimensional (1-D) structures, resulting in significant impact on their surface area and pseudocapacitive properties. As the calcination temperature increases from 200 to 250 °C, the flower morphology gradually modifies to the point where the electrolyte could access almost all the nanowires over the entire sample volume, resulting in an increase in specific capacitance from 334 to 605 Fg−1, depending on the nanowire electrode morphology. The 300 °C calcination results in the breakdown of the mesoporous morphology and decreases the efficiency of electrolyte diffusion, resulting in a drop in pseudocapacitance after 300 °C. A peak energy density of 44 Wh kg−1 has been obtained at a power density of 20 kW kg−1 for the 250 °C calcined sample.

  10. Influence of lithium precursors and calcination atmospheres on graphene sheets-modified nano-Li4Ti5O12 anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Ting; Yuan, Tao; Zhang, Weimin; Ma, Jingjing; Zhang, Chunming; He, Yu-Shi; Liao, Xiao-Zhen; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2015-07-01

    The influence of Li precursors and calcination atmospheres on the reaction mechanisms, physical properties and electrochemical performance of graphene sheets (GS)-modified nano-Li4Ti5O12 (LTO/GS) has been systematically investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and mass spectrometry (MS) results demonstrate the lithium precursor containing carboxyl anion such as lithium acetate (LiAc) and Li2CO3 interact with oxygen groups of graphene oxide (GO) by strong hydrogen bonds to restrict the morphology and the phase formation of products. We also notice from the thermogravimetry (TG) and MS results that the consumption of GS is proportional to oxygen content of lithium precursor. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS) results indicate that the product calcined in reducing atmosphere possess smaller electrochemical polarization due to more reduced Ti3+ on the surface of the product. The LTO/GS sample with LiOH as Li precursor calcined in diluted hydrogen atmosphere show the best electrochemical performance with a capacity of 134.4 mAh g-1 at 10C discharge rate and very stable cycling life with a 98.6% capacity retention after 800 cycles at 40C rate. This study not only provides an optimization of Li precursor and calcination condition for LTO/GS anode material, but also guides any future one-step syntheses of lithium composite materials with GO participation.

  11. Effect of Calcination Temperatures and Mo Modification on Nanocrystalline (γ-χ-Al2O3 Catalysts for Catalytic Ethanol Dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharmmanoon Inmanee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixed gamma and chi crystalline phase alumina (M-Al catalysts prepared by the solvothermal method were investigated for catalytic ethanol dehydration. The effects of calcination temperatures and Mo modification were elucidated. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, N2 physisorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and NH3-temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD. The catalytic activity was tested for ethylene production by dehydration reaction of ethanol in gas phase at atmospheric pressure and temperature between 200°C and 400°C. It was found that the calcination temperatures and Mo modification have effects on acidity of the catalysts. The increase in calcination temperature resulted in decreased acidity, while the Mo modification on the mixed phase alumina catalyst yielded increased acidity, especially in medium to strong acids. In this study, the catalytic activity of ethanol dehydration to ethylene apparently depends on the medium to strong acid. The mixed phase alumina catalyst calcined at 600°C (M-Al-600 exhibits the complete ethanol conversion having ethylene yield of 98.8% (at 350°C and the Mo-modified catalysts promoted dehydrogenation reaction to acetaldehyde. This can be attributed to the enhancement of medium to strong acid with metal sites of catalyst.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of Ag@ZnO nanostructures for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B: influence of calcination temperature and Ag content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongjiao; Zhao, Zhenting; Li, Gang; Li, Pengwei; Zhang, Wendong; Han, Zhitao; Lian, Kun; Hu, Jie

    2017-02-01

    Hydrangea-like Ag@ZnO nanostructures were synthesized utilizing aqueous solution method, followed by calcination at different temperatures in air. The crystal structure, surface morphology and chemical state of synthesized nanostructures were analyzed. The results showed that hydrangea-like Ag@ZnO architectures exhibited the diameters in the range of 1.54-3.54 μm and decorated with Ag nanoparticles approximately 15 nm. The photocatalytic experiments were conducted on the as-prepared Ag@ZnO samples for photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B after calcinations from 400 to 900 °C. The measured results demonstrate that both the calcination temperature and the content of Ag can significant influence the photocatalytic activities. Moreover, the 0.5 mol% Ag@ZnO exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity under the optimum calcination temperature of 700 °C. This study indicates that the as-prepared Ag@ZnO nanostructures have promising potential applications in the fields such as photocatalysis, solar energy conversion and sensing detection.

  13. CO and C3H8 total oxidation over Pd/La-Al2O3 catalysts:Effect of calcination temperature and hydrothermal treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周仁美; 邢丰; 王树元; 鲁继青; 金凌云; 罗孟飞

    2014-01-01

    A series of Pd/La-Al2O3 (PLA) catalysts with La-Al2O3 (LA) support calcined at different temperatures (500, 700, 900 and 1050 ºC) were prepared using an incipient wetness impregnation method. The activity of the fresh and hydrothermally aged PLA catalysts were tested for total oxidation of CO and C3H8. The activity of the fresh PLA catalysts for CO and C3H8 oxidation increased with increasing calcination temperature of the support, while the activities of the aged catalysts declined and became essentially the same. CO chemisorption results revealed that the suppressed activities of the aged catalysts were mainly due to the decline of palla-dium dispersion. The turnover frequency (TOF) of CO oxidation increased with increasing reduction ability of the catalysts, with a fresh catalyst calcined at 1050 ºC having the highest value (0.048 s-1). However, the TOF of C3H8 total oxidation was affected by not only the redox properties of catalysts but also the size of Pd particle, and large Pd particles possessed higher TOF value of C3H8 oxi-dation, with the highest value (0.125 s-1) being obtained on an aged catalyst calcined at 500 ºC.

  14. Effect of doped SiO2 and calcinations temperature on phase transformation of TiO2 photocatalyst prepared by sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutham Niyomwas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the effect of calcinations temperature and SiO2 addition on phase transformation,crystallite size, and photocatalytic activity of SiO2/TiO2 thin films by using indigo carmine as an indicator. Thecomposite particles were prepared by sol-gel method via calcinations at a temperature range of 300-700oC for 2 h, and thecomposite thin films were prepared by means of spin coating. The microstructure and crystallite size of pure TiO2 and SiO2/TiO2 composite powders were characterized by using XRD, SEM and DTA. It was found that anatase structures wereformed at a calcinations temperature range of 300-600oC and mixed phases of anatase and rutile were observed at a temperatureof 700oC. Crystallite size of pure TiO2 tends to increase with an increase in calcinations temperature. Doped SiO2in the TiO2 has an effect on crystal phases and crystallite size of the composite powders and thin films, resulting in thechange of the photocatalytic activity of TiO2.

  15. Preparation of Calcined Zirconia-Carbon Composite from Metal Organic Frameworks and Its Application to Adsorption of Crystal Violet and Salicylic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubair Hasan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zirconia-carbon (ZC composites were prepared via calcination of Zr-based metal organic frameworks, UiO-66 and amino-functionalized UiO-66, under N2 atmosphere. The prepared composites were characterized using a series of instrumental analyses. The surface area of the ZC composites increased with the increase of calcination temperature, with the formation of a graphite oxide phase observed at 900 °C. The composites were used for adsorptive removal of a dye (crystal violet, CV and a pharmaceutical and personal care product (salicylic acid, SA. The increase of the calcination temperature resulted in enhanced adsorption capability of the composites toward CV. The composite calcined at 900 °C exhibited a maximum uptake of 243 mg·g−1, which was much greater than that by a commercial activated carbon. The composite was also effective in SA adsorption (102 mg·g−1, and N-functionalization of the composite further enhanced its adsorption capability (109 mg·g−1. CV adsorption was weakly influenced by solution pH, but was more dependent on the surface area and pore volume of the ZC composite. Meanwhile, SA adsorption showed strong pH dependence, which implies an active role of electrostatic interactions in the adsorption process. Base-base repulsion and hydrogen bonding are also suggested to influence the adsorption of CV and SA, especially for the N-functionalized composite.

  16. Study on process parameters for activating fly ash with alkali by calcination%加碱煅烧活化粉煤灰工艺参数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴勇勇; 周勇敏; 张苏伊

    2012-01-01

    The calcination process for activating fly ash with Na2CO3 as accessory ingredient was investigated.The concenta-tions of Si and A1 in the fly ash activated under different calcination conditions (calcination temperature and calcination time), that dissolved in the sodium hydroxide solution were measured by titering process.The phase composition of fly ash obtained under different calcination conditions (mass ratio of fly ash and sodium carbonate ) was characterized by XRD.The best process parameters were obtained as follows: calcination temperature was 875 X. .holding time was 1.5 h,and mass ratio of fly ash and sodium carbonate was 1:0.87.The products after calcination were mainly made up of soluble NaAlSiO4 and Na2SiO3,and the quartz and mullitein in the raw fly ash both almost disappeared.Therefore, the fly ash was activated adequately.%研究了以碳酸钠为助剂活化粉煤灰的煅烧工艺.采用滴定法测定不同煅烧条件(煅烧温度和煅烧时间)所得活化粉煤灰溶解在氢氧化钠溶液中的硅、铝浓度,并采用X射线衍射(XRD)表征不同煅烧条件(灰碱质量比)所得活化粉煤灰的物相组成,得出粉煤灰较佳煅烧工艺参数:煅烧温度为875℃,保温时间为1.5 h,粉煤灰与碳酸钠的质量比为1∶0.87.煅烧后的产物主要以可溶性的硅铝酸钠(NaAlSiO4)和硅酸钠(Na2SiO3)为主,原粉煤灰中的石英、莫来石基本消失,粉煤灰得到充分活化.

  17. Hardness evaluation of PMMA reinforced with two different calcinations temperatures of ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2 filler system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasratiningsih, Z.; Takarini, V.; Cahyanto, A.; Faza, Y.; Asri, L. A. T. W.; Purwasasmita, B. S.

    2017-02-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is one of the materials used for the temporary crown while making fixed partial dentures. Unfortunately, it has low mechanical properties. This study aim’s to improve PMMA hardness by adding ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2 filler system in two different calcination temperatures. Thirty-two disc form samples with 8mm diameter x 3mm thickness were made from two category-filler based that had been previously evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Each category was divided into six groups of three respectively from a controlled and different concentrations of 7(A), 9(B), 11(C), 13(D), and 15(E) weight % of reinforced filler system, then tested with Vickers Hardness Tester. Filler particles that calcined at 550° can increase to 700° consist of fine crystalline and amorphous phases; however, the sample shows the highest hardness about 20,19 VHN even though the increase is only 7,5% compared to control. Meanwhile, the sample that calcined at 700°C exhibiting the highest hardness about 15,66 VHN corresponds to sample D, it has increased 25% compared to the control. This is correlated with microstructure result that has more growth crystalline particles. The results were analyzed by ANOVA which determined were not statistically significantly different (p<0.05). Therefore, it can be concluded that the 13% reinforced ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2 filler system calcined at 700°C shows the highest hardness increase compare to calcination temperature 550-700°C. Although it is not significantly different.

  18. Facile synthesis of both needle-like and spherical hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Effect of synthetic temperature and calcination on morphology, crystallite size and crystallinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijesinghe, W.P.S.L.; Mantilaka, M.M.M.G.P.G. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka); Post-graduate Institute of Science, P.O. Box: 25, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka); Premalal, E.V.A. [Department of Materials Science, Shizuoka University, Johoku, Naka-ku Hamamatsu, 432-8011 (Japan); Herath, H.M.T.U. [Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka); Mahalingam, S.; Edirisinghe, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Rajapakse, R.P.V.J. [Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka); Rajapakse, R.M.G., E-mail: rmgr@pdn.ac.lk [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka); Post-graduate Institute of Science, P.O. Box: 25, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400 (Sri Lanka)

    2014-09-01

    Synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles, that mimic natural HA, are widely used as biocompatible coatings on prostheses to repair and substitute human bones. In this study, HA nanoparticles are prepared by precipitating them from a precursor solution containing calcium sucrate and ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate, at a Ca/P mole ratio of 1.67:1, at temperatures, ranging from 10 °C to 95 °C. A set of products, prepared at different temperatures, is analyzed for their crystallinity, crystallite size, morphology, thermal stability and composition, by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic techniques, while the other set is analyzed after calcining the respective products, soon after their synthesis, for 3 h, at 700 °C. The as-prepared products, after 2 h of drying, without any calcination, are not crystalline, but they grow very slowly into needle-like morphologies, as they are ripened with time. The percentage crystallinity of the final products increases from 15% to 52%, with increasing the preparative temperature. The calcined samples always produce spherical nanoparticles of essentially the same diameter, between 90 nm and 100 nm, which does not change due to aging and preparative temperatures. Therefore, the same method can be utilized to synthesize both spherical and needle-like nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite, with well-defined sizes and shapes. The ability to use readily available cheap raw materials, for the synthesis of such well-defined crystallites of hydroxyapatite, is an added advantage of this method, which may be explored further for the scaling up of the procedures to suit to industrial scale synthesis of such hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are synthesized using a simple precipitation method. • Both needle-like and spherical hydroxyapatite nanoparticles are synthesized. • The prepared

  19. Ni/Al2O3 catalysts for CO methanation: Effect of Al2O3 supports calcined at different temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiajian; Gao; Chunmiao; Jia; Jing; Li; Meiju; Zhang; Fangna; Gu; Guangwen; Xu; Ziyi; Zhong; Fabing; Su

    2013-01-01

    The correlation between phase structures and surface acidity of Al2O3 supports calcined at different temperatures and the catalytic performance of Ni/Al2O3 catalysts in the production of synthetic natural gas(SNG) via CO methanation was systematically investigated. A series of 10 wt% NiO/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared by the conventional impregnation method, and the phase structures and surface acidity of Al2O3 supports were adjusted by calcining the commercial γ-Al2O3 at different temperatures(600–1200 C). CO methanation reaction was carried out in the temperature range of 300–600 C at different weight hourly space velocities(WHSV = 30000 and 120000 mL·g-1h-1) and pressures(0.1 and 3.0 MPa). It was found that high calcination temperature not only led to the growth in Ni particle size, but also weakened the interaction between Ni nanoparticles and Al2O3 supports due to the rapid decrease of the specific surface area and acidity of Al2O3 supports. Interestingly, Ni catalysts supported on Al2O3 calcined at 1200 C(Ni/Al2O3-1200) exhibited the best catalytic activity for CO methanation under different reaction conditions. Lifetime reaction tests also indicated that Ni/Al2O3-1200 was the most active and stable catalyst compared with the other three catalysts, whose supports were calcined at lower temperatures(600, 800 and 1000 C). These findings would therefore be helpful to develop Ni/Al2O3 methanation catalyst for SNG production.

  20. LAB-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION BY ANION EXCHANGE, PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION, AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.

    2012-08-22

    H-Canyon and HB-Line are tasked with the production of PuO{sub 2} from a feed of plutonium metal. The PuO{sub 2} will provide feed material for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility. After dissolution of the Pu metal in H-Canyon, the solution will be transferred to HB-Line for purification by anion exchange. Subsequent unit operations include Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination to form PuO{sub 2}. This report details the results from SRNL anion exchange, precipitation, filtration, calcination, and characterization tests, as requested by HB-Line1 and described in the task plan. This study involved an 80-g batch of Pu and employed test conditions prototypical of HB-Line conditions, wherever feasible. In addition, this study integrated lessons learned from earlier anion exchange and precipitation and calcination studies. H-Area Engineering selected direct strike Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation to produce a more dense PuO{sub 2} product than expected from Pu(III) oxalate precipitation. One benefit of the Pu(IV) approach is that it eliminates the need for reduction by ascorbic acid. The proposed HB-Line precipitation process involves a digestion time of 5 minutes after the time (44 min) required for oxalic acid addition. These were the conditions during HB-line production of neptunium oxide (NpO{sub 2}). In addition, a series of small Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation tests with different digestion times were conducted to better understand the effect of digestion time on particle size, filtration efficiency and other factors. To test the recommended process conditions, researchers performed two nearly-identical larger-scale precipitation and calcination tests. The calcined batches of PuO{sub 2} were characterized for density, specific surface area (SSA), particle size, moisture content, and impurities. Because the 3013 Standard requires that the calcination (or stabilization) process eliminate organics, characterization of PuO{sub 2} batches monitored the

  1. In Situ IR Characterization of CO Interacting with Rh Nanoparticles Obtained by Calcination and Reduction of Hydrotalcite-Type Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Basile

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Supported Rh nanoparticles obtained by reduction in hydrogen of severely calcined Rh/Mg/Al hydrotalcite-type (HT phases have been characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy of adsorbed CO [both at room temperature (r.t. and nominal liquid nitrogen temperature] and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. The effect of reducing temperature has been investigated, showing that Rh crystal size increases from 1.4 nm to 1.8 nm when the reduction temperature increases from 750°C to 950°C. The crystal growth favours the formation of bridged CO species and linear monocarbonyl species with respect to gem-dicarbonyl species; when CO adsorbs at r.t., CO disproportionation occurs on Rh and it accompanies the formation of RhI(CO2. The role of interlayer anions in the HT precursors to affect the properties of the final materials has been also investigated considering samples prepared from silicate-instead of carbonate-containing precursors. In this case, formation of RhI(CO2 and CO disproportionation do not occur, and this evidence is discussed in terms of support effect.

  2. Palm oil biodiesel synthesized with potassium loaded calcined hydrotalcite and effect of biodiesel blend on elastomer properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trakarnpruk, Wimonrat; Porntangjitlikit, Suriya [Petrochemistry and Polymer Science, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2008-07-15

    Biodiesel was prepared from palm oil by transesterification with methanol in the presence of 1.5%K loaded-calcined Mg-Al hydrotalcite. Fatty acid methyl esters content of 96.9% and methyl ester yield of 86.6% were achieved using a 30:1 methanol to oil molar ratio at 100{sup o}C for 6 h and 7 wt% catalyst. The biodiesel was characterized and its impact on elastomer properties was evaluated. The compatibility of B10 diesel blend (10% biodiesel) with six types of elastomers commonly found in fuel systems (NBR, HNBR, NBR/PVC, acrylic rubber, co-polymer FKM, and terpolymer FKM) were investigated. The physical properties of elastomers after immersion in tested fuels (for 22, 670, and 1008 h at 100{sup o}C) were measured according to American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). These include swelling (mass change and volume change), hardness, tensile and elongation, as well as the dynamic mechanical property. The results showed that properties of NBR, NBR/PVC and acrylic rubber were affected more than other elastomers. This is due to the absorption and dissolving of biodiesel by rubber in these samples. Co-polymer FKM and terpolymer FKM which are fluoroelastomers show little property change. (author)

  3. Hydration mechanism and leaching behavior of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Li, Hongxu; Liu, Xiaoming

    2016-08-15

    A deep investigation on the hydration mechanism of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials was conducted from viewpoints of hydration products and hydration heat analysis. As a main hydration product, the microstructure of C-A-S-H gel was observed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the C-A-S-H gel is composed of amorphous regions and nanocrystalline regions. Most of regions in the C-A-S-H gel are amorphous with continuous distribution, and the nanocrystalline regions on scale of ∼5nm are dispersed irregularly within the amorphous regions. The hydration heat of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials is much lower than that of the ordinary Portland cement. A hydration model was proposed for this kind of cementitious materials, and the hydration process mainly consists of four stages which are dissolution of materials, formation of C-A-S-H gels and ettringite, cementation of hydration products, and polycondensation of C-A-S-H gels. There are no strict boundaries among these four basic stages, and they proceed crossing each other. Moreover, the leaching toxicity tests were also performed to prove that the developed red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials are environmentally acceptable.

  4. Steam reforming of tar derived from lignin over pompom-like potassium-promoted iron-based catalysts formed on calcined scallop shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guoqing; Kaewpanha, Malinee; Hao, Xiaogang; Zhu, Ai-Min; Kasai, Yutaka; Kakuta, Seiji; Kusakabe, Katsuki; Abudula, Abuliti

    2013-07-01

    In order to understand the improvement effect of potassium (K) on the catalytic activity of iron-loaded calcined scallop shell (CS) for the steam reforming tar derived from biomass, various K precursors were applied for the catalyst preparation. It is found that pompom-like iron-based particles with a mesoporous structure were easily formed on the surface of calcined scallop shell (CS) when K2CO3 was used as K precursor while no such kind of microsphere was formed when other kinds of K precursors such as KOH and KNO3 were applied. The optimum K-loading amount for the preparation of this catalyst was investigated. Based on the experimental results obtained, a mechanism for the formation of these microspheres was proposed. This pompom-like potassium-promoted iron-based catalyst showed a better catalytic activity and reusability for the steam reforming of tar derived from lignin.

  5. Preparation and application of acidified/calcined red mud catalyst for catalytic degradation of butyl xanthate in Fenton-like process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Luhua; Wei, Guangtao; Wang, Yizhi; Li, Zhongmin; Zhang, Linye; Zhao, Shukai; Zhou, Ming

    2016-08-01

    Acidified/calcined red mud (ACRM), a novel catalyst used in Fenton-like process, was prepared by acidification and calcination of red mud (RM). Catalyst characterization showed that iron phase of ACRM was mainly α-Fe2O3 and ACRM was a porous material with rough surface and loose structure. Degradation of butyl xanthate in Fenton-like process catalyzed by ACRM was investigated. Butyl xanthate was effectively degraded, and the degradation of butyl xanthate was well fitted by second order kinetic model. ACRM had an excellent long-term stability in a Fenton-like process. The possible mechanisms of hydroxyl radical production and butyl xanthate degradation in a Fenton-like process catalyzed by ACRM were presented.

  6. 全氟物改性煅白的防吸湿机理%Anti-moisture mechanism of calcined dolomite modified by perfluoroalkylethyl acrylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晓波; 李明照; 王国卫; 梁一然; 张耀斌; 毛嘉; 任川兮

    2015-01-01

    对煅白表面锚固偶氮二氰基戊酸引发全氟烷基乙基丙烯酸酯(FM)聚合而制备的防吸湿煅白进行研究,利用 XPS、IR、DSC、TG、SEM 物理吸收和接触角测量等方法对改性前后煅白的结构、比表面积、形貌和疏水接触角等进行表征,并分析改性后煅白吸湿性降低的原因和机理。结果表明:煅白表面发生了偶联、锚固及聚合反应。锚固引发剂的煅白引发FM原位分散聚合而制得防吸湿煅白,其吸湿率随FM质量分数的增加而降低,当FM质量分数达到7%时,吸湿率不再下降,改性后煅白1 h的吸湿率由1.39%下降到0.017%;聚全氟烷基乙基丙烯酸酯(PFM)的接枝率为0.5%、接枝效率为26.6%,煅白表面出现一层连续而完整的全氟聚合物膜,其厚度约为8 nm。%4,4'-Azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid) (ACPA) was anchored onto the surface of calcined dolomite and radical graft polymerization of perfluoroalkylethyl acrylate (FM) from the modified calcined dolomite through dispersion polymerization were investigated. The structure, specific surface area, morphology and hydrophobic contact angle of calcined dolomite surface were characterised by XPS, IR, DSC, TG, SEM, physical absorption and contact angle measurement, and the reason and mechanism on the decreasing the moisture absorption rate of calcined dolomite after the modification were studied. The results show that the coupling, anchoring and polymerization reactions happen on the surface of calcined dolomite. Poly (Perfluoroalkylethyl acrylate) (PFM) is effectively grafted onto calcined dolomite through the initiation of anchored ACPA during in-situ dispersion polymerization. It shows that the moisture absorption rate of calcined dolomite decreases with increasing of the mass fraction of FM. When the mass fraction of FM is 7%, The moisture absorption rate decreases from 1.39% to 0.017% after modification for 1 h. The grafting rate and efficiency of PFA are 0.5% and

  7. ICPP calcined solids storage facility closure study. Volume II: Cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle cost estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This document contains Volume II of the Closure Study for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Calcined Solids Storage Facility. This volume contains draft information on cost estimates, planning schedules, yearly cost flowcharts, and life-cycle costs for the four options described in Volume I: (1) Risk-Based Clean Closure; NRC Class C fill, (2) Risk-Based Clean Closure; Clean fill, (3) Closure to landfill Standards; NRC Class C fill, and (4) Closure to Landfill Standards; Clean fill.

  8. Preparation of nanosized barium zirconate powder by thermal decomposition of urea in an aqueous solution containing barium and zirconium, and by calcination of the precipitate

    OpenAIRE

    Boschini, Frédéric; Robertz, B.; Rulmont, André; Cloots, Rudi

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis of barium zirconate was initiated by urea induced homogeneous precipitation followed by a "low temperature" thermal treatment. The kinetic of the reaction and the optimum urea/cation ratio have been determined by means of X-ray diffraction and Inductive Coupled Plasma analyses. It has been demonstrated that an amorphous zirconium hydrated oxide starts to precipitate followed by the precipitation of barium carbonate. A calcination at 1200 degreesC during 2 h gives rise to the for...

  9. Effect of calcination temperature on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 powders prepared by co-precipitation of TiCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudoyono, Gatut; Ichzan, Nur; Zharvan, Vicran; Daniyati, Rizqa; Santoso, Hadi; Indarto, Bachtera; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Zainuri, Mochamad; Darminto

    2016-04-01

    The adsorption of basic dye methylene blue (MB) onto titanium dioxide (titania) powder that were prepared by coprecipitation method of TiCl3 and NH4OH as iniatial material with different calcination temperature was studied to examine the photocatalytic activity. Synthesis process carried out by the solution pH was adjusted to be 8. Effect of calcination temperature on the titania powder were characterized with Differential Scanning Calorimetry/Thermogravimetry (DSC/TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result of TG and XRD showed that the NH4Cl decomposed between 235-372°C. The XRD result showed that the anatase TiO2 only contained a single phase when the calcination temperature of the precursor at 800°C, and over which it began to grow rutile phase. The influence of synthesis condition on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 powder was determined by the photodegradation of MB dye under UV light.

  10. The influence of coating solution and calcination condition on the durability of Ir1-xSnxO2/Ti anodes for oxygen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Zenta; Kashima, Ryo; Tatsumi, Kohei; Fukuyama, Shinnosuke; Izumiya, Koichi; Kumagai, Naokazu; Hashimoto, Koji

    2016-12-01

    For oxygen formation without forming chlorine in seawater electrolysis for hydrogen production we have been using the anode consisting of three layers of MnO2-type multiple oxide catalyst, intermediate layer and titanium substrate. The intermediate layer was used for prevention of oxidation of the titanium substrate during anodic polarization for oxygen evolution and was prepared by calcination of butanol solutions of H2IrCl6 and SnCl4 coated on titanium. The protectiveness of Ir1-xSnxO2 layer formed was directly examined using Ir1-xSnxO2/Ti anodes in H2SO4 solution changing the preparation conditions of the layer. When the sum of Ir4+ and Sn4+ was 0.1 M, the highest protectiveness was observed at 0.06 M Sn4+. Although an increase in calcination temperature led to the formation of Ir1-x-ySnxTiyO2 triple oxide with a slightly lower catalytic activity for oxygen evolution, the anode calcined at 450 °C showed the highest protectiveness.

  11. Effect of calcination temperature on structural properties and catalytic activity in oxidation reactions of LaNiO3 perovskite prepared by Pechini method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Rida; M.A.Pe(n)a; E.Sastre; A.Martínez-Arias

    2012-01-01

    The study presented the preparation of the perovskite oxide LaNiO3 by the complex citrate method,paying particular attention to evolution of its formation from the amorphous precursor with varied calcination temperatures.The products obtained after heat treatment under air between 200 and 800 ℃ were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD),thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA),Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),SBET measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).The results showed the formation of a single phase with perovskite structure from ca.550 ℃.Tests on the two catalytic oxidation reactions of C3H6 and CO over the system calcined between mentioned temperatures were examined on the basis of characterization results and showed that optimum catalytic properties for such reactions were achieved for the perovskite calcined at 600 ℃.In turn,correlations between redox and catalytic properties were established on the basis of thermogravimetric temperature programmed reduction (TPR) analysis.

  12. Effect of Calcination Temperature on Surface Morphology and Photocatalytic Activity in TiO2 Thin Film Prepared by Spin Coating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mohan Mothi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films were deposited on glass substrate using Sol-Gel derived precursor by Spin Coating technique at different calcination temperatures. Structural identity of the prepared films was con- firmed by powder X-ray diffraction measurements. Morphology of the films was monitored using Atomic force microscopy and it was observed that calcination temperature of 400 °C favored TiO2 nano- fibers. Photocatalytic activity of the films was checked by observing the degradation of herbicide Atrazine in UV region and the percentage of degradation was analyzed by HPLC method. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 21st November 2013; Revised: 18th March 2014; Accepted: 29th June 2014How to Cite: Mothi, K.M., Soumya, G., Sugunan, S. (2014. Effect of Calcination Temperature on Surface Morphology and Photocatalytic Activity in TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by Spin Coating Technique. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (3: 175-181. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.3.5733.175-181Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.3.5733.175-181

  13. 磷石膏制备复相磷石膏煅烧工艺研究%Research on calcining process of duplex gypsum using phosphogypsum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙清臣; 杨敏

    2013-01-01

    The calcining process of duplex gypsum using phosphogypsum was studied.the results show that holding time and heating rate have an greater influence on the ratio of hemihydrate and anhydrite after phosphogypsum calcination,so dulex phosphogypsum with different ratio of hemihydrate and anhydrite can be prepared by controling holding time and heating rate during phosphogypsum calcination.compare with one-phase gypsum,duplex phosphogypsum possess better early strength and late strength.%  对磷石膏制备的复相石膏煅烧工艺进行了研究。结果表明:保温时间和升温速率对两种石膏的烧成比例影响较大。获得不同半水-无水比例的复相磷石膏体系可以通过控制升温速率和保温时间来实现。复相磷石膏与单相石膏比较,具有较好的早期强度和后期强度。

  14. Performance of Cobalt-Based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts Using Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma as an Alternative to Thermal Calcination%Performance of Cobalt-Based Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Catalysts Using Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma as an Alternative to Thermal Calcination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白素丽; 黄承都; 吕静; 李振花

    2012-01-01

    Co-based catalysts were prepared by using dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) plasma as an alternative method to conventional thermal calcination. The characterization results of N2-physisorption, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the catalysts prepared by DBD plasma had a higher specific surface area, lower reduction temperature, smaller particle size and higher cobalt dispersion as compared to calcined catalysts. The DBD plasma method can prevent the sintering and aggregation of active particles on the support due to the decreased treatment time (0.5 h) at lower temperature compared to the longer thermal calcination at higher temperature (at 500~C for 5 h). As a result, the catalytic performance of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on DBD plasma treated Co/Si02 catalyst showed an enhanced activity, C5+ selectivity and catalytic stability as compared to the conventional thermal calcined Co/SiO2 catalyst.

  15. Process optimization in postcombustion CO{sub 2}-capture by means of repowering and reversible carbonation/calcination cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis M. Romeo; Juan C. Abanades; Juan C. Ballesteros; Antonio Valero; Jesus M. Escosa; Antonio Gimenez; Cristobal Cortes; Jara Pano [Centro de Investigacion Recursos y Consumos Energeticos (CIRCE), Zaragoza (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Coal is the major power generation fuel for electricity production. Many countries are heavily dependent on coal, that contributes to about 30% of the European power generation and plays an important role in the European generation industry. The existing coal power plants must be operative to provide energy and take advantage of local resources, but it is necessary to reduce their CO{sub 2} emissions in a feasible manner. It means without introducing excessive economic penalty or reducing their capacity and efficiency. In order to achieve this objective two strategies are highlighted, increase power plant efficiency and capture CO{sub 2} emissions. Increasing power plant efficiency is one of the less expensive ways to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions however it is neither an easy task for existing power plant nor efficiency improvements are large enough to achieve important CO{sub 2} emissions reduction. One of the best methods to significantly increase plant efficiency and also energy production from an economic standpoint is repowering. On the other hand, it is generally accepted that postcombustion CO{sub 2} capture is one of the best suitable technologies for existing coal power plants. It is also well-know that one of the most important gaps in postcombustion capture is the necessity of achieve a process optimization for large-scale power plants. One of these technologies involves the separation of CO{sub 2} from high temperature flue gases using the reversible carbonation reaction of CaO and the calcination of CaCO{sub 3}. In order to achieve a significant abatement of CO{sub 2} emissions without excessive penalty in power plant efficiency, generating capacity and with CO{sub 2} capture cost below 25 EUR/Ton CO{sub 2}, this paper proposes a new, feasible approach to join these two concepts by an optimal integration of the processes within an existing power plant. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Impact of natural and calcined starfish (Asterina pectinifera) on the stabilization of Pb, Zn and As in contaminated agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung Eun; Sung, Jwa Kyung; Sarkar, Binoy; Wang, Hailong; Hashimoto, Yohey; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Yong Sik

    2017-04-01

    Metal stabilization using soil amendments is an extensively applied, economically viable and environmentally friendly remediation technique. The stabilization of Pb, Zn and As in contaminated soils was evaluated using natural starfish (NSF) and calcined starfish (CSF) wastes at different application rates (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 wt%). An incubation study was conducted over 14 months, and the efficiency of stabilization for Pb, Zn and As in soil was evaluated by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test. The TCLP-extractable Pb was reduced by 76.3-100 and 91.2-100 % in soil treated with NSF and CSF, respectively. The TCLP-extractable Zn was also reduced by 89.8-100 and 93.2-100 % in soil treated with NSF and CSF, respectively. These reductions could be associated with the increased metal adsorption and the formation of insoluble metal precipitates due to increased soil pH following application of the amendments. However, the TCLP-extractable As was increased in the soil treated with NSF, possibly due to the competitive adsorption of phosphorous. In contrast, the TCLP-extractable As in the 10 % CSF treatment was not detectable because insoluble Ca-As compounds might be formed at high pH values. Thermodynamic modeling by visual MINTEQ predicted the formation of ettringite (Ca6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O) and portlandite (Ca(OH)2) in the 10 % CSF-treated soil, while SEM-EDS analysis confirmed the needle-like structure of ettringite in which Pb was incorporated and stabilized in the 10 % CSF treatment.

  17. The effect of heating on mineral composition and grain size distribution of flux calcined porcelanites from the Gafsa-Metlaoui basin, southwestern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Raja; Tlili, Ali; Jamoussi, Fakher

    2016-12-01

    The porcelanite rock of Ypresian phosphatic series of the Gafsa-Metlaoui basin (south-western Tunisia), is composed mainly of opal CT, and presents a variable percentage of carbonates and fibrous clays. This rock is treated with flux calcination at different temperatures in order to prepare a specific filter aid for cleaning melting sulfur which can be used for the production of sulfuric acid. This work presents the effect of heating on the mineralogy and grain size distribution of carbonate-rich porcelanite (Tm1) and clay-rich porcelanite (Gh) compared to flux calcined silica-rich porcelanite (CHM3) and diatomaceous filtration aids. The porcelanite samples used in this work come from three localities of the Gafsa-Metlaoui basin: Kef El Ghis (Gh), Tamarza (Tm1) and Mides (CHM3). Flux calcination at 1000 °C provokes a mineralogical transformation on carbonate-rich porcelanite samples. The opal CT transforms to opal C and becomes neater and more stable. The Thermal treatment of porcelanite (Tm1) incites also the apparition of new peaks of wollastonite. However, the structural change of opal CT to opal C by heat treatment is blocked for flux calcination of clay-rich porcelanite. The opal CT of fluxing clay-rich porcelanite becomes more ordered without significant change to opal C. The difference between fluxing carbonate-rich porcelanite (Tm1) and fluxing clay-rich porcelanite (Gh) appears also with granulometric distribution histogram of the tow heated samples. All raw samples have unimodal granulometric distribution (1-100 μm). After calcination with alkaline flux at 1000 °C fluxing carbonate-rich porcelanite displays bimodal granulometric distribution and a new mode appears systematically, between 0.1 μm and 1 μm. This occurs for fluxing silica-riche porcelanite and diatomaceous filtration aids as well and corresponds to the opal C formed after heat treatment. Whereas fluxing clay-rich porcelanite present trimodal granulometric distribution and a third mode

  18. Role of Mg{sub x}Ca{sub 1−x}CO{sub 3} on the physical–chemical properties and cyclic CO{sub 2} capture performance of dolomite by two-step calcination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ke; Han, Dongtai, E-mail: handongtai@cumt.edu.cn; Zhao, Pengfei, E-mail: zhaopfcumt@163.com; Hu, Xiumeng; Yin, Zeguang; Wu, Di

    2015-08-20

    Highlights: • Two-step calcination treated dolomite sorbent was prepared and characterized. • An intermediate phase (Mg{sub x}Ca{sub 1−x}CO{sub 3}) was observed by TG and XRD results. • Mg-calcite hindered the de-mixing of Ca and Mg. • Smaller grains, larger specific surface area and pore volume were obtained. • This favorable structure resulted in a high and stable CO{sub 2} capture performance. - Abstract: Two-step calcination (CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} atmospheres) was used to modify the microstructure of natural dolomite for high-temperature CO{sub 2} capture. Two other one-step calcinations (CO{sub 2} or N{sub 2} atmosphere) were provided for comparison. Different morphological characterizations (thermal decomposition, phase composition, morphology, and nitrogen adsorption) were performed, followed by an analysis of 30 carbonation/calcination cycles in a fixed bed reactor. During primary calcination in a CO{sub 2} atmosphere, an intermediate phase (Mg{sub x}Ca{sub 1−x}CO{sub 3}) was observed by TG and XRD results, which hindered the de-mixing of CaO and MgO in the secondary calcination in a N{sub 2} atmosphere. Therefore, two-step calcination produced smaller grains (CaO: 45.2 nm; MgO: 32.6 nm), larger specific surface area (21.08 m{sup 2}/g) and pore volume (0.082 cm{sup 3}/g) and uniform distribution of CaO and MgO, which resulted in a higher and more stable uptake of CO{sub 2} compared to the results from one-step calcinations.

  19. 固定床煅烧炉中载铯亚铁氰化钛钾的热分解研究%Thermal Decomposition of Potassium Titanium Hexacyanoferrate (Ⅱ) Loaded with Cesium in a Fixed Bed Calciner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯孝贵; 景山; 吴秋林; 陈靖; 宋崇立

    2007-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of potassium titanium hexacyanoferrate(Ⅱ) (KTiFC) loaded with cesium (referred to as Used Exchanget,or UE) was studied at different flow rate of air in a fixed bed calciner.The calcination process consisted of four stages:ambient temperature-180℃ (stage Ⅰ),180-250℃ (stage Ⅱ),250-400℃ (stage Ⅲ),and constant 400℃ (stage Ⅳ).The most intense reaction occurred in stage Ⅱ.The rate of thermal decomposition was controlled,depending on the O2 flux,by O2 or CN concentration in different stages.Results from differential thermal analysis (DTA) showed that the calcination reaction of the anhydrous UE was exotlaemic, with an approximate heat output of 4.6kJ·g-1,which was so large to cause the possible agglomeration of calcined residues.The agglomeration could be avoided by enhancing heat transfer and controlling the O2 flux.It was found that there was no cyanides in the calcined residues and no CN-bearing gases such as HCN and (CN)2 in the off-gas.It seemed that the catalytic oxidation furnace behind the fixed bed calciner could be cancelled.

  20. Influence of calcination temperature on Cd{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles: Structural, thermal and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Ch.Venkata, E-mail: cvrphy@gmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 214-1, Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); PrabhakarVattikuti, S.V. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 214-1, Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ravikumar, R.V.S.S.N. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, AP 522510 (India); Moon, Sang Jun, E-mail: nanobiomems@dgist.ac.kr [Cybernetics Laboratory, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST) (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jaesool, E-mail: jshim@ynu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 214-1, Dae-dong, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Cadmium substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles are synthesis using the chemical method. The as-prepared ferrite nanoparticles are calcinated at 300 °C and 600 °C respectively. The samples are studied using; Powder XRD, SEM with EDX, TEM, FT-IR, TG-DTA and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) in order to study the calcination temperature effect on structural, morphological and magnetic properties. The magnetic properties, like saturation magnetization and coercivity increases with increasing the calcination temperature. This enhancement is attributed to the transition from amulti-domain to a single-domain nature. The absorption bands observed at 588 cm{sup −1} (ν{sub 1}) and 440 cm{sup −1} (ν{sub 2}) are attributed to the vibrations of tetrahedral and octahedral complexes. The TG-DTA curves reveal the thermal stability of the prepared ferrite nanoparticles. The calcination temperature influences the magnetic properties, surface morphology and crystalline size. - Highlights: • Cd{sub 0.3}Co{sub 0.7}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles synthesized using the chemical co-precipitation. • The magnetization, coercivity values increases with increasing the calcination temperature. • The calcination temperature influences the magnetic properties and crystallite size. • The FTIR spectra results confirmed the vibrations of tetrahedral and octahedral complexes.

  1. Rheology and zeta potential of cement pastes containing calcined silt and ground granulated blast-furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safi, B.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the re-use of dam silt as a supplementary binder for self-compacting concrete (SCC. When burnt, silt becomes more reactive because the kaolin it contains is converted into metakaolin. Portland cement, calcined or burnt silt and ground granulated blast furnace slag were used in this research. Cement pastes were prepared with blends containing two or three of these materials. The replacement ratio for burnt silt in both cases was 10 % and 20 % by cement weight and the ratio for the slag was a constant 30 % by weight of the blend. Rheological and zeta potential tests were conducted to evaluate paste electrokinetics and rheological behaviour. The findings showed that burnt silt is apt for use as an addition to cement for SCC manufacture.

    En el presente trabajo se ha analizado la posibilidad de utilizar los lodos procedentes de embalses como adición en la fabricación del hormigón autocompactante (HAC. Con la calcinación, estos materiales se vuelven más reactivos debido a la transformación en metacaolín, del caolín que forma parte de su composición. Las materias primas empleadas en esta investigación son: cemento Pórtland, lodos de embalse calcinados y escorias granuladas de horno alto. Se prepararon pastas de cemento con mezclas que contenían dos o tres de estos materiales. El porcentaje de reemplazo de los lodos calcinados osciló entre el 10 y el 20 % en peso del cemento, mientras que el de la escoria fue del 30 % en peso de la mezcla. Se llevaron a cabo ensayos reológicos y de potencial zeta para evaluar el comportamiento electrocinético y reológico de las distintas pastas. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, una vez calcinados, los lodos de embalse son aprovechables como adición al cemento con destino a la preparación de HAC.

  2. 煅烧高岭土的比表面积与吸油性能%Specific Surface Area and Oil Adsorption of Calcinated Kaolin Clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙涛; 陈洁渝; 周春宇; 雷新荣

    2013-01-01

    A washed kaolin clay was calcinated in the temperature range from 600 ℃ to 1 000 ℃. The microscopic morphology, the phase, the specific surface area and pore size distribution of the products were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and BET nitrogen adsorption measurement, respectively. The relationship between oil absorption and specific surface area was analyzed. The results show that the oil adsorption of calcinated kaolin clay with the smallest average pore size at 750 ℃ is the greatest (i.e., 80.272 g/100 g). The oil adsorption of calcinated kaolin clay became greater due to the larger specific surface area and the presence of the more concentrated micropore and mesopore in the pore distribution at the calcining temperature of < 800 ℃. The microporous occlusion of the kaolin clay occurred when calcinated at 800 ℃, causing the more concentrated mesopore and macropore in the pore distribution. As a result, the oil absorption reduced. The oil absorption of the calcinated kaolin clay was closely related to the specific surface area and the more concentrated micropore in the pore distribution.%以水洗高岭土为原料,在600~1 000℃,以50℃为间隔取点煅烧.通过场发射扫描电镜观察产品的微观形貌、X射线衍射仪分析产品的物相,并用BET物理吸附仪表征产品的比表面积和孔径分布,根据煅烧高岭土的微观形貌、物相组成、吸脱附等温线等,分析其比表面积与吸油性能的关系.结果表明:750℃的煅烧高岭土吸油值最高,为80.272 g/100g,此时煅烧高岭土的比表面积最大,孔径分布集中于微孔和中孔,平均孔径最小.煅烧温度低于800℃时,煅烧高岭土的孔径分布较集中于微孔和中孔,比表面积较大,吸油值较高;煅烧温度升高至800℃以后,高岭土发生烧结导致微孔闭塞,孔径分布向中孔和大孔集中,比表面积减小,吸油值较低.因而煅烧高岭土的吸油性

  3. Effect of Calcination Temperature on Surface Oxygen Vacancies and Catalytic Performance Towards CO Oxidation of Co3O4 Nanoparticles Supported on SiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-bing Li; Zhi-quan Jiang; Kun Qian; Wei-xin Huang

    2012-01-01

    Co3O4/SiO2 catalysts for CO oxidation were prepared by conventional incipient wetness impregnation followed by calcination at various temperatures.Their structures were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD),laser Raman spectroscopy,X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy.Both XRD and Raman spectroscopy only detect the existence of Co3O4 crystallites in all catalysts.However,XPS results indicate that excess Co2+ ions are present on the surface of Co3O4 in Co3O4(200)/SiO2 as compared with bulk Co3O4.Meanwhile,TPR results suggest the presence of surface oxygen vacancies on Co3O4 in Co3O4(200)/SiO2,and XAFS results demonstrate that Co3O4 in Co3O4(200)/SiO2 contains excess Co2+.Increasing calcination temperature results in oxidation of excess Co2+and the decrease of the concentration of surface oxygen vacancies,consequently the formation of stoichiometric Co3O4 on supported catalysts.Among all Co3O4/SiO2 catalysts,Co3O4(200)/SiO2 exhibits the best catalytic performance towards CO oxidation,demonstrating that excess Co2+ and surface oxygen vacancies can enhance the catalytic activity of Co3O4 towards CO oxidation.These results nicely demonstrate the effect of calcination temperature on the structure and catalytic performance towards CO oxidation of silicasupported Co3O4 catalysts and highlight the important role of surface oxygen vacancies on Co3O4.

  4. Effect of Calcination Temperature on Surface Oxygen Vacancies and Catalytic Performance Towards CO Oxidation of Co3O4 Nanoparticles Supported on SiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-bing; Jiang, Zhi-quan; Qian, Kun; Huang, Wei-xin

    2012-02-01

    Co3O4/SiO2 catalysts for CO oxidation were prepared by conventional incipient wetness impregnation followed by calcination at various temperatures. Their structures were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. Both XRD and Raman spectroscopy only detect the existence of Co3O4 crystallites in all catalysts. However, XPS results indicate that excess Co2+ ions are present on the surface of Co3O4 in Co3O4(200)/SiO2 as compared with bulk Co3O4. Meanwhile, TPR results suggest the presence of surface oxygen vacancies on Co3O4 in Co3O4(200)/SiO2, and XAFS results demonstrate that Co3O4 in Co3O4(200)/SiO2 contains excess Co2+. Increasing calcination temperature results in oxidation of excess Co2+ and the decrease of the concentration of surface oxygen vacancies, consequently the formation of stoichiometric Co3O4 on supported catalysts. Among all Co3O4/SiO2 catalysts, Co3O4(200)/SiO2 exhibits the best catalytic performance towards CO oxidation, demonstrating that excess Co2+ and surface oxygen vacancies can enhance the catalytic activity of Co3O4 towards CO oxidation. These results nicely demonstrate the effect of calcination temperature on the structure and catalytic performance towards CO oxidation of silica-supported Co3O4 catalysts and highlight the important role of surface oxygen vacancies on Co3O4.

  5. Effect of calcination temperature on the structure and visible-light photocatalytic activities of (N, S and C) co-doped TiO2 nano-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, X. F.; Xue, X. X.; Yang, H.; Chen, C.; Li, X.; Niu, M. C.; Gao, X. Y.; Yang, Y. T.

    2015-03-01

    The (N, S and C) co-doped TiO2 samples (NSC-TiO2) were synthesized by the sol-gel method combining with the high energy ball milling method calcined at the different temperature (400-700 °C), employing butyl titanate as the titanium source and thiourea as the doping agent. The structures of NSC-TiO2 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), X-ray photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms. The photocatalytic activities were checked through the photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) as a model compound under visible light irradiation. The results showed that the (N, S and C) co-doping and the calcination temperature played important role on the microstructure and photocatalytic activity of the samples. According to XPS spectra, sulfur was mainly attributed to the Tisbnd Osbnd S bond; nitrogen was ascribed to the Tisbnd Osbnd N and Tisbnd N bonds; carbon was assigned to the Tisbnd Osbnd C bond in the NSC-TiO2 samples. (N, S and C) co-doped TiO2 samples calcinated at 500 °C exhibits higher photocatalytic activity than that of the other samples under visible light irradiation, which can be attributed to the synergic effect of its enhancing crystallization of anatase and (N, S and C) co-doping.

  6. Effect of Calcination Temperature on Structure and O2 Desorption Properties of CexPr1-xO2-δ Mixed Oxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Zonglan; Shi Jun; Bu Yafan; Zhao Pengying; Wang Zhan

    2007-01-01

    A series of CexPr1-xO2-δ (x=0,0.5,0.9,1.0) mixed oxide calcined at different temperatures were synthesized by sol-gel method and characterized by Raman, XRD and O2-TPD techniques. When x=0.9, only a cubic phase CeO2 is observed. When x=0.5, the compound was combined by Pr6O11 and CeO2 mixed oxides. For CexPr1-xO2-δ (x=0.5,0.9) samples 465cm-1 Raman peak is attributed to the Raman active F2g mode of Ceo2. The broad peak at about 570cm-1 can be linked to lattice defects resulting in oxygen vacancies. The crystallite size of the samples increased as increasing the calcined temperature. But the increased value of Ce0.9Pr0.1O2-δ and Ce0.5Pr0.5O2-δ is smaller than single CeO2 and Pr6O11 obviously. It reveals that the insertion of Pr atom into the ceria lattice could enhance the sintering resistance and thermal stability of the mixed oxides. Calcination temperatures had great effect on the peak intensity for CeO2 but less effect on Ce0.8Pr0.2O2-δ in Raman spectra, and it may be caused by the colors transformation of the mixed oxidfs. The result of O2-TPD experiment indicates that the formation of solid solution has elevation the stabilization and thermal stability of the mixed oxides.

  7. The Influence of Calcined Clay Pozzolan, Low-Cao Steel Slag and Granite Dust On the Alkali-Silica Reaction in Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    James Sarfo-Ansah; Eugene Atiemo

    2015-01-01

    The influence of low CaO steel slag, calcined clay and granite dust on the alkali-silica reaction was investigated over a period of 35 days under accelerated curing conditions. The mineral admixtures were used to replace varying portions of high alkali Portland limestone cement up to an admixture content of 25% in order to study their effect on the alkali-silica reaction (ASR). Portland limestone cement used for the study had a total Na2Oeq of 4.32. XRD analysis of hydrated mortar...

  8. 煅烧工艺制度对轻烧白云石活性度的影响%Effect of calcining process and system on reactivity of soft-burnt dolomite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高华

    2012-01-01

    The effect of calcining processes on the reactivity three kinds of soft-burnt dolomites is studied through calcining test and observation of microstructure. It is concluded as follows : ( 1 ) soaking time is 90 minutes,, there is a trend in which the reactivity of soft-burnt dolomite is increased first with the calcining temperature uprising and then decreased. At 1 050℃ the reactivity of soft-burnt dolomite reaches the highest value; (2) for some calcining temperature, there is a period of calcining time to make soft-burnt lime have a highest reactivity value ; (3) the grain size of the dolomite tobe calcined has influence on the reactivity of the calcined product; (4) the microstructure of the raw dolomite has great influence on the reactivity of the calcined product, generally the raw dolomite with coarse and big crystals is easy to obtain the calcined product with higher reactivity.%通过煅烧实验和显微结构观察,研究了煅烧工艺对三种自云石轻烧后活性度的影响,得出如下结论:(1)保温时间为90min,随煅烧温度提高轻烧白云石的活性呈现先升高、后降低的趋势,在1050℃活性度达到最高点。(2)对应某煅烧温度存在一个煅烧时间使轻烧白云石活性最高。(3)白云石的煅烧颗粒尺寸影响煅烧产物活性度。(4)白云石原矿的显微结构对煅烧产物活性度有很大影响,一般晶粒粗大的原矿易得到活性较高的煅烧产物。

  9. Morphological Changes of Limestone Sorbent Particles during Carbonation/Calcination Looping Cycles in a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) and Reactivation with Steam

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Y.

    2010-04-15

    Carbonation and calcination looping cycles were carried out on four limestones in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The CO2 carrying capacity of a limestone particle decays very quickly in the first 10 cycles, reducing to about 20% of its original uptake capacity after 10 cycles for the four limestones studied in this work, and it decreases further to 6-12% after 50 cycles. A new steam reactivation method was applied on the spent sorbent to recover the loss of reactivity. The steam reactivation of multi-cycled samples was conducted at atmospheric pressure. Steam reactivation for 5 min at 130 °C of particles that had undergone 10 cycles resulted in an immediate increase (by 45-60% points) in carrying capacity. The morphological changes of limestone particles during the cycling and steam reactivation were studied using both an optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The diameters of limestone particles shrank by about 2-7% after 10 carbonation/calcination cycles, and the particle diameters swelled significantly (12-22% increase) after steam reactivation. These size changes are important for studies of attrition and mathematical modeling of carbonation. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  10. The Synergistic Effect of Nitrogen Dopant and Calcination Temperature on the Visible-Light-Induced Photoactivity of N-Doped TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tung Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The synergistic effect of nitrogen content and calcinations temperature on the N-doped TiO2 catalysts prepared by sol-gel method was investigated. The phase and structure, chemical state, optical properties, and surface area/pore distribution of N-doped TiO2 were characterized using X-ray diffraction spectrometer, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-vis diffusion reflectance spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area. Finding showed that the photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 was greatly enhanced compared to pure TiO2 under visible irradiation. N dopants could retard the transformation from anatase to rutile phase. Namely, N-doping effect is attributed to the anatase phase stabilization. The results showed nitrogen atoms were incorporated into the interstitial positions of the TiO2 lattice. Ethylene was used to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of samples under visible-light illumination. The results suggested good anatase crystallization, smaller particle size, and larger surface are beneficial for photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2. The N-doped TiO2 catalyst prepared with ammonia to titanium isopropoxide molar ratio of 2.0 and calcinated at 400°C showed the best photocatalytic ability.

  11. One-pot synthesis of carbon supported calcined-Mg/Al layered double hydroxides for antibiotic removal by slow pyrolysis of biomass waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaofei; Liu, Shaobo; Liu, Yunguo; Gu, Yanling; Zeng, Guangming; Cai, Xiaoxi; Yan, Zhili; Yang, Chunping; Hu, Xinjiang; Chen, Bo

    2016-12-01

    A biochar supported calcined-Mg/Al layered double hydroxides composite (CLDHs/BC) was synthesized by a one-pot slow pyrolysis of LDHs preloaded bagasse biomass. Multiple characterizations of the product illustrated that the calcined-Mg/Al layered double hydroxides (CLDHs) were successfully coated onto the biochar in slow pyrolysis of pre-treated biomass. The as-synthesized CLDHs/BC could efficiently remove antibiotic tetracycline from aqueous solutions. The coating of CLDHs significantly increased the adsorption ability of biochar, and CLDHs/BC exhibited more than 2 times higher adsorption capacity than that of the pristine biochar (BC) in the tested pH range. The maximum adsorption capacity of CLDHs/BC for tetracycline was 1118.12 mg/g at 318 K. The experimental results suggested that the interaction with LDHs on biochar played a dominant role in tetracycline adsorption, accompanied with π–π interaction and hydrogen bond. This study provides a feasible and simple approach for the preparation of high-performance material for antibiotics contaminated wastewater treatment in a cost-effective way.

  12. To study the effect of calcinations durations and temperature on optical and structural properties of MgO-CuO nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Praveen, Sharma, Ashwani; Parmar, R.; Dahiya, S.; Kishor, N.

    2016-05-01

    The MgO-CuO nanocomposites has been synthesized by a sol-gel techniques based on precursor polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). In this work appropriate concentration of cupric nitrate, Magnisium nitrate and PVA are mixed with 50:50 ethanol water followed by heated to 80°C to form a homogeneous gel solution. The obtained gel was slowly heated at 100°C to evaporate the solvent to form a hard homogeneous gel. The hard gel was calcinated at temperature 600°C for 4 hrs and 6 hrs thereafter, crushed the material in agate-motar so that it is converted into fine powder form. The prepared nanocomposites have been characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), FTIR, UV-VIS spectroscopy, SEM etc. The size of MgO-CuO nanocomposites heated at 600°C for 4 hours and 6 hours evaluated by Debye Scherrer formula are 17.1 nm and 21.2 nm respectively and results show that Size of MgO-CuO nanocomposites increases with increase of calcinations durations. IR spectra is also used to determine purity of samples. Absorption spectra confirm the synthesis of nanomaterials. SEM images give the indication of morphology of the nanocomposites.

  13. Investigation of the possibility of copper removal from industrial leachate by raw and calcined phosphogypsum: D-optimal and Taguchi designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesci, Basak [Engineering Faculty, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, Samsun (Turkey); Turan, Nurdan Gamze [Engineering Faculty, Department of Environmental Engineering, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, Samsun (Turkey); Ozgonenel, Okan [Engineering Faculty, Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, Samsun (Turkey)

    2012-08-15

    In the present study, the removal of Cu(II) was evaluated by raw and calcined phosphogypsum (PG) as an industrial product. The role of experimental factors on the removal of Cu(II) was examined by using D-optimal and Taguchi designs. The experimental factors and their related levels were selected as initial pH of 3-6-8, adsorbent content of 5, 10, and 25 g L{sup -1}, contact time of 5, 10, and 20 min, and temperature of 20, 40, and 60 C. The results are evaluated by ANOVA test to extract important experimental factors and their levels. The performances of the suggested factorial designs were then compared and regression models that took into account the significant main and interaction effects were suggested. Taguchi design was found as a reliable solution with less number of experiments for adsorption studies with the optimized values. The resultant removal efficiency is calculated as 78.34%. The results revealed that calcined PG is an appropriate adsorbent for Cu(II) removal from leachate of industrial waste. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Influence of Zn/Fe Molar Ratio on Optical and Magnetic Properties of ZnO and ZnFe2O4 Nanocrystal as Calcined Products of Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ahmed Ali Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The coprecipitation method has been used to synthesize layered double hydroxide (Zn-Fe-LDH nanostructure at different Zn2+/Fe3+ molar ratios. The structural properties of samples were studied using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD. LDH samples were calcined at 600°C to produce mixed oxides (ZnO and ZnFe2O4. The crystallite size of mixed oxide was found in the nanometer scale (18.1 nm for ZnFe2O4 and 43.3 nm for ZnO. The photocatalytic activity of the calcination products was investigated using ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-VIS-NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The magnetic properties of calcined LDHs were investigated using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM. The calcined samples showed a paramagnetic behavior for all Zn2+/Fe3+ molar ratios. The effect of molar ratio on magnetic susceptibility of the calcined samples was also studied.

  15. Particle morphology and magnetic properties of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} powder calcined conventionally and by microwave heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagesan, S., E-mail: kanagu1980@gmail.com [Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory (MSCL), Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, M. [Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory (MSCL), Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor (Malaysia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor (Malaysia); Jesurani, S. [Department of Physics, Jeyaraj Annapackium College for Women, Periyakulam 625601, Tamil Nadu (India); Kalaivani, T. [Center for material science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603203, Tamil Nadu (India); Ismail, I.; Shafie, M.S.E. [Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory (MSCL), Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-12-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Synthesis of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} by sol-gel technique. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallization temperature is reduced to 900 Degree-Sign C due to the addition of D-Fructose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of conventional and microwave calcined samples are reported. - Abstract: Barium strontium hexaferrite (Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19}-BSF) has been prepared by sol-gel process involving use of D-Fructose as a fuel. The prepared precursor was calcined in two different calcinations techniques conventional and microwave furnace. X-ray powder diffraction studies confirmed the formation of single phase Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19}. HR-SEM results show the morphology of the particles is hexagonal structures in platelet form. The average particle size of conventionally calcined BSF powder is 100-250 nm and that of microwave calcined powder is 30-100 nm. The broad hysteresis loop reveals that powder is well crystallized and exhibits hard magnetic properties.

  16. Study on preparation of food grade sodium trimetaphosophate by multi-step calcination%分段煅烧法制备食品级三偏磷酸钠试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国生; 郭玲

    2016-01-01

    High purty food grade sodium trimetaphosophate was prepared by multi-step calcination from anhy-drous sodium dihydrogen phosphate. The optimal calcination method was determined by multi-step calcination ex-periment in different conditions,and the reaction mechanism of calcination was analyzed.It was found that high pur-ty food grade products can be prepared from sodium dihydrogen phosphate by the optimal calcination method, the content of sodium trimetaphosphate in products can reach more than 99.5%.%以无水NaH2PO4为原料,通过分段煅烧制备出了高纯度食品级Na3(PO3)3。通过设计在不同条件下的分段煅烧试验,确定了较优煅烧方法,并对其反应机理进行了分析。试验表明,以无水NaH2PO4为原料,采用较优煅烧方法可以制得高纯度食品级产品,产品中三偏磷酸钠的含量可达99.5%以上。

  17. The Effect of Calcination Temperatures on the Activity of CaO and CaO/SiO2 Heterogeneous Catalyst for Transesterification of Rubber Seed Oil in the Presence of Coconut Oil as A Co-Reactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamisah D. Pandiangan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine the potential of conversion of rubber seed oil into biodiesel. A series experiments was conducted using CaO and CaO/SiO2 as catalyst and coconut oil as co-reactant, with the main purpose to assess the effect of calcination temperatures on the performance of the catalysts. The results obtained demonstrate that the use of coconut oil as co-reactant significantly promoted conversion of fatty acids in rubber seed oil into their corresponding methylesters. It was also found that the catalytic activity of both CaO and CaO/SiO2 was significantly influenced by calcination temperatures and at the same temperature, CaO/SiO2 exhibited higher activity than unsupported CaO. The highest yield was achieved using CaO/SiO2catalyst subjected to calcination at 800 oC

  18. Phase evolution of vanadium oxides obtained through temperature programmed calcinations of ammonium vanadate in hydrogen atmosphere and their humidity sensing properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akande, A.A. [DST/CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, P O Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); University of Limpopo, Department of Physics, P/Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727 (South Africa); Linganiso, E.C.; Dhonge, B.P. [DST/CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, P O Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); Rammutla, K.E. [University of Limpopo, Department of Physics, P/Bag X1106, Sovenga, 0727 (South Africa); Machatine, A.; Prinsloo, L.; Kunert, H. [School of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0002 (South Africa); Mwakikunga, B.W., E-mail: bmwakikunga@csir.co.za [DST/CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, P O Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa)

    2015-02-01

    The possibility of obtaining vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) [wherein the vanadium ionic state is 4{sup +}] from a precursor of ammonium metavanadate (NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}) bearing the ion V{sup 5+} is investigated. The reduction is carried out by calcining the NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} powders in similar concentrations of H{sub 2} flow at varying temperatures. The resulting powders have been studied by several techniques including XRD, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR, TEM, BET and DSC. It is found that remnants of bright yellow V{sup 5+} still exist up to calcination temperatures of 100 °C after which the sky-blue VO{sub 2} dominates at calcination temperatures of 150 °C–250 °C. There is a population surge of metastable dark-blue V{sub 6}O{sub 13} (where V is in between V{sup 4+} and V{sup 5+} ionic states) between 250 °C and 300 °C. However above 350 °C the material reverts to the stable V{sup 5+} in the yellow–orange V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. XPS/EDS and VSM confirm the order of appearance to be VO{sub 2}(150 °C) → V{sub 6}O{sub 13}(200 °C) → V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (350 °C). - Highlights: • Validated the theoretical mass losses at each temperature of NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} with TGA. • Confirmed mechanisms of formation of various stoichiometries of VO{sub x} from NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}. • Determined the evolution of VO{sub 2}, V{sub 6}O{sub 13} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} with temperature. • Phase diagram of VO{sub 2}, V{sub 6}O{sub 13} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} by VSM, XPS/EDS, XRD and Raman spectra. • Comparative response of VO{sub 2}, V{sub 6}O{sub 13} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} to humidity.

  19. Synthesis of h- and α-MoO3 by Refluxing and Calcination Combination: Phase and Morphology Transformation, Photocatalysis, and Photosensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannipa Wongkrua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hexagonal molybdenum oxide (h-MoO3 nano- and microrods were successfully synthesized by refluxing of (NH46Mo7O24·4H2O solutions with the pH 1 at 90°C for 1, 3, 5, and 7 h and were further transformed into orthorhombic molybdenum oxide (α-MoO3 microplates by calcination at 450°C for 6 h. These selected products were used to determine the degradation of methylene blue dye under 35 W xenon lamp for 0–180 min, due to the photocatalysis and photosensitization processes. In this research, catalytic activity of the metastable h-MoO3 has higher efficiency than that of the thermodynamically stable α-MoO3. Their phase and morphology transformation was also explained according to the experimental results.

  20. Enhanced Removal of Arsenic and Antimony in the Mining Site by Calcined γ-Fe2O3/Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Choi, Heechul; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2016-04-01

    Arsenic (As) and Antimony (Sb) have been recognized as harmful contaminants in aquatic environment due to its high toxicity and carcinogenicity. Especially, the contamination of arsenic in the mining areas is considered as a serious emerging environmental issue in Korea. Due to the hazardous effect of arsenic, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) regulated maximum contamination level of arsenic to 10 μg/L in drinking water. The harmful effect on human health by excessive intake of antimony was also reported by previous studies, and severe contamination level (100 - 7,000 μg/L) of antimony reported in surface and groundwater of abandoned mining area in China and Slovakia. Therefore, US EPA regulated maximum contaminants level of antimony in drinking water to 6 μg/L. In order to remove anionic contaminants in drinking water, various type of nanomaterials have been developed. Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is the artificial anionic clay that is based on the layered structure of positively charged brucite-like layers with interlayers of anions. The LDH is one of the promising nanomaterials for the removal of anionic contaminants because it has high selectivity for arsenic, phosphate, chromium and antimony. However, the biggest problem of LDH for wastewater treatment is that the particles cannot be easily separated after the removal of contaminants. In this study, magnetic nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3) supported LDH nanocomposite (γ-Fe2O3/LDH) was investigated to enhance magnetic particle recovery and removal efficiency for arsenic and antimony. The calcined γ-Fe2O3/LDH nanocomposites synthesized by co-precipitation method, and the crystallographic properties of maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) and layered structure of LDH were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The nano-sized γ-Fe2O3 (30 to 50 nm) was stably attached on the surface of LDH (100 to 150 nm) and O1s spectrum by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) explained that there are both physical and

  1. Synthesis, sustained release properties of magnetically functionalized organic-inorganic materials: Amoxicillin anions intercalated magnetic layered double hydroxides via calcined precursors at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Guangchun; Li, Zhanshuang; Yang, Piaoping; Jing, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Milin; Liu, Tianfu; Jiang, Zhaohua

    2009-09-01

    Zinc-aluminum-carbonate-layered double hydroxides (ZnAl-CO 3-LDHs), loaded with magnetic substrates (Fe 3O 4), were prepared for sustained drug-targeting delivery. From the X-ray diffraction results, it was found that the magnetic substrates were successfully incorporated with LDHs and highly dispersed in the hydrotalcite structure. After intercalation with an antibiotic drug (amoxicillin) by using a calcinations-reconstruction method, the basal spacing of layered double hydroxides increased from 7.51 Å to 12.35 Å, indicating that amoxicillin was successfully intercalated into the interlay space of LDHs as a monolayer. Furthermore, in vitro drug release experiments in pH 7.4 phosphate buffer solution (PBS) showed sustained release profiles with amoxicillin as a model drug. Magnetic measurements revealed that the composite possessed paramagnetic properties at room temperature.

  2. Controlled synthesis of MoO{sub 3} microcrystals by subsequent calcination of hydrothermally grown pyrazine–MoO{sub 3} nanorod hybrids and their photodecomposition properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopal, S., E-mail: raja2001s@gmail.com [Thin Films and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering and Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, San 5, Woncheon-dong, Yeontong-gu, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620 015 (India); Nataraj, D., E-mail: de.natraj2011@gmail.com [Thin Films and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046 (India); Khyzhun, O.Y. [Frantsevych Institute for Problems of Materials Science, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 3 Krzhyzhanivsky Street, UA-03142 Kyiv (Ukraine); Djaoued, Yahia; Robichaud, Jacques [Laboratoire de Micro-spectroscopies Raman et FTIR, Université de Moncton-Campus de Shippagan, 218 boul. J.-D. Gauthier, Shippagan, NB E8S 1P6 (Canada); Kim, Chang-Koo [Department of Chemical Engineering and Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, San 5, Woncheon-dong, Yeontong-gu, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    We present our results on successful synthesis of pyrazine–MoO{sub 3} nanorod hybrids by using pyrazine and MoO{sub 3} nanorods. On the first stage, MoO{sub 3} nanorods were grown hydrothermally and, on the second stage, their mixture with pyrazine was again involved in a hydrothermal reaction to produce organic–inorganic hybrids. To understand the growth mechanism of the hybrids we varied time and temperature of the hydrothermal process. Intercalation of pyrazine was confirmed through X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray emission spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy methods. Upon calcinations, pyrazine was deintercalated, i.e. removed from the MoO{sub 3} hybrid system, and the MoO{sub 3} nanorods were found to bind together resulting in formation of MoO{sub 3} microslabs with increased surface area. Photodecomposition performance of the MoO{sub 3} nanorods, pyrazine–MoO{sub 3} hybrids and MoO{sub 3} microcrystals was studied against Procion Red MX-5B textile dye. A high photodecomposition performance was found to decrease when going from MoO{sub 3} nanorods to MoO{sub 3} microcrystal and, further, to pyrazine–MoO{sub 3} hybrids. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • High aspect ratio MoO{sub 3} nanorods were prepared through a new hydrothermal method. • Hybrids of pyrazine–MoO{sub 3} were formed by intercalating pyrazine into MoO{sub 3} nanorods. • Intercalation of pyrazine was confirmed in X-ray spectroscopic analysis. • After calcinations, MoO{sub 3} crystal was retained by binding MoO{sub 3} nanorods together. • High photodegradation performance was noticed from MoO{sub 3} nanorods.

  3. MoO3/SiO2-ZrO2 Catalyst: Eeffect of Calcination Temperature on Physico-chemical Properties and Activities in Nitration of Toluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Madhavrao Kemdeo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 12 wt % molybdena was deposited over 1:1 silica zirconia mixed oxide support and the resultant catalyst was calcined between the 500 to 700 oC range of temperature. The samples were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, BET, SEM, NH3-TPD and pyridine adsorbed FT-IR techniques.  Nitration of toluene was studied as a model reaction over the prepared catalysts and parameters like effect of reaction temperature, effect of various solvents, catalyst reusability are studied. It was found that conversion of toluene varies with the presence of Brönsted acid sites over the catalyst surface and para-nitrotoulene selectivity is associated with pore size of the catalyst. Over the same catalysts, nitration was extended for some other aromatics. Avoid of sulfuric acid in the present process is an interesting concern in view of green chemistry. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedKeywords: MoO3/SiO2-ZrO2; SO2-ZrO2; NH3-TPD; Nitration; ortho-nitro tolueneReceived: 19th May 2012, Revised: 24th May 2012, Accepted: 26th May 2012[How to Cite: S.M. Kemdeo. (2012. MoO3/SiO2-ZrO2 Catalyst: Effect of Calcination Temperature on Physico-chemical Properties and Activities in Nitration of Toluene. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (2: 92-104. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3521.92-104] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3521.92-104 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/3521] | View in 

  4. High temperature calcining process of coal series kaolin preparing single crystal mullite%煤系高岭土高温煅烧单晶相莫来石产品的工艺条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔等

    2011-01-01

    研究了煤系高岭土高温煅烧生成单晶相莫来石产品的工艺条件-煅烧温度、保温时间和物料粒度.结果表明:煤系高岭土经1 530℃保温8 h或者1 550℃保温0.5~3 h煅烧后均可以获得单晶相莫来石产品,且粒度对单晶相产品的获得没有大的影响;在1 550℃煅烧时,随保温时间的延长,莫来石晶粒长大,玻璃相从连续的网络结构变成不连续的网络结构.%High temperature calcining process of coal series kaolin preparing single crystal mullite was researched,such as calcining temperature, soaking time, and particle size of starting material. The results show that single crystal mullite can be obtained after calcining coal series kaolin at 1 530 ℃ for 8 h or 1 550 ℃ for 0.53 h,and the particle size of kaolin has no obviously influence on the product;when calcining at 1 550 ℃,as soaking time prolongs, the crystal grain grows, glass phase turns from continuous network to discrete network.

  5. Effect of Different Calcination Temperatures and Post Annealing on the Properties of Acetic Acid Based Sol-Gel (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (NKN) Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sebastian Wiegand; Stefan Flege; Olaf Baake; Wolfgang Ensinger

    2013-01-01

    (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (NKN) lead free thin films were synthesized by means of an acetic acid based sol-gel process on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates.Na-acetate,K-acetate and Nb-pentaethoxide were used as metal precursors and acetic acid as the solvent.The effect of different calcination temperatures on the properties of the NKN films was investigated by X-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy,leakage current and hysteresis measurements.Low calcination temperatures led to low currents at high electric fields whereas high calcination temperatures led to low currents at low electric fields.Based on these findings calcination at low temperature was combined with a post annealing treatment.Low leakage currents of 4 × 10-4 A/cm2 at 150 kV/cm and 2Pr and 2Ec values of 28 μC/cm2 and 150 kV/cm,respectively,could be obtained.All films were single phase NKN with random crystal orientations and no crack or pore formation was visible on the surface.

  6. Multivariate optimization of process parameters in the synthesis of calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH for defluoridation using 3(3) factorial, central composite and Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Partha S; Gupta, Ashok K; Sulaiman, Ayoob

    2016-01-01

    Response surface methodology was applied for the first time in the optimization of the preparation of layered double hydroxide (LDH) for defluoridation. The influence of three vital process parameters (viz. pH, molar ratio and calcination temperature) in the synthesis of the adsorbent 'Calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH' was thoroughly examined to maximize its fluoride scavenging potential. The process parameters were optimized using the 3(3) factorial, face centered central composite and Box-Behnken designs and a comparative assessment of the methods was conducted. The maximum fluoride removal efficiency was achieved at a calcination temperature of approximately 500ºC; however, the efficiency decreased with increasing pH and molar ratio. The outcome of the comparative assessment clearly delineates the case specific nature of the models. A better predictability over the entire experimental domain was obtained with the 3(3) factorial method, whereas the Box-Behnken design was found to be the most efficient model with lesser number of experimental runs. The desirability function technique was performed for optimizing the response, wherein face centered central composite design exhibited a maximum desirability. The calcined Ca‒Al (NO3) LDH, synthesized under the optimum conditions, demonstrated the removal efficiencies of 95% and 99% for the doses of 3 g L(-1) and 5 g L(-1), respectively.

  7. Influence of calcination parameters on the synthesis of N-doped TiO{sub 2} by the polymeric precursors method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Margaret, E-mail: missmargaretdawson@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis KM 235 SP-310, São Carlos CEP 13565-905, São Paulo (Brazil); Soares, Gabriela Byzynski, E-mail: gabi.byzynski@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis KM 235 SP-310, São Carlos CEP 13565-905, São Paulo (Brazil); Embrapa Instrumentação, Rua XV de Novembro 1452, São Carlos CEP 13560-970, São Paulo (Brazil); Ribeiro, Caue, E-mail: caue.ribeiro@embrapa.br [Embrapa Instrumentação, Rua XV de Novembro 1452, São Carlos CEP 13560-970, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the influence of calcination parameters on the synthesis of N:TiO{sub 2} catalysts obtained through the polymeric precursors method was evaluated. The powders were prepared by annealing Ti{sup 4+} precursor resins at different temperature-time conditions in air, resulting in powders with different degrees of crystallinity for N doping, which was done by adding urea to the as-prepared powders and calcining in N{sub 2} atmosphere. The N doping process resulted in band gap narrowing of TiO{sub 2} and, varying annealing temperature and time, can be an alternative method for preferential formation of substitutional N or interstitial N. It was found that the percentage of interstitial N increased with an increase in annealing temperature, resulting in the complete absence of substitutional N at 400 °C. The photocatalytic performance of the powders was evaluated using Rhodamine-B and Atrazine solutions under ultraviolet and visible irradiations. The coefficients revealed that interstitial N had a positive correlation to both ultraviolet and visible photoactivity. In contrast, substitutional N showed a negative correlation. Further, the ratio of substitutional N to interstitial N indicated a strong negative correlation to ultraviolet light photoactivity and no correlation to visible light photoactivity. However, substitutional N should be controlled for better photocatalytic properties. - Graphical abstract: The temperature influences to promote higher quantities of Interstitial N doped TiO{sub 2} than Substitutional and due to difference between energies levels for substitutional N doped TiO{sub 2} and Interstitial N doped TiO{sub 2}, it is presented difference on photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • Temperature and time of synthesis of N doping TiO{sub 2} could affect the type of N (interstitial and substitutional N). • The percentage of interstitial N increased with an increase in annealing temperature. • Interstitial N improves ultraviolet and

  8. Photocatalytic efficiency of Fe2O3/TiO2 for the degradation of typical dyes in textile industries: Effects of calcination temperature and UV-assisted thermal synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirian, Mohsen; Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2017-03-23

    The inadequate management practices in industrial textile effluents have a considerable negative impact on the environment and human health due to the indiscriminate release of dyes. Photocatalysis is one of the diverse advance oxidation processes (AOPs) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) is recognized for its high oxidation and reduction power. A composite photocatalyst of Fe2O3/TiO2 is synthesized using different mass ratios of Fe:TiO2 to improve its photoactivity. The composite photocatalyst is calcined at 300-900 °C. Their photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Congo red (CR) and methyl orange (MO) is investigated by total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. The formation and characterization of the as-prepared composite are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The effect of calcination temperature on the composite Fe2O3/TiO2 photocatalyst is investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The photocatalytic activity and the phase conversion are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The specific surface area of photocatalysts at different calcination temperatures is investigated based on Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. Results show that at an optimum calcination temperature of 300 °C for the photocatalyst preparation, the specific surface area is maximum and the photocatalyst has the highest photoactivity. Thus, the degradation of organic materials reaches 62.0% for MO and 46.8% for CR in the presence of Fe2O3/TiO2 (0.01 w:w Fe:TiO2) calcined at 300 °C with the highest specific surface area (98.73 m(2)/g). The transformation of TiO2 from anatase to rutile is facilitated by high temperature and high concentration of iron while high crystallization and particle size increase occur. An optimum calcination temperature of 300 °C is found at which the degradation of typical dyes in textile industries is maximum.

  9. 强化悬浮式RSP型分解炉石油焦燃烧特性实验及数值模拟研究%Experimental and numerical research on petroleum coke combustion characteristics in reinforced suspension calciner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛娅; 陈作炳; 陈定方; 卢海波

    2008-01-01

    The main physico-chemical processes taking place in the calciner are coal combustion. Petroleum coke,as an economical alternative fuel for the pulverized coal,is widely used in the calciner. The present article is devoted to introduce the research works on make use of petroleum coke as a substitutional fuel of calciner,which consists of two major parts. In the first part,the basic properties of the petrolenm coke and its characteristics of grindability,devolatilization,ignition and combustion were investigated by serials of experiment. And in the second part,a numerical model was also presented to simulate the combustion processes taking place in an industrial reinforced suspension calciner. The numerical model was based on two-phase theory and fast reaction PDF model. The results of study show that petroleum coke is a suitable fuel for RSP calciner and the conclusions to be drawn will help in the optimization of a given calciner.%水泥生产中分解炉内主要化学物理过程是煤粉的燃烧.与煤粉相比,石油焦是一种经济的替代燃料.本文首先通过实验测试出石油焦燃烧的物理化学特性,根据这些特性建立了石油焦在强化悬浮式RSP型分解炉中燃烧的数值模拟模型.该模型结合气固二相流理论,采用快速反应的PDF模型,对分解炉内石油焦的燃烧过程进行了数值模拟,揭示了分解炉内石油焦的燃烧机理.研究结果表明RSP型分解炉的炉型适宜于石油焦的燃烧,并且数值模拟的结果能为石油焦在分解炉内优化燃烧提供了理论依据和有利的信息.

  10. Effects of Zr/Ti molar ratio in SO42-/ZrO2-TiO2 calcined at different temperatures on its surface properties and glucose reactivity in near-critical methanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lincai Peng; Junping Zhuang; Lu Lin

    2012-01-01

    Effects of Zr/Ti molar ratio in SO42-/ZrO2-TiO2 solid acid catalyst calcined at different temperatures on its surface properties and catalytic activity were thoroughly investigated in this paper.The physicochemical characteristics of prepared samples were determined by N2 adsorptiondesorption,XRD,NH3-TPD and XPS techniques,respectively.It was found that the crystallization temperature of the samples increased after the combination of ZrO2 and TiO2; and phase transformations from the anatase to the rutile of TiO2 species and the tetragonal to the monoclinic of ZrO2 species were effectively suppressed at higher temperature.The sample with a Zr/Ti molar ratio of 3/1 calcined at 450 ℃ showed the highest surface area and the most acid sites among all the tested samples.The acid site densities of samples were relatively closed to each other if they were calcined at the same temperature,however,decreased with the calcination temperature.The result indicates that the sulfur content in samples is a crucial factor to control the acid site density.Calcining the sample at 650 ℃ and higher temperatures resulted in a significant desorption of sulfate ion on the samples.The synthesized samples were evaluated as a potential catalyst for glucose conversion under the nearcritical methanol conditions (200 ℃/4 MPa).The results suggested that the relatively weaker acid sites of the catalyst were more favorable for the accumulation of methyl glucosides,while the moderate acid sites were responsible for the formation of methyl levulinate.The catalytic activity for methyl levulinate production almost increases linearly with the catalyst acid site density.The catalyst deactivation is due to the loss of sulfate ion and the two catalysts with Zr/Ti molar ratios of 3/1 and 1/3 could effectively alleviate the deactivation caused by sulfate solution in the reaction medium and can be reused after calcination with the reuse rate of over 90% in terms of the methyl levulinate selectivity.

  11. Ethyl thiosemicarbazide intercalated organophilic calcined hydrotalcite as a potential sorbent for the removal of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) ions from aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anirudhan, T S; Jalajamony, S

    2013-04-01

    This work was conducted to determine the practicability of using a new adsorbent 4-ethyl thiosemicarbazide intercalated, organophilic calcined hydrotalcite (ETSC-OHTC) for the removal of uranium (U(VI)), and thorium (Th(IV)) from water and wastewater. The FTIR analysis helped in realizing the involvement of nitrogen and sulphur atoms of ETSC in binding the metal ions through complex formation. Parameters like adsorbent dosage, solution pH, initial metal ions concentration, contact time and ionic strength, that influence adsorption phenomenon, were studied. The optimum pH for maximum adsorption of U(VI) and Th(IV) was found to be in the range 4.0-6.0. The contact time required for reaching equilibrium was 4 hr. The pseudo second-order kinetic model was the best fit to represent the kinetic data. Analysis of the equilibrium adsorption data using Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips models showed that the Freundlich model was well suited to describe the metal ions adsorption. The K(F) values were 25.43 and 29.11 mg/g for U(VI) and Th(IV), respectively, at 30 degrees C. The adsorbent can be regenerated effectively from U(VI) and Th(IV) loaded ones using 0.01 mol/L HCl. The new adsorbent was quite stable for many cycles, without much reduction in its adsorption capacity towards the metals.

  12. Ethyl thiosemicarbazide intercalated organophilic calcined hydrotalcite as a potential sorbent for the removal of uranium(Ⅵ)and thorium(Ⅳ) ions from aqueous solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T.S.Anirudhan; S.Jalajamony

    2013-01-01

    This work was conducted to determine the practicability of using a new adsorbent 4-ethyl thiosemicarbazide intercalated,organophilic calcined hydrotalcite (ETSC-OHTC) for the removal of uranium (U(Ⅵ)),and thorium (Th(Ⅳ)) from water and wastewater.The FTIR analysis helped in realizing the involvement of nitrogen and sulphur atoms of ETSC in binding the metal ions through complex formation.Parameters like adsorbent dosage,solution pH,initial metal ions concentration,contact time and ionic strength,that influence adsorption phenomenon,were studied.The optimum pH for maximum adsorption of U(Ⅳ) and Th(Ⅳ) was found to be in the range 4.0-6.0.The contact time required for reaching equilibrium was 4 hr.The pseudo second-order kinetic model was the best fit to represent the kinetic data.Analysis of the equilibrium adsorption data using Langmuir,Freundlich and Sips models showed that the Freundlich model was well suited to describe the metal ions adsorption.The KF values were 25.43 and 29.11 mg/g for U(Ⅵ) and Th(Ⅳ),respectively,at 30℃.The adsorbent can be regenerated effectively from U(Ⅵ) and Th(Ⅳ) loaded ones using 0.01 mol/L HCl.The new adsorbent was quite stable for many cycles,without much reduction in its adsorption capacity towards the metals.

  13. Stabilization of Pb²⁺ and Cu²⁺ contaminated firing range soil using calcined oyster shells and waste cow bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Deok Hyun; Cheong, Kyung Hoon; Khim, Jeehyeong; Wazne, Mahmoud; Hyun, Seunghun; Park, Jeong-Hun; Chang, Yoon-Young; Ok, Yong Sik

    2013-05-01

    Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) contamination at army firing ranges poses serious environmental and health risks to nearby communities necessitating an immediate and prompt remedial action. In this study, a novel mixture of calcined oyster shells (COSs) and waste cow bones (WCBs) was utilized to immobilize Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) in army firing range soils. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated based on the Korean Standard leaching test. The treatment results showed that Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) immobilization in the army firing range soil was effective in significantly reducing Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) leachability upon the combined treatment with COS and WCB. A drastic reduction in Pb(2+) (99%) and Cu(2+) leachability (95%) was obtained as compared to the control sample, upon treatment with 5 wt.% COS and 5 wt.% WCB. The combination treatment of COS and WCB was more effective for Pb immobilization, than the treatment with COS or WCB alone. The 5 wt.% COS alone treatment resulted in 95% reduction in Cu(2+) leachability. The SEM-EDX results suggested that Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) immobilization was most probably associated with the formation of ettringite, pozzolanic reaction products and pyromorphite-like phases at the same time.

  14. Fibrous TiO2 prepared by chemical vapor deposition using activated carbon fibers as template via adsorption, hydrolysis and calcinations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-na YANG; Li-fen LIU; Feng-lin YANG; Jimmy C. YU

    2008-01-01

    TiO2 fibers were prepared via alternatively introducing water vapor and Ti precursor carried by Ne to an APCVD (chemical vapor deposition under atmospheric pressure) reactor at <200 ℃. Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were used as templates for deposition and later removed by calcinations. The obtained catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brtmauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysisThe pores within TiO2 fibers included micro-range and meso-range, e.g., 7 nm, and the specific surface areas for TiO2 fibers were 141 m2/g and 148 m2/g for samples deposited at 100 ℃ and 200 ℃ (using ACF1700 as template), respectively. The deposition temperature significantly influenced TiO2 morphology. The special advantages of this technique for preparing porous nano-material include no consumption of organic solvent in the process and easy control of deposition conditions and speeds.

  15. Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production by Sorption Enhanced Steam Reforming of Woodgas Containing TAR over a Commercial Ni Catalyst and Calcined Dolomite as CO2 Sorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Naso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the evaluation of the catalytic steam reforming of a gaseous fuel obtained by steam biomass gasification to convert topping atmosphere residue (TAR and CH4 and to produce pure H2 by means of a CO2 sorbent. This experimental work deals with the demonstration of the practical feasibility of such concepts, using a real woodgas obtained from fluidized bed steam gasification of hazelnut shells. This study evaluates the use of a commercial Ni catalyst and calcined dolomite (CaO/MgO. The bed material simultaneously acts as reforming catalyst and CO2 sorbent. The experimental investigations have been carried out in a fixed bed micro-reactor rig using a slipstream from the gasifier to evaluate gas cleaning and upgrading options. The reforming/sorption tests were carried out at 650 °C while regeneration of the sorbent was carried out at 850 °C in a nitrogen environment. Both combinations of catalyst and sorbent are very effective in TAR and CH4 removal, with conversions near 100%, while the simultaneous CO2 sorption effectively enhances the water gas shift reaction producing a gas with a hydrogen volume fraction of over 90%. Multicycle tests of reforming/CO2 capture and regeneration were performed to verify the stability of the catalysts and sorbents to remove TAR and capture CO2 during the duty cycle.

  16. Micro-structural characterization of the hydration products of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Na; Yao, Yuan; Sun, Henghu; Feng, Huan

    2013-11-15

    In this research, the micro-structural characterization of the hydration products of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials has been investigated through SEM-EDS, (27)Al MAS NMR and (29)Si MAS NMR techniques, in which the used red mud was derived from the bauxite calcination method. The results show that the red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials mainly form fibrous C-A-S-H gel, needle-shaped/rod-like AFt in the early hydration period. With increasing of the hydration period, densification of the pastes were promoted resulting in the development of strength. EDS analysis shows that with the Ca/Si of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials increases, the average Ca/Si and Ca/(Si+Al) atomic ratio of C-A-S-H gel increases, while the average Al/Si atomic ratio of C-A-S-H gel decreases. MAS NMR analysis reveals that Al in the hydration products of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials exists in the forms of Al(IV) and Al(VI), but mainly in the form of Al(VI). Increasing the Ca/Si ratio of raw material promotes the conversion of [AlO4] to [AlO6] and inhibits the combination between [AlO4] and [SiO4] to form C-A-S-H gel. Meanwhile, the polymerization degree of [SiO4] in the hydration products declines.

  17. Transition metal modified and partially calcined inorganic-organic pillared clays for the adsorption of salicylic acid, clofibric acid, carbamazepine, and caffeine from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Lafaurie, Wilman A; Román, Félix R; Hernández-Maldonado, Arturo J

    2012-11-15

    Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) are considered emerging contaminants, and their efficient removal from water is going to be a challenging endeavor. Microporous adsorbent materials, including pillared clays, could offer a potential solution if tailored properly. Although pillared clays have been employed previously for the removal of organics, the effective removal of PPCPs will only be possible if their surface and textural properties are manipulated from the bottom-up. This work presents the use of modified inorganic-organic pillared clays (IOCs) for the adsorption of salicylic acid, clofibric acid, carbamazepine, and caffeine. The IOCs have been modified with Co(2+), Cu(2+), or Ni(2+) to induce complexation-like adsorbate-adsorbent interactions at ambient conditions, in an attempt to provide an efficient and yet reversible driving force in the sub-ppm concentration range. Furthermore, the IOCs were partially calcined to increase effective surface area by an order of magnitude while preserving some hydrophobicity. In general, the Ni(2+) IOCs exhibited the greatest interaction with salicylic and clofibric acids, respectively, while the Co(2+) adsorbents excelled at adsorbing caffeine at low concentrations. All of the metal-modified IOCs showed comparable adsorption capacities for the case of carbamazepine, probably due to the lack of availability of particular functional groups in this adsorbate.

  18. Influence of La{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+} co-doping to nano-TiO{sub 2} prepared by graded calcination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhe [The State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil, China University of Petroleum, Dongying, Shandong 257061 (China); Zheng, Jing-tang, E-mail: jtzheng03@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil, China University of Petroleum, Dongying, Shandong 257061 (China); Wu, Ming-bo [The State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil, China University of Petroleum, Dongying, Shandong 257061 (China)

    2012-11-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer La{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+} co-doped TiO{sub 2} sample was prepared by a new process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The gelatinizing time is obviously shortened. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grain size of co-doped TiO{sub 2} sample is decreased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalytic activity of co-doped TiO{sub 2} under visible light is improved. - Abstract: The un-doping, single-doping and co-doping TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles have been prepared through the graded calcination method with Ti(OC{sub 4}H{sub 9}){sub 4} as raw material and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-vis reflection spectra. Their photocatalytic activities have been investigated by the photocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange. It is indicated that Fe{sup 3+}-doping makes the reflection profile narrow, improves photoutilization of TiO{sub 2}, and then generates more electron-hole pairs. La{sup 3+}-doping restrains the increase of grain size, leads to crystal expansion plus matrix distortion and retards the recombination of the photoexcited charge carriers. The photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} co-doped with La{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 3+} is notably improved due to the cooperative actions of the two dopants.

  19. Granulometric distribution of natural and flux calcined chert from Ypresian phosphatic series of Gafsa-Metlaoui basin compared to diatomite filter aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, R.; Tlili, A.; Fourati, A.; Ammar, N.; Ounis, A.; Jamoussi, F.

    2012-02-01

    The cherty rocks of the Chouabine Formation of the Gafsa-Metlaoui basin (south-western Tunisia), that is composed by biogenic silica, are treated using thermal treatment at 1000°C with flux calcination method in order to prepare a specific filter aids of melting sulfur filter used for the production of sulfuric acid. This work presents the effect of heating on the granulometry of chert. The mineralogical composition of natural starting chert is composed by opal CT (cristobalite/tridymite) and by the mineral mixture of quartz, smectite clay minerals, palygorskite-sepiolite fibrous clay minerals, calcite and hematite. After thermal treatment, at 1000°C, the crystallinity of chert increases significantly and the opal-CT, transforms mostly to opal-C. The comparison of infrared spectra of untreated and treated cherts shows systematic variation of the wavenumber and the intensity of the absorption bands, due to the apparition of 619, 795, 1094 and 1202 cm-1 absorption bands of cristobalite in the infrared spectrum of chert treated sample, which is similar to diatomite. Granulometric analysis show that the natural untreated chert sample displays unimodal distribution, whereas the treated chert sample display bimodal distribution, as same as diatomite. Thus, a new mode appears systematically, between 0.1 μn and 1 μm, for all thermal treated samples with alkaline flux as observed for diatomite.

  20. Application of the Rietveld method in powders of strontium-doped lanthanum manganite calcined in different temperatures; Aplicacao do metodo de Rietveld em pos de manganito de lantanio dopado com estroncio calcinados em diferentes temperaturas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, R.; Vargas, R.A.; Martinez, L.G.; Andreoli, M.; Seo, E.S.M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCTM/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais. Lab. de SOFC: Insumos e Componentes

    2010-07-01

    The strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) is a ceramic material used as cathode in device called High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. In this work, the LSM was synthesized by the citrate technique with the objective to get powders without the formation of secondary phases, such as lanthanum oxide and the lanthanum hydroxide, harmful for the functional performance of the device. The definitive calcination temperatures had been 700, 900 and 1100 deg C, due the decomposition of the polymeric precursors to present stabilization from 480 deg C. The analysis by X-ray diffraction of the calcined powders in different temperatures shows the formation only of phase LSM of hexagonal crystalline structure, type pseudo-perovskite. Using the refinement of Rietveld was determined the parameters and volumes of unity cells, atomic positions and occupations. These results confirm that the chemical compositions obtained are similar to the nominal. (author)

  1. Effect of the calcining temperature on the porosity of the titanium dioxide powders obtained by Polymeric Precursor Method; Efeito da temperatura de calcinacao na porosidade de pos de dioxido de titanio obtidos pelo Metodo dos Precursores Polimericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, D.W.; Granado, S.R.; Ciola, R.A.; Cavalheiro, A.A., E-mail: douglas_levis@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (CPTREN/UEMS), Navirai, MS (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas Tecnologicas em Recursos Naturais

    2011-07-01

    Ceramics materials obtained by Polymeric Precursor Method exhibit mechanisms of the pore formation and elimination dependents on the decomposition kinetics of the residual organic matter of the polyester. The mechanism of pore elimination seems to occur by disrupting of the wall among the pores because it leads to the consequent pore coalescence and increasing in pore volume, which posses higher pore diameters. In this case, it was observed that the porosity decreasing occurs by pore wall moving after that the residual organic matter is eliminated from the pore inside. The pore diameter associated to the highest volume desorption occurred for the material obtained after calcining at 450°C is approximately 1,7 nm, what seems to be related to the amorphous carbon accumulated inside the pores, once that the pore volume decreases more effectively for the material obtained by calcining at 550°C, making the maximum volume situates at 2,0 nm. (author)

  2. Synthesis and characterization of ZSM-5 and calcined kaolin evaluation using the content of structure-directing; Sintese e caracterizacao da zeolita ZSM-5 utilizando caulim calcinado e avaliacao do teor de direcionador de estrutura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, J.J.; Silva, V.J. da; Rodrigues, M.G.F., E-mail: jocielys@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (LABNOV/UAEQ/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Desenvolvimento de Novos Materiais

    2012-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the structure-directing content, tetrapropylammonium bromide, on the structural and morphological characteristics of ZSM-5 zeolite obtained using calcined kaolin as silicon and aluminum. The samples were characterized by XRD, EDX, SEM and Physics Adsorption N{sub 2}. Trough X ray diffraction patterns was possible to observed the formation of the structure of ZSM-5 with intense peaks and well-defined characteristic of crystalline. The micrographs showed that the samples consist of agglomerates and/or aggregates of particles characteristic of the MFI structure typical of ZSM-5 zeolite. And through the adsorption-desorption isotherms physical N2 was possible to observe that the samples show hysteresis type I typical of microporous materials with specific surface areas of 218 and 222 m{sup 2}/g. Therefore, the use of calcined kaolin to obtain ZSM-5 zeolite was effective. (author)

  3. Effects of calcination treatment on the morphology, crystallinity, and photoelectric properties of all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells assembled by TiO2 nanorod arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xianmiao; Sun, Qiong; Li, Yang; Sui, Lina; Dong, Lifeng

    2013-11-14

    TiO2 has been extensively investigated due to its unique photoelectric properties. In this study, oriented single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays were synthesized and then calcined at different temperatures in the atmosphere. The morphology and crystalline characterization indicated that the length of TiO2 nanorods increased rapidly and the nanorods became aggregated and fragile after calcination, yet the sintering treatment seemed to have almost no effect on the crystallinity. To obtain the all-solid-state, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a newly reported solid inorganic semiconductor, CsSnI2.95F0.05, was employed as the electrolyte, and the Pt deposited on the conductive side of the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate was used as the counter-electrode. The effects of the calcination treatment on the photoelectric properties of the solar cells, including external quantum efficiency (EQE), open circuit voltage (V(OC)), short-circuit current (J(SC)), and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η), were investigated under the illumination of a solar simulator. As a result, all of the EQE, V(OC), J(SC), and η values of the cells first increased and then declined with the increase of calcination temperatures, and the highest η of 2.81% was obtained by the cell assembled with its TiO2 electrode sintered at 450 °C for 3 h, a value almost 2.5 times that of the non-sintered sample (1.1%).

  4. Preparation and properties of Li{sub 1.3}Al{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 1.7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} by spray-drying and post-calcining method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bo; Li, Xinhai, E-mail: yangbo@csu.edu.cn; Guo, Huajun; Wang, Zhixing; Xiao, Wei

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The spray-drying method is a simple and energy-saving method to prepare LATP. • The compounds with single phase structure of LATP were synthesized at 700–900 °C. • The ionic conductivity of the prepared LATP was maximized at 0.622 mS cm{sup −1} at 800 °C. - Abstract: Solid state electrolyte Li{sub 1.3}Al{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 1.7}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} is synthesized by spray-drying and post-calcining method. X-ray diffraction is employed to characterize the powders calcined in the range of 700–900 °C for 2 h, which indicates powders are well crystallized. FTIR shows trivalent cation Al{sup 3+} is substituted by Ti{sup 4+}. The composite material appears as 2–5 μm spherical particle. TG–DTA results confirm that the thermal decomposition of precursors obtained by spray-drying method occurred at lower temperature compares with solid phase synthesis method and sol–gel method. The ionic conductivity of the pellets reaches a maximum of 0.622 mS cm{sup −1} at calcining temperature of 800 °C.

  5. 煅烧石油焦回转窑内衬技术分析及改进措施%Technical Analysis of Calcined Petroleum Coke Rotary Kiln Lined and Improvement Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树森; 丁翠红

    2011-01-01

    通过测试和实际使用研究,对原有的煅烧焦回转窑内衬进行分析,并进行了一系列的改进,使得煅烧回转窑内衬的使用寿命得到显著提高,改造后的煅烧回转窑,连续生产稳定性大大提高,耐火内衬寿命显著延长,大大降低了频繁停窑检修的成本。%According to the test and the actual usage,the analysis of original calcined coke kiln lining and a series of improvements made the calcining kiln lining life significantly increased after transformation of calcination rotary kiln,the stability of continuous production greatly improved,refractory lining life significantly longer,and the cost of frequent maintenance to stop the kiln was greatly reduced.

  6. Effect of calcinations temperature on microstructures, photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning property of TiO2 and SnO2/TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel dip coating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangchay, Weerachai

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effect of calcinations temperature on phase transformation, crystallite size, morphology, photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning properties of TiO2 and SnO2/TiO2 thin films. The thin films were preparation by sol-gel dip coating process and calcinations at the temperature of 500 °C, 600 °C and 700 °C for 2 h with the heating rate of 10 °C/mim. The microstructures of the fabricated thin films were characterized by XRD and SEM techniques. The photocatalytic activity of the thin films was also tested via the degradation of methylene blue solution under UV irradiation. Finally, self-cleaning properties of thin films were evaluated by measuring the contact angle of water droplet on the thin films with and without UV irradiation. It was found that SnO2/TiO2 thin films calcinations at the temperature of 500 °C shows the highest of photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning properties.

  7. Study on high belite cement clinker calcination with ashes from circulating fluidized bed combustion%固硫灰制备高贝利特水泥

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕淑珍; 陈雪梅; 卢忠远; 彭艳华

    2011-01-01

    In order to explore new utilizing approach of ashes from circulating fluidized bed combustion(CFBC ashes for short), high belite cement is prepared by using CFBC ashes to substitute partial raw materials. Calcining temperature and mineral composition of clinker are analyzed by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively, and the physical mechanical properties of clinker are tested. The results show that the main minerals of high belite cement clinker are C2S,C4A3S,G2AF and CaSO4;compression strength of 3 days is more than 30 Mpa.and that of 28 days is more than 80 Mpa while incorporation of proper amount of gypsum.%为了探索固硫灰新的利用途径,利用固硫灰替代部分原料制备高贝利特水泥,采用TG-DTA综合热分析法、XRD射线衍射等方法分别确定了生料的煅烧温度和熟料的矿物组成,并对水泥的物理力学性能进行了检测.研究表明,制备的高贝利特水泥主要矿物组成是C2S、C4A3(S)、C2AF和CaSO4;掺入适量的石膏后,其3d抗压强度达到30 MPa以上,28 d抗压强度达到80 MPa以上.

  8. Integration of a calcined bovine bone and BMSC-sheet 3D scaffold and the promotion of bone regeneration in large defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihan; Ming, Leiguo; Luo, Hailang; Liu, Wenjia; Zhang, Yongjie; Liu, Hongchen; Jin, Yan

    2013-12-01

    Reconstruction of large area bone defect with mechanical integrity to the skeleton is important for patient's rehabilitation. However with the limitation of scaffold material and suitable seed cell sources, the best treating strategy remains to be identified though various tissue engineering methods were reported. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of applying calcined bovine bone (CBB) which was coated by allograft bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC)-sheet as a 3D scaffold material in bone repairing tissue engineering. The new scaffold material was implanted into osteoporosis rat cranial bone defects and repairing critical size bone defects (8 mm diameter). Data showed that CBB-BMSC-sheet combination had a stronger potential in osteogenic differentiation and mineralized formation both in vitro and in vivo than CBB-BMSC combination. In in vitro study BMSC-sheet had a more feasible characteristic upon bone repairing including richer ECM, larger mineralized area and stronger ALP activity in addition with a significant higher mRNA expression of osteogenic maker such as BMP-2, b-FGF, Col 1a1, OSX and Runx-2 than the control group. In in vivo study 3D reconstruction of micro CT, HE staining and bone strength results showed that newly formed bone in CBB-BMSC-sheet group was significant higher than that in CBB-BMSC group at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after transplantation in the aspect of area and volume. What was more, results indicated that allograft BMSC-sheet had survivaled in the scaffold material and participated in the newly formed bone which had the same thickness with surrounding autologous bone tissues after transplantation. Results of our study demonstrated that CBB-BMSC-sheet combination was a promising strategy in healing of large area bone defect in osteoporosis.

  9. Micro-structural characterization of the hydration products of bauxite-calcination-method red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoming [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy, School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Na [Green Construction Materials and Circulation Economy Center, Architectural Design and Research Institute of Tsinghua University Co., Ltd., Beijing 100084 (China); Yao, Yuan, E-mail: yuanyaocas@163.com [School of Engineering and Computer Science, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA 95211 (United States); Sun, Henghu; Feng, Huan [School of Engineering and Computer Science, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA 95211 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Al{sup IV} and Al{sup VI} both exist in the hydration products. • Increase of Ca/Si ratio promotes the conversion from [AlO{sub 4}] to [AlO{sub 6}]. • Polymerization degree of [SiO{sub 4}] in the hydration products declines. -- Abstract: In this research, the micro-structural characterization of the hydration products of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials has been investigated through SEM-EDS, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR techniques, in which the used red mud was derived from the bauxite calcination method. The results show that the red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials mainly form fibrous C-A-S-H gel, needle-shaped/rod-like AFt in the early hydration period. With increasing of the hydration period, densification of the pastes were promoted resulting in the development of strength. EDS analysis shows that with the Ca/Si of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials increases, the average Ca/Si and Ca/(Si + Al) atomic ratio of C-A-S-H gel increases, while the average Al/Si atomic ratio of C-A-S-H gel decreases. MAS NMR analysis reveals that Al in the hydration products of red mud-coal gangue based cementitious materials exists in the forms of Al{sup IV} and Al{sup VI}, but mainly in the form of Al{sup VI}. Increasing the Ca/Si ratio of raw material promotes the conversion of [AlO{sub 4}] to [AlO{sub 6}] and inhibits the combination between [AlO{sub 4}] and [SiO{sub 4}] to form C-A-S-H gel. Meanwhile, the polymerization degree of [SiO{sub 4}] in the hydration products declines.

  10. Study on the influence of CaO on NH{sub 3}+NO+O{sub 2} reaction system in pre-calciner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.S.; Song, Q.; Fu, S.L.; Wu, X.Y.; Yao, Q. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Thermal Engineering

    2013-07-01

    This paper studied the influence of CaO on NH{sub 3}+NO+O{sub 2} reaction system in pre-calciner. Experiments were carried out in a fixed bed reactor. Influence of CaO on NH{sub 3}+NO+O{sub 2} reaction, NH{sub 3} oxidation, NH{sub 3} decomposition and NO reduction by NH{sub 3} at O{sub 2} free condition were studied. NH{sub 3} conversion rates and product selectivities were obtained for each reaction condition. It was proved that the influence of CaO on SNCR performance changed with temperature. CaO promoted SNCR performance at 650 C and changed to inhibit SNCR performance when temperature increased above 700 C. CaO influenced the reaction of NH{sub 3}+NO+O{sub 2} mainly by catalyzing NH{sub 3} oxidation. NH{sub 3} conversion rate and NO selectivity decreased when NH{sub 3} concentration increased. Addition of NO into NH{sub 3} heterogeneous oxidation had little effect on NH{sub 3} conversion rate but decreased NO selectivity. A reaction mechanism for NH{sub 3}NO+O{sub 2} reaction on CaO surface was proposed. Heterogeneous reaction model of NH{sub 3}+NO+O{sub 2} on CaO surface was established based on the proposed reaction mechanism. Numerical results showed that the reaction model in this paper could predict NH3 oxidation and NH{sub 3}+NO+O{sub 2} reaction on CaO surface very well.

  11. Fall 2010 Semiannual (III.H. and I.U.) Report for the HWMA/RCRA Post Closure Permit for the INTEC Waste Calcining Facility and the CPP 601/627/640 Facility at the INL Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, Ann

    2010-11-01

    The Waste Calcining Facility is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. In 1999, the Waste Calcining Facility was closed under an approved Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) Closure Plan. Vessels and spaces were grouted and then covered with a concrete cap. The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a final HWMA/RCRA post-closure permit on September 15, 2003, with an effective date of October 16, 2003. This permit sets forth procedural requirements for groundwater characterization and monitoring, maintenance, and inspections of the Waste Calcining Facility to ensure continued protection of human health and the environment. The post closure permit also includes semiannual reporting requirements under Permit Conditions III.H. and I.U. These reporting requirements have been combined into this single semiannual report, as agreed between the Idaho Cleanup Project and Idaho Department of Environmental Quality. The Permit Condition III.H. portion of this report includes a description and the results of field methods associated with groundwater monitoring of the Waste Calcining Facility. Analytical results from groundwater sampling, results of inspections and maintenance of monitoring wells in the Waste Calcining Facility groundwater monitoring network, and results of inspections of the concrete cap are summarized. The Permit Condition I.U. portion of this report includes noncompliances not otherwise required to be reported under Permit Condition I.R. (advance notice of planned changes to facility activity which may result in a noncompliance) or Permit Condition I.T. (reporting of noncompliances which may endanger human health or the environment). This report also provides groundwater sampling results for wells that were installed and monitored as part of the Phase 1 post-closure period of the landfill closure components in accordance with HWMA/RCRA Landfill Closure Plan for the CPP-601 Deep

  12. 煅烧磷石膏对蒸压硅酸盐制品水化过程的影响%Effect of calcined phosphogypsum on hydration process of autoclaved silicate products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆金驰; 李东南; 陈凯; 黄金林

    2012-01-01

    磷石膏经高温煅烧改性后与粉煤灰、砂粉、石灰及水泥熟料等制备蒸压硅酸盐制品,研究了不同温度煅烧的磷石膏对蒸压硅酸盐制品水化过程的影响,用蒸压制品中未反应的Ca(OH)2量及结合水量分析它们的反应速率,用XRD测定蒸压硅酸盐制品的水化产物,并结合SEM分析,结果表明,经煅烧的磷石膏对蒸压硅酸盐制品的水化有明显的促进作用,托勃莫来石与C-S-H (1)等水化产物的迅速生长而形成密实的水化产物结构是其增强蒸压硅酸盐制品的根本原因.%The effects of calcined phosphogypsum on the hydration process of the autoclaved silicate products were investigated in this paper. The influence of adding phosphogypsum calcined at different temperatures on the hydration rate of autoclaved silicate products was analyzed for un-reacted Ca(OH)2 content and combined water. The hydrates were determined with XRD and SEM. It was found that the hydration of autoclaved silicate products with added phosphogypsum calcined over 500℃ was greatly improved. The hydrates of the autoclaved silicate products with added phosphogypsum calcined over 500℃ had more un-reacted Ca(OH)2 content and combined water in the same curing time, and the research indicated that adding phosphogypsum calcined over 500℃ could also reinforce the compressive strength of autoclaved silicate products. It was pointed out that the aluminate phase present in the raw materials cannot hydrate to form more ettringite during autoclaved curing, and rapid formation of such hydrates as calcium silicate hydrate (1) and tobermorite with a more compact structure is the main reason for strengthening autoclaved silicate products.

  13. Microstructure and application study of secondary calcined lime as consolidant for cultural relics%“二次生石灰”的微结构及作为文物加固剂的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏国锋; 张秉坚; 方世强; 姚政权

    2011-01-01

    在研究二次生石灰微结构的基础上,探讨了以二次生石灰为基础胶结材料用于古代建筑和土遗址加固保护的可行性.二次生石灰的SEM观察结果表明:氢氧化钙经高温(650℃)锻烧以后,脱水成为一种直径为50 nm、长度为200 nm左右的针状纳米氧化钙f将这种纳米氧化钙消化后,会成为一种粒径在200~300nm左右、大小十分均匀的扁平椭圆状纳米氢氧化钙颗粒.同时,研究表明,二次生石灰的纳米级粒径和高反应活性,可以提高二次生石灰糯米灰浆的机械性能,并使二次生石灰-乙醇分散液具有良好的渗透性,较好地解决了传统石灰水加固剂溶解度较小和渗透性较差的问题,从而为士石砖等不可移动文物的基于传统石灰的加固技术提供了新的途径.%On the basis of study on microstructure of secondary calcined lime, this paper probes into applications of secondary calcined lime in conservation of cultural relics. SEM observations show that Ca(OH)2 is transformed into a kind of ac-icular CaO with diameter 50 nm and length 200 nm after being calcined, and this nanosized secondary CaO is transformed into an oval platelike Ca(OH)2 with size 200-300 nm after slaked. Meanwhile, research results indicate that nanosized particles and high reactivity of secondary calcined lime are responsible for superior properties of sticky rice-lime mortar and high permeability of Ca(OH)2-alcohol dispersions, and it is feasible that secondary calcined lime is used for consolidation of soil, stone and brick-based cultural heritage.

  14. Study on Technological Characteristic of Process of Calcining and Decomposing Dolomite Ore%白云石煅烧离解过程的工艺特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋述兴

    2011-01-01

    对不同温度下煅烧成的苛性白云石进行了X射线粉晶分析,结合热分析结果,得出在750~800℃温度下煅烧成的苛性白云石镁质胶凝材料,其中的Mgo水化活性较大.在煅烧白云石的过程中,是结晶--化学反应为限制步骤,因此,要尽可能创设条件,加速化学反应的进行,并要尽可能控制好煅烧时间,以便抑制氧化镁的完全结晶.另外,分析计算了在利用临桂县白云石生产苛性白云石镁质胶凝材料时,不同粒度(5~250mm的多种粒度)的块状白云石在不同温度下完全离解所需要的煅烧时间.%The work of the XRD of the caustic dolomite prepared by different calcining temperatures had been done.According to the results of the XRD and DTA of the dolomite in the atmosphere of the CO2, we reached a conclusion that the MgO of the magnesia cementitious material of the caustic dolomite calcined at the temperature condition from 750℃ to 800℃ possessed larger hydration activity. In the process of calcining and decomposing the dolomite ore, the restrictive step was the crystallization and chemical reaction. The condition to quicken the chemical reaction should be consequently created as far as possible, and the calcining time should be controlled as far as possible to restrain the complete crystallization of the MgO in the caustic dolomite. In addition,the required calcining times to fully decompose the MgCOj in the big lump dolomites which were the paticles from 5mm to 250 mm had been obtained by the methods of the experiments,analysis and computations.

  15. 焙烧硼钠钙石在高固液化比氯化铵溶液中的熔解动力学%Dissolution Kinetics of Calcined Ulexite in Ammonium Chloride Solutions at High Solid-to-Liquid Ratios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G(U)R; Aycan

    2006-01-01

    The dissolution kinetics of calcined ulexite in ammonium chloride solutions at high solid-to-liquid ratios were investigated. In the experiments, calcination temperature, solution concentration, reaction temperature, and prehydration were chosen as parameters. It was observed that the dissolution rate increased with increasing calcination temperature, solution concentration, and reaction temperature, whereas it was not affected by pre-hydration. Employing graphical and statistic methods, the dissolution rate, based on homogeneous reaction model,can be given as: (1-X(B2O3))-1-1=k(c(NH4Cl))1.982t. The activation energy for the dissolution of the ulexite sample calcined at 160 ℃ was found to be

  16. Research of Magnesium Extracted from Asbestos Tailings by Ammonium Sulfate Calcination Method%硫酸铵焙烧活化石棉尾矿提取镁实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾丽; 孙红娟; 彭同江

    2012-01-01

    本实验采用硫酸铵与石棉尾矿用高温炉焙烧的方法提取镁.首先利用差热-热重法分析石棉尾矿与硫酸铵混合物的热分解和化学反应的热效应,得出石棉尾矿与硫酸铵混合物在240~ 500℃下产生分解、失重.将石棉尾矿与硫酸铵混合均匀后在320℃、400℃和460℃下焙烧1h,用XRD分析焙烧产物,得出在320℃时石棉尾矿和硫酸铵反应主要生成(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2和(NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3;在400℃时主要生成(NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3;在460℃时主要生成MgSO4,由于吸水变为MgSO4·6H2O.研究了硫酸铵与石棉尾矿不同物质的量的配比、焙烧温度和焙烧时间对镁浸取率的影响,得出当硫酸铵与石棉尾矿物质的量之比为2∶1、焙烧温度为460℃、焙烧时间为60 min时,镁的浸取率为83.1%.%In this paper, magnesium was extracted from asbestos tailings by ammonium sulfate calcination method. First the thermal behavior and the chemical calorific effect of the blend of asbestos tailings and ammonium sulfate were characterized by TG-DTA, it showed that asbestos tailings and ammonium sulfate were decompounded at 240~500 ℃. Then the asbestos tailings were uniform mixed with ammonium sulfate and calcined at 320 ℃, 400 ℃, and 460 ℃ for 1 h respectively and the calcinated products were studied by XRD. The results indicated that asbestos tailings and ammonium sulfate react each other to generate (NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 and (NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3 at 320 °C; the main product was (NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3 at 400 ℃ and MgSO4 at 460℃ respectively. Then the influence of the molar ratio of ammonium sulfate and asbestos tailings, the calcination temperature, the calcination time were studied. The results indicated that when the molar ratio of ammonium sulfate and asbestos tailings is 2 : 1, the calcination temperature is 460 ℃, the calcination time is 60 min, the leaching rate of Mg is 83.1%.

  17. Preparation of superfine and sheet magnesium hydroxide from calcined magnesite%轻烧镁粉制备超细片状氢氧化镁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪艳; 王伟; 张俊; 胡珊

    2013-01-01

    The superfine and sheet magnesium hydroxide was preparaed by direct precipitation method, using the calcined magnesite as magnesium source and ammonia as agent precipitation. The influence of magnesium hydroxide' s average particle size with the relationship of different reaction conditions by particle size tester was studied. And then the best process conditions of the synthesis of magnesium hydroxide was got. The product was verified for magnesium hydroxide by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope,thermo-gravimetric analysis and infrared spectromete. At last, the best synthesis condition was got. The influence of surfactant to magnesium hydroxide was researched. The results show that the experiment product is superfine and sheet magnesium hydroxide; the best synthetic process conditions are of 40 ℃ reaction temperature, reaction time of h 1. 5, ammonia water dosage of 170 mL and adding speed of 12 mL/min; the anionic surfactant-SDBS can effectively improve the dispersion and morphology of magnesium hydroxide.%以轻烧镁粉为镁源,氨水为沉淀剂,采用直接沉淀法制备超细片状氢氧化镁.通过粒度测试仪研究了不同反应条件对氢氧化镁平均粒径的影响,最终得到合成氢氧化镁的最佳工艺条件.利用X射线衍射、热失重分析、扫描电子显微镜和红外光谱仪对产物氢氧化镁进行了表征.分析了表面活性剂对制备氢氧化镁的影响.结果表明:实验所得产物为超细氢氧化镁,且晶体比较完善,形貌为六方片状.最佳合成工艺条件为反应温度40℃、反应时间1.5h、氨水的用量和滴加速度分别为170 mL和12 mL/min;添加阴离子表面活性剂十二烷基苯磺酸钠能有效改善氢氧化镁的分散性和形貌.

  18. Effects of FeO{sub x}, CoO{sub x}, and NiO catalysts and calcination temperatures on the synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes through chemical vapor deposition of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, S.-M. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, S.P.S. Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Chai, S.-P. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, S.P.S. Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); School of Engineering, Monash University, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 46150 Bandar Sunway, Selangor (Malaysia); Liu, W.-W. [School of Materials Science and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, S.P.S. Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Mohamed, Abdul Rahman [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, S.P.S. Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)], E-mail: chrahman@eng.usm.my

    2009-05-27

    The oxides of cobalt, iron, and nickel catalysts were tested in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of methane in synthesizing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). All catalysts used in this study were prepared using impregnation method and calcined at temperatures ranging from 300 to 850 deg. C. The catalyst samples after CVD of methane were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM study elucidates that iron oxide serves as an effective catalyst for growing SWNTs. The presence of SWNTs on the catalyst was confirmed in the Raman study.

  19. 钙基吸收剂循环煅烧/碳酸化反应特性%Characteristics of Cyclic Calcination/Carbonation Reaction of Ca-based Absorbent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵士林; 刘浩; 夏雯; 吴昊; 杨宏旻

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the effects of cycle number,absorbent particle size,CO2 concentration in calcinations,carbonation atmosphere and water vapour concentration on characteristics of cyclic calcination/carbonation reaction of Ca-based absorbent,they are investigated experimentally on a lab-scale setup. The results show that the carbonation conversion of Ca-based absorbent decreases from 72% to 30% after 10 cycles in the calcination/carbonation reaction. The small particle size can improve the carbonation conversion of absorbent. The increase of CO2 concentration in carbonation atmosphere can restrain the decrease of conversion rate in carbonation process. The increase of CO2 concentration in calcination atmosphere can accelerate the decrease of the conversion rate in carbonation conversion process,which results in the decrease of cycle performance for CO2 capture. Water vapour reduces the energy barrier of the diffusion across the solid production,which prolongs carbonation reaction time and increases conversion rate.%针对循环次数、吸收剂粒径的大小、碳酸化气氛中CO2的浓度、煅烧气氛中CO2的浓度和水蒸气的浓度对于钙基吸收剂循环煅烧/碳酸化反应特性的影响,在钙基吸收剂循环煅烧/碳酸化反应实验装置上进行实验研究。结果表明:钙基吸收剂碳酸化阶段的转化率在循环煅烧/碳酸化反应中存在衰减现象,10次循环反应之后,转化率会从72%降至30%以下;吸收剂碳酸化阶段的转化率随其粒径的增大而减小;碳酸化气氛中CO2浓度的提高,会抑制钙基吸收剂碳酸化阶段转化率的衰减;煅烧气氛中CO2浓度的增加会加速钙基吸收剂碳酸化阶段转化率的衰减,导致循环捕集CO2性能锐减;水蒸气能降低固体产物扩散的能量壁垒,延长碳酸化反应时间,提高转化率。

  20. 煅烧水滑石对硝态氮的吸附性能研究%Adsorption capacity of nitrate by calcination layered double hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋钦凤; 喻杏元; 艾玉明; 邱喜; 何欣; 陈金毅

    2016-01-01

    通过共沉淀法和煅烧法制备不同煅烧温度的水滑石,并对其进行XRD、FT-IR及BET表征.结果表明,煅烧水滑石后使水滑石的特征峰消失,层状结构塌陷,并生成了镁铝复合氧化物,比表面积增加,平均孔径减少.将水滑石进行硝态氮的吸附性能研究,结果表明,煅烧450℃水滑石除硝态氮效果优于其他煅烧温度下的水滑石,对10 mg/L的硝态氮吸附240 min后平衡浓度低于1 mg/L.最后,研究水滑石对硝态氮的吸附动力学与吸附等温线,结果表明准二级动力学模型和Langmuir吸附等温线能较好地描述硝态氮在水滑石上的吸附行为,吸附过程分为快速吸附阶段和慢速吸附阶段,水滑石对硝态氮的吸附过程主要为化学吸附,偏向于单分子层的吸附过程,但也不能排除多分子层吸附的存在.%Layered double hydroxide( LDH) were synthesized by co-precipitation method and its calcination products ( LDH450 ) was prepared by heating LDH at 450 ℃.The materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction ( XRD ) , Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FT-IR ) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller ( BET ) . Results indicate that the characteristic peaks (003) and (006) of LDH450 disappeared,a mixed oxide Mg(Al) O was formed, and the BET SSA of LDH450 increased, and the average pore size reduced.The adsorption capacity of hydrotalcite was studied.Results indicate that nitrate adsorption by LDH450 was superior to the others.When initial concentrations of nitrate was 10 mg/L,the adsorption reaction reached a balance in 240 min, and the equilibrium concentration was less than 1 mg/L.Finally,the adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm showed that the Pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model could be used to describe nitrate adsorption satisfactorily.Adsorption process divided into two stages,included fast stage and slow stage,and mainly chemical adsorption,the adsorption

  1. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, used in mixture which is packed into labels, for absorbing oxygen from the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food supplements. Migration of substances from the labels and formation and release of volatile constituents are not expected under the intended conditions of use. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in labels, which prevent the physical release of their content into the food. When placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with foods, the labels should not intentionally or unintentionally come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have an external aqueous phase on the surface such as sliced fruits.

  2. Study of the calcination temperature in samples of calcium phosphate synthesized by the method of direct way; Estudo da temperatura de calcinacao em amostras de fosfatos de calcio sintetizadas pelo metodo de via direta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, M.G.; Santos, P.T.A.; Costa, A.C.F.M, E-mail: patyquimica@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (DEMA/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    The use of phosphates in bioceramics have attracted the interest of many researchers, especially when it is in the Ca / P = 1.67, which allows the obtention of the hydroxyapatite. This work aims to investigate different calcination temperatures on the structural and morphological characteristics of samples of calcium phosphates synthesized by the method of direct way, aiming for hydroxyapatite as a major phase. For this purpose, we used the calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid in the Ca / P = 1.67. The samples were calcined at temperatures of 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1100, 1200 and 1350°C/2h, and characterized by XRD, FTIR and Size Distribution. The XRD showed that 600-800°C, the major phase is the tricalcium phosphate, 900-1100°C, there is a phase calcium pyrophosphate. And at 1200 and 1350 ° C, there is a phase monetite. The infrared spectrum showed the characteristic vibrations of calcium phosphates in all conditions studied. It was observed from the results of FTIR presence of bands of the P-OH group and HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3}, for all temperatures studied. The highest average size of agglomerates of 108.05 mM was observed for the temperature of 1100 ° C. (author)

  3. Effect and mechanism of calcination temperature on reduction swelling rate of low silica magnesium pellets%焙烧温度对低硅含镁球团矿还原膨胀率的影响及机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    青格勒; 吴铿; 刘洪松; 员晓; 田筠清

    2015-01-01

    研究焙烧温度对MgO含量分别为1.5%和3.0%(质量分数)的低硅含镁球团的抗压强度、矿相和还原膨胀率的影响,并基于 Arrhenius 方程和还原度测定计算低硅含镁球团还原反应的表观活化能,分析还原反应的速率限制性环节。结果表明:当焙烧温度较低时,低硅含镁球团内形成的铁酸镁数量较少,存在未反应的MgO颗粒,其还原过程主要受气体扩散和界面化学反应混合控制,还原膨胀率高,还原后强度低。1280℃高温下,焙烧的低硅含镁球团形成的铁酸镁数量多、强度高,还原过程后期主要受固相扩散即铁离子扩散控制,尤其是低硅高镁球团受固相扩散控制更明显,还原过程中未出现针状铁晶粒,还原膨胀率低。%The compressive strength, microstructure and reduction swelling rate of low silica magnesium pellets with 1.5%MgO and 3.0%MgO (mass fraction) calcinated at different temperatures were studied. Apparent activation energy of low silica magnesium pellets calcinated at different temperatures was also obtained by Arrhenius formula and reduction test. The rate controlling mechanism of reduction reaction was determined from apparent activation energy together. The results show that, when the calcination temperature is low, few magnesium ferrites form in low silica magnesium pellets and unreacted MgO exists, and the reduction process is controlled mainly by gas diffusion and interfacial chemical reaction, which results in high reduction swelling rate and deteriorates the strength. While calcination temperature increases to 1280℃, there forms large amount of magnesium ferrites in pellets and the compressive strength of pellets increase significantly. Later stage of reduction reaction of low silica magnesium pellets (specially the pellets with 3.0%MgO) calcinated at high temperature is mainly controlled by solid diffusion, that is ferric ion solid diffusion, so almost no iron whiskers

  4. Resource Recovery of Magnesium Saponification Wastewater of Leaching Solution of Sulfuric Acid Calcining RE Concentrate%浓硫酸高温焙烧稀土精矿水浸液镁皂化废水的资源化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 谢军; 李赫; 柳凌云; 侯少春; 萨如拉; 姚龙君

    2015-01-01

    研究了包头稀土精矿浓硫酸高温焙砂水浸液经过镁皂化萃取转型产生的镁皂废水的资源化全循环工艺,针对镁皂废水的净化除杂、晶体制备、晶体煅烧等进行了可行性研究。结果表明:控制草酸用量为理论量的2倍,镁皂废水的氧化钙质量浓度<0.2g/L ;净化后的镁皂废水经陶瓷膜过滤、纳滤膜浓缩得到的透析水可回用于水浸,浓水进入蒸发系统回收硫酸镁和冷凝水;冷凝水回用于水浸,硫酸镁晶体与碳粉在850℃下煅烧8 h可制备氧化镁;所得氧化镁的 CAA 活性值为109 s ,MgO 质量分数为96.84%,CaO 质量分数为0.52%,可用于生产稀土;硫酸镁煅烧产生的二氧化硫在钒触媒催化作用下可转化成70%的硫酸,回用于焙烧。该工艺可实现镁皂废水资源化全循环利用。%The resource recovery of magnesium saponification wastewater of leaching solution of sulfuric acid calcining rare earth concentrate was studied mainly involving the progresses of purification ,crystallization ,calcination and so on .T he experiment results show w hen the actual amount of oxalic acid is twice the theoretical amount ,the content of CaO in the magnesium saponification wastewater can be reduced to less than 2% .Then the dialysis water by ceramic membrane and nanofiltration membrane can be used in the process of RE leaching ,and the concentrate water can be used to recover magnesium sulfate and condensate water in evaporation system .The condensate water can used in the process of RE leaching .The magnesium sulfate crystal with carbon powder is calcinated for 8 h at 850 ℃ ,the magnesium oxide can be obtained .The analysis results show that in the magnesium oxide ,the content of MgO and CaO is 96 .84% and 0 .52% ,respectively .The value of CAA for the magnesium oxide is 109 s .Sulfur dioxide produced in the process of calcination can be conversed into 70% sulfuric acid used in the process

  5. PROPERTIES AND SYNTHESIS OF SPINEL OXIDES BY CALCINED CO-AL-LDHS%钴铝水滑石煅烧尖晶石相氧化产物的制备及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安琪; 王滔; 杨俊; 陈龙; 吴秀玲; 刘晓

    2012-01-01

    采用共沉淀法合成Co-Al-LDHs类水滑石前躯体,通过煅烧得到尖晶石氧化粉体,并研究了不同保温时间和煅烧温度对尖晶石氧化粉体结构的影响,借助XRD和TG对前躯体及其氧化粉体的结构进行表征,采用SEM对氧化粉体形貌表征。结果表明,采用共沉淀法制备的前躯体具有典型的水滑石结构,前驱体的热分解温度分别为200℃和240℃。前驱体铝类水滑石在900℃煅烧和4h保温的条件下得到钴铝氧化粉体的尖晶石结晶性良好,粒径细小均匀。实验制备工艺条件简单且产物结晶性良好的尖晶石,为钴铝尖晶石的制备提供一个具有实际应用价值的制备方法。%Co-Al-LDHs sample was synthesized by the method of co-precipitation. The spinel cobaltaluminate (CoAl2O4) could be derived from calcined Co-Al-LDHs, and the effects of calcining temperature and holding time were investigated. The structures of the precursor and oxide powder were characterized by means of XRD, TG and SEM. The results suggested that the precursor synthesized by the method of co-precipitation sample was the typical hydrotalcite structure and the temperature of thermal decomposition is 200℃ and 240℃. The best calcining condition is considered for 4 hours and under 900℃to synthesize and spinel oxide powder .The condition of preparation is simple and the product is well-crystallization spinel. The preparation is a practical application value method for synthesizing spinel cobalt-aluminate.

  6. Enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of rhodamine B by TiO{sub 2} modified with Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} calcined at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing, E-mail: jingzhang_dicp@live.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Environmental Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Liaoning 113001 (China); Wu, Weicheng; Yan, Song; Chu, Gang; Zhao, Shanlin [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Environmental Engineering, Liaoning Shihua University, Liaoning 113001 (China); Wang, Xiang; Li, Can [State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, Liaoning (China)

    2015-07-30

    Graphical abstract: Surface modification with Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} can control the surface crystalline phase, crystallinity, and crystal size (surface area) of TiO{sub 2} calcined at high temperatures. The results from photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B show that upon calcination at high temperature the Gd/TiO{sub 2} exhibits higher photocatalytic activity than TiO{sub 2}. The higher photocatalytic activity of Gd/TiO{sub 2} is mainly attributed to an increase in photoinduced charge separation due to the formation of phase junction between anatase and rutile stabilized by surface Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. - Highlights: • The crystalline phase in the surface region of TiO Gd. • The surface-phase junctions formed between anatase and rutile, together with the high crystallinity of TiO. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} modified with Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Gd/TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were prepared by an impregnation method using TiO{sub 2}-500 °C support (anantase phase) or TiO{sub 2}-650 °C support (mixed phases of anatase and rutile), respectively. The surface and bulk crystalline phases of Gd/TiO{sub 2} have been characterized by UV Raman spectroscopy and XRD. Besides, the morphology, particle size, and the optical properties of Gd/TiO{sub 2} have been studied by TEM, BET, and UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectra. It is interesting to note that the surface crystalline phase (surface anatase phase or surface mixed phases) of TiO{sub 2} which has been impregnated with Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be stabilized after calcination at 800 °C. This work provides a promising method for controlling the surface phase, crystallinity, and particle size of TiO{sub 2} at high temperatures. Moreover, photocatalytic activity of Gd/TiO{sub 2} has been evaluated by degradation of rhodamine B and 4-chlorophenol in aqueous solution under UV irradiation. It is found that Gd/TiO{sub 2} exhibits good photocatalytic activity compared to pure TiO{sub 2}. The higher photocatalytic activity of Gd/TiO{sub 2

  7. 焙烧温度对Ru/Ba-Mg(Al)O4氨合成催化剂性能影响%Effects of calcination temperature on Ru/Ba-Mg(Al)O4 catalysts for ammonia synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冼文旭; 黄辰; 霍超; 刘化章

    2013-01-01

    Ba-doped nano-Mg(Al)O4 supports with steady chemical properties were prepared by chemical precipitation-strong electrical adsorption(SEA) method with the aid of ultrasonic wave.Ru/Ba-Mg(Al)O4 catalysts were prepared by impregnation method using the modified Ba-Mg (Al)O4 as the supports and 2wt% Ru3(CO)12 as the active component.The effects of calcination temperature on surface texture and phase composition of the support were investigated by FE-SEM,X-ray diffraction and N2 physical-adsorption.The results showed that the surface area of the support gradually decreased and the surface basicity enhanced with the increase of calcination temperature.Ru/Ba-Mg(Al)O4 catalyst prepared with the support calcined at 780 ℃ exhibited higher catalytic activity.The ammonia concentration in outlet was 49.17 mmol · (g · h)-1 under the condition of 425 ℃,10 MPa and 10000 h-1%采用超声-沉淀-强静电吸附法制备了化学性质比较稳定的掺钡纳米镁铝复合氧化物Ba-Mg(Al)O4,并以其为载体、Ru3(CO)12为活性组分前驱体,制备了一系列钌基氨合成催化剂.通过场发射扫描电镜、X射线衍射和N2物理吸附等表征手段,重点考察了焙烧温度对载体的物相组成和表面织构的影响.结果表明,随着焙烧温度的升高,制备的载体比表面积逐渐下降,表面碱性增强.当载体焙烧温度为780℃时,制备的负载型Ru/Ba-Mg (Al)O4催化剂表现出较高的催化活性,在425℃、10 MPa和10000 h-1条件下,出口氨浓度达到49.17mmol· (g·h)-1.

  8. Avaliação de erosão a quente de concretos refratários para calcinadores de leito fluidizado Hot erosion evaluation of fluid flash calciner refractory castables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. G. Gonçalves

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Revestimentos refratários são severamente solicitados pela erosão causada por partículas que se movem pneumaticamente através de vasos e dutos em calcinadores de leito fluidizado. Esse tipo de desgaste constitui um fator chave para a degradação do revestimento desse equipamento. Consequentemente, o desempenho desses refratários tem um efeito imediato no lucro da empresa, uma vez que paradas para reparos tem um impacto direto no cronograma operacional e nos custos de manutenção da unidade produtiva. Apesar da temperatura de operação dos calcinadores variar entre 200 e 1250 ºC, a resistência a erosão, que é uma das principais propriedades selecionadas para avaliar materiais usados nessa aplicação, geralmente é medida somente à temperatura ambiente. Porém, esse tipo de avaliação não representa fielmente as condições de operação. Portanto, é necessário um estudo mais realista na tentativa de encontrar alguma relação entre a severidade de erosão e a temperatura. Visando alcançar esse objetivo, o presente trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento e aplicação de um equipamento de erosão à quente para avaliação de concretos refratários para calcinadores de leito fluidizado.Refractory linings are heavily damaged by the erosion caused by particles moving pneumatically through vessels and pipes in fluid flash calciners. This sort of wearing constitutes one of the key factors for equipment lining degradation. Consequently, the performance of materials has an immediate effect on a company's profit, as each maintenance call has a direct impact on the operational schedule and costs. Although the operation temperature of the calciners ranges from 200 up to 1250 ºC, the erosion resistance, which is one of the main properties selected to evaluate the materials used in this application, is mostly measured only at room temperature. Nevertheless, this sort of evaluation does not represent the actual working environment. Therefore

  9. Caracterização de concretos refratários projetáveis para o revestimento de calcinadores de alumina Characterization of alumina fluid-flash calciner refractory castable lining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. O. Valenzuela

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Diversos fatores interferem no desempenho e na vida-útil do revestimento refratário em unidades de calcinação de alumina. O desconhecimento das melhores práticas de seleção e qualificação dos materiais para esta aplicação foi a força motriz para este trabalho. Foram caracterizados dois materiais comerciais aplicados por projeção (um via wet-shotcrete e outro por dry-gunning, indicados para o revestimento refratário dos vasos e dutos de calcinadores de alumina. Tais técnicas são importantes, uma vez que reduzem o tempo de aplicação e o lucro cessante da unidade. Os materiais em análise foram submetidos a baterias de testes laboratoriais, os quais seguem normas técnicas internacionais. Os ensaios foram divididos segundo a representatividade das solicitações que ocorrem no revestimento em operação, e os resultados obtidos foram usados para avaliar o seu potencial desempenho. O embasamento técnico e científico utilizado neste trabalho pôde orientar o desenvolvimento, a seleção e a aplicação de novas cerâmicas refratárias para o revestimento interno de calcinadores, com o objetivo de elevar a vida-útil, a disponibilidade e a confiabilidade das unidades, possibilitando diminuir o custo com manutenções.Several aspects are important to define the working life of refractory lining for alumina calcinations units. The lack of knowledge of the best selection practices and qualification of the materials for this application have been the driving force of this work. Two commercial materials applied by projection (wet-shotcrete and dry-gunning were characterized. Both are usual standards of refractories for lining vessels and pipes of alumina fluid-flash calciners. All the materials analyzed were submitted to laboratorial tests, which follow international technical standards. The tests were divided in indispensable, necessary and occasional, according to the importance of the solicitations of the refractory lining under

  10. 焙烧气氛对Ba-Ru/MgO催化剂氨合成性能的影响%Effect of calcination atmosphere on the performance of Ba-Ru/MgO catalysts for ammonia synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓龙; 唐立平; 熊绪茂; 慕新元; 胡斌

    2012-01-01

    采用浸渍法制备Ba-Ru/MgO系列催化剂,考察不同焙烧气氛对Ba-Ru/MgO催化剂氨合成性能的影响,通过X射线衍射、N2-低温物理吸附、透射电镜、H2程序升温还原、CO2程序升温脱附和红外光谱等方法对其进行表征,考察焙烧气氛对负载型钌基氨合成催化剂的物相结构、织构性能、微观形貌、钌物种的还原性能和体系酸碱性能等影响.研究表明,MsO焙烧气氛对制备的钌基氨合成催化剂结构、物化性能以及氨合成活性有较大影响,不同气氛焙烧对Ba-Ru/MgO催化剂碱性强弱影响顺序:Ba-Ru/MgO(Ar)>Ba-Ru/MgO(N2)>Ba-Ru/MgO(空气)>Ba-Ru/MgO(真空),在450℃、5.0MPa和5000h-1条件下,空气、Ar和N2气氛焙烧的MgO制备的Ba-Ru/MgO催化剂活性高于真空气氛焙烧的MgO制备的催化剂.%Ba-Ru/MgO catalysts were prepared by impregnation method. The effects of calcination atmos phere on the properties of Ba-Ru/MgO catalysts for ammonia synthesis were investigated. The phase struc ture , texture structure performance, the morphology, reduction properties of ruthenium species, surface acidity and basicity of the catalysts were characterized by means of XRD,N2 adsorption-desorption,TEM, H2-TPR,CO2-TPD and FT-IR. The results indicated that the calcination atmosphere for MgO support had great influence on the structure, physicochemical properties and ammonia synthesis activity of Ba-Ru/MgO catalysts. The basicity of Ba-Ru/MgO catalyst decreased in sequence as follows; Ba-Ru/MgO ( Ar) > Ba-Ru/MgO(N2) >Ba-Ru/MgO(Air) > Ba-Ru/MgO( vacuum). Under the condition of 450 ℃,5.0 Mpa and 5 000 h-1 ,the ammonia synthesis activity of Ba-Ru/MgO catalysts with MgO supports prepared under the calcination atmosphere of air, Ar and N2 was higher than that of Ba-Ru/MgO with MgO support prepared under the calcination atmosphere of vacuum.

  11. 菲律宾褐铁矿型红土镍矿还原焙砂氨浸试验研究%Ammonia Leaching of Reduction Calcine of Philippines Limonitic Laterite Ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小波; 轩辂; 杨琦

    2014-01-01

    研究了用还原焙烧-氨浸工艺(RRA L )从菲律宾某褐铁矿型红土镍矿中提取镍、钴和铁,确定了最佳工艺条件。结果表明:在焙砂细度为-74μm占96.34%、N H3和CO2质量浓度比为90 g/L∶60 g/L、矿浆质量浓度为100 g/L、浸出时间为150 min、充气量为1.2~1.5 mL/(min · g焙砂)条件下,镍、钴浸出率分别为88.02%和50.16%,浸出渣中全铁质量分数为59.75%。%The reduction roasting-ammonia leaching (RRAL ) process is used to extract nickel and cobalt ,and recover Fe from Philippines limonitic laterite ore .The optimum conditions are confirmed . T he results show that under the conditions of calcine fineness of -74 μm acountiong for 96 .34% , N H3 and CO2 mass concentration ratio of 90 g/L∶60 g/L ,slurry concentration of 100 g/L ,ammonia leaching time of 150 minutes ,aeration volume between 1 .2 -1 .5 mL/(min · g calcine) ,the leaching rate of nickel and cobalt reach 88 .02% and 50 .16% ,respectively ,and Fe mass fraction in leaching residue is 59 .75% .

  12. 焙烧态镁铝铁类水滑石对磷酸根离子的吸附%Adsorption of phosphate by calcined Mg-Al-Fe layered double hydroxides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印露; 雷国元; 李陈君; 刘志军

    2012-01-01

    用共沉淀法制备了镁铝铁三元类水滑石(LDH),在不同温度下对其焙烧4 h,得到焙烧态类水滑石(CLDH).采用XRD、FT-IR对材料进行分析,研究其对水中磷酸根的吸附性能和机制.结果表明,铁的掺杂量过大会破坏类水滑石的层状结构,且随着铁含量的增大,类水滑石对磷酸根的吸附量逐渐减小.当Mg/Al/Fe物质的量之比为2∶0.9∶0.1,在300℃下焙烧时,CLDH吸附磷酸根能力最好,吸附容量约27.03 mg.g-1,为焙烧前的1.32倍.在pH 4—11范围内,在竞争离子存在的条件下,CLDH-0.1-300都能表现出较好的吸附性能,对实际废水中的磷也有较强的吸附能力.CLDH-0.1-300对磷酸根的吸附符合二级反应动力学模型,吸附等温线符合Langmuir等温式.用浓度为0.5 mol.L-1的NaOH溶液可以对吸附磷酸根后的类水滑石CLDH-0.1-300实现解吸再生,"吸附-再生-再吸附"循环3次后吸附容量仍接近初始值的60%.%A series of MgAlFe layered double hydroxides(LDH)were synthesized by a coprecipitation method and were calcined at different temperatures for 4 h to prepare calcined layered double hydroxides(CLDH).The samples were characterized by XRD and FT-IR to investigate the performance and mechanism of phosphate adsorption.The results showed that the layered structure was destroyed with excessive iron and increased Fe loading led to the decrease of the sorption efficiency.CLDH-0.1-300 with Mg/Al/Fe molar ratio of 2 ∶ 0.9 ∶ 0.1 and calcined at 300 ℃ had the highest phosphate adsorption capacity.The maximum sorption capacity reached 27.03 mg · g-1,which was 32% higher than the uncalcined material.CLDH-0.1-300 showed excellent performance in phosphate adsorption from the solution with co-existing anions in a pH range of 4—11.Moreover,CLDH-0.1-300 exhibited remarkable adsorption capacity for phosphate in wastewater samples.The adsorption kinetics and the adsorption isotherm followed pseudo second

  13. Preparation and Application of the Sol-Gel Combustion Synthesis-Made CaO/CaZrO3 Sorbent for Cyclic CO2 Capture Through the Severe Calcination Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baowen Wang; Xiaoyong Song; Zonghua Wang; Chuguang Zheng

    2014-01-01

    abstract Calcium looping method has been considered as one of the efficient options to capture CO2 in the combustion flue gas. CaO-based sorbent is the basis for application of calcium looping and should be subjected to the severe calcination condition so as to obtain the concentrated CO2 stream. In this research, CaO/CaZrO3 sorbents were synthesized using the sol-gel combustion synthesis (SGCS) method with urea as fuel. The cyclic reaction performance of the synthesized sorbents was evaluated on a lab-scaled reactor system through calcination at 950 °C in a pure CO2 atmosphere and carbonation at 650 °C in the 15%(by volume) CO2. The mass ratio of CaO to CaZrO3 as 8:2 (designated as Ca8Zr2) was screened as the best option among al the synthesized CaO sorbents for its high CO2 capture capacity and carbonation conversion at the initial cycle. And then a gradual decay in the CO2 capture capacity was observed at the following 10 successive cycles, but hereafter stabilized throughout the later cycles. Furthermore, structural evolution of the carbonated Ca8Zr2 over the looping cycles was investigated. With increasing looping cycles, the pore peak and mean grain size of the carbonated Ca8Zr2 sorbent shifted to the bigger direction but both the surface area (SA) ratioΦand surface fractal dimension Ds decreased. Finally, morphological transformation of the carbonated Ca8Zr2 was observed. Agglomeration and edge rounding of the newly formed CaCO3 grains were found as aggravated at the cyclic carbonation stage. As a result, carbonation of Ca8Zr2 with CO2 was observed only confined to the external active CaO by the fast formation of the CaCO3 shell outside, which occluded the further carbonation of the unreacted CaO inside. Therefore, enough attention should be paid to the carbonation stage and more effective activation measures should be explored to ensure the unreacted active CaO fully carbonated over the extended looping cycles.

  14. Adsorption of glutamic acid from aqueous solution with calcined layered double Mg-Fe-CO3 hydroxide%Mg-Fe-CLDH对模拟谷氨酸废水的吸附分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦飞鹏; 帅丽; 于金刚; 蒋新宇; 陈晓青; 杜邵龙

    2014-01-01

    Layered double Mg−Fe−CO3 hydroxide (Mg−Fe−LDH) with a mole ratio of Mg to Fe of 3 was synthesized by coprecipitation method and calcined product Mg−Fe−CLDH was obtained by heating Mg−Fe−LDH at 500 °C for 6 h. The as prepared Mg−Fe−LDH and calcined Mg−Fe−CLDH were used for removal of glutamic acid (Glu) from aqueous solution, respectively. Batch studies were carried out to address various experimental parameters such as contact time, pH, initial glutamic acid (Glu) concentration, co-existing anions and temperature. Glu was removed effectively (99.9%) under the optimized experimental conditions with Mg−Fe−CLDH. The adsorption kinetics follows the Ho’s pseudo second-order model. Isotherms for adsorption with Mg−Fe−CLDH at different solution temperatures were well described using the Langmuir model with a good correlation coefficient. The intraparticle diffusion model fitted the data well, which suggests that the intraparticle diffusion is not only the rate-limiting step.%采用共沉淀法合成Mg与Fe摩尔比为3:1的层状双金属氢氧化物(Mg−Fe−LDH),然后在500°C下煅烧6 h得到煅烧双金属氢氧化物(Mg−Fe−CLDH)。分析Mg−Fe−CLDH与Mg−Fe−LDH对谷氨酸的吸附性能,研究溶液 pH、谷氨酸初始浓度、共存阴离子及温度等因素对吸附效果的影响,并对其吸附过程的动力学和热力学过程进行研究。结果表明:Mg−Fe−CLDH对谷氨酸的吸附效果很好,吸附率在优化条件下达到99.9%;吸附动力学符合准一级动力学方程,平衡吸附等温线很好地符合 Langmuir 方程。颗粒内扩散模型能很好地描述吸附动力学过程。颗粒内扩散模型拟合结果显示,颗粒内扩散不是唯一的反应速率控制步骤。

  15. High-temperature calcined fullerene nanowhiskers as well as long needle-like multi-wall carbon nanotubes have abilities to induce NLRP3-mediated IL-1β secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongyan; Wu, Weijia; Okuhira, Keiichiro; Miyazawa, Kun'ichi; Hattori, Takayuki; Sai, Kimie; Naito, Mikihiko; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Nishimura, Tetsuji; Sakamoto, Yoshimitsu; Ogata, Akio; Maeno, Tomokazu; Inomata, Akiko; Nakae, Dai; Hirose, Akihiko; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko

    2014-09-26

    Because multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have asbestos-like shape and size, concerns about their pathogenicity have been raised. Contaminated metals of MWCNTs may also be responsible for their toxicity. In this study, we employed high-temperature calcined fullerene nanowhiskers (HTCFNWs), which are needle-like nanofibers composed of amorphous carbon having similar sizes to MWCNTs but neither metal impurities nor tubular structures, and investigated their ability to induce production a major proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β via the Nod-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3)-containing flammasome-mediated mechanism. When exposed to THP-1 macrophages, long-HTCFNW exhibited robust IL-1β production as long and needle-like MWCNTs did, but short-HTCFNW caused very small effect. IL-1β release induced by long-HTCFNW as well as by long, needle-like MWCNTs was abolished by a caspase-1 inhibitor or siRNA-knockdown of NLRP3, indicating that NLRP3-inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production by these carbon nanofibers. Our findings indicate that the needle-like shape and length, but neither metal impurities nor tubular structures of MWCNTs were critical to robust NLRP3 activation.

  16. Influência da calcinação sobre a remoção de ferro da caulinita e ilita e seus efeitos sobre a acidez Influence of the calcinations in iron remotion of kaolinite-illite and theses effect on the acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber S. de Araújo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of natural clay composed by kaolinite, illite, goethite and quartz, were calcinated and submitted to lixiviation with citrate and chloridric acid in order to remove iron. Investigation due to extraction consequences was carried cut by analyzing its acid properties using ammonia gas as probe in infrared spectrophotometry analysis. The sample that were treated with citrate followed by acid lixiviation yield materials twice more acid than samples treated with acid only.

  17. Soluble tissue sugar content and leaf blast severity in response to the application of calcinated serpentinite as a silicon source in irrigated rice A brusone nas folhas e conteúdo de açucares solúveis nos tecidos em resposta a aplicação de serpentinito calcinado como fonte de silício em arroz irrigado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sitarama Prabhu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment conducted with the irrigated rice cultivar BRS Formoso, to assess the efficiency of calcinated serpentinite as a silicon source on grain yield was utilized to study its effect on leaf blast severity and tissue sugar levels. The treatments consisted of five rates of calcinated serpentinite (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 Mg.ha-1 incorporated into the soil prior to planting. The leaf blast severity was reduced at the rate of 2.96% per ton of calcinated serpentinite. The total tissue sugar content decreased significantly as the rates of serpentinite applied increased (R² = 0.83. The relationship between the tissue sugar content and leaf blast severity was linear and positive (R² = 0.81. The decrease in leaf blast severity with increased rates of calcinated serpentinite was also linear (R²= 0.96 and can be ascribed to reduced sugar level.Um experimento de campo, para avaliar a eficiência de serpentinito calcinado como fonte de silício na produtividade da cultura de arroz irrigado, cultivar BRS Formoso, foi utilizado para estudar seu efeito sobre a brusone nas folhas e níveis de açúcares nos tecidos. Os tratamentos consistiram de cinco doses de serpentinito calcinado (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 Mg.ha-1 incorporadas ao solo antes de plantio. A severidade da brusone foi reduzida numa taxa de 2,96% por tonelada de serpentinito calcinado aplicada (R² = 0,83. A relação entre o conteúdo de açucares no tecido e a severidade da brusone nas folhas foi linear e positiva (R² = 0,81. A redução da severidade da brusone com o aumento das doses de serpentinito calcinado também foi linear (R²= 0,96 e pode ser atribuída aos reduzidos níveis de açúcares nos tecidos foliares.

  18. Effect of calcination temperature on microstructure and magnetic properties of Ni{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.25}Cu{sub 0.25} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pransisco, Prengki, E-mail: prengkipransisco@gmail.com, E-mail: afza@petronas.com.my; Shafie, Afza, E-mail: prengkipransisco@gmail.com, E-mail: afza@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Guan, Beh Hoe, E-mail: beh.hoeguan@petronas.com.my

    2014-10-24

    This paper examines the effect of calcination process on the structural and magnetic properties material nanostructure composite of Ni{sub 0Ð}œ‡{sub 5}Zn{sub 0Ð}œ‡{sub 25}Cu{sub 0.25} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ferrites. The samples were successfully prepared by sol-gel method at different calcination temperature, which are 600°C, 700°C, 800°C and 900°C. Morphological investigation, average crystallite size and microstructure of the material were examined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and confirmed by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The effects of calcination temperature on the magnetic properties were calculated by using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD result shows single-phase cubic spinel structure with interval average size 5.9-38 nm, and grain size microstructure of the material was increasing with temperature increases. The highest magnetization saturation was reached at a temperature 800°C with value 53.89 emu/g, and the value coercive force (Hc) was inversely with the grain size.

  19. Effect of calcination temperature on structure and methanation performance of supported Mo catalyst%焙烧温度对负载型 Mo 基催化剂结构与甲烷化性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦绍东; 龙俊英; 田大勇; 汪国高; 孙守理; 孙琦

    2014-01-01

    CeO2-Al2O3 supports prepared by impregnation were calcinated at 500℃ or 700℃, then loaded with Co and Mo by impregnation, and the obtained Co-Mo/(CeO2-Al2O3) catalyst precursors were subjected to a second heat treatment at 500℃ or 700℃. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption, H2-TPR, XRD and SEM, and their methanation performances were tested at 550℃, 3MPa, 5000h-1, and n (H2)/n (CO)=1.0 in the syngas containing H2S. The results indicated that the surface area of the catalyst was mainly affected by the calcination temperature of CeO2-Al2O3 support. While the dispersion of Co and Mo species were largely determined by the heat treatment temperature of catalyst precursor. The catalyst with the CeO2-Al2O3 support caicinated at 500℃ and the catalyst precursor treated at 700℃ showed the highest Co and Mo dispersion and the highest activity in methanation reaction.%以浸渍法制备得到的 CeO2-Al2O3复合氧化物载体于500℃或700℃焙烧处理,浸渍 Co 和 Mo 物种后得到 Co-Mo/(CeO2-Al2O3)催化剂前驱体,再于500℃或700℃进行焙烧处理得到催化剂。采用 N2物理吸附、H2程序升温还原、X 射线衍射及扫描电子显微镜对催化剂进行了表征,在固定床上于550℃,3MPa,5000h-1,n(H2)/n(CO )为1.0且含有 H2S 的合成气中对催化剂的甲烷化性能进行了测试。结果表明 CeO2-Al2O3载体的焙烧温度对催化剂比表面积有较大影响,而催化剂表面 Co 与 Mo 物种的分散度主要受催化剂前驱体焙烧温度的影响。当 CeO2-Al2O3载体于500℃焙烧催化剂前驱体于700℃焙烧后,Co 与 Mo 物种的分散度最好,催化剂甲烷化活性最高。

  20. 酸浸和焙烧对硅藻土吸附甲醛性能的影响研究%The Influence of Acid-treating and Calcination on Adsorption Properties to Formaldehyde of Diatomite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佼; 郑水林

    2011-01-01

    采用酸浸和焙烧法对硅藻土进行了提纯处理,通过SEM和XPS及比表面积测定仪等测试手段对提纯前后的硅藻土进行了表征;并研究了硅藻土对甲醛的吸附性能.结果表明,提纯后的硅藻土SiO2含量显著提高,Fe2O3含量显著下降,比表面积显著增大,对甲醛的吸附性能明显提高.在常温下,影响其吸附的两个因素(甲醛初始量及环境湿度)的最佳范围分别为:甲醛最佳初始浓度为5 μL/m3;最佳环境舱湿度范围为30%RH至40%RH;硅藻土的最佳吸附效率为37.92%.%After diatomite was calcined and treated with sulfuric acid to remove impurity, the purified diatomite was compared with the crude diatomite by SEM, XPS and BET and the adsorption properties to formaldehyde of diatomite. The results showed that the amount of SiO2 increased sharply; meanwhile, the amount of Fe2O3 dropped notably and the specific surface area was enlarged. Therefore, the adsorption capacity was improved. At room temperature, two critical factors, the initial amount of formaldehyde and ambient humidity, have their optimum range. The former should be 5 mL/m3 and the latter should range from 30 % RH to 40 % RH. Then the best adsorption value of diatomite is 37.92 %.

  1. The effect of calcination temperatures on the morphology and structure of ZnO nanofibers prepared by electrospinning%煅烧温度对电纺ZnO 纳米纤维形貌及结构的影响∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明涛; 常岩岩; 彭博; 路秀真

    2014-01-01

    The morphology and structure of ZnO fibers calcined at different temperatures were studied in this pa-per.The precursor of ZnO nanofibers was prepared by electrospinning technology using PVA and zinc acetate. The ZnO nanofibers were obtained after calcination at 400,500,600,800 ℃.Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA),energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS),scanning electron microscope (SEM),X-ray diffraction (XRD),transmission electron microscope (TEM)and Raman were introduced to analyze the morphology and structure of the ZnO nanofibers.The diameters were reduced firstly and then increased with the rising of the calcination temperature from 400 to 800 ℃.The grain sizes of ZnO prepared at 400,500,600,800℃ were 24.25,33.52,35.37 nm,respectively,which was increased with the rising of the calcination temperature.The re-sults indicated the optimum calcinations temperature of the ZnO nanofibers was 600 ℃.%对不同温度煅烧下得到的电纺 ZnO 纳米纤维的形貌及结构进行了分析.以醋酸锌和聚乙烯醇(PVA)制备前驱体,采用电纺丝技术制备复合纤维,然后以400,500,600和800℃高温煅烧2 h 得到氧化锌纳米纤维.采用热重分析(TGA)、元素分析(EDS)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、X 射线衍射(XRD)、拉曼光谱分析(Raman)、透射电镜(TEM)等方法对得到的纤维的形貌、结构进行测试分析.未处理以及以400,600和800℃煅烧后纤维的直径分别为207,135,158和200 nm,呈先减小后增大的趋势.400,500和600℃煅烧后得到的 ZnO 晶粒尺寸分别为24.25,33.52和35.37 nm,随着温度的升高,晶粒尺寸逐渐增大.对比不同温度煅烧后得到的氧化锌纳米纤维,确定最佳煅烧温度为600℃.

  2. The Effect of Calcination on the Properties of Nano-TiO2/Silica Residue of Demagging Asbestos Tailings Composite%煅烧对纳米TiO2/石棉尾矿脱镁硅渣复合材料性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙青; 郑黎明; 郑水林; 李慧; 戴瑞

    2014-01-01

    以石棉尾矿脱镁硅渣为载体,采用TiCl4水解法制备了纳米TiO2/石棉尾矿脱镁硅渣复合粉体,通过煅烧使载体表面负载的纳米TiO2晶态化;研究了煅烧温度、煅烧时间对复合材料光催化性能的影响,并用XRD分析技术对复合材料进行了表征。结果表明,复合材料光催化活性最优的煅烧温度、煅烧时间分别为800℃、2 h,此条件下复合材料对罗丹明B光催化降解率为90.5%;纳米TiO2以锐钛矿晶型负载于石棉尾矿脱镁硅渣上,平均晶粒尺寸为20.9 nm。%Using the silica residue of demagging asbestos tailings as the carrier, the nano-TiO2/silica residue of demagging asbestos tailings composite power was prepared by the hydrolysis of TiCl4. Then the nano-TiO2 loaded on the surface of carrier was crystallized through calcination. The effects of calcination temperature, calcination time on the photocatalytic activity of the composite were investigated. And the structure of the composite was characterized by XRD. The results indicate that the calcination temperature and calcination time for a optimal photocatalytic activity of the composite is 800℃ and 2h, respectively. Under this condition, the degradation rate of Rhodamine B is 90.5% on the composite. The nano-TiO2 is immobilized on the silica residue of demagging asbestos tailings in the crystal of anatase. And the average grain size of nano-TiO2 is 20.9nm.

  3. Treatment of Trace Perchlorate from Water by Calcined MgAl-CO_3 Layered Double Hydroxides%焙烧态MgAl-CO_3双羟基层状金属化合物去除水中痕量高氯酸盐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨一琼; 高乃云; 郭洪光; 马艳

    2012-01-01

    MgAl-CO3 hydrotalcites with different Mg/Al mole ratios were prepared by co-precipitation method,and calcined to get the calcined samples.The adsorption capacity of trace perchlorate ion from water on calcined samples was measured,the influence of initial perchlorate concentration,varying pH of solution,temperature,particle size,and co-existed anions concentration on the adsorption capacity of calcined samples were studied,kinetic parameters were obtained.Results showed that the best synthesis conditions to maximize the perchlorate adsorption capacity of the calcined MgAl-CO3 layered double hydroxides are the calcination temperature of 550 ℃ and n(Mg2+)/n(Al3+),which fit well with second-order kinetic equation and Freundlich isotherm model.It could be used as a buffer.in a wide range of pH But in strong acid conditions,the calcined hydrotalcite may be dissolved,while in strong alkali condition,the perchlorate removal was lower as a consequence of the competition between OH-and ClO4-.%用共沉淀法制备了不同配比的MgAl-CO3双羟基层状金属化合物,焙烧后制得焙烧态水滑石。考察了MgAl-CO3双羟基层状金属化合物及其焙烧产物对水中痕量高氯酸根离子的吸附性能,研究了初始浓度、pH值、温度、粒径、共存阴离子等对去除效能的影响,计算得到了有关动力学参数。结果表明:550℃焙烧态水滑石(n(Mg2+)/n(Al3+)=3)对ClO4-的吸附效果最好,且符合准二级反应动力学方程和Freundlich等温吸附模型。焙烧态水滑石对溶液的pH值具有一定的缓冲作用,在较宽的pH范围均可广泛应用。但是在强酸条件下水滑石会发生溶解;强碱条件下OH-会与ClO4-形成吸附竞争。

  4. Effects of calcination temperature on the structure and electrical property of Ca1-xPrxMnO3 powders%煅烧温度对Ca1-xPrxMnO3粉体结构与导电性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付秋月; 郝素娥; 孟宪伟; 李佳龙; 李云娇

    2012-01-01

    To improve the electrical properties of CaMnO3 powders,the modified Ca1-xPrxMnO3(0≤x≤0.3) powders were prepared by the sol-gel auto-combustion route at different calcination temperatures and the effects of calcination temperature on the structure and electrical conductivity of the powders were characterized.It was indicated that the resistivity of modified powders represented the typical V type variation of firstly decreased and then increased with the increasing of calcination temperatures,and the resistivity was the lowest when the calcination temperature was at 1 000 ℃.The XRD analysis illustrated that with the increasing of calcination temperatures,the diffraction peaks of Ca1-xPrxMnO3 powders were moved to the small angles with the strengthening in intensity.The crystallography data calculated from XRD illustrated that the cell parameters which related to the resistivity of Ca1-xPrxMnO3 powders were affected by the calcination temperatures.When the calcination temperature was at 1 000 ℃,the crystal distortion was most distinct.The SEM analysis illustrated that the higher calcination temperature led to the larger size of grains,and the suitable grain size was good at decreasing the resistivity of Ca1-xPrxMnO3 powders.Moreover,the quantivalency of Mn was the lowest when the Ca1-xPrxMnO3 powders were calcined at 1 000 ℃.The grain boundary,grain size and the quantivalency of Mn together lead to the decreasing then increasing type variation of the resistivity of Ca1-xPrxMnO3 powders calcined at different temperatures.%为改善CaMnO3粉体的导电性能,采用溶胶-凝胶自蔓延法在不同温度下合成Ca1-xPrxMnO3(0≤x≤0.3)粉体,并研究煅烧温度对Ca1-xPrxMnO3粉体结构及导电性能的影响.结果表明,随着煅烧温度的升高,电阻率呈现先降低后升高的变化趋势,且在1 000℃时电阻率最低.XRD分析结果表明,Ca1-xPrxMnO3粉体的特征衍射峰均向小角度方向偏移,且强度随着煅烧温度的升

  5. Calcining Serpentine with Ammonium Sulfate for Preparation of Ultrafine Magnesium Hydroxide%用蛇纹石硫酸铵焙烧法制备超细氢氧化镁的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋贝; 刘超; 郑水林; 戴瑞; 侯会丽

    2013-01-01

    Calcining serpentine with ammonium sulfate to extract magnesium for preparaion of ultrafine magnesium hydroxide. This paper studies the effect of temperature on the performance of the preparation of ultrafine magnesium hydroxide, which come to the conclusion the appropriate reaction temperature is 40℃. The results show that superfine magnesium hydroxide particles occur agglomeration and have large specific surface area. In order to overcome the agglomeration of the magnesium hydroxide and decrease the surface area, the magnesium hydroxide hydrothermal reaction is carried on and the appropriate condition of hydrothermal time is 3 h. Through analysis of their chemical composition, particle size distribution, surface area and SEM, it shows that after the hydrothermal reaction magnesium hydroxide specific surface area is 13.79 m2/g, the content of MgO is 68.23%, and has good crystalline form.%  以蛇纹石为原料,通过硫酸铵焙烧法提取蛇纹石中的镁,并制备超细氢氧化镁。研究了温度对制备超细氢氧化镁性能的影响,得出适宜反应温度为40℃,SEM测试结果表明,制备的超细氢氧化镁颗粒间发生了较多团聚,比表面积较大。为克服氢氧化镁的团聚现象,降低比表面积,将氢氧化镁在反应釜中进行水热反应,得出适宜水热时间为3 h。化学分析以及粒度、比表面积、SEM测试结果表明,水热反应后氢氧化镁比表面积为13.79 m2/g,MgO含量为68.23%,晶型较好。

  6. 钒渣无焙烧浸出液中钒铁萃取分离%Separation Between Vanadium and Iron in Acid Leaching Solution of Converter Vanadium Slag Without Calcination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹; 张廷安; 吕国志; 刘卓林

    2015-01-01

    In view of a new process of leaching the converter vanadium slags with titanium dioxide waste acid under the pressure without calcination proposed by our research group,V extraction from the solution which using waste acid leaching vanadium slag was studied using P204 as the extraction agent.The results showed that the reduction of ferric iron into ferrous iron by Na2 SO3 as a pretreatment reducing agent prevented ferric irons co-extracted into the leaching liquid.Under the optimal technological condition:at room temperature,leaching solution original pH of 2.5,the volume ratio of the aqueous phase to oil phase of 1 ∶3 and the shaking time of 4 min,the extraction rate of V is more than 98.61 %,and the separation factor between V and Fe is up to 135.3 using the 20%P204 with 10%TBP synergistic extraction system.%利用本课题组提出的钛白废酸无焙烧加压浸出钒渣提钒的新技术,以 P204为萃取剂从废酸浸出钒渣的浸出液中进行了提钒研究.实验结果表明:采用亚硫酸钠为浸出液预处理还原剂,将浸出液中三价铁还原成二价铁,从而防止三价铁的共萃;常温条件下,当浸出液初始 pH =2.5、水相与有机相体积比为1∶3,震荡时间为4 min 时,采用有机相组成为20%P204及10%TBP 协同萃取体系,钒的萃取率可达98.61%以上,钒铁的分离系数可达135.3.

  7. Effect of Cement Calcination with Municipal Sewage Sludge on Nitrogen Oxide Emission%利用污水污泥煅烧水泥对氮氧化物排放的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张灵辉; 苏达根

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of cement calcination with municipal sewage sludge on the nitrogen oxide (Nox) emission was investigated by means of XPS, DSC-TG and Nox monitoring. The results indicate that (1) two distinct exothermic peaks appear during the combustion of sewage sludge of which the volatiles and nitrogen contents are higher than those of coal; (2 ) the fuel-Nox produced by the combustion of sewage sludge in oxidizing atmosphere at 900 ℃ is less than that produced by the combustion of coal under the same conditions; (3 ) cement raw material accelerates the emission of fuel-Nox by the combustion of sewage sludge or coal in oxidizing atmosphere at 900 ℃ ; (3) the addition of sewage sludge in coal helps to reduce the emission of fuel-NO,; (4) dry sludge with equal amount but higher moisture content helps to produce less fuel-Nox; and (5) comprehensively speaking, the appropriate moisture content of sewage sludge is about 10%.%通过XPS、DSC-TG分析及NOx检测等方法,研究利用城市生活污水污泥煅烧水泥对NOx排放的影响.研究结果表明:挥发分含量及氮含量高于煤的污水污泥燃烧过程出现了两个明显的放热峰;相同氮含量的污水污泥与煤在900 ℃富氧条件下燃烧,前者产生的燃料型NOx的浓度低于后者;水泥生料会促进污水污泥和煤在900℃氧化气氛下燃烧生成燃料型NOx;煤掺入污水污泥后混烧,生成的燃料型NOx有所减少;掺入等量干基污泥煅烧水泥,含较高水分的污泥所生成的燃料型NOx较少;综合能耗等因素,煅烧污泥的含水率在10%左右为宜.

  8. Potencialidades da metacaolinita e do tijolo queimado moído como substitutos parciais do cimento Portland Potentialities of metakaolin and crushed waste calcined clay brick as partial replacement of Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Farias Filho

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Avalia-se, neste trabalho, a potencialidade do uso da metacaolinita e dos resíduos de produção de tijolos cerâmicos queimados finamente moídos, como substitutos parciais do cimento Portland. Os materiais foram caracterizados física, química e mineralogicamente, além de determinado o índice de atividade pozolânica com cimento Portland. A evolução da resistência a compressão e a flexão das argamassas foi avaliada até as idades de, respectivamente, 365 e 208 dias. As porcentagens de substituição do cimento Portland, em peso, pelos materiais pozolânicos, variaram de 20 a 50%, enquanto o fator água/cimento variou de 0,37 a 0,45. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a metacaolinita e o tijolo moído queimado possuem elevada atividade pozolânica e que a resistência a compressão, aos 28 dias, das argamassas mistas, foi superior à das argamassas de cimento Portland para os níveis de substituição e fatores água/cimento estudados. Um modelo matemático para predição da resistência à compressão das argamassas mistas é proposto com base em um desenho fatorial de experimentos.This paper evaluates the potentiality of metakaolin and crushed waste fired clay brick as cement replacement materials. They were characterised physically, chemically and mineralogically and their activity with Portland cement determined. The influence of the partial replacement of Portland cement on the development of compressive and flexural strength was evaluated until the age of, respectively, 365 and 208 days. The percentage of cement replacement, in weight, ranged from 20 to 50%, whereas the water/cement ratio ranged from 0.37 to 0.45. The results obtained show that the metakaolin and crushed calcined clay brick presented a good pozolanic activity and that the compressive strength of the blended mortars after 28 days of cure was higher than that observed for the reference Portland cement for all levels of cement replacement and water/cement ratio. A

  9. Modelación del proceso de calcinación flash durante la activación de arcillas // Modeling of the flash calcination process during clay activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Borrajo‐Pérez

    2012-01-01

    temperatureof particles are obtained as a function of the gas parameters. The calculation includes the heat losses andthe model predicts the residence time of a particle in an activation unit.Key words: puzzolan, flash, calcinations, modeling.

  10. Efeito da argila calcinada sobre a durabilidade de argamassas reforçadas com fibras curtas de sisal Effect of calcined clay on aging of sisal short fiber reinforced mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Farias Filho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O interesse pelo uso de fibras vegetais como reforço de matrizes, à base de cimento, tem crescido em todo o mundo nos últimos anos, sendo limitado pela baixa durabilidade das fibras no meio alcalino. Com o tempo, as fibras podem mineralizar devido à migração de hidróxido de cálcio (CH da matriz para o lúmen e paredes das fibro-células. Procurou-se consumir, no presente estudo, o CH livre utilizando-se resíduo de tijolo moído e metacaulinita em substituição parcial, de 20 e 40% em peso, do cimento portland. Compósitos com fibras de sisal e matrizes cimento-pozolana foram submetidos a ensaios de resistência a flexão, após 28 dias de cura em água, 135 e 180 dias de envelhecimento natural e após 94 ciclos de molhagem e secagem. Os resultados indicaram que é possível consumir todo o CH da matriz, o que resultou na manutenção da tenacidade inicial do compósito e no aumento da sua resistência a flexão após exposição natural ou ciclos de molhagem e secagem.In the last few years a growing interest in the use of sisal fibers as reinforcement in cement based composites has been observed. However, the main concern for its use is related with the durability of the fibers in the alkaline water of concrete as they can mineralize due to the migration of calcium hydroxide to the fiber lumen and cell walls. In this study, the alkalinity of the matrix was reduced using metakaolin and crushed waste calcined clay bricks as cement replacement. The percentage of cement replacement ranged from 20 to 40% on weight basis. Flexural tests were carried out in the composites after 28 days of cure in water, 135 and 180 days of ageing in the open air and after 94 cycles of wetting and drying. These results indicated that the mixture with cement replacement consumed all calcium hydroxide and kept the toughness over time.

  11. Desempenho mecânico de misturas asfálticas confeccionadas com agregados sintéticos de argila calcinada Mechanical performance of asphalt mixtures composed of synthetic calcinated clay aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Frota

    2007-09-01

    .A substantial number of municipal districts in the State of Amazonas are located in areas which are poor in stony materials. And this has led pavement builders into adopting alternatives which have historically produced pavements with low mechanical strength. Whist more effective and appropriate from a technical standpoint, the asphalt concrete has been usually left aside due to the referred lack of stony materials. Because of the specific situation in the State of Amazonas the adoption of synthetic calcinated clay aggregates (SCCA, with an abundant raw material (clay in the State of Amazonas is recommended in lieu of the traditional practice. Previous works carried out by the Federal University of Amazonas Geotechny Group have demonstrated that the clay soil commonly used in the production of ceramic materials can yield synthetic aggregates with adequate mechanical properties. In this research work, samples featuring similar characteristics as those of the soils in question have been found along the BR-319 highway connecting the Manaus (AM city to Porto Velho (RO city. The transportation structure in general is in deplorable conditions. Justifiably so, the recovery of this highway has been earmarked as one of the targets for the Ministry of Transportation. In this study, asphalt mixtures were blended with synthetic aggregates and pebbles taken from the river bed in order to compare the mechanical performance of such mixtures by means of the determination of the resilient modulus (RM. The results, as a rule, have shown that the asphalt mixtures comprising synthetic calcinated clay aggregates when compared with those comprising the naturally-found material (river bed pebbles have shown: (a greater tensile and resilient modulus strengths; (b low deformation tendency, as well as a considerable elastic recovery and (c less susceptibility to permanent deformation.

  12. 水蒸气对煅烧石灰石碳酸化反应影响的实验与模型分析%Experimental and model study of carbonation of calcined limestone in presence of steam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 杨勇平

    2015-01-01

    Steam is present in combustion flue gas, oxy-fuel combustor/calciner and fuel gas. Some previous works in this field have examined the reactivity of calcium oxide in the presence of steam. There is general agreement that the presence of steam increases the rate of carbonation even at low concentrations. However, there is no description about the effect of steam on the carbonation reaction of calcined limestone. The effects of temperature, concentration of steam on carbonation were investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. The understanding of the mechanisms participating in the carbonation reaction could be arrived at through the use of model interpretations of the rate controlling process. The experimental data were analyzed by means of the random pore model. During carbonation reaction, a very initial rapid reaction was followed by the second stage of the reaction occurring in the next slower regime. The experiment results showed that the effect of steam on carbonation could be neglected during the first stage of reaction. However, the conversion of carbonation in the presence of 1.5%(vol), 10%(vol) and 20%(vol) steam were 19.8%, 27.2%and 30.5%higher than the conversion without steam after 10 min during the second stage of reaction at 500℃. Steam was beneficial to enhancing the conversion of carbonation, but the extent of increase became not significant with increasing concentration of steam. The linearity of the second stage reaction data strongly suggested that this stage was controlled by a diffusion process occurring in a layer of calcium carbonate surrounding the calcium oxide in the pores of the solid. The parameters related to effective product layer diffusivities were plotted in Arrhenius form and the changes in activation energy at various steam concentrations were also shown. Comparison with the experimental effective diffusivities calculated for the carbonation reaction showed that the activation energies in the lower temperature range were in

  13. 焙烧温度对甲硫醇催化剂K2WO4/Al2O3结构和性能的影响%Effect of Calcination Temperature on the Structure and Catalytic Performance of K2WO4/Al2O3 Catalysts for Methanethiol Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张元华; 陈世萍; 袁成龙; 方维平; 杨意泉

    2012-01-01

    研究了焙烧温度对溶胶-凝胶法制备的甲硫醇催化剂K2WO4/Al2O3的表面结构和催化性能的影响.表征结果显示,K2WO4在Al2O3上分散得较好,在450和550℃焙烧的催化剂颗粒大小均匀,无明显团聚现象.随着焙烧温度的升高,催化剂的比表面积减小,表面钨物种与Al2O3的相互作用减弱,与碱物种的相互作用增强,酸碱强度降低.K2WO4/Al2O3表面不含质子酸.催化剂活性与其比表面积及表面的共轭酸碱对密切相关.评价结果表明,在550℃焙烧而制得的催化剂活性最高.%The effect of calcination temperature on the surface morphology and catalytic performance of the K2WO4/Al2O3 catalyst prepared by the sol-gel method for the synthesis of methanethiol from methanol and hydrogen sulfide was investigated. Physicochemical characterization results of the catalyst showed that the K2WO4 is well dispersed on Al2O3, and the catalyst possesses uniform particle size after calcination at 450 or 550 °C. With increasing the calcination temperature, the specific surface area decreases, the interaction of W species with Al2O3 was weakened, but strengthened with basic species, leading to the decrease of surface acidity and basicity. No Br(o)nsted acid was found on the catalyst surface. The catalytic activity of the catalyst is closely related with the specific surface area and the presence of conjugate acid-base pairs on the surface. Activity assay results show that the catalyst calcined at 550 °C exhibits the highest activity for the reaction.

  14. Potencialidades de um caulim calcinado como material de substituição parcial do cimento portland em argamassas Potentialities of a calcined kaolin as material of partial replacement of portland cement in mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia P. de Oliveira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de argilas calcinadas na forma de metacaulinita, como material pozolânico para argamassas e concretos, tem recebido atenção considerável nos últimos anos. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o desempenho mecânico de argamassas, nas quais foi utilizado um caulim calcinado proveniente do Estado da Paraíba, como material de substituição parcial do cimento Portland. Utilizaram-se duas finuras do caulim: passando nas peneiras ABNT 200 (0,074 mm e 325 (0,044 mm e calcinados nas temperaturas de 700, 800 e 900 ºC pelo tempo de 2 h. As amostras foram caracterizadas através de análise química, análise térmica diferencial, difração de raios-X e área específica. Obteve-se o índice de atividade pozolânica com a cal e o cimento Portland. O percentual de substituição adotado foi de 0, 10, 20, 30 e 40%. A relação aglomerante: areia foi de 1:1,5 e a relação água/aglomerante fixada igual 0,4. O efeito da substituição parcial do cimento na argamassa foi avaliado através da resistência à compressão simples, nas idades de 7, 28 e 90 dias. As argamassas estudadas apresentaram resistência superior em relação à da referência, até o nível de 30% de substituição.The use of burnt clays, in the metakaolin form, as pozzolanic material for mortars and concretes has received a remarkable attention in the last years. This paper aimed to evaluate the mechanical property of mortars, in which a calcined kaolin originating from the State of Paraiba, was used as partial cement replacement material. Two finess of the kaolin were used: ABNT 200 (0.074 mm and 325 (0.044 mm and burnt at temperatures of 700, 800 and 900 ºC for a period of 2 h. Both materials were characterized by chemical analysis, differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, specific area tests. The pozolanic activity index was obtanied using lime and cement Portland. The amounts of replacement were 10, 20, 30 and 40%, besides the reference mortar. The binder

  15. Adsorption of Acid Yellow 17 with Calcined Zn/Al Layered Double Hydroxides%酸性黄17在焙烧态Zn/Al水滑石上的吸附研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤仙; 夏盛杰; 薛继龙; 倪哲明

    2015-01-01

    Adsorption of Acid Yellow 17 (AY17) with calcined Zn/Al layered double hydroxides (Zn/Al-LDO) (Zn/Al = 3:1, molar ratio) was investigated. The effects of AY17 initial concentration (C0), temperature and pH value were studied, and adsorption isotherms and thermodynamic functions were calculated. More than 98% of AY17 was absorbed by 0.5 g⋅L−1 Zn/Al-LDO under conditions ofC0= 50~200 mg⋅L−1, 25℃ and pH = 7. Adsorption isotherms and kinetic results show that the adsorption process can be well fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich equations, and the process is spontaneous and exothermic. The adsorption free energy values (E= 0.1474~1.6667 kJ⋅mol−1 ) derived from the D-R model indicate that the adsorption is dominated by physical processes. Three models were used to fit the kinetics experimental data, and it was found that the pseudo-second-order kinetics model was better to describe the uptake process. Based on the results of XRD, FT-IR and intraparticle diffusion model, it is assumed that film diffusion and intraparticle diffusion play important roles in the adsorption process.%研究了摩尔比为3:1的焙烧态水滑石(Zn/Al-LDO)对酸性黄17(AY17)的吸附。考察了AY17不同起始浓度C 0、温度及pH值等因素对Zn/Al-LDO吸附AY17的影响,并探讨了吸附过程的动力学和热力学规律。实验结果表明:Zn/Al-LDO对AY17具有良好的去除效果,在25℃、pH =7条件下,0.5 g⋅L−1的Zn/Al-LDO对C0=50~200 mg⋅L−1的AY17去除率超过98%。动力学和热力学研究表明:Zn/Al-LDO对AY17的吸附过程均符合Langmuir和Freundlich等温吸附方程,且是一个自发、放热的过程。由D–R等温吸附方程计算的吸附自由能E为0.1474~1.6667 kJ⋅mol−1,表明吸附过程为物理吸附。同时,该吸附过程符合准二级反应动力学模型。通过XRD、FT-IR及颗粒内扩散模型的实验数据进一步分析吸附机理,推断膜扩散和颗粒内扩散对Zn/Al-LDO吸附AY17起决定性作用。

  16. 镁铝二元水滑石焙烧产物对酸性紫90染料的吸附性能%Adsorption Characteristics of Calcined Layered Double Hydroxides over Acid Violet 90

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛继龙; 倪哲明; 郑立; 王巧巧; 胥倩; 阮璐璐; 祝海涛

    2011-01-01

    研究了镁铝比为3:1的二元水滑石(1ayered double hydroxides)焙烧产物(MgAI-LDO,layered double oxide)对弱酸性染料酸性紫90(C40H27CrN8Na2O10S2,AV90)的吸附性能.X射线衍射和Fourier变换红外光谱的结果显示:由于水滑石的"结构记忆效应",在富水条件下,MgAl-LDO会吸附部分AV90阴离子进入水滑石层间,从而恢复为层状结构的MgAl-LDHs.研究结果表明:MgAl-LDO对AV90具有良好的去除效果,在298K,pH=9.7条件下,MgAI-LDO对AV90去除率高达99.7%,吸附容量为999.78mg/g.MgAl-LOO对AV90的吸附过程同时符合Langmuir和Freundlich等温吸附方程.并且是一个自发、放热的过程.动力学研究表明:该吸附动力学符合准二级动力学模型.吸附实验结果同时表明:MgAI-LDO吸附性能优于活性炭和二氧化硅等传统吸附剂,经三次回收利用的MgAl-LDO对AV90仍具有良好的吸附性能.%The adsorption characteristics of calcined layered double hydroxides with a Mg to AI mole ratio of 3:1 (MgAI-LDO, layered double oxide) were investigated to remove a weak acid dye acid violet 90(C40H27CrN8Na2O10S2, AV90). In the light of“memory effect”, MgAI-LDO is able to recover their original layered structure in an aquatic environment, after adsorption part of AV90 and CO32-(come from air) intercalated into interlayer of MgAI-LDHs, its structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectra. The results of adsorption experiments indicate that the MgAI-LDO has a significant ability to remove AV90(500 mg·L-1) from the solution. The maximum equilibrium capacity Qe and removal rate η of AV90 are 999.78 mg/g and 99.7%,respectively. Adsorption isotherms show that the adsorption process is consistent with both Langmuir and Freundlich equations which is also spontaneous and exothermic. The kinetic model has been evaluated to fit the experimental data, and it is found that the pseudo-second-order best describes the adsorption kinetics of Mg

  17. 微乳液-共沉淀-煅烧法制备不同形貌的钛酸钡纳米粒子%PREPARATION OF BARIUM TITANATE NANOPARTICLES WITH DIFFERENT MORPHOLOGIES BY THE MICROEMULSION-COPRECIPITATION-CALCINATION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙旭峰; 朱启安; 赵蓉芳; 张琪; 龚敏; 张超

    2008-01-01

    A precursor, BaTiO(C2O4)2-4H2O, was synthesized in reverse microemulsion consisting of water, t-octylphenoxypolye-thoxyethanol, n-hexanol and cyclohexane, using Ti(OC4H9)4,H2C2O4-2H2O and BaCl2-2H2O as starting materials. Barium titanate (BaTiO3) spherical nanoparticles with diameters of 40-80nm and BaTiO3 rod-like nanoparticles with diameters of 50-80nm and lengths of 180-300nm were fabricated by calcining the precursors at 700℃ for 4h and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscope, selected area electronic diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetry. The results show that the as-prepared BaTiO3 nanoparticles with uniform sizes and a single crystal structure belong to a cubic crystal system. The sizes and morphologies of BaTiO3 nanoparticles can be controlled by changing the molar ratio of water to surfactant.%以Ti(OC4H9)4,H2C2O4-2H2O和BaCl2-2H2O为原料,在水溶液/辛基酚聚氧乙烯(9)醚/正己醇/环己烷反相微乳液体系中制得了前驱体BaTiO(C2O4)2-4H2O.在700℃煅烧前驱体BaTiO(C2O4)2-4H2O4h分别制得直径约为40~80nm的BaTiO3球形纳米粒子和长约180~300nm、直径为50~80nm的BaTiO3纳米棒.用X射线衍射、透射电镜、选区电子衍射、Fourier红外光谱分析和热重分析表征了所制备的BaTiO3纳米粒子的结构和性能.结果表明:所制备的BaTiO3纳米粒子大小均匀,属立方相,具有单晶结构.改变水与表面活性剂的摩尔比能控制BaTiO3纳米粒子的大小和形貌.

  18. STUDY OF THERMAL-DECOMPOSITION KINETICS OF Mg-Fe AND Mg-Al HYDROTALCITE WITH THE METHOD OF TEMPERATURE PROGRAMMED CALCINATION%程序升温焙烧技术研究水滑石热分解动力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维光; 葛欣; 沈俭一

    1999-01-01

    Mg-Fe and Mg-Al Hydrotalcite were prepared by the conprecipitation method. A new technique of temperature programmed calcination (TPC) is designed to investigate the thermal decomposition of the hydrotalcites. The kinetic equation of thermal decomposition ln(h/S)=lnA-Ea/RT is derived from TPC graph, and then the thermal decomposition kinetics parameters of Mg-Fe and Mg-Al hydrotalcite can be obtained. Experimental results show that this method is more definite, convenient and sensitive for characterizing the thermal decomposition process of Mg-Fe and Mg-Al Hydrotalcite. The active energy Ea of decomposition of Mg-Fe and Mg-Al hydrotalcite is about 83~48 kJ·mol-1.

  19. Influence of calcination temperature on the performance of Ni/La(III) catalyst in the hydrogenolysis of sorbitol to low-carbon glycols%焙烧温度对Ni/La(Ⅲ)催化剂氢解山梨醇制备低碳二元醇性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Nanorod-shaped La( OH) 3 support was prepared by hydrothermal method, over which the supported Ni/La( III) catalysts were obtained through wet impregnation method; the influence of calcination temperature on the performance of Ni/La ( III ) catalyst in the hydrogenolysis of sorbitol to low-carbon glycols was then investigated by means of XRD, SEM/EDS, BET, H2-TPR-MS, CO/CO2-TPD-MS, ICP-AES and TG. The results revealed that the Ni/La ( III ) catalysts are highly active for sorbitol hydrogenolysis; the yield of low-carbon glycols reaches 53% after reaction at 220 ℃ and 4 MPa H2 for 1. 5 h. The catalyst calcined at low temperature (500℃) is mainly in the form of NiO/La2 O2 CO3 , which may transform into La2 NiO4-La2 O3 with the increase of calcination temperature. The basicity is a crucial factor for the hydrogenolysis activity; high calcionation temperature may enhance the basicity of the catalysts and then improve their hydrogenolysis activity, whereas the calcination temperature has little effect on the products selectivity. However, NiO/La2 O2 CO3 exhibits better hydrothermal stability than La2 NiO4-La2 O3 for sorbitol hydrogenolysis. The deactivation of catalysts can be attributed to the separation of active Ni particles from the support and the agglomeration of the active species, which may reduce the amount of the active metal sites and destroy the catalyst structure.%采用水热法合成了纳米棒状La(OH)3载体,通过湿式浸渍方法制备了10%Ni/La(Ⅲ)负载型催化剂,考察了500~800℃不同焙烧温度对于催化剂氢解山梨醇制备低碳二元醇的影响,结合XRD、SEM/EDS、BET、H2-TPR-MS、CO/CO2-TPD-MS、TG和ICP-AES等表征手段对Ni/La(Ⅲ)催化剂的构效关系进行了分析。结果表明,Ni/La(Ⅲ)催化剂表现出高的氢解反应活性,在较低的焙烧温度下(500℃)催化剂主要以NiO/La2 O2 CO3结构形式存在。随着焙烧温度的升高,NiO/La2 O2 CO3逐渐向La2 NiO4-La2 O3进行转变。碱性是影

  20. Effects of calcination and reduction temperature on the performance of Co-Pt-ZrO2/γ-A12O3 catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis%焙烧及还原温度对Co-Pt-ZrO2/γ-Al2O3催化剂费托合成反应性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙燕; 孙启文; 蒋凡凯; 刘继森; 张宗森

    2012-01-01

    Co-Pt-ZrO2/γ-Al2 O, catalysts were prepared by using impregnation method and characterized by BET, XRD and TPR techniques; the effects of calcination and reduction temperature on their catalytic performance for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) were investigated in a slurry-phase continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The results showed that the catalysts calcined at high temperature exhibits low activity and selectivity to heavy hydrocarbons, since high temperature calcination may lead a strong interaction between cobalt species and -γ-Al2O3 support, the formation of less reducible cobalt aluminate species, and aggregation of cobalt oxide crystals. Cobalt oxides cannot be reduced completely at a low temperature, while the aggregation or sintering of the active species may be prominent by carrying out the reduction at extra-high temperature; all these can deteriorate the catalytic performance of Co-Pt-ZrO2/γ-Al2O3. Under 483 K, 2.4 Mpa, a H2/CO molar ratio of 2.0, and a space velocity of 3.6 L/(gcat-h), the catalyst 31.08%Co-0. Ll%Pt-7.16%ZrO2/Al2O3 calcined at 673 K and reduced in hydrogen at 653 K exhibits high catalytic performance for FTS; the conversion of CO and selectivity to C5+ reach 27.0% and 83.0% , respectively.%采用浸渍法制备了Co-Pt-ZrO2/γ-Al2O3催化剂,对其进行了BET、XRD和TPR等表征,并在浆态床反应器上考察了焙烧温度和还原温度对催化剂费托合成反应性能的影响.结果表明,焙烧温度过高,容易造成Co物种和载体间的相互作用增强,使部分氧化钻颗粒聚集或烧结,导致催化剂的F-T合成反应活性和C5+烃选择性降低.还原温度较低时,钴物种不能充分还原,CO加氢活性低,甲烷选择性高,重质烃选择性低;还原温度过高,则可能造成活性物种的烧结,反而降低了催化剂的活性和重质烃选择性.在原料气n(H2)/n( CO)=2.0、483 K、2.4 MPa和空速3.6 L/( gcat·h)的条件下,31.08% Co~0.11%Pt ~ 7.16% ZrO2/Al2O3

  1. 焙烧程序对一步合成Cu-SSZ-13催化剂NH3-SCR性能的影响%Influence of calcination procedure on the one-pot synthesized Cu-SSZ-13 catalysts and their performance in NH3-SCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢利娟; 刘福东; 石晓燕; 贺泓

    2016-01-01

    焙烧程序影响一步合成法制备Cu-SSZ-13催化剂中Cu物种的种类及分布,是影响催化剂在NH3选择性催化还原(NH3-SCR)氮氧化物反应中催化性能的重要因素。为研究焙烧程序对该方法制备 Cu-SSZ-13催化剂性能的影响,采用不同的焙烧温度及升温速率制备 Cu-SSZ-13催化剂,并考察各催化剂的催化活性、水热稳定性及活性物种形态。结果表明焙烧温度不改变催化剂的晶型结构,但影响催化剂的活性物种形态及稳定性。当焙烧温度为600℃时,催化剂中Cu物种全部为孤立的Cu2+,并具有极高的稳定性,催化剂具有最佳的活性及水热稳定性。固定焙烧温度为600℃,随升温速率的提高,催化剂活性及水热稳定性表现出下降趋势,考虑经济成本,最佳的升温速率应为1℃/min。因此,以1℃/min的升温速率升至600℃焙烧6h是一步合成法制备Cu-SSZ-13催化剂的最佳焙烧程序,所得催化剂具备优异的NH3-SCR活性和水热稳定性。%The calcination procedures affected the state and the distribution of Cu species in the one-pot synthesized Cu-SSZ-13,which then influenced their catalytic performance greatly. In order to investigate the effect of calcination procedure on the Cu-SSZ-13 in the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by ammonia (NH3-SCR),we prepared the catalysts with different temperatures and ramp rates. The catalytic activity and hydrothermal stability and state of active species of the catalysts were tested. The calcination temperature did not change the structure of the catalyst,but affected the state and the stability of the active species. When the temperature was set at 600℃,all Cu species in the catalyst were isolated Cu2+ with excellent stability,and the catalyst showed the best catalytic performance and hydrothermal stability. When the temperature was fixed at 600℃,the activity and hydrothermal stability of the catalysts decreased with the

  2. Depolarization temperature and piezoelectric properties of Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3–Na1/2Bi1/2(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3 ceramics by two-stage calcination method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xin-Yu Liu; Chang-Rong Zhou; Zhao-Hui Shan

    2007-12-01

    A new group of NBT-based lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3–Na1/2Bi1/2(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3, was synthesized using the two-stage calcination method and depolarization temperatures and piezoelectric properties were also investigated. The XRD analysis showed that the ceramics system had a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between the rhombohedral and the tetragonal structure. The highest piezoelectric properties of 33 = 97 pC/N and = 0.46 were obtained near MPB compositions. Furthermore, the depolarization temperatures near MPB compositions were slightly decreased and the lowest d was maintained at 210°C.

  3. Effect of calcination temperature on performance of Mn-Fe/CeO2-TiO2catalyst for selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH3 at low temperature%焙烧温度对Mn-Fe/CeO2-TiO2催化剂低温NH3选择性催化还原NO的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴大旺; 张秋林; 林涛; 龚茂初; 陈耀强

    2012-01-01

    采用等体积浸渍法制备了Mn-Fe/CeO2-TiO2催化剂,考察了不同焙烧温度对其NH3选择性催化还原(SCR) NO活性及催化剂性能的影响.并用N2吸附-脱附,X射线衍射(XRD)和X射线光电子能谱(XPS)等手段对催化剂进行了表征.活性结果表明,随着焙烧温度的升高,Mn-Fe./CeO2-TiO2催化剂的催化活性先升高后降低.其中焙烧温度为500℃时Mn/CeO2-TiO2的NH3-SCR活性最佳,该催化剂在113 ~ 250℃之间表现出了良好NO去除效率.表征结果表明,500℃焙烧时,催化剂中Fe和Mn物种在CeO2-TiO2表面的分散效果最好.500℃焙烧时Mn-Fe/CeO2-TiO2表面Mn以+4价存在,Fe以+3、+2价存在,而Ce以+4、+3存在.%The Mn-Fe/CeO2-TiO2 catalyst was prepared by the incipient wetness method,the influence of calcination temperature on the property and catalytic activity of Mn-Fe/CeO2 -TiO2 was studied for selective catalytic reduction( SCR) of NO by NH3. The catalysts were characterized by N2-adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The performance results showed that the catalytic activities were fust increased and subsequently decreased with the increase of calcination temperature. The catalyst calcined at 500℃ showed the best activity for NO reduction by NH3, and this catalyst exhibited high NO conversion in a wide temperature range of 113-250℃. The characterization results revealed that the Mn-Fe/CeO2-TiO2 catalyst calcined at 500℃ promoted the dispersion of Mn and Fe species on CeO2-TiO2. The XPS results indicated that the Mn species was existed in a valence of +4. Fe species was existed as a mixed valence of +3 and+2 and Ce species was a mixed valence of existed as +4 and +3.

  4. Utilização de massas cerâmicas na produção de agregado sintético de argila calcinada para uso em concreto Use of ceramic bodies in the production of synthetic aggregate calcined clay for use in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Cabral

    2008-12-01

    manufacturing synthetic aggregate of calcined clay for use in concrete. The ceramic pastes were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, evaluation of chemical composition, particle size distribution and plasticity. The samples were prepared by uniaxial pressing at 20 MPa and calcined at 850, 950, 1050 and 1150 ºC. The technological properties evaluated were: linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent specific mass and vitrification temperature. The ceramic paste that presented the smallest apparent specific mass and smallest percentile of molding humidity was chosen for synthetic aggregate. The results obtained for the concrete produced with the synthetic aggregate of calcined clay show its potential as a substitute of the natural aggregate of the Amazonic region, the natural gravel.

  5. Influence of SO2 on the cyclic calcination and carbonation of calcium-based sorbent for CO2 capture%SO2对钙基CO2吸收剂循环煅烧/碳酸化反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昊; 王萌; 刘浩; 杨宏旻

    2013-01-01

    The effects of SO2 on the cyclic calcination and carbonation characteristics and the cycling stability of calcium-based CaCO3 sorbent for CO2 capture were investigated in a cycling calcination/carbonation system. The results indicated that the capacity of CaCO3 sorbent for CO2 capture decreases with the increase of the number of calcination/carbonation cycling and the addition of SO2 will further reduce the capacity for CO2 capture; moreover, the decrease of the capacity for CO2 capture may be aggravated at higher SO2 concentration. After 10th cycling, the carbonation conversions of the sorbent under SO2 concentration of 0, 0. 1% and 0. 2% are 25.5% , 16.9% and 5.2%, respectively. SEM characterization results revealed that sulfate products are formed on the surface of CaCO3 particles in the presence of SO2; the sulfate products block the sorbent holes and then reduce the diffusion rate of CO2 into the sorbent, which may then reduce the capacity of the calcium-based sorbent for CO2 capture.%在循环煅烧/碳酸化反应系统中,研究了SO2对钙基吸收剂CaCO3捕集CO2的影响,获得了SO2对钙基吸收剂碳酸化特性、煅烧特性以及循环稳定性的影响规律,并结合SEM分析结果,从循环煅烧/碳酸化反应角度,分析了可能存在的原因.结果表明,钙基吸收剂吸收CO2的能力随着循环反应次数的增加逐渐发生衰减,在SO2影响下,这种衰减会进一步加剧,且衰减程度随着SO2浓度的增加而增大,经过十次循环后,碳酸化转化率分别为25.5% (0% SO2)、16.9% (0.1%SO2)和5.2%(0.2% SO2).造成这种衰减加剧的主要原因是反应产生较厚的硫酸化产物层,硫酸化产物层使颗粒表面孔隙发生堵塞,阻碍了CO2在吸收剂内部的扩散,降低了碳酸化转化率.

  6. Effect of Ions Doping on Calcining and Hydration Properties of High-strength Low-calcium Portland Clinker%离子掺杂对高强低钙硅酸盐水泥熟料煅烧性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周双喜; 陈鹏飞; 喻乐华; 邓文武

    2015-01-01

    With view to the new requirements of energy-saving emission reduction and low-carbon economy, the research and development ( R&D ) of low calcium cement has great significance . This paper probes into firing different content belite cement clinkers and proportioning different raw materials, which finds out that the burnability of clinkers can be improved remarkably by ions adopting and the crystal form can be stabilized by adopting B2O3. Using chemical reagent and industrial raw materials, by chemical analysis, XRD (X-ray diffraction), lithofacies analysis and SEM, effects of ions doping on calcining and hydration properties of high strength low calcium portland clinker are discussed in details. Results show that the most suitable temperature of clinkers sintering is 1 350℃, can be in steady existence by adding stabilizers, and fossil has its best morphology under the condition of complete mineral crystallizing cement when the calcination temperature ranges from 1 400℃ to 1 450℃ with w(C2S) being 45% and w(C3S) 30% of the content.%选择几种不同生料进行配方,烧制不同含量硅酸二钙水泥熟料,在煅烧过程中通过阴离子掺杂来研究对熟料易烧性能的影响,并添加稳定剂B2O3使贝利特保持活性较高的晶型;运用XRD、岩相分析、SEM等测试手段,初步探讨了离子掺杂对高强低钙硅酸盐水泥熟料煅烧和水化性能的影响. 主要结论是,最佳的煅烧温度为1 350℃,稳定剂的加入可以促进熟料中的稳定存在;其次,当煅烧温度在1 400~1 450℃,w(C2S)含量在45%、w(C3S)含量30%时,熟料矿物结晶完整,矿物形貌最好,其早龄期的水化产物量也最多.

  7. 钴铝水滑石焙烧产物催化H_2O_2分解亚甲基蓝%Study on Decomposition of Methylene Blue in the Presence of H_2O_2 with Calcined CoAl Hydrotalcite as Catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁香菊; 徐芳

    2011-01-01

    The CoAl hydrotalcite was synthesized by coprecipitation method and characterized by XRD and TG-DTA and IR,and then transformed into compound oxide by calcination.The obtained compound oxide was used as catalyst for the decomposition of methylene blue solution by H2O2.The results showed that the average decoloration of methylene blue solution reached 92.57 % under the optimum conditions as follows: catalyst dosage was 1.15 g/L,H2O2 concentration was 3.0 %,initial concentration of methylene blue was 20 mg/L,and reaction time was 3 h.%采用共沉淀法合成了CoAl水滑石,用XRD、TG-DTA、IR表征了结构,以其焙烧产物为催化剂,用于催化H2O2氧化分解亚甲基蓝。结果表明,催化剂用量为1.15 g/L、H2O2质量分数为3.0%、亚甲基蓝初始质量浓度为20 mg/L、反应时间3 h时,亚甲基蓝平均脱色率可达到92.57%。

  8. 供能方式对钙基吸收剂循环煅烧/碳酸化法捕集CO2热力性能的影响%Influence of Energy Supply Mode on Thermodynamic Performance of CO2 Capture Systems With Ca-based Sorbent Cyclic Calcination/Carbonation Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学镭; 陈海平

    2013-01-01

    Capturing CO2 from fossil fuel combustion is of importance in the CO2-constrained world for mitigation of climate warming. Take an ultra-supercritical 1000MW power plant as an example, the flow sheet of CO2 capture system with Ca-based sorbent cyclic calcination/carbonation reaction was built, and the thermodynamic performance of CO2 capture system was obtained by the help of Aspen Plus software. The influence of CaCO3 calcination reaction heat supplied by concentrated solar power or coal oxy-fired on thermodynamic performance was also analyzed. The results show that compared with coal oxy-fired scheme, concentrated solar power scheme increases the output power, decreases standard coal consumption rate by 1/3, but thermal efficiency of power generation is decreased by 3.8 percentage points. The equivalent solar thermal power efficiency of concentrated solar power scheme is 28.36%, which is higher than peak efficiency of solar tower power plant. The key factor to increase thermodynamic performance of concentrated solar power scheme is energy utilization efficiency (ηsol-avi) of the solar collector field. Asηsol-avi>75%, power generation efficiency of concentrated solar power scheme is higher than that of coal oxy-fired scheme. The conclusions supply new schemes for low energy consume of CO2 capture and high efficiency utilization of solar power.%控制和减缓化石能源燃烧所排放的 CO2对于缓解全球气候变暖具有重要意义。以某超超临界1000 MW火力发电机组为例,建立了钙基吸收剂循环煅烧/碳酸化法捕集CO2的系统流程,基于Aspen Plus软件得到了系统的热力性能,分析了太阳能集热和煤富氧燃烧驱动 CaCO3煅烧反应对系统热力性能的影响。结果表明,与煤富氧燃烧方案相比,太阳能集热方案增加了发电功率,发电标准煤耗率降低1/3,但其发电热效率降低3.8个百分点;太阳能集热方案的等效太阳能热发电效率为28.36%,高于塔

  9. The comparision of the outcomes of guide bone regeneration by calcined bovine bone and Bio-Oss graft material in alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction%骨引导天然煅烧骨与Bio-Oss用于牙槽嵴保存效果的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 丁宇翔; 秦瑞峰; 侯锐; 周宏志; 张林林; 胡开进

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To compare the outcomes of guide bone regeneration by calcined bovine bone and Bio-Oss graft material in alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction.Methods:280 patients were divided into two groups randomly.Each patient had single tooth extracted.The sockets were filled with calcined bovine bone in 140 patients and Bio-Oss graft in another 140 patients. After shaping,all the sockets were covered with Bio-Gide membrane.Buccal mucoperiosteal flap was released and sutured to close the alveolar sockets.The patients were regularly examined at the 1st,12th and 24th week after surgery.Physical examination and X-ray evaluation were applied to compare the outcomes of the two materials in alveolar ridge preservation.Results:No infection and re-jection occurred.The radiographic results showed the width and height of the alveolar bone were preserved well at the 12th and 24th weeks.No statistically difference was found in the two groups at the 1st and 24th weeks(P>0.05).Conclusion:The two graft ma-terials can effectively preserve alveolar bone after tooth extraction.%目的:对比骨引导天然煅烧骨与Bio-Oss应用于拔牙后牙槽嵴保存的效果。方法:280例患者单颗牙拔除后,随机分为2组,将骨引导天然煅烧骨和Bio-Oss各植入140例拔牙窝中,塑形后均用Bio-Gide生物膜覆盖,颊侧黏骨膜翻瓣、滑行缝合、封闭拔牙创,并在术后第1周、12周、24周复查,拍摄全口曲面断层片及CT,评价2种植骨材料牙槽嵴保存的效果。结果:2组的大体观察均显示出了较好的结果,无感染及排斥反应。12周及24周影像学结果显示2组牙槽嵴的宽度和高度均得到了较好的保存,组间比较无统计学差异(P>0.05)。结论:2种植骨材料均能有效地保存拔牙后牙槽骨的骨量。

  10. 焙烧处理下二氧化钛/钛酸盐纳米材料晶型和形貌的变化规律研究%Research on the Phase Transition and Morphological Evolution Behaviors of Titania/Titanate Nanomaterials by Calcination Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵斌; 林琳; 陈超; 柴瑜超; 何丹农

    2013-01-01

    通过调控酸碱浓度,在水热条件下得到了金红石、锐钛矿、板钛矿、钛酸钠等一系列TiO2/钛酸盐产物.对上述TiO2、酸洗处理后的钛酸盐等一系列不同晶型、不同形貌的样品进行焙烧处理,系统性地研究焙烧温度的逐渐升高对产物晶型转变和形貌演化的规律性影响.给出了水热酸碱浓度以及焙烧温度两个因素与TiO2/钛酸盐纳米材料晶型和形貌变化行为关系的二维示意图.依据奥斯特瓦尔德阶梯规则、经典热力学理论以及定向附着生长机理,对TiO2/钛酸产物的晶型晶体生长、晶型转变和形貌演化机理进行了探讨.%Titania/titanate nanomaterials including rutile, anatase, brookite TiO2 and sodium dititanate and trititanate were obtained by regulating the acid/alkali concentration under hydrothermal treatment. A systematical investigation was established to uncover the phase transition and morphological evolution behaviors of TiO2/titanate nanomaterials by calcining the samples including rutile TiO2 nanorods, anatase TiO2 nanocrystallines, brookite TiO2 nanoflowers, acid washed dititanate H2Ti2O5 nanosheets and trititanate H2Ti3O7 nanowires at 400, 600, 800 or 1000 ℃ for 4 h in air with the heating rate of 2 ℃/min. After heat-treatment, the products were taken out from the oven and cooled down to the room temperature. Rietveld refinements of the powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern were used to generally assess the phase composition of the different samples and their crystallite sizes, and to further investigate the phase transition behavior in company with the synthetic parameters. FESEM, TEM, and HRTEM were used to characterize the morphology evolution and to further elucidate the morphological evolution of the resulting products. The crystalline phase distributed diagram of TiO2/titanate nanostruc-tures dominated by the two experimental parameters indcluding acid/alkali concentration and calcination temperature was

  11. Study on the Photocatalytic Activities of n-p Type CeO2/BiOBr Composite Prepared at Different Calcination Temperatures%不同煅烧温度制备的n-p型CeO2/BiOBr光催化性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹亚亚; 黄少斌; 尹佳芝

    2016-01-01

    采用微乳法制备了n-p型CeO2/BiOBr 异质结,其中十六烷基三甲基溴化铵(CTAB)既作为Br源,又作为“桥”使CTA+修饰在CeO2表面形成了稳定的油包水微乳体系.利用XRD、SEM、HRTEM、UV-Vis DRS、BET、XPS等对样品进行结构、形貌和光学性质进行表征,并对复合光催化剂进行了可见光下降解甲基橙(MO)的光催化活性研究.考察了不同煅烧温度对合成CeO2/BiOBr的影响.结果表明:CeO2/BiOBr异质结相比于单体CeO2和BiO-Br来说,它的光响应范围大大增加,在可见光下降解MO具有更高的光催化活性.450℃下煅烧可使MO达到最佳的降解率,而高温则会使催化剂发生烧结.机理研究表明,在CeO2与BiOBr复合体中,使有机物矿化的主要为CeO2价带上的光生空穴.CeO2/BiOBr催化活性增强主要是由于在CeO2与BiOBr之间形成了n-p型的异质结.%N-p type CeO2/BiOBr heterojunction was prepared using microemulsion method,in which cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)acted not only as the Br source,but was able to link the cetyltrimethyl ammonium cation with CeO2 to form a water-in-oil microemulsion-like system.Several characterization tools including XRD, SEM,HRTEM,UV-Vis DRS,BET and XPS were employed to study the phase structures,morphologies and opti-cal properties of the samples.Methyl orange (MO)solutions were used to degrade by the prepared composite pho-tocatalysts and evaluate the photocatalytic activities under visible light irradiation. The results show that in compared to pure CeO2 and BiOBr,the heterojunction exhibits enhanced absorption response in visible light range and higher photocatalytic performance for the degradation of MO.The CeO2/BiOBr compsite calcinated at 450 ℃exhibits the optical degradation rate of MO under visible light irradiation,while high temperature calcination can lead to sinter of photocatalyst.The study on mechanism shows that the CeO2/Bi

  12. 从高杂质低品位钼焙砂中苏打高压浸出钼的试验研究%Experimental Study on Leaching Molybdenum at High Pressure with Soda from Low-grade Molybdenum Calcine with High Impurities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡磊; 肖连生; 张贵清; 曾理

    2012-01-01

    以低品位高杂质含量钼焙砂为原料,采用苏打高压浸出的方法浸取钼.研究了苏打加入量、液固比、浸出时间、浸出温度、添加剂种类及用量对浸出过程的影响.实验结果表明:当苏打加入量为矿样的30%,氧化镁加入量为矿样的2.5%,温度160 ℃,液固比2∶1,浸出时间90 min时,钼的浸出率可达到95.9%,同时硅钼分离系数为25,钼与主要杂质实现了初步分离.该工艺具有操作简单、试剂消耗少、钼回收率高的优点.%Low-grade molybdenum calcine with high impurities was used as raw materials and molybdenum was leached with soda at high pressure. The effects of the soda addition, L/S ratio, leaching time and temperature, the type and amount of additives on the leaching process were investigated. The results showed that with the amount of soda and magnesium oxide accounting for 30% and 2. 5% of the ore samples respectively, at a temperature of 160 ℃ , with L/S ratio of 2: 1, 90 min leaching time, the leaching rate of molybdenum reached 95.9% , with a separation coefficient of 25 for silicon and molybdenum, resulting in a preliminary separation between molybedenum and main impurities. This process has the advantages of simple operation, low reagent consumption and high recovery of molybdenum.

  13. Toxicity study of Lauha Bhasma (calcined iron in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Lauha Bhasma was found to be safe at the therapeutic dose and also at five times the therapeutic dose levels. However, alteration in some of the biochemical and haematological parameters along with histopathological findings were evident at the highest dose level.

  14. Fluidized-bed calciner with combustion nozzle and shroud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielang, Joseph A.; Palmer, William B.; Kerr, William B.

    1977-01-01

    A nozzle employed as a burner within a fluidized bed is coaxially enclosed within a tubular shroud that extends beyond the nozzle length into the fluidized bed. The open-ended shroud portion beyond the nozzle end provides an antechamber for mixture and combustion of atomized fuel with an oxygen-containing gas. The arrangement provides improved combustion efficiency and excludes bed particles from the high-velocity, high-temperature portions of the flame to reduce particle attrition.

  15. 水蒸气改善钙基CO2吸收剂循环活性的研究%Study on the improvement of the carbonation characteristics of Ca-based CO2 absorbent by steam repetitive calcination-carbonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔春珍; 陈伟娇

    2012-01-01

    Repetitive calcination-carbonation of Ca-based CO2 absorbent with adding steam was performed experimentally to investigate the effect of steam on the cyclic characteristics of Ca-based CO2 absorbent. The maximum conversion rate, pore radius and specific surface area microstructure of hydrated Ca-based CO2 absorbent was analyzed. Results showed that the cyclic characteristics of the hydrated Ca-based CO2 absorbent was improved, the maximum conversion of Ca-based CO; absorbent was increased by 50 % than dry ones. The reason was that the steam treatment could greatly increase the specific surface area of the absorbent and improve the distributions of pore radius. From the experiment we can conclude that direct hydrogen production by carbon energy could be realized without any additives or auxiliary conditions, which would meatain the cyclic activity of Ca-based CO2 absorbent.%对钙基CO2吸收剂的循环活性改善进行了研究,分析了水蒸气处理对吸收剂的最大转化率、比表面积及孔分布等微观结构变化的影响.结果表明,经水蒸气处理后,钙基CO2吸收剂的循环活性得到了改善,最大转化率比未经水蒸气处理可提高约50百分点;水蒸气处理可大大提高钙基CO2吸收剂的比表面积,并有效改善其孔径分布状态,可使其稳定保持较高的转化率;含碳能源直接制氢过程可在不需要任何添加剂或辅助手段的条件下,有效保持钙基CO2吸收剂的循环活性.

  16. 电煅煤骨料表面生长碳纳米管对高炉炭砖性能的影响%Effect of electrically calcined anthracite aggregates anchored with carbon nanotubes on properties of carbon block for blast furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王同生; 桑绍柏; 李亚伟

    2016-01-01

    利用电煅煤骨料负载催化剂硝酸镍,通过化学气相沉积(CVD)方法在电煅煤骨料表面成功催化生长出碳纳米管(CNTs)。以预处理过的电煅煤骨料为原料制备炭砖试样,借助 X 射线衍射分析、扫描电子隧道显微镜、压汞仪和激光导热仪分析了预处理电煅煤骨料的引入对炭砖在埋碳气氛下经1000℃和1400℃烧后的显微结构和性能的影响。结果表明,将预处理的电煅煤骨料引入到炭砖中,由于促进了试样中β-SiC、AlN 及β-Sialon 相的大量生成,炭砖试样的耐压强度和导热系数得到提高,其微孔特性得到改善。%Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)were successfully synthesized on the surface of electrically cal-cined anthracite (ECA)by chemical vapor deposition (CVD)method with Ni(NO 3 )2 ·6 H 2 O as cata-lyzer.The carbon block samples were prepared subsequently by using those ECA aggregates as the raw material.The effects of pre-treated ECA aggregates on microstructures and properties of carbon block samples heated in coke bed at 1000 ℃ and 1400 ℃ were investigated by XRD,SEM,EDS,mer-cury porosimetry and laser thermal conductivity meter.The results show that when ECA aggregates treated by CVD method are introduced into carbon blocks,the formation of AlN,β-SiC and β-Sialon ceramic phases in great quantities are promoted.As a result,the cold crushing strength,thermal con-ductivity as well as micro-pore properties of carbonized samples can be improved.

  17. Efecto de la concentración de SO2 en las reacciones de calcinación y sulfatación de calcáreos en reactores de lecho fluidizado. // Effect of the SO2 concentration in the calcinations and sulfatation reactions in a fluidized bed reactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Lindo Samaniego

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fue realizado un estudio sobre el efecto de las concentraciones de SO2 en la absorción por calcáreo en hornos de LechoFluidizado. Para observar la influencia del SO2 en los parámetros de diferentes procesos físicos y químicos fueron creadosambientes para cuatro concentraciones diferentes de SO2 : 500, 1000, 2000 y 4000 ppm. Se utilizaron dos tipos decalcáreos: Dolimitico-DP y el Calcítico-CI. El Lecho Fluidizado Burbujeante utilizado tiene 160 mm de diámetro interno yfue fluidizado con aire a la temperatura de 850 °C, con una concentración de SO2 deseada. Como material del lecho fueutilizada la arena de cuarzo (99,9% con diámetro de 385 μm y de masa aproximadamente 3,0 kg. El calcáreo fueadicionado en dosificación de 50 g con el reactor ya pre-calentado. Las variaciones de las concentraciones de SO2, CO2,CO, O2 y las descargas, fueron monitoreadas continuamente a la salida del ciclón que fue utilizado para la retención de lapartícula fina. Para esos dados se desarrolló un programa en LabView. El modelo matemático escogido posibilitó ladeterminación de la conversión.Palabras claves: Lecho fluidizado, dióxido de azufre, absorción de azufre, calcáreo , reactor de lechofluidizado.___________________________________________________________________________Abstract.A Study of the effect of the concentrations of SO2 in its absorption by limestones in fluidized bed furnaces wasconducted. For the determination of the SO2 influence on the different physical and chemical parameters of process,such as calcinations and sulfatation four different atmospheres were used in the reator with concentrations of SO2 of500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 ppm. Two types of limestones were used: Dolomite-DP and Calcitic-CI. The bench scalebubbling fluidized bed reactor had a 160 mm internal diameter and was fluidized with air at 850 °C containing therequired concentration of SO2. Bed material was quartz sand (99,9% , with 385 μm diameter and approximately

  18. Removal of vanadate anion by calcined Mg/Al-CO3 layered double hydroxide in aqueous solution%煅烧烧型Mg/Al-CO3双金属氧化物对水溶液中钒酸根离子的脱除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋海磊; 焦飞鹏; 蒋新宇; 于金刚; 陈晓青; 杜邵龙

    2013-01-01

    采用共沉淀法合成Mg/Al摩尔比为2:1的层状双金属氢氧化物Mg/Al-LDH,并在500°C下煅烧6 h得到煅烧双金属氢氧化物Mg/Al-CLDH。研究Mg/Al-CLDH对钒酸根的吸附性能,探讨镁铝摩尔比、吸附剂用量、溶液初始浓度、时间和温度等因素对吸附效果的影响,并对其吸附过程的动力学和热力学过程进行研究。研究表明:Mg/Al-CLDH 对钒酸根的吸附效果很好。该吸附过程符合准一级动力学方程,平衡吸附等温线很好地符合Langmuir方程,并且Langmuir方程拟合常数高达0.999。通过热力学计算发现ΔGΘ为负值,ΔHΘ为正值,表明此吸附本质上是吸热自发过程。吸附机理研究表明此吸附主要是表面吸附。%Mg/Al-CO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH2) with Mg(II):Al(III) molar ratio of 2:1 was synthesized by co-precipitation method and its calcined product Mg2Al-CLDH(CLDH2) was prepared by heating Mg2Al-LDH at 773 K for 6 h. Removal of vanadate anion ( 3-4VO ) from aqueous solution on CLDH2 was studied. Batch studies were carried out to address various experimental parameters such as Mg/Al molar ratio, adsorbent dosage, initial concentration of solution, contact time and temperature. Vanadate was removed effectively at the optimized experimental conditions. The adsorption kinetics data fitted the pseudo-first-order model. Isotherms for adsorption vanadate by CLDH2 at different solution temperatures were well described using the Langmuir and Freundlich equations, and the isotherm parameters were calculated using linear regression analysis. The adsorption data fitted the langmuir model with good values of the correlation coefficient (R2>0.999). The negative value ofΔGΘand the positive value ofΔHΘindicate that the adsorption processes are spontaneous endothermic in nature. The mechanism of adsorption suggests that the surface adsorption is the main process.

  19. Conception of a synthesis pozzolan from sediment dams calcined (Case: Gargar dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouhba K.

    2014-04-01

    The analysis by the diffraction of x-rays (X-ray and the differential thermal analysis (DTA show that the chemical reactions between principal minerals of the vase used and cement give the formation of new products such as the freezing of HSC and the tobermorite.

  20. Effect of Calcination on the Sintering of Gel-Derived, Zirconia-Toughened Alumina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exter, den Peter; Winnubst, Louis; Leuwerink, Theo H.P.; Burggraaf, Anthonie J.

    1994-01-01

    The densification behavior of ZrO2 (+ 3 mol% Y2O3)/85 wt% Al2O3 powder compacts, prepared by the hydrolysis of metal chlorides, can be characterized by a transition- and an α-alumina densification stage. The sintering behavior is strongly determined by the densification of the transition alumina agg

  1. One-pot solvent free synthesis of dihydropyrimidinones using calcined Mg/Fe hydrotalcite catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay V Dabholkar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mg/Fe = 3 hydrotalcite as reusable solid catalyst was found to be an excellent heterogeneous base catalyst for the synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidinones/thiones, a multicomponent reaction using substituted aromatic aldehyde, ethyl acetoacetate and urea/thiourea. The work has been carried out under thermal solvent free conditions. Mg/Fe = 3 hydrotalcite heterogeneous solid catalyst offers simple means of recovery and the isolated catalyst was reused for number of times without significant loss of catalytic activity.

  2. Effect of Calcining Temperature on the Structure of Li_4Ti_5O_(12)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.J.Wang; N.H.Zhao; L.J.Fu; B.Wang; Y.P.Wu

    2007-01-01

    1 Introduction Recently there had considerable interest in Li4Ti5O12 as a potential anode for use in Li-ion batteries. Usually, it was used as an anode combined with a high voltage cathode[1-5]. It has many advantages compared to the currently used graphite. For example, it presents virtually unlimited cycle life due to zero strain or volume change when lithium intercalates into and de-intercalates from[6]. Generally, Li4Ti5O12 was prepared by a solid-state reaction from stoichiometric amounts of Li2CO3...

  3. CALCinATION OF EQUILIBRIUM FOR DIMETHYL ETHER SYNTHESIS FROM BIOMASS-SYNGAS%生物质气一步法合成二甲醚化学平衡分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许庆利; 蓝平; 隋淼; 颜涌捷

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamic calculation was carried out for the compound reaction system of dimethyl ether (DME) from biomass-syngas. Methanol synthesis from CO, CO2, and dehydration of metlanol to DME were selected as the independent reactions, CO, CO2 and DME were chosen as the key components. At the same time, the calculated model about DME synthesis was put forward. The article discussed the effect of temperature and pressure on the chemical balance of biomass synthesis of DME. The results showed that the equilibrium conversion of CO and the equilibrium yield of DME decrease with the increase of temper, and increase with the increase of pressure.%对生物质基合成气合成二甲醚反应体系进行热力学参数计算.选取CO、CO2加氢合成甲醇及甲醇脱水生成二甲醚为独立反应,CO、CO2、二甲醚为关键组分,提出了合成气合成二甲醚的计算模型.讨论了温度、压力对生物质气合成二甲醚化学平衡的影响.结果表明:CO平衡转化率、DME平衡收率随温度的升高而下降;随压力升高,CO平衡转化率、DME平衡收率增加.

  4. Carbothermic reduction of electric arc furnace dust and calcination of waelz oxide by semi-pilot scale rotary furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Morcali M.H.; Yucel O.; Aydin A.; Derin B.

    2012-01-01

    The paper gives a common outline about the known recycling techniques from electric arc furnace dusts and describes an investigation of a pyrometallurgical process for the recovery of zinc and iron from electric arc furnace dusts (EAFD). In the waelz process, the reduction of zinc and iron from the waste oxides using solid carbon (lignite coal) was studied. In the reduction experiments; temperature, time and charge type (powder and pellet) were investigated in detail. It was demonstrate...

  5. Influence of Drying and Calcination on Remaining Amount and Immobile Character of Titanium on Titanium-pillared Montmorillonite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵川; 王小群; 杜善义

    2012-01-01

    Remove of titanium (Ti) from titanium-pillared montmorillont (TIPM) is not expected during its application as adsorbent and photocatalyst, etc. But studies on immobilization of Ti on TIPM are seldom reported. In this work, TIPM was synthesized from TIC14 and Na+-montmorillont (Na+-MMT). Then the prepared TIPM was heated at different temperatures (100, 240 and 450 ~C) to yield three TIPM samples (TIPM1, TIPM2, and TIPM3). Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine the effect of heating temperature on the remaining amount of Ti on TIPMs. A two-step treatment method which is often used in the pretreatment and application of TIPM was developed to investigate the immobile character of Ti on TIPMs. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm, thermogra- vimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) were also used to characterize TIPMs before and after the treatment. The results show that with an increase in heating temperature, the amount of Ti species re- mained on T1PM decreases gradually and Ti immobilization is strengthened on TIPM. For TIPM3, less than 2% Ti is removed from TIPM3 after the treatment required to simulate the practical conditions of TIPM in its application, while those of TIPM1 and TIPM2 are 6.6% and 8.4%, respectively. The reason may be that when TIPM is heated, Ti species intercalated into MMT become chemically bonded with the framework of MMT and partially migrate into the layer structure, which make Ti immobile on TIPM firmly during the treatment process.

  6. Mass Transfer and Reaction Kinetics in the Carbonization of Magnesium Oxide from Light Calcined Magnesia with Mechanical Force Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张焕军; 朱国才

    2004-01-01

    The carbonization of magnesium oxide particles by CO2 was investigated using a stirring mill reactor.The effects of the system temperature, stirring rotation speed, influx rate of CO2 and initial diameter of the magnesium oxide particles on the carbonization process were determined. The results show that the system temperature and the stirring rotation speed are the most significant influencing factors on the carbonization rate. The determination of critical decomposition temperature (CDT) gives the maximum carbonization rate with other conditions fixed. A theoretical model involving mass transfer and reaction kinetics was presented for the carbonization process.The apparent activation energy was calculated to be 32.8kJ·mo1-1. The carbonization process is co-controlled by diffusive mass transfer and chemical reaction. The model fits well with the experimental results.

  7. Supervisory System for Blower System of the Calciner%焙烧炉风机的监控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝瑞云

    2003-01-01

    风机是氧化铝生产的关键设备之一,对其运行状态进行监测控制,实行安全联锁,可以提高风机运转率、减少故障发生.介绍了焙烧炉风机的监控系统,由于该系统是由先进的电气设备、仪表及控制系统所组成,因此,该系统功能齐全、控制可靠、监测精度高,为焙烧炉风机系统的稳定运行创造了条件.

  8. Microscopic evolution of dielectric nanoparticles at different calcination temperatures synthesized via sol-gel auto-combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adil, Muhammad, E-mail: muhammadadil86@hotmail.com; Zaid, Hasnah Mohd, E-mail: hasnamz@petronas.com.my; Chuan, Lee Kean, E-mail: lee.kc@petronas.com.my; Latiff, Noor Rasyada Ahmad, E-mail: syasya.latiff@gmail.com [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Alta’ee, Ali F., E-mail: ali-mangi@petronas.com.my [Geoscience and Petroleum Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Dielectric nano powder synthesis is carried by a simple and fast sol-gel auto-combustion method. The transformation of crystalline phases of as-synthesized nano powders is investigated through the detailed transmission electron microscopy (TEM), revealed the crystallographic alterations and morphological information even at lattice scale. From specific area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, has specified the d-spacing and corresponding planes supported by the observed lattice fringes. The morphological characterization of nanoparticles is performed through field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), exhibiting the increment in particle size due to agglomeration with the increase in annealing temperature. Furthermore, EDX pattern has been used to verify the formation of nanoparticles by revealing the presence of required elements.

  9. High calcination of ferroelectric BaTiO3 doped Fe nanoceramics prepared by a solid-state sintering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuvel, K.; Ramachandran, K.

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the effects of the combination of starting materials on the properties of solid-state reacted BaTiO3 using two different types of BaCO3 and TiO2. In addition, the effect of mechanochemical activation by high energy milling and the Ba/Ti molar ratio on the reaction temperature, particle size and tetragonality were investigated. The TiO2 phase and size plays a major role in increasing the reaction temperature and particle size. With the optimum selection of starting materials and processing conditions, BaTiO3 with a particle size Cole-Cole plots in complex impedance and modulus formalism. Modulus formalism has identified the effects of both grain and grain boundary microstructure on the dielectric properties, particularly in solid state routed samples.

  10. High calcination of ferroelectric BaTiO₃ doped Fe nanoceramics prepared by a solid-state sintering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuvel, K; Ramachandran, K

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the effects of the combination of starting materials on the properties of solid-state reacted BaTiO3 using two different types of BaCO3 and TiO2. In addition, the effect of mechanochemical activation by high energy milling and the Ba/Ti molar ratio on the reaction temperature, particle size and tetragonality were investigated. The TiO2 phase and size plays a major role in increasing the reaction temperature and particle size. With the optimum selection of starting materials and processing conditions, BaTiO3 with a particle size Cole-Cole plots in complex impedance and modulus formalism. Modulus formalism has identified the effects of both grain and grain boundary microstructure on the dielectric properties, particularly in solid state routed samples.

  11. Removal of Naphthol Green B from Aqueous Solution by Calcined Layered Double Hydroxides:Adsorption Property and Mechanism Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng; NI Zheming; XIA Shengjie; LIU Xiaoming; WANG Qiaoqiao

    2009-01-01

    The adsorption of naphthol green B(NGB)by Mg/Al-LDO(layered double oxides)with a Mg/Al molar ratio of librium is 193.4 mg and the percentage of absorption is 96.7%,with an adsorbent dose of 1.0 g/L under the following condition:200 mg/L NGB concentration,temperature 298 K,pH 10.0 and an equilibrium time of 80 min.Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were used for fitting the isotherms,and the thermodynamic parameters have been calculated,which showed that the adsorption process was spon 'taneous and exothermic in nature.In the light of so called "memory effect",the Mg/Al-LDO was found to recover their original layered structure after adsorption,and part of NGB ions intercalated into the interlayer of LDH(layered double hydroxides),which has been supported by XRD and FTIR.In addition,the competitive anions for adsorption and the regeneration of Mg/AI-LDO have also been investigated.

  12. 煅烧高岭土的火山灰活性%STUDY ON THE POZZOLANIC ACTIVITY OF CALCINED KAOLINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖仪武; 白志民

    2001-01-01

    用现代测试方法研究了高岭石的热稳定性及经不同温度煅烧产物的系统特征,探讨了其结构变化与火山灰活性的关系.结果表明,煅烧温度为676℃的高岭土具有最佳的火山灰活性.

  13. Combining confinement and NO calcination to arrive at highly dispersed supported nickel and cobalt oxide catalysts with a tunable particle size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, M.; van Grotel, L.J.W.; Eggenhuisen, T.M.; Sietsma, J.R.A.; de Jong, K.P.; de Jongh, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Control over the size and size distribution of supported nanoparticles is key to their efficient use in catalysis. In the preparation of nanoparticles by impregnation using nitrate precursors, the support pore diameter can be used to influence the average crystallite size. However, the particle size

  14. Effects on compound oxygen storage materials of calcinations temperature%焙烧温度对复合储氧材料性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘萍; 赵明; 房华; 龚茂初; 陈耀强

    2007-01-01

    自上世纪80年代初期以来,稀土铈氧化物(CeO2)作为一种储氧材料已在汽车三效催化剂(TWC)中得到了广泛应用。众所周知,CeO2在富氧和富燃条件下有储氧和释放氧的功能,CeO2在缺氧条件下可通过Ce4+’转化成Ce3+而释放出氧气,在富氧条件下Ce3+又可氧化成Ce4+而吸收氧,即2CeO2(Ce2O3+1/2O2。

  15. Preparation of Bismuth Vanadate Pigment by Solid-state Calcination%固相煅烧法制备钒酸铋颜料工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜光超; 尹丹凤; 孙朝晖; 景涵; 陈海军; 唐红建; 余彬; 王唐林

    2016-01-01

    通过固相煅烧法制备钒酸铋颜料,研究反应原料、煅烧温度及煅烧时间对产品物相、粒度及比表面积、颜料呈色性能等的影响.结果表明:以NH4VO3及Bi(NO3)3·5H2O为反应原料,制备条件更温和;煅烧温度为500℃、煅烧时间为12 h,制备出的钒酸铋产品物相纯度较高、平均粒径及比表面积处于较优水平,产品对应的色坐标为L*=84.91,a*=1.18,b*=85.87,c*=85.88,颜料呈色性能优于市售钒酸铋颜料.

  16. Synthesis of Zeolite P from Calcined Rice Husk by Hydrothermal Method%稻壳一次煅烧水热合成P型分子筛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绥英; 付颖寰; 马红超; 陈丽凤; 杨大伟; 郭宏; 宋宇; 马春

    2011-01-01

    稻壳经稀盐酸煮沸后,用去离子水洗涤至中性,干燥后粉碎并与一定质量的Na2CO3和Al(OH)3粉末混合均匀置于马弗炉中煅烧,煅烧产物采用水热合成法合成P型分子筛.研究发现(SiO2占干燥酸洗稻壳质量分数的20%)当煅烧温度为850℃,煅烧时间为8h,Na2 O/SiO2=1.2,SiO2/Al2 O3=4.0,H2 O/Na2 O=35于90℃晶化10 h,合成P型分子筛钙离子交换容量为300.72mg CaCO3/g.产品结构用XRD和SEM表征,结果表明:合成P型分子筛具有较高的结晶度,无杂相且晶形规整,晶粒粒径为1μm左右.此合成方法的显著特点是原料价格低廉、合成方法简单,易于推广.

  17. Unique Structural Properties of the Mg-Al Hydrotalcite Solid Base Catalyst : An In Situ Study using Mg and Al K-edge XAFS during Calcination and Rehydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsberger, D.C.; Bokhoven, J.A. van; Roelofs, J.C.A.A.; Jong, K.P. de

    2001-01-01

    The changes in the layered structure of Mg-Al hydrotalcite (Mg/Al=2) during heat treatment have been investigated by using in situ XAFS simultaneously at the Mg and Al K-edges. The development of unique in situ instrumentation allowed the coordination environments at both the Mg and Al centers to be

  18. The Effect of Calcination Temperature on Synthesis of B4C-Nano Tib2 Composite by Co-Precipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Abedini Khorrami

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Titanium diboride is one of the candidate materials for high temperature applications and also for control rod elements in high temperature reactors. This paper presents the experimental data on the composites of B4C-nano TiB2 that were synthesized successfully by co-precipitation method at temperatures between 973 and 1523K. Titanium tetraisopropoxide, boron carbide and isopropanol were used as the precursor materials. The phase constitution and microstructure of B4C-nano TiB2 during synthesis were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were used to determine phase and microstructure of TiB2-B4C composites. The DTA/DDTA and TG/DTG results improve that the first exothermic reaction is TiO2 phase and second exothermic reaction takes place at 1523K which is TiB2 phase

  19. Design of the Safety Pin on Link Mechanism of Pot Calciner%罐式煅烧炉连杆机构中安全销的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁

    2015-01-01

    通过对罐式煅烧炉连杆机构中安全销的强度校核,重新设计了安全销的外形和直径。当排料机内发生料阻过大的情况时,安全销准确断裂,发挥其对机构的保护作用,同时也减少了减速机可能承受的较强冲击负载。安全销直径的准确度提高也会降低减速机使用系数 fb 的实际值。排料机构串接的排料机数量增加后,需要尽可能减少传动机构产生的多余负荷,对安全销重新核定是必要的。%This essay summarizes the attempts of rechecking the strength of the safety pin.On this basis,the shape and diameter of safety pin were redesigned.The safety pin should fracture accurately when the material blockage goes up in the discharge mechanism to protect the discharge mechanism and decrease the possible strong impact loads on reduction gears.Besides,the increase of the accuracy of safety pin diameter can also help decrease the actual service coefficient fb of the reduction gear.It's necessary to re -verify the safety pin and de-crease the extra loads on the driving mechanism as much as possible when the amount of dischargers linked to the discharge mechanism has been increased.

  20. 浅谈石油焦配料对煅烧炉的影响%Discussion on Influence of Petroleum Coke Propotioning on Calciner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀川

    2013-01-01

    结合生产实际,分析了石油焦中各元素在煅烧前后的变化,介绍了罐式煅烧炉在生产过程中石油焦储存、掺配等各环节配料的做法,确保了煅烧炉平稳运行,达到了降低成本的目的.

  1. Influence of Coking of Tank Skin of Pot Calciner on Production%罐式煅烧炉罐壁结焦对生产的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛铁鹏

    2011-01-01

    通过对某公司大型32罐顺流式煅烧炉在使用过程中罐壁结焦的原因分析,采取了相应措施,从而减小了煅烧过程中结焦对煅烧炉的影响,保证了煅后焦的质量,满足了预焙阳极对煅后焦的质量性能要求.

  2. Study on the Different Activators Activated the Calcined Coal Gangue%不同激发剂对烧煤矸石活化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任辉; 段瑜芳

    2009-01-01

    单独用ca(OH)2对烧煤矸石进行激发,所得材料的各个龄期的强度均很低.向该体系中引入一定比例的盐类(CaCl2、Na2sO4、NaCO2),在一定程度上提高了材料的早期和后期抗压强度.其中引入CaCl2的效果最好.对几种体系的水化产物进行XRD分析可知,3种盐类对基准体系的激发能力为CaCl2>Na2SO4>Na2CO2.基准体系(烧煤矸石+氢氧化钙)+CaCl2体系水化28d的红外光谱图中由于Si-O-Si非对称伸缩振动引起的吸收峰移向了更低的波数.表示有较多的Si被Al所取代,体系的水化产物聚合度高一些.

  3. The effect of calcining temperature on the properties of 0-3 piezoelectric composites of PZT and a liquid crystalline thermosetting polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2011-01-01

    We report on the optimisation of a recently developed high performance 0-3 piezoelectric composite comprising of the piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) powder and a liquid crystalline thermosetting matrix polymer (LCT). The matrix polymer is a liquid crystalline polymer comprising of an HBA

  4. 低温煅烧粉煤灰合成沸石%Synthesis of Zeolite with Low-Temperature Calcined Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭宏斌; 杨守洁

    2009-01-01

    以粉煤灰为原料,研究在碱性水热条件下的水热时间,煅烧温度,煅烧后的水热时间对粉煤灰物相的影响.结果表明在水热温80 ℃,水热4 d,合成含P型沸石和X型沸石的粉煤灰沸石A;在400℃煅烧后,全部莫来石和部分石英转变为可容的硅铝酸盐;煅烧后的试样水热12h,合成含A型沸石和F型沸石的粉煤灰沸石B.对粉煤灰沸石A、粉煤灰沸石B、天然沸石和粉煤灰吸附性能进行了研究,结果表明:合成的粉煤灰沸石B吸附能力最好,吸附率为86.83%.

  5. Anisotropic Ferro- and Dielectric Properties of Textured Bi4Ti3O12 Ceramics Prepared by the Solid-State Reaction Based on Multiple Calcination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Mao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The grain-oriented Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT samples were prepared by the solid-state reaction method with a multicalcination process. The grain-oriented BIT samples exhibit anisotropic structural, ferroelectric, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties. The remanent polarization (2Pr and the piezoelectric constant (d33 of a/b- and c-direction BIT ceramics are 49.5 μC cm−2, 22.2 pC N−1 and 6.7 μC cm−2 6.9 pC N−1, respectively. The dielectric anomalies of samples are observed around 157 K and 232 K. The dielectric anomalies at around 157 K are related to oxygen vacancies. The activation energy of the dielectric relaxation of this anomaly is estimated to be 1.36 eV. Another dielectric anomaly at around 232 K is related to polarizable domains and the viscous motion of domain walls.

  6. Preparation of Nanometer Lithium Manganese by Calcination of Emulsion Explosive%乳化炸药燃烧法制备纳米锰酸锂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈银良; 单承质; 翟清翠; 陈晓莉

    2011-01-01

    本文利用添加了硝酸锂和硝酸锰的乳化炸药燃烧合成纳米锰酸锂,用正交实验法分析了各参数对产品质量的影响,利用红外光谱对产物进行表征,结果证明生成了纳米锰酸锂.

  7. Electrochemical evaluation of Pozzolanic Activity in calcined coal gangue%煅烧煤矸石活性的电化学评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾炳伟; 王培铭

    2008-01-01

    提出了通过测定煅烧煤矸石在饱和Ca(OH)2溶液中溶解、反应平衡后滤液的电阻,以此评价煅烧煤矸石的火山灰活性的新方法,并测定了4个不同产地煅烧煤矸石的火山灰活性指数Ke,分析了煅烧煤矸石的矿物组成、化学成分对滤液导电性能的影响.结果表明:该方法测得的火山灰活性指数Ke与国标GB/T2487-96提出的标准胶砂强度比具有一定的可比性,能够反映出同一种煤矸石在不同煅烧温度条件下相对活性的高低.该方法快速简便,但材料的化学成分变化对该方法测试结果影响较大.

  8. 煅烧煤矸石胶凝活性评价方法分析%Analysis of pozzolanic activity evaluation methods for calcined coal gangue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张吉秀; 孙恒虎; 万建华; 张娜

    2010-01-01

    为了研究煅烧煤矸石不同活性评价方法之间的关系,利用NMR、XPS、ICP等分析手段,分别采用强度评价法、聚合度评价法、活性硅铝溶出评价法以及XPS评价法,对不同温度煅烧煤矸石的火山灰活性进行了评价,并分析了不同评价方法之间的关系.结果表明不同活性评价方法均可以在一定程度上反映煤矸石胶凝活性的变化规律.其中,强度评价法、聚合度评价法对煅烧煤矸石的火山灰活性变化更为敏感,而XPS评价法、活性硅铝溶出法相对较差.其中就煅烧煤矸石而言,强度评价法和聚合度评价法更适合于煤矸石火山灰活性评价,并且二者者之间存在较好的相关性.

  9. INFLUENCE OF CALCINATION ON PERFORMANCE OF SPHERICAL ADSORBENT%焙烧对球形吸附剂性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉国; 李凤生; 王红超; 郁灼

    2016-01-01

    为了使焙烧后的球形吸附剂具备良好的吸附性能和强度,系统研究了干燥空气流速和床层厚度对吸附剂活性组元FAU分子筛结晶度的影响,以及焙烧温度和干燥空气流速对球形吸附剂强度的影响.采用X射线衍射仪、热重分析仪和智能颗粒强度测定仪对样品进行了表征和测试.结果表明:干燥空气流速越大、床层厚度越小、吸附剂床层中的空气湿度越低,活性组元FAU分子筛越不易发生水热破坏,其结晶度越高;焙烧温度越高,球形吸附剂强度越高,焙烧温度超过500℃时黏结剂埃洛石转化为无定形材料,此时,球形吸附剂的强度较高;干燥空气流速增大,球形吸附剂强度也随之增加.

  10. Use of calcined layered double hydroxides for the removal of color and organic matter from textile effluents: kinetic, equilibrium and recycling studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. F. Teixeira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data for the synthesis and characterization of layer double hydroxides (LDH and their use for color and chemical oxygen demand (COD removal from effluents generated by a textile industry. Adsorption studies with raw and biologically treated (activated sludge textile effluent showed that the pseudo-second order model best fitted the experimental data, leading to adsorption coefficients of 39.1 and 102.9 mgCOD/gLDH for raw and treated effluents, respectively. The best conditions for color and COD removal were obtained at lower values of temperature and pH (25 °C and pH 7 and, in these conditions, an LDH dose of 10 g/L resulted in color removal efficiencies of 56% for samples of raw and 66% for samples of treated effluent. Recycling studies indicated that the reuse of thermally treated LDH led to a progressive loss in the removal efficiencies of COD and color. The reduction was more pronounced with samples of the raw textile effluent. LDH characterization performed before and after each adsorption and regeneration experiment showed that there was no intercalation of dye molecules in the interlayer region of the LDH, indicating that COD and color removal might be due to the adsorption of organic molecules onto the LDH surface.

  11. Attenuation of stress-elicited brain catecholamines, serotonin and plasma corticosterone levels by calcined gold preparations used in Indian system of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Zahoor Ahmad; Gilani, Rabia Afzal; Sharma, Pragya; Vohora, Shashi Bharat

    2005-06-01

    Problems associated with mental health have increased tremendously in modern times. The search for effective and safe alternatives should, therefore, be pursued vigorously. Forced immobilization is one of the best explored models of stress in rats and the role of corticosterone, serotonin (5-HT) and catecholamines, i.e. norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine is well documented. We investigated the therapeutic potential of two gold preparations (Ayurvedic Swarna Bhasma and Unani Kushta Tila Kalan) in restraint induced stress at different time points of 1 hr, 2 hr and 4 hr. We pretreated rats with two gold preparations, Ayurvedic Swarna Bhasma and Unani Kushta Tila Kalan (25 mg/kg, orally for 10 days) prior to restraint stress. Brain catecholamine, serotonin and plasma corticosterone levels were determined following 1, 2 and 4 hr restraint stress, using HPLC and also plasma corticosterone using luminescence spectrophotometry. Gold preparations restored restraint stress-induced elevation in levels of brain catecholamines (norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopmine), 5-HT and plasma corticosterone to near normal levels. Gold, widely used in modern medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, is highly valued for various medicinal uses in Indian systems of medicine. Traditional gold preparations are attributed with tonic/rejuvenating and antioxidant properties. Our earlier studies revealed interesting analgesic, immunostimulant, adaptogenic and glycogen sparing properties in these preparations, but their effects in stress and depression have not been investigated yet. Significant restoration of altered values to near normal levels suggest potentials for gold preparations in stress and depression.

  12. Antioxidant/restorative effects of calcined gold preparations used in Indian systems of medicine against global and focal models of ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Zahoor Ahmad; Vohora, Shashi Bharat

    2002-05-01

    Stroke, or ischaemic brain damage, is of great geriatric importance being the third most common cause of death after cancer and heart diseases in developed countries. Despite such high frequency, its management has received inadequate attention. Many studies have shown the role of free radicals in the pathogenesis of ischaemic brain damage. Search for safe and effective antioxidant and free radial scavenger agents, therefore, appear to be a promising approach for stroke therapy. Gold, widely used in modern medicine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, is highly valued for various medicinal uses in Indian systems of medicine. Traditional gold preparations are attributed with tonic/rejuvenating and antioxidant properties. Our earlier studies revealed interesting analgesic, immunostimulant, adaptogenic and glycogen sparing properties in these preparations, but their effects in cerebral ischaemia have not been investigated. This prompted us to initiate the present study using global and focal models of ischaemia in albino rats. Enzymatic parameters (lipid peroxidase, reduced glutathione, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutatione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) were employed to assess ischaemic brain damage and its modulation. Significant restoration of altered values to near normal levels by Ayurvedic Swarna Bhasma and Unani Kushta Tila Kalan (25 mg/kg, orally for 10 days), suggest potentials for gold preparations in cerebrovascular diseases. The preparations deserve more scientific attention for possible therapeutic exploitation.

  13. 石英块料直接煅烧法生产方石英%Preparation of Cristobalite by Direct Calcination with Nubby Quartz

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈同彩; 周善民; 杨刚; 艾云龙; 袁茂豪

    2005-01-01

    阐述了石英块料直接煅烧法生产加工方石英的工艺特点.产品通过X射线衍射(XRD)、扫描电镜(SEM)、能谱仪(EDS)测试,说明块料直接煅烧法生产的方石英具有转化率高、加工性能好、成本低等特点.

  14. Effect of Calcination Temperature and Calcination Time on the Kaolinite/TIO2 Composite for Photocatalytic Reduction of Co2/ Vliv Kalcinační Teploty A Doby Kalcinace Na Kompozit Kaolinit/TIO2 Pro Fotokatalytickou Redukci Co2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reli Martin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Kompozit kaolinit/TiO2 (60 hm% TiO2 byl připraven termální hydrolýzou suspenze surového kaolinu v síranu titanylu a kalcinován při různých teplotách (600, 650 a 700°C a po různou dobu (1, 2 a 3 h. Získaný vzorek byl charakterizován pomocí XRPD, N2 fyzikální adsorpcí a SEM, a testován na fotokatalytickou redukci CO2. Rozdíl kalcinačních podmínek neovlivnil složení fáze TiO2, pouze se mírně pozměnila specifická povrchová plocha a výrazně byla ovlivněna velikost krystalitu kompozitu kaolinit/TiO2. Vyšší teplota a delší doba kalcinace vedly k vyšší krystalitě prášku. Fotokatalytické výsledky ukázaly, že velikost krystality určuje účinnost fotokatalyzítoru kaolinit/TiO2

  15. 40 CFR 61.122 - Emission standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ambient air from all calciners and nodulizing kilns at an elemental phosphorus plant shall not exceed a... calcining of phosphate shale, (c) The system is used to scrub emissions from all calciners and/or...

  16. 40 CFR 61.121 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., structures, operations, calciners and nodulizing kilns on one contiguous site. (b) Calciner or Nodulizing.../or to convert it to a nodular form. For the purpose of this subpart, calciners and nodulizing...

  17. 焙烧炉沥青烟气净化系统中喷淋冷却水系统可靠性分析%Analysis on Reliability of Cooling Water System in Asphalt Gas Decontaminating for Carbon Calciner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新泉; 董云霞

    2007-01-01

    在碳素焙烧炉沥青烟气净化系统(电捕集法)中,冷却水系统运行可靠性在整个喷淋雾化子系统中的权重最大,以冷却水供水失常为顶事件,建立了故障树,并求取了最小径集和最小割集,以达到掌握故障的发生规律,调查故障发生原因,制定经济有效控制故障的方案的目的.

  18. 富钙生物油煅烧及脱硫特性研究%The investigation on calcination and desulfurization characteristics of calcium-enriched bio-oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张谋; 陈汉平; 王贤华; 杨海平; 张世红

    2012-01-01

    As a novel desulfurizer, the decomposition mechanism and desulfurization characteristics of Calcium-Enriched Bio-oil (CEB) are still in the research stage. In this paper, thermal decomposition of CEB was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that there were three reaction stages: CO2 and H2O precipitation from part component of bio-oil, decomposition of organic carboxylic acid calcium salt, decomposition of calcium carbonate. The main reason that solid products CaO obtained from CEB is better than those from limestone was the cavitation effect of large amounts release during the second stage. Desulfurization experimental results showed that the desulfurization performance of CEB was far superior to limestone. Under the same conditions the desulfurization reaction time of CEB was 2 times that of the limestone and ultimate calcium conversion rate was much higher than the limestone. The optimum desulfurization reaction temperature for limestone was 850 ℃ while CEB was 900 ℃.%富钙生物油作为一种新型的脱硫剂,其煅烧分解机理及脱硫特性还处在研究阶段.文章采用热重分析仪对富钙生物油煅烧试验进行了研究,结果表明:富钙生物油的煅烧分为3个阶段,分别是部分生物油组分的分解阶段、有机羧酸钙盐快速分解阶段、碳酸钙分解阶段.有机酸钙盐分解阶段大量气体析出的气蚀作用是固体产物CaO孔隙特性明显优于石灰石煅烧产物的主要原因.热重分析仪及小型固定床反应器上脱硫试验表明,富钙生物油脱硫性能远优于石灰石,相同反应条件下,富钙生物油脱硫反应时间是石灰石的两倍,最终钙转化率也远高于石灰石.石灰石最佳脱硫反应温度为850℃,而富钙生物油最佳脱硫反应温度为900℃.

  19. 高贝利特硫铝酸盐水泥的熟料煅烧及其强度%Clinker Calcination and Compressive Strength of High Belite Sulphoaluminate Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    要秉文; 梅世刚; 罗永会; 吕臣敬

    2008-01-01

    用粉煤灰、石灰石、石膏作原料,烧制了以贝利特(β-C2S)为主、无水硫铝酸钙(C4A3S)为辅的高贝利特硫铝酸盐水泥,其w(β-C2S)达60%、w(C4A3S) 30%,熟料中无C3S和C3A.分析了率值和煅烧制度对熟料矿物形成的影响,较佳的煅烧工艺参数是:碱度系数Cm为0.95~1.03,铝硫比P为3.32~3.65,煅烧温度1280~1340 ℃,保温时间45~70 min.试验表明C4A3S使水泥具有较高的早期强度,大量的β-C2S持续水化保证了水泥强度的稳定增长.水泥胶砂的1 d、3 d、7 d和28 d抗压强度分别为16.5 MPa、28.0 MPa、36.7 MPa和48.6 MPa.硬化水泥砂浆的总孔隙率低,最可几孔径小.

  20. Calcination kinetics study of high-strength low-calcium silicate clinker%高强低钙硅酸盐水泥熟料煅烧动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘姚君; 汪澜; 马腾坤

    2015-01-01

    通过对高强低钙硅酸盐水泥熟料和普通硅酸盐水泥熟料煅烧动力学过程进行对比,采用化学分析、X-ray衍射等手段,探讨了高强低钙硅酸盐水泥熟料煅烧动力学过程.研究发现:高强低钙硅酸盐水泥生料的易烧性优于普通硅酸盐水泥生料,烧成温度降低50~100℃;运用动力学公式与Arrhenius公式相结合分别计算煅烧反应活化能,高强低钙硅酸盐水泥熟料相对于普通硅酸盐水泥熟料烧成反应活化能降低32 kJ/mol;规模化生产过程中,高强低钙硅酸盐水泥熟料相对于普通硅酸盐水泥熟料节约标煤5 kg/t,综合减排CO243 kg/t.

  1. NbOx/SiO2 in the gas-phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to epsilon-caprolactam: Influence of calcination temperature, niobia loading and silylation post-treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maronna, M. M.; Kruissink, E. C.; Parton, R. F.; Tinge, J. T.; Soulimani, F.; Weckhuysen, B. M.; Hoelderich, W. F.

    2016-01-01

    NbOx/SiO2 catalyst materials prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method were studied in the industrially relevant gas-phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to ε-caprolactam. The catalytic experiments were carried out in a fixed bed reactor system at atmospheric pressure. Res

  2. 煅烧骨复合PRF对牙周骨缺损的实验研究%Empirical Study of Reparation of Periodontal Bone Defects Treated with PRP and Calcined Bone Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董红宾; 张琴; 何惠宇; 克依木·克里木; 吕晶晶

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究比较异种煅烧骨和Bio-oss骨分别与富血小板纤维蛋白(platdet-rich fibrin,PRF)联合,及其各自单独使用对牙周骨缺损修复的效果.方法:制备煅烧骨,PRF凝胶及其复合物.选54只新西兰大白兔,制备牙周组织缺损模型,随机分成空白对照组、PRF凝胶组、煅烧骨组、Bio-oss骨组、煅烧骨/PRF凝胶组、Bio-oss骨/PRF凝胶组,将这些材料植入牙周缺损区,每组9只兔子.术后4周、8周和l2周处死动物,获取完整标本,观察影像学和组织学.行组织学染色检测,测量新生牙周组织的高度.结果:X线结果表明:4周、8周和l2周煅烧骨/PRF组和Bio-oss/PRF组平均密度均明显高于对照组且缺损处骨组织连续.组织学观察:实验组均在牙根面可见新生牙骨质样组织、牙周膜和牙槽骨样组织的形成,随着时间的推移逐渐成熟、增多.12周时,煅烧骨/PRF凝胶、Bio-oss骨/PRF凝胶较空白对照组明显提高,较其他3组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:煅烧骨/PRF凝胶、Bio-oss骨/PRF凝胶复合物可明显促进牙周组织的再生.

  3. Acid Leaching of Calcined Vanadium Titanomagnetite with Calcium Compounds for Extraction of Vanadium%钒钛磁铁矿钙化焙烧及其酸浸提钒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰杰; 张力; 郑诗礼; 娄太平; 张懿; 陈东辉; 张燕

    2011-01-01

    对钒钛磁铁矿精矿钠化焙烧水浸提钒和钙化焙烧酸浸提钒的效果进行对比,确定钙化焙烧-硫酸浸出提钒方法,研究了焙烧添加剂Na2CO3,CaO,Ca(OH)2和CaCO3对浸出提钒效果的影响,其中CaCO3的作用最好,确定了CaCO3添加量为10%,1 200℃焙烧时间为1h的优化焙烧条件,得到主要的含钒物相为偏钒酸钙相;偏钒酸钙在pH<1.35和2.5~4的硫酸溶液及pH<1和4~6.7的盐酸中可溶解,但酸浸所得铁精矿熟料中偏钒酸钙在pH 0.5、液固质量比5:1的硫酸溶液中80℃浸出3h可更好溶出,钒浸出率可达72.1%.%After comparing the results of vanadium extraction by roasting the mixture of calcium-bearing regents with vanadium titanomagnetite concentrate and leaching by deionized water and roasting the mixture of sodium-bearing regents with iron concentrate and leaching by acid, the extraction method of vanadium by roasting the mixture of calcium-bearing reagents with iron concentrate and leaching by sulfuric acid is proposed. Among roasting additives of Na2CO3, CaO, Ca(OH)2 and CaCO3, CaCO3 has the best effect for vanadium extraction. The optimal roasting conditions obtained are the additive dosage 10%, roasting temperature 1200 V and roasting time 1 h with CaCO3, and the primary vanadium-bearing phase generated is calcium metavanadate. It can be dissolved in sulfuric acid solution at pH

  4. Visible-light CO{sub 2} photocatalytic reduction performance of ball-flower-like Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} synthesized without organic precursor: Effect of post-calcination and water vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhuxing; Yang, Zhenmei; Liu, Hongfeng [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Engineering Research Center of Industrial Boiler and Furnace Flue Gas Pollution Control, Hangzhou 311202 (China); Wang, Haiqiang, E-mail: wanghaiqiang2008@126.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Engineering Research Center of Industrial Boiler and Furnace Flue Gas Pollution Control, Hangzhou 311202 (China); Wu, Zhongbiao, E-mail: zbwu@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Engineering Research Center of Industrial Boiler and Furnace Flue Gas Pollution Control, Hangzhou 311202 (China)

    2014-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction on non-organic synthesized PB-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} was investigated. • CO was detected as the major product. • Increased amount of CO was yielded in the condition with little water vapor. • Photocatalytic performance was enhanced with Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} after 550 °C post-annealing. • Renewing the catalysts used in CO{sub 2} photoreduction by water washing was achieved. - Abstract: Nanoplates-composed ball-flower-like Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} (PB-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}) was synthesized by a hydrothermal method without any organic precursor and its performance in photocatalytic reduction of CO{sub 2} was investigated in a continuous-flow reaction system under visible light irradiation (420 nm < λ < 620 nm). CO was detected as the main product of this photocatalytic process and H{sub 2}O was found to suppress the conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO due to its competitive absorption with CO{sub 2} on the medium strength basic sites of Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}. PB-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6} annealed at 550 °C showed superior CO yield in the condition with little water vapor. It might be attributed to the enhanced crystallinity, significantly decreased recombination rate of photo-generated electrons and holes and more stable basic sites for strengthened CO{sub 2} adsorption, according to characterization results by XRD, SEM, UV–vis SRS, PL and CO{sub 2}-TPD. However, comparing with PB-Bi{sub 2}WO{sub 6}, the negative effect of H{sub 2}O was even more prominent on the annealed sample because of the reduced surface area. Yield decrease was observed during the irradiation time due to the adsorption of intermediates generated but fortunately washing with deionized water was found to be an effective way to renew the catalyst.

  5. 煅烧对粉煤灰合成4A沸石的作用%Effects of Calcination of Synthesis of 4A Zeolite Using Coal Fly Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李方文; 魏先勋; 马淞江; 张德见; 翟云波

    2003-01-01

    研究了煅烧对粉煤灰合成4A沸石除炭(有机物)增白和活化的两个作用,试验确定了粉煤灰最佳的锻烧条件:温度为850℃,时间为2h.在此条件下煅烧,通过XRD、SEM分折和白度测定,结果显示:破坏了粉煤灰中的晶相结构和溶解了玻璃体,白度达到了63.

  6. 煅烧高岭土对磷酸钾镁水泥性能的影响%Effect of Calcined Kaolin on Properties of Magnesium Potassium Phosphate Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁建华; 汪宏涛; 张时豪; 戴丰乐

    2016-01-01

    采用煅烧高岭土等量取代磷酸钾镁水泥(MKPC)的方法研究了煅烧高岭土对MKPC凝结时间、流动度、强度、水化热和早期收缩的影响,并采用X射线衍射仪(XRD)对水化产物进行了分析.结果表明:煅烧高岭土降低了MKPC的凝结时间、流动度和强度,为保证施工时间和良好流动度,其质量分数应控制在10%左右;煅烧高岭土可以降低放热量和放热速率,减少其早期收缩,会影响MKPC的水化过程,但不会影响水化产物的种类和结晶程度.

  7. 预分解窑系统在稳定运行条件下的用风%Air consumption of the pre- calcining kiln system under normal running conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    考宏涛; 陆雷; 李敏; 胡道和

    2001-01-01

    根据预分解窑系统煤粉燃烧的特点,结合国内几家预分解窑的实际生产情况,探讨了窑炉在稳定运行条件下的用风量及其风量平衡问题,强调指出烧成系统风、煤、料的合理匹配对系统正常运转的重要性,为指导工厂的实际操作提供了参考。%Based on the characteristics of combustion of the pulverized coal in precalciner kilns, in combination with the actual production of a few domestic cement plants with the precalcining kiln, the gas flow rate and its equilibrium between the kiln and precalciner under the steady condition were discussed. The importance of the suitable arrangement of the gas, coal and raw real used in the sintering system was emphasized. Reference to conduct the actual operation of the plants was presented.

  8. 降低我公司联碱煅烧炉蒸汽消耗的途径%Approaches to Reduce The Steam Consumption of The Calciner in Hou's Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘应峰; 庞博

    2010-01-01

    介绍了近几年昊华西南化工有限责任公司联碱厂煅烧3.2 MPa蒸汽的消耗状况,并根据重碱煅烧蒸汽消耗的影响因素,制定了相应的技术和管理措施,从而达到降低煅烧3.2 MPa蒸汽消耗的目的,取得了较好的经济效益.

  9. Preparation of spherical SrAl2O4 powders by coprecipitation-calcination process%共沉淀-焙烧法制备球形铝酸锶粉体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丛林; 沈湘黔; 周建新

    2006-01-01

    以碳酸氢铵、硫酸铝铵和硝酸锶为原料,采用共沉淀法制备了化学组成为SrCO3·2Al(OH)3·7H2O的前体,此前体在较低温度下可合成SrAl2O4粉体.利用红外光谱(FTIR)、扫描电镜(SEM)及能量散射分光光谱(EDS)、X射线衍射(XRD)和热分析(TG-DSC)表征了前体及其热处理产物的特征.结果表明,锶铝物质的量比和pH值对粉体成分和颗粒形貌有显著影响,n(Sr):n(Al)=1:1.6、pH=7.6条件下制备了球形前体,此前体在1100℃于空气气氛中焙烧2h获得了单分散、球形SrAl2O4粉体,合成温度较传统高温固相法低约400℃.

  10. Effect of Calcination Condition on Pore Volume & Apparent Bulk Density of FCC Catalyst%焙烧条件对FCC催化剂孔体积和表观松密度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔凡忠

    2007-01-01

    研究了焙烧条件对FCC催化剂孔体积和表观松密度的影响,结果表明,在480~650℃范围内,随着焙烧温度的升高,FCC催化剂孔体积增大,FCC催化剂在650℃焙烧2h的孔体积比在480℃焙烧2h的孔体积增加0.03mL·g-1;在480~650℃范围内,随着焙烧温度的升高,FCC催化剂表观松密度略有增加,FCC催化剂在650℃焙烧2h的表观松密度比在480℃焙烧2h的表观松密度增加0.01 g·mL-1.

  11. 低温煅烧高岭土火山灰活性对水泥石结构的影响%EFFECT OF POZZOLANIC ACTIVITY OF CALCINED KAOLIN ON STRUCTURE OF CEMENT MORTAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白志民; 肖仪武

    2003-01-01

    研究了低温煅烧高岭土的火山灰活性及其对水泥石结构的影响. 高岭土经676 ℃煅烧1 h, 其质量分数(下同)为74.3%的SiO2和90.32%的Al2O3呈活性状态, 火山灰活性最好.硅酸盐水泥砂浆中掺入15%的火山灰活性最好的煅烧高岭土, 可有效降低氢氧化钙含量并减小其粒度, 相应提高钙矾石、水化硅酸钙和水化铝酸钙含量, 改善水泥石的微结构, 可提高水泥砂浆试块28 d时的抗压强度18%左右.

  12. The Influence of Calcinated Condition and Kiln Dust on the Pozzolanic Activity of Dewatering-coal Gangue%煅烧制度及窑灰对脱水煤矸石火山灰活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春梅; 杨立荣; 杨克锐

    2008-01-01

    通过ISO法和碱侵蚀法,系统研究了煅烧制度(包括煅烧温度、升温速度与冷却速度)和窑灰的掺入对脱水煤矸石火山灰活性的影响.结果表明,脱水煤矸石的活性,不但与煅烧温度有关,而且与升温速度、冷却速度都有十分紧密的关系.850℃下急剧升温、快速冷却可以得到火山灰活性最高的脱水煤矸石.掺入适量的窑灰,有利于提高脱水煤矸石的火山灰活性.

  13. 煅烧制度及激发剂对偏高岭土活性的影响%The Influence of Calcinated Condition and Activator on the Pozzolanic Activity of Metakaolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春梅; 杨立荣; 蔡基伟; 封孝信

    2009-01-01

    采用EDTA容量分析法,研究了煅烧制度(包括煅烧温度,升温速度与冷却速度,煅烧时间)、高岭土细度以及激发剂的掺入对偏高岭土火山灰活性的影响.结果表明,偏高岭土的活性,不但与煅烧温度有关,而且与升温速度、冷却速度都有十分紧密的关系.850℃下急剧升温、快速冷却可以得到火山灰活性最高的偏高岭土.煅烧时间和细度对偏高岭土的活性有一定的影响.细度增加,煅烧时问延长,得到的偏高岭土活性降低.激发剂的加入有利于偏高岭土活性的提高.实验中,偏高岭土活化的最佳激发荆为窑灰,其掺入量以10%为宜.

  14. Leaching of Valuable Metals from Calcined Spent Lithium-ion Batteries%失效锂离子电池焙烧及其有价金属浸出

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    揭晓武; 王成彦; 李敦钫; 尹飞; 陈永强; 杨永强

    2011-01-01

    研究了失效锂离子电池焙烧物料中有价金属的浸出行为.首先以LiCoO2,Co3O4为实验原料,与Na2SO4,K2SO4,(NH4)2SO4和浓硫酸调成浆料,在不同温度下焙烧转化,然后用热水浸出.在不同条件下,LiCoO2焙烧转化物料在水中的溶解率为56.4%~100%,Co3O4焙烧转化物料的溶解率达97.2%~100%.经测定,烘焙后LiCoO2或Co3O4转化为M2Co(SO4)2·nH2O(M=Na,K,NH4+),易溶于水.在此基础上,将失效锂离子电池与Na2SO4和浓硫酸的浆料在400℃下进行焙烧,再用70℃热水浸出焙烧产物.结果表明,Li,Co元素均可完全浸出,Cu,Al浸出率亦在99%以上.%Leaching behavior of valuable metal elements in roasted spent lithium-ion batteries was investigated. The pulp of LiCoO2 or Co3O4 mixed with concentrated sulfuric acid and one of sodium sulfate, potassium sulfate and ammonium sulfate was heated in the temperature range from 150 C to 300 ℃. The cobalt-containing transformation products were then subject to dissolution in hot water.The dissolution rate of transformation products of LiCoO2-containing pulp was 56.4%~100%, and that of Co3O4-eontaining pulp 97.2%~100%. M2Co(SO4)2·nH2O (M=Na, K, NH4+) phases formed in the transformation products with sodium sulfate, which were easily dissolved in hot water. Moreover, the mixture of roasted residue of spent lithium-ion batteries with concentrated sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate was heated at 400 ℃. All of the Li and Co elements in the mixture were leached out in hot water at 70 ℃, and the leaching rates of Cu and A1 were greater than 99%.

  15. 40 CFR 60.730 - Applicability and designation of affected facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Performance for Calciners and Dryers in Mineral Industries § 60.730 Applicability and designation of affected facility. (a) The affected facility to which the provisions of this subpart apply is each calciner...

  16. 40 CFR 60.733 - Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Calciners and Dryers in Mineral Industries... facility” under § 60.15. Calciner and dryer equipment subject to high temperatures and abrasion are:...

  17. Characterization of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 powders synthesized by spray drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Chen, Weiwu; Lundberg, Mats;

    2009-01-01

    Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 powders were synthesized by spray drying and successive calcinations. The phase purity, BET surface area, and particle morphology of as-sprayed and calcined powders were characterized. After calcination above 300 °C, the powders were single phase and showed a BET surface area of 68...

  18. 40 CFR 63.605 - Monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... rock dryer or phosphate rock calciner subject to the provisions of this subpart shall install... either the mass flow of phosphorus-bearing feed material to the dryer or calciner, or the mass flow of product from the dryer or calciner. The monitoring system shall have an accuracy of ±5 percent over...

  19. 40 CFR 60.731 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Calciners and Dryers in Mineral Industries... given them in the Clean Air Act and in subpart A of this part. Calciner means the equipment used to...) water from mineral material through direct or indirect heating. Installed in series means a calciner...

  20. 40 CFR 60.403 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the gases discharged into the atmosphere from any phosphate rock dryer, calciner, or grinder. The... operate a device for measuring the phosphate rock feed to any affected dryer, calciner, or grinder. The... phosphate rock dryer, calciner, or grinder subject to paragraph (a) of this section exceeds the...

  1. 40 CFR 61.123 - Emission testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., at its option, observe the test. (c) An emission test shall be conducted at each operational calciner or nodulizing kiln. If emissions from a calciner or nodulizing kiln are discharged through more than... calciner or kiln shall be the sum of the emission rates from each of the stacks. (d) Each emission...

  2. 40 CFR 60.732 - Standards for particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Calciners and... particulate matter in excess of 0.092 gram per dry standard cubic meter (g/dscm) for calciners and for calciners and dryers installed in series and in excess of 0.057 g/dscm (0.025 gr/dscf) for dryers; and...

  3. X-ray powder diffraction and EXAFS studies on SnAPO-5 and Cu : SnAPO-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flavell, W. R.; Nicholson, D. G.; Nilsen, M. H.;

    2001-01-01

    SnAPO-5 was synthesised and calcined at 800 degreesC. Copper was introduced into the calcined material by the incipient wetness method. The as-synthesised, calcined and copper-incorporated SnAPO-5 have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and EXAFS. Rietveld refinements show that the overa...

  4. N-TiO2 Nanoparticles Prepared by Calcining TiN:Phase Composition and Optical Absorption Performance%煅烧TiN制备氮掺杂TiO2及其物相和光吸收性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方亚林; 孙明轩; 王莹; 孙善富; 林小靖; 胡梦媛; 王文韬

    2016-01-01

    通过控制煅烧TiN纳米粉体的温度和时间制备氮掺杂纳米TiO2.利用原位升温X射线衍射(XRD)分析了TiN粉末随温度改变而发生的物相变化过程,并结合常规XRD粉末衍射、X射线光电子能谱(XPS)及紫外-可见漫反射吸收光谱等手段对样品物相、组成以及可见光吸收性能进行测试表征.同时,探究了TiN热处理温度及热处理时间对样品吸收带边的影响.样品的紫外-可见漫反射吸收光谱测试结果表明,氮掺杂TiO2显著提高了TiO2的可见光响应,并使其吸收带边发生明显的红移.TiN在500℃热处理60 min制得的N-TiO2纳米粉体的紫外-可见光响应能力最强.

  5. Study on the Quantified Evaluating System of Reliability of Cooling Water System in Asphalt Gas Decontaminating for Carbon Calciner%焙烧炉沥青烟气净化冷却水系统可靠性评价体系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董云霞; 秦贵棉; 王新泉

    2008-01-01

    在建立焙烧炉沥青烟气净化系统中冷却水系统故障树的基础上,运用故障树定量分析理论,建立了冷却水系统可靠性定量评价体系,对该系统发生故障的概率作出判断,从而能够及时、合理地确定冷却水系统的状况,以便及时采取应变措施,保持系统可靠运行.

  6. 机械力强化作用下轻烧氧化镁碳化过程的传质与反应动力学研究%Mass Transfer and Reaction Kinetics in the Carbonization of Magnesium Oxide from Light Calcined Magnesia with Mechanical Force Enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张焕军; 朱国才

    2004-01-01

    The carbonization of magnesium oxide particles by CO2 was investigated using a stirring mill reactor.The effects of the system temperature, stirring rotation speed, influx rate of CO2 and initial diameter of the magnesium oxide particles on the carbonization process were determined. The results show that the system temperature and the stirring rotation speed are the most significant influencing factors on the carbonization rate. The determination of critical decomposition temperature (CDT) gives the maximum carbonization rate with other conditions fixed. A theoretical model involving mass transfer and reaction kinetics was presented for the carbonization process.The apparent activation energy was calculated to be 32.8kJ.mol-1. The carbonization process is co-controlled by diffusive mass transfer and chemical reaction. The model fits well with the experimental results.

  7. 高强低钙水泥与普硅水泥熟料形成过程对比研究%Comparison study on calcination processes of high-strength and low-calcium cement clinker and ordinary Portland cement clinker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘姚君; 汪澜

    2015-01-01

    通过比较分析了不同煅烧温度(1200、1250、1280、1300、1350、1400、1450℃)下制成的普通硅酸盐水泥熟料和不同C2S含量(40%、45%、50%、55%)的高强低钙水泥熟料,初步确定了高强低钙水泥熟料的煅烧温度范围为1300~1400℃,以及煅烧温度与熟料矿物组成之间的影响规律.

  8. Effect of calcination temperature on microstructure, dielectric, magnetic and optical properties of Ba{sub 0.7}La{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 11.7}Co{sub 0.3}O{sub 19} hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Talwinder [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144411 (India); Kaur, Barjinder [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar 144011 (India); Bhat, Bilal H. [Department of Physics, University of Kashmir, 190006 (India); Kumar, Sachin [Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Srivastava, A.K., E-mail: srivastava_phy@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144411 (India)

    2015-01-01

    M-type barium hexaferrite Ba{sub 0.7}La{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 11.7}Co{sub 0.3}O{sub 19} (BaLCM) powder, synthesized using sol gel auto combustion method, heat treated at 700, 900, 1100 and 1200 °C. X ray diffraction (XRD) powder patterns of heat treated samples show the formation of pure phase of M-type hexaferrite after 700 °C. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) reveals that the weight loss of BaLCM becomes constant after 680 °C. The presence of two prominent peaks, at 432 cm{sup −1} and 586 cm{sup −1} in Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra, gives the idea of formation of M-type hexaferrites. The M–H curve obtained from Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) were used to calculate saturation magnetization (M{sub S}), retentivity (M{sub r}), squareness ration (SR) and coercivity (H{sub c}). The maximum value of coercivity (5602 Oe) is found at 900 °C. The band gap dependency on temperature was studied using UV–vis NIR spectroscopy. The dielectric constant has been found to be high at low frequency but it decreases with increase in frequency. Such kind of dielectric behavior is explained on the basis of Koop's phenomenological theory and Maxwell Wagner theory.

  9. Role of some rare earth (RE) ions (RE = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd and Dy) in crystal and mechanical behaviours of sol–gel derived ZrO2–2 mol% RE2O3 spun fibres calcined at 1300°C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Naskar; M Chatterjee; D Ganguli

    2002-10-01

    Crystal behaviours such as crystallization temperature (amorphous to tetragonal () zirconia), tendency of phase transformation (tetragonal to monoclinic () zirconia) and lattice strain were studied with mechanical property e.g. tensile strength of sol–gel derived ZrO2–2 mol% RE2O3 (RE = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd and Dy) spun fibres. Rare earth cations of varying sizes played a significant role in changing the above mentioned properties of ZrO2–2 mol% RE2O3 fibres. It was found that with decreasing the ionic size difference between the zirconium and RE ions, crystallization temperature (amorphous $\\rightarrow \\ t$-ZrO2) decreased, the probability of phase transformation ($t \\rightarrow m$) decreased, lattice strain which is related to lattice distortion decreased and tensile strength increased.

  10. EFFECT OF CALCINATION TEMPERATURE ON PERFORMANCE OF SILICALITE-1 FOR VAPOR PHASE BECKMANN REARRANGEMENT OF CYCLOHEXANONE OXIME%焙烧温度对Silicalite-1催化环己酮肟气相Beckmann重排反应的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 魏会娟; 窦晓勇; 王向宇

    2014-01-01

    采用水热方法合成Silicalite 1分子筛,考察不同焙烧温度处理后用于催化环己酮肟气相Beckmann重排反应的催化性能.利用XRD,IR,BET和热分析方法对分子筛进行表征.结果表明,焙烧温度对环己酮肟的转化率和分子筛稳定性的影响较大,而对己内酰胺的选择性影响不明显.随着焙烧温度的升高,分子筛的比表面积变化不明显,而外表面积先增大后减小,微孔体积占总孔体积的比例呈下降趋势.最佳的焙烧温度为400℃,在该焙烧温度下的分子筛用于气相Beckmann重排反应中的活性和稳定性最佳.

  11. Kinetics and Thermodynamics for Acid Red 88 Adsorption on Calcined Layered Double Hydroxides%Mg/Al水滑石的焙烧产物吸附酸性红88的动力学和热力学机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪哲明; 王巧巧; 姚萍; 刘晓明; 李远

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption thermodynamics and mechanism of acid red 88 (AR88) in aqueous solution adsorbed by LDO were investigated. The adsorption isotherms were measured at different temperatures, and the thermodynamic functions were also calculated. The results indicate that the equilibrium isotherms of uptake of AR88 by LDO were well fitted to the Langmuir equation, and thermodynamic parameters such as △G⊙, △H○ and △S○ were calculated from Langmuir constants. The negative values confirm the spontaneous and exothermic nature of the adsorption process. Three kinetics models were used to fit the kinetics experimental data, and it was found that the pseudo-second order kinetics model could be used to describe the uptake process appropriately. The value of Ea was calculated to be 54.53 kJ·mol-1. The size and arrangement of AR88 molecular on LDHs were simulated using the CASTEP and Focite program, and speculation on mechanisms was that adsorption of AR88 on LDHs surface accompanied with a little AR88 intercalated into the layer.%文章研究了Mg/Al水滑石焙烧产物(LDO)对酸性红88(AR88)的吸附性能及其机理.考察了温度对其吸附性能的影响,探讨了吸附过程的动力学和热力学规律.热力学研究表明:LDO对AR88的吸附过程稍符合Langmuir等温吸附.从Langmuir等温式计算的△H(°),△S(°)为负值,表明吸附过程为放热、熵减小的过程,这是因为LDO在吸附酸性染料后恢复了层状结构;不同温度下△G(°)均为负值,表明吸附过程是自发进行的.动力学研究表明:吸附动力学符合准二级动力学模型,动力学计算吸附过程的活化能Ea=54.53 kJ·mol-1.利用Materials Studio 4.3软件中的CASTEP程序模块和Focite模块模拟了AR88染料分子在Mg/Al水滑石(LDHs)的尺寸大小和排列方式,推测吸附机理是以表面吸附占主要优势并伴有少部分插层.

  12. 高钙配方还原低品位磷矿及残渣活性的研究%Investigation on Reduction of Low Phosphorite with High Calcium to Silica Ratio by the Kiln Method and the Pozzolanic Activity of the Calcining Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利平; 严云; 胡志华; 范晓正

    2014-01-01

    探索了影响高钙配方还原中低品位磷矿还原率的几个因素,并对残渣的火山灰活性进行了深入研究.结果表明:钙硅比、温度、氮气流量对还原率的影响较大.磷矿的初始还原温度为1 100℃左右,1 200~1 250℃时磷矿被大量还原.钙硅比为2.0,炭过剩系数为1.4料球,在氮气流量为700 mL/min,1 300℃保温210 min的还原工艺下,磷矿的还原率均可达到94%以上.对此工艺下的残渣做活性指数测试和物相分析,发现残渣以粉煤灰标准的7d、28 d活性指数分别达到68.1%、83.0%;以矿渣标准的28 d活性指数为61.8%,且残渣中已出现水化性能较好的C2S.有可能用作水泥混凝土的掺合料,代替目前广泛使用的粉煤灰、矿渣等.

  13. Magnetic properties of Fe-Ni nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davarpanah, A M; Sargazi, M [Department of Physics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzae, A A; Feizi, M [Department of Chemistry, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: A.M.DAVARPANAH@hamoon.usb.ac.ir

    2008-08-15

    Many methods have been extended for the preparation of nanoparticles. One of the most important methods is the chemical wet process, e.g. the co-precipitation method that has been used for the preparation of Fe-Ni nanoparticles by the authors. XRD patterns show that the nanoparticles are amorphous before calcination and crystallized after calcination. SEM images show that the grain size of the Fe-Ni particles is in 50-300 nanometre range and that the texture of the nanoparticles after calcination was smoother than before calcination. Hysteresis loops show that the Fe-Ni nanoparticles are superparamagnetic before calcination, because the carbonate phase still exists in the sample, and that they are ferromagnetic materials after calcination. For 40Fe-60Ni nanoparticles after calcination, H{sub c} = 0.12 and B{sub s} = 4800 Oe, being very different in respect to the bulk 40Fe-60Ni alloy.

  14. Magnetic properties of Fe-Ni nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarpanah, A. M.; Mirzae, A. A.; Sargazi, M.; Feizi, M.

    2008-08-01

    Many methods have been extended for the preparation of nanoparticles. One of the most important methods is the chemical wet process, e.g. the co-precipitation method that has been used for the preparation of Fe-Ni nanoparticles by the authors. XRD patterns show that the nanoparticles are amorphous before calcination and crystallized after calcination. SEM images show that the grain size of the Fe-Ni particles is in 50-300 nanometre range and that the texture of the nanoparticles after calcination was smoother than before calcination. Hysteresis loops show that the Fe-Ni nanoparticles are superparamagnetic before calcination, because the carbonate phase still exists in the sample, and that they are ferromagnetic materials after calcination. For 40Fe-60Ni nanoparticles after calcination, Hc = 0.12 and Bs = 4800 Oe, being very different in respect to the bulk 40Fe-60Ni alloy.

  15. Preparation and evaluation of sulfided NiMo/γ-Al2O3 hydrotreating catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    KAMYAB, ALI

    2016-01-01

      Four nickel-molybdenum catalysts were synthesized on gamma alumina with higher surface area and on NiMo catalyst was prepared using gamma alumina with lower surface area. Catalysts with higher-surface-area support were prepared by co-impregnation, sequential impregnation and adding phosphorous. Theses catalysts were calcined at 500  ͦC. Effect of higher calcination temperature was investigated by preparation of one catalyst calcined at 700 ͦC. Catalysts were thoroughly characterized via fou...

  16. Bismuth vanadate process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.M.

    1990-06-26

    This patent describes the process for the preparation of bismuth vanadate and bismuth vanadate-containing compounds wherein the precursor materials are calcined in the solid state at temperatures sufficient to react the precursor materials to prepare the vanadate compounds. It comprises: wet grinding the calcined product, contacting the calcined product with sufficient alkaline material to provide a pH level of 7.0-13.0 and recovering the treated product, the wet grinding of the calcined product being conducted either in the presence of the alkaline material or prior to the contacting with the alkaline material.

  17. Waste Treatment of Acidic Solutions from the Dissolution of Irradiated LEU Targets for 99-Mo Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakel, Allen J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Conner, Cliff [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Quigley, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-10-01

    One of the missions of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program (and now the National Nuclear Security Administrations Material Management and Minimization program) is to facilitate the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) targets for 99Mo production. The conversion from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to LEU targets will require five to six times more uranium to produce an equivalent amount of 99Mo. The work discussed here addresses the technical challenges encountered in the treatment of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH)/nitric acid solutions remaining after the dissolution of LEU targets. Specifically, the focus of this work is the calcination of the uranium waste from 99Mo production using LEU foil targets and the Modified Cintichem Process. Work with our calciner system showed that high furnace temperature, a large vent tube, and a mechanical shield are beneficial for calciner operation. One- and two-step direct calcination processes were evaluated. The high-temperature one-step process led to contamination of the calciner system. The two-step direct calcination process operated stably and resulted in a relatively large amount of material in the calciner cup. Chemically assisted calcination using peroxide was rejected for further work due to the difficulty in handling the products. Chemically assisted calcination using formic acid was rejected due to unstable operation. Chemically assisted calcination using oxalic acid was recommended, although a better understanding of its chemistry is needed. Overall, this work showed that the two-step direct calcination and the in-cup oxalic acid processes are the best approaches for the treatment of the UNH/nitric acid waste solutions remaining from dissolution of LEU targets for 99Mo production.

  18. Remoção de cromo (VI de soluções aquosas utilizando o compósito magnético calcinado hidrotalcita-óxido de ferro: estudo cinético e de equilíbrio termodinâmico Removal of chromium (VI from aqueous solutions using the calcined magnetic composite hydrotalcite-iron oxide: kinetic and thermodynamic equilibrium studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Vinícius Toledo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hydrotalcite, a layered double hydroxide, had its ion exchange properties combined with the magnetic properties of iron oxide to produce a magnetic adsorbent, HT-Fe 500. These magnetic composites can be used as adsorbents for anionic contaminants in water and subsequently removed from the medium by a simple magnetic process. Removal of chromium (VI from aqueous solutions using HT-Fe 500 was achieved using batch adsorption experiments. The adsorption capacity, calculated with the Langmuir-Freundlich model showed to be dependent on temperature, reaching values of 25.93 and 48.31 mg g-1, respectively, for temperatures of 25 and 30 ºC.

  19. Study on Vapor-phase Beckmann Rearrangement of CyclohexanoneOxime over B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2 Catalyst Ⅱ. Effect of Calcination Temperature%B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2催化环己酮肟气相Beckmann重排反应研究Ⅱ.焙烧温度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛东森; 卢冠忠; 陈庆龄; 张玉贤

    2002-01-01

    采用XRD、 FT-IR和NH3-TPD等方法, 研究了载体预焙烧温度和催化剂活化焙烧温度对B2O3/TiO2-ZrO2催化剂的结构、酸性和催化环己酮肟气相Beckmann重排反应性能的影响. 结果表明, 在383~773 K范围内, 载体预焙烧温度对催化剂性能的影响不大; 但经973 K高温预焙烧后, 由于生成了ZrTiO4晶相, 使其与H3BO3的相互作用减弱, 从而导致催化剂的酸性和反应性能降低. 提高催化剂活化焙烧温度,有利于B2O3与TiO2-ZrO2的相互作用, 生成更多的Beckmann重排反应所需的中等强度酸中心, 使催化剂的活性和选择性提高; 但活化焙烧温度过高,会使催化剂中大量的B2O3晶粒析出, 引起酸中心数量和催化活性的明显下降.

  20. Integration of oxygen membranes for oxygen production in cement plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Søgaard, Martin; Hjuler, Klaus;

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes the integration of oxygen membranes in cement plants both from an energy, exergy and economic point of view. Different configurations for oxygen enrichment of the tertiary air for combustion in the pre-calciner and full oxy-fuel combustion in both pre-calciner and kiln...