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Sample records for calcareous dinoflagellate cysts

  1. Calcareous dinoflagellate cysts from the Tithonian - Valanginian Vaca Muerta Formation in the southern Mendoza area of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina

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    Ivanova, Daria K.; Kietzmann, Diego A.

    2017-08-01

    The Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous marine sediments of the Andean region show an excellent record of different calcareous microfossils, among which calcareous dinoflagellate cysts stand out. Detailed micropaleontological studies of Vaca Muerta Formation (Early Tithonian - Early Valanginian) in the southern Mendoza Neuquén Basin from three sections are conducted with the aim of establishing a major presence of microfossil representatives from different microfossil groups. The analysis of several thin sections from the outcrops reveals a relatively rich micropaleontological assemblage of calcareous dinoflagellate cysts, as well as levels with poor preserved calpionellids and benthic foraminifera. Particularly, calcareous dinoflagellate cyst includes 24 known species (two of them with two subspecies). Some species with biostratigraphic value of the Tethyan region have been identified also in the Andean region: 1) Committosphaera pulla (Borza) and Parastomiosphaera malmica (Borza) are species known only from Lower Tithonian; 2) Colomisphaera tenuis (Nagy) appears in the latest Early Tithonian; 3) Colomisphaera fortis Řehánek and Stomiosphaerina proxima Řehánek are important markers for the latest Late Tithonian - middle Late Berriasian interval; 4) Stomiosphaera wanneri Borza appears in the middle Late Berriasian; 5) Colomisphaera conferta Řehánek and Colomisphaera vogleri (Borza) appear in the Late Berriasian and marked the Berriasian-Valanginian boundary interval; 6) Carpistomiosphaera valanginiana Borza is a marker for the Lower/Upper Valanginian. More detailed studies of these groups will allow their correlation with Tethyan biozones, and contribute to improve biostratigraphic schemes in the Neuquén Basin.

  2. DINOFLAGELLATE CYSTS AND CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSILS FROM THE UPPER CRETACEOUS SARACENO FORMATION (CALABRIA, ITALY: IMPLICATIONS ABOUT THE HISTORY OF THE LIGURIDE COMPLEX

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    STEFANO TORRICELLI

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts and calcareous nannofossils recovered from the turbidites of the Saraceno Formation outcropping in the type area (north-eastern Calabria, Italy are presented. They provide new information about the age of the Saraceno Formation, hence a constraint to reconstruct the timing of deformations that affected the Liguride Complex. The distribution of dinoflagellate cysts and calcareous nannofossils in the succession studied is compared with biostratigraphies available for the Upper Cretaceous. Accordingly, the age of the lowermost part of the Fiumara Saraceno section is latest Albian to Turonian, whereas the upper part of the section is dated as late Campanian-?earliest Maastrichtian. A hiatus spanning che Coniacian, che Santonian and most of che Campanian is inferred between these two successions, which are also distinguished by the presence and absence of flint respectively. Consistencies and discrepancies of che present data with biostratigraphical information previously published for che Saraceno Formation, are discussed. 

  3. Variability in surface water properties of the southeastern South Atlantic Ocean related to the Miocene Cooling Events, evidence from calcareous dinoflagellate cysts.

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    Heinrich, S.; Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Willems, H.

    2009-04-01

    The middle- and upper Miocene represent major climatic shifts to colder global temperatures. These periods of cooling (Mi-Events) were characterized by oxygen isotopic shifts that have been related to size changes of the Antarctic and Arctic ice-sheets (e.g. Miller et al., 1991, St. John, 2008). The start and development of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) during this time-interval is of major interest, as it changed the atmospheric and oceanic circulation pattern which led to the initiation of upwelling off the south western African coast (Paulsen et al., 2007). However, the complex interaction between the initiation and development of the upwelling in the western South Atlantic and its interaction with the evolution of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current as well as the built-up of the Antarctic ice-sheet is far from being fully understood. We want to improve the understanding of these processes by establishing a detailed palaeoceanographic reconstruction of the southeastern South Atlantic Ocean on the basis of calcareous dinoflagellate cyst associations. Within this study 53 samples were taken from sediment core ODP 175 1085A off the coast of Namibia and investigated by defining the calcareous dinoflagellate cyst assemblage. The general cooling trend during the middle- and upper Miocene is clearly reflected in the dinocyst record by the decrease of species adapted to warm water conditions (Calciodinellum albatrosianum and Thoracosphaera heimii) and the appearance and increase of Caracomia arctica after ~ 11.1 Ma. C. arctica is a cold water species which today is only present south of the polar front. The concentration of C. arctica varies with a cyclicity of about 200-400 kyrs which reflects an eccentricity signal. We assume that observed changes in association such as the appearance of C. arctica can either be related to the initiation of the upwelling activity in the region, which is suggested to occur at ~11.6 Ma (Paulsen & Bickert 2007), or might be the

  4. Biogeography of dinoflagellate cysts in northwest Atlantic ...

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    Few biogeographic studies of dinoflagellate cysts include the near-shore estuarine environment. We determine the effect of estuary type, biogeography, and water quality on the spatial distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from the Northeast USA (Maine to Delaware) and Canada (Prince Edward Island). A total of 69 surface sediment samples were collected from 27 estuaries, from sites with surface salinities >20. Dinoflagellate cysts were examined microscopically and compared to environmental parameters using multivariate ordination techniques. The spatial distribution of cyst taxa reflects biogeographic provinces established by other marine organisms, with Cape Cod separating the northern Acadian Province from the southern Virginian Province. Species such as Lingulodinium machaerophorum and Polysphaeridinium zoharyi were found almost exclusively in the Virginian Province, while others such as Dubridinium spp. and Islandinium? cezare were more abundant in the Acadian Province. Tidal range, sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface salinity (SSS) are statistically significant parameters influencing cyst assemblages. Samples from the same type of estuary cluster together in canonical correspondence analysis when the estuaries are within the same biogeographic province. The large geographic extent of this study, encompassing four main estuary types (riverine, lagoon, coastal embayment, and fjord), allowed us to determine that the type of estuary has

  5. Biogeography of dinoflagellate cysts in northwest Atlantic estuaries

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    Few biogeographic studies of dinoflagellate cysts include the near-shore estuarine environment. We determine the effect of estuary type, biogeography, and water quality on the spatial distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from the Northeast USA (Maine to Delaware) a...

  6. Dinoflagellate cyst distribution in recent sediments along the south-east coast of India

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    Dhiraj Dhondiram Narale

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variation in the dinoflagellate cyst assemblage from the south-eastcoast of India is presented along with a comparison of the cyst abundance from other regions of the world. Samples from 8 stations revealed the presence of 24 species from the genera Protoperidinium, Zygabikodinium, Gonyaulax, Lingulodinium and Gyrodinium. Cyst abundance was comparatively high at northern stations and was well correlated with the fine-grained (silt-clay dominated sediments. In contrast, low cyst abundance was recorded in sandy sediments at southern stations. Fourteen cyst-forming dinoflagellate species previously unrecorded in planktonic samples were detected in the sediments. Thecyst abundance recorded here is low (29-331 cysts g-1 dry sediment as compared to sub-tropical and temperate regions, but it is on a par with tropical regions, including the west coast of India. Comparison of the cyst assemblage along the Indian coast revealed a smaller number of potentially harmful and red-tide-forming dinoflagellate species on the south-east coast (6 species than on the west coast (10 species. Furthermore, calcareous cysts of the genus Scrippsiella reported from the west coast were not observed in this study although their planktonic cells have been reported

  7. Effect of nutrient pollution on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages ...

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    We analyzed surface sediments from 23 northeast USA estuaries, from Maine to Delaware, and nine estuaries from Prince Edward Island (PEI, Canada), to determine how dinoflagellate cyst assemblages varied with nutrient loading. Overall the abundance of cysts of heterotrophic dinoflagellates correlates with modeled nitrogen loading, but there were also regional signals. On PEI cysts of Gymnodinium microreticulatum characterized estuaries with high nitrogen loading while the sediments of eutrophic Boston Harbor were characterized by high abundances of Spiniferites spp. In Delaware Bay and the Delaware Inland Bays Polysphaeridium zoharyi correlated with higher temperatures and nutrient loading. This is the first study to document the dinoflagellate cyst eutrophication signal at such a large geographic scale in estuaries, thus confirming their value as indicators of water quality change and anthropogenic impact. Estuarine and coastal waters are important resources for US and Canadian citizens. This paper summarizes the use of biological indicators that provide information on the eutrophication status and impacts for estuaries along the NW Atlantic coast. These relatively new biological indicators, dinoflagellate cysts, have the potential to provide environmental managers information on recent and historical environmental conditions in estuaries. Together with information on drivers and pressures, dinoflagellate cysts can be used to develop driver-pressure-state-imp

  8. Paleogene dinoflagellate cysts and thermal maturity from Pabdeh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Palynological investigation on 132 samples from the 428m thick outcrop section of Late Paleocene to Early Oligocene of the Pabdeh Formation in southwestern Iran yielded 55 species of dinoflagellate cysts and allowed establishment of seven biozones. Quantity of marine palynomorph elements indicate an open marine ...

  9. Atlas of modern dinoflagellate cyst distribution based on 2405 data points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonneveld, K.A.F.; Marret, F.; Versteegh, G.J.M.; Bogus, K.; Bonnet, S.; Bouimetarhan, I.; Crouch, E.; de Vernal, A.; Elshanawany, R.; Edwards, L.; Esper, O.; Forke, S.; Grøsfjeld, K.; Henry, M.; Holzwarth, U.; Kielt, J.-F.; Kim, S.-Y.; Ladouceur, S.; Ledu, D.; Chen, L.; Limoges, A.; Londeix, L.; Lu, S.-H.; Mahmoud, M.S.; Marino, G.; Matsouka, K.; Matthiessen, J.; Mildenhal, D.C.; Mudie, P.; Neil, H.L.; Pospelova, V.; Qi, Y.; Radi, T.; Richerol, T.; Rochon, A.; Sangiorgi, F.; Solignac, S.; Turon, J.-L.; Verleye, T.; Wang, Y.; Young, M.

    2013-01-01

    Dinoflagellate cysts are useful for reconstructing upper water conditions. For adequate reconstructions detailed information is required about the relationship between modern day environmental conditions and the geographic distribution of cysts in sediments. This Atlas summarises the modern global

  10. Effect of nutrient pollution on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages across estuaries of the NW Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analyzed surface sediments from 23 northeast USA estuaries, from Maine to Delaware, and nine estuaries from Prince Edward Island (PEI, Canada), to determine how dinoflagellate cyst assemblages varied with nutrient loading. Overall the abundance of cysts of heterotrophic dinofl...

  11. Palynological investigation of the sediment cores from the Arabian Sea 2: Dinoflagellate cysts and acritarchs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saxena, R.K.; Chandra, A.; Setty, M.G.A.P.

    are of dinoflagellate cysts and 8 species belonging to 4 genera are of acritarchs, besides two types which could not be referred to any taxa One acritarch genus, viz., @iOrnatasphaera@@ and 3 species are new Among dinoflagellate cysts, @iHystrichosphaeridium@@ (3 spp...

  12. Dinoflagellate cysts and hydrographical change in Gullmar Fjord, west coast of Sweden.

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    Harland, Rex; Nordberg, Kjell; Filipsson, Helena L

    2006-02-15

    This high-resolution study of the latest Holocene dinoflagellate cyst record from Gullmar Fjord, on the west coast of Sweden, provides evidence for the recognition of two major dinoflagellate communities within the fjord over the last 85 years. These communities may have their origins with the history of cultural eutrophication within the region, but are more likely to be associated with the wider phenomenon of the North Atlantic Oscillation and/or the complex hydrographical response of the fjord to various changing climatic environments between 1915 and 1999. The changing dinoflagellate cyst populations are compared in detail with the many hydrographical parameters available from this well studied fjord with its long instrumental records. Indeed the dinoflagellate cysts fail to demonstrate a convincing ongoing eutrophication record for the fjord but do show a major change in the cyst assemblages at about 1969/1970 at a time when the NAO was changing from a negative phase to the present-day positive phase. Gullmar Fjord is important in the history of dinoflagellate cyst studies, being the site of the 1954 study by Erdtman in which viable cysts, produced within the phytoplankton, were first documented within the water column.

  13. Resting cysts of freshwater dinoflagellates in southeastern Georgian Bay (Lake Huron) as proxies of cultural eutrophication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Francine M.G.; Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Ellegaard, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    in the relative abundances of these two cyst morphotypes were attributed primarily to cultural eutrophication related to land-use changes around Severn Sound over the last six centuries. Cysts of Peridinium willei, a cosmopolitan dinoflagellate species that occurs in a broad range of temperature, pH and nutrient...... conditions, comprise 60–74% of the cysts identified in Ambrosia (ragweed)-rich sediments in the upper 20 cm of a gravity core taken from Honey Harbour. Euro-Canadian settlement and land-clearing that began in the Midland-Penetanguishene region around A.D. 1840 are evident in the increase in Ambrosia (ragweed...... (~ 700 to ~ 150 yBP) is attributed to earlier land-clearing by the Wendat (“Huron”), who practiced agriculture in the Penetanguishene peninsula between ~ A.D. 1450–1650. The cysts of these freshwater dinoflagellates thus appear to be sensitive to cultural eutrophication....

  14. Paleogene dinoflagellate cysts and thermal maturity from Pabdeh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    SVGInternational Congress and Exhibition, A18. Gradstein, F.M., Kristiansen, I.L., Loemo, L., Kaminski,. M.A.(1992). Cenozoic foraminiferal and dinoflagellate biostratigraphy of the Central North Sea. Micropaleontology. 38, 101-137. Heilmann-Clausen,. C.

  15. Sea surface conditions in the southern Nordic Seas during the Holocene based on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages

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    Van Nieuwenhove, Nicolas; Baumann, Astrid; Matthiessen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) records from the southern Nordic Seas were compiled in order to evaluate the evolution of upper ocean conditions, on a millennial timescale and supported by a highly resolved record from the Vøring Plateau. After the transitional phase from the last deglaciation...

  16. Latest Quaternary palaeoceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic based upon a dinoflagellate cyst event ecostratigraphy

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    Rex Harland

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The analyses of dinoflagellate cyst records, from the latest Quaternary sediments recovered from DSDP Core 610A taken on the Feni Ridge in the southern Rockall Trough, and part of core MD01-2461 on the continental margin of the Porcupine Seabight in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean, has provided evidence for significant oceanographic change encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM and part of the Holocene. This together with other published records has led to a regional evaluation of oceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic over the past 68 ka, based upon a distinctive dinoflagellate event ecostratigraphy. These changes reflect changes in the surface waters of the North Atlantic Current (NAC, and perhaps the deeper thermohaline Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC, driving fundamental regime changes within the phytoplanktonic communities. Three distinctive dinoflagellate cyst associations based upon both factor and cluster analyses have been recognised. Associations characterised by Bitectatodinium tepikiense (between 61.1 ± 6.2 to 13.4 ± 1.1 ka BP, Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus (between 10.5 ± 0.3 and 11.45 ± 0.8 ka. BP, and the cyst of Protoceratium reticulatum (between 8.5 ± 0.9 and 5.2 ± 1.3 ka. BP indicate major change within the eastern North Atlantic oceanography. The transitions between these changes occur over a relatively short time span (c.1.5 ka, given our sampling resolution, and have the potential to be incorporated into an event stratigraphy through the latest Quaternary as recommended by the INTIMATE (INTegrating Ice core, MArine and TErrestrial records group. The inclusion of a dinoflagellate cyst event stratigraphy would highlight changes within the phytoplankton of the North Atlantic Ocean as a fully glacial world changed to our present interglacial.

  17. The sedimentary record of dinoflagellate cysts: looking back into the future of phytoplankton blooms

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    Barrie Dale

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine systems are not as well understood as terrestrial systems, and there is still a great need for more primary observations, in the tradition of the old-time naturalists, before newer methods such as molecular genetics and modeling can be fully utilized. The scientific process whereby the smaller, detailed building blocks of observation are ultimately linked towards better understanding natural systems is illustrated from my own career experience, especially with regard to the dinoflagellates and plankton blooms. Some dinoflagellates produce a fossilizable resting stage (cyst in their life cycle, and dinoflagellate cysts have become one of the most important groups of microfossils used in geological exploration (e.g. oil and gas. This has stimulated both paleontological and biological research producing detailed building blocks of information, currently scattered throughout the respective literature. Here, I attempt to bring together the present day perspective, from biology, with the past, from paleontology, as the most comprehensive basis for future work on the group. This shows the cysts to be the critical link needed for focusing future molecular genetics studies towards a more verifiable view of evolutionary pathways, and it also suggests new integrated methods for studying past, present, and future blooms. The large, rapidly growing field of harmful algal bloom studies is producing many different building blocks, but plankton blooms as episodic phenomena are still poorly understood. This is largely due to the general lack of long-term datasets allowing identification of the changing environmental factors that permit certain species to bloom at unpredictable intervals of time. Cysts in sediments are useful environmental indicators today, e.g. reflecting aspects of climate and pollution, and provide information directly relevant to some dinoflagellate blooms. They therefore may be used for obtaining retrospective information from the

  18. Driving factors of dinoflagellate cyst distribution in surface sediments of a Mediterranean lagoon with limited access to the sea.

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    Dhib, Amel; Fertouna-Bellakhal, Mouna; Turki, Souad; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-11-15

    Seasonal distribution of dinoflagellate cysts were studied at five surface sediment study stations in Ghar El Melh Lagoon (GML) (Tunisia) in relation to physicochemical parameters and phytoplankton abundance in the water column. At least sixteen dinocyst types were identified, dominated mainly by Protoperidinium spp., Scrippsiella trochoidea complex, Lingulodinum machaerophorum, Alexandrium spp. and Gymnodinium spp., along with many round brown cysts. Cyst abundance ranged from 0 to 229g-1 dry sediment. No significant differences in cyst distribution were found among stations, though a significant variation was observed among seasons with cyst dominance in autumn. No significant variation was found between cyst abundance and the different abiotic factors monitored, neither in the water column (physicochemical parameters) nor in the sediment (% H2O). Low dinocyst abundance was consistent with the dominance of non-cyst-forming dinoflagellates in the GML water column. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impacts of metal contamination and eutrophication on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages along the Guangdong coast of southern China.

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    Lu, Xinxin; Wang, Zhaohui; Guo, Xin; Gu, Yangguang; Liang, Weibiao; Liu, Lei

    2017-07-15

    Fifty-one surface sediment samples were collected from eleven sea areas along the Guangdong coast in southern China. Biogenic elements, metals and dinoflagellate cysts were analyzed. Twenty-one cyst taxa in 12 genera were identified. The cyst concentrations ranged between 14 and 250 cysts/g, with an average of 69 cysts/g. The low cyst production was caused by coarse sediments, high sedimentation rates, and high anthropogenic disturbances. Biogenic elements were comparable with those reported. However, the metal concentrations were far lower than the sediment quality guidelines. Both biogenic elements and metals were higher in the Mid Coast and lower in the Western Coast. Eutrophication slightly enhanced the productivity of autotrophic dinocysts, and cysts of Scrippsiella indicated eutrophication. Cd had inhibitory effects on cyst production. Alexandrium and Diplopsalis cysts were sensitive to metal contamination; however, Gyrodinium, Pheopolykrikos, and Lingulodinium cysts had high resistance to metal contamination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Stratigraphic calibration of Oligocene-Miocene organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from offshore Wilkes Land, East Antarctica, and a zonation proposal

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    Bijl, Peter K.; Houben, Alexander J. P.; Bruls, Anja; Pross, Jörg; Sangiorgi, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    There is growing interest in the scientific community in reconstructing the paleoceanography of the Southern Ocean during the Oligocene-Miocene because these time intervals experienced atmospheric CO2 concentrations with relevance to our future. However, it has remained notoriously difficult to put the sedimentary archives used in these efforts into a temporal framework. This is at least partially due to the fact that the bio-events recorded in organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts), which often represent the only microfossil group preserved, have not yet been calibrated to the international timescale. Here we present dinocyst ranges from Oligocene-Miocene sediments drilled offshore the Wilkes Land continental margin, East Antarctica (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Hole U1356A). In addition, we apply statistical means to test a priori assumptions about whether the recorded taxa were deposited in situ or were reworked from older strata. Moreover, we describe two new dinocyst species, Selenopemphix brinkhuisii sp. nov. and Lejeunecysta adeliensis sp. nov., which are identified as important markers for regional stratigraphic analysis. Finally, we calibrate all identified dinocyst events to the international timescale using independent age control from calcareous nanoplankton and magnetostratigraphy from IODP Hole U1356A, and we propose a provisional dinoflagellate cyst zonation scheme for the Oligocene-Miocene of the Southern Ocean.

  1. Quantitative estimation of Holocene surface salinity variation in the Black Sea using dinoflagellate cyst process length

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    Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Bradley, Lee R.; Takano, Yoshihito

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of salinity in the Holocene Black Sea has been an ongoing debate over the past four decades. Here we calibrate summer surface water salinity in the Black Sea, Sea of Azov and Caspian Sea with the process length of the dinoflagellate cyst Lingulodinium machaerophorum. We then apply...... this calibration to make a regional reconstruction of paleosalinity in the Black Sea, calculated by averaging out process length variation observed at four core sites from the Black Sea with high sedimentation rates and dated by multiple mollusk shell ages. Results show a very gradual change of salinity from ∼14...

  2. Decadal-scale variations of sedimentary dinoflagellate cyst records from the Yellow Sea over the last 400 years

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    Kim, So-Young; Roh, Youn Ho; Shin, Hyeon Ho; Huh, Sik; Kang, Sung-Ho; Lim, Dhongil

    2018-01-01

    In recent decades, the Yellow Sea has experienced severe environmental deterioration due to increasing input of anthropogenic pollutants and consequently accelerated eutrophication. Whilst there have been significant advances in documenting historical records of metal pollution in the Yellow Sea region, changes in phytoplankton community structures affected by eutrophication remain understudied. Here, we present a new record of dinoflagellate cyst-based signals in age-dated sediment cores from the Yellow Sea mud deposits to provide better insight into eutrophication history and identification of associated responses of the regional phytoplankton community. It is worthy of note that there were significant variations in abundances and community structures of dinoflagellate cysts in three historical stages in association with increasing anthropogenic activity over the last 400 years. Pervasive effects of human interference altering the Yellow Sea environments are recognized by: 1) an abrupt increase of organic matter, including the diatom-produced biogenic opal concentrations (∼1850); 2) a distinct shift in phytoplankton composition towards dinoflagellate dominance (∼1940), and 3) recent acceleration of dinoflagellate cyst accumulation (∼1990). Particularly in the central Yellow Sea shelf, the anomalously high deposition of dinoflagellate cysts (especially Alexandrium species) is suggested to be a potentially important source of inoculum cells serving as a seed population for localized and recurrent blooms in coastal areas around the Yellow Sea.

  3. The Jurassic of North-East Greenland: Jurassic dinoflagellate cysts from Hochstetter Forland, North-East Greenland

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    Piasecki, Stefan

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Three sections in Hochstetter Forland, North-East Greenland, referred to the Jurassic Payer Dal and Bernbjerg Formations, have been analysed for dinoflagellate cysts. The dinoflagellate cysts,new finds of ammonites and previously recorded marine faunas form the basis for improved dating of the succession. The basal strata of the Payer Dal Formation at Kulhus is here dated as Late Callovian, Peltoceras athleta Chronozone, based on the presence of relatively abundant Limbicysta bjaerkei, Mendicodinium groenlandicum, Rhychoniopsis cladophora and Tubotuberella dangeardii in an otherwise poor Upper Callovian dinoflagellate assemblage. Ammoniteshave not been recorded from these strata. The upper Payer Dal Formation at Agnetesøelven is dated as Late Oxfordian, Amoeboceras glosense – Amoeboceras serratum Chronozones, based onthe presence of Sciniodinium crystallinum, together with Cribroperidinium granuligera and Stephanelytron sp. The age is in accordance with ammonites present in the uppermost part ofthe formation at Søndre Muslingebjerg. New ammonites in the Bernbjerg Formation at Agnetesøelven together with dinoflagellate cysts indicate an earliest Kimmeridgian age, Raseniacymodoce and Aulacostephanoides mutabilis Chronozones.The Upper Callovian dinoflagellate cysts from Hochstetter Forland belong to a local brackish to marginal marine assemblage, which only allows a fairly broad correlation to coeval assemblagesin central East Greenland. In contrast, the Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian assemblages are fully marine and can be correlated from Milne Land in central East Greenland via Hochstetter Forland to Peary Land in eastern North Greenland.

  4. Dinoflagellate cysts from surface sediments of Saldanha Bay, South Africa: an indication of the potential risk of harmful algal blooms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joyce, LB

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available of South Africa (AFASA). References Anderson, D.M., Chisholm, S.W., Watras, C.J., 1983. Importance of life cycle events in the population dynamics of Gonyaulax tamarensis. Mar. Biol. 76, 179?189. Anderson, D.M., Fukuyo, Y., Matsuoka, K., 1995. Cyst methodol... dinoflagellates are known to form resting cysts as part of their life history (Head, 1996). These life history stages form an important component of the ecology and biogeography of these dinoflagellates (Wall et al., 1977; Dale, 1983; Ellegaard et al., 1994...

  5. Dinoflagellate cyst production in Hudson Bay, the world's largest inland sea, based on monthly sediment trap data

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    Heikkilä, Maija; Pospelova, Vera; Forest, Alexandre; Stern, Gary

    2014-05-01

    Phytoplankters, microscopic primary producers of oceans are capable of responding rapidly to environmental fluctuations due to their high cell replication rates. Fast phytoplankton growth maybe balanced out by equally fast consumption by herbivorous grazers. In high-latitude marine systems, seasonal fluctuations in plankton biomass are essentially linked to light regime controlled by the waxing and waning sea-ice cover. In addition, nutrient limitation in surface waters, seasonal temperature fluctuations and changes in freshwater inputs may play important roles. In cold-water seas, many planktonic organisms cope with seasonal harshness by the production of benthic dormant stages. Dinoflagellates are a diverse group of single-celled plankton, constituting major marine primary producers, as well as herbivorous grazers of the microbial loop. Many dinoflagellate species produce highly resistant, organic-walled resting cysts that are archived in sediments and have been increasingly used to reconstruct past environmental conditions, e.g., sea-surface temperature and salinity, productivity, sea-ice cover and eutrophication. Marine sediment core sequences are characterized by slow accumulation rates and high mixing rates: the top centimeter of surface sediment from an arctic shelf may correspond to several years or decades of deposition. Consequently, sedimentary archives do not give direct information on long-term changes in seasonal bloom patterns or cues of annually recurring life-cycle events. We used two particle-intercepting sediment traps moored in eastern and western Hudson Bay, respectively, to study monthly fluctuations in dinoflagellate cyst production from October 2005 to September 2006. The traps were deployed close to the seafloor and recovered during the ArcticNet annual expeditions onboard the CCGS Amundsen in 2005 and the CCGS Pierre Radisson in 2006. We document the seasonal succession of dinoflagellate cyst taxa, together with cyst species composition

  6. An improved method for the molecular identification of single dinoflagellate cysts

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    Yangchun Gao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Dinoflagellate cysts (i.e., dinocysts are biologically and ecologically important as they can help dinoflagellate species survive harsh environments, facilitate their dispersal and serve as seeds for harmful algal blooms. In addition, dinocysts derived from some species can produce more toxins than vegetative forms, largely affecting species through their food webs and even human health. Consequently, accurate identification of dinocysts represents the first crucial step in many ecological studies. As dinocysts have limited or even no available taxonomic keys, molecular methods have become the first priority for dinocyst identification. However, molecular identification of dinocysts, particularly when using single cells, poses technical challenges. The most serious is the low success rate of PCR, especially for heterotrophic species. Methods In this study, we aim to improve the success rate of single dinocyst identification for the chosen dinocyst species (Gonyaulax spinifera, Polykrikos kofoidii, Lingulodinium polyedrum, Pyrophacus steinii, Protoperidinium leonis and Protoperidinium oblongum distributed in the South China Sea. We worked on two major technical issues: cleaning possible PCR inhibitors attached on the cyst surface and designing new dinoflagellate-specific PCR primers to improve the success of PCR amplification. Results For the cleaning of single dinocysts separated from marine sediments, we used ultrasonic wave-based cleaning and optimized cleaning parameters. Our results showed that the optimized ultrasonic wave-based cleaning method largely improved the identification success rate and accuracy of both molecular and morphological identifications. For the molecular identification with the newly designed dinoflagellate-specific primers (18S634F-18S634R, the success ratio was as high as 86.7% for single dinocysts across multiple taxa when using the optimized ultrasonic wave-based cleaning method, and much higher than that

  7. PSEUDORHOMBODINIUM CINGULOINDENTATUM GEN. ET SP. N. (DINOFLAGELLATA: A NEW ORGANIC WALLED DINOFLAGELLATE CYST FROM THEUPPER EOCENE OF SICILY, ITALY

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    STEFANO TORRICELLI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The organic walled dinoflagellate cyst Pseudorhombodinium cinguloindentatum gen. et sp. n. is formally described from the Upper Eocene of Sicily, Italy. It consists of a brown coloured, circumcavate wetzelielloid cyst with marked V-shaped cingular indentations in the pericyst. The proposed generic name refers to similarities existing in the overall morphology with the genus Rhombodinium Gocht. However, substantial differences in archeopyle styling, in the disposition of antapical horns, and in the amount of cingular indentation, advocate the erection of the new genus Pseudorhombodinium. 

  8. CRETACEOUS PALYNOLOGY (SPORES, POLLEN AND DINOFLAGELLATE CYSTS OF THE SIQEIFA 1-X BOREHOLE, NORTHERN EGYPT

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    MAGDY S. MAHMOUD

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Diverse and well preserved palynofloras were recognized in the Lower Cretaceous succession penetrated by well Siqeifa 1-X in northern Egypt. Dinoflagellate cysts such as Subtilisphaera senegalensis was regarded, with the spores Impardecispora apiverrucata and Aequitriradites spinulosus, as important Berriasian to Barremian species. Afropollis operculatus/zonatus pollen and spores such as Balmeisporites holodictyus, Trilobosporites laevigatus and Duplexisporites generalis are diagnostic of Aptian. The lowest occurrences of the pollen Afropollis jardinus, the spore Crybelosporites pannuceus and elaterates such as Elaterosporites klaszii, Elaterocolpites castelainii and Elateroplicites africaensis characterize the Albian/lower Cenomanian interval. The palynofloras enabled the recognition of five spore-pollen and four dinoflagellate zones, which are correlated with regional records, mainly from Egypt and Libya. The vertical distribution of terrestrial and marine palynomorphs, along with palynodebris, reflects two regressive marginal marine cycles during Berriasian-Barremian and Albian-lower Cenomanian times whereas the Aptian witnessed a transgressive open marine (inner shelf environment. A warm humid palaeoclimate was inferred during deposition of the investigated succession of the borehole, in contrast to the known warm arid to semi-arid climate, suggested for the Northern Gondwana Realm during Early Cretaceous times. This is probably due to the palaeogeographic position of Egypt during Early Cretaceous times or, to a local reason. Palynofloras from Siqeifa 1-X borehole, with Afropollis pollen and elaterates, are of North African aspect and share the broad characteristics of the "Albian-Cenomanian Elaterates Province" of Herngreen et al. (1996. Abundance of spores and araucariacean pollen are transitional features between those in North Gondwana and Southern Laurasia but, unlikely, typical transitional assemblages lack bisaccates conifers and have

  9. Dinoflagellate cyst abundance is positively correlated to sediment organic carbon in Sydney Harbour and Botany Bay, NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chang; Doblin, Martina A; Dafforn, Katherine A; Johnston, Emma L; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong

    2018-02-01

    There is growing public concern about the global expansion of harmful algal bloom species (HABs), with dinoflagellate microalgae comprising the major portion of the harmful taxa. These motile, unicellular organisms have a lifecycle involving sexual reproduction and resting cyst formation whereby cysts can germinate from sediments and 'seed' planktonic populations. Thus, investigation of dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) distribution in sediments can provide significant insights into HAB dynamics and contribute to indices of habitat quality. Species composition and abundance of dinocysts in relation to sediment characteristics were studied at 18 stations in two densely populated temperate Australian estuaries, Sydney Harbour (Parramatta River/Port Jackson; PS) and Botany Bay (including Georges River; GB). Eighteen dinocyst taxa were identified, dominated by Protoceratium reticulatum and Gonyaulax sp.1 in the PS estuary, together with Archaeperidinium minutum and Gonyaulax sp.1 in the GB estuary. Cysts of Alexandrium catenella, which is one of the causative species of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), were also detected in both estuaries. Out of the measured sediment characteristics (TOC, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), TOC was the parameter explaining most of the variation in dinocyst assemblages and was positively correlated to most of the heavy metals. Given the significant relationship between sediment TOC and dinocyst abundance and heavy metal concentrations, this study suggests that sediment TOC could be broadly used in risk management for potential development of algal blooms and sediment contamination in these estuaries.

  10. From greenhouse to icehouse; organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts as paleoenvironmental indicators in the Paleogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijs, Appy; Pross, Jörg; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2005-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are an important component of the extant eukaryotic plankton. Their organic-walled, hypnozygotic cysts (dinocysts) provide a rich, albeit incomplete, history of the group in ancient sediments. Building on pioneering studies of the late 1970s and 1980s, recent drilling in the Southern Ocean has provided a wealth of new dinocyst data spanning the entire Paleogene. Such multidisciplinary studies have been instrumental in refining existing and furnishing new concepts of Paleogene paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstructions by means of dinocysts. Because dinocysts notably exhibit high abundances in neritic settings, dinocyst-based environmental and paleoclimatic information is important and complementary to the data derived from typically more offshore groups as planktonic foraminifera, coccolithophorids, diatoms and radiolaria. By presenting case-studies from around the globe, this contribution provides a concise review of our present understanding of the paleoenvironmental significance of dinocysts in the Paleogene (65-25 Ma). Representing Earth's greenhouse-icehouse transition, this episode holds the key to the understanding of extreme transient climatic change. We discuss the potential of dinocysts for the reconstruction of Paleogene sea-surface productivity, temperature, salinity, stratification and paleo-oxygenation along with their application in sequence stratigraphy, oceanic circulation and general watermass reconstructions.

  11. The Impact of the 1989 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill on Phytoplankton as Evidenced Through the Sedimentary Dinoflagellate Cyst Records in Prince William Sound (Alaska, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genest, M.; Pospelova, V.; Williams, J. R.; Dellapenna, T.; Mertens, K.; Kuehl, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Large volumes of crude oil are extracted from marine environments and transported via the sea, putting coastal communities at a greater risk of oils spills. It is therefore crucial for these communities to properly assess the risk. The first step is to understand the effects of such events on the environment, which is limited by the lack of research on the impact of oil spills on phytoplankton. This first-of-its-kind research aims to identify how one of the major groups of phytoplankton, dinoflagellates, have been affected by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska. To do this, sedimentary records of dinoflagellate cysts, produced during dinoflagellate reproduction and preserved in the sediment, were analyzed. Two sediment cores were collected from PWS in 2012. The sediments are mainly composed of silt with a small fraction of clay. Both well-dated with 210Pb and 137Cs, the cores have high sedimentation rates, allowing for an annual to biannual resolution. Core 10 has a sedimentation rate of 1.1 cm yr-1 and provides continuous record since 1957, while Core 12 has a sedimentation rate of 1.3 cm yr-1 and spans from 1934. The cores were subsampled every centimeter for a total of 110 samples. Samples were treated using a standard palynological processing technique to extract dinoflagellate cysts and 300 cysts were counted per sample. In both cores, cysts were abundant, diverse and well preserved with the average cyst assemblage being characterized by an equal number of cysts produced by autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates. Of the 40 dinoflagellate cyst taxa, the most abundant are: Operculodinium centrocarpum and Brigantedinium spp. Other common species are: Spiniferites ramosus, cysts of Pentapharsodinium dalei, Echinidinium delicatum, E. zonneveldiae, E. transparantum, Islandinium minutum, and a thin pale brown Brigantedinium type. Changes in the sedimentary sequence of dinoflagellate cysts were analyzed by determining cyst

  12. Distribution of microreticulate dinoflagellate cysts from the Galician and Portuguese coast

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    I. Bravo

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In May 1993, surface sediment samples from the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula were collected with the aim of studying the geographic distribution of G. catenatum resting cysts. The sampling area ranged from 40º 39´ N (Portugal to 42º 38´ N (Galicia, Spain. Cysts with exactly the same morphology as G. catenatum were found in a maximum concentration of 504 cysts.cm-3 of sediment. Similar cysts but smaller (24-36 µm were found in a maximum concentration of 4488 cysts.cm-3 of sediment. A bimodal size distribution of microreticulate cysts from the sediment indicates the probable existence of two cyst species. Differences in the microreticulation of the paracingulum were also observed. We compared the cysts from the sediment with G. catenatum cysts produced in cultures. The study on the distribution of cysts in the sediment also showed significant differences in the vertical profile concentrations of both cyst types. Differences in both the size and microreticulation morphology of the cysts found in the sediment of the continental shelf of Galicia and Portugal are also observed in the literature concerning other countries. The cysts of this species cited for the coasts of Northern Europe present characteristics similar to the cysts referred to in this communication as G. catenatum-like or small microreticulate cysts. The need to clarify the identity of cysts with microreticulation in the wall is discussed in order to identify the geographical distribution of the G. catenatum cyst.

  13. Dinoflagellate cyst distribution in recent sediments along the south-east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narale, D.D.; Patil, J.S.; Anil, A.C.

    from the genera Protoperidinium, Zygabikodinium, Gonyaulax, Lingulodinium and Gyrodinium Cyst abundance was comparatively high at northern stations and was well correlated with the fine-grained (silt-clay dominated) sediments In contrast, low cyst...

  14. Process length variation in cysts of a dinoflagellate, Lingulodinium machaerophorum, in surface sediments: investigating its potential as salinity proxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertens, Kenneth; Ribeiro, Sofia; Ilham, Bouimetarhan

    2009-01-01

    A biometrical analysis of the dinoflagellate cyst Lingulodinium machaerophorum [Deflandre, G., Cookson, I.C., 1955. Fossil microplankton from Australia late Mesozoic and Tertiary sediments. Australian journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 6: 242–313.] Wall, 1967 in 144 globally distributed...

  15. Mapping the Distribution of Cysts from the Toxic Dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides in Bloom-Prone Estuaries by a Novel Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattenrath-Lehmann, Theresa K; Zhen, Yu; Wallace, Ryan B; Tang, Ying-Zhong; Gobler, Christopher J

    2015-12-04

    Cochlodinium polykrikoides is a cosmopolitan dinoflagellate that is notorious for causing fish-killing harmful algal blooms (HABs) across North America and Asia. While recent laboratory and ecosystem studies have definitively demonstrated that Cochlodinium forms resting cysts that may play a key role in the dynamics of its HABs, uncertainties regarding cyst morphology and detection have prohibited even a rudimentary understanding of the distribution of C. polykrikoides cysts in coastal ecosystems. Here, we report on the development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay using oligonucleotide probes specific for the large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of C. polykrikoides. The LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was used with epifluorescence microscopy and was iteratively refined to maximize the fluorescent reaction with C. polykrikoides and minimize cross-reactivity. The final LSU rDNA-targeted FISH assay was found to quantitatively recover cysts made by North American isolates of C. polykrikoides but not cysts formed by other common cyst-forming dinoflagellates. The method was then applied to identify and map C. polykrikoides cysts across bloom-prone estuaries. Annual cyst and vegetative cell surveys revealed that elevated densities of C. polykrikoides cysts (>100 cm(-3)) during the spring of a given year were spatially consistent with regions of dense blooms the prior summer. The identity of cysts in sediments was confirmed via independent amplification of C. polykrikoides rDNA. This study mapped C. polykrikoides cysts in a natural marine setting and indicates that the excystment of cysts formed by this harmful alga may play a key role in the development of HABs of this species. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Distribution of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts in recent marine sediments from the Gulf of Tehuantepec, South Pacific of Mexico.

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    Vasquez-Bedoya, L. F.; de Vernal, A.; Ruiz-Fernandez, A. C.; Machain-Castillo, M. L.; Radi, T.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.

    2007-05-01

    A qualitative and quantitative study of recent organic-walled dinoflagellate dinocysts recovered in sediments has been undertaken in the coastal zone of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. A sediment core was collected in 2004 with a Reineck-type corer using a plastic tube (7 cm i.d); and it was subsampled at 0.3 cm intervals down to 10 cm depth and then at 1 cm intervals at further depths. The 210Pb and 137Cs-derived sedimentation and mass accumulation rates at the site were found to vary from 0.033 to 0.209 cm yr-1, and from 0.05 to 0.29 g cm-2 yr-1., respectively. The cysts concentrations ranged between 477 and 2300 cysts g-1 and the cysts fluxes between 68 a 494 cysts cm-2 yr-1. Twenty-three cyst taxa were identified: Brigantedinium spp., Polysphaeridium zoharyii, Bitectatodinium spongium, Spiniferites delicatus, Quinquecuspis concreta, Echinidinium transparantum, Operculodinium centrocarpum, Selenopemphix quanta, Type Echinidinium granulatum, Echinidinium aculeatum, Protoperidinium americanum, Echinidinium delicatum, Selenopemphix nephroides, Cyst of Protoperidinum stellatum, Lingulodinium machaerophorum, Islandinium spp., Votadinium spinosum, Polykrikos kofoidii, Pentapharsodinium dalei, Tuberculodinium vancampoe, Spiniferites mirabilis, Votadinium calvum and Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus. The assemblages included cysts of both phototrophic and heterotrophic species, with variation of their respective abundance reflecting changes in the trophic structure of the upper water mass, especially after 1950, with a decrease from ~30% to 15% of photototrophic species, likely as a response to pollution (including cultural eutrophication) created by the industrial development of the adjacent coastal zone. Brigantedinium spp., Polysphaeridium zoharyii and Bitectatodinium spongium, were the dominant species found in the core and are most likely influenced by the seasonal upwelling that characterize the study area, as indicated by the predominance of planktonic foraminiferal

  17. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages from two contrasting sites in the Azores (Portugal) - Horta Bay and D. João de Castro Seamount

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Sofia; Amorim, Ana

    This work resulted from an expedition to the Azores on board of "NTM Creoula" in summer 2005, organized by the Portuguese Navy, the Portuguese Federation for Underwater Activities (FPAS) and National Geographic Portugal. Surface sediment samples were collected from two contrasting sites: Horta Bay......-suspension, the cyst community in D. João de Castro Bank reflects mainly recent cyst production. Wall et al. (1977) studied a sample from a harbour in the Azores (Ponta Delgada, São Miguel Island) and reported calcareous cysts (Scrippsiella trochoidea) as dominant. These authors observed ) as dominant. These authors...

  18. Statistically assessing the correlation between salinity and morphology in cysts produced by the dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum from surface sediments of the North Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean-Marmara-Black Sea region, and Baltic-Kattegat-Skagerrak estuarine system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansson, I.-M.; Mertens, K.N.; Head, M.J.; de Vernal, A.; Londeix, L.; Marret, F.; Matthiessen, J.; Sangiorgi, F.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have correlated dinoflagellate resting cyst morphology to salinity and density variations in the water column, suggesting that morphology can be used for paleoceanographic reconstructions. However, the univariate statistics used by these studies are appropriate only where morphology

  19. Dinoflagellate Cysts in Surface Sediments of Jakarta Bay, off Ujung Pandang and Larantuka of Flores Islands, Indonesia with Special Reference of Pyrodinium bahamense

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, Kazumi; Fukuyo, Yasuwo; P.Praseno, Djoko; Adnan, Quraisyin; Kodama, Masa'Aki

    1999-01-01

    The paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) causative dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense Plate var compressum (Bohm) Steidinger, Tester et Tayler was recently reported in Ambon Bay of Ambon Island and Kao Bay of Halmahera Island in the eastern part of Indonesia where serious PSP-outbreaks have occurred. However, neither cysts nor motile cells of this variety have ever been recorded from central to western Indonesia. Intensive investigations carried out on surface sediments of Jakarta Bay reveale...

  20. Dinoflagellate cysts and benthic foraminifera in surface sediments from the Mar Piccolo in Taranto (Ionian Sea, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, L.; Rubino, F.; Frontalini, F.; Belmonte, M.; Di Leo, A.; Giandomenico, S.; Greco, M.; Lirer, F.; Spada, L.; Vallefuoco, M.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal areas have traditionally been places of human settlement, with the increasing development of cities, industries and other human-related activities possibly having an impact on the aquatic ecosystem. These impacts may take the form of pollution from industrial, domestic, agricultural or mining activities. For this reason, attention to marine environmental problems has recently increased and the search for new methodologies and techniques for the monitoring of coastal-marine areas become more and more active and accurate. In this context biological indicators result a useful tool to provide indication of environmental conditions including the presence or absence of contaminants; in fact biological monitoring is more directly related to the ecological health of an ecosystem than are chemical data. The increasing importance of bioindicators is also encouraged within the European Union's Water Framework Directive (WFD), which aims to achieve a good ecological status in all European water bodies (i.e., rivers, lakes and coastal waters). Among the wide range of bioindicators, 5 biological elements are listed within the WFD: phytoplankton, macroalgae, angiosperms, benthic invertebrates and fishes. Benthic invertebrates as foraminifera represent a group of protozoa widely distributed in all brackish and marine environments which are used in studies assessing the environmental quality of areas subject to intense human activity. Moreover in coastal marine environments benthic and pelagic domain present several relationships, one of these is represented by the life cycles of phytoplankton species, as Dinoflagellates, which include the production of benthic stages (cysts). These dormant stages, which accumulate in confined marine muddy areas, such as ports, lagoons or estuaries, can reach high densities, similar to the seed banks of terrestrial plants. The cysts have a high preservation potential and can rest in/on the sediments for decades. Due to this peculiar

  1. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in recent sediments of Visakhapatnam harbour, east coast of India: Influence of environmental characteristics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSilva, M.S.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.

    . The cyst abundance varied from 11 to 1218 cysts g sup(-1) dry sediment. Changes in the cyst assemblages from phototrophic to heterotrophic forms were observed from inner to outer harbour stations, and related to changes in environmental characteristics...

  2. Determining the absolute abundance of dinoflagellate cysts in recent marine sediments: The Lycopodium marker-grain method put to the test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertens, K; Verhoeven; Verleye

    2009-01-01

    Absolute abundances (concentrations) of dinoflagellate cysts are often determined through the addition of Lycopodium clavatum marker-grains as a spike to a sample before palynological processing. An inter-laboratory calibration exercise was set up in order to test the comparability of results...... extracted and counted, and relative and absolute abundances were calculated. The relative abundances proved to be fairly reproducible, notwithstanding a need for taxonomic calibration. By contrast, excessive loss of Lycopodium spores during sample preparation resulted in non-reproducibility of absolute...... the proposed standard method which circumvents critical steps, adding Lycopodium tablets at the end of the preparation and using an alternative method....

  3. Environmental forcing on the flux of organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts in recent sediments from a subtropical lagoon in the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Martinez, Tomasa; Alonso-Rodríguez, Rosalba; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; de Vernal, Anne; Morquecho, Lourdes; Limoges, Audrey; Henry, Maryse; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert

    2017-11-28

    To evaluate the relationship of changes in organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) fluxes to sediments with environmental variables (air and sea surface temperatures, El Niño conditions, rainfall, and terrigenous index), cyst assemblages were analyzed in a 210Pb-dated sediment core (~100years) from the pristine San José Lagoon (San José Island, SW Gulf of California). The dinocyst abundance ranged from 3784 to 25,108cystsg-1 and fluxes were of the order of 103-104cystscm-2yr-1. Lingulodinium machaerophorum, Polysphaeridium zoharyi and Spiniferites taxa accounted for 96% of the total dinocyst assemblages, and the abundances of these species increased towards the core surface. P. zoharyi fluxes increased from about 1965 onwards. Redundancy analyses, showed that mean minimum air temperature and terrigenous index were the key factors governing dinocyst fluxes. In this study, dinocyst fluxes of dominant taxa had responded to changes in climate-dependent environmental variables during the past ~20years; this may also be the case in other subtropical coastal lagoons. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Dinoflagellates in a mesotrophic, tropical environment influenced by monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeCosta, P.M.; Anil, A.C.; Patil, J.S.; Hegde, S.; DeSilva, M.S.; Chourasia, M.

    . Heterotrophic dinoflagellates were abundant in the water column as well as sediment. A seasonal cycling between vegetative and resting cysts of autotrophic and heterotrophic dinoflagellates governed by the environmental characteristics of the study area...

  5. The matter of preservation: A comparison of recent organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in sediment trap and core top sediments off Cape Blanc (NW Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüßbült, Annegret; Zonneveld, Karin A. F.; Pospelova, Vera

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades, organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts (dinocysts) have become a valuable tool for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. It is known that the sedimentary record depends on several factors like initial cyst production and preservation. Therefore it is necessary to know, to what extent the assemblage in the sediment reflects the primary signal produced in the water column. In this study, we compare undisturbed core top sediments with sediment trap data covering the same time intervals. Both, core and trap, were retrieved at a similar location off Cape Blanc (NW Africa) where high productivity of organic material takes place due to costal upwelling. The samples of trap CBi analyzed for dinocysts were collected over 5 years (2003-2008) and compared to assemblages found in 2 mm interval sections of core GeoB 14103-7. 210Pb dating revealed an age of 2.5 years per core sample, leading to a comparison of the upper 6 mm with CBi 1-5. The dinocyst species composition in core and trap sediments is similar. Both assemblages are dominated by heterotrophic species. However, while the most common species in the trap, Brigantidinium spp., makes up over 50% of each sample, it is less abundant in the core where it forms only 13% of the assemblage. Core samples are dominated by Protoperidinium monospinum with an average of 28%. This species is underrepresented in CBi with 3% abundance. Over time the proportions of the individual species show minor variations both in core and trap samples. We therefore assume that the strong differences in association composition are due to post-depositional processes altering the assemblages in the sediments like degradation or bioturbation rather than to changes in initial cyst production or differences in source areas of trap and sediment core.

  6. Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Tumors Astrocytoma Atypical Teratoid Rhaboid Tumor (ATRT) Chondrosarcoma Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Cysts Ependymoma Germ Cell Tumor ... of Tumors Astrocytoma Atypical Teratoid Rhaboid Tumor (ATRT) Chondrosarcoma Choroid Plexus Craniopharyngioma Cysts Ependymoma Germ Cell Tumor ...

  7. Microbiostratigraphy of the Berriasian–Valanginian boundary in eastern Crimea: foraminifers, ostracods, organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savelieva Yuliya N.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thorough study of foraminifers, ostracods and dinoflagellate remnants from the Zavodskaya Balka and Koklyuk sections helps to characterize the detailed biostratigraphic division of the Berriasian / Valanginian boundary sequence in the Feodosiya district of eastern Crimea. The foraminifer and dinocyst associations from the lower part of the sequence are clearly comparable with common Berriasian associations throughout all Mountain Crimea. On the other hand, foraminifer, ostracod and dinocyst associations from its upper part have been recorded only in eastern Crimea. The upper foraminifer level corresponds to the boreal ammonite zones from the Tauricum-Verrucosum (Upper Berriasian-Valanginian. Most of the ostracod species are endemic. The base of the uppermost dinocyst level correlates with the Lower Valanginian Paratollia zone from north-western Europe.

  8. Oligocene-Miocene paleoceanographic changes offshore the Wilkes Land Margin, Antarctica: dinoflagellate cyst and TEX86 analyses of DSDP Site 269

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, Peter; Boterblom, Wilrieke H.; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Hartman, Julian D.; Peterse, Francien

    2017-04-01

    Although a lot of research has been conducted to characterize the onset of Antarctic glaciation at the Eocene-Oligocene transition, little is known about the subsequent evolution and fluctuations of the size of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS). The discrepancy between the conclusions of Foster and Rohling (2013) (insensitive global cryosphere between 400-650 ppmv CO2) and variations in benthic foraminiferal δ18O records (0.5-1 ‰) illustrate the uncertainty in particularly the East AIS variability during the Oligocene and Miocene. Increasing awareness of the importance of oceanographic conditions on ice sheet melt emphasize the need to directly infer ice sheet volume fluctuations from sedimentary archives close to the Antarctic margin. In this study, dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblages, dinocyst-based biostratigraphy and TEX86 from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 269, offshore the Wilkes Land Margin (WLM), were used to reconstruct the paleoenvironment and paleoceanographic setting during the Oligocene and Miocene. Preliminary results are indicative of open ocean conditions, Southern Ocean fronts and high productivity waters. Furthermore, biomarker species were found, which are useful for stratigraphic dating. Research conducted at the continental rise of the WLM (Site U1356), by Bijl et al. (in prep.), has allowed for the calibration of dinocysts events of the Oligocene-Miocene Southern Ocean to the international time scale. Comparing the results of Site 269 to Site U1356 can thus provide an age constraint for this record. Correlating paleoceanographic changes between sites can provide insights into the variability of the EAIS during the Oligocene and Miocene, and will contribute to improving predictions of future changes in the Antarctic ice sheet.

  9. A dynamic climate and ecosystem state during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum: inferences from dinoflagellate cyst assemblages on the New Jersey Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sluijs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Late Paleocene and Early Eocene climates and ecosystems underwent significant change during several transient global warming phases, associated with rapidly increasing atmospheric carbon concentrations, of which the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~55.5 Ma is best studied. While biotic response to the PETM as a whole (~170 kyrs has been relatively well documented, variations during the PETM have been neglected. Here we present organic dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst distribution patterns across two stratigraphically expanded PETM sections from the New Jersey Shelf, Bass River and Wilson Lake. Many previously studied sites show a uniform abundance of the thermophilic and presumably heterotrophic taxon Apectodinium that spans the entire carbon isotope excursion (CIE of the PETM. In contrast, the New Jersey sections show large variations in abundances of many taxa during the PETM, including the new species Florentinia reichartii that we formally propose. We infer paleoecological preferences of taxa that show temporal abundance peaks, both qualitative and absolute quantitative, from empirical as well as statistical information, i.e., principle (PCA and canonical correspondence analyses (CCA. In the CCAs, we combine the dinocyst data with previously published environmental proxy data from these locations, such as TEX86 paleothermometry, magnetic susceptibility and sedimentary size fraction. The combined information supports previous inferences that sea level rose during the PETM, but also indicates a (regional increase in fresh-water runoff that started ~10 kyr after the onset of the CIE, and perhaps precession-paced cycles in sea surface productivity. The highly variable dinocyst assemblages of the PETM contrast with rather stable Upper Paleocene assemblages, which suggests that carbon input caused a dynamic climate state, at least regionally.

  10. A first look at the dinoflagellate cysts abundance in the Bay of Bengal: implications on Late Quaternary productivity and climate change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.; Patil, J.S.; Narale, D.D.; Anil, A.C.

    glacial period reflect the affinity to climate change between these two periods, like other regions. Greater abundance of heterotroph and autotroph cysts and higher species diversity were noticed during Holocene than in the last glacial period, which...

  11. Application of {sup 210}Pb-derived sedimentation rates and dinoflagellate cyst analyses in understanding Pyrodinium bahamense harmful algal blooms in Manila Bay and Malampaya Sound, Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sombrito, E.Z. E-mail: ezsombrito@pnri.dost.gov.ph; Bulos, A.M.; Sta Maria, E.J.; Honrado, M.C.V.; Azanza, Rhodora V.; Furio, Elsa F

    2004-07-01

    The number of areas affected by toxic harmful algal bloom (HAB) in the Philippines has been increasing since its first recorded occurrence in 1983. Thus far, HAB has been reported in about 20 areas in the Philippines including major fishery production areas. The HAB-causing organism (Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum) produces a cyst during its life cycle. Pyrodinium cysts which are deposited in the sediment column may play a role in initiating a toxic bloom. {sup 210}Pb-derived sedimentation rate studies in the two important fishing grounds of Manila Bay and Malampaya Sound, Palawan have shown that Pyrodinium cysts may have been present in the sediment even before the first recorded toxic algal bloom in these areas. High sedimentation rates (approximately 1 cm/year) have been observed in the Northern and Western parts of Manila Bay. The results indicate that the sedimentation processes occurring in these bays would require subsurface cyst concentration analysis in evaluating the potential of an area to act as sea bed.

  12. Application of 210Pb-derived sedimentation rates and dinoflagellate cyst analyses in understanding Pyrodinium bahamense harmful algal blooms in Manila Bay and Malampaya Sound, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombrito, E Z; Bulos, A dM; Sta Maria, E J; Honrado, M C V; Azanza, Rhodora V; Furio, Elsa F

    2004-01-01

    The number of areas affected by toxic harmful algal bloom (HAB) in the Philippines has been increasing since its first recorded occurrence in 1983. Thus far, HAB has been reported in about 20 areas in the Philippines including major fishery production areas. The HAB-causing organism (Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum) produces a cyst during its life cycle. Pyrodinium cysts which are deposited in the sediment column may play a role in initiating a toxic bloom. 210Pb-derived sedimentation rate studies in the two important fishing grounds of Manila Bay and Malampaya Sound, Palawan have shown that Pyrodinium cysts may have been present in the sediment even before the first recorded toxic algal bloom in these areas. High sedimentation rates (approximately 1 cm/year) have been observed in the northern and western parts of Manila Bay. The results indicate that the sedimentation processes occurring in these bays would require subsurface cyst concentration analysis in evaluating the potential of an area to act as seed bed.

  13. Quantitative reconstruction of sea-surface conditions over the last 150 yr in the Beaufort Sea based on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages: the role of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Durantou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst assemblages have been widely used over the Arctic Ocean to reconstruct sea-surface parameters on a quantitative basis. Such reconstructions provide insights into the role of anthropogenic vs natural forcings in the actual climatic trend. Here, we present the palynological analysis of a dated 36 cm-long core collected from the Mackenzie Trough in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Dinocyst assemblages were used to quantitatively reconstruct the evolution of sea-surface conditions (temperature, salinity, sea ice and freshwater palynomorphs fluxes were used as local paleo-river discharge indicators over the last ~ 150 yr. Dinocyst assemblages are dominated by autotrophic taxa (68 to 96%. Cyst of Pentapharsodinium dalei is the dominant species throughout most of the core, except at the top where the assemblages are dominated by Operculodinium centrocarpum. Quantitative reconstructions of sea-surface parameters display a series of relatively warm, lower sea ice and saline episodes in surface waters, alternately with relatively cool and low salinity episodes. Variations of dinocyst fluxes and reconstructed sea-surface conditions may be closely linked to large scale atmospheric circulation patterns such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO and to a lesser degree, the Arctic Oscillation (AO. Positive phases of the PDO correspond to increases of dinocyst fluxes, warmer and saltier surface waters, which we associate with upwelling events of warm and relatively saline water from Pacific origin. Freshwater palynomorph fluxes increased in three phases from AD 1857 until reaching maximum values in AD 1991, suggesting that the Mackenzie River discharge followed the same trend when its discharge peaked between AD 1989 and AD 1992. The PDO mode seems to dominate the climatic variations at multi-annual to decadal timescales in the western Canadian Arctic and Beaufort Sea areas.

  14. Ocean acidification reduces growth and calcification in a marine dinoflagellate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Waal, D.B.; John, U.; Ziveri, P.; Reichart, G.J.; Hoins, M.; Sluijs, A.; Rost, B.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous dinoflagellate

  15. Gymnodinium corollarium sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) - a new cold-water dinoflagellate responsible for cyst sedimentation events in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundström, Annica; Kremp, Anke; Daugbjerg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    on partial nuclear-encoded LSU rDNA sequences place the species in close proximity to G. aureolum, but significant genetic distance, together with distinct morphological features, such as the position of chloroplasts, clearly justifies separation from this species. Temperature and salinity experiments...... revealed a preference of G. corollarium for low salinities and temperatures, confirming it to be a cold-water species well adapted to the brackish water conditions in the Baltic Sea. At nitrogen-deplete conditions, G. corollarium cultures produced small, slightly oval cysts resembling a previously...

  16. Dinoflagellates, a new proxy for evidencing (paleo)tsunamis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, S.; Do Couto, D.; Suc, J.; Gorini, C.

    2012-12-01

    As a preliminary investigation, dinoflagellates have been searched in the Sri Lanka tsunami deposits (2004, Sumatra earthquake). The goals of this analysis were (1) to establish if dinoflagellate cysts (marine algae) are preserved in such types of deposits, and (2) to delimit the inland flooded surface. This work was performed on only 1-2 grams of sands, which had been sterilized at 121°C to prevent any microbial activity. The analysis points out the presence of several marine dinoflagellate cysts with a poor to moderate preservation, allowing to estimate the extent of the flooded area. In addition, a sample provided two dinoflagellate thecae, an exceptional occurrence because the cellulosic form of a dinoflagellate (i.e. the theca) is generally considered as unable to be preserved within sediments. In laboratory experiments, thecae are known to persist between 2 and 72 hours, depending of the species. If we accept a possible preservation of thecae in "peculiar" conditions, their presence in a tsunami sedimentary sequence may sign a precise instant of a tsunami event. Dinoflagellates have been searched in sedimentary basins affected by intense seismic activity: the Black Sea (Quaternary) and Alboran Sea (Messinian - Zanclean), two areas marked by important environmental changes. Marine dinoflagellate cysts are recorded in the Black Sea before its Holocene connection with Mediterranean through the Bosphorus Strait. Their occurrence constitutes a robust support for tsunamis already described in the region. In Late Messinian and Early Pliocene deposits from the Sorbas and Malaga basins (Alboran Sea region), cysts and thecae of marine dinoflagellates have been evidenced for the first time, maybe in relation with possible tsunamis. This new approach is to be developed on other recent tsunami deposits in order to contribute to identify past tsunami events. One must mention that dinoflagellates may help in reconstruction of past sea-surface physical parameters (salinity

  17. Quantitative reconstruction of sea-surface conditions over the last ~150 yr in the Beaufort Sea based on dinoflagellate cyst assemblages: the role of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durantou, L.; Rochon, A.; Ledu, D.; Massé, G.

    2012-06-01

    Dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblages have been widely used over the Arctic Ocean to reconstruct sea-surface parameters on a quantitative basis. Such reconstructions provide insights into the role of anthropogenic vs natural forcings in the actual climatic trend. Here, we present the palynological analysis of a 36 cm-long core collected from the Mackenzie Through in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Dinocyst assemblages were used to quantitatively reconstruct the evolution of sea surface conditions (temperature, salinity, sea ice) and freshwater palynomorphs influxes were used as local paleo-river discharge indicators over the last ~150 yr. Dinocyst assemblages are dominated by autotrophic taxa (68 to 96 %). Pentapharsodinium dalei is the dominant specie throughout most of the core, except at the top where the assemblages are dominated by Operculodinium centrocarpum. Quantitative reconstructions of sea surface parameters display a serie of relatively warm, lower sea ice and saline episodes in surface waters, alternately with relatively cool and low salinity episodes. The warm episodes are characterized with high dinocyst productivity. Variations of dinocyst influxes and reconstructed sea surface conditions are closely linked to large scale atmospheric circulation patterns such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and to a lesser degree, the Arctic Oscillation (AO). Positive phases of the PDO correspond to increases of dinocyst influxes, warmer and saltier surface waters, which we associate with upwelling events of warm and relatively saline water from Pacific origin. Freshwater palynomorph influxes increased in three phases from AD 1857 until reaching maximum values in AD 1991, suggesting that the Mackenzie River discharge followed the same trend when its discharge peaked between AD 1989 and AD 1992. The PDO mode seems to dominate the climatic variations at multi-annual to decadal timescales in the Western Canadian Arctic and Beaufort Sea areas.

  18. Ovarian cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiologic ovarian cysts; Functional ovarian cysts; Corpus luteum cysts; Follicular cysts ... and forms a cyst . This is called a follicular cyst. Another type ... blood. Ovarian cysts are more common in the childbearing years ...

  19. Sedimentary Records of Harmful Bloom-Producing Dinoflagellates from Alvarado Lagoon (Southwestern Gulf of Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limoges, A.; Mertens, K. N.; ruiz-Fernandez, A. C.; Sánchez Cabeza, J. A.; de Vernal, A.

    2014-12-01

    Organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages were studied from a sediment core collected in Alvarado Lagoon (southwestern Gulf of Mexico) in order to evaluate their use as tracers of toxic algal blooms. The sedimentary record spans the last ~560 years (CE) and shows high abundances of Polysphaeridium zoharyi, the cyst of the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense, which is known to cause toxic blooms. Cyst fluxes in the sediment of the Alvarado lagoon suggest frequent blooms of Pyrodinium bahamense in the past hundreds of years. Moreover, the high concentrations of the cysts (~ 4000 cysts g-1) in the "modern" surface sediment reveal that the area is susceptible to be affected by future blooms, especially during seasons of heavy rain and wind, when cysts are resuspended in the water column. The dinoflagellate cyst bank in sediment deserves special attention as it may constitute a source for the export of cells in adjacent regions. The cyst of other harmful dinoflagellates have been recovered in the sediment. They notably include those of the benthic dinoflagellate Bysmatrum subsalsum, which is here reported for the first time.

  20. A hypocystal archeopyle in a freshwater dinoflagellate from the Peridinium umbonatum group (Dinophyceae) from Lake Nero di Cornisello, South Eastern Alps, Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tardio, Massimiliano; Ellegaard, Marianne; Lundholm, Nina

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the first record of a living dinoflagellate cyst with a hypocystal, antapical archeopyle. It is also the first detailed account of the archeopyle of a living freshwater cyst from the genus Peridinium. The cysts were isolated from sediment traps deployed in Lake Nero di...

  1. Calcareous fens in Southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael H. McClellan; Terry Brock; James F. Baichtal

    2003-01-01

    Calcareous fens have not been identified previously in southeast Alaska. A limited survey in southeast Alaska identified several wetlands that appear to be calcareous fens. These sites were located in low-elevation discharge zones that are below recharge zones in carbonate highlands and talus foot-slopes. Two of six surveyed sites partly met the Minnesota Department of...

  2. Calcareous Fens - Source Feature Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Pursuant to the provisions of Minnesota Statutes, section 103G.223, this database contains points that represent calcareous fens as defined in Minnesota Rules, part...

  3. Studies on woloszynskioid dinoflagellates IV: the genus Biecheleria gen. nov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Øjvind; Lindberg, Karin; Daugbjerg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    The well known freshwater dinoflagellate Woloszynskia pseudopalustris is transferred to the new genus Biecheleria, based on the very unusual structure of the eyespot (comprising a stack of cisternae), the apical apparatus of a single elongate amphiesma vesicle, the structure of the resting cyst, ...

  4. Vaginal cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of tissue. It can be filled with air, fluid, pus, or other material. A vaginal cyst occurs on or under the vaginal lining. ... There are several types of vaginal cysts. Vaginal inclusion cysts ... may collect fluid and develop into a vaginal wall cyst later ...

  5. Toxic dinoflagellates (Dinophyceae) from Rarotonga, Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Lesley L; Smith, Kirsty F; Munday, Rex; Selwood, Andy I; McNabb, Paul S; Holland, Patrick T; Bottein, Marie-Yasmine

    2010-10-01

    Dinoflagellate species isolated from the green calcareous seaweed, Halimeda sp. J.V. Lamouroux, growing in Rarotongan lagoons, included Gambierdiscus australes Faust & Chinain, Coolia monotis Meunier, Amphidinium carterae Hulburth, Prorocentrum lima (Ehrenberg) Dodge, P. cf. maculosum Faust and species in the genus Ostreopsis Schmidt. Isolates were identified to species level by scanning electron microscopy and/or DNA sequence analysis. Culture extracts of G. australes isolate CAWD149 gave a response of 0.04 pg P-CTX-1 equiv. per cell by an N2A cytotoxicity assay (equivalent to ca 0.4 pg CTX-3C cell(-1)). However, ciguatoxins were not detected by LC-MS/MS. Partitioned fractions of the cell extracts potentially containing maitotoxin were found to be very toxic to mice after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. A. carterae was also of interest as extracts of mass cultures caused respiratory paralysis in mice at high doses, both by i.p. injection and by oral administration. The Rarotongan isolate fell into a different clade to New Zealand A. carterae isolates, based on DNA sequence analysis, and also had a different toxin profile. As A. carterae co-occurred with G. australes, it may contribute to human poisonings attributed to CTX and warrants further investigation. A crude extract of C. monotis was of low toxicity to mice by i.p. injection, and an extract of Ostreopsis sp. was negative in the palytoxin haemolysis neutralisation assay. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Studies on woloszynskioid dinoflagellates III:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Øjvind; Hansen, Gert; Daugbjerg, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Using ultrastructure and nuclear-encoded large subunit (LSU) rDNA sequences, the woloszynskioid dinoflagellates have been shown recently to form a polyphyletic assemblage. The first group comprises the family Tovelliaceae, with the genera Tovellia and Jadwigia. The present manuscript describes...... the second group, comprising Borghiella dodgei gen. et sp. nov. from the Italian Alps. The new genus differs in a number of ultrastructural features, of which the most important are the structure of the eyespot (type B sensu Moestrup & Daugbjerg) and the structure of the apical part of the cell. The resting...... Parvilucifera but apparently not observed in any other dinoflagellates. Woloszynskia tenuissima, a well-known cold-water dinoflagellate, has been re-examined using material isolated from Greenland. Based on partial LSU rDNA sequencing it is shown to be related to R dodgei (sequence divergence only 1...

  7. Fight and flight in dinoflagellates?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selander, Erik; Fagerberg, Tony; Wohlrab, Sylke

    2012-01-01

    We monitored the kinetics of grazer-induced responses in the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. Chemical cues from each of three calanoid copepods (Calanus sp., Centropages typicus, and Acartia tonsa) induced increased toxicity and suppressed chain formation in A. tamarense. Both chemic...

  8. Arachnoid Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or open the cyst so its fluid can drain into the cerebrospinal fluid and be absorbed. View Full Treatment Information Definition Arachnoid cysts are cerebrospinal fluid-filled sacs that are located between the brain or spinal cord and the arachnoid membrane, one ...

  9. occurrence of some maastrichtian dinoflagellate cysts from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    more understanding of the paleogeography of the Bida basin with respect to possible connection between the. Tethys and the south Atlantic in the Late Cretaceous and also may also help resolve more resolutely the precise age of the Patti sediments. 217. J. Ojo, Olusola, Department of Geology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, ...

  10. Occurrence of some Maastrichtian dinoflagellate cysts from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lithostratigraphic and palynological studies of the shale facies of the upper Cretaceous Patti Formation, southeastern Bida Basin, Nigeria have allowed the determination of the paleoenvironment and age of the sediments. Marine dinocysts assemblage and terrestrial pollen and spores (relatively more abundant) are well ...

  11. Calcareous tubeworms of the Phanerozoic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinn, Olev

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphological similarities indicate that Palaeozoic problematic tubeworms, e.g. tentaculitids, cornulitids, microconchids, trypanoporids, Anticalyptraea, and Tymbochoos, form a monophyletic group. This group may also include hederelloids. Members of this group share affinities with lophophorates and their evolution could have partly been driven by predation. The extinction of Palaeozoic tubeworms in the Middle Jurassic was possibly at least partly caused by the ecological pressure by serpulid and sabellid polychaetes. The input of Palaeozoic tubeworms to the general ocean biocalcification system may have been smaller in the Ordovician to Jurassic than that of calcareous polychaetes in the Late Triassic to Recent. There seems to have been some correlation between the aragonite–calcite seas and the skeletal mineralogy of Triassic–Recent polychaete tubeworms.

  12. Putting the N in dinoflagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eDagenais-Bellefeuille

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The cosmopolitan presence of dinoflagellates in aquatic habitats is now believed to be a direct consequence of the different trophic modes they have developed through evolution. While heterotrophs ingest food and photoautotrophs photosynthesize, mixotrophic species are able to use both strategies to harvest energy and nutrients. These different trophic modes are of particular importance when nitrogen nutrition is considered. Nitrogen is required for the synthesis of amino acids, nucleic acids, chlorophylls, and toxins, and thus changes in the concentrations of various nitrogenous compounds can strongly affect both primary and secondary metabolism. For example, high nitrogen concentration is correlated with rampant cell division resulting in the formation of the algal blooms commonly called red tides. Conversely, nitrogen starvation results in cell cycle arrest and induces a series of physiological, behavioral and transcriptomic modifications to ensure survival. This review will combine physiological, biochemical and transcriptomic data to assess the mechanism and impact of nitrogen metabolism in dinoflagellates and to compare the dinoflagellate responses with those of diatoms.

  13. Pilonidal Cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 16, 2015. Pilonidal cyst Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  14. Pancreatic Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreatic cysts Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Doctors & departments Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  15. Ovarian Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... form from embryonic cells. They're rarely cancerous. Cystadenomas. These develop on the surface of an ovary ... ovary and form a growth. Dermoid cysts and cystadenomas can become large, causing the ovary to move ...

  16. Renal Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cyst and burn or cut away its outer layer. Laparoscopic surgery requires general anesthesia . top of page ... are not responsible for the content contained on the web pages found at these links. About Us | Contact ...

  17. Mucous cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help prevent some mucoceles. Alternative Names Mucocele; Mucous retention cyst; Ranula Images Mouth sores References More CB, ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  18. Pyrodinium cysts in manatee stomach contents : harmless tourists or Trojan horses?

    OpenAIRE

    Rindfuss, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    First described by Plate (1906), Pyrodinium bahamense is a bioluminescent dinoflagellate species which forms a resting cyst as part of its life cycle.  P. bahamense forms large dense cyst beds in the flocculent layer of sediments and can remain dormant for decades before excysting and forming blooms.  The Atlantic strain has recently been discovered to produce a neurotoxin called saxitoxin.  Although saxitoxins are most commonly associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning, saxitoxin produce...

  19. Last Interglacial (Eemian) hydrographic conditions in the south-eastern Baltic Sea, NE Europe, based on dinoflagellates and pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Head, Martin J.; Seidenkrantz, Marit Solveig Louise Schramm; Janczyk-Kopikowa, Zofia

    2005-01-01

    A rich organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst and pollen record from the Licze borehole in northern Poland has been used to reconstruct the hydrographic history of the southeastern Baltic Sea during the Eemian Stage (Last Interglacial) of the Upper Pleistocene. Warm and saline waters (ca. 10–15 psu...... of arctic waters. Warm and saline conditions of 15–20 psu or more, at least twice present levels, persisted throughout the early Eemian. A rise in sea level at Licze appears to correlate with a similar event in eastern Denmark, as both coincide with the increase in Corylus (ca. 750 years....... Increasing fluvial influence suggests shallowing through RPAZ E5. This study is the first to document dinoflagellate cysts from the Eemian of the southeastern Baltic Sea. Most species have not been reported previously from either Eemian or Holocene sediments of the Baltic Sea proper....

  20. [Pancreatic cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varola, F; Beccaria, A; Oliaro, A; Sasso, D; Villata, E; Cirillo, R

    1975-02-15

    True and pseudo-cysts of the pancreas are described and their aetiology, pathology, laboratory tests, radiological examination, differential diagnosis, symptomatology and surgical management are illustrated. A series of 22 cases of pancreatic cyst is presented. Surgical management consisted of 14 cystogastrostomies, 3 cystoduodenostomies, 2 resections of the tail of the pancreas, 1 internal drainage between the fistular segment of the gland and the gastric cavity, and 2 external drainages with a Pezzer tube. It is felt that internal drainage is the operation of choice. Of the surgical techniques available, a preference is expressed for cystogastrostomy and cystoduodenostomy.

  1. Diversity and Divergence of Dinoflagellate Histone Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, Georgi K; Lynch, Michael

    2015-12-08

    Histone proteins and the nucleosomal organization of chromatin are near-universal eukaroytic features, with the exception of dinoflagellates. Previous studies have suggested that histones do not play a major role in the packaging of dinoflagellate genomes, although several genomic and transcriptomic surveys have detected a full set of core histone genes. Here, transcriptomic and genomic sequence data from multiple dinoflagellate lineages are analyzed, and the diversity of histone proteins and their variants characterized, with particular focus on their potential post-translational modifications and the conservation of the histone code. In addition, the set of putative epigenetic mark readers and writers, chromatin remodelers and histone chaperones are examined. Dinoflagellates clearly express the most derived set of histones among all autonomous eukaryote nuclei, consistent with a combination of relaxation of sequence constraints imposed by the histone code and the presence of numerous specialized histone variants. The histone code itself appears to have diverged significantly in some of its components, yet others are conserved, implying conservation of the associated biochemical processes. Specifically, and with major implications for the function of histones in dinoflagellates, the results presented here strongly suggest that transcription through nucleosomal arrays happens in dinoflagellates. Finally, the plausible roles of histones in dinoflagellate nuclei are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Marinov and Lynch.

  2. Diversity and Divergence of Dinoflagellate Histone Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi K. Marinov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Histone proteins and the nucleosomal organization of chromatin are near-universal eukaroytic features, with the exception of dinoflagellates. Previous studies have suggested that histones do not play a major role in the packaging of dinoflagellate genomes, although several genomic and transcriptomic surveys have detected a full set of core histone genes. Here, transcriptomic and genomic sequence data from multiple dinoflagellate lineages are analyzed, and the diversity of histone proteins and their variants characterized, with particular focus on their potential post-translational modifications and the conservation of the histone code. In addition, the set of putative epigenetic mark readers and writers, chromatin remodelers and histone chaperones are examined. Dinoflagellates clearly express the most derived set of histones among all autonomous eukaryote nuclei, consistent with a combination of relaxation of sequence constraints imposed by the histone code and the presence of numerous specialized histone variants. The histone code itself appears to have diverged significantly in some of its components, yet others are conserved, implying conservation of the associated biochemical processes. Specifically, and with major implications for the function of histones in dinoflagellates, the results presented here strongly suggest that transcription through nucleosomal arrays happens in dinoflagellates. Finally, the plausible roles of histones in dinoflagellate nuclei are discussed.

  3. The Hidden Sexuality of Alexandrium Minutum: An Example of Overlooked Sex in Dinoflagellates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa I Figueroa

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are haploid eukaryotic microalgae in which rapid proliferation causes dense blooms, with harmful health and economic effects to humans. The proliferation mode is mainly asexual, as the sexual cycle is believed to be rare and restricted to stressful environmental conditions. However, sexuality is key to explaining the recurrence of many dinoflagellate blooms because in many species the fate of the planktonic zygotes (planozygotes is the formation of resistant cysts in the seabed (encystment. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that individually isolated planozygotes in the lab can enter other routes besides encystment, a behavior of which the relevance has not been explored at the population level. In this study, using imaging flow cytometry, cell sorting, and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH, we followed DNA content and nuclear changes in a population of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum that was induced to encystment. Our results first show that planozygotes behave like a population with an "encystment-independent" division cycle, which is light-controlled and follows the same Light:Dark (L:D pattern as the cycle governing the haploid mitosis. Resting cyst formation was the fate of just a small fraction of the planozygotes formed and was restricted to a period of strongly limited nutrient conditions. The diploid-haploid turnover between L:D cycles was consistent with two-step meiosis. However, the diel and morphological division pattern of the planozygote division also suggests mitosis, which would imply that this species is not haplontic, as previously considered, but biphasic, because individuals could undergo mitotic divisions in both the sexual (diploid and the asexual (haploid phases. We also report incomplete genome duplication processes. Our work calls for a reconsideration of the dogma of rare sex in dinoflagellates.

  4. Ovarian Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whether it is fluid-filled, solid, or mixed) Pregnancy test to rule out pregnancy Hormone level tests to see if there are hormone-related problems ... to "false positives." A false positive is a test result that says a woman has ovarian cancer when she does ... cysts are common during pregnancy. Typically, these ...

  5. Nasolabial Cyst Mimicking a Radicular Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kanmani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasolabial cyst is an uncommon nonodontogenic, developmental cyst, originating in maxillofacial soft tissues characterised by its extraosseous location in nasal alar region. This cyst is frequently asymptomatic with most usual sign being alar nose elevation. Its frequency is around 0.7% of cysts of the jaws and 2.5% of the nonodontogenic cyst. A case report of a nasolabial cyst for which a radiographic contrast medium was used in order to localise the lesion is discussed. This article documents the presentation and management of nasolabial cyst in a 50-year-old woman and discusses the considerations related to the diagnosis.

  6. Inflammatory dentigerous cyst mimicking a periapical cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Gupta; Manveen Kaur Jawanda; Ravi Narula; Jasheena Singh

    2016-01-01

    Odontogenic cysts are the most common form of cystic lesions that affect the maxillofacial region. The low frequency of dentigerous cysts in children has been reported in dental literature. Dentigerous cysts arise as a result of cystic change in the remains of the enamel organ after the process of enamel formation is complete. They enclose the crown of an unerupted tooth and are attached to the cementoenamel junction. Although most dentigerous cysts are considered developmental cysts, some ca...

  7. Calcareous sponges of the Netherlands (Porifera, Calcarea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolwijk, van Th.

    1982-01-01

    The taxonomy of calcareous sponges occurring in the Netherlands is reviewed, using field observations of live individuals, microscopical examination of individual skeletons and study of the breeding cycle. This led to the conclusion that a new species had to be erected and other species

  8. Distribution of calcareous nannoplankton in surface sediments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution of calcareous nannoplankton in surface sediments along the northern KwaZulu-Natal Bight, South Africa. ... African Journal of Marine Science ... The coccolith assemblages from seafloor sediments over the inner shelf in the northern region of the KwaZulu- Natal Bight on the east coast of South Africa were ...

  9. Inflammatory dentigerous cyst mimicking a periapical cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontogenic cysts are the most common form of cystic lesions that affect the maxillofacial region. The low frequency of dentigerous cysts in children has been reported in dental literature. Dentigerous cysts arise as a result of cystic change in the remains of the enamel organ after the process of enamel formation is complete. They enclose the crown of an unerupted tooth and are attached to the cementoenamel junction. Although most dentigerous cysts are considered developmental cysts, some cases seem to have an inflammatory origin. The purpose of this report is to present a case of an 8-year-old male patient with a dentigerous cyst of inflammatory origin.

  10. Mixotrophy in the phototrophic dinoflagellate Takayama helix (family Kareniaceae): Predator of diverse toxic and harmful dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hae Jin; Ok, Jin Hee; Lim, An Suk; Kwon, Ji Eun; Kim, So Jin; Lee, Sung Yeon

    2016-12-01

    Takayama spp. are phototrophic dinoflagellates belonging to the family Kareniaceae and have caused fish kills in several countries. Understanding their trophic mode and interactions with co-occurring phytoplankton species are critical steps in comprehending their ecological roles in marine ecosystems, bloom dynamics, and dinoflagellate evolution. To investigate the trophic mode and interactions of Takayama spp., the ability of Takayama helix to feed on diverse algal species was examined, and the mechanisms of prey ingestion were determined. Furthermore, growth and ingestion rates of T. helix feeding on the dinoflagellates Alexandrium lusitanicum and Alexandrium tamarense, which are two optimal prey items, were determined as a function of prey concentration. T. helix ingested large dinoflagellates ≥15μm in size, except for the dinoflagellates Karenia mikimotoi, Akashiwo sanguinea, and Prorocentrum micans (i.e., it fed on Alexandrium minutum, A. lusitanicum, A. tamarense, A. pacificum, A. insuetum, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, Coolia canariensis, Coolia malayensis, Gambierdiscus caribaeus, Gymnodinium aureolum, Gymnodinium catenatum, Gymnodinium instriatum, Heterocapsa triquetra, Lingulodinium polyedrum, and Scrippsiella trochoidea). All these edible prey items are dinoflagellates that have diverse eco-physiology such as toxic and non-toxic, single and chain forming, and planktonic and benthic forms. However, T. helix did not feed on small flagellates and dinoflagellates toxic species and, thus, its mixotrophic ability should be considered when studying red tide dynamics, food webs, and dinoflagellate evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Traumatic bone cyst mimicking radicular cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, Onur; Kose, Taha Emre; Cankaya, Abdulkadir Burak; Aybar, Buket

    2012-12-09

    Traumatic bone cysts were first defined by Lucas and Blum in 1929. It is classified as an intraosseous pseudocyst. They are asymptomatic and are usually seen during routine radiographical examination. According to the 2002 classification of the WHO, traumatic bone cysts are in miscellaneous lesions. This report describes a 16-year-old male patient who had a traumatic bone cyst that mimicked a radicular cyst.

  12. From Protist to Proxy: Dinoflagellates as signal carriers for past climate and carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijs, A.; Reichart, G. J.; Hoins, M.; Waal, D. V. D.; Rost, B.; Roij, L. V.

    2016-12-01

    The (paleo)ecology of dinoflagellates and their organic dinocysts that preserve in sediments are often employed as tracers of past ocean conditions, such as temperature, productivity, ocean circulation, salinity, and sea ice, for the late Triassic to the Modern. Over the past decade, such reconstructions, which are based on empirical information as well as extensive studies of modern systems, have made dinocyst paleoecology a pivotal tool that is complementary to other microfossil groups and (in)organic geochemical techniques. Building on this work, we have carried out culturing experiments to quantify and physiologically underpin CO2-dependent carbon isotope fractionation of several species of dinoflagellates. This work indicates potential for a new CO2 proxy based on fossil dinoflagellate cysts. Moreover, we developed a laser ablation nano combustion gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LA-nC-GC-IRMS) setup capable of measuring δ13C of organic particles of only 40 nanograms of carbon, with accuracy and precision of at most 0.4‰. This allows for the analyses of single to a few dinocyst specimens, setting the stage for a whole new research field investigating variability within populations of dinocysts, but also of pollen and other small scale carbon particles in geology, biology and other research fields. We present the first dinocyst δ13C results of the new method from modern systems and in the paleo-domain, particularly related to marine carbon cycling and CO2.

  13. Cell Biology of Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemand, Denis; Weis, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: The symbiosis between cnidarians (e.g., corals or sea anemones) and intracellular dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium is of immense ecological importance. In particular, this symbiosis promotes the growth and survival of reef corals in nutrient-poor tropical waters; indeed, coral reefs could not exist without this symbiosis. However, our fundamental understanding of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and of its links to coral calcification remains poor. Here we review what we currently know about the cell biology of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. In doing so, we aim to refocus attention on fundamental cellular aspects that have been somewhat neglected since the early to mid-1980s, when a more ecological approach began to dominate. We review the four major processes that we believe underlie the various phases of establishment and persistence in the cnidarian/coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis: (i) recognition and phagocytosis, (ii) regulation of host-symbiont biomass, (iii) metabolic exchange and nutrient trafficking, and (iv) calcification. Where appropriate, we draw upon examples from a range of cnidarian-alga symbioses, including the symbiosis between green Hydra and its intracellular chlorophyte symbiont, which has considerable potential to inform our understanding of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. Ultimately, we provide a comprehensive overview of the history of the field, its current status, and where it should be going in the future. PMID:22688813

  14. Kleptoplast Regulation by an Antarctic Dinoflagellate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, R. J.; Hehenberger, E.; Keeling, P.

    2016-02-01

    We are studying the evolutionary history and expression of plastid- targeted genes in an Antarctic dinoflagellate that steals chloroplasts from the haptophyte, Phaeocystis. Our project seeks to determine whether the kleptoplastidic dinoflagellate utilizes ancestral plastid proteins to regulate its stolen plastid, and how their transcription is related to environmental factors that are relevant to the Southern Ocean environment (temperature and light). To accomplish our goals, we have utilized high throughput transciptome analysis and RNA-Seq experiments of the dinoflagellate and Phaeocystis. Analysis of the dinoflagellate transcriptome has revealed complete mevalonic acid-independent and heme plastid-associated pathways as well as petF and petH transcripts with peridinin-plastid targeting sequences. In contrast, the proteins psaE, petJ, petC show similarity to non-Phaeocystis haptophyte homologs in their respective trees, and potentially carry haptophyte transit peptides. Anaylsis of RNA-Seq temperature and light experiments for the dinoflagellate indicate that there are significant differences in gene expression under the different environmental conditions, and we are in the process of identifying the genes associated with these changes. This work will help us to understand the environmental success of this alternative nutritional strategy.

  15. Bioluminescence in Dinoflagellates: Evidence that the Adaptive Value of Bioluminescence in Dinoflagellates is Concentration Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Karen A; Widder, Edith A

    2017-03-01

    Three major hypotheses have been proposed to explain why dinoflagellate bioluminescence deters copepod grazing: startle response, aposematic warning, and burglar alarm. These hypotheses propose dinoflagellate bioluminescence (A) startles predatory copepods, (B) warns potential predators of toxicity, and (C) draws the attention of higher order visual predators to the copepod's location. While the burglar alarm is the most commonly accepted hypothesis, it requires a high concentration of bioluminescent dinoflagellates to be effective, meaning the bioluminescence selective advantage at lower, more commonly observed, dinoflagellate concentrations may result from another function (e.g. startle response or aposematic warning). Therefore, a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate copepod grazing (Acartia tonsa) on bioluminescent dinoflagellates (during bioluminescent and nonbioluminescent phases, corresponding to night and day, respectively) at different concentrations (10, 1000, and 3000 cells mL-1 ), on toxic (Pyrodinium bahamense var. bahamense) and nontoxic (Lingulodinium polyedrum) bioluminescent dinoflagellates, and in the presence of nonluminescent diatoms (Thalassiosira eccentrica). Changes in copepod ingestion rates, clearance rates, and feeding preferences as a result of these experimental factors, particularly during the mixed trails with nonluminescent diatoms, indicate there is a concentration threshold at which the burglar alarm becomes effective and below which dinoflagellate bioluminescence functions as an aposematic warning. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  16. Odontogenic Cysts and Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, Elizabeth Ann; Collins, Bobby M

    2017-03-01

    This article reviews a myriad of common and uncommon odontogenic cysts and tumors. The clinical presentation, gross and microscopic features, differential diagnosis, prognosis, and diagnostic pitfalls are addressed for inflammatory cysts (periapical cyst, mandibular infected buccal cyst/paradental cyst), developmental cysts (dentigerous, lateral periodontal, glandular odontogenic, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst), benign tumors (keratocystic odontogenic tumor, ameloblastoma, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, ameloblastic fibroma and fibroodontoma, odontoma, squamous odontogenic tumor, calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, primordial odontogenic tumor, central odontogenic fibroma, and odontogenic myxomas), and malignant tumors (clear cell odontogenic carcinoma, ameloblastic carcinoma, ameloblastic fibrosarcoma). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The life history of the toxic marine dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum (Gonyaulacales) in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Pablo; Figueroa, Rosa I; Ramilo, Isabel; Bravo, Isabel

    2017-09-01

    Asexual and sexual life cycle events were studied in cultures of the toxic marine dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum. Asexual division by desmoschisis was characterized morphologically and changes in DNA content were analyzed by flow cytometry. The results indicated that haploid cells with a C DNA content occurred only during the light period whereas a shift from a C to a 2C DNA content (indicative of S phase) took place only during darkness. The sexual life cycle was documented by examining the mating type as well as the morphology of the sexual stages and nuclei. Gamete fusion resulted in a planozygote with two longitudinal flagella, but longitudinally biflagellated cells arising from planozygote division were also observed, so one of the daughter cells retained two longitudinal flagella while the other daughter cell lacked them. Presumed planozygotes (identified by their longitudinally biflagellated form) followed two life-cycle routes: division and encystment (resting cyst formation). Both the division of longitudinally biflagellated cells and resting cyst formation are morphologically described herein. Resting cyst formation through sexual reproduction was observed in 6.1% of crosses and followed a complex heterothallic pattern. Clonal strains underwent sexuality (homothallism for planozygote formation and division) but without the production of resting cysts. Ornamental processes of resting cysts formed from the cyst wall under an outer balloon-shaped membrane and were fully developed in <1h. Obligatory dormancy period was of ∼4 months. Excystment resulted in a large, rounded, pigmented, longitudinally biflagellated but motionless, thecate germling that divided by desmoschisis. Like the planozygote, the first division of the germling yielded one longitudinally biflagellated daughter cell and another without longitudinal flagella. The longitudinal biflagellation state of both sexual stages and of the first division products of these cells is discussed

  18. AE Test of Calcareous Sands with Particle Rushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Fengyi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The particle of calcareous sands was forced to crush, then the energy from the crushing was released by the form of sound waves. Therefore the AE technique was used to detect the calcareous sands AE signal when it crushed. by to study the AE characteristics, the mechanics of calcareous sands was studied. Study showed that: (1 there was the AE activities on the low confining pressure condition at the beginnig of test, (2 there was more and more AE activities with the continuing of test until to the end, (3 the calcareous sands’ AE activities was on the whole testing, (4 the calcareous sands’ particle crushing and mutual friction played different roles for its AE activities. Then the AE model based on the calcarous sands’ particle crushing was discussed.

  19. Spatial distribution of dinoflagellates from the tropical coastal waters of the South Andaman, India: Implications for coastal pollution monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narale, Dhiraj Dhondiram; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2017-02-15

    Dinoflagellate community structure from two semi-enclosed areas along the South Andaman region, India, was investigated to assess the anthropogenic impact on coastal water quality. At the densely inhabited Port Blair Bay, the dominance of mixotrophs in water and Protoperidinoids in sediments was attributed to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment and prey availability. A significant decrease in dinoflagellate abundance from inner to outer bay emphasize the variation in nutrient availability. The dominance of autotrophs and Gonyaulacoid cysts at the North Bay highlight low nutrient conditions with less anthropogenic pressure. The occurrence of oceanic Ornithocercus steinii and Diplopsalis sp. could evince the oceanic water intrusion into the North Bay. Nine potentially harmful and red-tide-forming species including Alexandrium tamarense complex, A. minutum were identified in this study. Although there are no harmful algal bloom (HABs) incidences in this region so far, increasing coastal pollution could support their candidature towards the future HABs initiation and development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evolution and Distribution of Saxitoxin Biosynthesis in Dinoflagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjetill S. Jakobsen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous species of marine dinoflagellates synthesize the potent environmental neurotoxic alkaloid, saxitoxin, the agent of the human illness, paralytic shellfish poisoning. In addition, certain freshwater species of cyanobacteria also synthesize the same toxic compound, with the biosynthetic pathway and genes responsible being recently reported. Three theories have been postulated to explain the origin of saxitoxin in dinoflagellates: The production of saxitoxin by co-cultured bacteria rather than the dinoflagellates themselves, convergent evolution within both dinoflagellates and bacteria and horizontal gene transfer between dinoflagellates and bacteria. The discovery of cyanobacterial saxitoxin homologs in dinoflagellates has enabled us for the first time to evaluate these theories. Here, we review the distribution of saxitoxin within the dinoflagellates and our knowledge of its genetic basis to determine the likely evolutionary origins of this potent neurotoxin.

  1. LIPID BIOMARKER ANALYSIS OF MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many marine eukaryotic algae have been shown to possess characteristic chemotaxonomic lipid biomarkers. Dinoflagellates in particular are often characterized by the presence of sterols and pigments that are rarely found in other classes of algae. To evaluate the utility of chemic...

  2. Traumatic bone cyst, idiopathic origin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    BACKGROUND: Traumatic bone cyst (TBC) is an uncommon non-epithelial lined cavity of the jaws. Traumatic bone cysts have been reported in the literature under a variety of names: solitary bone cyst, haemorrhagic bone cyst, extravasation cyst and simple bone cyst. The multitude of names applied to this lesion implies ...

  3. Beware the Tarlov cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Jane E; Torode, Hugh; Sears, William; Cousins, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Tarlov cysts are sacral perineural cysts. This case report describes the clinical course after biopsy of a very large Tarlov cyst via laparoscopy, which was thought preoperatively to be an adnexal mass. It serves as a warning against attempting biopsy or resection of these lesions.

  4. Patellar calcar: MRI appearance of a previously undescribed anatomical entity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Mark S.; Tiegs-Heiden, Christin A. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stuart, Michael J. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The femoral calcar is a constant anatomical structure within the proximal femur representing a condensation of bone trabeculae. It is our impression that a similar structure is present within the patella. The purpose of this retrospective study was to define the prevalence, appearance, location, and configuration of the patellar calcar on MRI examinations. One hundred consecutive unenhanced knee MRIs were retrospectively reviewed by two readers who were blinded to the clinical indication. The patellar calcar was defined as a dark signaling, linear or curvilinear structure subjacent to the patellar articular surface. If present, the patellar calcar was assigned to a ''well seen,'' ''moderately well seen,'' or ''faintly seen'' category. Location of the calcar within the patella, orientation, configuration, and thickness were recorded. Confounding variables, such as marrow edema, patellar chondromalacia, bipartite patella, or postoperative changes were also recorded. The patellar calcar was visualized in 81 out of 100 (81 %) MRIs. When detected, the calcar was well seen in 20 out of 81 (25 %), moderately well seen in 35 out of 81 (43 %), and faintly seen in 26 out of 81 (32 %). The anteroposterior width of the calcar measured at its thickest segment was: < 1 mm in 43 out of 81 (53 %), 1 mm in 28 out of 81 (35 %), and >1 mm in 10 out of 81 (12 %). The patellar calcar was seen in the majority of knee MRIs and had a consistent imaging appearance. The calcar may be obscured by degenerative arthrosis of the patella and rarely may mimic patellar stress fracture or osteochondritis dissecans. Radiologists and clinicians should be familiar with this normal anatomical structure. (orig.)

  5. Nasopalatine Duct Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Dedhia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nasopalatine cyst is the most common epithelial and nonodontogenic cyst of the maxilla. The cyst originates from epithelial remnants from the nasopalatine duct. The cells may be activated spontaneously during life or are eventually stimulated by the irritating action of various agents (infection, etc.. It is different from a radicular cyst. The definite diagnosis should be based on clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings. The treatment is enucleation of the cystic tissue, and only in rare cases a marsupialisation needs to be performed. A case of a nasopalatine duct cyst in a 35-year-old male is reviewed. The typical radiologic and histological findings are presented.

  6. Neurotoxins from Marine Dinoflagellates: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Zhi Wang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are not only important marine primary producers and grazers, but also the major causative agents of harmful algal blooms. It has been reported that many dinoflagellate species can produce various natural toxins. These toxins can be extremely toxic and many of them are effective at far lower dosages than conventional chemical agents. Consumption of seafood contaminated by algal toxins results in various seafood poisoning syndromes: paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP, amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP, diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP, ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP and azaspiracid shellfish poisoning (ASP. Most of these poisonings are caused by neurotoxins which present themselves with highly specific effects on the nervous system of animals, including humans, by interfering with nerve impulse transmission. Neurotoxins are a varied group of compounds, both chemically and pharmacologically. They vary in both chemical structure and mechanism of action, and produce very distinct biological effects, which provides a potential application of these toxins in pharmacology and toxicology. This review summarizes the origin, structure and clinical symptoms of PSP, NSP, CFP, AZP, yessotoxin and palytoxin produced by marine dinoflagellates, as well as their molecular mechanisms of action on voltage-gated ion channels.

  7. Molecular insights into a dinoflagellate bloom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Weida; Browne, Jamie; Hall, Nathan; Schruth, David; Paerl, Hans; Marchetti, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    In coastal waters worldwide, an increase in frequency and intensity of algal blooms has been attributed to eutrophication, with further increases predicted because of climate change. Yet, the cellular-level changes that occur in blooming algae remain largely unknown. Comparative metatranscriptomics was used to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with a dinoflagellate bloom in a eutrophied estuary. Here we show that under bloom conditions, there is increased expression of metabolic pathways indicative of rapidly growing cells, including energy production, carbon metabolism, transporters and synthesis of cellular membrane components. In addition, there is a prominence of highly expressed genes involved in the synthesis of membrane-associated molecules, including those for the production of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which may serve roles in nutrient acquisition and/or cell surface adhesion. Biotin and thiamine synthesis genes also increased expression along with several cobalamin biosynthesis-associated genes, suggesting processing of B12 intermediates by dinoflagellates. The patterns in gene expression observed are consistent with bloom-forming dinoflagellates eliciting a cellular response to elevated nutrient demands and to promote interactions with their surrounding bacterial consortia, possibly in an effort to cultivate for enhancement of vitamin and nutrient exchanges and/or direct consumption. Our findings provide potential molecular targets for bloom characterization and management efforts.

  8. Control of toxic marine dinoflagellate blooms by serial parasitic killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambouvet, Aurelie; Morin, Pascal; Marie, Dominique; Guillou, Laure

    2008-11-21

    The marine dinoflagellates commonly responsible for toxic red tides are parasitized by other dinoflagellate species. Using culture-independent environmental ribosomal RNA sequences and fluorescence markers, we identified host-specific infections among several species. Each parasitoid produces 60 to 400 offspring, leading to extraordinarily rapid control of the host's population. During 3 consecutive years of observation in a natural estuary, all dinoflagellates observed were chronically infected, and a given host species was infected by a single genetically distinct parasite year after year. Our observations in natural ecosystems suggest that although bloom-forming dinoflagellates may escape control by grazing organisms, they eventually succumb to parasite attack.

  9. [Rare location of arachnoid cysts. Extratemporal cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Perez, Rafael; Hinojosa, José; Pascual, Beatriz; Panaderos, Teresa; Welter, Diego; Muñoz, María J

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic management of arachnoid cysts depends largely on its location. Almost 50% of arachnoid cysts are located in the temporal fossa-Sylvian fissure, whereas the other half is distributed in different locations, sometimes exceptional. Under the name of infrequent location arachnoid cysts, a description is presented of those composed of 2 sheets of arachnoid membrane, which are not located in the temporal fossa, and are primary or congenital. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Constraints on the vital effect in coccolithophore and dinoflagellate calcite by oxygen isotopic modification of seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermoso, Michaël; Horner, Tristan J.; Minoletti, Fabrice; Rickaby, Rosalind E. M.

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we show that there are independent controls of 18O/16O and 13C/12C fractionation in coccolithophore and dinoflagellate calcite due to the contrasting kinetics of each isotope system. We demonstrate that the direction and magnitude of the oxygen isotope fractionation with respect to equilibrium is related to the balance between calcification rate and the replenishment of the internal pool of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). As such, in fast growing cells, such as those of Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanica (forming the so-called ;heavy group;), calcification of the internal carbon pool occurs faster than complete isotopic re-adjustment of the internal DIC pool with H2O molecules. Hence, coccoliths reflect the heavy oxygen isotope signature of the CO2 overprinting the whole DIC pool. Conversely, in large and slow growing cells, such as Coccolithus pelagicus ssp. braarudii, complete re-equilibration is achieved due to limited influx of CO2 leading to coccoliths that are precipitated in conditions close to isotopic equilibrium (;equilibrium group;). Species exhibiting the most negative oxygen isotope composition, such as Calcidiscus leptoporus (;light group;), precipitate coccolith under increased pH in the coccolith vesicle, as previously documented by the ;carbonate ion effect;. We suggest that, for the carbon isotope system, any observed deviation from isotopic equilibrium is only ;apparent;, as the carbon isotopic composition in coccolith calcite is controlled by a Rayleigh fractionation originating from preferential incorporation of 12C into organic matter. Therefore, species with low PIC/POC ratios as E. huxleyi and G. oceanica are shifted towards positive carbon isotope values as a result of predominant carbon fixation into the organic matter. By contrast, cells with higher PIC/POC as C. braarudii and C. leptoporus maintain, to some extent, the original negative isotopic composition of the CO2. The calcareous dinoflagellate

  11. The Genetic Basis of Specificity in Dinoflagellate-Invertebrate Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-21

    invertebrates can distinguish between certain dinoflagellates with which they form symbioses , and others with which they appear incompatible, and...expressed specificity in dinoflagellate-invertebrate symbioses . From the mass of evidence available, it is apparent that specificity is an ultimate

  12. SEBACEOUS CYSTS MINOR SURGERY

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Laksemi; Sri Maliawan; Ketut Siki Kawiyana

    2013-01-01

    Minor surgery is small surgery or localized example cut ulcers and boils, cyst excision, and suturing. Somethings that need to be considered in the preparation of the surgery is minor tools, operating rooms and operating tables, lighting, maintenance of tools and equipment, sterilization and desinfection equipment, preparation of patients and anesthesia. In general cysts is walled chamber that consist of fluid, cells and the remaining cells. Cysts are formed not due to inflammation although ...

  13. Subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Manchanda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchogenic cysts occur due to the anomalous development of the primitive tracheobronchial tree early in fetal life. They are usually present in middle mediastinum. Rarely, they have been found in other locations. We describe two patients with subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts located over manubrium sterni with special emphasis on the difficulties in pre-operative diagnosis. The two boys were managed by complete excision of the cysts. The children are well on follow-up.

  14. Parosteal aneurysmal bone cyst ?

    OpenAIRE

    Meohas, Walter; de Sá Lopes, Ana Cristina; da Silveira Möller, João Victor; Barbosa, Luma Duarte; Oliveira, Marcelo Bragança dos Reis

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of aneurysmal bone cysts is 0.14 cases per 100,000 individuals. Parosteal aneurysmal bone cysts are the least prevalent subtype and represent 7% of all aneurysmal bone cysts. We present the case of a 38-year-old male patient with pain and bulging in his right arm for eight months. He had previously been diagnosed as presenting giant-cell tumor, but his slides were reviewed and his condition was then diagnosed as parosteal aneurysmal bone cyst. The patient was treated with cortic...

  15. Giant ovarian cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We read the exceedingly rare case study recently described by Hota et al. about giant ovarian cyst in term pregnancy1. The patient was a 25-year-old woman undergoing therapy for hypothyroidism, with history of three previous deliveries (P1L1A1. USG of abdomen and pelvis was normal with respect to gestational age in the second trimester, and ovarian cyst was not seen. However, the USG of control done on the third trimester revealed a left ovarian cyst (21x18 cm, with normal obstetric features. The weight of removed cyst of 29x20 cm was 4.9 kg, and the histopathology diagnosis was ovarian mucinous cystadenoma1. The authors emphasized the rarity of concomitat pregnancy and ovarian cyst, and 15% of these mucinous cysts are malignant1. Huge ovarian cysts are more often benign, and less frequently they are diagnosed in association with normal pregnancies1. Major concerns in this setting should be the early diagnosis, close follow-up of the cyst growing, and appropriate intervention1. Interestingly, in the case herein commented the ovarian cyst was not detected by USG in the first two trimesters of pregnancy. 

  16. The sterols of calcareous sponges (Calcarea, Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Andrea; Voigt, Oliver; Wörheide, Gert; Thiel, Volker

    2008-11-01

    Sponges are sessile suspension-feeding organisms whose internal phylogenetic relationships are still the subject of intense debate. Sterols may have the potential to be used as independent markers to test phylogenetic hypotheses. Twenty representative specimens of calcareous sponges (class Calcarea, phylum Porifera) with a broad coverage within both subclasses Calcinea and Calcaronea were analysed for their sterol content. Two major pseudohomologous series were found, accompanied by some additional sterols. The first series encompassing conventional C(27) to C(29)Delta(5,7,22) sterols represented the major sterols, with ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3beta-ol, C(28)Delta(5,7,22)) being most prominent in many species. The second series consisted of unusual C(27) to C(29)Delta(5,7,9(11),22) sterols. Cholesterol occurred sporadically, mostly in trace amounts. The sterol patterns did not resolve intraclass phylogenetic relationships, namely the distinction between the subclasses, Calcinea and Calcaronea. This pointed towards major calcarean lipid traits being established prior to the separation of subclasses. Furthermore, calcarean sterol patterns clearly differ from those found in Hexactinellida, whereas partial overlap occurred with some Demospongiae. Hence, sterols only partly reflect the phylogenetic separation of Calcarea from both of the other poriferan classes that was proposed by recent molecular work and fatty acid analyses.

  17. Aneurysmal bone cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangachari P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Aneurysmal bone cysts have raised intra-cystic pressures which are dynamic and diagnostic in nature. Aneurysmal bone cysts could be diagnosed from other benign cystic lesions of bone by recording their intra-cystic pressures with a spinal manometer. Raised intra-cystic pressures in aneurysmal bone cysts are maintained as long as the periosteum over the cyst is intact even in those with pathological fractures. Even though its pathology is definite its aetio-pathology is not clear Method: Fourteen out of 16 radiologically benign cystic lesions of bone were subjected to intra-cystic pressure recordings with spinal manometer. Other two cysts had displaced unimpacted pathological fractures and so their intra-cystic pressures could not be recorded. All 16 cysts were subjected to histo-pathological examination to confirm their diagnosis and to find out for any pre-existing benign pathology. All the cysts were surgically treated. Results: Fourteen benign cystic lesions of bone were diagnosed as aneurysmal bone cysts preoperatively by recording raised intra-cystic pressures and confirmed by histo-pathology. In addition, histo-pathology revealed pre-existing benign pathology. All cysts were successfully treated surgically. Conclusions: Since, there is appreciable rise in intra-cystic dynamic pressures, the aneurysmal bone cyst is considered to be due to either sudden venous obstruction or arterio-venous shunt. Pre-operative intra-cystic pressure recordings help not only to diagnose aneurysmal bone cysts but also to assess the quantum of blood loss and its replacement during surgery.

  18. Bubble stimulation efficiency of dinoflagellate bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Grant B; Stokes, M Dale; Latz, Michael I

    2016-02-01

    Dinoflagellate bioluminescence, a common source of bioluminescence in coastal waters, is stimulated by flow agitation. Although bubbles are anecdotally known to be stimulatory, the process has never been experimentally investigated. This study quantified the flash response of the bioluminescent dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum to stimulation by bubbles rising through still seawater. Cells were stimulated by isolated bubbles of 0.3-3 mm radii rising at their terminal velocity, and also by bubble clouds containing bubbles of 0.06-10 mm radii for different air flow rates. Stimulation efficiency, the proportion of cells producing a flash within the volume of water swept out by a rising bubble, decreased with decreasing bubble radius for radii less than approximately 1 mm. Bubbles smaller than a critical radius in the range 0.275-0.325 mm did not stimulate a flash response. The fraction of cells stimulated by bubble clouds was proportional to the volume of air in the bubble cloud, with lower stimulation levels observed for clouds with smaller bubbles. An empirical model for bubble cloud stimulation based on the isolated bubble observations successfully reproduced the observed stimulation by bubble clouds for low air flow rates. High air flow rates stimulated more light emission than expected, presumably because of additional fluid shear stress associated with collective buoyancy effects generated by the high air fraction bubble cloud. These results are relevant to bioluminescence stimulation by bubbles in two-phase flows, such as in ship wakes, breaking waves, and sparged bioreactors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Management of ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ulla Breth; Tabor, Ann; Mosgaard, Berit Jul

    2004-01-01

    . The diagnosis and the treatment are assessed in relation to age, menopausal status, pregnancy, and whether the cyst is presumed to be benign or malignant. In general, expectant management is the choice in premenopausal and pregnant women with non-suspicious cysts and normal levels of CA-125. In postmenopausal...

  20. (unicameral) bone cysts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the fact that this is a hollow/fluid-filled unicameral lesion, a 'fallen fragment/leaf' may be visualised (Fig. 2). The 'fallen leaf' sign is virtu- ally pathognomonic of a multiloculated bone cyst.5 This distinguishes it from other low-density lesions such as an aneurysmal bone cyst, which is more septated or contains a more solid ...

  1. Lumbar synovial cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Sapkas, George S; Korres, Demetrios S; Pneumaticos, Spyridon G

    2012-01-01

    Synovial spinal cysts are typically found in the lumbar spine, most often at the L4-L5 level. Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic imaging of choice in the workup of suspected synovial cysts. This study consisted of 24 patients with lumbar synovial cysts treated by cyst excision and nerve root decompression through partial or complete facetectomy and primary posterolateral fusion. The most common location of the cysts was the L4-L5 segment. Synovial tissue was found in histological sections of 18 cysts. At a mean follow-up of 12 (range, 8 to 24) months, 20 patients (83%) had excellent or good results; two patients (8.3%) had fair and two patients (8.3%) had poor improvement. Operative complications included dural tear in two patients and postoperative wound dehiscence in one patient, which were treated accordingly. To eliminate the risk of recurrence synovial cyst excision through partial or complete facetectomy is required. In addition, since synovial cysts reflect disruption of the facet joint and some degree of instability, primary spinal fusion is recommended.

  2. [Choledochal cyst (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Vallejo, J; Cuadros, J; Lassaletta, L; Monereo, J

    1978-11-01

    This paper reports six pediatric patients with congenital choledochal cyst. From the long-term follow-up results of the six patients authors conclude that primary excision of the choledochal cyst and Roux hepatic jejunostomy are the first choice treatment for this lesion. However, it may not be possible in all cases, and choledochocystoenterostomy would then be useful as a second choice.

  3. Epidermoid cyst post dermofasciectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Henry, Francis P

    2010-01-01

    We report the finding of an unusual presentation of an epidermoid cyst 3 years following dermofasciectomy for Dupuytren\\'s disease. Epidermoid cysts remain a rare entity in the palmoplanter distribution but also a very unusual finding within the confines of a full thickness skin graft.

  4. Multiple intratesticular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung Min; Hwang, Dae Sung; Lee, Jung Woo; Chon, Won Hee; Park, Nam Cheol; Park, Hyun Jun

    2013-04-01

    Intratesticular cysts, once thought to be a rarity, are now being reported with an increasing prevalence as a result of the wider use of scrotal ultrasound scanning. Despite greater understanding of intratesticular cysts, their management remains unclear. Treatment has included enucleation and even radical orchiectomy over fear of the possibility of an associated malignancy. A more conservative approach with serial ultrasound scanning has been advocated if a clear distinction can be made between neoplastic and non-neoplastic testicular cysts. However, in view of the benign nature of such cysts, even repeated ultrasound scanning may not be necessary and may be considered over-treatment. In this study we present clinical and morphological characteristics of multiple cysts in the right testicle in a 62-year-old patient, where a slightly nodular lesion in the right testicle was detected.

  5. Treatment of ganglion cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Matthew; Fung, B; Lung, C P

    2013-01-01

    Ganglion cysts are soft tissue swellings occurring most commonly in the hand or wrist. Apart from swelling, most cysts are asymptomatic. Other symptoms include pain, weakness, or paraesthesia. The two main concerns patients have are the cosmetic appearance of the cysts and the fear of future malignant growth. It has been shown that 58% of cysts will resolve spontaneously over time. Treatment can be either conservative or through surgical excision. This review concluded that nonsurgical treatment is largely ineffective in treating ganglion cysts. However, it advised to patients who do not surgical treatment but would like symptomatic relief. Compared to surgery, which has a lower recurrence rate but have a higher complication rate with longer recovery period. It has been shown that surgical interventions do not provide better symptomatic relief compared to conservative treatment. If symptomatic relief is the patient's primary concern, a conservative approach is preferred, whilst surgical intervention will decrease the likelihood of recurrence.

  6. From homothally to heterothally: Mating preferences and genetic variation within clones of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Rosa Isabel; Rengefors, Karin; Bravo, Isabel; Bensch, Staffan

    2010-02-01

    The chain-forming dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum Graham is responsible for outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a human health threat in coastal waters. Sexuality in this species is of great importance in its bloom dynamics, and has been shown to be very complex but lacks an explanation. For this reason, we tested if unreported homothallic behavior and rapid genetic changes may clarify the sexual system of this alga. To achieve this objective, 12 clonal strains collected from the Spanish coast were analyzed for the presence of sexual reproduction. Mating affinity results, self-compatibility studies, and genetic fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism, AFLP) analysis on clonal strains, showed three facts not previously described for this species: (i) That there is a continuous mating system within G. catenatum, with either self-compatible strains (homothallic), or strains that needed to be outcrossed (heterothallic), and with a range of differences in cyst production among the crosses. (ii) There was intraclonal genetic variation, i.e. genetic variation within an asexual lineage. Moreover, the variability among homothallic clones was smaller than among the heterothallic ones. (iii) Sibling strains (the two strains established by the germination of one cyst) increased their intra- and inter-sexual compatibility with time. To summarize, we have found that G. catenatum's sexual system is much more complex than previously described, including complex homothallic/heterothallic behaviors. Additionally, high rates of genetic variability may arise in clonal strains, although explanations for the mechanisms responsible are still lacking.

  7. Tarlov cyst and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Azam, Amir; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2009-01-01

    Tarlov cysts or spinal perineurial cysts are uncommon lesions. These are mostly incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging or myelograms. The objectives of this study were to describe Tarlov cysts of the sacral region as a potential cause for retrograde ejaculations and review available management options. Case report and literature review. A 28-year-old man presented with back pain and retrograde ejaculations resulting in infertility. After microsurgical excision of large perineurial cysts, back pain resolved, but semen quality showed only marginal improvement. Later, the couple successfully conceived by intrauterine insemination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Tarlov cyst associated with retrograde ejaculation and infertility. Despite being mostly asymptomatic and an incidental finding, Tarlov cyst is an important clinical entity because of its tendency to increase in size with time. Tarlov cysts of the sacral and cauda equina region may be a rare underlying cause in otherwise unexplained retrograde ejaculations and infertility. Microsurgical excision may be a good option in a select group of patients.

  8. Photoregulation in a Kleptochloroplastidic Dinoflagellate, Dinophysis acuta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per J.; Ojamae, Karin; Berge, Terje

    2016-01-01

    Some phagotrophic organisms can retain chloroplasts of their photosynthetic prey as so-called kleptochloroplasts and maintain their function for shorter or longer periods of time. Here we show for the first time that the dinoflagellate Dinophysis acute takes control over "third-hand" chloroplasts...... obtained from its ciliate prey Mesodinium spp. that originally ingested the cryptophyte chloroplasts. With its kleptochloroplasts, D. acuta can synthesize photosynthetic as well as photoprotective pigments under long-term starvation in the light. Variable chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed...... that the kleptochloroplasts were fully functional during 1 month of prey starvation, while the chlorophyll a-specific inorganic carbon uptake decreased within days of prey starvation under an irradiance of 100 mu mol photons m(-2) s(-1). While a acute cells can regulate their pigmentation and function of kleptochloroplasts...

  9. Branchial cleft cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Nahata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Branchial cleft cyst, sinuses, and fistulae are among the most commonly encountered congenital anomalies in pediatric otolaryngic practice. They can present difficulty in diagnosis and surgical management. Here, I report a case of 14-year-old boy who presented with asymptomatic, congenital swelling located just below the jawline in the lateral part of the neck. The lesion was excised surgically. Histopathology showed the cyst lined by squamous as well as columnar ciliated epithelium, which was a characteristic finding of branchial cleft cyst. The aim of presenting this case is its rarity.

  10. Juxtaepiphyseal aneurysmal bone cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capanna, R.; Biagini, R.; Ruggieri, P.; Giunti, A.; Springfield, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    Nine cases of aneurysmal bone cyst arising in juxtaepiphyseal locations with gross invasion of the adjacent growth plate are reported. In five of these patients in abnormality of growth, due to premature fusion of the affected growth plate, ultimately developed. Treatment of these lesions should attempt to avoid this complication, which appears to be more common than has been appreciated in the past. These nine cases represent 23% of 39 cases of aneurysmal bone cyst occurring in a long bone adjacent to an open epiphyseal plate. This series was extrapolated from a total of 198 cases of aneurysmal bone cyst in the files of the Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy.

  11. [Cysts of the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillingso, J.G.; Kirkegaard, P.

    2008-01-01

    guided drainage to resections and liver transplantation are discussed. It is concluded that up to 25% of cysts must be treated surgically, because recurrence after percutaneous or laparoscopic treatment is between 5% and 71%, and only resection or liver transplantation are curative Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4/14......Cysts of the liver are discovered in connection with a scope of diseases ranging from simple, infectious, or parasitic to neoplastic cysts. Symptoms, paraclinical, radiological and diagnostic characteristics are described with emphasis on ruling out malignancy. The treatment options from ultrasound...

  12. Inorganic carbon acquisition in red tide dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Björn; Richter, Klaus-Uwe; Riebesell, Ulf; Hansen, Per Juel

    2006-05-01

    Carbon acquisition was investigated in three marine bloom-forming dinollagellates-Prorocentrum minimum, Heterocapsa triquetra and Ceratium lineatum. In vivo activities of extracellular and intracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA), photosynthetic O2 evolution, CO2 and HCO3- uptake rates were measured by membrane inlet mass spectrometry (MIMS) in cells acclimated to low pH (8.0) and high pH (8.5 or 9.1). A second approach used short-term 14C-disequilibrium incubations to estimate the carbon source utilized by the cells. All three species showed negligible extracellular CA (eCA) activity in cells acclimated to low pH and only slightly higher activity when acclimated to high pH. Intracellular CA (iCA) activity was present in all three species, but it increased only in P. minimum with increasing pH. Half-saturation concentrations (K1/2) for photosynthetic O2 evolution were low compared to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) kinetics. Moreover, apparent affinities for inorganic carbon (Ci) increased with increasing pH in the acclimation, indicating the operation of an efficient CO2 concentration mechanism (CCM) in these dinoflagellates. Rates of CO2 uptake were comparably low and could not support the observed rates of photosynthesis. Consequently, rates of HCO3- uptake were high in the investigated species, contributing more than 80% of the photosynthetic carbon fixation. The affinity for HCO3- and maximum uptake rates increased under higher pH. The strong preference for HCO3- was also confirmed by the 14C-disequilibrium technique. Modes of carbon acquisition were consistent with the 13C-fractionation pattern observed and indicated a strong species-specific difference in leakage. These results suggest that photosynthesis in marine dinoflagellates is not limited by Ci even at high pH, which may occur during red tides in coastal waters.

  13. Extradural Spinal Arachnoid Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old boy with multiple spinal arachnoid cysts and paraplegia, and 37 similar cases in the literature are reviewed by neurosurgeons and radiologist at Univ of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  14. Current Knowledge and Recent Advances in Marine Dinoflagellate Transcriptomic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Afiq Akbar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are essential components in marine ecosystems, and they possess two dissimilar flagella to facilitate movement. Dinoflagellates are major components of marine food webs and of extreme importance in balancing the ecosystem energy flux in oceans. They have been reported to be the primary cause of harmful algae bloom (HABs events around the world, causing seafood poisoning and therefore having a direct impact on human health. Interestingly, dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are major components of coral reef foundations. Knowledge regarding their genes and genome organization is currently limited due to their large genome size and other genetic and cytological characteristics that hinder whole genome sequencing of dinoflagellates. Transcriptomic approaches and genetic analyses have been employed to unravel the physiological and metabolic characteristics of dinoflagellates and their complexity. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge and findings from transcriptomic studies to understand the cell growth, effects on environmental stress, toxin biosynthesis, dynamic of HABs, phylogeny and endosymbiosis of dinoflagellates. With the advancement of high throughput sequencing technologies and lower cost of sequencing, transcriptomic approaches will likely deepen our understanding in other aspects of dinoflagellates’ molecular biology such as gene functional analysis, systems biology and development of model organisms.

  15. The structure and mode of action of the dinoflagellate toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Najafi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dinoflagellates are the major causative agents of harmful algal blooms. In different studies, it has been shown that many dinoflagellate species produce various natural toxins. Saxitoxin, brevetoxin, yessotoxin, etc can be considered as the most important neurotoxins. The most important dinoflagellate toxins structures, their origin, structure and mechanisms of action were evaluated in a systematic review. Materials & Methods: Marine dinoflagellates, marine toxins, and their mechanisms of action and structure were keywords for a comprehensive search in online databases including Pubmed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and Scirus. A total of 95 papers were evaluated, however, by omitting similar reports, 68 papers were included in the study. Results: Dinoflagellates toxins are usually polycyclic ether and polyketaide compounds that have distinct mechanisms of action including alteration in different ion channels and/or pumps at cell membrane, effect on the normal functioning of neuronal and other excitable tissues, inhibition of serine/threonine phosphoprotein phosphatases, disrupting major mechanisms of controlling cellular functions, and alteration in cellular cytoskeleton. However, the precise mechanisms of action of few toxins are not determined yet. Conclusion: The clarification of the dinoflagellate toxins structures and their mechanisms of action may be helpful for novel drug design, therapeutic measures and to overcome against marine toxicity. 

  16. Gingival Cyst of Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Aman

    2011-01-01

    Gingival cyst of newborn is an oral mucosal lesion of transient nature. Although it is very common lesion within 3 to 6 weeks of birth, it is very rare to visualize the lesion thereafter. Presented here is a case report of gingival cyst, which was visible just after 15 days of birth. Clinical diagnoses of these conditions are important in order to avoid unnecessary therapeutic procedure and provide suitable information to parents about the nature of the lesion.

  17. Simple bone cyst of mandible mimicking periapical cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hs, Charan Babu; Rai, Bhagawan Das; Nair, Manju A; Astekar, Madhusudan S

    2012-05-29

    Simple bone cysts (SBC) are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region. The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required. SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two decades of life. Here we report a case of solitary bone cyst mimicking a periapical cyst of a mandibular molar in a 37-year-old patient.

  18. Simple bone cyst of mandible mimicking periapical cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charan Babu HS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Simple bone cysts (SBC are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region. The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required. SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two decades of life. Here we report a case of solitary bone cyst mimicking a periapical cyst of a mandibular molar in a 37-year-old patient.

  19. Pancreas and cyst segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, Konstantin; Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Nadeem, Saad; Kaufman, Arie

    2016-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of abdominal organs from medical images is an essential part of surgical planning and computer-aided disease diagnosis. Many existing algorithms are specialized for the segmentation of healthy organs. Cystic pancreas segmentation is especially challenging due to its low contrast boundaries, variability in shape, location and the stage of the pancreatic cancer. We present a semi-automatic segmentation algorithm for pancreata with cysts. In contrast to existing automatic segmentation approaches for healthy pancreas segmentation which are amenable to atlas/statistical shape approaches, a pancreas with cysts can have even higher variability with respect to the shape of the pancreas due to the size and shape of the cyst(s). Hence, fine results are better attained with semi-automatic steerable approaches. We use a novel combination of random walker and region growing approaches to delineate the boundaries of the pancreas and cysts with respective best Dice coefficients of 85.1% and 86.7%, and respective best volumetric overlap errors of 26.0% and 23.5%. Results show that the proposed algorithm for pancreas and pancreatic cyst segmentation is accurate and stable.

  20. Conservative management of perineural cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Raj; Kirpalani, Dhiruj; Wedemeyer, Matthew

    2008-07-15

    A case series and literature review are presented. To review relevant data for the management of perineural cysts, and present a case series of 2 patient with symptomatic perineural cysts treated by steroid therapy. Perineural cysts are usually an incidental finding, but rarely may cause mechanical nerve root compression. Surgical treatments for perineural cysts are complicated by postoperative pseudomeningocoele and intracranial hypotension, and reoccurrence of the cyst. There are no reported nonsurgical treatments for perineural cysts. We present a case series symptomatic perineural cysts. Patients with lumbar and cervical perineural cysts were treated successfully with oral and epidural steroid therapy. Steroid therapy may offer a nonsurgical alternative for the treatment of symptomatic perineural cysts.

  1. Prospects of damaged calcareous spring systems in temperate Europe : Can we restore travertine-marl deposition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans, Ab; Bulte, Marc; Wolejko, Leslaw; Pakalne, Mara; Dullo, Bikila; Eck, Nelly; Fritz, Christian

    Calcareous mires are peat forming systems fed by calcareous groundwater that regularly deposit travertine (CaCO3) on the soil surface or in small pools that are present in such mires. At present almost all calcareous mires in Poland are degraded, most often by land use, which has led to disturbances

  2. Highly calcareous lacustrine soils in the Great Konya Basin, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, de T.

    1971-01-01

    The Great Konya Basin is in the south of the Central Anatolian Plateau in Turkey. It is a depression without outlet to the sea. The central part of the Basin is the floor of a former Pleistocene lake, the Ancient Konya Lake. This area, called the Lacustrine
    Plain, has highly calcareous

  3. Fractionation and Distribution of Copper and Zinc in Calcareous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted to fractionate Cu and Zn into the exchangeable, carbonate, Fe- Mn Oxide, organic and residual fractions within 0-30, 30-60 and 60-90 cm soil depths of calcareous soils of Igarra. The results obtained indicated that mean concentration of copper was highest in the Fe/Mn oxide fraction (3.68 ...

  4. Relationship Between Light Intensity and Abundance of Dinoflagellate in Samalona Island, Makassar (Keterkaitan Intensitas Cahaya dan Kelimpahan Dinoflagellate di Pulau Samalona, Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albida Rante Tasak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cahaya merupakan salah satu faktor penting dalam proses fotosintesis dinoflagellate dan pertumbuhan variabilitas harian. Intensitas cahaya memengaruhi aktivitas fotosintesis dan kelimpahan dinoflagellate. Studi ini bertujuan untuk menunjukkan pola kecenderungan kelimpahan dinoflagellate dan klorofil serta lama penyinaran terhadap kelimpahan dinoflagellate di Perairan Pulau Samalona. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menginkubasi sampel dinoflagellate kedalam botol sejak pagi-sore hari dengan inkubasi waktu pengamatan setiap 2 jam dengan ulangan sebanyak 3 kali. Pengambilan mencakup kelimpahan dinoflagellate, nutrient dan intensitas cahaya dalam perairan. Analisis data menggunakan regresi linear sederhana. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai intensitas cahaya berkisar antara 50–3000 lux; kelimpahan dinoflagellate berkisar antara 9–1105 sel.L-1, dan kandungan klorofil a lebih dominan dengan kisaran  0.00069–0.50321 µg.L-1. Intensitas cahaya mempengaruhi kelimpahan dinoflagellate, namun pengaruh kandungan nutrient sangat kecil terhadap kelimpahan dinoflagellate. Pola kelimpahan dinoflagellate bervariasi dari pagi hingga sore hari yang dipengaruhi oleh intensitas cahaya dalam melakukan proses fotosintesis serta kondisi lingkungan lain seperti klorofil a dan nutrient. Hasil penelitian ini memberikan informasi variasi temporal harian kelimpahan dinoflagellate di Pulau Samalona, Makassar.

  5. Extramedullary spinal cysts in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Mark L; Platt, Simon R; Garosi, Laurent S

    2014-08-01

    To (1) synthesize the terminology used to classify extramedullary spinal cysts in dogs to clarify some of the commonly reported misconceptions, and (2) propose a classification scheme to limit confusion with terminology. Literature review. An online bibliographic search was performed in January 2013 for articles relating to extramedullary spinal cysts in dogs using PubMed (http://www.pubmed.gov/) and Google Scholar (http://scholar.google.com/) databases. Only peer-reviewed clinical literature describing cystic lesions pertaining to the spinal cord and associated structures was included. From 1962 to 2013, 42 articles were identified; 25 (95 dogs) reported meningeal cysts, 10 (24 dogs) described 60 extradural cysts, 3 reports (18 dogs) described discal cysts or acute compressive hydrated nucleus pulposus extrusions (HNPE). Spinal cysts were categorized by location based on cross-sectional imaging as meningeal or extradural non-meningeal. Sub-classification was then performed based on surgical findings and pathology. Meningeal cysts included arachnoid diverticulae and Tarlov (perineural) cysts. Extradural non-meningeal cysts included intraspinal cysts of the vertebral joints, ligaments and discs. Discal cysts also fit this category and have been reported extensively in humans but appear rare in dogs. Extramedullary spinal cysts should be first classified according to location with a sub-classification according to pathologic and surgical findings. Previous canine cases of discal cysts appear to represent a different disease entity and the term acute compressive HNPE is therefore preferred. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  6. An overview of dinoflagellate cysts in recent sediments along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSilva, M.S.; Anil, A.C.; DeCosta, P.M.

    (Claparède et Lachmann) Diesing complex* Spiniferites membranaceus (Rossingnol) Sarjeant, Gon.spi Spiniferites ramosus (Rossingnol) Sarjeant, Spiniferites mirabilis(Ehrenberg) Mantell Gonyaulax spp. – Gon.sp Gymnodinium cf. catenatum Graham* – Gym.cf.cat... 22 22 Gym.cf.cat* Gyr.imp 15 Lin.poly* 3 17 10 Pen.dal 4 Phae.har 4 17 Pro.ret* 11 9 31 22 32 10 34 42...

  7. Tracking the history of dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in sediments from the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSilva, M.S.; Anil, A.C.; Borole, D.V.; Nath, B.N.; Singhal, R.K.

    in the Mangalore core coincided with high deposition of shells; carbon analyses (Delta 13C sub(org) and C sub(org):N ratio) revealed shifts in organic matter type from terrestrial to marine source. The terrigenous input in this region, influenced by the monsoonal...

  8. Oligocene dinoflagellate cysts from the North Alpine Foreland Basin: new data from the Eggerding Formation (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ali

    2012-02-01

    In spite of detailed geological and geophysical investigations, information available on palynostratigraphy for the successions deposited in the Austrian part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB) is scanty. For the first time, relatively diverse and well preserved Oligocene dinocyst assemblages, comprising 53 genera and 138 species, are presented from the organic-rich sediments of the Eggerding Formation. These assemblages contribute to the biostratigraphy of the Oligocene deposits within the NAFB. Dinocysts such as Chiropteridium lobospinosum, Membranophoridium aspinatum, Cordosphaeridium spp., Enneadocysta spp., Deflandrea spp., Spiniferites/Achomosphaera group, Hystrichokolpoma spp., Apteodinium spp., Glaphyrocysta/Areoligera complex and Wetzeliella spp. represent the main palynological elements. The occurrence of Chiropteridium spp., Tuberculodinium vancampoae, Distatodinium biffii and Wetzeliella gochtii is of particular importance for regional correlations within the Lower Oligocene sediments. A comparison with age-controlled assemblages from the North Sea Basin, Carpathian and circum-Mediterranean regions substantiate the attribution to the Rupelian. Lack or sporadic occurrence of the oceanic taxa (e.g. Nematosphaeropsis and Impagidinium) and dominance of Glaphyrocysta/Areoligera indicate an inner-neritic marine setting during the deposition of the studied intervals. Although, it is difficult to reconstruct precisely the climatic conditions based on the recorded dinocysts, warm? sea surface water is suggested. A variation in salinities is interpreted based on the abundances of Homotryblium spp. The abundance of Peridiniaceae taxa (e.g. Lejeunecysta, Wetzeliella, and Deflandrea) indicates nutrient-rich surface water.

  9. Stable carbon isotope fractionation of organic cyst-forming dinoflagellates: Evaluating the potential for a CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoins, M.; Van de Waal, D.B.; Eberlein, T.; Reichart, G.-J.; Rost, B.; Sluijs, A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, significant progress has been made regarding the quantification and mechanistic understanding of stable carbon isotope fractionation (13C fractionation) in photosynthetic unicellular organisms in response to changes in the partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 (pCO2). However,

  10. A data mining approach to dinoflagellate clustering according to sterol composition: Correlations with evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the sterol compositions of 102 dinoflagellates (including several previously unexamined species) using clustering techniques as a means of determining the relatedness of the organisms. In addition, dinoflagellate sterol-based relationships were compared statistically to dinoflag...

  11. Integration of plastids with their hosts: Lessons learned from dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrell, Richard G.; Howe, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    After their endosymbiotic acquisition, plastids become intimately connected with the biology of their host. For example, genes essential for plastid function may be relocated from the genomes of plastids to the host nucleus, and pathways may evolve within the host to support the plastid. In this review, we consider the different degrees of integration observed in dinoflagellates and their associated plastids, which have been acquired through multiple different endosymbiotic events. Most dinoflagellate species possess plastids that contain the pigment peridinin and show extreme reduction and integration with the host biology. In some species, these plastids have been replaced through serial endosymbiosis with plastids derived from a different phylogenetic derivation, of which some have become intimately connected with the biology of the host whereas others have not. We discuss in particular the evolution of the fucoxanthin-containing dinoflagellates, which have adapted pathways retained from the ancestral peridinin plastid symbiosis for transcript processing in their current, serially acquired plastids. Finally, we consider why such a diversity of different degrees of integration between host and plastid is observed in different dinoflagellates and how dinoflagellates may thus inform our broader understanding of plastid evolution and function. PMID:25995366

  12. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. SEBACEOUS CYSTS MINOR SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Laksemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Minor surgery is small surgery or localized example cut ulcers and boils, cyst excision, and suturing. Somethings that need to be considered in the preparation of the surgery is minor tools, operating rooms and operating tables, lighting, maintenance of tools and equipment, sterilization and desinfection equipment, preparation of patients and anesthesia. In general cysts is walled chamber that consist of fluid, cells and the remaining cells. Cysts are formed not due to inflammation although then be inflamed. Lining of the cysts wall is composed of fibrous tissue and usually coated epithelial cells or endothelial. Cysts formed by dilated glands and closed channels, glands, blood vessels, lymph channels or layers of the epidermis. Contents of the cysts wall consists of the results is serum, lymph, sweat sebum, epithelial cells, the stratum corneum, and hair. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  14. A Parasite of Marine Rotifers: A New Lineage of Dinokaryotic Dinoflagellates (Dinophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellate infections have been reported for different protistan and animal hosts. We report, for the first time, the association between a dinoflagellate parasite and a rotifer host, tentatively Synchaeta sp. (Rotifera, collected from the port of Valencia, NW Mediterranean Sea. The rotifer contained a sporangium with 100–200 thecate dinospores that develop synchronically through palintomic sporogenesis. This undescribed dinoflagellate forms a new and divergent fast-evolved lineage that branches among the dinokaryotic dinoflagellates.

  15. New observations on meniscal cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Jada Jean; Connor, Gregory F.; Helms, Clyde A. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of meniscal cysts, assess the frequency of various magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics, and emphasize radiographic observations not commonly reported. A total of 2,095 consecutive knee MR imaging reports from a 22 month period were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of meniscal cysts. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed the cases where cysts were reported. A meniscal cyst was considered present if abnormally increased signal was identified within an enlarged meniscus (i.e., intrameniscal cyst) or if a loculated fluid-intensity lesion with a clear connection to the adjacent meniscus was identified (i.e., parameniscal cyst). Presence or absence of a meniscal tear, intrameniscal and parameniscal signal intensity, patient age, sex, location of meniscal cyst, presence of discoid meniscus, and size of the parameniscal cyst component were recorded. All knee imaging examinations were performed on a 1.5T MR unit. Imaging findings were correlated with arthroscopic reports when available. A total of 167 cases (8.0%) of meniscal cysts were diagnosed in 161 patients. Of the 167 cysts, 69 (41.3%) were located in the lateral meniscus and 98 (58.7%) in the medial meniscus. In 6 patients (3.7%), meniscal cysts were present in both menisci of the same knee. Twelve (7.2%) meniscal cysts were associated with discoid menisci. Ninety-seven (57.8%) meniscal cysts were associated with meniscal tears. Of the total number of meniscal cysts, 104 (62.3%) had a parameniscal cyst. An isolated intrameniscal cyst was present in 63 (37.7%) cases. One hundred (96%) of the parameniscal cyst components were isointense to fluid on T2-weighted FSE images. All cysts exhibited abnormal intrameniscal signal. Only 14 (8.4%) of the intrameniscal components were isointense to fluid on T2-weighted FSE images. The arthroscopic reports of 88 of the 161 (54.7%) patients were available for review and correlation. A tear extending to

  16. New observations on meniscal cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jada Jean; Connor, Gregory F; Helms, Clyde A

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of meniscal cysts, assess the frequency of various magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics, and emphasize radiographic observations not commonly reported. A total of 2,095 consecutive knee MR imaging reports from a 22 month period were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of meniscal cysts. Two musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed the cases where cysts were reported. A meniscal cyst was considered present if abnormally increased signal was identified within an enlarged meniscus (i.e., intrameniscal cyst) or if a loculated fluid-intensity lesion with a clear connection to the adjacent meniscus was identified (i.e., parameniscal cyst). Presence or absence of a meniscal tear, intrameniscal and parameniscal signal intensity, patient age, sex, location of meniscal cyst, presence of discoid meniscus, and size of the parameniscal cyst component were recorded. All knee imaging examinations were performed on a 1.5T MR unit. Imaging findings were correlated with arthroscopic reports when available. A total of 167 cases (8.0%) of meniscal cysts were diagnosed in 161 patients. Of the 167 cysts, 69 (41.3%) were located in the lateral meniscus and 98 (58.7%) in the medial meniscus. In 6 patients (3.7%), meniscal cysts were present in both menisci of the same knee. Twelve (7.2%) meniscal cysts were associated with discoid menisci. Ninety-seven (57.8%) meniscal cysts were associated with meniscal tears. Of the total number of meniscal cysts, 104 (62.3%) had a parameniscal cyst. An isolated intrameniscal cyst was present in 63 (37.7%) cases. One hundred (96%) of the parameniscal cyst components were isointense to fluid on T2-weighted FSE images. All cysts exhibited abnormal intrameniscal signal. Only 14 (8.4%) of the intrameniscal components were isointense to fluid on T2-weighted FSE images. The arthroscopic reports of 88 of the 161 (54.7%) patients were available for review and correlation. A tear extending to

  17. Quistes planctonicos de dinoficeas en areas de plataforma del atlantico sudoccidental: I. Reporte taxonomico de la família Peridiniaceae ehrenberg Planktonic dinoflagelltes cysts in areas from the southwestern atlantic shelf: I. Taxonomic report on the Peridiniacace ehreber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rut Akselman

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This work constitutes a first contribution to the taxonomy of dinoflagellate resting cysts in planktonic samples of this region, being studied nine species of Protoperidinium Bergh and Zybabikodinium Loeblich Jr. et Loeblich III of the family Peridiniaceae. Incubation experiments with living material and parental thecae containing resting cysts in fixed samples allowed setting up of the cyst-theca relationship in P. obtusum (Karst. Parke et Dodge, and also that verification for P. excentricum (Pauls. Bal., P. claudicans (Pauls. Bal., P. oblongum (Aur. Parke et Dodge and Z. lanticalatum Loeb. Jr. et Loeb. III. P. conicides (Pauls. Bal., P. antcuiciticum (Schimp. Bal. P. pentagonum (Gran Bal. and P. compressum (Abe Bal. cysts were ' studied offering also an analysis for thecal sulcal plates for the latter species. Geographic distribution and temperature and salinity data for samples with living cysts are given.

  18. Environmental barcoding reveals massive dinoflagellate diversity in marine environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena F Stern

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dinoflagellates are an ecologically important group of protists with important functions as primary producers, coral symbionts and in toxic red tides. Although widely studied, the natural diversity of dinoflagellates is not well known. DNA barcoding has been utilized successfully for many protist groups. We used this approach to systematically sample known "species", as a reference to measure the natural diversity in three marine environments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we assembled a large cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI barcode database from 8 public algal culture collections plus 3 private collections worldwide resulting in 336 individual barcodes linked to specific cultures. We demonstrate that COI can identify to the species level in 15 dinoflagellate genera, generally in agreement with existing species names. Exceptions were found in species belonging to genera that were generally already known to be taxonomically challenging, such as Alexandrium or Symbiodinium. Using this barcode database as a baseline for cultured dinoflagellate diversity, we investigated the natural diversity in three diverse marine environments (Northeast Pacific, Northwest Atlantic, and Caribbean, including an evaluation of single-cell barcoding to identify uncultivated groups. From all three environments, the great majority of barcodes were not represented by any known cultured dinoflagellate, and we also observed an explosion in the diversity of genera that previously contained a modest number of known species, belonging to Kareniaceae. In total, 91.5% of non-identical environmental barcodes represent distinct species, but only 51 out of 603 unique environmental barcodes could be linked to cultured species using a conservative cut-off based on distances between cultured species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: COI barcoding was successful in identifying species from 70% of cultured genera. When applied to environmental samples, it revealed a

  19. Breast Recurrent Hydatid Cyst Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temiz, Ayetullah; Albayrak, Yavuz; Akalp, Sevilay Özmen; Yalçın, Ahmet; Albayrak, Ayşe

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hydatid cyst is a zoonotic disease seen in endemic areas. It is an important health problem in our country and especially in our Eastern and South-eastern Anatolia Region. Involvement of isolated breast tissue is very rare in hydatid cystdisease. As far as we know, isolated recurrent breast cyst hydatidosis has not been found in the literature. We aimed to present the case of a patient who was diagnosed with recurrent isolated cyst hydatid in the same breast, operated on because of hydatid cyst in the right breast 9 years ago. A hydatid cyst should be considered, particularly in endemic regions, in the differential diagnosis of cystic masses of the breast. If the patient has previously undergone surgery for breast cyst hydatid disease, recurrent cyst hydatid disease should be considered at the differential diagnosis. Celsius.

  20. Symptomatic sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajko, Tomislav; Kovać, Damir; Kudelić, Nenad; Kovac, Lana

    2009-12-01

    Sacral perineurial (Tarlov) cysts are rare lesions. Over a seven year period 4000 patients underwent surgery for lumbar disk herniation. In three patients neurological symptoms were caused by large sacral perineurial cysts. Methods of choice for diagnosis of Tarlov cysts are lumbosacral magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography myelography. The majority of Tarlov cysts are asymptomatic. In case of large (> or = 1.5 cm) and symptomatic perineurial cyst, as in three patients reported in this article, microsurgical treatment was successful. Although rare, perineurial (Tarlov) cysts must be taken into consideration when approaching to patient with low back and radicular pain. Authors review the medical literature, pathological and pathophysiological features and treatment options of sacral perineurial cysts.

  1. Canine intracranial epidermoid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, S R; Graham, J; Chrisman, C L; Adjiri-Awere, A; Clemmons, R M

    1999-01-01

    A 7-year-old intact male pitbull presented with a 2-month history of progressive dysequilibrium. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was indicative of a central inflammatory or neoplastic disorder. A cerebellar cystic structure was identified on magnetic resonance imaging which was found to be an epidermoid cyst on histopathology.

  2. Simple Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled sacs that form in the kidneys. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are located near the ...

  3. Hydatid Cysts in Children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HussamHassan

    Background/Purpose: Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection caused by a parasite, echinococcus granulosus, characterized by cystic lesion in the liver, lungs ... The aim of this study is to identify the optimum and safe way for treating children having ... Diagnosis of pulmonary hydatid cysts is an indication for surgery which is ...

  4. (unicameral) bone cysts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fibula.3 Most often a single bone is affected.4 The most common compli- cation ... 10 years.6 CT can be useful to evaluate the extent of the cyst, especially if pelvic bones are affected. ... established a R20,000.00 prize for the best lecture given at the RSSA Biennial Congress being held in conjunction with the ISRRT World.

  5. COMPLICATEI) MASSIVE CHOLEDOCHAL CYST:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This form of presentation is considered unusual and notable. This case report is aimed at highlighting this unique presentation and reviewing literature on choledochal cyst. It is hoped .... Three serial daily serum electrolytes showed persistently low sodium (range, 123 -. 133meq/l), and low potassium (range, 1.9 ~ 2.9meq/l).

  6. Pancreatic Cysts - Part 2: Should We Be Less Cyst Centric?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Anne Marie; Canto, Marcia Irene

    2017-07-01

    The management of pancreatic cysts is a common problem faced by physicians and surgeons. Pancreatic cysts are important because some of them are mucin-producing cysts (MPCs), which may harbor or develop pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Thus, accurate classification of pancreatic cysts and diagnosis of MPCs offer a potential for the prevention or early detection of pancreatic cancer. However, the diagnosis and management of asymptomatic pancreatic cysts are complicated by 2 factors. First, incidentally detected pancreatic cysts are often misdiagnosed as branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms. Although most are MPCs, there are other types of cysts, such as serous cystadenomas, which are managed differently. Second, only a minority of MPCs will ultimately develop into invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Thus, on the one hand, pancreatic cysts offer a unique opportunity to identify precursors to pancreatic cancer and improve outcomes. On the other hand, misdiagnosis and overzealous testing or unnecessary surgery may lead to high cost and harm to patients. Several guidelines have been developed by various groups for the management of pancreatic cysts. In this article, we review the strengths and weaknesses of the American Gastroenterology Association guidelines, highlight key recommendations requiring further validation, and provide our balanced approach to diagnosing and managing pancreatic cysts.

  7. Parathyroid cyst: often mistaken for a thyroid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujiki, Michael B; Nayar, Ritu; Sturgeon, Cord; Angelos, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Parathyroid cysts are rare but clinically significant lesions. They can be functional, mistaken for a thyroid cyst, and/or managed nonoperatively on occasion. We identified seven patients (1 male, 6 females) with the diagnosis of parathyroid cyst from 1998 to 2003. Altogether, 33% of the patients had functional cysts. Sestamibi scans were performed in three of the seven patients, including two with functional cysts; none showed focal uptake. In toto, six of the seven cysts (86%) were found in an inferior parathyroid gland. All of the cysts had crystal-clear aspirate. C-terminal parathormone (PTH) levels were obtained from the aspirate from five of the seven (71%) patients. The mean level was 269,736 pg/ml (1970-1,268,074 pg/ml). Surgery was performed in three of the seven (43%) patients. All patients who underwent surgery improved postoperatively based on symptoms and serum levels of calcium and PTH. The four patients (57%) who were treated nonoperatively were subjected to aspiration alone; three (75%) of those patients required multiple aspirations. Most parathyroid cysts are nonfunctional and are rarely symptomatic. They are usually located in an inferior gland. If aspirated, most of the cysts reaccumulate fluid. Operative management is usually straightforward and alleviates symptoms and any biochemical abnormalities caused by the cyst.

  8. Recent blooms of the dinoflagellate Ceratium in Albert Falls Dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent blooms of the dinoflagellate Ceratium in Albert Falls Dam (KZN): History, causes, spatial features and impacts on a reservoir ecosystem and its zooplankton. ... Ceratium totally dominated the phytoplankton assemblage, accounting almost completely for coincident chlorophyll levels, which generally increased with ...

  9. Impact of tropical storms and drought on the dinoflagellates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    North Carolina experienced three hurricanes during autumn 1999, an ongoing drought from October 2001 to October 2002, one hurricane during autumn 2003, and remnants from seven tropical systems during August–September 2004. These weather events impacted the abundance patterns of both dinoflagellates. In the ...

  10. Insights into a dinoflagellate genome through expressed sequence tag analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaldo Maria F

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dinoflagellates are important marine primary producers and grazers and cause toxic "red tides". These taxa are characterized by many unique features such as immense genomes, the absence of nucleosomes, and photosynthetic organelles (plastids that have been gained and lost multiple times. We generated EST sequences from non-normalized and normalized cDNA libraries from a culture of the toxic species Alexandrium tamarense to elucidate dinoflagellate evolution. Previous analyses of these data have clarified plastid origin and here we study the gene content, annotate the ESTs, and analyze the genes that are putatively involved in DNA packaging. Results Approximately 20% of the 6,723 unique (11,171 total 3'-reads ESTs data could be annotated using Blast searches against GenBank. Several putative dinoflagellate-specific mRNAs were identified, including one novel plastid protein. Dinoflagellate genes, similar to other eukaryotes, have a high GC-content that is reflected in the amino acid codon usage. Highly represented transcripts include histone-like (HLP and luciferin binding proteins and several genes occur in families that encode nearly identical proteins. We also identified rare transcripts encoding a predicted protein highly similar to histone H2A.X. We speculate this histone may be retained for its role in DNA double-strand break repair. Conclusion This is the most extensive collection to date of ESTs from a toxic dinoflagellate. These data will be instrumental to future research to understand the unique and complex cell biology of these organisms and for potentially identifying the genes involved in toxin production.

  11. [Arachnoid cysts: Embriology and pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Conde, Mario; Martín-Viota, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    There is still great controversy surrounding the origin of the arachnoid cyst. The most accepted theory in the case of congenital cysts explains how they are formed from an anomalous development of the arachnoid membrane, which is unfolded allowing the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside and creating a cyst. This theory seems to explain the origin of convexity and sylvian cistern arachnoid cysts, whereas those in other locations might be due to other mechanisms. In the anatomopathological analysis, the arachnoid cyst wall can be seen as having few differences from normal, although thickened due to an increase quantity of collagenous material. A description of the embryological development of the arachnoid layer and cyst formation is presented, describing the main anatomopathological findings. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Tailgut cysts: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflalo-Hazan, V.; Rousset, P.; Lewin, M.; Azizi, L. [Hopital Saint Antoine, Department of Radiology, PARIS Cedex 12 (France); Mourra, N. [Hopital Saint Antoine, Department of Pathology, PARIS Cedex 12 (France); Hoeffel, C. [Hopital Robert Debre, Department of Radiology, Reims Cedex (France)

    2008-11-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of 11 surgically resected pelvic tailgut cysts were analyzed with reference to histopathologic and clinical data. Homogeneity, size, location, signal intensity, appearance and presence of septa and/or nodules and/or peripheral rim and involvement of surrounding structures were studied. Histological examination demonstrated 11 tailgut cysts (TGC), including one infected TGC and one TGC with a component of adenocarcinoma. Lesions (3-8 cm in diameter) were exclusively or partly retrorectal in all cases but one, with an extension down the anal canal in five cases. Lesions were multicystic in all patients but one. On T1-weighted MR images, all cystic lesions contained at least one hyperintense cyst. The peripheral rim of the cystic lesion was regular and non or moderately enhancing in all cases but the two complicated TGC. Nodular peripheral rim and irregular septa were seen in the degenerated TGC. Marked enhancement of the peripheral structures was noted in the two complicated TGC. Pelvic MRI is a valuable tool in the preoperative evaluation of TGC. (orig.)

  13. Radiculopathy Caused by Discal Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sae Young

    2013-01-01

    Discal cyst is an intraspinal cyst with a distinct communication with the corresponding intervertebral disc. It is a rare condition and could present with radiculopathy similar to that caused by lumbar disc herniation. We present a patient with a large discal cyst in the ventrolateral epidural space of the 5th lumbar vertebral (L5) level that communicated with the adjacent 4th lumbar and 5th lumbar intervertebral disc, causing L5 radiculopathy. We alleviated the radiating pain with selective ...

  14. Ocean acidification reduces growth and calcification in a marine dinoflagellate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, D.B. van de; John, U.; Ziveri, P.; Reichart, G.-J.; Hoins, M.; Sluijs, A.; Rost, B.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous

  15. Size fraction characterization of highly-calcareous fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itskos, Grigorios; Koukouzas, Nikolaos [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 357-359 Mesogeion Avenue, GR-152 31, Halandri, Athens (Greece); Itskos, Socrates [Department of Chemical Technology and the Environment, Steam Electric Station of Amynteon-Filotas, Public Power Corporation of Greece, GR-532 00, Amynteon (Greece)

    2010-11-15

    The chemical and mineralogical composition of lignite fly ash (FA) varies as a function of the prevalent conditions in both the processes of power production and lignite mining. The differentiation of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the highly-calcareous lignite fly ash, as a function of its particle size distribution, is verified in this paper. According to the results of the conducted research, a fine-grained fraction of considerable amount presents properties that obstruct the sustainable exploitation of calcareous lignite fly ash in cement industry applications. On the other hand, the same grain fraction (because of its hydraulic properties) can be utilized in other sort of applications, based on different criteria, i.e. in road constructions. The coarse-grained fraction (which reflects a low proportion to the total fly ash output) presents the same undesired characteristics as well. Rather, the intermediate grain fraction (75-150 {mu}m) presents the highly desirable properties when fly ash is utilized as a pozzolanic additive. In addition, the mechanism of the formation of the intermediate grain fraction strongly prevents the factors that cause the variation of fly ash-quality. It is therefore the optimum part of the whole amount of lignite FA, to be utilized as additive in cement manufacturing. The outcomes of this paper will hopefully contribute towards the crucial goal of the expansion of the utilization of calcareous lignite fly ash by proposing a more effective way of using this material, basically by taking advantage of its fundamental chemical and mineralogical properties. (author)

  16. Neurenteric cysts of the spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J J Savage

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurenteric cysts account for 0.7-1.3% of spinal axis tumors. These rare lesions result from the inappropriate partitioning of the embryonic notochordal plate and presumptive endoderm during the third week of human development. Heterotopic rests of epithelium reminiscent of gastrointestinal and respiratory tissue lead to eventual formation of compressive cystic lesions of the pediatric and adult spine. Histopathological analysis of neurenteric tissue reveals a highly characteristic structure of columnar or cuboidal epithelium with or without cilia and mucus globules. Patients with symptomatic neurenteric cysts typically present in the second and third decades of life with size-dependent myelopathic and/or radicular signs. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography are essential diagnostic tools for the delineation of cyst form and overlying osseous architecture. A variety of approaches have been employed in the treatment of neurenteric cysts each with a goal of total surgical resection. Although long-term outcome analyses are limited, data available indicate that surgical intervention in the case of neurenteric cysts results in a high frequency of resolution of neurological deficit with minimal morbidity. However, recurrence rates as high as 37% have been reported with incomplete resection secondary to factors such as cyst adhesion to surrounding structure and unclear dissection planes. Here we present a systematic review of English language literature from January 1966 to December 2009 utilizing MEDLINE with the following search terminology: neurenteric cyst, enterogenous cyst, spinal cord tumor, spinal dysraphism, intraspinal cyst, intramedullary cyst, and intradural cyst. In addition, the references of publications returned from the MEDLINE search criteria were surveyed in order to examine other pertinent reports.

  17. A quantitative real-time PCR assay for the identification and enumeration of Alexandrium cysts in marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdner, D. L.; Percy, L.; Keafer, B.; Lewis, J.; Anderson, D. M.

    2010-02-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are a global problem that affects both human and ecosystem health. One of the most serious and widespread HAB poisoning syndromes is paralytic shellfish poisoning, commonly caused by Alexandrium spp. dinoflagellates. Like many toxic dinoflagellates, Alexandrium produces resistant resting cysts as part of its life cycle. These cysts play a key role in bloom initiation and decline, as well as dispersal and colonization of new areas. Information on cyst numbers and identity is essential for understanding and predicting blooms, yet comprehensive cyst surveys are extremely time- and labor-intensive. Here we describe the development and validation of a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technique for the enumeration of cysts of A. tamarense of the toxic North American/Group I ribotype. The method uses a cloned fragment of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene as a standard for cyst quantification, with an experimentally determined conversion factor of 28,402±6152 LSU ribosomal gene copies per cyst. Tests of DNA extraction and PCR efficiency show that mechanical breakage is required for adequate cyst lysis, and that it was necessary to dilute our DNA extracts 50-fold in order to abolish PCR inhibition from compounds co-extracted from the sediment. The resulting assay shows a linear response over 6 orders of magnitude and can reliably quantify ≥10 cysts/cm 3 sediment. For method validation, 129 natural sediment samples were split and analyzed in parallel, using both the qPCR and primulin-staining techniques. Overall, there is a significant correlation ( p<0.001) between the cyst abundances determined by the two methods, although the qPCR counts tend to be lower than the primulin values. This underestimation is less pronounced in those samples collected from the top 1 cm of sediment, and more pronounced in those derived from the next 1-3 cm of the core. These differences may be due to the condition of the cysts in the different layers, as the

  18. Calcareous nannofossil events in the pre-evaporitic Messinian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Alessandra; Lozar, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    During the Messinian (7.2 to 5.3 Ma) the Mediterranean area experienced fast and deep climatic and eustatic structural changes. The stratigraphic framework for this interval is relatively well constrained and the beginning of the Messinian salinity crisis dated at 5.97 Ma determine a duration of at least 1.2 Ma for the pre-evaporitic Messinian that is object of this study. Several sites (Faneromeni, Pissouri, Polemi Fanantello borehole, Lemme, Pollenzo, Govone, Moncalvo; Wade and Bown, 2006; Kouwenhoven et al 2006, Morigi et al 2007, Lozar et al 2010, Dela Pierre et al 2011) show similar calcareous nannofossil record behavior, with several Sphenolithus spp. peaks recognised at different quotes in each of the sections. Aim of the present work is to compare the calcareous nannofossil data achieved in the above mentioned sections: interestingly, the occurrence of strongly oligotypic assemblages related to high salinity and unstable environments, appear to correlate precisely among the investigated sites and occur immediately before the onset of the Messinian salinity crisis, then offering the possibility to use them as bioevents for regional correlation. References Dela Pierre, F., Bernardi, E., Cavagna, S., Clari, P., Gennari, R., Irace, A., Lozar, F., Lugli, S., Manzi, V., Natalicchio, M., Roveri, M., Violanti, D., 2011. The record of the Messinian salinity crisis in the Tertiary Piedmont Basin (NW Italy): The Alba section revisited. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 310, 238-255. Kouwenhoven, T.J., Morigi, C., Negri, A., Giunta, S., Krijgsman, W., Rouchy, J.M., 2006 Paleoenvironmental evolution of the eastern Mediterranean during the Messinian: Constraints from integrated microfossil data of the Pissouri Basin (Cyprus). Marine Micropaleontology 60, 17-44. Lozar, F., Violanti, D., Dela Pierre, F., Bernardi, E., Cavagna, S., Clari, P., Irace, A., Martinetto, E., Trenkwalder, S., 2010. Calcareous nannofossils and foraminifers herald the Messinian

  19. Potential of endozoochorous seed dispersal by sheep in calcareous grasslands: correlations with seed traits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiters, A.T.; Huiskes, H.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Questions: What is the potential of sheep to serve as seed dispersers via ingestion and defecation in calcareous grasslands? Is the presence of viable seeds from dung correlated with specific seed traits? Location: Calcareous grasslands, South Limburg, the Netherlands/Belgium. Methods: Dung samples

  20. Cylinders and seances : Elise van Calcar and the spirit of Froebel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Nelleke

    2013-01-01

    This essay discusses the life and work of Elise van Calcar (18221904), a writer and maternal feminist who introduced Froebel's kindergarten in the Netherlands. Van Calcar also was the leader of a Christian branch of spiritualism. The focus is pointed at parallels between her reading of Froebel and

  1. Fibular hydatid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Hamidreza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease is caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus. Genus Echinococcus has different species including Echinococcus vogeli, Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilucularis . Echinococcus granulosus is the most common cause of hydatid disease in humans. This disease occurs either through direct ingestion of parasite eggs from contact with infected dogs or indirectly from the ingestion of contaminated water or food. Infestation of hydatid disease in humans most commonly occurs in the liver (55-70%, followed by the lungs (18-35%. Bone hydatidosis however is very rare (3%. We present herein a case of hydatid cyst of the fibula, which is an uncommon site for the occurrence of this disease.

  2. Lysis of red blood cells by extracts from benthic dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona de Motta, G; Rodríguez-Costas, I; Tosteson, T R; Ballantine, D L; Durst, H D

    1986-12-01

    Samples of the cultured benthic dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus toxicus and Ostreopsis lenticularis, both isolated from a shallow back reef habitat in southwestern Puerto Rico, were extracted in methanol, dried and resuspended in distilled water. After centrifugation, aliquots of the supernatant, or dilutions thereof, were added to suspensions of washed human and mouse red blood cells and incubated at different temperatures for different time periods. Further spectrophotometrical examinations of the samples showed a hemolytic activity against mouse and human red blood cells. The hemolytic activity of G. toxicus extract was 3 to 4 times greater than that of O. lenticularis and was less temperature-dependent. Such findings suggest that these two dinoflagellates produce chemically different hemolysins.

  3. Thecate dinoflagellates (Dinophyceae) from Bahía Fosforescente, Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Becerril, David U.; Navarro R., Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Bahía Fosforescente, Puerto Rico, is well-known because of biolurniniscence caused by high concentrations of dinoflagellates. However, the specific cornposition of dinoflagellates has not been studied in detail. Several samples taken during 1975-1987 with net were analysed to study the dinoflagellates in the bayo Twenty-six taxa were identified, including 19 species, ti varieties, and one form, together with three species not fully identified, all of thern thecate. The valid, currentIy recogn...

  4. The Distribution of Toxic Dinoflagellates on Sea Grass Enhalus Acoroides at Pari Island, Seribu Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Widiarti, Riani; Anggraini, Fitrian

    2012-01-01

    Benthic dinoflagellates causing Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP), could be found attached either on macroalgae or sea grasses. Research on density and distribution of benthic dinoflagellates on sea grass leaves was conducted in Pari Island waters, Seribu Islands, in April 2012. Research was carried out by collecting Enhalus acoroides leaves from each site, and put inside the plastic jars containing seawater. In order to separate the dinoflagellates species from the leaves, the plastic jars were...

  5. Molecular Insights Into a Dinoflagellate Bloom Imply Bacterial Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W.; Hall, N.; Schruth, D.; Paerl, H. W.; Marchetti, A.

    2016-02-01

    In coastal waters, an increase in frequency and intensity of algal blooms worldwide has recently been observed primarily due to eutrophication, with further increases predicted as a consequence of climate change. In many marine habitats most impacted by human activities, efforts have been made to prevent conditions that promote harmful algal blooms, or HABs, although progress is limited, due in part to our current lack of understanding of the environmental and cellular processes that promote and propagate these blooms. Comparative metatranscriptomics was used to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms associated with a dinoflagellate bloom in a highly eutrophied estuarine system. Here we show that under bloom conditions, there is increased expression of metabolic pathways indicative of rapidly growing cells, including energy production, carbon metabolism, transporters and synthesis of nucleic acids and cellular membrane components. In addition, there is a prominence of highly expressed genes involved in synthesis of membrane-associated molecules, including those for the production of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which may serve roles in nutrient acquisition and/or cell surface adhesion. Biotin and thiamine synthesis genes also increased expression along with several cobalamin biosynthesis-associated genes that suggests processing of B12 intermediates by dinoflagellates. The patterns in gene expression observed are consistent with bloom-forming dinoflagellates eliciting a cellular response to facilitate interactions with their surrounding bacterial consortium, possibly in an effort to cultivate for enhancement of vitamin and nutrient exchanges and/or direct consumption. Our findings provide potential molecular targets for HAB detection and remediation efforts.

  6. Experimental assessment of the liquefaction resistance of calcareous biogenous sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoval Eimar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT

    Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which soils, typically sands, suddenly loose a substantial amount of their shear strength and stiffness, this often triggered by large-magnitude earthquakes. Most liquefaction research has focused on silicate-based sands and not on other sand types, such as calcareous biogenous sands Calcareous sands are usually composed of skeletal or non-skeletal remains of marine organisms, with unique characteristics in terms of their mineralogy surface roughness, particle shape, crushability, and intraparticle porosity. The unique characteristics of calcareous sands suggest that their geotechnical engineering behaviour can be substantially different compared to that of terrigenous sands, including their behaviour under seismic loading, which have not been very well studied

    This paper presents the results of an experimental programme aimed at studying the cyclic liquefaction resistance of uncemented calcareous biogenous sands retrieved from south-western Puerto Rico Evaluation of liquefaction potential involved a comprehensive set of isotropically consolidated undrained cyclic triaxial tests on reconstituted samples of this calcareous sand. The programme also included tests on Ottawa terrigenous silica sand samples prepared and tested in similar conditions for comparison purposes.

    In general, the experimental results showed that Cabo Rojo calcareous sands had higher liquefaction resistance compared to Ottawa silica sands tested under similar conditions. Important differences between calcareous and silica sands regarding pore pressure generation characteristics and axial strain accumulation were also observed


  7. Bilateral mandibular dentigerous cysts: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    MORAIS,Hécio Henrique de Araújo; DIAS,Tasiana Guedes de Souza; Vasconcellos,Ricardo José de Holanda; Vasconcelos,Belmiro Cavalcanti do Egito; Melo,Auremir Rocha; GONDIM,David Alencar; de Carvalho, Ricardo Wathson Feitosa

    2014-01-01

    Dentigerous cysts are frequently found in the maxilla. After radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts are those most commonly diagnosed, accounting for 20% of all jaw cysts. They are often asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally during routine examinations. Clinical complications such as dental displacement, ectopic eruption, dental impaction, adjacent tooth root resorption, cortical expansion with facial asymmetry, paresthesia, pathological fracture, and even malignant transformation may occur. De...

  8. Retroareolar cysts in the adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneeus, Andrea; Schilling, Andrea; Horvath, Eleonora; Pinochet, Miguel; Carrasco, Oriana

    2003-02-01

    Retroareolar cysts present in female adolescents with palpable subareolar masses that can have concomitant inflammatory changes. The purpose of this study was to report our cases of retroareolar cysts and thus to contribute to a better knowledge and understanding of this entity. Forty-six girls were diagnosed with retroareolar cysts between December 2000 and July 2002. A retrospective chart review is presented with the clinical and ultrasonographic findings. Age at presentation was 10 to 20 years. The reason for consultation was acute mastalgia and inflammation in 31 cases and palpable nodule in 15 cases. Two patients had areolar discharge. Ultrasonographic imaging in the 46 girls showed retroareolar simple cysts, either multiple or bilateral. The cysts had thin walls and were round, oval, or elongated with a variable diameter always less than 20 mm. They had liquid content with an echogenic or calcific sediment. When retroareolar cysts presented with inflammatory changes, antibiotics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were used. Inflammatory changes disappeared in approximately seven days. All patients experienced favorable outcomes. Retroareolar cysts are a benign form of breast disease in the adolescent. Further investigation is needed to completely understand the pathophysiology, epidemiology, and natural history of this diagnosis.

  9. Adrenal cysts: Our laparoscopic experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra B Nerli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cystic lesions of the adrenals are rare with an incidence of 0.06% in autopsies, and the most frequently found are either the endothelial cysts or the pseudocysts. We report our series of patients presenting with adrenal cysts. Materials and Methods: The case records of patients presenting with adrenal cysts were reviewed and analyzed. Age, gender, presenting symptoms, physical examination findings, laboratory investigations and imaging records were all noted and analysed. Results: During the 10-year study period, 14 patients, with a mean age of 41.36 ± 5.57 years, were diagnosed to have adrenal cysts. Laparoscopic excision of cysts was performed in three and laparoscopic adrenalectomy in the remaining eleven. Conclusions: Adrenal cysts are rare, and intervention is indicated whenever they are large (>5 cm, symptomatic, functional, and potentially malignant. Laparoscopic management of these cysts in the form of either decortication/excision is safe, effective, minimally invasive, with minimal blood loss and shorter duration of hospitalization.

  10. Artemia cyst production in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinenko, Liudmila I.; Litvinenko, Aleksandr I.; Boiko, Elena G.; Kutsanov, Kirill

    2015-11-01

    In Western Siberia (Russia) there are about 100 Artemia lakes with total area over 1 600 km2. Geographically these lakes are located between 51°-56°N and 61°-82°E. In general these lakes are shallow (depth less than 1.5 m), small or medium size (0.1 to 10 km2); they are chloride; their total salinity is from 40 to 250 g/L. The harvesting of cysts per year is only in 20-40 lakes. In Russia 550 tons of dry Artemia cysts (14%-18% of the world production) were harvested annually. This includes about 350 tons in the Altai region and 200 tons in other regions. During our regular 20-year study period the cyst harvest was: 95 tons in Kurgan; 65 tons in Omsk, 20 tons in Novosibirsk, 20 tons in Tyumen. Ways of increasing cyst harvest in Russia are considered in this article. During the last 30 years the harvest of cysts in Russia has increased from 7-20 to 500-600 tons. A significant influence of dryness of the year was found on productivity in selected lakes, but taken for all the lakes together, the relationship was not significant. The optimal salinity for productivity of cysts in the lakes was determined. Analysis of productivity of the lakes and the harvesting results showed that the stocks of cysts are underutilized by approximately 1.7 times.

  11. Middle Eocene paleocirculation of the southwestern Atlantic Ocean, the anteroom to an ice-house world: evidence from dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raquel Guerstein, G.; Daners, Gloria; Palma, Elbio; Ferreira, Elizabete P.; Premaor, Eduardo; Amenábar, Cecilia R.; Belgaburo, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Middle Eocene dinoflagellate cyst organic walled assemblages from sections located in the Antarctic Peninsula, Tierra del Fuego, Santa Cruz province and south of Chile are mainly represented by endemic taxa, which are also dominant in several circum - Antarctic sites located southern 45° S. Some members of this endemic Antarctic assemblage, including especies of Enneadocysta, Deflandrea, Vozzhennikovia, and Spinidinium, have been recognised in sites along the Southwest Atlantic Ocean Shelf at Colorado (˜38° S), Punta del Este (˜36° S) and Pelotas (˜30° S) basins. Northern 30° S, at Jequitinhonha (˜17oS) and Sergipe (˜11° S) basins, there is no evidence of the endemic Antarctic members, except for Enneadocysta dictyostila, recorded in very low proportion. Based on its positive correlation with CaCO3 percentages we assume that this species is the unique member of the endemic assemblage apparently tolerant to warm surface waters. Previous research developed in the Tasman area has related the presence of endemic taxa at mid- latitudes to a strong clockwise subpolar gyre favoured by the partial continental blockage of the Tasmanian Gateways and the Drake Passage. In this work we propose that the dinoflagellate cyst distribution along the South Atlantic Ocean Shelf can be explained by a similar dynamical mechanism induced by a cyclonic subpolar gyre on the South Atlantic Ocean. The western boundary current of this gyre, starting on the west Antarctic continental slope, would follow a similar path to the present Malvinas Current on the Patagonian slope. Modelling and observational studies at the Patagonian shelf-break have shown that a cyclonic western boundary current promotes upwelling and intrusion of cold oceanic waters to the shelf and intensifies the northward shelf transport. In a similar way we hypothesize that during the Middle Eocene the western boundary current of a proto-Weddell Gyre transported the circum-antarctic waters and the endemic components

  12. MR imaging of pineal cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yong Sik; Yu, Hyeon; Kim, Wan Tae; Bae, Jin Woo; Moon, Hee Jung; Shin, Hyun Ja [Korea Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    To evaluate the incidence and characteristic findings of pineal cyst incidentally detected on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Brain MR images obtained in 2432 patients were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence and MR findings of pineal cysts, which were evaluated according to their size, shape, location, signal intensity, interval change, contrast enhancement and mass effect on adjacent structures. Cysts were encountered in 107(4.4 %) of 2432 patients evaluated. their size ranged from 1 X 1 X 1 to 15 X 8 X 9 (mean, 5.97 X 3.82 X 4.82)mm. All were spherical (n=53) or oval (n=54) in shape. Their margin was smooth and they were homogeneous in nature. On T1-weighted images, the cysts were seen to be hyperintense (n=57) or isointense (n=50) to cerebrospinal fluid, but less so than brain parenchyma. T2-weighted images showed them to be isointense (n=51)or hyperintense (n=56) to cerebrospinal fluid. The cysts were centrally located in 65 cases and eccentrically in 42. Compression of the superior colliculi of the tectum was demonstrated in 17 cases (15.9 %). NO patients presented clinical symptoms or signs related to either pineal or tectal lesions. Peripheral enhancement around the cyst after Gd-DTPA injection was demonstrated in 51 cases(100 %). Follow-up examinations in 19 cases demonstrated no interval change. The incidence of pineal cysts was 4.4 %. The MR characteristics of simple pineal cysts include: (1) an oval or spherical shape, (2) a smooth outer margin and homogeneous nature, (3) isosignal or slightly high signal intensity to cerebrospinal fluid on whole pulse sequences, (4) ring enhancement after contrast injection, (5) an absence of interval change, as seen during follow up MR study. These MR appearances of pineal cysts might be helpful for differentiating them from pineal tumors.

  13. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  14. A CLINICOPATHOLOGIC STUDY OF 184 DENTIGEROUS CYSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Hyomoto, Masamitsu; Kawakami, Masayoshi; Hanamoto, Shingo; Kirita, Tadaaki; Miyawaki, Shoichi

    2001-01-01

    The dentigerous cyst has been recognized as having its developmental origin in the tooth follicle. The aim of this article is to report clinicopathologic features of 184 dentigerous cysts and study the influence of inflammatory for cyst formation. The dentigerous cysts occurred mostly in males under 20 years old in the mandibular premolar region where all of them were intensely inflamed from deciduous molars. In the mandibular third molar region the cysts were often found in young and adult s...

  15. Gingival cyst of adult: A rare case

    OpenAIRE

    Malali, Vijayalaxmi V.; Satisha, T. S.; Jha, A. K.; Rath, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    Gingival cyst of adult is an uncommon cyst of gingival soft tissue occurring in either the free or attached gingiva. This odontogenic epithelial cyst is most frequently seen near mandibular canine and premolar region, believed to represent the soft tissue counter part of the lateral periodontal cyst. This article presents a case of gingival cyst treated with exicisional biopsy followed by histopathological confirmation and an emphasis on the clinical aspects of this lesion.

  16. Ovarian damage due to cyst removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perlman, Signe; Kjer, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    laparoscopically for 393 benign cysts with a diagnosis of either endometrioma (n = 294) or dermoid cyst (n = 99). The microscopic existence of ovarian tissue in the cystectomy specimens were compared and correlation between CA 125 and size of cysts was examined. RESULTS: In total, 80.3% endometrioma cystectomies...... disclosed ovarian stroma compared with 17.2% of the resected dermoid cysts (p ... (p ovarian tissue during laparoscopic surgery is significantly higher for endometriomas than for dermoid cysts....

  17. [Tarlov cyst and symptomatic bladder disfuction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruibal Moldes, M; Sánchez Rodríguez-Losada, J; López García, D; Casas Agudo, V; Janeiro País, J M; González Martín, M

    2008-01-01

    Tarlov cysts or perineural cyst are lesions of the nerve roots located at the sacral level and uncertain aetiology. Most of these cysts remain asymptomatic with no clinical relevance. The symptomatic cysts are uncommon and the usual symptoms are pain or radiculopathy. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman witha symptomatic cyst (with a history of frequency and urgency syndrom), that disappears after surgery.

  18. [Effects of sulfur on chemical properties of calcareous soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-Ai; Zhang, Min; Zeng, Yue-Chun

    2007-07-01

    A pot trial with two continuous crops of rape was conducted to study the effects of sulfur on the chemical properties of calcareous soil. The results indicated that sulfur could decrease soil pH, while increase the electrical conductivity of soil solution markedly. Applying sulfur could enhance the contents of soil exchangeable Na+ and K+ and the accumulation of soil water-soluble anions, but had less effect on soil exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+, CEC, and alkalization degree. Comparing with urea, sulfur-coated urea (SCU) had less effect on soil pH and electrical conductivity, but markedly affected soil exchangeable cations and water-soluble anions. Sulfur application had no obvious yield-increasing effect, and higher application rate of sulfur could decrease the rape yield significantly.

  19. Composted municipal waste effect on chosen properties of calcareous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidpour, M.; Afyuni, M.; Khadivi, E.; Zorpas, A.; Inglezakis, V.

    2012-10-01

    A 3-year field study was conducted to assess effects of composted municipal waste on some properties, distribution of Zn, Cu in a calcareous soil and uptake of these metals by wheat. The treatments were 0, 25, 50 and 100 Mg ha-1 of municipal solidwastewhichwas applied in three consecutive years. The application of composted municipal waste increased the saturated hydraulic conductivity, the aggregate stability,the organic carbon content and electrical conductivity, whereas it slightly decreased the soil pH and bulk density. A significant increase in the concentration of Zn and Cu were observed with increasing number and rate of compost application. The distribution of Zn and Cu between the different fractions in untreated and treated soils showed that the majority of Zn and Cu were in the residual form. Finally, the levels of Zn and Cu were higher in grains of wheat grown in composttreated plots compared to that grown in the control plots.

  20. Were Oceanic Plateaus Instrumental for Calcareous Nannoplankton Evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erba, E.; Casellato, C.; Bottini, C.

    2011-12-01

    The history of calcareous nannoplankton shows a general increase in species richness through the Mesozoic. Fertility and chemistry of the oceans, climate and pCO2 seem instrumental for nannoplankton abundance, diversification and adaptation, but high-resolution chronology of paleobiological and geological events is crucial for the understanding of evolutionary processes relative to ecosystem perturbations. Natural variations in atmospheric CO2 are essentially triggered by igneous activity and the role of ocean crust production in the evolution of seawater composition, nutrient cycling, climate change and, consequently, in calcareous nannoplankton biodiversity, might be more relevant than generally thought. Indeed, two major steps in nannofloral Mesozoic evolution correlate with construction of gigantic oceanic plateaus, namely the Shatsky Rise (SR) (Tithonian/Berriasian boundary interval) and the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) (Barremian/Aptian boundary interval). During the latest Jurassic calcareous nannoplankton experienced a rapid diversification and rise in abundance of several taxa including heavily calcified nannoliths with consequent major increase in biogenic calcite production. The Tithonian origination of coccoliths and nannoliths suggests ideal paleoecological conditions for calcareous nannoplankton, presumably thriving in stable, relatively oligotrophic and cool oceans under low pCO2. Recent data indicate that this speciation and calcification episode was interrupted during magnetochron CM19r, prior to massive diversification of nannoconids. In the late Barremian-early Aptian interval, the nannoconid decline and crisis are paralleled by a major nannoplankton (mainly coccolith) speciation episode. Such calcification failure and coccolith diversification might reflect disruption of the thermocline, increased fertility and warming under excess CO2 levels. These evolutionary steps show rapid speciation, but differ because nannoliths became dominant in the late

  1. Thoracal spinal extradural arachnoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Eser

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoid cyst are fluid-filled that are located between the arachnoid and piamater or duplicationof arachnoid membrane. Extradural arachnoid cysts in the spine are rare and primary are congenital or acquired. These are occurring idiopathic, posttraumatic and post arachnoiditis. A 32 year-old male patient is became a clinic with urinary retention and gait disorders. Thoracic Magnetic Resonance Imaging showed a spinal extradurally cystic mass isointense with that cerebro-spinal fluid at T7-8 level. Patient underwent an operation. The diagnosis of arachnoid cyst was made based on histopathology exam. The case was reported due to very rare occurrence of this entity.

  2. Lung cysts in chronic paracoccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Nathan Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On HRCT scans, lung cysts are characterized by rounded areas of low attenuation in the lung parenchyma and a well-defined interface with the normal adjacent lung. The most common cystic lung diseases are lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. In a retrospective analysis of the HRCT findings in 50 patients diagnosed with chronic paracoccidioidomycosis, we found lung cysts in 5 cases (10%, indicating that patients with paracoccidioidomycosis can present with lung cysts on HRCT scans. Therefore, paracoccidioidomycosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of cystic lung diseases.

  3. Cisto de Baker Baker's cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Kawamura Demange

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Os cistos de Baker localizam-se na região posteromedial do joelho, entre o ventre medial do músculo gastrocnêmio e o tendão semimembranoso. No adulto, esses cistos estão relacionados a lesões intra-articulares, quais sejam, lesões meniscais ou artrose. Nas crianças, geralmente são achados de exame físico ou de exames de imagem, apresentando pouca relevância clínica. O exame de ultrassonografia é adequado para identificar e mensurar o cisto poplíteo. Para o tratamento, a abordagem principal deve ser relacionada ao tratamento da lesão articular. Na maioria dos casos não há necessidade de se abordar diretamente o cisto. Os cistos no joelho são, quase na sua totalidade, benignos (cistos de Baker e cistos parameniscais. Porém, a presença de alguns sinais demanda que o ortopedista suspeite da possibilidade de malignidade: sintomas desproporcionais ao tamanho do cisto, ausência de lesão articular (ex.: meniscal que justifique a existência do cisto, topografia atípica, erosão óssea associada, tamanho superior a 5cm e invasão tecidual (cápsula articular.Baker's cysts are located in the posteromedial region of the knee between the medial belly of the gastrocnemius muscle and semimembranosus tendon. In adults, these cysts are related to intra-articular lesions, which may consist of meniscal lesions or arthrosis. In children, these cysts are usually found on physical examination or imaging studies, and they generally do not have any clinical relevance. Ultrasound examination is appropriate for identifying and measuring the popliteal cyst. The main treatment approach should focus on the joint lesions, and in most cases there is no need to address the cyst directly. Although almost all knee cysts are benign (Baker's cysts and parameniscal cysts, presence of some signs makes it necessary to suspect malignancy: symptoms disproportionate to the size of the cyst, absence of joint damage (e.g. meniscal tears that might explain the

  4. More than simple hepatic cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Tabacelia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Caroli diseaseis a rare congenital disorder that classically causes saccular dilatation of the bile ducts. The complications of Caroli include choledochal cysts with recurrent cholangitis, abscess formation, septicaemia, intrahepatic lithiasis and amyloidosis.We report a rare case of a young female with Caroli disease pointing out the intrahepatic lithiasis as a rare complication of the disease. Learning points Caroli disease is an uncommon condition that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hepatic essential cysts. Clinically, it is characterized of recurrent episodes of fever and pain. The correct and early diagnostic is important because of the different complications and treatment unlike the essential hepatic cysts.

  5. Medial Calcar Support and Radiographic Outcomes of Plate Fixation for Proximal Humeral Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jie Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plate fixation remains one of the most popular surgical procedures for treating proximal humeral fractures (PHFx; however, substantial rates of complications have been reported in the literature. The objectives of the study were to examine how medial calcar support (MCS affects the radiographic outcomes and to determine the prognostic factors predicting treatment failure. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 89 adult patients who had PHFx and were treated with plate fixation at our institution in 2007–2011. The enrolled patients were separated into two groups according to disruption of medial calcar. Our results revealed an increased rate of poor radiographic outcomes in patients with disrupted medial calcar. Osteonecrosis of the humeral head and redisplacement were the two radiographic outcomes which had a positive causality with disruption of medial calcar (P=0.008 and 0.050, resp.. Deficient medial calcar, inadequate reduction, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, and chronic liver disease were all significant predictors for the development of osteonecrosis in patients after PHFx surgery. Inadequate reduction was also a predictor for redisplacement. We confirmed that the restoration of medial calcar as well as comorbid conditions plays key roles in treatment of patients having PHFx with disrupted medial calcar.

  6. A Rare Case of Mediastinal Cyst: Thoracic Duct Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Mergan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic duct cysts are very rarely observed cysts of the mediastinum. These cysts, which can become established in the costovertebral sulcus or the visceral compartment, have generally been reported at the level of the 10th and 11th vertebrae; however, they can be observed at any location along the ductus [1]. A 37-year-old male patient complained of chest pain for the last 3 months that especially increased after meals. He complained of shortness of breath while walking or going up the stairs, for the last month. The lung graphy showed an increased darkening at a 5x6cm smooth (clean-cut, regular, orderly bordered shadow just behind the heart shadow. The patient%u2019s computed thorax tomography showed a retrocardiac-paravertebral, middle line positioned, 8.5x7x6 cm proportioned, regular bordered, thin walled, homogenous cystic bulk at the subcarinal level. The patient, who could not be relieved with medical treatment, was taken to surgery. The lesion was reached by right posterolateral thoracotomy, and drainage of lymph-containing cystic fluid and excision of the cyst walls were performed by incising the thoracic duct cyst with a mediastinal pleura incision. Mass ligation was then performed to the thoracic duct. We wanted to present our thoracic duct cyst case in this article due to the currently limited number of actual cases reported in the literature.

  7.  Serial replacement of diatom endosymbiont in two freshwater dinoflagellates, Peridiniopsis spp., (Peridiniales, Dinophyceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takano, Y.; Hansen, Gert; Fujita, D.

    2008-01-01

    structure and possessed an endosymbiotic diatom. The diatom endosymbiont, which contained a eukaryotic nucleus, chloroplasts and mitochondria, was separated from the dinoflagellate cytoplasm by a single unit membrane. The dinoflagellate cytoplasm contained a triple-membrane-bound eyespot, in addition......Two freshwater armoured dinoflagellates, Peridiniopsis cf. kevei from Japan and Peridiniopsis penardii from Japan and Italy, were examined by means of light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Morphological studies indicated that the two dinoflagellates had similar type of cellular...

  8. Germination fluctuation of toxic Alexandrium fundyense and A. pacificum cysts and the relationship with bloom occurrences in Kesennuma Bay, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuike, Masafumi; Yokoyama, Katsuhide; Nishitani, Goh; Yamada, Yuichiro; Yoshinaga, Ikuo; Ishikawa, Akira

    2017-02-01

    While cyst germination may be an important factor for the initiation of harmful/toxic blooms, assessments of the fluctuation in phytoplankton cyst germination, from bottom sediments to water columns, are rare in situ due to lack of technology that can detect germinated cells in natural bottom sediments. This study introduces a simple mesocosm method, modeled after previous in situ methods, to measure the germination of plankton resting stage cells. Using this method, seasonal changes in germination fluxes of toxic dinoflagellates resting cysts, specifically Alexandrium fundyense (A. tamarense species complex Group I) and A. pacificum (A. tamarense species complex Group IV), were investigated at a fixed station in Kesennuma Bay, northeast Japan, from April 2014 to April 2015. This investigation was conducted in addition to the typical samplings of seawater and bottom sediments to detect the dinoflagellates vegetative cells and resting cysts. Bloom occurrences of A. fundyense were observed June 2014 and February 2015 with maximum cell densities reaching 3.6×106 cells m-2 and 1.4×107 cells m-2, respectively. The maximum germination fluxes of A. fundyense cysts occurred in April 2014 and December 2014 and were 9.3×103 cells m-2day-1 and 1.4×104 cells m-2day-1, respectively. For A. pacificum, the highest cell density was 7.3×107 cells m-2 during the month of August, and the maximum germination fluxes occurred in July and August, reaching 5.8×102 cells m-2day-1. Thus, this study revealed the seasonal dynamics of A. fundyense and A. pacificum cyst germination and their bloom occurrences in the water column. Blooms occurred one to two months after peak germination, which strongly suggests that both the formation of the initial population by cyst germination and its continuous growth in the water column most likely contributed to toxic bloom occurrences of A. fundyense and A. pacificum in the bay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydatid cyst of the tibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiwale C

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available A case of hydatid cyst of the tibia, which manifested as a pathologic fracture is being reported. Pain and swelling of left lower limb with inability to bear the weight were the main features. Tender swelling was also noted at the upper and middle third of tibia. Open biopsy revealed the hydatid cyst wall and scolices of Echinococcus granulosus. Albendazole treatment was followed by curettage and bone grafting.

  10. Dentigerous Cyst of Inflammatory Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Raghavendra M; Dixit, Uma

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT A dentigerous cyst encloses a crown of an unerupted tooth by its follicle and is attached to the neck of the tooth. They may be of developmental or inflammatory origin. Dentigerous cyst of inflammatory origin occurs in immature tooth as a result of inflammation from preceding non-vital deciduous tooth or from other source spreading to involve the tooth follicle. These are diagnosed in the first and early part of second decade either on routine radiographic examination or when patient...

  11. Hydatid cyst of the neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhammou, A; Benbouzid, M A; Bencheikh, R; Boulaich, M; Essakali, L; Kzadri, M

    2007-01-01

    Hydatid disease located in the head and neck is uncommon, and hydatid cysts rarely present as a cervical mass. We report an unusual case of primary hydatid cyst arising in the soft tissues of the neck. The clinical presentation was non-specific. The diagnosis was suspected by the radiological findings, and confirmed by histopathology. Characteristics of this rare disease, its diagnostic difficulties, and treatment are discussed.

  12. Lung cysts in chronic paracoccidioidomycosis

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Andre Nathan; Marchiori, Edson; Benard, Gil; Araujo, Mariana Sponholz; Baldi, Bruno Guedes; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    On HRCT scans, lung cysts are characterized by rounded areas of low attenuation in the lung parenchyma and a well-defined interface with the normal adjacent lung. The most common cystic lung diseases are lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. In a retrospective analysis of the HRCT findings in 50 patients diagnosed with chronic paracoccidioidomycosis, we found lung cysts in 5 cases (10%), indicating that patients with paracoccidioidomy...

  13. Lung cysts in chronic paracoccidioidomycosis*

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, André Nathan; Marchiori, Edson; Benard, Gil; Araújo, Mariana Sponholz; Baldi, Bruno Guedes; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    On HRCT scans, lung cysts are characterized by rounded areas of low attenuation in the lung parenchyma and a well-defined interface with the normal adjacent lung. The most common cystic lung diseases are lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. In a retrospective analysis of the HRCT findings in 50 patients diagnosed with chronic paracoccidioidomycosis, we found lung cysts in 5 cases (10%), indicating that patients with paracoccidioidomy...

  14. Diversity and distribution of heterotrophic dinoflagellates from the coastal waters of Port Blair, South Andaman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Elangovan, S; Padmavati, G

    2017-11-06

    The interaction between the environment and heterotrophic dinoflagellates inhabiting coastal waters of South Andaman was studied based on year round collections made during September 2012-August 2013 in the bay, eastern, and western region of South Andaman. The distribution pattern of microzooplankton in South Andaman showed high abundance in eutrophic waters (bay region) and gradually decreased towards the off shore region. Microzooplankton community comprised of six different taxa, viz. tintinnids, heterotrophic dinoflagellates, non-loricate ciliates, Foraminifera, Rotifera, and Copepoda (nauplii). Tintinnids were the major component of the microzooplankton (43.8 ± 7%) followed by heterotrophic dinoflagellates (34 ± 12%) and copepod nauplii (18.8 ± 4.0%). This study focused on heterotrophic dinoflagellates which ranked next to tintinnids in overall abundance and contributed 38-42% in the bay, 22-37% in the eastern, and 15-29% in the western region to the microzooplankton community. Dinoflagellates showed a positive correlation with salinity and a negative correlation with dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a (r = - 0.3). Abundance of heterotrophic dinoflagellates in this area may be due to their diverse and advantageous mode of nutrition. A total of 35 species belonging to 8 genera of heterotrophic dinoflagellates were recorded during the study period. Heterotrophic dinoflagellates showed a great potential to thrive in low oxygenated and low productive area (p population was found in the bay region (avg. H' = 3.46).

  15. A Transcriptome-based Perspective of Cell Cycle Regulation in Dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, David; Daoust, Philip; Benribague, Siham

    2016-12-01

    Dinoflagellates are a group of unicellular and generally marine protists, of interest to many because of their ability to form the large algal blooms commonly called "red tides". The large algal concentrations in these blooms require sustained cell replication, yet to date little is known about cell cycle regulation in these organisms. To address this issue, we have screened the transcriptomes of two dinoflagellates, Lingulodinium polyedrum and Symbiodinium sp., with budding yeast cell cycle pathway components. We find most yeast cell cycle regulators have homologs in these dinoflagellates, suggesting that the yeast model is appropriate for understanding regulation of the dinoflagellate cell cycle. The dinoflagellates are lacking several components essential in yeast, but a comparison with a broader phylogenetic range of protists reveals these components are usually also missing in other organisms. Lastly, phylogenetic analyses show that the dinoflagellates contain at least three cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) homologs (belonging to the CDK1, CDK5 and CDK8 families), and that the dinoflagellate cyclins belong exclusively to the A/B type. This suggests that dinoflagellate CDKs likely play a limited role outside regulation of the cell cycle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. RNA-Seq as an Emerging Tool for Marine Dinoflagellate Transcriptome Analysis: Process and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Afiq Akbar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are the large group of marine phytoplankton with primary studies interest regarding their symbiosis with coral reef and the abilities to form harmful algae blooms (HABs. Toxin produced by dinoflagellates during events of HABs cause severe negative impact both in the economy and health sector. However, attempts to understand the dinoflagellates genomic features are hindered by their complex genome organization. Transcriptomics have been employed to understand dinoflagellates genome structure, profile genes and gene expression. RNA-seq is one of the latest methods for transcriptomics study. This method is capable of profiling the dinoflagellates transcriptomes and has several advantages, including highly sensitive, cost effective and deeper sequence coverage. Thus, in this review paper, the current workflow of dinoflagellates RNA-seq starts with the extraction of high quality RNA and is followed by cDNA sequencing using the next-generation sequencing platform, dinoflagellates transcriptome assembly and computational analysis will be discussed. Certain consideration needs will be highlighted such as difficulty in dinoflagellates sequence annotation, post-transcriptional activity and the effect of RNA pooling when using RNA-seq.

  17. Viable cell sorting of dinoflagellates by multi-parametric flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic cell sorting for isolation and culture of dinoflagellates and other marine eukaryotic phytoplankton was compared to the traditional method of manually picking of cells using a micropipette. Trauma to electronically sorted cells was not a limiting factor as fragile dinoflagellates, such a...

  18. Putative monofunctional type I polyketide synthase units: a dinoflagellate-specific feature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Eichholz

    Full Text Available Marine dinoflagellates (alveolata are microalgae of which some cause harmful algal blooms and produce a broad variety of most likely polyketide synthesis derived phycotoxins. Recently, novel polyketide synthesase (PKS transcripts have been described from the Florida red tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (gymnodiniales which are evolutionarily related to Type I PKS but were apparently expressed as monofunctional proteins, a feature typical of Type II PKS. Here, we investigated expression units of PKS I-like sequences in Alexandrium ostenfeldii (gonyaulacales and Heterocapsa triquetra (peridiniales at the transcript and protein level. The five full length transcripts we obtained were all characterized by polyadenylation, a 3' UTR and the dinoflagellate specific spliced leader sequence at the 5'end. Each of the five transcripts encoded a single ketoacylsynthase (KS domain showing high similarity to K. brevis KS sequences. The monofunctional structure was also confirmed using dinoflagellate specific KS antibodies in Western Blots. In a maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis of KS domains from diverse PKSs, dinoflagellate KSs formed a clade placed well within the protist Type I PKS clade between apicomplexa, haptophytes and chlorophytes. These findings indicate that the atypical PKS I structure, i.e., expression as putative monofunctional units, might be a dinoflagellate specific feature. In addition, the sequenced transcripts harbored a previously unknown, apparently dinoflagellate specific conserved N-terminal domain. We discuss the implications of this novel region with regard to the putative monofunctional organization of Type I PKS in dinoflagellates.

  19. Hydatid Cyst of Ovary: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Khosravi Maharlooei

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Echinococcus granulosus is considered the major cause of humanhydatid cysts. Usually the duration of cyst formation is 10-20 years. This period shortens significantly upon rupture of aprimary cyst. The literature describes low incidence of primaryinvolvement of ovary as a site of hydatid cyst formation. Ourcase is the first report on ovarian hydatid cyst in Iran. A 60-year-old woman was presented with abdominal pain in the leftlower quadrant area. Paraclinical data were suggestive of neoplasiaand preoperative diagnosis was ovarian tumor. Duringlaparotomy, multiple cysts resembling hydatid cysts were observedin the left ovary. Pathological examination confirmed thediagnosis of hydatid cyst. Although there is a small possibilityof secondary ovarian echinococcal disease, it is more probablefor this case to be primary infection, as the patient had developedovarian hydatid cysts 15 years after hepatic involvementand recurrence after 30 months is very uncommon.

  20. Cyclin d1 expression in odontogenic cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Nasim; Modabbernia, Shirin; Akbarzadeh, Alireza; Sajjadi, Samad

    2013-01-01

    In the present study expression of cyclin D1 in the epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocyst, radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and glandular odontogenic cyst was investigated to compare proliferative activity in these lesions. Immunohistochemical staining of cyclin D1 on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of odontogenic keratocysts (n=23), dentigerous cysts (n=20), radicular cysts (n=20) and glandular odontogenic cysts (n=5) was performed by standard EnVision method. Then, slides were studied to evaluate the following parameters in epithelial lining of cysts: expression, expression pattern, staining intensity and localization of expression. The data analysis showed statistically significant difference in cyclin D1 expression in studied groups (p cysts were frequently confined in parabasal layer, different from radicular cysts and glandular odontogenic cysts. The difference was statistically significant (p cysts comparing to dentigerous cysts and radicular cysts, implying the possible role of G1-S cell cycle phase disturbances in the aggressiveness of odontogenic keratocyst and glandular odontogenic cyst.

  1. Preparation of single-celled marine dinoflagellates for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truby, E W

    1997-02-15

    Electron microscopy has been used successfully to study and identify single-celled marine dinoflagellates including parasitic ones and others, such as those that cause red tide. Delicate cells can be preserved for scanning electron microscopy with a combined glutaraldehydeosmium tetroxide mixture that is adjusted for the osmolality of the medium. The protocol allows resolution of fine morphological features. Preservation for transmission electron microscopy can be accomplished with a standard glutaraldehyde fixation and osmium-tetroxide post-fixation in a suitable buffer, but again, the osmolality of the mixture must be adjusted. The protocol allows ultrastructural resolution of vesiculated cells and has been modified for small sample sizes.

  2. Spliced leader-based metatranscriptomic analyses lead to recognition of hidden genomic features in dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Senjie; Zhang, Huan; Zhuang, Yunyun; Tran, Bao; Gill, John

    2010-11-16

    Environmental transcriptomics (metatranscriptomics) for a specific lineage of eukaryotic microbes (e.g., Dinoflagellata) would be instrumental for unraveling the genetic mechanisms by which these microbes respond to the natural environment, but it has not been exploited because of technical difficulties. Using the recently discovered dinoflagellate mRNA-specific spliced leader as a selective primer, we constructed cDNA libraries (e-cDNAs) from one marine and two freshwater plankton assemblages. Small-scale sequencing of the e-cDNAs revealed functionally diverse transcriptomes proven to be of dinoflagellate origin. A set of dinoflagellate common genes and transcripts of dominant dinoflagellate species were identified. Further analyses of the dataset prompted us to delve into the existing, largely unannotated dinoflagellate EST datasets (DinoEST). Consequently, all four nucleosome core histones, two histone modification proteins, and a nucleosome assembly protein were detected, clearly indicating the presence of nucleosome-like machinery long thought not to exist in dinoflagellates. The isolation of rhodopsin from taxonomically and ecotypically diverse dinoflagellates and its structural similarity and phylogenetic affinity to xanthorhodopsin suggest a common genetic potential in dinoflagellates to use solar energy nonphotosynthetically. Furthermore, we found 55 cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (RPs) from the e-cDNAs and 24 more from DinoEST, showing that the dinoflagellate phylum possesses all 79 eukaryotic RPs. Our results suggest that a sophisticated eukaryotic molecular machine operates in dinoflagellates that likely encodes many more unsuspected physiological capabilities and, meanwhile, demonstrate that unique spliced leaders are useful for profiling lineage-specific microbial transcriptomes in situ.

  3. Spontaneous hygroma in intracranial arachnoid cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnoli, A.L.

    1984-06-01

    Anamnesis and treatment of two cases of arachnoid cysts extending into the subarachnoid space are described. No traumatic incident was discovered in the previous history of these two patients. The causal genesis of neurological signs of deficiency in patients with arachnoid and acquired cysts is discussed. However, the cause of the development of a subdural hygroma in arachnoid cysts remains unclarified. CT findings of arachnoid cysts with a hypodense zone between brain surface and the vault of the cranium always require an investigation into the possibility of a spontaneous emptying of the cyst or of a congenital and not only localised extension of the cyst itself.

  4. Consolidation and strength properties of calcareous sediments from Kaneohe and Kailua Bays, Hawaii

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Brandes, H.G.; Khadge, N.H.; Nakayama, D.D.

    behavior of marine calcareous sediments of biogenic origin. Consolidation and drained triaxial tests indicate that mixed sediments have higher compressibilities and lower strengths compared to high-carbonate sediments. Differences in gradation among high...

  5. Impact of Sewage Sludge on Water Movement in Calcareous Sandy Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. AI-Omran

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the changes in soil physical properties and their effect on water movement under ponded irrigation. Sewage sludge was applied to 10 cm soil depth at rates of 0.25. 75  and 100 Mg-ha-1 to two disturbed soils differing in CaCO3 content. The results showed that cumulative infiltration (1 decreased with an increase in sewage sludge rates. Basic infiltration for slightly calcareous sandy soil was higher than that of moderately calcareous sandy soil, laboratory measurements showed an exponential decrease in saturated hydraulic conductivity and an increase in available water capacity with an increase in sewage sludge rates. For both soils, water diffusivity (D(Q decreased with an increase in sewage sludge rates. The (oral values of slightly calcareous sandy soils were higher than those of moderately calcareous sandy soils.

  6. Phosphorus retention in calcareous soils and the effect of organic matter on its mobility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    von Wandruszka, Ray

    2006-01-01

    A survey of the interactions between phosphorus (P) species and the components of calcareous soils shows that both surface reactions and precipitation take place, especially in the presence of calcite and limestone...

  7. Calcareous plankton high resolution bio-magnetostratigraphy for the Langhian of the mediterranean area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Stefano, A.; Foresi, L.M.; Lirer, F.; Iaccarino, S.M.; Turco, E.; Amore, F.O.; Mazzei, R.; Morabito, S.; Salvatorini, G.; Aziz, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution quantitative and qualitative analyses of the planktonic foraminifer and calcareous nannofossil content have been carried out on three Middle Miocene sections, from the Mediterranean area. Such sections (Cretaccio section, Tremiti Islands, Southern Italy; Moria section, Marche Region,

  8. Albian-Cenomanian Zonation (Foraminifers and Calcareous Aglae) in the Northern Fars, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mahnaz P.N. Shirazi

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: In the middle Cretaceous of Iran, fossil calcareous algae and zonation them with foraminifers are one of the less studied compared to others invertebrate groups such as foraminiferis, mollusks and others. Several stratigraphic units were analyzed in detail and a biostratigraphic zonation of the Albian-Cenomanian rocks of the Fars basin (Sw. Iran) is proposed. Approach: All stratigraphic units were studied for the determination calcareous algae accompanying with foraminifers...

  9. Influence of calcareous deposit on corrosion behavior of Q235 carbon steel with sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Jiangwei; Xu, Weichen; Duan, Jizhou; Chen, Shougang; Hou, Baorong

    2017-12-01

    Cathodic protection is a very effective method to protect metals, which can form calcareous deposits on metal surface. Research on the interrelationship between fouling organism and calcareous deposits is very important but very limited, especially sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). SRB is a kind of very important fouling organism that causes microbial corrosion of metals. A study of the influence of calcareous deposit on corrosion behavior of Q235 carbon steel in SRB-containing culture medium was carried out using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface spectroscopy (EDS). The calcareous deposit was formed with good crystallinity and smooth surface under the gradient current density of -30 μA cm-2 in natural seawater for 72 h. Our results can help elucidate the formation of calcareous deposits and reveal the interrelationship between SRB and calcareous deposits under cathodic protection. The results indicate that the corrosion tendency of carbon steel was obviously affected by Sulfate-reducing Bacteria (SRB) metabolic activity and the calcareous deposit formed on the surface of carbon steel under cathodic protection was favourable to reduce the corrosion rate. Calcareous deposits can promote bacterial adhesion before biofilm formation. The results revealed the interaction between biofouling and calcareous deposits, and the anti-corrosion ability was enhanced by a kind of inorganic and organic composite membranes formed by biofilm and calcareous deposits.

  10. Soil degradation effect on biological activity in Mediterranean calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Alcover-Sáez, S.; Mormeneo, S.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Soil degradation processes include erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing and biodiversity decline. In the Mediterranean region the climatological and lithological conditions, together with relief on the landscape and anthropological activity are responsible for increasing desertification process. It is therefore considered to be extreme importance to be able to measure soil degradation quantitatively. We studied soil characteristics, microbiological and biochemical parameters in different calcareous soil sequences from Valencia Community (Easter Spain), in an attempt to assess the suitability of the parameters measured to reflect the state of soil degradation and the possibility of using the parameters to assess microbiological decline and soil quality. For this purpose, forest, scrubland and agricultural soil in three soil sequences were sampled in different areas. Several sensors of the soil biochemistry and microbiology related with total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, microorganism number and enzyme activities were determined. The results show that, except microorganism number, these parameters are good indicators of a soil biological activity and soil quality. The best enzymatic activities to use like indicators were phosphatases, esterases, amino-peptidases. Thus, the enzymes test can be used as indicators of soil degradation when this degradation is related with organic matter losses. There was a statistically significant difference in cumulative O2 uptake and extracellular enzymes among the soils with different degree of degradation. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  11. Measuring and modeling ammonium adsorption by calcareous soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, F; Jalali, M

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was assessment of ammonium (NH 4(+) ) adsorption isotherms in some agricultural calcareous soils and modeling of that by using the mechanistic exchange model. Ten surface soils (0-30 cm) were collected from areas covered with different land uses in Hamedan, western Iran. Isotherm experiments were carried out by concentrations of NH 4(+) prepared from NH4Cl salt (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 100, and 150 mg NH 4(+)  l(-1)) in presence of 0.01 M CaCl2 solution. The empirical models including simple adsorption isotherm and Freundlich equations were fitted well to the experimental data. The average amounts of adsorbed NH 4(+) in studied soils varied from 8.95 to 35.23 %. Adsorption percentage indicated positive correlation with pH, cation-exchange capacity (CEC), equivalent calcium carbonate, and clay content and had negative correlation with sand content. In order to predict and model NH 4(+) adsorption, cation-exchange model in PHREEQC program was used. The model could simulate the NH 4(+) adsorption very well in all studied soils. The values of CEC played the major role in modeling of NH 4(+) adsorption in this study indicating that cation-exchange process was the major mechanism controlling NH 4(+) adsorption in studied soils.

  12. Risk assessment of irrigated lacustrine & calcareous soils by treated wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim H. Elsokkary

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to explore the effect of irrigation by treated wastewater (TWW on some chemical characteristics of cultivated lacustrine and calcareous soils, the growth and macronutrients contents of soybean, corn, faba bean and wheat; and the chemical composition and quality of drainage waters from these soils. For this, greenhouse experiments, using PVC tank of 50 kg soil capacity were carried out. The soils were irrigated by FW, TWW or 1:1 FW/TWW. The results suggest that tested plants can be irrigated with reused water since visual damage is minimal, which seems to be related to the plant's low accumulation of saline ions. The dilution of TWW with FW reduced the negative effects observed. The results have also shown a significant increase in the concentration of EC and in the counts of TC and FC in soils of the upper layer (0–20 cm than in those of the lower layer (20–40 cm.

  13. ANEURYSMAL BONE CYST: Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Modjtabai

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available I n this paper pour cases of aneurysmal bone cyst are reported and the different etiological factors considered. We believe that aneurysmal bone cyst disease entity with pathologica radiological and clinical charateristic

  14. Lumbar synovial cysts: experience with nine cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayberk, Giyas; Ozveren, Faik; Gök, Beril; Yazgan, Aylin; Tosun, Hakan; Seçkin, Zekai; Altundal, Naci

    2008-07-01

    Nine patients treated surgically for lumbar spinal synovial cyst were reviewed. Four patients had synovial, two had ganglion, one had posterior longitudinal ligament, and two had ligamentum flavum cyst. Synovial cysts had a single layer of epithelial cells in the inner layer of the cyst with continuity with the facet joint. Ganglion cyst had no continuity with the facet joint and epithelial lining was present in one and absent in one case. Posterior longitudinal ligament and ligamentum flavum cysts had no continuity with the facet joint and no epithelial lining. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the cysts better than computed tomography. All patients treated for nerve root compression or lumbar spinal canal narrowing. One patient suffered recurrence 1 year later and was reoperated. Operative results were excellent in six and good in three patients. Lumbar spinal synovial cysts should be considered in differential diagnosis of lumbar radiculopathy/neurogenic claudication and is surgically treatable.

  15. Evaluation and Treatment of Lumbar Facet Cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boody, Barrett S; Savage, Jason W

    2016-12-01

    Lumbar facet cysts are a rare but increasingly common cause of symptomatic nerve root compression and can lead to radiculopathy, neurogenic claudication, and cauda equina syndrome. The cysts arise from the zygapophyseal joints of the lumbar spine and commonly demonstrate synovial herniation with mucinous degeneration of the facet joint capsule. Lumbar facet cysts are most common at the L4-L5 level and often are associated with spondylosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis. Advanced imaging studies have increased diagnosis of the cysts; however, optimal treatment of the cysts remains controversial. First-line treatment is nonsurgical management consisting of oral NSAIDs, physical therapy, bracing, epidural steroid injections, and/or cyst aspiration. Given the high rate of recurrence and the relatively low satisfaction with nonsurgical management, surgical options, including hemilaminectomy or laminotomy to excise the cyst and decompress the neural elements, are typically performed. Recent studies suggest that segmental fusion of the involved levels may decrease the risks of cyst recurrence and radiculopathy.

  16. Median raphe cyst: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Piyush; Das, Anupam; Savant, Sushil S; Barkat, Rizwana

    2017-02-15

    Median raphe cysts are rare congenital lesions ofthe male genitalia that occur as a result of alteredembryologic development. We report two such casesof median raphe cysts in the pediatric age group. Inaddition, we review the literature.

  17. Tarlov Cyst: A diagnostic of exclusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cyril Andrieux; Pietro Poglia; Pietro Laudato

    2017-01-01

    Tarlov cysts were first described in 1938 as an incidental finding at autopsy. The cysts are usually diagnosed on MRI, which reveals the lesion arising from the sacral nerve root near the dorsal root ganglion...

  18. A huge presacral Tarlov cyst. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuhiko; Yuzurihara, Masahito; Asamoto, Shunji; Doi, Hiroshi; Kubota, Motoo

    2007-08-01

    Perineural cysts have become a common incidental finding during lumbosacral magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Only some of the symptomatic cysts warrant treatment. The authors describe the successful operative treatment of a patient with, to the best of their knowledge, the largest perineural cyst reported to date. A 29-year-old woman had been suffering from long-standing constipation and low-back pain. During an obstetric investigation for infertility, the clinician discovered a huge presacral cystic mass. Computed tomography myelography showed the lesion to be a huge Tarlov cyst arising from the left S-3 nerve root and compressing the ipsilateral S-2 nerve. The cyst was successfully treated by ligation of the cyst neck together with sectioning of the S-3 nerve root. Postoperative improvement in her symptoms and MR imaging findings were noted. Identification of the nerve root involved by the cyst wall, operative indication, operative procedure, and treatment of multiple cysts are important preoperative considerations.

  19. Multiple intracranial hydatid cysts: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumar, J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alvarez, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Leira, R. [Dept. of Neurology, University Hospital, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Prieto, J.M. [Dept. of Neurology, University Hospital, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Arrojo, L. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pereira, J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Vidal, J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    1992-08-01

    Multiple intracranial hydatid cysts are uncommon and usually localized in the supratentorial compartment. We report a case studied by CT and MR of multiple intracranial hydatid cysts scattered in various anatomic sites: supratentorial, infratentorial and also intraventricular. (orig.)

  20. NanoSIMS study of trophic interactions in the coral-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Christophe; Mathieu, Pernice; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Djediat, Chakib; Spangenberg, Jorge; Alexander, Duncan; Hignette, Michel; Meziane, Tarik; Meibom, Anders

    2013-04-01

    Tropical and subtropical reef-building corals generally form a stable endosymbiotic association with autotrophic single-celled dinoflagellate algae, commonly known as "zooxanthellae", which is crucial for the development of coral reef ecosystems. In the present work, the spatial and temporal dynamics of trophic interactions between corals and their dinoflagellates was investigated in situ and at a subcellular level in the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and quantitative NanoSIMS isotopic imaging of tissue ultra-thin sections (70 nm) were combined to precisely track the assimilation and the fate of 15N-labeled compounds (ammonium, nitrate and aspartic acid) within each symbiotic partner of the coral-dinoflagellate association. Among our main results, we found that (i) both dinoflagellate algae and coral tissue rapidly assimilate ammonium and aspartic acid from the environment, (ii) however only the dinoflagellates assimilate nitrate, (ii) nitrogen is rapidly and temporary stored within the dinoflagellate cells into uric acid crystals, and (iii) the dinoflagellate endosymbionts translocate nitrogenous compounds to their coral host. This study paves the way for exploring in details the wide range of metabolic interactions between partners of any symbiosis in the biosphere.

  1. Symptomatic tarlov cyst following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-08-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  2. Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-01-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  3. Asymptomatic vallecular cyst: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Yucel; Uzun, Sennur; Aypar, Ulku

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year-old man presented himself for an intracranial glioblastoma multiforme excision. After being routinely monitored, he was preoxygenated. We induced anesthesia and paralysis with 200 mg propofol, 50 μg fentanyl and 9 mg vecuronium. Direct laryngoscopy with a Macintosh 3 blade revealed a 2x2 cm cyst, pedunculated, arising from the right side of the vallecula preventing the endotracheal intubation. While the patient remained anesthetized, we urgently consulted an otolaryngologist and aspirated the cyst with a 22-gauge needle and syringe under direct laryngoscopy. We aspirated 10 cc of liquid content. This was followed by an uneventful tracheal intubation with a 9.0 enforced spiral cuffed tube. An alternative to fiberoptic intubation may be careful cyst aspiration to facilitate the intubation.

  4. Prenatal diagnosis of arachnoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkut Daglar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoid cysts are rare, usually benign, space-occupying central nervous system lesion. They are the results of an accumulation of cerebrospinal-like fluid between the cerebral meninges and diagnosed prenatally as a unilocular, simple, echolucent area within the fetal head. They may be primary (congenital (maldevelopment of the meninges or secondary (acquired (result of infection trauma, or hemorrhage. The primary ones typically dont communicate with the subarachnoid space whereas acquired forms usually communicate. In recent years, with the development of radiological techniques, the clinical detectability of arachnoid cysts seems to have increased. We report a case of primary arachnoid cyst that were diagnosed prenatally by using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging . [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 792-795

  5. Spontaneous regression of an intraspinal disc cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Eerens, I.; Wilms, G. [University Hospital, Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Goffin, J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2001-11-01

    We present a patient with a so-called disc cyst. Its location in the ventrolateral epidural space and its communication with the herniated disc are clearly shown. The disc cyst developed rapidly and regressed spontaneously. This observation, which has not been reported until now, appears to support focal degeneration with cyst formation as the pathogenesis. (orig.)

  6. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the rib.

    OpenAIRE

    Sabanathan, S.; K. Chen; Robertson, C. S.; Salama, F D

    1984-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts are uncommon lesions, especially in the ribs. Four patients with aneurysmal bone cysts of the rib are presented and previously reported cases reviewed. A brief discussion of the clinical manifestations, pathology, aetiology, and current treatment of aneurysmal bone cyst is also included.

  7. Degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Nojiri

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe two cases of degenerative intraspinal cyst of the cervical spine that caused a gradually progressive myelopathy. One case had a cyst that arose from the facet joint and the other case had a cyst that formed in the ligamentum flavum. The symptoms improved immediately after posterior decompression by cystectomy with laminoplasty.

  8. Prevalence of cysts in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolwijck, E.; Lybol, C.; Bulten, J.; Vollebergh, J.H.A.; Wevers, R.A.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ovarian carcinomas mostly appear as large cystic masses. However, the exact prevalence of cysts in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has never been documented as well as the tumor factors that are related to the presence of cysts. Demonstrating the prevalence of cysts in EOC is essential

  9. THE PATHOGENESIS OF CEREBRAL GLIOMATOUS CYSTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LOHLE, PNM; VERHAGEN, ITHJ; TEELKEN, AW; BLAAUW, EH; GO, KG

    In this study, the authors have examined the mechanism of the formation of tumor cysts. Cyst fluid samples were obtained during surgery and by percutaneous aspiration from 22 patients with cystic cerebral gliomas. The concentration of protein was measured in the cyst fluid and blood plasma. Analysis

  10. Primary hydatid cysts of the pancreas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    Hydatid cysts of the pancreas are rare. The reported incidence varies from 0.1% to 2% of patients with hydatid disease.4-7. Management may be diffi- cult as a hydatid cyst in the head of the pancreas may closely simulate a cystic tumour. In this study we report 4 cases of primary hydatid cysts involving the head of the ...

  11. [Inflammatory paradental cyst. Report of 6 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, P A; Philipsen, H P

    2003-05-01

    The inflammatory paradental cyst has been described as an entity in the WHO classification of odontogenic tumors and cysts (1992). It is mainly located at mandibular molars, in particular third molars of the lower jaw. Radiologically, involved molars show a circumscribed, mostly half-moon shaped translucency distal or distobuccal to the involved tooth. Patients frequently report episodes of infection (pericoronitis). The histological findings are identical to those of inflammatory radicular cysts. The inflammatory paradental cyst has been described infrequently in the international literature. There are no reports available in German. The aim of the present study was to present six of our own cases of inflammatory paradental cysts. Five men and one woman with an average age of 29.5 years were affected. In two cases paradental cysts occurred bilaterally. Three patients reported recurrent previous infections (pericoronitis). Radiologically, the typical translucency with clear demarcation distal to the third molars was observed. All of the third molars were vertically retained. Histologically, the inflammatory paradental cysts showed features identical to those of radicular cysts. The inflammatory paradental cyst is a clear indication for osteotomy of lower wisdom teeth. Postoperative complications or recurrences of the inflammatory paradental cysts have not been described. A correct clinical, radiological, and histopathological diagnosis of paradental cysts is mandatory, and more reports are needed in order to compile more information about relative frequency and pathogenesis of this cyst variant.

  12. Characterization of complex renal cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graumann, Ole; Osther, Susanne Sloth; Osther, Palle Jörn Sloth

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Complex renal cysts represent a major clinical problem, since it is often difficult to exclude malignancy. The Bosniak classification system, based on computed tomography (CT), is widely used to categorize cystic renal lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate critically...... available data on the Bosniak classification. Material and methods. All publications from an Entrez Pubmed search were reviewed, focusing on clinical applicability and the use of imaging modalities other than CT to categorize complex renal cysts. Results. Fifteen retrospective studies were found. Most...

  13. Dentigerous cyst of inflammatory origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Bianca Zimmermann; Beltrame, Ana Paula; Bolan, Michele; Grando, Liliane Janete; Cordeiro, Mabel Mariela Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    There is an association between persistent, prolonged inflammation of a primary tooth and the development of an inflammatory dentigerous cyst involving the succedaneous tooth. The purpose of this case report is to describe the management of an inflammatory dentigerous cyst of the permanent maxillary left central incisor in a nine-year-old boy caused by a long-term inflammation/infection of its predecessor. The treatment consisted of conservative decompression, which allowed for rapid healing and the eruption of the permanent tooth. The patient was followed up with periodic clinical and radiographic evaluations for several years.

  14. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelial cysts of the pancreas are very rare with less than 35 cases described in the literature. A 49-year old male with a cystic tumor in the tail of the pancreas of 8 cm in diameter discovered during the investigation for mild pain in the upper abdomen was presented. The tumor was easily removed during the open surgery. It contained yellowish dense pus-like fluid whose culture remained sterile. Histology showed the lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and preoperative pain disappeared. Eight and a half years later, he died due to complications after orthopedic surgery of the spine.

  15. Symbiotic Dinoflagellate Functional Diversity Mediates Coral Survival under Ecological Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggett, David J; Warner, Mark E; Leggat, William

    2017-10-01

    Coral reefs have entered an era of 'ecological crisis' as climate change drives catastrophic reef loss worldwide. Coral growth and stress susceptibility are regulated by their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium). The phylogenetic diversity of Symbiodinium frequently corresponds to patterns of coral health and survival, but knowledge of functional diversity is ultimately necessary to reconcile broader ecological success over space and time. We explore here functional traits underpinning the complex biology of Symbiodinium that spans free-living algae to coral endosymbionts. In doing so we propose a mechanistic framework integrating the primary traits of resource acquisition and utilisation as a means to explain Symbiodinium functional diversity and to resolve the role of Symbiodinium in driving the stability of coral reefs under an uncertain future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dinoflagellate bioluminescence in response to mechanical stimuli in water flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Cussatlegras

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioluminescence of plankton organisms induced by water movements has long been observed and is still under investigations because of its great complexity. In particular, the exact mechanism occurring at the level of the cell has not been yet fully understood. This work is devoted to the study of the bioluminescence of the dinoflagellates plankton species Pyrocystis noctiluca in response to mechanical stimuli generated by water flows. Several experiments were performed with different types of flows in a Couette shearing apparatus. All of them converge to the conclusion that stationary homogeneous laminar shear does not trigger massive bioluminescence, but that acceleration and shear are both necessary to stimulate together an intense bioluminescence response. The distribution of the experimental bioluminescence thresholds is finally calculated from the light emission response for the Pyrocystis noctiluca species.

  17. Mycosporine-like amino acids from coral dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosic, Nedeljka N; Dove, Sophie

    2011-12-01

    Coral reefs are one of the most important marine ecosystems, providing habitat for approximately a quarter of all marine organisms. Within the foundation of this ecosystem, reef-building corals form mutualistic symbioses with unicellular photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. Exposure to UV radiation (UVR) (280 to 400 nm) especially when combined with thermal stress has been recognized as an important abiotic factor leading to the loss of algal symbionts from coral tissue and/or a reduction in their pigment concentration and coral bleaching. UVR may damage biological macromolecules, increase the level of mutagenesis in cells, and destabilize the symbiosis between the coral host and their dinoflagellate symbionts. In nature, corals and other marine organisms are protected from harmful UVR through several important photoprotective mechanisms that include the synthesis of UV-absorbing compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). MAAs are small (sunscreens characterized by a maximum absorbance in the UVA and UVB ranges of 310 to 362 nm. In addition to their photoprotective role, MAAs act as antioxidants scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and suppressing singlet oxygen-induced damage. It has been proposed that MAAs are synthesized during the first part of the shikimate pathway, and recently, it has been suggested that they are synthesized in the pentose phosphate pathway. The shikimate pathway is not found in animals, but in plants and microbes, it connects the metabolism of carbohydrates to the biosynthesis of aromatic compounds. However, both the complete enzymatic pathway of MAA synthesis and the extent of their regulation by environmental conditions are not known. This minireview discusses the current knowledge of MAA synthesis, illustrates the diversity of MAA functions, and opens new perspectives for future applications of MAAs in biotechnology.

  18. Iron uptake and storage in the HAB dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarimizu, Kyoko; Cruz-López, Ricardo; Auerbach, Hendrik; Heimann, Larissa; Schünemann, Volker; Carrano, Carl J

    2017-12-01

    The iron uptake and storage systems of terrestrial/higher plants are now reasonably well understood with two basic strategies being distinguished: Strategy I involves the induction of an Fe(III)-chelate reductase (ferrireductase) along with Fe(II) or Fe(III) transporter proteins while strategy II plants have evolved sophisticated systems based on high-affinity, iron specific, binding compounds called phytosiderophores. In contrast, there is little knowledge about the corresponding systems in marine, plant-like lineages. Herein we report a study of the iron uptake and storage mechanisms in the harmful algal bloom dinoflagellate Lingulodinium polyedrum. L. polyedrum is an armored dinoflagellate with a mixotrophic lifestyle and one of the most common bloom species on Southern California coast widely noted for its bioluminescent properties and as a producer of yessotoxins. Short term radio-iron uptake studies indicate that iron is taken up by L. polyedrum in a time dependent manner consistent with an active transport process. Based on inhibitor and other studies it appears that a reductive-oxidative pathway such as that found in yeast and the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is likely. Of the various iron sources tested vibrioferrin, a photoactive and relatively weak siderophore produced by potentially mutualistic Marinobacter bacterial species, was the most efficient. Other more stable and non-photoactive siderophores such as ferrioxamine E were ineffective. Several pieces of data including long term exposure to 57Fe using Mössbauer spectroscopy suggest that L. polyedrum does not possess an iron storage system but rather presumably relies on an efficient iron uptake system, perhaps mediated by mutualistic interactions with bacteria.

  19. Presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung Mo; Lee, Sang Min; Kang, Haeyoun; Choi, Hye Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts have been described rarely, particularly among adolescents. Only a few reports have described the ultrasonographic features of bronchogenic cysts, characterizing them as nonspecific cystic masses with or without internal echogenic foci or debris. Therefore, it is hard to differentiate subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts from other subcutaneous cystic tumors ultrasonographically. We report a case of presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst in an 18-year-old man with unusual ultrasonographic findings. Ultrasonography revealed a small, oval, cystic mass containing a well-circumscribed, heterogeneously hypoechoic, egg-shaped lesion in the dependent portion of the mass within the subcutaneous fat layer overlying the sternum. Surgical excision was performed, and the cystic mass was diagnosed as a bronchogenic cyst. On pathological examination, the internal, heterogeneously hypoechoic, ball-like lesion was found to be mucous material within the cyst. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a presternal subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst presenting with a ball-like lesion inside of the cyst. This unusual ultrasonographic feature can be a clue to the diagnosis of subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst. In conclusion, if an anechoic cyst containing an internal, well-circumscribed, hypoechoic ball-like lesion is seen in the presternal subcutaneous fat layer, subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous cystic masses. PMID:28151916

  20. Palaeoceanographic Variability of the Benguela Upwelling System Depending on the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG) - Indicated by Organic-Walled Dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, M.

    2003-12-01

    The causes and effects of the intensification of growth of the northern Hemisphere ice caps at around 3.2 and 2.74 Ma BP are still unclear. Possible causes are changes in the global ocean circulation and the global carbon cycle, which might have resulted from tectonic processes, solar insolation changes, or the interaction between both processes. The Benguela upwelling area forms a key area within the global ocean system. Here, warm and saline Indian Ocean waters enter the South Atlantic Ocean and are transported to the north. Variability of this inflow may thus result in changes in deep-water production in the North Atlantic, thereby influencing the global thermohaline circulation. Furthermore, the Benguela area is characterized by extremely high bioproductivity in surface waters as a result of year-round upwelling. Variations in the upwelling intensity might lead to changes in atmospheric ¤CO2. To study the changes in the circulation and the upwelling intensity, within this region organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from two high-resolution cores (ODP 1084 and1082) covering the time interval from 3.3 to 2.5 Ma BP were investigated. Due to their sensitiveness to ecological parameters, organic-walled dinoflagellates reflect oceanographic characteristics keenly. The analyses discover clear distribution differences of individual species, especially of those that are sensible or resistant against aerobic decay. The sensible species, (Protoperidinium and Echinidinium), have their highest abundance from 2.76 to 2.73 Ma BP, a time interval in which the resistant species show no significant changes in their abundance. This implies that during this time interval the oxygen was reduced in the deep- and porewater suggesting that the global ocean deepwater circulation was weakened. Comparing these results with the known intensification of the NHG at around 2.74 Ma BP leads to the speculation that the increasing of ice caps in the northern hemisphere is highly associated with

  1. Salivary Duct Cyst: Histo-pathologic Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Vinayachandran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are uncommon and represent 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. They are mainly mucoceles or salivary duct cysts. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. Salivary duct cysts are more common in the oral minor salivary glands and rarely occur in the major salivary glands, show a marked predilection for the superficial lobe of the parotid, and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. Neoplastic differentiation of the lining of the salivary duct cyst has been reported. We report a case of a salivary duct cyst of the left parotid gland, with a review of radiographic and histopathologic features.

  2. Chylous mesenteric cyst: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen L.P. Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A mesenteric cyst is defined as a cyst that is located in the mesentery of the gastrointestinal tract and may extend from the base of the mesentery into the retroperitoneum. A case report of a patient with mesenteric cyst is presented. In addition, a systematic review was performed of English language literature on chylous mesenteric cysts in adult humans. Of the 18 articles included in the review, there were 19 cases of chylous mesenteric cysts reported. Male to female ratio was 1.4:1 with a median age of 46 years. A preoperative diagnosis of mesenteric cyst was made in four patients based on computed tomography. All patients underwent surgery and there were no reports of recurrence on follow up. Chylous mesenteric cyst is a rare entity that needs to be recognized whenever a preliminary diagnosis of intra-abdominal cystic mass is made.

  3. Symptomatic Tarlov cyst: report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyabud, Pradit; Suwanpratheep, Kitti

    2006-07-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly at the sacral spine level arising between covering layers of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The cysts are relatively rare and most of them are asymptomatic. Some Tarlov cysts can exert pressure on nerve elements resulting in pain, radiculopathy and even multiple radiculopathy of cauda equina. There is no consensus on the appropriate therapeutic options of Tarlov cysts. The authors present a case of two sacral cysts diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging. The initial symptoms were low back pain and sciatica and progressed to cauda equina syndrome. Surgical treatment was performed by sacral laminectomy and wide cyst fenestration. The neurological deficits were recovered and had not recurred after a follow-up period of nine months. The literature was reviewed and discussed. This is the first reported case in Thailand.

  4. New insights about suprapatellar cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Crnkovic

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available bursa is located between the quadriceps tendon and femur, and it develops before the birth as a separate synovial compartment proximal to the knee joint. By the fifth month of fetal life there is a suprapatellar septum between the knee joint cavity and suprapatellar bursa which later perforates and involutes in a way that a normal communication between the cavity of bursa and knee is established. A small portion of the embrionic septum can later lag as more or less expressed suprapatellar plica. In case when suprapatellar plica has a small communication with valve mechanism or in case of complete septum, bursa becomes a separate compartment and potential location for the suprapatellar cyst development. Magnetic resonance imaging is recognised as the gold standard in diagnosis of knee cysts because of its ability to show cystic nature of the lesion, its relationship with other anatomic structures, as well as to establish whether other knee pathologies are present. Considering treatment possibilities, majority of cysts around the knee resolve spontaneously and should be treated by aspiration and application of corticosteroids. Suprapatellar cyst is a very rare knee pathology and it can in some occasions be treated using open or arthroscopic surgery.

  5. cyst nematode in tiaret a

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. Labdelli

    1 sept. 2017 ... [21] Brown R.H., Meagher J.W. & Mc Swain N.K. - Chemical control of the cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) in the Victorian Mallee. Asutralian Journal of Experimental. Agricllture and Animal Husbandry, 1970, 10: 172-173. [22] Brown R.H.; & Pye D.L. - The Effect of Nematicide application and time ...

  6. The expression of cytokeratin in keratocystic odontogenic tumor, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, dentigerous cyst, radicular cyst and dermoid cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Kaname; Wato, Masahiro; Hayashi, Teruyoshi; Yasuda, Norihiro; Matsushita, Takumi; Ito, Tomohiko; Gamoh, Shoko; Yoshida, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Akio; Morita, Shosuke

    2014-09-01

    The epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocysts exhibits either parakeratosis or orthokeratosis. In 2005, the WHO classified odontogenic keratocysts with parakeratosis as keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT). Odontogenic keratocysts with orthokeratosis were not classified as odontogenic tumors, but instead referred to as orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts (OOC). To clarify the difference between these two lesions, we investigated their biological characteristics using immunohistochemical studies for cytokeratins (CK) in KCOT and OOC as well as in dentigerous cysts (DC), radicular cysts (RC) and dermoid cysts (DMC). We examined twenty-five cases of KCOT, fifteen cases each of OOC, DC and RC, and ten cases of DMC. We studied the immunohistochemical expression of CK10, 13, 17 and 19. To evaluate the immunohistochemical staining pattern, we divided the epithelial lining of the lesions into three layers (surface layer: su, spinous layer: sp, basal layer: ba). For CK10, most OOC and DMC specimens of su and sp were positive. For CK13 and 19, most KCOT, DC and RC specimens of su and sp were positive. For CK17, most KCOT specimens of su and sp were positive. The percentages of total CK expression of su and sp, and ba of CK19 differed significantly between the lesions (P < 0.001). These results support the hypothesis that OOC originate from not the odontogenic apparatus, but the oral epithelial component.

  7. Glossal cysts in four infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, M D; Clezy, J K; Sharp, E

    1987-01-01

    Cysts at the base of the tongue causing stridor may be fatal if they are not recognised and treated. Digital palpation along the surface of the tongue to the epiglottis is a useful diagnostic method. An operative technique that might avoid the need for tracheostomy is described. PMID:3688924

  8. A study of cysts in the oral region. Cysts of the jaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Ishida, J; Nakano, Y; Ishii, T; Fukumoto, M; Izumi, H; Kaneko, K

    1995-03-01

    Clinical cases of cysts of the jaw treated in the Department of Oral Surgery of our university during the 10 y between 1980 and 1989 were studied clinically. Patients with radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst, odontogenic keratocyst and postoperative maxillary cyst, which were found at relatively high frequencies, were further analyzed with regard to age, sex and anatomical distribution. A diagnosis of cyst was established in 1,444 patients during the above period, and 1,234 (85.5%) of them had cysts of the jaw. According to a pathological classification by Ishikawa's method, these patients included 509 (41.2%) with radicular cyst, 259 (27.0%) with dentigerous cyst, 95 (7.7%) with odontogenic keratocyst and 267 (21.6%) with postoperative maxillary cyst. The pattern of age distribution in cases of radicular cyst, odontogenic keratocyst and postoperative maxillary cyst was similar to that found in previous studies. Among patients with dentigerous cyst, those aged under 20 y accounted for about 60%. Radicular cyst occurred most frequently in the maxillary lateral incisors, dentigerous cyst in the mandibular wisdom teeth, and odontogenic keratocyst in the region between the mandibular molar and the ramus of the mandible.

  9. Role of associated bacteria in growth and toxicity of cultured benthic dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, I; Tosteson, C G; Hensley, V; Tosteson, T R

    1992-01-01

    Clonal cultures of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis lenticularis isolated from the coastal waters of southwest of Puerto Rico show peak toxicities during the stationary phase of growth, correlated with significant increases in bacteria directly associated with these cells. The specific toxicity (MU/mg) of dinoflagellate extracts in control cultures increased 340% during the static phase of culture growth, while those cultures treated with antibiotics that inhibit prokaryote protein synthesis showed no significant increase in toxicity during this phase of culture growth. There was a significant decrease in the diversity of dinoflagellate associated bacterial strains in antibiotic treated cultures. These data indicate that associated bacteria play a role in toxin production by dinoflagellate-bacteria consortia when grown in laboratory culture.

  10. Flagellar apparatus and nuclear chambers of the green dinoflagellate Gymnodinium chlorophorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert; Moestrup, Øjvind

    2005-01-01

    The green dinoflagellate Gymnodinium chlorophorum (BAH ME 100, the type culture) was reexamined with emphasis on the structure of the flagellar apparatus and nuclear envelope. Like other Gymnodinium species, G. chlorophorum possessed a nuclear fibrous connective linking the flagellar apparatus...

  11. Spatial distribution of symbiont-bearing dinoflagellates in the Indian Ocean in relation to oceanographic regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarangkoon, Woraporn; Hansen, Gert; Hansen, Per Juel

    2010-01-01

    The spatial distribution of symbiont-bearing dinoflagellates was investigated during a cruise from Cape Town, South Africa to Broome, Australia. Endo- and ectosymbionts were only found in the order Dinophysiales. The genera Ornithocercus, Histioneis, Parahistioneis and Citharistes had cyanobacteria...... as ectosymbionts, while the genera Amphisolenia and Triposolenia contained both intact cyanobacterial and eukaryotic endosymbionts. The symbiont-bearing dinoflagellates were mainly found in the upper 100 m of the water column. Their distribution was restricted to water temperatures exceeding 16.5°C......, and the highest species diversity and cell concentrations were found at temperatures around 20 to 30°C. The symbiont-bearing dinoflagellates were always associated with water masses with low nutrient (N-limited) and chl a concentrations. Special attention was given to the ectosymbiont-bearing dinoflagellates...

  12. Non-neoplastic mediastinal cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambudio, Antonio Ríos; Lanzas, Juan Torres; Calvo, María José Roca; Fernández, Pedro J Galindo; Paricio, Pascual Parrilla

    2002-11-01

    The non-neoplastic mediastinal cysts (NNMCs) form a group of uncommon benign lesions of a congenital origin. The significant controversy regarding these cysts is whether to manage with observation or surgical resection. The aim of this study is to analyse the utility of thoracic computed axial tomography (CT) in imaging diagnosis of the NNMCs and the results of surgery in these lesions. Twenty NNMCs underwent surgery between 1980 and 2000. The preoperative study of mediastinal cystic masses includes a complete blood test, chest radiography (CR) and, for the last 15 years, a thoracic CT and/or nuclear magnetic resonance. All the patients underwent surgery in our thoracic surgery department and were reviewed in outpatients at 1 month, 6 months, 1 year and biannually thereafter. The form of manifestation, clinical features, imaging techniques, surgical operation, morbidity, mortality and follow-up are analysed. Ten corresponded to bronchogenic cysts, the most common symptom of which was chest pain. CR showed a mass in the anterior-superior mediastinum in nine cases, and CT (five cases) revealed a cystic tumour in the anterior mediastinum. All were removed surgically, with three patients presenting with mild complications. Seven corresponded to pleuro-pericardial cysts, four being asymptomatic. CR showed a right paracardial mediastinal tumour, which was confirmed by CT (four cases). All were removed surgically, with two patients presenting with mild complications. Three corresponded to enteric cysts. CR showed a tumour in the posterior mediastinum, with CT confirming its cystic nature (two cases). Excision of the cyst was done in all cases, which corresponded to duplication cysts: two oesophageal and one gastric. All the patients are asymptomatic and recurrence-free after a follow-up of 11 +/- 10 years. NNMCs are benign lesions in which the lesions in which the surgery can be done with a low morbidity and mortality rate, enables us to rule out malignancy and offers a

  13. Evolution of productivity and monsoonal dynamics in the eastern Arabian Sea during the past 68 ka using dinoflagellate cyst records

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narale, D.D.; Naidu, P.D.; Anil, A.C.; Godad, S.P.

    ; Prasanna Kumar et al., 2000; Gerson et al., 2014) and biogenic particle flux (Haake et al., 1993) in the open ocean region. 4    3. Material and Methods 3.1. Sediment core A 4.2 m gravity sediment core AAS 9/21 was collected from the continental... slope off Goa, in the EAS (14°30.539’N, 72°39.118’E; water depth 1807) during the A.A. Sidorenko cruise 9 (Fig. 1). The sedimentary sequence consists of a mixture of terrigenous and biogenous material. The terrigenous material comprises clay and silt...

  14. Organic walled dinoflagellate cysts from the Tarim Basin, western China: Implications for the retreat of the Paratethys Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grothe, A.; Houben, A.J.P.; Bosboom, R.E.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2011-01-01

    Paleogene sediments of the Tarim basin in western China hold the easternmost extent of the Paratethys Sea, an epicontinental sea that covered a large part of Eurasia and probably extended to the Mediterranean Tethys in the west. The late Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary record of the

  15. Stable carbon isotope fractionation of organic cyst-forming dinoflagellates: evaluating the potential for a CO2 proxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoins, Mirja; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; Eberlein, Tim; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Rost, Björn; Sluijs, Appy

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, significant progress has been made regarding the quantification and mechanistic understanding of stable carbon isotope fractionation (13C fractionation) in photosynthetic unicellular organisms in response to changes in the partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 (pCO2). However,

  16. Prenatal and postnatal sonographic findings of uncomplicated ovarian cysts: 'Daughter cyst' sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Chang Soo; Kim, Mi Jeong; Lee, Jin Hee; Kim, Hun; Lee, Hee Jung; Shon, Chul Ho; Lee, Sung Moon; Kim, Jung Sik; Kim, Hong; Woo, Seung Koo [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    To compare pre- and postnatal sonographic findings of ovarian cysts in neonates and to present a 'daughter cyst' sign for uncomplicated ovarian cysts. The study group consisted of six cases of neonatal ovarian cysts which were evaluated by both prenata (mean, IUP 36 weeks+3 days) and postnatal(mean, 2 days after birth) ultrasound studies. Two ovarian cysts were confirmed by surgery and the remaining four were clinically diagnosed. Postnatal sonography was prospectively evaluated and prenatal ultrasound scans were retrospectively evaluated. The size, contents, and wall thickness of the cyst were evaluated. We also analyzed presence or absence of a 'daughter cyst' , defined as a small cyst surrounded by a complete wall, protruding into the cyst lumen or along the cyst wall. Pathologic correlation of the daughter cyst was performed in two cases. The mean sizes of the ovarian cysts were 59.6 X 46.1 mm on prenatal and 73.0 X 49.2 mm on postnatal studies. Five were anechoic and thin walled cysts on both pre- and postnatal studies. One case revealed debris in the cyst lumen on prenatal study but was completely involuted on postnatal study. All six were unilocular in shape. The 'daughter cyst' sign was seen in two on prenatal and in four (80%) on postnatal studies. The 'daughter cyst' on sonography was corresponded to a follicle on pathology. The 'daughter cyst' sign appeared to be helpful for the diagnosis of neonatal ovarian cyst on both pre- and postnatal ultrasound studies.

  17. A phylogeographical study of the toxic benthic dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis Schmidt

    OpenAIRE

    Penna, Antonella; Fraga, Santiago; Battocchi, Cecilia; Casabianca, Silvia; Giacobbe, Maria Grazia; Riobó, Pilar; Vernesi, Cristiano

    2010-01-01

    Aim Ostreopsis is a benthic and epiphytic dinoflagellate producing potent toxins widespread in tropical and warm temperate coastal areas world-wide. We tested the hypothesis that as it is benthic, it would show distinct biogeographical patterns in comparison with planktonic species. Here, we analyse sequence variability in ribosomal DNA markers to provide the first phylogeographical study of this toxic benthic dinoflagellate. Location Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean. ...

  18. Investigations into the role of bacteria/dinoflagellate interactions in Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Töbe, Kerstin

    2003-01-01

    The interactions of purportedly toxic bacteria with dinoflagellates in the occurrence of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) were investigated. Dinoflagellates of the genus Alexandrium were examined to determine their bacterial population by the use of fluorescently labelled probes. Extracellular associated bacteria were shown to be associated with A. andersonii, A. tamarense and A. lusitanicum. Intracellulae bacteria were found in A. tamarense. Cyanoditolyltetrazolium chloride was used to de...

  19. Genomes of coral dinoflagellate symbionts highlight evolutionary adaptations conducive to a symbiotic lifestyle

    KAUST Repository

    Aranda, Manuel

    2016-12-22

    Despite half a century of research, the biology of dinoflagellates remains enigmatic: they defy many functional and genetic traits attributed to typical eukaryotic cells. Genomic approaches to study dinoflagellates are often stymied due to their large, multi-gigabase genomes. Members of the genus Symbiodinium are photosynthetic endosymbionts of stony corals that provide the foundation of coral reef ecosystems. Their smaller genome sizes provide an opportunity to interrogate evolution and functionality of dinoflagellate genomes and endosymbiosis. We sequenced the genome of the ancestral Symbiodinium microadriaticum and compared it to the genomes of the more derived Symbiodinium minutum and Symbiodinium kawagutii and eukaryote model systems as well as transcriptomes from other dinoflagellates. Comparative analyses of genome and transcriptome protein sets show that all dinoflagellates, not only Symbiodinium, possess significantly more transmembrane transporters involved in the exchange of amino acids, lipids, and glycerol than other eukaryotes. Importantly, we find that only Symbiodinium harbor an extensive transporter repertoire associated with the provisioning of carbon and nitrogen. Analyses of these transporters show species-specific expansions, which provides a genomic basis to explain differential compatibilities to an array of hosts and environments, and highlights the putative importance of gene duplications as an evolutionary mechanism in dinoflagellates and Symbiodinium.

  20. Comparison of three preservation techniques for slowing dissolution of calcareous nannofossils in organic rich sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefelt, Ellen L.; Self-Trail, Jean; Schultz, Arthur P.

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to halt or reduce dissolution of calcareous nannofossils in organic and/or pyrite-rich sediments, three different methods of short-term storage preservation were tested for efficacy: vacuum packing, argon gas replacement, and buffered water. Abundance counts of calcareous nannofossil assemblages over a six month period showed that none of the three preservation methods were consistently effective in reducing assemblage loss due to dissolution. In most cases, the control slides made at the drill site had more abundant calcareous nannofossil assemblages than those slides made from sediments stored via vacuum packing, argon gas replacement, or buffered water. Thin section and XRD analyses showed that in most cases, dissolution, even in carbonate-rich sediments.

  1. Ovarian cysts in dairy cattle: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, D J; Garverick, H A

    1982-11-01

    Ovarian cysts in dairy cattle are generally defined as follicular structures of at least 2.5 cm in diameter that persist for at least 10 d in the absence of a corpus luteum. The incidence of ovarian cysts has been reported to be from 6 to 19% and, therefore, cystic ovarian disease is a serious cause of reproductive failure in dairy cattle. There have been several different hypotheses about the cause of ovarian cysts. After monitoring postpartum cows that spontaneously developed ovarian cysts and postpartum cows with or without ovarian cysts administered estradiol benzoate, the authors have suggested that postpartum ovarian cysts developed when the hypothalamus and pituitary appeared to be less responsive in releasing luteinizing hormone (LH) under the influence of estradiol. Spontaneous reestablishment of ovarian cycles occurred in about 60% of the cows that developed ovarian cysts before the first postpartum ovulation. In contrast, only about 20% of the cows that developed ovarian cysts after the first postpartum ovulation spontaneously reestablished ovarian cycles. The authors have also reported that even if ovarian cycles are not reestablished, ovarian cysts may regress, but only in the presence of follicular development, which subsequently develops into ovarian cysts. Investigators have shown that 40 to 80% of the cows with ovarian cysts reestablished ovarian cycles following treatment with products high in LH activity. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), which stimulates reestablishment of ovarian cysts in about 80% of the cows treated, has more recently been recommended as a treatment for ovarian cysts. The GnRH-induced LH surge appears to stimulate luteinization of the ovarian cyst wall. Cows then exhibit estrus about 21 d following GnRH treatment. The conception rate at the first estrus after GnRH treatment has been reported to be 40 to 50%. The interval from GnRH treatment to estrus has been reduced by administering prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) 9

  2. Case Report Unusual Presentation of Retrovesical Hydatid Cyst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report two cases of isolated RVH cyst - one mimicking an ovarian cyst, the other presenting as acute urinary retention - and a third case of RVH cyst associated with bladder and rectal fi stula and a hepatic hydatid cyst. Keywords: Retrovesical hydatid cyst, bladder fi stula, rectal fistula, pelvic cystic mass. African Journal ...

  3. Large presacral epidermoid cyst in an asymptomatic woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Izumi, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An epidermoid cyst is an infrequent entity among cysts found in the presacral region, frequently coexistent with a meningocele. Diffusion-weighted imaging is known to be a useful diagnostic measure for differentiating presacral epidermoid cysts. Here, we present a large but asymptomatic case found in the presacral region. Epidermoid cysts should be considered in patients with presacral cysts.

  4. Histopathology of Synovial Cysts of the Spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebib, Ivan; Chang, Connie Y; Schwab, Joseph H; Kerr, Darcy A; Deshpande, Vikram; Nielsen, G Petur

    2018-01-04

    Cystic lesions derived from the synovial and ligamentous structures of the spine have varied histologic appearances. Not uncommonly, there is discrepancy between the clinico-radiologic diagnosis and histology. Therefore, we sought to characterize the histologic features of tissue submitted as "synovial cysts" of the spine. Resected specimens of the spine labeled "synovial cysts" and "lumbar cysts" were histologically evaluated and classified based on histopathologic features. 75 histologic samples of spinal cysts were identified. 31 were classified as synovial cysts (definite synovial lining), 28 showed pseudocystic degeneration of the ligamentum flavum, 7 showed pseudocyst formation without evidence of synovial lining or degeneration of the ligamentum flavum, 8 showed cyst contents only or no histologic evidence of cyst wall for evaluation. Twenty-five cases (33%), especially those showing pseudocystic degeneration of the ligamentum flavum were associated with very characteristic tumor calcinosis-like calcium deposition with surrounding foreign-body giant cell reaction. Histology of "synovial cysts" of the spine shows varied types of cysts; a large proportion are not synovial lined cysts but rather show pseudocystic degenerative changes of the ligamentum flavum often associated with very characteristic finely granular calcifications and foreign body giant cell reaction. This may have implications, not only in understanding the pathogenesis of these lesions, but also in their varied response to non-surgical interventions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Macrophage polarization differs between apical granulomas, radicular cysts, and dentigerous cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Manuel; Schlittenbauer, Tilo; Moebius, Patrick; Büttner-Herold, Maike; Ries, Jutta; Preidl, Raimund; Geppert, Carol-Immanuel; Neukam, Friedrich W; Wehrhan, Falk

    2018-01-01

    Apical periodontitis can appear clinically as apical granulomas or radicular cysts. There is evidence that immunologic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of both pathologies. In contrast to radicular cysts, the dentigerous cysts have a developmental origin. Macrophage polarization (M1 vs M2) is a main regulator of tissue homeostasis and differentiation. There are no studies comparing macrophage polarization in apical granulomas, radicular cysts, and dentigerous cysts. Forty-one apical granulomas, 23 radicular cysts, and 23 dentigerous cysts were analyzed in this study. A tissue microarray (TMA) of the 87 consecutive specimens was created, and CD68-, CD11c-, CD163-, and MRC1-positive macrophages were detected by immunohistochemical methods. TMAs were digitized, and the expression of macrophage markers was quantitatively assessed. Radicular cysts are characterized by M1 polarization of macrophages while apical granulomas show a significantly higher degree of M2 polarization. Dentigerous cysts have a significantly lower M1 polarization than both analyzed periapical lesions (apical granulomas and radicular cysts) and accordingly, a significantly higher M2 polarization than radicular cysts. Macrophage cell density in dentigerous cysts is significantly lower than in the periapical lesions. The development of apical periodontitis towards apical granulomas or radicular cysts might be directed by macrophage polarization. Radicular cyst formation is associated with an increased M1 polarization of infiltrating macrophages. In contrast to radicular cysts, dentigerous cysts are characterized by a low macrophage infiltration and a high degree of M2 polarization, possibly reflecting their developmental rather than inflammatory origin. As M1 polarization of macrophages is triggered by bacterial antigens, these results underline the need for sufficient bacterial clearance during endodontic treatment to prevent a possible M1 macrophage-derived stimulus for radicular cyst

  6. Evolutionary-based approaches for determining the deviatoric stress of calcareous sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnazari, Habib; Tutunchian, Mohammad A.; Rezvani, Reza; Valizadeh, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Many hydrocarbon reservoirs are located near oceans which are covered by calcareous deposits. These sediments consist mainly of the remains of marine plants or animals, so calcareous soils can have a wide variety of engineering properties. Due to their local expansion and considerable differences from terrigenous soils, the evaluation of engineering behaviors of calcareous sediments has been a major concern for geotechnical engineers in recent years. Deviatoric stress is one of the most important parameters directly affecting important shearing characteristics of soils. In this study, a dataset of experimental triaxial tests was gathered from two sources. First, the data of previous experimental studies from the literature were gathered. Then, a series of triaxial tests was performed on calcareous sands of the Persian Gulf to develop the dataset. This work resulted in a large database of experimental results on the maximum deviatoric stress of different calcareous sands. To demonstrate the capabilities of evolutionary-based approaches in modeling the deviatoric stress of calcareous sands, two promising variants of genetic programming (GP), multigene genetic programming (MGP) and gene expression programming (GEP), were applied to propose new predictive models. The models' input parameters were the physical and in-situ condition properties of soil and the output was the maximum deviatoric stress (i.e., the axial-deviator stress). The results of statistical analyses indicated the robustness of these models, and a parametric study was also conducted for further verification of the models, in which the resulting trends were consistent with the results of the experimental study. Finally, the proposed models were further simplified by applying a practical geotechnical correlation.

  7. TRIASSIC AND JURASSIC CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSILS OF THE PIZZO MONDELLO SECTION: A SEM STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEREO PRETO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pizzo Mondello is a ca. 500 m thick pelagic-hemipelagic succession cropping out in Sicily consisting of a nodular cherty limestone facies association of late Carnian to late Norian age. The uppermost portion was attributed to the Rhaetian and is represented by the plane-bedded Portella Gebbia Limestone. The section has been proposed as the stratotype for the base of the Norian stage. The calcareous nannofossil content of limestones was studied with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM in two portions of the Pizzo Mondello section, one within 'La Cava' that encompasses all the proposed horizons for the base of the Norian, and one within the Portella Gebbia Limestone in the uppermost part of the section.Calcareous nannofossil assemblages of the first portion display low diversity, being constituted exclusively by calcispheres, that may constitute up to 40% of the sediment volume. Species richness increases in the upper portion. Initially, samples are dominated by Prinsiosphaera triassica, a nannolith of unknown taxonomic affinity. Rare calcareous dinocysts (Thoracosphaera cf. geometrica and coccoliths are present in few samples. Uppermost samples are still dominated by "calcispheres" comparable to Thoracosphaera, but also yield a variety of coccoliths and nannoliths.Calcareous nannofossil distribution was calibrated with conodont and radiolarian biostratigraphy. On the basis of this integrated work, specimens attributed to cf. Thoracosphaera, observed in the lower portion of the section, are late Carnian to early Norian, while samples dominated by Prinsiosphaera, with rare Thoracosphaera and coccoliths are Rhaetian. The calcareous nannofossil assemblage of the uppermost samples, along with radiolarians and the absence of conodonts, point to a Jurassic age (Pliensbachian for the uppermost Portella Gebbia Limestone at Pizzo Mondello. In conclusion, the age of the uppermost part of the Pizzo Mondello section is Jurassic, i.e., younger than previously

  8. Congenital cervical bronchogenic cyst: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiralj Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bronchogenic cysts are rare congenital anomalies of the embryonic foregut. They are caused by abnormal budding of diverticulum of the embryonic foregut between the 26th and 40th day of gestation. Bronchogenic cysts can appear in the mediastinum and pulmonary parenchyma, or at ectopic sites (neck, subcutaneous tissue or abdomen. So far, 70 cases of cervical localization of bronchogenic cysts have been reported. Majority of bronchogenic cysts have been diagnosed in the pediatric population. Bronchogenic cysts of the cervical area are generally asymptomatic and symptoms may occur if cysts become large or in case of infection of the cyst. The diagnosis is made based on clinical findings, radiological examination, but histopathologic findings are essential for establishing the final diagnosis. Treatment of cervical bronchogenic cyst involves surgical excision. Case Outline. Authors present a case of a 6-year-old female patient sent by a pediatrician to a maxillofacial surgeon due to asymptomatic lump on the left side of the neck. The patient had frequent respiratory infections and respiratory obstructions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the neck was performed and a well-circumscribed cystic formation on the left side of the neck was observed, with paratracheal location. The complete excision of the cyst was made transcervically. Histopathological findings pointed to bronchogenic cyst. Conclusion. Cervical bronchogenic cysts are rare congenital malformations. Considering the location, clinical findings and the radiological features, these cysts resemble other cervical lesions. Surgical treatment is important because it is both therapeutic and diagnostic. Reliable diagnosis of bronchogenic cysts is based on histopathological examination.

  9. Ovarian follicular cysts in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garverick, H A

    1997-05-01

    Ovarian follicular cysts are anovulatory follicular structures that occur in 10 to 13% of dairy cows. This review focuses upon the dynamics of cyst growth, development, and persistence as well as on associated endocrine and cellular mechanisms. During the estrous cycle of cows, two to four waves of follicular growth occur. From a cohort of recruited follicles, one is selected for continued growth and dominance while the other undergo atresia and regress. In contrast, cysts have long been thought to be static structures that persist for extended periods. Although cysts can persist for extended periods, most regress over time and are replaced during subsequent follicular waves. The next dominant follicle either ovulates or develops into a new cyst. The recruitment of a cohort of follicles from which a cyst develops and the growth rate of cysts to ovulatory size are similar to ovulatory follicular waves, but the cyst continues to grow for a longer period. The interval between waves of follicular growth is longer for cows with cysts than for cows with normal estrous cycles. Each wave is preceded by a transient increase in circulating FSH. Near the time of cyst development and persistence, the concentration of FSH is not different from that during normal estrous cycles. Serum concentrations of LH and estradiol-17 beta are higher in cows that develop cysts than in cows that do not. Conversely, hypothalamic content of GnRH is lower in cows with cysts. Thus, cysts are dynamic structures, and their development and lifespan are likely associated with altered hypothalamic-hypophysial-ovarian function.

  10. PHYLOGENETIC SIGNIFICANCE OF THE LIMITED DISTRIBUTION OF OCTADECAPENTAENOIC ACID IN PRYMNESIOPHYTES AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC DINOFLAGELLATES (14th Symposium on Polar Biology)

    OpenAIRE

    オクヤマ, ヒデトシ; コガメ, カズヒロ; タケダ, シゲノブ; Hidetoshi, Okuyama; Kazuhiro, KOGAME; Shigenobu, Takeda

    1993-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of lipids from two strains of prymnesiophytes, seven strains of photosynthetic dinoflagellates, one strain of non-photosynthetic dinoflagellates and two strains of cryptomonads was examined with special emphasis on the presence or the absence of an octadecapentaenoic acid [18:5(n-3)]. Prymnesiophytes (Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa oceanicd) and photosynthetic dinoflagellates [Amphidinium carterae, Prorocentrum micans, Protoceratiwn reticulatum, Pyrocystis lunula, S...

  11. Mesenteric cyst(s presenting as acute intestinal obstruction in children: Three cases and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Makhija

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Presentation of mesenteric cyst as acute obstruction in paediatric age group is rare and preoperative diagnosis is difficult. The larger cysts are more likely to have an acute presentation.

  12. Soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.L.; Gielen, J.L.; Delrue, F.; De Schepper, A.M.A. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen (University of Antwerp), Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium); Salgado, R. [Department of Pathology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen (University of Antwerp), Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium)

    2004-08-01

    A soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst located in the right gluteus medius of a 21-year-old man is reported. On conventional radiography, the lesion demonstrated a spherically trabeculated mass with a calcific rim. On CT scan, it showed a well-organized peripheral calcification resembling a myositis ossificans. On MRI, it presented as a multilocular, cystic lesion with fluid-fluid levels. The lesion had no solid components except for intralesional septa. Although findings on imaging and histology were identical to those described in classical aneurysmal bone cyst, diagnosis was delayed because of lack of knowledge of this entity and its resemblance to the more familiar post-traumatic heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans). (orig.)

  13. Recurrent Primary Spinal Hydatid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Turk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary hydatid disease of spine is rare and spinal hydatitosis constitute only 1% of all hydatitosis. We report a case of recurrent primary intraspinal extradural hydatid cyst of the thoracic region causing progressive paraparesis. The patient was operated 16 years ago for primary spinal hydatid disease involvement and was instrumented dorsally for stabilization. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of thoracic spine showed a cystic lesion at T11-12 level and compressed spinal cord posterolaterally. Intraspinal cyst was excised through T11-12 laminectomy which made formerly. The early postoperative period showed a progressive improvement of his neurological deficit and he was discharged with antihelmintic treatment consisting of albendazole and amoxicillin-sulbactam combination. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 84-89

  14. Lymphoepithelial cyst of the submandibular gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Saneem Ahamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelial cysts are benign, slowly growing unilocular or multilocular lesions that appear in the head and neck. They are also called Branchial cyst. The head and neck sites are the salivary glands(more commonly parotid and rarely submandibular gland and the oral cavity (usually the floor of the mouth. there are various methods of investigation available today, of which Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC can be used to provide an immediate diagnosis of a lymphoepithelial cyst. The other investigations include, Ultrasonogram,and Computed tomography.It usually occurs due to the process of lymphocyte-induced cystic ductular dilatation and the confirmatory diagnosis is always made postoperatively by histopathological examination. The mainstay in the treatment of a lymphoepithelial cyst remains the surgical approach, which includes complete enucleation of the cyst along with total excision of the involved salivary gland. This is a report of a lymphoepithelial cyst involving the submandibular salivary gland and its management.

  15. Vitreous cysts in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Noriko; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Murakami, Yusuke; Nakatake, Shunji; Tachibana, Takashi; Notomi, Shoji; Hisatomi, Toshio; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2015-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of vitreous cysts in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 435 consecutive patients diagnosed as having typical RP. Vitreous cysts were diagnosed in 37 eyes of 28 patients with RP (13 males and 15 females; mean age 47.0 ± 19.8 years; range 15-79 years), for an overall prevalence of 6.4%. The cysts were observed bilaterally in nine of the patients (32.1%). Among these 28 patients, 11 (39.3%) were younger than 40 years. In all, 81.8% of the vitreous cysts were detected around the optic nerve head. We demonstrated that the prevalence of vitreous cysts was 6.4% in patients with RP. These cysts were considered to be asymptomatic.

  16. Giant aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbale, Manjula; Munde, Anita; Maria, Anisha; Gawande, Pushkar; Halli, Rajshekhar

    2011-03-01

    The aneurysmal bone cyst is a type of pseudocysts of the jaw. It is a nonneoplastic lesion of the bone, characterized by replacement with fibro-osseous tissue containing blood-filled sinusoidal or cavernous spaces. The lesion remains a relatively uncommon finding in the facial bones, and the cause and pathogenesis are yet to be elucidated. Aneurysmal bone cyst was first described as a distinct clinical and pathologic entity by Jaffe and Lichtenstein in 1942. Aneurysmal bone cyst comprises 1.5% of all nonodontogenic cysts of the jaws and 1.9% of all aneurysmal bone cysts of skeleton. A rare case of giant aneurysmal bone cyst of mandible in a 10-year-old child is presented, which was managed by surgical curettage with a long-term follow-up.

  17. [Aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandible].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onerci, M; Ergin, N T

    1996-05-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lesions of bone consisting of a septated, cystic cavity filled with non-endothelium-lined, blood-filled spaces. Aneurysmal bone cysts mainly occur in children and adolescents. Only a few occur in the jaws. This is the report of a 9-year-old girl with an aneurysmal bone cyst in the condyle of the mandible who was admitted to the hospital with swelling in front of her right ear. Because of the location and to eliminate recurrence, complete surgical excision of the condyle was performed. Fifty-seven cases of aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandible have been reported to date. Aneurysmal bone cyst is treated by surgical excision, which ranges from enucleation and curettage to conservative resection. Simple curettage for aneurysmal bone cyst is reported to be associated with a high recurrence rate, a result of the difficulty of completely excising such a vascular lesion. We recommend complete surgical excision as the best treatment.

  18. Giant radicular cyst of the maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Jeevanand; Shrivastava, Ratika; Bharath, Kashetty Panchakshari; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2014-05-02

    Radicular cysts are inflammatory odontogenic cysts of tooth bearing areas of the jaws. Most of these lesions involve the apex of offending tooth and appear as well-defined radiolucencies. Owing to its clinical characteristics similar to other more commonly occurring lesions in the oral cavity, differential diagnosis should include dentigerous cyst, ameloblastoma, odontogenic keratocyst, periapical cementoma and Pindborg tumour. The present case report documents a massive radicular cyst crossing the midline of the palate. Based on clinical, radiographical and histopathological findings, the present case was diagnosed as an infected radicular cyst. The clinical characteristics of this cyst could be considered as an interesting and unusual due to its giant nature. The lesion was surgically enucleated along with the extraction of the associated tooth; preservation of all other teeth and vital structures, without any postoperative complications and satisfactory healing, was achieved.

  19. Inflammatory paradental cysts in the globulomaxillary region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedtofte, P; Holmstrup, P

    1989-03-01

    Cysts located in the maxilla between the roots of an erupted lateral incisor and a canine were studied. Radicular cysts were excluded by the prerequisite of a positive pulp vitality test in both adjacent teeth, and odontogenic keratocysts were excluded by histologic examination. In the period from 1971-1987, 8 cysts were found which fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. The average age of the patients was 18.8 yr. All cysts were lined by a hyperplastic non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium and there was always a heavy infiltrate of inflammatory cells in the connective tissue. The clinical and histologic features were similar to those previously reported for inflammatory paradental cysts (IPC) in the mandible. Therefore, it seems justified to suggest that some of the previously described globulomaxillary cysts are in fact IPCs.

  20. Orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Bhasin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthokeratinized Odontogenic Cyst (OOC is a developmental cyst of odontogenic origin and was initially defined as the uncommon orthokeratinized variant of the Odontogenic Keratocyst (OKC, until the World Health Organization′s (WHO′s classification in 2005, where it was separated from the Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor (KCOT. It is a relatively uncommon developmental cyst comprising of only 0.4% of all odontogenic cysts. It is rather mystifying that its radiographic features are similar to the dentigerous cyst and histological characteristics are similar to the odontogenic keratocyst; and it has inconsistent cytokeratin expression profiles overlapping with both the dentigerous cyst and odontogenic keratocyst as well as with the epidermis. It has a predilection for the posterior mandibular region. This is a report of a rare case of OOC in an unusual maxillary anterior region, with emphasis on its biological characteristics.

  1. Management of ovarian cysts in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xue-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To discuss the experience of diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cyst in infants. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 20 infants who suffered from ovarian cyst. Results: There were no dysplasia ovarian was found in children which were preoperatively diagnosed simplex cyst. Within thirteen children preoperatively detected mixed cystic-solid lesion, six cases ovarian cysts disappeared and two cases underwent poor blood supply in the following time. Conclusion: Adverse effects for ovarian cyst in infants can be prevented by agressive surgical intervention. Harmful effects of ovarian cyst can be prevented by positive surgical intervention despite the diagnostic difficulties in children with clinical symptoms of this condition.

  2. Syntomatic Tarlov Cyst. Case presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Luis Castillo López; María E. Jerves Crespo; Victoria E. Solís Espín; Juan C. Vargas Parra

    2017-01-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are pathologic deformations located in the space between the Perineurium and endoneurium of spinal roots close to the posterior root ganglion. It is an infrequent disease. Although its etiology is uncertain different theories have been postulated since its discovery. Regularly they are asymptomatic; they are discovered as incidental findings in imaging studies. A case is presented of a patient complaining of a lumbociatalgia of month evolution, without relation with...

  3. Amblyopia secondary to iris cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Arroquia, T E; Avendaño-Cantos, E M; Mesa-Varona, D; Gálvez-Martínez, J; López-Romero, S; Nuñez-Plascencia, R; González del Valle, F

    2014-12-01

    A 5 year-old child diagnosed with moderate anisometropic amblyopia secondary to primary cyst of iris pigment epithelium. He was evaluated with ultrasound biomicroscopy (BMU) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) of anterior segment. The OCT, although with some limitations, is a useful tool to study the anterior segment. It is probably more recommendable than BMU in the childhood. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Brainstem epidermoid cyst: An update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patibandla, M. R.; Yerramneni, Vamsi Krishna; Mudumba, Vijaya S.; Manisha, Nukavarapu; Addagada, Gokul Chowdary

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of epidermoid tumors is between 1% and 2% of all intracranial tumors. The usual locations of epidermoid tumor are the parasellar region and cerebellopontine angle, and it is less commonly located in sylvian fissure, suprasellar region, cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres, and lateral and fourth ventricles. Epidermoid cysts located in the posterior fossa usually arise in the lateral subarachnoid cisterns, and those located in the brain stem are rare. These epidermoids contain cheesy and flaky white soft putty like contents. Epidermoid cysts are very slow growing tumors having a similar growth pattern of the epidermal cells of the skin and develop from remnants of epidermal elements during closure of the neural groove and disjunction of the surface ectoderm with neural ectoderm between the third and fifth weeks of embryonic life. We are presenting an interesting case of intrinsic brainstem epidermoid cyst containing milky white liquefied material with flakes in a 5-year-old girl. Diffusion-weighted imaging is definitive for the diagnosis. Ideal treatment of choice is removal of cystic components with complete resection of capsule. Although radical resection will prevent recurrence, in view of very thin firmly adherent capsule to brainstem, it is not always possible to do complete resection of capsule without any neurological deficits. PMID:27366244

  5. Radicular cyst masquerading as a multilocular radiolucency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Vasavi; Haridas, Sheetal; Garud, Mandavi; Vahanwala, Sonal; Nayak, Chaitanya D; Pagare, Sandeep S

    2013-01-01

    Radicular cysts are the most common cystic lesions of the jaw. Most of these lesions involve the apex of the offending tooth and appear as well-defined periapical radiolucencies. This case presents an unusually large multilocular radicular cyst crossing the midline and involving almost the entire body of the mandible. The clinical and radiographic appearance mimicked an aggressive cyst or benign tumor. The lesion was surgically excised, and the teeth were endodontically treated without any postoperative complications.

  6. Tarlov cysts: a report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Goyal, Tarun; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Chakraborty, Soumya

    2012-04-01

    Perineural cysts are common and usually detected incidentally during magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine. Treatment is indicated only when the cyst is symptomatic. We report one such patients presented with cauda equina syndrome and another with low back pain with claudication. They underwent excision and duraplasty; both motor and sensory fibres were carefully separated from the cyst wall using a nerve root retractor and penfield. There was no nerve root damage or neural deficit. Symptoms were relieved postoperatively.

  7. Ultrastructure of a novel tube-forming, intracellular parasite of dinoflagellates: Parvilucifera prorocentri sp. nov. (Alveolata, Myzozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leander, Brian S; Hoppenrath, Mona

    2008-02-01

    We have characterized the intracellular development and ultrastructure of a novel parasite that infected the marine benthic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum fukuyoi. The parasite possessed a combination of features described for perkinsids and syndineans, and also possessed novel characters associated with its parasitic life cycle. Reniform zoospores, about 4 microm long, possessed a transverse flagellum, alveoli, a refractile body, a mitochondrion with tubular cristae, a syndinean-like nucleus with condensed chromatin, micronemes, bipartite trichocysts with square profiles (absent in perkinsids) and oblong microbodies. Like Parvilucifera, the zoospores also possessed a shorter posterior flagellum, a heteromorphic pair of central microtubules in the anterior axoneme and a reduced pseudoconoid positioned directly above an orthogonal pair of basal bodies. Early developmental stages consisted of a sporangium about 5-15 microm in diam that contained spherical bodies and amorphous spaces. The undifferentiated sporangium increased to about 20-25 microm in diam before being enveloped by a wall with a convoluted mid-layer. The sporangium differentiated into an unordered mass of zoospores that escaped from the cyst through a pronounced germ tube about 4-5 microm in diam and 10-15 microm long. Weakly developed germ tubes have been described in Perkinsus but are absent altogether in Parvilucifera and syndineans. Comparison of these data with other myzozoans led us to classify the parasite as Parvilucifera prorocentri sp. nov., Myzozoa. Although we were hesitant to erect a new genus name in the absence of molecular sequence data, our ultrastructural data strongly indicated that this parasite is most closely related to perkinsids and syndineans, and represents an intriguing candidate for the cellular identity of a major subclade of Group I alveolates.

  8. Overwintering of the parasitic dinoflagellate Hematodinium perezi in dredged blue crabs (Callinectes sapidus) from Wachapreague Creek, Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Jeffrey D; Sullivan, Shelley E; Small, Hamish J

    2015-09-01

    Parasitic dinoflagellates in the genus Hematodinium cause disease and mortality in several commercially important marine decapod crustaceans. One species, Hematodinium perezi, occurs in blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, along the eastern seaboard and Gulf coast of the USA. The parasite infects blue crabs, other decapods, and amphipods in the high salinity waters of coastal bays. Epizootics of the parasite often reach prevalence levels of 75-80% during outbreaks with diseased crabs dying from the infection. Prevalence of the parasite is bimodal, with a minor peak in late spring or summer, and a major peak in fall, and declining rapidly to nearly zero in late November and December. The rapid decline in infections in the late fall brings up the question of whether the parasite overwinters in crabs or whether it uses an unidentified resting stage, such as a cyst. We report observations on the prevalence of the parasite from winter dredge surveys undertaken in 2011 and 2012. Crabs were examined via hemolymph smears, histology, and PCR diagnosis for the presence of H. perezi and other pathogens. Active infections were observed from January through March in 2011 and 2012, indicating the parasite can overwinter in blue crabs. However, several crabs that were positive by PCR had presumptive effete infections that were difficult to diagnose in histological slides and hemolymph smears. These infections did not appear to be active and may have been in subsidence. Dredged crabs with light and moderate active infections were held at 15°C to determine if the parasite was capable of rapid progression. In 8 cases, infections exhibited logarithmic growth progressing rapidly over 8-12days. We present evidence that overwintering of H. perezi occurs in the blue crab hosts, that infections are capable of responding rapidly to increases in temperatures, and that overwintering provides a reservoir of infected animals for transmission to occur in the spring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  9. [Dermoid cyst of the parotid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, Violeta; Trandafir, Daniela; Ferariu, D; Boişteanu, Otilia; Haba, Danisia

    2011-01-01

    Dermoid cyst of the parotid gland is a rare clinical entity. Definitive clinical diagnosis is often difficult to determine preoperatively because of the lack of pathognomonic features. The most frequent location of a parotid dermoid cyst is a triangular area lying above the pinna. Imaging studies do not definitely diagnose a parotid dermoid cyst. Although parotid dermoid cyst is (generally) well-encapsulated, complete removal of the cyst wall is not sufficient to cure it, so it is mandatory to perform careful excision of the cyst by parotidectomy, in terms of preserving facial nerve integrity. Histopathology of the parotid gland tumor removed by parotidectomy makes a diagnosis of certainty, by revealing a cyst wall with keratinization of the squamous epithelium and the presence of skin annexes (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands). We present a rare case of parotid dermoid cyst in a 21-year-old male patient with symptoms and imaging rather suggestive of arch I branchial cyst and a brief review of data in the medical literature of the last 20 years.

  10. [Hydatid cyst of the posterior fossa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqui, Abderrazzak El; Aggouri, Mohamed; Benzagmout, Mohamed; Chakour, Khaled; Faizchaoui, Mohamed El

    2017-01-01

    Hydatidosis is an endemic affection in Morocco. Cerebral echinococcosis is a relatively rare entity accounting for only 1-2% of all hydatid cysts in humans. hydatid cyst of the posterior fossa is a very uncommon site for the disease. We report the case of a 12 year-old child admitted for high intracranial pressure. Brain CT scan showed a posterior fossa cyst without enhancement after contrast medium injection. Operative finding revealed a hydatid cyst. The histological examination of the tissue sample confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was given albendazole post operatively. He feels well six months later.

  11. A radiologic study of dentigerous cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae Won; You Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-11-15

    A radiologic study of 139 dentigerous cysts (128 patients) indicated the followings: 1. There was higher incidence in males (62.99%) than in females (37.01%). The most common age group was 11-20 years and the average age was 23.6 years. 2. The most common clinical symptoms was swelling of the jaws (49 cases, 33.09%), and no symptoms was presented in 26 cases (18.71%). 3. Dentigerous cysts were found to be slightly more common in the maxilla (53.24%) than in the mandible (46.76%) and there was almost no difference in occurrence between right and left side. The maxillary supernumerary tooth was the most frequent site of the dentigerous cyst and no dentigerous cyst was found to be related to a deciduous tooth. 4. The most common radiographic findings was root resorption of the adjacent teeth (33.09%), and the central dentigerous cysts were 78 cases (56.12%), the lateral dentigerous cysts were 61 cases (43.88%). 5. The increased radiolucency at the crown portion of the tooth in a cystic cavity was seen in 44 cases (31.65%), and a case of dentigerous cyst was found in a edentulous patient, and 16 cases of multiple dentigerous cysts were found in 5 patients. 6. The ameloblastic changes in 8 cases, the keratinization of the cyst wall in 2 cases, and a case of epidermoid carcinoma were confirmed microscopically.

  12. Large radicular cyst in the maxillary sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagit, Mustafa; Guler, Sabri; Tasdemir, Arzu; Akf Somdas, Mehmet

    2011-11-01

    Radicular cysts (RCs) are the most common inflammatory jaw cystic lesions that occur infected and necrotic in teeth pulps. They account for more than 50% of all odontogenic cysts. Radicular cysts cause slowly progressive painless swelling. There are no symptoms until they become large. Enucleating the cyst is recommended with primary treatment. Here we describe a patient with a large RC with maxillary sinus involvement who underwent an endonasal endoscopic approach for complete resection. In conclusion, the endonasal endoscopic approach should be kept in mind for the resection of RC with maxillary sinus involvement because of its minimally invasive characteristics.

  13. Laparoscopic Management of Huge Ovarian Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alobaid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Huge ovarian cysts are conventionally managed by laparotomy. We present 5 cases with huge ovarian cysts managed by laparoscopic endoscopic surgery without any complications. Materials and Methods. We describe five patients who had their surgeries conducted in a tertiary care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (King Fahad Medical City. Results. Patients age ranged between 19 and 69 years. Tumor markers were normal for all patients. The maximum diameter of all cysts ranged between 18 and 42 cm as measured by ultrasound. The cysts were unilocular; in some patients, there were fine septations. All patients had open-entry laparoscopy. After evaluation of the cyst capsule, the cysts were drained under laparoscopic guidance, 1–12 liters were drained from the cysts (mean 5.2 L, and then laparoscopic oophorectomy was done. The final histopathology reports confirmed benign serous cystadenoma in four patients and one patient had a benign mucinous cystadenoma. There was minimal blood loss during surgeries and with no complications for all patients. Conclusion. There is still no consensus for the size limitation of ovarian cysts decided to be a contraindication for laparoscopic management. With advancing techniques, proper patients selection, and availability of experts in gynecologic endoscopy, it is possible to remove giant cyst by laparoscopy.

  14. Epithelial Inclusion Cyst in Conjunctival Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Evangelina; Zoroquiain, Pablo; Mastromonaco, Christina; Morales, Melina C; Belfort Neto, Rubens; Burnier, Miguel

    2016-09-01

    Conjunctival melanoma is the second most common conjunctival malignancy. Its differential diagnosis with other conjunctival melanocytic neoplasms is inherently difficult. The presence of epithelial cysts is a useful feature in conjunctival tumors and favors a benign lesion. Herein 2 cases of conjunctival melanoma with cysts are presented. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first series of conjunctival melanoma with epithelial inclusion cysts. This series emphasizes the importance of considering several malignant features when reviewing conjunctival melanocytic lesions, as malignancy can exist even in the presence of epithelial inclusion cysts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Tarlov cyst: Case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Prashad Bhagwat; Jain Anil; Dhammi Ish

    2007-01-01

    We describe a case of sacral perineural cyst presenting with complaints of low back pain with neurological claudication. The patient was treated by laminectomy and excision of the cyst. Tarlov cysts (sacral perineural cysts) are nerve root cysts found most commonly in the sacral roots, arising between the covering layer of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The incidence of Tarlov cysts is 5% and most of them are asymptomatic, usually detected as inciden...

  16. New insights into shear-sensitivity in dinoflagellate microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Rodríguez, J J; López-Rosales, L; Sánchez-Mirón, A; García-Camacho, F; Molina-Grima, E; Chalmers, J J

    2016-01-01

    A modification of a flow contraction device was used to subject shear-sensitive microalgae to well-defined hydrodynamic forces. The aim of the study was to elucidate if the inhibition of shear-induced growth commonly observed in dinoflagellate microalgae is in effect due to cell fragility that results in cell breakage even at low levels of turbulence. The microalgae assayed did not show any cell breakage even at energy dissipation rates (EDR) around 10(12)Wm(-3), implausible in culture devices. Conversely, animal cells, tested for comparison purposes, showed high physical cell damage at average EDR levels of 10(7)Wm(-3). Besides, very short exposures to high levels of EDR promoted variations in the membrane fluidity of the microalgae assayed, which might trigger mechanosensory cellular mechanisms. Average EDR values of only about 4·10(5)Wm(-3) increased cell membrane fluidity in microalgae whereas, in animal cells, they did not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The potential of willow for remediation of heavy metal polluted calcareous urban soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J K; Holm, P E; Nejrup, J

    2009-01-01

    Growth performance and heavy metal uptake by willow (Salix viminalis) from strongly and moderately polluted calcareous soils were investigated in field and growth chamber trials to assess the suitability of willow for phytoremediation. Field uptakes were 2-10 times higher than growth chamber...

  18. Laboratory Experiment Investigating the Impact of Ocean Acidification on Calcareous Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Alokya P.; Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in ocean acidity since preindustrial times may have deleterious consequences for marine organisms, particularly those with calcareous structures. We present a laboratory experiment to investigate this impact with general, introductory, environmental, and nonmajors chemistry students. For simplicity and homogeneity, calcite was…

  19. Biosuper as a phosphate fertilizer in a calcareous soil with low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... Laboratory assays were conducted to produce phosphorus (P) biofertilizers from rock phosphate (RP), applying sulphur at different rates of 10, 15 and 20% and inoculated with Thiobacillus. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the biofertilizers in a calcareous soil with low.

  20. Community structure and palaeoecological implications of calcareous encrusters on artificial substrates across a Mexican Caribbean reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, L. J.; Blanchon, P.; Murphy, G.; Cousins, L.; Perry, C. T.

    2015-03-01

    Calcareous encrusters stabilize and bind reef framework and contribute significantly to reef function and biodiversity. Their calcareous skeletons have good preservation potential which, together with well-constrained habitat preferences, makes them useful indicators of past environmental conditions. However, our knowledge of environmental tolerances and spatial distribution trends of encrusters remains limited. Here, we determine the distributional trends and environmental tolerances of calcareous encrusters and delineate the relevance of particular species/genera for palaeoecological reconstructions. Artificial microhabitats were created to mimic exposed, partially cryptic, and cryptic habitats in various orientations for periods of 1 and 2 yr. Calcareous encruster coverage was high, especially in cryptic habitats (95 %), and clear successional trends were observed over time. Total encruster carbonate production was intermediate (range 72.8-476.3 g m-2 yr-1). Encruster species and growth morphology exhibited a defined zonation in response to reef sub-environment, microhabitat, and environmental factors such as light and wave exposure. Linear regression identified three coralline algae genera, as well as Homotrema rubrum, Planorbulina spp., and cemented bivalves as those most likely to occur in particular habitats. Therefore, the presence of these species may be used with greater confidence in distinguishing palaeomicroenvironments.

  1. Sunlight-enhanced calcareous deposition on cathodic stainless steel in natural seawater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Eashwar, M.; SathishKumar, P.; Ravishankar, R.; Subramanian, G.

    In replicate series of experiments in natural seawater, one in full darkness and the other in a 1:1 diurnal cycle with as little as 5 percent of natural solar illumination, sunlight promoted calcareous deposition on cathodic stainless steel surfaces...

  2. A simple, gravimetric method to quantify inorganic carbon in calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total carbon (TC) in calcareous soils has two components: inorganic carbon (IC) as calcite and or dolomite and organic carbon (OC) in the soil organic matter. The IC must be measured and subtracted from TC to obtain OC. Our objective was to develop a simple gravimetric technique to quantify IC. Th...

  3. Coniacian-maastrichtian calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and carbon-isotope stratigraphy in the Zagros Basin (Iran)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razmjooei, Mohammad Javad; Thibault, Nicolas; Kani, Anoshiravan

    2014-01-01

    with magnetostratigraphy in the Santonian-early Campanian interval. The δ13C correlation, supported by calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy, brings insights into: (1) the position of the Coniacian/Santonian, Santonian/Campanian and Campanian/Maastrichtian boundaries with respect to carbon-isotope stratigraphy...

  4. Multivariate analysis of the response of overgrown semi-natural calcareous grasslands to restorative shrub cutting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maccherini, S.; Marignani, M.; Castagnini, P.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of restoration management often suffers from poor sampling design and a lack of statistical rigour, seldom considering the spatial and temporal variability of habitat. We tested the effectiveness of shrub cutting on the restoration of calcareous grasslands, using a 4-year

  5. Microstructure and formation of the calcareous operculum in Pyrgopolon ctenactis and Spirobranchus giganteus (Annelida, Serpulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinn, O.; ten Hove, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    The calcareous operculum of Pyrgopolon ctenactis is composed of spherulitic prismatic structures. The opercular cup consists of regular spherulitic prismatic crystals; the talon has two layers, an inner with an irregular spherulitic prismatic structure (150 μm thick) and an outer with a regular

  6. Endolithic fungi from deep sea calcareous substrata: isolation and laboratory studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Raghukumar, S.; Sharma, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    substrata at 100 atm. in 25 days. This fungus was not capable of acid production on nutrient media in the presence of various carbon sources, nor did it produce proteases. The role of fungi in calcareous substrata in the sea is discussed with reference...

  7. Calcareous nannofossils from the Boreal upper Campanian-Maastrichtian Chalk of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph

    2010-01-01

    Boreal calcareous nannofossil assemblages have been documented from three sections in Denmark. from the Upper Campanian to Upper Maastrichtian (nannofossil zones UC16a(BP) to UC20d(BP)): the Stevns-1 borehole, next to the Cretaceous/Palaeogene boundary section of Stevns Klint, eastern Sjaelland...

  8. Evidence For Different Reaction Pathways For Liquid And Granular Micronutrients In A Calcareous Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefits of Mn and Zn fluid fertilizers over conventional granular products in calcareous sandy loam soils have been agronomically demonstrated. We hypothesized that the differences in the effectiveness between granular and fluid Mn and Zn fertilizers is due to different Mn ...

  9. Is succession in wet calcareous dune slacks affected by free sulfide?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, EB; van Gemerden, H; Grootjans, AP; Adema, Erwin B.; Grootjans, Ab P.; Rapson, G.

    Consequences of sulfide toxicity on succession in wet calcareous dune slacks were investigated. Sulfide may exert an inhibitory effect on dune slack plants, but several pioneer species exhibit ROL (Radial Oxygen Loss) and thereby protect themselves against free sulfide. Under oxic conditions free

  10. Factor driving heterotrophic dinoflagellate in relation to environment conditions in Kerkennah Islands (eastern coast of Tunisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Ben Brahim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the seasonal variability of heterotrophic dinoflagellate in the station of Cercina (southern coast of Tunisia. Methods: Sampling was done in 2007 in Cercina station located in the western coast of Kerkennah (34°41'27'' N; 11°07'45'' E (Southern Tunisia. Three replicates of water samples were taken during 10 days of each month. Environmental variables and nutrients were measured in situ. Results: A significant seasonal difference was observed for temperature and water salinity. The highest values were observed in spring and summer. No significant seasonal difference was, however, detected for nitrite, nitrate, ammonia, silica and phosphate. Sixty-five species of dinoflagellate were identified in the station of Cercina. Abundance of dinoflagellates fluctuated between seasons with values showing a significant seasonal and monthly difference. The highest mean abundance was recorded in spring in April, while the lowest abundance was detected in December in winter. Protoperidinium granii was the main species contributing to the dissimilarity between spring and winter with 13.98% followed by Peridinium sp. with 12.5% of dissimilarity and by Polykrikos sp. with 10.58%. Conclusions: Heterotrophic dinoflagellates proliferate in spring and summer. This increase was justified by the nutrient availability. Protoperidinium granii and Polykrikos kofoidii were the main heterotrophic dinoflagellate making difference between seasons and their densities were positively correlated with both temperature and salinity.

  11. Horizontal gene transfer is a significant driver of gene innovation in dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisecaver, Jennifer H; Brosnahan, Michael L; Hackett, Jeremiah D

    2013-01-01

    The dinoflagellates are an evolutionarily and ecologically important group of microbial eukaryotes. Previous work suggests that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is an important source of gene innovation in these organisms. However, dinoflagellate genomes are notoriously large and complex, making genomic investigation of this phenomenon impractical with currently available sequencing technology. Fortunately, de novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly provides an alternative approach for investigating HGT. We sequenced the transcriptome of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense Group IV to investigate how HGT has contributed to gene innovation in this group. Our comprehensive A. tamarense Group IV gene set was compared with those of 16 other eukaryotic genomes. Ancestral gene content reconstruction of ortholog groups shows that A. tamarense Group IV has the largest number of gene families gained (314-1,563 depending on inference method) relative to all other organisms in the analysis (0-782). Phylogenomic analysis indicates that genes horizontally acquired from bacteria are a significant proportion of this gene influx, as are genes transferred from other eukaryotes either through HGT or endosymbiosis. The dinoflagellates also display curious cases of gene loss associated with mitochondrial metabolism including the entire Complex I of oxidative phosphorylation. Some of these missing genes have been functionally replaced by bacterial and eukaryotic xenologs. The transcriptome of A. tamarense Group IV lends strong support to a growing body of evidence that dinoflagellate genomes are extraordinarily impacted by HGT.

  12. New insights on the species-specific allelopathic interactions between macrophytes and marine HAB dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Gharbia, Hela; Kéfi-Daly Yahia, Ons; Cecchi, Philippe; Masseret, Estelle; Amzil, Zouher; Herve, Fabienne; Rovillon, Georges; Nouri, Habiba; M'Rabet, Charaf; Couet, Douglas; Zmerli Triki, Habiba; Laabir, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Macrophytes are known to release allelochemicals that have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of their competitors. Here, we investigated the effects of the fresh leaves of two magnoliophytes (Zostera noltei and Cymodocea nodosa) and thalli of the macroalgae Ulva rigida on three HAB-forming benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima, and Coolia monotis). The effects of C. nodosa and U. rigida were also tested against the neurotoxic planktonic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum Litaker sp. nov (former Alexandrium catenella). Co-culture experiments were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions and potential allelopathic effects of the macrophytes on the growth, photosynthesis and toxin production of the targeted dinoflagellates were evaluated. Results showed that U. rigida had the strongest algicidal effect and that the planktonic A. pacificum was the most vulnerable species. Benthic dinoflagellates seemed more tolerant to potential allelochemicals produced by macrophytes. Depending on the dinoflagellate/macrophyte pairs and the weight of leaves/thalli tested, the studied physiological processes were moderately to heavily altered. Our results suggest that the allelopathic activity of the macrophytes could influence the development of HAB species.

  13. New insights on the species-specific allelopathic interactions between macrophytes and marine HAB dinoflagellates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hela Ben Gharbia

    Full Text Available Macrophytes are known to release allelochemicals that have the ability to inhibit the proliferation of their competitors. Here, we investigated the effects of the fresh leaves of two magnoliophytes (Zostera noltei and Cymodocea nodosa and thalli of the macroalgae Ulva rigida on three HAB-forming benthic dinoflagellates (Ostreopsis cf. ovata, Prorocentrum lima, and Coolia monotis. The effects of C. nodosa and U. rigida were also tested against the neurotoxic planktonic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum Litaker sp. nov (former Alexandrium catenella. Co-culture experiments were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions and potential allelopathic effects of the macrophytes on the growth, photosynthesis and toxin production of the targeted dinoflagellates were evaluated. Results showed that U. rigida had the strongest algicidal effect and that the planktonic A. pacificum was the most vulnerable species. Benthic dinoflagellates seemed more tolerant to potential allelochemicals produced by macrophytes. Depending on the dinoflagellate/macrophyte pairs and the weight of leaves/thalli tested, the studied physiological processes were moderately to heavily altered. Our results suggest that the allelopathic activity of the macrophytes could influence the development of HAB species.

  14. Two cases of symptomatic perineural cysts (tarlov cysts) in one family: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jun; Kim, Il Sup; Lee, Sang Won; Son, Byung Chul

    2008-09-01

    Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are uncommon. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the etiologies of perineural cysts, but the accurate etiologies remain unclear. We experienced two cases of symptomatic sacral perineural cysts (Tarlov cysts) in one family, who presented with perianal paresthesia. Both of them were operated and postoperatively their symptoms were disappeared immediately. We experienced the excellent treatment outcome with the surgical management of symptomatic perineural cysts in the sacral region. We assume that the theory of congenital origin including a familial tendency is the most plausible of the hypotheses that have been proposed.

  15. The clinical relevance of Tarlov cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdown, Andrew John; Grundy, Julian R B; Birch, Nicholas C

    2005-02-01

    The sacral perineural cyst was first described by Tarlov in 1938 as an incidental finding at autopsy. There are very few data in the literature regarding the role of Tarlov cysts in causing symptoms, however. Most studies report low numbers, and consequently, the recommendations for treatment are vague. Our aim, therefore, is to present further detail regarding the clinical relevance of Tarlov cysts and to identify whether or not they are a cause of lumbosacral spinal canal stenosis symptoms. Over a 5-year period, 3535 patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan for lumbosacral symptoms. Fifty-four patients were identified as having Tarlov cysts, and their clinical picture was correlated with the findings on MRI. The majority of Tarlov cysts (n = 38) cannot be held responsible for patients' symptoms and are clinically unimportant. However, we encountered several patients in whom Tarlov cysts (n = 9) occurred at the same level as another pathology. In these cases, the cyst itself did not require any specific therapy; treatment was directed at the other pathology, and uneventful symptom resolution occurred. A smaller subgroup of cysts (n = 7) are the main cause of patients' symptoms and may require specific treatment to facilitate local decompression. The majority of Tarlov cysts are incidental findings on MRI. Where confusion exists as to the clinical relevance of a Tarlov cyst, treatment of the primary pathology (ie, non-Tarlov lesion) is usually sufficient. Tarlov cysts may, however, be responsible for a patient's symptoms; possible mechanisms by which this may occur and treatment strategies are discussed.

  16. Use of calcareous algae and monensin in Nellore cattle subjected to an abrupt change in diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Ferreira Carvalho

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Additives are used in high concentrate diets to prevent metabolic disorders in cattle. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of calcium sources and monensin on the control of ruminal acidosis in Nellore cattle that were abruptly shifted to a high (92.3% concentrate diet. Eight cannulated steers were randomly assigned to two contemporary 4x4 Latin square. Treatments involved the addition of a calcium source, either limestone (LI or a product derived from calcareous algae (CA, to the basic diet with or without the presence of monensin. Calcareous alga (Lithothamnium calcareum is a natural and renewable product and a source of calcium carbonate. The quantity of added limestone, calcareous algae and monensin was 7.1g kg-1, 7.4g kg-1 and 30mg kg-1 DM, respectively. There was no effect of calcium source (P=0.607 or monensin (P=0.294 on feed intake or on the concentration of short chain fatty acids. Treatments with calcareous algae resulted in a higher mean ruminal pH (P=0.039, a shorter amount of time with the ruminal pH under 5.2 (P<0.001 and a better control of blood pH (P=0.006. Treatments with monensin also resulted in a shorter amount of time with the ruminal pH below 5.2 (P=0.023. Calcareous algae were shown to be effective in controlling adverse changes in the rumen and in blood variables for Nellore cattle that were subjected to an abrupt change to a high concentrate diet.

  17. Nonsurgical root canal therapy of large cyst-like inflammatory periapical lesions and inflammatory apical cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Louis M; Ricucci, Domenico; Lin, Jarshen; Rosenberg, Paul A

    2009-05-01

    It is a general belief that large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts caused by root canal infection are less likely to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy. Nevertheless, there is no direct evidence to support this assumption. A large cyst-like periapical lesion or an apical true cyst is formed within an area of apical periodontitis and cannot form by itself. Therefore, both large cyst-like periapical lesions and apical true cysts are of inflammatory and not of neoplastic origin. Apical periodontitis lesions, regardless of whether they are granulomas, abscesses, or cysts, fail to heal after nonsurgical root canal therapy for the same reason, intraradicular and/or extraradicular infection. If the microbial etiology of large cyst-like periapical lesions and inflammatory apical true cysts in the root canal is removed by nonsurgical root canal therapy, the lesions might regress by the mechanism of apoptosis in a manner similar to the resolution of inflammatory apical pocket cysts. To achieve satisfactory periapical wound healing, surgical removal of an apical true cyst must include elimination of root canal infection.

  18. Thoracoscopic excision of mediastinal cysts in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Prashant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Thoracoscopy offers great advantages when compared with open surgery in terms of postoperative pain and pulmonary complications. Considering the benign nature of most of the mediastinal cysts, thoracoscopy is safe and feasible with minimal morbidity. The purpose of this article is to review our experience with four cases of mediastinal cysts resected successfully within a period of one year by thoracoscopy. Materials and Methods:The cases of mediastinal cysts operated by thoracoscopic excision in K.E.M. Hospital, Mumbai from November 2005 to December 2006 were reviewed. The age varied from six months to 10 years. The patients presented with respiratory distress or recurrent lower respiratory tract infection. All patients underwent Chest X-ray and CT scan thorax to delineate the location of the cyst and its relationship with adjacent vital structures. Two patients had anterior and two had posterior mediastinal cyst. The ports were placed depending on the location of the cyst on the CT scan, following the principles of triangularization. The cysts were excised mainly by blunt dissection. Results: All the patients were successfully managed by thoracoscopic surgery. None of them had intraoperative complications. Dissection in patient with history of recurrent respiratory tract infection was difficult because of adhesions. Intercostal drain was removed within 48hrs and the patients were discharged on the fourth postoperative day. Conclusions: Thoracoscopy in mediastinal cysts is a safe and effective procedure with low morbidity and a shorter hospital stay.

  19. Bilateral follicular cysts in a water buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F A; Nabi, S U; Pande, Megha; Das, G K; Sarkar, M

    2011-03-01

    The present short communication puts on record a case of bilateral, multiple follicular cysts in a water buffalo along with a detailed description of its ovarian biometry and follicular fluid composition. The ovarian weight and biometrical parameters were much higher than in normal cycling buffaloes. A total of three follicular cysts were observed, two on the right ovary and one on the left ovary, measuring 4.9, 3.0 and 2.6 cm yielding 21, 9 and 5 ml of follicular fluid, respectively. The cystic fluid was deep yellow in colour with a viscous consistency. The follicular fluid concentrations of glucose, total protein, cholesterol, acid phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus and progesterone in all the cysts were within the range reported previously in normal buffalo follicular fluid; however, the alkaline phosphatase concentration in cyst 1 and total bilirubin concentration in cysts 1 and 2 were higher than the values in normal follicular fluid. In contrast, the levels of urea nitrogen in cysts 1 and 3, and oestradiol in cyst 3 were lower than the normal values. All the three follicles had an oestradiol to progesterone ratio less than 1. The results of our study suggest that follicular cysts in buffalo are oestrogenically inactive and have an altered concentration of certain biochemical and hormonal constituents.

  20. [Aneurysmal bone cysts of the mandible].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, A; El Okeily, M; Vidal, N; Siberchicot, F; Zwetyenga, N

    2009-12-01

    The aneurysmal bone cyst is a rare, expansive, osteolytic, pseudocystic lesion with an unknown etiology. It usually affects long bones and the spine. Two to 5 % of cases have mandibular localization (between 75 and 100 % present on the mandible) accounting for 1 % of all mandibular cysts. Less than 200 cases have been reported in English and French literature.

  1. Membrana nictitans gland cyst in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, C A; Wyman, M; Szymanski, C; Werling, K

    1983-11-01

    A cyst involving the gland of the 3rd eyelid was removed from an 8-year-old dog. Clinically the circumscribed mass resembled a pigmented neoplasm. Histologically the cyst was multiloculated, with homogeneous eosinophilic periodic acid-Schiff-positive content. Melanin pigment was present in epithelial cells and cystic lumens. Protective functions of the 3rd eyelid were retained following excisional biopsy.

  2. Parathyroid cysts: the Latin-American experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-González, Alejandro; Aristizábal, Natalia; Aguilar, Carolina; Palacios, Karen; Pérez, Juan Camilo; Vélez-Hoyos, Alejandro; Duque, Carlos Simon; Sanabria, Alvaro

    2016-12-01

    Parathyroid cyst is an infrequent and unsuspected disease. There are more than 300 hundred cases reported in the world literature, a few of them are from Latin America. The experience of our centers and a review of the cases are presented. Case report of a series of patients with parathyroid cyst from our institutions according to the CARE guidelines (Case Reports). A search of Medline, Embase, BIREME (Biblioteca Regional de Medicina) LILACS (Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud), Google Scholar and Scielo (Scientific Electronic Library on Line) databases and telephonic or email communications with other experts from Latin-America was performed . Six patients with parathyroid cyst were found in our centers in Colombia. Most of them were managed with aspiration of the cyst. Two of them required surgery. Only one case was functional. Twelve reports from Latin America were found for a total of 18 cases in our region adding ours. Parathyroid cysts are uncommonly reported in Latin America. Most of them are diagnosed postoperatively. Suspicion for parathyroid cyst should be raised when a crystal clear fluid is aspirated from a cyst. The confirmation of the diagnosis may be easily done if parathyroid hormone (PTH) level is measured in the cyst fluid.

  3. Ganglion Cyst of the Wrist and Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a weed which will grow back if the root is not removed. In many cases, the ganglion cyst returns a er an aspiration procedure. Aspiration procedures ... is called an excision. Surgery involves removing the cyst as well as part of the ... which is considered the root of the ganglion. Even a er excision, there ...

  4. Fetal goiter and bilateral ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Sundberg, Karin; Juul, Anders

    2008-01-01

    by each injection and followed by a gradual reduction of fetal goiter as well as the left ovarian cyst. The right cyst ruptured spontaneously. At 36 weeks + 4 days, the patient underwent elective caesarean section and gave birth to a female, weighing 2,880 g with 1- and 5-min Apgar scores of 10...

  5. Orbital dermoid and epidermoid cysts: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Dermoid and epidermoid cysts of the orbit belong to choristomas, tumours that originate from the aberrant primordial tissue. Clinically, they manifest as cystic movable formations mostly localized in the upper temporal quadrant of the orbit. They are described as both superficial and deep formations with most frequently slow intermittent growth. Apart from aesthetic effects, during their growth, dermoid and epidermoid cysts can cause disturbances in the eye motility, and in rare cases, also an optical nerve compression syndrome. Case Outline. In this paper, we described a child with a congenital orbital dermoid cyst localized in the upper-nasal quadrant that was showing signs of a gradual enlargement and progression. The computerized tomography revealed a cyst of 1.5-2.0 cm in size. At the Maxillofacial Surgery Hospital in Niš, the dermoid cyst was extirpated in toto after orbitotomy performed by superciliary approach. Postoperative course was uneventful, without inflammation signs, and after two weeks excellent functional and aesthetic effects were achieved. Conclusion. Before the decision to treat the dermoid and epidermoid cysts operatively, a detailed diagnostic procedure was necessary to be done in order to locate the cyst precisely and determine its size and possible propagation into the surrounding periorbital structures. Apart from cosmetic indications, operative procedures are recommended in the case of cysts with constant progressions, which cause the pressure to the eye lobe, lead to motility disturbances and indirectly compress the optical nerve and branches of the cranial nerves III, IV and VI.

  6. Metastatic Malignant Melanoma Mimicking Benign Breast Cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Lund-Iversen; Olav Inge Håskjold; Hiep Phuc Dong; Aasmund Berner

    2011-01-01

    Benign cysts are one of the most common mass-occupying lesions of the breast and are often investigated with triple diagnostic trial (clinical examination, radiology, and cytology). Malignant melanoma is one of medicine's imitators, and metastatic disease can mimic cysts. Thorough investigation of any breast mass is essential to clarify its nature.

  7. Ruptured corpus luteal cyst: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Seung Hyup; Kim, Sun Ho; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Hak Jong; Moon, Min Hoan; Jeong, Jun Yong [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the CT findings of ruptured corpus luteal cysts. Six patients with a surgically proven ruptured corpus luteal cyst were included in this series. The prospective CT findings were retrospectively analyzed in terms of the size and shape of the cyst, the thickness and enhancement pattern of its wall, the attenuation of its contents, and peritoneal fluid. The mean diameter of the cysts was 2.8 (range, 1.5-4.8) cm; three were round and three were oval. The mean thickness of the cyst wall was 4.7 (range, 1-10) mm; in all six cases it showed strong enhancement, and in three was discontinuous. In five of six cases, the cystic contents showed high attenuation. Peritoneal fluid was present in all cases, and its attenuation was higher, especially around the uterus and adnexa, than that of urine present in the bladder. In a woman in whom CT reveals the presence of an ovarian cyst with an enhancing rim and highly attenuated contents, as well as highly attenuated peritoneal fluid, a ruptured corpus luteal cyst should be suspected. Other possible evidence of this is focal interruption of the cyst wall and the presence of peritoneal fluid around the adnexa.

  8. Anaphylactic shock during hydatid cyst surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Bensghir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative anaphylactic shock is an unusual complication. Different causes can be involved. Surgery of hydatid cyst is rarely responsible. About a case report of anaphylactic shock due to hydatid cyst surgery, the authors discuss the mechanisms, principles of treatment, and prevention measures of this complication.

  9. Sonographic Spectrum of Tunica Albuginea Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunica albuginea (TA cyst is the most common extratesticular benign mass, which is usually palpable. Ultrasound examination is the imaging modality of choice to characterize palpable testicular lesions. This pictorial essay presents the spectrum of sonographic features of TA cysts in order to assist radiologists in making the correct diagnosis and avoid unnecessary surgeries.

  10. Anesthesia for patients with subglottic cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Vo, Daniel N.

    2016-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Acquired subglottic cysts can cause rapid development of respiratory distress. Subglottic cysts are a disease of premature infants and other pathologies of prematurity should be anticipated. Perioperative success is dependent on communication between surgeon and anesthesiologist. Contingency plans for an emergency surgical airway should be in place in the event of total airway obstruction.

  11. Ultrasonographic features differentiating thyroglossal duct cysts from dermoid cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung In Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify ultrasonographic features that can be used to differentiate between thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDCs and dermoid cysts (DCs. Methods We searched surgical pathology reports completed between January 2004 and October 2015 and identified 66 patients with TGDCs or DCs who had undergone preoperative ultrasonography. The ultrasound images were reviewed by two radiologists who were blinded to the pathological diagnosis. They evaluated the following parameters: dimensions, shape, margin, location in relation to the midline, level in relation to the hyoid bone, attachment to the hyoid bone, the depth of the lesion in relation to the strap muscles, internal echogenicity, internal echogenic dots, multilocularity, the presence of a longitudinal extension into the tongue base, posterior acoustic enhancement, the presence of internal septae, and intralesional vascularity. Results There were 50 TGDCs and 16 DCs. TGDCs were significantly more likely than DCs to have an irregular shape, an ill-defined margin, attachment to the hyoid bone, an intramuscular location, heterogeneous internal echogenicity, multilocularity, and longitudinal extension into the tongue base. Conclusion Ultrasound findings may inform the differential diagnosis between TGDCs and DCs.

  12. THE "HYSTRICHOSPHAERID" RESTING SPORE OF THE DINOFLAGELLATE PYRODINIUM BAHAMENSE, PLATF, 1906(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, D; Dale, B

    1969-06-01

    Germination experiments demonstrate that the "hystrichosphere" called Hemicystodinium zoharyi, which previously has been found only as a microfossil organism, is the resting spore stage in the life history of Pyrodinium bahamense, a modern bioluminescent, thecate dinoflagellate. The morphology of this spore, together with new details of the thecal structure and ontogeny of P. bahamense, is described, and it is concluded that Pyrodinium is closely related to Gonyaulax but worthy of retention as a discrete genus. The geological history of P. bahamense is traceable to the Eocene through fossil occurrences of its spore, and it is suggested that additional pyrodinioid dinoflagellates which now are extinct were represented in Lower Tertiary seas by another hystrichosphere genus, called Homotryblium. Selected aspects of the physiology and ecology of modern dinoflagellate resting spores are discussed briefly with special reference to Pyrodinium.

  13. The Prevalence of Benthic Dinoflagellates Associated with Ciguatera in the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Catania, Daniela

    2012-12-01

    This study confirms the presence of Gambierdiscus sp., Ostreopsis sp. as well as other epiphytic benthic dinoflagellates associated with Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) in the Central Red Sea, highlighting the potential occurrence of CFP in this region. These species are reported for the first time in Saudi Arabian coastal waters. A total of 80 Turbinaria and Halimeda macroalgae samples were collected from coral reefs off the Saudi Arabian coast. Sample analyses indicated low average cell abundances (< 40 cells g-1 wet weight algae) of Gambierdiscus sp. and Ostreopsis sp. Subsequent statistical analyses indicated a significant difference in the cell abundances of both genera between sampling sites, between species and between inshore and offshore reefs. The presence of several potentially toxigenic dinoflagellate species in the Red Sea and the statistical differences in abundances between different sampling sites merits future study on possible impacts of these dinoflagellates on marine food webs and human health.

  14. MRI of aneurysmal bone cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Misako; Mizutani, Hirokazu; Satake, Motoharu [Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine] [and others

    1999-05-01

    We retrospectively reviewed MRI of ten patients with aneurysmal bone cyst. All tumors showed low signal intensity on T1-weighted image and high signal intensity on T2-weighted image. Six of ten tumors showed fluid-fluid levels. Septal structures were seen in 7 of ten tumors. After administration of Gd-DTPA, septae were enhanced in 4 of five. Dynamic study was performed in 1 case. It showed a laminar retention of contrast medium was growing above the layer of the fluid-fluid interface made of segmented blood in compartment tumor. (author)

  15. Lipid biomarkers in Symbiodinium dinoflagellates: new indicators of thermal stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kneeland, J.

    2013-08-30

    Lipid content and fatty acid profiles of corals and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts are known to vary in response to high-temperature stress. To better understand the heat-stress response in these symbionts, we investigated cultures of Symbiodinium goreauii type C1 and Symbiodinium sp. clade subtype D1 grown under a range of temperatures and durations. The predominant lipids produced by Symbiodinium are palmitic (C16) and stearic (C18) saturated fatty acids and their unsaturated analogs, the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, n-3; DHA), and a variety of sterols. Prolonged exposure to high temperature causes the relative amount of unsaturated acids within the C18 fatty acids in Symbiodinium tissue to decrease. Thermal stress also causes a decrease in abundance of fatty acids relative to sterols, as well as the more specific ratio of DHA to an algal 4-methyl sterol. These shifts in fatty acid unsaturation and fatty acid-to-sterol ratios are common to both types C1 and D1, but the apparent thermal threshold of lipid changes is lower for type C1. This work indicates that ratios among free fatty acids and sterols in Symbiodinium can be used as sensitive indicators of thermal stress. If the Symbiodinium lipid stress response is unchanged in hospite, the algal heat-stress biomarkers we have identified could be measured to detect thermal stress within the coral holobiont. These results provide new insights into the potential role of lipids in the overall Symbiodinium thermal stress response. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  16. Recurrent intramedullary epidermoid cyst of conus medullaris.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleming, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Spinal intramedullary epidermoid cyst is a rare condition. Recurrent epidermoid cyst in the spine cord is known to occur. The authors describe a case of recurrent conus medullaris epidermoid cyst in a 24-year-old female. She initially presented at 7 years of age with bladder disturbance in the form of diurnal enuresis and recurrent urinary tract infection. MRI lumbar spine revealed a 4 cm conus medullaris epidermoid cyst. Since the initial presentation, the cyst had recurred seven times in the same location and she underwent surgical intervention in the form of exploration and debulking. This benign condition, owing to its anatomical location, has posed a surgical and overall management challenge. This occurrence is better managed in a tertiary-care centre requiring multi-disciplinary treatment approach.

  17. [Calcifying odontogenic cyst. A clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, G; Lanza, A; Tartaro, G P

    1995-12-01

    The calcifying odontogenic cyst (COC) is a rare lesion that involves the jaws which, at times, may evolve into a solid, benign, tumor-like mass. There is no significant sex predilection, but it is probably more common in later life. The diagnosis is base only on histologic examination that represents, in the best of cases, the only way to differentiate the COC from other pathologies. Such lesions include: odontogenic cyst, residual cyst, globulomaxillary cyst, lateral periodontal cyst, ameloblastoma (multicystic and unicystic), odontogenic mixoma, and still with calcifying odontogenic epithelial tumor (Pindborg tumor) and adenomatoid odontogenic tumor. The authors report a case of COC, starting point for a review of the clinical, radiographic and histomorphologic features of the lesion.

  18. Pilonidal cyst on the vault: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORGES GUILHERME

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilonidal cysts and sinuses are described as dermoid cysts which contain follicles of hairs and sebaceous glands. They clinically present as a classic case of inflammation which comes with pain, local infection and redness. The origin of pilonidal disease remains controverse. There are many hypothesis as lack of hygiene on the affected area and a penetration and growth of a hair in the subcutaneus tissue caused by constant friction or direct trauma on the damaged area. The option for clinical treatment is very frequent. However, taking into consideration the incidence and the possibility of recidive, surgical treatment is presently recommended. Complications include cellulitis and abscess formation. Pilonidal cysts are mostly found on the sacral region. In the literature is found description of pilonidal cysts on the penis, interdigital region on the hands as well as on the cervical region. We present a case of pilonidal cyst located on the vault biparietal region, without malignant degeneration.

  19. Large Dentigerous Cyst Associated to Maxillary Canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonardi, João Paulo; Gomes-Ferreira, Pedro Henrique Silva; de Freitas Silva, Leonardo; Momesso, Gustavo Antonio Correa; de Oliveira, Danila; Ferreira, Sabrina; Pereira, Rodrigo Dos Santos; Souza, Francisley Ávila

    2017-01-01

    Dentigerous cysts are defined as a cyst originated by separation of the follicle of dental crown of a tooth unerupted. Although most dentigerous cysts are considered developmental cysts, some cases seem to have an inflammatory origin. The aim of this study was to show a case of an 8-year-old patient, male, presenting a lesion in maxilla with large proportions. Computed tomography scans showed a hypodense image, well-defined, associated to unerupted teeth. The case was treated by enucleation of the lesion under local anesthesia. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnostic suspicious of dentigerous cyst. Currently, 3-year follow-up period showed no signs of recurrence, and it was observed eruption of the teeth associated to the lesion. This case highlights the importance of the association between clinical and radiographic analysis together to the surgical findings, aiming the best treatment for the patient.

  20. Giant Tarsal Keratinous Cyst Mimicking Chalazion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Palamar Onay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Reports on keratinous cysts involving the tarsal plate are very rare. Herein, we present a 69-year-old male patient with a giant tarsal keratinous cyst of the right upper eyelid who was misdiagnosed as chalazion of the eyelid. Interventional case report with cytopathologic correlation. Due to recurrence after the surgery for presumed chalazion, the patient was referred to our clinic for tumor evaluation. In the second surgery, which was performed in our clinic, the lesion was found to have a fine capsule and was totally excised. Histopathologic examination revealed keratinous cyst of the tarsal plate. Keratinous cyst must be considered in the differential diagnosis of tarsal plate lesions, as the curettage of the keratinous cyst might result in multiple recurrences. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 138-9

  1. INTRACORNEAL AND SCLERAL CYST FOLLOWING CATARACT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel van Rij

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. A six-year-old boy presented with a large progressive intracorneal and scleral cyst. Two years before, bilateral cataract surgery through a 6.5-mm corneal incision was performed elsewhere.Methods. The posterior wall of the cyst could be excised, as well as the anterior wall in the sclera. Upon histo-pathology the cyst wall was lined by epithelium. The epithelial cells of the anterior side in the cornea were removed with a curette and a corpus alienum drill. Three and a half years after removal of the cyst, there was no recurrence. Visual acuity was 0.8. Conclusions. An intracorneal and scleral inclusion cyst was successfully removed by surgical excision and the removal of epithelial cells by a curette and a corpus alienum drill.

  2. Symbiodinium transcriptomes: genome insights into the dinoflagellate symbionts of reef-building corals.

    KAUST Repository

    Bayer, Till

    2012-04-18

    Dinoflagellates are unicellular algae that are ubiquitously abundant in aquatic environments. Species of the genus Symbiodinium form symbiotic relationships with reef-building corals and other marine invertebrates. Despite their ecologic importance, little is known about the genetics of dinoflagellates in general and Symbiodinium in particular. Here, we used 454 sequencing to generate transcriptome data from two Symbiodinium species from different clades (clade A and clade B). With more than 56,000 assembled sequences per species, these data represent the largest transcriptomic resource for dinoflagellates to date. Our results corroborate previous observations that dinoflagellates possess the complete nucleosome machinery. We found a complete set of core histones as well as several H3 variants and H2A.Z in one species. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis points toward a low number of transcription factors in Symbiodinium spp. that also differ in the distribution of DNA-binding domains relative to other eukaryotes. In particular the cold shock domain was predominant among transcription factors. Additionally, we found a high number of antioxidative genes in comparison to non-symbiotic but evolutionary related organisms. These findings might be of relevance in the context of the role that Symbiodinium spp. play as coral symbionts.Our data represent the most comprehensive dinoflagellate EST data set to date. This study provides a comprehensive resource to further analyze the genetic makeup, metabolic capacities, and gene repertoire of Symbiodinium and dinoflagellates. Overall, our findings indicate that Symbiodinium possesses some unique characteristics, in particular the transcriptional regulation in Symbiodinium may differ from the currently known mechanisms of eukaryotic gene regulation.

  3. Symbiodinium transcriptomes: genome insights into the dinoflagellate symbionts of reef-building corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Bayer

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are unicellular algae that are ubiquitously abundant in aquatic environments. Species of the genus Symbiodinium form symbiotic relationships with reef-building corals and other marine invertebrates. Despite their ecologic importance, little is known about the genetics of dinoflagellates in general and Symbiodinium in particular. Here, we used 454 sequencing to generate transcriptome data from two Symbiodinium species from different clades (clade A and clade B. With more than 56,000 assembled sequences per species, these data represent the largest transcriptomic resource for dinoflagellates to date. Our results corroborate previous observations that dinoflagellates possess the complete nucleosome machinery. We found a complete set of core histones as well as several H3 variants and H2A.Z in one species. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis points toward a low number of transcription factors in Symbiodinium spp. that also differ in the distribution of DNA-binding domains relative to other eukaryotes. In particular the cold shock domain was predominant among transcription factors. Additionally, we found a high number of antioxidative genes in comparison to non-symbiotic but evolutionary related organisms. These findings might be of relevance in the context of the role that Symbiodinium spp. play as coral symbionts.Our data represent the most comprehensive dinoflagellate EST data set to date. This study provides a comprehensive resource to further analyze the genetic makeup, metabolic capacities, and gene repertoire of Symbiodinium and dinoflagellates. Overall, our findings indicate that Symbiodinium possesses some unique characteristics, in particular the transcriptional regulation in Symbiodinium may differ from the currently known mechanisms of eukaryotic gene regulation.

  4. Toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates on grazing, behavior and survival of the brine shrimp Artemia salina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Raquel A. F.; Fernandes, Tainá; dos Santos, Luciano Neves; Nascimento, Silvia M.

    2017-01-01

    Harmful algae may differently affect their primary grazers, causing sub-lethal effects and/or leading to their death. The present study aim to compare the effects of three toxic benthic dinoflagellates on clearance and grazing rates, behavioral changes, and survival of Artemia salina. Feeding assays consisted in 1-h incubations of brine shrimps with the toxic Prorocentrum lima, Gambierdiscus excentricus and Ostreopsis cf. ovata and the non-toxic Tetraselmis sp. Brine shrimps fed unselectively on all toxic and non-toxic algal preys, without significant differences in clearance and ingestion rates. Acute toxicity assays were performed with dinoflagellate cells in two growth phases during 7-h to assess differences in cell toxicity to A. salina. Additionally, exposure to cell-free medium was performed to evaluate its effects on A. salina survival. The behavior of brine shrimps significantly changed during exposure to the toxic dinoflagellates, becoming immobile at the bottom by the end of the trials. Dinoflagellates significantly affected A. salina survival with 100% mortality after 7-h exposure to cells in exponential phase (all treatments) and to P. lima in stationary phase. Mortality rates of brine shrimps exposed to O. cf. ovata and G. excentricus in stationary phase were 91% and 75%, respectively. However, incubations of the brine shrimps with cell-free medium did not affect A. salina survivorship. Significant differences in toxic effects between cell growth phases were only found in the survival rates of A. salina exposed to G. excentricus. Acute exposure to benthic toxic dinoflagellates induced harmful effects on behavior and survival of A. salina. Negative effects related to the toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates are thus expected on their primary grazers making them more vulnerable to predation and vectors of toxins through the marine food webs. PMID:28388672

  5. Toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates on grazing, behavior and survival of the brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel A F Neves

    Full Text Available Harmful algae may differently affect their primary grazers, causing sub-lethal effects and/or leading to their death. The present study aim to compare the effects of three toxic benthic dinoflagellates on clearance and grazing rates, behavioral changes, and survival of Artemia salina. Feeding assays consisted in 1-h incubations of brine shrimps with the toxic Prorocentrum lima, Gambierdiscus excentricus and Ostreopsis cf. ovata and the non-toxic Tetraselmis sp. Brine shrimps fed unselectively on all toxic and non-toxic algal preys, without significant differences in clearance and ingestion rates. Acute toxicity assays were performed with dinoflagellate cells in two growth phases during 7-h to assess differences in cell toxicity to A. salina. Additionally, exposure to cell-free medium was performed to evaluate its effects on A. salina survival. The behavior of brine shrimps significantly changed during exposure to the toxic dinoflagellates, becoming immobile at the bottom by the end of the trials. Dinoflagellates significantly affected A. salina survival with 100% mortality after 7-h exposure to cells in exponential phase (all treatments and to P. lima in stationary phase. Mortality rates of brine shrimps exposed to O. cf. ovata and G. excentricus in stationary phase were 91% and 75%, respectively. However, incubations of the brine shrimps with cell-free medium did not affect A. salina survivorship. Significant differences in toxic effects between cell growth phases were only found in the survival rates of A. salina exposed to G. excentricus. Acute exposure to benthic toxic dinoflagellates induced harmful effects on behavior and survival of A. salina. Negative effects related to the toxicity of benthic dinoflagellates are thus expected on their primary grazers making them more vulnerable to predation and vectors of toxins through the marine food webs.

  6. Decadal variations in diatoms and dinoflagellates on the inner shelf of the East China Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Rediat; Gao, Yahui; Chen, Changping; Liang, Junrong; Mu, Wenhua; Kifile, Demeke; Chen, Yanghang

    2017-11-01

    Diatoms and dinoflagellates are two major groups of phytoplankton that flourish in the oceans, particularly in coastal zone and upwelling systems, and their contrasting production have been reported in several world seas. However, this information is not available in the coastal East China Sea (ECS). Thus, to investigate and compare the decadal trends in diatoms and dinoflagellates, a sediment core, 47 cm long, was collected from the coastal zone of the ECS. Sediment chlorophyll- a (Chl- a), phytoplankton-group specific pigment signatures of diatoms and dinoflagellates, and diatom valve concentrations were determined. The sediment core covered the period from 1961 to 2011 AD. The chlorophyll- a contents ranged from 2.32 to 73 µg/g dry sediment (dw) and averaged 9.81 µg/g dw. Diatom absolute abundance ranged from 29152 to 177501 valve/gram (v/g) dw and averaged 72137 v/g dw. Diatom valve and diatom specific pigment marker concentrations were not significantly correlated. Peridinin increased after the 1980s in line with intensified use of fertilizer and related increases in nutrient inputs into the marine environment. The increased occurrence of dinoflagellate dominance after the 1980s can be mostly explained by the increase in nutrients. However, the contribution of dinoflagellates to total phytoplankton production (Chl- a) decreased during the final decade of this study, probably because of the overwhelming increase in diatom production that corresponded with the construction of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) and related light availability. Similarly, the mean ratio of fucoxanthin/peridinin for the period from 1982 to 2001 was 6% less than for 1961 to 1982, while the ratio for 2001 to 2011 was 45.3% greater than for 1982 to 2001. The decadal variation in the fucoxanthin/peridinin ratio implies that dinoflagellate production had been gradually increasing until 2001. We suggest that the observed changes can be explained by anthropogenic impacts, such as nutrient

  7. Still acting green: continued expression of photosynthetic genes in the heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida (Peridiniales, Alveolata.

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    Gwang Hoon Kim

    Full Text Available The loss of photosynthetic function should lead to the cessation of expression and finally loss of photosynthetic genes in the new heterotroph. Dinoflagellates are known to have lost their photosynthetic ability several times. Dinoflagellates have also acquired photosynthesis from other organisms, either on a long-term basis or as "kleptoplastids" multiple times. The fate of photosynthetic gene expression in heterotrophs can be informative into evolution of gene expression patterns after functional loss, and the dinoflagellates ability to acquire new photosynthetic function through additional endosymbiosis. To explore this we analyzed a large-scale EST database consisting of 151,091 unique sequences (29,170 contigs, 120,921 singletons obtained from 454 pyrosequencing of the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida. About 597 contigs from P. piscicida showed significant homology (E-value dinoflagellates, while the light-harvesting genes are derived from diatoms, or diatoms that are tertiary plastids in other dinoflagellates. The continued expression of many genes involved in photosynthetic pathways indicates that the loss of transcriptional regulation may occur well after plastid loss and could explain the organism's ability to "capture" new plastids (i.e. different secondary endosymbiosis or tertiary symbioses to renew photosynthetic function.

  8. Global transcriptional profiling of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing

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    Anderson Donald M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dinoflagellates are one of the most important classes of marine and freshwater algae, notable both for their functional diversity and ecological significance. They occur naturally as free-living cells, as endosymbionts of marine invertebrates and are well known for their involvement in "red tides". Dinoflagellates are also notable for their unusual genome content and structure, which suggests that the organization and regulation of dinoflagellate genes may be very different from that of most eukaryotes. To investigate the content and regulation of the dinoflagellate genome, we performed a global analysis of the transcriptome of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense under nitrate- and phosphate-limited conditions using Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS. Results Data from the two MPSS libraries showed that the number of unique signatures found in A. fundyense cells is similar to that of humans and Arabidopsis thaliana, two eukaryotes that have been extensively analyzed using this method. The general distribution, abundance and expression patterns of the A. fundyense signatures were also quite similar to other eukaryotes, and at least 10% of the A. fundyense signatures were differentially expressed between the two conditions. RACE amplification and sequencing of a subset of signatures showed that multiple signatures arose from sequence variants of a single gene. Single signatures also mapped to different sequence variants of the same gene. Conclusion The MPSS data presented here provide a quantitative view of the transcriptome and its regulation in these unusual single-celled eukaryotes. The observed signature abundance and distribution in Alexandrium is similar to that of other eukaryotes that have been analyzed using MPSS. Results of signature mapping via RACE indicate that many signatures result from sequence variants of individual genes. These data add to the growing body of evidence for widespread gene

  9. Improving the Analysis of Dinoflagellate Phylogeny based on rDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Shauna; Jørgensen, Mårten Flø; Ho, Simon Y.W.

    2005-01-01

    Phylogenetic studies of dinoflagellates are often conducted using rDNA sequences. In analyses to date, the monophyly of some of the major lineages of dinoflagellates remain to be demonstrated. There are several reasons for this uncertainty, one of which may be the use of models of evolution...... that may not closely fit the data. We constructed and examined alignments of SSU and partial LSU rRNA along with a concatenated alignment of the two molecules. The alignments showed several characteristics that may confound phylogeny reconstruction: paired helix (stem) regions that contain non...

  10. Growth and grazing responses of two chloroplast-retaining dinoflagellates: effect of irradiance and prey species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Hansen, P.J.; Larsen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of irradiance on growth and grazing responses of 2 phagotrophic dinoflagellates, Gymnodinium gracilentum Campbell 1973 and Amphidinium poecilochroum Larsen 1985, was studied. While G. gracilentum belongs to the plankton, A. poecilochroum is a benthic species that primarily feeds on prey......, However, the growth rate of A. poecilochroum is saturated at a lower irradiance (similar to 6 mu mol photons m(-2) s(-1)) than to G. gracilentum (similar to 60 to 80 mu mol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Also, the irradiance required for saturation of growth for both dinoflagellates matched that found for the prey...

  11. Odontogenic cysts. A clinicopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sheddi, Manal A

    2012-03-01

    To determine the relative frequency of OC, and compare it with previous studies. A retrospective review of histopathology archives in the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia of the period 1984-2010 was carried out from September 2010 to February 2011. Diagnosis was confirmed according to the World Health Organization histological classification for odontogenic tumors published in 2005. The relevant clinicopathological data were analyzed. A total of 470 cases satisfied the diagnostic criteria as OC. They represented approximately 11% of all pathologic specimens accessioned. Apical radicular cyst (64.3%) was the most frequent OC, followed by dentigerous cyst (25.1%). The overall male to female ratio was 1.40:1. The mean age of patients at diagnosis was 30 years. It peaked at the second to third decade. The mandible was involved in 48.5%, and the maxilla in 43.6% of the cases. The prevalence of OC is similar to those reported in other studies, in which most OC were inflammatory in origin. They peaked at the second to third decade with the posterior mandible and anterior maxilla being the most frequent sites affected. Studies from different regions of KSA are needed to further understand these lesions.

  12. Sports participation with arachnoid cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahle, Jennifer; Selzer, Béla J; Geh, Ndi; Srinivasan, Dushyanth; Strahle, MaryKathryn; Martinez-Sosa, Meleine; Muraszko, Karin M; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT There is currently no consensus on the safety of sports participation for patients with an intracranial arachnoid cyst (AC). The authors' goal was to define the risk of sports participation for children with this imaging finding. METHODS A survey was prospectively administered to 185 patients with ACs during a 46-month period at a single institution. Cyst size and location, treatment, sports participation, and any injuries were recorded. Eighty patients completed at least 1 subsequent survey following their initial entry into the registry, and these patients were included in a prospective registry with a mean prospective follow-up interval of 15.9 ± 8.8 months. RESULTS A total 112 patients with ACs participated in 261 sports for a cumulative duration of 4410 months or 1470 seasons. Of these, 94 patients participated in 190 contact sports for a cumulative duration of 2818 months or 939 seasons. There were no serious or catastrophic neurological injuries. Two patients presented with symptomatic subdural hygromas following minor sports injuries. In the prospective cohort, there were no neurological injuries CONCLUSIONS Permanent or catastrophic neurological injuries are very unusual in AC patients who participate in athletic activities. In most cases, sports participation by these patients is safe.

  13. Is Ultrasonography Useful in the Diagnosis of Nasolabial Cyst?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet H. Acar; Ümit Yolcu; Fatih Asutay

    2014-01-01

    Nasolabial cysts are nonodontogenic cysts that occur beneath the ala nasi. Its pathogenesis is uncertain. Because the nasolabial cyst is a soft tissue lesion, plain radiographs are useless. CT and MRI should be evaluated. In this report, a nasolabial cyst is described including its features on ultrasonography (USG) and CT exams.

  14. Is Ultrasonography Useful in the Diagnosis of Nasolabial Cyst?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet H. Acar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasolabial cysts are nonodontogenic cysts that occur beneath the ala nasi. Its pathogenesis is uncertain. Because the nasolabial cyst is a soft tissue lesion, plain radiographs are useless. CT and MRI should be evaluated. In this report, a nasolabial cyst is described including its features on ultrasonography (USG and CT exams.

  15. Urachal cyst presenting as abdomino-inguino-scrotal tumour | Amah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdomino-inguino-scrotal exploration revealed a pre-peritoneal multi-septate cyst spanning from the umbilicus to the dome of the urinary bladder. In addition there was herniation of this cyst into the right inguino-scrotal space. The cyst yielded 1.7litres of straw coloured fluid. Results: Drainage of the cyst with total excision of ...

  16. Giant Presternal Dermoid Cyst: An Adult Case | Lakranbi | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidermal cysts are more common above the shoulder and within the face and scalp. The authors report a case of giant presternal dermoid cyst in a 25 year old man. The case illustrates that dermoid cysts can appear in atypical location. Dermoid cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of midsternal lesions ...

  17. Clinical, radiological, and histopathological analysis of paraovarian cysts

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    Avantika Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In our study, most paraovarian cysts occur in reproductive age group and present as an adnexal mass. Ultrasound is the diagnostic modality and a paraovarian cyst needs to be differentiated from ovarian cyst. Most of them were simple cysts on histopathology.

  18. Sorption of Nickel(II) on a Calcareous Aridisol Soil, China: Batch, XPS, and EXAFS Spectroscopic Investigations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shirong Qiang; Bin Han; Xiaolan Zhao; Yunbo Yang; Dadong Shao; Ping Li; Jianjun Liang; Qiaohui Fan

    2017-01-01

    The sorption of Ni(II) on a calcareous aridisol (CA) soil, one of the major soil types in northwestern China, was investigated using batch and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) approaches...

  19. Conservative management of dentigerous cysts in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjona-Amo, Manuel; Serrera-Figallo, María-Angeles; Hernández-Guisado, José-María; Gutiérrez-Pérez, José-Luis; Torres-Lagares, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Dentigerous cysts are epithelial in origin and are the most commonly found cyst in children. The majority of these lesions are usually a radiological finding and are capable of quite large before being diagnosed. The standard treatment for these cysts is the enucleation and the extraction of the affected tooth. However, if the patient is a child and the affected tooth is not developed, a more conservative attitude should be considered. (Clinical case): A 7-year-old patient is presented with an eruptive backlog of the lower permanent first molars. Radiological examination reveals two radiolucid lesions in relation to them, which are compatible with a dentigerous cyst, and in relation to the inferior aveolar nerve and various germs. A partial enucleation is carried out, maintaining all the dental germs related to the cyst in mouth and monitoring the patient until the case study is over. Diagnosis and early treatment of these lesions in children is of great importance, especially in cases where the lesions enclose permanent teeth. Whenever possible, a conservative attitude should be taken, one that allows for the maintenance of the dentition and treatment of the associated cyst in order to not compromise either the occlusion or the mental state of these patients. Dentigerous cyst, conservative treatment, dental impaction, child.

  20. Microscopic features of the lateral periodontal cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, M; Pindborg, J J

    1975-03-01

    The lateral periodontal cyst is of developmental odontogenic origin and must be differentiated from the gingival cyst of adults, a primordial cyst in a lateral periodontal position, and a cyst of inflammatory origin. This paper is based on a histologic study of five cases. Four were in the mandibular premolar region and one in the lateral incisor-canine region of the maxilla. The cysts are lined by a thin non-keratinized epithelium which resembles the reduced enamel epithelium. Many of them arecharacterized by the presence of localized plaque-like thickenings of their epithelial linings, consisting of fusiform or large swollen, edematous cells. These epithelial thickenings appear to result from a localized proiferation of basal cells. The lateral periodontal cyst may arise initially as a dentigerous cyst which develops by expansion of the follicle along the lateral surface of the crown and comes to lie on the lateral aspect of the root if tooth eruption is normal. Alternatively, it may arise from the cell rests of Malassez.

  1. [Operative treatment of symptomatic nerve root cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, W; Nabhan, A; Kelm, J; Loew, C; Ahlhelm, F

    2001-01-01

    Nerve root cysts are often asymptomatic and show a predilective manifestation for the lumbo-sacral spine. Depending on their size and the anatomic relationship to the nerve roots they may cause symptoms such as pain or even neurological deficits. From the therapeutical point of view, different moldalities of intervention are controversially discussed because the clinical importance of this entity is still unclear. There are curative as well as symptomatic therapeutic options. The curative therapy includes surgical excision of the cyst and duraplasty whereas the symptomatic therapy is limited to drainage of the cyst. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of surgical excision of the cyst with duraplasty using microsurgical techniques. This study included 13 patients who suffered from pain and neurological deficits with myelographically and MRI proven sacral nerve root cysts. All patients underwent surgery for cyst excision plus duraplasty. Clinical symptoms such as pain and sensory deficits significantly improved in all patients postoperatively. 85 % of the patients showed a full recovery from the previously existing radicular pain and motoric as well as sensory deficits. All patients reported a significant improvement of their preoperative loss in muscle strength. Surgical excision combined with duraplasty using microsurgical techniques has proven to be the method of choice in the treatment of symptomatic sacral nerve root cysts.

  2. The predominant bacteria isolated from radicular cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tek, Mustafa; Metin, Murat; Sener, Ismail; Bereket, Cihan; Tokac, Murat; Kazancioglu, Hakki O; Ezirganli, Seref

    2013-09-05

    To detect predominant bacteria associated with radicular cysts and discuss in light of the literature. Clinical materials were obtained from 35 radicular cysts by aspiration. Cultures were made from clinical materials by modern laboratory techniques, they underwent microbiologic analysis. The following are microorganisms isolated from cultures: Streptococcus milleri Group (SMG) (23.8%) [Streptococcus constellatus (19.1%) and Streptococcus anginosus (4.7%)], Streptococcus sanguis (14.3%), Streptococcus mitis (4.7%), Streptococcus cremoris (4.7%), Peptostreptococcus pevotii (4.7%), Prevotella buccae (4.7%), Prevotella intermedia (4.7%), Actinomyces meyeri (4.7%), Actinomyces viscosus (4.7%), Propionibacterium propionicum (4.7%), Bacteroides capillosus (4.7%), Staphylococcus hominis (4.7%), Rothia denticariosa (4.7%), Gemella haemolysans (4.7%), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (4.7%). Results of this study demonstrated that radicular cysts show a great variety of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial flora. It was observed that all isolated microorganisms were the types commonly found in oral flora. Although no specific microorganism was found, Streptococcus spp. bacteria (47.5%) - especially SMG (23.8%) - were predominantly found in the microorganisms isolated. Furthermore, radicular cysts might be polymicrobial originated. Although radicular cyst is an inflammatory cyst, some radicular cyst fluids might be sterile.

  3. Surgical treatment of congenital biliary duct cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang De-chun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is acknowledged that total cyst excision is a safe and ideal surgical treatment for congenital biliary duct cyst, compared to simple internal drainage. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal operation occasion and the effect of laparoscopy on congenital biliary duct cyst based upon total cyst excision. Methods From January 2002 to January 2011, 217 patients were admitted to Southwest Hospital for congenital biliary duct cyst. To determine the optimal surgery occasion, we divided these subjects into three groups, the infant group (age ≤ 3 years, the immaturity group (3 18 years, and then evaluated the feasibility, risk and long-term outcome after surgery in the three groups. To analyze the effect of laparoscopic technique on congenital biliary duct cyst, we divided the patients into the laparoscopy and the open surgery groups. Results Among the three groups, the morbidity from cholangiolithiasis before surgical treatment had obvious discrepancy (p 0.05. Similarly, no significant discrepancy was observed in the morbidity from postoperative complications or long-term postoperative complications (p > 0.05 between the laparoscopic and the open surgery groups. Conclusions We conclude that total cyst excision should be performed as early as possible. The optimal treatment occasion is the infant period, and laparoscopic resection may be a new safe and feasible minimally invasive surgery for this disease.

  4. Isolated Retroperitoneal Hydatid Cyst Invading Splenic Hilum

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    Safak Ozturk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hydatid disease (HD is an infestation that is caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. The liver is affected in approximately two-thirds of patients, the lungs in 25%, and other organs in a small proportion. Primary retroperitoneal hydatid cyst is extremely rare. The most common complaint is abdominal pain; however, the clinical features of HD may be generally dependent on the location of the cyst. Case Presentation. A 43-year-old female was admitted with the complaint of abdominal pain. Her physical examination was normal. Computed tomography (CT revealed a 17 × 11 cm cystic lesion, with a thick and smooth wall that is located among the left liver lobe, diaphragm, spleen, tail of the pancreas, and transverse colon and invading the splenic hilum. Total cystectomy and splenectomy were performed. Pathological examination was reported as cyst hydatid. Discussion. Cysts in the peritoneal cavity are mainly the result of the spontaneous or traumatic rupture of concomitant hepatic cysts or surgical inoculation of a hepatic cyst. Serological tests contribute to diagnosis. In symptomatic and large hydatid peritoneal cysts, surgical resection is the only curative treatment. Total cystectomy is the gold standard. Albendazole or praziquantel is indicated for inoperable and disseminated cases. Percutaneous aspiration, injection, and reaspiration (PAIR technique is another nonsurgical option.

  5. Minocycline hydrochloride sclerotherapy of renal cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Se Kweon; Kweon, Tae Beom; Seong, Hun; Jang, Kyung Jae; Chun, Byung Hee [Dae Dong General Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hack Jin [Pusan National University College of Medicine, pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-15

    To report the effectiveness of Minocin sclerotherapy in the treatment of renal cysts. We performed minocin sclerotherapy to 19 patients with 21 renal cysts composed of 17 cases of solitary renal cyst and three cases of multiple renal cyst and one case of polycystic kidney confirmed by ultrasound and CT. After aspiration of cyst fluid, if the amount was less than 50 ml, 500 mg of minocin was mixed with 3 ml of normal saline, if more than 50 ml, 1000 mg of minocin mixed with 5 ml of normal saline were injected, and each case was followed-up over 3 months by ultrasound. Of all 21 renal cysts, 14 cases were followed-up three months after minocin sclerotherapy. In 12 of 14 case, the size of the cysts decreased by 10% or collapsed completely. Of the remaining two cases, one collapsed after 6 months while the other recurred after 6 months. Three cases were followed up after 20 months and only one of them recurred. 19 of all 21 cases(91%) were cured, and two of 21 cases(9%) were recurred. Pain was the only complaint and four of 10 cases needed analgesics. Sclerotherapy with minocin has low recurrence-rate and low complication, and relatively early high cure-rate.

  6. CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF PALEOCENE TO MIDDLE EOCENE SUCCESSIONS (TERTIARY FLYSCH AUCTT. OF THE NORTHERN APENNINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RITA CATANZARITI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An accurate biostratigraphic study of the Paleocene-middle Eocene calcareous nannofossils was performed on the turbiditic successions that characterize the Northern Apennines Mt. Caio, Farini d’Olmo, Mt. Sporno and Mt. Penice Units, belonging to the “Tertiary Flysch Auctt.” and referable to the External Ligurides. This geologic complex accumulated in a link key area, located between the oceanic Ligure-Piedmontese domain and the Adria continental margin. The reference biostratigraphic scheme used in the study is the recently published calcareous nannofossil biozonation proposed for the Paleogene by Agnini et al. (2014. The obtained biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic data suggest that further investigation is needed to clarify the tectono-sedimentary evolution and to unravel the complex architecture of the External Ligurides.

  7. Calcareous Nannoplankton Response to Surface-Water Acidification Around Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erba, Elisabetta; Bottini, Cinzia; Weissert, Helmut J.; Keller, Christina E.

    2010-07-01

    Ocean acidification induced by atmospheric CO2 may be a major threat to marine ecosystems, particularly to calcareous nannoplankton. We show that, during the Aptian (~120 million years ago) Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a, which resulted from a massive addition of volcanic CO2, the morphological features of calcareous nannofossils traced the biological response to acidified surface waters. We observe the demise of heavily calcified nannoconids and reduced calcite paleofluxes at the beginning of a pre-anoxia calcification crisis. Ephemeral coccolith dwarfism and malformation represent species-specific adjustments to survive lower pH, whereas later, abundance peaks indicate intermittent alkalinity recovery. Deepwater acidification occurred with a delay of 25,000 to 30,000 years. After the dissolution climax, nannoplankton and carbonate recovery developed over ~160,000 years under persisting global dysoxia-anoxia.

  8. 9 CFR 311.25 - Parasites not transmissible to man; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; tapeworm cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. 311.25 Section 311.25 Animals and Animal... cysts in sheep; hydatid cysts; flukes; gid bladder-worms. (a) In the disposal of carcasses, edible... 315 of this subchapter, it shall be condemned. (b) In the case of sheep carcasses affected with...

  9. CT Imaging Findings of Ruptured Ovarian Endometriotic Cysts: Emphasis on the Differential Diagnosis with Ruptured Ovarian Functional Cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Rae [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of abnormal CT findings in patients with surgically proven ruptured endometriotic cysts, as compared with those abnormal CT findings of ruptured ovarian functional cysts. This study included 13 retrospectively identified patients with surgically confirmed ruptured ovarian endometriotic cysts and who had also undergone preoperative CT scanning during the previous seven years. As a comparative group, 25 cases of surgically confirmed ruptured ovarian functional cysts were included. We assessed the morphologic features of the cysts and the ancillary findings based on CT. For the endometriotic cysts, the mean maximum cyst diameter was significantly larger than that of the functional cysts (70.1 mm versus 36.4 mm, respectively, p < 0.05). The endometriotic cysts frequently had a multilocular shape and a thicker cyst wall, as compared to that of functional cysts, and these differences were statistically significant. Among the ancillary findings, endometriotic cysts showed a significantly higher prevalence of loculated ascites, ascites confined to the pelvic cavity without extension to the upper abdomen, and peritoneal strandings and infiltrations (p < 0.05). Although 11 of the 25 cases of functional cysts showed active extravasation of contrast material at the ovarian bleeding site, only one of 13 cases of endometriotic cysts showed active extravasation. The diagnosis of ruptured endometriotic cyst should be suspected for a woman in whom CT reveals the presence of multilocular or bilateral ovarian cysts with a thick wall and loculated ascites confined to the pelvic cavity with pelvic fat infiltrations

  10. Calcareous nannoplankton and benthic foraminiferal assemblages from the Nazare Canyon (Portuguese continental margin): Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C; Oliveira, A; Rodrigues, A [Division of Marine Geology, Portuguese Hydrographic Institute (IH), Rua das Trinas 49, 1249-093 Lisboa (Portugal); Rosa, F [CIACOMAR, Algarve University, Av. 16 de Julho s/n 8700-311 Olhao (Portugal); Cachao, M; Fatela, F [Geology Center and Geology Department, FCUL, Bloco C6, 3o Piso, sala 6.3.57 Campo Grande 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: catarina.guerreiro@hidrografico.pt

    2009-01-01

    Submarine canyons are assumed to play an important role in oceanic/neritic circulation, marine productivity and sedimentary processes, acting as preferential conduits between the littoral and deep oceanic domain. Here we present first results of a comparative micropalaeontological study on calcareous nannoplankton and benthic foraminifera from surface sediments from the surroundings of the upper Nazare Canyon (Portuguese continental margin) and from the shelf north of the canyon. Regardless of the difficulty to distinguish taphonomical from (palaeo)ecological effects in such a complex and still poorly known marine system, the first results suggest that the canyon's hydro-sedimentary dynamic regime act as a prolongation of the shore/inner shelf hydrodynamic conditions towards west, preventing deposition and/or preservation of the smaller and fragile species of calcareous nannoplankton (e.g. E. huxleyi and G. ericsonii) and enhancing the record of the larger and more opportunistic ones (e.g. G. oceanica); and disturbing benthic foraminiferal productivity and/or diversity, or their preservation in the fossil record. Both calcareous nannoplankton and benthic foraminifera are more abundant off the canyon's domain, suggesting that its highly energetic thalweg conditions are probably filtering the fossil record in the sediment. Still, preliminary results suggest that the occurrence of persistent physical phenomena related with the canyon's morphology and proximity to the coast (e.g. solitary internal waves) may be locally promoting favourable conditions for calcareous nannoplankton, as shown by high values of nannoliths, chlorophyll a and 19' hexanoyloxyfucoxantine (unpublished data) north of the canyon's head. It is our goal to test this hypothesis in the near future by (a) studying multicore and surficial sediments from more recent surveys, and (b) calibrating the sediment results with water column data presently in process at the Institute of

  11. The calcar screw in angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmen Hans-Peter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With new minimally-invasive approaches for angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures, the need for the placement of oblique inferomedial screws ('calcar screw' has increasingly been discussed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of calcar screws on secondary loss of reduction and on the occurrence of complications. Methods Patients with a proximal humeral fracture who underwent angular stable plate fixation between 01/2007 and 07/2009 were included. On AP views of the shoulder, the difference in height between humeral head and the proximal end of the plate were determined postoperatively and at follow-up. Additionally, the occurrence of complications was documented. Patients with calcar screws were assigned to group C+, patients without to group C-. Results Follow-up was possible in 60 patients (C+ 6.7 ± 5.6 M/C- 5.0 ± 2.8 M. Humeral head necrosis occurred in 6 (C+, 15.4% and 3 (C-, 14.3% cases. Cut-out of the proximal screws was observed in 3 (C+, 7.7% and 1 (C-, 4.8% cases. In each group, 1 patient showed delayed union. Implant failure or lesions of the axillary nerve were not observed. In 44 patients, true AP and Neer views were available to measure the head-plate distance. There was a significant loss of reduction in group C- (2.56 ± 2.65 mm compared to C+ (0.77 ± 1.44 mm; p = 0.01. Conclusions The placement of calcar screws in the angular stable plate fixation of proximal humeral fractures is associated with less secondary loss of reduction by providing inferomedial support. An increased risk for complications could not be shown.

  12. Contrasting effects of ocean acidification on tropical fleshy and calcareous algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Dorothy Johnson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the heightened awareness of ocean acidification (OA effects on marine organisms, few studies empirically juxtapose biological responses to CO2 manipulations across functionally distinct primary producers, particularly benthic algae. Algal responses to OA may vary because increasing CO2 has the potential to fertilize photosynthesis but impair biomineralization. Using a series of repeated experiments on Palmyra Atoll, simulated OA effects were tested across a suite of ecologically important coral reef algae, including five fleshy and six calcareous species. Growth, calcification and photophysiology were measured for each species independently and metrics were combined from each experiment using a meta-analysis to examine overall trends across functional groups categorized as fleshy, upright calcareous, and crustose coralline algae (CCA. The magnitude of the effect of OA on algal growth response varied by species, but the direction was consistent within functional groups. Exposure to OA conditions generally enhanced growth in fleshy macroalgae, reduced net calcification in upright calcareous algae, and caused net dissolution in CCA. Additionally, three of the five fleshy seaweeds tested became reproductive upon exposure to OA conditions. There was no consistent effect of OA on algal photophysiology. Our study provides experimental evidence to support the hypothesis that OA will reduce the ability of calcareous algae to biomineralize. Further, we show that CO2 enrichment either will stimulate population or somatic growth in some species of fleshy macroalgae. Thus, our results suggest that projected OA conditions may favor non-calcifying algae and influence the relative dominance of fleshy macroalgae on reefs, perpetuating or exacerbating existing shifts in reef community structure.

  13. Contrasting effects of ocean acidification on tropical fleshy and calcareous algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the heightened awareness of ocean acidification (OA) effects on marine organisms, few studies empirically juxtapose biological responses to CO2 manipulations across functionally distinct primary producers, particularly benthic algae. Algal responses to OA may vary because increasing CO2 has the potential to fertilize photosynthesis but impair biomineralization. Using a series of repeated experiments on Palmyra Atoll, simulated OA effects were tested across a suite of ecologically important coral reef algae, including five fleshy and six calcareous species. Growth, calcification and photophysiology were measured for each species independently and metrics were combined from each experiment using a meta-analysis to examine overall trends across functional groups categorized as fleshy, upright calcareous, and crustose coralline algae (CCA). The magnitude of the effect of OA on algal growth response varied by species, but the direction was consistent within functional groups. Exposure to OA conditions generally enhanced growth in fleshy macroalgae, reduced net calcification in upright calcareous algae, and caused net dissolution in CCA. Additionally, three of the five fleshy seaweeds tested became reproductive upon exposure to OA conditions. There was no consistent effect of OA on algal photophysiology. Our study provides experimental evidence to support the hypothesis that OA will reduce the ability of calcareous algae to biomineralize. Further, we show that CO2 enrichment either will stimulate population or somatic growth in some species of fleshy macroalgae. Thus, our results suggest that projected OA conditions may favor non-calcifying algae and influence the relative dominance of fleshy macroalgae on reefs, perpetuating or exacerbating existing shifts in reef community structure. PMID:24918033

  14. Relationships between nutrient composition of flowers and fruit quality in orange trees grown in calcareous soil

    OpenAIRE

    Pestana, M.; Beja, P.; Correia, P. J.; Varennes, Amarilis de; Faria, E. A.

    2005-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted in a commercial orange orchard (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb. cv. ‘Valencia late’ grafted on Citrange Troyer) established on a calcareous soil in the south of Portugal, to investigate if flower analysis could be used to predict fruit quality. In April 1996, during full bloom, flowers were collected from 20 trees. In March 1997 the fruits were harvested and their quality evaluated. This procedure was repeated every year during three years. Principal Compon...

  15. The potential of residues of furfural and biogas as calcareous soil amendments for corn seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunchen; Yan, Zhibin; Qin, Jiahai; Ma, Zhijun; Zhang, Youfu; Zhang, Li

    2016-04-01

    Intensive corn seed production in Northwest of China produced large amounts of furfural residues, which represents higher treatment cost and environmental issue. The broad calcareous soils in the Northwest of China exhibit low organic matter content and high pH, which led to lower fertility and lower productivity. Recycling furfural residues as soil organic and nutrient amendment might be a promising agricultural practice to calcareous soils. A 3-year field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural as a soil amendment on corn seed production on calcareous soil with compared to biogas residues. Soil physical-chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and soil heavy metal concentrations were assessed in the last year after the last application. Corn yield was determined in each year. Furfural residue amendments significantly decreased soil pH and soil bulk density. Furfural residues combined with commercial fertilizers resulted in the greater cumulative on soil organic matter, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, available potassium, and cation exchange capacity than that of biogas residue. Simultaneously, urease, invertase, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase increased even at the higher furfural application rates. Maize seed yield increased even with lower furfural residue application rates. Furfural residues resulted in lower Zn concentration and higher Cd concentration than that of biogas residues. Amendment of furfural residues led to higher soil electrical conductivity (EC) than that of biogas residues. The addition of furfural residues to maize seed production may be considered to be a good strategy for recycling the waste, converting it into a potential resource as organic amendment in arid and semi-arid calcareous soils, and may help to reduce the use of mineral chemical fertilizers in these soils. However, the impact of its application on soil health needs to be established in long-term basis.

  16. Calcareous Nannoplankton From The Turonian-Maastrichtian Sequence East Of El Qusaima, Ne Sinai, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Faris, Mahamoud [محمود فارس

    1992-01-01

    On terms of calcareous nannoplankton, the Turonian-Maastrichtian sequence in the studied area is subdivided into a number of nannoplankton zones. The recorded biozones represent the Turonian, Coniacian, Campanian and Maastrichtian, while the Santonian is missing due to structural activity and/or to stratigraphic hiatus in the investigated succession. The Turonian/Coniacian boundary is defined by the first occurrence of Marthasterites furcatus, and the Campanian/Maastrichtian boundary can b...

  17. Contrasting effects of ocean acidification on tropical fleshy and calcareous algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Maggie Dorothy; Price, Nichole N; Smith, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    Despite the heightened awareness of ocean acidification (OA) effects on marine organisms, few studies empirically juxtapose biological responses to CO2 manipulations across functionally distinct primary producers, particularly benthic algae. Algal responses to OA may vary because increasing CO2 has the potential to fertilize photosynthesis but impair biomineralization. Using a series of repeated experiments on Palmyra Atoll, simulated OA effects were tested across a suite of ecologically important coral reef algae, including five fleshy and six calcareous species. Growth, calcification and photophysiology were measured for each species independently and metrics were combined from each experiment using a meta-analysis to examine overall trends across functional groups categorized as fleshy, upright calcareous, and crustose coralline algae (CCA). The magnitude of the effect of OA on algal growth response varied by species, but the direction was consistent within functional groups. Exposure to OA conditions generally enhanced growth in fleshy macroalgae, reduced net calcification in upright calcareous algae, and caused net dissolution in CCA. Additionally, three of the five fleshy seaweeds tested became reproductive upon exposure to OA conditions. There was no consistent effect of OA on algal photophysiology. Our study provides experimental evidence to support the hypothesis that OA will reduce the ability of calcareous algae to biomineralize. Further, we show that CO2 enrichment either will stimulate population or somatic growth in some species of fleshy macroalgae. Thus, our results suggest that projected OA conditions may favor non-calcifying algae and influence the relative dominance of fleshy macroalgae on reefs, perpetuating or exacerbating existing shifts in reef community structure.

  18. Effect of rotational shepherding on demographic and genetic connectivity of calcareous grassland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Yessica; Boehmer, Hans Juergen; Wagner, Helene H

    2014-04-01

    Response to habitat fragmentation may not be generalized among species, in particular for plant communities with a variety of dispersal traits. Calcareous grasslands are one of the most species-rich habitats in Central Europe, but abandonment of traditional management has caused a dramatic decline of calcareous grassland species. In the Southern Franconian Alb in Germany, reintroduction of rotational shepherding in previously abandoned grasslands has restored species diversity, and it has been suggested that sheep support seed dispersal among grasslands. We tested the effect of rotational shepherding on demographic and genetic connectivity of calcareous grassland specialist plants and whether the response of plant populations to shepherding was limited to species dispersed by animals (zoochory). Specifically, we tested competing dispersal models and source and focal patch properties to explain landscape connectivity with patch-occupancy data of 31 species. We fitted the same connectivity models to patch occupancy and nuclear microsatellite data for the herb Dianthus carthusianorum (Carthusian pink). For 27 species, patch connectivity was explained by dispersal by rotational shepherding regardless of adaptations to zoochory, whereas population size (16% species) and patch area (0% species) of source patches were not important predictors of patch occupancy in most species. [Correction made after online publication, February 25, 2014: Population size and patch area percentages were mistakenly inverted, and have now been fixed.] Microsite diversity of focal patches significantly increased the model variance explained by patch occupancy in 90% of the species. For D. carthusianorum, patch connectivity through rotational shepherding explained both patch occupancy and population genetic diversity. Our results suggest shepherding provides dispersal for multiple plant species regardless of their dispersal adaptations and thus offers a useful approach to restore plant

  19. Multiple giant pilar cyst distributed over the body since childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asilian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichilemmal cyst or pilar cyst is defined as a cyst containing keratin and its breakdown products. It is usually situated on the scalp with a wall resembling external hair root sheath. In this case report we present a 55-year-old man with multiple giant pilar cysts that were distributed over the whole body since childhood. One of the cyst on the chest was transformed to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC.

  20. Simple bone cysts of two brothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Seo Young; An, Chang Hyeon; Choi, Karp Shik [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    17-year-old and 14-year-old brothers were referred for evaluation of the cystic lesions on the mandibular anterior area with no symptoms. Neither their mother nor the brothers could recall any past trauma to those areas. Panoramic and intraoral radiographs revealed moderately defined cystic lesions on their mandibular anterior areas. Biopsies on both lesions revealed simple bone cysts. Hereditary cause or familial history of simple bone cysts could not be found in literature review. This case may have been a coincidence. However, further investigation is needed to find the cause of simple bone cysts occurring in patients those are closely related.

  1. Unusual facet cyst containing struvite and hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grantham, M.; Richmond, B. [Dept. of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This case report describes a patient with severe back pain and radiculopathy. She was found to have a facet cyst within the lumbar spine that appeared to contain calcium on MRI and CT. Upon aspiration the cyst was found to contain calcium ammonium phosphate (struvite) and calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite). Ammonia production in the presence of urease-producing bacteria is responsible for the production of struvite in the human body. We postulate that there was a prior infection of the facet with urease-producing bacteria, thus accounting for the production of the struvite within the facet cyst. (orig.)

  2. Treatment options for intracranial arachnoid cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Anders Vedel; Danielsen, Patricia L; Juhler, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    The best surgical treatment of cerebral arachnoid cysts is yet to be established. Treatment options are shunting, endoscopic fenestration or microsurgical fenestration through craniotomy.Data from 69 patients with cerebral arachnoid cysts treated in our institution between 1997 and 2007 were......-up was 30 months. In the surgical series 79% (n = 45) had a good outcome.We conclude that the surgical treatment of arachnoid cysts has an overall good outcome. In our institution the best results were obtained with microsurgical decompression through craniotomy....

  3. Solid aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotti, Vittoria; Rubini, Corrado; Fioroni, Massimiliano; Piattelli, Adriano

    2004-10-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst is a rare, rapidly expanding, locally destructive, and often misdiagnosed lesion. It accounts for about 1-2% of primary biopsied bone tumours. About 60-70 cases have been reported in the jaws; particularly the molar regions. Eighty percent of patients are under 20 years of age. Aneurysmal bone cyst exists as a primary or secondary lesion. It may be conventional (95%) or solid (5%). The solid variant is more difficult to recognize. The practical importance of aneurysmal bone cyst lies in the fact that it must be differentiated from malignant tumours: mainly with giant cell tumours and teleangiectatic osteosarcoma.

  4. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the frontal sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J H; Newcomer, M T; Murray, A D; Myer, C M

    2001-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts are benign, vascular, cystic osseous tumors. Approximately 2% of all aneurysmal bone cysts are found in the head and neck region, with the most common site being the mandible. We report a case of an aneurysmal bone cyst arising from the frontal sinus in a pediatric patient. The diagnosis was suggested through various radiographic studies, with the final pathologic diagnosis confirmed after tumor excision. Complete en-bloc excision was performed by using a bifrontal craniotomy approach, with immediate reconstruction of the defect by using a split calvarial bone graft.

  5. Corneal epithelial inclusion cyst in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos Carla de Freitas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An unilateral corneal epithelial inclusion cyst in a 7-year-old male Boxer dog is reported. The cyst had been observed for thirty days, was unique, not congenital and only one eye was involved. Seven months prior to the referral the dog had manifested indolent corneal ulcer treated with grade keratotomy and third eyelid flap. The cyst was removed by superficial keratectomy followed by a conjunctival pedicle graft. Recovery was uncomplicated and there wasn?t recurrence seven months after the surgery.

  6. An Unusual Case of Hydatid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Mirhoseini

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydatidosis is a parasitic disease in all over the world which is caused by a Cestode (tape worm. Liver, lung, and brain are the most Common involved organs and involvement of muscles and bones is unusual. We report a 32years old man who had low back and radicular leg pain. He had a paravertebral mass with involvement of Spinal column. This patient was operated with differential diagnosis of tumor or hydatid cyst. The final diagnosis was hydatidosis of paravertebral muscles and vertebral column. Keywords: hydatidosis, p aravertebral muscle hydatid cyst, spinal column hydatid cyst

  7. Fetal goiter and bilateral ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Sundberg, Karin; Juul, Anders

    2008-01-01

    A unique case of fetal goiter accompanied by bilateral ovarian cysts in a mother treated with methimazole for Graves'disease is reported. The abnormal findings were detected by ultrasound at 31 weeks of gestation. Umbilical fetal blood sampling revealed elevated serum TSH, normal concentrations....... The thyroid gland appeared normal in size, and cord blood TSH and free T 4 were both within normal limits. At ultrasound control 6 days later, the right ovarian cyst was not visible, while the left cyst was still present. Thus, our report supports previous findings that fetal goiter can be treated...

  8. Intestinal epidermoid cyst in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhäuser, S; Schaffartzik, A; Tschuor, F; Baeumlin, Y; Kühn, N; Glaus, T

    2015-10-01

    A 3-year-old cat was presented with anorexia and vomiting. Palpation revealed a caudal abdominal mass. Ultrasound and explorative abdominal surgery revealed a cystic mass in the jejunum. Histopathologic findings were consistent with an epidermoid cyst. The cyst was likely of congenital origin, since the cat had not undergone previous abdominal surgery, and gradually grew to reach a size that caused intestinal obstruction. Extrapolating from findings in people, intestinal epidermoid cysts are considered benign with a good long-term prognosis when completely excised.

  9. Laparoscopic management of neonatal ovarian cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oak Sanjay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The first prenatal detection of an ovarian cyst was by Valenti in 1975. Since then antenatal and neonatal ovarian cysts are encountered more frequently due to the improvement of imaging techniques as well as routine antenatal ultrasound scanning. We discuss here the laparoscopic management of three cases of neonatal ovarian cysts. This approach is well tolerated by neonates, and it may overcome the controversy between the ′wait and see′ policy and early surgical intervention, as laparoscopy has both diagnostic and therapeutic value with minimal morbidity, and ovarian salvage whenever possible.

  10. Sacral Tarlov cyst: surgical treatment by clipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantore, Giampaolo; Bistazzoni, Simona; Esposito, Vincenzo; Tola, Serena; Lenzi, Jacopo; Passacantilli, Emiliano; Innocenzi, Gualtiero

    2013-02-01

    This study reports the anatomopathological classification of Tarlov cysts and the various treatment techniques described in the literature. The authors present their patient series (19 cases) with a long follow-up (range 9 months to 25 years) treated by cyst remodeling around the root using titanium clips. The technique is effective in both avoiding cerebrospinal fluid leakage and resolving bladder dysfunction when urinary symptoms are incomplete and discontinuous. The clipping technique for Tarlov cysts is easy, valid, safe, rapid, and effective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Caroli's disease misdiagnosed as hydatid liver cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoglu, M.; Davidson, B. R.

    1991-01-01

    A 27 year old woman who presented with upper abdominal pain was found on ultrasonography to have multiple liver cysts consistent with hydatid disease. Three years previously she had undergone evacuation of multiple infected liver cysts thought to be due to hydatid disease. Computed tomographic scanning supported the diagnosis of hydatid disease affecting the right lobe of the liver. At laparotomy the right lobe contained multiple cysts which were removed by right lobectomy. Histology revealed congenital dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts with fibrosis (Caroli's disease) but no evidence of hydatid disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2057431

  12. INFLUENCE OF SILICEOUS AND CALCAREOUS FLY-ASHES ON PROPERTIES OF CEMENT MORTARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Monika Rutkowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Care of the environment in accordance with the principles of sustainable development introduces the possibility and need for waste recycling. Construction and building industries have the greatest potential for reuse of waste. The article presents the results of investigations of cement mortars – tests of compressive and tensile strength after 28 and 56 days of curing – for normative mortars and mortars containing fly ashes – calcareous and siliceous ash – in their composition. To make the samples, the Portland cement CEM I 32,5 R, 42,5R and natural aggregate with graining of 0–2 mm were used. Concrete with siliceous and calcareous admixtures was made in six lots where the ash was added in the quantity of 2%, 5%, 10% of the cement mass or the 2%, 5%, 10% of cement was replaced by ashes. After the tests, it was stated that the siliceous fly-ash admixture increases the compressive and bending strength in comparison to the mortars with the calcareous ash admixtures.

  13. Bioluminescent response of individual dinoflagellate cells to hydrodynamic stress measured with millisecond resolution in a microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latz, Michael I; Bovard, Michelle; VanDelinder, Virginia; Segre, Enrico; Rohr, Jim; Groisman, Alex

    2008-09-01

    Dinoflagellate bioluminescence serves as a model system for examining mechanosensing by suspended motile unicellular organisms. The response latency, i.e. the delay time between the mechanical stimulus and luminescent response, provides information about the mechanotransduction and signaling process, and must be accurately known for dinoflagellate bioluminescence to be used as a flow visualization tool. This study used a novel microfluidic device to measure the response latency of a large number of individual dinoflagellates with a resolution of a few milliseconds. Suspended cells of several dinoflagellate species approximately 35 microm in diameter were directed through a 200 microm deep channel to a barrier with a 15 microm clearance impassable to the cells. Bioluminescence was stimulated when cells encountered the barrier and experienced an abrupt increase in hydrodynamic drag, and was imaged using high numerical aperture optics and a high-speed low-light video system. The average response latency for Lingulodinium polyedrum strain HJ was 15 ms (N>300 cells) at the three highest flow rates tested, with a minimum latency of 12 ms. Cells produced multiple flashes with an interval as short as 5 ms between individual flashes, suggesting that repeat stimulation involved a subset of the entire intracellular signaling pathway. The mean response latency for the dinoflagellates Pyrodinium bahamense, Alexandrium monilatum and older and newer isolates of L. polyedrum ranged from 15 to 22 ms, similar to the latencies previously determined for larger dinoflagellates with different morphologies, possibly reflecting optimization of dinoflagellate bioluminescence as a rapid anti-predation behavior.

  14. Significance of Plankton Community Structure and Nutrient Availability for the Control of Dinoflagellate Blooms by Parasites: A Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-de-Souza, Catharina; Pecqueur, David; Le Floc’h, Emilie; Mas, Sébastien; Roques, Cécile; Mostajir, Behzad; Vidussi, Franscesca; Velo-Suárez, Lourdes; Sourisseau, Marc; Fouilland, Eric; Guillou, Laure

    2015-01-01

    Dinoflagellate blooms are frequently observed under temporary eutrophication of coastal waters after heavy rains. Growth of these opportunistic microalgae is believed to be promoted by sudden input of nutrients and the absence or inefficiency of their natural enemies, such as grazers and parasites. Here, numerical simulations indicate that increasing nutrient availability not only promotes the formation of dinoflagellate blooms but can also stimulate their control by protozoan parasites. Moreover, high abundance of phytoplankton other than dinoflagellate hosts might have a significant dilution effect on the control of dinoflagellate blooms by parasites, either by resource competition with dinoflagellates (thus limiting the number of hosts available for infection) or by affecting numerical-functional responses of grazers that consume free-living parasite stages. These outcomes indicate that although both dinoflagellates and their protozoan parasites are directly affected by nutrient availability, the efficacy of the parasitic control of dinoflagellate blooms under temporary eutrophication depends strongly on the structure of the plankton community as a whole. PMID:26030411

  15. The Symbiodinium kawagutii genome illuminates dinoflagellate gene expression and coral symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Senjie; Cheng, Shifeng; Song, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are important components of marine ecosystems and essential coral symbionts, yet little is known about their genomes. We report here on the analysis of a high-quality assembly from the 1180-megabase genome of Symbiodinium kawagutii. We annotated protein-coding genes and identified...

  16. Long Term Dinoflagellate Bioluminescence, Chlorophyll, And Their Environmental Correlates In Southern California Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Buchanan, R.J., Seliger, H.H. (1969). Stimulable and spontaneous bioluminescence in the marine dinoflagellates, Pyrodinium bahamense , Gonyaulax...1961). Relative iron requirement of some coastal and off-shore plankton algae. Ecology 42: 444-446. Schwing, F.B., O’Farrell, M., Steger, J

  17. The toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata harbors permanent chloroplasts of cryptomomad prigin, not kleptochloroplasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Lydia; Moestrup, Øjvind; Hansen, Per Juel

    2010-01-01

    Most species belonging to the toxigenic genus Dinophysis have chloroplasts of cryptophyte origin. Whether these chloroplasts are temporarily sequestered from the prey, or permanently established under the control of the dinoflagellate is currently disputed. To investigate this, a culture of Dinop...

  18. Systematics of a kleptoplastidal dinoflagellate, Gymnodinium eucyaneum Hu (Dinophyceae), and its cryptomonad endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Shuang; Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Huan; Cheng, Yingyin; Liu, Guoxiang; Hu, Zhengyu

    2013-01-01

    New specimens of the kleptoplastidal dinoflagellate Gymnodinium eucyaneum Hu were collected in China. We investigated the systematics of the dinoflagellate and the origin of its endosymbiont based on light morphology and phylogenetic analyses using multiple DNA sequences. Cells were dorsoventrally flattened with a sharply acute hypocone and a hemispherical epicone. The confusion between G. eucyaneum and G. acidotum Nygaard still needs to be resolved. We found that the hypocone was conspicuously larger than the epicone in most G. eucyaneum cells, which differed from G. acidotum, but there were a few cells whose hypocone and epicone were of nearly the same size. In addition, there was only one site difference in the partial nuclear LSU rDNA sequences of a sample from Japan given the name G. acidotum and G. eucyaneum in the present study, which suggest that G. eucyaneum may be a synonym of G. acidotum. Spectroscopic analyses and phylogenetic analyses based on nucleomorph SSU rDNA sequences and chloroplast 23 s rDNA sequences suggested that the endosymbiont of G. eucyaneum was derived from Chroomonas (Cryptophyta), and that it was most closely related to C. coerulea Skuja. Moreover, the newly reported kleptoplastidal dinoflagellates G. myriopyrenoides and G. eucyaneum in our study were very similar, and the taxonomy of kleptoplastidal dinoflagellates was discussed.

  19. PhnW-PhnX pathway in dinoflagellates not functional to utilize extracellular phosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong eCui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P is an essential nutrient for marine phytoplankton but its preferred form, dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP, is often limited in the euphotic zone of the ocean. Many phytoplankton species have developed the ability to utilize dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP such as phosphoesters or phosphonates. Phosphonates are characterized by the stable C-P bond and its utilization is known to rely on either a C-P lyase pathway or C–P hydrolase pathways in bacteria. In this study by transcriptomic analysis we detected the genes encoding the C-P hydrolase pathway enzymes PhnW and PhnX in Karlodinium veneficum and other dinoflagellates. However, we found that these dinoflagellates are unable to utilize the presumably dominant type of phosphonate in the ocean, 2-aminoethylphosphonic acid (2-AEP, under the antibiotic-treated condition. In accordance, our RT-qPCR and proteomic analyses of K. veneficum grown on 2-AEP showed no up-regulation of PhnW and PhnX at both transcriptional and translational levels. Nevertheless, the genes related to phosphonate biosynthesis and utilization were widely found in dinoflagellates. Taken together our results suggest that the PhnW-PhnX pathway in dinoflagellates may serve for intracellular phosphonate metabolism instead of scavenging environmental phosphonates.

  20. GROWTH RATES, PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATORS AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF THE RED-TIDE DINOFLAGELLATE, ALEXANDRIUM MONILATUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrium monilatum is a thecate, autotrophic, bioluminescent and chain-forming dinoflagellate. Although it has been known to be associated with red tides and fish kills along the US Gulf of Mexico coast for almost 50 years, little basic physiological information is available f...

  1. Active prey selection in two pelagic copepods feeding on potentially toxic and non-toxic dinoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Mette; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Grazing on two red tide dinoflagellates, the potentially toxic Karenia mikimotoi and the non-toxic Gyrodinium instriatum, was examined in two species of marine copepods, Pseudocalanus elongatus and Temora longicornis. Both copepods cleared K. mikimotoi at rates that were a little lower...

  2. THE RED-TIDE DINOFLAGELLATE, ALEXANDRIUM MONILATUM, SUPPRESSES GROWTH OF MIXED NATURAL PHYTOPLANKTON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrium monilatum is a large, chain-forming, autotrophic dinoflagellate associated with red-tides and fish kills along the US Gulf of Mexico coast. When cultured inocula of A. monilatum were added to nutrient-amended seawater samples, growth rates and biomass yields of the na...

  3. Amphidinolides B4 and B5, Potent Cytotoxic 26-Membered Macrolides from Dinoflagellate Amphidinium Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun’ichi Kobayashi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Two new cytotoxic 26-membered macrolides, amphidinolides B4 (1 and B5 (2, have been isolated from a marine dinoflagellate Amphidinium sp. (strain Y-100, and the structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed analyses of 2D NMR data including 13C−13C correlations.

  4. CO2-dependent carbon isotope fractionation in dinoflagellates relates to their inorganic carbon fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoins, Mirja; Eberlein, Tim; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; Sluijs, Appy; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Rost, Björn

    Carbon isotope fractionation (εp) between the inorganic carbon source and organic matter has been proposed to be a function of pCO2. To understand the CO2-dependency of εp and species-specific differences therein, inorganic carbon fluxes in the four dinoflagellate species Alexandrium fundyense,

  5. A single-cell view of ammonium assimilation in coral–dinoflagellate symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernice, Mathieu; Meibom, Anders; Van Den Heuvel, Annamieke; Kopp, Christophe; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Dove, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Assimilation of inorganic nitrogen from nutrient-poor tropical seas is an essential challenge for the endosymbiosis between reef-building corals and dinoflagellates. Despite the clear evidence that reef-building corals can use ammonium as inorganic nitrogen source, the dynamics and precise roles of host and symbionts in this fundamental process remain unclear. Here, we combine high spatial resolution ion microprobe imaging (NanoSIMS) and pulse-chase isotopic labeling in order to track the dynamics of ammonium incorporation within the intact symbiosis between the reef-building coral Acropora aspera and its dinoflagellate symbionts. We demonstrate that both dinoflagellate and animal cells have the capacity to rapidly fix nitrogen from seawater enriched in ammonium (in less than one hour). Further, by establishing the relative strengths of the capability to assimilate nitrogen for each cell compartment, we infer that dinoflagellate symbionts can fix 14 to 23 times more nitrogen than their coral host cells in response to a sudden pulse of ammonium-enriched seawater. Given the importance of nitrogen in cell maintenance, growth and functioning, the capability to fix ammonium from seawater into the symbiotic system may be a key component of coral nutrition. Interestingly, this metabolic response appears to be triggered rapidly by episodic nitrogen availability. The methods and results presented in this study open up for the exploration of dynamics and spatial patterns associated with metabolic activities and nutritional interactions in a multitude of organisms that live in symbiotic relationships. PMID:22222466

  6. Transport and degradation of a dinoflagellate bloom in permeable sublittoral sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huettel, M.; Cook, P.; Janssen, F.; Lavik, G.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Filtration of planktonic algal cells from the water column into permeable sublittoral sediment and the fate of the cells in the shallow sands were studied during a red tide produced by the dinoflagellate Peridinella catenata at Hel Peninsula/Baltic in May 2004. Advective porewater flows associated

  7. Botryoid odontogenic cyst developing from lateral periodontal cyst: A rare case and review on pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Arora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Botryoid odontogenic cyst (BOC is considered to be a polycystic variant of the lateral periodontal cyst (LPC as the specimen resembled a cluster of grapes. It is a non-inflammatory odontogenic cyst. The BOCs can be unicystic or multicystic. These cysts have potential to extend in the bone and become multilocular and they have a high recurrence rate. Till now, only 73 cases of BOC have been reported. The pathogenesis of BOC is still debatable. We review different pathogenesis proposed for BOC and discuss a rare case of BOC developing from lining of an abnormally large LPC which showed aggressive behaviour in terms of growth and size.

  8. Aneurysmal bone cyst: recent experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Hoon; Suh, Jin Suck [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-12-15

    In 4 patients with aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs), radiologic findings of their conventional x-rays, 99mTc-MDP bone scans and CT scans were reviewed. On CT scans, 3 patients revealed so called 'the fluid-fluid levels'. It must be one of the specific findings which is able to diagnose the ABC. When we performed the ultrasonography in a patient with the ballooning out lesion on right ilium, multiple horizontal echogenic lines were observed in the supine and decubitus position. It could be interpreted as a identical finding to the fluid-fluid levels on CT. Therefore ultrasonography is also one of the specific diagnostic tools to detect the ABC. Transcatheter embolization was beneficial in reducing operation time and blood loss, and in supplying clear operation field.

  9. Activity and diversity of methane-oxidizing bacteria in glacier forefields on siliceous and calcareous bedrock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Nauer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The global methane (CH4 cycle is largely driven by methanogenic archaea and methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB, but little is known about their activity and diversity in pioneer ecosystems. We conducted a field survey in forefields of 13 receding Swiss glaciers on both siliceous and calcareous bedrock to investigate and quantify CH4 turnover based on soil-gas CH4 concentration profiles, and to characterize the MOB community by sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP analysis of pmoA. Methane turnover was fundamentally different in the two bedrock categories. Of the 36 CH4 concentration profiles from siliceous locations, 11 showed atmospheric CH4 consumption at concentrations of ~1–2 μL L−1 with soil-atmosphere CH4 fluxes of –0.14 to –1.1 mg m−2 d−1. Another 11 profiles showed no apparent activity, while the remaining 14 exhibited slightly increased CH4 concentrations of ~2–10 μL L−1 , most likely due to microsite methanogenesis. In contrast, all profiles from calcareous sites suggested a substantial, yet unknown CH4 source below our sampling zone, with soil-gas CH4 concentrations reaching up to 1400 μL L−1. Remarkably, most soils oxidized ~90 % of the deep-soil CH4, resulting in soil-atmosphere fluxes of 0.12 to 31 mg m−2 d−1. MOB showed limited diversity in both siliceous and calcareous forefields: all identified pmoA sequences formed only 5 operational taxonomic units (OTUs at the species level and, with one exception, could be assigned to either Methylocystis or the as-yet-uncultivated Upland Soil Cluster γ (USCγ. The latter dominated T-RFLP patterns of all siliceous and most calcareous samples, while Methylocystis dominated in 4 calcareous samples. Members of Upland Soil

  10. Entomopathogenic fungi-based mechanisms for improved Fe nutrition in sorghum plants grown on calcareous substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya-Díaz, Silvia; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Antonio Rafael; Segura-Fernández, José Manuel; Del Campillo, María Del Carmen; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Although entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are best known for their ability to protect crops against insect pests, they may have other beneficial effects on their host plants. These effects, which include promoting plant growth and conferring resistance against abiotic stresses, have been examined in recent years to acquire a better understanding of them. The primary purposes of the present study were (i) to ascertain in vitro whether three different strains of EPF (viz., Metarhizium, Beauveria and Isaria) would increase the Fe bioavailability in calcareous or non-calcareous media containing various Fe sources (ferrihydrite, hematite and goethite) and (ii) to assess the influence of the EPF inoculation method (seed dressing, soil treatment or leaf spraying) on the extent of the endophytic colonization of sorghum and the improvement in the Fe nutrition of pot-grown sorghum plants on an artificial calcareous substrate. All the EPFs studied were found to increase the Fe availability during the in vitro assay. The most efficient EPF was M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su, which lowered the pH of the calcareous medium, suggesting that it used a different strategy (organic acid release) than the other two fungi that raised the pH of the non-calcareous medium. The three methods used to inoculate sorghum plants with B. bassiana and M. brunneum in the pot experiment led to differences in re-isolation from plant tissues and in the plant height. These three inoculation methods increased the leaf chlorophyll content of young leaves when the Fe deficiency symptoms were most apparent in the control plants (without fungal inoculation) as well as the Fe content of the above-ground biomass in the plants at the end of the experiment. The total root lengths and fine roots were also increased in response to fungal applications with the three inoculation methods. However, the soil treatment was the most efficient method; thus, its effect on the leaf chlorophyll content was the most persistent, and

  11. Entomopathogenic fungi-based mechanisms for improved Fe nutrition in sorghum plants grown on calcareous substrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Raya-Díaz

    Full Text Available Although entomopathogenic fungi (EPF are best known for their ability to protect crops against insect pests, they may have other beneficial effects on their host plants. These effects, which include promoting plant growth and conferring resistance against abiotic stresses, have been examined in recent years to acquire a better understanding of them. The primary purposes of the present study were (i to ascertain in vitro whether three different strains of EPF (viz., Metarhizium, Beauveria and Isaria would increase the Fe bioavailability in calcareous or non-calcareous media containing various Fe sources (ferrihydrite, hematite and goethite and (ii to assess the influence of the EPF inoculation method (seed dressing, soil treatment or leaf spraying on the extent of the endophytic colonization of sorghum and the improvement in the Fe nutrition of pot-grown sorghum plants on an artificial calcareous substrate. All the EPFs studied were found to increase the Fe availability during the in vitro assay. The most efficient EPF was M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su, which lowered the pH of the calcareous medium, suggesting that it used a different strategy (organic acid release than the other two fungi that raised the pH of the non-calcareous medium. The three methods used to inoculate sorghum plants with B. bassiana and M. brunneum in the pot experiment led to differences in re-isolation from plant tissues and in the plant height. These three inoculation methods increased the leaf chlorophyll content of young leaves when the Fe deficiency symptoms were most apparent in the control plants (without fungal inoculation as well as the Fe content of the above-ground biomass in the plants at the end of the experiment. The total root lengths and fine roots were also increased in response to fungal applications with the three inoculation methods. However, the soil treatment was the most efficient method; thus, its effect on the leaf chlorophyll content was the most

  12. Biology of the Marine Heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina: Current Status and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Liu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Heterotrophic dinoflagellates are prevalent protists in marine environments, which play an important role in the carbon cycling and energy flow in the marine planktonic community. Oxyrrhis marina (Dinophyceae, a widespread heterotrophic dinoflagellate, is a model species used for a broad range of ecological, biogeographic, and evolutionary studies. Despite the increasing research effort on this species, there lacks a synthesis of the existing data and a coherent picture of this organism. Here we reviewed the literature to provide an overview of what is known regarding the biology of O. marina, and identify areas where further studies are needed. As an early branch of the dinoflagellate lineage, O. marina shares similarity with typical dinoflagellates in permanent condensed chromosomes, less abundant nucleosome proteins compared to other eukaryotes, multiple gene copies, the occurrence of trans-splicing in nucleus-encoded mRNAs, highly fragmented mitochondrial genome, and disuse of ATG as a start codon for mitochondrial genes. On the other hand, O. marina also exhibits some distinct cytological features (e.g., different flagellar structure, absence of girdle and sulcus or pustules, use of intranuclear spindle in mitosis, presence of nuclear plaque, and absence of birefringent periodic banded chromosomal structure and genetic features (e.g., a single histone-like DNA-associated protein, cob-cox3 gene fusion, 5′ oligo-U cap in the mitochondrial transcripts of protein-coding genes, the absence of mRNA editing, the presence of stop codon in the fused cob-cox3 mRNA produced by post-transcriptional oligoadenylation, and vestigial plastid genes. The best-studied biology of this dinoflagellate is probably the prey and predators types, which include a wide range of organisms. On the other hand, the abundance of this species in the natural waters and its controlling factors, genome organization and gene expression regulation that underlie the unusual

  13. Evaluating the Addition of a Dinoflagellate Phytoplankton Functional Type Using Radiance Anomalies for Monterey Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houskeeper, H. F.; Kudela, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Ocean color sensors have enabled daily, global monitoring of phytoplankton productivity in the world's oceans. However, to observe key structures such as food webs, or to identify regime shifts of dominant species, tools capable of distinguishing between phytoplankton functional types using satellite remote sensing reflectance are necessary. One such tool developed by Alvain et al. (2005), PHYSAT, successfully linked four phytoplankton functional types to chlorophyll-normalized remote sensing spectra, or radiance anomalies, in case-1 waters. Yet this tool was unable to characterize dinoflagellates because of their ubiquitous background presence in the open ocean. We employ a radiance anomaly technique based on PHYSAT to target phytoplankton functional types in Monterey Bay, a region where dinoflagellate populations are larger and more variable than in open ocean waters, and thus where they may be viable targets for satellite remote sensing characterization. We compare with an existing Santa Cruz Wharf photo-pigment time series spanning from 2006 to the present to regionally ground-truth the method's predictions, and we assess its accuracy in characterizing dinoflagellates, a phytoplankton group that impacts the region's fish stocks and water quality. For example, an increase in dinoflagellate abundance beginning in 2005 led to declines in commercially important fish stocks that persisted throughout the following year. Certain species of dinoflagellates in Monterey Bay are also responsible for some of the harmful algal bloom events that negatively impact the shellfish industry. Moving toward better tools to characterize phytoplankton blooms is important for understanding ecosystem shifts, as well as protecting human health in the surrounding areas.

  14. Loktanella spp. Gb03 as an algicidal bacterium, isolated from the culture of Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus belizeanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloh, Anmar Hameed; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Bacteria associated with harmful algal blooms can play a crucial role in regulating algal blooms in the environment. This study aimed at isolating and identifying algicidal bacteria in Dinoflagellate culture and to determine the optimum growth requirement of the algicidal bacteria, Loktanella sp. Gb-03. Materials and Methods: The Dinoflagellate culture used in this study was supplied by Professor Gires Usup's Laboratory, School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia. The culture was used for the isolation of Loktanella sp., using biochemical tests, API 20 ONE kits. The fatty acid content of the isolates and the algicidal activity were further evaluated, and the phenotype was determined through the phylogenetic tree. Results: Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, short rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria (Gb01, Gb02, Gb03, Gb04, Gb05, and Gb06) were isolated from the Dinoflagellate culture. The colonies were pink in color, convex with a smooth surface and entire edge. The optimum growth temperature for the Loktanella sp. Gb03 isolate was determined to be 30°C, in 1% of NaCl and pH7. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the bacterium belonged to the genus Loktanella of the class Alphaproteobacteria and formed a tight cluster with the type strain of Loktanella pyoseonensis (97.0% sequence similarity). Conclusion: On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic data and genetic distinctiveness, strain Gb-03, were placed in the genus Loktanella as the type strain of species. Moreover, it has algicidal activity against seven toxic Dinoflagellate. The algicidal property of the isolated Loktanella is vital, especially where biological control is needed to mitigate algal bloom or targeted Dinoflagellates. PMID:27051199

  15. Loktanella spp. Gb03 as an algicidal bacterium, isolated from the culture of Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus belizeanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anmar Hameed Bloh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Bacteria associated with harmful algal blooms can play a crucial role in regulating algal blooms in the environment. This study aimed at isolating and identifying algicidal bacteria in Dinoflagellate culture and to determine the optimum growth requirement of the algicidal bacteria, Loktanella sp. Gb-03. Materials and Methods: The Dinoflagellate culture used in this study was supplied by Professor Gires Usup’s Laboratory, School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia. The culture was used for the isolation of Loktanella sp., using biochemical tests, API 20 ONE kits. The fatty acid content of the isolates and the algicidal activity were further evaluated, and the phenotype was determined through the phylogenetic tree. Results: Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, short rod-shaped, aerobic bacteria (Gb01, Gb02, Gb03, Gb04, Gb05, and Gb06 were isolated from the Dinoflagellate culture. The colonies were pink in color, convex with a smooth surface and entire edge. The optimum growth temperature for the Loktanella sp. Gb03 isolate was determined to be 30°C, in 1% of NaCl and pH7. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the bacterium belonged to the genus Loktanella of the class Alphaproteobacteria and formed a tight cluster with the type strain of Loktanella pyoseonensis (97.0% sequence similarity. Conclusion: On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic data and genetic distinctiveness, strain Gb-03, were placed in the genus Loktanella as the type strain of species. Moreover, it has algicidal activity against seven toxic Dinoflagellate. The algicidal property of the isolated Loktanella is vital, especially where biological control is needed to mitigate algal bloom or targeted Dinoflagellates.

  16. [Surgical revision and correction of choledochal cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas Márquez, H; López-Neblina, F; Anaya Prado, R; Gutiérrez de la Rosa, J L; Lua, T

    1992-01-01

    Choledochal cyst are a rare congenital abnormality, seldom treated by the General Surgeon. We report six cases of re-operation found on a eighth year period. Six cysts type I, and one type II (Todani's Classification) were found. On five of them, an internal derivation had been performed, in one patient only a celiotomy was performed, and in another one a colecistectomy. Complete resection of the cyst was performed in six cases. In one female patient, this was impossible, because a carcinoma was found, she died postoperatively. We recommend external bile duct drainage for those cases where a complete resection can not be performed. This option alleviates the symptoms, allows morphological studies and do not compromise the final procedure which must be the complete excision of the cyst.

  17. Post-traumatic extensive knee ganglion cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Mahvash

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of a posttraumatic extensive ganglion cyst of the anterolateral thigh with connection to the knee joint is presented. A 54- year-old man presented a palpable mass in the anterolateral region of his right thigh with a 15 months existing sense of fullness and tightness. He had an accident with his bicycle 21 months ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed showing a cyst inside the quadriceps femoris muscle between vastus lateralis and intermedius with connection to recessus suprapatellaris and knee joint. In addition MRI detected a traumatic lesion in the quadriceps femoris tendon in the near of the knee joint. The ganglion cyst was 18 cm long and was excised completely. Intraope - ratively, the knee joint connection was confirmed and excised as well. The ganglion cyst was filled with a gelatinous and viscous fluid.

  18. Infected paratracheal air cyst; A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Jou, Sung Shick; Kim, Young Tong; Han, Jong Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    An air-filled paratracheal cyst is a common radiological finding. It may be a congenital defect or an acquired lesion. 'Acquired paratracheal cyst' is the term given to the acquired abnormalities, which usually arise in adults. They result from a weakness of the tracheal wall, and they may be caused by trauma, infection, high pressure injuries, long lasting tracheostomy, and obstructive tracheal disease. Majority of the paratracheal air cysts are asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally on radiological images. Also, the management is primarily conservative treatment. Here, we report a case of an infected paratracheal air cyst on the right posterolateral wall of the trachea, which developed into an abscess and was visualized on follow-up multidetector computed tomography and was surgically removed due to persistent symptoms.

  19. Floating Vitreous Cyst: Two Clinical Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Lavric

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report two cases of solitary unilateral vitreous cyst. Methods: A complete ocular examination, fundus photography, B-scan ultrasound and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were performed in both patients. Results: The first patient (a 39-year-old man presented with transient blurred vision in the right eye. The second patient (a 78-year-old man reported transient blurred vision in the right eye when changing head position. He was referred to the Eye Hospital because of vitreomacular traction in the other eye. After examination, a diagnosis of vitreous cyst was made in both cases. Conclusions: Vitreous cysts are rare clinical findings. They can occur in normal eyes or in eyes with certain ocular pathologies. When a cyst floats into the visual axis area, it can disturb visual function; therefore, patients usually report transient blurring of vision. A prompt clinical examination is necessary for differentiating this rare condition.

  20. Phaeomycotic cysts caused by Phoma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasoo, Shawn; Yong, Lee Kien; Sultania-Dudani, Priyanka; Scorza, Mary Lou; Sekosan, Marin; Beavis, Kathleen G; Huhn, Gregory D

    2011-08-01

    Phoma species are primarily phytopathogens which have been reported to sporadically cause human disease. We report a patient with phaeohyphomycotic cysts caused by Phoma species, which were initially mistaken for ganglions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Duplication Cyst of the Sigmoid Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Domajnko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old male with developmental delay presented with abdominal pain of two days' duration. He was afebrile and his abdomen was soft with mild diffuse tenderness. There were no peritoneal signs. Plain x-ray demonstrated a large air-filled structure in the right upper quadrant. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a 9×8 cm structure adjacent to the hepatic flexure containing an air-fluid level. It did not contain oral contrast and had no apparent communication with the colon. At operation, the cystic lesion was identified as a duplication cyst of the sigmoid colon that was adherent to the right upper quadrant. The cyst was excised with a segment of the sigmoid colon and a stapled colo-colostomy was performed. Recovery was uneventful. Final pathology was consistent with a duplication cyst of the sigmoid colon. The cyst was attached to the colon but did not communicate with the lumen.

  2. [Congenital medulloblastoma associated with intracranial arachnoid cyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelabert González, Miguel; Serramito-García, Ramón; Liñares Paz, Mercedes; Aran-Echabe, Eduardo; García-Allut, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are very common lesions in paediatric patients, with treatment depending on their location and symptomatology. They are usually solitary cysts but may be associated with other central nervous system diseases such as tumours and congenital deformities. We describe the case of a neonate diagnosed with an arachnoid cyst of the quadrigeminal cistern treated by endoscopy. After the operation, the child's condition worsened; a CT scan revealed a midline posterior fossa tumour not visible in the preoperative neuroradiological tests. The tumour, a medulloblastoma, was partially removed. Given the child's age and the poor prognosis, oncological treatment was not undertaken. The association between medulloblastoma and arachnoid cyst is very rare, and we could find only one such case in the literature. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Appendix mucocele mimicking a complex ovarian cyst

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Demirci, Rojbin Karakoyun; Habibi, Mani; Karakaş, Barış Rafet; Buluş, Hakan; Akkoca, Muzaffer; Öner, Osman Zekai

    2015-01-01

    .... This study describes the case of a 26-year-old female for whom surgical intervention for a complex ovarian cyst was planned, but who instead underwent laparoscopic appendectomy because appendiceal...

  4. Voice Change Due to Paratracheal Air Cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Ju Rhee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Paratracheal air cysts are a rare entity in which cystic formation occurs adjacent to the trachea. Most patients with paratracheal air cysts are asymptomatic, and the cysts are detected incidentally on chest radiograph or computed tomography (CT scan. Most symptomatic patients complain of pulmonary symptoms or repeated r espiratory i nfection. R arely, t he a ir c ysts c an l ead t o paralysis o f the recurrent l aryngeal n erve a s a result of direct compression. We report a case of a 59-year-old male patient who presented with voice change, and the cause was identified as paratracheal air cysts on a chest CT scan. Surgical resection via video- assisted mediastinoscopy was performed, and the voice recovered immediately after the operation.

  5. Vocal Cord Nodules, Polyps, and Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in three forms; nodules, polyps, and cysts. Vocal Cord Nodules (also called Singer's Nodes, Screamer's Nodes) Vocal ... when overuse of the area is stopped. Vocal Cord Polyp A vocal cord polyp typically occurs only ...

  6. Right ventricular hydatid cyst ruptured to pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridoun Sabzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatidosis is rare presentation of body hydatidosis. Incidence of cardiac involvements range from 5% to 5% of patients with hydatid disease. Most common site of hydatid cyst in heart is interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall. Right ventricular free wall involvement by cyst that ruptured to pericardial cavity is very rare presentation of hydatid cyst. Cardiac involvement may have serious consequences such as rupture to blood steam or pericardial cavity. Both the disease and its surgical treatment carry a high complication rate, including rupture leading to cardiac tamponade, anaphylaxis and also death. In the present report, a 43-year-old man with constrictive pericarditis secondary to a pericardial hydatid cyst is described.

  7. Chest wall ectopic synovial bursa cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, P; Filis, C; Pikoulis, E; Varelas, P; Kyrochristos, D; Mihail, S; Bastounis, E

    1999-11-01

    We report an unusual case of chest wall tumor in a 27-year-old patient. A complete resection was accomplished, and the patient had an excellent postoperative course. Histologically, the mass was confirmed to be an ectopic synovial bursa cyst. Although rare, synovial cysts should be considered in any case of a fluctuating chest wall mass. We also discuss the etiology and diagnostic approach of cystic masses of the chest wall.

  8. Aneurysmal bone cyst and other nonneoplastic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, D.C.; McLeod, R.A.

    1982-08-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst is a benign proliferative tumefaction of bone. Histologic similarities indicate a kinship among classic aneurysmal bone cysts, essentially 'solid' proliferative lesions in bones; giant cell reparative granulomas of the jaws, at the base of the skull, and in the small bones of the hands and feet; skeletal lesions of hyperparathyroidism; and even pseudosarcomatous myositis ossificans, proliferative myositis, and proliferative fasciitis.

  9. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the zygomatic bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Yong; Ko, Young-Il; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst is a rare, non-neoplastic lesion that mostly involves the long bone and the spine, and is characterized by its expansile, vascular, and multi-cystic features. Reports of facial bone lesions are rare, and when it occurs, is usually located in the mandible. Herein, this report is aimed to describe a very rare case of an aneurysmal bone cyst in the zygoma with a brief review of the literature.

  10. Multiple parapelvic cysts in Fabry disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Azancot

    2016-05-01

    We present the case of a male Fabry disease patient who manifested no angiokeratoma lesions but presented multiple parapelvic cysts and renal failure. The genetic study revealed an alpha-GLA A gene mutation that had not been recorded in the mutations registry. The de novo mutation was not found in his relatives and it was not transmitted to his offspring. The large number and peculiar appearance of the parapelvic cysts led to the diagnosis.

  11. [Intrasellar arachnoid cyst: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Y; Hayashi, S; Nakai, M; Ryujin, Y; Uematsu, Y; Nakai, K; Itakura, T

    1995-09-01

    Intrasellar arachnoid cyst is very rare. We report a case of intrasellar arachnoid cyst. A 44-year-old male was admitted for evaluation of his headache and visual disturbance on August 6, 1993. Neurological examination revealed bilateral decreased visual acuity and visual field defect. Endocrinological examination showed panhypopituitarism. Other neurological findings were normal. X-ray film of the skull showed a ballooning dilation of the sella turcica with thinning of the sellar floor. CT scan showed a cystic lesion with CSF-density occupied the sella. After intravenous administration of contrast medium, the cyst showed no enhancement. MRI showed the intrasellar mass had the same characteristics as the surrounding subarachnoid space. Bilateral carotid angiographies demonstrated that the carotid siphons were stretched and displaced laterally, and the A1 portions of the anterior cerebral arteries were raised. We made a diagnosis of intrasellar cystic lesion. On August 18, the sella turcica was opened via the transsphenoidal rhinoseptal approach. The cyst contained CSF-like fluid, and a part of the cyst wall was resected. The cavity was filled with Gelfoam and the sellar floor was repaired with bone flap. Postoperatively, the patient's visual disturbance improved, but diabetis insipidus appeared and required hormonal replacement. The patient was discharged on September 27 with improvement of visual acuity and visual field. Histological examination demonstrated that the cyst wall consisted of thick arachnoidal cells with fibrous connective tissue. The arachnoidal cells with oval nuclei was stained with epithelial membrane antigen. Symptoms, signs and radiological findings of intrasellar arachnoid cyst are similar to those of various sellar lesions including pituitary adenoma, craniopharyngioma, empty sella, Rathke's cleft cyst, epidermoid et al.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Ultrasound biomicroscopic analysis of iris cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Aguilar, L; Fuentes-Cataño, C; Pedroza-Seres, M

    2016-02-01

    To describe the ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM) features and complications associated with iris cysts. A retrospective case series. Thirteen patients with iris cysts were identified in a 10 year period study at a ophthalmologic reference Center in Mexico City. The variables included demographic data, ocular and medical history, clinical course, and complications. All patients were examined by UBM, and type, number, location, and acoustic characteristics of cysts were evaluated. Descriptive statistics were performed. Thirteen patients were included (8 men and 5 women). The mean age was 44.5 ± 15.5 years (range 6-70 years). The origin most prevalent was neuroepithelial (92.3%), and 7.7% had stromal cysts. Regarding to location 76.9% were found in the periphery, and 69.2% between meridians II and VI. All cysts showed a moderate to high reflectivity in the wall. Complications were present in 38.5% of cases (15.4% partial angle closure, 15.4% secondary angle closure glaucoma and 7.7% dyscoria). Most cysts are derived from iris pigmented epithelium, with a benign course and a minor rate of complications. The UBM is an indispensable tool that allows us to plan more specific and conservative treatments, with less damage to ocular structures and, therefore, better visual prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Tarlov Cyst Causing Sacral Insufficiency Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Ross C; Gates, Marcus J; Copeland, William; Krauss, William E; Fogelson, Jeremy

    2017-06-01

    Tarlov cysts, also known as perineural cysts, have been described as meningeal dilations of the spinal nerve root sheath between the peri- and endoneurium at the dorsal root ganglion. Most often they are found in the sacrum involving the nerve roots. Normally asymptomatic, they have been reported to present with radiculopathy, paresthesias, and even urinary or bowel dysfunction. Sacral insufficiency has not been a well-documented presentation. The patient is a 38-year-old female who started to develop left low back pain and buttock pain that rapidly progressed into severe pain with some radiation down the posterior aspect of her left leg. There was no recent history of spine or pelvic trauma. These symptoms prompted her initial emergency department evaluation, and imaging demonstrated a large Tarlov cyst with an associated sacral insufficiency fracture. She was noted to have a normal neurological examination notable only for an antalgic gait. She was taken to surgery via a posterior approach and the cyst was identified eccentric to the left. The cyst was fenestrated and the nerve roots identified. Given her large area of bone erosion and insufficiency fractures, fixation of the sacroiliac joints was deemed necessary. Fusion was extended to the L5 vertebral body to buttress the fixation. She tolerated the procedure well and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 3. Tarlov cysts of the sacrum can lead to significant bone erosion and subsequent insufficiency fractures, requiring fenestration and in some cases, complex sacropelvic fixation.

  14. A Pediatric Patient With an Orbital Respiratory Epithelial Cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jason E; Bahrami, Arash; Monteleone, Christina; Pascasio, Judy Mae; Davis, Wellington J

    2017-11-01

    Respiratory epithelial cysts are rare orbital cysts that can arise secondary to choristomatous rests of respiratory epithelium. Approximately 15 congenital cases have been described in the literature, making it a rare disease entity. We present a case of a 14-month-old Middle Eastern male with a right infraorbital respiratory epithelial cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbits revealed a right infraorbital cyst hyperintense on T1-weighted images and followed fluid density on T2-weighted images. This cyst was noted to displace the globe superiorly and inferior rectus muscle laterally. This cyst was excised using a transconjunctival approach. Histologically, the cyst wall was lined by ciliated columnar cells with interspersed mucus-containing cells and ciliated transitional epithelium was present, establishing the diagnosis of respiratory epithelial cyst. To our knowledge, this is the youngest patient with a respiratory epithelial cyst of the orbit reported in the literature.

  15. Long Segment Spinal Dural Cyst: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Tatsuro; Miyaoka, Yoshinari; Ogiwara, Toshihiro; Ito, Kiyoshi; Seguchi, Tatsuya; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2016-04-01

    Spinal meningeal cysts are a rare benign disease that can cause myelopathy. In most cases, spinal meningeal cysts consist of an arachnoid membrane. To the best of our knowledge, few articles have report on intradural spinal meningeal cyst consisting of dura mater. A 58-year-old man presented to our institute with aggravation of clumsy hands and dysesthesia of the feet. Magnetic resonance imaging of the entire spine revealed a cystic lesion compressing the spinal cord posteriorly. Cyst fenestration and placement of the cyst-subarachnoid shunt was performed via an anterior approach. Postoperatively, the histopathologic results revealed that the cyst wall consisted of a dura mater-like membrane. The patient's symptoms resolved without the appearance of any new neurologic deficits. The etiology of spinal meningeal cysts remains unclear. Spinal meningeal cysts consisting of dura mater (spinal dural cysts) are extremely rare. Treatment with only decompression with laminectomy causes enlargement of the dural cyst later. Cyst fenestration and placement of a cyst-subarachnoid shunt for the spinal dural cyst resulted in the resolution of myelopathy and cyst shrinkage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Synchronization of Calcifying Odontogenic Cyst and Aneurysmal Bone Cyst: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanshah Salehinejad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although aneurysmal bone cysts and calcifying odontogenic cysts accompanied with other lesions are reported in the literature, the simultaneous occurrence of these two distinct lesions has not been reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing co-occurrence of these two lesions located in the left mandibular ramusin a 36-year-old woman.

  17. The diagnosis and management of synovial cysts: Efficacy of surgery versus cyst aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Nancy E.; Baisden, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Background: The surgical management of lumbar synovial cysts that have extruded into the spinal canal remains controversial (e.g. decompression with/without fusion). Methods: The neurological presentation, anatomy, pathophysiology, and surgical challenges posed by synovial cysts in the lumbar spine are well known. Neurological complaints typically include unilateral or, more rarely, bilateral radicular complaints, and/or cauda equina syndromes. Anatomically, synovial cysts constitute cystic dilatations of synovial sheaths that directly extrude from facet joints into the spinal canal. Pathophysiologically, these cysts reflect disruption of the facet joints often with accompanying instability, and potentially compromise both the cephalad and caudad nerve roots. Results: Aspiration of lumbar synovial cysts, which are typically gelatinous and non-aspirable, and typically performed by “pain specialists” (e.g. pain management, rehabilitation, radiologists, others) utilizing fluoroscopy or CT-guided aspiration, is associated with 50–100% failure rates. Surgical decompression with/without fusion (as the issue regarding fusion remains unsettled) results in the resolution of back and radicular pain in 91.6–92.5% and 91.1–91.9% of cases, respectively. Conclusions: After a thorough review of the literature, it appears that the treatment with the best outcome for patients with synovial cysts is cyst removal utilizing surgical decompression; the need for attendant fusion remains unsettled. The use of an alternative treatment, percutaneous aspiration of cysts, appears to have a much higher recurrence and failure rate, but may be followed by surgery if warranted. PMID:22905322

  18. Dentigerous cyst associated with a mesiodens: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosough Hosseini, Sepideh; Moradzadeh, Monir; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Ala Aghbali, Amir; Fattahi, Shirin

    2011-01-01

    Dentigerous cysts are the second most common odontogenic cysts after radicular cysts and are most commonly seen in association with third molars and maxillary canines. Only 5% of dentigerous cysts involve supernumerary teeth, of which mesiodens is the most frequent type. This paper presents a case of dentigerous cyst associated with a mesiodens that caused a painless swelling in the upper lip of an 18-year-old female. The patient was treated surgically by enucleation of total cyst and surgical extraction of mesiodens under local anesthesia.

  19. Dentigerous Cyst Associated with a Mesiodens: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Vosough Hosseini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dentigerous cysts are the second most common odontogenic cysts after radicular cysts and are most commonly seen in association with third molars and maxillary canines. Only 5% of dentigerous cysts involve supernumerary teeth, of which mesiodens is the most frequent type. This paper presents a case of dentigerous cyst associated with a mesiodens that caused a painless swelling in the upper lip of an 18-year-old female. The patient was treated surgically by enucleation of total cyst and surgical extraction of mesiodens under local anesthesia.

  20. Isolated Hydatid Cyst of Ankle: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuna Demirdal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid cyst is a zoonotic infection usually caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Hydatid cysts are most often localized in the liver and lungs. Isolated cases of hydatid cyst in soft tissue is very rare. The incidance of isolated soft tissue hydatid cyst is 2.3% in endemic areas. Medical treatment is successful in 30-40% of cases. The first choice of treatment is surgery, especially in atypical localization of hydatid cyst. We aimed to present our patient with ankle hydatid cyst, a rare case in the literature.

  1. Rhodopsin gene expression regulated by the light dark cycle, light spectrum and light intensity in the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shi, Xinguo; Li, Ling; Guo, Chentao; Lin, Xin; Li, Meizhen; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    .... While found in several lineages of dinoflagellates, this gene has not been studied in Prorocentrales species and whether it functionally tunes to light spectra and intensities as in bacteria remains unclear...

  2. Atypic pharyngeal cysts: Thornwaldt's cysts. Quistes faringeos atipicos: Quistes de thornwaldt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno Flores, A.; Fernandez Lattorre, F.; Alos Company, M.J.; Navarro Navarro, M.; Revert Ventura, A.; Prieto Rodriguez, M.

    1994-01-01

    The pathology of the retropharyngeal bursa appears to involve obstruction of the drainage of this space into the cavum. The sign is cyst formation or nonspecific inflammatory pathology. When it presents in the form of cysts located at the typical site, the diagnosis offers no challenge. In cases of complicated cysts of solid appearance, the radiological diagnosis may be uncertain because of the non specificity of the radiological sings. In this article, we present 3 cases of symptomatic pharyngeal cysts of atypical onset. One was associated with a solid intra cavum mass with a small cystic area; the other two cases presented as solid masses of nonspecific heterogeneous aspect. Retrospectively, all 3 cases were pathologically compatible with Thornwaldt's cysts. (Author)

  3. Can Vertical Migrations of Dinoflagellates Explain Observed Bioluminescence Patterns During an Upwelling Event in Monterey Bay, California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    of actual dinoflagellates swimming during the 2003 upwelling event represents a very challenging task and requires knowledge of their initial...Solid vertical lines indicate location of the Ml mooring. profiles derived from the Modular Ocean Data Assimilation System ( MODAS ) [Fox et al, 2002...to avoid strong advection by southward flow along the entrance to the Bay. [28] We want to stress here that the actual dinoflagellates swimming

  4. Spinal neurenteric cyst in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, François-Xavier; Pillard, Paul; Carozzo, Claude; Marchal, Thierry; Seurin, Marie-José; Escriou, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    A 2-year-old female crossbreed dog was presented with progressive ataxia and paraparesis. A T3-L3 spinal lesion was determined by neurological examination. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an ovoid-shaped, well-circumscribed mass affecting the spinal cord at the level of the T9 vertebra. A left hemilaminectomy and a durotomy at the level of T9 allowed discovery of an ovoid deformation of the meninges with a cystic appearance. En bloc removal was performed and appeared to be complete. Pathological analysis showed a voluminous cystic lesion lined by a heterogeneous epithelium. Three types of epithelium were present: a pseudostratified columnar epithelium, a stratified squamous epithelium and a transitional epithelium. Mucus production, the morphology of some cells with microvilli at the apical pole and immunohistochemical assays were highly in favor of an endodermal origin of the cyst. The age of the dog, anamnesis, MRI study and histological findings were consistent with an intradural neurenteric cyst as described in humans. Total surgical removal led to a progressive clinical improvement with no recurrence at 18 months. We report an unusual intradural extramedullary cyst, called a neurenteric cyst, in a 2-year-old female crossbreed dog. This type of cyst is well-known in humans but has never been described in dogs. We propose that neurenteric cysts should be included in the differential diagnoses for tumor-like or cystic intradural lesions in the young dog. Prognosis for this type of cyst seems to be good, as total surgical removal led to a progressive clinical improvement with no recurrence at 18 months.

  5. A different approach to cysts of the posterior fossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Marvin D. [Department of Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital, Los Angeles, University of Southern California, 4650 Sunset Blvd, MS 81, 90027, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Maher, Karima [Radiodiagnosis Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Gilles, Floyd H. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Keck School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital, Los Angeles, University of Southern California, 90027, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Posterior fossa cysts are frequently identified on MR studies. This paper takes a different approach to analyzing these cysts based on the pathology of the cyst wall and the embryology of the hindbrain, choroid plexus, and meninges. The type of cyst depends on the histologic components of the cyst wall. Frequent types of posterior fossa cysts are arachnoid, Blake's pouch, and cysts associated with Dandy Walker malformation. All of these cysts may mimic the others in terms of position of the torcula, vermian abnormalities, and mass effect on the cerebellum and occipital bone. A clue to the nature of the cyst may be the position of the choroid plexus in the fourth ventricle; normal in arachnoid cyst, absent in Dandy Walker malformation, and displaced into the superior cyst wall in Blake's pouch. When the cyst wall histology is not known, it is suggested to use a descriptive term such as ''retrocerebellar cyst''. (orig.)

  6. Species diversity of remnant calcareous grasslands in south eastern Germany depends on litter cover and landscape structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stephanie; Huber, Birgit; Stahl, Silvia; Schmid, Christoph; Reisch, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    Species diversity depends on, often interfering, multiple ecological drivers. Comprehensive approaches are hence needed to understand the mechanisms determining species diversity. In this study, we analysed the impact of vegetation structure, soil properties and fragmentation on the plant species diversity of remnant calcareous grasslands, therefore, in a comparative approach. We determined plant species diversity of 18 calcareous grasslands in south eastern Germany including all species and grassland specialists separately. Furthermore, we analysed the spatial structure of the grasslands as a result of fragmentation during the last 150 years (habitat area, distance to the nearest calcareous grassland and connectivity in 1830 and 2013). We also collected data concerning the vegetation structure (height of the vegetation, cover of bare soil, grass and litter) and the soil properties (content of phosphorous and potassium, ratio of carbon and nitrogen) of the grassland patches. Data were analysed using Bayesian multiple regressions. We observed a habitat loss of nearly 80% and increasing isolation between grasslands since 1830. In the Bayesian multiple regressions the species diversity of the studied grasslands depended negatively on cover of litter and to a lower degree on the distance to the nearest calcareous grassland in 2013, whereas soil properties had no significant impact. Our study supports the observation that vegetation structure, which strongly depends on land use, is often more important for the species richness of calcareous grasslands than fragmentation or soil properties. Even small and isolated grasslands may, therefore, contribute significantly to the conservation of species diversity, when they are still grazed.

  7. Calcareous forest seepages acting as biodiversity hotspots and refugia for woodland snail faunas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsák, Michal; Tajovská, Eva; Horsáková, Veronika

    2017-07-01

    Land-snail species richness has repeatedly been found to increase with the increasing site calcium content and humidity. These two factors, reported as the main drivers of land-snail assemblage diversity, are also among the main habitat characteristics of calcareous seepages. Here we explore local species richness and compositional variation of forest spring-fed patches (i.e. seepages), to test the hypothesis that these habitats might act as biodiversity hotspots and refugia of regional snail faunas. In contrast to treeless spring fens, only little is known about land snail faunas inhabiting forest seepages. Studying 25 isolated calcareous forest seepages, evenly distributed across the White Carpathians Protected Landscape Area (SE Czech Republic), we found that these sites, albeit spatially very limited, can harbour up to 66% of the shelled land-snail species known to occur in this well-explored protected area (in total 83 species). By comparing land snail assemblages of the studied seepages with those occurring in the woodland surroundings of each site as well as those previously sampled in 28 preserved forest sites within the study area, we found the seepages to be among the most species rich sites. Although the numbers of species did not statistically differ among these three systems, we found highly significant differences in species composition. Seepage faunas were composed of many species significantly associated with spring sites, in contrast to the assemblages of both surrounding and preserved forest sites. Our results highly support the hypothesis that calcareous forest seepages might serve as refugia and biodiversity hotspots of regional land snail faunas. Protection of these unique habitats challenges both conservation plans and forest management guidelines as they might act as sources for the recolonization and restoration of forest snail assemblages particularly in areas impoverished by harvesting and clearcutting.

  8. EARLY TO LATE OLIGOCENE CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSIL BIOEVENTS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN (UMBRIA-MARCHE BASIN, CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRIZIA MAIORANO

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcareous nannofossil assemblages have been investigated by means of quantitative analyses in three Oligocene pelagic sections located in the Umbria-Marche Apennines (Central Italy. The studied sections mainly consist of marly limestones and marls belonging to the Scaglia Cinerea Formation, and include the interval between NP23 and NP25 representing a time interval of about 3.5 Ma. Biostratigraphic resolution is extremely low and only two standard bioevents are known, which are the FO of Sphenolithus ciperoensis and the LO of Sphenolithus distentus. The distribution patterns of poorly known or recently described calcareous nannofossils provided a valuable tool for improving the current biostratigraphic framework. The studied interval is characterized by significant changes in the calcareous nannofossil assemblages and by several extinction events. The last occurrence (LO and/or the last common occurrence (LCO here proposed are: the LO of Sphenolithus akropodus, the LO of Reticulofenestra circus, the LCO of Helicosphaera ethologa, the LCO of Helicosphaera compactathe LO of Discoaster tanii nodifer. The reversal in abundance between Sphenolithus predistentus and S. distentus provided an additional biostratigraphic constraint at the NP23-NP24 transition. In addition biometric criteria enabled the recognition of the first common occurrence (FCO of Cyclicargolithus abisectus > 12 mm as potential bioevent within NP24. The quantitative distribution of Sphenolithus distentus suggests to rely on the LCO of the species rather than on the LO, for the identification of NP24-NP25 boundary. The identified bioevents is a first step towards the improvement of the present Mediterranean biostratigraphic framework of the Oligocene geological record. A preliminary correlation of the bioevents to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale is presented.

  9. Potential use of calcareous mudstones in low hydraulic conductivity earthen barriers for environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, T B; Francisca, F M; Musso, T B; Musso, T B

    2013-01-01

    Earthen layers play a significant role in isolating contaminants in the subsurface, controlling the migration of contaminant plumes, and as landfill liners and covers. The physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of three calcareous mudstones from the Jagüel and Roca formations in North Patagonia, Argentina, are evaluated to determine their potential for the construction of liners. These mudstones were deposited in a marine environment in the Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene. The tested specimens mainly comprise silt and clay-sized particles, and their mineralogy is dominated by a smectite/illite mixed layer (70-90% Sm) and calcite in smaller proportion. Powdered mudstone samples have little viscosity and swelling potential when suspended in water. The hydraulic conductivity of compacted mudstones and sand-mudstone mixtures is very low (around 1-3 x 10(-10) m/s) and in good agreement with the expected hydraulic behaviour of compacted earthen layers. This behaviour can be attributed to the large amount of fine particles, high specific surface and the close packing of particles as confirmed by scanning electron microscope analysis. The tested materials also show a high cation exchange capacity (50-70 cmol/kg), indicating a high contaminant retardation capability. The calcareous mudstones show satisfactory mineralogical and chemical properties as well as an adequate hydraulic behaviour, demonstrating the potential use of these materials for the construction of compacted liners for the containment of leachate or as covers in landfills. These findings confirm the potential usage of marine calcareous mudstones as a low-cost geomaterial in environmental engineering projects.

  10. Enhancing phosphorus uptake and yield of wheat with phosphoric acid application in calcareous soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Zafar Ul Haq; Khan, Muhammad Jamal; Akhtar, Muhammad; Sarwar, Tahir; Khan, Mohammad Jamal

    2017-04-01

    Low phosphorus (P) availability to wheat from commercial fertilizers is one of the reasons for lower grain yield and hence justifies search for more efficient P source under alkaline calcareous soils. Phosphoric acid (PA) and diammonium phosphate (DAP), applied through conventional and modified methods, were assessed for P supply and wheat yield in a calcareous soil. Under laboratory conditions, pre-incubated soil with 70 mg P kg(-1) soil as PA and DAP was assessed for solution P (Cp ) for 4 weeks. Phosphorus sorption data were fitted using the Freundlich model for describing analyzed sorption in soil incubated with or without DAP and PA. The fitted model equations exhibited comparatively higher effluxes of P from the solution system in control treatment. Compared to DAP, lower quantities (19.6%) of P for PA-treated soil were required for producing optimum P concentration in soil solution, i.e. 0.2 mg P L(-1) . The greenhouse study involved (32) P tracer technique to quantify the proportion of applied P derived by wheat from fertilizer or soil. The results showed that P derived from fertilizer was highest (47.5%) in PA placement, while the lowest (31.5%) was in DAP broadcast treatment. The field study also showed similar trends to that of the greenhouse study. The PA placement treatment resulted in highest (23.4%) phosphorus use efficiency, whereas the lowest one (17.1%) was recorded for DAP broadcast treatment. PA proved to be a better P source than DAP for improving P content and achieving higher yield and recovery of applied P by wheat grown in alkaline calcareous soils. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Foraminiferans as food for Cephalaspideans (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia), with notes on secondary tests around calcareous foraminiferans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1996-01-01

    species, Ammonia batavus and two agglutinating species, Ammoscalaria pseudospiralis and Ammotium cassis. The test (shell) material of the latter two species was sand grains (quartz). It was inferred that the gastropods avoid agglutinating foraminiferans as food. Many calcareous but not agglutinating...... purposes. It might, in species like Ammonia batavus, have become a kind of antipredatory device or mimicry. A predator might conceive such a species as an agglutinating species and neglect it. The secondary test is a delicate structure in most species and is easily destroyed by the rough sampling...

  12. APTIAN TO CAMPANIAN CALCAREOUS NANNOFOSSILS BIOSTRATIGRAPHY FROM THE BOTTACCIONE SECTION, GUBBIO, CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRIZIO TREMOLADA

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Late Aptian-Campanian biostratigraphic investigations performed on calcareous nannofossils provided a refined stratigraphic resolution  of the Scisti a Fucoidi and Scaglia Formations in the Bottaccione section (Umbria-Marche Basin, Central italy. Additional bioevents such as the Last Occurrence (LO of both Assipetra infracretacea larsonii and Rucinolithus terebrodentarius youngii and the First Occurrences (FOs of Pararhabdolithus achlyostaurion and large Biscutum constans were detected and might be used to refine the Late Aptian-Albian biostratigraphy at low latitudes.   

  13. The calcareous mires in South-East Poland are home to two rare Anthracoidea species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Piątek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The new collections of Anthracoidea buxbaumii Kukkonen on Carex buxbaumii Wahlenb. and Anthracoidea hostianae B.Lindeb. ex Nannf. on Carex lepidocarpa Tausch recorded in the calcareous mires in South-East Poland are described, illustrated and discussed. The holotype of the latter smut is also re-examined, described and illustrated in detail. Anthracoidea buxbaumii is reported for the second time from Poland on a new host plant. Anthracoidea hostianae is new to Poland. The variability of spore sizes of both species is discussed. The conspecificity of Anthracoidea buxbaumii and A. hostianae suggested in the literature is analyzed.

  14. Sinemurian–Pliensbachian calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and organic carbon isotope stratigraphy in the Paris Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peti, Leonie; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Clemence, Marie-Emilie

    2017-01-01

    organic carbon isotope curve based on 385 data points. The main bioevents, i.e. the first occurrences of Parhabdolithus liasicus, Crepidolithus pliensbachensis, Crepidolithus crassus, Mitrolithus lenticularis, Similiscutum cruciulus sensu lato, Lotharingius hauffii, Crepidolithus cavus and Lotharingius...... carbon isotope excursions are identified and defined in the Paris Basin including the well-documented Sinemurian–Pliensbachian boundary event. One positive excursion is further defined in the Pliensbachian interval. Our calibration of high-resolution calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy to ammonite...... biostratigraphy and organic carbon isotopes represents a new stratigraphic reference for the Lower Jurassic series....

  15. Structure and composition of calcareous sponge spicules: a review and comparison to structurally related biominerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethmann, Ingo; Wörheide, Gert

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 19th century, the skeletons of calcareous sponges (Porifera: Calcarea) with their mineralized spicules have been investigated for their morphologies, structures, and mineralogical and organic compositions. These biomineral spicules, up to about 10mm in size, with one to four rays called actines, have various specific shapes and consist mainly of magnesium-calcite: in only one case has an additional phase of stabilized amorphous CaCO3 (ACC) been discovered. The spicules are invariably covered by a thin organic sheath and display a number of intriguing properties. Despite their complex morphologies and rounded surfaces without flat crystal faces they behave largely as single crystal individuals of calcite, and to some degree crystallographic orientation is related to morphology. Despite their single-crystalline nature, most spicules show nearly isotropic fracture behaviour, not typical for calcite crystals, indicating enhanced fracture resistance. These unusual morphological and mechanical properties are the result of their mechanism of growth. Each spicule is formed by specialized cells (sclerocytes) that supply mineral ions or particles associated by organic macromolecules to extracellular cavities, where assembly and crystallization in alignment with an initial seed crystal (nucleus) takes place. As a result of discontinuous mineral deposition, cross-sections of larger spicules display concentric layering that mantles a central calcitic rod. On a smaller scale, the entire spicule displays a 'nano-cluster' structure with crystallographically aligned and putatively semicoherent crystal domains as well as a dispersed organic matrix intercalated between domain boundaries. This ultrastructure dissipates mechanical stress and deflects propagating fractures. Additionally, this nano-cluster construction, probably induced by intercalated organic substances, enables the formation of complex crystal morphologies independent of crystal faces. In this review

  16. Radiologic findings of intraspinal epidural arachnoid cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jeong Kwon; Eun, Choong Ki; Jeon, Young Seup; Lee, Jong Yuk; Lee, Young Joon; Shim, Jae Hong [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soon Seup [Donga Univ. College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of intraspinal epidural arachnoid cyst. Six patients with surgically proven intraspinal epidural arachnoid cyst were included in this study. Four were free of specific past history, but two had a history of trauma. All underwent examination by plain radiogr4aphy, CT-myelography and MRI, and the following aspects were retrospectively analysed:vertebral pressure erosion, interpedicular distance, enlargement of neural foramina, as seen on plain radiograph, contrast-filling and lateral bulging of lesions through neural foramina on CT-myelograph, and signal intensity, size and shape of margin and epidural fat pattern, as seen on MRI. Three of four congenital intraspinal epidural arachnoid cysts were single in the thoracolumbar region, while in the other case, there were multiple cysts in the mid-and lower thoracic regions. Cysts were equivaleut in size to between four and six vertebral bodies. Plain radiographic findings of pedicular pressure erosion, widened interpedicular distance, and bilateral neural foraminal enlargement of several contiguous vertebrae were observed in all four cases. One showed posterior vertebral scalloping. On CT-myelograph, a contrast-filled cystic lesion occupying the posterior epidural space, with lateral bulging through neural foramina and anterior displacement of the contrast-filled thecal sac, was seen. On MRI, longitudinally elongated, well-demarcated cysts were seen to be present in the posterior epidural space;their signal intensity was the same as in CSF. An epidural fat cap pattern enveloping the upper and lower ends of the cysts was apparent in all cases. In two cases, traumatic intraspinal epidural arachnoid cysts were situated in the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral region, respectively, near a previously injured region and were smaller (equivalent to the height of three vertebral bodies). CT-myelograph and MRI showed that their effect on the thecal sac was compressive only. When pressure erosion of

  17. Ruptured intracranial dermoid cyst: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajla Rahimić Čatić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial dermoid cysts are congenital, usually nonmalignant lesions with an incidence of 0.5% of all intracranial tumors. They tend to occur in the midline sellar, parasellar, or frontonasal regions. Although theirnature is benign, dermoid cysts have a high morbidity and mortality risk, especially when rupture occurs. A 40 year old woman presented with head injury after she experienced sudden loss of consciousness. She hada history of headache, loss of consciousness; her past medical history was not remarkable. The patient had no complaints of nausea, vomiting, or seizures. Vital signs were stable, neurologic defi cit was not identifi ed.Computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed right temporobasal zone with fat droplets within right fi ssure Sylvii and interhemispheric fi ssure indicating a rupture of a dermoid cyst. Craniotomy and cyst resection were done, and diagnosis was confirmed with pathological examination following surgery. After surgery the patient did not recover. Cerebral ischemia from chemical meningitis was fatal forour patient. Headache as a symptom has many causes. It is rarely due to chemical meningitis arising from a ruptured dermoid cyst. This case report illustrated the importance of investigating a cause of the headache,CT and MRI being diagnostic methods. In this way, mortality as well as morbidity from complications such as chemical arachnoiditis can be significantly reduced if imaging is done early in these patients.

  18. Percutaneous Ethibloc injection in aneurysmal bone cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, N.K.; Walsh, H.P.J.; Dorgan, J.C.; Bruce, C.E. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom); Carty, H. [Dept. of Radiodiagnosis, Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2000-04-01

    Objective. To investigate whether the injection of Ethibloc into aneurysmal bone cysts can be an effective treatment modality.Design and patients. Ethibloc is an alcoholic solution of zein (corn protein) which has thrombogenic and fibrogenic properties. Ten patients with aneurysmal bone cysts were treated with CT-guided percutaneous injection of Ethibloc into the cyst cavity. Ethibloc injection was the primary treatment in five patients. Four patients had recurrence following previous curettage and bone grafting and one patient had not responded to injection into the lesion of autologous iliac crest bone marrow aspirate. Three patients needed a second injection. The median follow-up was 27 (6-60) months.Results and conclusion. Symptoms were relieved in all patients. At imaging, seven patients had resolution of the lesion and three had partial response at the most recent follow-up. Complications consisted of a local transitory inflammatory reaction in two patients and an aseptic abscess in one patient. This relatively simple, minimally invasive procedure makes an operation unnecessary by stopping the expansion of the cyst and inducing endosteal new bone formation. This technique may be used as the primary management of aneurysmal bone cysts excluding spinal lesions. (orig.)

  19. Percutaneous alcohol sclerotherapy for symptomatic congenital cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chong Soo; Chung, Gyung Ho; Lee, Sang Young; Lee, Jeung Min; Son, Myung Hee; Song, Ho Young; Choi, Ki Chul [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-01-15

    Twenty patients with symptomatic congenital cysts in the liver, kidney, thyroid, and lower neck underwent, ultrasound guided percutaneous aspiration through a drainage catheter with temporary instillation of 95% ethanol into the cyst. Our procedure was based on the method as described by Bean and Rodan(16) in 1985. Additionally, two other steps were added to prevent the dilutional effect of residual cyst fluid. One was the preliminary washing of the cyst with alcohol. The other was to treat with 30% replacement of alcohol every 10 minutes during the treatment secession. Minor complications of transient temperature elevation and haziness occurred, but no major complications were encountered. After the alcohol treatment follow up examinations were performed with computed tomography or ultrasonography at 6 weeks, 6 months, 9 months and 15 months. Although there was diminished size, recurrence was noted in 6 of twenty patients(30%) at 6 weeks and one of twenty patients(5%) at 6 months. There was no recurrence at 9 months and 15 months. The results indicated that percutaneous aspiration and alcohol sclerotherapy are safe and effective therapy for symptomatic congenital cysts.

  20. Postmenopausal Vaginal Endometriotic Cyst: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esengul Turkyilmaz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A seventy-three-year-old patient%u2019s vaginal examination revealed a semi-mobile cystic structure visualised at the middle third portion of the posterior vaginal wall. The cyst was excised and the cyst wall was sent for pathological examination. The histopathological examination of the cyst with CD10 staining and tests for nuclear estrogen receptor positivity and nuclear progesteron receptor positivity revealed that the cyst wall contained endometrial stromal cells, endometrial surface epithelial cells, and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Endometriosis externa was diagnosed based on the above findings. The case we report here, of an isolated vaginal endometriotic cyst, is unique because of its presentation in a postmenopausal woman without any history of infertility, any gynecologic surgery, or hormone replacement therapy. The reasonable explanation for this case might include certain mechanisms such as the self-sustaining existence of endometriotic cells that were implanted during the premenopausal period to the vagina and that maintain local estrogen production. No single hypothesis can explain the pathophysiology of endometriosis, given all of its various forms and presentations.

  1. Spontaneously resolving macular cyst in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe transient macular cysts in an infant and correlate their occurrence with normal development events. A newborn Caucasian girl presented with a protruding corneal mass in her left eye at birth. She underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. A keratinized staphylomatous malformation involving the entire cornea and precluding further visualization of the anterior and posterior segment was observed in the left eye. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT of the right eye performed when the child was approximately 6-week-old had revealed an unexpected finding of macular cysts involving the inner nuclear and outer retinal layers. Corneal transplant in the left eye was performed a month later. Ocular examination under anesthesia just prior to surgery revealed normal intraocular pressure, anterior segment and retina in the right eye. SD-OCT was normal in both eyes and showed complete resolution of the cysts in the right eye. The patient had not been on any medications at that time. Although clinical retinal examination might be unremarkable, SD-OCT may reveal cystic spaces in the macula. In the absence of conditions known to be associated with macular edema, transient macular cysts may arise due to a developmental incompetence of the blood-retinal barrier or may represent transient spaces created during normal migration of retinal cells. Further study is warranted to delineate the entity of transient macular cysts in infancy.

  2. Tarlov cyst: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashad Bhagwat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of sacral perineural cyst presenting with complaints of low back pain with neurological claudication. The patient was treated by laminectomy and excision of the cyst. Tarlov cysts (sacral perineural cysts are nerve root cysts found most commonly in the sacral roots, arising between the covering layer of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The incidence of Tarlov cysts is 5% and most of them are asymptomatic, usually detected as incidental findings on MRI. Symptomatic Tarlov cysts are extremely rare, commonly presenting as sacral or lumbar pain syndromes, sciatica or rarely as cauda equina syndrome. Tarlov cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with these complaints.

  3. X-ray examination in cysts of the maxillary sinuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabukhina, N.A.; Golubeva, G.I.; Olejnikova, T.I.; Rastorguev, Eh.A. (Ministerstvo Zdravookhraneniya RSFSR, Moscow)

    A procedure of X-ray examination in cysts of the maxillary sinuses is considered. A comparative evaluation of the results of radiography and zonography in 185 patients (244 cysts) has shown that from the diagnostic point of view zonography is more effective making it possible to detect a cyst irrespective of its size. False data as to the presence of cysts in straight radiography were obtained in 79.3% of the cases. However zonography alone does not allow one to differentiate between cysts of rhenogenous and odontogenous nature. Supplementary radiographic examination of the upper denture (enlarged panoramic radiography and orthopantomography) in 100 out of 123 patients made it possible to solve the problem of cyst origin. Enlarged panoramic radiography provides more information on the state of the periradical cyst and surrounding osseous tissue as well as the osseous walls of the bottom of the alveolar bay. The ingrowing of the cyst into the maxillary sinus is better revealed in orthopantomograms.

  4. An arachnoid cyst presenting as an intramedullary tumour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, P. W.; van den Bergh, W. M.; Vandertop, W. P.

    2000-01-01

    A case of thoracic intradural extramedullary arachnoid cyst is presented in which an intramedullary low grade glioma was suspected preoperatively. The cyst was widely fenestrated and postoperatively, the patient experienced considerable improvement in her symptoms. As postoperative MRI studies also

  5. Radicular cyst of maxillary primary tooth: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Vijay Chander

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radicular cyst is one of the most common odontogenic cysts of the jaws, but those arising from primary teeth are very rare. This article reports two such rare cases incidentally affecting deciduous maxillary teeth.

  6. Ovarian Cysts and Fertility: Is There a Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is there a link between ovarian cysts and fertility? Answers from Charles Coddington, M.D. Some ovarian cysts can be associated with decreased fertility. However, it depends on the type of ovarian ...

  7. Tarlov cyst: Case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prashad, Bhagwat; Jain, Anil K; Dhammi, Ish K

    2007-10-01

    We describe a case of sacral perineural cyst presenting with complaints of low back pain with neurological claudication. The patient was treated by laminectomy and excision of the cyst. Tarlov cysts (sacral perineural cysts) are nerve root cysts found most commonly in the sacral roots, arising between the covering layer of the perineurium and the endoneurium near the dorsal root ganglion. The incidence of Tarlov cysts is 5% and most of them are asymptomatic, usually detected as incidental findings on MRI. Symptomatic Tarlov cysts are extremely rare, commonly presenting as sacral or lumbar pain syndromes, sciatica or rarely as cauda equina syndrome. Tarlov cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with these complaints.

  8. Feeding, prey selection and prey encounter mechanisms in the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Titelman, J.

    1998-01-01

    by modeling N.scintillans both as a spherical and as a cylindrical collector. The latter model assumes that prey particles are collected on the string of mucus that may form at the tip of the tentacle. Feeding, growth and prey selection experiments all demonstrated that diatoms are cleared at substantially...... higher rates than latex beads and other phytoplankters, particularly dinoflagellates. We propose that diatoms stick more efficiently than latex beads to the mucus of N.scintillans and that dinoflagellates reduce fatal contact behaviorally. We conclude that N.scintillans is an interception feeder.......scintillans is consistent with its spatial and seasonal distribution, which is characterized by persistence in the plankton, blooms in association with high concentrations of diatoms, and surface accumulation during quiescent periods or exponential decline in abundance with depth during periods of turbulent mixing....

  9. The variability in DMSP content and DMSP lyase activity in marine dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Amandine M. N.; Malin, Gill

    2014-01-01

    More than 20 years ago Maureen Keller and co-workers published a study that identified dinoflagellates as an important marine phytoplankton group with respect to the production of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP). Here, we present a synthesis and analysis of all the DMSP and DMSP lyase activity (DLA) measurements currently available for dinoflagellates. The data cover 110 species and strains and reveal over 6 orders of magnitude variability in intracellular DMSP concentrations and substantial variations in DLA in 23 strains. Inter-specific variability was explored with reference to a range of biological characteristics. The presence of a theca did not appear to be related to DMSP concentration but there was a potential relationship with toxicity (P = 0.06) and bioluminescent species produced significantly lower concentrations (P knowledge.

  10. The role of photosynthesis and food uptake for the growth of marine mixotrophic dinoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Juel

    2011-01-01

    phototrophic species, and food uptake marginally increased their growth rates at low irradiances. In the remaining species, food uptake increases to a large degree their growth rate when light is limiting and in some cases even when irradiance is not limiting growth. Some of these species grow relatively fast......Mixotrophy (i.e. combined use of photosynthesis and food uptake for growth) is widespread among marine dinoflagellates. Species with permanent chloroplasts generally display a growth response towards irradiance like an ordinary autotrophic alga. However, some species cannot grow in the light...... at high irradiances without food, while other species only grow slowly or cannot even maintain themselves at high irradiances without food. Dinoflagellates, which form symbioses with endo- and ectosymbionts are a very heterogeneous group, which have been studied only sporadically. Some species are clearly...

  11. Diel Bioluminescence in Heterotrophic and Photosynthetic Marine Dinoflagellates in an Arctic Fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    bioluminescence in the marine dinoflagellates, Pyrodinium bahamense , Gonyaulax palyedra, and SPyrocystis tun ula. Journal of General Physiology, 54, 96-122...Observations ’Ind mcasurements of planktonic bioluminescence in and around a milkv sea. Journal of I xpjerimental Marine’ Biology and Ecology , 119, 55-RI1...parameters fiini a Norwegian fjord Marine Ecology Progress Series, 55, 217-227. I~apta, . & ose , JJ 1984. Observations of bioluminescence in manne

  12. Parameters for Predicting Red Tides of Bioluminescent Dinoflagellates: Meterological Events and Frontal Water Circulation Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    consistent with sequence Ilb, and in Ria de Ares y Betanzos, on the north coast, with IIIb. c. Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum (NW Borneo). The...dinoflagellate species, Pyrodinium bahamense Plate, (recently re-named P. bahamense var. bahamense to differentiate it from the bioluminescent, toxic...Indo-Pacific species P. bahamense var. compressum ), is dominant ill]. Red tides with surface concentrations > 107 cells L-1 are produced by reverse

  13. Epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera in the northwestern coast of Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Gilma Delgado; Lechuga-Devéze, Carlos H.; Genoveva Popowski; Luis Troccoli; Cesar A Salinas

    2014-01-01

    The spatial and temporal abundance of epiphytic dinoflagellates associated with ciguatera was studied over two annual cycles (March 1999 to March 2000 and March 2001 to March 2002) in the northwestern coast of Cuba. From 14 species of macroalgae (Phaeophyta, Chlorophyta, and Rhodophyta), 1340 samples were obtained identifying seven species as potentially noxious; five of them are new reports for Cuba’s phytobenthos: Prorocentrum belizeanum Faust, P. concavum Fukuyo, P. mexicanum Tafall, Cooli...

  14. Associated bacterial flora, growth, and toxicity of cultured benthic dinoflagellates Ostreopsis lenticularis and Gambierdiscus toxicus.

    OpenAIRE

    Tosteson, T. R.; Ballantine, D.L.; Tosteson, C G; Hensley, V; Bardales, A T

    1989-01-01

    The growth, toxicity, and associated bacterial flora of 10 clonal cultures of the toxic benthic dinoflagellates Ostreopsis lenticularis and Gambierdiscus toxicus isolated from the coastal waters of southwest Puerto Rico have been examined. Clonal cultures of O. lenticularis grew more rapidly and at broader temperature ranges than those of G. toxicus. All five Ostreopsis clones were toxic, while only one of the five Gambierdiscus clones was poisonous. The degree of toxicity among poisonous clo...

  15. Associated bacterial flora, growth, and toxicity of cultured benthic dinoflagellates Ostreopsis lenticularis and Gambierdiscus toxicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosteson, T R; Ballantine, D L; Tosteson, C G; Hensley, V; Bardales, A T

    1989-01-01

    The growth, toxicity, and associated bacterial flora of 10 clonal cultures of the toxic benthic dinoflagellates Ostreopsis lenticularis and Gambierdiscus toxicus isolated from the coastal waters of southwest Puerto Rico have been examined. Clonal cultures of O. lenticularis grew more rapidly and at broader temperature ranges than those of G. toxicus. All five Ostreopsis clones were toxic, while only one of the five Gambierdiscus clones was poisonous. The degree of toxicity among poisonous clones was highly variable. The number of associated bacterial genera and their frequency of occurrence were quite variable among clones of both dinoflagellate genera. Bacterial isolates represented six genera (Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, and Moraxella) in addition to coryneform bacteria. Extracts of dinoflagellate-associated bacteria grown in pure culture were not toxic. Gambierdiscus clones were characterized by the frequent presence of Pseudomonas spp. (four of five clones) and the absence of coryneforms. In O. lenticularis, only one of five clones showed the presence of Pseudomonas spp., and Moraxella sp. was absent altogether. Detailed analyses of toxicity and associated microflora in a selected Ostreopsis clone, repeatedly cultivated (four times) over a period of 160 days, showed that peak cell toxicities developed in the late static and early negative culture growth phases. Peak Ostreopsis cell toxicities in the stationary phase of culture growth were correlated with significant increases in the percent total bacteria directly associated with these cells. Changes in the quantity of bacteria directly associated with microalgal cell surfaces and extracellular matrices during culture growth may be related to variability and degree of toxicity in these laboratory-cultured benthic dinoflagellates.

  16. The effect of elevated temperature on the toxicity of the laboratory cultured dinoflagellate Ostreopsis lenticularis (Dinophyceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ashton, Mayra; Tosteson, Thomas; Tosteson, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Ostreopsis lenticularis Fukuyo 1981, is the major benthic dinoflagellate vector implicated in ciguatera fish poisoning in finfish on the southwest coast of Puerto Rico. Clonal laboratory cultures of O. lenticularis (clone 301) exposed to elevated temperatures (30-31°C) for 33 and 54 days showed significant increases in the quantity of ex-tractable toxin they produced as compared to their toxicities versus cells grown at temperatures of 25-26°C. O. lenticularis samples collected directly from ...

  17. Cell-specific extracellular phosphatase activity of dinoflagellate populations in acidified mountain lakes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotná, J.; Nedbalová, Linda; Kopáček, Jiří; Vrba, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 4 (2010), s. 635-644 ISSN 0022-3646 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600170602; GA ČR GA206/07/1200 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : extracellular phosphatases * acidified lakes * dinoflagellates Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.239, year: 2010

  18. The dinoflagellates Durinskia baltica and Kryptoperidinium foliaceum retain functionally overlapping mitochondria from two evolutionarily distinct lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeling Patrick J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abtract Background The dinoflagellates Durinskia baltica and Kryptoperidinium foliaceum are distinguished by the presence of a tertiary plastid derived from a diatom endosymbiont. The diatom is fully integrated with the host cell cycle and is so altered in structure as to be difficult to recognize it as a diatom, and yet it retains a number of features normally lost in tertiary and secondary endosymbionts, most notably mitochondria. The dinoflagellate host is also reported to retain mitochondrion-like structures, making these cells unique in retaining two evolutionarily distinct mitochondria. This redundancy raises the question of whether the organelles share any functions in common or have distributed functions between them. Results We show that both host and endosymbiont mitochondrial genomes encode genes for electron transport proteins. We have characterized cytochrome c oxidase 1 (cox1, cytochrome oxidase 2 (cox2, cytochrome oxidase 3 (cox3, cytochrome b (cob, and large subunit of ribosomal RNA (LSUrRNA of endosymbiont mitochondrial ancestry, and cox1 and cob of host mitochondrial ancestry. We show that all genes are transcribed and that those ascribed to the host mitochondrial genome are extensively edited at the RNA level, as expected for a dinoflagellate mitochondrion-encoded gene. We also found evidence for extensive recombination in the host mitochondrial genes and that recombination products are also transcribed, as expected for a dinoflagellate. Conclusion Durinskia baltica and K. foliaceum retain two mitochondria from evolutionarily distinct lineages, and the functions of these organelles are at least partially overlapping, since both express genes for proteins in electron transport.

  19. Distribution of diatom Pseudo-nitzschia and dinoflagellates of Dinophysis spp along coast off Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alkawri, A.A.S.; Ramaiah, N.

    , 32 (1) 65-70 (2011) © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India) For personal use only Free paper downloaded from: www. jeb. co. in commercial distribution of this copy is illegal Journal of Environmental Biology circleshadowdwnJanuary 2011circleshadowdwn... attain high cell numbers. It is reasonable for us to therefore caution that the toxic species do prevail in these waters. Key words Toxic phytoplankton, Diatom, Dinoflagellates, West coast of India Publication Data Paper received: 07 December 2009...

  20. Bilateral impacted inverted mesiodens associated with dentigerous cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byatnal, Aditi Amit; Byatnal, Amit; Singh, Ankur; Narayanaswamy, Venkadasalapathi; Radhakrishnan, Raghu

    2013-10-01

    Mesiodens, the most common type of supernumerary tooth, usually results in malocclusion, poor esthetics and cyst formation. The occurrence of a dentigerous cyst around the crown of an unerupted supernumerary tooth is infrequent. We present a case of a dentigerous cyst associated with a nonsyndromic bilateral impacted inverted supernumerary tooth in a 13-year-old boy. A thorough clinical workup, including 3-D reconstruction image and histological examination confirming the features of a dentigerous cyst is presented in this report.