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Sample records for cairo wwr-s reactor

  1. Safety report on WWR-S reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present Safety Report of the WWR-S reactor summarizes findings obtained during the trial and partially also permanent operation of the reactor after two stages of its reconstruction implemented between 1974 and 1976. Most data are presented necessary for assessing probable risks of possible accident conditions whose consequences pose health hazards to individuals of the population, radiation personnel and the facilities themselves. Attention is devoted to the description of the locality, to components and systems, heat removal from the core, design aspects, the quality of new and old parts of the technological circuits, the systems of protection and control, the emergency core cooling system, the problems of radiation safety, and to the safety analyses of the abnormal states envisaged. The Report was compiled with regard to IAEA and CMEA recommendations concerning safe operation of research reactors and to the recommendations and binding decisions of the Czechoslovak Atomic Energy Commission. (author)

  2. First stage of the WWR-S reactor reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical development of the WWR-S reactor from its start-up in 1957 up to the present time is briefly described. The targets of the first stage of the facility reconstruction are formulated. This stage was accomplished in 1974. Attention is devoted to the description of refuelling and to some design details of the reactor core, of the control and protection system and finally to the experience with and the results of the reactor physical start-up. The volume of work carried out and described creates the pre-conditions for the successful materialization of the second stage of the reconstruction aimed at increasing of the reactor thermal output to 10 MW. (author)

  3. Safe decommissioning of WWR-S Romania research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WWR-S Romania research reactor was operated between 1957-1997, at 2 MW nominal power, for research and radioisotope production. The detailed decommissioning plan was developed between 1995-1998, in the frame of the International Atomic Energy Agency technical assistance project ROM/9/017. The proposed strategy agreed by the counterpart as well as international experts was a 2-stage plan (in IAEA definition). In 1997, an independent analysis performed by European Commission experts, in the frame of PHARE project PH/04.1/1994 dedicated to the 'Study of Soviet Design Research Reactors' had consolidated the development of the project emphasizing technical option of safe management for radioactive wastes and WWR-S spent fuel. The paper presents the main technical aspects as well as those of social impact, which lead to establishing of strategy for safe management of decommissioning. Technical analysis of WWR-S reactor and associated radwaste facilities (Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant - Magurele and National Repository Baita - Bihor) proved the possibility of classical method utilization for nuclear facility dismantling, treatment-conditioning-disposal of the arising wastes in safe conditions. The 2-stage IAEA decommissioning plan has been developed based on radiological safety assessment, evaluation of radwaste inventory (removed as well as preserved on site), cost analysis and environmental impact. Technical data were provided by R and D program including neutron calculation and experiments, radiological characterization (for facility and its influenced area), seismic analysis and environmental balance during the operation and after reactor shut down. A special chapter is dedicated to regulatory issues concerning development of decommissioning under nuclear safety. Based on the Fundamental Norms of Radiological Safety, Regulatory Body defined the clearance levels and safety criteria for the process. The development of National Norms for decommissioning of research

  4. WWR-S IFIN - HH research reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the issues referring to the decommissioning of WWR-S research reactor, built in 1957 and shut down at the end of 1997. There are given: - General data; - Reactor characteristics; - Radioactive inventory in spent fuel (calculated at the and of 1999); - Radioactive inventory due to the neutron activation; - Results of contamination measurements for reactor components as well as technological areas; - The commissioning strategy development under international projects. There is also presented the list of components which will not be dismantled according to the established strategy. The radioactive waste arose in decommissioning are categorized as: - Wastes from dismantling of the primary circuit; - Historical wastes from research as well as reactor operation; Wastes from dismantling of control-command system; Wastes from dismantling of hot cells. Except for radwastes from reactor internals which are due to neutron activation, all the wastes are resulting from radioactive contamination. Other issues discussed are related to the treatment, conditioning and radwaste storage.The cost evaluation, planning of decommissioning as well as the funding arrangements are also given in this contribution. The documentation which can be used in the process is divided in two parts, one already worked out and the other which is to be developed. The management of the project and the relationships with civil society as beneficiary of the decommissioning of obsolete risky facilities are considered important. Romanian Government supported R-D works referring to this objective by: Funding from state - Budget of research for defining the decommissioning strategy, for developing the computational methods as well as for radiological characterization of facilities, waste routes and influence area; - Great support for international cooperation (IAEA Vienna, PHARE, bilateral agreements), by TAP ROM/9/017, ROM/9/017/EXTENDED, PH04.1/1994. A special place in the development of

  5. Technical glasses: electrical properties and behaviour in nuclear reactor WWR-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of SIMAX, SIAL, PN, UNIHOST, KS-80 and KS-90 were irradiated in a WWR-S reactor and their electric conductivity was studied. A decrease in conductivity was found following the irradiation with thermal neutron fluence of 2.0x1023 n.m-2, which is characteristic of the individual types of glass. In the reactor channel heat generation was compared for glass containing boron (SIMAX, SUPREMAX) and boron-free glass (UNIHOST). Boron-free glass showed an increase within the limits of the temperature measurement error while both borosilicate types of glass showed a local increase of temperature of 39 K and 33 K, respectively, at temperatures of 350 to 390 degC. (author)

  6. Decommissioning of the nuclear research reactor WWR-S at Magurele-Bucharest, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WWR-S Nuclear Research Reactor of Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering at Magurele-Bucharest will be decommissioned. The strategy selected was the immediate dismantling. 2010 was the first year of the project. Duration of the decommissioning project will be 11 years. Three phases of decommissioning will be necessary for finalizing the entire project. In the first 4 years the planning is to repatriate to Russian Federation all the low enriched uranium nuclear fuel of type EK-10 irradiated assemblies, while in the framework of US Department of Energy - National Nuclear Security Administration Program concerning the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return - RRRFR, all the highly enriched uranium spent fuel assemblies of type C-36 were repatriated from Magurele site to Russian Federation in June 2009. Also, in the first three years of the project, the Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant located at the same site as the WWR-S research reactor, will be up-graded to ensure the proper processing of the materials resulted from decommissioning activities. For executing the Dismantling and Decontamination activities there were selected, as best option, the participation the members team of operators and engineers from research reactor. End state of the decommissioning project will be reutilization of the buildings for sitting a new electron linear accelerator with maximum 10 MeV energy used in material sciences studies and applications. Commercial equipment obtained during deployment the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project (2004-2008), technical cooperation project with US Argonne National Laboratory (2003-2007), EU PHARE project (2008-2009), US RRRFR program (2004-2009) and national projects will be used in decommissioning project. Good practices in planning, organization, funding and logistics will be described in the paper. (authors)

  7. Dose rate time evolution for the activities of WWR-S IFIN - HH reactor internal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results of a work, carried out under IAEA Vienna contract, aiming at getting information concerning the working conditions of the personnel involved in decommissioning and the decommissioning variant to be chosen. According to the decommissioning strategy for the WWR-S IFIN - HH reactor, the most of the reactor tank will remain on place except for some internal components which have to be extracted and disposed. Time behaviour of the dose rates for the reactor internal components is evaluated by means of the code MERCURE-3. The gamma activity was computed by means of ORIGEN code by using a neutron flux obtained from a 2-D calculation carried out with the TWOTRAN program. The reactor irradiation history as well as the 100 days, 6, 10, 25 and 50 years spans after reactor shutdown were taken into account. For the internal components situated near the horizontal channels and thermal column a reference system located at the component position was used in calculation. For large components like reactor vessels, iron and concrete shieldings, corrections were introduced to account for the influence of horizontal channels and thermal column. On the other hand for these latter components a sophisticated algorithm, correcting for photon sources was created. In order to obtain a configuration as real as possible detailed computation models were conceived using the point kernel method. Time dependences of the dose rates resulting from the computation of components' areas namely for surface area + 20 cm, + 100 cm, + 200 cm, + 800 cm, + 1000 cm are presented. The dose rates corresponding for the whole reactor vessel assembly show a rapid decrease in the first six years followed by a steep exponential decrease, while after six years a simple exponential decay remains due mainly to the predominant radioactive isotope 63 Ni. Measurement values for components from other WWR-S decommissioned reactors appear to be an order of magnitude lower than the values

  8. Preliminary decommissioning plan for research reactor WWR-S, Bucharest, Magurele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary plan for WWR-S Bucharest reactor decommissioning was developed in the frame of Technical Assistance Project ROM/9/017, sustained by IAEA Vienna. This plan takes into account the IAEA recommendations and is built on the decommissioning methodology usually adopted in European Union. The plan is based on the research activity of our laboratory, the works performed together with international experts and the expertise knowledge acquired during the visits abroad and fellowships. Also, the plan contains the results of the PHARE Project PH 04.1/1994 referring to safety, health physics, management of wastes and spent fuel. We developed: - a calculation system for radioactive inventory; - methods for determination of impurities in structural materials of the reactor; - methods for radiological characterization of the technological areas of the reactor; - mapping methods for environmental characterization on the waste routes; - method for evaluation of the in-deep contamination for concrete used in the reactor. A cost analysis code was implemented in order to perform an estimation of the funds necessary for development of the project. Activities related with the decommissioning plan of this reactor have been developed in a cooperation with VKTA Rossendorf, Germany covering the following topics: - health physics and environmental surveillance; - spent fuel management; - wastes arising from decommissioning; - intercomparison of calculation methods. (author)

  9. The Waste Management Plan integration into Decommissioning Plan of the WWR-S research reactor from Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the progress of the Radioactive Waste Management Plan which accompanies the Decommissioning Plan for research reactor WWR-S located in Magurele, Ilfov, near Bucharest, Romania. The new variant of the Decommissioning Plan was elaborated taking into account the IAEA recommendation concerning radioactive waste management. A new feasibility study for WWR-S decommissioning was also developed. The preferred safe management strategy for radioactive wastes produced by reactor decommissioning is outlined. The strategy must account for reactor decommissioning, as well as rehabilitation of the existing Radioactive Waste Treatment Plant and the upgrade of the Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at Baita-Bihor. Furthermore, the final rehabilitation of the laboratories and reusing of cleaned reactor building is envisaged. An inventory of each type of radioactive waste is presented. The proposed waste management strategy is selected in accordance with the IAEA assistance. Environmental concerns are part of the radioactive waste management strategy. (authors)

  10. The structure of decommissioning plan for WWR-S research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WWR-S IPNE reactor, situated in the village Magurele near Bucharest, has been put in operation at the 27th of July, 1957 and it was continuously operated without major events, up to present moments. During this period there were not made any modifications concerning the core and main circuits. The reactor operates with the original equipment and control instrumentation supplied by Soviets. The reactor is designed and built at the scientific and technological level of 50's. During the life-cycle of a nuclear facility, decommissioning is a definite phase which begins with the final closure of the facility and ends with the release of the site for unrestricted use. Regardless of why a facility is permanently shut down, the three commonly accepted stages in the decommissioning process are: - Stage 1, or storage under surveillance; - Stage 2, or restricted site use; - Stage 3, or unrestricted site use. In view of the present situation the recommendation of the IAEA Experts on strategy is: decommissioning to Stage 2 as a preferable and viable option. When reliable cost estimates and more complete radiological characterization are available, the strategy shall be reviewed because early decommissioning to the Stage 3 must not be entirely excluded. There is no obvious reasons to defer Stage 3 other than costs and waste management capability. (authors)

  11. Reconstruction of the WWR-S reactor. I. Switch-over to IRTM fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The findings are briefly reviewed gained in the first stage of the WWR-S reactor reconstruction aimed at achieving a thermal output of 1O MW. The principle of the reconstruction consists in the use of a new type of fuel, IRT-M, in place of EK-10 used so far. The new fuel assembly consists of four fuel elements in the shape of rectangular cross-section concentric tubes having a wall thickness of 2 mm, the kernel consists of a uranium-aluminium alloy with 80% U 235 enrichment. With this type of fuel, the reactor core has high reactivity excess in spite of a relatively small number of fuel assemblies used (26 pcs) and may operate at high thermal load, which permits obtaining high neutron flux, i.e., 1014 n/cm2s for thermal neutrons. The number of regulating rods has been increased from 9 to 12, the reactor control and protection system has been entirely reconstructed and other necessary adaptations of the core have been made. During physical start-up criticality was verified of various core configurations, such as a configuration featuring a light-water moderator and a central beryllium neutron absorber, a compact configuration with a light-water moderator and an operating configuration with a light-water reflector and 4 loop channels in the peripheral region. In all these cases critical mass and reactivity excess was determined. So far, the reactor achieves an output of 2 MW; in stage two of the reconstruction, heat removal from the reactor including the emergency core cooling system is to be solved. (Z.M.)

  12. Decommissioning of research nuclear reactor WWR-S Bucharest. Analysis, justification and selection of decommissioning strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of Research Nuclear Reactor WWR-S Bucharest involves the removal of the radioactive and hazardous materials to enable the facility to be released and not represent a further risk to human health and the environment. The National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering has overall responsibilities in decommissioning including actions of contractors, submit a decommissioning plan to the regulatory body for approval and no decommissioning activities shall begin without the appropriate approval of the regulatory body. A very important aspect of decommissioning is analysis, justification and selection of decommissioning strategy. There are three strategies: Immediate Dismantling, Safe Enclosure, and Entombment. These strategies have been analyzed taking into account: - Future use of site and facilities; - Infrastructure of the specific site and facilities; - Waste storage and disposal options; - Financial aspects; - Geographical Location; - National, Local and International Legislation; - Facility characterization; Identification of decommissioning objectives; - Description of alternatives: scope, features, specific end points, release criteria, risks and safety issues, effectiveness, feasibility, nature and amount of waste of generated and disposal plans, material recycling/reusing opportunities, cost, schedule, comparative analysis; - Rationale for selecting the preferred alternative. (authors)

  13. Decommissioning of the research nuclear reactor WWR-S Magurele - Bucharest. General presentation of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decommissioning project was worked out concerning the nuclear facility research reactor WWR-S Magurele-Bucharest to remove the radioactive and hazardous materials and so to exclude any risk for human health and environment. The project involves the four phases named assessment, development, operations and closeout. There are two major parts to the assesment phase: preliminary characterisation and the review and decision-making process. Characterisation is needed to develop project baseline data, which should include sufficient chemical, physical, and radiological characterisation to meet planning needs. Based on the conclusions of these studies, possible decommissioning alternative will be analyzed and: the best alternative chosen, final goal identified, risk assessments are evaluated. Also, taken into account are: regulations supporting assessment, land use considerations, financial concerns, disposal availability, public involvement, technology developments. After a decommissioning alternative was chosen, detailed engineering will begin following appropriate regulatory guidance. The plan will include characterisation information, namely: review of decommissioning alternatives; justification for the selected alternative; provision for regulatory compliance; predictions of personnel exposure, radioactive waste volume, and cost. Other activities are: scheduling, preparation for decommissioning operations; coordination, documentation, characterization report, feasibility studies, Decommissioning Plan, project daily report, radiological survey, airborne sampling records, termination survey of the site. The operations imply: identification and sequencing the operations on contaminated materials, storing on site the wastes, awaiting processing or disposal, and packaging of materials for transport to processing or disposal facilities.The key operations are: worker protection, health and safety program, review of planing work, work area assessment, work area controls

  14. Stage of decommissioning of the WWR-S research nuclear reactor at Magurele-Bucharest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A decommissioning project is performed on the nuclear facility research reactor WWR-S Magurele-Bucharest to remove the radioactive and hazardous materials to avoid any risk to human health and the environment. The project involves four phases, namely: assessment, development, activity implementation and closeout. There are two major parts of the assesment phase: preliminary characterisation and the review and decision-making process. Characterisation is needed to develop project baseline data, which should include sufficient chemical, physical, and radiological characterisation to meet planning needs. Based on the conclusions of these studies, possible decommissioning alternatives will be considered, the best alternative chosen, final goal identified, risk assessments evaluated, and issues of regulations supporting assessment, land use considerations, financial problems, disposal availability, public involvement, and technology developments will be appropriately solved. After a decommissioning alternative is chosen, detailed engineering will begin following appropriate regulatory guidance. The plan requires characterisation information, namely: review of decommissioning alternatives; justification for the selected alternative; provision for regulatory compliance; predictions of personnel exposure, radioactive waste volume, and cost. Other activities are the following: scheduling, preparation for decommissioning operations, coordination, documentation, characterization, report, feasibility studies, Decommissioning Plan, project report day to day, radiological survey, airborne sampling records, termination survey of the site. Key concerns in operations are worker protection, health and safety program, review of planing work, work area assessment, work area controls, personal protection and monitoring, environmental protection: air quality, surface water, ground water, shipments, effluent sampling and monitoring, environmental monitoring, site release

  15. Personnel training program for WWR-S Nuclear Research Reactor - on the radiological characterization and cleanup activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this program is the development of competence by training, acquiring, extending and maintaining competence, using fundamental or refreshment training courses. Progress and suited approach are established based on the list with tasks and subjects to be assimilated. According to 'graded approach to training' method the training process will be assessed from initial training-to-training evaluation at the working place. The program responsible of and participants will provide a detailed report that will describe the progress, achieved competence area and the future training necessities. Report form will be given to the participants at the beginning of the training, which will be completed during the program. It will be taken in account that the Nuclear Reactor WWR-S is in the conservation phase for the Nuclear Reactor and the exploitation of the Nuclear Spent Fuel Ponds (Away from Reactor-AFR) - both phases are authorized by the Regulatory Body (CNCAN), as transition phase from the operating-shut-down-conservation phase and the decommissioning preparing: clean-up, maintaining and improvement of the nuclear safety, technical documentation elaboration, maintenance activities. (authors)

  16. Study of the WWR-S-NIPNE-HH reactor main components state, after 40 years working, using non-destructive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of periodical inspections and verifications of the nuclear research reactor WWR-S were established to be perform some tests and investigations destined to ensure that there are available concordances with the security requirements and that the security state of the reactor didn't decrease given the initial state. Their aim is to obtain information regarding the technical state and the ability of the components, systems and installations to work properly in conditions of high security level in accordance with the Safety Analysis Report of Nuclear Research Reactor WWR-S from NIPNE-HH, Bucharest (1997), and at the level guaranteed from the initial state. By initial state we mean the state of first commissioning. (author)

  17. Radiologic states of the WWR-S Bucharest Reactor following definitive shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definitive shutdown of a reactor raises problems related to the management of the radioactive inventory. To define the radioactive inventory contained in the burned nuclear fuel and in the neutron activated structural materials computation methods are to be used. Besides the radioactive inventory contained in the main block of the reactor, the one due to the primary circuit contaminated mainly with fission products and corrosion products activated in the reactor core, transported and deposed on the components of the cooling primary circuit should be added. Also another component of the radioactive inventory intervenes, namely, the one due to the contamination of the technological rooms used for various operations the nuclear activities (hot cells, pump room, reactor hall, passage ways to the hot cells and for radioactive source, radioisotope and radioactive waste transport). The activities which made used of the neutron and gamma fluxes for radioisotope production, materials irradiation, research, component testing, resulted in radioactive waste, technological or accidental contaminations of the technological rooms of the reactor. Inspections and current repair interventions resulted also in radioactive waste an contaminations. Consequently systematic measurements with qualified equipment dedicated to alpha, beta, gamma contamination measurements as well as to dose rates determinations for the personnel exposed are necessary. Irrespective of the duration of the reactor conservation or shutdown, the radiologic monitoring should continue. This work presents the results obtained by the research group 'Restoration of Nuclear Sites', working with the IFIN-HH, regarding both the radioactive inventory calculation and measurements of contamination of technological rooms and environment in the reactor vicinity

  18. Study of the WWR-S IFIN-HH reactor main components stare, after 40 years working, using nondestructive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of these investigations was to establish the security level after 40 years of working of the WWR-S research reactor of Horia Hulubei National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele. The purpose of these investigations was: checking the functionality and the physical integrity of the main components of the reactor. The physical integrity of the components is usually affected by slow processes, such as: corrosion, erosion, aging, deformations and initially hidden flaws with very slow evolutions. The methods used to determine the effects of these processes and to infer conclusions about the physical integrity of the facility are: visualizations by optical means (endoscopy and video camera), examination using ultrasounds and gammagraphy. The objective of the endoscopic checking was the view of the state of interior surfaces of the tubes and pipes, specially the inaccessible areas of the non-dismantling parts of the reactor. Big size components, such as reactor vessel, the biologic protection vessel and the main large diameter pipes of the primary cooling system, were investigated using a special device that contains a video camera connected to a PC. To obtain more information regarding the evolution of the corrosion spots, scratches and harmed areas on the investigated surfaces, their depth was checked by ultrasounds, and the welding seams structure was determined by gammagraphy. A table is given with some significant results obtained from ultrasound measurements in different points of reactor vessel, thermal column, horizontal tubes, etc. After these tests, the conclusions are: the maximum corrosion depth is 0.2 mm; - scratches are superficially, not exceeding 0.2-0.5 mm; - the traces of harmed areas are produced by the electromagnetic device utilization used for manipulation of aluminium capsules which contain irradiated substances. They are superficial, with maximum area of about 1 cm2; the

  19. Time behaviour evaluation of WWR-S IFIN-HH reactor spent fuel characteristics using the SCALE4.3 computational system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time evolution of the radioactive inventory, gamma and neutron sources, and thermal power of the WWR-S IFIN-HH reactor spent fuel is calculated in this work via SCALE4.3 computational system. The evaluation of these spent fuel characteristics needed for the storage variant analysis is based on a method previously established in IFIN-HH, Bucharest consisting in burnup calculations by means of ORIGEN-S code which applies specific problem dependent libraries defined for classes of fuel elements and processed with SAS2H, SCALE calculation module. The reliability of the calculations performed was tested by comparison against similar calculation, for same representative fuel elements, performed by ORIGEN-JR and HELIOS codes in VKTA Rossendorf. Four reference time of 5, 10, 25, and 50 years after the date 31st December, 1999 were taken into account. Detailed results for all 222 fuel assemblies of both types i.e., EK-10 and S36, irradiated in the reactor are presented and discussed into the paper. The WWR-S IFIN-HH Spent Fuel Archive System 'S.F.A.S' ACCESS Database that was achieved is also discussed. (authors)

  20. The Cairo Fourier Diffractometer Facility At The ETRR-1 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presents the Cairo Fourier diffractometer facility (CFDF). The CFDF is based on the reverse time-of-flight (RTOF) concept and was recently installed, as IAEA TC Project, at one of the ET-RR-1 reactor horizontal channels. The CFDF performance is assessed and its main parameters are given. The facility applies a Fourier chopper system and 6Li-glass scintillators (NE-912) arranged according to the time focusing geometry in order to detect neutrons scattered from the sample at an angle 29= 90 diameter. The detector system has been optimized for studying the internal stresses in materials along with neutron diffraction measurements. Its angular aperture was found, from precise calculations, by a special program, to be equal to S.1 x 102 steradians. The neutron guide system attached to the CFDF provides a thermal neutron flux-l.lxl06n/cm2/sec at the sample position. It has been found, from measurements with different powder samples, that such value of the thermal neutron flux is adequate for neutron diffraction measurements, at scattering angle 2θ= 90ο and d-spacing values between 0.7 A and 2.5 A, within 0.45% resolution

  1. Generation of the problem-dependent data libraries for IFIN-HH WWR-S spent fuel storage criticality and dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods used for the radioactivity inventory calculation and dose evaluation of the fuel elements irradiated in the WWR-S IFIN-HH reactor are discussed in this work. A particular attention is paid to the processed problem-dependent nuclear libraries. SAS2H, a complex sequence of the SCALE-4.3 code system containing the modules BONAMI - NITAWL - XSDRNPM - COUPLE - ORIGEN-S - XSDOSE, has been assimilated on the IFIN-HH computer and applied to update the ORIGEN-S libraries by producing problem-dependent processed data libraries needed to perform the depletion and shielding analysis. This sequence uses one of the eight associated data libraries of the SCALE-4.3 system according to the choice of the user. The method consists in the following analysis processes: i) lattice cell neutron analysis to produce the flux weighting spectrum for activation library updating; ii) update of the nuclear data constants of the ORIGEN-S libraries; iii) depletion and decay analysis for a specified fuel assembly and irradiation history in order to generate gamma and neutron source strength and spectra. iv) one-dimensional radial shielding calculation for the evaluation of the angular neutron and gamma flux at the surface of a spent fuel shipping cask and further calculation of the dose rates at various points outside the cask. An efficient alternative of the calculation sequence mentioned above is the ARP (Automatic Rapid Processing) method conceived in order to generate independently ORIGEN-S libraries and to reduce substantially the running time. The substance of this method is the generation of the problem-dependent libraries from basis libraries a priori created by SAS2H for specific fuel assembly type and further interpolation of two independent variables, enrichment and burnup. Specific applications concerning WWR-S spent fuel were performed: i) generation of three problem-dependent libraries for the S-36 fuel assembly taking into account the maximum value of the burnup of this

  2. Performance and main characteristic parameters of the Cairo fourier diffractometer facility at the ET-RR-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents the results of measurements performed recently with the Cairo Fourier diffractometer facility (CFDF). The main components of the CFDF were supplied by the IAEA according to the technical assistance project EGY/1/022. The CFDF performance is assessed and the main parameters are given. The neutron guide system attached to the CFDF provides a thermal neutron flux ∼ 106n/cm2.sec at the sample position; free from fast neutrons and gamma rays background. It has been found, from measurements with different powder samples, that such value of the thermal neutron flux is adequate for neutron diffraction measurements, at scattering angle 2θ 90 deg. and D values between 0.7A and 2.5A; with 52% resolution. (author). 26 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Innovation, adaptability, and collaboration: Keys to success for small and medium sized reactors. Cairo, 27 May 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small and medium sized reactors, within a power output of less than 700 MW(e), are receiving increased consideration in the effort to meet changing market requirements. Smaller plants allow a more incremental investment, which can be used to hedge against demand uncertainty. They are more suitable for standardization and prefabrication, which in turn encourages enhanced quality control and stimulates rapid development of expertise and shorter construction schedules. They provide a better match to grid capacity in developing countries. And they are more easily adapted to a broad range of industrial settings and applications, such as district heating, heavy oil recovery, or the production of hydrogen and other chemical fuels. Sea water desalination is an application for which smaller reactors hold a particular advantage. Nuclear powered desalination is a proven technology. Clearly, we live in an era in which our society faces many difficult economic, environmental and social issues associated with sustainable development and energy demand. Against that backdrop, nuclear power is a mature technology that deserves careful consideration as a contributor to solving some of these issues. The development of innovative small and medium sized reactors will play a key role in helping to match state-of-the-art technology to user needs. An exchange of information and ideas is a step towards further progress

  4. Cairo%开罗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2003-01-01

    @@ Cairo, the cradle of civilization, the Melting Pot of Ancient and Modern Egyptian Civilizations. It is the largest city in the Middle East and lies at the center of all routes leading to and from the three continents: Asia, Africa and Europe.

  5. The CAIRO4 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Wilt, Johannes H W; Verhoef, Cornelis; Punt, Cornelis J A;

    2016-01-01

    stages of the disease. We here propose a randomized trial in order to demonstrate that resection of the primary tumour improves overall survival. METHODS/DESIGN: The CAIRO4 study is a multicentre, randomized, phase III study of the Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG). Patients with synchronous...

  6. The CAIRO4 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    't Lam-Boer, Jorine; Mol, Linda; Verhoef, Cornelis;

    2015-01-01

    stages of the disease. We here propose a randomized trial in order to demonstrate that resection of the primary tumour improves overall survival. METHODS/DESIGN: The CAIRO4 study is a multicentre, randomized, phase III study of the Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG). Patients with synchronous...

  7. Teaching in Cairo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gary H.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his teaching experience at Sadat Academy--a four-year business college located in Cairo, Egypt--where he taught business ethics and organizational behavior to 240 students. He also describes his students' behavior and how he was warmly welcomed by the people despite the fact the he is an American.

  8. A report from Cairo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortridge, J

    1995-01-01

    The Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States (SIECUS) is the only national organization in the US with a primary emphasis upon sexuality education. A 1992 review by SIECUS of the libraries of 17 population-related organizations found none to have a significant collection on sexuality or sexuality education. The nongovernmental organization (NGO) therefore in 1993 added an international component to its sexuality information and education clearinghouse, providing assistance to more than 250 professionals in over 30 countries in the first year. This was made possible through SIECUS's extensive collection of sexuality and HIV/AIDS education curricula, international research studies and reports, sexuality training models, conference and meeting proceedings, country policies, and program assessments. As an official accredited organization at the NGO forum in Cairo, Egypt, September 1994, SIECUS was able to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of sexuality issues among international population, health, environment, and government institutions. Participation in the meetings also offered the opportunity to evaluate the direction of the international initiative and support sexual and reproductive rights. The International Conference on Population and Development Program of Action is discussed. With the Cairo conference representing considerable progress on many fronts, SIECUS now believes that appropriate responses to world population growth must acknowledge the interactions among social, cultural, economic, and environmental conditions. Sexuality education and health services are an integral component of efforts to improve reproductive health care. In the coming year, SIECUS will develop materials to meet gaps in information, create a forum on the Internet to enhance communication efforts of professionals from other countries, and disseminate information to educators and service providers outside of the US. PMID:12288558

  9. [The silences of Cairo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, S

    1994-10-01

    At the Conference on Population and the Environment in Cairo, the Vatican, Malta, and about 10 Latin American countries would not endorse passages on sexuality, defense of life, and anything which might condone abortion. About 12 Islamic states opposed all references which may authorize premarital and extramarital sexual intercourse and sex education for adolescents. Another problem which held the attention of the delegates was family regrouping of immigrants in host countries. Most Western countries wanted the word ¿rights' removed from that part of the action plan addressing family regrouping of immigrants. Even though several developing countries are dissatisfied with immigration problems, they do not want to limit family regrouping. Delegates sanctioned US$ 17 billion to be dispersed for family planning in developing countries by 2000, but who will donate these funds? The controversy over abortion and sexuality made delegates forget to address the environment and development. Since 1992, pressure by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) has forced development out of the economic sphere. NGOs stress the importance of the social dimension of development in developing countries. The debate on poverty, which was supposed to occur in Cairo, did not take place. According to many NGOs and representatives from developing countries, the conference spent 10 days on abortion and only 10 minutes on development. NGOs disapproved of the relegation of human development problems and structural adjustment problems to the background. Developing countries wanted to discuss foreign aid and the inequalities between rich and poor countries. By 2000, there will be 300 million more poor persons. Several delegates from developed countries conceded that their governments would reorient foreign aid to family planning programs in developing countries. Have they forgotten that development is an essential condition for slowing population growth, which is what they want? PMID:12179394

  10. The view from Cairo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangh, L J

    1995-01-01

    The author, a Brandeis University biologist who attended the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, cautions against optimism regarding the global impact of this gathering in the absence of revolutionary changes in four areas: reproductive practices, sexual behavior, human consumption of natural resources, and population crowding. Few speakers at Cairo addressed the ecologic and climatologic consequences of overpopulation and environmental destruction, despite indications that the earth is reaching the limits of its environmental support system. Another concern is the conflict between contraceptive methods that are most effective in preventing pregnancy and the condom use that is essential to halt the spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In countries such as China, where the AIDS epidemic's threat has been minimized by the government, massive educational campaigns will be required to convince sterilized couples that they must now practice safe sex. Also criticized is the assumption that population stabilization is achievable through a balance in birth and death rates. It is likely that environmental instability and other factors will lead to substantially increased mortality in the years ahead. Needed is a new global ethics based on biological realities and valuation of the environment. PMID:12319267

  11. [Cairo: a double deception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallin, J

    1994-01-01

    The 3rd International Conference on Population and Development, held in Cairo in September 1994, was attended by 180 delegations of UN members and 15,000 participants in both the official conference and a vast forum of nongovernmental organizations. The nearly universal national representation, despite absence of Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and some other Islamic countries, was a great achievement for the conference organizers and the host country. Each delegation expressed its views in an official declaration to the plenary session, while representatives to the main committee debated the program of action drafted in a long series of meetings in preparation for the conference. None of the preparations or addresses to the conference were able to prevent an unrewarding seven-day debate in the main committee over abortion. More disappointing was the failure to engage in a deep debate over development issues. A number of recommendations touched on education, health, and improving the status of women, but only as factors in fertility decline. The issue of development should have been discussed as it relates to the satisfaction of the needs of the five billion living inhabitants of the planet and the ten billion projected for the next century. The second great disappointment of the conference was that some of the progressive contents of the preliminary document submitted to the conference were greatly watered down. The preliminary document offered real progress in achieving a more lucid and ideology-free approach to questions that have long remained taboo because they touch on the freedoms of men and women in their most profoundly intimate aspects. The text clarified aspects of the rights of individuals in relation to social institutions: the right to health and education in sexuality and reproduction, recognition of the existence of different types of unions and families, and the right to family regrouping. Most of the innovative articles provoked controversy in the

  12. Decommissioning of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research reactors of WWR-S type were built in countries under Soviet influence in '60, last century and consequently reached their service life. Decommissioning implies removal of all radioactive components, processing, conditioning and final disposal in full safety of all sources on site of radiological pollution. The WWR-S reactor at Bucuresti-Magurele was put into function in 1957 and operated until 1997 when it was stopped and put into conservation in view of decommissioning. Presented are three decommissioning variants: 1. Reactor shut-down for a long period (30-50 years) what would entail a substantial decrease of contamination with lower costs in dismantling, mechanical, chemical and physical processing followed by final disposal of the radioactive wastes. The drawback of this solution is the life prolongation of a non-productive nuclear unit requiring funds for personnel, control, maintenance, etc; 2. Decommissioning in a single stage what implies large funds for a immediate investment; 3. Extending the operation on a series of stages rather phased in time to allow a more convenient flow of funds and also to gather technical solutions, better than the present ones. This latter option seems to be optimal for the case of the WWR-S Research at Bucharest-Magurele Reactor. Equipment and technologies should be developed in order to ensure the technical background of the first operations of decommissioning: equipment for scarification, dismantling, dismemberment in a highly radioactive environment; cutting-to-pieces and disassembling technologies; decontamination modern technologies. Concomitantly, nuclear safety and quality assurance regulations and programmes, specific to decommissioning projects should be implemented, as well as a modern, coherent and reliable system of data acquisition, recording and storing. Also the impact of decommissioning must be thoroughly evaluated. The national team of specialists will be assisted by IAEA experts to ensure the

  13. Meeting the challenge of Cairo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, E

    1998-09-01

    The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has been actively involved in endorsing and achieving the 20-year Program of Action set by the 180 participating countries at the Cairo conference. This Program of Action was designed to achieve gender equality, improved reproductive health, and population stabilization as well as a wide range of sustainable development goals. Being the largest bilateral donor of population and health assistance, USAID has played a particularly crucial role in helping countries implement the core objectives of Cairo in family planning, maternal health, the prevention of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections, and other aspects of reproductive health. By providing technical leadership and working in collaboration with universities, nongovernmental organizations, private businesses, and other government agencies, the USAID through the programs it funds provides a wide variety of expertise to assist other countries so that they can effectively carry out their respective reproductive health programs of action. PMID:12322268

  14. Upgrading Downtown Cairo towards friendly mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Joao; Zoilo, Inaki; Torres-Campos, Tiago; Sanz, Berta

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of proposing new standards in Downtown Cairo towards innovative, friendlier and more sustainable mobility.Cairo emerges as one of the main Mediterranean megalopolis, with fundamental geo-positions at national, regional and global levels. Over the last decades, the city has been growing more rapidly than its infrastructural and mobility services, and most attempts to correct its mobility systems may have arrived too late, sometimes even with serious environme...

  15. Probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis for Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2016-04-01

    Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the sixteenth largest metropolitan area in the world. It was founded in the tenth century (969 ad) and is 1046 years old. It has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life. Therefore, the earthquake risk assessment for Cairo has a great importance. The present work aims to analysis the earthquake hazard of Cairo as a key input's element for the risk assessment. The regional seismotectonics setting shows that Cairo could be affected by both far- and near-field seismic sources. The seismic hazard of Cairo has been estimated using the probabilistic seismic hazard approach. The logic tree frame work was used during the calculations. Epistemic uncertainties were considered into account by using alternative seismotectonics models and alternative ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard values have been estimated within a grid of 0.1° × 0.1 ° spacing for all of Cairo's districts at different spectral periods and four return periods (224, 615, 1230, and 4745 years). Moreover, the uniform hazard spectra have been calculated at the same return periods. The pattern of the contour maps show that the highest values of the peak ground acceleration is concentrated in the eastern zone's districts (e.g., El Nozha) and the lowest values at the northern and western zone's districts (e.g., El Sharabiya and El Khalifa).

  16. Imaging woman in the streets of Cairo. Analyses of Cairo graffiti

    OpenAIRE

    Zakarevičiūtė, Ieva

    2013-01-01

    Thesis analyses imaging of women in the Cairo graffiti field that emerged after 2011 January 25 revolution. Author raises and argument that Cairo graffiti is not only a romanticized and heroic space created as genre of freedom of expression and used as a struggle against changing political systems in Egypt, but rather a pluralistic public sphere where different opinions, ideas and arguments are emerging. Thesis distinguishes major archetypes used as predominant images of women, it analyses wh...

  17. Seismic hazard assessments at Islamic Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A. E.; Deif, A.; Abdel Hafiez, H. E.

    2015-12-01

    Islamic Cairo is one of the important Islamic monumental complexes in Egypt, near the center of present-day metropolitan Cairo. The age of these buildings is up to one thousand years. Unfortunately, many of the buildings are suffering from huge mishandling that may lead to mass damage. Many buildings and masjids were partially and totally collapsed because of 12th October 1992 Cairo earthquake that took place at some 25 km from the study area with a magnitude Mw = 5.8. Henceforth, potential damage assessments there are compulsory. The deterministic and probabilistic techniques were used to predict the expected future large earthquakes' strong-motion characteristics in the study area. The current study started with compiling the available studies concerned with the distribution of the seismogenic sources and earthquake catalogs. The deterministic method is used to provide a description of the largest earthquake effect on the area of interest, while the probabilistic method, on the other hand, is used to define the uniform hazard curves at three time periods 475, 950, 2475 years. Both deterministic and probabilistic results were obtained for bedrock conditions and the resulted hazard levels were deaggregated to identify the contribution of each seismic source to the total hazard. Moreover, the results obtained show that the expected seismic activities combined with the present situation of the buildings pose high alert to rescue both the cultural heritage and expected human losses.

  18. Research Studies Performed Using the Cairo Fourier Diffractometer Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maayouf, R. M. A.

    2013-03-01

    This report represents the results of research studies performed using the Cairo Fourier diffractometer facility (CFDF), within 10 years after it was installed and put into operation at the beginning of 1996. The main components of the CFDF were supplied by the IAEA according to the technical assistance project EGY/1/022. Plenty of measurements were performed, since then; yielding several publications, both in local and international scientific periodicals; and 8 M.Sc. & Ph.D. degrees from Egyptian Universities. Besides, a new approach for the analysis of the neutron spectra measured using the CFDF; applying especially designed interface card, along with its proper software program, instead of the reverse time of flight (RTOF), Finnish make, analyzer originally attached to the facility. It has been verified that the new approach cnn successfully replace the RTOF analyzer; significantly decreasing the time of measurement; and saving the reactor's operation time. A special fault diagnostic system program was developed and tested for caring and handling the possible failures of the CFDF. Besides the new developments required for the CFDF for industrial applications in wide scale, are also considered.

  19. Copenhagen−Cairo on a roundtrip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenwood, Maja Touzari Janesdatter; Wæver, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Although securitization theory has been applied worldwide, it has been accused of having only limited appositeness to the non-Western world. When the Centre for Advanced Security Theory began a collaboration with the Danish–Egyptian Dialogue Institute and the Al-Ahram Centre for Political and...... Strategic Studies in Cairo in 2010, securitization theory was challenged on two levels: both through its employment to analyse and act politically in a Middle Eastern context, and through the attempt to do so during and after the Arab Spring, when the entire Egyptian security sector was being re......-evaluated. These unique circumstances prompted reflections on the use of non-traditional and traditional security concepts, on how the Egyptian revolution could be understood through securitization theory, and on what the experiences of this project might mean for further theory development. This article discusses...

  20. Assembling a Revolution: Graffiti, Cairo and the Arab Spring

    OpenAIRE

    John Lennon

    2014-01-01

    This essay examines the ways revolutionary desire was articulated and interpreted through graffiti in Cairo, Egypt during the Arab Spring and its immediate aftermath. For writers in Cairo, graffiti was one of many in a constellation of resistances that undermined everyday life in Hosni Mubarak’s Egypt and the SCAF-controlled interim government. Ordinary surfaces of the city were illegally marked, displaying revolutionary potentiality by allowing the seemingly powerless rhetorical openings of ...

  1. Statement to commencement ceremony at American University in Cairo (AUC). 9 February 2006, Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its statement to Commencement Ceremony At American University in Cairo (AUC) the Director General of the IAEA reminisced about his life - the twists and turns it had taken, and the lessons he had learned along the way. His messages to the students was to keep thinking and learning, be ready for opportunity when it comes, treat others with the understanding that we are all part of one human family, live your own life, and take joy in it, be proud of your heritage and engage fully in the future of Egypt

  2. Elasticity of Cmcm CaIrO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibuchi, M.; Tsuchiya, T.; Tsuchiya, J.

    2006-12-01

    CaIrO3 has the orthorhombic Cmcm crystal structure which is isostructural to the recently discovered high-pressure postperovskite phase of MgSiO3 even at room pressure. Due to the quite high transition pressure of MgSiO3, its low-pressure analog is important to investigate properties of this transition experimentally. Here we performed ab initio calculations of static elasticity of CaIrO3 phases and found that at low pressures, some properties of velocity contrasts between the Pbnm and Cmcm phases, shear wave splitting anisotropy, etc. are very different from those of MgSiO3 at its stable pressures, while they became similar with increasing pressure. This indicates that experiments should be performed under some pressure, even if CaIrO3 is used as the low-pressure analog of MgSiO3. Research supported by Ehime Univ Project Fund, JSPS Grant-in-Aid.

  3. Ahead with Cairo. Monitoring country activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danguilan, M; Wainer, J; Widyantoro, N; Capoor, I; Huq, N; Ashino, Y; Sadasivam, B; Le Thi Nham Tuyet

    1995-04-01

    In the aftermath of the 1994 UN Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, countries are proceeding with their implementation of the plan of action adopted at the conference. A brief description is given of some actions taken by specific countries toward plan implementation. In the Philippines meetings were held immediately after the conference in October on the implications for the Management, Family Planning, and Nongovernmental Organizations programs. The issues of concern were identified as the need for regular consultative meetings among relevant agencies, consultations with women's groups, and a responsive adolescents program. In Australia the program thrust was to focus on the implications for immigration. Monitoring of the plans of action will be undertaken by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). In Malaysia committees are preparing a program of action suitable for implementation in Malaysia. A regional women's NGO organized a forum on the implications of ICPD for women's reproductive health, women's rights, and empowerment in Malaysia. In Vietnam, press conferences are used to communicate conference results. An NGO translated relevant ICPD materials into Vietnamese. In Indonesia, several ministries convened meetings among donors, NGOs, women's groups, and experts. In India, the government held a national conference. One view was that population issues should be discussed in the context of gender equality and empowerment of women. Another issue was the importance of placing reproductive health in the larger context of health and primary health services. Health personnel at all levels were considered in need of sensitization on gender issues. Problems such as anemia have not been successfully addressed in existing programs. The government agreed to remove in phases target driven programs and the sterilization emphasis. In Bangladesh, a national committee was formed, and NGOs are actively distributing information. In Japan, the Family Planning

  4. Sound preferences of the dense urban environment: Soundscape of Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Refat Ismail

    2014-03-01

    Analyzing the relative annoyance increase (RAI of the close-ended part, overall positive RAI values for all sound categories reveal how sensitive to noise Cairo residents are. Results further showed that at an RAI value of approximately 27%, sound category perception transforms from positive to negative.

  5. Assembling a Revolution: Graffiti, Cairo and the Arab Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lennon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the ways revolutionary desire was articulated and interpreted through graffiti in Cairo, Egypt during the Arab Spring and its immediate aftermath. For writers in Cairo, graffiti was one of many in a constellation of resistances that undermined everyday life in Hosni Mubarak’s Egypt and the SCAF-controlled interim government. Ordinary surfaces of the city were illegally marked, displaying revolutionary potentiality by allowing the seemingly powerless rhetorical openings of engagement. Far from being a monolithic discourse, graffiti created geographies of material protest that were locally enacted but globally contextualized. Political graffiti, like the overall protests of the Arab Spring, emerged in large numbers at particular moments, but its numerous roots spread distinctly into the past. First contextualizing Cairo graffiti as a tool for revolutionary protest, the article then examines specific writers (Mahmoud Graffiti, Ganzeer, particular ‘battleground' spaces (Tahrir Square, Mohamed Mahmoud Street, different graffiti mutations (tags, pieces, murals and contrary aesthetic manipulations of the form (‘No Walls’ campaign, graffiti advertisements by multinational corporations in order to assemble a graffiti scene in Cairo as it follows the ebbs and flows of revolutionary desire.

  6. Annual Patterns of Atmospheric Pollutions and Episodes over Cairo Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Aboel Fetouh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nile Delta major cities, particularly Cairo, experienced stagnant air pollution episodes, known as Black Cloud, every year over the past decade during autumn. Low-elevated thermal inversion layers play a crucial role in intensifying pollution impacts. Carbon monoxide, ozone, atmospheric temperature, water vapor, and methane measurements from the tropospheric emission spectrometer (TES on board the Aura have been used to assess the dominant component below the inversion layer. In this study, time series analysis, autocorrelations, and cross correlations are performed to gain a better understanding of the connections between those parameters and their local effect. Satellite-based data were obtained for the years 2005–2010. The parameters mentioned were investigated throughout the whole year in order to study the possible episodes that take place in addition to their change from year to year. Ozone and carbon monoxide were the two major indicators to the most basic episodes that occur over Cairo and the Delta region.

  7. Annual Patterns of Atmospheric Pollutions and Episodes over Cairo Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Aboel Fetouh; H. El Askary; El Raey, M.; Allali, M; Sprigg, W. A.; M. Kafatos

    2013-01-01

    The Nile Delta major cities, particularly Cairo, experienced stagnant air pollution episodes, known as Black Cloud, every year over the past decade during autumn. Low-elevated thermal inversion layers play a crucial role in intensifying pollution impacts. Carbon monoxide, ozone, atmospheric temperature, water vapor, and methane measurements from the tropospheric emission spectrometer (TES) on board the Aura have been used to assess the dominant component below the inversion layer. In this stu...

  8. Mellem Kunst og Aktivisme - Street Art i Cairo

    OpenAIRE

    Vasii, Sarah Borger

    2010-01-01

    The subject matter of the project is the growing Street Art scene in Egypt, and is predominantly based on three interviews conducted with two active Street Artists and the main Street Art-blogger in Cairo. Analytically I differentiate between an artistic and an activist perspective, drawing respectively on the theoretical and analytical concepts of Pierre Bourdieu and the geographical concept of scale as it is defined by Sally A. Marston and Neil Smith. The first part of the analysis looks...

  9. Analysis of pollutants in human scalp hair in Cairo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalp hair, urine and blood samples from volunteers selected from different areas surrounding Cairo were collected for study by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and conventional methods. The results for 14 elements in hair show some variation between the different regions. Qualitatively there is a slight difference of abundance of the investigated elements. Broadly speaking the presence of major elements is dominant. No relationship was observed between the elemental composition of hair and urine. (author)

  10. Reverse Gear: Cairo's Dependence on a Disappearing Paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malcolm Potts; Martha Campbell

    2005-01-01

    In the 1960s and 1970 s, attention was focused on rapid population growth and large scale family planning programs were launched in many developing countries.However, the paradigm for understanding fertility decline assumed that exogenous socioeconomic changes were necessary to reduce family size. By the mid-1990s, the standard model of the demographic transition had been all but discarded, partly there were numerous country experiences inconsistent with the model. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) emphasized women's broader needs, which were important but were promoted by reducing attention to population and the need for family planning. The timing of this shift was peculiar, because the Cairo proponents were depending on an already discredited model of reproductive behavior. The policy shift at Cairo undermined the political coalition that had supported international family planning since the 1960s. As a result of declining financial support, the health of women has deteriorated seriously in the past decade. Meantime,the countries that have been successful in lifting unprecedented numbers of people out of abject poverty were acting independently of the Cairo consensus.

  11. The feasibility of using a Fourier RTOF spectrometer at a low-power research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present situation of Fourier time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometry is discussed using the FSS spectrometer as example. The use of the Fourier reverse TOF spectrometry, as an efficient tool for studying condensed matter, at a 2 MW (WWR-S type) reactor is also assessed. The arrangement of the RTOF spectrometer, which could be successfully used at such type of reactor, is introduced. The suggested arrangement applies a neutron guide tube of 24 m length and allows for effective luminosity 2.4.106 at a flight path distance of 3.6 m. The number of neutrons scattered from a sample (5 cm3 in volume) and incident on the detector system, as estimated for the suggested arrangement, is ∝1.6.103 n/sec. Such high counting rate allows to measure a diffraction spectrum within less than an hour. (orig.) With 12 figs

  12. Origin of black carbon concentration peaks in Cairo (Egypt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, K.F.; Wahab, M.M.A. [Cairo Univ, Fac Sci, Astron and Meteorol Dept, Giza (Egypt); Alfaro, S.C. [Univ Paris 12, LISA, F-94010 Creteil, (France); Alfaro, S.C. [Univ Paris 07, CNRS, F-94010 Creteil (France); Favez, O.; Sciare, J. [CEA Saclay, DSM, LSCE IPSL, Lab mixte CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    The concentration in black carbon (BC) has been monitored in the mega-city of Cairo (Egypt) during the autumn 2004 and spring 2005 intensive observation periods of the Cairo Aerosol Characterization Experiment (CACHE). As expected for a species released by human activities, hourly mean of this concentration is found to be large at all times. It is also significantly larger in autumn than in spring (9.9 {+-} 6.6 and 6.9 {+-} 4.8 {mu}gC/m{sup 3}, respectively) and quite variable at shorter (diurnal) time scales. Indeed, sharp concentration peaks larger than 25 {mu}gC/m{sup 3} are frequently detected during both observation periods. In order to apportion the roles played by emission intensity and meteorological conditions in the development of these peaks, a simple model is developed that allows derivation of the hourly mean BC emissions by the part of town located upwind of the measurement site. The analysis of the time dependence of these emissions indicates that traffic is by far the major source of BC in Cairo during daytime and this even in autumn when biomass burning takes place in the Nile delta. It is only between 03:00 and 05:00 in the night, at a time when traffic emissions are quite reduced, that the influence of this particular source on BC concentration can become significant. This study also indicates that BC emissions by motorized traffic remain important from the morning rush hour until late in the night. During the day, and particularly in spring, the dilution effect resulting from the development of the planetary boundary layer prevents BC concentrations from becoming very large. This is no longer the case just before sunrise and after sunset, when the combination of dense traffic and low boundary layer is responsible for the observed sharp increase in BC concentration. (authors)

  13. Residual Stress Studies Using the Cairo Fourier Diffractometer Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with residual stress studies using the Cairo Fourier diffractometer facility CFDF. The CFDF is a reverse - time of -flight (RTOF) diffractometer; applies a Fourier chopper. The measurements were performed for copper samples in order to study the residual stress after welding. The maximum modulation of the Fourier chopper during the measurements was 136 khz; leading to a time resolution half-width of about 7 μ s. It has been found from the present measurements that, the resulting diffraction spectra could be successfully used for studying the residual stress; in the wavelength range between 0.7-2.9 A degree at ∼ 0.45 % relative resolution

  14. Intermediate evaluation of USAID/Cairo energy policy planning project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbanks, T.J.; Wright, S.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Barron, W.F. [Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong); Kamel, A.M. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt); Santiago, H.T. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Three years ago, a team from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities, supplemented by an expert from the US Department of Energy and a senior Egyptian energy professional, carried out what was termed an ``intermediate evaluation`` of a major energy policy project in Egypt. Supported by USAID/Cairo, the project had concentrated on developing and strengthening an Organization for Energy Planning (OEP) within the Government of India, and it was actually scheduled to end less than a year after this evaluation. The evaluation was submitted to USAID/Cairo and circulated elsewhere in the US Agency for International Development and the Government of Egypt as an internal report. Over the next several years, the USAID energy planning project ended and the functions performed by OEP were merged with planning capabilities in the electric power sector. Now that the major issues addressed by the evaluation report have been resolved, we are making it available to a broader audience as a contribution to the general literature on development project evaluation and institution-building.

  15. Intermediate evaluation of USAID/Cairo energy policy planning project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbanks, T.J.; Wright, S.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Barron, W.F. (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong)); Kamel, A.M. (Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt)); Santiago, H.T. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Three years ago, a team from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities, supplemented by an expert from the US Department of Energy and a senior Egyptian energy professional, carried out what was termed an intermediate evaluation'' of a major energy policy project in Egypt. Supported by USAID/Cairo, the project had concentrated on developing and strengthening an Organization for Energy Planning (OEP) within the Government of India, and it was actually scheduled to end less than a year after this evaluation. The evaluation was submitted to USAID/Cairo and circulated elsewhere in the US Agency for International Development and the Government of Egypt as an internal report. Over the next several years, the USAID energy planning project ended and the functions performed by OEP were merged with planning capabilities in the electric power sector. Now that the major issues addressed by the evaluation report have been resolved, we are making it available to a broader audience as a contribution to the general literature on development project evaluation and institution-building.

  16. Provenance studies of pottery fragments from medieval Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the analysis of archeological pottery fragments, instrumental neutron activation analysis has been utilized to establish the elemental concentrations of up to 37 chemical elements for each of 53 archeological pottery samples from medieval Cairo, Egypt, and one additional sample of Chinese porcelain. These elemental concentrations have been utilized in a statistical analysis procedure in order to determine similarities and correlations between the various samples. Multivariate analyses have been used to quantitatively determine these interrelationships. This methodology successfully separated the Egyptian samples into two broad categories: polychrome decorated ceramic ware and monochrome celadon ware. In addition the methodology successfully identified the one unique sample of Chinese porcelain. Several samples appeared to be either a mixture of categories or outliers in the data set and were not attributable to any distinct category. (author)

  17. Aerosol properties and associated radiative effects over Cairo (Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Metwally, M.; Alfaro, S. C.; Wahab, M. M. Abdel; Favez, O.; Mohamed, Z.; Chatenet, B.

    2011-02-01

    Cairo is one of the largest megacities in the World and the particle load of its atmosphere is known to be particularly important. In this work we aim at assessing the temporal variability of the aerosol's characteristics and the magnitude of its impacts on the transfer of solar radiation. For this we use the level 2 quality assured products obtained by inversion of the instantaneous AERONET sunphotometer measurements performed in Cairo during the Cairo Aerosol CHaracterization Experiment (CACHE), which lasted from the end of October 2004 to the end of March 2006. The analysis of the temporal variation of the aerosol's optical depth (AOD) and spectral dependence suggests that the aerosol is generally a mixture of at least 3 main components differing in composition and size. This is confirmed by the detailed analysis of the monthly-averaged size distributions and associated optical properties (single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter). The components of the aerosol are found to be 1) a highly absorbing background aerosol produced by daily activities (traffic, industry), 2) an additional, 'pollution' component produced by the burning of agricultural wastes in the Nile delta, and 3) a coarse desert dust component. In July, an enhancement of the accumulation mode is observed due to the atmospheric stability favoring its building up and possibly to secondary aerosols being produced by active photochemistry. More generally, the time variability of the aerosol's characteristics is due to the combined effects of meteorological factors and seasonal production processes. Because of the large values of the AOD achieved during the desert dust and biomass burning episodes, the instantaneous aerosol radiative forcing (RF) at both the top (TOA) and bottom (BOA) of the atmosphere is maximal during these events. For instance, during the desert dust storm of April 8, 2005 RF BOA, RF TOA, and the corresponding atmospheric heating rate peaked at - 161.7 W/m 2, - 65.8 W/m 2

  18. A Parametric Urban Design Approach to Urban Development in Cairo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai

    2016-01-01

    -designer professionals can provide input and evaluate the spatial effects instantly in the context of participatory design processes. Cairo, Egypt, currently experiences rapid urban growth, while formal urban planning is absent in large parts, resulting in large-scale informal and unplanned development. A parametric...... in the course of participatory processes, as the consequences of changing different parameters cannot easily be evaluated by means of traditional design tools. In recent years, new parametric design tools have opened up new possibilities for dynamic scenario building in urban design. By way of a...... parametric design approach, different urban design parameters can be modified and new urban space scenarios can be rendered three-dimensionally in almost real time. In short, this is parametric urban design. It opens up completely new possibilities for participatory design, as both lay stakeholders and non...

  19. The 1992 'cairo earthquake': cause, effect and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degg, M

    1993-09-01

    This paper examines the geological and socio-political setting of the 1992 earthquake in northern Egypt. The main conclusions concern the importance of surface geology in controlling the nature of the earthquake impact, and the role of poor construction and maintenance standards (and lapses in building regulation enforcement) in influencing the vulnerability of buildings to failure. The heaviest human losses were associated with two main types of construction: firstly the old, dilapidated adobe houses of the poor in rural areas and in Cairo's inner city slums, and secondly certain modern, engineered (in some cases illegally) high-rise concrete constructions inhabited by the wealthy. The paper concludes by analysing the immediate response of the government and some non-governmental organisations in Egypt to the earthquake. Politicisation of the event is linked to broader issues of economic and social reform in the country and to the rise of Islamic Fundamentalist activity in all its forms. PMID:20958770

  20. Magneto-deformation analysis of Great Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Detecting crustal movements using of the Global positioning system (GPS) has been applied at different seismically active Areas. Egypt is recognized as a moderate earthquake activity region with frequent moderate events. Most of its seismicity is concentrated northern Egypt and around Great Cairo. In order to monitor crustal deformation around Great Cairo, a local geodetic network consists of 8 geodetic points were established in 2004, around potential faults. Four campaigns were performed and processed using Bernese GPS software. The aim of this study is to determine the tectonic elements presented and spot light upon the geodynamic regime of the area. The magnetic results revealed that the main structural trends are NW and NNW. These trends indicate that Red Sea major fault systems have strong influence on the mechanism of rifting that control the present-day deformation. In addition to main Red Sea orientation, predominant NE (Dead Sea-Aqaba trend) and E-W (Tethyan trend) were prevailed. The velocity vectors for each epoch of observations were calculated and deformation analysis was performed. The horizontal velocity varies between 1 and 8 mm/year in average across the network. The results of the deformation analysis indicate significant contraction and extension across the southeastern part of the study area while, the southwestern part is characterized by an extension strain rates. Also, northeastern part is characterized by significant contraction. The tendency of increasing strain amount resulted from deformation analysis in some locations because of the stress accumulation considered as a precursory for certain earthquake events could be occurred in the study area.

  1. Environmental and Occupational Lead Exposure Among Children in Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim; Badawy, Nashwa Mostafa; Manawill, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess childhood lead exposure in a representative sample of Cairo, and to investigate the possible risk factors and sources of exposure. This cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 through April 2015. The target population was children aged 6 to 18 years, recruited into 4 groups, garbage city, moderate-living standard area, urban and suburban schools, and workshops in the city of Cairo. Blood lead levels (BLLs) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were measured. Also, potential local environmental sources were assessed for hazardous lead contamination. Analysis on 400 participants has been carried out. A total of 113 children had BLLs in the range 10 to 20 μg/dL. Smoking fathers, housing conditions, playing outdoors, and exposure to lead in residential areas were significantly correlated with high BLLs. The mean values of hemoglobin were inversely correlated with BLLs. Children involved in pottery workshops had the highest BLLs and the lowest Hb values with a mean of (43.3 μg/dL and 8.6 g/dL, respectively). The mean value of environmental lead in workshop areas exceeded the recommended levels. Also, those values measured in dust and paint samples of garbage city were significantly high. Moreover, the mean lead levels in the soil samples were significantly higher in urban schools (P = 0.03) than the suburban ones. Childhood lead poisoning accounts for a substantial burden in Egypt, which could be preventable. Development of national prevention programs including universal screening program should be designed to reduce incidence of lead toxicity among children. PMID:26945415

  2. Virtual telepathology in Egypt, applications of WSI in Cairo University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Essam

    2011-01-01

    Telepathology, the practice of pathology at a long distance, has advanced continuously since 1986. Today, fourth-generation telepathology systems, so-called virtual slide telepathology systems, are being used for education applications. Both conventional and innovative surgical pathology diagnostic services are being designed and implemented as well. We have a successful experience in Egypt in applying the static & dynamic techniques in a pilot project between the Italian Hospital in Cairo (NPO) and the Civico Hospital in Palermo This project began in 2003 and continued till now. In 2004, centers in Venice, London and Pittsburgh participated actively in our project. During the past seven years we consulted on many problematic pathological cases with these different specialized pathological centers in Italy, UK & USA. In addition to the highly specialized scientific value of consulting on the cases and exchanging knowledge, we saved a lot of time and money and succeeded in providing our patients with a better medical service. In view of this success we have already established a new Digital Telepathology unit (DTU) in the pathology department, Cairo University, using the latest technique of telepathology which is Whole Slide Imaging (WSI) since one year. This unit is considered the first Digital pathology unit in all the universities of the whole Middle East. During the passed year we created a digital pathology library for the under graduate students using the WSI technique and changed the teaching method of the histopathology slides to be completely digital. We are building another digital pathology library (for post graduate candidates) which will be available to all pathology candidates in Egyptian universities & universities in the surrounding Arabic countries. We are also creating a digital pathology network between pathology centers in the Middle East for exchanging knowledge & telepathology. PMID:21489180

  3. Outlook on radioisotope production at TRIGA SSR 14 MW reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INR Pitesti, endowed with a research nuclear reactor of TRIGA SSR 14 MW type, has developed activities of radioisotope production, being at present licensed for production and selling Ir-192 sources for industrial gamma radiography and Co-60 sources (2,000 Ci) for medical uses (cobalto therapy). A collaboration was initiated with the CPR Department of IFIN-HH Bucharest, particularly after the WWR-S reactor shutdown on December 21, 1997. In the frame of this program the INR Pitesti offers services of raw material irradiations followed by the radioisotope production performed subsequently at the Radioisotope Production Department (CPR) of IFIN-HH Bucharest which also deals with selling the product on internal market . The experimental facilities with the two TRIGA reactors (TRIGA SSR 14 MW and TRIGA ACPR) of INR Pitesti are described. The maximum neutron flux is 2.9 · 1014 n/cm2s. The irradiation channels are of two neutron spectra types. Also the neutron flux is characterized by radial and axial distribution which are taken into account when a given raw material is to be irradiated, to avoid perturbing non-homogeneities in the raw material activation. Five irradiation devices are presented. Preparations are currently under way for production of fission radioisotopes Mo-99, I-131 and Xe-133 and activation radioisotope I-125 for medical application

  4. Acanthamoeba species in Swimming Pools of Cairo, Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Herrawy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba spp. have been recognized as etiologic agents of amoebic encephalitis, keratitis, otitis, lung lesions and other skin infections mainly in immuno-compromised individuals. The purpose of this study is to detect the presence of Acanthamoeba in swimming pools in Egypt using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR method.Water samples were collected from 10 different swimming pools in Cairo, Egypt. Samples were cultured on non-nutrient agar for the detection of Acanthamoeba isolates that were confirmed by PCR amplification using genus specific primers. The molecularly confirmed Acanthamoeba isolates were morphologically identified to the species level.Members of genus Acanthamoeba were detected in 49.2% of the examined swimming-pool water samples. Morphologically, six Acanthamoeba species were isolated from the examined swimming pool water namely A. polyphaga, A.castellanii, A. rhysodes, A. mauritaniensis, A. royreba and A. triangularis. All the identified species of Acanthamoeba were molecularly confirmed to be related to the genus Acanthamoeba.The isolated species of Acanthamoeba could provoke variable degrees of infections to the swimmers. The culture method is cheaper and easier than PCR techniques that are faster for the detection of free-living amoebae.

  5. Detailed magnetic survey at Dahshour archeological sites Southwest Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkawi, Mahmoud; Arafa-Hamed, Tarek; Abdellatif, Tareq

    2013-06-01

    Dahshour area has recently shown a great potential of archeological findings. This was remarkable from the latest discovery of the causeway and the mortuary temple of the Pyramid of Amenemhat III using geophysical data. The main objective of the present work is to locate the buried archeological remains in the area of Dahshour, Southwest Cairo using magnetic survey for shallow investigations. Land magnetic data is acquired using proton magnetometer (two sensors) with a sensor separation of 0.8 m; i.e. gradiometer survey. The study area is located nearby the two known pyramids of Dahshour. The field data is processed and analyzed using Oasis Montaj Geosoft™ software. The processed data is presented in order to delineate the hidden artifacts causing the magnetic anomalies. The results indicated a distribution of the buried archeological features within the study area. These archeological features are detected according to the magnetic contrast between the magnetic archeological sources (such as mud bricks, basalt and granite) and the surroundings; mainly sandy soil. The delineated archeological features at Dahshour are probably dated back to the old kingdom having a depth reach up to 3.0 m. Consequently it is highly recommended to carry out excavation to precisely classify them and high light their nature and value.

  6. Source process of the October 12, 1992 Cairo earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Hussein

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Broadband body waves recorded at 12 digital seismic stations worldwide were used to study the source process of the October 12, 1992 Cairo earthquake. To study the source process of this event the P and SH waveforms from IRIS data center were inverted to double couple source using the method Kikuchi and Kanamori (1991 in which the rupture is presented by discrete subevents with various mechanisms. The best solution consists of only one event with a mechanism 270°/47°/-123° (strike/dip/slip, a normal faulting mechanism with small strike slip component. This solution is almost compatible with the previously suggested mechanisms for the same event. This event took place at a depth of 22 km. This depth explains the lack of surface faulting. The seismic moment is 7.2 ´ 10 17 Nm (Mw = 5.8 with a source duration of 4 s. The estimated fault length is about 11 km, the derived average dislocation (D is 0.24 m, the stress drop (Ds is 1.85 MPa and the Orwan stress drop is 0.425 MPa.

  7. Psychiatric Morbidity among a Sample of Orphanage Children in Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. EL Koumi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study identifies the prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems and the associated factors in orphanage children. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in three private orphanages in Cairo. Two hundred sixty-five children of ages ranging from 6 to 12 years living in three different orphanages care systems were included in the study. A sociodemographic information form and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were used. Children were clinically interviewed and psychiatric disorders were identified. Diagnoses were done according to the manual for diagnosis and statistics of mental disorder fourth version (DSMIV. A written formal consent from the director of social solidarity was obtained before inclusion in the study. Results. The prevalence of behavioral disturbances was 64.53% among those in institutional care and the most prominent psychiatric disorders were nocturnal enuresis (23.3%, attention deficit hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD (19.62%, oppositional defiant disorder (17.36%. Age at first admission, causes of receiving institutional care, and moves 2 or more times between institutions were significantly associated with an increased risk of behavioral and emotional problems. Conclusion. Our study showed that children living in institutions are prone to suffer from psychiatric disorders. Stability of the caregiver acts as a protective variable.

  8. Elasticity of CaIrO3 with perovskite and post-perovskite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Ken; Yagi, Takehiko; Ohgushi, Kenya

    2011-01-01

    Compression behaviors of CaIrO3 with perovskite (Pv) and post-perovskite (pPv) structures have been investigated up to 31.0(1.0) and 35.3(1) GPa at room temperature, respectively, in a diamond-anvil cell with hydrostatic pressure media. CaIrO3 Pv and pPv phases were compressed with the axial compressibility of β a > β c > β b and β b > β a > β c, respectively and no phase transition was observed in both phases up to the highest pressure in the present study. The order of axial compressibility for pPv phase is consistent with the crystallographic consideration for layer structured materials and previous experimental results. On the other hand, Pv phase shows anomalous compression behavior in b axis, which exhibit constant or slightly expanded above 13 GPa, although the applied pressure remained hydrostatic. Volume difference between Pv and pPv phases was gradually decreased with increasing pressure and this is consistent with the results of theoretical study based on the ab initio calculation. Present results, combined with theoretical study, suggest that these complicate compression behaviors in CaIrO3 under high pressure might be caused by the partially filled electron of Ir4+. Special attention must be paid in case of using CaIrO3 as analog materials to MgSiO3, although CaIrO3 exhibits interesting physical properties under high pressure.

  9. Structure and elasticity of Cmcm CaIrO3 and their pressure dependences: Ab initio calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Taku; Tsuchiya, Jun

    2007-10-01

    Cmcm CaIrO3 is isostructural to the newly discovered high-pressure postperovskite polymorph of MgSiO3 . Due to the high transition pressure in MgSiO3 over 100GPa , low-pressure analoglike CaIrO3 is substantial to investigate physical properties of the postperovskite phase experimentally. Here we perform ab initio density functional calculations of structural and elastic properties of CaIrO3 phases and compare them with the results reported for MgSiO3 phases in detail. Local spin density approximation produces a Pauli-paramagnetic metallic ground state for Pbnm CaIrO3 , while a very weak but finite antiferromagnetic moment appears in Cmcm phase at 0GPa . We also find that each component of the normalized elastic stiffness constants of CaIrO3 is largely discrepant from that of MgSiO3 particularly in shear components, though CaIrO3 shows the compression behavior roughly similar to MgSiO3 . Those contrasts in shear constants cause the different shear wave anisotropy style. Results suggest that at least regarding shear wave polarization anisotropy, CaIrO3 is unlikely to be a good low-pressure analog of MgSiO3 , and care must be taken when one extrapolates the elastic property of Cmcm CaIrO3 to the MgSiO3 postperovskite.

  10. Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To provide a spray cooling structure wherein the steam phase in a bwr reactor vessel can sufficiently be cooled and the upper cap and flanges in the vessel can be cooled rapidly which kept from direct contaction with cold water. Constitution: An apertured shielding is provided in parallel spaced apart from the inner wall surface at the upper portion of a reactor vessel equipped with a spray nozzle, and the lower end of the shielding and the inner wall of the vessel are closed to each other so as to store the cooling water. Upon spray cooling, cooling water jetting out from the nozzle cools the vapor phase in the vessel and then hits against the shielding. Then the cooling water mostly falls as it is, while partially enters through the apertures to the back of the shielding plate, abuts against stoppers and falls down. The stoppers are formed in an inverted L shape so that the spray water may not in direct contaction with the inner wall of the vessel. (Horiuchi, T.)

  11. Growth of CaIrO3 and Gd2Ir2O7 by MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yuefeng; Held, Rainer; Chatterjee, Shouvik; Monkman, Eric; Shai, Daniel; Harter, John; Burganov, Bulat; Adamo, Carolina; Schlom, Darrell; Shen, Kyle

    2012-02-01

    Recently, it was pointed out that the 5d transition metal iridium oxides (iridates) are promising candidates to realize topological insulators, which provide a unique platform in studying the interplay of Coulomb interactions, spin-orbit coupling, and the band topology of solids. We successfully grew epitaxial perovskite CaIrO3 and pyrochlore Gd2Ir2O7 films by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). A range of biaxial strains for epitaxial CaIrO3 films was achieved by growing on different substrates. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) will be used to investigate the electronic structure of the epitaxial CaIrO3 and Gd2Ir2O7 films.

  12. Semimetallic transport properties of epitaxially stabilized perovskite CaIrO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Daigorou; Matsuno, Jobu; Nishio-Hamane, Daisuke; Takagi, Hidenori

    2015-07-01

    We report on the synthesis and transport properties of perovskite (Pv) CaIrO3 thin films. The Pv phase of CaIrO3 was stabilized by epitaxial growth on SrTiO3, (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.7, and LaAlO3 substrates with strong tensile, weak tensile, and compressive strains, respectively. The resistivity of these films showed a poorly metallic behavior. The Hall resistivity exhibited a sign change as a function of temperature and a nonlinear magnetic-field dependence, which clearly indicated the coexistence of electrons and holes and hence supported that Pv CaIrO3 films are semimetallic. The observed robustness of the semimetallic ground state against tensile and compressive strains is consistent with the presence of symmetry-protected Dirac points (nodes) around the Fermi level that prohibits the system from becoming a band insulator.

  13. Mott insulator-to-metal transition in yttrium-doped CaIrO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, J.; Chen, Y.; Kremenak, J. W.; Miceli, P. F.; Singh, D. K.

    2015-02-01

    We report on the study of insulator-to-metal transition in post-perovskite compound CaIrO3. It is discovered that a gradual chemical substitution of calcium by yttrium leads to the onset of strong metallic behavior in this compound. This observation is in stark contrast to BaIrO3, which preserves its Mott insulating behavior despite excess of the charge carriers due to yttrium doping. Magnetic measurements reveal that both compounds tend to exhibit magnetic character irrespective of the chemical substitution of Ca or Ba. We analyze these unusual observations in light of recent researches that suggest that CaIrO3 does not necessarily possess j = 1/2 ground state due to structural distortion. The insulator-to-metal transition in CaIrO3 will spur new researches to explore more exotic ground state, including superconductivity, in post-perovskite Mott insulators.

  14. Assessment of Indoor Radon Concentrations and Dose Equivalent to Population in Cairo City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon comes from the natural radioactive of radium and uranium found in the soil beneath the house and from the building materials used. The amount of radon in the soil depends on complex soil chemistry that varies from one area to the next. The amount of radon that escapes from the soil and from the building materials and enters the house depends on the weather, soil porosity, soil moisture, and the ventilation within the house. Cairo is an expanding city and includes territories with different characteristics. Thus, in this work radon concentrations were evaluated in different territorial locations within Great cairo. These locations have been selected to investigate any possible differences in radon concentration between old, new residential, agricultural and industrial regions. Measurements were carried out using CR-39 as solid state nuclear track detector. The range of 222Rn activity in this survey was found in the range 8.71-50.18 Bq.m-3 in different locations in cairo

  15. Reactor neutron activation analysis on reference materials from intercomparison runs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) technique in our laboratory to determine major, minor and trace elements in mineral and biological samples from international intercomparison runs organised by IAEA Vienna, IAEA-MEL Monaco, 'pb-anal' Kosice, INCT Warszawa and IPNT Krakow is presented. Neutron irradiation was carried out at WWR-S reactor in Bucharest (short and long irradiation) during 1982-1997 and at TRIGA reactor in Pitesti (long irradiation) during the later period. The following type of materials were analysed: soils, marine sediments, uranium phosphate ore, water sludge, copper flue dust, whey powder, yeast, cereal flour (rye and wheat), marine animal tissue (mussel, garfish and tuna fish), as well as vegetal tissue (seaweed, cabbage, spinach, alfalfa, algae, tea leaves and herbs). The following elements could be, in general, determined: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, Hg, K, La, Lu, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, U, W, Yb and Zn of long-lived radionuclides, as well as Al, Ca, Cl, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Ti of short-lived radionuclides. Data obtained in our laboratory for various matrix samples presented and compared with the intercomparison certified values. The intercomparison exercises offer to the participating laboratories the opportunity to test the accuracy of their analytical methods as well as to acquire valuable Reference Materials/ standards for future analytical applications. (authors)

  16. Semimetallic transport properties of epitaxially stabilized perovskite CaIrO3 films

    OpenAIRE

    Hirai, Daigorou; Matsuno, Jobu; Takagi, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    We report on the synthesis and transport properties of perovskite (Pv) CaIrO3 thin films. The Pv phase of CaIrO3 was stabilized by epitaxial growth on SrTiO3, (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.7, and LaAlO3 substrates with strong tensile, weak tensile, and compressive strains, respectively. The resistivity of these films showed a poorly metallic behavior. The Hall resistivity exhibited a sign change as a function of temperature and a nonlinear magnetic-field dependence, which clearly indicated the coex...

  17. First-principles study of the electronic structure and magnetism of CaIrO$_3$

    OpenAIRE

    Subedi, Alaska

    2011-01-01

    I study the electronic structure and magnetism of postperovskite CaIrO$_3$ using first-principles calculations. The density functional calculations within the local density approximation without the combined effect of spin-orbit coupling and on-site Coulomb repulsion show the system to be metallic, which is in disagreement with the recent experimental evidences that show CaIrO$_3$ to be an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator in the $J_\\textrm{eff}$ = 1/2 state. However, when spin-orbit coupling ...

  18. Arabic and English during Study Abroad in Cairo, Egypt: Issues of Access and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentman, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a snapshot of the experiences of 18 students studying abroad in Cairo, Egypt. Using a modified version of the language contact profile (Freed, Segalowitz, & Dewey, 2004), I investigate their language use and find that students use English more than they use Arabic and that there is considerable individual variation in…

  19. 78 FR 43852 - Correction for the Cairo, IL and Belmond, IA Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... published on December 28, 2012 in FR Doc. 2012-76454, in the first column, the ``Areas Open for Designation..., Lake County, Tennessee. Correction In the Federal Register Notice published on December 28, 2012 in FR... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Correction for the Cairo, IL and Belmond,...

  20. CaIrO3: a Spin-Orbit Mott Insulator Beyond the jeff = 1/2 Ground State

    OpenAIRE

    Sala, M. Moretti; Ohgushi, K.; Al-Zein, A.; Hirata, Y; Monaco, G; Krisch, M.

    2014-01-01

    In CaIrO3 electronic correlation, spin-orbit coupling, and tetragonal crystal field splitting are predicted to be of comparable strength. However, the nature of its ground state is still object of debate, with contradictory experimental and theoretical results. We probe the ground state of CaIrO3 and assess the effective tetragonal crystal field splitting and spin-orbit coupling at play in this system by means of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. We conclude that insulating CaIrO3 is not a...

  1. First-principles study of the electronic structure and magnetism of CaIrO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Alaska

    2012-01-01

    I study the electronic structure and magnetism of postperovskite CaIrO3 using first-principles calculations. The density functional calculations within the local density approximation without the combined effect of spin-orbit coupling and on-site Coulomb repulsion show the system to be metallic, which is in disagreement with the recent experimental evidences that show CaIrO3 to be an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator in the Jeff=1/2 state. However, when spin-orbit coupling is taken into account, the Ir t2g bands split into fully filled Jeff=3/2 bands and half-filled Jeff=1/2 bands. I find that spin-orbit coupling along with a modest on-site Coulomb repulsion opens a gap leading to a Mott insulating state. The ordering is antiferromagnetic along the c axis with total moments aligned antiparallel along the c axis and canted along the b axis.

  2. Deuterium, oxygen-18 and salt content of drinking water sources in Cairo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous increase of population in Cairo exceeding 10 millions inhabitants lead to the search for supplementary potable water resources in addition to the Nile River which is the principle drinking water source. Groundwater represents the main supplementary source. Evaluation of the groundwater feeding the so-called El-Ameria Water Treatment Station which is one of the biggest potable water supplies at the northern of Cairo was carried out. Chemical and isotopic techniques were applied to estimate the suitability of this groundwater for drinking purposes. The chemical analysis includes the determination of sodium, potasium, calcium and magnesium concentrations in additon to those of chlorides, sulphates, bicarbonates and silicates, while the isotopic analysis includes oxygen-18 and deuterium. The overall chemical- and isotopic investigations determined the conditions at which the examined groundwater is suitable for drinking purposes. (orig.)

  3. Analytical Characterization of Rococo Paintings in Egypt: Preliminary Results from El-Gawhara Palace at Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma REFAAT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El-Gawhara palace (1813–1814 AD is situated south of the Mosque of Muhammad Ali in the Cairo Citadel. This palace is an important example of the best early 19th century rococo decorations in Egypt. The present study reports some of the results obtained from the application of different analytical techniques to characterize some rococo paintings at El-Gawhara palace at Cairo, Egypt. The characterization of the studied paintings was carried out by means of optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT−IR. The obtained results allowed the identification of the chemical composition, structure and the painting technique employed in these paintings. This methodology reveals some useful information on some rococo paintings dating back to the 19th century in Egypt.

  4. Reduction of lead pollution from vehicular emissions in cairo Part 1: Comparison of alternative solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been recognized for decades that the major source of lead pollution is lead additives to automotive fuels. This problem has been countered in most countries in europe and Usa by introducing alternative anti-knock chemicals and unleaded gasoline. In egypt lead is still being added to gasoline in large quantities. However, progress has been made, and unleaded gasoline is currently being produced in Alexandria. Nevertheless, the major pollution problem remains in the Greater Cairo region as indicated by the atmospheric lead levels and the lead blood levels of the children in Cairo. The aim of the present study is to find an optimum solution to this problem. A comparison of the different solutions is conducted in order to come up with the most feasible solution to this urgent problem. In conclusion it has been demonstrated that the elimination of lead additives, with its huge positives effects on the country environment, proved to be profitable. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Cairo city air quality research initiative part-i: A meteorological modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modified meteorological model Hotmac (Higher order turbulence model for atmospheric circulation) is a three-dimensional and finite grid model developed primarily for simospheric motions and based on solving the conservation equations of mass momentum, energy and turbulent kinetic energy. The model is used for studying air quality of cairo cty and its surrounding to treat a domain that includes an urbanized area for understanding problems of air pollution. The acquired terrain (elevation) data for Egypt was obtained. The local and upper level geostrophic data were provided by rawinsonde of wind speed and direction, temperature,relative humidity, water vapour, and pressure The potential temperature was obtained by a computer program. The meteorological data was obtained for helwan site, about 20 kilometer south of cairo city. Three mested grids were used, with grids resolutions of 2 6 and 18 kilometers to cover a domain of approximately 360 km that extended from the red Sea to the mediterranean Sea

  6. Learning from Cairo. Global Perspectives and Future Visions de Beth Stryker, Omar Nagati et Magda Mostafa

    OpenAIRE

    Stadnicki, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Faisant référence au succès éditorial mondial de D. Scott Brown et R. Venturi sur Las Vegas, lequel marqua la naissance du postmodernisme en architecture, Learning from Cairo apparaît comme un ouvrage tout aussi innovant, qui devrait marquer les études urbaines sur l’Égypte, le Moyen-Orient et plus largement les pays du Sud et qui, lui non plus, ne devrait pas échapper à la controverse. Précisons tout de suite que l’intérêt de Learning from Cairo réside moins dans son contenu à proprement par...

  7. Transformational Weakening During the Perovskite-Post Perovskite Phase Transition in CaIrO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, S. A.; Dobson, D. P.; Weidner, D. J.; Li, L.; Vaughan, M. T.; Walte, N.; Brodholt, J. P.

    2007-12-01

    The D" layer plays a fundamental role in core - mantle interactions. The recent discovery of a CaIrO3 structured phase of MgSiO3, the so called post-perovskite (ppv) phase, significantly altered our understanding of the seismic and dynamic properties of the D". Here we report results of a study of the rheology during transformation from pv to pvv. The experiments were performed using the D-DIA on the X17B2 beamline at NSLS. A sample of presintered perovskite structured CaIrO3 was deformed, along with a MgO stress calibrant, during heating at 3 GPa and up to 1000°C in a 8mm D-DIA assembly. The stress was measured by X-ray diffraction from the MgO sample and a proxy for the phase proportions was the relative strengths of unique perovskite and post-perovskite diffraction peaks from the CaIrO3 sample. The strain was measured by X-radiography, from the position of Platinum foils placed above, between and below the two samples. From this data the viscosity of the CaIrO3 sample can be calculated as well as the progress of the reaction. During the transformation to post-perovskite we observed a two fold weakening of the pv and ppv mixture; followed by an increase in the strength of the mixture to greater than that of that starting perovskite-structured material. If MgSiO3 behaves in the same way during pv - ppv transformation it will cause a viscous decoupling between the lower mantle and the D". This in turn has major implications for the topography that can be supported at the top of the D" layer.

  8. Persistent semi-metal-like nature of epitaxial perovskite CaIrO3 thin films

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Abhijit; Jeong, Yoon Hee

    2015-01-01

    Strong spin-orbit coupled 5d transition metal based ABO3 oxides, especially iridates, allow tuning parameters in the phase diagram and may demonstrate important functionalities, for example, by means of strain effects and symmetry-breaking, because of the interplay between the Coulomb interactions and strong spin-orbit coupling. Here, we have epitaxially stabilized high quality thin films of perovskite (Pv) CaIrO3. Film on the best lattice-matched substrate shows semi-metal-like characteristi...

  9. 开罗夜未眠%SLEEPLESS iN CaiRo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ During the last few years,my neighborhood in Cairo has experienced such an influx of refugees from the Iraq war that longtime residents have begun,with a mixture of affection and unease,to call it New Baghdad.Two dialects of Arabic are spoken in the streets,and there is Iraqi flatbread for sale in the local market.The family living in the apartment upstairs came to Egypt from Iraq nine months ago.

  10. Exclusion and Informality: The Praetorian Politics of Land Management in Cairo, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Dorman, W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Since the late 1970s, Western aid agencies, including the US Agency for International Development (AID) and the World Bank, sought to assist the Egyptian government in planning its capital, Cairo. The aim was to foster an administratively competent Egyptian state able to respond, for example, to informal urbanization of the city's agricultural periphery by channelling the city's growth into planned and serviced desert sites. However, these initiatives were almost entirely unsuccessful. Egypti...

  11. Alberto Cairo: The Functional Art. An introduction to information graphics and visualization, Berkeley 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Osińska, Veslava

    2015-01-01

    Review of the first book to offer a broad, hands-on introduction to information graphics and visualization, the use of charts, maps, diagrams, and illustrations to communicate and understand data and phenomena. Alberto Cairo, who teaches at the University of Miami, explains that visualizations should be conceived as tools that extend human perception, letting go beyond what the bare eye can see, and allow to identify patterns and trends that would be invisible otherwise. Recenzja pierwszej...

  12. Difficult airway management patterns among anesthesiologists practicing in Cairo University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamat I. Abdel rahman

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The practice of anesthesiologists in Cairo university hospitals is close to the recommendations of the ASA guidelines for management of difficult airway. There is increased skills in fiberoptic bronchoscopes and SGA with increased frequency of difficult airway managements training courses; however, they need to improve their skills in awake fiberoptic intubations technique and they need to be trained on invasive airway management access to close the discrepancy between their theoretical choices in different situations and their actual skills.

  13. Improving the marketing abilities of some egyptian exports using radiation technology in cairo air port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economics of establishing a food irradiation facility at cairo airport are discussed together with the effect of various parameters on uint processing costs. This study comprises the determination of the commodity mix for the egyptian food commodities that are proposed for irradiation and export from the cairo airport. The commodity mix is distributed for the full utilization of the working capacity and the evaluation of the type of the irradiation facility and also the radiation source strength. The financial analysis for such an irradiation facility is also carried out. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operation cost and annual throughputs. We analyzed the cost- benefit of the proposed food irradiation facility. We took into account the cost of the capital investment, operation and other additional parameters and then estimated the unit cost. The investment criteria utilized for commercial evaluation were internal rate of return (I.I.R.) and pay back period (P.B.P.). The irradiation cost and the additional income are also discussed. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of the an irradiation unit for the establishment of food irradiation unit in cairo air port in would be economically feasible

  14. Development and validation of a lead emission inventory for the Greater Cairo area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Safar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate the environmental health risks to Cairo residents invariably conclude that lead is one of the area’s major health hazards. The Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP, which was implemented by a team led by Chemonics International, funded by USAID in partnership with the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA, started developing a lead emission inventory for the greater Cairo (GC area in 1998. The inventory contains a list by major source of the annual lead emissions in the GC area. Uses of the inventory and associated database include developing effective regulatory and control strategies, assessing emissions trends, and conducting modeling exercises. This paper describes the development of the current lead emissions inventory (1999–2010, along with an approach to develop site specific emission factors and measurements to validate the inventory. This paper discusses the major sources of lead in the GC area, which include lead smelters, Mazout (heavy fuel oil combustion, lead manufacturing batteries factories, copper foundries, and cement factories. Included will be the trend in the lead emissions inventory with regard to the production capacity of each source category. In addition, the lead ambient measurements from 1999 through 2010 are described and compared with the results of Source Attribution Studies (SAS conducted in 1999, 2002, and 2010. Due to EEAA/CAIP efforts, a remarkable decrease in more than 90% in lead emissions was attained for 2007.

  15. The perovskite to post-perovskite transition in CaIrO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronnes, R. G.; Frost, D. J.; Boffa-Ballaran, T.; Stolen, S.

    2006-12-01

    The phase transition of MgSiO3-dominated perovskite to a post-perovskite phase with CaIrO3-type structure in the deep mantle has important implications for the core-mantle boundary heat flux and Earth's dynamics. The Clapeyron slope of the phase boundary is a critical parameter in geodynamical models but cannot be determined accurately in laser-heated diamond anvil experiments. Experiments using suitable analogue compositions where the perovskite to post-perovskite transition (PvPPpvT) can be studied within the pressure ranges of the piston cylinder or multianvil apparatus may therefore be useful. Hirose and Fujita [1] investigated the PvPPvT in CaIrO3 at 1-3 GPa and 1350-1550 ºC, and found a dp/dT-slope of 14-20 MPa/K. We investigated the transition, using narrower brackets and a few reversal experiments and located the transition at the somewhat higher temperatures of 1458-1513 at 1-2.5 GPa, with dp/dT-slope of 26-29 MPa/K. In addition to the reversal experiments, using Pv and PPv, we also investigated the potential effect of different starting materials including CaO + IrO2 oxide mixes and oxide mixes reacted at 850-900 C. The starting material issue is especially important for CaIrO3, because CaO is hygroscopic and because minor amounts of reduced Ir starts to form even in air at temperatures above about 800 C. Special care was taken to minimize these effects. The Clapeyron slopes determined for the PvPPvT in the CaIrO3-system are considerably larger that those estimated for MgSiO3 from first principles and ab-initio models and from modelling of the topography of the upper and lower D"-discontinuities, assuming that these discontinuities are caused by the PvPPvT. Clapeyron slopes ranging from 6 to 10 MPa/K have been used in such geodynamic modelling. In order to characterize the PvPPvT in CaIrO3 further, we will derive crystallographic, elastic and thermodynamic parameters for the perovskite and post-perovskite phases by single-crystal XRD, combined with

  16. CaIrO3: A Spin-Orbit Mott Insulator Beyond the jeff=1/2 Ground State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, M. Moretti; Ohgushi, K.; Al-Zein, A.; Hirata, Y.; Monaco, G.; Krisch, M.

    2014-05-01

    In CaIrO3, electronic correlation, spin-orbit coupling, and tetragonal crystal field splitting are predicted to be of comparable strength. However, the nature of its ground state is still an object of debate, with contradictory experimental and theoretical results. We probe the ground state of CaIrO3 and assess the effective tetragonal crystal field splitting and spin-orbit coupling at play in this system by means of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. We conclude that insulating CaIrO3 is not a jeff=1/2 iridate and discuss the consequences of our finding to the interpretation of previous experiments. In particular, we clarify how the Mott insulating state in iridates can be readily extended beyond the jeff=1/2 ground state.

  17. CaIrO3: a spin-orbit Mott insulator beyond the j(eff) ground state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, M Moretti; Ohgushi, K; Al-Zein, A; Hirata, Y; Monaco, G; Krisch, M

    2014-05-01

    In CaIrO3, electronic correlation, spin-orbit coupling, and tetragonal crystal field splitting are predicted to be of comparable strength. However, the nature of its ground state is still an object of debate, with contradictory experimental and theoretical results. We probe the ground state of CaIrO3 and assess the effective tetragonal crystal field splitting and spin-orbit coupling at play in this system by means of resonant inelastic x-ray scattering. We conclude that insulating CaIrO3 is not a j(eff) = 1/2 iridate and discuss the consequences of our finding to the interpretation of previous experiments. In particular, we clarify how the Mott insulating state in iridates can be readily extended beyond the j(eff) = 1/2 ground state. PMID:24836260

  18. A study of ultraviolet solar radiation at Cairo urban area, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robaa, S.M. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Dept. of Astronomy and Meterology

    2004-07-01

    The monthly mean values of global, G, and ultraviolet, UV, solar radiation incident on a horizontal surface at Cairo urban area during the two different periods (1969-1973) and (1993-1997) are presented, analyzed and compared. The effect of urbanization processes on the solar radiation components is investigated and discussed. It was found that the total radiation of the two components, G and UV received at the urban area of Cairo during the period (1969-1973) highly exceeds the radiation received during the period (1993-1997) for all months of the year. The mean relative reduction of G and UV reached 17.4% and 27.4% respectively. A significant correlation between G and UV radiation has been established and the recommended correlation equation has been stated to estimate the values of UV radiation that are difficult to measure at any site in the zone of Lower Egypt. Also, a comparative study of the two radiation components, G and UV, at urban (Cairo) and rural (Bahtim) areas during the period (1993-1997) revealed that the urban area always has values of G and UV radiation distinctly lower than that found in rural area for all months of the year. Urban-rural mean reduction of G and UV reached 7.0% and 17.9% respectively. The ratio of the ultraviolet to global radiation (UV/G) are calculated and compared with other sites in the Arabian Peninsula. The effect of atmospheric dust on the measured solar radiation components is also investigated and discussed. (author)

  19. Mott insulator-to-metal transition in yttrium-doped CaIrO3

    OpenAIRE

    Gunasekera, J.; Chen, Y.; Kremenak, J. W.; Miceli, P. F.; Singh, D.K.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the study of insulator-to-metal transition in post-perovskite compound CaIrO3. It is discovered that a gradual chemical substitution of calcium by yttrium leads to the onset of strong metallic behavior in this compound. This observation is in stark contrast to BaIrO3, which preserves its Mott insulating behavior despite excess of charge carriers due to yttrium doping. Magnetic measurements reveal that both compounds tend to exhibit magnetic character irrespective of the chemical ...

  20. The practice of home in old Cairo: Towards socio-spatial models of sustainable living

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmonem, M. Gamal

    2012-01-01

    The article investigates the practice of home as an everyday system for sustainable living in Old Cairo. The idea of home in this historic urban space has long involved fluid socio-spatial associations and made efficient use of space-activity-time dynamics. As in the past, a individual’s sense of home may here extend beyond or shrink within the physical boundaries of a particular house, as spatial settings are produced and consumed according to time of day, gender association, or special even...

  1. Environmental pollution study around a large industrial area near Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis is one of the most extensively used methods for environmental studies due to its high sensitivity, precision, versatility and multielemental character. Cement factories at Helwan, south of Cairo, contribute substantially to environmental pollution. Determination of minor and trace-elements in dust particulates from the cement industrial areas has been performed to assess the air quality from an environmental and human health point of view. Soil-7 standard reference material from IAEA and SRM-1571 from NBS were used for quality assurance testing. The data obtained indicate there is an indication that the pollution could be hazardous to people living in and around the area surveyed. (author)

  2. A five-year analysis of the incidence of glomerulonephritis at Cairo University Hospital-Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Salwa Ibrahim; Ahmed Fayed; Sawsan Fadda; Dawlet Belal

    2012-01-01

    Our study aimed to obtain a comprehensive review of the incidence of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis (GN) at the Cairo University Hospitals, Egypt, over the last five years. We analyzed the clinical and pathological data of all renal biopsy samples that were performed during the period from July 2003 to July 2008. Renal biopsy samples of 924 patients were referred for pathological assessment during the period of the study [437 male and 487 female patients; their mean age was 26.5 ± 14.6 year...

  3. Natural radioactivity in different types of bricks fabricated and used in the Cairo region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured in samples of different types of bricks (clay, cement, and sand) fabricated and used in urban buildings in the Cairo region in Egypt, using a γ-ray spectrometer with a HpGe-detector. The radiation hazard of the total natural radioactivity in the studied brick was estimated by different approaches. The concentrations of the natural radionuclides and the radium-equivalent activity in the studied Egyptian brick samples are compared with the corresponding results for bricks of the different countries and are found to be significantly lower in all cases. (Author)

  4. The Politics of Neglect: the Egyptian State in Cairo, 1974-98

    OpenAIRE

    Dorman, WJ

    2007-01-01

    This thesis examines state-society relations in Egypt, and the logic of durable authoritarianism since 1952. It does so through an examination of the Egyptian state’s neglectful rule, from the 1970s through the 1990s, of its capital Cairo. In particular, the thesis focuses on state inaction vis-à-vis Cairo’s informal housing sector: those neighbourhoods established on land not officially sanctioned for urbanization. The central research question of the thesis is to explain why the Egyptia...

  5. OXA-163-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Cairo, Egypt, in 2009 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Mohammed O; Bonura, Celestino; Aleo, Aurora; El-Domany, Ramadan A; Fasciana, Teresa; Mammina, Caterina

    2012-07-01

    Two genetically unrelated OXA-163-carrying Klebsiella pneumoniae strains were identified from two infection cases in June 2009 and May 2010 in Cairo, Egypt. OXA-163-producing Enterobacteriaceae had been previously reported in Argentina only. Both patients had no history of travel abroad. The emergence of this newly recognized OXA-48-related β-lactamase able to hydrolyze cephalosporins and carbapenems is especially worrying in a geographic area where OXA-48 is endemic and effective surveillance for antibiotic resistance is largely unaffordable. PMID:22518851

  6. CaIrO3 post-perovskite, a j = 1/2 quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnet

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanov, Nikolay A.; Katukuri, Vamshi M.; Stoll, Hermann; Brink, Jeroen van den; Hozoi, Liviu

    2012-01-01

    The 5d5 iridate CaIrO3 is isostructural with the post-perovskite phase of MgSiO3, recently shown to occur under extreme pressure in the lower Earth's mantle. It therefore serves as an analogue of post-perovskite MgSiO3 for a wide variety of measurements at ambient conditions or achievable with conventional multianvile pressure modules. By multireference configuration-interaction calculations we here provide essential information on the chemical bonding and magnetic interactions in CaIrO3. We ...

  7. Nature of the Insulating Ground State of the 5 d Postperovskite CaIrO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Woo; Liu, Chen; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Jun-Ho; Yao, Yongxin; Ho, Kai-Ming; Cho, Jun-Hyung

    2015-08-01

    The insulating ground state of the 5 d transition metal oxide CaIrO3 has been classified as a Mott-type insulator. Based on a systematic density functional theory (DFT) study with local, semilocal, and hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, we reveal that the Ir t2 g states exhibit large splittings and one-dimensional electronic states along the c axis due to a tetragonal crystal field. Our hybrid DFT calculation adequately describes the antiferromagnetic (AFM) order along the c direction via a superexchange interaction between Ir4 + spins. Furthermore, the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) hybridizes the t2 g states to open an insulating gap. These results indicate that CaIrO3 can be represented as a spin-orbit Slater insulator, driven by the interplay between a long-range AFM order and the SOC. Such a Slater mechanism for the gap formation is also demonstrated by the DFT + dynamical mean field theory calculation, where the metal-insulator transition and the paramagnetic to AFM phase transition are concomitant with each other.

  8. Nature of the insulating ground state of the 5d postperovskite CaIrO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the insulating ground state of the 5d transition metal oxide CaIrO3 has been classified as a Mott-type insulator. Based on a systematic density functional theory (DFT) study with local, semilocal, and hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, we reveal that the Ir t2g states exhibit large splittings and one-dimensional electronic states along the c axis due to a tetragonal crystal field. Our hybrid DFT calculation adequately describes the antiferromagnetic (AFM) order along the c direction via a superexchange interaction between Ir4+ spins. Furthermore, the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) hybridizes the t2g states to open an insulating gap. These results indicate that CaIrO3 can be represented as a spin-orbit Slater insulator, driven by the interplay between a long-range AFM order and the SOC. Such a Slater mechanism for the gap formation is also demonstrated by the DFT + dynamical mean field theory calculation, where the metal-insulator transition and the paramagnetic to AFM phase transition are concomitant with each other

  9. Impact of industrial wastewater disposal on surface water bodies in Mostord area north Greater Cairo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The studied area (Shoubra El-Khima, Bahteem and Mostorod) lies in the industrial area north of Greater Cairo. The area suffers from several environmental problems such as sewage and disposal of pollutants from the surrounding factories into the surface water pathways in the area. Water samples were collected seasonally from different waterways found in the area, domestic and or industrial liquid wastes from 12 discharge tubes of different factories (as a point source of pollution). Chemical characteristics of different water samples and its heavy metals content were determined using ion coupled plasma technique (ICP). Results indicate that industrial and domestic wastewater samples contain several toxic levels of tested heavy metals (Cd, Co, Pb and Ni) which have a serious impact on surface waterways in the area.Shebin El-Qanater collector drain samples exhibited the highest levels of Cd, Co, Pb and Ni compared to other tested water bodies Mostorod collector drain samples showed the highest levels of Zn and Cu. Industrial effluent samples collected from Cairo Company for Fabric industry had the highest amounts of total Zn Cu, Cd, Co and Pb, while Delta steel company discharges the highest amounts of total Fe and Mn. Al-Ahleya Plastic Company discharges the highest amounts of total-Ni. Generally, it is necessary to impose the environmental laws and its regulation regarding the industrial wastewater treatments and disposals to minimize the risk of the adverse effects of these pollutants.

  10. Evaluation of The Surface Ozone Concentrations In Greater Cairo Area With Emphasis On Helwan, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various biogenic and anthropogenic sources emit huge quantities of surface ozone. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the surface ozone levels present at Helwan area in order to improve the knowledge and understanding troposphere processes. Surface Ozone has been measured at 2 sites at Helwan; these sites cover the most populated area in Helwan. Ozone concentration is continuously monitored by UV absorption photometry using the equipment O3 41 M UV Photometric Ozone Analyzer. The daily maximum values of the ozone concentration in the greater Cairo area have approached but did not exceeded the critical levels during the year 2008. Higher ozone concentrations at Helwan are mainly due to the transport of ozone from regions further to the north of greater Cairo and to a lesser extent of ozone locally generated by photochemical smog process. The summer season has the largest diurnal variation, with the tendency of the daily ozone maxima occur in the late afternoon. The night time concentration of ozone was significantly higher at Helwan because there are no fast acting sinks, destroying ozone since the average night time concentration of ozone is maintained at 40 ppb at the site. No correlation between the diurnal total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and the diurnal cumulative ozone concentration was observed during the Khamasin period

  11. OPTIMIZATION PROCEDURE FOR PRELIMINARY DESIGN STAGE OF CAIRO-DAMIETTA SELF-PROPELLED GRAIN BULK SHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Moustafa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The global logistics center for the storage and handling of grain which will be constructed at Damietta port will extremely increase the annual movement of grain through Cairo-Damietta waterway. Therefore, the demand for inland grain bulk ships has increased significantly in the recent years. This paper introduces a procedure to find out the fleet size and optimum characteristics of self-propelled grain bulk ships working between Cairo and Damietta through River Nile. The characteristics of the Cairo–Damietta waterway are investigated to define the constraints on dimensions and speed for such ship type. Also, mathematical model for the objective function was developed considering: powering, voyage, weight, stability and cost calculation. In this research, Specific cost (Sc, cost of transporting one ton of cargo a distance of one kilometre, is considered as the objective function for this optimization process. This optimization problem is handled as a single objective nonlinear constrained optimization problem using a specially developed computer program. Solutions are generated by varying design variables systematically in certain steps. The best of these solutions is then taken as the estimated optimum. Finally, the problem is presented, the main constrains analyzed and the optimum solution shown.

  12. The extent of nonmedical use of psychoactive substances among secondary school students in Greater Cairo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soueif, M I; El-Sayed, A M; Darweesh, Z A; Hannourah, M A

    1982-02-01

    The present paper reports on an epidemiological study of the nonmedical use of psychoactive substances among male secondary school students in Greater Cairo. A standardized questionnaire was administered to 5530 male pupils constituting a representative sample of all male students in Cairo secondary schools. The main aim of the study was to provide factual answers to questions pertaining to, (a) the extent of the use of psychoactive drugs, and (b) the aetiology of such use, among secondary school students. Methodological steps undertaken to provide for representativeness of the sample and credibility of the tool are described. Among the interesting results were the following: (1) consistently more arts students than pupils reading science and maths were immersed in the drug culture; (2) sizable numbers of young people get exposed to the drug culture through well defined psychosocial channels; (3) the role of mass media in effecting this exposure seems to be quite serious, ranking in most cases after the role of personal friends; (4) a differentiation between "activists" and "passivists" among subjects who "ever used" drugs seems to be important in understanding more about drug use phenomena, and (5) some findings add a new dimension to the operational definition of high risk groups: a subgroup of nonusers could be labeled "potential users". PMID:7084022

  13. 77 FR 76453 - Opportunity for Designation in Amarillo, TX; Cairo, IL; Baton Rouge, LA; Raleigh, NC; and Belmond...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Opportunity for Designation in Amarillo, TX; Cairo, IL; Baton Rouge, LA; Raleigh, NC; and Belmond, IA Areas; Request for Comments on the...

  14. Agreement for the Establishment in Cairo of a Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 14 September 1962 the Board of Governors approved an Agreement for the establishment in Cairo of a Middle Eastern regional radioisotope centre for the Arab countries. The text of this Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members

  15. Retrospective study of positive physical torture cases in Cairo (2009 & 2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleb, Sherein Salah; Elshabrawy, Ekram Mohamad; Elkaradawy, Magda Helal; Nemr Welson, Nermeen

    2014-05-01

    Torture is the most serious violation of a person's fundamental right to personal integrity and a pathological form of human interaction. In this study, the prevalence of torture in Cairo during the years 2009 & 2010 is 10.97% of the total number of cases examined at the medico legal authority of Egypt in Zenhom (11.29% in 2010 & 10.36% in 2009). The number of cases under this study is 367 (175 cases in 2009, 192 cases in 2010). Torture is more prevalent in the year 2010 than in the year 2009. The largest prevalence of torture was found in the area of south Cairo (120 cases; 32.7%) while the least was found in the area of west Cairo (50 cases; 13.6%). The victims included 336 males (91.6%) and 31 females (8.4%) with male to female ratio 10.8: 1. The most commonly affected age group in the studied victims was the age group of the third decade (171 cases; 46.6%) while the least was the age group above the sixth decade (6 cases; 1.6%). The most commonly affected site of injury was head & neck (243 cases; 66.2%) while the least was abdomen (17 cases; 4.6%). The most common type of injury was bruises (258 cases; 70.3%) while the least was electrocution (5 cases; 1.4%). Regarding the causal instrument, the most commonly used instrument was blunt object (333 cases; 90.7%) while the least was electric current (5 cases; 10%). Hitting with a stick leaving the characteristic shape of elongated abrasion & bruises was found in 35 cases (9.5%) and characteristic lesion of handcuff, which is blunt trauma wounds around wrists or ankles, was found in 68 cases (18.5%). There was one case of hair torture (0.3%) & 5 cases of sexual torture (1.5%). Permanent infirmity left in victims was positive in 24 cases (6.5%) and negative in 343 cases (93.5%) while deformity left in victims was positive in 10 cases (3%) and negative in 357 cases (97%). All permanent infirmity cases were male. Of the 24 cases of permanent infirmity, 83.3% were subjected to blunt trauma and 79.2% were injured in

  16. NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY LEVELS IN SOME SURFACE SOILS OF HELIOPOLIS AND NASR CITY, CAIRO, EGYPT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The levels of natural radioactivity in thirty soil samples collected from Heliopolis and Nasr city, Cairo, Egypt, were measured. The concentrations of radionuclides in samples were determined by gamma ray spectrometer using hyper pure germanium (HPGe) detector. The obtained activity concentrations of Ra-226 and thorium series as well as K-40 in the studied samples were discussed. The total gamma absorbed dose rate in air (nGy/h), the annual effective dose (mSv/y) and the external hazard were measured and compared with the recommended limits from the UNSCEAR data. The high K-40 value is mainly due to the presence of orthoclase mineral in the studied samples, whereas high radiation levels are due to the presence of zircon and monazite minerals in samples

  17. Mechanism of the CaIrO3 post-perovskite phase transition under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Penghao; Cheng, Jin-Guang; Zhou, Jian-Shi; Goodenough, John B.; Henkelman, Graeme

    2013-10-01

    Recent experiments have shown that the perovskite to post-perovskite phase transformation in CaIrO3 occurs more readily at room temperature when a shear stress is applied as compared to isotropic pressure. To understand this mechanistically, we have calculated the minimum-energy pathway of the phase transition with density functional theory under different pressure conditions with the generalized solid-state nudged elastic band method. Our results reveal that shear stress significantly lowers the barrier and stabilizes the product state while isotropic pressure initially raises the barrier and only reduces the barrier at pressures above 90 GPa. The nonmonotonic change in barrier with isotropic pressure is explained in terms of an increase in the activation volume under low pressure and a decrease under high pressure.

  18. Getting into hot water Problematizing hot water service demand: The case of Old Cairo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culhane, Thomas Henry

    This dissertation analyzes hot water demand and service infrastructure in two neighboring but culturally distinct communities of the urban poor in the inner-city area of central Cairo. The communities are the Historic Islamic Cairo neighborhood of Darb Al Ahmar at the foot of Al-Azhar park, and the Zurayib neighborhood of Manshiyat Nasser where the Coptic Zabaleen Recyclers live. The study focuses on the demand side of the hot water issue and involves consideration of built-environment infrastructures providing piped water, electricity, bottled gas, sewage, and the support structures (wiring and plumbing) for consumer durables (appliances such as hot water heaters, stoves, refrigerators, air conditioners) as well as water pumps and water storage tanks. The study asks the questions "How do poor communities in Cairo value hot water" and "How do cost, infrastructure and cultural preferences affect which attributes of hot water service are most highly preferred?". To answer these questions household surveys based primarily on the World Bank LSMS modules were administered by professional survey teams from Darb Al Ahmar's Aga Khan Trust for Culture and the Zabaleen's local NGO "Spirit of Youth" in their adjacent conununities in and surrounding historic Cairo. In total 463 valid surveys were collected, (231 from Darb Al Ahmar, 232 from the Zabaleen). The surveys included a contingent valuation question to explore Willingness to Pay for improved hot water service; the surveys queried household assets as proxies for income. The dissertation's findings reveal that one quarter of the residents of Darb Al Ahmar and two-thirds of the residents of Manshiyet Nasser's Zabaleen lack conventional water heating service. Instead they employ various types of stoves and self-built contraptions to heat water, usually incurring considerable risk and opportunity costs. However the thesis explores the notion that this is rational "satisficing" behavior; despite the shortcomings of such self

  19. A study of sand deposit caused by a dust storm on Cairo Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A severe storm attacked Cairo and Most of the Delta in february 3rd, 1992. A satellite photograph and synoptic charts of surface and upper atmosphere were studied to follow the depression (center of the storm) creating strong winds. Deposited dust during the storm was collected outside and inside the city. Desert soil as well as the collected dust samples were mechanically analyzed and the relation between dust grain size and weight was performed as such. Also, a statistical test has been done, which showed simplification correlation between soil and boundary deposits. Deposition rates reached 2.32 kg/m2 at a residential area in the city (Dokki). The results show clearly the importance of barriers of trees surrounding the city particularly the west borders with desert

  20. Prevalence of Bacillus cereus in milk and rice grains collected from great Cairo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty two Samples of heat treated milk, raw rice grains and Cheetos (XO-Snacks) were collected from supermarkets of great Cairo. Seventeen out of 25 milk samples (68%) gave detectable count of B. cereus on MYP medium. These positive samples count was ranging from 1.5 X 101 cfu/ml to 11.3X102 cfu/ml. Eighteen out of 25 Samples of raw rice grains (72%) gave also detectable count on MYP medium also. The count of positive rice grains was ranging from 2.0X101 cfu/g to 11.5X103 cfu /ml. However one Sample out of 12 Samples (8%) of Cheetos (Snacks) was positive with count 3.0X102 cfu /g. Gamma irradiation reduced the total bacterial count and B. cereus count gradually. Eight kGy reduced total bacterial count and Bacillus cereus count by 3.1 and 2.2 log cycles respectively.

  1. From Cairo to the Straits Settlements: Modern Salafiyyah Reformist Ideas in Malay Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Zakariya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Early twentieth-century Malay Peninsula witnessed the emergence of Islamic reform movements. The Malay reformists who were discontented with the socio-economic and political conditions of the Malays criticised the Malay elites and called for “reformation” of their society. The Malay reformists derived inspirations for their reformist ideology from the leading Middle Eastern reformists, Muhammad ≤Abduh, Rashīd Riḍā and others, known as salafiyyah. Available data suggest that the transmission of salafiyyah ideas in particular, and Middle Eastern reformism in general, to Malay Peninsula were made possible by many factors. Of these factors, the roles of the ḥaramayn, the centres of learning in Cairo and the invention of printing machines have been least explored. This study attempts to fill in the void in the existing literature.

  2. Preparation of Database for Land use Management in North East of Cairo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental management in urban areas is difficult due to the amount and miscellaneous data needed for decision making. This amount of data is splendid without adequate database systems and modern methodologies. A geo-database building for East Cairo City Area (ECCA) is built to be used in the process of urban land-use suitability to achieve better performance compared with usual methods used. This Geo-database has required availability of detailed, accurate, updated and geographically referenced data on its terrain physical characteristics and its expected environmental hazards that may occur. A smart environmental suitability model for ECCA is developed and implemented using ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2. This model is capable of suggesting the more appropriate urban land-use, based on the existing spatial and non-spatial potentials and constraints.

  3. Sources of PM(10) and PM (2.5) in Cairo's ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Allaban, M; Lowenthal, D H; Gertler, A W; Labib, M

    2007-10-01

    A source attribution study was performed to assess the contributions of specific pollutant source types to the observed particulate matter (PM) levels in the greater Cairo Area using the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Three intensive ambient monitoring studies were carried out during the period of February 21-March 3, 1999, October 27-November 27, 1999, and June 8-June 26, 2002. PM(10), PM(2.5), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured on a 24-h basis at six sampling stations during each of the intensive periods. The six intensive measurement sites represented background levels, mobile source impacts, industrial impacts, and residential exposure. Major contributors to PM(10) included geological material, mobile source emissions, and open burning. PM(2.5) tended to be dominated by mobile source emissions, open burning, and secondary species. This paper presents the results of the PM(10) and PM(2.5), source contribution estimates. PMID:17268919

  4. Thermal equation of state of CaIrO3 post-perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Whitaker, Matthew L.; Liu, Qiong; Wang, Liping; Nishiyama, Norimasa; Wang, Yanbin; Kubo, Atsushi; Duffy, Thomas S.; Li, Baosheng

    2011-05-01

    The pressure-volume-temperature ( P- V- T) relation of CaIrO3 post-perovskite (ppv) was measured at pressures and temperatures up to 8.6 GPa and 1,273 K, respectively, with energy-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction using a DIA-type, cubic-anvil apparatus (SAM85). Unit-cell dimensions were derived from the Le Bail full profile refinement technique, and the results were fitted using the third-order Birth-Murnaghan equation of state. The derived bulk modulus K_{T0} at ambient pressure and temperature is 168.3 ± 7.1 GPa with a pressure derivative K_{T0}^' } = 5.4 ± 0.7. All of the high temperature data, combined with previous experimental data, are fitted using the high-temperature Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, the thermal pressure approach, and the Mie-Grüneisen-Debye formalism. The refined thermoelastic parameters for CaIrO3 ppv are: temperature derivative of bulk modulus (partial KT /partial T)P = -0.038 ± 0.011 GPa K-1, α KT = 0.0039 ± 0.0001 GPa K-1, ( {partial KT /partial T} )V = -0.012 ± 0.002 GPa K-1, and ( {partial2 P/partial T2 } )V = 1.9 ± 0.3 × 10-6 GPa2 K-2. Using the Mie-Grüneisen-Debye formalism, we obtain Grüneisen parameter γ0 = 0.92 ± 0.01 and its volume dependence q = 3.4 ± 0.6. The systematic variation of bulk moduli for several oxide post-perovskites can be described approximately by the relationship K T0 = 5406.0/ V(molar) + 5.9 GPa.

  5. Dose calculation for accident situations at WWR-S type spent nuclear fuel repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository at IFIN-HH Bucharest (SNFR IFIN-HH) consists in four pools, repository hall, radiological monitoring system, ventilation system and auxiliary systems. At the moment the remaining activity in the repository is about 3500 Ci. Despite of the small activity, for emergency preparedness purposes, several accident scenarios, with a non zero probability of occurrence during the repository lifetime, have been postulated. Evaluations of radiological consequences to personnel, general public and environment, for each accident scenario have been performed. The radioactive inventory was evaluated with ORIGEN code from SCALE computer code system and radiological consequences were evaluated with COSYMA computer code. Assumptions for the source term determination, meteorological conditions and release, are presented. The calculated values of doses and risk are also presented. The impact of these accident scenarios on population and environment is also discussed. (authors)

  6. SANS Facility at the Pitesti 14 MW TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time, an important not yet fully exploited potentiality is represented by the SANS instruments existent at lower power reactors and reactors in developing countries even if they are, generally, endowed with a simpler equipment and are characterized by the lack of infrastructure to maintain and repair high technology accessories. The application of SANS at lower power reactors and in developing countries nevertheless is possible in well selected topics where only a restricted Q range is required, when scattering power is expected to be sufficiently high or when the sample size can be increased at the expense of resolution. Examples of this type of applications are: 1) Phase separation and precipitates in material science, 2) Ultrafine grained materials (nanocrystals, ceramics), 3) Porous materials such as concretes and filter materials, 4) Conformation and entanglements of polymer-chains, 5) Aggregates of micelles in microemulsions, gels and colloids, 6) Radiation damage in steels and alloys. The need for the installation of a new SANS facility at the TRIGA Reactor of the Institute of Nuclear Research in Pitesti, Romania becomes actual especially after the shutting down of the WWR-S Reactor from Bucharest. A monochromatic neutron beam with 1.5 A ≤ λ ≤ 5 A is produced by a mechanical velocity selector with helical slots. The distance between sample and detectors plane is 5.2 m. The sample width may be fixed between 10 mm and 20 mm. The minimum value of the scattering vector is Qmin = 0.005 A-1 while the maximal value is Qmax = 0.5 A-1. The relative error is ΔQ/Qmin = 0.5. The cooperation partnership between advanced research centers and the smaller ones from developing countries could be fruitful. The formers act as mentors in solving specific problems. Such a partnership was established between INR Pitesti, Romania and JINR Dubna, Russia. The first step in this cooperation consists in the manufacturing at Dubna of a battery of gas filled

  7. The geographical distribution of meteorological parameters associated with high and low summer ozone levels in the lower troposphere and the boundary layer over the eastern Mediterranean (Cairo case)

    OpenAIRE

    Kalabokas, Pavlos D.; Thouret, Valerie; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Boulanger, Damien; Repapis, Christos C.

    2015-01-01

    In continuation of previous research for evaluation of the high ozone levels observed during summer time over the eastern Mediterranean, MOZAIC profiles collected at the airport of Cairo from 1994 to 2008 are analysed. Average profiles corresponding, respectively, to the highest and the lowest ozone mixing ratios for the 0–1.5 km layer over Cairo in summer (JJA) (94 profiles) are examined along with their corresponding composite maps of geopotential height (and anomalies), vertical velocity (...

  8. Risk perception and priority setting for intervention among hepatitis C virus and environmental risks: a cross-sectional survey in the Cairo community.

    OpenAIRE

    Dewedar Sahar; Gad Rita R; Mohamed Mostafa K; Schwarzinger Michaël; Fontanet Arnaud; Carrat Fabrice; Luchini Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) recently emerged as a major public health hazard in Egypt. However, dramatic healthcare budget constraints limit access to the costly treatment. We assessed risk perception and priority setting for intervention among HCV, unsafe water, and outdoor air pollution in Cairo city. Methods A survey was conducted in the homes of a representative sample of household heads in Cairo city. Risk perception was assessed using the "psychometric paradigm" where he...

  9. Epidemiological Study Of Risky Behaviours And Their Relation With Mental Ill Health Among Secondary School Students In Cairo

    OpenAIRE

    Essam A. El-Moselhy; Morsy A. Ammar; Khaled M. Abd-Allah; Ibrahim A.

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional design was carried out on 827 students from general and technical secondary schools in Cairo. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of risky behaviours among the studied students, to assess their relation with sociodemographic factors and psychological problems and to explore student's attitude toward these behaviours. The data were collected by a standardized interviewing form. Different psychological symptoms were assessed using Middle Sex Hospital Question...

  10. Characterization of CTX-M ESBLs in Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates from Cairo, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Khalaf Noha G; Eletreby Mona M; Hanson Nancy D

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background A high rate of resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins among Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Egypt has been previously reported. This study aims to characterize the resistance mechanism (s) to extended spectrum cephalosporins among resistant clinical isolates at a medical institute in Cairo, Egypt. Methods Nonconsecutive Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp), Enterobacter cloacae (ENT) and Escherichia coli (EC) isolates were obtained from the clinical laboratory at the medical i...

  11. Lattice preferred orientation in CaIrO3 perovskite and post-perovskite formed by plastic deformation under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Ken; Yagi, Takehiko; Ohgushi, Kenya; Merkel, Sébastien; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Kikegawa, Takumi

    2007-11-01

    Lattice preferred orientations (LPO) developed in perovskite and post-perovskite structured CaIrO3 were studied using the radial X-ray diffraction technique combined with a diamond anvil cell. Starting materials of each phase were deformed from 0.1 MPa to 6 GPa at room temperature. Only weak LPO was formed in the perovskite phase, whereas strong LPO was formed in the post-perovskite phase with an alignment of the (010) plane perpendicular to the compression axis. The present result suggests that the (010) is a dominant slip plane in the post-perovskite phase and it is in good agreement with the crystallographic prediction, dislocation observations via transmission electron microscopy, and a recent result of simple shear deformation experiment at 1 GPa 1,173 K. However, the present result contrasts markedly from the results on MgGeO3 and (Mg,Fe)SiO3, which suggested that the (100) or (110) is a dominant slip plane with respect to the post-perovskite structure. Therefore it is difficult to discuss the behavior of the post-perovskite phase in the Earth’s deep interior based on existing data of MgGeO3, (Mg,Fe)SiO3 and CaIrO3. The possible sources of the differences between MgGeO3, (Mg,Fe)SiO3 and CaIrO3 are discussed.

  12. Post-perovskite CaIrO3: A j=1/2 quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, Nikolay A.; Katukuri, Vamshi M.; Stoll, Hermann; van den Brink, Jeroen; Hozoi, Liviu

    2012-06-01

    The 5d5 iridate CaIrO3 is isostructural with the post-perovskite phase of MgSiO3, recently shown to occur under extreme pressure in the lower Earth's mantle. It therefore serves as an analog of post-perovskite MgSiO3 for a wide variety of measurements at ambient conditions or achievable with conventional multianvile pressure modules. By multireference configuration-interaction calculations we here provide essential information on the chemical bonding and magnetic interactions in CaIrO3. We predict a large antiferromagnetic superexchange of 120 meV along the c axis, the same size with the interactions in the cuprate superconductors, and ferromagnetic couplings smaller by an order of magnitude along a. CaIrO3 can thus be regarded as a j=1/2 quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnet. While this qualitatively agrees with the stripy magnetic structure proposed by resonant x-ray diffraction, the detailed microscopic picture emerging from our study, in particular, the highly uneven admixture of t2g components, provides a clear prediction for resonant inelastic x-ray scattering experiments.

  13. Unusual ferromagnetism and strong spin-orbit coupling in Post-Perovskite CaIrO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Luke; Cheng, Jinguang; Zhou, Jianshi; Goodenough, John B.; Haskel, Daniel; van Veenendaal, Michel

    2012-02-01

    Strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and strong correlations have been considered essential in understanding the unusual physical properties of the 4d and 5d transition-metal oxides, such as the SOC driven Mott insulating state in Sr2IrO4. Recently, an unusual atomic-like orbital moment and strong SOC have been confirmed experimentally in 9R-BaIrO3 through analysis of the branching ratio at the Ir L2,3 absorption edges as obtained from x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) measurements. We have applied the same techniques to probe unusual ferromagnetism and SOC in the post-perovskite (pPv) CaIrO3, which is an insulator and exhibits weak ferromagnetism below TC 110K. The branching ratio at the Ir L2,3 absorption edges, which is close to unity in pPv CaIrO3, appears to indicate an even stronger spin-orbit interaction in the pPv CaIrO3 than in 9R-BaIrO3. However, it has been challenging to model the Ir 5d orbital moment, as probed by the XMCD measurements, due to the understood local octahedral-site distortions.

  14. Genotypic, physiological, and biochemical characterization of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba isolated from the environment in Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfeek, Gihan Mostafa; Bishara, Sawsan Abdel-Hamid; Sarhan, Rania Mohammad; ElShabrawi Taher, Eman; ElSaady Khayyal, Amira

    2016-05-01

    Acanthamoebae are the most common opportunistic amphizoic protozoa that cause life-threatening granulomatous amoebic encephalitis in immunocompromised individuals and sight-threatening amoebic keratitis (AK) in contact lens wearers. The present work aimed to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba isolates in different environmental sources: water, soil, and dust in Cairo, Egypt and to characterize the pathogenic potential of the isolated Acanthamoeba using physiological and biochemical assays as well as determination of the genotypes in an attempt to correlate pathogenicity with certain genotypes. The study included the collection of 22 corneal scrapings from patients complaining of symptoms and signs indicative of acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and 75 environmental samples followed by cultivation on non-nutrient agar plates preseeded with E. coli. Positive samples for Acanthamoeba were subjected to osmo- and thermo-tolerance assays and zymography analysis. Potentially pathogenic isolates were subjected to PCR amplification using genus-specific primer pair. Isolates were classified at the genotype level based on the sequence analysis of Acanthamoeba 18S rRNA gene (diagnostic fragment 3). The total detection rate for Acanthamoeba in environmental samples was 33.3 %, 31.4 % in water, 40 % in soil, and 20 % in dust samples. Three and two Acanthamoeba isolates from water and soil sources, respectively, had the potential for pathogenicity as they exhibited full range of pathogenic traits. Other 12 isolates were designated as weak potential pathogens. Only ten of the environmental isolates were positive in PCR and were classified by genotype analysis into T4 genotype (70 %), T3 (10 %) and T5 (20 %). Potential pathogens belonged to genotypes T4 (from water) and T5 (from soil) while weak potential pathogens belonged to genotypes T3 (from water) and T4 (from water and soil). Additionally, T7 genotype was isolated from keratitis patients. There is a considerable

  15. Persistent semi-metal-like nature of epitaxial perovskite CaIrO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Jeong, Yoon Hee

    2015-05-01

    Strong spin-orbit coupled 5d transition metal based ABO3 oxides, especially iridates, allow tuning parameters in the phase diagram and may demonstrate important functionalities, for example, by means of strain effects and symmetry-breaking, because of the interplay between the Coulomb interactions and strong spin-orbit coupling. Here, we have epitaxially stabilized high quality thin films of perovskite (Pv) CaIrO3. Film on the best lattice-matched substrate shows semi-metal-like characteristics. Intriguingly, imposing tensile or compressive strain on the film by altering the underlying lattice-mismatched substrates still maintains semi-metallicity with minute modification of the effective correlation as tensile (compressive) strain results in tiny increases (decreases) of the electronic bandwidth. In addition, magnetoresistance remains positive with a quadratic field dependence. This persistent semi-metal-like nature of Pv-CaIrO3 thin films with minute changes in the effective correlation by strain may provide new wisdom into strong spin-orbit coupled 5d based oxide physics.

  16. Assessment of groundwater quality using geographical information system (GIS), at north-east Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahat, M F; Sadek, M A; Mostafa, W M; Hagagg, K H

    2016-04-01

    The present investigation has been conducted to delineate the hydrogeochemical and environmental factors that control the water quality of the groundwater resources in the north-east of Cairo. A complementary approach based on hydrogeochemistry and a geographical information system (GIS) based protectability index has been employed for conducting this work. The results from the chemical analysis revealed that the groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer is less saline than that of the Miocene aquifer and the main factors that control the groundwater salinity in the studied area are primarily related to the genesis of the original recharging water modified after by leaching, dissolution, cation exchange, and fertilizer leachate. The computed groundwater quality index (WQI) falls into two categories: fair for almost all the Miocene groundwater samples, while the Quaternary groundwater samples are all have a good quality. The retarded flow and non-replenishment of the Miocene aquifer compared to the renewable active recharge of the Quaternary aquifer can explain this variation of WQI. The index and overlay approach exemplified by the DUPIT index has been used to investigate the protectability of the study aquifers against diffuse pollutants. Three categories (highly protectable less vulnerable, moderately protectable moderately vulnerable and less protectable highly vulnerable) have been determined and areally mapped. PMID:27105417

  17. A five-year analysis of the incidence of glomerulonephritis at Cairo University Hospital-Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to obtain a comprehensive review of the incidence of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis (GN at the Cairo University Hospitals, Egypt, over the last five years. We analyzed the clinical and pathological data of all renal biopsy samples that were performed during the period from July 2003 to July 2008. Renal biopsy samples of 924 patients were referred for pathological assessment during the period of the study [437 male and 487 female patients; their mean age was 26.5 ± 14.6 years (range: 2.5-71 years]. Focal segmental glomerulo-nephritis was the most frequent cause of primary GN (21.21%, followed by mesangial proliferative GN (18.93%, diffuse proliferative GN (13.96%, focal proliferative GN (12.77% and membranous GN (10.93%. The results could be explained by the high incidence of lupus nephritis among the study subjects as well as the relatively young age of the study group.

  18. Grouting of Multiple Leaf-Masonry Walls: Application on Some Islamic Historical Monuments in Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed HEMEDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study summarizes an overview on the available experimental and practical data and results from laboratory testing (ungrouted and grouted three leaf masonry wallettes in compression and in diagonal compression. On the basis of the experimental results, (A the structural behavior of the multiple leaf-masonry walls studied in details (b the parameters that affect the behavior of ungrouted masonry are detected and commented upon, and (c the behavior of grouted masonry studied in details. Particularly attention to be paid to large walls whose construction may comprise different kinds of materials. Such walls include cavity walls; rubble filled masonry walls and veneered brick walls which have poor quality core. Not only may the interior of the wall be less capable of carrying load but movement of the core material may also be a source of new stresses. As the experimental results show that the key parameter for the improvement of the mechanical properties of masonry is not the compressive strength of the injected grout, emphasis is given to ternary, as well as to hydraulic lime based grouts: those materials are expected to ensure durable interventions, they lead to a significant enhancement of the mechanical properties of masonry. On the basis of the experimental data on wallettes, as well as based on recent data from tests on grouted cylinders made of filling materials, simple formulae are drived, allowing for the strength of masonry to be calculated, and scientifically interventions processes and techniques had been applied to selected historical monuments in Cairo.

  19. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  20. Geomechanical Investigations for Architectural Heritage Preservation. The Habib Sakakini Palace in Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed HEMEDA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the geotechnical problems and failure mechanisms of stone structures of Sakakini palace (1897 AC entails a comprehensive study on the mechanical behavior of the stones and other construction materials. In addition to micro analysis, geological and geomorphologic interests, several investigations on stone deterioration and engineering geology were performed. First phase included more advanced techniques, which provided additional information on particular aspects of site deterioration and it included laser analysis (LIBS, electron probe micro analysis, micro XRD and XRF analyses, scanning electron microscope analysis coupled with EDX probing, transmission electron microscopy and grain size distribution analysis, permeability and pore size distribution of stone, mortars, core binders and other construction materials. Second phase included the determination of mechanical properties of building stones, such as compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, and shear strength. To obtain reliable values for these properties, a suitable number of samples should be extracted, prepared for testing, and properly tested. The test results are then analyzed to establish the investigated stone properties. The testing program includes extracting seven cylindrical cores from the basement stone walls of Sakakini’s mansion in down town Cairo. The objectives of the study are to provide a characterization of micro structures and the mechanical properties of the stones of Sakakini’s Mansion; The purpose of the present research is to provide recommendations regarding the strengthening and the safety of architectural heritage under long and short-term loading. For this purpose, a set of experimental tests and of advanced numerical analyses are to be carried out.

  1. A clinicoepidemiological study of esophageal cancer patients at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soumaya Ezzat; Hisham El Hossieny; Mohamed Abd Alla; Azza Nasr; Nagwan Anter; Ahmed Adel

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to (1) assess the clinicoepidemiological characteristics of esopha-geal cancer patients, (2) analyze the prognostic factors determining treatment failure and survival, and (3) evaluate the results of various treatment modalities for locoregional and disseminated disease and their ef ect on disease-free survival and overal survival (OS). Methods Clinicoepidemiological retrospective data from 81 esophageal cancer patients treated at the Na-tional Cancer Institute of Cairo between 2007 and 2011 were evaluated. Results The study showed that patients with esophageal cancer commonly present with local y advanced disease (87.7% had T-stage 3 and 12.3% had T-stage 4). There was a significant correlation between surgery and survival; patients who received radical surgery and postoperative radiation had a better median survival than patients who received radical radiotherapy (20 months vs. 16 months, respectively; P = 0.04). There was also a significant statistical correlation between radical concomitant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) and pal iative treatment. Patients who received radical NCRT had a better median survival than patients who received pal-liative radiotherapy (16 months vs. 10 months, respectively; P = 0.001). The median fol ow-up period for al patients was 7 months. The median OS of the whole group was 12 months. The OS after 1 and 2 years was 57.8% and 15%, respectively. Conclusion High-dose NCRT is an acceptable alternative for patients unfit for surgery or with inoperable disease. High-dose radiation is more ef ective than low-dose radiation in terms of local control, time to relapse, and OS. Further study using a larger series of patients and introducing new treatment protocols is necessary for a final evaluation.

  2. LAI based trees selection for mid latitude urban developments: A microclimatic study in Cairo, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmy, Mohamad [School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Department of Architecture, Military Technical College, Cairo (Egypt); Sharples, Stephen [School of Architecture, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Yahiya, Mahmoud [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Mechanical Engineering Branch, Military Technical College, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-02-15

    To study the leaf area index, LAI, based thermal performance in distinguishing trees for Cairo's urban developments, ENVI-met plants database was used as platform for a foliage modeling parameter, the leaf area density, LAD. Two Egyptian trees; Ficus elastica, and Peltophorum pterocarpum were simulated in 2 urban sites with one having no trees, whilst the second is having Ficus nitida trees. Trees LAD values were calculated using flat leaves' trees LAI definition to produce maximum ground solid shadow at peak time. An empirical value of 1 for LAI is applied to numerically introduce LAD values for ENVI-met. Basically, different meteorological records showed improvements for pedestrian comfort and ambient microclimate of the building using F. elastica. About 40-50% interception of direct radiation, reductions in surfaces' fluxes around trees and in radiant temperature T{sub mrt} in comparison to base cases gave preferability to F. elastica. The lack of soil water prevented evapotranspiration to take place effectively and the reduced wind speeds concluded negligible air temperature differences from both base cases except slightly appeared with the F. elastica. Results show that a flat leaves tree if does not validate LAI of 1, the ground shading would not fulfill about 50% direct radiation interception and this value can be used as a reference for urban trees selection. Further simulations were held to investigate LAI value of maximum direct radiation interception. Performing additional simulations, F. elastica of LAI of 3 intercepted almost 84% of direct radiation and revealed implications about urban trees in practice and its actual LAI. (author)

  3. Spectroscopic Characterization of Dust-Fall Samples Collected from Greater Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, Abdallah A; Allam, Mousa A; Mostafa, Nasser Y; Heiba, Zein K

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed to characterize dust-fall samples collected from street's trees in Greater Cairo (GC), Egypt, and its surroundings by different spectroscopic techniques, namely; X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total-reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), particle-size analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray measurements. Samples were collected from 19 different locations inside and outside of GC. Quantitative phase analysis of the dust-fall samples was performed using the Rietveld method. Results showed that the most frequently observed phases in the dust-fall samples were calcite (CaCO3), dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), and quartz (SiO2) with average concentrations of 39 ± 16, 8 ± 7, 22 ± 13, and 33 ± 14 wt%, respectively. The occurrence of these constituents referred to a combination of different anthropogenic and natural sources. The ATR-FTIR results are in good agreements with XRD data of the different observed phases. Based on the SEM and particle-size measurements, quantitative determination of the particle-size distribution was described. It was found that not only the large-sized particles are deposited but also the small-sized ones (PM10 and PM2.5). In addition, the particle size of the collected dust-fall samples varied from 0.1 to 200 µm with an average particle size of 17.36 µm; however, the particle size ranged from 2.5 to 40 µm predominated in all of the dust-fall samples. PMID:26710766

  4. GROUND PENETRATING RADAR INVESTIGATIONS FOR ARCHITECTURAL HERITAGE PRESERVATION OF THE HABIB SAKAKINI PALACE, CAIRO, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed HEMEDA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern architectural heritage of Egypt is both varied and vast. It covers all nonecclesiastical buildings, important monumental structures (mansions, municipal buildings in the history of architecture, as well as more common buildings. They include houses (from mansions to simple dwellings, public buildings (schools, administrative buildings, hospitals, industrial buildings (factories, warehouses, mills, bridges, monastic dependencies (drinking foundations, gardens and any other modern structures that fall within the category of monuments and comprise the Egyptian cultural heritage. We present herein a comprehensive Ground Penetration Radar (GPR investigation and hazard assessment for the rehabilitation and strengthening of Habib Sakakini’s Palace, in Cairo, considered one of the most significant architectural heritage sites in Egypt. The palace is located on an ancient water pond at the eastern side of the Egyptian gulf, beside the Sultan Bebris Al-Bondoqdary mosque, a place also called “Prince Qraja al-Turkumany pond”. That pond was drained by Habib Sakakini in 1892, to construct his famous palace in 1897. Eight hundred meters of Ground Penetration Radar (GPR profiling were conducted, to monitor the subsurface conditions. 600 meters were made in the surrounding area of the Palace and 200 m at the basement. The aim was to monitor the soil conditions beneath and around the Palace and to identify potential geological discontinuities, or the presence of faults and cavities. A suitable single and dual antenna were used (500-100 MHZ to penetrate to the desired depth of 7 meters (ASTM D6432. The GPR was also used to detect the underground water. At the building basement the GPR was used to identify the foundation thickness and the soil - basement interface, as well as for the inspection of cracks in some supporting columns, piers and masonry walls. All the results, together with the seismic hazard analysis, will be used for a complete

  5. Noise assessment inside the second-line of the Greater Cairo Underground Metro

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mostafa E Aly

    2005-02-01

    Underground metro trains, which connect different terminals of big crowded cities, are the best means of public transportation. The metro is environmentally friendly because the trains are electrically driven and so do not emit chemical air-pollutants. The number of people using the Greater Cairo Underground Metro approaches two million per day, beside about one thousand workers in the different activities related to the metro. Metro users and workers complain about the high noise levels emitted by metro units travelling in the tunnels, especially at the turns, the entrance of tunnels and at stations while braking. Exposure to high noise levels for a long time causes many health hazards: either auditory, such as temporary and permanent hearing loss, or extra-auditory such as effects on the cardiovascular system, blood pressure, heart and respiratory rates, central nervous system. Noise also leads to stress problems such as lack of concentration, leading to accidents. Noise has adverse effects on psychological, biological, immunological and hormonal systems of the body. Due to the above mentioned reasons, suggestion has been made to start this research to assess and diagnose these problems, and to find the proper methods for early detection and proper management of these health hazards; in addition to the engineering solutions for the noise problem. Measurements of noise levels have been made inside the units while travelling and outside the units at the stations platforms to evaluate the noise problem and to suggest some kind of solutions to the problem. The calculations of different noise indices have been made and compared with international criteria and national laws. The comparison shows that the noise levels are clearly unacceptable, for indices $L_{1},L_{99},$ and LNP, both inside the metro units and outside the units at station platforms along the passage.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance in Cairo, Egypt 1999-2000: a survey of five hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kholy, Amani; Baseem, Hadia; Hall, Geraldine S; Procop, Gary W; Longworth, David L

    2003-03-01

    Antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens is a global problem, but in Egypt data are sparse. We reviewed the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bloodstream isolates of Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli in five hospitals in Cairo, Egypt, from 1999 to 2000. In addition, susceptibilities of non-bloodstream isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterococcus spp. were analysed. High rates of resistance were found in most of the bacteria studied. In the hospitals, a variety of methods were used for identification and susceptibility testing, but in the laboratories quality controlled strains were utilized routinely, to ensure accurate performance of the assays. Only 29% of Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 23% of coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates were oxacillin susceptible. Both groups of staphylococci were also highly resistant to erythromycin, co-trimoxazole, clindamycin and doxycycline; all isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Susceptibility of S. pneumoniae isolates to penicillin, ceftriaxone and fluoroquinolones was 63%, 84% and 82%, respectively. Vancomycin susceptibility of the enterococci was 96%; susceptibility to high-level gentamicin and streptomycin was 54% and 48%, respectively. Resistance to most relevant antimicrobials was commonplace among the Gram-negative bacilli; however, most remained susceptible to imipenem. The percentage of bloodstream isolates of Escherichia coli susceptible to common antimicrobial agents was as follows: ampicillin (6%), ampicillin-sulbactam (38%), co-trimoxazole (38%) and aminoglycosides (52%). The susceptibility of isolates of E. coli, Klebsiella and Enterobacter spp. to ceftazidime was 62%, 40% and 46%, respectively. This suggests a potentially high rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and/or Amp-C enzyme production. These results call for a nationwide surveillance programme to monitor microbial trends and antimicrobial resistance patterns in Egypt. PMID:12615864

  7. Medicolegal study of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt, during a 7-year period: 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgendy, Ibrahim Sadik; Hassan, Nermeen Adly

    2013-12-01

    Child sexual abuse has gained public attention and has become 1 of the most high-profile crimes. This study aimed to determine the demographic and medicolegal aspects of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt. This is a retrospective study from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011. Data were collected from a Cairo medicolegal department and were statistically analyzed. The total number of cases was 1832 victims; 57.9% were males and 42.1% were females. Most assaults occurred in 2010 (16.2%) and 2011 (17.5%). The age group 6 to 12 years accounted for higher rate (49%), mostly in males (71.8%). A total of 83.3% of the victims belonged to low social class, and 72.3% of the victims were out of school. Only 1.9% of the victims had a mental disability. The crime scene was an unknown place in 78.1%. All offenders were males; most cases had 1 offender (82.5 %); and most offenders were extrafamilial (94.2%), of low social level, illiterate, unemployed, and between 18 and 30 years old. The unmarried offenders assaulted the females more than the males, whereas the married assaulted the males more than the females. A total of 5.8% were intrafamilial offenders; 62.7% of these cases were incest against girls and 37.3% were sodomy against boys. Clothes were normal in 48.8%. Anal assault (52.3%) and incomplete vaginal penetration (32%) were the commonest types. There was no significant relation between findings, investigations, and time. In conclusion, child sexual abuse in greater Cairo represents a problem. Therefore,forensic medicine should be a part of a multidisciplinary approach to prevent, investigate, and treat the problem. PMID:24189631

  8. Stress-induced perovskite to post-perovskite transition in CaIrO3 at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J.-G.; Zhou, J.-S.; Goodenough, J. B.

    2010-10-01

    Depending on how the compound is synthesized, both perovskite and post-perovskite phases of the CaIrO3 can be obtained easily. However, a transition from the perovskite phase to the post-perovskite phase cannot be achieved under 30 GPa hydrostatic pressure at room temperature. By treating the perovskite sample in different pressure conditions from mostly hydrostatic pressure to uniaxial pressure and examining the residual strain in these samples with x-ray powder diffraction, we have shown that an irreversible transition from the perovskite phase to the post-perovskite phase occurs partially in the sample under a lattice shear stress at room temperature.

  9. Crystal structure of post-perovskite-type CaIrO3 reinvestigated: new insights into atomic thermal vibration behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Akihiko Nakatsuka; Kazumasa Sugiyama; Akira Yoneda; Keiko Fujiwara; Akira Yoshiasa

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of the title compound, the post-perovskite-type CaIrO3 [calcium iridium(IV) trioxide], have been grown from a CaCl2 flux at atmospheric pressure. The crystal structure consists of an alternate stacking of IrO6 octahedral layers and CaO8 hendecahedral layers along [010]. Chains formed by edge-sharing of IrO6 octahedra (point-group symmetry 2/m..) run along [100] and are interconnected along [001] by sharing apical O atoms to build up the IrO6 octahedral layers. Chains formed by...

  10. Nature of the Insulating Ground State of the 5d PostPerovskite CaIrO3

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sun-Woo; Liu, Chen; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Jun-Ho; Yao, Yongxin; Ho, Kai-Ming; Cho, Jun-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The insulating ground state of the 5d transition metal oxide CaIrO3 has been classified as a Mott-type insulator. Based on a systematic density functional theory (DFT) study with local, semilocal, and hybrid exchange-correlation functionals, we reveal that the Ir t2g states exhibit large splittings and one-dimensional electronic states along the c axis due to a tetragonal crystal field. Our hybrid DFT calculation adequately describes the antiferromagnetic (AFM) order along the c direction via...

  11. Resonant X-Ray Diffraction Study of Strongly Spin-Orbit-Coupled Mott Insulator CaIrO3

    OpenAIRE

    Ohgushi, Kenya; Yamaura, Jun-ichi; Ohsumi, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Takeshita, Soshi; Tokuda, Akihisa; Takagi, Hidenori; Takata, Masaki; Arima, Taka-hisa

    2011-01-01

    We performed resonant x-ray diffraction experiments at the $L$ absorption edges for the post-perovskite-type compound CaIrO$_{3}$ with $(t_{2g})^5$ electronic configuration. By observing the magnetic signals, we could clearly see that the magnetic structure was a striped order with an antiferromagnetic moment along the c-axis and that the wavefunction of a $t_{2g}$ hole is strongly spin-orbit entangled, the $J_{\\rm eff} =1/2$ state. The observed spin arrangement is consistent with theoretical...

  12. Thermal expansion of CaIrO3 post-perovskite determined by time-of-flight measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, F.; Hirai, S.; Redfern, S. A. T.; Smith, R. I.

    2014-11-01

    The thermal evolution of the CaIrO3 post-perovskite structure has been determined by neutron powder diffraction (time-of-flight) measurements in a wide temperature range, from 1.8K to 550K. The linear expansion is similar to that found in previous x-ray diffraction studies, being αb > αc > αa,. However, the difference in relative lattice parameters is less pronounced in the present case, suggesting a more isotropic evolution under temperature. Other structural differences found at low and high temperatures through several X-ray and neutron diffraction studies have been also analysed.

  13. Simulation of atmospheric temperature inversions over greater cairo using the MM5 Meso-Scale atmospheric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution episodes have been recorded in Cairo, during the fall season, since 1999, as a result of specific meteorological conditions combined with large quantity of pollutants created by several ground-based sources. The main reason for the smog-like episodes (black clouds) is adverse weather conditions with low and variable winds, high humidity and strong temperature inversions in the few-hundred meters above the ground. The two important types of temperature inversion affecting the air pollution are surface or ground (radiation) inversion and subsidence (elevated) inversion. The surface temperature inversion is associated with a rapid decrease in the ground surface temperature with the simultaneous existence of warm air in the lower troposphere. The inversion develops at dusk and continues until the surface warms again the following day. Pollutants emitted during the night are caught under this inversion lid.Subsidence inversion forms when warm air masses move over colder air masses. The inversion develops with a stagnating high-pressure system (generally associated with fair weather). Under these conditions, the pressure gradient becomes progressively weaker so that winds become light. These light winds greatly reduce the horizontal transport and dispersion of pollutants. At the same time, the subsidence inversion acts as a barrier to the vertical dispersion of the pollutants. In this study, the Penn State/NCAR meso -scale model (MM5) is used to simulate the temperature inversion phenomenon over Greater Cairo region during the fall season of 2004. Accurate computations of the heat transfer at the surface are needed to capture this phenomenon. This can only be achieved by high-resolution simulations in both horizontal and vertical directions. Hence, for accurate simulation of the temperature inversion over Greater Cairo, four nested domains of resolutions of 27 km, 9 km, 3 km and 1 km, respectively, were used in the horizontal planes. Furthermore, 42 levels

  14. Assessment of daily intake of major and trace elements by inhabitants of potential radiation protection of greater Cairo area, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Sr, I, Al, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni and Cr were determined in vegetables, common foodstuffs and some animal products consumed by adult inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area. Some of these elements have chemical and biological similarity to some of the radionuclides abundantly encountered during nuclear power production and therefore data on these elements could provide important information on their biokinetic behavior. A total of 120 samples were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Generally, highest contributions for the intake of micro nutrients (Cu, Mn and Ni) arise from broad bean, rice and wheat flour consumption. Meat, milk, eggs and some vegetables are the major sources of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Al, Cd and Pb. The medium daily intake for the adult inhabitants of greater Cairo area was found to be 1.98 g of K, 0.54 mg of Ca, 1.14 fig of U, 0.8 μg of Th, 5.2μg of Cs, 1.3 mg of Sr, 105 μg of 1, 3.2 mg of Mn, 0.9 mg of Cu, 5.7 mg of Al, 5, 2 x 10-2mg of Pb, 2.1x10-3mg of Cd, 7.7x10-2mg of Ni and 2.1 x 10-2 mg of Cr. The lower daily intake of Ca, Th, Cs and I by adult inhabitants of greater Cairo area could be due to the significantly lower consumption of milk and milk products, which are rich in these elements. The significantly lower intake of calcium by adult inhabitants of greater Cairo area may lead to higher uptake of radiostrontium and could result in higher internal radiation dose. The use of highly sensitive and reliable analytical methods resulted in accurate assessment of the values recorded for thorium and uranium suggested that radiation dose from their ingestion at natural background levels, is likely to be lower than those included in ICRP data. Concerning micro nutrients, the recommended values of daily intake of Cu and Mn are conveniently supplied by the common diet; however for Cr is lower than the recommended daily allowance. Due to high metals concentrations and

  15. Thermal expansion of CaIrO3 post-perovskite determined by time-of-flight measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal evolution of the CaIrO3 post-perovskite structure has been determined by neutron powder diffraction (time-of-flight) measurements in a wide temperature range, from 1.8K to 550K. The linear expansion is similar to that found in previous x-ray diffraction studies, being αb > αc > αa,. However, the difference in relative lattice parameters is less pronounced in the present case, suggesting a more isotropic evolution under temperature. Other structural differences found at low and high temperatures through several X-ray and neutron diffraction studies have been also analysed

  16. In-situ measurement of texture development rate in CaIrO3 post-perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Simon A.; Walker, Andrew M.; Mariani, Elisabetta

    2016-08-01

    The rate of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) development during deformation of post-perovskite is crucial in interpreting seismic anisotropy in the lowermost mantle but the stability field of MgSiO3 post-perovskite prevents high-strain deformation experiments being performed on it. Therefore, to constrain the rate of CPO development in post-perovskite, we deformed CaIrO3, a low-pressure analogue of MgSiO3 post-perovskite, in simple shear at 3.2 GPa and 400 °C to a shear strain (γ) of 0.81. From X-ray diffraction patterns acquired during deformation, we invert for CPO as a function of strain. By comparing the CPO that develops with visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) models we constrain the critical resolved shear stresses (CRSS) of the non-primary slip-systems in CaIrO3 to be of order 6 times stronger than the primary [ 1 0 0 ] (0 1 0) slip system. This value is significantly less than has been assumed by previous studies and if applicable to MgSiO3 implies that seismic anisotropy in the D″ layer develops slower than has previously been assumed.

  17. Determination of rare earth elements in dust deposited on tree leaves from Greater Cairo using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at monitoring the rare earth elements (REEs) and Th in dust deposited on tree leaves collected inside and outside Greater Cairo (GC), Egypt. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was employed. The concentration of REEs in the collected dust samples was found to be in the range from 1 to 60 μg g−1. The highest concentration of REEs was found in dust samples collected outside GC, in the middle of the Nile Delta. This would refer to the availability of black sands, due to desert wind occurrence during the sample collection, and anthropogenic activities. The limits of detection of the REEs ranged from 0.02 ng g−1 for Tm to 3 ng g−1 for Yb. There was an obvious variation in the concentration of REEs inside and outside GC due to variations of natural and anthropogenic sources. Strong correlations among all the REEs were found. -- Highlights: •Rare earth elements (REEs) were determined in dust samples using ICP-MS. •The dusts were deposited on tree leaves and were collected at 19 sites. •REE concentrations were in the range from 1 to 60 μg g−1. •High concentration of REEs was found in the middle of Nile Delta. -- For the first time, rare earth elements (REEs) and Th were determined in dust deposited on tree leaves collected at 19 sites in the Greater Cairo

  18. Land Cover Mapping Analysis and Urban Growth Modelling Using Remote Sensing Techniques in Greater Cairo Region—Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Megahed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study modeled the urban growth in the Greater Cairo Region (GCR, one of the fastest growing mega cities in the world, using remote sensing data and ancillary data. Three land use land cover (LULC maps (1984, 2003 and 2014 were produced from satellite images by using Support Vector Machines (SVM. Then, land cover changes were detected by applying a high level mapping technique that combines binary maps (change/no-change and post classification comparison technique. The spatial and temporal urban growth patterns were analyzed using selected statistical metrics developed in the FRAGSTATS software. Major transitions to urban were modeled to predict the future scenarios for year 2025 using Land Change Modeler (LCM embedded in the IDRISI software. The model results, after validation, indicated that 14% of the vegetation and 4% of the desert in 2014 will be urbanized in 2025. The urban areas within a 5-km buffer around: the Great Pyramids, Islamic Cairo and Al-Baron Palace were calculated, highlighting an intense urbanization especially around the Pyramids; 28% in 2014 up to 40% in 2025. Knowing the current and estimated urbanization situation in GCR will help decision makers to adjust and develop new plans to achieve a sustainable development of urban areas and to protect the historical locations.

  19. MODIF-a code for completely reflected cylindrical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MODIF-Code is a computer program for calculating the reflector saving, material buckling, and effective multiplication constant of completely reflected cylindrical reactors. The calculational method is based on a modified iterative algorithm which has been deduced from the general analytical solution of the two group diffusion equations. The code has been written in FORTRAN language suited for the ICL-1906 computer facility at Cairo University. The computer time required to solve a problem of actual reactor is less than 1 minute. The problem converges within five iteration steps. The accuracy in determining the effective multiplication constant lies within +-10-5. The code has been applied to the case of UA-RR-1 reactor, the results confirm the validity and accuracy of the calculational method

  20. Optimizing pain care delivery in outpatient facilities: experience in NCI, Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Khaled Abdel

    2011-04-01

    As a result of increasing waiting lists of patients attending National Cancer Institute of Cairo, we are faced to provide high-quality pain care service through our outpatient pain clinic. The program description presented here shows the capacity of a 24 hours/7 days outpatient cancer pain management service to provide rapidly accessible, high-quality care to patients with complex pain and palliative care symptom burdens. In addition, this model avoids inpatient hospital admissions. Pain clinics of cancer are committed to helping patients and families identify and implement the treatments necessary to achieve optimum functional ability and the best possible quality of life. These clinics also help to communicate and work with the family physician, surgeon, and other physicians associated with patient treatment. Cancer pain is complex in its causes, and affects all parts of the body. It involves the tissues, body systems , and the mind. Being multidimensional, it is never adequately addressed with unidimensional treatment. Pain management must extend beyond physical approaches to include the psychological, social, and even spiritual aspects of the patient. Effective integrated treatment fosters self awareness and teaches appropriate and effective self care. With time, complex issues are managed, pain is reduced, and the patient moves toward peak physical and psychological functioning. These goals can be achieved by providing the highest quality pain management services. Patients attending the clinic get treated medically for their physical ailments. Their emotional and psychological problems also need to be attended with an atmosphere of love and care. The mission of the highest quality service is to obtain customer satisfaction with reduction of cost in a multidisciplinary (or better interdisciplinary) approach. This can be reached by proper identification of the customers either internal or external, assessing their needs, and implementing plans for their

  1. Urban-rural solar radiation loss in the atmosphere of Greater Cairo region, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study for measured global solar radiation, G, during the period (1969-2006) and the corresponding global radiation loss in the atmosphere, RL%, over urban and rural districts in Greater Cairo region have been performed. The climatic variabilities of G radiation at the urban and rural sites are also investigated and discussed. Monthly, seasonal and annual mean values of extraterrestrial radiation, Go, and RL% during four successive periods, (1969-1978), (1979-1988), (1989-1998) and (1999-2006) at the above two sites have been calculated and investigated. The results revealed that urban area was always received lower amount of solar radiation due to urbanization factors. The yearly mean values of G radiation were distinctly decreased from maximum value 21.93 and 22.62 MJ m-2 during 1970 year to minimum value 17.57 and 17.87 MJ m-2 during 2004 and 2006 years with average decrease rate 0.09 and 0.10 MJ m-2 per year for the urban and rural areas, respectively. Also, the seasonal and annual mean anomalies of G radiation have been also gradually decreased from maximum values during the eldest period (1969-1978) to minimum values during the recent period (1999-2006). RL% over the urban area was always higher than that rural area. The urban-rural RL% differences range from 0.61% in 1999 year to 4.19% in 2002 year and 2.20% as average value. The yearly mean of RL% values distinctly gradually increase from minimum value 29.47% and 27.28% during 1970 year to maximum value 43.50% and 42.60% during 2004 and 2006 years with average increase rate 0.28% and 0.32% per year for the urban and rural areas, respectively. The minimum value of RL% (26.88%) occurred at rural area during summer season of the eldest period (1969-1978) while the maximum value of RL% (51.27%) occurred at the urban area during winter season of the last recent urbanized period (1999-2006). The linear trend of the yearly variations of RL% revealed that G values will reach zero over the urban and

  2. Assessment of anthropogenic nitrate pollution in groundwater in northeast Cairo using nitrogen-15 technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater contamination of elevated nitrate ions was investigated in a limited area of the north-eastern part of Cairo (EI-Gabal EI-Asfar farm and its surroundings). Stable isotope techniques of nitrogen (δ15N), oxygen (δ18O), and hydrogen (δ2H) with major ions and trace elements analyses followed by data evaluation were combined to assess the potential sources and fate of nitrate contamination. In the studied area, the unconfined aquifer system is found to be vulnerable to nitrate impacts from land uses because of the sandy, permeable soils and a relatively shallow depth to groundwater. Several potential sources of elevated nitrate exist including a rapid infiltration of sewage effluents, used for irrigation, soil organic and inorganic nitrogen, and land application of animal wastes (manure), sludge, and inorganic chemical fertilizers. Surface and ground water samples as well as surface soil samples were collected beside the principal nitrate sources that are likely to affect groundwater quality. Data revealed that surface and groundwater samples have high TDS, nitrate, phosphate, and trace elements contents especially at the north-eastern pad and at the southern part of the studied area. Soil samples show relative enrichment in trace elements and total nitrogen contents due to prolonging sewage water irrigation especially at EI-Gabal EI-Asfar farm and at the northern part of the studied area. Results of δ18O and δ2H for most of groundwater samples mainly reflect more enriched values than that of Nile River due to recycling of water used for irrigation. The δ15N values of nitrate in water samples indicate that the source yielding lower nitrate concentrations could be commercial fertilizers or nitrifying soil organic nitrogen which is more pronounced at the western part. In the north-eastern part other sources being responsible for the higher nitrate concentrations appears to be mixing with sewage or manure and ammonium phosphate fertilizer. This mixing

  3. Study of the pollution impact from the usage of sewage and drainage waters on the groundwater of the quaternary aquifer, West Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to assess the water quality of surface and groundwater in the western part of Cairo and to estimate the sources of pollution as salinisation, nutrients, trace elements and microbiological activity as a result of re-use of partially treated drainage and sewage waters for irrigation

  4. Texture development and TEM analysis of deformed CaIrO3: Implications for the D'' layer at the core-mantle boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walte, Nicolas; Heidelbach, Florian; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Frost, Daniel

    2007-04-01

    CaIrO3 is an isostructural analog for MgSiO3 post-perovskite (ppv), likely the dominant mineral phase in the D'' layer. At high temperature CaIrO3 undergoes a phase transition to a perovskite (pv) structure. We have performed deformation experiments of CaIrO3 pv and ppv with the deformation-DIA apparatus. The deformed pv does not display any discernable texture even after strong coaxial shortening. In contrast, ppv displays a strong lattice preferred orientation (LPO) with the a-axis parallel to the shear direction and the b-axis perpendicular to the shear plane. Calculation of the seismic properties predicts a shear wave splitting with a maximum of 2.7% in the shear plane, which is qualitatively compatible with seismic measurements. Ppv displayed a high density of (010)[100] dislocations, consistent with the textural results. Thus, our experiments on CaIrO3 pv and ppv are compatible with a seismically isotropic lower mantle and anisotropic D'' layer in the Earth.

  5. Formal and informal Patronage among Jews in the Islamic East: evidence from the Cairo Geniza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustow, Marina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the political culture of the Islamic East under Fatimid and Buwayhid rule (tenth-twelfth centuries via relationships between patrons, clients, protégés, and partners. The main body of evidence I utilize are letters and petitions from the Cairo Geniza that employ the same specialized vocabulary of patron-client relationships one finds in Arabic histories of the period: idioms referring to the exchange of benefit, reciprocal service, protection, oversight, patronage, and loyalty. The Geniza letters, written without regard for posterity, suggest that these idioms were used well beyond the courts and were understood and deployed by men and women, the literate and illiterate, the important and the inconsequential. Yet the use of certain terms in Judaeo-Arabic also differs from their use in Arabic: some reflect devaluation over time, while others hardened into formulaic phrases. These differences suggest that some forms of patronage did not thrive beyond the hothouse of the court; viewed from another perspective, they also suggest that even outside courtly literature, one can retrieve fossils of older forms of patronage in the terms used to describe relationships between leaders and their followers as well as among people more nearly equal in station. A society’s use of social metaphors reveals something of what its members value, what they choose to retain and perpetuate from the past, how they function in moments of crisis, and how successfully their rulers have managed to convince them of the legitimacy of the social and political order. Conversely, the vocabulary of patronage was a social technique that allowed Jews to conduct business, engage in politics and communal regulation, and to amass and retain followers in a variety of spheres, including that of the rabbinic academies who proffered the construction of Judaism that became hegemonic over the course of the Middle Ages.

    Este artículo aborda la cultura pol

  6. Deformation and Texture Development in CaIrO3: Implications for the Seismic Properties of the D" Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walte, N. P.; Miyajima, N.; Heidelbach, F.; Frost, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    Experimental and numerical studies have linked the D" layer at the core-mantle boundary to a phase transition from the MgSiO3 perovskite (Pv) structure to a layered post-perovskite structure (pPv) at approximately 135 GPa. As a result it becomes plausible to explain seismic velocity heterogeneity and shear wave splitting that have been observed in the D" layer by lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of the pPv phase as a result of deformation. However, the dominant shear plane and Burgers vector of the pPv phase are still controversial, partly because of the extremely high pressures that make experimental studies difficult. Thus, controlled strain rate experiments up to a high finite strain are necessary to clarify the development of LPO and thus to interpret seismic data. CaIrO3 is a well-suited analogue for MgSiO3 Pv and pPv phase, since at room P CaIrO3 is isostructural with the pPv phase but undergoes a phase transition to the Pv structure at high T conditions >1450°C. We have performed deformation experiments at P = 1-3 GPa and T = 1000-1450°C with the deformation-DIA multi anvil apparatus using both in the Pv and the pPv stability field to investigate the development of LPO in CaIrO3. While the Pv modification showed only weak or no LPO in pure shear deformation, the pPv modification developed a strong LPO consistent with deformation by intracrystalline slip on the (010)[100] slip system. In TEM analysis of the deformed pPv samples, abundant [100] dislocations were identified. Some of the [100] dislocations having an edge character were also activated on the (010) plane during the deformation experiments. The dislocation microstructures suggest that the (010) plane is a potential slip plane, consistent with the LPO in the deformed samples. The lack of LPO of the Pv modification (analogue for the lower mantle) and the strong LPO of the deformed pPv modification (analogue for D") agree well with the known seismic properties of the lower mantle and the D" layer.

  7. Characterization of virulent Listeria monocytogenes isolates recovered from ready-to-eat meat products and consumers in Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa A. I. Awadallah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of some virulence genes distributed in Listeria monocytogenes isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE meat products and consumers in Cairo province, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 beef luncheon, chicken luncheon and frankfurter beef (40 samples, each were collected from 10 different local shops situated in Al-salam city, Cairo province, Egypt. Stool samples were collected from 40 people who had the habit of consuming RTE meat. The suspected L. monocytogenes isolates were subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR for rapid speciation and virulence determination using primers specific for inIA, inIC, and inIJ genes. Results: Culture examination of all samples on Oxford media revealed presence of colonies characteristic to L. monocytogenes in 6 beef luncheon (15%, 4 chicken luncheon (10%, 1 frankfurter beef (2.5% and 1 human stool (2.5% samples. Species identity of L. monocytogenes was verified through the amplification of a 800 bp fragment with inIA primers in 2 out of 6 culture isolates from beef luncheon (5%, and 1 out 4 culture isolates from chicken luncheon (2.5% samples. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in different food samples examined (p>0.05. The virulence of these strains was ascertained by the presence of 517 bp and 238 bp fragments of inIC and inIJ genes, respectively in the isolates that contained the 800 bp fragment. The culture isolates obtained from one frankfurter beef sample, and one human stool sample were found negative by multiplex PCR for the presence of L. monocytogenes and its virulence specific genes. Conclusion: It could be concluded that L. monocytogenes are circulating in beef and chicken luncheon sold in Cairo, Egypt. Multiplex PCR is reliable for confirmation of L. monocytogenes. This study suggests the implementation of hygienic measures at all levels from production to consumption

  8. Resonant X-ray Diffraction Study of the Strongly Spin-Orbit-Coupled Mott Insulator CaIrO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgushi, Kenya; Yamaura, Jun-ichi; Ohsumi, Hiroyuki; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Takeshita, Soshi; Tokuda, Akihisa; Takagi, Hidenori; Takata, Masaki; Arima, Taka-hisa

    2013-05-01

    We performed resonant x-ray diffraction experiments at the L absorption edges for the post-perovskite-type compound CaIrO3 with a (t2g)5 electronic configuration. By observing the magnetic signals, we could clearly see that the magnetic structure was a striped ordering with an antiferromagnetic moment along the c axis and that the wave function of a t2g hole is strongly spin-orbit entangled, the Jeff=1/2 state. The observed spin arrangement is consistent with theoretical work predicting a unique superexchange interaction in the Jeff=1/2 state and points to the universal importance of the spin-orbit coupling in Ir oxides, independent of the octahedral connectivity and lattice topology. We also propose that nonmagnetic resonant scattering is a powerful tool for unraveling an orbital state even in a metallic iridate.

  9. Crystal structure of post-perovskite-type CaIrO3 reinvestigated: new insights into atomic thermal vibration behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatsuka, Akihiko; Sugiyama, Kazumasa; Yoneda, Akira; Fujiwara, Keiko; Yoshiasa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Single crystals of the title compound, the post-perovskite-type CaIrO3 [calcium iridium(IV) trioxide], have been grown from a CaCl2 flux at atmospheric pressure. The crystal structure consists of an alternate stacking of IrO6 octa­hedral layers and CaO8 hendeca­hedral layers along [010]. Chains formed by edge-sharing of IrO6 octa­hedra (point-group symmetry 2/m..) run along [100] and are inter­connected along [001] by sharing apical O atoms to build up the IrO6 octa­hedral layers. Chains form...

  10. Report of the first meeting of the Project Advisory Committee (Technical) 21-24 March 1983, at NEMROCK, Cairo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Project Advisory Committee (Technical) (PACT) met on 21-24 March 1983, at NEMROCK, Cairo, Egypt, to discuss the joint IAEA/WHO project on Intracavitary Radiation Therapy for Cancer of the Uterus (Egypt/6/004). At this four day meeting the committee (1) identified a well-defined administrative framework in which earlier diagnosis of uterine cancer may be organized, on a limited but firm basis. (2) Agreed on the clinical and dosimetric principles to be followed in implementing the project. (3) Decided on the types and quantities of equipment which it will need in its first two years. (4) Developed the outline of the syllabus for the first training course, and fixed its date (three weeks from 83-10-29). (5) Reviewed the costs which will be incurred in carrying through the project and found them to be consistent with the funds available

  11. The nonmedical use of psychoactive substances by male technical school students in Greater Cairo: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soueif, M I; Darweesh, Z A; Hannourah, M A; El-Sayed, A M

    1982-12-01

    This is the second of a series of studies planned to explore the epidemiology of nonmedical use of drugs among Egyptian youth. A standardized questionnaire with well established reliability and validity estimates was administered to a representative sample of technical school students in Greater Cairo, numbering 3686 male pupils. The questionnaire was designed to shed light on the extent of use of nonmedical drugs plus the aetiology of such use. Among the interesting findings are the following: about 5% of the students tried at least one type of synthetic drugs; slightly over 11% tried narcotics and 33% used alcohol at least once. In all cases of 'ever using' drugs those who stopped the practice were mainly motivated by fear of expected physical as well as psychological harm. An attempt was made to shed light on psychosocial factors contributing to the actual initiation of drug use as well as to being prone to such use. PMID:7166142

  12. Study of the formation of the ``Black Cloud'' and its dynamics over Cairo, Egypt using MODIS and MISR sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marey, H. S.; Gille, J. C.; El-Askary, H. M.; Shalaby, E. A.; El-Raey, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    In the last decade, episodes of severe air pollution, known as the “black cloud”, have occurred in Cairo, Egypt in the early autumn. In this study data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) are used with meteorological data and trajectory analyses to determine the cause of these events. MODIS fire counts put the source as the burning of agricultural waste after harvest season in the Nile delta region. Synchronous MISR data show that these fires create low altitude (burning occurs at night, when an inversion constrains the plumes to remain in the boundary layer (BL). Convection during the day raises the BL, dispersing these smoke particles until the next night. The spatial distribution of fire points over the Nile delta for September and October 2006, green square represents the Nile delta area. Monthly average fire counts over Nile delta from 2002-2009

  13. CLINICAL FEATURES AND CLINICAL OUTCOME OF ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA PATIENTS TREATED AT CAIRO NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer M Fouad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The current study reports the clinical features and treatment outcome of 67 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL presented to National Cancer Institute (NCI-Cairo, in Egypt from January 2007 to January 2011. The median follow-up time was 36 months. All patients were treated with the simultaneous administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and anthracyclin. The treatment protocol was modified due to resource limitations at the NCI-Cairo by replacing of idarubicin with doxorubicin in most of the cases and the inclusion of cytarbine during the consolidation phase only in pediatric patients. All patients who achieved molecular complete remission (CRm after consolidation received two-year maintenance treatment with low dose chemotherapy composed of 6 mercaptopurine, methotrexate and intermittent ATRA courses. The median age at presentation was 29 years. There was a slight male predominance (53%.  Bleeding was the most common presenting symptom (79%. Most patients had an intermediate risk Sanz score (49% and 34% had a high risk score.  All patients achieved molecular CR at end of consolidation therapy with a median duration of 100 days. The main therapeutic complications during the induction phase were febrile neutropenia (42%, bleeding (18% and differentiation syndrome (11%. Five patients died at diagnosis due to bleeding, three died during induction chemotherapy due to febrile neutropenia (n=2 and bleeding (n=1 and one patient died during consolidation therapy due to febrile neutropenia.  The 3-year OS was 89% and relapse rate was 3%. Adapting standard AIDA treatment protocols to limited resources by reducing dose-intensity during treatment consolidation, using ATRA in the consolidation phase and alternative anthracyclin (doxorubicin may be a valid treatment option in developing countries. In spite of the increased incidence of high and intermediate risk score APL in our sample, we reported an acceptable CR rate

  14. CLINICAL FEATURES AND CLINICAL OUTCOME OF ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA PATIENTS TREATED AT CAIRO NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Khorshid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study reports the clinical features and treatment outcome of 67 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL presented to National Cancer Institute (NCI-Cairo, in Egypt from January 2007 to January 2011. The median follow-up time was 36 months. All patients were treated with the simultaneous administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and anthracyclin. The treatment protocol was modified due to resource limitations at the NCI-Cairo by replacing of idarubicin with doxorubicin in most of the cases and the inclusion of cytarbine during the consolidation phase only in pediatric patients. All patients who achieved molecular complete remission (CRm after consolidation received two-year maintenance treatment with low dose chemotherapy composed of 6 mercaptopurine, methotrexate and intermittent ATRA courses. The median age at presentation was 29 years. There was a slight male predominance (53%.  Bleeding was the most common presenting symptom (79%. Most patients had an intermediate risk Sanz score (49% and 34% had a high risk score.  All patients achieved molecular CR at end of consolidation therapy with a median duration of 100 days. The main therapeutic complications during the induction phase were febrile neutropenia (42%, bleeding (18% and differentiation syndrome (11%. Five patients died at diagnosis due to bleeding, three died during induction chemotherapy due to febrile neutropenia (n=2 and bleeding (n=1 and one patient died during consolidation therapy due to febrile neutropenia.  The 3-year OS was 89% and relapse rate was 3%. Adapting standard AIDA treatment protocols to limited resources by reducing dose-intensity during treatment consolidation, using ATRA in the consolidation phase and alternative anthracyclin (doxorubicin may be a valid treatment option in developing countries. In spite of the increased incidence of high and intermediate risk score APL in our sample, we reported an acceptable CR rate, toxicity and OS.

  15. Environmental and Occupational Lead Exposure Among Children in Cairo, Egypt: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim; Badawy, Nashwa Mostafa; Manawill, Marie

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess childhood lead exposure in a representative sample of Cairo, and to investigate the possible risk factors and sources of exposure. This cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 through April 2015. The target population was children aged 6 to 18 years, recruited into 4 groups, garbage city, moderate-living standard area, urban and suburban schools, and workshops in the city of Cairo. Blood lead levels (BLLs) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were measured. Also, potential local environmental sources were assessed for hazardous lead contamination. Analysis on 400 participants has been carried out. A total of 113 children had BLLs in the range 10 to 20 μg/dL. Smoking fathers, housing conditions, playing outdoors, and exposure to lead in residential areas were significantly correlated with high BLLs. The mean values of hemoglobin were inversely correlated with BLLs. Children involved in pottery workshops had the highest BLLs and the lowest Hb values with a mean of (43.3 μg/dL and 8.6 g/dL, respectively). The mean value of environmental lead in workshop areas exceeded the recommended levels. Also, those values measured in dust and paint samples of garbage city were significantly high. Moreover, the mean lead levels in the soil samples were significantly higher in urban schools (P = 0.03) than the suburban ones. Childhood lead poisoning accounts for a substantial burden in Egypt, which could be preventable. Development of national prevention programs including universal screening program should be designed to reduce incidence of lead toxicity among children. PMID:26945415

  16. Decommissioning of research nuclear reactor WWER-S Magurele-Bucharest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decommissioning project is performed on a nuclear facility, the WWR-S research reactor at Magurele-Bucharest to remove the radioactive and hazardous materials in order to avoid any risks to human health and the environment. The project involves four phases, namely: assessment, development, activities implementation and closeout. There are two major parts to the assesment phase: preliminary characterisation and the review and decision-making process. Characterisation is needed to develop the project baseline data, which should include sufficient chemical, physical, and radiological characterisation to meet planning needs. Based on the conclusions of these studies, possible decommissioning alternative will be analyzed and the best alternative chosen, final goal is identified, risk assessments are evaluated, regulations supporting assessment will be identified, land use will be considered as well as the financial sources, disposal availability, public involvement, and the technology developments. After the decommissioning alternative is chosen, detailed engineering issues will be approached under appropriate regulatory guidance. The plan will include characterisation information, review of decommissioning alternatives, justification for the selected alternative, provision for regulatory compliance, evaluations of personnel exposure, radioactive waste volume, and cost. Other activities are: scheduling, preparation for decommissioning operations, coordination, documentation, characterization, report, feasibility studies, decommissioning plan, daily project report, radiological survey, airborne sampling records, termination survey of the site. The key operations are: worker protection, health and safety program, review of planing work, work area assessment, work area controls, personal protection and monitoring, environmental protection: air quality, surface water, ground water, shipments, effluent sampling and monitoring, environmental monitoring, site release

  17. Experimental Investigation Related To Some Predicted Results Of Reliable High Frequency Radio Communication Links Between Benghazi-Libya And Cairo-Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yousef Ahmed Abou-Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the central radio propagation laboratory (CRPL method of ionospheric prediction of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS in U.S.A was used in practical calculations of the optimal working frequencies for reliable high frequency (HF radio communication links between Benghazi-Libya and Cairo-Egypt. The results were drawn in the form of curves by using the computer. The computer was used to measure the received signal level variation of frequencies 11.980 MHz, 11.785 MHz which were transmitted with a power of 250 KW, 100 KW respectively from the Egypt Arabic Republic Broadcasting station in Cairo city, directed to the North Africa and South Europe regions. The measurements were taken during daytime's for winter (December, January& February and summer (June, July & August seasons.

  18. Estimation of seismic moments from local magnitudes and coda durations for the Cairo earthquake aftershocks recorded at Kottamyia (KEG) Broadband station

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Abdelwahed; H. M. Hussein; M. M. Dessokey; E. M. Abdelrahman

    2003-01-01

    The spectral analysis of fifty-five KEG VBB records from the October 12, 1992 Cairo earthquake source region was performed to obtain the seismic moment. We obtained this parameter in turn to develop empirical local magnitude (ML), seismic moment (Mo), coda duration (D) relations for that region. In this study the data consist of Lg-waves on the vertical component seismograms for the recorded earthquakes with ML ranging from 1.7 to 4.7. The derived empirical relation betwee...

  19. Prevalence of common canine digestive problems compared with other health problems in teaching veterinary hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Rakha, Gamal M. H.; Abdl-Haleem, Mounir M.; Haithem A. M. Farghali; Hitham Abdel-Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of common digestive problems compared to other health problems among dogs that were admitted to the teaching veterinary hospital, faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University, Egypt during 1 year period from January to December 2013. Also, study the effect of age, sex, breeds, and season on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 3864 dogs included 1488 apparently healthy (included 8...

  20. Cairo’s Contested Garbage: Sustainable Solid Waste Management and the Zabaleen’s Right to the City

    OpenAIRE

    Wael Fahmi; Keith Sutton

    2010-01-01

    Over the decades, the Zabaleen , the traditional waste (garbage) collectors of Cairo, have created what is arguably one of the world’s most efficient and sustainable resource-recovery and waste-recycling systems. Yet the continuation of this intricate relationship between community, environment and livelihood is jeopardized by the official privatization of municipal solid waste (MSW) services through contracts with technology-intensive multinational corporations which threatens the sustaina...

  1. Risk perception and priority setting for intervention among hepatitis C virus and environmental risks: a cross-sectional survey in the Cairo community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewedar Sahar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV recently emerged as a major public health hazard in Egypt. However, dramatic healthcare budget constraints limit access to the costly treatment. We assessed risk perception and priority setting for intervention among HCV, unsafe water, and outdoor air pollution in Cairo city. Methods A survey was conducted in the homes of a representative sample of household heads in Cairo city. Risk perception was assessed using the "psychometric paradigm" where health hazards are evaluated according to several attributes and then summarized by principal component analysis. Priority setting was assessed by individual ranking of interventions reducing health hazards by 50% over five years. The Condorcet method was used to aggregate individual rankings of the three interventions (main study or two of three interventions (validation study. Explanatory factors of priority setting were explored in multivariate generalized logistic models. Results HCV was perceived as having the most severe consequences in terms of illness and out-of-pocket costs, while outdoor air pollution was perceived as the most uncontrollable risk. In the main study (n = 2,603, improved water supply received higher priority than both improved outdoor air quality (60.1%, P P Conclusions The Cairo community prefers to further improving water supply as compared to improved outdoor air quality and screening and treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

  2. High-pressure phase transition in Mn2O3: Application for the crystal structure and preferred orientation of the CaIrO3 type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán, Javier; Shim, Sang-Heon; Shen, Guoyin; Prakapenka, Vitali B.

    2006-08-01

    Our X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that Mn2O3 undergoes a phase transition to the CaIrO3 type, which is proposed for the post-perovskite in MgSiO3, at 27-38 GPa and 300 K, bypassing the other phase transitions observed in sesquioxides. Small distortions in the polyhedra after the transition indicate that the Jahn-Teller effect, which is strong at ambient conditions, is suppressed during the transition. The CaIrO3-type phase exhibits strong preferred orientation of the (010) plane perpendicular to the loading axis before annealing whereas preferred orientation of the (100) and (110) planes was observed after annealing. The pre-annealing texture may result from either the deformation under strong differential stresses or the phase transition. The post-annealing texture may be related to either lower differential stresses or thermal annealing. Our result shows that the texture of the CaIrO3 type can be sensitive to phase transition and annealing as well as differential stresses.

  3. N Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The last of Hanfordqaodmasdkwaspemas7ajkqlsmdqpakldnzsdflss nine plutonium production reactors to be built was the N Reactor.This reactor was called a dual purpose...

  4. Air pollution impact on aerosol variability over mega cities using remote sensing technology: case study, Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution problems over mega cities differ greatly and are influenced by a number of factors, including topography, demography, meteorology, level and rate of industrialization and socioeconomic development. Cairo is considered a key city for economy, education, politics industry and technology in the Middle East.Increasing business and industrial activities in the city accompanied by shortage of the institutional capabilities for monitoring and control, in addition to environmental impact negligence that prevails over many of the production sectors, have contributed to excessive air pollution problems that have reached the level of crisis. A contributor to this problem is natural and man made effects such as dust and aerosols uptakes. Such pollution episodes are observed during the months of October showing the so called Black Cloud. Such pollution leads to wide variability of aerosols behavior over Cairo. Hence, aerosol related parameters obtained from satellite measurements have been studied here. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) behavior showed a dual maxima nature in each year from 2000 till 2005 during the months of (April, May) and October confirming dust and air pollution events, respectively. Such behavior is confirmed by the high negative correlation with the aerosol fine mode fraction (FMF) reaching -0.75. FMF product confirms a higher value during the months of October representing the Black Cloud episodes due to fine particles contribution in these events rather than during the dust events. However, lower values are observed in the last two years due to the new control measures enforced by the government for the environment protection. The difference between the AOD and FMF showed a higher contribution of the fine grains during the Black Cloud events rather than coarser grains during dust events as expected. Among the sources known to contribute to the black cloud formation is the fire burns over the Nile Delta region during the months of September and

  5. Structural evolution and Cenozoic tectonostratigraphy of the Cairo-Suez district, north Eastern Desert of Egypt: Field-structural data from Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagag, Wael

    2016-06-01

    Detailed field mapping reveals that continental rifting is strongly deforming the Gebel Qattamiya-Gebel Um Reheiat area and the entire Cairo-Suez district, in north Eastern Desert of Egypt. Rift-related structures are predominantly represented by E to WNW, NNW and NW oriented faults. The E to WNW oriented faults are small and build up the Gebel Qattamiya en echelon fault belt, whereas the faults trending NNW and NW establish a pervasive horst and graben structural style involving some rhomb-shape horsts as Gebel Qattamiya (GQRH), Gebel Um Reheiat (GURRH) and south Gebel Um Reheiat (SGURRH). Rock units of the Eocene succession and Oligocene sediments are well exposed and highly controlled by rift-related structures. Rifting was developed through two rift-phases; initial and major ones. The initial phase (a newly recognized phase in this contribution) has been occurred in Late Eocene (Priabonian), while the main phase was prevailing during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene time and is characterized by hydrothermal veins and basaltic eruptions. Continental transtension in the Cairo-Suez district, including the study area, was probably synchronous with a major tectonic stage (Pyrenean-Atlasic movement) of continental collision between African-Arabian and Eurasian plates in Late Eocene-Oligocene time. Field investigation suggests that the transfer of displacement (slip) from the Gulf of Suez proto-rift into the E-W oriented faults ''relays'' is an important mechanism, which helps to explain the current structural framework and tectonic evolution of the Cairo-Suez district. Reactivation of such faults with right-lateral divergent wrenching with NE-SW oriented extension deformed the Cairo-Suez district with several E-W oriented en echelon fault belts (e.g. Gebel Qattamiya fault belt in the study area). Thus the Cairo-Suez district represents an accommodation or transfer zone in northeastern Egypt, intercepting the ''far-field stresses'' from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, the Red

  6. Mineral physics of the perovskite to post-perovskite transition in CaIrO3 - seismological implications for the lower mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronnes, R. G.; Stolen, S.; Boffa-Ballaran, T.; Frost, D. J.; Balic-Zunic, T.; Olsen, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    In the system CaIrO3 the perovskite (pv, Pbnm) to post-perovskite (ppv, Cmcm) phase transition is accessible at 1-5 GPa and 1450-1610 C. Both of the CaIrO3-phases are quenchable to ambient conditions, making the system suitable for studies of crystallographic, crystal chemical and mineral physical properties that may provide important guidelines to the behaviour of MgSiO3-based compositions of the lower mantle. Combined results from experimental phase relations, experimental pV-EoS [1], thermal expansivity and density functional theory (DFT) modeling [2] provide insights into the seismologic and geodynamic features of the pv-ppv-transition in the lowermost mantle. Experimental phase relations in the 1-5 GPa range and DFT modeling give Clapeyron slopes for the pv-ppv-transition of 24.5 and 19 MPa/K, respectively, which is about twice the published dp/dT-slopes of the MgSiO3-system. The compressibility of the CaIrO3-crystal structures derived from pv-EoS experiments and DFT-modelling are very similar. In ppv the b-axis compressibility is about twice that of the other two axes. In pv the a- and c-axis compressibilities exceed that of the b-axis by factors of 3 and 2, respectively. The bulk modulus change of the pv to ppv transition is negative, whereas the DFT-derived shear moduli of the two phases give a positive delta-G of the same transition. These results are consistent with DFT-modelling of the MgSiO3-system and with seismological data [3,4]. The apparent suitability of the CaIrO3-component as a low-pressure analogue for the lower mantle MgSiO3-component in terms of crystallographic and mineral physics properties has encouraged an investigation of the incorporation of trivalent cations. By studying the incorporation of a small selection of ions with variable radii in CaIrO3-based pv and ppv, we are searching for systematic relations between various trivalent cation proportions, substitution mechanisms and elasticity parameters. [1] T Boffa-Ballaran, RG Tronnes, D

  7. A New approach for the data acquisition system of the cairo fourier diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with a new approach for the reverse time of flight (RTOF) analysis of the diffraction spectra. The approach is based on the same RTOF concept used for the design of a separate RTOF analyzer and applies, for data acquisition, a special interface card and software program installed in a PC computer, to perform the cross-correlation functions between the three signals received from the chopper decoder, detector and the pulsed neutron source respectively. The new approach have been realized for use with a Fourier diffractometer facility based on the RTOF concept. It has been found from test measurements performed with the high resolution Fourier diffractometer (HRFD) at the IBR-2 reactor (JINR, Dubna) that the new approach can successfully replace the RTOF analyzer

  8. Measurements of the equilibrium factor and radon dose in some houses in Cairo, Egypt using activated charcoal canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon concentration was measured in some houses in Cairo, Egypt using activated charcoal canisters. Equilibrium factor and radon annual equivalent dose are measured as well . The measurements were performed in closed and open ventilation rooms. The average radon concentration was found to be 11.55 Bq/m3 and 24.93 Bq/m3 in open rooms and closed rooms, respectively. The deduced values of equilibrium factor were ranging from 0.171 to 0.180 with an average of 0.175 in open rooms and ranging from 0.190 to 0.205 with an average of 0.194 in closed rooms. The average radon annual equivalent dose was found to be o.111 mSv/y and 0.267 mSv/y in open rooms and closed ones, respectively. These values are much lower than the maximum permissible dose of 1.0 mSv/y recommended by ICRP-60-1990.

  9. Brillouin optical fiber distributed sensor for settlement monitoring while tunneling the metro line 3 in Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewynter, V.; Rougeault, S.; Magne, S.; Ferdinand, P.; Vallon, F.; Avallone, L.; Vacher, E.; De Broissia, M.; Canepa, Ch.; Poulain, A.

    2009-10-01

    Safety while tunneling is one of the main challenges for underground constructions, avoiding confinement losses, which remain an important risk for public works, leading to additional delays and high insurance costs. In such applications, usual surface instrumentations cannot be set up because of high building density in many overcrowded cities. Tunnelling deals with the challenge of requiring ground surface undisturbed. One original concept proposed in the framework of the European Tunconstruct project, consists in very early settlement detection close to the tunnel vault and before any detectable effect on the surface. The adopted solution is to set-up a sensing element inserted into a directional drilling excavated above the foreseen tunnel. The methodology is based on the well known Brillouin Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (B-OTDR) in singlemode optical fibres and a special cable design dedicated to bending measurement. Two cables, based on different industrial manufacturing processes, have been developed taking into account the strain sensitivity required, the flexibility and the robustness for borehole installation, a low power attenuation and storage on a drum. Industrial prototypes have been manufactured and validated with tests in open air where settlement profiles geometry can be accurately controlled. Demonstration on job site took place on The Greater Cairo Metro Line 3 (CML3) at the beginning of 2009.

  10. Quantifying the Driving Forces of Informal Urbanization in the Western Part of the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Osman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the driving forces (DFs of informal urbanization (IU in the greater Cairo metropolitan region (GCMR using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The IU patterns in the GCMR have been extremely influenced by seven DFs: geographical characteristics, availability of life facilities, economic incentives, land demand and supply, population increase, administrative function, and development plans. This research found that these forces vary significantly in how they influence urban growth in the three study sectors, namely, the middle, north, and south areas in the western part of the GCMR. The forces with the highest influence were economic incentives in the middle sector, population increase in the north sector, and the administrative function in the south sector. Due to the lower availability of buildable land in the middle sector, the land demand and supply force had a lesser influence in this sector compared to in the north and south sectors. The development plans force had medium influence in all sectors. The geographical characteristics force had little influence in both the middle and the north sectors, but higher influence than economic incentives, availability of life facilities, and development plans in the south sector. Because of the spatial variances in life facilities organizations in the GCMR, the life facilities availability force had little effect on IU in the south sector.

  11. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised

  12. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised

  13. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  14. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  15. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  16. Crystal structure of post-perovskite-type CaIrO3 reinvestigated: new insights into atomic thermal vibration behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Nakatsuka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title compound, the post-perovskite-type CaIrO3 [calcium iridium(IV trioxide], have been grown from a CaCl2 flux at atmospheric pressure. The crystal structure consists of an alternate stacking of IrO6 octahedral layers and CaO8 hendecahedral layers along [010]. Chains formed by edge-sharing of IrO6 octahedra (point-group symmetry 2/m.. run along [100] and are interconnected along [001] by sharing apical O atoms to build up the IrO6 octahedral layers. Chains formed by face-sharing of CaO8 hendecahedra (point-group symmetry m2m run along [100] and are interconnected along [001] by edge-sharing to build up the CaO8 hendecahedral layers. The IrO6 octahedral layers and CaO8 hendecahedral layers are interconnected by sharing edges. The present structure refinement using a high-power X-ray source confirms the atomic positions determined by Hirai et al. (2009 [Z. Kristallogr. 224, 345–350], who had revised our previous report [Sugahara et al. (2008. Am. Mineral. 93, 1148–1152]. However, the displacement ellipsoids of the Ir and Ca atoms based on the present refinement can be approximated as uniaxial ellipsoids elongating along [100], unlike those reported by Hirai et al. (2009. This suggests that the thermal vibrations of the Ir and Ca atoms are mutually suppressed towards the Ir...Ca direction across the shared edge because of the dominant repulsion between the two atoms.

  17. Crystal structure of post-perovskite-type CaIrO3 reinvestigated: new insights into atomic thermal vibration behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Akihiko; Sugiyama, Kazumasa; Yoneda, Akira; Fujiwara, Keiko; Yoshiasa, Akira

    2015-09-01

    Single crystals of the title compound, the post-perovskite-type CaIrO3 [calcium iridium(IV) trioxide], have been grown from a CaCl2 flux at atmospheric pressure. The crystal structure consists of an alternate stacking of IrO6 octa-hedral layers and CaO8 hendeca-hedral layers along [010]. Chains formed by edge-sharing of IrO6 octa-hedra (point-group symmetry 2/m..) run along [100] and are inter-connected along [001] by sharing apical O atoms to build up the IrO6 octa-hedral layers. Chains formed by face-sharing of CaO8 hendeca-hedra (point-group symmetry m2m) run along [100] and are inter-connected along [001] by edge-sharing to build up the CaO8 hendeca-hedral layers. The IrO6 octa-hedral layers and CaO8 hendeca-hedral layers are inter-connected by sharing edges. The present structure refinement using a high-power X-ray source confirms the atomic positions determined by Hirai et al. (2009 ▸) [Z. Kristallogr. 224, 345-350], who had revised our previous report [Sugahara et al. (2008 ▸). Am. Mineral. 93, 1148-1152]. However, the displacement ellipsoids of the Ir and Ca atoms based on the present refinement can be approximated as uniaxial ellipsoids elongating along [100], unlike those reported by Hirai et al. (2009 ▸). This suggests that the thermal vibrations of the Ir and Ca atoms are mutually suppressed towards the Ir⋯Ca direction across the shared edge because of the dominant repulsion between the two atoms. PMID:26396860

  18. Air Pollution Monitoring and Use of Nanotechnology Based Solid State Gas Sensors in Greater Cairo Area, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, A. B. A.

    Air pollution is a serious problem in thickly populated and industrialized areas in Egypt, especially in greater Cairo area. Economic growth and industrialization are proceeding at a rapid pace, accompanied by increasing emissions of air polluting sources. Furthermore, though the variety and quantities of polluting sources have increased dramatically, the development of a suitable method for monitoring the pollution causing sources has not followed at the same pace. Environmental impacts of air pollutants have impact on public health, vegetation, material deterioration etc. To prevent or minimize the damage caused by atmospheric pollution, suitable monitoring systems are urgently needed that can rapidly and reliably detect and quantify polluting sources for monitoring by regulating authorities in order to prevent further deterioration of the current pollution levels. Consequently, it is important that the current real-time air quality monitoring system, controlled by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), should be adapted or extended to aid in alleviating this problem. Nanotechnology has been applied to several industrial and domestic fields, for example, applications for gas monitoring systems, gas leak detectors in factories, fire and toxic gas detectors, ventilation control, breath alcohol detectors, and the like. Here we report an application example of studying air quality monitoring based on nanotechnology `solid state gas sensors'. So as to carry out air pollution monitoring over an extensive area, a combination of ground measurements through inexpensive sensors and wireless GIS will be used for this purpose. This portable device, comprising solid state gas sensors integrated to a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) linked through Bluetooth communication tools and Global Positioning System (GPS), will allow rapid dissemination of information on pollution levels at multiple sites simultaneously.

  19. Sources of Recharge and Salinity of the Miocene Aquifer Around Cairo City, Inferences from Environmental Isotopes and Hydrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation has been carried out to explore the recharging sources of the Miocene aquifer around Cairo city and to check its replenishment and the impact of structural and Iithological elements on groundwater flow and quality. The groundwater of the Miocene aquifer Ims so variant hydrochemical characteristics in the eastern and western fringes of south delta. This is compatible with the lithologic nature and sedimentary facies of the aquifer; fluviatile gravely sand (Moghra Formation) to the west and fluviomarine and marine facies to the east. The stable and radioactive isotopes (18 O, D, T and 14 C) collectively indicated that the major bulk of water in the Miocene aquifer is non renewable. The recent recharge from Nile system is not systematic; it is controlled by Iithological and structural elements. The nature of Paleowater recharge is different for the Miocene aquifer in the eastern and western fringes of south delta, it is related in the west to remnants of Paleo Nile water that was recharged during Holocene times and entrapped in the buried old Nile channels. These channels also receive Sub - Recent recharge from Nile water that was flooding in the area prior to completion of Aswan High Dam. The paleo recharge in the eastern fringes is, on the other hand, related to the main pluvial period (around 20000 ybp) of the Nubian Sandstone system. The fluviatile nature of Moghra Formation and the buried channels to the west of south delta accelerated the infiltration and the invasion of last humid phase water (8500 -5000 ybp) causing a freshening of the main pluvial phase recharge

  20. Epidemiological Study Of Risky Behaviours And Their Relation With Mental Ill Health Among Secondary School Students In Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam A. El-Moselhy; Morsy A. Ammar; Khaled M. Abd-Allah; Ibrahim A.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional design was carried out on 827 students from general and technical secondary schools in Cairo. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of risky behaviours among the studied students, to assess their relation with sociodemographic factors and psychological problems and to explore student's attitude toward these behaviours. The data were collected by a standardized interviewing form. Different psychological symptoms were assessed using Middle Sex Hospital Questionnaire. The study showed, 54.1% of the students were having unhealthy diet and tobacco smoking behaviours. Also, all the risky behaviours, except absence of physical exercise practice and suicide attempt, were more common among boys. The most important sociodemographic risk factors were; positive family history of risky behaviours, one parent family and the student's work beside studying (OR=7.11, 4.07 and 3.37, respectively. The most important reasons for unhealthy diet, carrying weapon and engagement in casual sex were imitation (55.2%, to feel grown up (47.1% and peer pressure (39.1%, respectively. While, the most common psychological problem was hysteria (15.1% and the most common neurotic trait was sadness (41.9%. The most important psychological problems risk factors were obsession and hysteria (OR=5.53 and 4.59, respectively. While, the most important neurotic traits risk were irritability and sadness (OR=9.53 and 8.05, respectively. No awareness to the reported risk was present among 96.4% of the students having the risky behaviours (OR=6.41.

  1. Seasonal and spatial variation of atmospheric particulate matter in a developing megacity, the Greater Cairo, Egypt Egipto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakey, A.S. [The Abdus Salam International Centre of Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: azakey@ictp.it; Abdel-Wahab, M.M. [Cairo University, Department of Meteorology, Faculty of Science, Cairo (Egypt); Pettersson, J.B.C.; Gatari, M.J.; Hallquist, M. [Department of Chemistry, Atmospheric Science, Goeteborg University, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2008-04-15

    As an example of a developing megacity the Greater Cairo (GC) area in Egypt has been evaluated with respect to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and lead (Pb). Particulate matter was collected during 2001-2002 in the two size fractions PM{sub 2}.5 and PM{sub 1}0 at 17 sites representing different activities (industrial, urban, residential and background condition). The PM concentrations were generally high, with yearly average PM{sub 2}.5 and PM{sub 1}0 values of 85 {+-} 12 and 170 {+-} 25 {mu}g/m{sup -}3, respectively. On an annual scale, the high PM levels were due to many sources that included traffic, waste burning and wind blown dust particles emitted from the desert outside GC and the Moqattam hill inside GC. On a seasonal scale, the PM concentrations were highest in the industrial sector during spring, the dusty season, due to the combined effect of dust storm events and anthropogenic emissions over GC. The lowest seasonal concentrations were recorded in the summer season at the background sites. There was a marked increase in PM levels during the period October to December due to burning of waste from harvested rice in the agriculture area in the Nile Delta (north of Cairo). The highest PM{sub 2}.5/PM{sub 1}0 ratio was recorded in the urban sector (0.59) while the lowest ratio was recorded in the residential sector (0.32). The PM{sub 2}.5 and PM{sub 1}0 samples were also analyzed for Pb in order to address the influence of different emission sources. The monthly average concentrations of Pb in both PM{sub 2}.5 (Pb{sub 2}.5) and PM{sub 1}0 (Pb{sub 1}0) varied between 0.4 and 1.8 {+-} {mu}g m{sup -}3 at the non industrial sites. The concentrations were significantly higher in the industrial areas, where concentration up to a maximum of 16 {+-} g m{sup -}3 could be observed. Both the high lead and PM concentrations measured are contributing to local environmental pollution. GC is subjected to high concentrations of particulates most of the year. There is no

  2. Characterization of CTX-M ESBLs in Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates from Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaf Noha G

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high rate of resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins among Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Egypt has been previously reported. This study aims to characterize the resistance mechanism (s to extended spectrum cephalosporins among resistant clinical isolates at a medical institute in Cairo, Egypt. Methods Nonconsecutive Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp, Enterobacter cloacae (ENT and Escherichia coli (EC isolates were obtained from the clinical laboratory at the medical institute. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested by CLSI disk diffusion and ESBL confirmatory tests. MICs were determined using broth microdilution. Isoelectric focusing (IEF was used to determine the pI values, inhibitor profiles, and cefotaxime (CTX hydrolysis by the β-lactamases. PCR and sequencing were performed using blaCTX-M and ISEcp1-specific primers, with DNA obtained from the clinical isolates. Conjugation experiments were done to determine the mobility of blaCTX-M. Results All five clinical isolates were resistant to CTX, and were positive for ESBL screening. IEF revealed multiple β-lactamases produced by each isolate, including a β-lactamase with a pI of 8.0 in Kp and ENT and a β-lactamase with a pI of 9.0 in EC. Both β-lactamases were inhibited by clavulanic acid and hydrolyzed CTX. PCR and sequence analysis identified blaCTX-M-14 in Kp and ENT and a blaCTX-M-15 in EC. Both blaCTX-M-14 and blaCTX-M-15 were preceded by ISEcp1 elements as revealed by partial sequence analysis of the upstream region of the blaCTX-M genes. blaCTX-M-15 was transferable but not blaCTX-M-14. Conclusion This is the first report of CTX-M-14 in Kp and ENT isolates from Egypt, the Middle East and North Africa.

  3. Governing the transition to natural gas in Mediteranean Metropolis: The case of Cairo, Istanbul and Sfax (Tunisia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent scholarship on urban energy governance has focused on low carbon energy strategies seen as a response to climate change and energy pressure threats. But such approaches tend to overlook the situations of cities from the Global South and emerging countries concerned with strong energy demand growth. The development of urban natural gas networks is an understudied response to such a challenge. Focusing on three cities, Istanbul, Cairo and Sfax (Tunisia), the article analyses the factors and the governance of these energy transitions. It uses a geographical approach to such processes that highlight the mutual influence of the territory in its material and political dimensions and of the policy goals and tools in the implementation. The development of urban gas networks rests upon the proximity of gas deposits. It is determined by metropolitan strategies for economic development as well as by programs aiming to cut energy subsidies. Though urban gas networks have a strong potential for restructuring the physical and social landscapes in cities, the dominant commercial approach taken by energy utilities and morphological constraints in the urban fabric limit their universalization. Natural gas is part of a mix of energies at the urban level and often competes with other energy forms, specifically renewables (like solar water heaters). Lastly, the development of urban natural gas networks sparks heated politics in relation to unfulfilled energy demand and affordability. - Highlights: • Considers the governance of natural gas networks in emerging cities. •Adopts a geographical approach looking at interactions between natural gas infrastructure and urban space. • Switch to natural gas linked to financial purpose (subsidy cuts) more than concern for climate change. • Switch to natural gas shaped by policies governing other urban energy forms. • Urban politics and issues of affordability impact the governance of natural gas transition

  4. Evaluation of daily intake for some elements of radiation protection concern by inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H.E. Monged

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Sr, I, Al, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni, Zn and Cr were determined in common foodstuffs consumed by adult inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area (GCA. Some of these elements have chemical and biological similarity to some of the radionuclides abundantly encountered during nuclear power production and therefore data on these elements could provide important information on their biokinetic behavior. A total of 120 samples were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. Highest contributions for the intake of micronutrients (Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn arise from broad bean, rice and wheat flour consumption. Meat, milk, eggs and some vegetables are the major sources of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Al, Cd and Pb intake. The medium daily intakes for the adult inhabitants of GCA from the analyzed elements were reported. The lower daily intake of Ca, Th, Cs and I by adult inhabitants of GCA could be due to significantly lower consumption of milk and milk products. The significantly lower intake of calcium by adult inhabitants of GCA may lead to higher uptake of radiostrontium and could result in perhaps higher internal radiation dose. The lower intake values obtained for thorium and uranium, which suggests that radiation dose from their ingestion at natural background levels, is likely to be lower than what may be concluded from International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP data. Concerning micronutrients, the recommended values of daily intake of Cu and Mn are conveniently supplied by diet; however, for Cr and Zn they are lower than the recommended daily allowance. Due to high metals concentrations and consumption rates, broad bean is the foodstuff that provided the highest ingestion rates of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn, being therefore a very important source of micronutrients.

  5. Understanding MgSiO3 Post-Perovskite via NaMgF3 and CaIrO3 Analog Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C.; Parise, J. B.

    2006-12-01

    Knowledge of the structure and properties of MgSiO3 post-perovskite (ppv) is paramount in the study of Earth`s D" layer and core-mantle boundary. However, the extreme pressures and temperatures required to stabilize this phase make in-situ characterization difficult. Rietveld refinement of structure models obtained from x-ray and neutron diffraction data of analog materials including NaMgF3 and CaIrO3, the structure model of MgSiO3 ppv, reveal structural changes accompanying the perovskite (pv)/ppv phase transition. Refined models of NaMgF3 pv just before ppv phase transition indicate some inter-octahedral F-F distances rival the average intra-octahedral distance, which may cause instability in the pv structure and drive the transformation to the ppv phase. The dataset suggests it may be possible to predict the pressure of a ppv phase transition in other pv- (or A2X3-) type materials by extrapolating the cation polyhedra volume ratio with pressure. Diffraction data from CaIrO3 indicate significant disparity between axial compression and thermal expansion schemes (Ka > Kc &αa CaIrO3 at high temperature detail structure changes expected of MgSiO3 ppv considering the thermal gradient above Earth`s core-mantle boundary. In sum, this work assists an increasingly comprehensive understanding of the structure and properties expected of MgSiO3 ppv above the core-mantle boundary.

  6. Assessing the Impact of a Community-Based Health and Nutrition Education on the Management of Diarrhea in an Urban District, Cairo, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Aziz, Shaimaa B.; Maha A Mowafy; Galal, Yasmine S.

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea is considered as a major cause of mortality in children aged less than five years old. This pre/post interventional study was designed to assess maternal knowledge about diarrhea and implement a community-based health and nutrition education messages. The study was held in Al-Darb Al-Ahamar (ADAA) district, Cairo, Egypt and targeted a random sample of 600 mothers having at least one child under-five years old and complained of at least one previous attack of diarrhea. The study was c...

  7. Riten der Gewalt: Protest und Aufruhr in Kairo und Damaskus (7./13. bis 10./16. Jahrhundert) (Rites of Violence: Violent Protests in Mamluk Cairo and Damascus)

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschler, Konrad

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with violent forms of ‘popular’ protest and revolt in Cairo and Damascus between the 7th/13th and the 10th/16th centuries. It focuses on the symbolic expressions employed during such periods of violence in order to refine currently employed concepts such as ‘mob-violence’, which tend to describe such events as irrational and spasmodic. The symbolic expressions are analysed with regard to three main themes that played a salient role: the urban spaces that were the theatre of...

  8. Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, Frederick H. [Argonne National Laboratory; Jacobson, Norman H.

    1968-09-01

    This booklet discusses research reactors - reactors designed to provide a source of neutrons and/or gamma radiation for research, or to aid in the investigation of the effects of radiation on any type of material.

  9. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article proposes an overview of research reactors, i.e. nuclear reactors of less than 100 MW. Generally, these reactors are used as neutron generators for basic research in matter sciences and for technological research as a support to power reactors. The author proposes an overview of the general design of research reactors in terms of core size, of number of fissions, of neutron flow, of neutron space distribution. He outlines that this design is a compromise between a compact enough core, a sufficient experiment volume, and high enough power densities without affecting neutron performance or its experimental use. The author evokes the safety framework (same regulations as for power reactors, more constraining measures after Fukushima, international bodies). He presents the main characteristics and operation of the two families which represent almost all research reactors; firstly, heavy water reactors (photos, drawings and figures illustrate different examples); and secondly light water moderated and cooled reactors with a distinction between open core pool reactors like Melusine and Triton, pool reactors with containment, experimental fast breeder reactors (Rapsodie, the Russian BOR 60, the Chinese CEFR). The author describes the main uses of research reactors: basic research, applied and technological research, safety tests, production of radio-isotopes for medicine and industry, analysis of elements present under the form of traces at very low concentrations, non destructive testing, doping of silicon mono-crystalline ingots. The author then discusses the relationship between research reactors and non proliferation, and finally evokes perspectives (decrease of the number of research reactors in the world, the Jules Horowitz project)

  10. Reactor physics and reactor computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical methods and computer calculations for nuclear and thermonuclear reactor kinetics, reactor physics, neutron transport theory, core lattice parameters, waste treatment by transmutation, breeding, nuclear and thermonuclear fuels are the main interests of the conference

  11. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are currently 284 research reactors in operation, and 12 under construction around the world. Of the operating reactors, nearly two-thirds are used exclusively for research, and the rest for a variety of purposes, including training, testing, and critical assembly. For more than 50 years, research reactor programs have contributed greatly to the scientific and educational communities. Today, six of the world's research reactors are being shut down, three of which are in the USA. With government budget constraints and the growing proliferation concerns surrounding the use of highly enriched uranium in some of these reactors, the future of nuclear research could be impacted

  12. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To provide a jet and missile protective wall of a configuration being inflated toward the center of a reactor container on the inside of a body of the reactor container disposed within a biological shield wall to thereby increase safety of the reactor container. Structure: A jet and missile protective wall comprised of curved surfaces internally formed with a plurality of arch inflations filled with concrete between inner and outer iron plates and shape steel beam is provided between a reactor container surrounded by a biological shield wall and a thermal shield wall surrounding the reactor pressure vessel, and an adiabatic heat insulating material is filled in space therebetween. (Yoshino, Y.)

  13. Electronic spin and valence states of Fe in CaIrO3-type silicate post-perovskite in the Earth's lowermost mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Z.; Lin, J. F.; Jacobs, C.; Watson, H. C.; Xiao, Y.; Chow, P.; Alp, E. E.; Prakapenka, V. B.

    2010-11-01

    The electronic spin and valence states of Fe in post-perovskite ((Mg0.75Fe0.25)SiO3) have been investigated by synchrotron X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer and X-ray emission spectroscopy at 142 GPa and 300 K. Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that our sample was dominated by CaIrO3-type post-perovskite. Combined Mössbauer and X-ray emission results show that Fe in post-perovskite is predominantly Fe2+ (70%) in the intermediate-spin state with extremely high quadrupole splitting of 3.77(25) mm/s. The remaining 30% Fe can be assigned to two sites. Compared with recent studies, our results indicate that the intermediate-spin Fe2+ is stabilized in CaIrO3-type post-perovskite over a wide range of Fe content, whereas the low-spin Fe3+ is more dominant in the 2 × 1 kinked post-perovskite structure. The characterization of these structural and compositional effects on the spin and valence states of Fe in post-perovskite can help in understanding the geochemical and geophysical behavior of the core-mantle region.

  14. Deformation microtextures in CaIrO3 post-perovskite under high stress conditions using a laser-heated diamond anvil cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, N.; Niwa, K.; Heidelbach, F.; Yagi, T.; Ohgushi, K.

    2010-03-01

    Deformation microstructures of CaIrO3 post perovskite (PPv) in a laser heated diamond anvil cell (DAC) are examined using transmission electron microscopy. Under a high stress and strain rate in the deformation condition, a high density of the {110} twin domains were at first time observed in post perovskite structure, as well as [100] and [001] dislocations on the (010) plane. The exchange of the a-axis for the b-axes in the twin mechanism can reduce a stress in a single crystal at the beginning of the uniaxial compression. The {110} plane in PPv corresponds with that of the crystallographic preferred orientation that was previously reported in deformed MgSiO3 and MgGeO3 PPv in DACs. This result implies that the formation of the twin domains can play an important role in CaIrO3 PPv deformations under high stress and strain rate conditions (e.g., Deformation by DAC).

  15. Observation of electrical and magnetic property of CaIrO3 and CaRhO3 post-perovskite by electrical resistivity measurement under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimaru, Kota; Ohta, Kenji; Shimizu, Katsuya; Ohgushi, Kenya; Yamaura, Kazunari

    2013-06-01

    Since discovery of MgSiO3 post-perovskite (PPv) phase, high-pressure polymorph of MgSiO3 perovskite (Pv), there are extensive studies regarding physical properties of various PPv materials. It is well known that the crystal structure of high-Tc cuprates is based on Pv structure. Material with PPv structure is thus expected to show superconducting behavior with high Tc. Here we investigated electrical properties of CaIrO3 and CaRhO3 PPv. These PPv materials are quenchable to ambient condition, and known as a quasi-2D Mott Insulator showing antiferromagnetic transition at low temperature. We performed electrical resistivity measurements on the samples under high pressure and low temperature conditions up to 191 GPa, and found that the energy gap of both samples came close to zero with applying pressure. On CaIrO3 PPv, we observed an abrupt increase in sample resistivity at low temperature, which is likely to correspond to antiferromagnetic transition in the sample. The Néel temperature decreased with applying pressure. In the experiments on CaRhO3 PPv, we could not observe such resistivity jump likely caused by the magnetic transition.

  16. Ecological Risk Assessment of Metal Pollution along Greater Cairo Sector of the River Nile, Egypt, Using Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, as Bioindicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael A. Omar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to evaluate seasonal metal pollution along Greater Cairo sector of the River Nile, Egypt, using wild Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, as bioindicator and to conduct a risk assessment for human consumers. Greater Cairo is the largest populated area along the whole course of River Nile with a wide range of anthropogenic activities. Effects of metal pollution on fish body indices were studied using condition factor (CF and scaled mass index (SMI. Metal pollution index (MPI showed that the total metal load in fish organs followed the follwoing order: kidney > liver > gill > muscle which gives a better idea about the target organs for metal accumulation. Metal concentrations in fish muscle (edible tissue showed the following arrangement: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. Metal’s bioaccumulation factor (BAF in fish muscle showed the following arrangement: Zn > Cu > Fe > Mn > Cd and Pb. The hazard index (HI as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption showed that adverse health effects are not expected to occur in most cases. However, the metals’ cumulative risk effects gave an alarming sign specifically at high fish consumption rates.

  17. Deformation of the CaIrO3 Post-Perovskite Phase to 5 GPa and 1300 K in the Multi-Anvil Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, L.; Nishiyama, N.; Wang, Y.; Kubo, A.; West, D. V.; Cava, R. J.; Duffy, T. S.; Wenk, H.

    2006-12-01

    At ambient conditions, CaIrO3 is isostructural with MgSiO3 post-perovskite and thus can serve as an analog for studying the plastic properties of the post-perovskite phase. At present the only way to attain the pressures needed for MgSiO3 post-perovskite is in the diamond anvil cell (DAC). However, current technology for radial diffraction experiments does not allow deformation at high-temperatures in the stability field of MgSiO3 post-perovskite and thus investigation of possible high-temperature slip systems that may affect texturing is not possible. The advantage of the multi-anvil press is that it allows for relatively large volume deformation at simultaneous high-temperature and pressure, while also allowing the user to decouple hydrostatic stress from deviatoric stresses. The disadvantage is that the available pressure range is greatly reduced compared to the DAC. The stability field of CaIrO3 post-perovskite extends to 1800 K at 3 GPa, making it amenable to study with the multi-anvil press. Here we study the plastic behavior of CaIrO3 post-perovskite at a variety of conditions within its stability field. Polycrystalline CaIrO3 post-perovskite was synthesized from a 1:1 molar ratio of CaO and IrO2 by first heating in a vacuum-sealed silica tube to 980° C at ambient pressure for 68 hours followed by compression to 7 GPa and 1100° C for 4 hours. The sample was deformed in the D-DIA multi-anvil press at pressures of 2-3 GPa and 4-5 GPa and temperatures of 298 K, 600 K, 800 K, 1000 K, and 1300 K. Deformation was accomplished in several compression cycles of up to 20% strain for each temperature and pressure. Each compression cycle was followed by extension to 0% strain. Quantitative texture information is obtained using in-situ synchrotron x- ray diffraction images and the Rietveld method to deconvolute spectra. In all cases we find that the (010) lattice planes align perpendicular to the compression direction, and that there is no change in texture with

  18. IAEA Laboratory activities. The IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Cairo. Sixth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This sixth 'IAEA Laboratory Activities' report describes development and work during the year 1968. It includes activities of the IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, and the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries at Cairo. (author)

  19. IAEA Laboratory activities. The IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Cairo. Fourth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fourth 'IAEA Laboratory Activities' report describes development and work during the year 1966. It includes activities of the IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, and the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries at Cairo. (author)

  20. IAEA laboratory activities. The IAEA laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Cairo. 3rd report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This third 'IAEA Laboratory Activities' report describes development and work during the year 1965. It includes activities of the IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, and the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries at Cairo

  1. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole reactor building is accommodated in a shaft and is sealed level with the earth's surface by a building ceiling, which provides protection against penetration due to external effects. The building ceiling is supported on walls of the reactor building, which line the shaft and transfer the vertical components of forces to the foundations. The thickness of the walls is designed to withstand horizontal pressure waves in the floor. The building ceiling has an opening above the reactor, which must be closed by cover plates. Operating equipment for the reactor can be situated above the building ceiling. (orig./HP)

  2. Heterogeneous reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microscopic study of a cell is meant for the determination of the infinite multiplication factor of the cell, which is given by the four factor formula: K(infinite) = n(epsilon)pf. The analysis of an homogeneous reactor is similar to that of an heterogeneous reactor, but each factor of the four factor formula can not be calculated by the formulas developed in the case of an homogeneous reactor. A great number of methods was developed for the calculation of heterogeneous reactors and some of them are discussed. (Author)

  3. Plasma reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Mansilla, Ricardo; Erra Serrabasa, Pilar; Bertrán Serra, Enric

    2008-01-01

    [EN] A plasma reactor that can operate in a wide pressure range, from vacuum and low pressures to atmospheric pressure and higher pressures. The plasma reactor is also able to regulate other important settings and can be used for processing a wide range of different samples, such as relatively large samples or samples with rough surfaces.

  4. Reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in research on reactor physics in 1997 at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK/CEN is described. Activities in the following four domains are discussed: core physics, ex-core neutron transport, experiments in Materials Testing Reactors, international benchmarks

  5. Studying and analyzing the formation and dynamics of the black cloud over Cairo, Egypt, using a multi sensor approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Askary, H. M.; Prasad, A. K.; Marey, H. M.; El-Raey, M. E.; Asrar, G. R.; Kafatos, M.

    2012-04-01

    In the past decade, episodes of severe air pollution from biomass burning and/or industrial activities, known as the "black cloud" have occurred over Cairo, and the Nile Delta region situated on the eastern side of the Sahara desert in Egypt, during the autumn season. Previous studies have attributed the increased pollution levels during the black cloud season only to the biomass or open burning of agricultural waste, vehicular, industrial emissions, and secondary aerosols. However, new multi-sensor observations (column and vertical profiles) from satellites, dust transport models and associated meteorology present a different picture of the autumn pollution. It was found that the same region receives as well numerous dust storms along with the anthropogenic aerosols during same season. Such complex combination of these aerosols results in poor air quality and poses significant health hazards for the population in this region. In this study, data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) along with the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) are used with meteorological data and trajectory analyses to determine the cause of these events. MODIS fire counts highlighted the anthropogenic component of the dense cloud resulting from the burning of agricultural waste after harvest season. Synchronous MISR data show that these fires create low altitude (burning occurs at night, when a thermal inversion constrains the plumes to remain in the boundary layer (BL). Convection during the day raises the BL, dispersing these smoke particles until the next night. However, we have found a dust transport pathway along the Mauritania/Mali/Algeria/Libya/Egypt axis that significantly affects NE Africa, especially the Nile Delta region, during the biomass burning season. The increase in aerosol loading (A0D>0.9) along with corresponding decrease in the Angstrom Exponent, a typical feature of desert dust, point towards the presence of desert dust over the Delta

  6. Estimation of seismic moments from local magnitudes and coda durations for the Cairo earthquake aftershocks recorded at Kottamyia (KEG Broadband station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Abdelwahed

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The spectral analysis of fifty-five KEG VBB records from the October 12, 1992 Cairo earthquake source region was performed to obtain the seismic moment. We obtained this parameter in turn to develop empirical local magnitude (ML, seismic moment (Mo, coda duration (D relations for that region. In this study the data consist of Lg-waves on the vertical component seismograms for the recorded earthquakes with ML ranging from 1.7 to 4.7. The derived empirical relation between the seismic moment (Mo and magnitude ML for the aftershocks sequence with 1.7 = ML < 3.5 is Log (Mo = (0.96 ± 0.05 ML + (17.88 ± 0.13. We found a correlation between the coda duration (D and Log of the moment (Log (Mo as follows: Log (Mo = (2.35 ± 0.27 Log (D + (16.33 ± 0.48.

  7. High-pressure synthesis, structure, and characterization of a post-perovskite CaPtO3 with CaIrO3-type structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaguma, Yoshiyuki; Hasumi, Ken-ichiro; Yoshida, Masashi; Ohba, Tomonori; Katsumata, Tetsuhiro

    2008-03-17

    A new ternary platinum oxide, CaPtO3 was synthesized under a pressure of 7 GPa and a temperature of 1000 degrees C. The crystal structure of CaPtO3 was determined by Rietveld analysis of the X-ray powder diffraction data. CaPtO3 has a layered CaIrO3-type structure (orthorhombic, space group: Cmcm), which is the same as that of a post-perovskite MgSiO3 in the Earth's lower mantle. The magnetic susceptibility data indicate that the Pt ion in CaPtO3 is tetravalent in the low spin state with an electron configuration of t2g(6)eg(0)(S = 0). This finding is consistent with the insulating behavior. PMID:18269241

  8. Study of the formation of the “black cloud” and its dynamics over Cairo, Egypt, using MODIS and MISR sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marey, Heba S.; Gille, John C.; El-Askary, Hesham M.; Shalaby, Elsayed A.; El-Raey, Mohamed E.

    2010-11-01

    In the past decade, episodes of severe air pollution, known as the "black cloud," have occurred in Cairo, Egypt, in the early autumn. In this study, data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and the Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) are used with meteorological data and trajectory analyses to determine the cause of these events. MODIS fire counts put the source as the burning of agricultural waste after harvest season in the Nile delta region. Synchronous MISR data show that these fires create low altitude (burning occurs at night, when an inversion constrains the plumes to remain in the boundary layer (BL). Convection during the day raises the BL, dispersing these smoke particles until the next night.

  9. Compact Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date

  10. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H.L.

    1960-09-20

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising fissionable material dispersed in graphite blocks, helium filling the voids of the blocks and the spaces therebetween, and means other than the helium in thermal conductive contact with the graphite for removing heat.

  11. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  12. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This draft chart contains graphical symbols from which the type of (nuclear) reactor can be seen. They will serve as illustrations for graphical sketches. Important features of the individual reactor types are marked out graphically. The user can combine these symbols to characterize a specific reactor type. The basic graphical symbol is a square with a point in the centre. Functional groups can be depicted for closer specification. If two functional groups are not clearly separated, this is symbolized by a dotted line or a channel. Supply and discharge lines for coolant, moderator and fuel are specified in accordance with DIN 2481 and can be further specified by additional symbols if necessary. The examples in the paper show several different reactor types. (orig./AK)

  13. Multifunctional reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Multifunctional reactors are single pieces of equipment in which, besides the reaction, other functions are carried out simultaneously. The other functions can be a heat, mass or momentum transfer operation and even another reaction. Multifunctional reactors are not new, but they have received much emphasis in research in the last decade. A survey is given of modern developments and the first successful applications on a large scale. It is explained why their application in many instances is ...

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  15. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce neutron embrittlement of the pressue vessel of an LWR, blanked off elements are fitted at the edge of the reactor core, with the same dimensions as the fuel elements. They are parallel to each other, and to the edge of the reactor taking the place of fuel rods, and are plates of neutron-absorbing material (stainless steel, boron steel, borated Al). (HP)

  16. Breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reasons for the development of fast reactors are briefly reviewed (a propitious neutron balance oriented towards a maximum uranium burnup) and its special requirements (cooling, fissile material density and reprocessing) discussed. The three stages in the French program of fast reactor development are outlined with Rapsodie at Cadarache, Phenix at Marcoule, and Super Phenix at Creys-Malville. The more specific features of the program of research and development are emphasized: kinetics and the core, the fuel and the components

  17. Research reactors - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Reactor utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1962, the RA reactor was operated almost three times more than in 1961, producing total of 25 555 MWh. Diagram containing comparative data about reactor operation for 1960, 1961, and 1962, percent of fuel used and U-235 burnup shows increase in reactor operation. Number of samples irradiated was 659, number of experiments done was 16. mean powered level was 5.93 MW. Fuel was added into the core twice during the reporting year. In fact the core was increased from 56 to 68 fuel channels and later to 84 fuel channels. Fuel was added to the core when the reactivity worth decreased to the minimum operation level due to burnup. In addition to this 5 central fuel channels were exchanged with fresh fuel in february for the purpose of irradiation in the VISA-2 channel

  19. Reactor Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Lasserre, T; Lasserre, Thierry; Sobel, Henry W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments, that toe the cutting edge of neutrino research. Short baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and are still searching for important phenomena such as the neutrino magnetic moment. They could open the door to the measurement of coherent neutrino scattering in a near future. Middle and long baseline oscillation experiments at Chooz and KamLAND have played a relevant role in neutrino oscillation physics in the last years. It is now widely accepted that a new middle baseline disappearance reactor neutrino experiment with multiple detectors could provide a clean measurement of the last undetermined neutrino mixing angle theta13. We conclude by opening on possible use of neutrinos for Society: NonProliferation of Nuclear materials and Geophysics.

  20. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor has a large prompt negative temperature coefficient of reactivity. A reactor core assembly of a plurality of fluid-tight fuel elements is located within a water-filled tank. Each fuel element contains a solid homogeneous mixture of 50-79 w/o zirconium hydride, 20-50 w/o uranium and 0.5-1.5 W erbium. The uranium is not more than 20 percent enriched, and the ratio of hydrogen atoms to zirconium atoms is between 1.5:1 and 7:1. The core has a long lifetime, E.G., at least about 1200 days

  1. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a liquid cooled nuclear reactor, the combination is described for a single-walled vessel containing liquid coolant in which the reactor core is submerged, and a containment structure, primarily of material for shielding against radioactivity, surrounding at least the liquid-containing part of the vessel with clearance therebetween and having that surface thereof which faces the vessel make compatible with the liquid, thereby providing a leak jacket for the vessel. The structure is preferably a metal-lined concrete vault, and cooling means are provided for protecting the concrete against reaching a temperature at which damage would occur. (U.S.)

  2. Are CaIrO3 and MgGeO3 isomechanical to MgSiO3-post-perovskite ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsue, A.; Carrez, P.; Mainprice, D.; Cordier, P.

    2007-12-01

    The recent discovery of MgSiO3 post-perovskite (pPv) and prediction of its elastic properties using atomistic modelling has major implications for the interpretation of seismic anisotropy of the D" layer. Because they don't take into account lattice preferred orientations induced by convective flow, the elastic properties are not sufficient to interpret seismic anisotropy and it is necessary to investigate the plasticity of this mineral. However, it is well known that pressure and temperature near the core-mantle boundary make experimental studies extremely difficult. To circumvent this difficulty, experimental studies are often carried out on analogous phases (stable at lower pressures) which are supposed to exhibit the same mechanical properties as the high-pressure phase. In this work, we calculate the dislocation properties of MgGeO3 pPv at 120GPa and CaIrO3 pPv at ambient pressure using the Peierls-Nabarro (PN) model. The so-called PN model is a fundamental concept of the dislocation theory which describes the resistance of the lattice to dislocation motion, a very important factor for the plasticity of silicates. The PN model also provides an analytical description of the dislocation core and of its potential spreading in the glide plane. Known for several decades, the PN model has triggered a renewed interest when Christian and Vitek (1970) showed that realistic models of dislocations could be built by incorporating generalized stacking faults (GSF) into the PN model. Here, we use the ab initio total-energy package VASP to calculate GSF, which are incorporated in the PN model. In that way, we obtain a model of the dislocation core profile and the value of the stress required to move a dislocation (the so-called Peierls stress) for ten slip systems of each compound. These results are compared to those recently published on MgSiO3 post- perovskite to assess the potential relevance of the analogue approach in studying the rheology of the D" layer. We show that

  3. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of the aerosol content in Cairo (Egypt) as deduced from the comparison of MODIS aerosol retrievals with direct AERONET measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Metwally, M.; Alfaro, S. C.; Abdel Wahab, M. M.; Zakey, A. S.; Chatenet, B.

    2010-07-01

    As this is the case in many megacities of the developing countries, the atmospheric aerosol load is usually particularly large over the Cairo (Egypt) conurbation. However, being the result of a combination of meteorological factors and of the activity of various particle sources, some of which are seasonal, this load is variable in time. The objective of this study is to document this variability at the intra- and inter-annual scales. For this we use the qualitative Aerosol Absorption Index (AAI) derived from Aura-OMI (the ultimate version of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, TOMS) and the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) derived from the radiance measurements performed between 2000 and 2008 by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers (MODIS) implemented aboard either the Terra or the Aqua satellites. In the sense that AOD maxima are always obtained in April and in October at the peaks of the desert dust and biomass burning periods, respectively, the results yielded by these two methods are in good qualitative agreement with those of direct sunphotometer observations performed in Cairo for more than one year (from end of October 2004 to the end of March 2006). However, a quantitative comparison of the MODIS and AERONET products for their common period of measurements reveals that MODIS tends to overestimate systematically the AOD and underestimate the aerosol's Ångström exponent. We propose an empirical method for correcting the AOD retrieved by MODIS at 550 nm and match it with the sunphotometer values. When applied to the whole MODIS dataset, the effect of this correction is to smooth the inter-annual differences. As a result, the month-to-month variations of the AOD can be described by the same pattern independently of the year in the period of study (from 2000 to 2008). The monthly averaged AOD obtained by this method is minimal (0.24 ± 0.04 at 550 nm) from December to February because of the washing out of airborne particles by rain events more

  4. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an improved reactor core for a high conversion BWR reactor, Pu-breeding type BWR type reactor, Pu-breeding type BWR type rector, FEBR type reactor, etc., two types of fuel assemblies are loaded such that fuel assemblies using a channel box of a smaller irradiation deformation ratio are loaded in a high conversion region, while other fuel assemblies are loaded in a burner region. This enables to suppress the irradiation deformation within an allowable limit in the high conversion region where the fast neutron flux is high and the load weight from the inside of the channel box due to the pressure loss is large. At the same time, the irradiation deformation can be restricted within an allowable limit without deteriorating the neutron economy in the burner region in which fast neutron flux is low and the load weight from the inside of the channel box is small since a channel box with smaller neutron absorption cross section or reduced wall thickness is charged. As a result, it is possible to prevent structural deformations such as swelling of the channel box, bending of the entire assemblies, bending of fuel rods, etc. (K.M.)

  5. Computing elastic constants for random polycrystals of orthotropic MgSiO3, related polymorphs, and CaIrO3 analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, James G.

    2014-08-01

    Recent advances in methods for computing both Hashin-Shtrikman bounds and related self-consistent (i.e., coherent potential approximation, or CPA) estimates of the geomechanical constants for polycrystals composed of randomly oriented crystals have been successfully applied to orthotropic MgSiO3-perovskite, post-perovskite, and some related CaIrO3 analogs. In particular, Hashin-Shtrikman bounds provide significantly tighter constraints on the average polycrystal behavior than do the traditional Voigt and Reuss bounds. Self-consistent estimates of effective bulk and shear moduli always lie inside the Hashin-Shtrikman (HS) bounds, unlike the Voigt-Reuss-Hill estimates which might lie inside the HS bounds for some examples, but more typically lie outside these same Hashin-Shtrikman bounds. The discrepancies observed between Voigt-Reuss-Hill estimators and the self-consistent, geometric mean, or Hashin-Shtrikman estimates are nevertheless often small in the examples treated here, being on the order of about 1 percent or less - for both the effective bulk and shear moduli. Percentage discrepancies are also observed to be typically less for the effective shear modulus than for the bulk modulus. This result presumably follows from the method's implicit averaging over five distinct shear-like modes, including three true shear modes (due to twisting excitations) and two quasi-shear modes related to shearing action of uniaxially applied stress or strain.

  6. Growth of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ thin films with enhanced superconducting properties by incorporating CaIrO3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vero, J. C.; Hwang, I.; Santiago, A. C. L.; Chang, J.; Kim, J.; Sarmago, R. V.; Song, J. H.

    2014-04-01

    We synthesized Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi-2212) thin films with incorporated CaIrO3 (Ca-iridate) nanoparticles, by using pulsed laser deposition and post-growth ex situ annealing. We found that the density of incorporated Ca-iridate strongly affected the superconducting properties and microstructure of the Bi-2212 thin films. Incorporating a low density of Ca-iridate (450 laser pulses) in the Bi-2212 improved its superconducting properties (Tc-onset = 97 K, Tc-zero = 84 K) over those of pure Bi-2212 (Tc-onset = 94 K, Tc-zero = 80 K). However, incorporating a higher density (1800 pulses) significantly reduced Tc-zero to ≈ 57 K. Incorporating a low density of Ca-iridate also decreased the c-axis lattice constant. Films with incorporated Ca-iridate exhibited greater critical current density, Jc(B), than the pure Bi-2212 film. These results indicate that incorporating low densities of Ca-iridate nanoparticles into Bi-2212 can improve its superconducting properties.

  7. Origin of seismic anisotropy in the D" layer inferred from shear deformation experiments on CaIrO3 as an analogue of post-perovskite phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, D.; Yoshino, T.; Ohfuji, H.; Ando, J.; Yoneda, A.

    2006-12-01

    Seismic anisotropy is one of the significant features in the D" layer of the Earth and is thought to be derived from the lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of constituent materials or shape preferred orientation (SPO) of heterogeneous materials such as melt and inclusions. Recent experimental and theoretical studies strongly suggest that the D" layer mainly consists of MgSiO3 post-perovskite phase with some amount of ferro- periclase. We conducted a series of simple shear deformation experiments under high temperature and pressure on polycrystalline CaIrO3 as an analogue of MgSiO3 and measured the LPO of the post-perovskite phase to understand the anisotropy in the D" layer. Crystallographic orientation analysis of the deformed post- perovskite phase showed strong LPOs with the dominant slip system [100](010). Calculation of the elastic wave velocities considering the effect of LPOs of post-perovskite and ferro-periclase showed as azimuthal and polarization anisotropies in the horizontal shear plane in which the velocity of horizontally polarized S-wave is considerably faster than that of vertically polarized S-wave. Thus, the seismic anisotropy observed in the D" layer can be reasonably explained by the LPO of the mixture of post-perovskite and ferro-periclase, which should result from the horizontal shear flow generated by the mantle convection.

  8. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reactor container has a suppression chamber partitioned by concrete side walls, a reactor pedestal and a diaphragm floor. A plurality of partitioning walls are disposed in circumferential direction each at an interval inside the suppression chamber, so that independent chambers in a state being divided into plurality are formed inside the suppression chamber. The partition walls are formed from the bottom portion of the suppression chamber up to the diaphragm floor to isolate pool water in a divided state. Operation platforms are formed above the suppression chamber and connected to an access port. Upon conducting maintenance, inspection or repairing, a pump is disposed in the independent chamber to transfer pool water therein to one or a plurality of other independent chambers to make it vacant. (I.N.)

  9. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a structure of ABWR-type reactor buildings, which can increase the capacity of a spent fuel storage area at a low cost and improved earthquake proofness. In the reactor building, the floor of a spent fuel pool is made flat, and a depth of the pool water satisfying requirement for shielding is ensured. In addition, a depth of pool water is also maintained for a equipment provisionally storing pool for storing spent fuels, and a capacity for a spent fuel storage area is increased by utilizing surplus space of the equipment provisionally storing pool. Since the flattened floor of the spent fuel pool is flushed with the floor of the equipment provisionally storing pool, transfer of horizontal loads applied to the building upon occurrence of earthquakes is made smooth, to improve earthquake proofness of the building. (T.M.)

  10. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disclosed is a nuclear reactor cooled by a freezable liquid has a vessel for containing said liquid and comprising a structure shaped as a container, and cooling means in the region of the surface of said structure for effecting freezing of said liquid coolant at and for a finite distance from said surface for providing a layer of frozen coolant on and supported by said surface for containing said liquid coolant. In a specific example, where the reactor is sodium-cooled, the said structure is a metal-lined concrete vault, cooling is effected by closed cooling loops containing NaK, the loops extending over the lined surface of the concrete vault with outward and reverse pipe runs of each loop separated by thermal insulation, and air is flowed through cooling pipes embedded in the concrete behind the metal lining. 7 claims, 3 figures

  11. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.B.

    1960-01-01

    A reactor is described which comprises a tank, a plurality of coaxial steel sleeves in the tank, a mass of water in the tank, and wire grids in abutting relationship within a plurality of elongated parallel channels within the steel sleeves, the wire being provided with a plurality of bends in the same plane forming adjacent parallel sections between bends, and the sections of adjacent grids being normally disposed relative to each other.

  12. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liquid metal (sodium) cooled fast breeder reactor has got fuel subassemblies which are bundled and enclosed by a common can. In order to reduce bending of the sides of the can because of the load caused by the coolant pressure the can has got a dodecagon-shaped crosssection. The surfaces of the can may be of equal width. One out of two surfaces may also be convex towards the center. (RW)

  13. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detector having high sensitivity to fast neutrons and having low sensitivity to thermal neutrons is disposed for reducing influences of neutron detector signals on detection values of neutron fluxes when the upper end of control rod pass in the vicinity of the neutron flux detector. Namely, the change of the neutron fluxes is greater in the thermal neutron energy region while it is smaller in the fast neutron energy region. This is because the neutron absorbing cross section of B-10 used as neutron absorbers of control rods is greater in the thermal neutron region and it is smaller in the fast neutron region. As a result, increase of the neutron detection signals along with the local neutron flux change can be reduced, and detection signals corresponding to the reactor power can be obtained. Even when gang withdrawal of operating a plurality of control rods at the same time is performed, the reactor operation cycle can be measured accurately, thereby enabling to shorten the reactor startup time. (N.H.)

  14. Reactor core of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a BWR type nuclear reactor, the number of first fuel assemblies (uranium) loaded in a reactor core is smaller than that of second fuel assemblies (mixed oxide), the average burnup degree upon take-out of the first fuel assemblies is reduced to less than that of the second fuel assemblies, and the number of the kinds of the fuel rods constituting the first fuel assemblies is made smaller than that of the fuel rods constituting the second fuel assemblies. As a result, the variety of the plutonium enrichment degree is reduced to make the distribution of the axial enrichment degree uniform, thereby enabling to simplify the distribution of the enrichment degree. Then the number of molding fabrication steps for MOX fuel assemblies can be reduced, thereby enabling to reduce the cost for molding and fabrication. (N.H.)

  15. Types of Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation is based on the following areas: Types of Nuclear Reactors, coolant, moderator, neutron spectrum, fuel type, pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR) reactor pressurized heavy water (PHWR), gas-cooled reactor, RBMK , Nuclear Electricity Generation,Challenges in Nuclear Technology Deployment,EPR, APR1400, A P 1000, A PWR, ATMEA 1, VVER-1000, A PWR, VVER 1200, Boiling Water Reactor, A BWR, A BWR -II, ESBUR, Ke ren, AREVA, Heavy Water Reactor, Candu 6, Acr-1000, HWR, Bw, Iris, CAREM NuCcale, Smart, KLT-HOS, Westinghouse small modular Reactor, Gas Cooled Reactors, PBMR.

  16. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor is described in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of the others, in liners in the supporting structure for the lower internals of the reactor. The core assemblies are removably supported in integral receptacles or sockets of the modular units. The liners, units, sockets and assemblies have inlet openings for entry of the fluid. The modular units are each removably mounted in the liners with fluid seals interposed between the opening in the liner and inlet module into which the fluid enters in the upper and lower portion of the liner. Each assembly is similarly mounted in a corresponding receptacle with fluid seals interposed between the openings where the fluid enters in the lower portion of the receptacle or fitting closely in these regions. As fluid flows along each core assembly a pressure drop is produced along the fluid so that the fluid which emerges from each core assembly is at a lower pressure than the fluid which enters the core assembly. However because of the seals interposed in the mountings of the units and assemblies the pressures above and below the units and assemblies are balanced and the units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the receptacles by their weights as they have a higher specific gravity than the fluid. The low-pressure spaces between each module and its liner and between each core assembly and its module is vented to the low-pressure regions of the vessel to assure that fluid which leaks through the seals does not accumulate and destroy the hydraulic balance

  17. Nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It's presented data about nuclear research reactors in the world, retrieved from the Sien (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: research reactors by countries; research reactors by type; research reactors by fuel and research reactors by purpose. (E.G.)

  18. Nuclear reactor physics course for reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The education and training of nuclear reactor operators is important to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. Therefore, a course on basic 'Nuclear reactor physics' in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The aim of the basic course on 'Nuclear Reactor Physics for reactor operators' is to provide the reactor operators with a basic understanding of the main concepts relevant to nuclear reactors. Seen the education level of the participants, mathematical derivations are simplified and reduced to a minimum, but not completely eliminated

  19. Correlation of Karyotype and Immuno phenotype in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Experience at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University,Egypt,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify chromosomal pattern among the major immunophenotypic subgroups in Egyptian children with ALL, and its correlation with clinical presentation and disease free survival. Patients and Methods: Cytogenetic and immunophenotypic analysis were done for all patients. Patients received ALL-PNCI-III/98 chemotherapy protocol used at NCI, Cairo University. Results: The frequency of pseudodiploidy and normal karyotype in the whole group was 42.9% and 33.3% respectively. The frequency of pseudodiploidy was 36.8% in CALLA positive early pre B, 30.7% in pre B cases, 71.4% in T cell cases and 100% in mature B cell cases. At 12 months, DFS was 50% for pseudodiploid group having pre B phenotype, compared to 16.6% for pseudodiploid group with CALLA positive early pre B ALL. Sixteen percent of the studied cases showed T cell phenotype, 71.4% of them showed pseudodiploid karyotype, all of them had high risk features. Hyperdiploidy was found in 31.5% of CALLA positive early pre B cases and was associated with favorable prognostic features and DFS of 66.6% at 12 months. Hyperdiploidy of >50 chromosome represented 62.5% of hyperdipoid cases, 80% of them were CALLA positive early pre B ALL carrying good risk features. Fifty percent of normal karyotypic patients showed pre B phenotype, while 42.8% showed CALLA positive early pre B ALL. Their age, TLC, DFS, were almost comparable. Conclusion: CALLA early pre B phenotype has a positive impact on chromosomal pattern having best outcome among patients with hyperdiploidy. The Pseudodiploid karyotype carries a better outcome with pre B phenotype

  20. Assessing the Impact of a Community-Based Health and Nutrition Education on the Management of Diarrhea in an Urban District, Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Shaimaa B; Mowafy, Maha A; Galal, Yasmine S

    2016-02-01

    Diarrhea is considered as a major cause of mortality in children aged less than five years old. This pre/post interventional study was designed to assess maternal knowledge about diarrhea and implement a community-based health and nutrition education messages. The study was held in Al-Darb Al-Ahamar (ADAA) district, Cairo, Egypt and targeted a random sample of 600 mothers having at least one child under-five years old and complained of at least one previous attack of diarrhea. The study was conducted in three phases. The pre-intervention phase included a base line survey for the mothers and training activities for the community health workers (CHWs). Intervention phase included health and nutrition education sessions; performance evaluation for the CHWs during providing the message. In phase three, the mothers had no instructions for 3 months then the post- intervention interview and feedback sessions were conducted. Results showed that knowledge of mothers about diarrhea (etiological factors and preventive measures) had improved significantly after the intervention. During observation CHWs' scored 50% of the required tasks in education and communication skills. In the feedback sessions, all the mothers declared that nutrition education sessions were highly valuable, and asked for on-going support and training programs. The current study found that health and nutrition education sessions were successful in improving mothers' knowledge regarding preventive measures and management of diarrhea. CHWs are effective health education providers especially in household based intervention. Thus, health services should support community based interventions to reinforce mothers' knowledge and practices towards their sick children. PMID:26383210

  1. Synthesis, structure and magnetic ordering of the mullite-type Bi2Fe(4-x)CrxO9 solid solutions with a frustrated pentagonal Cairo lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozova, M G; Grigoriev, V V; Bobrikov, I A; Filimonov, D S; Zakharov, K V; Volkova, O S; Vasiliev, A N; Antipov, E V; Tsirlin, A A; Abakumov, A M

    2016-01-21

    Highly homogeneous mullite-type solid solutions Bi2Fe(4-x)CrxO9 (x = 0.5, 1, 1.2) were synthesized using a soft chemistry technique followed by a solid-state reaction in Ar. The crystal structure of Bi2Fe3CrO9 was investigated using X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy (S.G. Pbam, a = 7.95579(9) Å, b = 8.39145(9) Å, c = 5.98242(7) Å, RF(X-ray) = 0.022, RF(neutron) = 0.057). The ab planes in the structure are tessellated with distorted pentagonal loops built up by three tetrahedrally coordinated Fe sites and two octahedrally coordinated Fe/Cr sites, linked together in the ab plane by corner-sharing forming a pentagonal Cairo lattice. Magnetic susceptibility measurements and powder neutron diffraction show that the compounds order antiferromagnetically (AFM) with the Néel temperatures decreasing upon increasing the Cr content from TN ∼ 250 K for x = 0 to TN ∼ 155 K for x = 1.2. The magnetic structure of Bi2Fe3CrO9 at T = 30 K is characterized by a propagation vector k = (1/2,1/2,1/2). The tetrahedrally coordinated Fe cations form singlet pairs within dimers of corner-sharing tetrahedra, but spins on the neighboring dimers are nearly orthogonal. The octahedrally coordinated (Fe,Cr) cations form antiferromagnetic up-up-down-down chains along c, while the spin arrangement in the ab plane is nearly orthogonal between nearest neighbors and collinear between second neighbors. The resulting magnetic structure is remarkably different from the one in pure Bi2Fe4O9 and features several types of spin correlations even on crystallographically equivalent exchange that may be caused by the simultaneous presence of Fe and Cr on the octahedral site. PMID:26661379

  2. The early warning application role in facing the environmental crisis and disasters: "Preliminarily risk management strategy for the greater city of Cairo"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghoneem Yousef M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters are inevitable and it is almost impossible to fully recoup the damage caused by the disasters. But it is possible to minimize the potential risk by developing disaster early warning strategies, methods using the new technology applications which play a crucial role in efficient mitigation and management of disasters. This paper describes the importance of the remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS in evolving a suitable strategy for disaster, crises and risk management using these technologies. The main objective of this paper is to make a Preliminary risk management plan (it is a logical and systematic method of identifying, analyzing, treating and monitoring the risks involved in any activity or process. This process helps Administrations to focus on priorities and in decisions on deploying limited resources to deal with the highest risks using the Environmental risk map of the greater city of Cairo demonstrating the most high-risk administrative areas in the city, supported by field evidence and different sources of information. to reduce the loss of life and property and protect the Nation from all hazards, including natural disasters and other man-made disasters, by leading and supporting the Nation in a risk-based, comprehensive emergency management system of preparedness, protection, response, recovery, and mitigation. This study has shown that how can the early warning Applications can be useful in analyzing, Integrating and managing different datasets for predicting the environmental crises and disasters that may affect the urbanism inside the city and help in the preparation of the Risk management plan.

  3. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cover gas spaces for primary coolant vessel, such as a reactor container, a pump vessel and an intermediate heat exchanger vessel are in communication with each other by an inverted U-shaped pressure conduit. A transmitter and a receiver are disposed to the pressure conduit at appropriate positions. If vibration frequencies (pressure vibration) from low frequency to high frequency are generated continuously from the transmitter to the inside of the communication pipe, a resonance phenomenon (air-column resonance oscillation) is caused by the inherent frequency or the like of the communication pipe. The frequency of the air-column resonance oscillation is changed by the inner diameter and the clogged state of the pipelines. Accordingly, by detecting the change of the air-column oscillation characteristics by the receiver, the clogged state of the flow channels in the pipelines can be detected even during the reactor operation. With such procedures, steams of coolants flowing entrained by the cover gases can be prevented from condensation and coagulation at a low temperature portion of the pipelines, otherwise it would lead clogging in the pipelines. (I.N.)

  4. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  5. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  6. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent shocks exerted on a vent head due to pool-swell caused within a pressure suppression chamber (disposed in a torus configuration around the dry well) upon loss of coolant accident in BWR type reactors. Constitution: The following relationship is established between the volume V (m3) of a dry well and the ruptured opening area A (m2) at the boundary expected upon loss of coolant accident: V >= 30340 (m) x A Then, the volume of the dry well is made larger than the ruptured open area, that is, the steam flow rate of leaking coolants upon loss of coolant accident to decrease the pressure rise in the dry well at the initial state where loss of coolant accident is resulted. Accordingly, the pressure of non-compressive gases jetted out from the lower end of the downcomer to the pool water is decreased to suppress the pool-swell. (Ikeda, J.)

  7. IAEA Laboratory Activities. The IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Cairo. Fifth Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fifth report describes development and work during the year 1967. It includes activities of the IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf, the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste, and the Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries at Cairo. Contents: The IAEA Laboratories at Vienna and Seibersdorf: Introduction; Standardization of measurement and of analytical methods related to peaceful applications of nuclear energy; Services to Member States and International Organizations; Chemical and physico-chemical investigations relevant to the Agency's programme; Nuclear techniques in hydrology; Nuclear techniques in medicine; Nuclear techniques in agriculture; Nuclear electronics service and development; Administrative matters. — The International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco: Introduction; Research; Administrative matters. — The International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste: Assistance to developing countries; Research activities; Administrative matters; Annexes. — The Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Cairo: Introduction; The scientific programme of the Centre; Publications on work done at the Centre; Finance; Annex. Entirely in English. (author)

  8. Survey of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of reasearch reactors based on the IAEA Nuclear Research Reactor Data Base (RRDB) was done. This database includes information on 273 operating research reactors ranging in power from zero to several hundred MW. From these 273 operating research reactors 205 reactors have a power level below 5 MW, the remaining 68 reactors range from 5 MW up to several 100 MW thermal power. The major reactor types with common design are: Siemens Unterrichtsreaktors, 1.2 Argonaut reactors, Slowpoke reactors, the miniature neutron source reactors, TRIGA reactors, material testing reactors and high flux reactors. Technical data such as: power, fuel material, fuel type, enrichment, maximum neutron flux density and experimental facilities for each reactor type as well as a description of their utilization in physics and chemistry, medicine and biology, academic research and teaching, training purposes (students and physicists, operating personnel), industrial application (neutron radiography, silicon neutron transmutation doping facilities) are provided. The geographically distribution of these reactors is also shown. As conclusions the author discussed the advantages (low capital cost, low operating cost, low burn up, simple to operate, safe, less restrictive containment and sitting requirements, versatility) and disadvantages (lower sensitivity for NAA, limited radioisotope production, limited use of neutron beams, limited access to the core, licensing) of low power research reactors. 24 figs., refs. 15, Tab. 1 (nevyjel)

  9. Department of reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risoe during 1979 are described. The work is presented in five chapters: Reactor Engineering, Reactor Physics and Dynamics, Heat Transfer and Hydraulics, The DR 1 Reactor, and Non-Nuclear Activities. A list of the staff and of publications is included. (author)

  10. RB reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical fluctuations of reactivity represent reactor noise. Analysis of reactor noise enables determining a series of reactor kinetic parameters. Fluctuations of power was measured by ionization chamber placed next to the tank of the RB reactor. The signal was digitized by an analog-digital converter. After calculation of the mean power, 3000 data obtained by sampling were analysed

  11. Prevalence of common canine digestive problems compared with other health problems in teaching veterinary hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal M. H. Rakha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of common digestive problems compared to other health problems among dogs that were admitted to the teaching veterinary hospital, faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University, Egypt during 1 year period from January to December 2013. Also, study the effect of age, sex, breeds, and season on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 3864 dogs included 1488 apparently healthy (included 816 males and 672 females and 2376 diseased dogs (included 1542 males and 834 females were registered for age, sex, breed, and the main complaint from their owners. A complete history and detailed clinical examination of each case were applied to the aids of radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic examination tools. Fecal examination was applied for each admitted case. Rapid tests for parvovirus and canine distemper virus detection were also performed. Results: A five digestive problems were commonly recorded including vomiting, diarrhea, concurrent vomiting with diarrhea, anorexia, and constipation with a prevalence (% of 13.6, 19.1, 10.1, 13.1, and 0.5 respectively while that of dermatological, respiratory, urinary, neurological, cardiovascular, auditory, and ocular problems was 27.9, 10.5, 3.3, 0.84, 0.4, 0.25, and 0.17 (% respectively. This prevalence was obtained on the basis of the diseased cases. Age and breed had a significant effect on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs (p0.05 on the distribution of such problems. Conclusion: Digestive problems were the highest recorded problems among dogs, and this was the first records for such problems among dogs in Egypt. Age, gender, and breeds had a significant effect on the distribution of the digestive problems in dogs while season had a non-significant effect on the distribution of such problems. The present data enable veterinarians in Egypt to ascertain their needs for diagnostic tools

  12. Research Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Published in English and in French, this large report first proposes an overview of the use and history of research nuclear reactors. It discusses their definition, and presents the various types of research reactors which can be either related to nuclear power (critical mock-ups, material test reactors, safety test reactors, training reactors, prototypes), or to research (basic research, industry, health), or to specific particle physics phenomena (neutron diffraction, isotope production, neutron activation, neutron radiography, semiconductor doping). It reports the history of the French research reactors by distinguishing the first atomic pile (ZOE), and the activities and achievements during the fifties, the sixties and the seventies. It also addresses the development of instrumentation for research reactors (neutron, thermal, mechanical and fission gas release measurements). The other parts of the report concern the validation of neutronics calculations for different reactors (the EOLE water critical mock-up, the MASURCA air critical mock-up dedicated to fast neutron reactor study, the MINERVE water critical mock-up, the CALIBAN pulsed research reactor), the testing of materials under irradiation (OSIRIS reactor, laboratories associated with research reactors, the Jules Horowitz reactor and its experimental programs and related devices, irradiation of materials with ion beams), the investigation of accident situations (on the CABRI, Phebus, Silene and Jules Horowitz reactors). The last part proposes a worldwide overview of research reactors

  13. Study of the pollution impact from the usage of sewage and drainage waters on the groundwater of the quaternary aquifer, west Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of this study is to assess the water quality of surface and groundwater in the western part of Cairo and to estimate the sources of pollution as salinisation, nutrients, trace elements and microbiological activity as a result of re-use of partially treated drainage and sewage waters for irrigation. In the studied area fresh water problems that need for irrigation arise from the limitation of water resources, high degree of use for cultivating in different seasons and the extension of the reclamation lands. Recently new applications were applied by mixing fresh and wastewater to substitute this decline. Two sewerage stations (Zinen and Abu-Rawash) are located in the area of study for collecting and partially treating wastewater from Giza area. The poorly treated effluents that discharge from these stations in open channels or mixed with fresh water in some canals are flowing through the cultivating land for agricultural irrigation. This could lead to direct pollution to the surface and ground waters in this area, which is the point that needs to detect in this work. The studied area is located in the western region of greater Cairo at latitudes 30 deg. 00' and 30 deg. 15' N and longitudes 31 deg. 00' and 31 deg. 15' E. About 97 water samples were collected from canals, drains and groundwater from the Quaternary aquifer in the area of study. The estimated values of total dissolved solid for most surface and ground waters samples don't exceed 1000 mg/l except about 12% have salinity>1000mg/l. This increase in salinity could be attributed to the ion exchange process between Na- Ca as a result of water- rock interaction, or from the recycling of drainage water containing excess of fertilizers that used in cultivating practices. The predominant water types of surface and groundwater samples are NaHCO3 and Na2SO4 representing meteoric and mixed water type. Few groundwater samples have MgCl2 (marine water type), these samples are located in the east and

  14. Reactor Physics Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    University courses in nuclear reactor physics at the universities consist of a theoretical description of the physics and technology of nuclear reactors. In order to demonstrate the basic concepts in reactor physics, training exercises in nuclear reactor installations are also desirable. Since the number of reactor facilities is however strongly decreasing in Europe, it becomes difficult to offer to students a means for demonstrating the basic concepts in reactor physics by performing training exercises in nuclear installations. Universities do not generally possess the capabilities for performing training exercises. Therefore, SCK-CEN offers universities the possibility to perform (on a commercial basis) training exercises at its infrastructure consisting of two research reactors (BR1 and VENUS). Besides the organisation of training exercises in the framework of university courses, SCK-CEN also organizes theoretical courses in reactor physics for the education and training of nuclear reactor operators. It is indeed a very important subject to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. In this framework, an understanding of the fundamental principles of nuclear reactor physics is also necessary for reactor operators. Therefore, the organisation of a basic Nuclear reactor physics course at the level of reactor operators in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The objectives this activity are: (1) to provide training and education activities in reactor physics for university students and (2) to organise courses in nuclear reactor physics for reactor operators

  15. Introduction of Nuclear Reactor Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces development, status, supply and demand and resource of nuclear reactor. It deals with basic knowledge of nuclear reactor, which are reactor system, heat recovery in reactor core, structural feature in reactor, materials of structure in reactor, shielding of gamma ray, shielding of reactor, safety and environmental problem of nuclear power plant, nuclear fuel and economical efficiency of nuclear energy.

  16. Safeguarding research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is organized in four sections, including the introduction. The second section contains a discussion of the characteristics and attributes of research reactors important to safeguards. In this section, research reactors are described according to their power level, if greater than 25 thermal megawatts, or according to each fuel type. This descriptive discussion includes both reactor and reactor fuel information of a generic nature, according to the following categories. 1. Research reactors with more than 25 megawatts thermal power, 2. Plate fuelled reactors, 3. Assembly fuelled reactors. 4. Research reactors fuelled with individual rods. 5. Disk fuelled reactors, and 6. Research reactors fuelled with aqueous homogeneous fuel. The third section consists of a brief discussion of general IAEA safeguards as they apply to research reactors. This section is based on IAEA safeguards implementation documents and technical reports that are used to establish Agency-State agreements and facility attachments. The fourth and last section describes inspection activities at research reactors necessary to meet Agency objectives. The scope of the activities extends to both pre and post inspection as well as the on-site inspection and includes the examination of records and reports relative to reactor operation and to receipts, shipments and certain internal transfers, periodic verification of fresh fuel, spent fuel and core fuel, activities related to containment and surveillance, and other selected activities, depending on the reactor

  17. Research nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the divergence of the first nuclear reactor in 1942, about 600 research or test reactors have been built throughout the world. Today 255 research reactors are operating in 57 countries and about 70% are over 25 years old. Whereas there are very few reactor types for power plants because of rationalization and standardisation, there is a great diversity of research reactors. We can divide them into 2 groups: heavy water cooled reactors and light water moderated reactors. Heavy water cooled reactors are dedicated to the production of high flux of thermal neutrons which are extracted from the core by means of neutronic channels. Light water moderated reactors involved pool reactors and slightly pressurized closed reactors, they are polyvalent but their main purposes are material testing, technological irradiations, radionuclide production and neutron radiography. At the moment 8 research reactors are being built in Canada, Germany, Iran, Japan, Kazakhstan, Morocco, Russia and Slovakia and 8 others are planned in 7 countries (France, Indonesia, Nigeria, Russia, Slovakia, Thailand and Tunisia. Different research reactors are described: Phebus, Masurca, Phenix and Petten HFR. The general principles of nuclear safety applied to test reactors are presented. (A.C.)

  18. Nuclear reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent seismic vibrations of external buildings from transmitting to the side walls of a reactor container in a tank type FBR reactor building. Constitution: The reactor building is structured such that the base mat for a reactor container chamber and a reactor container is separated from the base mat for the walls of building, and gas-tight material such as silicon rubber is filled in the gap therebetween. With such a constitution, even if the crane-supporting wall vibrates violently upon occurrence of earthqualkes, the seismic vibrations do not transmit toward the reactor container chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  19. 《开罗宣言》对台湾及钓鱼岛归还中国的认定%Cairo Declaration’s Affirmation of the Restoration of Taiwan along with Diaoyu Islands to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩永利; 关敬之

    2014-01-01

    Cairo Declaration,as an authoritative international treaty which was promulgated by the leaders of China,the United States and the United Kingdom and confirmed by the leader of the Soviet Union in WWII,affirmed that all Chinese territories including Taiwan that were stolen by Japan must be restored to China.The Potsdam Proclamation that was signed off by the leaders of China,the United States and the U-nited Kingdom,joined later by the Soviet Union declared to carry out the Cairo Declaration solemnly.The rights and obligations of the contracting countries were stipulated explicitly both in the Declaration and the Proclamation,as well as the inviolable mandatory clauses for the treaty object country Japan.Japan’s sur-render was accepted by the Allies only because Japan had met with the prerequisite condition by accepting all mandatory clauses of the Potsdam Proclamation.The constitution of Cairo Declaration as a fully integrat-ed international treaty was affirmed by a chain of evidences,legal principles and logical historical facts.Di-aoyu Islands are affiliated islands of Taiwan,their territorial sovereignty belongs to China,so China’s sov-ereignty over the Diaoyu Islands is unquestionably beyond doubt.%《开罗宣言》是“二战”时期由中美英首脑共同具名颁布,并由苏联首脑认可的权威国际条约,该宣言认定台湾等由日本窃取的全部中国领土主权归还中国。中美英首脑签署,苏联随后加入的《波茨坦公告》庄严宣布执行《开罗宣言》。两份国际条约明确地规定了缔结国承担的权利与义务,也给条约对象国日本规定了不可违背的必须条款。日本投降被盟国接受,是因为其接受了《波茨坦公告》所列的各项必须条款,这些构成了《开罗宣言》作为国际条约的完整法理证据链条。钓鱼岛是台湾附属岛屿,其领土主权归属中国是不容置疑的。

  20. Reactor Physics Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies

  1. Ship propulsion reactors technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper takes the state of the art on ship propulsion reactors technology. The french research programs with the corresponding technological stakes, the reactors specifications and advantages are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  2. Undergraduate reactor control experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sequence of reactor and related experiments has been a central element of a senior-level laboratory course at Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) for more than 20 yr. A new experiment has been developed where the students program and operate a computer controller that manipulates the speed of a secondary control rod to regulate TRIGA reactor power. Elementary feedback control theory is introduced to explain the experiment, which emphasizes the nonlinear aspect of reactor control where power level changes are equivalent to a change in control loop gain. Digital control of nuclear reactors has become more visible at Penn State with the replacement of the original analog-based TRIGA reactor control console with a modern computer-based digital control console. Several TRIGA reactor dynamics experiments, which comprise half of the three-credit laboratory course, lead to the control experiment finale: (a) digital simulation, (b) control rod calibration, (c) reactor pulsing, (d) reactivity oscillator, and (e) reactor noise

  3. Process heat reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consumption of heat, for industrial and domestic needs, takes up half of the national energy supply; direct utilization of the heat produced by nuclear reactors could therefore contribute to reduce the deficit in the energetic results. The restraints proper to heat consumption (dispersal and variety of consumers, irregular demand) involve the development of the heat transport system structures and adequate nuclear reactors. With this in view, the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and Technicatome are developing the CAS reactor series, pressurized water reactors (PWR), (CAS 3G reactor with a power of 420 MW.th.), and the Thermos reactor (100 MW.th.), directly conceived to produce heat at 1200C and whose technology derives from the experimental pool reactors type. In order to prove the value of the Thermos design, an experimental reactor should soon be constructed in the Saclay nuclear research centre

  4. Reactor System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMART NPP(Nuclear Power Plant) has been developed for duel purpose, electricity generation and energy supply for seawater desalination. The objective of this project IS to design the reactor system of SMART pilot plant(SMART-P) which will be built and operated for the integrated technology verification of SMART. SMART-P is an integral reactor in which primary components of reactor coolant system are enclosed in single pressure vessel without connecting pipes. The major components installed within a vessel includes a core, twelve steam generator cassettes, a low-temperature self pressurizer, twelve control rod drives, and two main coolant pumps. SMART-P reactor system design was categorized to the reactor coe design, fluid system design, reactor mechanical design, major component design and MMIS design. Reactor safety -analysis and performance analysis were performed for developed SMART=P reactor system. Also, the preparation of safety analysis report, and the technical support for licensing acquisition are performed

  5. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 11, Reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume includes the following chapters describing: Organisation of reactor operation (including operational safety, fuel management, and regulatory rules for RA reactor operation); Control and maintenance of reactor components (reactor core, nuclear fuel, heavy water and cover gas systems, mechanical structures, electric power supply system, reactor instrumentation); Quality assurance and Training of the reactor personnel

  6. The Chernobylsk reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction, the safety philosophy, the major reactor physical parameters of RBMK-1000 type reactor units and the detailed description of the Chernobylsk-4 reactor accident, its causes and conclusions, the efforts to reduce the consequences on the reactor site and in the surroundings are discussed based on different types of Soviet documents including the report presented to the IAEA by the Soviet Atomic Energy Agency in August 1986. (V.N.)

  7. Zero energy reactor 'RB'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1958 the zero energy reactor RB was built with the purpose of enabling critical experiments with various reactor systems to be carried out. The first core assembly built in this reactor consists of heavy water as moderator and natural uranium metal as fuel. In order to be able to obtain very accurate results when measuring the main characteristics of the assembly the reactor was built as a completely bare system. (author)

  8. Report on the third meeting of the project advisory committee (technical) for IAEA/WHO Project EGY/6/004 (Egyptian Cancer Project) 27-29 April 1985, at NEMROCK, Cairo. PACT(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Project was launched in March 1983, with the first meeting of the Committee (PACT(I)). It was planned for a duration of four years. Now, after two years experience, PACT(III) met to review results so far and to advise on actions for the remaining two years. Appendix 1 lists those present at the meeting. Since 1983 a Pilot Project has been running at NEMROCK, the Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Oncology Centre at Cairo University Hospital, at which the Project is based. Two training courses have been given, in November 1983 and November 1984, and treatment has been given using protocols developed under the project. PACT(III) examined clinical results obtained so far and made recommendations for the extension of the scheme to other hospitals in Egypt

  9. High solids fermentation reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  10. Fossil nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurette, M.

    1976-01-01

    The discussion of fossil nuclear reactors (the Oklo phenomenon) covers the earth science background, neutron-induced isotopes and reactor operating conditions, radiation-damage studies, and reactor modeling. In conclusion possible future studies are suggested and the significance of the data obtained in past studies is summarized. (JSR)

  11. Fusion reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of fusion reactor systems studies, the objectives of these studies are outlined and some recent conceptual reactor designs are described. The need for further studies in greater depth is indicated so that progress towards a commercial fusion reactor may be consolidated. (U.K.)

  12. Reactor power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a self-powered long detector having a sensitivity over the entire length of a reactor core as an entire control rod withdrawal range of a BWR type reactor, and a reactor power measuring device using a gamma ray thermometer which scarcely causes sensitivity degradation. That is, a hollow protection pipe is disposed passing through the reactor core from the outside of a reactor pressure vessel. The self-powered long detectors and the gamma ray thermometers are inserted and installed in the protection pipe. An average reactor power in an axial direction of the reactor relative to a certain position in the horizontal cross section of the reactor core is determined based on the power of the self-powered long detector over the entire length of the reactor core. Since the response of the self-powered detector relative to a local power change is rapid, the output is used as an input signal to a safety protection device of the reactor core. Further, a gamma ray thermometer secured in the reactor and having scarce sensitivity degradation is used instead of an incore travelling neutron monitor used for relative calibration of an existent neutron monitor secured in the reactor. (I.S.)

  13. 开罗贫民窟问题的解决对山西城市发展的借鉴意义%The significance of solving the problems in Cairo slum to Shanxi city development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 车效梅

    2012-01-01

    贫民窟是世界城市化进程中的普遍现象。埃及与中国同属发展中国家,又是中东阿拉伯世界最早实施"开放"政策的国家,其首都开罗贫民窟与山西城市棚户区在景观特征和社会特征方面呈现出相似性,在具体类型比较中差异明显,埃及政府在公共住房、搬迁安置以及贫民窟升级改造政策中的经验、教训,值得山西城市借鉴。%Slums is a common phenomenon in the process of urbanization.Both china and Egypt belong to the developing countries,and Egypt was the first country that carried out the opening policy in the middle east Arab Countries.Slums in the Cairo,the capital of Egypt,and shantytown in the main cities of Shanxi shows many similarities in the characteristics of Landscape and society.meanwhile there are many differences in a comparative study of concrete classification.By Comparing renovation measures in Shanxi and Cairo,the measures taken by Egyptian officials,including the public housing policy,the placement,and slum upgrading,also brought impact on slums renovation from which Shanxi government can learn something.

  14. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  15. Nuclear reactor repairing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable free repairing of an arbitrary position in an LMFBR reactor. Constitution: A laser light emitted from a laser oscillator installed out of a nuclear reactor is guided into a portion to be repaired in the reactor by using a reflecting mirror, thereby welding or cutting it. The guidance of the laser out of the reactor into the reactor is performed by an extension tube depending into a through hole of a rotary plug, and the guidance of the laser light into a portion to be repaired is performed by the transmitting and condensing action of the reflecting mirror. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. Fundamentals of reactor chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI, many courses are presented for the people working in and around the nuclear reactors. The curricula of the courses contain also the subject material of chemistry. With reference to the foreign curricula, a plan of educational subject material of chemistry in the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI was considered, and the fundamental part of reactor chemistry was reviewed in this report. Since the students of the Nuclear Engineering School are not chemists, the knowledge necessary in and around the nuclear reactors was emphasized in order to familiarize the students with the reactor chemistry. The teaching experience of the fundamentals of reactor chemistry is also given. (author)

  17. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  18. Generation III+ Reactor Portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the power generation needs of utilities are unique and diverse, they are all faced with the double challenge of meeting growing electricity needs while curbing CO2 emissions. To answer these diverse needs and help tackle this challenge, AREVA has developed several reactor models which are briefly described in this document: The EPRTM Reactor: designed on the basis of the Konvoi (Germany) and N4 (France) reactors, the EPRTM reactor is an evolutionary model designed to achieve best-in-class safety and operational performance levels. The ATMEA1TM reactor: jointly designed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and AREVA through ATMEA, their common company. This reactor design benefits from the competencies and expertise of the two mother companies, which have commissioned close to 130 reactor units. The KERENATM reactor: Designed on the basis of the most recent German BWR reactors (Gundremmingen) the KERENATM reactor relies on proven technology while also including innovative, yet thoroughly tested, features. The optimal combination of active and passive safety systems for a boiling water reactor achieves a very low probability of severe accident

  19. The Maple reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MDS Nordion supplies the majority of the world's reactor-produced medical isotopes. These isotopes are currently produced in the NRU reactor at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). Medical isotopes and related technology are relied upon around the world to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. The NRU reactor, which has played a key role in supplying medical isotopes to date, has been in operation for over 40 years. Replacing this aging reactor has been a priority for MDS Nordion to assure the global nuclear medicine community that Canada will continue to be a dependable supplier of medical isotopes. MDS Nordion contracted AECL to construct two MAPLE reactors dedicated to the production of medical isotopes. The MDS Nordion Medical Isotope Reactor (MMIR) project started in September 1996. This paper describes the MAPLE reactors that AECL has built at its CRL site, and will operate for MDS Nordion. (author)

  20. High temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of high temperature reactors, nuclear energy, in addition to producing electricity, has shown enormous potential for the production of alternate transport energy carrier such as hydrogen. High efficiency hydrogen production processes need process heat at temperatures around 1173-1223 K. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), is currently developing concepts of high temperature reactors capable of supplying process heat around 1273 K. These reactors would provide energy to facilitate combined production of hydrogen, electricity, and drinking water. Compact high temperature reactor is being developed as a technology demonstrator for associated technologies. Design has been also initiated for a 600 MWth innovative high temperature reactor. High temperature reactor development programme has opened new avenues for research in areas like advanced nuclear fuels, high temperature and corrosion resistant materials and protective coatings, heavy liquid metal coolant technologies, etc. The paper highlights design of these reactors and their material related requirements

  1. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  2. Reactor Safety: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme of the Reactor Safety Division focuses on the development of expertise on materials behaviour under irradiation for fission and fusion oriented applications. Furthermore, as nuclear energy needs international public acceptance with respect to safety and efficient management of natural resources and wants to reduce the burden of nuclear waste, the Reactor Safety Division enhanced its efforts to develop the MYRRHA project. MYRRHA, an accelerator driven sub-critical system, might have the potential to cope in Europe with the above mentioned constraints on acceptability and might serve as a technological platform for GEN IV reactor development, in particular the Liquid Metal Fast Reactor.The Reactor Safety Division gathers three research entities that are internationally recognised: the Reactor Materials Research department, the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA department and the Instrumentation department.The objectives of Reactor Materials Research are: to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials and nuclear fuels used in present and future nuclear power industry; to perform research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material and fuel behaviour under or after irradiation; to contribute to the interpretation and modelling of the materials and fuels behaviour in order to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the Reactor Materials Research department concentrate on four distinct disciplines: Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel embrittlement Stress corrosion cracking in reactor coolant environment, including Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking; Nuclear Fuel characterisation and development of new fuel types for commercial and test reactors. Development of materials for Fusion and advanced nuclear fission reactors. The safe operation of present nuclear power plants relies primarily on the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel

  3. Research reactors in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentine Nuclear Development started in early fifties. In 1957, it was decided to built the first a research reactor. RA-1 reactor (120 kw, today licensed to work at 40 kW) started operation in January 1958. Originally RA-1 was an Argonaut (American design) reactor. In early sixties, the RA-1 core was changed. Fuel rods (20% enrichment) was introduced instead the old Argonaut core design. For that reason, a critical facility named RA-0 was built. After that, the RA-3 project started, to build a multipurpose 5 MW nuclear reactor MTR pool type, to produce radioisotopes and research. For that reason and to define the characteristics of the RA-3 core, another critical facility was built, RA-2. Initially RA-3 was a 90 % enriched fuel reactor, and started operation in 1967. When Atucha I NPP project started, a German design Power Reactor, a small homogeneous reactor was donated by the German Government to Argentina (1969). This was RA-4 reactor (20% enrichment, 1W). In 1982, RA-6 pool reactor achieved criticality. This is a 500 kW reactor with 90% enriched MTR fuel elements. In 1990, RA-3 started to operate fueled by 20% enriched fuel. In 1997, the RA-8 (multipurpose critical facility located at Pilcaniyeu) started to operate. RA-3 reactor is the most important CNEA reactor for Argentine Research Reactors development. It is the first in a succession of Argentine MTR reactors built by CNEA (and INVAP SE ) in Argentina and other countries: RA-6 (500 kW, Bariloche-Argentina), RP-10 (10MW, Peru), NUR (500 kW, Algeria), MPR (22 MW, Egypt). The experience of Argentinian industry permits to compete with foreign developed countries as supplier of research reactors. Today, CNEA has six research reactors whose activities have a range from education and promotion of nuclear activity, to radioisotope production. For more than forty years, Argentine Research Reactors are working. The experience of Argentine is important, and argentine firms are able to compete in the design and

  4. Thai research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) was established in 1962, as a reactor center, by the virtue of the Atomic Energy for Peace Act, under operational policy and authority of the Thai Atomic Energy for Peace Commission (TAEPC); and under administration of Ministry of Science, Technology and Energy. It owns and operates the only Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1). The TRR-1/M1 is a mixed reactor system constituting of the old MTR type swimming pool, irradiation facilities and cooling system; and TRIGA Mark III core and control instrumentation. The general performance of TRR-1/M1 is summarized in Table I. The safe operation of TRR-1/M1 is regulated by Reactor Safety Committee (RSC), established under TAEPC, and Health Physics Group of OAEP. The RCS has responsibility and duty to review of and make recommendations on Reactor Standing Orders, Reactor Operation Procedures, Reactor Core Loading and Requests for Reactor Experiments. In addition,there also exist of Emergency Procedures which is administered by OAEP. The Reactor Operation Procedures constitute of reactor operating procedures, system operating procedures and reactor maintenance procedures. At the level of reactor routine operating procedures, there is a set of Specifications on Safety and Operation Limits and Code of Practice from which reactor shift supervisor and operators must follow in order to assure the safe operation of TRR-1/M1. Table II is the summary of such specifications. The OAEP is now upgrading certain major components of the TRR-1/M1 such as the cooling system, the ventilation system and monitoring equipment to ensure their adequately safe and reliable performance under normal and emergency conditions. Furthermore, the International Atomic Energy Agency has been providing assistance in areas of operation and maintenance and safety analysis. (author)

  5. Nuclear Reactor Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2001-02-01

    An authoritative textbook and up-to-date professional's guide to basic and advanced principles and practices Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering, and as the first comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics to appear in a quarter century, this book fills a large gap in the professional literature. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a textbook for students new to the subject, for others who need a basic understanding of how nuclear reactors work, as well as for those who are, or wish to become, specialists in nuclear reactor physics and reactor physics computations. It is also a valuable resource for engineers responsible for the operation of nuclear reactors. Dr. Weston Stacey begins with clear presentations of the basic physical principles, nuclear data, and computational methodology needed to understand both the static and dynamic behaviors of nuclear reactors. This is followed by in-depth discussions of advanced concepts, including extensive treatment of neutron transport computational methods. As an aid to comprehension and quick mastery of computational skills, he provides numerous examples illustrating step-by-step procedures for performing the calculations described and chapter-end problems. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a useful textbook and working reference. It is an excellent self-teaching guide for research scientists, engineers, and technicians involved in industrial, research, and military applications of nuclear reactors, as well as government regulators who wish to increase their understanding of nuclear reactors.

  6. Reactor containment and reactor safety in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor safety systems of two reactors are studied aiming at the reactor containment integrity. The first is a BWR type reactor and is called Peachbottom 2, and the second is a PWR type reactor, and is called surry. (E.G.)

  7. TRIGA reactor main systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This module describes the main systems of low power (<2 MW) and higher power (≥2 MW) TRIGA reactors. The most significant difference between the two is that forced reactor cooling and an emergency core cooling system are generally required for the higher power TRIGA reactors. However, those TRIGA reactors that are designed to be operated above 3 MW also use a TRIGA fuel that is specifically designed for those higher power outputs (3 to 14 MW). Typical values are given for the respective systems although each TRIGA facility will have unique characteristics that may only be determined by the experienced facility operators. Due to the inherent wide scope of these research reactor facilities construction and missions, this training module covers those systems found at most operating TRIGA reactor facilities but may also discuss non-standard equipment that was found to be operationally useful although not necessarily required. (author)

  8. Evaluation of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present status of research reactors with highly enriched (93%) uranium fuel at JAERI, JRR-2 and JMTR is described. JRR-2 is a heterogeneous type of reactor, using heavy water as moderator and coolant. It uses both MTR type and cylindrical type of fuel elements. The maximum thermal power and the thermal neutron flux are 10 MW and 2x1014 n/cm2 see respectively. The reactor has been used for various experiments such as solid state physics, material irradiation, reactor fuel irradiation and radioisotope production. The JMTR is a multi-purpose tank type material testing reactor, and light water moderator and coolant, operated at 50 MW. The evaluation of lower enriched fuel and its consequences for both reactors is considered more especially

  9. Multipurpose research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international symposium on the utilization of multipurpose research reactors and related international co-operation was organized by the IAEA to provide for information exchange on current uses of research reactors and international co-operative projects. The symposium was attended by about 140 participants from 36 countries and two international organizations. There were 49 oral presentations of papers and 24 poster presentations. The presentations were divided into 7 sessions devoted to the following topics: neutron beam research and applications of neutron scattering (6 papers and 1 poster), reactor engineering (6 papers and 5 posters), irradiation testing of fuel and material for fission and fusion reactors (6 papers and 10 posters), research reactor utilization programmes (13 papers and 4 posters), neutron capture therapy (4 papers), neutron activation analysis (3 papers and 4 posters), application of small reactors in research and training (11 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. The nuclear soliton reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic reactor physics of a completely novel nuclear fission reactor design - the soliton-reactor - is presented on the basis of a simple model. In such a reactor, the neutrons in the critical region convert either fertile material in the adjacent layers into fissile material or reduce the poisoning of fissile material in such a manner that successively new critical regions emerge. The result is an autocatalytically driven burn-up wave which propagates throughout the reactor. Thereby, the relevant characteristic spatial distributions (neutron flux, specific power density and the associated particle densities) are solitons - wave phenomena resulting from non-linear partial differential equations which do not change their shape during propagation. A qualitativley new kind of harnessing nuclear fission energy may become possible with fuel residence times comparable with the useful lifetime of the reactor system. In the long run, fast breeder systems which exploit the natural uranium and thorium resources, without any reprocessing capacity are imaginable. (orig.)

  11. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  12. Fusion reactor research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work covers four separate areas: (1) development of technology for processing liquid lithium from blankets, (2) investigation of hydrogen isotope permeation in candidate structural metals and alloys for near-term fusion reactors, (3) analytical studies encompassing fusion reactor thermal hydraulics, tritium facility design, and fusion reactor safety, and (4) studies involving dosimetry and damage analysis. Recent accomplishments in each of these areas are summarized

  13. The Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. It seeks to specifically exploit the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel in a way that leads to substantial improvements in the characteristics of the complete reactor system. This paper describes the key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, with emphasis on its safety characteristics. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequences of the government decision in September 1997. ANSTO established a replacement research reactor project to manage the procurement of the replacement reactor through the necessary approval, tendering and contract management stages This paper provides an update of the status of the project including the completion of the Environmental Impact Statement. Prequalification and Public Works Committee processes. The aims of the project, management organisation, reactor type and expected capabilities are also described

  15. PFBR reactor protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design philosophy adopted for Prototype Fast breeder Reactor (PFBR) is a classical one and has the following features: triplicated sensors for measuring important safety parameters; two independent reactor protection Logic Systems based on solid state devices; reactivity control achieved by control rods; gas equipped modules at the core blanket interface providing negative reactivity. Design verification of these features showed that safety of the reactor can be achieved by a traditional approach since the inherent features of LMFBR make this easy

  16. Reactor BR2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR2 reactor is still SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facility. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. Various aspects concerning the operation of the BR2 Reactor, the utilisation of the CALLISTO loop and the irradiation programme, the BR2 R and D programme and the production of isotopes and of NTD-silicon are discussed. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported

  17. TRIGA reactor characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This module describes the general design, characteristics and parameters of TRIGA reactors and fuels. It is recommended that most of this information should be incorporated into any reactor operator training program and, in many cases, the facility Safety Analysis Report. It is oriented to teach the basics of the physics and mechanical design of the TRIGA fuel as well as its unique operational characteristics and the differences between TRIGA fuels and others more traditional reactor fuels. (nevyjel)

  18. Reactor Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on reactor safety is to develop expertise in probabilistic and deterministic reactor safety analysis. The research programme consists of four main activities, in particular the development of software for reliability analysis of large systems and participation in the international PHEBUS-FP programme for severe accidents, the development of an expert system for the aid to diagnosis; the development and application of a probabilistic reactor dynamics method. Main achievements in 1999 are reported

  19. Reactor Engineering Department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities in the Department of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1984 are described. The work of the Department is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and Fusion Reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, reactor physics experiment and analysis, fusion neutronics, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, safeguards technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  20. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1981 are described. The work of the Division is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and fusion reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and fusion reactor technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  1. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1979 are described. The work of the Division is closely related to development of multi-purpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and fusion reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and fusion reactor technology, and activities of the Committees on Reactor Physics and on Decomissioning of Nuclear Facilities. (author)

  2. New reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document gives a summary of new nuclear reactor concepts from a technological point of view. Belgium supports the development of the European Pressurized-Water Reactor, which is an evolutionary concept based on the European experience in Pressurized-Water Reactors. A reorientation of the Belgian choice for this evolutionary concept may be required in case that a decision is taken to burn plutonium, when the need for flexible nuclear power plants arises or when new reactor concepts can demonstrate proved benefits in terms of safety and cost

  3. Reactor construction steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic functions of light water reactor components are shown on the example of a pressurized water reactor and the requirements resulting therefrom for steel, the basic structural material, are derived. A detailed analysis of three main groups of reactor steels is presented and the applications are indicated of low-alloyed steels, high-alloyed austenitic steels, and steels with a high content of Ni and of alloying additions for steam generator pipes. An outline is given of prospective fast breeder reactor steels. (J.K.)

  4. Commercialization of fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative analysis has been performed of capital and fuel cycle costs for fast BN-type and pressurized light water VVER-type reactors. As a result of materials demand and components costs comparison of NPPs with VVER-1000 and BN-600 reactors, respectively, conclusion was made, that under equal conditions of the comparison, NPP with fast reactor had surpassed the specific capital cost of NPP with VVER by about 30 - 40 %. Ways were determined for further decrease of this difference, as well as for the fuel cycle cost reduction, because at present it is higher than that of VVER-type reactors. (author)

  5. Mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceptual design studies were made of fusion reactors based on the three current mirror-confinement concepts: the standard mirror, the tandem mirror, and the field-reversed mirror. Recent studies of the standard mirror have emphasized its potential as a fusion-fission hybrid reactor, designed to produce fuel for fission reactors. We have designed a large commercial hybrid and a small pilot-plant hybrid based on standard mirror confinement. Tandem mirror designs include a commercial 1000-MWe fusion power plant and a nearer term tandem mirror hybrid. Field-reversed mirror designs include a multicell commercial reactor producing 75 MWe and a single-cell pilot plant

  6. Natural convection type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a natural convection type nuclear reactor, a reactor core is disposed such that the top of the reactor core is always situated in a flooded position even if pipelines connected to the pressure vessel are ruptured and the level at the inside of the reactor vessel is reduced due to flashing. Further, a lower dry well situated below the pressure vessel is disposed such that it is in communication with a through hole to a pressure suppression chamber situated therearound and the reactor core is situated at the level lower than that of the through hole. If pipelines connected to the pressure vessel are ruptured to cause loss of water, although the water level is lowered after the end of the flashing, the reactor core is always flooded till the operation of a pressure accummulation water injection system to prevent the top of the reactor core even from temporary exposure. Further, injected water is discharged to the outside of the pressure vessel, transferred to the lower dry well, and flows through the through hole to the pressure control chamber and cools the surface of the reactor pressure vessel from the outside. Accordingly, the reactor core is cooled to surely and efficiently remove the after-heat. (N.H.)

  7. INVAP's Research Reactor Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INVAP, an Argentine company founded more than three decades ago, is today recognized as one of the leaders within the research reactor industry. INVAP has participated in several projects covering a wide range of facilities, designed in accordance with the requirements of our different clients. For complying with these requirements, INVAP developed special skills and capabilities to deal with different fuel assemblies, different core cooling systems, and different reactor layouts. This paper summarizes the general features and utilization of several INVAP research reactor designs, from subcritical and critical assemblies to high-power reactors IAEA safety

  8. Reactor power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a control device which can conduct scram and avoid lowering of the power of a nuclear power plant upon occurrence of earthquakes. Namely, the device of the present invention comprises, in addition to an existent power control device, (1) an earthquake detector for detecting occurrence and annihilation of earthquakes and (2) a reactor control device for outputting control rod operation signals and reactor core flow rate control signals depending on the earthquake detection signals from the detector, and reactor and plant information. With such a constitution, although the reactor is vibrated by earthquakes, the detector detects slight oscillations of the reactor by initial fine vibration waves as premonitory symptoms of serious earthquakes. The earthquake occurrence signals are outputted to the reactor control device. The reactor control device, receiving the signals, changes the position of control rods by way of control rod driving mechanisms to make the axial power distribution in the reactor core to a top peak type. As a result, even if the void amount in the reactor core is reduced by the subsequent actual earthquakes, since the void amount is moved, effects on the increase of neutron fluxes by the actual earthquakes is small. (I.S.)

  9. Nuclear reactor internals arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor internals arrangement is disclosed which facilitates reactor refueling. A reactor vessel and a nuclear core is utilized in conjunction with an upper core support arrangement having means for storing withdrawn control rods therein. The upper core support is mounted to the underside of the reactor vessel closure head so that upon withdrawal of the control rods into the upper core support, the closure head, the upper core support and the control rods are removed as a single unit thereby directly exposing the core for purposes of refueling

  10. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed

  11. The research reactors their contribution to the reactors physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 19 october 2000, the french society of nuclear energy organized a day on the research reactors. This associated report of the technical session, reactors physics, is presented in two parts. The first part deals with the annual meeting and groups general papers on the pressurized water reactors, the fast neutrons reactors and the fusion reactors industry. The second part presents more technical papers about the research programs, critical models, irradiation reactors (OSIRIS and Jules Horowitz) and computing tools. (A.L.B.)

  12. One piece reactor removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Research Reactor No.3 (JRR-3) was the first reactor consisting of 'Japanese-made' components alone except for fuel and heavy water. After reaching its initial critical state in September 1962, JRR-3 had been in operation for 21 years until March 1983. It was decided that the reactor be removed en-bloc in view of the work schedule, cost and management of the reactor following the removal. In the special method developed jointly by the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute and Shimizu Construction Co., Ltd., the reactor main unit was cut off from the building by continuous core boring, with its major components bound in the block with biological shield material (heavy concrete), and then conveyed and stored in a large waste store building constructed near the reactor building. Major work processes described in this report include the cutting off, lifting, horizontal conveyance and lowering of the reactor main unit. The removal of the JRR-3 reactor main unit was successfully carried out safely and quickly by the en-block removal method with radiation exposure dose of the workers being kept at a minimum. Thus the high performance of the en-bloc removal method was demonstrated and, in addition, valuable knowhow and other data were obtained from the work. (Nogami, K.)

  13. Reactor Materials Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  14. The fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic principles of the fusion reactor are outlined. Plasma heating and confinement schemes are described. These confinement systems include the linear Z pinch, magnetic mirrors and Tokamaks. A fusion reactor is described and a discussion is given of its environmental impact and its fuel situation. (R.L.)

  15. Polymerization Reactor Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaates, J. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Describes a polymerization reactor engineering course offered at Michigan Technological University which focuses on the design and operation of industrial polymerization reactors to achieve a desired degree of polymerization and molecular weight distribution. Provides a list of the course topics and assigned readings. (TW)

  16. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2001-04-01

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  17. Gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is the second part of a general survey of Gas Cooled Reactors (GCRs). In this part, the course of development, overall performance and present development status of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTCRs) and advances of HTGR systems are reviewed. (author)

  18. Light water reactor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  19. Reactor Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on reactor safety is to develop expertise in probabilistic and deterministic reactor safety analysis. The research programme consists of two main activities, in particular the development of software for reliability analysis of large systems and participation in the international PHEBUS-FP programme for severe accidents. Main achievements in 1999 are reported

  20. Light water type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear reactor of the present invention prevents disruption of a reactor core even in a case of occurrence of entire AC power loss event, and even if a reactor core disruption should occur, it prevents a rupture of the reactor container due to excess heating. That is, a high pressure water injection system and a low pressure water injection system operated by a diesel engine are disposed in the reactor building in addition to an emergency core cooling system. With such a constitution, even if an entire AC power loss event should occur, water can surely be injected to the reactor thereby enabling to prevent the rupture of the reactor core. Even if it should be ruptured, water can be sprayed to the reactor container by the low pressure water injection system. Further, if each of water injection pumps of the high pressure water injection system and the low pressure water injection system can be driven also by motors in addition to the diesel engine, the pump operation can be conducted more certainly and integrally. (I.S.)

  1. Naval propulsion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article deals with the design and exploitation of naval propulsion reactors, mainly of PWR-type. The other existing or conceivable types of reactors are also presented: 1 - specificities of nuclear propulsion (integration in the ship, marine environment, maneuverability, instantaneous availability, conditions of exploitation-isolation, nuclear safety, safety authority); 2 - PWR-type reactor (stable operation, mastered technology, general design, radiation protection); 3 - other reactor types; 4 - compact or integrated loops architecture; 5 - radiation protection; 6 - reactor core; 7 - reactivity control (core lifetime, control means and mechanisms); 8 - core cooling (natural circulation, forced circulation, primary flow-rate program); 9 - primary loop; 10 - pressurizer; 11 - steam generators and water-steam secondary loop; 12 - auxiliary and safety loops; 13 - control instrumentation; 14 - operation; 15 - nuclear wastes and dismantling. (J.S.)

  2. Iris reactor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a modular, integral, light water cooled, low-to-medium power (100-350 MWe) reactor which addresses the requirements defined by the US DOE for Generation IV reactors, i.e., proliferation resistance, enhanced safety, improved economics and fuel cycle sustainability. It relies on the proven technology of light water reactors and features innovative engineering, but it does not require new technology development. This paper discusses the current reference IRIS design, which features a 1000 MWt thermal core with proven 5%-enriched uranium oxide fuel and five-year long straight burn fuel cycle, integral reactor vessel housing helical tube steam generators and immersed spool pumps. Other major contributors to the high level of safety and economic attractiveness are the safety by design and optimized maintenance approaches, which allow elimination of some classes of accidents, lower capital cost, long operating cycle, and high capacity factors. (author)

  3. Research reactor DHRUVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DHRUVA, a 100 MWt research reactor located at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, attained first criticality during August, 1985. The reactor is fuelled with natural uranium and is cooled, moderated and reflected by heavy water. Maximum thermal neutron flux obtained in the reactor is 1.8 X 1014 n/cm2/sec. Some of the salient design features of the reactor are discussed in this paper. Some important features of the reactor coolant system, regulation and protection systems and experimental facilities are presented. A short account of the engineered safety features is provided. Some of the problems that were faced during commissioning and the initial phase of power operation are also dealt upon

  4. Reactor core monitoring method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Michitsugu [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan); Kanemoto, Shigeru; Enomoto, Mitsuhiro; Ebata, Shigeo

    1998-05-06

    The present invention provides a method of monitoring the state of coolant flow in a reactor of a BWR power plant. Namely, a plurality of local power region monitors (LPRM) are disposed to the inside of the reactor core for monitoring a power distribution. Signals of at least two optional LPRM detectors situated at positions different in axial or radial positions of the reactor core are obtained. General fluctuation components which nuclear hydrothermally fluctuate in overall reactor core are removed from the components of the signals. Then, correlational functions between these signals are determined. The state of coolant flow in the reactor is monitored based on the correlational function. When the axial flowing rate and radial flow interference are monitored, the accuracy upon monitoring axial and radial local behaviors of coolants can be improved by thus previously removing the general fluctuation components from signals of LPRM detectors and extracting local void information near to LPRM detectors at high accuracy. (I.S.)

  5. Physics of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual covers all the aspects of the science of neutron transport in nuclear reactors and can be used with great advantage by students, engineers or even reactor experts. It is composed of 18 chapters: 1) basis of nuclear physics, 2) the interactions of neutrons with matter, 3) the interactions of electromagnetic radiations and charged-particles with matter, 4) neutron slowing-down, 5) resonant absorption, 6) Doppler effect, 7) neutron thermalization, 8) Boltzmann equation, 9) calculation methods in neutron transport theory, 10) neutron scattering, 11) reactor reactivity, 12) theory of the critical homogenous pile, 13) the neutron reflector, 14) the heterogeneous reactor, 15) the equations of the fuel cycle, 16) neutron counter-reactions, 17) reactor kinetics, and 18) calculation methods in neutron scattering

  6. Mirror reactor surface study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general survey is presented of surface-related phenomena associated with the following mirror reactor elements: plasma first wall, ion sources, neutral beams, director converters, vacuum systems, and plasma diagnostics. A discussion of surface phenomena in possible abnormal reactor operation is included. Several studies which appear to merit immediate attention and which are essential to the development of mirror reactors are abstracted from the list of recommended areas for surface work. The appendix contains a discussion of the fundamentals of particle/surface interactions. The interactions surveyed are backscattering, thermal desorption, sputtering, diffusion, particle ranges in solids, and surface spectroscopic methods. A bibliography lists references in a number of categories pertinent to mirror reactors. Several complete published and unpublished reports on surface aspects of current mirror plasma experiments and reactor developments are also included

  7. FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A circular neutron reflector is disposed vertically movably so as to surround the outer circumference of a reactor core barrel. A reflector driving device comprises a driving device main body attracted to the outer wall surface of the reactor barrel by electromagnetic attraction force and an inertia body disposed above the driving device main body vertically movably. A reflector is connected below the reactor driving device. At the initial stage, a spontaneous large current is supplied to upper electromagnetic repulsion coils of the reflector driving device, impact electromagnetic repulsion force is caused between the inertia body and the reflector driving device, so that the driving device main body moves downwardly by a predetermined distance and stopped. The reflector driving device can be lowered in a step-like manner to an appropriate position suitable to restart the reactor during stoppage of the reactor core by conducting spontaneous supply of current repeatedly to the upper electromagnetic repulsion coils. (I.N.)

  8. TRIGA research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotope production, General-Atomic) has become the most used research reactor in the world with 65 units operating in 24 countries. The original patent for TRIGA reactors was registered in 1958. The success of this reactor is due to its inherent level of safety that results from a prompt negative temperature coefficient. Most of the neutron moderation occurs in the nuclear fuel (UZrH) because of the presence of hydrogen atoms, so in case of an increase of fuel temperature, the neutron spectrum becomes harder and neutrons are less likely to fission uranium nuclei and as a consequence the power released decreases. This inherent level of safety has made this reactor fit for training tool in university laboratories. Some recent versions of TRIGA reactors have been designed for medicine and industrial isotope production, for neutron therapy of cancers and for providing a neutron source. (A.C.)

  9. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  10. Nuclear reactor design

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on core design and methods for design and analysis. It is based on advances made in nuclear power utilization and computational methods over the past 40 years, covering core design of boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors, as well as fast reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The objectives of this book are to help graduate and advanced undergraduate students to understand core design and analysis, and to serve as a background reference for engineers actively working in light water reactors. Methodologies for core design and analysis, together with physical descriptions, are emphasized. The book also covers coupled thermal hydraulic core calculations, plant dynamics, and safety analysis, allowing readers to understand core design in relation to plant control and safety.

  11. Compact torsatron reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-aspect-ratio torsatron configurations could lead to compact stellarator reactors with R0 = 8--11m, roughly one-half to one-third the size of more conventional stellarator reactor designs. Minimum-size torsatron reactors are found using various assumptions. Their size is relatively insensitive to the choice of the conductor parameters and depends mostly on geometrical constraints. The smallest size is obtained by eliminating the tritium breeding blanket under the helical winding on the inboard side and by reducing the radial depth of the superconducting coil. Engineering design issues and reactor performance are examined for three examples to illustrate the feasibility of this approach for compact reactors and for a medium-size (R0 ≅ 4 m,/bar a/ /approx lt/ 1 m) copper-coil ignition experiment. 26 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Multi-purpose reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Multi-Purpose-Reactor (MPR), is a pool-type reactor with an open water surface and variable core arrangement. Its main feature is plant safety and reliability. Its power is 22MWth, cooled by light water and moderated by beryllium. It has platetype fuel elements (MTR type, approx. 20%. enriched uranium) clad in aluminium. Its cobalt (Co60) production capacity is 50000 Ci/yr, 200Ci/gr. The distribution of the reactor core and associated control and safety systems is essentially based on the following design criteria: - upwards cooling flow, to waive the need for cooling flow inversion in case the reactor is cooled by natural convection if confronted with a loss of pumping power, and in order to establish a superior heat transfer potential (a higher coolant saturation temperature); - easy access to the reactor core from top of pool level with the reactor operating at full power, in order to facilitate actual implementation of experiments. Consequently, mechanisms associated to control and safety rods s,re located underneath the reactor tank; - free access of reactor personnel to top of pool level with the reactor operating at full power. This aids in the training of personnel and the actual carrying out of experiments, hence: - a vast water column was placed over the core to act as radiation shielding; - the core's external area is cooled by a downwards flow which leads to a decay tank beyond the pool (for N16 to decay); - a small downwards flow was directed to stream downwards from above the reactor core in order to drag along any possibly active element; and - a stagnant hot layer system was placed at top of pool level so as to minimize the upwards coolant flow rising towards pool level

  13. The CAREM reactor and present currents in reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INVAP has been working on the CAREM project since 1983. It concerns a very low power reactor for electrical energy generation. The design of the reactor and the basic criteria used were described in 1984. Since then, a series of designs have been presented for reactors which are similar to CAREM regarding the solutions presented to reduce the chance of major nuclear accidents. These designs have been grouped under different names: Advanced Reactors, Second Generation Reactors, Inherently Safe Reactors, or even, Revolutionary Reactors. Every reactor fabrication firm has, at least, one project which can be placed in this category. Presently, there are two main currents of Reactor Design; Evolutionary and Revolutionary. The present work discusses characteristics of these two types of reactors, some revolutionary designs and common criteria to both types. After, these criteria are compared with CAREM reactor design. (Author)

  14. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities in the Division of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1977 are described. Works of the Division are development of multi-purpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, fusion reactor engineering, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor for Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, heat transfer and fluid dynamics, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, dynamics analysis and control method development, fusion reactor technology, and Committee on Reactor Physics. (Author)

  15. Reactor Engineering Department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities in the Department of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1983 are described. The work of the Department is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and Fusion Reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, fusion neutronics, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and safeguards technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  16. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities conducted in Reactor Engineering Division in fiscal 1975 are summarized in this report. Works in the division are closely related to the development of multi-purpose High-temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, the development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, and engineering research of thermonuclear fusion reactor. Many achievements are described concerning nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, heat transfer and fluid dynamics, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, dynamics analysis and control method development, fusion reactor technology and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (auth.)

  17. Reactor performance calculations for water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principles of nuclear, thermal and hydraulic performance calculations for water cooled reactors are discussed. The principles are illustrated by describing their implementation in the UKAEA PATRIARCH scheme of computer codes. This material was originally delivered as a course of lectures at the Technical University of Helsinki in Summer of 1969.

  18. Fourth Generation Reactor Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns over energy resources availability, climate changes and energy supply security suggest an important role for nuclear energy in future energy supplies. So far nuclear energy evolved through three generations and is still evolving into new generation that is now being extensively studied. Nuclear Power Plants are producing 16% of the world's electricity. Today the world is moving towards hydrogen economy. Nuclear technologies can provide energy to dissociate water into oxygen and hydrogen and to production of synthetic fuel from coal gasification. The introduction of breeder reactors would turn nuclear energy from depletable energy supply into an unlimited supply. From the early beginnings of nuclear energy in the 1940s to the present, three generations of nuclear power reactors have been developed: First generation reactors: introduced during the period 1950-1970. Second generation: includes commercial power reactors built during 1970-1990 (PWR, BWR, Candu, Russian RBMK and VVER). Third generation: started being deployed in the 1990s and is composed of Advanced LWR (ALWR), Advanced BWR (ABWR) and Passive AP600 to be deployed in 2010-2030. Future advances of the nuclear technology designs can broaden opportunities for use of nuclear energy. The fourth generation reactors are expected to be deployed by 2030 in time to replace ageing reactors built in the 1970s and 1980s. The new reactors are to be designed with a view of the following objectives: economic competitiveness, enhanced safety, minimal radioactive waste production, proliferation resistance. The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) was established in January 2000 to investigate innovative nuclear energy system concepts. GIF members include Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Euratom, France Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States with the IAEA and OECD's NEA as permanent observers. China and Russia are expected to join the GIF initiative. The following six systems

  19. Safety of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of research reactors that have been constructed worldwide for civilian applications is about 651. Of the reactors constructed, 284 are currently in operation, 258 are shut down and 109 have been decommissioned. More than half of all operating research reactors worldwide are over thirty years old. During this long period of time national priorities have changed. Facility ageing, if not properly managed, has a natural degrading effect. Many research reactors face concerns with the obsolescence of equipment, lack of experimental programmes, lack of funding for operation and maintenance and loss of expertise through ageing and retirement of the staff. Other reactors of the same vintage maintain effective ageing management programmes, conduct active research programmes, develop and retain high calibre personnel and make important contributions to society. Many countries that operate research reactors neither operate nor plan to operate power reactors. In most of these countries there is a tendency not to create a formal regulatory body. A safety committee, not always independent of the operating organization, may be responsible for regulatory oversight. Even in countries with nuclear power plants, a regulatory regime differing from the one used for the power plants may exist. Concern is therefore focused on one tail of a continuous spectrum of operational performance. The IAEA has been sending missions to review the safety of research reactors in Member States since 1972. Some of the reviews have been conducted pursuant to the IAEA' functions and responsibilities regarding research reactors that are operated within the framework of Project and Supply Agreements between Member States and the IAEA. Other reviews have been conducted upon request. All these reviews are conducted following procedures for Integrated Safety Assessment of Research Reactors (INSARR) missions. The prime objective of these missions has been to conduct a comprehensive operational safety

  20. Reactor Engineering Department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the research and development activities in the Department of Reactor Engineering during the fiscal year of 1992 (April 1, 1992-March 31, 1993). The major Department's programs promoted in the year are the assessment of the high conversion light water reactor, the design activities of advanced reactor system and development of a high energy proton linear accelerator for the engineering applications including TRU incineration. Other major tasks of the Department are various basic researches on the nuclear data and group constants, the developments of theoretical methods and codes, the reactor physics experiments and their analyses, fusion neutronics, radiation shielding, reactor instrumentation, reactor control/diagnosis, thermohydraulics and technology developments related to the reactor physics facilities. The cooperative works to JAERI's major projects such as the high temperature gas cooled reactor or the fusion reactor and to PNC's fast reactor project were also progressed. The activities of the Research Committee on Reactor Physics are also summarized. (author)

  1. Reactor engineering department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the research and development activities in the Department of Reactor Engineering during the fiscal year of 1989 (April 1, 1989 - March 31, 1990). One of major Department's programs is the assessment of the high conversion light water reactor and the design activities of advanced reactor system. Development of a high energy proton linear accelerator for the nuclear engineering including is also TRU incineration promoted. Other major tasks of the Department are various basic researches on nuclear data and group constants, theoretical methods and code development, on reactor physics experiments and analyses, fusion neutronics, radiation shielding, reactor instrumentation, reactor control/diagnosis, thermohydraulics, technology assessment of nuclear energy and technology developments related to the reactor physics facilities. The cooperative works to JAERI's major projects such as the high temperature gas cooled reactor or the fusion reactor and to PNC's fast reactor project also progressed. The activities of the Research Committee on Reactor Physics are also summarized. (author)

  2. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  3. FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides an FBR type reactor in which the combustion of reactor core fuels is controlled by reflectors, and the position of a reflector driving device can be controlled even during shut down of the reactor. Namely, the reflector driving device is attracted to the outer wall surface of a reactor core barrel by electromagnetic attraction force. An inertia body is disposed vertically movably to the upper portion of the reflector driving device. Magnetic repulsive coils generate instantaneous magnetic repulsive force between the inertia body and the reflector driving device. With such a constitution, the reflector driving device can be driven by using magnetic repulsion of the electromagnetic repulsive coils and inertia of the inertia body. As a result, not only the reflectors can be elevated at an ultraslow speed during normal reactor operation, but also fine position adjustment for the reflector driving device, as well as fine position adjustment of the reflectors required upon restart of the reactor can be conducted by lowering the reflector driving device during shut down of the reactor. (I.S.)

  4. Reactor water sampling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a reactor water sampling device for sampling reactor water in an in-core monitor (neutron measuring tube) housing in a BWR type reactor. The upper end portion of a drain pipe of the reactor water sampling device is attached detachably to an in-core monitor flange. A push-up rod is inserted in the drain pipe vertically movably. A sampling vessel and a vacuum pump are connected to the lower end of the drain pipe. A vacuum pump is operated to depressurize the inside of the device and move the push-up rod upwardly. Reactor water in the in-core monitor housing flows between the drain pipe and the push-up rod and flows into the sampling vessel. With such a constitution, reactor water in the in-core monitor housing can be sampled rapidly with neither opening the lid of the reactor pressure vessel nor being in contact with air. Accordingly, operator's exposure dose can be reduced. (I.N.)

  5. Test reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Development Program created a need for engineering testing of fuels and materials. The Engineering Test Reactors were developed around the world in response to this demand. The design of the test reactors proved to be different from that of power reactors, carrying the fuel elements closer to the threshold of failure, requiring more responsive instrumentation, more rapid control element action, and inherent self-limiting behavior under accident conditions. The design of the experimental facilities to exploit these reactors evolved a new, specialized, branch of engineering, requiring a very high-lvel scientific and engineering team, established a meticulous concern with reliability, the provision for recovery from their own failures, and detailed attention to possible interactions with the test reactors. This paper presents this technology commencing with the Materials Testing Reactor (MTR) through the Fast Flux Test Facility, some of the unique experimental facilities developed to exploit them, but discusses only cursorily the experiments performed, since sample preparation and sample analyses were, and to some extent still are, either classified or proprietary. The Nuclear Engineering literature is filled with this information

  6. Advanced reactor licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1986 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a Policy Statement on the Regulation of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants. As part of this policy advanced reactor designers were encouraged to interact with NRC early in the design process to obtain feedback regarding licensing requirements for advanced reactors. Accordingly, the staff has been interacting with the Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors on the review of three advanced reactor conceptual designs: one modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) and two Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs). As a result of these interactions certain safety issues associated with these advanced reactor designs have been identified as key to the licensability of the designs as proposed by DOE. The major issues in this regard are: (1) selection and treatment of accident scenarios; (2) selection of siting source term; (3) performance and reliability of reactor shutdown and decay heat removal systems; (4) need for conventional containment; (5) need for conventional emergency evacuation; (6) role of the operator; (7) treatment of balance of plant; and (8) modular approach. This paper provides a status of the NRC review effort, describes the above issues in more detail and provides the current status and approach to the development of licensing guidance on each

  7. Nuclear reactor power monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device of the present invention monitors phenomena occurred in a nuclear reactor more accurately than usual case. that is, the device monitors a reactor power by signals sent from a great number of neutron monitors disposed in the reactor. The device has a means for estimating a phenomenon occurred in the reactor based on the relationship of a difference of signals between each of the great number of neutron monitors to the positions of the neutron monitors disposed in the reactor. The estimation of the phenomena is conducted by, for example, conversion of signals sent from the neutron monitors to a code train. Then, a phenomenon is estimated rapidly by matching the code train described above with a code train contained in a data base. Further. signals sent from the neutron monitors are processed statistically to estimate long term and periodical phenomena. As a result, phenomena occurred in the reactor are monitored more accurately than usual case, thereby enabling to improve reactor safety and operationability. (I.S.)

  8. Insitu observation of shear stress-induced perovskite to post-perovskite phase transition in CaIrO3 and the development of its deformation texture in a diamond-anvil cell up to 30 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Ken; Miyajima, Nobuyoshi; Seto, Yusuke; Ohgushi, Kenya; Gotou, Hirotada; Yagi, Takehiko

    2012-03-01

    The perovskite (Pv) to post-perovskite (PPv) phase transition and the deformation texture of the PPv phase were investigated on the basis of a high-pressure X-ray diffraction (XRD) study of CaIrO3 using a diamond-anvil cell in a pressure range up to 31 GPa. The development of a crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) in the PPv phase was observed after the plastic deformation from 8 or 9 GPa to 31 GPa at both room and high (˜1500 K) temperatures. The observed CPOs in the present study indicate that the (0 1 0) plane worked as an active slip plane in the PPv phase over the entire pressure and temperature range of the present experiment. We also confirmed that the Pv to PPv phase transition proceeds at room temperature under high-stress conditions. The phase transition under high-stress condition is in stark contrast to the results of a previous hydrostatic experiment in which the Pv-CaIrO3 remained stable in a helium media at 31 GPa and room temperature. This indicates that shear stress plays an important role in the Pv to PPv phase transition, and this effect should be taken into account when the thermal structure at the D″ layer is discussed on the basis of the high-pressure experiments.

  9. Al-qarāfa, la Città dei Morti del Cairo. Il circuito delle sette tombe sacre - Al-Qarāfa: the pilgrimage to the holy seven tombs in Cairene Muslim cemetery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tozzi Di Marco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A key aspect of al-Qarāfa, the Muslim inhabitated cemetery in Cairo is the devotion to seven ancient sacred tombs and its relative pilgrimage. The Cairene graveyard was renowned for the local and interregional pilgrimages because of its high concentration of awliyā’s graves (literally friends of God, as holders of baraka, the divine grace. In particular, in the XIII century the famous circuit of the Seven tombs was formalized by the shaykh al- Fārsī who, according to the scholar El Kadi, also called it “pilgrimage of the seven sleepers”. Hence the multitude of Muslim pilgrims who spent the night on the holy spot without taking into account the social code about the separation between sexes. Nowadays some mausoleums of the circuit have disappeared and local people have no memories of them, whereas the most renowned holy men’ tombs are still venerated by a large crowd of devotees, even if the nightly practice of incubation is missing. The author, in considering the scholars’ studies on this issue, explores the current veneration and the contemporary pilgrims’ pattern of habits, comparing it with the Medieval ones.

  10. The 4th Euro-Mediterranean Conference of Natural Products and Drug Discovery: Back to Mother Nature (BioNat-IV, Cairo/Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, March 3–7, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Khalil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The 4th Euro-Mediterranean Conference of Natural Products and Drug Discovery: Back to Mother Nature (BioNat-IV was recently (from March 3rd through 7th, 2015 convened in Cairo and Sharm El-Sheikh along the Red Sea coast of Egypt. Overall, the meeting provided a platform for scientists from different nations to discuss emerging ideas that focused on cell signaling in cancer; the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases; the identification and use of natural products as well as novel drug delivery approaches for the treatment of cancer, arthritis, diabetes, tuberculosis, fungal infection, etc.; and untapped or unconventional sources for natural products. This fourth in a row conference tried to bridge the gap not only between basic research and clinical applications, but also between developed nations and developing countries. With the continuing success of these past meetings, the fifth Euro-Mediterranean Conference of Natural Products and Drug Discovery (BioNat-V is slated to be in February 2017.

  11. Reactor Sharing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Support utilization of the RINSC reactor for student and faculty instructions and research. The Department of Energy award has provided financial assistance during the period 9/29/1995 to 5/31/2001 to support the utilization of the Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center (RINSC) reactor for student and faculty instruction and research by non-reactor owning educational institutions within approximately 300 miles of Narragansett, Rhode Island. Through the reactor sharing program, the RINSC (including the reactor and analytical laboratories) provided reactor services and laboratory space that were not available to the other universities and colleges in the region. As an example of services provided to the users: Counting equipment, laboratory space, pneumatic and in-pool irradiations, demonstrations of sample counting and analysis, reactor tours and lectures. Funding from the Reactor Sharing Program has provided the RINSC to expand student tours and demonstration programs that emphasized our long history of providing these types of services to the universities and colleges in the area. The funding have also helped defray the cost of the technical assistance that the staff has routinely provided to schools, individuals and researchers who have called on the RINSC for resolution of problems relating to nuclear science. The reactor has been featured in a Public Broadcasting System documentary on Pollution in the Arctic and how a University of Rhode Island Professor used Neutron Activation Analysis conducted at the RINSC to discover the sources of the ''Arctic Haze''. The RINSC was also featured by local television on Earth Day for its role in environmental monitoring

  12. Determination of research reactor safety parameters by reactor calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main research reactor safety parameters such as power density peaking factors, shutdown margin and temperature reactivity coefficients are treated. Reactor physics explanation of the parameters is given together with their application in safety evaluation performed as part of research reactor operation. Reactor calculations are presented as a method for their determination assuming use of widely available computer codes. (author)

  13. Reactor de plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Erra Serrabasa, Pilar; Molina Mansilla, Ricardo; Beltrán Serra, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Reactor de plasma. Se trata de un reactor de plasma que puede trabajar en un amplio rango de presión, desde el vacío y presiones reducidas hasta la presión atmosférica y presiones superiores. Adicionalmente el reactor de plasma tiene la capacidad de regular otros parámetros importantes y permite su uso para el tratamiento de muestras de tipología muy diversa, como por ejemplo las de tamaño relativamente grande o de superficie rugosa.

  14. Integral nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention deals with an inprovement of the design of an integral pressurized water nuclear reactor. A typical embodyment of the invention includes a generally cylindrical pressure vessel that is assembled from three segments which are bolted together at transverse joints to form a pressure tight unit that encloses the steam generator and the reactor. The new construction permits primary to secondary coolant heat exchange and improved control rod drive mecanisms which can be exposed for full service access during reactor core refueling, maintenance and inspection

  15. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Mitrovski, Svetlana M.

    2011-03-22

    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  16. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Operating Units Status Report --- Licensed Operating Reactors provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management from the Headquarters staff on NRC's Office of Enforcement (OE), from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. The three sections of the report are: monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC's Regional Offices, OE Headquarters and the utilities; and an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor-years of experience and non- power reactors in the US

  17. First Algerian research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985, both the Algerian Commissariat of New Energies and the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission plus the firm INVAP S.E., started a series of mutual visits aimed at defining the mechanisms for cooperation in the nuclear field. Within this framework, a commercial contract was undersigned covering the supply of a low-power reactor (RUN), designed for basic and applied research in the fields of reactor physics and nuclear engineering. The reactor may also be used for performing experiences with neutron beams, for the irradiation of several materials and for the training of technicians, scientists and operators

  18. Course on reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany only few students graduate in nuclear technology, therefore the NPP operating companies are forced to develop their own education and training concepts. AREVA NP has started together with the Technical University of Dresden a one-week course ''reactor physics'' that includes the know-how of the nuclear power plant construction company. The Technical University of Dresden has the training reactor AKR-2 that is retrofitted by modern digital instrumentation and control technology that allows the practical training of reactor control.

  19. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts

  20. Nuclear reactor theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This textbook is composed of two parts. Part 1 'Elements of Nuclear Reactor Theory' is composed of only elements but the main resource for the lecture of nuclear reactor theory, and should be studied as common knowledge. Much space is therefore devoted to the history of nuclear energy production and to nuclear physics, and the material focuses on the principles of energy production in nuclear reactors. However, considering the heavy workload of students, these subjects are presented concisely, allowing students to read quickly through this textbook. (J.P.N.)

  1. PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a PWR with a primary circuit, consisting of a reactor pressure vessel, a steam generator and a reactor coolant pump, hot coolant is removed by means of an auxiliary system containing h.p. pumps for feeding water into the primary circuit and being connected with a pipe, originating at the upper part, which has got at least one isolating value. This is done by opening an outlet in a part of the auxiliary system that has got a lower pressure than the reactor vessel. Preferably a water jet pump is used for mixing with the water of the auxiliary system. (orig.)

  2. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components during and after irradiation. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; and the study of dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are discussed

  3. International tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1978, the US, the European Communities, Japan, and the Soviet Union have collaborated on the definition, conceptual design, data base assessment, and analysis of critical technical issues for a tokamak engineering test reactor, called the International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR). During 1985-1986, this activity has been expanded in scope to include evaluation of concept innovations that could significantly improve the tokamak as a commercial reactor. The purposes of this paper are to summarize the present INTOR design concept and to summarize the work on concept innovations

  4. Joyo experimental reactor tour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JAEA cooperation in remote monitoring focuses on the Joyo Experimental Reactor at the O'arai Research and Development Center. Joyo performs irradiation of test fuels to support development of the fast reactor cycle in Japan, both in international cooperation and in support of the Monju fast reactor, which is now undergoing reconstruction. The tour included an introduction at the model, a visit to the control room, entry into the containment vessel, and viewing of remote monitoring equipment in the Fresh Fuel Storage and at one of the Spent Fuel Ponds. (author)

  5. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  6. nuclear reactor design calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work , the sensitivity of different reactor calculation methods, and the effect of different assumptions and/or approximation are evaluated . A new concept named error map is developed to determine the relative importance of different factors affecting the accuracy of calculations. To achieve this goal a generalized, multigroup, multi dimension code UAR-DEPLETION is developed to calculate the spatial distribution of neutron flux, effective multiplication factor and the spatial composition of a reactor core for a period of time and for specified reactor operating conditions. The code also investigates the fuel management strategies and policies for the entire fuel cycle to meet the constraints of material and operating limitations

  7. Nuclear reactor internal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The upper internal structures of the reactor are connected to the closing head so as to be readily removed with the latter and a skirt connected to the lower portion of said upper structures so as to surround the latter, extends under the control rods when they are removed from the reactor core. Through such an arrangement the skirt protects the control rods and supports the vessel closing-head and the core upper structures, whenever the head is severed from the vessel and put beside the latter in order to discharge the reactor

  8. Reactor monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a device for monitoring the inside of an FBR type reactor which can not be monitored by a usual optical camera. An ultrasonic camera having an excellent propagating property in a liquid metal sodium is scanned, and reflected waves of the ultrasonic waves are received as signals. The signals are processed by using a virtual realistic feeling (VR) technique such as a head mounting type image display (HMD) and a three dimensional pointing device. With such procedures, the inside of the FBR type reactor can be observed with such a realistic feeling that the inside of the FBR type reactor were seen directly. (I.S.)

  9. Research reactor support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research reactors (RRs) have been used in a wide range of applications including nuclear power development, basic physics research, education and training, medical isotope production, geology, industry and other fields. However, many research reactors are fuelled with High Enriched Uranium (HEU), are underutilized and aging, and have significant quantities of spent fuel. HEU inventories (fresh and spent) pose security risks Unavailability of a high-density-reprocessable fuel hinders conversion and limits back-end options and represents a survival dilemma for many RRs. Improvement of interim spent fuel storage is required at some RRs. Many RRs are under-utilized and/or inadequately funded and need to find users for their services, or permanently shut down and eventually decommission. Reluctance to decommission affect both cost and safety (loss of experienced staff ) and many shut down but not decommissioned RR with fresh and/or spent fuel at the sites invoke serious concern. The IAEA's research reactor support helps to ensure that research reactors can be operated efficiently with fuels and targets of lower proliferation and security concern and that operators have appropriate technology and options to manage RR fuel cycle issues, especially on long term interim storage of spent research reactor fuel. Availability of a high-density-reprocessable fuel would expand and improve back end options. The International Atomic Energy Agency provides assistance to Member States to convert research reactors from High Enriched Uranium fuel and targets (for medical isotope production) to qualified Low Enriched Uranium fuel and targets while maintaining reactor performance levels. The assistance includes provision of handbooks and training in the performance of core conversion studies, advice for the procurement of LEU fuel, and expert services for LEU fuel acceptance. The IAEA further provides technical and administrative support for countries considering repatriation of its

  10. Study of power reactor dynamics by stochastic reactor oscillator method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stochastic reactor oscillator and cross correlation method were used for determining reactor dynamics characteristics. Experimental equipment, fast reactor oscillator (BOR-1) was activated by random pulses from the GBS-16 generator. Tape recorder AMPEX-SF-300 and data acquisition tool registered reactor response to perturbations having different frequencies. Reactor response and activation signals were cross correlated by digital computer for different positions of stochastic oscillator and ionization chamber

  11. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved nuclear power reactor fuel element is described which consists of fuel rods, rod guide tubes and an end plate. The system allows direct access to an end of each fuel rod for inspection purposes. (U.K.)

  12. Reactor power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a method of controlling reactor power to shift it into a partial power operation upon occurrence of recycling pump tripping or loss of generator load. Operation state of a reactor is classified into a plurality of operation states based on values of the reactor core flow rate and the reactor power. Different insertion patterns for selected control rods are determined on every classified operation states. Then, an insertion pattern corresponding to the operation state upon occurrence of recycling pump tripping or loss of power generator load is carried out to shift into partial power operation. The operation is shifted to a load operation solely in the station while avoiding risks such as TPM scram. Then neutron fluxes are suppressed upon transient to increase margin of fuel integrity. Selected control rod pattern of the optimum reactivity is set to each of operation regions, thereby enabling to conduct flexible countermeasure so as to attain optimum operationability. (N.H.)

  13. Reactor pressure boundary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a long-term operation of nuclear power plants, the component materials are degraded under severe reactor conditions such as neutron irradiation, high temperature, high pressure and corrosive environment. It is necessary to establish the reliable and practical technologies for improving and developing the component materials and for evaluating the mechanical properties. Especially, it is very important to investigate the technologies for reactor pressure boundary materials such as reactor vessel and pipings in accordance with their critical roles. Therefore, this study was focused on developing and advancing the microstructural/micro-mechanical evaluation technologies, and on evaluating the neutron irradiation characteristics and radiation effects analysis technology of the reactor pressure boundary materials, and also on establishing a basis of nuclear material property database

  14. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2001-04-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  15. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2002-04-01

    The BR2 materials testing reactor is one of SCK-CEN's most important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. In 2001, the reactor was operated for a total of 123 days at a mean power of 59 MW in order to satisfy the irradiation conditions of the internal and external programmes using mainly the CALLISTO PWR loop. The mean consumption of fresh fuel elements was 5.26 per 1000 MWd. Main achievements in 2001 included the development of a three-dimensional full-scale model of the BR2 reactor for simulation and prediction of irradiation conditions for various experiments; the construction of the FUTURE-MT device designed for the irradiation of fuel plates under representative conditions of geometry, neutron spectrum, heat flux and thermal-hydraulic conditions and the development of in-pile instrumentation and a data acquisition system.

  16. Reactor parameter simulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reactor parameter simulation system (RPSS) has been built with the capability of analyzing any reactor signals, decomposing those signals into their deterministic and stochastic components, then reconstructing new, simulated signals that possess the same statistical and correlation structure as the original plant variables. Important uses of the RPSS are for integration with reactor simulation software to provide tools for plant control strategy development, and for safety-study investigations of scenarios that can arise involving signal faults generated from degraded sensors. A third use of the RPSS is for frequency-domain filtering of reactor process variables contaminated with serially correlated noise, which is important for our ongoing development of expert systems for sensor-operability surveillance. 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed.

  18. New reactor type proposed

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Russian scientists at the Research Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering in Moscow are hoping to develop a new reactor that will use lead and bismuth as fuel instead of uranium and plutonium" (1/2 page).

  19. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuel assembly construction for liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors is described in which the sub-assemblies carry a smaller proportion of parasitic material than do conventional sub-assemblies. (U.K.)

  20. Ageing of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, many of the research institutions were centred on a research reactor facility as main technological asset and major source of neutrons for research. Important achievements were made in time in these research institutions for development of nuclear materials technology and nuclear safety for nuclear energy. At present, ageing of nuclear research facilities among these research reactors and ageing of staff are considerable factors of reduction of competence in research centres. The safe way of mitigation of this trend deals with ageing management by so called, for power reactors, Plant Life Management and new investments in staff as investments in research, or in future resources of competence. A programmatic approach of ageing of research reactors in correlation with their actual and future utilisation, will be used as a basis for safety evaluation and future spending. (author)

  1. Experience with Kamini reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamini is a 233U fuelled, 30 kW(th) research reactor. It is one of the best neutron source facility with a core average flux of 1012 n/cm2/s in IGCAR used for neutron radiography of active and nonradioactive objects, activation analysis and radiation physics research. The core consists of nine plate type fuel elements with a total fuel inventory of 590 g of 233U. Two safety control plates made of cadmium are used for start up and shutdown of the reactor. Three beam tubes, two-thimble irradiation site outside reflector and one irradiation site nearer to the core constitute the testing facilities of Kamini. Kamini attained first criticality on 29th October 96 and nominal power of 30 kW in September 1997. This paper covers the design features of the reactor, irradiation facilities and their utilities and operating experience of the reactor. (author)

  2. Dossier: research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research reactors are used at the CEA (the French atomic energy commission) since many years. Their number has been reduced but they remain unique tools that CEA valorize continuously. The results of the programs involving such reactors are of prime importance for the operation of Electricite de France (EdF) park of existing power plants but also for the design of future nuclear power plants and future research reactors. This dossier presents three examples of research reactors in use at the CEA: Osiris and Orphee (CEA-Saclay), devoted to nuclear energy and fundamental research, respectively, and the critical mockups Eole, Minerve and Masurca (CEA-Cadarache) devoted to nuclear data libraries and neutronic calculation. (J.S.)

  3. Reactor vessel sealing plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to an apparatus and method for sealing the cold leg nozzles of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel from a remote location during maintenance and inspection of associated steam generators and pumps while the pressure vessel and refueling canal are filled with water. The apparatus includes a sealing plug for mechanically sealing the cold leg nozzle from the inside of a reactor pressure vessel. The sealing plugs include a primary and a secondary O-ring. An installation tool is suspended within the reactor vessel and carries the sealing plug. The tool telescopes to insert the sealing plug within the cold leg nozzle, and to subsequently remove the plug. Hydraulic means are used to activate the sealing plug, and support means serve to suspend the installation tool within the reactor vessel during installation and removal of the sealing plug

  4. Future Reactor Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    He, Miao

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ opens a gateway for the next generation experiments to measure the neutrino mass hierarchy and the leptonic CP-violating phase. Future reactor experiments will focus on mass hierarchy determination and the precision measurement of mixing parameters. Mass hierarchy can be determined from the disappearance of reactor electron antineutrinos based on the interference effect of two separated oscillation modes. Relative and absolute measurement techniques have been explored. A proposed experiment JUNO, with a 20 kton liquid scintillator detector of $3%/$$\\sqrt{E(MeV)}$ energy resolution, $\\sim$ 53 km far from reactors of $\\sim$ 36 GW total thermal power, can reach to a sensitivity of $\\Delta\\chi^{2}>16$ considering the spread of reactor cores and uncertainties of the detector response. Three of mixing parameters are expected to be measured to better than 1% precision. There are multiple detector options for JUNO under investigation. The technical challenges...

  5. Reactor hot spot analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilim, R.B.

    1985-08-01

    The principle methods for performing reactor hot spot analysis are reviewed and examined for potential use in the Applied Physics Division. The semistatistical horizontal method is recommended for future work and is now available as an option in the SE2-ANL core thermal hydraulic code. The semistatistical horizontal method is applied to a small LMR to illustrate the calculation of cladding midwall and fuel centerline hot spot temperatures. The example includes a listing of uncertainties, estimates for their magnitudes, computation of hot spot subfactor values and calculation of two sigma temperatures. A review of the uncertainties that affect liquid metal fast reactors is also presented. It was found that hot spot subfactor magnitudes are strongly dependent on the reactor design and therefore reactor specific details must be carefully studied. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  6. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given

  7. Research Reactor Benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A criticality benchmark experiment performed at the Jozef Stefan Institute TRIGA Mark II research reactor is described. This experiment and its evaluation are given as examples of benchmark experiments at research reactors. For this reason the differences and possible problems compared to other benchmark experiments are particularly emphasized. General guidelines for performing criticality benchmarks in research reactors are given. The criticality benchmark experiment was performed in a normal operating reactor core using commercially available fresh 20% enriched fuel elements containing 12 wt% uranium in uranium-zirconium hydride fuel material. Experimental conditions to minimize experimental errors and to enhance computer modeling accuracy are described. Uncertainties in multiplication factor due to fuel composition and geometry data are analyzed by sensitivity analysis. The simplifications in the benchmark model compared to the actual geometry are evaluated. Sample benchmark calculations with the MCNP and KENO Monte Carlo codes are given

  8. Nuclear reactor (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first French plutonium-making reactors G1, G2 and G3 built at Marcoule research center are linked to a power plant. The G1 electrical output does not offset the energy needed for operating this reactor. On the contrary, reactors G2 and G3 will each generate a net power of 25 to 30 MW, which will go into the EDF grid. This power is relatively small, but the information obtained from operation is great and will be helpful for starting up the power reactor EDF1, EDF2 and EDF3. The paper describes how, previous to any starting-up operation, the tests performed, especially those concerned with the power plant and the pressure vessel, have helped to bring the commissioning date closer. (author)

  9. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these and their associated uncertainties are crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to-date have been determined by either conversion of measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that makeup the spectra using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to beta-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.

  10. Pulsed fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This summer school specialized in examining specific fusion center systems. Papers on scientific feasibility are first presented: confinement of high-beta plasma, liners, plasma focus, compression and heating and the use of high power electron beams for thermonuclear reactors. As for technological feasibility, lectures were on the theta-pinch toroidal reactors, toroidal diffuse pinch, electrical engineering problems in pulsed magnetically confined reactors, neutral gas layer for heat removal, the conceptual design of a series of laser fusion power plants with ''Saturn'', implosion experiments and the problem of the targets, the high brightness lasers for plasma generation, and topping and bottoming cycles. Some problems common to pulsed reactors were examined: energy storage and transfer, thermomechanical and erosion effects in the first wall and blanket, the problems of tritium production, radiation damage and neutron activation in blankets, and the magnetic and inertial confinement

  11. Reactor fueling of BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable the pattern exchange for control rods during burning in Control Cell Core type BWR reactors. Constitution: A plurality of control cells are divided into a plurality of groups such that the control cells is aparted from each other by way of at least two fuel assemblies other than the control cells with respect to the vertical and lateral directions of the reactor core cross section, as well as they are in adjacent with control cells of other groups with respect to the orthogonal direction. This enables to perform the pattern exchange for the control rods during burning in the control cell core with ease, and the control blade and the story effect harmful to the mechanical soundness of fuels can thus be suppressed. (Moriyama, K.)

  12. Reactor Engineering Division annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities in fiscal 1974 in Reactor Engineering Division of eight laboratories and computing center are described. Works in the division are closely related with the development of a multi-purpose High-temperature Gas Cooled Reactor, the development of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, and engineering of thermonuclear fusion reactors. They cover nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, shielding, heat transfer and fluid dynamics, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, dynamics analysis and control method development, fusion reactor technology and aspects of the computing center. (auth.)

  13. Special lecture on nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book gives a special lecture on nuclear reactor, which is divided into two parts. The first part has explanation on nuclear design of nuclear reactor and analysis of core with theories of integral transports, diffusion Nodal, transports Nodal and Monte Carlo skill parallel computer and nuclear calculation and speciality of transmutation reactor. The second part deals with speciality of nuclear reactor and control with nonlinear stabilization of nuclear reactor, nonlinear control of nuclear reactor, neural network and control of nuclear reactor, control theory of observer and analysis method of Adomian.

  14. The replacement research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contract for the design, construction and commissioning of the Replacement Research Reactor was signed in July 2000. This was followed by the completion of the detailed design and an application for a construction licence was made in May 2001. This paper will describe the main elements of the design and their relation to the proposed applications of the reactor. The future stages in the project leading to full operation are also described

  15. OECD Halden reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the activities of the OECD Halden Reactor Project for the year 1976. The main items reported on are: a) the process supervision and control which have focused on core monitoring and control, and operator-process communication; b) the fuel performance and safety behavior which have provided data and analytical descriptions of the thermal, mechanical and chemical behavior of fuel under various operating conditions; c) the reactor operations and d) the administration and finance

  16. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor fuel element comprising a column of vibration compacted fuel which is retained in consolidated condition by a thimble shaped plug. The plug is wedged into gripping engagement with the wall of the sheath by a wedge. The wedge material has a lower coefficient of expansion than the sheath material so that at reactor operating temperature the retainer can relax sufficient to accommodate thermal expansion of the column of fuel. (author)

  17. Small reactor return

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current state of the development of present-day small reactors in different countries is performed. Various designs of low and middle power reactors, among which are CAREM (25 MW, PWR), KLT-40 (40 MW, PWR), MRX (30 MW, PWR), IRIS (50 MW, PWR), SMART (1000 MW, PWR), Modular SBWR (50 MW, BWR), PBMR (120 MW, HTGR), GT-HMR (285 MW, HTGR), are discussed

  18. Reactor lattice transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present lecture is a continuation of the lecture on Introduction to the Neutron Transport Phenomena. It comprises three aspects of lattice calculations. First the idea of a reactor lattice is introduced. Then the main definitions used in reactor lattice analysis are given, and finally two basic methods applied for solution of the transport equations are defined. Several remarks on secondary results from lattice transport calculations are added. (author)

  19. Thermal or epithermal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a thermal or epithermal heavy-water reactor of the pressure tube design the reactivity is to be increased by different means: replacement of the moderator by additional rods with heavy metal in the core or in the reflector; separation of the moderator (heavy water) from the coolant (light water) by means of shroud tubes. In light-water reactor types neutron losses are to be influenced by using the heavy elements in different configurations. (orig./PW)

  20. Future reactor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-zero neutrino mixing angle θ13 has been discovered and precisely measured by the current generation short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments. It opens the gate of measuring the leptonic CP-violating phase and enables the neutrino mass ordering. The JUNO and RENO-50 proposals aim at resolving the neutrino mass ordering using reactors. The experiment design, physics sensitivity, technical challenges as well as the progresses of those two proposed experiments are reviewed in this paper

  1. Water cooled nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The description is given of a water cooled nuclear reactor comprising a core, cooling water that rises through the core, vertical guide tubes located inside the core and control rods vertically mobile in the guide tubes. In this reactor the cooling water is divided into a first part introduced at the bottom end of the core and rising through it and a second part introduced at the top end of the guide tubes so as to drop in them

  2. Jet-Stirred Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Herbinet, Olivier; Guillaume, Dayma

    2013-01-01

    The jet-stirred reactor is a type of ideal continuously stirred-tank reactor which is well suited for gas phase kinetic studies. It is mainly used to study the oxidation and the pyrolysis of hydrocarbon and oxygenated fuels. These studies consist in recording the evolution of the conversion of the reactants and of the mole fractions of reaction products as a function of different parameters such as reaction temperature, residence time, pressure and composition of the inlet gas. Gas chromatogr...

  3. Generation IV reactors: economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operating nuclear reactors were built over a short period: no more than 10 years and today their average age rounds 18 years. EDF (French electricity company) plans to renew its reactor park over a far longer period : 30 years from 2020 to 2050. According to EDF this objective implies 3 constraints: 1) a service life of 50 to 60 years for a significant part of the present operating reactors, 2) to be ready to built a generation 3+ unit in 2020 which infers the third constraint: 3) to launch the construction of an EPR (European pressurized reactor) prototype as soon as possible in order to have it operating in 2010. In this scheme, generation 4 reactor will benefit the feedback experience of generation 3 and will take over in 2030. Economic analysis is an important tool that has been used by the generation 4 international forum to select the likely future reactor systems. This analysis is based on 4 independent criteria: the basic construction cost, the construction time, the operation and maintenance costs and the fuel cycle cost. This analysis leads to the evaluation of the global cost of electricity generation and of the total investment required for each of the reactor system. The former defines the economic competitiveness in a de-regulated energy market while the latter is linked to the financial risk taken by the investor. It appears, within the limits of the assumptions and models used, that generation 4 reactors will be characterized by a better competitiveness and an equivalent financial risk when compared with the previous generation. (A.C.)

  4. Future reactor experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Liangjian

    2015-07-01

    The non-zero neutrino mixing angle θ13 has been discovered and precisely measured by the current generation short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments. It opens the gate of measuring the leptonic CP-violating phase and enables the neutrino mass ordering. The JUNO and RENO-50 proposals aim at resolving the neutrino mass ordering using reactors. The experiment design, physics sensitivity, technical challenges as well as the progresses of those two proposed experiments are reviewed in this paper.

  5. Department of Reactor Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included.......The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included....

  6. AVR reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for reactivity control was developed and used for fuelling the AVR reactor core, which is largely based on experimentally determined values. By adding fuel elements with different quantities of heavy metals paired with various experimental requirements, great demands were made of reactivity control. Although only a small range of control was available, this was sufficient to operate the reactor and to shut it down safely in the required power and temperature range. (orig.)

  7. Moon base reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  8. BWR type nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To simplify the structure of an emergency core cooling system while suppressing the flow out of coolants upon rapture accidents in a coolant recycling device of BWR type reactors. Constitution: Recirculation pumps are located at a position higher than the reactor core in a pressure vessel, and the lower plenum is bisected vertically by a partition plate. Further, a gas-liquid separator is surrounded with a wall and the water level at the outer side of the wall is made higher than the water level in the inside of the wall. In this structure, coolants are introduced from the upper chamber in the lower plenum into the reactor core, and the steams generated in the reactor core are separated in the gas-liquid separator, whereby the separated liquid is introduced as coolants by way of the inner chamber into the lower chamber of the lower plenum and further sent by way of the outer chamber into the reactor core. Consequently, idle rotation of the recycling pumps due to the flow-in of saturated water is prevented and loss of coolants in the reactor core can also be prevented upon raptures in the pipeway and the driving section of the pump connected to the pressure vessel and in the bottom of the pressure vessel. (Horiuchi, T.)

  9. Emergency reactor scram system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides an emergency reactor scram system capable of shut down a reactor safely upon occurrence of pump trip by improving a passive scram performance for an FBR-type reactor. Namely, a driving motor and an electric generator are connected to a main pump of a primary system. An AC/DC convertor is connected to the electric generator. A shielding plug is disposed to the upper end opening of a reactor container, a control rod drive mechanism is erected on the shielding plug, and an extension pipe is attached to scram magnets of the control rod drive mechanism. The extension pipe is connected to a control rod. The rotation of the shaft of the pump is used as a direct rotator to provide an integrated-type electric generator. The electric generator is electrically connected with the power source of a scram magnet of the emergency scram system. Accordingly, the control rod of the emergency scram system is automatically and rapidly inserted to the reactor core using the power source of the electric generator upon trip of the main pump thereby enabling to scram the reactor safely. (I.S.)

  10. A modular reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new concept in liquid metal reactors that is being developed by General Electric under contract to the Department of Energy. This concept is called the Modular Reactor Plant. While this effort is not expected to have a near-term impact, it is directed toward three principal issues currently affecting nuclear power in the United States. First, plant costs have escalated to the point where the startup of new plants require large electric rate increases. Second, the cost of new plants coming on-line today vary by as much as a factor of three. And, third, nuclear construction times often exceed the utilities prudent planning cycle. This paper describes how General Electric's Modular Reactor Plant addreses these issues through shop fabrication and assembly, rail shipment to the site for rapid installation of nuclear components and inherent reactor protection. In addition, it is expected the modular reactor plant will reduce the current cost of development and demonstration of liquid metal reactors to an affordable level

  11. New fission reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of critical challenges to the expanded or continued use of nuclear power have developed. These can be categorized as: regulatory restrictions and complications; negative public attitudes; plant complexity; plant life, operations, and maintenance; uncertain load growth, financing; waste management. Solutions to these challenges through advanced reactor design centre around four key technical responses. Passive safety systems are being introduced which use the laws of physics to provide emergency reactor coding, control and shutdown thus eliminating the possibility of human error. Modular construction promises cuts in costs and construction time by shifting the major part of component manufacture from the site to the factory. Standardization also cuts capital costs and in addition operations and repair costs and expedites reactor licensing. Improvements to the fuel cycle include improved fuel types, designs and fabrication, and the reprocessing of and recycling spent fuel back into energy production, thus extending uranium resources and offering a partial solution to the problem of waste disposal. Examples of evolutionary and advanced water-cooled reactors, modular high temperature gas-cooled reactors, and advanced liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors which are being developed round the world are presented. (author)

  12. OECD Halden reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the nineteenth annual Report on the OECD Halden Reactor Project, describing activities at the Project during 1978, the last year of the 1976-1978 Halden Agreement. Work continued in two main fields: test fuel irradiation and fuel research, and computer-based process supervision and control. Project research on water reactor fuel focusses on various aspects of fuel behavior under normal, and off-normal transient conditions. In 1978, participating organisations continued to submit test fuel for irradiation in the Halden boiling heavy-water reactor, in instrumented test assemblies designed and manufactured by the Project. Work included analysis of the impact of fuel design and reactor operating conditions on fuel cladding behavior. Fuel performance modelling included characterization of thermal and mechanical behavior at high burn-up, of fuel failure modes, and improvement of data qualification procedures to reduce and quantify error bands on in-reactor measurements. Instrument development yielded new or improved designs for measuring rod temperature, internal pressure, axial neutron flux shape determination, and for detecting cladding defects. Work on computer-based methods of reactor supervision and control included continued development of a system for predictive core surveillance, and of special mathematical methods for core power distribution control

  13. Reactor power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The device of the present invention efficiently calibrates a fixed type gamma ray thermometer of a reactor power measuring device of a BWR type reactor. Namely, the device of the present invention calculates peripheral fuel rod power distribution by calibrating the reactor power distribution by heat generation amount, the reactor power distribution being obtained by a calculation based on a reactor model for converting the signals of a plurality of the gamma ray thermometers in the reactor core based on a conversion formula. In this case, the conversion formula is a relational formula between the power of a thermocouple of the gamma ray thermometer, gamma ray heat generation amount, thermocouple zero power sensitivity relative to a temperature coefficient. A conversion efficient calculation means makes a calibration heater to generate heat at a predetermined power, and the thermocouple zero power sensitivity and the temperature coefficient are obtained based on the output of the gamma ray thermometer in this case. The calibration means updates to conversion type thermocouple zero power sensitivity and temperature coefficient. A calibration execution means executes the operations described above successively, and when the thermocouple zero power sensitivity and the temperature coefficient are out of an allowable range, the means informs it and eliminates the corresponding gamma ray thermometer from the measuring meters. (I.S.)

  14. Reactor safety engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of the work is such that the basic safety philosophy for nuclear power plants as well as the safety features of both types of light water reactors, pressurized and boiling water reactors, and of the fast breeder reactor are dealt with. With the pressurized and boiling water reactors also variations, due to different supplies are mentioned. The state of development considered is characterized by the results of the American reactor safety study having very much influenced the way of presentation and the validity of the information contained. In the introduction the attentive reader is made familiar with the basic traits of safety engineering, the traditional deterministic way of proceeding being supplemented by a detailed illustration of probabilistic means used in the safety analysis. Added to this are comparative descriptions of the individual safety features, their design and mode of operation. There are, e.g., detailed discussion of the emergency core cooling systems, the power supply systems, the reactor protection system, and the containment. Special chapters are attributed to transients with and without the fast shutdown system working and to loss of coolant. The so-called external events are treated somewhat shortly whereas much space is given to core melting problems. The treatment of important events from the safety point of view, including the section on Harrisburg added for reasons of immediate interest, is limited to phenomenological description. (orig.)

  15. Regulations for RA reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulations for RA reactor operation are written in accordance with the legal regulations defined by the Law about radiation protection and related legal acts, as well as technical standards according to the IAEA recommendations. The contents of this book include: fundamental data about the reactor; legal regulations for reactor operation; organizational scheme for reactor operation; general and detailed instructions for operation, behaviour in the reactor building, performing experiments; operating rules for operation under steady state and accidental conditions

  16. The reactor Cabri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has become necessary to construct in France a reactor which would permit the investigation of the conditions of functioning of future installations, the choice, the testing and the development of safety devices to be adopted. A water reactor of a type corresponding to the latest CEA constructions in the field of laboratory or university reactors was decided upon: it appeared important to be able to evaluate the risks entailed and to study the possibilities of increasing the power, always demanded by the users; on the other hand, it is particularly interesting to clarify the phenomena of power oscillation and the risks of burn out. The work programme for CABRI will be associated with the work carried out on the American Sperts of the same type, during its construction, very useful contacts were made with the American specialists who designed the se reactors. A brief description of the reactor is given in the communication as well as the work programme for the first years with respect to the objectives up to now envisaged. Rough description of the reactor. CABRI is an open core swimming-pool reactor without any lateral protection, housed in a reinforced building with controlled leakage, in the Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache. It lies alone in the middle of an area whose radius is 300 meters long. Control and measurements equipment stand out on the edge of that zone. It consumes MTR fuel elements. The control-safety rods are propelled by compressed air. The maximum flow rate of cooling circuit is 1500 m3/h. Transient measurements are recorded in a RW330 unit. Aims and work programme. CABRI is meant for: - studies on the safety of water reactors - for the definition of the safety margins under working conditions: research of maximum power at which a swimming-pool reactor may operate with respect to a cooling accident, of local boiling effect on the nuclear behaviour of the reactor, performances of the control and safety instruments under exceptional

  17. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  18. Materials for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improved performance of present generation nuclear reactors and the realization of advanced reactor concepts, both, require development of better materials. Physical metallurgy/materials science principles which have been exploited in meeting the exacting requirements of nuclear reactor materials (fuels and structural materials), are outlined citing a few specific examples. While the incentive for improvement of traditional fuels (e.g., UO2 fuel) is primarily for increasing the average core burn up, the development of advanced fuels (e.g., MOX, mixed carbide, nitride, silicide and dispersion fuels) are directed towards better utilization of fissile and fertile inventories through adaptation of innovative fuel cycles. As the burn up of UO2 fuel reaches higher levels, a more detailed and quantitative understanding of the phenomena such as fission gas release, fuel restructuring induced by radiation and thermal gradients and pellet-clad interaction is being achieved. Development of zirconium based alloys for both cladding and pressure tube applications is discussed with reference to their physical metallurgy, fabrication techniques and in-reactor degradation mechanisms. The issue of radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) is covered drawing a comparison between the western and eastern specifications of RPV steels. The search for new materials which can stand higher rates of atomic displacement due to radiation has led to the development of swelling resistant austenitic and ferritic stainless steels for fast reactor applications as exemplified by the development of the D-9 steel for Indian fast breeder reactor. The presentation will conclude by listing various materials related phenomena, which have a strong bearing on the successful development of future nuclear energy systems. (author)

  19. Reactor physics and economic aspects of the CANDU reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A history of the development of the CANDU system is given along with a fairly detailed description of the 600 MW(e) CANDU reactor. Reactor physics calculation methods are described, as well as comparisons between calculated reactor physics parameters and those measured in research and power reactors. An examination of the economics of CANDU in the Ontario Hydro system and a comparison between fossil fuelled and light water reactors is presented. Some physics, economics and resources aspects are given for both low enriched uranium and thorium-fuelled CANDU reactors. Finally the RβD program in Advanced Fuel Cycles is briefly described

  20. Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Delmolino

    2005-05-06

    The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.

  1. Fast breeder reactor research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The meeting was attended by 15 participants from seven countries and two international organizations. The Eighth Annual Meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) was attended by representatives from France, Fed. Rep. Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America - countries that have made significant progress in developing the technology and physics of sodium cooled fast reactors and have extensive national programmes in this field - as well as by representatives of the Commission of the European Communities and the IAEA. The design of fast-reactor power plants is a more difficult task than developing facilities with thermal reactors. Different reactor kinetics and dynamics, a hard neutron spectrum, larger integral doses of fuel and structural material irradiation, higher core temperatures, the use of an essentially novel coolant, and, as a result of all these factors, the additional reliability and safety requirements that are imposed on the planning and operation of sodium cooled fast reactors - all these factors pose problems that can be solved comprehensively only by countries with a high level of scientific and technical development. The exchange of experience between these countries and their combined efforts in solving the fundamental problems that arise in planning, constructing and operating fast reactors are promoting technical progress and reducing the relative expenditure required for various studies on developing and introducing commercial fast reactors. For this reason, the meeting concentrated on reviewing and discussing national fast reactor programmes. The situation with regard to planning, constructing and operating fast experimental and demonstration reactors in the countries concerned, the experience accumulated in operating them, the difficulties arising during operation and ways of over-coming them, the search for optimal designs for the power

  2. BR2 Reactor: Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiations in the BR2 reactor are in collaboration with or at the request of third parties such as the European Commission, the IAEA, research centres and utilities, reactor vendors or fuel manufacturers. The reactor also contributes significantly to the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial applications, to neutron silicon doping for the semiconductor industry and to scientific irradiations for universities. Along the ongoing programmes on fuel and materials development, several new irradiation devices are in use or in design. Amongst others a loop providing enhanced cooling for novel materials testing reactor fuel, a device for high temperature gas cooled fuel as well as a rig for the irradiation of metallurgical samples in a Pb-Bi environment. A full scale 3-D heterogeneous model of BR2 is available. The model describes the real hyperbolic arrangement of the reactor and includes the detailed 3-D space dependent distribution of the isotopic fuel depletion in the fuel elements. The model is validated on the reactivity measurements of several tens of BR2 operation cycles. The accurate calculations of the axial and radial distributions of the poisoning of the beryllium matrix by 3He, 6Li and 3T are verified on the measured reactivity losses used to predict the reactivity behavior for the coming decades. The model calculates the main functionals in reactor physics like: conventional thermal and equivalent fission neutron fluxes, number of displacements per atom, fission rate, thermal power characteristics as heat flux and linear power density, neutron/gamma heating, determination of the fission energy deposited in fuel plates/rods, neutron multiplication factor and fuel burn-up. For each reactor irradiation project, a detailed geometry model of the experimental device and of its neighborhood is developed. Neutron fluxes are predicted within approximately 10 percent in comparison with the dosimetry measurements. Fission rate, heat flux and

  3. Reactor coolant cleanup facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A depressurization device is disposed in pipelines upstream of recycling pumps of a reactor coolant cleanup facility to reduce a pressure between the pressurization device and the recycling pump at the downstream, thereby enabling high pressure coolant injection from other systems by way of the recycling pumps. Upon emergency, the recycling pumps of the coolant cleanup facility can be used in common to an emergency reactor core cooling facility and a reactor shutdown facility. Since existent pumps of the emergency reactor core cooling facility and the reactor shutdown facility which are usually in a stand-by state can be removed, operation confirmation test and maintenance for equipments in both of facilities can be saved, so that maintenance and reliability of the plant are improved and burdens on operators can also be mitigated. Moreover, low pressure design can be adopted for a non-regenerative heat exchanger and recycling coolant pumps, which enables to improve the reliability and economical property due to reduction of possibility of leakage. (N.H.)

  4. HTGR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reactor core is disposed at the center of a reactor container, a reflector is disposed on the outer side thereof, a steam generator is disposed further outer side thereof coaxially, and they are constituted as an integrated one container. A gas circulator and control rod drives are protruded at the outer side of the lower portion of the integrated container. Heat insulators are disposed on the inner side of the container wall in the upper portion of the reactor container. Helium gas risen in the reactor core and heated to a high temperature descends in a circular steam generator and undergoes heat exchange with water, and is then pressurized in the gas circulator after the lowering of the temperature, and returned to the inlet of the reactor core from the lower central portion of the container. With such procedures, the helium gas as primary coolants circulates only in the container to improve confinement. The device can be reduced in the size and the cost. (I.N.)

  5. Reactor container spray device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable decrease in the heat and the concentration of radioactive iodine released from the reactor vessel into the reactor container in the spray device of BWR type reactors. Constitution: A plurality of water receiving trays are disposed below the spray nozzle in the dry well and communicated to a pressure suppression chamber by way of drain pipeways passing through a diaphragm floor. When the recycling system is ruptured and coolants in the reactor vessel and radioactive iodine in the reactor core are released into the dry well, spray water is discharged from the spray nozzle to eliminate the heat and the radioactive iodine in the dry well. In this case, the receiving trays collect the portions of spray water whose absorption power for the heat and radioactive iodine is nearly saturated and falls them into the pool water of the pressure suppression chamber. Consequently, other portions of the spray water that still possess absorption power can be jetted with no hindrance, to increase the efficiency for the removal of the heat and iodine of the spray droplets. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. PROTEUS research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PROTEUS zero power reactor at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland achieved first criticality in 1968 and since then has been operated as an experimental tool for reactor physics research on test lattices representative of a wide range of reactor concepts. Reactor design codes and their associated data libraries are validated on the basis of the experimental results obtained. PROTEUS is normally configured as a driven system, in which a subcritical test zone is made critical by the surrounding driver zones. The advantages of driven systems can be summarized as follows: - Smaller amount of test fuel is required; - Large range of test zone conditions (including k∞ < 1 states) can be investigated by changes in the driver loading alone, thus avoiding undesirable perturbations to the test zone which would influence the measurement conditions and thus affect the interpretability of the results; - Necessary reactor control and instrumentation equipment (usually perturbing from the experimental viewpoint) can be located in the outer driver regions, thereby avoiding disturbance of the test lattice

  7. Generalities about nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From Zoe, the first nuclear reactor, till the current EPR, the French nuclear industry has always advanced by profiting from the feedback from dozens of years of experience and operations, in particular by drawing lessons from the most significant events in its history, such as the Fukushima accident. The new generations of reactors must improve safety and economic performance so that the industry maintain its legitimacy and its share in the production of electricity. This article draws the history of nuclear power in France, gives a brief description of the pressurized water reactor design, lists the technical features of the different versions of PWR that operate in France and compares them with other types of reactors. The feedback experience concerning safety, learnt from the major nuclear accidents Three Miles Island (1979), Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011) is also detailed. Today there are 26 third generation reactors being built in the world: 4 EPR (1 in Finland, 1 in France and 2 in China); 2 VVER-1200 in Russia, 8 AP-1000 (4 in China and 4 in the Usa), 8 APR-1400 (4 in Korea and 4 in UAE), and 4 ABWR (2 in Japan and 2 in Taiwan)

  8. China experimental fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chinese experimental fast reactor (CEFR) is a pool-type sodium-cooled fast reactor whose short term purposes are: -) the validation of computer codes, -) the check of the relevance of standards, and -) the gathering of experimental data on fast reactors. On the long term the expectations will focus on: -) gaining experience in fast reactor operations, -) the testing of nuclear fuels and materials, and -) the study of sodium compounds. The main technical features of CEFR are: -) thermal power output: 65 MW (electrical power output: 20 MW), -) size of the core: height: 45 cm, diameter: 60 cm, -) maximal linear output: 430 W/cm, -) neutron flux: 3.7*1015 n/cm2/s, -) input/output sodium temperature: 360 / 530 Celsius degrees, -) 2 loops for the primary system and 2 loops for the secondary system. The temperature coefficient and the power coefficient are settled to stay negative for any change in the values of the core parameters. The installation of the reactor vessel will be completed by mid 2007. The first criticality of CEFR is expected during the first semester of 2010. (A.C.)

  9. EBT reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of a recent ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor study that includes ring and core plasma properties with consistent treatment of coupled ring-core stability criteria and power balance requirements. The principal finding is that constraints imposed by these coupling and other physics and technology considerations permit a broad operating window for reactor design optimization. Within this operating window, physics and engineering systems analysis and cost sensitivity studies indicate that reactors with approx. 6 to 10%, P approx. 1200 to 1700 MW(e), wall loading approx. 1.0 to 2.5 MW/m2, and recirculating power fraction (including ring-sustaining power and all other reactors auxiliaries) approx. 10 to 15% are possible. A number of concept improvements are also proposed that are found to offer the potential for further improvement of the reactor size and parameters. These include, but are not limited to, the use of: (1) supplementary coils or noncircular mirror coils to improve magnetic geometry and reduce size, (2) energetic ion rings to improve ring power requirements, (3) positive potential to enhance confinement and reduce size, and (4) profile control to improve stability and overall fusion power density

  10. Modern research reactors in the world and RA research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper covers the following topics: fundamentals of research reactors, thermal neutron flux density, classification of research reactors in the world, properties of research reactors of higher power in the world according to IAEA data for 1995, their application, and trend of development, experimental feasibility and status of RA reactor. Trend of research reactors development in the world (after 1980) is directed towards increasing the neutron production quality factor, i.e. ratio between thermal neutron flux density and reactor power, which is achieved by designing compact reactor cores. With the aim of renewal of RA reactor (without analysis of reactor components and staff aging, possibility of restart and commercialization), according to the analysis in this paper, it can be concluded: there is very few reactors under construction in the world, all the important countries in Europe have research reactors; RA reactor is not very interesting for development of reactor physics; nowadays RA reactor is in the group of reactors which are 30-40 years old; its inventories of fuel and heavy water are enough for about 20 years of operation; it has achieved high quality factor of neutron production with low and highly enriched fuel; core transfer from low highly enriched to low enriched fuel should be carefully studies from operation, experimental and economical point of view; it is necessary to use the advantages of RA reactor (minimum investment): volume of the core and reflector which enables availability of neutron flux for the users (numerous experimental loops), fuel in shape of slugs enabling efficient fuel management and flexible neutron flux distribution in the core in the reflector, reactor operation should be directed towards commercial applications. Bibliography of more than 140 relevant papers used is included in this paper

  11. Sodium-cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book first explains the choice of sodium-cooled reactors by outlining the reasons of the choice of fast neutron reactors (fast neutrons instead of thermal neutrons, recycling opportunity for plutonium, full use of natural uranium, nuclear waste optimization, flexibility of fast neutron reactors in nuclear material management, fast neutron reactors as complements of water-cooled reactors), and by outlining the reasons for the choice of sodium as heat-transfer material. Physical, chemical, and neutron properties of sodium are presented. The second part of the book first presents the main design principles for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors and their core. The third part proposes an historical overview and an assessment of previously operated sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (French reactors from Rapsodie to Superphenix, other reactors in the world), and an assessment of the main incidents which occurred in these reactors. It also reports the experience and lessons learned from the dismantling of various sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors in the world. The next chapter addresses safety issues (technical and safety aspects related to the use of sodium) and environmental issues (dosimetry, gaseous and liquid releases, solid wastes, and cooling water). Then, various technological aspects of these reactors are addressed: the energy conversion system, main components, sodium chemistry, sodium-related technology, advances in in-service inspection, materials used in reactors and their behaviour, and fuel system. The next chapter addresses the fuel cycle in these reactors: its integrated specific character, report of the French experience in fast neutron reactor fuel processing, description of the transmutation of minor actinides in these reactors. The last chapter proposes an overview of reactors currently projected or under construction in the world, presents the Astrid project, and gives an assessment of the economy of these reactors. A glossary and an index

  12. Scaleable, High Efficiency Microchannel Sabatier Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Microchannel Sabatier Reactor System (MSRS) consisting of cross connected arrays of isothermal or graded temperature reactors is proposed. The reactor array...

  13. Methanation assembly using multiple reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Fred C.; Parab, Sanjay C.

    2007-07-24

    A methanation assembly for use with a water supply and a gas supply containing gas to be methanated in which a reactor assembly has a plurality of methanation reactors each for methanating gas input to the assembly and a gas delivery and cooling assembly adapted to deliver gas from the gas supply to each of said methanation reactors and to combine water from the water supply with the output of each methanation reactor being conveyed to a next methanation reactor and carry the mixture to such next methanation reactor.

  14. Mimic of OSU research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ohio State University research reactor (OSURR) is undergoing improvements in its research and educational capabilities. A computer-based digital data acquisition system, including a reactor system mimic, will be installed as part of these improvements. The system will monitor the reactor system parameters available to the reactor operator either in digital parameters available to the reactor operator either in digital or analog form. The system includes two computers. All the signals are sent to computer 1, which processes the data and sends the data through a serial port to computer 2 with a video graphics array VGA monitor, which is utilized to display the mimic system of the reactor

  15. MINT research reactor safety program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamad Idris bin Taib [Division of Special Project, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi (Malaysia)

    2000-11-01

    Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) Research Reactor Safety Program has been done along with Reactor Power Upgrading Project, Reactor Safety Upgrading Project and Development of Expert System for On-Line Nuclear Process Control Project. From 1993 up to date, Neutronic and Thermal-hydraulics analysis, Probabilistic Safety Assessment as well as installation of New 2 MW Secondary Cooling System were done. Installations of New Reactor Building Ventilation System, Reactor Monitoring System, Updating of Safety Analysis Report and Upgrading Primary Cooling System are in progress. For future activities, Reactor Modeling will be included to add present activities. (author)

  16. RB research reactor Safety Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This RB reactor safety report is a revised and improved version of the Safety report written in 1962. It contains descriptions of: reactor building, reactor hall, control room, laboratories, reactor components, reactor control system, heavy water loop, neutron source, safety system, dosimetry system, alarm system, neutron converter, experimental channels. Safety aspects of the reactor operation include analyses of accident causes, errors during operation, measures for preventing uncontrolled activity changes, analysis of the maximum possible accident in case of different core configurations with natural uranium, slightly and highly enriched fuel; influence of possible seismic events

  17. Fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the fifteenth in a series of semiannual technical progress reports on fusion reactor materials. This report combines research and development activities which were previously reported separately in the following progress reports: Alloy Development for Irradiation Performance; Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies; Special purpose Materials. These activities are concerned principally with the effects of the neutronic and chemical environment on the properties and performance of reactor materials; together they form one element of the overall materials programs being conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Fusion Reactor Materials Program is a national effort involving several national laboratories, universities, and industries. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide a working technical record for the use of the program participants, and to provide a means of communicating the efforts of materials scientists to the rest of the fusion community, both nationally and worldwide

  18. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  19. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international design team comprised of members from Canada, Europe, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America, are designing an experimental fusion test reactor. The engineering and testing objectives of this International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are to validate the design and to demonstrate controlled ignition, extended burn of a deuterium and tritium plasma, and achieve steady state using technology expected to be available by 1990. The concept maximizes flexibility while allowing for a variety of plasma configurations and operating scenarios. During physics phase operation, the machine produces a 22 MA plasma current. In the technology phase, the machine can be reconfigured with a thicker shield and a breeding blanket to operate with an 18 MA plasma current at a major radius of 5.5 meters. Canada's involvement in the areas of safety, facility design, reactor configuration and maintenance builds on our internationally recognized design and operational expertise in developing tritium processes and CANDU related technologies

  20. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly Licensed Operating Reactors Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices, IE Headquarters and the Utilities; and the third section is an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor years of experience and non-power reactors in the United States

  1. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THE OPERATING UNITS STATUS REPORT - LICENSED OPERATING REACTORS provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management from the Headquarters staff of NRC's Office of Enforcement (OE), from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. The three sections of the report are: monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC's Regional Offices, OE Headquarters and the utilities; and an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor-years of experience and non-power reactors in the US

  2. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly LICENSED OPERATING REACTORS Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices, IE Headquarters and the Utilities; and the third section is an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor years of experience and non-power reactors in the United States

  3. Colliding Beam Fusion Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostoker, Norman; Qerushi, Artan; Binderbauer, Michl

    2003-06-01

    The recirculating power for virtually all types of fusion reactors has previously been calculated [1] with the Fokker-Planck equation. The reactors involve non-Maxwellian plasmas. The calculations are generic in that they do not relate to specific confinement devices. In all cases except for a Tokamak with D-T fuel the recirculating power was found to exceed the fusion power by a large factor. In this paper we criticize the generality claimed for this calculation. The ratio of circulating power to fusion power is calculated for the Colliding Beam Reactor with fuels D-T, D-He3 and p-B11. The results are respectively, 0.070, 0.141 and 0.493.

  4. The MNSR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This tank-in-pool reactor is based on the same design concept as the Canadian Slowpoke. The core is a right circular cylinder, 24 cm diameter by 25 cm long, containing 411 fuel pin positions. The pins are HEU-Aluminium alloy, 0.5 cm in diameter. Critical mass is about 900 g. The reactor has a single cadmium control rod. The back-up shutdown system is the insertion of a cadmium capsule in a core position. Excess reactivity is limited to 3.5mk. In both the MNSR and Slowpoke, the insertion of the maximum excess reactivity results in a power transient limited by the coolant/moderator temperature to safe values, independent of any operator action. This reactor is used primarily in training and neutron activation analysis. Up to 64 elements have been analyzed in a great variety of different disciplines. (author)

  5. Welding and reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high safety requirements which must be demanded of the quality of the welded joints in reactor technique have so far not been fulfilled in all cases. The errors occuring have caused considerable loss of availability and high material costs. They were not, however, so serious that one need have feared any immediate danger to the personnel or to the environment. The safety devices of reactor plants were only called upon in a few cases and to these they responded perfectly. The intensive efforts to complete and improve the specifications are to contribute to that in future, the reactor plants can be counted even more so as one of the safest technical plants ever. (orig./LH)

  6. Reactor operation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the TRIGA Users Conference in Helsinki 1970 the TRIGA reactor Vienna was in operation without any larger undesired shutdown. The integrated thermal power production by August 15 1972 accumulated to 110 MWd. The TRIGA reactor is manly used for training of students, for scientific courses and research work. Cooperation with industry increased in the last two years either in form of research or in performing training courses. Close cooperation is also maintained with the IAEA, samples are irradiated and courses on various fields are arranged. Maintenance work was performed on the heat exchanger and to replace the shim rod magnet. With the view on the future power upgrading nine fuel elements type 110 have been ordered recently. Experiments, performed currently on the reactor are presented in details

  7. Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Lanin, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER ) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  8. Reactor accidents in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In each of the three major reactor accidents which have led to significant releases to the environment, and discussed in outline in this note, the reactor has been essentially destroyed - certainly Windscale and Chernobyl reactors will never operate and the cleanup operation for Three Mile Island is currently estimated to have cost in excess of US Pound 500 000 000. In each of the accidents there has not been any fatality off site in the short term and any long-term health detriment is unlikely to be seen in comparison with the natural cancer incidence rate. At Chernobyl, early fatalities did occur amongst those concerned with fighting the incident on site and late effects are to be expected. The assumption of a linear non-threshold risk, and hence no level of zero risk is the main problem in communication with the public, and the author calls for simplification of the presentation of the concepts of radiological protection. (U.K.)

  9. Reactor safety equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To positively recover radioactive substances discharged in a dry well at the time of failure of a reactor. Constitution: In addition to the emergency gas treating system fitted to a reactor building, a purification system connected through a pipeline to the dry well is arranged in the reactor building. This purification system is connected through pipes fitted to the dry well to forced circulation device, heat exchanger, and purification device. The atmosphere of high pressure steam gases in the dry well is derived to the heat exchanger for cooling, and then radioactive substances which are contained in the gases are removed by filter sets charged with the HEPA filters and the HECA filters. At last, there gases are returned to dry well by circulation pump, repeat this process. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Licensed operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's monthly LICENSED OPERATING REACTORS Status Summary Report provides data on the operation of nuclear units as timely and accurately as possible. This information is collected by the Office of Information Resources Management, from the Headquarters Staff of NRC's Office of Inspection and Enforcement, from NRC's Regional Offices, and from utilities. This report is divided into three sections: the first contains monthly highlights and statistics for commercial operating units, and errata from previously reported data; the second is a compilation of detailed information on each unit, provided by NRC Regional Offices, IE Headquarters and the utilities; and the third section is an appendix for miscellaneous information such as spent fuel storage capability, reactor years of experience and non-power reactors in the United States

  11. Reactor protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the reactor protection system (RPS-II) designed for use on Babcock and Wilcox 145-, later 177-, and 205-fuel assembly pressurized water reactors. In this system, relays in the trip logic have been replaced by solid state devices. A calculating module for the low DNBR, pump status, and offset trip functions has replaced the overpower trip (based on flow and imbalance), the power/RC pump trip, and the variable low-pressure trip. Included is a description of the changes from the present Oconee-type reactor protection system (RPS-I), a functional and hardware description of the calculating module, a description of the software programmed in the calculating module, and a discussion of the qualification program conducted to ensure that the degree of protection provided by RPS-II is not less than that provided by previously licensed systems supplied by B and W

  12. Backfitting swimming pool reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations based on measurements in a critical assembly, and experiments to disclose fuel element surface temperatures in case of accidents like stopping of primary coolant flow during full power operation, have shown that the power of the swimming pool type research reactor FRG-2 (15 MW, operating since 1967) might be raised to 21 MW within the present rules of science and technology, without major alterations of the pool buildings and the cooling systems. A backfitting program is carried through to adjust the reactor control systems of FRG-2 and FRG-1 (5 MW, housed in the same reactor hall) to the present safety rules and recommendations, to ensure FRG-2 operation at 21 MW for the next decade. (author)

  13. MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, J.F.; North, D.C. Jr.; Rock, H.R.; Geston, D.K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass.

  14. Safety systems of heavy water reactors and small power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After introductional descriptions of heavy water reactors and natural circulation boiling water reactors the safety philosophy and safety systems like ECCS, residual heat removal, protection systems etc., are described. (RW)

  15. Study of future reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, more than 420 large reactors with a gross output of close to 350 GWe supply 20 percent of world electricity needs, accounting for less than 5 percent of primary energy consumption. These figures are not expected to change in the near future, due to suspended reactor construction in many countries. Nevertheless, world energy needs continue to grow: the planet's population already exceeds five billion and is forecast to reach ten billion by the middle of the next century. Most less developed countries have a very low rate of energy consumption and, even though some savings can be made in industrialized countries, it will become increasingly difficult to satisfy needs using fossil fuels only. Furthermore, there has been no recent breakthrough in the energy landscape. The physical feasibility of the other great hope of nuclear energy, fusion, has yet to be proved; once this has been done, it will be necessary to solve technological problems and to assess economic viability. Although it is more ever necessary to pursue fusion programs, there is little likelihood of industrial applications being achieved in the coming decades. Coal and fission are the only ways to produce massive amounts of energy for the next century. Coal must overcome the pollution problems inherent in its use; fission nuclear power has to gain better public acceptance, which is obviously colored by safety and waste concerns. Most existing reactors were commissioned in the 1970s; reactor lifetime is a parameter that has not been clearly established. It will certainly be possible to refurbish some to extend their operation beyond the initial target of 30 or 40 years. But normal advances in technology and safety requirements will make the operation of the oldest reactors increasingly difficult. It becomes necessary to develop new generations of nuclear reactors, both to replace older ones and to revive plant construction in their countries that are not yet equipped or that have halted their

  16. AREVA's nuclear reactors portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reasonable assumption for the estimated new build market for the next 25 years is over 340 GWe net. The number of prospect countries is growing almost each day. To address this new build market, AREVA is developing a comprehensive portfolio of reactors intended to meet a wide range of power requirements and of technology choices. The EPR reactor is the flagship of the fleet. Intended for large power requirements, the four first EPRs are being built in Finland, France and China. Other countries and customers are in view, citing just two examples: the Usa where the U.S. EPR has been selected as the technology of choice by several U.S utilities; and the United Kingdom where the Generic Design Acceptance process of the EPR design submitted by AREVA and EDF is well under way, and where there is a strong will to have a plant on line in 2017. For medium power ranges, the AREVA portfolio includes a boiling water reactor and a pressurized water reactor which both offer all of the advantages of an advanced plant design, with excellent safety performance and competitive power generation cost: -) KERENA (1250+ MWe), developed in collaboration with several European utilities, and in particular with Eon; -) ATMEA 1 (1100+ MWe), a 3-loop evolutionary PWR which is being developed by AREVA and Mitsubishi. AREVA is also preparing the future and is deeply involved into Gen IV concepts. It has developed the ANTARES modular HTR reactor (pre-conceptual design completed) and is building upon its vast Sodium Fast Reactor experience to take part into the development of the next prototype. (author)

  17. Operating US power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This update, which appears regularly in each issue of Nuclear Safety, surveys the operations of those power reactors in the US which have been issued operating licenses. Table 1 shows the number of such reactors and their net capacities as of Dec. 31, 1986, the end of the three-month period covered in this report. Table 2 lists the unit capacity and forced outage rate for each licensed reactor for each of the three months (October, November, and December 1986) covered in this report and the cumulative values of these parameters since the beginning of commercial operation. They are defined as follows: In addition to the tabular data, this article discusses significant occurrences and developments that affected licensed US power reactors during this reporting period. It includes, but is not limited to, changes in operating status, regulatory actions and decisions, and legal actions involving the status of power reactors. We do not have space here for routine problems of operation and maintenance, but such information is available at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Public Document Room, 1717 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20555. Some significant operating events are summarized elsewhere in this section in the article ''Selected Safety-Related Events,'' and a report on activities relating to facilities still in the construction process is given in the article ''Status of Power-Reactor Projects Undergoing Licensing Review'' in the last section of each issue of this journal. The reader's attention is also called to the regular feature ''General Administrative Activities,'' which deals with more general aspects of regulatory and legal matters that are not covered elsewhere in the journal

  18. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavnić Danijela S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat and mass transfer and narrow residence time distribution. The oscillatory flow reactors (OFR are newer type of tube reactors which can offer solution by providing continuous operation with approximately plug flow pattern, low shear stress rates and enhanced mass and heat transfer. These benefits are the result of very good mixing in OFR achieved by vortex generation. OFR consists of cylindrical tube containing equally spaced orifice baffles. Fluid oscillations are superimposed on a net (laminar flow. Eddies are generated when oscillating fluid collides with baffles and passes through orifices. Generation and propagation of vortices create uniform mixing in each reactor cavity (between baffles, providing an overall flow pattern which is close to plug flow. Oscillations can be created by direct action of a piston or a diaphragm on fluid (or alternatively on baffles. This article provides an overview of oscillatory flow reactor technology, its operating principles and basic design and scale - up characteristics. Further, the article reviews the key research findings in heat and mass transfer, shear stress, residence time distribution in OFR, presenting their advantages over the conventional reactors. Finally, relevant process intensification examples from pharmaceutical, polymer and biofuels industries are presented.

  19. Nuclear reactor simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Reactor Simulator was projected to help the basic training in the formation of the Nuclear Power Plants operators. It gives the trainee the opportunity to see the nuclear reactor dynamics. It's specially indicated to be used as the support tool to NPPT (Nuclear Power Preparatory Training) from NUS Corporation. The software was developed to Intel platform (80 x 86, Pentium and compatible ones) working under the Windows operational system from Microsoft. The program language used in development was Object Pascal and the compiler used was Delphi from Borland. During the development, computer algorithms were used, based in numeric methods, to the resolution of the differential equations involved in the process. (author)

  20. Experimental reactor physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutronic experiments in moderators, subcritical assemblies, critical assemblies, and nuclear reactors are described, as well as the techniques of radiation measurements necessary to perform these experiments. Previously dispersed data from government reports, journal articles, and specialized monographs are codified. Original information drawn from the author's experience is included, especially on the pulsed source technique, spectrum measurements, research reactors, and exponential assemblies. The book provides the essential information for carrying out, analyzing, and understanding the experiments. Theory is kept to a minimum. Emphasis is placed on the physics of the situation, and the importance of estimating error as well as the mean value of a measured quantity

  1. Diagnostics for hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hybrid Reactor(HR) can be considered an attractive actinide-burner or a fusion assisted transmutation for destruction of transuranic(TRU) nuclear waste. The hybrid reactor has two important subsystems: the tokamak neutron source and the blanket which includes a fuel zone where the TRU are placed and a tritium breeding zone. The diagnostic system for a HR must be as simple and robust as possible to monitor and control the plasma scenario, guarantee the protection of the machine and monitor the transmutation.

  2. Perspectives on reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course

  3. Clinch River Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mr. Baron says the administration's effort to terminate the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) project is symptomatic; they have also placed restrictions on fusion, coal, solar, and other areas of energy development in which technological advances are held back in order to force conservation. Because the breeder reactor, unlike solar and fusion energy, is both economically and technically feasible, a demonstration plant is needed. The contentions that the CRBR design is obsolete, that its proposed size is inappropriate, or that plutonium can be diverted for weapons proliferation are argued to be invalid. Failure to complete the CRBR will have both economic and national security repercussions

  4. Netherlands Interuniversity Reactor Institut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the annual report of the Interuniversity Reactor Institute in the Netherlands for the Academic Year 1977-78. Activities of the general committee, the daily committee and the scientific advice board are presented. Detailed reports of the scientific studies performed are given under five subjects - radiation physics, reactor physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry and radiation hygiene and dosimetry. Summarised reports of the various industrial groups are also presented. Training and education, publications and reports, courses, visits and cooperation with other institutes in the area of scientific research are mentioned. (C.F.)

  5. Reactor Materials Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of SCK-CEN's Reactor Materials Research Department for 2001 are summarised. The objectives of the department are: (1) to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials used in nuclear power industry; (2) to conduct research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material behaviour under or after irradiation; (3) to contribute to the interpretation, the modelling of the material behaviour and to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (2) nuclear fuel; and (3) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel

  6. Perspectives on reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  7. Reactor neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of requirements and possibilities for experimental neutron spectrum determination during the reactor pressure vessel surveil lance programme is given. Fast neutron spectrum and neutron dose rate were measured in the Fast neutron irradiation facility of our TRIGA reactor. It was shown that the facility can be used for calibration of neutron dosimeters and for irradiation of samples sensitive to neutron radiation. The investigation of the unfolding algorithm ITER was continued. Based on this investigations are two specialized unfolding program packages ITERAD and ITERGS written this year. They are able to unfold data from activation detectors and NaI(T1) gamma spectrometer respectively

  8. Decay of reactor neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, P.

    1984-01-01

    We consider the decay of massive neutrinos which couple to electrons and are, therefore, produced in nuclear reactors. Lifetime limits for the γ and electron-positron decay modes of these neutrinos are deduced from the experimental limit on the singles count rate in the detector used to study neutrino oscillations at the Gösgen reactor. The dominantly coupled neutrinos are light, and their invariant-lifetime limit tc.m. / mν is 1-3 sec/eV. The subdominantly coupled heavy neutrinos with mass 1...

  9. Small mirror fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic requirements for the pilot plants are that they produce a net product and that they have a potential for commercial upgrade. We have investigated a small standard mirror fusion-fission hybrid, a two-component tandem mirror hybrid, and two versions of a field-reversed mirror fusion reactor--one a steady state, single cell reactor with a neutral beam-sustained plasma, the other a moving ring field-reversed mirror where the plasma passes through a reaction chamber with no energy addition

  10. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2002-04-01

    The activities of SCK-CEN's Reactor Materials Research Department for 2001 are summarised. The objectives of the department are: (1) to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials used in nuclear power industry; (2) to conduct research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material behaviour under or after irradiation; (3) to contribute to the interpretation, the modelling of the material behaviour and to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (2) nuclear fuel; and (3) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel.

  11. Nuclear reactor constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor construction comprising a reactor core submerged in a pool of liquid metal coolant in a primary vessel which is suspended from the roof structure of a containment vault. Control rods supported from the roof structure are insertable in the core which is carried on a support structure from the wall of the primary vessel. To prevent excessive relaxation of the support structure whereby the control rods would be displaced relative to the core, the support structure incorporates a normally inactive secondary structure designed to become effective in bracing the primary structure against further relaxation beyond a predetermined limit. (author)

  12. Reactor PIK construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction work at the 100 MW researches reactor PIK in year 2002 was in progress. The main activity was concentrated on mechanical, ventilation and electrical equipment. Some systems and subsystems are under adjustment. Hydraulic driving gear for beam shutters are finished in installation, rinsing, and adjusting. Regulating rods test assembling was done. On the critical assembly the first reactor fueling was tested to evaluate the starting neutron source intensity and a sufficiency of existing control and instrument board. Mainline of the PIK facility design and neutron parameters are presented. (author)

  13. Reactor pressure vessel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the popularity of the Agencies report 'Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels' of 1975, it was decided that another report on this broad subject would be of use. In this report, background and contemporary views on specially identified areas of the subject are considered as self-contained chapters, written by experts. Chapter 3 offers a detailed treatment of the selection criteria and properties of reactor pressure vessel materials. The main attention is directed towards steel and ingot making and the subsequent material processing

  14. Reactor gamma spectrometry: status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current work is described for Compton Recoil Gamma-Ray Spectrometry including developments in experimental technique as well as recent reactor spectrometry measurements. The current status of the method is described concerning gamma spectromoetry probe design and response characteristics. Emphasis is given to gamma spectrometry work in US LWR and BR programs. Gamma spectrometry in BR environments are outlined by focussing on start-up plans for the Fast Test Reactor (FTR). Gamma spectrometry results are presented for a LWR pressure vessel mockup in the Poolside Critical Assembly (PCA) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  15. Fusion Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised

  16. Space-time reactor kinetics for heterogeneous reactor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to formulate time dependent diffusion equation based on Feinberg-Galanin theory in the from analogue to the classical reactor kinetic equation. Parameters of these equations could be calculated using the existing codes for static reactor calculation based on the heterogeneous reactor theory. The obtained kinetic equation could be analogues in form to the nodal kinetic equation. Space-time distribution of neutron flux in the reactor can be obtained by solving these equations using standard methods

  17. Risk prevention during reactor shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During reactor shutdown potential risks are issued of a number of maintenance operations. In this text we analyse these operations and give the modifications of technical specifications to ameliorate the reactor safety. 4 figs

  18. New fast-reactor approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design parameters for a 1000 MW LMFBR type reactor are presented. The design requires the multiple primary coolant pumps and heat exchangers to be located around the core within the reactor vessel

  19. Reactor Engineering Department annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities in the Department of Reactor Engineering in fiscal 1982 are described. The work of the Department is closely related to development of multipurpose Very High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor and Fusion Reactor, and development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. Since fiscal 1982, Systematic research and development work on safeguards technology has been added to the activities of the Department. Contents of the report are achievements in fields such as nuclear data and group constants, theoretical method and code development, integral experiment and analysis, fusion neutronics, shielding, reactor and nuclear instrumentation, reactor control and diagnosis, and safeguards technology, and activities of the Committee on Reactor Physics. (author)

  20. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.