Sample records for cairo wwr-s reactor

  1. Teaching in Cairo (United States)

    Jones, Gary H.


    In this article, the author shares his teaching experience at Sadat Academy--a four-year business college located in Cairo, Egypt--where he taught business ethics and organizational behavior to 240 students. He also describes his students' behavior and how he was warmly welcomed by the people despite the fact the he is an American.

  2. Cairo: repackaging population control. (United States)

    Simons, H


    Aid agencies, charities, and other nongovernmental organizations once denounced population control programs as racist interference in the third world. Yet, at the United Nations Conference on Population and Development in Cairo last September, these same organizations endorsed very similar ideas. The U.N. can now claim that even its fiercest critics not only have muted their criticism of population control programs but now positively endorse them. Over the last 30 years, population control has been consciously repackaged by the U.S. establishment. The image of population control has changed from being overtly anti-third world to being about giving the people of the third world--especially women--basic rights in family planning. Wrapped up in the language of women's empowerment and environmentalism, the establishment's old arguments about there being too many nonwhite babies in the world, have, unfortunately, won the day.

  3. Probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis for Cairo, Egypt (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan


    Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the sixteenth largest metropolitan area in the world. It was founded in the tenth century (969 ad) and is 1046 years old. It has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life. Therefore, the earthquake risk assessment for Cairo has a great importance. The present work aims to analysis the earthquake hazard of Cairo as a key input's element for the risk assessment. The regional seismotectonics setting shows that Cairo could be affected by both far- and near-field seismic sources. The seismic hazard of Cairo has been estimated using the probabilistic seismic hazard approach. The logic tree frame work was used during the calculations. Epistemic uncertainties were considered into account by using alternative seismotectonics models and alternative ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard values have been estimated within a grid of 0.1° × 0.1 ° spacing for all of Cairo's districts at different spectral periods and four return periods (224, 615, 1230, and 4745 years). Moreover, the uniform hazard spectra have been calculated at the same return periods. The pattern of the contour maps show that the highest values of the peak ground acceleration is concentrated in the eastern zone's districts (e.g., El Nozha) and the lowest values at the northern and western zone's districts (e.g., El Sharabiya and El Khalifa).

  4. Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva


    This standard applies to the following types of reactors: shunt reactors, current-limiting reactors including neutral-earthing reactors, damping reactors, tuning (filter) reactors, earthing transformers (neutral couplers), arc-suppression reactors, smoothing reactors, with the exception of the following reactors: small reactors with a rating generally less than 2 kvar single-phase and 10 kvar three-phase, reactors for special purposes such as high-frequency line traps or reactors mounted on rolling stock.

  5. Update earthquake risk assessment in Cairo, Egypt (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan


    The Cairo earthquake (12 October 1992; m b = 5.8) is still and after 25 years one of the most painful events and is dug into the Egyptians memory. This is not due to the strength of the earthquake but due to the accompanied losses and damages (561 dead; 10,000 injured and 3000 families lost their homes). Nowadays, the most frequent and important question that should rise is "what if this earthquake is repeated today." In this study, we simulate the same size earthquake (12 October 1992) ground motion shaking and the consequent social-economic impacts in terms of losses and damages. Seismic hazard, earthquake catalogs, soil types, demographics, and building inventories were integrated into HAZUS-MH to produce a sound earthquake risk assessment for Cairo including economic and social losses. Generally, the earthquake risk assessment clearly indicates that "the losses and damages may be increased twice or three times" in Cairo compared to the 1992 earthquake. The earthquake risk profile reveals that five districts (Al-Sahel, El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr sharq) lie in high seismic risks, and three districts (Manshiyat Naser, El-Waily, and Wassat (center)) are in low seismic risk level. Moreover, the building damage estimations reflect that Gharb is the highest vulnerable district. The analysis shows that the Cairo urban area faces high risk. Deteriorating buildings and infrastructure make the city particularly vulnerable to earthquake risks. For instance, more than 90 % of the estimated buildings damages are concentrated within the most densely populated (El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr Gharb) districts. Moreover, about 75 % of casualties are in the same districts. Actually, an earthquake risk assessment for Cairo represents a crucial application of the HAZUS earthquake loss estimation model for risk management. Finally, for mitigation, risk reduction, and to improve the seismic performance of structures and assure life safety

  6. Seismic hazard assessments at Islamic Cairo, Egypt (United States)

    Khalil, A. E.; Deif, A.; Abdel Hafiez, H. E.


    Islamic Cairo is one of the important Islamic monumental complexes in Egypt, near the center of present-day metropolitan Cairo. The age of these buildings is up to one thousand years. Unfortunately, many of the buildings are suffering from huge mishandling that may lead to mass damage. Many buildings and masjids were partially and totally collapsed because of 12th October 1992 Cairo earthquake that took place at some 25 km from the study area with a magnitude Mw = 5.8. Henceforth, potential damage assessments there are compulsory. The deterministic and probabilistic techniques were used to predict the expected future large earthquakes' strong-motion characteristics in the study area. The current study started with compiling the available studies concerned with the distribution of the seismogenic sources and earthquake catalogs. The deterministic method is used to provide a description of the largest earthquake effect on the area of interest, while the probabilistic method, on the other hand, is used to define the uniform hazard curves at three time periods 475, 950, 2475 years. Both deterministic and probabilistic results were obtained for bedrock conditions and the resulted hazard levels were deaggregated to identify the contribution of each seismic source to the total hazard. Moreover, the results obtained show that the expected seismic activities combined with the present situation of the buildings pose high alert to rescue both the cultural heritage and expected human losses.

  7. en cementos el Cairo S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como finalidad difundir los estudios de repetibilidad y reproducibilidad de la medida, conocidos como Estudios R&R, a partir del diseño experimental. Con su aplicación se busca identificar y disminuir la variabilidad presente en las mediciones de los ensayos que se realizan en los laboratorios de control de calidad. La efectividad de este tipo de estudios radica principalmente en el control que se haga de las variables que intervienen en los procesos de medición, estas variables son el medio ambiente en que son desarrolladas, el estado de los equipos e implementos utilizados, la capacitación que tiene el operario, el uso de material homogéneo y la aplicación de un método normalizado. El artículo describe una secuencia ordenada de los pasos que se deben seguir antes y durante la realización de un Estudio R&R, además muestra la aplicación de esta metodología en la empresa Cementos El Cairo, donde fueron realizadas dos corridas del método a la prueba finura de cemento, en la primera se identifica la variabilidad presente en los ensayos, de este primer acercamiento surgen algunos ajustes que son implementados rápidamente por la empresa y con el afán de mejorar estos procesos es planeada la segunda corrida, terminado este segundo ciclo se obtiene, aunque en poca proporción, una variabilidad menor a la del primer ciclo.

  8. Reactor (United States)

    Evans, Robert M.


    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  9. Mismatch Repair Status and BRAF Mutation Status in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients: A Pooled Analysis of the CAIRO, CAIRO2, COIN, and FOCUS Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venderbosch, S.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Maughan, T.S.; Smith, C.G.; Cheadle, J.P.; Fisher, D.; Kaplan, R.; Quirke, P.; Seymour, M.T.; Richman, S.D.; Meijer, G.A.; Ylstra, B.; Heideman, D.A.; Haan, A.F.J. de; Punt, C.J.A.; Koopman, M.


    PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and prognostic value of mismatch repair (MMR) status and its relation to BRAF mutation (BRAF(MT)) status in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A pooled analysis of four phase III studies in first-line treatment of mCRC (CAIRO, CAIRO2, COIN,

  10. Annual Patterns of Atmospheric Pollutions and Episodes over Cairo Egypt

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    Y. Aboel Fetouh


    Full Text Available The Nile Delta major cities, particularly Cairo, experienced stagnant air pollution episodes, known as Black Cloud, every year over the past decade during autumn. Low-elevated thermal inversion layers play a crucial role in intensifying pollution impacts. Carbon monoxide, ozone, atmospheric temperature, water vapor, and methane measurements from the tropospheric emission spectrometer (TES on board the Aura have been used to assess the dominant component below the inversion layer. In this study, time series analysis, autocorrelations, and cross correlations are performed to gain a better understanding of the connections between those parameters and their local effect. Satellite-based data were obtained for the years 2005–2010. The parameters mentioned were investigated throughout the whole year in order to study the possible episodes that take place in addition to their change from year to year. Ozone and carbon monoxide were the two major indicators to the most basic episodes that occur over Cairo and the Delta region.



    Pliez, Olivier


    International audience; What link can be established between Tripoli, capital of the former rogue state of Libya, the small Egyptian border town of Salloum, inhabited by Bedouins, the Egyptian metropolis of Cairo, and Yiwu, a market city three hours’ drive from Shanghai? At first glance, the question may seem like a guessing game, but in fact it leads geographers, anthropologists, and other social scientists to face the increasing difficulty of working out the unexpected and often invisible c...

  12. Seroprevalence of HCV among Cairo University students in Egypt. (United States)

    Esmat, Gamal; Raziky, Maissa El; Nabeel, Mohammed M; Maher, Rabab; Zakaria, Zeinab


    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly prevalent in Egypt. This work aimed at determining the seroprevalence of HCV among Cairo University students. The present study included 3,000 students from Cairo University, Egypt. Blood sample was obtained from each participant to be tested for HCV seromarker. HCV RNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out for those with positive anti-HCV. Overall prevalence rate of HCV antibody (anti-HCV) was 4.6%. It showed that the prevalence was relatively higher among females (86/1660; 5.2%) while males (51/1340; 3.8%) with no significant difference. PCR for HCV RNA was detected in 31.4% of the HCV antibody positive subjects (43/137). Which showed statistical significant difference between males (29/51) and females (14/86) at P = 0.001. Despite the prevalence rate reported in the present study was similar to anti-HCV prevalence among persons in the same age group, confirmed that HCV infection is detected among Cairo University students. J. Med. Virol. 88:1384-1387, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Reverse Gear: Cairo's Dependence on a Disappearing Paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malcolm Potts; Martha Campbell


    In the 1960s and 1970 s, attention was focused on rapid population growth and large scale family planning programs were launched in many developing countries.However, the paradigm for understanding fertility decline assumed that exogenous socioeconomic changes were necessary to reduce family size. By the mid-1990s, the standard model of the demographic transition had been all but discarded, partly there were numerous country experiences inconsistent with the model. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) emphasized women's broader needs, which were important but were promoted by reducing attention to population and the need for family planning. The timing of this shift was peculiar, because the Cairo proponents were depending on an already discredited model of reproductive behavior. The policy shift at Cairo undermined the political coalition that had supported international family planning since the 1960s. As a result of declining financial support, the health of women has deteriorated seriously in the past decade. Meantime,the countries that have been successful in lifting unprecedented numbers of people out of abject poverty were acting independently of the Cairo consensus.

  14. Darfur Refugees in Cairo: Mental Health and Interpersonal Conflict in the Aftermath of Genocide (United States)

    Meffert, Susan M.; Marmar, Charles R.


    Hundreds of thousands of Darfur people affected by the Sudanese genocide have fled to Cairo, Egypt, in search of assistance. Collaborating with Africa and Middle East Refugee Assistance (AMERA), the authors conducted a mental health care needs assessment among Darfur refugees in Cairo. Information was collected using individual and focus group…

  15. The Vatican at the United Nations. Cairo + 5. (United States)

    Kissling, F


    During the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, a remarkable consensus on population and development was forged and a Programme of Action was issued. With its permanent observer status among governments at the UN, the Vatican had attempted to block such a worldwide consensus on a new structure for population and development programs, based on women's empowerment, universal and voluntary access to contraception, and improved reproductive health for all. After 5 years of implementing the Cairo Programme of Action, the UN conducted a review and appraisal of its implementation, ending with a final preparatory meeting and a Special Session of the UN General Assembly. During the review process and the meeting, the Vatican remained active but fell short, on the whole, of thwarting progress. The Vatican delegation was made up of five individuals--two women and three men, including two priests. Almost all their interventions were focused on the goal of obstructing progressive understanding of what would be necessary if the Programme of Action were to be fully and fairly implemented. This included the provision of emergency contraception to refugees; the definition of human rights; addressing unsafe abortion as a major public health issue; the provision of condoms for protection against HIV/AIDS; adolescent rights to privacy and confidentiality; and the inclusion of sex education in school curricula.

  16. Intermediate evaluation of USAID/Cairo energy policy planning project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbanks, T.J.; Wright, S.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Barron, W.F. (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong)); Kamel, A.M. (Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt)); Santiago, H.T. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))


    Three years ago, a team from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities, supplemented by an expert from the US Department of Energy and a senior Egyptian energy professional, carried out what was termed an intermediate evaluation'' of a major energy policy project in Egypt. Supported by USAID/Cairo, the project had concentrated on developing and strengthening an Organization for Energy Planning (OEP) within the Government of India, and it was actually scheduled to end less than a year after this evaluation. The evaluation was submitted to USAID/Cairo and circulated elsewhere in the US Agency for International Development and the Government of Egypt as an internal report. Over the next several years, the USAID energy planning project ended and the functions performed by OEP were merged with planning capabilities in the electric power sector. Now that the major issues addressed by the evaluation report have been resolved, we are making it available to a broader audience as a contribution to the general literature on development project evaluation and institution-building.

  17. Intermediate evaluation of USAID/Cairo energy policy planning project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbanks, T.J.; Wright, S.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Barron, W.F. [Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong); Kamel, A.M. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt); Santiago, H.T. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)


    Three years ago, a team from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities, supplemented by an expert from the US Department of Energy and a senior Egyptian energy professional, carried out what was termed an ``intermediate evaluation`` of a major energy policy project in Egypt. Supported by USAID/Cairo, the project had concentrated on developing and strengthening an Organization for Energy Planning (OEP) within the Government of India, and it was actually scheduled to end less than a year after this evaluation. The evaluation was submitted to USAID/Cairo and circulated elsewhere in the US Agency for International Development and the Government of Egypt as an internal report. Over the next several years, the USAID energy planning project ended and the functions performed by OEP were merged with planning capabilities in the electric power sector. Now that the major issues addressed by the evaluation report have been resolved, we are making it available to a broader audience as a contribution to the general literature on development project evaluation and institution-building.

  18. A Parametric Urban Design Approach to Urban Development in Cairo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai


    -designer professionals can provide input and evaluate the spatial effects instantly in the context of participatory design processes. Cairo, Egypt, currently experiences rapid urban growth, while formal urban planning is absent in large parts, resulting in large-scale informal and unplanned development. A parametric...... in the course of participatory processes, as the consequences of changing different parameters cannot easily be evaluated by means of traditional design tools. In recent years, new parametric design tools have opened up new possibilities for dynamic scenario building in urban design. By way of a parametric...... design approach, different urban design parameters can be modified and new urban space scenarios can be rendered three-dimensionally in almost real time. In short, this is parametric urban design. It opens up completely new possibilities for participatory design, as both lay stakeholders and non...

  19. Aerosol properties and associated radiative effects over Cairo (Egypt) (United States)

    El-Metwally, M.; Alfaro, S. C.; Wahab, M. M. Abdel; Favez, O.; Mohamed, Z.; Chatenet, B.


    Cairo is one of the largest megacities in the World and the particle load of its atmosphere is known to be particularly important. In this work we aim at assessing the temporal variability of the aerosol's characteristics and the magnitude of its impacts on the transfer of solar radiation. For this we use the level 2 quality assured products obtained by inversion of the instantaneous AERONET sunphotometer measurements performed in Cairo during the Cairo Aerosol CHaracterization Experiment (CACHE), which lasted from the end of October 2004 to the end of March 2006. The analysis of the temporal variation of the aerosol's optical depth (AOD) and spectral dependence suggests that the aerosol is generally a mixture of at least 3 main components differing in composition and size. This is confirmed by the detailed analysis of the monthly-averaged size distributions and associated optical properties (single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter). The components of the aerosol are found to be 1) a highly absorbing background aerosol produced by daily activities (traffic, industry), 2) an additional, 'pollution' component produced by the burning of agricultural wastes in the Nile delta, and 3) a coarse desert dust component. In July, an enhancement of the accumulation mode is observed due to the atmospheric stability favoring its building up and possibly to secondary aerosols being produced by active photochemistry. More generally, the time variability of the aerosol's characteristics is due to the combined effects of meteorological factors and seasonal production processes. Because of the large values of the AOD achieved during the desert dust and biomass burning episodes, the instantaneous aerosol radiative forcing (RF) at both the top (TOA) and bottom (BOA) of the atmosphere is maximal during these events. For instance, during the desert dust storm of April 8, 2005 RF BOA, RF TOA, and the corresponding atmospheric heating rate peaked at - 161.7 W/m 2, - 65.8 W/m 2

  20. [Adventures of the feminist movement on the road to Cairo]. (United States)

    Correa, S; Matamala, M; Palomino, N; Ramos, S


    The meeting of the health network of Latin American and Caribbean women was held in July 1993 and focused on strategies and issues of reproductive health and rights of women on the way to the Cairo conference in 1994. The complexity of the debate in the area of population politics was indicated by the pronatalist views expressed by the Vatican and Islam fundamentalism, the arguments and beliefs of the ecologists, the dichotomy of the North-South confrontation, and the tension between Western modernity and tradition. Several limitations also hamstrung feminists: with regard to fertility, the preoccupation with reproduction-sexuality-motherhood; advocation of the demographic transition in spite of pronatalist policies; and the absence of inefficiency of services. Tension within the feminist movement also surfaced with respect to tools used for exercising reproductive rights, reproductive decisions as permitted by technology, the radical division between masculine and feminine in feminist analysis, and false option between separatism and integration in political strategies. The limitations and paralyzing tension which frustrate the feminist debate about population can be transformed into fertile undertakings by articulating long-term projects; redefining the concepts of population and of population policies with regard to fertility and reproductive rights; by constructing the mechanisms of consensus within the movement (development of a common agenda); by defining the desirable alliances, possible alliances, and the necessary negotiations; and by following up the Cairo Conference with a Plan of Action and other meetings as the upcoming session on social development in Copenhagen in 1995 and the Conference on Women and Development in Beijing in 1995.

  1. Psychiatric Morbidity among a Sample of Orphanage Children in Cairo

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    Mohamed A. EL Koumi


    Full Text Available Objective. This study identifies the prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems and the associated factors in orphanage children. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in three private orphanages in Cairo. Two hundred sixty-five children of ages ranging from 6 to 12 years living in three different orphanages care systems were included in the study. A sociodemographic information form and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL were used. Children were clinically interviewed and psychiatric disorders were identified. Diagnoses were done according to the manual for diagnosis and statistics of mental disorder fourth version (DSMIV. A written formal consent from the director of social solidarity was obtained before inclusion in the study. Results. The prevalence of behavioral disturbances was 64.53% among those in institutional care and the most prominent psychiatric disorders were nocturnal enuresis (23.3%, attention deficit hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD (19.62%, oppositional defiant disorder (17.36%. Age at first admission, causes of receiving institutional care, and moves 2 or more times between institutions were significantly associated with an increased risk of behavioral and emotional problems. Conclusion. Our study showed that children living in institutions are prone to suffer from psychiatric disorders. Stability of the caregiver acts as a protective variable.

  2. Acanthamoeba species in Swimming Pools of Cairo, Egypt.

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    Ahmad Al-Herrawy


    Full Text Available The free-living amoebae Acanthamoeba spp. have been recognized as etiologic agents of amoebic encephalitis, keratitis, otitis, lung lesions and other skin infections mainly in immuno-compromised individuals. The purpose of this study is to detect the presence of Acanthamoeba in swimming pools in Egypt using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR method.Water samples were collected from 10 different swimming pools in Cairo, Egypt. Samples were cultured on non-nutrient agar for the detection of Acanthamoeba isolates that were confirmed by PCR amplification using genus specific primers. The molecularly confirmed Acanthamoeba isolates were morphologically identified to the species level.Members of genus Acanthamoeba were detected in 49.2% of the examined swimming-pool water samples. Morphologically, six Acanthamoeba species were isolated from the examined swimming pool water namely A. polyphaga, A.castellanii, A. rhysodes, A. mauritaniensis, A. royreba and A. triangularis. All the identified species of Acanthamoeba were molecularly confirmed to be related to the genus Acanthamoeba.The isolated species of Acanthamoeba could provoke variable degrees of infections to the swimmers. The culture method is cheaper and easier than PCR techniques that are faster for the detection of free-living amoebae.

  3. Achieving the Cairo Conference (ICPD) goal for youth in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Rahman, Laila; Rob, Ubaidur; Bhuiya, Ismat; Khan, M E; Islam, Md Rafiqul

    Sexual and reproductive health education is not yet formally introduced in Bangladesh without which the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo's goal to ensure young people's right to access to such information and services will remain unfulfilled. The Population Council provided technical assistance to a governmental department to pilot youth reproductive health education. Study findings from the pre- and posttests of 379 matched respondents revealed significant changes in knowledge, attitudes, and life-skills. Knowledge about long-term contraceptives and skills on negotiating safe sex improved significantly by 63% and 26%, respectively. Youths who do not consider menstruation as a disease nearly doubled, and misunderstandings about the mother's role in sex determination of a child were significantly dispelled. Decisions not to accompany friends in visiting sex workers and to use condoms, ignoring friends' disapproval, were increased over 18%. Over 98% of students reported that teachers discussed condoms, while only 12% alleged unfriendly behavior. Findings motivated the department to scale up the reproductive health curriculum.

  4. Mucormycosis in Cairo, Egypt: review of 10 reported cases. (United States)

    Zaki, Sherif M; Elkholy, Iman M; Elkady, Nadia A; Abdel-Ghany, Khayria


    We report on 10 cases of mucormycosis, as defined by The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) standards of invasive fungal diseases, among patients with a recent history of neutropenia, prolonged use of corticosteroids and treatment with immunosuppressants. They were all observed at the Ain Shams University Specialized Hospital in Cairo, Egypt, during the year 2010. These cases were categorized as 50% proven and 50% probable, with none considered to be possible mucormycosis. The median age of the patients discussed in this report was 50 years (range 22-68 years), of which 80% were male and 20% were female. Uncontrolled diabetes with ketoacidosis was noted in 60% of cases, while 40% of the patients had undergone liver transplantations. Pulmonary mucormycosis was the predominant presentation as it was noted in 80% of cases, but there was only 20% sinus involvement. Members of the genus Lichtheimia were the most common etiologic agents (40% of all cases), whereas Rhizopus ssp. were recovered from 30% of cases, Syncephalastrum spp. in 20%, and 10% of patients were infected with Rhizomucor. Liposomal formulation of amphotericin B (LAMB) was successfully used to treat all the cases described in this report. We concluded that the incidence of mucormycosis was relatively high during the study period in this one-center study and that additional studies looking into the diagnosis and the control of mucormycosis in Egypt are required.

  5. Countdown to Cairo: U.S. consumption weighs in. (United States)


    Population pressures in the industrialized world affect long-term sustainability. The United States' population comprises only 5% of the world's total, yet it consumes 25% of the world's commercial energy, 27% of the world's aluminum, and over 20% of its tin, copper, and lead. Americans produce twice as much waste per person as most Europeans, and many times more than people in the developing world. Sustainable development is a central theme of the delegates to the UN's Cairo conference on population and development, and efforts to mitigate excessive resource use will undoubtedly be a topic. Delegates are searching for programs to help eradicate poverty; empower and advance women in education, employment, and health; and stabilize population growth. The adoption of policies to alter unsustainable and environmentally damaging patterns of consumption will be equally important. In April, 1994, President Clinton's Council on Sustainable Development set up a special task force to explore US population and consumption issues. US population pressures are becoming ever more visible: increasing traffic congestion, mounting garbage, air pollution, and severe water shortages. The US population, currently at 260 million, is the third highest in the world. The nation adds about 3 million to its population every year. The Census Bureau projects that by the year 2000, the population will reach 275 million. The national total fertility rate has risen to 2.1. In the industrialized world, only Iceland and Ireland, both at 2.2, are higher. The average American's energy use is equivalent to the consumption of 3 Japanese, 6 Mexicans, 12 Chinese, 33 Indians, 147 Bangladeshis, 281 Tanzanians, or 422 Ethiopians. It is uncertain whether metropolitan areas can meet the housing, health, education, and employment needs of millions more Americans. Policies in industrialized nations that reduce pollution and excessive resource use and slow population growth are needed to ensure a quality future

  6. Analytical Characterization of Rococo Paintings in Egypt: Preliminary Results from El-Gawhara Palace at Cairo




    El-Gawhara palace (1813–1814 AD) is situated south of the Mosque of Muhammad Ali in the Cairo Citadel. This palace is an important example of the best early 19th century rococo decorations in Egypt. The present study reports some of the results obtained from the application of different analytical techniques to characterize some rococo paintings at El-Gawhara palace at Cairo, Egypt. The characterization of the studied paintings was carried out by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning ele...

  7. A New Approach: The Cairo Conference. Focus: Education, Population, and Development. (United States)

    Jolis, Cilla Ungerth, Ed.


    This bulletin provides news on the follow-up to the World Conference on Education for All (Jomtien, Thailand, 1990) at which 155 countries pledged to provide education for all children and adults and massively reduce illiteracy before the year 2000. This bulletin focuses on the September 1994 Cairo (Egypt) Population Conference and the issues of…

  8. Pattern of antibiotic abuse – a population based study in Cairo

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    Ahmed Abdel Gawad Elmasry


    Conclusion: This study showed high rates of antibiotic abuse among Cairo population. This needs to be guided through different strategies. An easy access to an affordable health care service with a considerable quality is the first step side by side with establishing a national antibiotic policy to be followed by all healthcare workers.

  9. International Agendas and Local Manifestations: Universities in Cairo, Beirut and Jerusalem after World War I (United States)

    Huber, Valeska


    This article traces the influence of international networks in three Middle Eastern universities from the 1920s onwards: the American University of Beirut, the American University in Cairo and the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. It shows how American, internationalist, imperial and religious actors competed and how the universities were placed in…

  10. 78 FR 43852 - Correction for the Cairo, IL and Belmond, IA Areas (United States)


    ... published on December 28, 2012 in FR Doc. 2012-76454, in the first column, the ``Areas Open for Designation..., Lake County, Tennessee. Correction In the Federal Register Notice published on December 28, 2012 in FR... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Correction for the Cairo, IL and Belmond,...

  11. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John


    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  12. Changes in the Urban Spatial Structure of the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area, Egypt (United States)

    Hassan, A. A. M.


    Since the 1980s, rapid population growth and urbanization have become issues in big cities like Greater Cairo (GC). As a consequence of explosive growth, the living conditions of Cairo Metropolis deteriorate. Development trends of the last twenty years have increased general wealth and modernization, this sets out how GC megacity is creating an increased demand for land combined with environmental degradation. Planning a sustainable development of mega cities requires understanding of physical change of the main environmental drivers. However, this talk will be concerned with monitoring and analysis of dynamic environment changes to capture and refine the urban patterns in Greater Cairo Metropolis on the basis of pixel-based and object-based classifications. Satellite images (TM, ETM+, & Spot) of different dates and resolutions, and ground truth data collected from available maps, field observation, and personal experience were used to execute the image segmentation analysis to reveal urban patterns and expansions. By using Erdas Imagine, and eCognition Developer software, land use/land cover image classifications were constructed, which detect regimes and trends in land changes. Two main types of urban patterns could be detected (passing from centre to periphery). The first one is informal and the second one is formal building. The informal type mainly comprises slums and urban encroachment on arable land. The formal one mostly consists of new cities and legal houses. Moreover, a rate of land cover changes in Greater Cairo during the last three decades could be described as a rapid progression. In contrast, the combination between field observations and classification analyses showed that the high urban densities based on classification of satellite images does not reflect the real densities of population in urban areas in Greater Cairo.

  13. 75 FR 52924 - Designation for the Amarillo, TX; Cairo, IL; State of Louisiana; State of North Carolina; Belmond... (United States)


    ... information regarding the designation criteria in section 7(f)(l) of the USGSA (7 U.S.C. 79(f)) and determined... Headquarters location and telephone start end Amarillo Amarillo, TX (806-372-2152)........ 10/1/2010 9/30/2013 Additional Location: Guymon, OK.... Cairo Cairo, IL (618-734-1316) 10/1/2010 9/30/2013 Louisiana Baton...

  14. Analytical Characterization of Rococo Paintings in Egypt: Preliminary Results from El-Gawhara Palace at Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma REFAAT


    Full Text Available El-Gawhara palace (1813–1814 AD is situated south of the Mosque of Muhammad Ali in the Cairo Citadel. This palace is an important example of the best early 19th century rococo decorations in Egypt. The present study reports some of the results obtained from the application of different analytical techniques to characterize some rococo paintings at El-Gawhara palace at Cairo, Egypt. The characterization of the studied paintings was carried out by means of optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT−IR. The obtained results allowed the identification of the chemical composition, structure and the painting technique employed in these paintings. This methodology reveals some useful information on some rococo paintings dating back to the 19th century in Egypt.

  15. Detection of enteropathogens in fatal and potentially fatal diarrhea in Cairo, Egypt.


    Shukry, S; Zaki, A. M.; DuPont, H L; Shoukry, I; el Tagi, M; Hamed, Z


    A 1-year study of the etiology of acute diarrhea complicated by severe (10%) dehydration, active bleeding, shock and cardiovascular collapse, pneumonia, acute renal failure, or seizures in infants under 18 months of age was performed in Cairo, Egypt. Of 145 infants, 19 (13%) died or left the hospital moribund; the remaining 126 patients were classified as having potentially fatal illness. A variety of enteropathogens were identified with approximately equal frequency in the fatal and nonfatal...

  16. 开罗夜未眠%SLEEPLESS iN CaiRo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ During the last few years,my neighborhood in Cairo has experienced such an influx of refugees from the Iraq war that longtime residents have begun,with a mixture of affection and unease,to call it New Baghdad.Two dialects of Arabic are spoken in the streets,and there is Iraqi flatbread for sale in the local market.The family living in the apartment upstairs came to Egypt from Iraq nine months ago.

  17. Difficult airway management patterns among anesthesiologists practicing in Cairo University Hospitals

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    Neamat I. Abdel rahman


    Conclusion: The practice of anesthesiologists in Cairo university hospitals is close to the recommendations of the ASA guidelines for management of difficult airway. There is increased skills in fiberoptic bronchoscopes and SGA with increased frequency of difficult airway managements training courses; however, they need to improve their skills in awake fiberoptic intubations technique and they need to be trained on invasive airway management access to close the discrepancy between their theoretical choices in different situations and their actual skills.

  18. Development and validation of a lead emission inventory for the Greater Cairo area

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    Zeinab Safar


    Full Text Available Studies that investigate the environmental health risks to Cairo residents invariably conclude that lead is one of the area’s major health hazards. The Cairo Air Improvement Project (CAIP, which was implemented by a team led by Chemonics International, funded by USAID in partnership with the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA, started developing a lead emission inventory for the greater Cairo (GC area in 1998. The inventory contains a list by major source of the annual lead emissions in the GC area. Uses of the inventory and associated database include developing effective regulatory and control strategies, assessing emissions trends, and conducting modeling exercises. This paper describes the development of the current lead emissions inventory (1999–2010, along with an approach to develop site specific emission factors and measurements to validate the inventory. This paper discusses the major sources of lead in the GC area, which include lead smelters, Mazout (heavy fuel oil combustion, lead manufacturing batteries factories, copper foundries, and cement factories. Included will be the trend in the lead emissions inventory with regard to the production capacity of each source category. In addition, the lead ambient measurements from 1999 through 2010 are described and compared with the results of Source Attribution Studies (SAS conducted in 1999, 2002, and 2010. Due to EEAA/CAIP efforts, a remarkable decrease in more than 90% in lead emissions was attained for 2007.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia Hassan Wazeri


    Full Text Available Abstract Direct  solar radiation  is considered  the most  important  climatic  element,  which  has direct  and indirect influences on designing buildings and open spaces. In hot arid regions, like Cairo, the main aim is to reduce the heat load in summer, and to maximize it in winter. The aim of the present comparative study is to determine the shaded area and the quantity of direct solar radiation (on 21 June & 21 December fall on walls, floors and openings of three courtyards in traditional Islamic houses in old Cairo. For this purpose a network of three traditional courtyards houses has been selected in old Islamic Cairo. The first is Zaynab Khatun house (built 1468AD, the second is Gamal Al-Din Al-Dahaby (built 1637AD, and the third is Es-Sinnari house (built 1794AD. Key words: courtyards; traditional houses; Islamic Cairo.     Abstrak Radiasi  matahari  langsung  merupakan  elemen  iklim  yang  paling  penting  untuk  dipertimbangkan  dalam perancangan, baik yang memberikan pengaruh langsung maupun tidak langsung pada perancangan bangunan dan ruang terbuka. Di daerah kering dan panas, seperti halnya Cairo, beban panas di musim panas dikurangi dan dimaksimalkan di musim dingin. Tujuan dari penelitian yang menggunakan tiga studi banding ini adalah untuk menentukan daerah yang teduh dan melihat jumlah radiasi matahari langsung pada tanggal 21 Juni dan 21 Desember, yang mengenai  pada dinding, lantai dan bukaan  yang bersumber dari halaman rumah tradisional Islam di kota tua Kairo. Untuk itu, telah dipilih tiga rumah tradisional di Kairo yang memiliki halaman yaitu rumah Zaynab Khatun yang dibangun pada 1468AD, kedua rumah Gamal Al-Din Al-Dahaby yang dibangun pada 1637AD, dan yang ketiga adalah rumah Es-Sinnari yang dibangun pada 1794AD.   Kata kunci: halaman, rumah-rumah tradisional, Islam Kairo.

  20. Antioxidant status in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) living in Cairo, Egypt. (United States)

    Ashour, M; Salem, S; Hassaneen, H; el-Gadban, H; Elwan, N; Awad, A; Basu, T K


    The aim of this study was to examine both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status in a select group of children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), living in Cairo, Egypt. The plasma concentrations of albumin, ceruloplasmin, vitamin C, vitamin E as well as erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and whole blood glutathione peroxidase activities were all significantly decreased in the presence of JRA compared to those without JRA. Unlike these antioxidant factors, vitamin A and its carrier (e.g. retinol binding protein), which have very little or no antioxidant property, remained unaffected by JRA. These results suggest that the children with JRA are subject to oxidative stress.

  1. Impact of industrial wastewater disposal on surface water bodies in Mostord area north Greater Cairo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The studied area (Shoubra El-Khima, Bahteem and Mostorod) lies in the industrial area north of Greater Cairo. The area suffers from several environmental problems such as sewage and disposal of pollutants from the surrounding factories into the surface water pathways in the area. Water samples were collected seasonally from different waterways found in the area, domestic and or industrial liquid wastes from 12 discharge tubes of different factories (as a point source of pollution). Chemical characteristics of different water samples and its heavy metals content were determined using ion coupled plasma technique (ICP). Results indicate that industrial and domestic wastewater samples contain several toxic levels of tested heavy metals (Cd, Co, Pb and Ni) which have a serious impact on surface waterways in the area.Shebin El-Qanater collector drain samples exhibited the highest levels of Cd, Co, Pb and Ni compared to other tested water bodies Mostorod collector drain samples showed the highest levels of Zn and Cu. Industrial effluent samples collected from Cairo Company for Fabric industry had the highest amounts of total Zn Cu, Cd, Co and Pb, while Delta steel company discharges the highest amounts of total Fe and Mn. Al-Ahleya Plastic Company discharges the highest amounts of total-Ni. Generally, it is necessary to impose the environmental laws and its regulation regarding the industrial wastewater treatments and disposals to minimize the risk of the adverse effects of these pollutants.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Moustafa


    Full Text Available The global logistics center for the storage and handling of grain which will be constructed at Damietta port will extremely increase the annual movement of grain through Cairo-Damietta waterway. Therefore, the demand for inland grain bulk ships has increased significantly in the recent years. This paper introduces a procedure to find out the fleet size and optimum characteristics of self-propelled grain bulk ships working between Cairo and Damietta through River Nile. The characteristics of the Cairo–Damietta waterway are investigated to define the constraints on dimensions and speed for such ship type. Also, mathematical model for the objective function was developed considering: powering, voyage, weight, stability and cost calculation. In this research, Specific cost (Sc, cost of transporting one ton of cargo a distance of one kilometre, is considered as the objective function for this optimization process. This optimization problem is handled as a single objective nonlinear constrained optimization problem using a specially developed computer program. Solutions are generated by varying design variables systematically in certain steps. The best of these solutions is then taken as the estimated optimum. Finally, the problem is presented, the main constrains analyzed and the optimum solution shown.

  3. Characterization of Ancient Egyptian Wall Paintings, the Excavations of Cairo University at Saqqara

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    Full Text Available The present study aims at characterizing some Egyptian wall paintings discovered during the excavations of Cairo University (since 1988 and recently in 2005 at Saqqara area in the south of Cairo. There, a number of tombs dating back to the 19th dynasty (c.1293–1185 BC were discovered. The walls of these tombs are carved with bass and raised reliefs and painted with different colours. The characterization of the wall paintings was done by means of optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (backscattered electron mode, BSE equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS, micro XRF spectrometry (µ-XRF, and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD. The analysis of the examined samples indicated that the blue pigment is Egyptian blue (Cuprorivaite, the green pigment is Egyptian green, the red pigment is red ochre, and the yellow pigment is a blended layer of yellow ochre and orpiment (As2S3. The results will help in providing an image concerning some painting materials used during the new Kingdom in ancient Egypt

  4. H Reactor (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  5. Metropolitan food supply : case study Cairo : a quick scan study to enhance fresh food supply and minimize postharvest losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den W.H.A.M.; Boerrigter, H.A.M.


    To investigate options for “Metropolitan food production systems” in Egypt and specifically in the Cairo region, a ‘cold chain quick scan’ is conducted by Wageningen UR post-harvest specialists. The study comprehends a quick scan for market demand, market willingness and a search for trend developme

  6. Occurrence of keratinolytic fungi and related dermatophytes in soils in Cairo, Egypt. (United States)

    Youssef, Y A; el-Din, A A; Hassanein, S M


    120 soil samples collected from various sites of Cairo were processed for the isolation of keratinophilic fungi by "ToKaVa" hair baiting technique. 22 species belonging to 6 genera were isolated viz.: Chrysosporium tropicum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, C. queenslandicum, C. merdarium, C. anamorph of Arthroderma curreyi, C. pannicola, C. lobatum, C. anamorph of Renispora flavissima, C. pseudomerdarium, Microascus mangini, Malbranchea gypsea, Ml. State of Uncicarpus reesii, Ml. State of Coccidioides immitis, Microsporum gypseum, Mr. distortum Mr. audouinii, Mr. fulvum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. terrestre, T. verrucosum and Epidermophyton floccosum. The frequency of occurrence of the isolated fungi was determined. Microsporum gypseum, Chrysosporium tropicum and Chrysosporium indicum were the most frequent species recovered from soil. Most species of keratinophilic fungi were isolated from university, public garden and zoo garden. The distribution of the isolates are discussed.

  7. Ecology of the mosquito larvae in urban environments of Cairo Governorate, Egypt. (United States)

    Ammar, Sherif E; Kenawy, Mohamed A; Abdel-Rahman, Hashim A; Gad, Adel M; Hamed, Adel F


    Mosquitoes were surveyed over one year period in two localities in Cairo representing different levels of urban planning: El-Muqattam (planned) and Abu-Seir (unplanned). Culex pipiens, Cx. perexiguus, Cx. pusillus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Culiseta longiareolata and Anopheles multicolor were the collected species at both sites. Mosquitoes were more common in Abu-Seir than in El-Muqattam, with larvae of the filaria vector Cx. pipiens accounting for 81% and 52% of recorded individuals at these sites, respectively. Five types of the potential breeding habitats were detected of which, the cesspits (El-Muqattam) and drainage canals (Abu-Seir) were the most common while springs in El-Muqattam and drainage canals in Abu-Seir were the most productive types. Both Cx. pipiens and Cx. perexiguus bred year round with peaks of abundance coinciding with higher temperatures.

  8. Knowledge of periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt. (United States)

    Al-Darzi, W; Al-Mudares, F; Farah, A; Ali, A; Marzouk, D


    Egypt has a high incidence of neural tube defects. Folic acid supplementation in the periconceptional period is known to lower the risk of such defects. This cross-sectional study aimed to measure the level of knowledge about periconceptional folic acid use among pregnant women attending for antenatal care at Ain Shams University Hospital, Cairo, Egypt in 2012. Questionnaires were filled through personal interviews with 660 pregnant women. Of the respondents, 62.4% had heard of folic acid and 39.2% knew about the role of folic acid supplementation in prevention of congenital anomalies. Knowledge about using folic acid before and in the first trimester of pregnancy was highest among university-educated women and those working in professional occupations. Only 18.8% of women reported taking folic acid, and 8.8% had used it before conception. Awareness campaigns are suggested to improve knowledge about folic acid among women in the childbearing period in Egypt.

  9. Crime in relation to urban design. Case study: The Greater Cairo Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Adel


    Full Text Available Crime is a part of any social system and known to human communities since its origins. It differs from community to another, even within one community it doesn’t occur equally in all places and nor by the same way. It is also concentrated in some places more than others, sometimes increases, sometimes decreases, etc. Previous researches have proved that crime rate has significant correlation with different social factors: education levels, poverty rates and lack of social organization, while others have drawn the attention to its relation with the built environment. They proposed that crime occurs in places where both opportunities and criminals are available. The role of this paper is to identify urban circumstances related to crime occurrence within the Greater Cairo Region, and to propose different ways to reduce these crimes. Consecutively, agglomeration’s main districts were scrutinized according to social analysis, street-network pattern and land-use.

  10. A five-year analysis of the incidence of glomerulonephritis at Cairo University Hospital-Egypt. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Salwa; Fayed, Ahmed; Fadda, Sawsan; Belal, Dawlet


    Our study aimed to obtain a comprehensive review of the incidence of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis (GN) at the Cairo University Hospitals, Egypt, over the last five years. We analyzed the clinical and pathological data of all renal biopsy samples that were performed during the period from July 2003 to July 2008. Renal biopsy samples of 924 patients were referred for pathological assessment during the period of the study [437 male and 487 female patients; their mean age was 26.5 ± 14.6 years (range: 2.5-71 years)]. Focal segmental glomerulo-nephritis was the most frequent cause of primary GN (21.21%), followed by mesangial proliferative GN (18.93%), diffuse proliferative GN (13.96%), focal proliferative GN (12.77%) and membranous GN (10.93%). The results could be explained by the high incidence of lupus nephritis among the study subjects as well as the relatively young age of the study group.

  11. Dewatering using groundwater modelling in Al-Fustat area, Old Cairo, Egypt

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    Nagy A.A. Hassan


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find a solution for the groundwater uprising in Al-Fustat area – Old Cairo, Egypt. A 3-D finite Difference Model (Visual MODFLOW-Ver. 3.1 has been used to simulate the impact of different alternative solutions in order to select the best suitable one. The result of geophysical survey, twenty bore holes data, hydro-geological data and satellite images were used to construct and calibrate the numerical model of Al-Fustat city. Finally, the recommended solution is a combination of pumping wells and tile drains. The results of this solution indicate that using pumping rate of 200 m3/day achieves 2–3 m drawdown which meets the target.

  12. Leptospirosis in man, in wild and in domestic animals at waste disposal sites in Cairo. (United States)

    Sebek, Z; Sixl, W; Valova, M; Schaffler, R


    The authors examined 65 Rattus rattus, 28 pigs, 12 donkeys, 67 goats, 5 sheep, 1 cow and 1 dog as well as 196 inhabitants at two settlements on the waste disposal sites at the periphery of Cairo. Rattus norvegicus were positive in 55.4% for L. ictero-haemorrhagiae, pigs in 14.3% for L. pomona and in 3.6% for L. ictero-haemorrhagiae. 2 out of 12 donkeys were positive for L. pomona, 1 of them for L. pyrogenes and L. icterohaemorrhagiae as well, goats in 1.5% for L. grippotyphosa. Human sera reacted positively in 8.7% of the cases, 7.1% of which with L. bratislava, 1.0% with L. icterohaemorrhagiae and 0.5% with L. grippotyphosa and L. sejroe respectively.

  13. Assessment of patient safety culture among healthcare providers at a teaching hospital in Cairo, Egypt. (United States)

    Aboul-Fotouh, A M; Ismail, N A; Ez Elarab, H S; Wassif, G O


    A previous study in Cairo, Egypt highlighted the need to improve the patient safety culture among health-care providers at Ain Shams University hospitals. This descriptive cross-sectional study assessed healthcare providers' perceptions of patient safety culture within the organization and determined factors that played a role in patient safety culture. A representative sample of 510 physicians, nurses, pharmacists, technicians and labourers in different departments answered an Arabic version of the Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality hospital survey for patient safety culture. The highest mean composite positive score among the 12 dimensions was for the organizational learning for continuous improvement (78.2%), followed by teamwork (58.1%). The lowest mean score was for the dimension of non-punitive response to error (19.5%). Patient safety culture still has many areas for improvement that need continuous evaluation and monitoring to attain a safe environment both for patients and health-care providers.

  14. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A


    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  15. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R


    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  16. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J


    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Period of HD 19356 recorded in the Cairo Calendar? (Jetsu+, 2013) (United States)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Lehtinen, J.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.


    Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) wrote Calendars of Lucky and Unlucky Days that assigned good and bad prognoses for the days of the year. These prognoses were based on mythological and astronomical events considered influential for everyday life. The best preserved calendar is the Cairo Calendar (CC) in papyrus Cairo 86637 dated to 1271-1163B.C. Here, we concentrate on statistics, astrophysics, and astronomy. We show that n~200 good prognoses would induce PMoon and PAlgol in CC, even if the remaining n~700 good and bad prognoses had aperiodic origins. The connections between Algol and AES are discussed in detail in S. Porceddu et al. (2013, in preparation, Paper III), where we date CC to 1224 B.C. (2 data files).

  18. Feelings of betrayal by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and emotionally distressed Sudanese refugees in Cairo. (United States)

    Meffert, Susan M; Musalo, Karen; Abdo, Akram Osman; Alla, Omayma Ahmed Abd; Elmakki, Yasir Omer Mustafa; Omer, Afrah Abdelrahim; Yousif, Sahar; Metzler, Thomas J; Marmar, Charles R


    Thousands of Sudanese refugees have fled to Cairo, Egypt in the wake of Sudanese civil conflicts. Sudanese refugees were evaluated with respect to symptoms of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and social stress. Four respondents (22%) indicated that their interactions with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Cairo, Egypt were the worst experiences since war-related atrocities. Fourteen participants (63.6%) felt 'extremely' betrayed by the UNHCR on a four point scale. Greater feelings of betrayal by the UNHCR were associated with greater avoidance and arousal symptoms of PTSD, symptoms of depression and trait anger. This is the first study of which we are aware that examines the relationship between sense of betrayal by the UNHCR and symptoms of PTSD, depression and anger among asylum seekers.

  19. Reactor Neutrinos


    Soo-Bong Kim; Thierry Lasserre; Yifang Wang


    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very ...

  20. Road risk-perception and pedestrian injuries among students at Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged El-Setouhy


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Road traffic injuries (RTIs constitute 45% of injury mortality in Egypt; 75% of these injuries are pedestrians related. Traditionally, research on road traffic safety has focused on the traffic environment and the vehicles. However, little attention has been given to road risky behaviors and perceptions of road safety by pedestrians as risk factors associated with high pedestrian injury rates. This study aimed to examine the relationship between road risk- perception, specific road behaviors, and self-reported pedestrian injuries among university students in Cairo, Egypt. METHODS: A cross sectional survey was conducted among university students aged 18 to 24 years old at Ain Shams University in Cairo. Questions covered socio-demographic variables, injury episodes, road behaviors, road risk-perceptions, attitudes towards injury prevention, and road safety education. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 1,324 students. Two hundred ninety (21.9% of the participants suffered from pedestrian injury during the past 6 months; of these, 28.9% were admitted to hospital or clinic as a result of the injury, 39.3% were unable to go to university or leave home because of the injury for a period ranging from one day up to one week. Participants were more likely to suffer from pedestrian injury when they did not always "look both ways to cross the road", whereas always “waiting for a green light” was protective. Students who "perceived it safe to cross the road from any point" or "did not perceive it to be safer to cross at a zebra crossing" were less likely to "look both ways" before crossing the road. Similarly, there was a positive association between road safety education and participants’ road crossing behaviors. CONCLUSION: Inappropriate youths' road behaviors were significantly associated with pedestrian injury. There was also a positive association between road risk perception and road behaviors. This suggests that a behavioral

  1. Getting into hot water Problematizing hot water service demand: The case of Old Cairo (United States)

    Culhane, Thomas Henry

    This dissertation analyzes hot water demand and service infrastructure in two neighboring but culturally distinct communities of the urban poor in the inner-city area of central Cairo. The communities are the Historic Islamic Cairo neighborhood of Darb Al Ahmar at the foot of Al-Azhar park, and the Zurayib neighborhood of Manshiyat Nasser where the Coptic Zabaleen Recyclers live. The study focuses on the demand side of the hot water issue and involves consideration of built-environment infrastructures providing piped water, electricity, bottled gas, sewage, and the support structures (wiring and plumbing) for consumer durables (appliances such as hot water heaters, stoves, refrigerators, air conditioners) as well as water pumps and water storage tanks. The study asks the questions "How do poor communities in Cairo value hot water" and "How do cost, infrastructure and cultural preferences affect which attributes of hot water service are most highly preferred?". To answer these questions household surveys based primarily on the World Bank LSMS modules were administered by professional survey teams from Darb Al Ahmar's Aga Khan Trust for Culture and the Zabaleen's local NGO "Spirit of Youth" in their adjacent conununities in and surrounding historic Cairo. In total 463 valid surveys were collected, (231 from Darb Al Ahmar, 232 from the Zabaleen). The surveys included a contingent valuation question to explore Willingness to Pay for improved hot water service; the surveys queried household assets as proxies for income. The dissertation's findings reveal that one quarter of the residents of Darb Al Ahmar and two-thirds of the residents of Manshiyet Nasser's Zabaleen lack conventional water heating service. Instead they employ various types of stoves and self-built contraptions to heat water, usually incurring considerable risk and opportunity costs. However the thesis explores the notion that this is rational "satisficing" behavior; despite the shortcomings of such self

  2. Detection, Characterization, and Molecular Typing of Human Mycoplasma spp. from Major Hospitals in Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirihan A. Metwally


    Full Text Available Mycoplasmas are fastidious slow growing organisms lacking a cell wall and mostly isolated from the mucosal surfaces of the respiratory and genitourinary tracts. There is a dearth of information regarding clinical Mycoplasma spp. isolates among Egyptian patients. A total of 170 samples were collected from patients and apparently healthy personnel in local public hospitals in Cairo, Egypt. Isolation of Mycoplasma spp. was carried out using appropriate culture media and further identification was carried out by biochemical tests followed by serotyping using specific antisera. Confirmation was done by PCR for detection of different Mycoplasma spp. using genus-specific primers targeting 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Characterization of the antibiotic resistance and sensitivity pattern against different antimicrobials was carried out using disc diffusion test. The results indicated the presence of six Mycoplasma spp. in 22.94% of the samples. Mycoplasmas were detected more frequently in throat swabs than sputum. Mycoplasma pneumoniae was highly sensitive to macrolides and quinolones but less sensitive to aminoglycosides and tetracyclines. Molecular techniques were found to be of more rapid, highly sensitive, able to detect nonviable organisms, and cost effective. These results shed light on difficulties of Mycoplasma detection and the superiority of molecular techniques over culture.

  3. Algal control and enhanced removal in drinking waters in Cairo, Egypt. (United States)

    El-Dars, Farida M S E; Abdel Rahman, M A M; Salem, Olfat M A; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed A


    Algal blooms at the major water treatment plants in Egypt have been reported since 2006. While previous studies focused on algal types and their correlation with disinfection by-products, correlation between raw water quality and algal blooms were not explored. Therefore, a survey of Nile water quality parameters at a major water intake in the Greater Cairo Urban Region was conducted from December 2011 to November 2012. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the conventional chloride/alum treatment compared with combined Cl/permanganate pre-oxidation with Al and Fe coagulants during the outbreak period. Addition of permanganate (0.5 mg/L) significantly reduced the chlorine demand from 5.5 to 2.7 mg/L. The applied alum coagulant dose was slightly reduced while residual Al was reduced by 27% and the algal count by 50% in the final treated waters. Applying ferric chloride and ferric sulfate as coagulants to waters treated with the combined pre-oxidation procedure effectively reduced algal count by 60% and better the total organic carbon reduction and residual aluminum in the treated water. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to identify the relationship between water quality parameters and occurrence of algae and to explain the impact of coagulants on the final water quality.

  4. Grouting of Multiple Leaf-Masonry Walls: Application on Some Islamic Historical Monuments in Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed HEMEDA


    Full Text Available Present study summarizes an overview on the available experimental and practical data and results from laboratory testing (ungrouted and grouted three leaf masonry wallettes in compression and in diagonal compression. On the basis of the experimental results, (A the structural behavior of the multiple leaf-masonry walls studied in details (b the parameters that affect the behavior of ungrouted masonry are detected and commented upon, and (c the behavior of grouted masonry studied in details. Particularly attention to be paid to large walls whose construction may comprise different kinds of materials. Such walls include cavity walls; rubble filled masonry walls and veneered brick walls which have poor quality core. Not only may the interior of the wall be less capable of carrying load but movement of the core material may also be a source of new stresses. As the experimental results show that the key parameter for the improvement of the mechanical properties of masonry is not the compressive strength of the injected grout, emphasis is given to ternary, as well as to hydraulic lime based grouts: those materials are expected to ensure durable interventions, they lead to a significant enhancement of the mechanical properties of masonry. On the basis of the experimental data on wallettes, as well as based on recent data from tests on grouted cylinders made of filling materials, simple formulae are drived, allowing for the strength of masonry to be calculated, and scientifically interventions processes and techniques had been applied to selected historical monuments in Cairo.

  5. Practical Study on Treatment of Selected Decorated Tapestry in Applied Art Museum, Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Kamal FAHIM


    Full Text Available The paper presents the method of treatment of tapestry textile, that considers the most common technique used in decoration of textile since the new kingdom until now, it is called Kabaty. The paper deals with selected piece of museum of Applied Art Faculty in Cairo. Treatment procedure was performed by several stages; firstly, Dating by comparing the decoration technique, the type of material and the decorative motifs existed in the object with another one known its date. Then samples taken from object were examined by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope to identify type of fibers and surface morphology .x-ray analysis was performed to identify mordant and dust. FTIR analysis to identify dyes in dyed samples. Then, the paper deal with the treatment of tapestry pieces by testing sensitive of fiber to water, mechanical cleaning and chemical cleaning to remove stain, washing stage using distilled water, and finally consolidation the object by fixed on support of natural linen which was stretched on wooden frame treated by anti-fungal substance.

  6. Storm-generated accumulation of nummulite banks in Eocene of Cairo, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, T.


    Nummulite banks which are common in neritic and shelf-edge facies in many parts of the Tethyan Eocene have been mainly regarded as reef-type buildups so far. However, stratification and biofabrics of such banks in the middle Eocene around Cairo demonstrate the importance of physical processes in molding nummulitic sediment bodies. Initiation of a nummulite bank at the Giza Pyramids Plateau is localized by a preexisting paleohigh, inherited from Late Cretaceous tectonism. On this submarine swell (about 1 x 1.5 km wide), ecological conditions were optimal for a flourishing Nummulites gizehensis-community, resulting in greater sediment production than in adjacent environments. Growth of the nummulite bank into a sediment body over 30 m (98 ft) in thickness and more than 1 km (.62 mi) in length is strongly enhanced by mechanical concentration of nummulite tests into coquinal packstones. These are interpreted to be a product of storm-generated winnowing. Paleoecological evidence shows that nummulite banks are largely an in-situ lag deposit. Periods of nummulite settlement are episodically disturbed by catastrophic storm events, which result in winnowing and local accumulation of the heavier bioclasts. During shallowing, patch reefs and a back-bank lagoon formed on the landward side of the bank. This facies association may be regarded as a model for hydrocarbon reservoirs. The high intraparticle porosity in nummulite tests (54%) makes the banks a potential reservoir, while adjacent and overlying lagoonal mudstone and wackestone may serve as source and cap rocks.

  7. A five-year analysis of the incidence of glomerulonephritis at Cairo University Hospital-Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Our study aimed to obtain a comprehensive review of the incidence of biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis (GN at the Cairo University Hospitals, Egypt, over the last five years. We analyzed the clinical and pathological data of all renal biopsy samples that were performed during the period from July 2003 to July 2008. Renal biopsy samples of 924 patients were referred for pathological assessment during the period of the study [437 male and 487 female patients; their mean age was 26.5 ± 14.6 years (range: 2.5-71 years]. Focal segmental glomerulo-nephritis was the most frequent cause of primary GN (21.21%, followed by mesangial proliferative GN (18.93%, diffuse proliferative GN (13.96%, focal proliferative GN (12.77% and membranous GN (10.93%. The results could be explained by the high incidence of lupus nephritis among the study subjects as well as the relatively young age of the study group.

  8. Indoor environmental corrosion of Ag-based alloys in the Egyptian Museum (Cairo, Egypt) (United States)

    Ingo, G. M.; Angelini, E.; Riccucci, C.; de Caro, T.; Mezzi, A.; Faraldi, F.; Caschera, D.; Giuliani, C.; Di Carlo, G.


    In this study, we have investigated the indoor environmental corrosion of Ag-based alloys after long-term exposure in a showcase of an exhibition room and in the open atmosphere at the Egyptian Museum of Cairo (Egypt). In order to simulate the corrosion processes that occur at the surface of archaeological artefacts, Ag-based alloys with chemical composition, metallurgical features and micro-chemical structure similar to those of ancient alloys have been purposely produced as sacrificial reference samples. Our findings show that corrosion phenomena on alloy surface are mainly caused by environmental sulphur and chlorine containing species that react in different ways depending on the exhibition conditions and on the alloy composition. This approach allows to identify the degradation agents and mechanisms that really take place at the surface of objects similar to ancient artefacts without the necessity of sampling them. Moreover, it is possible to get useful indications for the safe storage or exhibition of silver archaeological artefacts, their cleaning and conservation.

  9. Assessment of groundwater quality using geographical information system (GIS), at north-east Cairo, Egypt. (United States)

    El-Shahat, M F; Sadek, M A; Mostafa, W M; Hagagg, K H


    The present investigation has been conducted to delineate the hydrogeochemical and environmental factors that control the water quality of the groundwater resources in the north-east of Cairo. A complementary approach based on hydrogeochemistry and a geographical information system (GIS) based protectability index has been employed for conducting this work. The results from the chemical analysis revealed that the groundwater of the Quaternary aquifer is less saline than that of the Miocene aquifer and the main factors that control the groundwater salinity in the studied area are primarily related to the genesis of the original recharging water modified after by leaching, dissolution, cation exchange, and fertilizer leachate. The computed groundwater quality index (WQI) falls into two categories: fair for almost all the Miocene groundwater samples, while the Quaternary groundwater samples are all have a good quality. The retarded flow and non-replenishment of the Miocene aquifer compared to the renewable active recharge of the Quaternary aquifer can explain this variation of WQI. The index and overlay approach exemplified by the DUPIT index has been used to investigate the protectability of the study aquifers against diffuse pollutants. Three categories (highly protectable less vulnerable, moderately protectable moderately vulnerable and less protectable highly vulnerable) have been determined and areally mapped.

  10. Liquefaction analysis of alluvial soil deposits in Bedsa south west of Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Bedsa is one of the districts in Dahshour that lays south west of Cairo and suffered from liquefaction during October 1992 earthquake, Egypt. The soil profile consists of alluvial river Nile deposits mainly sandy mud with low plasticity; the ground water is shallow. The earthquake hypocenter was 18 km far away with local magnitude 5.8; the fault length was 13.8 km, as recorded by the Egyptian national seismological network (ENSN at Helwan. The analysis used the empirical method introduced by the national center for earthquake engineering research (NCEER based on field standard penetration of soil. It is found that the studied area can liquefy since there are saturated loose sandy silt layers at depth ranges from 7 to 14 m. The settlement is about 26 cm. The probability of liquefaction ranges between 40% and 100%. The presence of impermeable surface from medium cohesive silty clay acts as a plug resisting and trapping the upward flow of water during liquefaction, so fountain and spouts at weak points occurs. It is wise to use point bearing piles with foundation level deeper than 14 m beyond the liquefiable depth away from ground slopes, otherwise liquefaction improving techniques have to be applied in the area.

  11. A clinicoepidemiological study of esophageal cancer patients at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soumaya Ezzat; Hisham El Hossieny; Mohamed Abd Alla; Azza Nasr; Nagwan Anter; Ahmed Adel


    Objective The purposes of this study were to (1) assess the clinicoepidemiological characteristics of esopha-geal cancer patients, (2) analyze the prognostic factors determining treatment failure and survival, and (3) evaluate the results of various treatment modalities for locoregional and disseminated disease and their ef ect on disease-free survival and overal survival (OS). Methods Clinicoepidemiological retrospective data from 81 esophageal cancer patients treated at the Na-tional Cancer Institute of Cairo between 2007 and 2011 were evaluated. Results The study showed that patients with esophageal cancer commonly present with local y advanced disease (87.7% had T-stage 3 and 12.3% had T-stage 4). There was a significant correlation between surgery and survival; patients who received radical surgery and postoperative radiation had a better median survival than patients who received radical radiotherapy (20 months vs. 16 months, respectively; P = 0.04). There was also a significant statistical correlation between radical concomitant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) and pal iative treatment. Patients who received radical NCRT had a better median survival than patients who received pal-liative radiotherapy (16 months vs. 10 months, respectively; P = 0.001). The median fol ow-up period for al patients was 7 months. The median OS of the whole group was 12 months. The OS after 1 and 2 years was 57.8% and 15%, respectively. Conclusion High-dose NCRT is an acceptable alternative for patients unfit for surgery or with inoperable disease. High-dose radiation is more ef ective than low-dose radiation in terms of local control, time to relapse, and OS. Further study using a larger series of patients and introducing new treatment protocols is necessary for a final evaluation.

  12. Noise assessment inside the second-line of the Greater Cairo Underground Metro

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mostafa E Aly


    Underground metro trains, which connect different terminals of big crowded cities, are the best means of public transportation. The metro is environmentally friendly because the trains are electrically driven and so do not emit chemical air-pollutants. The number of people using the Greater Cairo Underground Metro approaches two million per day, beside about one thousand workers in the different activities related to the metro. Metro users and workers complain about the high noise levels emitted by metro units travelling in the tunnels, especially at the turns, the entrance of tunnels and at stations while braking. Exposure to high noise levels for a long time causes many health hazards: either auditory, such as temporary and permanent hearing loss, or extra-auditory such as effects on the cardiovascular system, blood pressure, heart and respiratory rates, central nervous system. Noise also leads to stress problems such as lack of concentration, leading to accidents. Noise has adverse effects on psychological, biological, immunological and hormonal systems of the body. Due to the above mentioned reasons, suggestion has been made to start this research to assess and diagnose these problems, and to find the proper methods for early detection and proper management of these health hazards; in addition to the engineering solutions for the noise problem. Measurements of noise levels have been made inside the units while travelling and outside the units at the stations platforms to evaluate the noise problem and to suggest some kind of solutions to the problem. The calculations of different noise indices have been made and compared with international criteria and national laws. The comparison shows that the noise levels are clearly unacceptable, for indices $L_{1},L_{99},$ and LNP, both inside the metro units and outside the units at station platforms along the passage.

  13. "To change the world." Cairo conference reaches consensus on plan to stabilize world growth by 2015. (United States)


    After 6 days of debate and 200 speakers during September 5-13, 1994, participants from 180 countries at the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) agreed on a strategy for curbing global population growth over the next 20 years. The objective was sustained economic growth and sustainable development. In his opening remarks, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali said that the objective was to balance humanity and the environment with the means to sustain life, and that the efficacy of the world economic order depended to some extent on the ICPD. Participants were urged to use rigor, tolerance, and conscience in conference deliberations. Men and women should have the right and the means to choose their families' futures. The preamble stated that the ICPD would probably be the last opportunity in the twentieth century to address globally the issues relating to population and development. UN Population Fund Executive Director Nafis Sadik remarked that the ICPD had the potential to change the world. Egyptian President Mohamed Hosni Mubarak was elected president of the ICPD. Mubarak stated that solutions to population problems must go beyond demographic accounting and incorporate change in social, economic, and cultural conditions. Norway's Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland stated that development in many countries never reached many women. She called it a hypocritical morality that allowed women to suffer and die from unwanted pregnancies, illegal abortions, and miserable living conditions. US Vice President Albert Gore called for comprehensive and holistic solutions. The essential features of social change would involve democracy, economic reform, low rates of inflation, low levels of corruption, sound environmental management, free and open markets, and access to developed country markets. Pakistan's Prime Minister Benazir urged the empowerment of women. Many expressed the concern about unsustainable consumption in industrialized

  14. Geomechanical Investigations for Architectural Heritage Preservation. The Habib Sakakini Palace in Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed HEMEDA


    Full Text Available The understanding of the geotechnical problems and failure mechanisms of stone structures of Sakakini palace (1897 AC entails a comprehensive study on the mechanical behavior of the stones and other construction materials. In addition to micro analysis, geological and geomorphologic interests, several investigations on stone deterioration and engineering geology were performed. First phase included more advanced techniques, which provided additional information on particular aspects of site deterioration and it included laser analysis (LIBS, electron probe micro analysis, micro XRD and XRF analyses, scanning electron microscope analysis coupled with EDX probing, transmission electron microscopy and grain size distribution analysis, permeability and pore size distribution of stone, mortars, core binders and other construction materials. Second phase included the determination of mechanical properties of building stones, such as compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, and shear strength. To obtain reliable values for these properties, a suitable number of samples should be extracted, prepared for testing, and properly tested. The test results are then analyzed to establish the investigated stone properties. The testing program includes extracting seven cylindrical cores from the basement stone walls of Sakakini’s mansion in down town Cairo. The objectives of the study are to provide a characterization of micro structures and the mechanical properties of the stones of Sakakini’s Mansion; The purpose of the present research is to provide recommendations regarding the strengthening and the safety of architectural heritage under long and short-term loading. For this purpose, a set of experimental tests and of advanced numerical analyses are to be carried out.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed HEMEDA


    Full Text Available The modern architectural heritage of Egypt is both varied and vast. It covers all nonecclesiastical buildings, important monumental structures (mansions, municipal buildings in the history of architecture, as well as more common buildings. They include houses (from mansions to simple dwellings, public buildings (schools, administrative buildings, hospitals, industrial buildings (factories, warehouses, mills, bridges, monastic dependencies (drinking foundations, gardens and any other modern structures that fall within the category of monuments and comprise the Egyptian cultural heritage. We present herein a comprehensive Ground Penetration Radar (GPR investigation and hazard assessment for the rehabilitation and strengthening of Habib Sakakini’s Palace, in Cairo, considered one of the most significant architectural heritage sites in Egypt. The palace is located on an ancient water pond at the eastern side of the Egyptian gulf, beside the Sultan Bebris Al-Bondoqdary mosque, a place also called “Prince Qraja al-Turkumany pond”. That pond was drained by Habib Sakakini in 1892, to construct his famous palace in 1897. Eight hundred meters of Ground Penetration Radar (GPR profiling were conducted, to monitor the subsurface conditions. 600 meters were made in the surrounding area of the Palace and 200 m at the basement. The aim was to monitor the soil conditions beneath and around the Palace and to identify potential geological discontinuities, or the presence of faults and cavities. A suitable single and dual antenna were used (500-100 MHZ to penetrate to the desired depth of 7 meters (ASTM D6432. The GPR was also used to detect the underground water. At the building basement the GPR was used to identify the foundation thickness and the soil - basement interface, as well as for the inspection of cracks in some supporting columns, piers and masonry walls. All the results, together with the seismic hazard analysis, will be used for a complete

  16. Spectroscopic Characterization of Dust-Fall Samples Collected from Greater Cairo, Egypt. (United States)

    Shaltout, Abdallah A; Allam, Mousa A; Mostafa, Nasser Y; Heiba, Zein K


    This work aimed to characterize dust-fall samples collected from street's trees in Greater Cairo (GC), Egypt, and its surroundings by different spectroscopic techniques, namely; X-ray diffraction (XRD), attenuated total-reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR), particle-size analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray measurements. Samples were collected from 19 different locations inside and outside of GC. Quantitative phase analysis of the dust-fall samples was performed using the Rietveld method. Results showed that the most frequently observed phases in the dust-fall samples were calcite (CaCO3), dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), and quartz (SiO2) with average concentrations of 39 ± 16, 8 ± 7, 22 ± 13, and 33 ± 14 wt%, respectively. The occurrence of these constituents referred to a combination of different anthropogenic and natural sources. The ATR-FTIR results are in good agreements with XRD data of the different observed phases. Based on the SEM and particle-size measurements, quantitative determination of the particle-size distribution was described. It was found that not only the large-sized particles are deposited but also the small-sized ones (PM10 and PM2.5). In addition, the particle size of the collected dust-fall samples varied from 0.1 to 200 µm with an average particle size of 17.36 µm; however, the particle size ranged from 2.5 to 40 µm predominated in all of the dust-fall samples.

  17. Climatological simulations of ozone and atmospheric aerosols in the Greater Cairo region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, A. L.; Tawfik, A. B.; Shalaby, A.; Zakey, A. S.; Abdel Wahab, M. M.; Salah, Z.; Solmon, F.; Sillman, S.; Zaveri, Rahul A.


    An integrated chemistry-climate model (RegCM4-CHEM) simulates present-day climate, ozone and tropospheric aerosols over Egypt with a focus on Greater Cairo (GC) region. The densley populated GC region is known for its severe air quality issues driven by high levels of anthropogenic pollution in conjuction with natural sources such as dust and agricultural burning events. We find that current global emission inventories underestimate key pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and anthropogenic aerosol species. In the GC region, average-ground-based NO2 observations of 40-60 ppb are substantially higher than modeled estimates (5-10 ppb), likely due to model grid resolution, improper boundary layer representation, and poor emissions inventories. Observed ozone concentrations range from 35 ppb (winter) to 80 ppb (summer). The model reproduces the seasonal cycle fairly well, but modeled summer ozone is understimated by approximately 15 ppb and exhibits little interannual variability. For aerosols, springtime dust events dominate the seasonal aerosol cycle. The chemistry-climate model captures the springtime peak aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.7-1 but is slightly greater than satellite-derived AOD. Observed AOD decreases in the summer and increases again in the fall due to agricultural burning events in the Nile Delta, yet the model underestimates this fall observed AOD peak, as standard emissions inventories underestimate this burning and the resulting aerosol emissions. Our comparison of modeled gas and particulate phase atmospheric chemistry in the GC region indicates that improved emissions inventories of mobile sources and other anthropogenic activities are needed to improve air quality simulations in this region.

  18. Acute mastoiditis: A one year study in the pediatric hospital of Cairo university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Hoshy Hassan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute mastoiditis is a serious complication of acute otitis media especially in the pediatric age group. This study reports the authors' experience in the treatment of children admitted with acute mastoiditis to the Pediatric Hospital of Cairo University throughout the year 2007, also we aimed to evaluate our current management of this serious disease. Methods Nineteen children were included in this study, 11 females and 8 males, their ages ranged from 9 months to 11 years. All children were treated with intravenous antibiotic on initial admission, myringotomy was considered for cases that did not respond to medical treatment for 48 hours, while cortical mastoidectomy (with myringotomy was reserved for cases that presented initially with subperiosteal abscess with or without post-auricular fistula, cases with intracranial complications and for cases that showed no response to myringotomy (after 48 hours. Follow up of the patients was carried out for at least 1 year. Results Medical management alone was enough in 5 cases (26%; all of them had erythematous tender mastoid on first presentation. Seven cases (37% needed myringotomy; 2 of them showed no response and they needed cortical mastoidectomy and the other 5 cases responded well except for 1 case that developed post-auricular subperiosteal abscess 2 months later necessitating cortical mastoidectomy with no evidence of recurrence till the end of the follow-up period. Seven cases (37% presented with subperiosteal abscess and they needed cortical mastoidectomy with myringotomy; they showed no recurrence till the end of the study. Conclusion Conservative management is an effective method in the treatment of non-complicated acute mastoiditis, but myringotomy should be considered if there is no response within 48 hours. Cortical mastoidectomy should be used in conjunction with the medical management in the treatment of complicated cases.

  19. Genetic characterisation of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotypes isolated from poultry in Cairo, Egypt

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    Mohammed Abdel-Maksoud


    Full Text Available Background: Food-borne diseases pose serious health problems, affecting public health and economic development worldwide.Methods: Salmonella was isolated from samples of chicken parts, skin samples of whole chicken carcasses, raw egg yolks, eggshells and chicken faeces. Resulting isolates were characterised by serogrouping, serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL production. Antibiotic resistance genes and integrons were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR.Results: The detection rates of Salmonella were 60%, 64% and 62% in chicken parts, skin, and faeces, respectively, whereas the egg yolks and eggshells were uniformly negative. Salmonella Kentucky and S. Enteritidis serotypes comprised 43.6% and 2.6% of the isolates, respectively, whilst S. Typhimurium was absent. Variable resistance rates were observed against 16 antibiotics; 97% were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, 96% to nalidixic acid and tetracycline and 76% to ampicillin. Multidrug resistance was detected in 82% (64/78 of the isolates and ESBL production was detected in 8% (6/78. The β-lactamase blaTEM-1 gene was detected in 57.6% and blaSHV-1 in 6.8% of the isolates, whilst the blaOXA gene was absent. The sul1gene was detected in 97.3% and the sul2 gene in 5.3% of the isolates. Sixty-four of the 78 isolates (82% were positive for the integrase gene (int I from class 1 integrons, whilst int II was absent.Conclusion: This study reveals the presence of an alarming number of multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates in the local poultry markets in Cairo. The high levels of drug resistance suggest an emerging problem that could impact negatively on efforts to prevent and treat poultry and poultry-transmitted human diseases in Egypt.

  20. Medicolegal study of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt, during a 7-year period: 2005-2011. (United States)

    Elgendy, Ibrahim Sadik; Hassan, Nermeen Adly


    Child sexual abuse has gained public attention and has become 1 of the most high-profile crimes. This study aimed to determine the demographic and medicolegal aspects of child sexual abuse in greater Cairo, Egypt. This is a retrospective study from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011. Data were collected from a Cairo medicolegal department and were statistically analyzed. The total number of cases was 1832 victims; 57.9% were males and 42.1% were females. Most assaults occurred in 2010 (16.2%) and 2011 (17.5%). The age group 6 to 12 years accounted for higher rate (49%), mostly in males (71.8%). A total of 83.3% of the victims belonged to low social class, and 72.3% of the victims were out of school. Only 1.9% of the victims had a mental disability. The crime scene was an unknown place in 78.1%. All offenders were males; most cases had 1 offender (82.5 %); and most offenders were extrafamilial (94.2%), of low social level, illiterate, unemployed, and between 18 and 30 years old. The unmarried offenders assaulted the females more than the males, whereas the married assaulted the males more than the females. A total of 5.8% were intrafamilial offenders; 62.7% of these cases were incest against girls and 37.3% were sodomy against boys. Clothes were normal in 48.8%. Anal assault (52.3%) and incomplete vaginal penetration (32%) were the commonest types. There was no significant relation between findings, investigations, and time. In conclusion, child sexual abuse in greater Cairo represents a problem. Therefore,forensic medicine should be a part of a multidisciplinary approach to prevent, investigate, and treat the problem.

  1. Sustainable business and clean technology markets in megacities : an explorative research of their dynamics in Cairo and Mexico City


    Mejía-Dugand, Santiago; Hjelm, Olof; Baas, Leenard


    This report presents the results of a research project on environmental technology diffusion and the dynamics of business arenas within the sector, with two megacities as case studies: Mexico City and Cairo. The term “environmental technologies” is used in a broad sense, referring to technological solutions that contribute to the improvement of the environmental performance of cities. With this in mind, a focus on the demand side (i.e. the cities) is the point of departure, and a bottom-up ap...

  2. Multifunctional reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.


    Multifunctional reactors are single pieces of equipment in which, besides the reaction, other functions are carried out simultaneously. The other functions can be a heat, mass or momentum transfer operation and even another reaction. Multifunctional reactors are not new, but they have received much

  3. In-situ measurement of texture development rate in CaIrO3 post-perovskite (United States)

    Hunt, Simon A.; Walker, Andrew M.; Mariani, Elisabetta


    The rate of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) development during deformation of post-perovskite is crucial in interpreting seismic anisotropy in the lowermost mantle but the stability field of MgSiO3 post-perovskite prevents high-strain deformation experiments being performed on it. Therefore, to constrain the rate of CPO development in post-perovskite, we deformed CaIrO3, a low-pressure analogue of MgSiO3 post-perovskite, in simple shear at 3.2 GPa and 400 °C to a shear strain (γ) of 0.81. From X-ray diffraction patterns acquired during deformation, we invert for CPO as a function of strain. By comparing the CPO that develops with visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) models we constrain the critical resolved shear stresses (CRSS) of the non-primary slip-systems in CaIrO3 to be of order 6 times stronger than the primary [ 1 0 0 ] (0 1 0) slip system. This value is significantly less than has been assumed by previous studies and if applicable to MgSiO3 implies that seismic anisotropy in the D″ layer develops slower than has previously been assumed.

  4. Reactor vessel


    Makkee, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A


    A reactor vessel (1) comprises a reactor body (2) through which channels (3) are provided whose surface comprises longitudinal inwardly directed parts (4) and is provided with a catalyst (6), as well as buffer bodies (8, 12) connected to the channels (3) on both sides of the reactor body (2) and comprising connections for supplying (9, 10, 11) and discharging (13, 14, 15) via the channels (3) gases and/or liquids entering into a reaction with each other and substances formed upon this reactio...

  5. Optimizing pain care delivery in outpatient facilities: experience in NCI, Cairo, Egypt. (United States)

    Hameed, Khaled Abdel


    As a result of increasing waiting lists of patients attending National Cancer Institute of Cairo, we are faced to provide high-quality pain care service through our outpatient pain clinic. The program description presented here shows the capacity of a 24 hours/7 days outpatient cancer pain management service to provide rapidly accessible, high-quality care to patients with complex pain and palliative care symptom burdens. In addition, this model avoids inpatient hospital admissions. Pain clinics of cancer are committed to helping patients and families identify and implement the treatments necessary to achieve optimum functional ability and the best possible quality of life. These clinics also help to communicate and work with the family physician, surgeon, and other physicians associated with patient treatment. Cancer pain is complex in its causes, and affects all parts of the body. It involves the tissues, body systems , and the mind. Being multidimensional, it is never adequately addressed with unidimensional treatment. Pain management must extend beyond physical approaches to include the psychological, social, and even spiritual aspects of the patient. Effective integrated treatment fosters self awareness and teaches appropriate and effective self care. With time, complex issues are managed, pain is reduced, and the patient moves toward peak physical and psychological functioning. These goals can be achieved by providing the highest quality pain management services. Patients attending the clinic get treated medically for their physical ailments. Their emotional and psychological problems also need to be attended with an atmosphere of love and care. The mission of the highest quality service is to obtain customer satisfaction with reduction of cost in a multidisciplinary (or better interdisciplinary) approach. This can be reached by proper identification of the customers either internal or external, assessing their needs, and implementing plans for their

  6. NUCLEAR REACTOR (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.


    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  7. Reactor Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Bong Kim


    Full Text Available We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very recently the most precise determination of the neutrino mixing angle θ13. This paper provides an overview of the upcoming experiments and of the projects under development, including the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible use of neutrinos for society, for nonproliferation of nuclear materials, and geophysics.

  8. Chemical Reactors. (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.


    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  9. Reactor Neutrinos


    Lasserre, T.; Sobel, H.W.


    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments, that toe the cutting edge of neutrino research. Short baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and are still searching for important phenomena such as the neutrino magnetic moment. They could open the door to the measurement of coherent neutrino scattering in a near future. Middle and long baseline oscillation experiments at Chooz and KamLAND have played a relevant role in neutrin...

  10. Formal and informal Patronage among Jews in the Islamic East: evidence from the Cairo Geniza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustow, Marina


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the political culture of the Islamic East under Fatimid and Buwayhid rule (tenth-twelfth centuries via relationships between patrons, clients, protégés, and partners. The main body of evidence I utilize are letters and petitions from the Cairo Geniza that employ the same specialized vocabulary of patron-client relationships one finds in Arabic histories of the period: idioms referring to the exchange of benefit, reciprocal service, protection, oversight, patronage, and loyalty. The Geniza letters, written without regard for posterity, suggest that these idioms were used well beyond the courts and were understood and deployed by men and women, the literate and illiterate, the important and the inconsequential. Yet the use of certain terms in Judaeo-Arabic also differs from their use in Arabic: some reflect devaluation over time, while others hardened into formulaic phrases. These differences suggest that some forms of patronage did not thrive beyond the hothouse of the court; viewed from another perspective, they also suggest that even outside courtly literature, one can retrieve fossils of older forms of patronage in the terms used to describe relationships between leaders and their followers as well as among people more nearly equal in station. A society’s use of social metaphors reveals something of what its members value, what they choose to retain and perpetuate from the past, how they function in moments of crisis, and how successfully their rulers have managed to convince them of the legitimacy of the social and political order. Conversely, the vocabulary of patronage was a social technique that allowed Jews to conduct business, engage in politics and communal regulation, and to amass and retain followers in a variety of spheres, including that of the rabbinic academies who proffered the construction of Judaism that became hegemonic over the course of the Middle Ages.

    Este artículo aborda la cultura pol

  11. Characterization of virulent Listeria monocytogenes isolates recovered from ready-to-eat meat products and consumers in Cairo, Egypt

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    Maysa A. I. Awadallah


    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of some virulence genes distributed in Listeria monocytogenes isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE meat products and consumers in Cairo province, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 beef luncheon, chicken luncheon and frankfurter beef (40 samples, each were collected from 10 different local shops situated in Al-salam city, Cairo province, Egypt. Stool samples were collected from 40 people who had the habit of consuming RTE meat. The suspected L. monocytogenes isolates were subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR for rapid speciation and virulence determination using primers specific for inIA, inIC, and inIJ genes. Results: Culture examination of all samples on Oxford media revealed presence of colonies characteristic to L. monocytogenes in 6 beef luncheon (15%, 4 chicken luncheon (10%, 1 frankfurter beef (2.5% and 1 human stool (2.5% samples. Species identity of L. monocytogenes was verified through the amplification of a 800 bp fragment with inIA primers in 2 out of 6 culture isolates from beef luncheon (5%, and 1 out 4 culture isolates from chicken luncheon (2.5% samples. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in different food samples examined (p>0.05. The virulence of these strains was ascertained by the presence of 517 bp and 238 bp fragments of inIC and inIJ genes, respectively in the isolates that contained the 800 bp fragment. The culture isolates obtained from one frankfurter beef sample, and one human stool sample were found negative by multiplex PCR for the presence of L. monocytogenes and its virulence specific genes. Conclusion: It could be concluded that L. monocytogenes are circulating in beef and chicken luncheon sold in Cairo, Egypt. Multiplex PCR is reliable for confirmation of L. monocytogenes. This study suggests the implementation of hygienic measures at all levels from production to consumption

  12. Physico-chemical characteristics of the mosquito breeding water in two urban areas of Cairo Governorate, Egypt

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    M.A. Kenawy


    Full Text Available Certain physico-chemical characteristics of mosquito breeding habitats [temperature, pH, salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO and nitrite] were examined relative to the distribution of mosquito larval species in two urban areas of Cairo Governorate namely El- Muqattam (M and Abu-Seir (A. Mean values and ranges of such characteristics for the reported mosquito species (Culex pipiens, Cx. perexiguus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Cx. pusillus and Culiseta longiareolata were reported. In conclusion, based on the significant correlations of the different characteristics with the abundance of the two common larval species (Culex pipiens and Cx. perexiguus, salinity and DO may be considered the predictor variables associated with the immature abundance. Considering altogether mosquitoes, there is an increasing presence from planned safe (M to unplanned unsafe (A habitats mainly due to turbidity and nitrite.


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    Full Text Available A new porcelaneous foraminifer, Cairoella tricamerata n. gen., n. sp., is here described from the lower Cenomanian of the Monte Cairo area near Cassino (Southern Latium, Italy. The new taxon is characterized by an early stage with triloculine to quinqueloculine coiling, followed by one or two whorls, each consisting of three or more tubular, curved, flattened and undivided chambers, with depressed sutures; it is ascribed  to the superfamily Milioloidea, but the inferred  attribution to the family Hauerinidae remains uncertain. In the type-locality its occurrence is restricted to the back-edge facies of the Latium-Abruzzi carbonate platform represented by fossiliferous grain-supported limestone rich in Sellialveolina viallii Colalongo, 1963.

  14. Qualitative interviews with non-national tuberculosis patients in Cairo, Egypt: understanding the financial and social cost of treatment adherence. (United States)

    Lohiniva, Anna L; Mokhtar, Alaa; Azer, Ashraf; Elmoghazy, Esaam; Kamal, Eman; Benkirane, Manal; Dueger, Erica


    Limited data are available about the challenges of non-national TB patients undergoing long-term treatment courses in an urban setting. This study aimed to understand the financial and social cost of adherence of non-national TB patients in Cairo, Egypt as a means to inform the development of context-specific interventions to support treatment adherence. In 2011, 22 in-depth interviews were conducted with TB patients from Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia and Djibouti to obtain qualitative data. Analysis was based on thematic analysis that aimed to identify recurrent themes and codes from the narratives. The study identified a number of factors that influence TB treatment adherence. Uncertain financial status due to limited or no employment was frequently discussed in interviews, which resulted in fear of not being able to support family, loss of pride, dependence on family and friends, fear of losing housing, food insecurity and limited food options. Respondents also feared infecting other household members and longed for opportunities to discuss their illness and treatment experiences with other individuals but their social networks were often limited. TB-related stigma was driven by shame and blame of infection. Respondents also believed stigma was based on their foreign origin. Stigma manifested in distancing and exclusion in various ways, resulting in isolation, psychological distress and reluctance to disclose TB status to others. Poverty-related factors and social context with a special focus on stigma should be considered when developing strategies for supporting long-term treatment courses for non-national patients in Cairo and other similar urban settings.


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    Tamer M Fouad


    Full Text Available

    The current study reports the clinical features and treatment outcome of 67 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL presented to National Cancer Institute (NCI-Cairo, in Egypt from January 2007 to January 2011. The median follow-up time was 36 months. All patients were treated with the simultaneous administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and anthracyclin. The treatment protocol was modified due to resource limitations at the NCI-Cairo by replacing of idarubicin with doxorubicin in most of the cases and the inclusion of cytarbine during the consolidation phase only in pediatric patients. All patients who achieved molecular complete remission (CRm after consolidation received two-year maintenance treatment with low dose chemotherapy composed of 6 mercaptopurine, methotrexate and intermittent ATRA courses. The median age at presentation was 29 years. There was a slight male predominance (53%.  Bleeding was the most common presenting symptom (79%. Most patients had an intermediate risk Sanz score (49% and 34% had a high risk score.  All patients achieved molecular CR at end of consolidation therapy with a median duration of 100 days. The main therapeutic complications during the induction phase were febrile neutropenia (42%, bleeding (18% and differentiation syndrome (11%. Five patients died at diagnosis due to bleeding, three died during induction chemotherapy due to febrile neutropenia (n=2 and bleeding (n=1 and one patient died during consolidation therapy due to febrile neutropenia.  The 3-year OS was 89% and relapse rate was 3%. Adapting standard AIDA treatment protocols to limited resources by reducing dose-intensity during treatment consolidation, using ATRA in the consolidation phase and alternative anthracyclin (doxorubicin may be a valid treatment option in developing countries. In spite of the increased incidence of high and intermediate risk score APL in our sample, we reported an acceptable CR rate


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    Ola Khorshid


    Full Text Available The current study reports the clinical features and treatment outcome of 67 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL presented to National Cancer Institute (NCI-Cairo, in Egypt from January 2007 to January 2011. The median follow-up time was 36 months. All patients were treated with the simultaneous administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and anthracyclin. The treatment protocol was modified due to resource limitations at the NCI-Cairo by replacing of idarubicin with doxorubicin in most of the cases and the inclusion of cytarbine during the consolidation phase only in pediatric patients. All patients who achieved molecular complete remission (CRm after consolidation received two-year maintenance treatment with low dose chemotherapy composed of 6 mercaptopurine, methotrexate and intermittent ATRA courses. The median age at presentation was 29 years. There was a slight male predominance (53%.  Bleeding was the most common presenting symptom (79%. Most patients had an intermediate risk Sanz score (49% and 34% had a high risk score.  All patients achieved molecular CR at end of consolidation therapy with a median duration of 100 days. The main therapeutic complications during the induction phase were febrile neutropenia (42%, bleeding (18% and differentiation syndrome (11%. Five patients died at diagnosis due to bleeding, three died during induction chemotherapy due to febrile neutropenia (n=2 and bleeding (n=1 and one patient died during consolidation therapy due to febrile neutropenia.  The 3-year OS was 89% and relapse rate was 3%. Adapting standard AIDA treatment protocols to limited resources by reducing dose-intensity during treatment consolidation, using ATRA in the consolidation phase and alternative anthracyclin (doxorubicin may be a valid treatment option in developing countries. In spite of the increased incidence of high and intermediate risk score APL in our sample, we reported an acceptable CR rate, toxicity and OS.

  17. The Cairo Declaration And The Diaoyu Islands%《开罗宣言》与钓鱼岛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Cairo Declaration is important legal basis documents of treating defeated Japan after WW Ⅱ, it had strongly condemned Japan ’ s fascist barbaric aggression against the other small and weak Nations in Southeast Asia and China , affirmed the rights that China regain territory invaded by Japan clearly and specifically .However , since the"cold war"intensifies, United States destroyed the principles , purpose and spirit of The Cairo Declaration and The Potsdam Proclamation one by one , and sent the China's Diaoyu Islands which stolen by Japan to Japan , causing the today ’s sovereignty of the Diaoyu Islands dispute .Looking back on this period of history will help peo-ple understand the true face of history.%《开罗宣言》是第二次世界大战后,处理战败国日本的重要法律性依据文件,它严厉谴责了日本法西斯对中国和东南亚其他弱小民族的野蛮侵略,明确而具体地肯定了中国收复被日本侵占的领土的神圣权利。但是,由于“冷战”的加剧,美国逐一严重违背或破坏《开罗宣言》和《波茨坦公告》的原则、宗旨和精神,将日本窃取中国的钓鱼岛私相授受给日本,从而导致今日钓鱼岛主权的争端,东亚和平的不安稳。回顾这段历史,将有助于人们认清历史的本来真实面目。

  18. Sonochemical Reactors. (United States)

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N


    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  19. Kutadgu Bilig'in Kahire Nüshası I Notes on Cairo Manuscript of Qutadgu Bilig I

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    Erdem UÇAR


    Full Text Available A lot of research has been done and monographies have been written regarding Qutadgu Bilig, however, only few of these were about its text and manuscripts. Because Reşit Rahmeti Arat (1900-1964 spent half of his life on this work and published a perfect translation and due to his scholarly authority, Turcologists handled the textualproblems of QB tentatively. It was Robert Dankoff who studied ReşitRahmeti Arat‟s publication and did remarkable and direct comments onit. Dankoff thinks that Arat‟s biggest mistake was to esteem threemanuscripts equally and acting with arbitrary attitude without aprinciple while introducing the main text. Dankoff took Arat‟sevaluations into cosideration and prepared the organization schemas ofthe manuscripts and suggested that the manuscripts went through asix step process. According to this schema, the lost X manuscript, thesource of Cairo and Vienna manuscripts, is based upon the Archtype,which was formed in the third phase. Cairo and Vienna manuscripts donot directly come from the same root. Vienna manuscript does not comefrom the root which Cairo manuscript is based upon (X manuscript. Itis based upon a Y manuscript, which is missing and comes from thesource that Cairo manuscript is based upon. Considering the fact thatVienna manuscript was written in 1439, Cairo manuscript was writtenbefore 1367 and Fergana manuscript was probably written in XIII.Century, we can clearly say that these three manuscripts were notwritten by Yūsuf Ḫāṣ Ḥācib or under his supervision. Therefore,research on Qutadgu Bilig text manuscripts should have started withthe detailed edition of all manuscripts. After detecting the features ofeach manuscript, researchers should start forming the „main text’ about‘the text which was written by the author himself’. Kutadgu Bilig hakkında günümüze değin birçok araştırma ve monografi çalışması hazırlanmış, ancak bu araştırmaların çok az bir kısmı eserin

  20. Exploring the Data Fusion of European SAR and Landsat Satellites for Monitoring the Urban Changes in Greater Cairo (Egypt) from 2010 to 2015 (United States)

    Delgado, J. Manuel; Verstraeten, Gert; Hanssen, Ramon F.; Ruiz-Armenteros, Antonio M.


    Before Arab Spring revolution, Greater Cairo had been the focus of urban growth studies due to its huge increase of population in the last decades, also using remote sensing satellites. Probably, the change in its urban extent may have been affected by the Arab Spring activity since it started in 2011, as it has been discussed by international organisations for which they are trying to get the answer to this phenomenon.This work uses the European Envisat and Sentinel-1A satellites as well as the American Landsat 7 and 8 for creating pre-revolution (2010) and post-revolution (2015) land use maps by combining the different SAR and Multi-Spectral (MS) sensors. By comparing the generated LUC maps, we identify the urban changes that occurred during the past 5 years, giving an answer to the question of the quantification of the urban increase in Greater Cairo.

  1. Experimental Investigation Related To Some Predicted Results Of Reliable High Frequency Radio Communication Links Between Benghazi-Libya And Cairo-Egypt.

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    Mohamed Yousef Ahmed Abou-Hussein


    Full Text Available In this study, the central radio propagation laboratory (CRPL method of ionospheric prediction of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS in U.S.A was used in practical calculations of the optimal working frequencies for reliable high frequency (HF radio communication links between Benghazi-Libya and Cairo-Egypt. The results were drawn in the form of curves by using the computer. The computer was used to measure the received signal level variation of frequencies 11.980 MHz, 11.785 MHz which were transmitted with a power of 250 KW, 100 KW respectively from the Egypt Arabic Republic Broadcasting station in Cairo city, directed to the North Africa and South Europe regions. The measurements were taken during daytime's for winter (December, January& February and summer (June, July & August seasons.

  2. Risk perception and priority setting for intervention among hepatitis C virus and environmental risks: a cross-sectional survey in the Cairo community

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    Dewedar Sahar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV recently emerged as a major public health hazard in Egypt. However, dramatic healthcare budget constraints limit access to the costly treatment. We assessed risk perception and priority setting for intervention among HCV, unsafe water, and outdoor air pollution in Cairo city. Methods A survey was conducted in the homes of a representative sample of household heads in Cairo city. Risk perception was assessed using the "psychometric paradigm" where health hazards are evaluated according to several attributes and then summarized by principal component analysis. Priority setting was assessed by individual ranking of interventions reducing health hazards by 50% over five years. The Condorcet method was used to aggregate individual rankings of the three interventions (main study or two of three interventions (validation study. Explanatory factors of priority setting were explored in multivariate generalized logistic models. Results HCV was perceived as having the most severe consequences in terms of illness and out-of-pocket costs, while outdoor air pollution was perceived as the most uncontrollable risk. In the main study (n = 2,603, improved water supply received higher priority than both improved outdoor air quality (60.1%, P P Conclusions The Cairo community prefers to further improving water supply as compared to improved outdoor air quality and screening and treatment of chronic hepatitis C.

  3. Dosimetric study comparing intensity modulated and conformal pelvic radiotherapy boost plans in locally advanced cancer cervix in NCI-Cairo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Mahmoud; Hesham A. EL-Hossiny; Nashaat A. Diab; Mahmoud Shosha


    Objective: This study was to compare 5 field conformal technique to the intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) 8 fields technique in boosting locally advanced cancer cervix cases after external beam radiotherapy with respect to target volume coverage and dose to normal tissues. Methods: We conducted a single institutional comparative dosimetric analysis of 10 patients with cancer cervix who was presented to radiotherapy department in National Cancer Institute, Cairo in period between June 2012 to September 2012 and received a CRT boost in the place of planned brachytherapy after large field pelvic radiotherapy (PRT) with concurrent chemotherapy were retrospectively identified. All tumors were situated in the low central pelvis. Two plans were done for every patient; one using the 8 fields IMRT and the second one using 5 fields' 3DCRT the two techniques were then compared using dose volume histogram (DVH) analysis for the PTV, bladder, rectum and both femoral heads. Results: Comparing different DVHs, it was found that the planning target volume (PTV) was adequately covered in both plans while it was demonstrates that the 8 fields IMRT technique carried less doses reaching OARs (rectum, bladder, both femoral heads). Conclusion: From the present study, it is concluded that IMRT technique spared more efficiently OARs than CRT technique but both techniques covered the PTV adequately so whenever possible IMRT technique should be used.

  4. Determination of rare earth elements in dust deposited on tree leaves from Greater Cairo using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Shaltout, Abdallah A; Khoder, M I; El-Abssawy, A A; Hassan, S K; Borges, Daniel L G


    This work aims at monitoring the rare earth elements (REEs) and Th in dust deposited on tree leaves collected inside and outside Greater Cairo (GC), Egypt. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was employed. The concentration of REEs in the collected dust samples was found to be in the range from 1 to 60 μg g(-1). The highest concentration of REEs was found in dust samples collected outside GC, in the middle of the Nile Delta. This would refer to the availability of black sands, due to desert wind occurrence during the sample collection, and anthropogenic activities. The limits of detection of the REEs ranged from 0.02 ng g(-1) for Tm to 3 ng g(-1) for Yb. There was an obvious variation in the concentration of REEs inside and outside GC due to variations of natural and anthropogenic sources. Strong correlations among all the REEs were found.

  5. Quantifying the Driving Forces of Informal Urbanization in the Western Part of the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Region

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    Taher Osman


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the driving forces (DFs of informal urbanization (IU in the greater Cairo metropolitan region (GCMR using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The IU patterns in the GCMR have been extremely influenced by seven DFs: geographical characteristics, availability of life facilities, economic incentives, land demand and supply, population increase, administrative function, and development plans. This research found that these forces vary significantly in how they influence urban growth in the three study sectors, namely, the middle, north, and south areas in the western part of the GCMR. The forces with the highest influence were economic incentives in the middle sector, population increase in the north sector, and the administrative function in the south sector. Due to the lower availability of buildable land in the middle sector, the land demand and supply force had a lesser influence in this sector compared to in the north and south sectors. The development plans force had medium influence in all sectors. The geographical characteristics force had little influence in both the middle and the north sectors, but higher influence than economic incentives, availability of life facilities, and development plans in the south sector. Because of the spatial variances in life facilities organizations in the GCMR, the life facilities availability force had little effect on IU in the south sector.

  6. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)


    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  7. D and DR Reactors (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The world's second full-scale nuclear reactor was the D Reactor at Hanford which was built in the early 1940's and went operational in December of 1944.D Reactor ran...

  8. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.


    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  9. Reactor and method of operation (United States)

    Wheeler, John A.


    A nuclear reactor having a flattened reactor activity curve across the reactor includes fuel extending over a lesser portion of the fuel channels in the central portion of the reactor than in the remainder of the reactor.

  10. Pre-Exilic Halakhic Text in Judeo-Spanish from the Cairo Genizah by R. Jacob Canpanton

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    Arad, Dotan


    Full Text Available This article brings to light a unique responsum preserved in the Taylor-Schechter Cairo Genizah collection. Though it does expound upon the halakhic and historic content of the responsum, these do not introduce many innovations, and are not the source of its uniqueness. The singularity of the document is that the text, written in Hebrew letters, is in Castilian vernacular with words and expressions in Hebrew. Whereas in Islamic lands a tradition of halakhic writing in Judeo-Arabic developed (until its disappearance in the late Middle Ages, halakhic writings in a language other than Hebrew or Aramaic were rare in Europe. The responsum was composed, in our estimation, in the 15th century, and is one of relatively few written in Spain in this period that have been preserved. The responsum enriches our knowledge of the language of the Jews while still in the Peninsula, and also sheds light on their religious and cultural life. It was authored by R. Jacob Ca[n]-panton, whom we suggest is the father of the well-known scholar R. Isaac Canpanton. Information on R. Jacob is limited, and until now there were no known halakhic writings of his. If our identification is correct, it serves to illuminate further the personality of this Jewish sage.Este artículo da a conocer un responsum único conservado en la colección Taylor-Schechter de la Guenizá de El Cairo. Se edita el texto y se explica el contenido halájico e histórico del responsum, si bien, desde ese punto de vista no contiene muchas innovaciones. Su singularidad radica en que está escrito en castellano en caracteres hebreos. Aunque en la órbita de los países musulmanes hubo un desarrollo de escritos halájicos en árabe judío (hasta su desaparición en un periodo tardío, el uso de lenguas distintas del hebreo o el arameo para contenidos halájicos había sido raro en Europa. Según nuestra estimación, este responsum se compuso en el siglo xv y es uno de los conservados de este periodo. El

  11. Evaluation of daily intake for some elements of radiation protection concern by inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area, Egypt

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    Mohamed H.E. Monged


    Full Text Available Concentrations of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Sr, I, Al, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni, Zn and Cr were determined in common foodstuffs consumed by adult inhabitants of Greater Cairo Area (GCA. Some of these elements have chemical and biological similarity to some of the radionuclides abundantly encountered during nuclear power production and therefore data on these elements could provide important information on their biokinetic behavior. A total of 120 samples were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS. Highest contributions for the intake of micronutrients (Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn arise from broad bean, rice and wheat flour consumption. Meat, milk, eggs and some vegetables are the major sources of K, Ca, U, Th, Cs, Al, Cd and Pb intake. The medium daily intakes for the adult inhabitants of GCA from the analyzed elements were reported. The lower daily intake of Ca, Th, Cs and I by adult inhabitants of GCA could be due to significantly lower consumption of milk and milk products. The significantly lower intake of calcium by adult inhabitants of GCA may lead to higher uptake of radiostrontium and could result in perhaps higher internal radiation dose. The lower intake values obtained for thorium and uranium, which suggests that radiation dose from their ingestion at natural background levels, is likely to be lower than what may be concluded from International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP data. Concerning micronutrients, the recommended values of daily intake of Cu and Mn are conveniently supplied by diet; however, for Cr and Zn they are lower than the recommended daily allowance. Due to high metals concentrations and consumption rates, broad bean is the foodstuff that provided the highest ingestion rates of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn, being therefore a very important source of micronutrients.

  12. Epidemiological Study Of Risky Behaviours And Their Relation With Mental Ill Health Among Secondary School Students In Cairo

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    Essam A. El-Moselhy; Morsy A. Ammar; Khaled M. Abd-Allah; Ibrahim A.


    Full Text Available A cross-sectional design was carried out on 827 students from general and technical secondary schools in Cairo. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of risky behaviours among the studied students, to assess their relation with sociodemographic factors and psychological problems and to explore student's attitude toward these behaviours. The data were collected by a standardized interviewing form. Different psychological symptoms were assessed using Middle Sex Hospital Questionnaire. The study showed, 54.1% of the students were having unhealthy diet and tobacco smoking behaviours. Also, all the risky behaviours, except absence of physical exercise practice and suicide attempt, were more common among boys. The most important sociodemographic risk factors were; positive family history of risky behaviours, one parent family and the student's work beside studying (OR=7.11, 4.07 and 3.37, respectively. The most important reasons for unhealthy diet, carrying weapon and engagement in casual sex were imitation (55.2%, to feel grown up (47.1% and peer pressure (39.1%, respectively. While, the most common psychological problem was hysteria (15.1% and the most common neurotic trait was sadness (41.9%. The most important psychological problems risk factors were obsession and hysteria (OR=5.53 and 4.59, respectively. While, the most important neurotic traits risk were irritability and sadness (OR=9.53 and 8.05, respectively. No awareness to the reported risk was present among 96.4% of the students having the risky behaviours (OR=6.41.

  13. Seasonal and spatial variation of atmospheric particulate matter in a developing megacity, the Greater Cairo, Egypt Egipto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakey, A.S. [The Abdus Salam International Centre of Theoretical Physics (ICTP) Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail:; Abdel-Wahab, M.M. [Cairo University, Department of Meteorology, Faculty of Science, Cairo (Egypt); Pettersson, J.B.C.; Gatari, M.J.; Hallquist, M. [Department of Chemistry, Atmospheric Science, Goeteborg University, Goeteborg (Sweden)


    As an example of a developing megacity the Greater Cairo (GC) area in Egypt has been evaluated with respect to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and lead (Pb). Particulate matter was collected during 2001-2002 in the two size fractions PM{sub 2}.5 and PM{sub 1}0 at 17 sites representing different activities (industrial, urban, residential and background condition). The PM concentrations were generally high, with yearly average PM{sub 2}.5 and PM{sub 1}0 values of 85 {+-} 12 and 170 {+-} 25 {mu}g/m{sup -}3, respectively. On an annual scale, the high PM levels were due to many sources that included traffic, waste burning and wind blown dust particles emitted from the desert outside GC and the Moqattam hill inside GC. On a seasonal scale, the PM concentrations were highest in the industrial sector during spring, the dusty season, due to the combined effect of dust storm events and anthropogenic emissions over GC. The lowest seasonal concentrations were recorded in the summer season at the background sites. There was a marked increase in PM levels during the period October to December due to burning of waste from harvested rice in the agriculture area in the Nile Delta (north of Cairo). The highest PM{sub 2}.5/PM{sub 1}0 ratio was recorded in the urban sector (0.59) while the lowest ratio was recorded in the residential sector (0.32). The PM{sub 2}.5 and PM{sub 1}0 samples were also analyzed for Pb in order to address the influence of different emission sources. The monthly average concentrations of Pb in both PM{sub 2}.5 (Pb{sub 2}.5) and PM{sub 1}0 (Pb{sub 1}0) varied between 0.4 and 1.8 {+-} {mu}g m{sup -}3 at the non industrial sites. The concentrations were significantly higher in the industrial areas, where concentration up to a maximum of 16 {+-} g m{sup -}3 could be observed. Both the high lead and PM concentrations measured are contributing to local environmental pollution. GC is subjected to high concentrations of particulates most of the year. There is no

  14. Ecological Risk Assessment of Metal Pollution along Greater Cairo Sector of the River Nile, Egypt, Using Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, as Bioindicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael A. Omar


    Full Text Available The present work aims to evaluate seasonal metal pollution along Greater Cairo sector of the River Nile, Egypt, using wild Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, as bioindicator and to conduct a risk assessment for human consumers. Greater Cairo is the largest populated area along the whole course of River Nile with a wide range of anthropogenic activities. Effects of metal pollution on fish body indices were studied using condition factor (CF and scaled mass index (SMI. Metal pollution index (MPI showed that the total metal load in fish organs followed the follwoing order: kidney > liver > gill > muscle which gives a better idea about the target organs for metal accumulation. Metal concentrations in fish muscle (edible tissue showed the following arrangement: Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cd. Metal’s bioaccumulation factor (BAF in fish muscle showed the following arrangement: Zn > Cu > Fe > Mn > Cd and Pb. The hazard index (HI as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption showed that adverse health effects are not expected to occur in most cases. However, the metals’ cumulative risk effects gave an alarming sign specifically at high fish consumption rates.

  15. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C


    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  16. Rift-related active fault-system and a direction of maximum horizontal stress in the Cairo-Suez district, northeastern Egypt: A new approach from EMR-Technique and Cerescope data (United States)

    Hagag, Wael; Obermeyer, Hennes


    An active fault system has been detected along the Cairo-Suez district in northeastern Egypt, applying the EMR-Technique using Cerescope. The E-W (old Mediterranean) and NW-SE (Red Sea-Gulf of Suez) fault-trends are estimated to have ongoing activity. Horizontal EMR-measurements indicate a NW to NNW orientation as a maximum horizontal stress direction (σ1), whereas an E-W orientation to has a secondary tendency. A simplified stress map for the Cairo-Suez district is constructed from the horizontal stress data measured at about 20 locations within the district. The mapped stresses will contribute to the stress data of the Cairo-Suez region on the world stress map (WSM). The present study results indicate rejuvenation of the inherited Mesozoic E-W oriented and Oligocene-Miocene rift-related NW-SE oriented faults. The transfer of rift-related deformation from Red Sea-Gulf of Suez region, which is currently undergoing an extensional stress regime in NE to NNE direction, would explain a seismotectonic activity of the Cairo-Suez district. These results are consistent with a present day NNW oriented compressional stresses attributed to a convergence between the African and Eurasian plates.

  17. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Hiroto


    A reactor container of the present invention has a structure that the reactor container is entirely at the same temperature as that at the inlet of the reactor and, a hot pool is incorporated therein, and the reactor container has is entirely at the same temperature and has substantially uniform temperature follow-up property transiently. Namely, if the temperature at the inlet of the reactor core changes, the temperature of the entire reactor container changes following this change, but no great temperature gradient is caused in the axial direction and no great heat stresses due to axial temperature distribution is caused. Occurrence of thermal stresses caused by the axial temperature distribution can be suppressed to improve the reliability of the reactor container. In addition, since the laying of the reactor inlet pipelines over the inside of the reactor is eliminated, the reactor container is made compact and the heat shielding structures above the reactor and a protection structure of container walls are simplified. Further, secondary coolants are filled to the outside of the reactor container to simplify the shieldings. The combined effects described above can improve economical property and reliability. (N.H.).

  18. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B


    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  19. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M


    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  20. Spinning fluids reactor (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert


    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  1. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo


    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  2. Estimation of seismic moments from local magnitudes and coda durations for the Cairo earthquake aftershocks recorded at Kottamyia (KEG Broadband station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Abdelwahed


    Full Text Available The spectral analysis of fifty-five KEG VBB records from the October 12, 1992 Cairo earthquake source region was performed to obtain the seismic moment. We obtained this parameter in turn to develop empirical local magnitude (ML, seismic moment (Mo, coda duration (D relations for that region. In this study the data consist of Lg-waves on the vertical component seismograms for the recorded earthquakes with ML ranging from 1.7 to 4.7. The derived empirical relation between the seismic moment (Mo and magnitude ML for the aftershocks sequence with 1.7 = ML < 3.5 is Log (Mo = (0.96 ± 0.05 ML + (17.88 ± 0.13. We found a correlation between the coda duration (D and Log of the moment (Log (Mo as follows: Log (Mo = (2.35 ± 0.27 Log (D + (16.33 ± 0.48.

  3. Audit of maternal mortality ratio and causes of maternal deaths in the largest maternity hospital in Cairo, Egypt (Kasr Al Aini) in 2008 and 2009: lessons learned. (United States)

    Saleh, Wael F; Ragab, Wael S; Aboulgheit, Samah S


    This study examined maternal deaths at Cairo University Maternity Hospital between January 2008 and December 2009. The aim was to calculate Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) as well as identify the causes and predisposing factors to maternal deaths. Data were collected from the files of the hospitalized pregnant women in the hospital. There were 38 maternal deaths and MMR was 79 per 100,000 live births for the two years examined. The main causes of death were obstetric hemorrhage, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and cardiac arrest. Substandard medical care and the delay in seeking of medical advice were two contributing factors to maternal deaths recorded. The need for audit and publication of all obstetric hospitals MMR to compare and identify areas of improvements is recommended.

  4. SNTP program reactor design (United States)

    Walton, Lewis A.; Sapyta, Joseph J.


    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program is evaluating the feasibility of a particle bed reactor for a high-performance nuclear thermal rocket engine. Reactors operating between 500 MW and 2,000 MW will produce engine thrusts ranging from 20,000 pounds to 80,000 pounds. The optimum reactor arrangement depends on the power level desired and the intended application. The key components of the reactor have been developed and are being tested. Flow-to-power matching considerations dominate the thermal-hydraulic design of the reactor. Optimal propellant management during decay heat cooling requires a three-pronged approach. Adequate computational methods exist to perform the neutronics analysis of the reactor core. These methods have been benchmarked to critical experiment data.

  5. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel


    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  6. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.


    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  7. Multi purpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raina, V.K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail:; Sasidharan, K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sengupta, Samiran [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, Tej [Research Reactor Services Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)


    At present Dhruva and Cirus reactors provide the majority of research reactor based facilities to cater to the various needs of a vast pool of researchers in the field of material sciences, physics, chemistry, bio sciences, research and development work for nuclear power plants and production of radio isotopes. With a view to further consolidate and expand the scope of research and development in nuclear and allied sciences, a new 20 MWt multi purpose research reactor is being designed. This paper describes some of the design features and safety aspects of this reactor.

  8. INVAP's Research Reactor Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Villarino


    Full Text Available INVAP, an Argentine company founded more than three decades ago, is today recognized as one of the leaders within the research reactor industry. INVAP has participated in several projects covering a wide range of facilities, designed in accordance with the requirements of our different clients. For complying with these requirements, INVAP developed special skills and capabilities to deal with different fuel assemblies, different core cooling systems, and different reactor layouts. This paper summarizes the general features and utilization of several INVAP research reactor designs, from subcritical and critical assemblies to high-power reactors.

  9. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru


    An LMFBR type reactor comprises a plurality of reactor cores in a reactor container. Namely, a plurality of pot containing vessels are disposed in the reactor vessel and a plurality of reactor cores are formed in a state where an integrated-type fuel assembly is each inserted to a pot, and a coolant pipeline is connected to each of the pot containing-vessel to cool the reactor core respectively. When fuels are exchanged, the integrated-type fuel assembly is taken out together with the pot from the reactor vessel in a state where the integrated-type fuel assembly is immersed in the coolants in the pot as it is. Accordingly, coolants are supplied to each of the pot containing-vessel connected with the coolant pipeline and circulate while cooling the integrated-type fuel assembly for every pot. Then, when the fuels are exchanged, the integrated type fuel assembly is taken out to the outside of the reactor together with the pot by taking up the pot from the pot-containing vessel. Then, neutron economy is improved to thereby improve reactor power and the breeding ratio. (N.H.)

  10. Light water reactor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, S.M.


    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  11. Space Nuclear Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    We needed to find a space reactor concept that could be attractive to NASA for flight and proven with a rapid turnaround, low-cost nuclear test. Heat-pipe-cooled reactors coupled to Stirling engines long identified as the easiest path to near-term, low-cost concept.

  12. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E


    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  13. Nuclear reactor design

    CERN Document Server


    This book focuses on core design and methods for design and analysis. It is based on advances made in nuclear power utilization and computational methods over the past 40 years, covering core design of boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors, as well as fast reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The objectives of this book are to help graduate and advanced undergraduate students to understand core design and analysis, and to serve as a background reference for engineers actively working in light water reactors. Methodologies for core design and analysis, together with physical descriptions, are emphasized. The book also covers coupled thermal hydraulic core calculations, plant dynamics, and safety analysis, allowing readers to understand core design in relation to plant control and safety.

  14. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)


    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  15. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))


    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  16. Gas cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Although most of the development work on fast breeder reactors has been devoted to the use of liquid metal cooling, interest has been expressed for a number of years in alternative breeder concepts using other coolants. One of a number of concepts in which interest has been retained is the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). As presently envisioned, it would operate on the uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycle, similar to that used in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), and would use helium gas as the coolant.

  17. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors (United States)

    Nuzzo, Ralph G [Champaign, IL; Mitrovski, Svetlana M [Urbana, IL


    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  18. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.


    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  19. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P


    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  20. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C


    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these and their associated uncertainties are crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to-date have been determined by either conversion of measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that makeup the spectra using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to beta-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.

  1. New reactor type proposed

    CERN Multimedia


    "Russian scientists at the Research Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering in Moscow are hoping to develop a new reactor that will use lead and bismuth as fuel instead of uranium and plutonium" (1/2 page).

  2. Helias reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beidler, C.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Grieger, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Harmeyer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Kisslinger, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Karulin, N. [Nuclear Fusion Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maurer, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany); Nuehrenberg, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Rau, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Sapper, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Wobig, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)


    The present status of Helias reactor studies is characterised by the identification and investigation of specific issues which result from the particular properties of this type of stellarator. On the technical side these are issues related to the coil system, while physics studies have concentrated on confinement, alpha-particle behaviour and ignition conditions. The usual assumptions have been made in those fields which are common to all toroidal fusion reactors: blanket and shield, refuelling and exhaust, safety and economic aspects. For blanket and shield sufficient space has been provided, a detailed concept will be developed in future. To date more emphasis has been placed on scoping and parameter studies as opposed to fixing a specific set of parameters and providing a detailed point study. One result of the Helias reactor studies is that physical dimensions are on the same order as those of tokamak reactors. However, it should be noticed that this comparison is difficult in view of the large spectrum of tokamak reactors ranging from a small reactor like Aries, to a large device such as SEAFP. The notion that the large aspect ratio of 10 or more in Helias configurations also leads to large reactors is misleading, since the large major radius of 22 m is compensated by the average plasma radius of 1.8 m and the average coil radius of 5 m. The plasma volume of 1400 m{sup 3} is about the same as the ITER reactor and the magnetic energy of the coil system is about the same or even slightly smaller than envisaged in ITER. (orig.)

  3. Future Reactor Experiments


    He, Miao


    The measurement of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ opens a gateway for the next generation experiments to measure the neutrino mass hierarchy and the leptonic CP-violating phase. Future reactor experiments will focus on mass hierarchy determination and the precision measurement of mixing parameters. Mass hierarchy can be determined from the disappearance of reactor electron antineutrinos based on the interference effect of two separated oscillation modes. Relative and absolute measure...

  4. Reactor Neutrino Experiments


    Cao, Jun


    Precisely measuring $\\theta_{13}$ is one of the highest priority in neutrino oscillation study. Reactor experiments can cleanly determine $\\theta_{13}$. Past reactor neutrino experiments are reviewed and status of next precision $\\theta_{13}$ experiments are presented. Daya Bay is designed to measure $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}$ to better than 0.01 and Double Chooz and RENO are designed to measure it to 0.02-0.03. All are heading to full operation in 2010. Recent improvements in neutrino moment measu...

  5. Department of Reactor Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included.......The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included....

  6. La conferencia de El Cairo y la afirmación de los derechos sexuales y reproductivos, como base para la salud sexual y reproductiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Galdos Silva


    Full Text Available El artículo se enfoca en la Conferencia Internacional sobre Población y Desarrollo de El Cairo, llevada a cabo en Egipto en 1994, en la cual se trataron temas referidos a derechos sexuales y reproductivos, a las acciones para mejorar la situación de las niñas, el estatus de la mujer, la situación de los adolescentes y la igualdad de género, como componentes básicos para mejorar la salud sexual y reproductiva de la población. Las recomendaciones producto de esta conferencia conforman el programa de acción. En el presente documento se desarrollan, además, algunos temas que durante la conferencia generaron largas discusiones para llegar a un consenso. Resume el seguimiento al programa de acción en los años posteriores y se detiene en el informe del gobierno peruano y la sociedad civil hacia los veinte años de la conferencia.

  7. Using the Green Infrastructure as an Economic Sustainable Tool for Improving Urban Life in Emerging Countries Urban Poverty Areas Greater Cairo Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Khaled Ahmed Elewa


    Full Text Available Through the last decades rapid urbanization in the emerging countries was producing bad urban quality. This urbanization of poverty is responsible of the phenomenon of the current spreading of slums in those countries main cities, Yet the common urban solutions for improving the urban life in those areas always require a high-cost budget which usuallysurpassing the financial ability of the local governments. The study main objective is to evaluate the possibility of using the Green Infrastructure as an economic sustainable toolfor improving the urban life in urban poverty areas of emerging countries. An analytical study was done based on the case of Greater Cairo city informal areas as urban poverty areas. The study has clarified how the elements of the Green Infrastructure could be used as an effective economic and sustainable tool through its environmental, urban, and social roles, for the improvement of urban poverty areas in the emerging countries main cities, Also has shown that the Green Infrastructure depends on available local natural elements, local experts experience and the most important. Its affordable cost, which make it an effectiveeconomic tool.Key Words: Green Infrastructure, Economic Sustainability, Emerging Countries

  8. Moon base reactor system (United States)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.


    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  9. Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Delmolino


    The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.


    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  11. Scaleable, High Efficiency Microchannel Sabatier Reactor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Microchannel Sabatier Reactor System (MSRS) consisting of cross connected arrays of isothermal or graded temperature reactors is proposed. The reactor array...

  12. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Iida, Masaaki; Moriki, Yasuyuki


    A reactor core is divided into a plurality of coolants flowrate regions, and electromagnetic pumps exclusively used for each of the flowrate regions are disposed to distribute coolants flowrates in the reactor core. Further, the flowrate of each of the electromagnetic pumps is automatically controlled depending on signals from a temperature detector disposed at the exit of the reactor core, so that the flowrate of the region can be controlled optimally depending on the burning of reactor core fuels. Then, the electromagnetic pumps disposed for every divided region are controlled respectively, so that the coolants flowrate distribution suitable to each of the regions can be attained. Margin for fuel design is decreased, fuels are used effectively, as well as an operation efficiency can be improved. Moreover, since the electromagnetic pump has less flow resistance compared with a mechanical type pump, and flow resistance of the reactor core flowrate control mechanism is eliminated, greater circulating flowrate can be ensured after occurrence of accident in a natural convection using a buoyancy of coolants utilizable for after-heat removal as a driving force. (N.H.).

  13. Reactor Structural Materials: Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouadi, R


    The objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Rector Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels are:(1) to complete the fracture toughness data bank of various reactor pressure vessel steels by using precracked Charpy specimens that were tested statically as well as dynamically; (2) to implement the enhanced surveillance approach in a user-friendly software; (3) to improve the existing reconstitution technology by reducing the input energy (short cycle welding) and modifying the stud geometry. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  14. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred


    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  15. Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Lanin, Anatoly


    The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER ) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  16. Operation of Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    3.1 Annual Report of SPR Operation Chu Shaochu Having overseen by National Nuclear Safety Administration and specialists, the reactor restarted up successfully after Safety renovation on April 16, 1996. In August 1996 the normal operation of SPR was approved by the authorities of Naitonal Nuclear Safety Administration. 1 Operation status In 1996, the reactor operated safely for 40 d and the energy released was about 137.3 MW·d. The operation status of SPR is shown in table 1. The reactor started up to higher power (power more than 1 MW) and lower power (for physics experiments) 4 times and 14 times respectively. Measurement of control rod efficiency and other measurement tasks were 2 times and 5 times respectively.

  17. An Overview of Reactor Concepts, a Survey of Reactor Designs. (United States)


    Public Affairs Office and is releasaole to the National Technical Information Services (NTIS). At NTIS, it will be available to the general public...Reactors that use deu- terium (heavy water) as a coolant can use natural uranium as a fuel. The * Canadian reactor, CANDU , utilizes this concept...reactor core at the top and discharged at the Dotton while the reactor is in operation. The discharged fuel can then b inspected to see if it can De used

  18. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavnić Danijela S.


    Full Text Available Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat and mass transfer and narrow residence time distribution. The oscillatory flow reactors (OFR are newer type of tube reactors which can offer solution by providing continuous operation with approximately plug flow pattern, low shear stress rates and enhanced mass and heat transfer. These benefits are the result of very good mixing in OFR achieved by vortex generation. OFR consists of cylindrical tube containing equally spaced orifice baffles. Fluid oscillations are superimposed on a net (laminar flow. Eddies are generated when oscillating fluid collides with baffles and passes through orifices. Generation and propagation of vortices create uniform mixing in each reactor cavity (between baffles, providing an overall flow pattern which is close to plug flow. Oscillations can be created by direct action of a piston or a diaphragm on fluid (or alternatively on baffles. This article provides an overview of oscillatory flow reactor technology, its operating principles and basic design and scale - up characteristics. Further, the article reviews the key research findings in heat and mass transfer, shear stress, residence time distribution in OFR, presenting their advantages over the conventional reactors. Finally, relevant process intensification examples from pharmaceutical, polymer and biofuels industries are presented.

  19. Perspectives on reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  20. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E


    The activities of SCK-CEN's Reactor Materials Research Department for 2001 are summarised. The objectives of the department are: (1) to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials used in nuclear power industry; (2) to conduct research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material behaviour under or after irradiation; (3) to contribute to the interpretation, the modelling of the material behaviour and to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (2) nuclear fuel; and (3) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel.

  1. Determinations of Sb and Mo in Cairo's dust using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis (United States)

    Shaltout, Abdallah A.; Welz, Bernhard; Castilho, Ivan N. B.


    The present work describes the determination of Sb and Mo in dust deposited on tree leaves using direct solid sample analysis. Nineteen air particulate samples were collected from different districts of Cairo and surrounding cities. Since some samples have been taken from places less exposed to the pollution factors, the present study allows the comparison of air quality between high and low polluted areas. High-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry has been investigated, using direct solid sample analysis. The optimum pyrolysis and atomization temperatures for Sb were found to be 800 °C and 1900 °C, and 1200 °C and 2650 °C, respectively for Mo. The limits of detection and quantification for both, Sb and Mo, were 15 μg g-1 and 50 ng g-1, respectively. The characteristic mass at was found to be m0 = 38 pg for Sb (217.582 nm) and m0 = 28 pg for Mo (313.259 nm). The results obtained for three certified reference materials of urban particulate matter confirmed the validity of the investigated method. The content of Sb varied between 213 ± 1.3 μg g-1 and 1117 ± 230 μg g-1 with an average of 667 ± 339 μg g-1. On the other hand, the Mo content varied from 113 ± 2.3 μg g-1 to 361 ± 51 μg g-1 and its average value equals 190 ± 62 μg g-1.

  2. Lead concentrations in Hymenolepis diminuta adults and Taenia taeniaeformis larvae compared to their rat hosts (Rattus norvegicus) sampled from the city of Cairo, Egypt. (United States)

    Sures, B; Scheible, T; Bashtar, A R; Taraschewski, H


    Concentrations of lead, determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, were compared between the cestodes Hymenolepis diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis and its host rat (Rattus norvegicus). Rats were sampled at 2 sites, which differed in respect to lead pollution as quantified from road dust, adjacent to the city of Cairo, Egypt. Comparing lead levels among host tissues and the parasites the significantly highest accumulation was found in H. diminuta, followed by rat kidney and larvae of T. taeniaeformis. Calculation of bioconcentration factors showed that H. diminuta contained 36-, 29-, 6- and 6-fold higher lead levels than intestinal wall, liver, kidney and larvae of T. taeniaeformis, at the more polluted site. At the less contaminated site lead bioconcentration factors for H. diminuta were found to be 87, 87 and 11 referred to intestine, liver and kidney of the host. Due to a high variability of the lead concentrations in H. diminuta it was not possible to indicate differences in metal pollution between both sampling sites. This variability may be influenced by different age structures of cestode infrapopulations. It is likely that younger worms contain lower metal levels than older worms due to a shorter exposure period. Thus, it is necessary to standardize the sampling of worms which should be used for indication purposes. Due to a lack of adequate sentinel species in terrestrial habitats more studies are required to validate and standardize the use of helminths as accumulation bioindicators in order to obtain mean values with low standard deviations. The host-parasite system rat-H. diminuta appears to be a useful and promising bioindication system at least for lead in urban ecosystems as rats as well as the tapeworm are globally distributed and easily accessible.

  3. Simultaneous detection of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia duodenalis and cryptosporidia by immunochromatographic assay in stool samples from patients living in the Greater Cairo Region, Egypt. (United States)

    Banisch, Dagmar M; El-Badry, Ayman; Klinnert, Jorge V; Ignatius, Ralf; El-Dib, Nadia


    Gastrointestinal infection due to intestinal parasites is an enormous health problem in developing countries and its reliable diagnosis is demanding. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating a commercially available immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for the detection of cryptosporidia, Giardia duodenalis, and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar for its usefulness in the Greater Cairo Region, Egypt. Stool samples of 104 patients who presented between October 2012 and March 2013 with gastrointestinal symptoms or for the exclusion of parasites at Kasr-Al-Ainy University Medical School were examined by light microscopy of wet mounts and the triple ICA. Microscopy revealed in 20% of the patients [95% confidence interval (CI), 13.5-29.0%] parasites with Hymenolepis nana, E. histolytica/dispar and Blastocystis hominis being the most frequent ones, but was not able to detect G. duodenalis and cryptosporidia, whereas ICA was positive in 21% (95% CI, 14.3-30.0%) and detected E. histolytica/dispar in 12.5% (95% CI, 7.3-20.4%), cryptosporidia in 6.7% (95% CI, 3.1-13.5%) and G. duodenalis in 15.4% (95% CI, 9.6-23.6%) of the patients. Detection of one or more pathogens was associated with access to water retrieved from a well or pump (p = 0.01). Patients between 20 and 29 years of age (p = 0.08) and patients with symptoms of 5 days or longer (p = 0.07) tended to have a higher risk to be infected than patients of other age groups or with shorter-lasting symptoms. In conclusion, the ICA was easy to perform and timesaving. Importantly, it enabled the detection of cryptosporidia, which cannot be found microscopically in unstained smears, demonstrated a higher sensitivity for the detection of G. duodenalis than microscopy, and was more specific for distinguishing E. histolytica/dispar from apathogenic amoeba.

  4. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.


    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HFIR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a light-water cooled and moderated reactor that is the United States’ highest flux reactor-based neutron source. HFIR...

  6. Reactor operation safety information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

  7. Efectos psicopatológicos del conflicto armado Colombiano en familias en situación de desplazamiento forzado reasentadas en el municipio del Cairo en el año 2008.


    José Alonso Andrade Salazar


    Este trabajo busca tipificar las patologías en salud mental prevalentes en 36 familias desplazadas por el conflicto armado y reasentadas en el Municipio del Cairo - Valle en el año 2008; para ello se utilizaron, la escala auto aplicada para la medida de la depresión de Zung y Conde, el Cuestionario de Trastorno de humor (MDQ), y la escala de Trauma Davidson (DTS), que tipifica los síntomas del trastorno por estrés postraumático (TEPT). Los resultados mostraron la presencia de depresión leve (...

  8. La potencia recobrada de dos ciudades-mundo de la Edad Media: Estambul y El Cairo. Resiliencia de la centralidad de los antiguos imperios de los márgenes meridionales de Europa


    Denis, Eric


    Este artículo trata de explicar la evolución de las ciudades-mundo de Estambul y del Cairo dentro del conjunto Euro-Mediterráneo hasta el Oriente Próximo, así como dentro del sistema mundo, desde la Edad Media hasta la actualidad. Se realiza un análisis de diferentes indicadores estadísticos sobre la posición jerárquica de estas metrópolis dentro del sistema mundial de ciudades para comprobar su desplazamiento en este periodo y posteriormente explicarlo. Tras este estudio, se c...

  9. Thermal Reactor Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  10. Chromatographic and Related Reactors. (United States)


    special information about effects of surface heteroge- neity in the methanation reaction. Studies of an efficient multicolumn assembly for measuring...of organic basic catalysts such as pyridine and 4-methylpicoline. It was demonstrated that the chromatographic reactor gave special information about...Programmed Reaction to obtain special information about surface heterogeneity in the methanation reaction. Advantages of stopped flow over steady state

  11. Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. [eds.


    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  12. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  13. WATER BOILER REACTOR (United States)

    King, L.D.P.


    As its name implies, this reactor utilizes an aqueous solution of a fissionable element salt, and is also conventional in that it contains a heat exchanger cooling coil immersed in the fuel. Its novelty lies in the utilization of a cylindrical reactor vessel to provide a critical region having a large and constant interface with a supernatant vapor region, and the use of a hollow sleeve coolant member suspended from the cover assembly in coaxial relation with the reactor vessel. Cool water is circulated inside this hollow coolant member, and a gap between its outer wall and the reactor vessel is used to carry off radiolytic gases for recombination in an external catalyst chamber. The central passage of the coolant member defines a reflux condenser passage into which the externally recombined gases are returned and condensed. The large and constant interface between fuel solution and vapor region prevents the formation of large bubbles and minimizes the amount of fuel salt carried off by water vapor, thus making possible higher flux densities, specific powers and power densities.

  14. The First Reactor. (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    On December 2, 1942, in a racquet court underneath the West Stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, a team of scientists led by Enrico Fermi created the first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. This updated and revised story of the first reactor (or "pile") is based on postwar interviews (as told to Corbin…


    Jonke, A.A.; Graae, J.E.A.; Levitz, N.M.


    A multistage fluidized bed reactor is described in which each of a number of stages is arranged with respect to an associated baffle so that a fluidizing gas flows upward and a granular solid downward through the stages and baffles, whereas the granular solid stopsflowing downward when the flow of fluidizing gas is shut off.

  16. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm{sup 3} and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of {sup 23{sup 5}}U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive

  17. Modeling Chemical Reactors I: Quiescent Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Michoski, C E; Schmitz, P G


    We introduce a fully generalized quiescent chemical reactor system in arbitrary space $\\vdim =1,2$ or 3, with $n\\in\\mathbb{N}$ chemical constituents $\\alpha_{i}$, where the character of the numerical solution is strongly determined by the relative scaling between the local reactivity of species $\\alpha_{i}$ and the local functional diffusivity $\\mathscr{D}_{ij}(\\alpha)$ of the reaction mixture. We develop an operator time-splitting predictor multi-corrector RK--LDG scheme, and utilize $hp$-adaptivity relying only on the entropy $\\mathscr{S}_{\\mathfrak{R}}$ of the reactive system $\\mathfrak{R}$. This condition preserves these bounded nonlinear entropy functionals as a necessarily enforced stability condition on the coupled system. We apply this scheme to a number of application problems in chemical kinetics; including a difficult classical problem arising in nonequilibrium thermodynamics known as the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction where we utilize a concentration-dependent diffusivity tensor $\\mathscr{D}_{ij}(...

  18. Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors (United States)

    Roth, R. J.


    The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

  19. Reactor monitoring using antineutrino detectors (United States)

    Bowden, N. S.


    Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactor as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and/or other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway worldwide.

  20. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR (United States)

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.


    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  1. Methanogenesis in Thermophilic Biogas Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær


    Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors fed with different wastes is examined. The specific methanogenic activity with acetate or hydrogen as substrate reflected the organic loading of the specific reactor examined. Increasing the loading of thermophilic reactors stabilized the process...... as indicated by a lower concentration of volatile fatty acids in the effluent from the reactors. The specific methanogenic activity in a thermophilic pilot-plant biogas reactor fed with a mixture of cow and pig manure reflected the stability of the reactor. The numbers of methanogens counted by the most...... against Methanothrix soehngenii or Methanothrix CALS-I in any of the thermophilic biogas reactors examined. Studies using 2-14C-labeled acetate showed that at high concentrations (more than approx. 1 mM) acetate was metabolized via the aceticlastic pathway, transforming the methyl-group of acetate...


    Wheeler, J.A.


    A design of a reactor is presented in which the fuel elements may be immersed in a liquid coolant when desired without the necessity of removing them from the reactor structure. The fuel elements, containing the fissionable material are in plate form and are disposed within spaced slots in a moderator material, such as graphite to form the core. Adjacent the core is a tank containing the liquid coolant. The fuel elements are mounted in spaced relationship on a rotatable shaft which is located between the core and the tank so that by rotation of the shaft the fuel elements may be either inserted in the slots in the core to sustain a chain reaction or immersed in the coolant.

  3. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  4. Reactor Neutrino Spectra


    Hayes, A. C.; Vogel, Petr


    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these spectra and their associated uncertainties is crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to date have been determined either by converting measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that make up the spectra, using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to β-decay plague both methods, and we ...


    Greenstreet, B.L.


    A system for maintaining the alignment of moderator block structures in reactors is presented. Integral restraining grids are placed between each layer of blocks in the moderator structure, at the top of the uppermost layer, and at the bottom of the lowermost layer. Slots are provided in the top and bottom surfaces of the moderator blocks so as to provide a keying action with the grids. The grids are maintained in alignment by vertical guiding members disposed about their peripheries. (AEC)

  6. Prevalence of common canine digestive problems compared with other health problems in teaching veterinary hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal M. H. Rakha


    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of common digestive problems compared to other health problems among dogs that were admitted to the teaching veterinary hospital, faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University, Egypt during 1 year period from January to December 2013. Also, study the effect of age, sex, breeds, and season on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 3864 dogs included 1488 apparently healthy (included 816 males and 672 females and 2376 diseased dogs (included 1542 males and 834 females were registered for age, sex, breed, and the main complaint from their owners. A complete history and detailed clinical examination of each case were applied to the aids of radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic examination tools. Fecal examination was applied for each admitted case. Rapid tests for parvovirus and canine distemper virus detection were also performed. Results: A five digestive problems were commonly recorded including vomiting, diarrhea, concurrent vomiting with diarrhea, anorexia, and constipation with a prevalence (% of 13.6, 19.1, 10.1, 13.1, and 0.5 respectively while that of dermatological, respiratory, urinary, neurological, cardiovascular, auditory, and ocular problems was 27.9, 10.5, 3.3, 0.84, 0.4, 0.25, and 0.17 (% respectively. This prevalence was obtained on the basis of the diseased cases. Age and breed had a significant effect on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs (p0.05 on the distribution of such problems. Conclusion: Digestive problems were the highest recorded problems among dogs, and this was the first records for such problems among dogs in Egypt. Age, gender, and breeds had a significant effect on the distribution of the digestive problems in dogs while season had a non-significant effect on the distribution of such problems. The present data enable veterinarians in Egypt to ascertain their needs for diagnostic tools


    Heckman, T.P.


    A nuclear power reactor of the type in which a liquid moderator-coolant is transformed by nuclear heating into a vapor that may be used to drive a turbo- generator is described. The core of this reactor comprises a plurality of freely suspended tubular fuel elements, called fuel element trains, within which nonboiling pressurized liquid moderator-coolant is preheated and sprayed through orifices in the walls of the trains against the outer walls thereof to be converted into vapor. Passage of the vapor ovcr other unwetted portions of the outside of the fuel elements causes the steam to be superheated. The moderatorcoolant within the fuel elements remains in the liqUid state, and that between the fuel elements remains substantiaily in the vapor state. A unique liquid neutron-absorber control system is used. Advantages expected from the reactor design include reduced fuel element failure, increased stability of operation, direct response to power demand, and circulation of a minimum amount of liquid moderatorcoolant. (A.G.W.)

  8. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  9. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred


    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic

  10. Turning points in reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, E.S.


    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  11. Fast reactor programme in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Chellapandi; P R Vasudeva Rao; Prabhat Kumar


    Role of fast breeder reactor (FBR) in the Indian context has been discussed with appropriate justification. The FBR programme since 1985 till 2030 is highlighted focussing on the current status and future direction of fast breeder test reactor (FBTR), prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) and FBR-1 and 2. Design and technological challenges of PFBR and design and safety targets with means to achieve the same are the major highlights of this paper.

  12. Acceptability of reactors in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.


    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  13. Spiral-shaped disinfection reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine


    This disclosure includes disinfection reactors and processes for the disinfection of water. Some disinfection reactors include a body that defines an inlet, an outlet, and a spiral flow path between the inlet and the outlet, in which the body is configured to receive water and a disinfectant at the inlet such that the water is exposed to the disinfectant as the water flows through the spiral flow path. Also disclosed are processes for disinfecting water in such disinfection reactors.

  14. Hydrogen Production in Fusion Reactors


    Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M; Uenosono, C.


    As one of methods of innovative energy production in fusion reactors without having a conventional turbine-type generator, an efficient use of radiation produced in a fusion reactor with utilizing semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas are studied. Taking the candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system for application of the new concepts, the expected efficiency and a concept of plant system are investigated.

  15. Neutrino Oscillation Studies with Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Petr; Zhang, Chao


    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective, and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavors are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  16. FAST NEUTRONIC REACTOR (United States)

    Snell, A.H.


    This patent relates to a reactor and process for carrying out a controlled fast neutron chain reaction. A cubical reactive mass, weighing at least 920 metric tons, of uranium metal containing predominantly U/sup 238/ and having a U/sup 235/ content of at least 7.63% is assembled and the maximum neutron reproduction ratio is limited to not substantially over 1.01 by insertion and removal of a varying amount of boron, the reactive mass being substantially freed of moderator.

  17. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor (United States)

    Scott, C.D.


    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  18. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  19. 开罗设想的构建和解体——二战期间美国远东国际体系构想的演变%The construction and disintegration of Cairo Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    美国的开罗设想旨在远东地区构建以中国为中心,美国为主导,以中美合作为基础的远东国际体系。这种构想开始于1937年中日战争的全面爆发后,典型地体现在开罗会议和《开罗宣言》中,解体于1945年雅尔塔协议的签订。中美两国在二战间军事同盟关系的形成和发展、特别是中国抗击侵略的巨大力量、战后中国潜在的政治价值,引起了美国对中国的重视。美国认为,击败日本以后在东南亚和南太平洋地区的安排问题上,中美两国之间比其他任何大国都有更多的利害关系。但在中国国内因素和国际因素的双重影响下,美国对远东国际体系的构建经历一个从开罗设想到雅尔塔体系的演变过程。在这个过程中,中国的国际地位也发生了相应的变化。%American Cairo Plan aimed to build the far east international system, which took Cifina as the center, America as the gnide,Sino - US cooperation as the base. The Plan started in 1937when Sino - Japanese War broke out,especially during Cairo Conference and Cairo Declaration, and stopped in 1945 when yalta agreement signed. America payed attention to the great force from China against Japanese and the inner political value after the War. China international position changed a lot.

  20. Reactor Physics Analysis Models for a CANDU Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok


    Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor physics analysis is typically performed in three steps. At first, macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice is produced by modeling the reference fuel channel. Secondly macroscopic cross-sections of reactivity devices in the reactor are generated. The macroscopic cross-sections of a reactivity device are calculated as incremental cross-sections by subtracting macroscopic cross-sections of a three-dimensional lattice without reactivity device from those of a three-dimensional lattice with a reactivity device. Using the macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice and incremental cross-sections of the reactivity devices, reactor physics calculations are performed. This report summarizes input data of typical CANDU reactor physics codes, which can be utilized for the future CANDU reactor physics analysis.

  1. Brookhaven leak reactor to close

    CERN Multimedia

    MacIlwain, C


    The DOE has announced that the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven is to close for good. Though the news was not unexpected researchers were angry the decision had been taken before the review to assess the impact of reopening the reactor had been concluded (1 page).

  2. Thermochemical reactor systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinski, Wojciech; Davidson, Jane Holloway; Chase, Thomas Richard


    Thermochemical reactor systems that may be used to produce a fuel, and methods of using the thermochemical reactor systems, utilizing a reactive cylindrical element, an optional energy transfer cylindrical element, an inlet gas management system, and an outlet gas management system.

  3. Chemical-vapor-deposition reactor (United States)

    Chern, S.


    Reactor utilizes multiple stacked trays compactly arranged in paths of horizontally channeled reactant gas streams. Design allows faster and more efficient deposits of film on substrates, and reduces gas and energy consumption. Lack of dead spots that trap reactive gases reduces reactor purge time.

  4. Antineutrino Monitoring of Thorium Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Akindele, Oluwatomi A; Norman, Eric B


    Various groups have demonstrated that antineutrino monitoring can be successful in assessing the plutonium content in water-cooled nuclear reactors for nonproliferation applications. New reactor designs and concepts incorporate nontraditional fuels types and chemistry. Understanding how these properties affect the antineutrino emission from a reactor can extend the applicability of antineutrino monitoring.Thorium molten salt reactors (MSR) breed U-233, that if diverted constitute an IAEA direct use material. The antineutrino spectrum from the fission of U-233 has been determined, the feasibility of detecting the diversion of a significant quantity, 8 kg of U-233, within the IAEA timeliness goal of 30 days has been evaluated. The antineutrino emission from a thorium reactor operating under normal conditions is compared to a diversion scenario at a 25 meter standoff by evaluating the daily antineutrino count rate and the energy spectrum of the detected antineutrinos. It was found that the diversion of a signifi...

  5. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivek V Ranade


    Catalytic reactions are ubiquitous in chemical and allied industries. A homogeneous or heterogeneous catalyst which provides an alternative route of reaction with lower activation energy and better control on selectivity can make substantial impact on process viability and economics. Extensive studies have been conducted to establish sound basis for design and engineering of reactors for practising such catalytic reactions and for realizing improvements in reactor performance. In this article, application of recent (and not so recent) developments in engineering reactors for catalytic reactions is discussed. Some examples where performance enhancement was realized by catalyst design, appropriate choice of reactor, better injection and dispersion strategies and recent advances in process intensification/ multifunctional reactors are discussed to illustrate the approach.

  6. Unsteady processes in catalytic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matros, Yu.Sh.


    In recent years a realization has occurred that reaction and reactor dynamics must be considered when designing and operating catalytic reactors. In this book, the author has focussed on both the processes occurring on individual porous-catalyst particles as well as the phenomena displayed by collections of these particles in fixed-bed reactors. The major topics discussed include the effects of unsteady-state heat and mass transfer, the influence of inhomogeneities and stagnant regions in fixed beds, and reactor operation during forced cycling of operating conditions. Despite the title of the book, attention is also paid to the determination of the number and stability of fixed-bed steady states, with the aim of describing the possibility of controlling reactors at unstable steady states. However, this development is somewhat dated, given the recent literature on multiplicity phenomena and process control.

  7. A model of reactor kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, A.S.; Thompson, B.R.


    The analytical model of nuclear reactor transients, incorporating both mechanical and nuclear effects, simulates reactor kinetics. Linear analysis shows the stability borderline for small power perturbations. In a stable system, initial power disturbances die out with time. With an unstable combination of nuclear and mechanical characteristics, initial disturbances persist and may increase with time. With large instability, oscillations of great magnitude occur. Stability requirements set limits on the power density at which particular reactors can operate. The limiting power density depends largely on the product of two terms: the fraction of delayed neutrons and the frictional damping of vibratory motion in reactor core components. As the fraction of delayed neutrons is essentially fixed, mechanical damping largely determines the maximum power density. A computer program, based on the analytical model, calculates and plots reactor power as a nonlinear function of time in response to assigned values of mechanical and nuclear characteristics.

  8. Metallic fuels for advanced reactors (United States)

    Carmack, W. J.; Porter, D. L.; Chang, Y. I.; Hayes, S. L.; Meyer, M. K.; Burkes, D. E.; Lee, C. B.; Mizuno, T.; Delage, F.; Somers, J.


    In the framework of the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor Program, the Advanced Fuel Project has conducted an evaluation of the available fuel systems supporting future sodium cooled fast reactors. This paper presents an evaluation of metallic alloy fuels. Early US fast reactor developers originally favored metal alloy fuel due to its high fissile density and compatibility with sodium. The goal of fast reactor fuel development programs is to develop and qualify a nuclear fuel system that performs all of the functions of a conventional fast spectrum nuclear fuel while destroying recycled actinides. This will provide a mechanism for closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. Metal fuels are candidates for this application, based on documented performance of metallic fast reactor fuels and the early results of tests currently being conducted in US and international transmutation fuel development programs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Espinar Moreno


    Full Text Available El viaje realizado por Ibn Battuta a Egipto en 1326,  junto a otras visitas de este importante viajero, nos ha permitido obtener una serie de datos sobre la vida de los hombres que vivían en aque- llas tierras. Las descripciones de ciudades como Alejandría y El Cairo, además de otras poblaciones mas pequeiías, permiten conocer los caminos mas transitados, situación política, social y económica, monumentos más destacados, historia, personajes de la cultura, costumbres, tradiciones, leyendas, fiestas, papel del río  Nilo, productos industriales y de alimentación, precios, etc. En definitiva, este viajero nos ofrece una descripcion detallada de las tierras egipcias a mediados del siglo XIV.Palabras clave:Ibn Battuta; Viajeros de la Edad Media; Ciudades de Alejandría y  El Cairo; Civilización y cultura de la Edad Media;Résumé:Le voyage réalisé par Ibn Battuta llÉgypte en 1326, pres de d'autres visites de cet important voyageur, il nous a permis d'obtenir une série de notices sur la vie des hommes qu'ils vivaient dans ces terres. Les descriptions de villes cornme Alexandrie et Le Caire, en plus de d'autres populations mais petites, ils permettent de connaitre les chemins mais passés, situation politique, sociale et économique,monuments plus remarquables, historie, personnages de la culture, coutumes, traditions, légendes, fetes, papier du fleuve Nilo, produits industriels et d'alimentation, prix, etc. En définitive, ce voyageur nous offre une description détaillée des terres égyptiennes vers le milieu du siecle XIV.Mots Clé:Ibn Battuta; Voyageurs du Moyen Age; Villes d'Alexandrie et Le Caire; Civilisation et culture du Moyen Age;Abstract:The trip carried out by Ibn Battuta to Egypt in 1326, together with other visits of this important traveler, has allowed us to obtain a series of data about the life of the men living in those lands. The descriptions of cities like Alexandria and Cairo, besides other smalles populations

  10. 开罗贫民窟问题的解决对山西城市发展的借鉴意义%The significance of solving the problems in Cairo slum to Shanxi city development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 车效梅


    贫民窟是世界城市化进程中的普遍现象。埃及与中国同属发展中国家,又是中东阿拉伯世界最早实施"开放"政策的国家,其首都开罗贫民窟与山西城市棚户区在景观特征和社会特征方面呈现出相似性,在具体类型比较中差异明显,埃及政府在公共住房、搬迁安置以及贫民窟升级改造政策中的经验、教训,值得山西城市借鉴。%Slums is a common phenomenon in the process of urbanization.Both china and Egypt belong to the developing countries,and Egypt was the first country that carried out the opening policy in the middle east Arab Countries.Slums in the Cairo,the capital of Egypt,and shantytown in the main cities of Shanxi shows many similarities in the characteristics of Landscape and society.meanwhile there are many differences in a comparative study of concrete classification.By Comparing renovation measures in Shanxi and Cairo,the measures taken by Egyptian officials,including the public housing policy,the placement,and slum upgrading,also brought impact on slums renovation from which Shanxi government can learn something.

  11. Neutrino Experiments at Reactors (United States)

    Reines, F.; Gurr, H. S.; Jenkins, T. L.; Munsee, J. H.


    A description is given of the electron-antineutrino program using a large fission reactor. A search has been made for a neutral weak interaction via the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> p + n + electron antineutrino), the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> n + n + e{sup +}) has now been detected, and an effort is underway to observe the elastic scattering reaction (electron antineutrino + e{sup -} .> electron antineutrino + e{sup -}) as well as to measure more precisely the reaction (electron antineutrino + p .> n + e{sup+}). The upper limit on the elastic scattering reaction which we have obtained with our large composite NaI, plastic, liquid scintillation detector is now about 50 times the predicted value.

  12. Neutronic Reactor Shield (United States)

    Fermi, Enrico; Zinn, Walter H.

    The argument of the present Patent is a radiation shield suitable for protection of personnel from both gamma rays and neutrons. Such a shield from dangerous radiations is achieved to the best by the combined action of a neutron slowing material (a moderator) and a neutron absorbing material. Hydrogen is particularly effective for this shield since it is a good absorber of slow neutrons and a good moderator of fast neutrons. The neutrons slowed down by hydrogen may, then, be absorbed by other materials such as boron, cadmium, gadolinium, samarium or steel. Steel is particularly convenient for the purpose, given its effectiveness in absorbing also the gamma rays from the reactor (both primary gamma rays and secondary ones produced by the moderation of neutrons). In particular, in the present Patent a shield is described, made of alternate layers of steel and Masonite (an hydrolized ligno-cellulose material). The object of the present Patent is not discussed in any other published paper.

  13. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  14. Reactor service life extension program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.


    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  15. Reactor service life extension program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.


    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  16. Assessment of torsatrons as reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, J.F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Painter, S.L. (Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia))


    Stellarators have significant operational advantages over tokamaks as ignited steady-state reactors because stellarators have no dangerous disruptions and no need for continuous current drive or power recirculated to the plasma, both easing the first wall, blanket, and shield design; less severe constraints on the plasma parameters and profiles; and better access for maintenance. This study shows that a reactor based on the torsatron configuration (a stellarator variant) could also have up to double the mass utilization efficiency (MUE) and a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a conventional tokamak reactor (ARIES-I) for a range of assumptions. Torsatron reactors can have much smaller coil systems than tokamak reactors because the coils are closer to the plasma and they have a smaller cross section (higher average current density because of the lower magnetic field). The reactor optimization approach and the costing and component models are those used in the current stage of the ARIES-I tokamak reactor study. Typical reactor parameters for a 1-GW(e) Compact Torsatron reactor example are major radius R[sub 0] = 6.6-8.8 m, on-axis magnetic field B[sup 0] = 4.8-7.5 T, B[sub max] (on coils) = 16 T, MUE 140-210 kW(e)/tonne, and COE (in constant 1990 dollars) = 67-79 mill/kW(e)h. The results are relatively sensitive to assumptions on the level of confinement improvement and the blanket thickness under the inboard half of the helical windings but relatively insensitive to other assumptions.

  17. Concept for LEU Burst Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimpland, Robert Herbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Design and performance of a proposed LEU burst reactor are sketched. Salient conclusions reached are the following: size would be ~1,500 kg or greater, depending on the size of the central cavity; internal stresses during burst require split rings for relief; the reactor would likely require multiple control and safety rods for fine control; the energy spectrum would be comparable to that of HEU machines; and burst yields and steady-state power levels will be significantly greater in an LEU reactor.

  18. Nuclear reactor downcomer flow deflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Charles B. (Greensburg, PA); Altman, David A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singleton, Norman R. (Murrysville, PA)


    A nuclear reactor having a coolant flow deflector secured to a reactor core barrel in line with a coolant inlet nozzle. The flow deflector redirects incoming coolant down an annulus between the core barrel and the reactor vessel. The deflector has a main body with a front side facing the fluid inlet nozzle and a rear side facing the core barrel. The rear side of the main body has at least one protrusion secured to the core barrel so that a gap exists between the rear side of the main body adjacent the protrusion and the core barrel. Preferably, the protrusion is a relief that circumscribes the rear side of the main body.

  19. Safety of VVER-440 reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Slugen, Vladimir


    Safety of VVER-440 Reactors endeavours to promote an increase in the safety of VVER-440 nuclear reactors via the improvement of fission products limitation systems and the implementation of special non-destructive spectroscopic methods for materials testing. All theoretical and experimental studies performed the by author over the last 25 years have been undertaken with the aim of improving VVER-440 defence in depth, which is one of the most important principle for ensuring safety in nuclear power plants. Safety of VVER-440 Reactors is focused on the barrier system through which the safety pri

  20. Random processes in nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, M M R


    Random Processes in Nuclear Reactors describes the problems that a nuclear engineer may meet which involve random fluctuations and sets out in detail how they may be interpreted in terms of various models of the reactor system. Chapters set out to discuss topics on the origins of random processes and sources; the general technique to zero-power problems and bring out the basic effect of fission, and fluctuations in the lifetime of neutrons, on the measured response; the interpretation of power reactor noise; and associated problems connected with mechanical, hydraulic and thermal noise sources

  1. Fuel Fabrication and Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The uranium from the enrichment plant is still in the form of UF6. UF6 is not suitable for use in a reactor due to its highly corrosive chemistry as well as its phase diagram. UF6 is converted into UO2 fuel pellets, which are in turn placed in fuel rods and assemblies. Reactor designs are variable in moderators, coolants, fuel, performance etc.The dream of energy ‘too-cheap to meter’ is no more, and now the nuclear power industry is pushing ahead with advanced reactor designs.

  2. Nuclear reactor PBMR and cogeneration; Reactor nuclear PBMR y cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G., E-mail: [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    In recent years the nuclear reactor designs for the electricity generation have increased their costs, so that at the moment costs are managed of around the 5000 US D for installed kw, reason for which a big nuclear plant requires of investments of the order of billions of dollars, the designed reactors as modular of low power seek to lighten the initial investment of a big reactor dividing the power in parts and dividing in modules the components to lower the production costs, this way it can begin to build a module and finished this to build other, differing the long term investment, getting less risk therefore in the investment. On the other hand the reactors of low power can be very useful in regions where is difficult to have access to the electric net being able to take advantage of the thermal energy of the reactor to feed other processes like the water desalination or the vapor generation for the processes industry like the petrochemical, or even more the possible hydrogen production to be used as fuel. In this work the possibility to generate vapor of high quality for the petrochemical industry is described using a spheres bed reactor of high temperature. (Author)

  3. FASTER test reactor preconceptual design report summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Belch, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohamed, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Passerini, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hayes, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The FASTER reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav K. Mayevski


    Full Text Available This paper describes a mathematical model of an industrial chemical reactor for production of synthetic rubber. During reactor operation the model parameters vary considerably. To create a control algorithm performed transformation of mathematical model of the reactor in order to obtain a dependency that can be used to determine the model parameters are changing during reactor operation.

  5. FASTER Test Reactor Preconceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Belch, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohamed, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Passerini, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hayes, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The FASTER test reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  6. Breeder Reactors, Understanding the Atom Series. (United States)

    Mitchell, Walter, III; Turner, Stanley E.

    The theory of breeder reactors in relationship to a discussion of fission is presented. Different kinds of reactors are characterized by the cooling fluids used, such as liquid metal, gas, and molten salt. The historical development of breeder reactors over the past twenty-five years includes specific examples of reactors. The location and a brief…

  7. Evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, G.A.; Logan, B.G.


    We discuss the evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept from the original conceptual reactor design (1977) through the first application of the thermal barrier concept to a reactor design (1979) to the beginning of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (1982).

  8. Jules Horowitz Reactor, basic design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, Y.; Bouilloux, Y.; Chantoin, P.; Guigon, B.; Bravo, X.; Germain, C.; Rommens, M.; Tremodeux, P


    Since the shutdown of the SILOE reactor in 1997, the OSIRIS reactor has ensured the needs regarding technological irradiation at CEA including those of its industrial partners and customers. The Jules Horowitz Reactor will replace it. It has the ambition to provide the necessary nuclear data and maintain a fission research capacity in Europe after 2010. This capacity should be service-oriented. It will be established in Cadarache. The Jules Horowitz reactor will also: - represent a significant step in term of performances and experimental capabilities, - be designed with a high flexibility, in order to satisfy the current demand from European industry, research and be able to accommodate future requirements, - reach a high level of safety, according to the best current practice. This paper will present the main functionalities and the design options resulting from the 'preliminary design' studies. (authors)

  9. Advanced Catalytic Hydrogenation Retrofit Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinaldo M. Machado


    Industrial hydrogenation is often performed using a slurry catalyst in large stirred-tank reactors. These systems are inherently problematic in a number of areas, including industrial hygiene, process safety, environmental contamination, waste production, process operability and productivity. This program proposed the development of a practical replacement for the slurry catalysts using a novel fixed-bed monolith catalyst reactor, which could be retrofitted onto an existing stirred-tank reactor and would mitigate many of the minitations and problems associated with slurry catalysts. The full retrofit monolith system, consisting of a recirculation pump, gas/liquid ejector and monolith catalyst, is described as a monolith loop reactor or MLR. The MLR technology can reduce waste and increase raw material efficiency, which reduces the overall energy required to produce specialty and fine chemicals.

  10. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the Phase 1 effort was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) Reactor concept. Unlike...

  11. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Hunter, C.H.; Marter, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.


    This volume is a reactor operation environmental information document for the Savannah River Plant. Topics include meteorology, surface hydrology, transport, environmental impacts, and radiation effects. 48 figs., 56 tabs. (KD)

  12. Unique features of space reactors (United States)

    Buden, David

    Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K.

  13. Thermal Analysis for Mobile Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>Mobile reactor design in the paper is consisted of two grades of thermal electric conversion. The first grade is the thermionic conversion inside the core and the second grade is thermocouple conversion

  14. Teaching About Nature's Nuclear Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J M


    Naturally occurring nuclear reactors existed in uranium deposits on Earth long before Enrico Fermi built the first man-made nuclear reactor beneath Staggs Field in 1942. In the story of their discovery, there are important lessons to be learned about scientific inquiry and scientific discovery. Now, there is evidence to suggest that the Earth's magnetic field and Jupiter's atmospheric turbulence are driven by planetary-scale nuclear reactors. The subject of planetocentric nuclear fission reactors can be a jumping off point for stimulating classroom discussions about the nature and implications of planetary energy sources and about the geomagnetic field. But more importantly, the subject can help to bring into focus the importance of discussing, debating, and challenging current thinking in a variety of areas.

  15. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) reactor to efficiently extract oxygen from lunar regolith. Unlike state-of-the-art carbothermal...

  16. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.


    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  17. Microchannel Reactors for ISRU Applications (United States)

    Carranza, Susana; Makel, Darby B.; Blizman, Brandon; Ward, Benjamin J.


    Affordable planning and execution of prolonged manned space missions depend upon the utilization of local resources and the waste products which are formed in manned spacecraft and surface bases. Successful in-situ resources utilization (ISRU) will require component technologies which provide optimal size, weight, volume, and power efficiency. Microchannel reactors enable the efficient chemical processing of in situ resources. The reactors can be designed for the processes that generate the most benefit for each mission. For instance, propellants (methane) can be produced from carbon dioxide from the Mars atmosphere using the Sabatier reaction and ethylene can be produced from the partial oxidation of methane. A system that synthesizes ethylene could be the precursor for systems to synthesize ethanol and polyethylene. Ethanol can be used as a nutrient for Astrobiology experiments, as well as the production of nutrients for human crew (e.g. sugars). Polyethylene can be used in the construction of habitats, tools, and replacement parts. This paper will present recent developments in miniature chemical reactors using advanced Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and microchannel technology to support ISRU of Mars and lunar missions. Among other applications, the technology has been demonstrated for the Sabatier process and for the partial oxidation of methane. Microchannel reactors were developed based on ceramic substrates as well as metal substrates. In both types of reactors, multiple layers coated with catalytic material are bonded, forming a monolithic structure. Such reactors are readily scalable with the incorporation of extra layers. In addition, this reactor structure minimizes pressure drop and catalyst settling, which are common problems in conventional packed bed reactors.

  18. Reactor antineutrinos and nuclear physics (United States)

    Balantekin, A. B.


    Short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments successfully measured the neutrino parameters they set out to measure, but they also identified a shape distortion in the 5-7 MeV range as well as a reduction from the predicted value of the flux. Nuclear physics input into the calculations of reactor antineutrino spectra needs to be better refined if this anomaly is to be interpreted as due to sterile neutrino states.

  19. Reactor Simulator Testing (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise J.


    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  20. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD


    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  1. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwashige, Kengo


    In an LMFBR type reactor, partitions are disposed to a coolant channel at positions lower than the free liquid level, and the width of the partitions is adapted to have a predetermined condition. Namely, when low temperature fluid overflowing the wall of the coolant channel, flows down and collided against the free liquid surface in the coolant channel, since the dropping speed thereof is reduced abruptly, large pressure waves are caused by kinetic force of the low temperature fluid. However, if appropriate numbers of partitions having an appropriate shape are formed, the dropping speed of the low temperature fluid is moderated to reduce the pressure waves. In addition, since the pressure waves are dispersed to the circumferential and lateral directions of the coolant flow channel respectively, the propagation of the pressure waves can be prevented effectively. Further, when the flow of the low temperature fluid is changed to the circumferential direction, for example, by earthquakes, since the partitions act as members resisting against the circumferential change of the low temperature fluid, the change of the direction can be suppressed. (N.H.)

  2. Calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra in TEXONO

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Dong Liang; Mao Ze Pu; Wong, T H


    In the low energy reactor antineutrino physics experiments, either for the researches of antineutrino oscillation and antineutrino reactions, or for the measurement of abnormal magnetic moment of antineutrino, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino must be described accurately. The method of calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra was discussed in detail. Furthermore, based on the actual circumstances of NP2 reactors and the arrangement of detectors, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino in TEXONO were worked out

  3. Tritium management in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, T.R.


    This is a review paper covering the key environmental and safety issues and how they have been handled in the various magnetic and inertial confinement concepts and reference designs. The issues treated include: tritium accident analyses, tritium process control, occupational safety, HTO formation rate from the gas-phase, disposal of tritium contaminated wastes, and environmental impact--each covering the Joint European Tokamak (J.E.T. experiment), Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), Russian T-20, The Next Step (TNS) designs by Westinghouse/ORNL and General Atomic/ANL, the ANL and ORNL EPR's, the G.A. Doublet Demonstration Reactor, the Italian Fintor-D and the ORNL Demo Studies. There are also the following full scale plant reference designs: UWMAK-III, LASL's Theta Pinch Reactor Design (RTPR), Mirror Fusion Reactor (MFR), Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR), and the Mirror Hybrid Reactor (MHR). There are four laser device breakeven experiments, SHIVA-NOVA, LLL reference designs, ORNL Laser Fusion power plant, the German ''Saturn,'' and LLL's Laser Fusion EPR I and II.

  4. Innovative hybrid biological reactors using membranes; Reactores biologico hibrido innovadores utilizando membranas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, R.; Esteban-Garcia, A. L.; Florio, L. de; Rodriguez-Hernandez, L.; Tejero, I.


    In this paper we present two lines of research on hybrid reactors including the use of membranes, although with different functions: RBPM, biofilm reactors and membranes filtration RBSOM, supported biofilm reactors and oxygen membranes. (Author) 14 refs.

  5. Establishment of licensing process for development reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik (and others)


    A study on licensing processes for development reactors has been performed to prepare the licensing of development reactors developed in Korea. The contents and results of the study are summarized as follows. The licensing processes for nuclear reactors in Korea, U.S.A., Japan, France, U.K., Canada, and IAEA were surveyed and analyzed to obtain technical bases necessary for establishing licensing processes applicable to development reactors in Korea. Based on the technical bases obtained the above analysis, the purpose, power output, and design characteristics of development reactors were analyzed in detail. The analysis results suggested that development reactors should be classified as a new reactor category (called as 'development reactor') separated from the current reactor categories such as the research reactor and the power reactor. Therefore, it is proposed to establish a new reactor category classified as 'development reactor' for the development reactors. And licensing processes, including licensing technical requirements, licensing document requirements, and other regulatory requirements, were also proposed for the development reactors. In order to institutionalize the licensing processes developed in this study, it is necessary to revise the current laws. Therefore, draft provisions of Atomic Energy Act, Enforcement Decree of the Atomic Energy Act, and Enforcement Regulation of the Atomic Energy Act have been developed for the preparation of the future legalization of the licensing processes proposed for the development reactors. Conclusively, a proposal of licensing processes and draft provisions of laws have been developed for the development reactors. The results proposed in this study can be applied directly to the licensing of the future development reactors. Furthermore, they will also contribute to establishing successfully the licensing processes of the development reactors.

  6. Repairing liner of the reactor; Reparacion del liner del reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    Due to the corrosion problems of the aluminum coating of the reactor pool, a periodic inspections program by ultrasound to evaluate the advance grade and the corrosion speed was settled down. This inspections have shown the necessity to repair some areas, in those that the slimming is significant, of not making it can arrive to the water escape of the reactor pool. The objective of the repair is to place patches of plates of 1/4 inch aluminum thickness in the areas of the reactor 'liner', in those that it has been detected by ultrasound a smaller thickness or similar to 3 mm. To carry out this the fuels are move (of the core and those that are decaying) to a temporary storage, the structure of the core is confined in a tank that this placed inside the pool of the reactor, a shield is placed in the thermal column and it is completely extracted the water for to leave uncover the 'liner' of the reactor. (Author)

  7. Reactor Simulator Testing (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise Jon


    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz. Keywords: fission, space power, nuclear, liquid metal, NaK.

  8. Reactivity determination in accelerator driven reactors using reactor noise analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Ljiljana 1


    Full Text Available Feynman-alpha and Rossi-alpha methods are used in traditional nuclear reactors to determine the subcritical reactivity of a system. The methods are based on the measurement of the mean value, variance and the covariance of detector counts for different measurement times. Such methods attracted renewed attention recently with the advent of the so-called accelerator driven reactors (ADS proposed some time ago. The ADS systems, intended to be used either in energy generation or transuranium transmutation, will use a subcritical core with a strong spallation source. A spallation source has statistical properties that are different from those traditionally used by radioactive sources. In such reactors the monitoring of the subcritical reactivity is very important, and a statistical method, such as the Feynman-alpha method, is capable of resolving this problem.

  9. Heterogeneous Transmutation Sodium Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. E. Bays


    The threshold-fission (fertile) nature of Am-241 is used to destroy this minor actinide by capitalizing upon neutron capture instead of fission within a sodium fast reactor. This neutron-capture and its subsequent decay chain leads to the breeding of even neutron number plutonium isotopes. A slightly moderated target design is proposed for breeding plutonium in an axial blanket located above the active “fast reactor” driver fuel region. A parametric study on the core height and fuel pin diameter-to-pitch ratio is used to explore the reactor and fuel cycle aspects of this design. This study resulted in both non-flattened and flattened core geometries. Both of these designs demonstrated a high capacity for removing americium from the fuel cycle. A reactivity coefficient analysis revealed that this heterogeneous design will have comparable safety aspects to a homogeneous reactor of comparable size. A mass balance analysis revealed that the heterogeneous design may reduce the number of fast reactors needed to close the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle.

  10. Thermonuclear Reflect AB-Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander


    The author offers a new kind of thermonuclear reflect reactor. The remarkable feature of this new reactor is a three net AB reflector, which confines the high temperature plasma. The plasma loses part of its energy when it contacts with the net but this loss can be compensated by an additional permanent plasma heating. When the plasma is rarefied (has a small density), the heat flow to the AB reflector is not large and the temperature in the triple reflector net is lower than 2000 - 3000 K. This offered AB-reactor has significantly less power then the currently contemplated power reactors with magnetic or inertial confinement (hundreds-thousands of kW, not millions of kW). But it is enough for many vehicles and ships and particularly valuable for tunnelers, subs and space apparatus, where air to burn chemical fuel is at a premium or simply not available. The author has made a number of innovations in this reactor, researched its theory, developed methods of computation, made a sample computation of typical pr...

  11. Imaging Fukushima Daiichi reactors with muons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruo Miyadera


    Full Text Available A study of imaging the Fukushima Daiichi reactors with cosmic-ray muons to assess the damage to the reactors is presented. Muon scattering imaging has high sensitivity for detecting uranium fuel and debris even through thick concrete walls and a reactor pressure vessel. Technical demonstrations using a reactor mockup, detector radiation test at Fukushima Daiichi, and simulation studies have been carried out. These studies establish feasibility for the reactor imaging. A few months of measurement will reveal the spatial distribution of the reactor fuel. The muon scattering technique would be the best and probably the only way for Fukushima Daiichi to make this determination in the near future.

  12. Fast breeder reactors an engineering introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, A M


    Fast Breeder Reactors: An Engineering Introduction is an introductory text to fast breeder reactors and covers topics ranging from reactor physics and design to engineering and safety considerations. Reactor fuels, coolant circuits, steam plants, and control systems are also discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with a brief summary of the history of fast reactors, with emphasis on international and the prospect of making accessible enormous reserves of energy. The next chapter deals with the physics of fast reactors and considers calculation methods, flux distribution,

  13. Plasma reactor waste management systems (United States)

    Ness, Robert O., Jr.; Rindt, John R.; Ness, Sumitra R.


    The University of North Dakota is developing a plasma reactor system for use in closed-loop processing that includes biological, materials, manufacturing, and waste processing. Direct-current, high-frequency, or microwave discharges will be used to produce plasmas for the treatment of materials. The plasma reactors offer several advantages over other systems, including low operating temperatures, low operating pressures, mechanical simplicity, and relatively safe operation. Human fecal material, sunflowers, oats, soybeans, and plastic were oxidized in a batch plasma reactor. Over 98 percent of the organic material was converted to gaseous products. The solids were then analyzed and a large amount of water and acid-soluble materials were detected. These materials could possibly be used as nutrients for biological systems.

  14. Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Chavez-Mercado; Jaime B. Morales-Sandoval; Benjamin E. Zayas-Perez


    The Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory (NREAL) is a sophisticated computer system with state-of-the-art analytical tools and technology for analysis of light water reactors. Multiple application software tools can be activated to carry out different analyses and studies such as nuclear fuel reload evaluation, safety operation margin measurement, transient and severe accident analysis, nuclear reactor instability, operator training, normal and emergency procedures optimization, and human factors engineering studies. An advanced graphic interface, driven through touch-sensitive screens, provides the means to interact with specialized software and nuclear codes. The interface allows the visualization and control of all observable variables in a nuclear power plant (NPP), as well as a selected set of nonobservable or not directly controllable variables from conventional control panels.

  15. Utilisation of thorium in reactors (United States)

    Anantharaman, K.; Shivakumar, V.; Saha, D.


    India's nuclear programme envisages a large-scale utilisation of thorium, as it has limited deposits of uranium but vast deposits of thorium. The large-scale utilisation of thorium requires the adoption of closed fuel cycle. The stable nature of thoria and the radiological issues associated with thoria poses challenges in the adoption of a closed fuel cycle. A thorium fuel based Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is being planned to provide impetus to development of technologies for the closed thorium fuel cycle. Thoria fuel has been loaded in Indian reactors and test irradiations have been carried out with (Th-Pu) MOX fuel. Irradiated thorium assemblies have been reprocessed and the separated 233U fuel has been used for test reactor KAMINI. The paper highlights the Indian experience with the use of thorium and brings out various issues associated with the thorium cycle.

  16. A tubular focused sonochemistry reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU GuangPing; LIANG ZhaoFeng; LI ZhengZhong; ZHANG YiHui


    This paper presents a new sonochemistry reactor, which consists of a cylindrical tube with a certain length and piezoelectric transducers at tube's end with the longitudinal vibration. The tube can effectively transform the longitudinal vibration into the radial vibration and thereby generates ultrasound. Furthermore, ultrasound can be focused to form high-intensity ultrasonic field inside tube. The reactor boasts of simple structure and its whole vessel wall can radiate ultrasound so that the electroacoustic transfer efficiency is high. The focused ultrasonic field provides good condition for sonochemical reaction. The length of the reactor can be up to 2 meters, and liquids can pass through it continuously, so it can be widely applied in liquid processing such as sonochemistry.

  17. A compact Tokamak transmutation reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuLi-Jian; XiaoBing-Jia


    The low aspect ration tokamak is proposed for the driver of a transmutation reactor.The main parameters of the reactor core,neutronic analysis of the blanket are given>the neutron wall loading can be lowered from the magnitude order of 1 MW/m2 to 0.5MW/m2 which is much easier to reach in the near future,and the transmutation efficiency (fission/absorption ratio)is raised further.The blanket power density is about 200MW/m3 which is not difficult to deal with.The key components such as diverter and center conductor post are also designed and compared with conventional TOkamak,Finally,by comparison with the other drivers such as FBR,PWR and accelerator,it can be anticipated that the low aspect ratio transmutation reactor would be one way of fusion energy applications in the near future.

  18. Investigation of KW reactor incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturges, D G [USAEC Hanford Operations Office, Richland, WA (United States); Hauff, T W; Greager, O H [General Electric Co., Richland, WA (United States). Hanford Atomic Products Operation


    The new KW reactor was placed in operation on January 4, 1955, and had been running at relatively low power levels for only 17 hours when it was shut down because of a process tube water leak which appeared to be associated with a slug rupture. After several days of unrewarding effort to remove the slugs and tube by customary methods, it developed that considerable melting of the tube and slugs had taken place. It was then evident that removal of the stuck mass and repairs to the damaged tube channel would require unusual measures that were certain to extend the reactor outage for several weeks. This report documents the work and findings of the Committee which investigated the KW reactor incident. Its content represents unanimous agreement among the three Committee members.

  19. Fundamentals of Nuclear Reactor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, E E


    This new streamlined text offers a one-semester treatment of the essentials of how the fission nuclear reactor works, the various approaches to the design of reactors, and their safe and efficient operation. The book includes numerous worked-out examples and end-of-chapter questions to help reinforce the knowledge presented. This textbook offers an engineering-oriented introduction to nuclear physics, with a particular focus on how those physics are put to work in the service of generating nuclear-based power, particularly the importance of neutron reactions and neutron behavior. Engin

  20. PITR: Princeton Ignition Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The principal objectives of the PITR - Princeton Ignition Test Reactor - are to demonstrate the attainment of thermonuclear ignition in deuterium-tritium, and to develop optimal start-up techniques for plasma heating and current induction, in order to determine the most favorable means of reducing the size and cost of tokamak power reactors. This report describes the status of the plasma and engineering design features of the PITR. The PITR geometry is chosen to provide the highest MHD-stable values of beta in a D-shaped plasma, as well as ease of access for remote handling and neutral-beam injection.

  1. Analysis of Adiabatic Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erald Gjonaj


    Full Text Available A mixture of acetic anhydride is reacted with excess water in an adiabatic batch reactor to form an exothermic reaction. The concentration of acetic anhydride and the temperature inside the adiabatic batch reactor are calculated with an initial temperature of 20°C, an initial temperature of 30°C, and with a cooling jacket maintaining the temperature at a constant of 20°C. The graphs of the three different scenarios show that the highest temperatures will cause the reaction to occur faster.

  2. External fuel thermionic reactor system. (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Peelgren, M. L.


    Thermionic reactors are prime candidates for nuclear electric propulsion. The national thermionic reactor effort is concentrated on the flashlight concept with the external-fuel concept as the backup. The external-fuel concept is very adaptable to a completely modular power subsystem which is attractive for highly reliable long-life applications. The 20- to 25-cm long, externally-fueled converters have been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested with many thermal cycles by electrical heating. However, difficulties have been encountered during encapsulation for nuclear heated tests and none have been started to date. These nuclear tests are required to demonstrate the concept feasibility.

  3. Reactor shutdown delays medical procedures (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter


    A longer-than-expected maintenance shutdown of the Canadian nuclear reactor that produces North America's entire supply of molybdenum-99 - from which the radioactive isotopes technetium-99 and iodine-131 are made - caused delays to the diagnosis and treatment of thousands of seriously ill patients last month. Technetium-99 is a key component of nuclear-medicine scans, while iodine-131 is used to treat cancer and other diseases of the thyroid. Production eventually resumed, but only after the Canadian government had overruled the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), which was still concerned about the reactor's safety.

  4. Request for Naval Reactors Comment on Proposed Prometheus Space Flight Nuclear Reactor High Tier Reactor Safety Requirements and for Naval Reactors Approval to Transmit These Requirements to JPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Kokkinos


    The purpose of this letter is to request Naval Reactors comments on the nuclear reactor high tier requirements for the PROMETHEUS space flight reactor design, pre-launch operations, launch, ascent, operation, and disposal, and to request Naval Reactors approval to transmit these requirements to Jet Propulsion Laboratory to ensure consistency between the reactor safety requirements and the spacecraft safety requirements. The proposed PROMETHEUS nuclear reactor high tier safety requirements are consistent with the long standing safety culture of the Naval Reactors Program and its commitment to protecting the health and safety of the public and the environment. In addition, the philosophy on which these requirements are based is consistent with the Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group recommendations on space nuclear propulsion safety (Reference 1), DOE Nuclear Safety Criteria and Specifications for Space Nuclear Reactors (Reference 2), the Nuclear Space Power Safety and Facility Guidelines Study of the Applied Physics Laboratory.

  5. Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.V.; Johnson, A.G.; Bennett, S.L.; Ringle, J.C.


    The use of the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor during the year ending June 30, 1979, is summarized. Environmental and radiation protection data related to reactor operation and effluents are included.

  6. Reactor Antineutrino Signals at Morton and Boulby

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, Steve


    Increasing the distance from which an antineutrino detector is capable of monitoring the operation of a registered reactor, or discovering a clandestine reactor, strengthens the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty. This report presents calculations of reactor antineutrino interactions, from quasi-elastic neutrino-proton scattering and elastic neutrino-electron scattering, in a water-based detector operated >10 km from a commercial power reactor. It separately calculates signal from the proximal reactor and background from all other registered reactors. The main results are interaction rates and kinetic energy distributions of charged leptons scattered from quasi-elastic and elastic processes. Comparing signal and background distributions evaluates reactor monitoring capability. Scaling the results to detectors of different sizes, target media, and standoff distances is straightforward. Calculations are for two examples of a commercial reactor (P_th~3 GW) operating nearby (L~20 km) an underground facil...

  7. Efectos psicopatológicos del conflicto armado Colombiano en familias en situación de desplazamiento forzado reasentadas en el municipio del Cairo en el año 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alonso Andrade Salazar


    Full Text Available Este trabajo busca tipificar las patologías en salud mental prevalentes en 36 familias desplazadas por el conflicto armado y reasentadas en el Municipio del Cairo - Valle en el año 2008; para ello se utilizaron, la escala auto aplicada para la medida de la depresión de Zung y Conde, el Cuestionario de Trastorno de humor (MDQ, y la escala de Trauma Davidson (DTS, que tipifica los síntomas del trastorno por estrés postraumático (TEPT. Los resultados mostraron la presencia de depresión leve (20%, moderada (60% «Mayor en las mujeres», y depresión grave (30%, con una relación en cuanto a género de dos mujeres por un hombre. Se encontró que el 100% de la población presenta indicadores de Trastorno por Estrés Postraumático, con una gravedad extrema del 50% y moderada del 40%. Respecto al Trastorno Bipolar el 65% fue un posible caso, el 5% casos concretos y el 30% no presenta el trastorno. Los datos indican que las secuelas psicológicas del conflicto perduran en las poblaciones «especialmente en las mujeres», constituyéndose en cuadro psicopatológicos comórbidos aun cuando disminuya la inseguridad del entorno.

  8. The 4th Euro-Mediterranean Conference of Natural Products and Drug Discovery: Back to Mother Nature (BioNat-IV, Cairo/Sharm El-Sheikh, Egypt, March 3–7, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf A. Khalil


    Full Text Available The 4th Euro-Mediterranean Conference of Natural Products and Drug Discovery: Back to Mother Nature (BioNat-IV was recently (from March 3rd through 7th, 2015 convened in Cairo and Sharm El-Sheikh along the Red Sea coast of Egypt. Overall, the meeting provided a platform for scientists from different nations to discuss emerging ideas that focused on cell signaling in cancer; the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases; the identification and use of natural products as well as novel drug delivery approaches for the treatment of cancer, arthritis, diabetes, tuberculosis, fungal infection, etc.; and untapped or unconventional sources for natural products. This fourth in a row conference tried to bridge the gap not only between basic research and clinical applications, but also between developed nations and developing countries. With the continuing success of these past meetings, the fifth Euro-Mediterranean Conference of Natural Products and Drug Discovery (BioNat-V is slated to be in February 2017.

  9. Al-qarāfa, la Città dei Morti del Cairo. Il circuito delle sette tombe sacre - Al-Qarāfa: the pilgrimage to the holy seven tombs in Cairene Muslim cemetery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tozzi Di Marco


    Full Text Available A key aspect of al-Qarāfa, the Muslim inhabitated cemetery in Cairo is the devotion to seven ancient sacred tombs and its relative pilgrimage. The Cairene graveyard was renowned for the local and interregional pilgrimages because of its high concentration of awliyā’s graves (literally friends of God, as holders of baraka, the divine grace. In particular, in the XIII century the famous circuit of the Seven tombs was formalized by the shaykh al- Fārsī who, according to the scholar El Kadi, also called it “pilgrimage of the seven sleepers”. Hence the multitude of Muslim pilgrims who spent the night on the holy spot without taking into account the social code about the separation between sexes. Nowadays some mausoleums of the circuit have disappeared and local people have no memories of them, whereas the most renowned holy men’ tombs are still venerated by a large crowd of devotees, even if the nightly practice of incubation is missing. The author, in considering the scholars’ studies on this issue, explores the current veneration and the contemporary pilgrims’ pattern of habits, comparing it with the Medieval ones.

  10. Transmutation of actinides in power reactors. (United States)

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V


    Power reactors can be used for partial short-term transmutation of radwaste. This transmutation is beneficial in terms of subsequent storage conditions for spent fuel in long-term storage facilities. CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides.

  11. Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (LEFR) is a modular, lab scale, single-user reactor for the study of catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP). This system can be employed to study a variety of reactor conditions for both in situ and ex situ CFP.

  12. Some new viewpoints in reactor noise analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗征培; 李富; 等


    It is propsed that the linearity criterion and order criterion via frequency spectrum features without any limitation of the model's phase can be used in reactor noise analysis.The time constant,natural frequency as well as the recovered transfer function of reactors can bhe obtained via the analyzable model based on reactor noise.

  13. Heat-pipe thermionic reactor concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm Pedersen, E.


    Main components are reactor core, heat pipe, thermionic converter, secondary cooling system, and waste heat radiator; thermal power generated in reactor core is transported by heat pipes to thermionic converters located outside reactor core behind radiation shield; thermionic emitters are in direct...

  14. Heavy Water Reactor; Reacteurs a eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, St.; HOpwood, J.; Meneley, D. [Energie Atomique du Canada (Canada)


    This document deals with the Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) technology and especially the Candu (Canada Deuterium Uranium) reactor. This reactors type offers many advantages that promote them for the future. General concepts, a description of the Candu nuclear power plants, the safety systems, the fuel cycle and economical and environmental aspects are included. (A.L.B.)

  15. Operating Modes Of Chemical Reactors Of Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meruyert Berdieva


    Full Text Available In the work the issues of stable technological modes of operation of main devices of producing polysterol reactors have been researched as well as modes of stable operation of a chemical reactor have been presented, which enables to create optimum mode parameters of polymerization process, to prevent emergency situations of chemical reactor operation in industrial conditions.

  16. Nuclear Reactors and Technology; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)


    Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on EDB and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to EDB, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user's needs.

  17. A Simple Tubular Reactor Experiment. (United States)

    Hudgins, Robert R.; Cayrol, Bertrand


    Using the hydrolysis of crystal violet dye by sodium hydroxide as an example, the theory, apparatus, and procedure for a laboratory demonstration of tubular reactor behavior are described. The reaction presented can occur at room temperature and features a color change to reinforce measured results. (WB)

  18. Silica-Immobilized Enzyme Reactors (United States)


    immobilized artificial membrane chromatography and lysophospholipid micellar electrokinetic chromatography . J. Chromatogr. A 1998, 810, 95-103. 50...Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies. Air Force Research Laboratory Materials and Manufacturing Directorate Airbase...immobilized enzyme reactors (IMERs) can also be integrated directly to further analytical methods such as liquid chromatography or mass spectrometry.[6] In

  19. British high flux beam reactor. (United States)

    Egelstaff, P A


    The neutron scattering technique has become an accepted method for the study of condensed matter. Because of the great scientific and technical value of neutron experiments and the growing body of users, several proposals have been made during the past decade for a nuclear reactor devoted primarily to this technique. This article reviews the reasons for and history behind these proposals.

  20. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of IPEN produces nuclear fuel for the continuous operation of the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN. The serial production started in 1988, when the first nuclear fuel element was delivered for IEA-R1. In 2011, CCN proudly presents the 100{sup th} nuclear fuel element produced. Besides routine production, development of new technologies is also a permanent concern at CCN. In 2005, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were replaced by U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-based fuels, and the research of U Mo is currently under investigation. Additionally, the Brazilian Multipurpose Research Reactor (RMB), whose project will rely on the CCN for supplying fuel and uranium targets. Evolving from an annual production from 10 to 70 nuclear fuel elements, plus a thousand uranium targets, is a huge and challenging task. To accomplish it, a new and modern Nuclear Fuel Factory is being concluded, and it will provide not only structure for scaling up, but also a safer and greener production. The Nuclear Engineering Center has shown, along several years, expertise in the field of nuclear, energy systems and correlated areas. Due to the experience obtained during decades in research and technological development at Brazilian Nuclear Program, personnel has been trained and started to actively participate in design of the main system that will compose the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) which will make Brazil self-sufficient in production of radiopharmaceuticals. The institution has participated in the monitoring and technical support concerning the safety, licensing and modernization of the research reactors IPEN/MB-01 and IEA-R1. Along the last two decades, numerous specialized services of engineering for the Brazilian nuclear power plants Angra 1 and Angra 2 have been carried out. The contribution in service, research, training, and teaching in addition to the development of many related technologies applied to nuclear engineering and correlated areas enable the institution to

  1. Heterogeneous Recycling in Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forget, Benoit; Pope, Michael; Piet, Steven J.; Driscoll, Michael


    Current sodium fast reactor (SFR) designs have avoided the use of depleted uranium blankets over concerns of creating weapons grade plutonium. While reducing proliferation risks, this restrains the reactor design space considerably. This project will analyze various blanket and transmutation target configurations that could broaden the design space while still addressing the non-proliferation issues. The blanket designs will be assessed based on the transmutation efficiency of key minor actinide (MA) isotopes and also on mitigation of associated proliferation risks. This study will also evaluate SFR core performance under different scenarios in which depleted uranium blankets are modified to include minor actinides with or without moderators (e.g. BeO, MgO, B4C, and hydrides). This will be done in an effort to increase the sustainability of the reactor and increase its power density while still offering a proliferation resistant design with the capability of burning MA waste produced from light water reactors (LWRs). Researchers will also analyze the use of recycled (as opposed to depleted) uranium in the blankets. The various designs will compare MA transmutation efficiency, plutonium breeding characteristics, proliferation risk, shutdown margins and reactivity coefficients with a current reference sodium fast reactor design employing homogeneous recycling. The team will also evaluate the out-of-core accumulation and/or burn-down rates of MAs and plutonium isotopes on a cycle-by-cycle basis. This cycle-by-cycle information will be produced in a format readily usable by the fuel cycle systems analysis code, VISION, for assessment of the sustainability of the deployment scenarios.

  2. A new MTR fuel for a new MTR reactor: UMo for the Jules Horowitz reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guigon, B. [CEA Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Vacelet, H. [CERCA, Romans (France); Dornbusch, D. [Technicatome, Aix en Provence (France)


    Within some years, the Jules Horowitz Reactor will be the only working experimental reactor (material and fuel testing reactor) in France. It will have to provide facilities for a wide range of needs from activation analysis to power reactor fuel qualification. In this paper the main characteristics of the Jules Horowitz Reactor are presented. Safety criteria are explained. Finally, merits and disadvantages of UMo compared to the standard U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel are discussed. (author)

  3. Neutrino Mixing Discriminates Geo-reactor Models

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, S T


    Geo-reactor models suggest the existence of natural nuclear reactors at different deep-earth locations with loosely defined output power. Reactor fission products undergo beta decay with the emission of electron antineutrinos, which routinely escape the earth. Neutrino mixing distorts the energy spectrum of the electron antineutrinos. Characteristics of the distorted spectrum observed at the earth's surface could specify the location of a geo-reactor, discriminating the models and facilitating more precise power measurement. The existence of a geo-reactor with known position could enable a precision measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameter delta-mass-squared.

  4. Reactor monitoring and safeguards using antineutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bowden, N S


    Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these very weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactors, as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway across the globe.

  5. Reactor assessments of advanced bumpy torus configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, N.A.; Owen, L.W.; Spong, D.A.; Miller, R.L.; Ard, W.B.; Pipkins, J.F.; Schmitt, R.J.


    Recently, several configurational approaches and concept improvement schemes were introduced for enhancing the performance of the basic ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) concept and for improving its reactor potential. These configurations include planar racetrack and square geometries, Andreoletti coil systems, and bumpy torus-stellarator hybrids (which include twisted racetrack and helical axis stellarator-snakey torus). Preliminary evaluations of reactor implications of each of these configurations have been carried out based on magnetics (vacuum) calculations, transport and scaling relationships, and stability properties. Results indicate favorable reactor projections with a significant reduction in reactor physical size as compared to conventional EBT reactor designs carried out in the past.

  6. Detection of antineutrinos for reactor monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong Duk [Center for Underground Physics, Institute of Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Reactor neutrinos have been detected in the past 50 years by various detectors for different purposes. Beginning in the 1980s, neutrino physicists have tried to use neutrinos to monitor reactors and develop an optimized detector for nuclear safeguards. Recently, motivated by neutrino oscillation physics, the technology and scale of reactor neutrino detection have progressed considerably. In this review, I will give an overview of the detection technology for reactor neutrinos, and describe the issues related to further improvements in optimized detectors for reactor monitoring.

  7. CFD Simulation on Ethylene Furnace Reactor Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Different mathematical models for ethylene furnace reactor tubes were reviewed. On the basis of these models a new mathematical simulation approach for reactor tubes based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique was presented. This approach took the flow, heat transfer, mass transfer and thermal cracking reactions in the reactor tubes into consideration. The coupled reactor model was solved with the SIMPLE algorithm. Some detailed information about the flow field, temperature field and concentration distribution in the reactor tubes was obtained, revealing the basic characteristics of the hydrodynamic phenomena and reaction behavior in the reactor tubes. The CFD approach provides the necessary information for conclusive decisions regarding the production optimization, the design and improvement of reactor tubes, and the new techniques implementation.

  8. Advanced reactor physics methods for heterogeneous reactor cores (United States)

    Thompson, Steven A.

    To maintain the economic viability of nuclear power the industry has begun to emphasize maximizing the efficiency and output of existing nuclear power plants by using longer fuel cycles, stretch power uprates, shorter outage lengths, mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel and more aggressive operating strategies. In order to accommodate these changes, while still satisfying the peaking factor and power envelope requirements necessary to maintain safe operation, more complexity in commercial core designs have been implemented, such as an increase in the number of sub-batches and an increase in the use of both discrete and integral burnable poisons. A consequence of the increased complexity of core designs, as well as the use of MOX fuel, is an increase in the neutronic heterogeneity of the core. Such heterogeneous cores introduce challenges for the current methods that are used for reactor analysis. New methods must be developed to address these deficiencies while still maintaining the computational efficiency of existing reactor analysis methods. In this thesis, advanced core design methodologies are developed to be able to adequately analyze the highly heterogeneous core designs which are currently in use in commercial power reactors. These methodological improvements are being pursued with the goal of not sacrificing the computational efficiency which core designers require. More specifically, the PSU nodal code NEM is being updated to include an SP3 solution option, an advanced transverse leakage option, and a semi-analytical NEM solution option.

  9. Reactor pulse repeatability studies at the annular core research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePriest, K.R. [Applied Nuclear Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Mail Stop 1146, Post Office Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Trinh, T.Q. [Nuclear Facility Operations, Sandia National Laboratories, Mail Stop 0614, Post Office Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Luker, S. M. [Applied Nuclear Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Mail Stop 1146, Post Office Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States)


    The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories is a water-moderated pool-type reactor designed for testing many types of objects in the pulse and steady-state mode of operations. Personnel at Sandia began working to improve the repeatability of pulse operations for experimenters in the facility. The ACRR has a unique UO{sub 2}-BeO fuel that makes the task of producing repeatable pulses difficult with the current operating procedure. The ACRR produces a significant quantity of photoneutrons through the {sup 9}Be({gamma}, n){sup 8}Be reaction in the fuel elements. The photoneutrons are the result of the gammas produced during fission and in fission product decay, so their production is very much dependent on the reactor power history and changes throughout the day/week of experiments in the facility. Because the photoneutrons interfere with the delayed-critical measurements required for accurate pulse reactivity prediction, a new operating procedure was created. The photoneutron effects at delayed critical are minimized when using the modified procedure. In addition, the pulse element removal time is standardized for all pulse operations with the modified procedure, and this produces less variation in reactivity removal times. (authors)

  10. In-reactor performance of pressure tubes in CANDU reactors (United States)

    Rodgers, D. K.; Coleman, C. E.; Griffiths, M.; Bickel, G. A.; Theaker, J. R.; Muir, I.; Bahurmuz, A. A.; Lawrence, S. St.; Resta Levi, M.


    The pressure tubes in CANDU reactors have been operating for times up to about 25 years. The in-reactor performance of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes has been evaluated by sampling and periodic inspection. This paper describes the behaviour and discusses the factors controlling the behaviour of these components in currently operating CANDU reactors. The mechanical properties (such as ultimate tensile strength, UTS, and fracture toughness), and delayed-hydride-cracking properties (crack growth rate Vc, and threshold stress intensity factor, KIH) change with irradiation; the former reach a limiting value at a fluence of Pressure tubes exhibit elongation and diametral expansion. The deformation behaviour is a function of operating conditions and material properties that vary from tube-to-tube and as a function of axial location. Semi-empirical predictive models have been developed to describe the deformation response of average tubes as a function of operating conditions. For corrosion and, more importantly deuterium pickup, semi-empirical predictive models have also been developed to represent the behaviour of an average tube. The effect of material variability on corrosion behaviour is less well defined compared with other properties. Improvements in manufacturing have increased fracture resistance by minimising trace elements, especially H and Cl, and reduced variability by tightening controls on forming parameters, especially hot-working temperatures.

  11. Fluidized bed coal combustion reactor (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L. (Inventor)


    A fluidized bed coal reactor includes a combination nozzle-injector ash-removal unit formed by a grid of closely spaced open channels, each containing a worm screw conveyor, which function as continuous ash removal troughs. A pressurized air-coal mixture is introduced below the unit and is injected through the elongated nozzles formed by the spaces between the channels. The ash build-up in the troughs protects the worm screw conveyors as does the cooling action of the injected mixture. The ash layer and the pressure from the injectors support a fluidized flame combustion zone above the grid which heats water in boiler tubes disposed within and/or above the combustion zone and/or within the walls of the reactor.

  12. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R


    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  13. Transport simulation for EBT reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, T.; Uckan, N.A.; Jaeger, E.F.


    Transport simulation and modeling studies for the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor are carried out by using zero-dimensional (0-D) and one-and-one-half-dimensional (1 1/2-D) transport calculations. The time-dependent 0-D model is used for global analysis, whereas the 1 1/2-D radial transport code is used for accurate determination of density, temperature, and ambipolar potential profiles and of the role of these profiles in reactor plasma performance. Analysis with the 1 1/2-D transport code shows that profile effects near the outer edge of the hot electron ring lead to enhanced confinement by at least a factor of 2 to 5 beyond the simple scaling that is obtained from the global analysis. The radial profiles of core plasma density and temperatures (or core pressure) obtained from 1 1/2-D transport calculations are found to be similar to those theoretically required for stability.

  14. Gas-liquid autoxidation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbidelli, M.; Paludetto, R.; Carra, S.


    A procedure for the simulation of autoxidation gas-liquid reactors has been developed based both on mathematical models and laboratory experiments. It has been shown that the complex radical chain mechanism of the autoxidation process can be simulated through two global parallel reactions, whose rates are obtained by assuming pseudo-steady-state concentration values for all the radical species involved. Using ethylbenzene autoxidation as a model reaction, an experimental analysis has been performed in order to estimate all the kinetic parameters of the model. The effect of the interaction between gas-liquid mass-transfer phenomena and the complex kinetic mechanism on the overall performance of an autoxidation reactor has been examined in detail within the framework of the liquid film model.

  15. Fast breeder reactor protection system (United States)

    van Erp, J.B.


    Reactor protection is provided for a liquid-metal-fast breeder reactor core by measuring the coolant outflow temperature from each of the subassemblies of the core. The outputs of the temperature sensors from a subassembly region of the core containing a plurality of subassemblies are combined in a logic circuit which develops a scram alarm if a predetermined number of the sensors indicate an over temperature condition. The coolant outflow from a single subassembly can be mixed with the coolant outflow from adjacent subassemblies prior to the temperature sensing to increase the sensitivity of the protection system to a single subassembly failure. Coherence between the sensors can be required to discriminate against noise signals. (Official Gazette)

  16. Reactor vessel lower head integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, A.M.


    On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant underwent a prolonged small break loss-of-coolant accident that resulted in severe damage to the reactor core. Post-accident examinations of the TMI-2 reactor core and lower plenum found that approximately 19,000 kg (19 metric tons) of molten material had relocated onto the lower head of the reactor vessel. Results of the OECD TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project concluded that a localized hot spot of approximately 1 meter diameter had existed on the lower head. The maximum temperature on the inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in this region reached 1100{degrees}C and remained at that temperature for approximately 30 minutes before cooling occurred. Even under the combined loads of high temperature and high primary system pressure, the TMI-2 RPV did not fail. (i.e. The pressure varied from about 8.5 to 15 MPa during the four-hour period following the relocation of melt to the lower plenum.) Analyses of RPV failure under these conditions, using state-of-the-art computer codes, predicted that the RPV should have failed via local or global creep rupture. However, the vessel did not fail; and it has been hypothesized that rapid cooling of the debris and the vessel wall by water that was present in the lower plenum played an important role in maintaining RPV integrity during the accident. Although the exact mechanism(s) of how such cooling occurs is not known, it has been speculated that cooling in a small gap between the RPV wall and the crust, and/or in cracks within the debris itself, could result in sufficient cooling to maintain RPV integrity. Experimental data are needed to provide the basis to better understand these phenomena and improve models of RPV failure in severe accident codes.

  17. The ARIES tokamak reactor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The ARIES study is a community effort to develop several visions of tokamaks as fusion power reactors. The aims are to determine the potential economics, safety, and environmental features of a range of possible tokamak reactors, and to identify physics and technology areas with the highest leverage for achieving the best tokamak reactor. Three ARIES visions are planned, each having a different degree of extrapolation from the present data base in physics and technology. The ARIES-I design assumes a minimum extrapolation from current tokamak physics (e.g., 1st stability) and incorporates technological advances that can be available in the next 20 to 30 years. ARIES-II is a DT-burning tokamak which would operate at a higher beta in the 2nd MHD stability regime. It employs both potential advances in the physics and expected advances in technology and engineering. ARIES-II will examine the potential of the tokamak and the D{sup 3}He fuel cycle. This report is a collection of 14 papers on the results of the ARIES study which were presented at the IEEE 13th Symposium on Fusion Engineering (October 2-6, 1989, Knoxville, TN). This collection describes the ARIES research effort, with emphasis on the ARIES-I design, summarizing the major results, the key technical issues, and the central conclusions.

  18. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bultman, J.H.


    An optimization method is developed to maximize the burning capability of the ALMR while complying with all constraints imposed on the design for reliability and safety. This method leads to a maximal transuranics enrichment, which is being limited by constraints on reactivity. The enrichment can be raised by using the neutrons less efficiently by increasing leakage from the fuel. With the developed optimization method, a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR were optimized. Both reactors perform equally well considering the burning of transuranics. However, metallic fuel has a much higher heat conductivity coefficient, which in general leads to better safety characteristics. In search of a more effective waste transmuter, a modified Molten Salt Reactor was designed. A MSR operates on a liquid fuel salt which makes continuous refueling possible, eliminating the issue of the burnup reactivity loss. Also, a prompt negative reactivity feedback is possible for an overmoderated reactor design, even when the Doppler coefficient is positive, due to the fuel expansion with fuel temperature increase. Furthermore, the molten salt fuel can be reprocessed based on a reduction process which is not sensitive to the short-lived spontaneously fissioning actinides. (orig./HP).

  19. Assessment of the thorium fuel cycle in power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, P.R.; Homan, F.J.; Allen, E.J.


    A study was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to evaluate the role of thorium fuel cycles in power reactors. Three thermal reactor systems were considered: Light Water Reactors (LWRs); High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs); and Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs) of the Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor (CANDU) type; most of the effort was on these systems. A summary comparing thorium and uranium fuel cycles in Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) was also compiled.

  20. Investigation of molten salt fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kenichi; Konomura, Mamoru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)


    On survey research for practicability strategy of fast reactor (FR) (phase 1), to extract future practicability image candidates of FR from wide options, in addition to their survey and investigation objects of not only solid fuel reactors of conventional research object but also molten salt reactor as a flowing fuel reactor, investigation on concept of molten salt FR plant was carried out. As a part of the first step of the survey research for practicability strategy, a basic concept on plant centered at nuclear reactor facility using chloride molten salt reactor capable of carrying out U-Pu cycle was examined, to perform a base construction to evaluate economical potential for a practical FBR. As a result, a result could be obtained that because of inferior fuel inventory and heat transmission to those in Na cooling reactor in present knowledge, mass of reactor vessel and intermediate heat exchanger were to widely increased to expect reduction of power generation unit price even on considering cheapness of its fuel cycle cost. Therefore, at present step further investigation on concept design of the chloride molten salt reactor plant system is too early in time, and it is at a condition where basic and elementary researches aiming at upgrading of economical efficiency such as wide reduction of fuel inventory, a measure expectable for remarkable rationalization effect of reprocessing system integrating a reactor to a processing facility, and so on. (G.K.)

  1. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Gu, Ji-Yuan


    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results demonstrate how these reactors can possess and realize extraordinary excellent characteristics, no prompt critical, long-term safe and stable operation with negative feedback, closed uranium-plutonium cycle chain within the vessel, normal operation only with depleted-uranium, and depleted-uranium high burnup in reality, to realize with fission nuclear energy sufficiently satisfying humanity long-term energy resource needs, as well as thoroughly solve the challenges of nuclear criticality safety, uranium resource insuffic...

  2. Performance of a multipurpose research electrochemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henquin, E.R. [Programa de Electroquimica Aplicada e Ingenieria Electroquimica (PRELINE), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, S3000AOM Santa Fe (Argentina); Bisang, J.M., E-mail: [Programa de Electroquimica Aplicada e Ingenieria Electroquimica (PRELINE), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, S3000AOM Santa Fe (Argentina)


    Highlights: > For this reactor configuration the current distribution is uniform. > For this reactor configuration with bipolar connection the leakage current is small. > The mass-transfer conditions are closely uniform along the electrode. > The fluidodynamic behaviour can be represented by the dispersion model. > This reactor represents a suitable device for laboratory trials. - Abstract: This paper reports on a multipurpose research electrochemical reactor with an innovative design feature, which is based on a filter press arrangement with inclined segmented electrodes and under a modular assembly. Under bipolar connection, the fraction of leakage current is lower than 4%, depending on the bipolar Wagner number, and the current distribution is closely uniform. When a turbulence promoter is used, the local mass-transfer coefficient shows a variation of {+-}10% with respect to its mean value. The fluidodynamics of the reactor responds to the dispersion model with a Peclet number higher than 10. It is concluded that this reactor is convenient for laboratory research.

  3. Sulfide toxicity kinetics of a uasb reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Paula Jr.


    Full Text Available The effect of sulfide toxicity on kinetic parameters of anaerobic organic matter removal in a UASB (up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor is presented. Two lab-scale UASB reactors (10.5 L were operated continuously during 12 months. The reactors were fed with synthetic wastes prepared daily using glucose, ammonium acetate, methanol and nutrient solution. One of the reactors also received increasing concentrations of sodium sulfide. For both reactors, the flow rate of 16 L.d-1 was held constant throughout the experiment, corresponding to a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 hours. The classic model for non-competitive sulfide inhibition was applied to the experimental data for determining the overall kinetic parameter of specific substrate utilization (q and the sulfide inhibition coefficient (Ki. The application of the kinetic parameters determined allows prediction of methanogenesis inhibition and thus the adoption of operating parameters to minimize sulfide toxicity in UASB reactors.

  4. Introduction to the neutron kinetics of nuclear power reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Tyror, J G; Grant, P J


    An Introduction to the Neutron Kinetics of Nuclear Power Reactors introduces the reader to the neutron kinetics of nuclear power reactors. Topics covered include the neutron physics of reactor kinetics, feedback effects, water-moderated reactors, fast reactors, and methods of plant control. The reactor transients following faults are also discussed, along with the use of computers in the study of power reactor kinetics. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the reactor physics characteristics of a nuclear power reactor and their influence on system design and

  5. Microstructured reactors for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartun, Ingrid


    Small scale hydrogen production by partial oxidation (POX) and oxidative steam reforming (OSR) have been studied over Rh-impregnated microchannel Fecralloy reactors and alumina foams. Trying to establish whether metallic microchannel reactors have special advantages for hydrogen production via catalytic POX or OSR with respect to activity, selectivity and stability was of special interest. The microchannel Fecralloy reactors were oxidised at 1000 deg C to form a {alpha}-Al2O3 layer in the channels in order to enhance the surface area prior to impregnation. Kr-BET measurements showed that the specific surface area after oxidation was approximately 10 times higher than the calculated geometric surface area. Approximately 1 mg Rh was deposited in the channels by impregnation with an aqueous solution of RhCl3. Annular pieces (15 mm o.d.,4 mm i.d., 14 mm length) of extruded {alpha}-Al2O3 foams were impregnated with aqueous solutions of Rh(NO3)3 to obtain 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 wt.% loadings, as predicted by solution uptake. ICP-AES analyses showed that the actual Rh loadings probably were higher, 0.025, 0.077 and 0.169 wt.% respectively. One of the microchannel Fecralloy reactors and all Al2O3 foams were equipped with a channel to allow for temperature measurement inside the catalytic system. Temperature profiles obtained along the reactor axes show that the metallic microchannel reactor is able to minimize temperature gradients as compared to the alumina foams. At sufficiently high furnace temperature, the gas phase in front of the Rh/Al2O3/Frecralloy microchannel reactor and the 0.025 wt.% Rh/Al2O3 foams ignites. Gas phase ignition leads to lower syngas selectivity and higher selectivity to total oxidation products and hydrocarbon by-products. Before ignition of the gas phase the hydrogen selectivity is increased in OSR as compared to POX, the main contribution being the water-gas shift reaction. After gas phase ignition, increased formation of hydrocarbon by

  6. Plasma spark discharge reactor and durable electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young I.; Cho, Daniel J.; Fridman, Alexander; Kim, Hyoungsup


    A plasma spark discharge reactor for treating water. The plasma spark discharge reactor comprises a HV electrode with a head and ground electrode that surrounds at least a portion of the HV electrode. A passage for gas may pass through the reactor to a location proximate to the head to provide controlled formation of gas bubbles in order to facilitate the plasma spark discharge in a liquid environment.

  7. Experimental Breeder Reactor I Preservation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun


    Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I) is a National Historic Landmark located at the Idaho National Laboratory, a Department of Energy laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The facility is significant for its association and contributions to the development of nuclear reactor testing and development. This Plan includes a structural assessment of the interior and exterior of the EBR I Reactor Building from a preservation, rather than an engineering stand point and recommendations for maintenance to ensure its continued protection.

  8. Reactor Bolshoi Moshchnosti Kalani; Reacteurs RBMK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastien, D. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)


    The Reactor Bolshoi Molshchnosti Kalani (RBMK) are pressure tubes reactor, boiling light water cooled. Exported since 1990 from the ex-USSR, they are today in three independent countries: Russian, Ukraine and Lithuania. Since this date, data exchange with the occident allowed the better knowledge of this reactor type. The design, the technical description (core, fuel, primary system), the safety and the improvement since Chernobyl are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  9. NASA Reactor Facility Hazards Summary. Volume 1 (United States)


    The Lewis Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration proposes to build a nuclear research reactor which will be located in the Plum Brook Ordnance Works near Sandusky, Ohio. The purpose of this report is to inform the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission in regard to the design Lq of the reactor facility, the characteristics of the site, and the hazards of operation at this location. The purpose of this research reactor is to make pumped loop studies of aircraft reactor fuel elements and other reactor components, radiation effects studies on aircraft reactor materials and equipment, shielding studies, and nuclear and solid state physics experiments. The reactor is light water cooled and moderated of the MTR-type with a primary beryllium reflector and a secondary water reflector. The core initially will be a 3 by 9 array of MTR-type fuel elements and is designed for operation up to a power of 60 megawatts. The reactor facility is described in general terms. This is followed by a discussion of the nuclear characteristics and performance of the reactor. Then details of the reactor control system are discussed. A summary of the site characteristics is then presented followed by a discussion of the larger type of experiments which may eventually be operated in this facility. The considerations for normal operation are concluded with a proposed method of handling fuel elements and radioactive wastes. The potential hazards involved with failures or malfunctions of this facility are considered in some detail. These are examined first from the standpoint of preventing them or minimizing their effects and second from the standpoint of what effect they might have on the reactor facility staff and the surrounding population. The most essential feature of the design for location at the proposed site is containment of the maximum credible accident.

  10. Heat for industry from nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikoin, I.K.; Novikov, V.M.

    Two factors which incline nations toward the use of heat from nuclear reactors for industrial use are: 1) exhaustion of cheap fossil fuel resources, and 2) ecological problems associated both with extraction of fossil fuel from the earth and with its combustion. In addition to the usual problems that beset nuclear reactors, special problems associated with using heat from nuclear reactors in various industries are explored.

  11. D-D tokamak reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K.E. Jr.; Baker, C.C.; Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.; Finn, P.A.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Misra, B.; Smith, D.L.; Stevens, H.C.


    A tokamak D-D reactor design, utilizing the advantages of a deuterium-fueled reactor but with parameters not unnecessarily extended from existing D-T designs, is presented. Studies leading to the choice of a design and initial studies of the design are described. The studies are in the areas of plasma engineering, first-wall/blanket/shield design, magnet design, and tritium/fuel/vacuum requirements. Conclusions concerning D-D tokamak reactors are stated.

  12. Initiating Events for Multi-Reactor Plant Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhlheim, Michael David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Flanagan, George F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Poore, III, Willis P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Inherent in the design of modular reactors is the increased likelihood of events that initiate at a single reactor affecting another reactor. Because of the increased level of interactions between reactors, it is apparent that the Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) for modular reactor designs need to specifically address the increased interactions and dependencies.

  13. High Performance Photocatalytic Oxidation Reactor System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pioneer Astronautics proposes a technology program for the development of an innovative photocatalytic oxidation reactor for the removal and mineralization of...

  14. Savannah River Site reactor safety assessment. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woody, N.D.; Brandyberry, M.D. [eds.] [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Baker, W.H.; Brandyberry, M.D.; Kearnaghan, D.P.; O`Kula, K.R.; Woody, N.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Amos, C.N.; Weingardt, J.J. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)


    This report gives the results of a Savannah River Site (SRS) Production Reactor risk assessment. Measures of adverse consequences to health and safety resulting from representations of severe accidents in SRS reactors are presented. In addition, the report gives a summary of the methods employed to represent these accidents and to assess the resultant consequences. The report is issued to provide timely information to the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the risk of operation of SRS reactors, for insights into severe accident phenomena that contribute to this risk, and in support of improved bases for other Site programs in Heavy Water Reactor safety.

  15. History of fast reactor fuel development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittel, J.H.; Frost, B.R.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Mustelier, J.P. (COGEMA, Velizy-Villacoublay (France))


    Most of the first generation of fast reactors that were operated at significant power levels employed solid metal fuels. They were constructed in the United States and United Kingdom in the 1950s and included Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR)-I and -II operated by Argonne National Laboratory, United States, the Enrico Fermi Reactor operated by the Atomic Power Development Associates, United States and DFR operated by the U.K. Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). Their paper tracer pre-development of fast reactor fuel from these early days through the 1980s including ceramic fuels.

  16. Advanced nuclear reactor types and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, V. [ed.; Feinberg, O.; Morozov, A. [Russian Research Centre `Kurchatov Institute`, Moscow (Russian Federation); Devell, L. [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)


    The document is a comprehensive world-wide catalogue of concepts and designs of advanced fission reactor types and fuel cycle technologies. Two parts have been prepared: Part 1 Reactors for Power Production and Part 2 Heating and Other Reactor Applications. Part 3, which will cover advanced waste management technology, reprocessing and disposal for different nuclear fission options is planned for compilation during 1995. The catalogue was prepared according to a special format which briefly presents the project title, technical approach, development status, application of the technology, reactor type, power output, and organization which developed these designs. Part 1 and 2 cover water cooled reactors, liquid metal fast reactors, gas-cooled reactors and molten salt reactors. Subcritical accelerator-driven systems are also considered. Various reactor applications as power production, heat generation, ship propulsion, space power sources and transmutation of such waste are included. Each project is described within a few pages with the main features of an actual design using a table with main technical data and figure as well as references for additional information. Each chapter starts with an introduction which briefly describes main trends and approaches in this field. Explanations of terms and abbreviations are provided in a glossary.

  17. Supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Yoshiaki


    This book focuses on the latest reactor concepts, single pass core and experimental findings in thermal hydraulics, materials, corrosion, and water chemistry. It highlights research on supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors (SCWRs), one of the Generation IV reactors that are studied around the world. This book includes cladding material development and experimental findings on heat transfer, corrosion and water chemistry. The work presented here will help readers to understand the fundamental elements of reactor design and analysis methods, thermal hydraulics, materials and water

  18. Sandia National Laboratories Medical Isotope Reactor concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coats, Richard Lee; Dahl, James J.; Parma, Edward J., Jr.


    This report describes the Sandia National Laboratories Medical Isotope Reactor and hot cell facility concepts. The reactor proposed is designed to be capable of producing 100% of the U.S. demand for the medical isotope {sup 99}Mo. The concept is novel in that the fuel for the reactor and the targets for the {sup 99}Mo production are the same. There is no driver core required. The fuel pins that are in the reactor core are processed on a 7 to 21 day irradiation cycle. The fuel is low enriched uranium oxide enriched to less than 20% {sup 235}U. The fuel pins are approximately 1 cm in diameter and 30 to 40 cm in height, clad with Zircaloy (zirconium alloy). Approximately 90 to 150 fuel pins are arranged in the core in a water pool {approx}30 ft deep. The reactor power level is 1 to 2 MW. The reactor concept is a simple design that is passively safe and maintains negative reactivity coefficients. The total radionuclide inventory in the reactor core is minimized since the fuel/target pins are removed and processed after 7 to 21 days. The fuel fabrication, reactor design and operation, and {sup 99}Mo production processing use well-developed technologies that minimize the technological and licensing risks. There are no impediments that prevent this type of reactor, along with its collocated hot cell facility, from being designed, fabricated, and licensed today.

  19. NCSU reactor sharing program. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, P.B.


    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring universities. This report is the Final Technical Report for the DOE award reference number DE-FG05-95NE38136 which covers the period September 30, 1995 through September 30, 1996.

  20. Molecular ecology of anaerobic reactor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H. Jacob Peider; Zheng, D.; Westermann, Peter;


    Anaerobic reactor systems are essential for the treatment of solid and liquid wastes and constitute a core facility in many waste treatment plants. Although much is known about the basic metabolism in different types of anaerobic reactors, little is known about the microbes responsible...... to the abundance of each microbe in anaerobic reactor systems by rRNA probing. This chapter focuses on various molecular techniques employed and problems encountered when elucidating the microbial ecology of anaerobic reactor systems. Methods such as quantitative dot blot/fluorescence in-situ probing using various...

  1. Advances in light water reactor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Takehiko; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Oka, Yoshiaki


    ""Advances in Light Water Reactor Technologies"" focuses on the design and analysis of advanced nuclear power reactors. This volume provides readers with thorough descriptions of the general characteristics of various advanced light water reactors currently being developed worldwide. Safety, design, development and maintenance of these reactors is the main focus, with key technologies like full MOX core design, next-generation digital I&C systems and seismic design and evaluation described at length. This book is ideal for researchers and engineers working in nuclear power that are interested

  2. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  3. Phosphorus removal in aerated stirred tank reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghigliazza, R.; Lodi, A.; Rovatti, M. [Inst. of Chemical and Process Engineering ``G.B. Bonino``, Univ. of Genoa (Italy)


    The possibility to obtain biological phosphorus removal in strictly aerobic conditions has been investigated. Experiments, carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), show the feasibility to obtain phosphorus removal without the anaerobic phase. Reactor performance in terms of phosphorus abatement kept always higher then 65% depending on adopted sludge retention time (SRT). In fact increasing SRT from 5 days to 8 days phosphorus removal and reactor performance increase but overcoming this SRT value a decreasing in reactor efficiency was recorded. (orig.) With 6 figs., 3 tabs., 18 refs.

  4. Sodium fast reactors with closed fuel cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Baldev; Vasudeva Rao, PR 0


    Sodium Fast Reactors with Closed Fuel Cycle delivers a detailed discussion of an important technology that is being harnessed for commercial energy production in many parts of the world. Presenting the state of the art of sodium-cooled fast reactors with closed fuel cycles, this book:Offers in-depth coverage of reactor physics, materials, design, safety analysis, validations, engineering, construction, and commissioning aspectsFeatures a special chapter on allied sciences to highlight advanced reactor core materials, specialized manufacturing technologies, chemical sensors, in-service inspecti

  5. Autonomous Control of Space Nuclear Reactors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear reactors to support future robotic and manned missions impose new and innovative technological requirements for their control and protection instrumentation....

  6. Neutron imaging on the VR-1 reactor (United States)

    Crha, J.; Sklenka, L.; Soltes, J.


    Training reactor VR-1 is a low power research reactor with maximal thermal power of 1 kW. The reactor is operated by the Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague. Due to its low power it suits as a tool for education of university students and training of professionals. In 2015, as part of student research project, neutron imaging was introduced as another type of reactor utilization. The low available neutron flux and the limiting spatial and construction capabilities of the reactor's radial channel led to the development of a special filter/collimator insertion inside the channel and choosing a nonstandard approach by placing a neutron imaging plate inside the channel. The paper describes preliminary experiments carried out on the VR-1 reactor which led to first radiographic images. It seems, that due to the reactor construction and low reactor power, the neutron imaging technique on the VR-1 reactor is feasible mainly for demonstration or educational and training purposes.

  7. Microchannel Methanation Reactors Using Nanofabricated Catalysts Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) and the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) propose to develop and demonstrate a microchannel methanation reactor based on...

  8. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  9. Continuous steroid biotransformations in microchannel reactors. (United States)

    Marques, Marco P C; Fernandes, Pedro; Cabral, Joaquim M S; Znidaršič-Plazl, Polona; Plazl, Igor


    The use of microchannel reactor based technologies within the scope of bioprocesses as process intensification and production platforms is gaining momentum. Such trend can be ascribed a particular set of characteristics of microchannel reactors, namely the enhanced mass and heat transfer, combined with easier handling and smaller volumes required, as compared to traditional reactors. In the present work, a continuous production process of 4-cholesten-3-one by the enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol without the formation of any by-product was assessed. The production was carried out within Y-shaped microchannel reactors in an aqueous-organic two-phase system. Substrate was delivered from the organic phase to aqueous phase containing cholesterol oxidase and the product formed partitions back to the organic phase. The aqueous phase was then forced through a plug-flow reactor, containing immobilized catalase. This step aimed at the reduction of hydrogen peroxide formed as a by-product during cholesterol oxidation, to avoid cholesterol oxidase deactivation due to said by-product. This setup was compared with traditional reactors and modes of operation. The results showed that microchannel reactor geometry outperformed traditional stirred tank and plug-flow reactors reaching similar conversion yields at reduced residence time. Coupling the plug-flow reactor containing catalase enabled aqueous phase reuse with maintenance of 30% catalytic activity of cholesterol oxidase while eliminating hydrogen peroxide. A final production of 36 m of cholestenone was reached after 300 hours of operation.

  10. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.


    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades.

  11. Biodegradation of MTBE in reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waul, Christopher Kevin


    The fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was first introduced in the 1970’s to improve gasoline combustion efficiency and reduce emission of harmful gases. However, it has caused groundwater contamination in Denmark and in many locations worldwide through accidental releases from leaking...... such as ammonium or benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX) oxidizers, which can be present together in a single system. The competition resulted in reduced and/or delayed degradation of MTBE when there were limitations of oxygen or space in the reactor. The fraction of biologically active (BA) MTBE...

  12. Coupled reactor kinetics and heat transfer model for heat pipe cooled reactors (United States)

    Wright, Steven A.; Houts, Michael


    Heat pipes are often proposed as cooling system components for small fission reactors. SAFE-300 and STAR-C are two reactor concepts that use heat pipes as an integral part of the cooling system. Heat pipes have been used in reactors to cool components within radiation tests (Deverall, 1973); however, no reactor has been built or tested that uses heat pipes solely as the primary cooling system. Heat pipe cooled reactors will likely require the development of a test reactor to determine the main differences in operational behavior from forced cooled reactors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a systems code capable of modeling the coupling between the reactor kinetics and heat pipe controlled heat transport. Heat transport in heat pipe reactors is complex and highly system dependent. Nevertheless, in general terms it relies on heat flowing from the fuel pins through the heat pipe, to the heat exchanger, and then ultimately into the power conversion system and heat sink. A system model is described that is capable of modeling coupled reactor kinetics phenomena, heat transfer dynamics within the fuel pins, and the transient behavior of heat pipes (including the melting of the working fluid). This paper focuses primarily on the coupling effects caused by reactor feedback and compares the observations with forced cooled reactors. A number of reactor startup transients have been modeled, and issues such as power peaking, and power-to-flow mismatches, and loading transients were examined, including the possibility of heat flow from the heat exchanger back into the reactor. This system model is envisioned as a tool to be used for screening various heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, for designing and developing test facility requirements, for use in safety evaluations, and for developing test criteria for in-pile and out-of-pile test facilities. .

  13. Compound cryopump for fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Kovari, M; Shephard, T


    We reconsider an old idea: a three-stage compound cryopump for use in fusion reactors such as DEMO. The helium "ash" is adsorbed on a 4.5 K charcoal-coated surface, while deuterium and tritium are adsorbed at 15-22 K on a second charcoal-coated surface. The helium is released by raising the first surface to ~30 K. In a separate regeneration step, deuterium and tritium are released at ~110 K. In this way, the helium can be pre-separated from other species. In the simplest design, all three stages are in the same vessel, with a single valve to close the pump off from the tokamak during regeneration. In an alternative design, the three stages are in separate vessels, connected by valves, allowing the stages to regenerate without interfering with each other. The inclusion of the intermediate stage would not affect the overall pumping speed significantly. The downstream exhaust processing system could be scaled down, as much of the deuterium and tritium could be returned directly to the reactor. This could reduce ...

  14. K-East and K-West Reactors (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hanford's "sister reactors", the K-East and the K-West Reactors, were built side-by-side in the early 1950's. The two reactors went operational within four months of...

  15. A new MTR fuel for a new MTR reactor: UMo for the Jules Horowitz reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guigon, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire DEN, Reacteur Jules Horowitz, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vacelet, H. [Compagnie pour l' Etude et la Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques, CERCA, Etablissement de Romans, 26 (France); Dornbusch, D. [Technicatome, Service d' Architecture Generale, 13 - Aix-en-Provence (France)


    Within some years, the Jules Horowitz Reactor will be the only working experimental reactor (material and fuel testing reactor) in France. It will have to provide facilities for a wide range of needs: from activation analysis to power reactor fuel qualification. In this paper will be presented the main characteristics of the Jules Horowitz Reactor: its total power, neutron flux, fuel element... Safety criteria will be explained. Finally merits and disadvantages of UMo compared to the standard U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel will be discussed. (authors)

  16. Annual report on JEN-1 reactor; Informe periodico del Reactor JEN-1 correspondiente al ano 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, J.


    In the annual report on the JEN-1 reactor the main features of the reactor operations and maintenance are described. The reactor has been critical for 1831 hours, what means 65,8% of the total working time. Maintenance and pool water contamination have occupied the rest of the time. The maintenance schedule is shown in detail according to three subjects. The main failures and reactor scrams are also described. The daily maximum values of the water activity are given so as the activity of the air in the reactor hall. (Author)

  17. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.


    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  18. Radiochemical problems of fusion reactors. 1. Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, M.B.A.


    A list of fusion reactor candidate materials is given, for use in connection with blanket structure, breeding, moderation, neutron multiplication, cooling, magnetic field generation, electrical insulation and radiation shielding. The phenomena being studied for each group of materials are indicated. Suitable irradiation test facilities are discussed under the headings (1) accelerator-based neutron sources, (2) fission reactors, and (3) ion accelerators.

  19. Advanced tokamak concepts and reactor designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, A. A. M.


    From a discussion of fusion reactor designs based on today's well-established experience gained in the operation of large tokamaks, it is concluded that such reactors are economically not attractive. The physics involved in the various options for concept improvement is described, some examples

  20. Startup of an industrial adiabatic tubular reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijs, J.W.; Berg, van den H.; Westerterp, K.R.


    The dynamic behaviour of an adiabatic tubular plant reactor during the startup is demonstrated, together with the impact of a feed-pump failure of one of the reactants. A dynamic model of the reactor system is presented, and the system response is calculated as a function of experimentally-determine

  1. Rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor, said rotor comprising a rotor body having a longitudinal centre axis, and at least one pivotally mounted blade being adapted to pivot around a pivot axis under rotation of the rotor body around the longitudinal centre axis....... Moreover, the present invention relates to a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor applying such a rotor....

  2. Helix reactor: great potential for flow chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, P.; Runstraat, A. van den; Roelands, C.P.M.; Goetheer, E.L.V.


    The Helix reactor is highly suited for precise reaction control based on good hydrodynamics. The hydrodynamics are controlled by the Dean vortices, which create excellent heat transfer properties, approach plug flow and avoid turbulence. The flexibility of this reactor has been demonstrated using a

  3. The Design of a Nuclear Reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The aim of this largely pedagogical article is toemploy pre-college physics to arrive at an understanding of a system as complex as a nuclear reactor. We focus on three key issues: the fuelpin, the moderator, and lastly the dimensions ofthe nuclear reactor.

  4. Design of an organic simplified nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvan, Koroush [Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); Forrest, Eric [Primary Standards Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (United States)


    Numerous advanced reactor concepts have been proposed to replace light water reactors ever since their establishment as the dominant technology for nuclear energy production. While most designs seek to improve cost competitiveness and safety, the implausibility of doing so with affordable materials or existing nuclear fuel infrastructure reduces the possibility of near-term deployment, especially in developing countries. The organic nuclear concept, first explored in the 1950s, offers an attractive alternative to advanced reactor designs being considered. The advent of high temperature fluids, along with advances in hydrocracking and reforming technologies driven by the oil and gas industries, make the organic concept even more viable today. We present a simple, cost-effective, and safe small modular nuclear reactor for offshore underwater deployment. The core is moderated by graphite, zirconium hydride, and organic fluid while cooled by the organic fluid. The organic coolant enables operation near atmospheric pressure and use of plain carbon steel for the reactor tank and primary coolant piping system. The core is designed to mitigate the coolant degradation seen in early organic reactors. Overall, the design provides a power density of 40 kW/L, while reducing the reactor hull size by 40% compared with a pressurized water reactor while significantly reducing capital plant costs.

  5. Technical features of the MR reactor decommissioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig David


    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary technical design for the dismantling of the MR reactor. The goal of the design is the removal of reactor components allowing the re-use of the building for a different nuclear related purpose. The sequence of segmentation procedures is established. Considerations on the size reduction and tooling are presented.

  6. The First Reactor, 40th Anniversary (rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allardice, Corbin; Trapnell, Edward R; Fermi, Enrico; Fermi, Laura; Williams, Robert C


    This booklet, an updated version of the original booklet describing the first nuclear reactor, was written in honor of the 40th anniversary of the first reactor or "pile". It is based on firsthand accounts told to Corbin Allardice and Edward R. Trapnell, and includes recollections of Enrico and Laura Fermi.


    Balent, R.


    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  8. Parametric sensitivity and runaway in tubular reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbidelli, M.; Varma, A.


    Parametric sensitivity of tubular reactors is analyzed to provide critical values of the heat of reaction and heat transfer parameters defining runaway and stable operations for all positive-order exothermic reactions with finite activation energies, and for all reactor inlet temperatures. Evaluation of the critical values does not involve any trial and error.

  9. Microbial degradation of MTBE in reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waul, Christopher Kevin; Arvin, Erik; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye


    , toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, may reduce the removal rates of MTBE, or prevent its removal in reactors. With mathematical modelling, the long startup time required for some MTBE degrading reactors could be predicted. Long startup times of up to 200 days were due to the low maximum growth rate...

  10. Design of an Organic Simplified Nuclear Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroush Shirvan


    Full Text Available Numerous advanced reactor concepts have been proposed to replace light water reactors ever since their establishment as the dominant technology for nuclear energy production. While most designs seek to improve cost competitiveness and safety, the implausibility of doing so with affordable materials or existing nuclear fuel infrastructure reduces the possibility of near-term deployment, especially in developing countries. The organic nuclear concept, first explored in the 1950s, offers an attractive alternative to advanced reactor designs being considered. The advent of high temperature fluids, along with advances in hydrocracking and reforming technologies driven by the oil and gas industries, make the organic concept even more viable today. We present a simple, cost-effective, and safe small modular nuclear reactor for offshore underwater deployment. The core is moderated by graphite, zirconium hydride, and organic fluid while cooled by the organic fluid. The organic coolant enables operation near atmospheric pressure and use of plain carbon steel for the reactor tank and primary coolant piping system. The core is designed to mitigate the coolant degradation seen in early organic reactors. Overall, the design provides a power density of 40 kW/L, while reducing the reactor hull size by 40% compared with a pressurized water reactor while significantly reducing capital plant costs.

  11. Verification of Remote Inspection Techniques for Reactor Internal Structures of Liquid Metal Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young Sang; Lee, Jae Han


    The reactor internal structures and components of a liquid metal reactor (LMR) are submerged in hot sodium of reactor vessel. The division 3 of ASME code section XI specifies the visual inspection as major in-service inspection (ISI) methods of reactor internal structures and components. Reactor internals of LMR can not be visually examined due to opaque liquid sodium. The under-sodium viewing techniques using an ultrasonic wave should be applied for the visual inspection of reactor internals. Recently, an ultrasonic waveguide sensor with a strip plate has been developed for an application to the under-sodium inspection. In this study, visualization technique, ranging technique and monitoring technique have been suggested for the remote inspection of reactor internals by using the waveguide sensor. The feasibility of these remote inspection techniques using ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been evaluated by an experimental verification.

  12. State space modeling of reactor core in a pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashaari, A.; Ahmad, T.; M, Wan Munirah W. [Department of Mathematical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Shamsuddin, Mustaffa [Institute of Ibnu Sina, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Abdullah, M. Adib [Swinburne University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Science, Jalan Simpang Tiga, 93350 Kuching, Sarawak (Malaysia)


    The power control system of a nuclear reactor is the key system that ensures a safe operation for a nuclear power plant. However, a mathematical model of a nuclear power plant is in the form of nonlinear process and time dependent that give very hard to be described. One of the important components of a Pressurized Water Reactor is the Reactor core. The aim of this study is to analyze the performance of power produced from a reactor core using temperature of the moderator as an input. Mathematical representation of the state space model of the reactor core control system is presented and analyzed in this paper. The data and parameters are taken from a real time VVER-type Pressurized Water Reactor and will be verified using Matlab and Simulink. Based on the simulation conducted, the results show that the temperature of the moderator plays an important role in determining the power of reactor core.

  13. State space modeling of reactor core in a pressurized water reactor (United States)

    Ashaari, A.; Ahmad, T.; Shamsuddin, Mustaffa; M, Wan Munirah W.; Abdullah, M. Adib


    The power control system of a nuclear reactor is the key system that ensures a safe operation for a nuclear power plant. However, a mathematical model of a nuclear power plant is in the form of nonlinear process and time dependent that give very hard to be described. One of the important components of a Pressurized Water Reactor is the Reactor core. The aim of this study is to analyze the performance of power produced from a reactor core using temperature of the moderator as an input. Mathematical representation of the state space model of the reactor core control system is presented and analyzed in this paper. The data and parameters are taken from a real time VVER-type Pressurized Water Reactor and will be verified using Matlab and Simulink. Based on the simulation conducted, the results show that the temperature of the moderator plays an important role in determining the power of reactor core.

  14. Precision spectroscopy with reactor anti-neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, P; Huber, Patrick; Schwetz, Thomas


    In this work we present an accurate parameterization of the anti-neutrino flux produced by the isotopes 235U, 239Pu and 241Pu in nuclear reactors. We determine the coefficients of this parameterization, as well as their covariance matrix, by performing a fit to spectra inferred from experimentally measured beta spectra. Subsequently we show that flux shape uncertainties play only a minor role in the KamLAND experiment, however, we find that future reactor neutrino experiments to measure the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ are sensitive to the fine details of the reactor neutrino spectra. Finally, we investigate the possibility to determine the isotopic composition in nuclear reactors through an anti-neutrino measurement. We find that with a 3 month exposure of a one ton detector the isotope fractions and the thermal reactor power can be determined at a few percent accuracy, which may open the possibility of an application for safeguard or non-proliferation objectives.

  15. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A


    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  16. Reactor assessments of advanced bumpy torus configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, N.A.; Owen, L.W.; Spong, D.A.; Miller, R.L.; Ard, W.B.; Pipkins, J.F.; Schmitt, R.J.


    Recently, several innovative approaches were introduced for enhancing the performance of the basic ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) concept and for improving its reactor potential. These include planar racetrack and square geometries, Andreoletti coil systems, and bumpy torus-stellarator hybrids (which include twisted racetrack and helical axis stellarator - snakey torus). Preliminary evaluations of reactor implications of each approach have been carried out based on magnetics (vacuum) calculations, transport and scaling relationships, and stability properties deduced from provisional configurations that implement the approach but are not necessarily optimized. Further optimization is needed in all cases to evaluate the full potential of each approach. Results of these studies indicate favorable reactor projections with a significant reduction in reactor physical size as compared to conventional EBT reactor designs carried out in the past.

  17. Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor. [LMFBR (United States)

    Bollinger, L.R.


    This invention, which resulted from a contact with the United States Department of Energy, relates to a control mechanism for a nuclear reactor and, more particularly, to an assembly for selectively shifting different numbers of reactivity modifying rods into and out of the core of a nuclear reactor. It has been proposed heretofore to control the reactivity of a breeder reactor by varying the depth of insertion of control rods (e.g., rods containing a fertile material such as ThO/sub 2/) in the core of the reactor, thereby varying the amount of neutron-thermalizing coolant and the amount of neutron-capturing material in the core. This invention relates to a mechanism which can advantageously be used in this type of reactor control system.

  18. Power Control Method for Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baang, Dane; Suh, Yongsuk; Park, Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Considering safety-oriented design concept and other control environment, we developed a simple controller that provides limiting function of power change- rate as well as fine tracking performance. The design result has been well-proven via simulation and actual application to a TRIGA-II type research reactor. The proposed controller is designed to track the PDM(Power Demand) from operator input as long as maintaining the power change rate lower than a certain value for stable reactor operation. A power control method for a TRIGA-II type research reactor has been designed, simulated, and applied to actual reactor. The control performance during commissioning test shows that the proposed controller provides fine control performance for various changes in reference values (PDM), even though there is large measurement noise from neutron detectors. The overshoot at low power level is acceptable in a sense of reactor operation.

  19. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R.; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.


    The invention relates to a commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane reforming reactor configured using repeating assemblies of oxygen transport membrane tubes and catalytic reforming reactors.

  20. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL


    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  1. Radiation protection at new reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissaud, A. [EDF INDUSTRY, Basic Design Department, EDF-SEPTEN, VILLEURBANNE Cedex (France)


    The theoritical knowledge and the feedback of operating experience concerning radiations in reactors is now considerable. It is available to the designer in the form of predictive softwares and data bases. Thus, it is possible to include the radiation protection component throughout all the design process. In France, the existing reactors have not been designed with quantified radiation protection targets, although considerable efforts have been made to reduce sources of radiation illustrated by the decrease of the average dose rates (typically a factor 5 between the first 900 MWe and the last 1300 MWe units). The EDF ALARA PROJECT has demonstrated that good practises, radiation protection awareness, careful work organization had a strong impact on operation and maintenance work volume. A decrease of the average collective dose by a factor 2 has been achieved without noticeable modifications of the units. In the case of new nuclear facilities projects (reactor, intermediate storage facility,...), or special operations (such as steam generator replacement), quantified radiation protection targets are included in terms of collective and average individual doses within the frame of a general optimization scheme. The target values by themselves are less important than the application of an optimization process throughout the design. This is because the optimization process requires to address all the components of the dose, particularly the work volume for operation and maintenance. A careful study of this parameter contributes to the economy of the project (suppression of unecessary tasks, time-saving ergonomy of work sites). This optimization process is currently applied to the design of the EPR. General radiation protection provisions have been addressed during the basic design phase by applying general rules aiming at the reduction of sources and dose rates. The basic design optimization phase has mainly dealt with the possibility to access the containment at full

  2. The research reactors their contribution to the reactors physics; Les reacteurs de recherche leur apport sur la physique des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barral, J.C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Zaetta, A. [CEA/Cadarache, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, DRN, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Johner, J. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee (DRFC), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Mathoniere, G. [CEA/Saclay, DEN, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)] [and others


    The 19 october 2000, the french society of nuclear energy organized a day on the research reactors. This associated report of the technical session, reactors physics, is presented in two parts. The first part deals with the annual meeting and groups general papers on the pressurized water reactors, the fast neutrons reactors and the fusion reactors industry. The second part presents more technical papers about the research programs, critical models, irradiation reactors (OSIRIS and Jules Horowitz) and computing tools. (A.L.B.)

  3. PCCF flow analysis -- DR Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkin, J.F.


    This report contains an analysis of PCCF tube flow and Panellit pressure relations at DR reactor. Supply curves are presented at front header pressures from 480 to 600 psig using cold water and the standard 0.236 inch orifice with taper down stream and the pigtail valve (plug or ball) open. Demand curves are presented for slug column lengths of 200 inches to 400 inches using 1.44 inch O.D. solid poison pieces (either Al or Pb-Cd) and cold water with a rear header pressure of 50 psig. Figure 1 is a graph of Panellit pressure vs. flow with the above supply and demand curves and clearly shows the effect of front header pressure and charge length on flow.

  4. Coacervates as prebiotic chemical reactors (United States)

    Kolb, Vera M.; Swanson, Mercedes; Menger, Fredric M.


    Coacervates are colloidal systems that are comprised of two immiscible aqueous layers, the colloid-rich layer, so-called coacervate, and the colloid-poor layer, so-called equilibrium liquid. Although immiscible, the two phases are both water-rich. Coacervates are important for prebiotic chemistry, but also have various practical applications, notably as transport vehicles of personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Our objectives are to explore the potential of coacervates as prebiotic chemical reactors. Since the reaction medium in coacervates is water, this creates a challenge, since most organic reactants are not water-soluble. To overcome this challenge we are utilizing recent Green Chemistry examples of the organic reactions in water, such as the Passerini reaction. We have investigated this reaction in two coacervate systems, and report here our preliminary results.

  5. Replacement reactor to revolutionise magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, G


    Electric motors, hearing aids and magnetic resonance imaging are only some of the applications that will benefit from the first advances in magnets in a quarter of a century. Magnets achieve their characteristics when electrons align themselves to produce a unified magnetic field. Neutrons can probe these magnetic structures. The focus is not just on making more powerful magnets, but also identifying the characteristics that make magnets cheaper and easier for industry to manufacture. Staff from the ANSTO's Neutron Scattering Group have already performed a number of studies on the properties of magnets using using HIFAR, but the Replacement Research Reactor that will produce cold neutrons would allow scientists to investigate the atomic properties of materials with large molecules. A suite of equipment will enable studies at different temperatures, pressures and magnetic fields

  6. Dynamic analysis of process reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadle, L.J.; Lawson, L.O.; Noel, S.D.


    The approach and methodology of conducting a dynamic analysis is presented in this poster session in order to describe how this type of analysis can be used to evaluate the operation and control of process reactors. Dynamic analysis of the PyGas{trademark} gasification process is used to illustrate the utility of this approach. PyGas{trademark} is the gasifier being developed for the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) by Jacobs-Siffine Engineering and Riley Stoker. In the first step of the analysis, process models are used to calculate the steady-state conditions and associated sensitivities for the process. For the PyGas{trademark} gasifier, the process models are non-linear mechanistic models of the jetting fluidized-bed pyrolyzer and the fixed-bed gasifier. These process sensitivities are key input, in the form of gain parameters or transfer functions, to the dynamic engineering models.

  7. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Specht, W.L.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Wilde, E.W.; Dicks, A.S.


    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a large United States Department of Energy installation on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina. The SRS contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, varied wetlands including Carolina Bays, the Savannah River swamp system, and impoundment related and riparian wetlands, and the aquatic habitats of several stream systems, two large cooling reservoirs, and the Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a large variety of plants and animals including many commercially or recreational valuable species and several rare, threatened or endangered species. This volume describes the major habitats and their biota found on the SRS, and discuss the impacts of continued operation of the K, L, and P production reactors.

  8. (Meeting on fusion reactor materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.H. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Klueh, R.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Wiffen, F.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Loomis, B.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))


    During his visit to the KfK, Karlsruhe, F. W. Wiffen attended the IEA 12th Working Group Meeting on Fusion Reactor Materials. Plans were made for a low-activation materials workshop at Culham, UK, for April 1991, a data base workshop in Europe for June 1991, and a molecular dynamics workshop in the United States in 1991. At the 11th IEA Executive Committee on Fusion Materials, discussions centered on the recent FPAC and Colombo panel review in the United States and EC, respectively. The Committee also reviewed recent progress toward a neutron source in the United States (CWDD) and in Japan (ESNIT). A meeting with D. R. Harries (consultant to J. Darvas) yielded a useful overview of the EC technology program for fusion. Of particular interest to the US program is a strong effort on a conventional ferritic/martensitic steel for fist wall/blanket operation beyond NET/ITER.

  9. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar


    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  10. The Swedish Zero Power Reactor R0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landergaard, Olof; Cavallin, Kaj; Jonsson, Georg


    The reactor R0 is a critical facility built for heavy water and natural uranium or fuel of low enrichment,, The first criticality was achieved September 25, 1959. During a first period of more than two years the R0 will be operated as a bare reactor in order to simplify interpretation of results. The reactor tank is 3. 2 m high and 2. 25 m in diameter. The fuel suspension system is quite flexible in order to facilitate fuel exchange and lattice variations. The temperature of the water can be varied between about 10 and 90 C by means of a heater and a cooler placed in the external circulating system. The instrumentation of the reactor has to meet the safety requirements not only during operation but also during rearrangements of the core in the shut-down state. Therefore, the shut-down state is always defined by a certain low 'safe' moderator level in the reactor tank. A number of safety rods are normally kept above the moderator ready for action. For manual or automatic control of the reactor power a specially designed piston pump is needed, by which the moderator level is varied. The pump speed is controlled from the reactor power error by means of a Ward-Leonard system. Moderator level measurement is made by means of a water gauge with an accuracy of {+-} 0. 1 mm.

  11. Facility for a Low Power Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalker, R. G.


    Preliminary investigation indicates that a reactor facility with ample research provisions for use by University or other interested groups, featuring safety in design, can be economically constructed in the Los Angeles area. The complete installation, including an underground gas-tight reactor building, with associated storage and experiment assembly building, administration offices, two general laboratory buildings, hot latoratory and lodge, can be constructed for approxinately $1,500,000. This does not include the cost of the reactor itself or of its auxiliary equipment,

  12. Pyrometric fuel particle measurements in pressurised reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)


    A fiberoptic two-colour pyrometric technique for fuel particle temperature and size measurement is modified and applied to three pressurized reactors of different type in Finland, Germany and France. A modification of the pyrometric method for simultaneous in situ measurement of the temperature and size of individual pulverized coal particles at the pressurized entrained flow reactor in Jyvaeskylae was developed and several series of measurements were made. In Orleans a fiberoptic pyrometric device was installed to a pressurised thermogravimetric reactor and the two-colour temperatures of fuel samples were measured. Some results of these measurements are presented. The project belongs to EU`s Joule 2 extension research programme. (author)

  13. Oxidation performance of graphite material in reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowei LUO; Xinli YU; Suyuan YU


    Graphite is used as a structural material and moderator for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR). When a reactor is in operation, graphite oxida-tion influences the safety and operation of the reactor because of the impurities in the coolant and/or the acci-dent conditions, such as water ingress and air ingress. In this paper, the graphite oxidation process is introduced, factors influencing graphite oxidation are analyzed and discussed, and some new directions for further study are pointed out.

  14. Sistemas de salvaguardia en reactores EPR



    En este documento se describe brevemente el funcionamiento de los diversos sistemas de una planta nuclear operada con un reactor de tipo PWR. Más concretamente, el proyecto se centra en una descripción exhaustiva de los sistemas de salvaguardia y seguridad que regulan el funcionamiento de un reactor de tipo EPR, así como la central nuclear que contiene a dicho reactor. El proceso ha consistido en clasificar y resumir los distintos sistemas que operan en dicha planta, estudiando sus caracterís...

  15. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor (United States)

    Chi, John W. H.


    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  16. Monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;


    measurements are reviewed in detail. In the sequel, possible manipulated variables, such as the hydraulic retention time, the organic loading rate, the sludge retention time, temperature, pH and alkalinity are evaluated with respect to the two main reactor types: high-rate and low-rate. Finally, the different......The current status in monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors is reviewed. The influence of reactor design and waste composition on the possible monitoring and control schemes is examined. After defining the overall control structure, and possible control objectives, the possible process...

  17. Transients in reactors for power systems compensation (United States)

    Abdul Hamid, Haziah

    This thesis describes new models and investigations into switching transient phenomena related to the shunt reactors and the Mechanically Switched Capacitor with Damping Network (MSCDN) operations used for reactive power control in the transmission system. Shunt reactors and MSCDN are similar in that they have reactors. A shunt reactor is connected parallel to the compensated lines to absorb the leading current, whereas the MSCDN is a version of a capacitor bank designed as a C-type filter for use in the harmonic-rich environment. In this work, models have been developed and transient overvoltages due to shunt reactor deenergisation were estimated analytically using MathCad, a mathematical program. Computer simulations used the ATP/EMTP program to reproduce both single-phase and three-phase shunt reactor switching at 275 kV operational substations. The effect of the reactor switching on the circuit breaker grading capacitor was also examined by considering various switching conditions.. The main original achievement of this thesis is the clarification of failure mechanisms occurring in the air-core filter reactor due to MSCDN switching operations. The simulation of the MSCDN energisation was conducted using the ATP/EMTP program in the presence of surge arresters. The outcome of this simulation shows that extremely fast transients were established across the air-core filter reactor. This identified transient event has led to the development of a detailed air-core reactor model, which accounts for the inter-turn RLC parameters as well as the stray capacitances-to-ground. These parameters are incorporated into the transient simulation circuit, from which the current and voltage distribution across the winding were derived using electric field and equivalent circuit modelling. Analysis of the results has revealed that there are substantial dielectric stresses imposed on the winding insulation that can be attributed to a combination of three factors. (i) First, the

  18. Assessing Pretreatment Reactor Scaling Through Empirical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lischeske, James J.; Crawford, Nathan C.; Kuhn, Erik; Nagle, Nicholas J.; Schell, Daniel J.; Tucker, Melvin P.; McMillan, James D.; Wolfrum, Edward J.


    Pretreatment is a critical step in the biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Due to the complexity of the physicochemical transformations involved, predictively scaling up technology from bench- to pilot-scale is difficult. This study examines how pretreatment effectiveness under nominally similar reaction conditions is influenced by pretreatment reactor design and scale using four different pretreatment reaction systems ranging from a 3 g batch reactor to a 10 dry-ton/d continuous reactor. The reactor systems examined were an Automated Solvent Extractor (ASE), Steam Explosion Reactor (SER), ZipperClave(R) reactor (ZCR), and Large Continuous Horizontal-Screw Reactor (LHR). To our knowledge, this is the first such study performed on pretreatment reactors across a range of reaction conditions (time and temperature) and at different reactor scales. The comparative pretreatment performance results obtained for each reactor system were used to develop response surface models for total xylose yield after pretreatment and total sugar yield after pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Near- and very-near-optimal regions were defined as the set of conditions that the model identified as producing yields within one and two standard deviations of the optimum yield. Optimal conditions identified in the smallest-scale system (the ASE) were within the near-optimal region of the largest scale reactor system evaluated. A reaction severity factor modeling approach was shown to inadequately describe the optimal conditions in the ASE, incorrectly identifying a large set of sub-optimal conditions (as defined by the RSM) as optimal. The maximum total sugar yields for the ASE and LHR were 95%, while 89% was the optimum observed in the ZipperClave. The optimum condition identified using the automated and less costly to operate ASE system was within the very-near-optimal space for the total xylose yield of both the ZCR and the LHR, and was

  19. Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harto, Andang Widi [Engineering Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)


    Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

  20. Advanced research reactor fuel development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Pak, H. D.; Kim, K. H. [and others


    The fabrication technology of the U{sub 3}Si fuel dispersed in aluminum for the localization of HANARO driver fuel has been launches. The increase of production yield of LEU metal, the establishment of measurement method of homogeneity, and electron beam welding process were performed. Irradiation test under normal operation condition, had been carried out and any clues of the fuel assembly breakdown was not detected. The 2nd test fuel assembly has been irradiated at HANARO reactor since 17th June 1999. The quality assurance system has been re-established and the eddy current test technique has been developed. The irradiation test for U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersed fuels at HANARO reactor has been carried out in order to compare the in-pile performance of between the two types of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuels, prepared by both the atomization and comminution processes. KAERI has also conducted all safety-related works such as the design and the fabrication of irradiation rig, the analysis of irradiation behavior, thermal hydraulic characteristics, stress analysis for irradiation rig, and thermal analysis fuel plate, for the mini-plate prepared by international research cooperation being irradiated safely at HANARO. Pressure drop test, vibration test and endurance test were performed. The characterization on powders of U-(5.4 {approx} 10 wt%) Mo alloy depending on Mo content prepared by rotating disk centrifugal atomization process was carried out in order to investigate the phase stability of the atomized U-Mo alloy system. The {gamma}-U phase stability and the thermal compatibility of atomized U-16at.%Mo and U-14at.%Mo-2at.%X(: Ru, Os) dispersion fuel meats at an elevated temperature have been investigated. The volume increases of U-Mo compatibility specimens were almost the same as or smaller than those of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. However the atomized alloy fuel exhibited a better irradiation performance than the comminuted alloy. The RERTR-3 irradiation test of nano

  1. Hydrodynamics of multi-phase packed bed micro-reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Márquez Luzardo, N.M.


    Why to use packed bed micro-reactors for catalyst testing? Miniaturized packed bed reactors have a large surface-to-volume ratio at the reactor and particle level that favors the heat- and mass-transfer processes at all scales (intra-particle, inter-phase and inter-particle or reactor level). If the

  2. Progress of China Experimental Fast Reactor in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    1 Background Fast reactor is the reactor which realized the chain fission with fast neutron.As an optional type of generation Ⅳ reactor,fast reactor has three characters:1) It can change 238U to 239Pu and raise the uranium resource utilization

  3. Uncertainties in the Anti-neutrino Production at Nuclear Reactors


    Djurcic, Z.(Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, 60439, U.S.A.); Detwiler, J. A.; Piepke, A.; Foster Jr., V. R.; Miller, L.; Gratta, G.


    Anti-neutrino emission rates from nuclear reactors are determined from thermal power measurements and fission rate calculations. The uncertainties in these quantities for commercial power plants and their impact on the calculated interaction rates in electron anti-neutrino detectors is examined. We discuss reactor-to-reactor correlations between the leading uncertainties and their relevance to reactor anti-neutrino experiments.

  4. Ex-vessel Steam Explosion Analysis for Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor


    Matjaž Leskovar; Mitja Uršič


    A steam explosion may occur during a severe accident, when the molten core comes into contact with water. The pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor ex-vessel steam explosion study, which was carried out with the multicomponent three-dimensional Eulerian fuel–coolant interaction code under the conditions of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Steam Explosion Resolution for Nuclear Applications project reactor exercise, is presented and discussed. In ...

  5. Sex and the City - i Cairo 1844

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Marie-Louise


    Tørklædedebatten i historisk belysning. Den europæiske reaktion på tørklædet er ikke kun båret af den retfærdige kritik af patriarkalsk undertrykkelse, men også af en seksuel pikerethed, der ikke er så nem at placere. Den franske digter Gérard Nervals "Rejse i Orienten" er en rejse i den maskuline...

  6. Conference report. Can spirit of Cairo survive? (United States)

    Chhabra, R


    Country representatives from around the globe came together at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) to draft a document in the spirit of compromise and unified intent. Marked controversy and conflict plagued the conference, both before and during the official meetings. Accord was nonetheless reached. The author wonders how long and to what extent the euphoria and compromise of the ICPD will last now that official talks are over. It is clear that paranoia and discord subsumed during the conference will persist, foment, and potentially resurface in confrontation over time. The South, for example, was upset about the failure of the conference to focus more upon development and environmental issues, while the Southern women's groups invested their energies into political ideologies and their development as a counterforce to international multinational scientific and corporate lobbies on pharmaceutical and contraceptive technologies. The women's caucus instead adopted a Western world view of sexuality which effectively permeated their lobbying and the conference. While dissent may resurface over time, the ICPD nonetheless set into motion positive processes for nongovernmental organization participation in a spirit of partnership within the UN systems and in the formulation of national policies and programs of their respective countries. In closing, the author expresses her regret that China and India maintained a low profile at the official meeting, and that Pakistan, rooted in Islam, spoke for the Indian subcontinent.

  7. København - Cairo tur/retur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekilde, Lasse


    of the effects of Danish Muslims’ transnational activities during the Muhammad cartoons controversy in 2005/06 on subsequent Muslim claims-making. The article argues that the envisioned ‘boomerang effect’ of the transnational activities – the attempt to put pressure on Danish authorities by contacting political...... and religious authorities in the Middle East – backfired on Danish Muslims. The transnational move was successfully ‘securitized’ by elements of the media and the political elite, inviting soft forms of repression against especially the Muslim actors involved in the delegations of primarily religious...

  8. Optimization of a sequence of reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui


    Concerns the optimal production of sulphuric acid in a sequence of reactors. Using a suitable approximation to the objective function, this problem can easily be solved using the maximum principle. A numerical example documents the applicability of the suggested approach...

  9. The Bifurcation Behavior of CO Coupling Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳; 马新宾; 许根慧


    The bifurcation behavior of the CO coupling reactor was examined based on the one-dimensional pseudohomogeneous axial dispersion dynamic model. The method of finite difference was used for solving the boundary value problem; the continuation technique and the direct method were applied to determine the bifurcation diagram.The effects of dimensionless adiabatic temperature rise, Damkoehler number, activation energy, heat transfer coefficient and feed ratio on the bifurcation behavior were investigated. It was shown that there existed static bifurcation and the oscillations did not occur in the reactor. The result also revealed that the reactor exhibited at most 1-3-1 multiplilicity patterns within the range of practical possible parameters and the measures, such as weakening the axial dispersion of reactor, enhancing heat transfer, decreasing the concentration of ethyl nitrite, were efficient for avoiding the possible risk of multiple steady states.

  10. Heat pipe reactors for space power applications (United States)

    Koenig, D. R.; Ranken, W. A.; Salmi, E. W.


    A family of heat pipe reactors design concepts has been developed to provide heat to a variety of electrical conversion systems. Three power plants are described that span the power range 1-500 kWe and operate in the temperature range 1200-1700 K. The reactors are fast, compact, heat-pipe cooled, high-temperature nuclear reactors fueled with fully enriched refractory fuels, UC-ZrC or UO2. Each fuel element is cooled by an axially located molybdenum heat pipe containing either sodium or lithium vapor. Virtues of the reactor designs are the avoidance of single-point failure mechanisms, the relatively high operating temperature, and the expected long lifetimes of the fuel element components.

  11. Reactor Antineutrinos: From Confusion to Clarity (United States)

    Dwyer, Dan


    Antineutrinos emitted by nuclear reactors have been a powerful tool for particle physics, demonstrating the existence of these weakly-interacting particles as well as their flavor oscillation. Despite these successes, our understanding of the total flux and energy spectra of reactor antineutrinos has been fraught with problems. I will give a brief overview of the unexpected developments in this field, and discuss upcoming measurements of antineutrinos, beta decays, and nuclear fission which are relevant to these questions. These measurements are expected to clarify many currently murky issues, including the hypothetical oscillation of reactor antineutrinos to sterile states. The results should also provide a unique perspective into the nuclear physics of fission reactors. DOE OHEP DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  12. Chemical reactor modeling multiphase reactive flows

    CERN Document Server

    Jakobsen, Hugo A


    Chemical Reactor Modeling closes the gap between Chemical Reaction Engineering and Fluid Mechanics.  The second edition consists of two volumes: Volume 1: Fundamentals. Volume 2: Chemical Engineering Applications In volume 1 most of the fundamental theory is presented. A few numerical model simulation application examples are given to elucidate the link between theory and applications. In volume 2 the chemical reactor equipment to be modeled are described. Several engineering models are introduced and discussed. A survey of the frequently used numerical methods, algorithms and schemes is provided. A few practical engineering applications of the modeling tools are presented and discussed. The working principles of several experimental techniques employed in order to get data for model validation are outlined. The monograph is based on lectures regularly taught in the fourth and fifth years graduate courses in transport phenomena and chemical reactor modeling, and in a post graduate course in modern reactor m...

  13. µ-reactors for Heterogeneous Catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Robert

    catalyst surface area by reacting off an adsorbed layer of oxygen with CO. This procedure can be performed at temperatures low enough that sintering of Pt nanoparticles is not an issue. Some results from the reactors are presented. In particular an unexpected oscillation phenomenon of CO-oxidation on Pt...... nanoparticles are presented in detail. The sensitivity of the reactors are currently being investigated with CO oxidation on Pt thin films as a test reaction, and the results so far are presented. We have at this point shown that we are able to reach full conversion with a catalyst area of 38 µm2 with a turn......This thesis is the summary of my work on the µ-reactor platform. The concept of µ-reactors is presented and some of the experimental challenges are outlined. The various experimental issues regarding the platform are discussed and the actual implementation of three generations of the setup...

  14. Corrosion Minimization for Research Reactor Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Shaber; Gerard Hofman


    Existing university research reactors are being converted to use low-enriched uranium fue to eliminate the use of highly-enriched uranium. These conversions require increases in fuel loading that will result in the use of elements with more fuel plates, resulting in a net decrease in the water annulus between fuel plates. The proposed decrease in the water annulus raises questions about the requirements and stability of the surface hydroxide on the aluminum fuel cladding and the potential for runaway corrosion resulting in fuel over-temperature incidents. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as regulator for these university reactors, must ensure that proposed fuel modifications will not result in any increased risk or hazard to the reactor operators or the public. This document reviews the characteristics and behavior of aluminum hydroxides, analyzes the drivers for fuel plate corrosion, reviews relevant historical incidents, and provides recommendations on fuel design, surface treatment, and reactor operational practices to avoid corrosion issues.

  15. Interactions of Pellet with Reactor Relevant Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGLilin; DENGBaiquan; YANJiancheng


    Extended algorithm has been developed for ablation rate calculations of Li, Be, B impurity pellets and five combinations of solid isotopic hydrogenic H2, HD, D2, DT, T2 pellets. Numerical calculations have been performed for reactor relevant plasma.

  16. Autonomous Control of Space Nuclear Reactors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear reactors to support future lunar and Mars robotic and manned missions impose new and innovative technological requirements for their control and protection...

  17. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frances M. Marshall; Jeff Benson; Mary Catherine Thelen


    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is a large test reactor for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The ATR is a pressurized, light-water, high flux test reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The INL also has several hot cells and other laboratories in which irradiated material can be examined to study material irradiation effects. In 2007 the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR and the associated INL laboratories for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper highlights the ATR NSUF research program and the associated educational initiatives.


    The Spouted Bed Reactor (SBR) technology utilizes the unique attributes of the "spouting " fluidization regime, which can provide heat transfer rates comparable to traditional fluid beds, while providing robust circulation of highly heterogeneous solids, concurrent with very agg...

  19. Molten salt reactors - safety options galore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gat, U. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dodds, H.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)


    Safety features and attributes of molten salt reactors (MSR) are described. The unique features of fluid fuel reactors of on-line continuous processing and the ability for so-called external cooling result in simple and safe designs with low excess reactivity, low fission product inventory, and small source term. These, in turn, make a criticality accident unlikely and reduce the severity of a loss of coolant to where they are no longer severe accidents. A melt down is not an accident for a reactor that uses molten fuel. The molten salts are stable, non-reactive and efficient heat transfer media that operate at high temperatures at low pressures and are highly compatible with selected structural materials. All these features reduce the accident plethora. Freeze valves can be used for added safety. An ultimate safe reactor (U.S.R) is described with safety features that are passive, inherent and non-tamperable (PINT).

  20. Steady State Analysis of Small Molten Salt Reactor : Effect of Fuel Salt Flow on Reactor Characteristics


    Yamamoto, Takahisa; MITACHI, Koshi; Suzuki, Takashi


    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a thermal neutron reactor with graphite moderation and operates on the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The feature of the MSR is that fuel salt flows inside the reactor during the nuclear fission reaction. In the previous study, the authors developed numerical model with which to simulate the effects of fuel salt flow on the reactor characteristics. In this study, we apply the model to the steady-state analysis of a small MSR system and estimate the effects of fue...

  1. Development of technology for next generation reactor - Development of next generation reactor in Korea -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kyun; Chang, Moon Heuy; Hwang, Yung Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others


    The project, development of next generation reactor, aims overall related technology development and obtainment of related license in 2001. The development direction is to determine the reactor type and to build up the design concept in 1994. For development trend analysis of foreign next generation reactor, level-1 PSA, fuel cycle analysis and computer code development are performed on System 80+ and AP 600. Especially for design characteristics analysis and volume upgrade of AP 600, nuclear fuel and reactor core design analysis, coolant circuit design analysis, mechanical structure design analysis and safety analysis etc. are performed. (Author).

  2. A fast and flexible reactor physics model for simulating neutron spectra and depletion in fast reactors (United States)

    Recktenwald, Geoff; Deinert, Mark


    Determining the time dependent concentration of isotopes within a nuclear reactor core is central to the analysis of nuclear fuel cycles. We present a fast, flexible tool for determining the time dependent neutron spectrum within fast reactors. The code (VBUDS: visualization, burnup, depletion and spectra) uses a two region, multigroup collision probability model to simulate the energy dependent neutron flux and tracks the buildup and burnout of 24 actinides, as well as fission products. While originally developed for LWR simulations, the model is shown to produce fast reactor spectra that show high degree of fidelity to available fast reactor benchmarks.

  3. Developments and Tendencies in Fission Reactor Concepts (United States)

    Adamov, E. O.; Fuji-Ie, Y.

    This chapter describes, in two parts, new-generation nuclear energy systems that are required to be in harmony with nature and to make full use of nuclear resources. The issues of transmutation and containment of radioactive waste will also be addressed. After a short introduction to the first part, Sect. 58.1.2 will detail the requirements these systems must satisfy on the basic premise of peaceful use of nuclear energy. The expected designs themselves are described in Sect. 58.1.3. The subsequent sections discuss various types of advanced reactor systems. Section 58.1.4 deals with the light water reactor (LWR) whose performance is still expected to improve, which would extend its application in the future. The supercritical-water-cooled reactor (SCWR) will also be shortly discussed. Section 58.1.5 is mainly on the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which offers efficient and multipurpose use of nuclear energy. The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) is also included. Section 58.1.6 focuses on the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) as a promising concept for advanced nuclear reactors, which may help both to achieve expansion of energy sources and environmental protection thus contributing to the sustainable development of mankind. The molten-salt reactor (MSR) is shortly described in Sect. 58.1.7. The second part of the chapter deals with reactor systems of a new generation, which are now found at the research and development (R&D) stage and in the medium term of 20-30 years can shape up as reliable, economically efficient, and environmentally friendly energy sources. They are viewed as technologies of cardinal importance, capable of resolving the problems of fuel resources, minimizing the quantities of generated radioactive waste and the environmental impacts, and strengthening the regime of nonproliferation of the materials suitable for nuclear weapons production. Particular attention has been given to naturally safe fast reactors with a closed fuel cycle (CFC

  4. A comparison of radioactive waste from first generation fusion reactors and fast fission reactors with actinide recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M.; Kazimi, M.S.


    Limitations of the fission fuel resources will presumably mandate the replacement of thermal fission reactors by fast fission reactors that operate on a self-sufficient closed fuel cycle. This replacement might take place within the next one hundred years, so the direct competitors of fusion reactors will be fission reactors of the latter rather than the former type. Also, fast fission reactors, in contrast to thermal fission reactors, have the potential for transmuting long-lived actinides into short-lived fission products. The associated reduction of the long-term activation of radioactive waste due to actinides makes the comparison of radioactive waste from fast fission reactors to that from fusion reactors more rewarding than the comparison of radioactive waste from thermal fission reactors to that from fusion reactors. Radioactive waste from an experimental and a commercial fast fission reactor and an experimental and a commercial fusion reactor has been characterized. The fast fission reactors chosen for this study were the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 and the Integral Fast Reactor. The fusion reactors chosen for this study were the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and a Reduced Activation Ferrite Helium Tokamak. The comparison of radioactive waste parameters shows that radioactive waste from the experimental fast fission reactor may be less hazardous than that from the experimental fusion reactor. Inclusion of the actinides would reverse this conclusion only in the long-term. Radioactive waste from the commercial fusion reactor may always be less hazardous than that from the commercial fast fission reactor, irrespective of the inclusion or exclusion of the actinides. The fusion waste would even be far less hazardous, if advanced structural materials, like silicon carbide or vanadium alloy, were employed.

  5. Environmental Information Document: L-reactor reactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr. (comp.)


    Purpose of this Environmental Information Document is to provide background for assessing environmental impacts associated with the renovation, restartup, and operation of L Reactor at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). SRP is a major US Department of Energy installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. The purpose of the restart of L Reactor is to increase the production of nuclear weapons materials, such as plutonium and tritium, to meet projected needs in the nuclear weapons program.

  6. Oscillation Parameters with forthcoming Reactor Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Lasserre, Thierry


    I review the status of the forthcoming reactor neutrino experiments that toe the cutting edge of neutrino oscillation research. Kilometer baseline oscillation experiments (Double Chooz, Daya Bay, and Reno) will soon play a relevant role providing clean information on the last undetermined neutrino mixing angle !13. A 50-70 km baseline reactor neutrino experiment could later provide the best sensitivity to the !12 mixing angle.

  7. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GANTT, D.A.


    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FETF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This revision reflects the 19 Oct 1999 baseline.

  8. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWEN, W.W.


    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This document reflects the 1 Oct 1999 baseline.

  9. The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On Aug.15, 201l, a new large-scale scientific facility in China, Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment, started to operate. It is located in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant in Guangdong Province, around 50kin to both Hong Kong and Shenzhen City. The main scientific goal is to precisely determine the neutrino mixing angle 013 by detecting neutrinos from the reactors at different distances.

  10. Design of an Organic Simplified Nuclear Reactor


    Koroush Shirvan; Eric Forrest


    Numerous advanced reactor concepts have been proposed to replace light water reactors ever since their establishment as the dominant technology for nuclear energy production. While most designs seek to improve cost competitiveness and safety, the implausibility of doing so with affordable materials or existing nuclear fuel infrastructure reduces the possibility of near-term deployment, especially in developing countries. The organic nuclear concept, first explored in the 1950s, offers an attr...

  11. Strengthening IAEA Safeguards for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Bruce D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anzelon, George A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Budlong-Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    During their December 10-11, 2013, workshop in Grenoble France, which focused on the history and future of safeguarding research reactors, the United States, France and the United Kingdom (UK) agreed to conduct a joint study exploring ways to strengthen the IAEA’s safeguards approach for declared research reactors. This decision was prompted by concerns about: 1) historical cases of non-compliance involving misuse (including the use of non-nuclear materials for production of neutron generators for weapons) and diversion that were discovered, in many cases, long after the violations took place and as part of broader pattern of undeclared activities in half a dozen countries; 2) the fact that, under the Safeguards Criteria, the IAEA inspects some reactors (e.g., those with power levels under 25 MWt) less than once per year; 3) the long-standing precedent of States using heavy water research reactors (HWRR) to produce plutonium for weapons programs; 4) the use of HEU fuel in some research reactors; and 5) various technical characteristics common to some types of research reactors that could provide an opportunity for potential proliferators to misuse the facility or divert material with low probability of detection by the IAEA. In some research reactors, for example, such characteristics include rapid on-line refueling, and a core design with room for such a large number of assemblies or targets that it is difficult to detect diversion or undeclared irradiation. In addition, infrastructure associated with research reactors, such as hot cells, where plutonium could be separated, could pose a safeguards challenge because, in some cases, they are not declared (because they are not located in the facility or because nuclear materials are not foreseen to be processed inside) and may not be accessible to inspectors in States without an Additional Protocol in force.

  12. Current status of fast reactor physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, H.H.


    The subject of calculation of reactivity coefficients for fast reactors is developed, starting with a discussion of the status of relevant nuclear data and proceeding to the subjects of group cross section generation and of methods of obtaining reactivity coefficients from group cross sections. Reactivity coefficients measured in critical experiments are compared with calculated values. Dependence of reactivity coefficients on reactor design is discussed. Finally, results of the recent international comparison of calculated reactivity coefficients are presented.

  13. Automatic safety rod for reactors. [LMFBR (United States)

    Germer, J.H.


    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  14. Monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;


    control approaches that have been used are comprehensively described. These include simple and adaptive controllers, as well as more recent developments such as fuzzy controllers, knowledge-based controllers and controllers based on neural networks.......The current status in monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors is reviewed. The influence of reactor design and waste composition on the possible monitoring and control schemes is examined. After defining the overall control structure, and possible control objectives, the possible process...


    Avery, R.


    A nuclear reactor having a region operating predominantly on fast neutrons and another region operating predominantly on slow neutrons is described. The fast region is a plutonium core and the slow region is a natural uranium blanket around the core. Both of these regions are free of moderator. A moderating reflector surrounds the uranium blanket. The moderating material and thickness of the reflector are selected so that fissions in the uranium blanket make a substantial contribution to the reactivity of the reactor.

  16. Short-baseline reactor neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariani, C. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)


    The neutrino mixing angle {theta}13 is currently a high-priority topic in the field of neutrino physics, with three different reactor neutrino experiments under way, searching for neutrino oscillations induced by this angle. A description of the reactor experiments searching for a non-zero value of {theta}13 is given, together with a discussion of their sensitivity within the next few years.

  17. Reactor Simulator Integration and Testing (United States)

    Schoenfield, M. P.; Webster, K. L.; Pearson, J. B.


    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator (RxSim) test loop was designed and built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing were to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V because the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This Technical Memorandum summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained, which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature, indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  18. Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Neal P. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO)


    Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

  19. Thermal-hydraulic interfacing code modules for CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.S.; Gold, M.; Sills, H. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto (Canada)] [and others


    The approach for CANDU reactor safety analysis in Ontario Hydro Nuclear (OHN) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is presented. Reflecting the unique characteristics of CANDU reactors, the procedure of coupling the thermal-hydraulics, reactor physics and fuel channel/element codes in the safety analysis is described. The experience generated in the Canadian nuclear industry may be useful to other types of reactors in the areas of reactor safety analysis.

  20. Development of computer simulator for coal liquefaction reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yawata, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Ohi, S.; Itho, H.; Hiraide, M. [Nippon Oil Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The computer simulator for a coal liquefaction reactor is a useful engineering tool to analyse the data of such reactors. The authors applied this technique to a reactor in the NEDOL process to predict the performance of the reactor, and to assist in the design of a reactor for demonstration plant. The development program of the simulator and its utilization plan are discussed. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Optimally moderated nuclear fission reactor and fuel source therefor (United States)

    Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Terry, William K.; Gougar, Hans D.


    An improved nuclear fission reactor of the continuous fueling type involves determining an asymptotic equilibrium state for the nuclear fission reactor and providing the reactor with a moderator-to-fuel ratio that is optimally moderated for the asymptotic equilibrium state of the nuclear fission reactor; the fuel-to-moderator ratio allowing the nuclear fission reactor to be substantially continuously operated in an optimally moderated state.

  2. Design options for a bunsen reactor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert Charles


    This work is being performed for Matt Channon Consulting as part of the Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program (NMSBA). Matt Channon Consulting has requested Sandia's assistance in the design of a chemical Bunsen reactor for the reaction of SO2, I2 and H2O to produce H2SO4 and HI with a SO2 feed rate to the reactor of 50 kg/hour. Based on this value, an assumed reactor efficiency of 33%, and kinetic data from the literature, a plug flow reactor approximately 1%E2%80%9D diameter and and 12 inches long would be needed to meet the specification of the project. Because the Bunsen reaction is exothermic, heat in the amount of approximately 128,000 kJ/hr would need to be removed using a cooling jacket placed around the tubular reactor. The available literature information on Bunsen reactor design and operation, certain support equipment needed for process operation and a design that meet the specification of Matt Channon Consulting are presented.

  3. Decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramenkovs Andris


    Full Text Available In May 1995, the Latvian government decided to shut down the Salaspils Research Reactor and to dispense with nuclear energy in the future. The reactor has been out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study on the decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor was drawn up by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH in 1998-1999. On October 26th, 1999, the Latvian government decided to start the direct dismantling to “green-field” in 2001. The upgrading of the decommissioning and dismantling plan was carried out from 2003-2004, resulting in a change of the primary goal of decommissioning. Collecting and conditioning of “historical” radioactive wastes from different storages outside and inside the reactor hall became the primary goal. All radioactive materials (more than 96 tons were conditioned for disposal in concrete containers at the radioactive wastes depository “Radons” at the Baldone site. Protective and radiation measurement equipment of the personnel was upgraded significantly. All non-radioactive equipment and materials outside the reactor buildings were released for clearance and dismantled for reuse or conventional disposal. Contaminated materials from the reactor hall were collected and removed for clearance measurements on a weekly basis.

  4. MOX in reactors: present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslan, Marc; Gros, Jean Pierre [AREVA NC - 33 rue La Fayette, 75009 Paris (France); Niquille, Aurelie; Marincic, Alexis [AREVA NP - Tour AREVA, 1 Place Jean Millier 92084 Paris La Defense (France)


    In Europe, MOX fuel has been supplied by AREVA for more than 30 years, to 36 reactors: 21 in France, 10 in Germany, 3 in Switzerland, 2 in Belgium. For the present and future, recycling is compulsory in the frame of sustainable development of nuclear energy. By 2030 the overall volume of used fuel will reach about 400 000 t worldwide. Their plutonium and uranium content represents a huge resource of energy to recycle. That is the reason why, the European Utilities issued an EUR (European Utilities Requirement) demanding new builds reactors to be able of using MOX Fuel Assemblies in up to 50 % of the core. AREVA GEN3+ reactors, like EPR{sup TM} or ATMEA{sup TM} designed with MHI partnership, are designed to answer any utility need of MOX recycling. The example of the EPR{sup TM} reactor operated with 100 % MOX core optimized for MOX recycling will be presented. A standard EPR{sup TM} can be operated with 100 % MOX core using an advanced homogeneous MOX (single Pu content) with highly improved performances (burn-up and Cycle length). The adaptations needed and the main operating and safety reactor features will be presented. AREVA offers the utilities throughout the world, fuel supply (UO{sub 2}, ERU, MOX), and reactors designed with all the needed capability for recycling. For each country and each utility, an adapted global solution, competitive and non proliferant can be proposed. (authors)

  5. Moving hot cell for LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru


    A moving hot cell for an LMFBR type reactor is made movable on a reactor operation floor between a position just above the reactor container and a position retreated therefrom. Further, it comprises an overhung portion which can incorporate a spent fuel just thereunder, and a crane for moving a fuel assembly between a spent fuel cask and a reactor container. Further, an opening/closing means having a shielding structure is disposed to the bottom portion and the overhung portion thereof, to provide a sealing structure, in which only the receiving port for the spent fuel cask faces to the inner side, and the cask itself is disposed at the outside. Upon exchange of fuels, the movable hot cell is placed just above the reactor to take out the spent fuels, so that a region contaminated with primary sodium is limited within the hot cell. On the other hand, upon maintenance and repair for equipments, the hot cell is moved, thereby enabling to provide a not contaminated reactor operation floor. (N.H.).

  6. Supply of enriched uranium for research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H. [NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)


    Since the RERTR-meeting In Newport/USA in 1990 the author delivered a series of papers in connection with the fuel cycle for research reactors dealing with its front-end. In these papers the author underlined the need for unified specifications for enriched uranium metal suitable for the production of fuel elements and made proposals with regard to the re-use of in Europe reprocessed highly enriched uranium. With regard to the fuel cycle of research reactors the research reactor community was since 1989 more concentrating on the problems of its back-end since the USA stopped the acceptance of spent research reactor fuel on December 31, 1988. Now, since it is apparent that these back-end problem have been solved by AEA`s ability to reprocess and the preparedness of the USA to again accept physically spent research reactor fuel the author is focusing with this paper again on the front-end of the fuel cycle on the question whether there is at all a safe supply of low and high enriched uranium for research reactors in the future.

  7. A nanoliter-scale open chemical reactor. (United States)

    Galas, Jean-Christophe; Haghiri-Gosnet, Anne-Marie; Estévez-Torres, André


    An open chemical reactor is a container that exchanges matter with the exterior. Well-mixed open chemical reactors, called continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR), have been instrumental for investigating the dynamics of out-of-equilibrium chemical processes, such as oscillations, bistability, and chaos. Here, we introduce a microfluidic CSTR, called μCSTR, that reduces reagent consumption by six orders of magnitude. It consists of an annular reactor with four inlets and one outlet fabricated in PDMS using multi-layer soft lithography. A monolithic peristaltic pump feeds fresh reagents into the reactor through the inlets. After each injection the content of the reactor is continuously mixed with a second peristaltic pump. The efficiency of the μCSTR is experimentally characterized using a bromate, sulfite, ferrocyanide pH oscillator. Simulations accounting for the digital injection process are in agreement with experimental results. The low consumption of the μCSTR will be advantageous for investigating out-of-equilibrium dynamics of chemical processes involving biomolecules. These studies have been scarce so far because a miniaturized version of a CSTR was not available.

  8. Uncertainty quantification approaches for advanced reactor analyses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, L. L.; Nuclear Engineering Division


    The original approach to nuclear reactor design or safety analyses was to make very conservative modeling assumptions so as to ensure meeting the required safety margins. Traditional regulation, as established by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission required conservatisms which have subsequently been shown to be excessive. The commission has therefore moved away from excessively conservative evaluations and has determined best-estimate calculations to be an acceptable alternative to conservative models, provided the best-estimate results are accompanied by an uncertainty evaluation which can demonstrate that, when a set of analysis cases which statistically account for uncertainties of all types are generated, there is a 95% probability that at least 95% of the cases meet the safety margins. To date, nearly all published work addressing uncertainty evaluations of nuclear power plant calculations has focused on light water reactors and on large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) analyses. However, there is nothing in the uncertainty evaluation methodologies that is limited to a specific type of reactor or to specific types of plant scenarios. These same methodologies can be equally well applied to analyses for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and to liquid metal reactors, and they can be applied to steady-state calculations, operational transients, or severe accident scenarios. This report reviews and compares both statistical and deterministic uncertainty evaluation approaches. Recommendations are given for selection of an uncertainty methodology and for considerations to be factored into the process of evaluating uncertainties for advanced reactor best-estimate analyses.

  9. Antineutrino reactor safeguards - a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Eric; Jaffke, Patrick


    Antineutrinos have been proposed as a means of reactor safeguards for more than 30 years and there has been impressive experimental progress in neutrino detection. In this paper we conduct, for the first time, a case study of the application of antineutrino safeguards to a real-world scenario - the North Korean nuclear crisis in 1994. We derive detection limits to a partial or full core discharge in 1989 based on actual IAEA safeguards access and find that two independent methods would have yielded positive evidence for a second core with very high confidence. To generalize our results, we provide detailed estimates for the sensitivity to the plutonium content of various types of reactors, including most types of plutonium production reactors, based on detailed reactor simulations. A key finding of this study is that a wide class of reactors with a thermal power of less than 0.1-1 GWth can be safeguarded achieving IAEA goals for quantitative sensitivity and timeliness with detectors right outside the reactor ...

  10. FBR and RBR particle bed space reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J.R.; Botts, T.E.


    Compact, high-performance nuclear reactor designs based on High-Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) particulate fuel are investigated. The large surface area available with the small-diameter (approx. 500 microns) particulate fuel allows very high power densities (MW's/liter), small temperature differences between fuel and coolant (approx. 10/sup 0/K), high coolant-outlet temperatures (1500 to 3000/sup 0/K, depending on design), and fast reactor startup (approx. 2 to 3 seconds). Two reactor concepts are developed - the Fixed Bed Reactor (FBR), where the fuel particles are packed into a thin annular bed between two porous cylindrical drums, and the Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR), where the fuel particles are held inside a cold rotating (typically approx. 500 rpm) porous cylindrical drum. The FBR can operate steady-state in the closed-cycle He-cooled mode or in the open-cycle H/sub 2/-cooled mode. The RBR will operate only in the open-cycle H/sub 2/-cooled mode.

  11. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors At Multiple-Reactor Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittenbrock, N. G.


    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of large (1175-MWe) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and large (1155-MWe) boiling water reactors {BWRs) at multiple-reactor stations. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). Safety and costs of decommissioning are estimated by determining the impact of probable features of multiple-reactor-station operation that are considered to be unavailable at a single-reactor station, and applying these estimated impacts to the decommissioning costs and radiation doses estimated in previous PWR and BWR decommissioning studies. The multiple-reactor-station features analyzed are: the use of interim onsite nuclear waste storage with later removal to an offsite nuclear waste disposal facility, the use of permanent onsite nuclear waste disposal, the dedication of the site to nuclear power generation, and the provision of centralized services. Five scenarios for decommissioning reactors at a multiple-reactor station are investigated. The number of reactors on a site is assumed to be either four or ten; nuclear waste disposal is varied between immediate offsite disposal, interim onsite storage, and immediate onsite disposal. It is assumed that the decommissioned reactors are not replaced in one scenario but are replaced in the other scenarios. Centralized service facilities are provided in two scenarios but are not provided in the other three. Decommissioning of a PWR or a BWR at a multiple-reactor station probably will be less costly and result in lower radiation doses than decommissioning an identical reactor at a single-reactor station. Regardless of whether the light water reactor being decommissioned is at a single- or multiple-reactor station: • the estimated occupational radiation dose for decommissioning an LWR is lowest for SAFSTOR and highest for DECON • the estimated

  12. Reactor performances and microbial communities of biogas reactors: effects of inoculum sources. (United States)

    Han, Sheng; Liu, Yafeng; Zhang, Shicheng; Luo, Gang


    Anaerobic digestion is a very complex process that is mediated by various microorganisms, and the understanding of the microbial community assembly and its corresponding function is critical in order to better control the anaerobic process. The present study investigated the effect of different inocula on the microbial community assembly in biogas reactors treating cellulose with various inocula, and three parallel biogas reactors with the same inoculum were also operated in order to reveal the reproducibility of both microbial communities and functions of the biogas reactors. The results showed that the biogas production, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, and pH were different for the biogas reactors with different inocula, and different steady-state microbial community patterns were also obtained in different biogas reactors as reflected by Bray-Curtis similarity matrices and taxonomic classification. It indicated that inoculum played an important role in shaping the microbial communities of biogas reactor in the present study, and the microbial community assembly in biogas reactor did not follow the niche-based ecology theory. Furthermore, it was found that the microbial communities and reactor performances of parallel biogas reactors with the same inoculum were different, which could be explained by the neutral-based ecology theory and stochastic factors should played important roles in the microbial community assembly in the biogas reactors. The Bray-Curtis similarity matrices analysis suggested that inoculum affected more on the microbial community assembly compared to stochastic factors, since the samples with different inocula had lower similarity (10-20 %) compared to the samples from the parallel biogas reactors (30 %).

  13. Materials issues in fusion reactors (United States)

    Suri, A. K.; Krishnamurthy, N.; Batra, I. S.


    The world scientific community is presently engaged in one of the toughest technological tasks of the current century, namely, exploitation of nuclear fusion in a controlled manner for the benefit of mankind. Scientific feasibility of controlled fusion of the light elements in plasma under magnetic confinement has already been proven. International efforts in a coordinated and co-operative manner are presently being made to build ITER - the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - to test, in this first step, the concept of 'Tokamak' for net fusion energy production. To exploit this new developing option of making energy available through the route of fusion, India too embarked on a robust fusion programme under which we now have a working tokamak - the Aditya and a steady state tokamak (SST-1), which is on the verge of functioning. The programme envisages further development in terms of making SST-2 followed by a DEMO and finally the fusion power reactor. Further, with the participation of India in the ITER program in 2005, and recent allocation of half - a - port in ITER for placing our Lead - Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) based Test Blanket Module (TBM), meant basically for breeding tritium and extracting high grade heat, the need to understand and address issues related to materials for these complex systems has become all the more necessary. Also, it is obvious that with increasing power from the SST stages to DEMO and further to PROTOTYPE, the increasing demands on performance of materials would necessitate discovery and development of new materials. Because of the 14.1 MeV neutrons that are generated in the D+T reaction exploited in a tokamak, the materials, especially those employed for the construction of the first wall, the diverter and the blanket segments, suffer crippling damage due to the high He/dpa ratios that result due to the high energy of the neutrons. To meet this challenge, the materials that need to be developed for the tokamaks

  14. Strengthening IAEA Safeguards for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Bruce D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anzelon, George A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Budlong-Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    During their December 10-11, 2013, workshop in Grenoble France, which focused on the history and future of safeguarding research reactors, the United States, France and the United Kingdom (UK) agreed to conduct a joint study exploring ways to strengthen the IAEA’s safeguards approach for declared research reactors. This decision was prompted by concerns about: 1) historical cases of non-compliance involving misuse (including the use of non-nuclear materials for production of neutron generators for weapons) and diversion that were discovered, in many cases, long after the violations took place and as part of broader pattern of undeclared activities in half a dozen countries; 2) the fact that, under the Safeguards Criteria, the IAEA inspects some reactors (e.g., those with power levels under 25 MWt) less than once per year; 3) the long-standing precedent of States using heavy water research reactors (HWRR) to produce plutonium for weapons programs; 4) the use of HEU fuel in some research reactors; and 5) various technical characteristics common to some types of research reactors that could provide an opportunity for potential proliferators to misuse the facility or divert material with low probability of detection by the IAEA. In some research reactors it is difficult to detect diversion or undeclared irradiation. In addition, infrastructure associated with research reactors could pose a safeguards challenge. To strengthen the effectiveness of safeguards at the State level, this paper advocates that the IAEA consider ways to focus additional attention and broaden its safeguards toolbox for research reactors. This increase in focus on the research reactors could begin with the recognition that the research reactor (of any size) could be a common path element on a large number of technically plausible pathways that must be considered when performing acquisition pathway analysis (APA) for developing a State Level Approach (SLA) and Annual Implementation Plan (AIP). To

  15. Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) Reactor Materials: News for the Reactor Materials Crosscut, May 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloy, Stuart Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science in Radiation and Dynamics Extremes


    In this newsletter for Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) Reactor Materials, pages 1-3 cover highlights from the DOE-NE (Nuclear Energy) programs, pages 4-6 cover determining the stress-strain response of ion-irradiated metallic materials via spherical nanoindentation, and pages 7-8 cover theoretical approaches to understanding long-term materials behavior in light water reactors.

  16. Power distribution control of CANDU reactors based on modal representation of reactor kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Lingzhi, E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Jiang, Jin, E-mail: [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Luxat, John C., E-mail: [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)


    Highlights: • Linearization of the modal synthesis model of neutronic kinetic equations for CANDU reactors. • Validation of the linearized dynamic model through closed-loop simulations by using the reactor regulating system. • Design of a LQR state feedback controller for CANDU core power distribution control. • Comparison of the results of this new controller against those of the conventional reactor regulation system. - Abstract: Modal synthesis representation of a neutronic kinetic model for a CANDU reactor core has been utilized in the analysis and synthesis for reactor control systems. Among all the mode shapes, the fundamental mode of the power distribution, which also coincides with the desired reactor power distribution during operation, is used in the control system design. The nonlinear modal models are linearized around desired operating points. Based on the linearized model, linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control approach is used to synthesize a state feedback controller. The performance of this controller has been evaluated by using the original nonlinear models under load-following conditions. It has been demonstrated that the proposed reactor control system can produce more uniform power distribution than the traditional reactor regulation systems (RRS); in particular, it is more effective in compensating the Xenon induced transients.

  17. Technological status of reactor coolant pumps in generation III+ pressurized nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecht, Bernhard; Bross, Stephan [KSB Aktiengesellschaft, Frankenthal (Germany)


    KSB has been developing and producing pumps for thermal power plants for nearly 90 years. Consequently, KSB also started to develop and manufacture pumps for all kinds of nuclear power plants from the very beginning of the civil use of nuclear energy. This is especially true for reactor coolant pumps for pressurized water reactors. For the generation of advanced evolutionary reactors (Generation III+ reactors), KSB developed an advanced shaft seal system which is also able to fulfill the requirements of station blackout conditions. The tests in the KSB test rigs, which were successfully completed in December 2015, proved the full functionality of the new design. For generation III+ passive plant reactors KSB developed a new reactor coolant pump type called RUV, which is based on the experience of classic reactor coolant pumps and reactor internal pumps. It is a very compact, hermetically sealed vertical pump-motor unit with a wet winding motor. A full scale prototype successfully passed the 1st stage qualification test program in October 2015.

  18. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Sik [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Grandy, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Boroski, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krajtl, Lubomir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Johnson, Terry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel

  19. Design guide for category II reactors light and heavy water cooled reactors. [US DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynda, W J; Lobner, P R; Powell, R W; Straker, E A


    The Department of Energy (DOE), in the ERDA Manual, requires that all DOE-owned reactors be sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that gives adequate consideration to health and safety factors. Specific guidance pertinent to the safety of DOE-owned reactors is found in Chapter 0540 of the ERDA Manual. The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification operation, maintainance, and decommissioning of DOW-owned reactors be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guide and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This Design Guide deals principally with the design and functional requirements of Category II reactor structure, components, and systems.

  20. Design guide for Category III reactors: pool type reactors. [US DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynda, W J; Lobner, P R; Powell, R W; Straker, E A


    The Department of Energy (DOE) in the ERDA Manual requires that all DOE-owned reactors be sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that gives adequate consideration to health and safety factors. Specific guidance pertinent to the safety of DOE-owned reactors is found in Chapter 0540 of the ERDA Manual. The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of DOE-owned reactors be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guides, and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This Design Guide deals principally with the design and functional requirement of Category III reactor structures, components, and systems.

  1. Exploring new coolants for nuclear breeder reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, A., E-mail: anlafuente@etsii.upm.e [ETSII-UPM, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Piera, M. [ETSII:UNED, c/Juan del Rosal, 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    Breeder reactors are considered a unique tool for fully exploiting natural nuclear resources. In current Light Water Reactors (LWR), only 0.5% of the primary energy contained in the nuclei removed from a mine is converted into useful heat. The rest remains in the depleted uranium or spent fuel. The need to improve resource-efficiency has stimulated interest in Fast-Reactor-based fuel cycles, which can exploit a much higher fraction of the energy content of mined uranium by burning U-238, mainly after conversion into Pu-239. Thorium fuel cycles also offer several potential advantages over a uranium fuel cycle. The coolant initially selected for most of the FBR programs launched in the 1960s was sodium, which is still considered the best candidate for these reactors. However, Na-cooled FBRs have a positive void reactivity coefficient. Among other factors, this fundamental drawback has resulted in the canceled deployment of these reactors. Therefore, it seems reasonable to explore new options for breeder coolants. In this paper, a proposal is presented for a new molten salt (F{sub 2}Be) coolant that could overcome the safety issues related to the positive void reactivity coefficient of molten metal coolants. Although it is a very innovative proposal that would require an extensive R and D program, this paper presents the very appealing properties of this salt when using a specific type of fuel that is similar to that of pebble bed reactors. The F{sub 2}Be concept was studied over a typical MOX composition and extended to a thorium-based cycle. The general analysis took into account the requirements for criticality (opening the option of hybrid subcritical systems); the requirements for breeding; and the safety requirement of having a negative coolant void reactivity coefficient. A design window was found in the definition of a F{sub 2}Be cooled reactor where the safety requirement was met, unlike for molten metal-cooled reactors, which always have positive void

  2. Thermohydraulics of reactors; Thermohydraulique des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaye, J.M


    This scientific and technical handbook about PWR reactors thermohydraulics is the result of many years of teaching in the framework of the CEA-INSTN's atomic engineering training courses, in engineering schools and during continuing training activities. Its main goal is to present in a rigorous and pedagogical way the basic knowledge necessary for the understanding and modeling of single phase and two-phase thermohydraulic phenomena encountered during the design and operation of nuclear reactors. In particular, heat transfers in two-phase flows are presented in a detailed way. Most chapters include some nuclear engineering examples of application of the studied concepts, and some exercises aiming at mastering these concepts. Each example or exercise is accompanied by its detailed solution. Content: - thermohydraulic characteristics of reactors; - design and thermal dimensioning of reactors; - thermal engineering of the fuel element; - two-phase flow configurations in ducts; - recalls about single-phase flow equations; - basic equations for two-phase flows; - modeling of two-phase flows inside ducts; - pressure drops in ducts; - boiling and vapor condensation heat transfers; - two-phase flow instabilities in ducts; - two-phase flow blocking; thermohydraulics of naval propulsion reactors.

  3. Thermionic reactors for space nuclear power (United States)

    Griaznov, Georgii M.; Zhabotinskii, Evgenii E.; Serbin, Victor I.; Zrodnikov, Anatolii V.; Pupko, Victor Ia.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Usov, V. A.; Nikolaev, Iu. V.

    Compact thermionic nuclear reactor systems with satisfactory mass performance are competitive with space nuclear power systems based on the organic Rankine and closed Brayton cycles. The mass characteristics of the thermionic space nuclear power system are better than that of the solar power system for power levels beyond about 10 kWe. Longlife thermionic fuel element requirements, including their optimal dimensions, and common requirements for the in-core thermionic reactor design are formulated. Thermal and fast in-core thermionic reactors are considered and the ranges of their sensible use are discussed. Some design features of the fast in-core thermionic reactors cores (power range to 1 MWe) including a choice of coolants are discussed. Mass and dimensional performance for thermionic nuclear power reactor system are assessed. It is concluded that thermionic space nuclear power systems are promising power supplies for spacecrafts and that a single basic type of thermionic fuel element may be used for power requirements ranging to several hundred kWe.

  4. Sodium Reactor Experiment decommissioning. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, J.W.; Conners, C.C.; Harris, J.M.; Marzec, J.M.; Ureda, B.F.


    The Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) located at the Rockwell International Field Laboratories northwest of Los Angeles was developed to demonstrate a sodium-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor for civilian use. The reactor reached full power in May 1958 and provided 37 GWh to the Southern California Edison Company grid before it was shut down in 1967. Decommissioning of the SRE began in 1974 with the objective of removing all significant radioactivity from the site and releasing the facility for unrestricted use. Planning documentation was prepared to describe in detail the equipment and techniques development and the decommissioning work scope. A plasma-arc manipulator was developed for remotely dissecting the highly radioactive reactor vessels. Other important developments included techniques for using explosives to cut reactor vessel internal piping, clamps, and brackets; decontaminating porous concrete surfaces; and disposing of massive equipment and structures. The documentation defined the decommissioning in an SRE dismantling plan, in activity requirements for elements of the decommissioning work scope, and in detailed procedures for each major task.

  5. Compact reactor/ORC power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, K.L.; Kirchner, W.L.; Willcutt, G.J.


    A compact power source that combines an organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) electric generator with a nuclear reactor heat source is being designed and fabricated. Incorporating existing ORC technology with proven reactor technology, the compact reactor/ORC power source offers high reliability while minimizing the need for component development. Thermal power at 125 kWt is removed from the coated particle fueled, graphite moderated reactor by heat pipes operating at 500/sup 0/C. Outside the reactor vessel and connected to the heat pipes are vaporizers in which the toluene ORC working fluid is heated to 370/sup 0/C. In the turbine-alternator-pump (TAP) combined-rotating unit, the thermal energy of the toluene is converted to 25 kWe of electric power. Lumped parameter systems analyses combined with a finite element thermal analysis have aided in the power source design. The analyses have provided assurance of reliable multiyear normal operation as well as full power operation with upset conditions, such as failed heat pipes and inoperative ORC vaporizers. Because of inherent high reliability, long life, and insensitivity to upset conditions, this power source is especially suited for use in remote, inaccessible locations where fuel delivery and maintenance costs are high. 10 refs.

  6. Essential metal depletion in an anaerobic reactor. (United States)

    Osuna, M B; Iza, J; Zandvoort, M; Lens, P N L


    The effect of the absence of trace elements on the conversion of a mixture of volatile fatty acids by a distillery anaerobic granular sludge was investigated. Two UASB reactors were operated under identical operational conditions except for the influent trace metal concentrations, during 140 days. Experiments were carried out in three periods, where different organic loading rates (OLR) were applied to the reactors. The total trace metal concentration steadily decreased at a rate of 48 microg metal/g TS.d in the deprived reactor (down to 35% of their initial value). In contrast, trace metals accumulated in granules present in the control reactor. At the end of the experiment, the COD removal efficiencies were 99% and 77% for the control and deprived reactors, respectively, due to the lack of propionate conversion. Cobalt sorption experiments were carried out in order to study its speciation, and its effects on the speciation of other metals as well. A paper mill wastewater treating granular sludge was also included in the study as a comparison. Results obtained showed that the principal metal forms normally associated with any sludge are a function of each soluble metal concentration in the system, and the characteristics of the particular sludge.

  7. Control Rod Malfunction at the NRAD Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Maddock


    The neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) is a training, research, and isotope (TRIGA) reactor located at the INL. The reactor is normally shut down by the insertion of three control rods that drop into the core when power is removed from electromagnets. During a routine shutdown, indicator lights on the console showed that one of the control rods was not inserted. It was initially thought that the indicator lights were in error because of a limit switch that was out of adjustment. Through further testing, it was determined that the control rod did not drop when the scram switch was initially pressed. The control rod anomaly led to a six month shutdown of the reactor and an in depth investigation of the reactor protective system. The investigation looked into: scram switch operation, console modifications, and control rod drive mechanisms. A number of latent issues were discovered and corrected during the investigation. The cause of the control rod malfunction was found to be a buildup of corrosion in the control rod drive mechanism. The investigation resulted in modifications to equipment, changes to both operation and maintenance procedures, and additional training. No reoccurrences of the problem have been observed since corrective actions were implemented.

  8. Reactor for Photocatalytic Degradation of Chloroform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Morten Enggrob; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    In the present study a new type of continuous photoreactor is developed in which the TiO2 catalyst is immobilized on the surface of quartz tubes surrounding the UV lamps and on the internal surface of the reactor walls. The study showed that an initial concentration chloroform of 7 mg/l was degra......In the present study a new type of continuous photoreactor is developed in which the TiO2 catalyst is immobilized on the surface of quartz tubes surrounding the UV lamps and on the internal surface of the reactor walls. The study showed that an initial concentration chloroform of 7 mg....../l was degraded in a period of 500 hour. The kinetics of the degradation of chloroform in the flow reactor was found to obey Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. The investigation also showed that the reactor design has a significant influence on the rate of degradation, as it was observed that the position...... of the coated lamp in the reactor yield different degradation rates....

  9. Investigation of materials for fusion power reactors (United States)

    Bouhaddane, A.; Slugeň, V.; Sojak, S.; Veterníková, J.; Petriska, M.; Bartošová, I.


    The possibility of application of nuclear-physical methods to observe radiation damage to structural materials of nuclear facilities is nowadays a very actual topic. The radiation damage to materials of advanced nuclear facilities, caused by extreme radiation stress, is a process, which significantly limits their operational life as well as their safety. In the centre of our interest is the study of the radiation degradation and activation of the metals and alloys for the new nuclear facilities (Generation IV fission reactors, fusion reactors ITER and DEMO). The observation of the microstructure changes in the reactor steels is based on experimental investigation using the method of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The experimental part of the work contains measurements focused on model reactor alloys and ODS steels. There were 12 model reactor steels and 3 ODS steels. We were investigating the influence of chemical composition on the production of defects in crystal lattice. With application of the LT 9 program, the spectra of specimen have been evaluated and the most convenient samples have been determined.

  10. Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Groth, Katrina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wheeler, Timothy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self - correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the syste m's design to manage the accident. While inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety , thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayes ian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author s would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of E nergy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR - 14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at A rgonne N ational L aborator y , O ak R idge N ational L aborator y , and I daho N ational L aborator y for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

  11. Kinetics for a membrane reactor reducing perchlorate. (United States)

    Padhye, Lokesh; Rainwater, Ken; Jackson, W Andrew; Morse, Audra


    The major objectives of this work were to operate and construct an autohydrogenotrophic reactor and estimate perchlorate degradation kinetics. The results show that autohydrogenotrophic bacteria were cultured in the reactor and capable of removing 3.6 mg/d of perchlorate in the presence of excess hydrogen (99% removal). The reactor was successful in treating the average influent perchlorate concentration of 532 microg/L to the level of 3 microg/L. A first-order relationship was obtained between the concentration of active biomass in the reactor and the hydraulic retention time for the given amount of substrate. During the kinetic loading study, perchlorate removal ranged from 100 to 50%. The kinetic rate of perchlorate degradation observed in this study was 1.62 hr(-1). The significant degradation of perchlorate in these samples indicates the ubiquity of perchlorate-reducing organisms. Additionally, nitrate was simultaneously removed during water treatment (greater than 90% removal). Because of the excess levels of hydrogen, simultaneous removal of nitrate was not believed to significantly affect perchlorate removal. The area of concern was the lack of complete control over biological treatment. The growth of sulfate-reducing organisms in the reactor negatively affected perchlorate removal efficiency. There were no significant effects observed on the dissolved organic carbon and total suspended solids concentration of the effluent, suggesting that the treatment did not produce a large amount of biomass washout.

  12. Preliminary hazards review overboring Hanford reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilson, R.; Carlson, P.A.


    The General Electric Company, as prime contractor to the AEC at Hanford, is proposing to modify the lattice characteristics of the 8 3/8-inch lattice reactors for the purposes of improving the conversion ratio of these reactors. The proposed overbore modification of the reactors would remove the existing aluminum process tubes, enlarge the diameters of the graphite channels by about one-half inch, insert smooth-bore Zircaloy-2 process tubes and refuel the reactor with larger size, self-supported fuel elements. The overbore fuel will remain the internally-and-externally-cooled cylindrical type, but the weight per foot will be about twice that of the present fuel element. The removal of the inlet and outlet piping connections which would be required in the overboring process will permit the replacement of the existing fittings with ones of improved design. Furthermore, new orifices and venturis which are compatible with the hydraulic characteristics of the overbore tube and fuel geometry and the pumping system will be installed. No basic changes are proposed in the pumping system though the reactor flaw rate may be increased 5--10 percent by changes in hydraulic characteristics depending on the water plant flow capacity.

  13. Solution of heat removal from nuclear reactors by natural convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zitek Pavel


    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the basis for the solution of heat removal by natural convection from both conventional nuclear reactors and reactors with fuel flowing coolant (such as reactors with molten fluoride salts MSR.The possibility of intensification of heat removal through gas lift is focused on. It might be used in an MSR (Molten Salt Reactor for cleaning the salt mixture of degassed fission products and therefore eliminating problems with iodine pitting. Heat removal by natural convection and its intensification increases significantly the safety of nuclear reactors. Simultaneously the heat removal also solves problems with lifetime of pumps in the primary circuit of high-temperature reactors.

  14. Proliferation Resistant Nuclear Reactor Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, L W; Moody, K J; Bradley, K S; Lorenzana, H E


    Global appetite for fission power is projected to grow dramatically this century, and for good reason. Despite considerable research to identify new sources of energy, fission remains the most plentiful and practical alternative to fossil fuels. The environmental challenges of fossil fuel have made the fission power option increasingly attractive, particularly as we are forced to rely on reserves in ecologically fragile or politically unstable corners of the globe. Caught between a globally eroding fossil fuel reserve as well as the uncertainty and considerable costs in the development of fusion power, most of the world will most likely come to rely on fission power for at least the remainder of the 21st century. Despite inevitable growth, fission power faces enduring challenges in sustainability and security. One of fission power's greatest hurdles to universal acceptance is the risk of potential misuse for nefarious purposes of fissionable byproducts in spent fuel, such as plutonium. With this issue in mind, we have discussed intrinsic concepts in this report that are motivated by the premise that the utility, desirability, and applicability of nuclear materials can be reduced. In a general sense, the intrinsic solutions aim to reduce or eliminate the quantity of existing weapons usable material; avoid production of new weapons-usable material through enrichment, breeding, extraction; or employ engineering solutions to make the fuel cycle less useful or more difficult for producing weapons-usable material. By their nature, these schemes require modifications to existing fuel cycles. As such, the concomitants of these modifications require engagement from the nuclear reactor and fuel-design community to fully assess their effects. Unfortunately, active pursuit of any scheme that could further complicate the spread of domestic nuclear power will probably be understandably unpopular. Nevertheless, the nonproliferation and counterterrorism issues are paramount

  15. Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.


    ? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview

  16. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008 (United States)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan


    Oral session 1: Retrospective dosimetry. Retrospective dosimetry of VVER 440 reactor pressure vessel at the 3rd unit of Dukovany NPP / M. Marek ... [et al.]. Retrospective dosimetry study at the RPV of NPP Greifswald unit 1 / J. Konheiser ... [et al.]. Test of prototype detector for retrospective neutron dosimetry of reactor internals and vessel / K. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Neutron doses to the concrete vessel and tendons of a magnox reactor using retrospective dosimetry / D. A. Allen ... [et al.]. A retrospective dosimetry feasibility study for Atucha I / J. Wagemans ... [et al.]. Retrospective reactor dosimetry with zirconium alloy samples in a PWR / L. R. Greenwood and J. P. Foster -- Oral session 2: Experimental techniques. Characterizing the Time-dependent components of reactor n/y environments / P. J. Griffin, S. M. Luker and A. J. Suo-Anttila. Measurements of the recoil-ion response of silicon carbide detectors to fast neutrons / F. H. Ruddy, J. G. Seidel and F. Franceschini. Measurement of the neutron spectrum of the HB-4 cold source at the high flux isotope reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory / J. L. Robertson and E. B. Iverson. Feasibility of cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy for dose rate monitoring on nuclear reactor / H. Tomita ... [et al.]. Measuring transistor damage factors in a non-stable defect environment / D. B. King ... [et al.]. Neutron-detection based monitoring of void effects in boiling water reactors / J. Loberg ... [et al.] -- Poster session 1: Power reactor surveillance, retrospective dosimetry, benchmarks and inter-comparisons, adjustment methods, experimental techniques, transport calculations. Improved diagnostics for analysis of a reactor pulse radiation environment / S. M. Luker ... [et al.]. Simulation of the response of silicon carbide fast neutron detectors / F. Franceschini, F. H. Ruddy and B. Petrović. NSV A-3: a computer code for least-squares adjustment of neutron spectra and measured dosimeter responses / J. G

  17. Thyristor Controlled Reactor for Power Factor Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Mahapatra


    Full Text Available Power factor improvement is the essence of any power sector for reliable operation. This paper provides Thyristor Controlled Reactor regulated by programmed microcontroller which aids in improving power factor and retaining it close to unity under various loading conditions. The implementation is done on 8051 microcontrollerwhich isprogrammed using Keil software. To determine time lag between current and voltage PSpice softwareis used and to display power factor according tothe variation in loadProteus software is used. Whenever a capacitive load is connected to the transmission linea shunt reactor is connected which injects lagging reactive VARs to the power system. As a result the power factor is improved. The results given in this paper provides suitable microcontroller based reactive power compensation and power factor improvement technique using a Thyristor Controlled Reactor module.

  18. Iodine chemistry in a reactor regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards


    Radioactive iodine has always been an important consideration in the regulation of nuclear power reactors to assure the health and safety of the public. Regulators adopted conservatively bounding predictions of iodine behavior in the earliest days of the development of nuclear power because there was so little known about either accidents or the chemistry of iodine. Today there is a flood of new information and understanding of the chemistry of iodine under reactor accident conditions. This paper offers some thoughts on how the community of scientists engaged in the study of iodine chemistry can present the results of their work so that it is more immediately adopted by the regulator. It is suggested that the scientific community consider the concept of consensus standards so effectively used within the engineering community to define the status of the study of radioactive iodine chemistry for reactor safety. (author) 9 refs.

  19. Geoneutrinos and reactor antineutrinos at SNO+

    CERN Document Server

    Baldoncini, M; Wipperfurth, S A; Fiorentini, G; Mantovani, F; McDonough, W F; Ricci, B


    In the heart of the Creighton Mine near Sudbury (Canada), the SNO+ detector is foreseen to observe almost in equal proportion electron antineutrinos produced by U and Th in the Earth and by nuclear reactors. SNO+ will be the first long baseline experiment to measure a reactor signal dominated by CANDU cores ($\\sim$55\\% of the total reactor signal), which generally burn natural uranium. Approximately 18\\% of the total geoneutrino signal is generated by the U and Th present in the rocks of the Huronian Supergroup-Sudbury Basin: the 60\\% uncertainty on the signal produced by this lithologic unit plays a crucial role on the discrimination power on the mantle signal as well as on the geoneutrino spectral shape reconstruction, which can in principle provide a direct measurement of the Th/U ratio in the Earth.

  20. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman


    This text covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics required to understand electrical power generation systems and the application of these principles to nuclear reactor power plant systems. It is not a traditional general thermodynamics text, per se, but a practical thermodynamics volume intended to explain the fundamentals and apply them to the challenges facing actual nuclear power plants systems, where thermal hydraulics comes to play.  Written in a lucid, straight-forward style while retaining scientific rigor, the content is accessible to upper division undergraduate students and aimed at practicing engineers in nuclear power facilities and engineering scientists and technicians in industry, academic research groups, and national laboratories. The book is also a valuable resource for students and faculty in various engineering programs concerned with nuclear reactors. This book also: Provides extensive coverage of thermal hydraulics with thermodynamics in nuclear reactors, beginning with fundamental ...

  1. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  2. Wire core reactor for nuclear thermal propulsion (United States)

    Harty, Richard B.; Brengle, Robert G.


    Studies have been performed of a compact high-performance nuclear rocket reactor that incorporates a tungsten alloy wire fuel element. This reactor, termed the wire core reactor, can deliver a specific impulse of 1,000 s using an expander cycle and a nozzle expansion ratio of 500 to 1. The core is constructed of layers of 0.8-mm-dia fueled tungsten wires wound over alternate layers of spacer wires, which forms a rugged annular lattice. Hydrogen flow in the core is annular, flowing from inside to outside. In addition to the concepts compact size and good heat transfer, the core has excellent power-flow matching features and can resist vibration and thermal stresses during star-up and shutdown.

  3. Hydrogen release from reactor-irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepikov, A.Kh. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Tazhibaeva, I.L. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Shestakov, V.P. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Romanenko, O.G. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Chikhray, Y.V. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Kenzhin, E.A. [IAE NNC RK, Semipalatinsk-21 (Russian Federation); Cherepnin, Yu.S. [IAE NNC RK, Semipalatinsk-21 (Russian Federation); Tikhomirov, L.N. [IAE NNC RK, Semipalatinsk-21 (Russian Federation)


    Experiments on gas release of reactor-irradiated beryllium samples were carried out and compared to control samples. The simultaneous influence of reactor irradiation and exposure to hydrogen results in more hydrogen retention in beryllium, than if beryllium is initially irradiated and then exposed to hydrogen. Appearance of low temperature peaks at 460 K and 540 K with 0.71 eV/atom and 0.84 eV/atom desorption activation energies, respectively, assessed in a frame of a second order desorption model, is mainly responsible for the increase in hydrogen content. These peaks can be attributed to chemical hydrogen bonds with surface oxide. The simultaneous influence of hydrogen and nuclear reactor irradiation at a temperature of 1150 K was assumed to increase significantly microcrack formation near the surface of beryllium samples, resulting in an increase in low temperature peak intensities. (orig.).

  4. New inlet nozzle assembly: C Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkin, J.F.


    The use of self-supported fuel elements in ribless Zircaloy-2 tubes at C-Reactor requires some inlet nozzle modification to allow charging of the larger overall diameter fuel pieces. A new nozzle assembly has been developed (by Equipment Development Operation -- IPD) which will allow use of the new fuel pieces and at the same time increase the reliability of the header-to-tube piping and reduce pumping power losses. Flow test data were requested for the new assembly and the results of these tests are presented herein. This report also presents a comparison of the header to tube energy losses for the various reactor inlet nozzle assemblies which are currently used on the Hanford production reactors.

  5. Carbon-14 production in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Burger, L.L.


    Calculations based on existing composition data were performed to estimate the order of magnitude and the final location of /sup 14/C in fusion reactors. These calculations indicate that approximately 8 Ci/day, formed principally by /sup 14/N activation, will be produced in the UWMAK-II reference reactor (5,000 MWth). If Nb-1 percent Zr is used as the structural material instead of stainless steel 316 this quantity will be more than doubled. No information is available on the form of the /sup 14/C produced, but reduced forms such as carbides, hydrocarbons and perhaps CO may be produced. Most of the /sup 14/C may remain fixed in structural and other reactor materials until the material is reclaimed. Activation of air in the plasma chamber would be an immediate concern.

  6. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidaspow, D. [IIT Center, Chicago, IL (United States)


    The objective of this investigation is to convert a {open_quotes}learning gas-solid-liquid{close_quotes} fluidization model into a predictive design model. This model is capable of predicting local gas, liquid and solids hold-ups and the basic flow regimes: the uniform bubbling, the industrially practical churn-turbulent (bubble coalescence) and the slugging regimes. Current reactor models incorrectly assume that the gas and the particle hold-ups (volume fractions) are uniform in the reactor. They must be given in terms of empirical correlations determined under conditions that radically differ from reactor operation. In the proposed hydrodynamic approach these hold-ups are computed from separate phase momentum balances. Furthermore, the kinetic theory approach computes the high slurry viscosities from collisions of the catalyst particles. Thus particle rheology is not an input into the model.

  7. Gas core reactors for coal gasification (United States)

    Weinstein, H.


    The concept of using a gas core reactor to produce hydrogen directly from coal and water is presented. It is shown that the chemical equilibrium of the process is strongly in favor of the production of H2 and CO in the reactor cavity, indicating a 98% conversion of water and coal at only 1500 K. At lower temperatures in the moderator-reflector cooling channels the equilibrium strongly favors the conversion of CO and additional H2O to CO2 and H2. Furthermore, it is shown the H2 obtained per pound of carbon has 23% greater heating value than the carbon so that some nuclear energy is also fixed. Finally, a gas core reactor plant floating in the ocean is conceptualized which produces H2, fresh water and sea salts from coal.

  8. The antineutrino energy structure in reactor experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Novella, P


    The recent observation of an energy structure in the reactor antineutrino spectrum is reviewed. The reactor experiments Daya Bay, Double Chooz and RENO have reported a consistent excess of antineutrinos deviating from the flux predictions, with a local significance of about 4$\\sigma$ between 4 and 6 MeV of the positron energy spectrum. The possible causes of the structure are analyzed in this work, along with the different experimental approaches developed to identify its origin. Considering the available data and results from the three experiments, the most likely explanation concerns the reactor flux predictions and the associated uncertainties. Therefore, the different current models are described and compared. The possible sources of incompleteness or inaccuracy of such models are discussed, as well as the experimental data required to improve their precision.

  9. Preparation of PFS coagulant by sectionalized reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The oxidation rate of ferrous sulfate is investigated for the preparation of polyferric sulfate(PFS) coagulant.It is proved that this reaction is zero order with respect to Fe2 +,first order with respect to NO2 (g),and first order with respect to the interface area between gas phase and liquid phase.According to this mechanism,sectionalized reactor(SR) is used in place of traditional reactor(TR),and the liquid of reaction mixture is recycled by pump.As a result,not only the flow path of reaction liquid is prolonged,but also gas-liquid contact area enlarged,and the reaction distinctly accelerated,compared with traditional reactor.The effects of parameters including temperature,acidity and others on the reaction rate are also discussed.

  10. Multiplicity features of adiabatic autothermal reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovo, M.; Balakotaiah, V. (Houston Univ., TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)


    In this paper singularity theory, large activation energy asymptotic, and numerical methods are used to present a comprehensive study of the steady-state multiplicity features of three classical adiabatic autothermal reactor models: tubular reactor with internal heat exchange, tubular reactor with external heat exchange, and the CSTR with external heat exchange. Specifically, the authors derive the exact uniqueness-multiplicity boundary, determine typical cross-sections of the bifurcation set, and classify the different types of bifurcation diagrams of conversion vs. residence time. Asymptotic (limiting) models are used to determine analytical expressions for the uniqueness boundary and the ignition and extinction points. The analytical results are used to present simple, explicit and accurate expressions defining the boundary of the region of autothermal operation in the physical parameter space.

  11. COPROX fixed bed reactor - temperature control schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giunta, P.; Moreno, M.; Marino, F.; Amadeo, N.; Lobarde, M. [Laboratorio de Procesos Cataliticos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    Different temperature control schemes for the COPROX stage of a 5-kW fuel cell system were analyzed. It was found that, among the schemes proposed, i.e., co- and countercurrent heat exchange, single adiabatic reactor and series of adiabatic reactors with interstage heat exchange, the best choice for temperature control was the series of adiabatic reactors with interstage heat exchange. This scheme represented the best way to keep the average temperature around 443 K, which was found to be the most suitable temperature for selectivity towards CO oxidation. If hydrogen is produced from ethanol steam reforming, the heat withdrawal can be carried out by the water/ethanol reformer feed mixture, thus contributing to the energy integration of the overall system. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters with reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, S


    We review the potential of long and intermediate baseline reactor neutrino experiments in measuring the mass and mixing parameters. The KamLAND experiment can measure the solar mass squared difference very precisely. However it is not at the ideal baseline for measuring the solar neutrino mixing angle. If low-LMA is confirmed by the next results from KamLAND, a reactor experiment with a baseline of 70 km should be ideal to measure precisely the solar neutrino mixing angle. If on the contrary KamLAND re-establishes high-LMA as a viable solution, then a 20--30 km intermediate baseline reactor experiment could yield very rich phenomenology.

  13. Generic small modular reactor plant design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Baum, Gregory A.


    This report gives an overview of expected design characteristics, concepts, and procedures for small modular reactors. The purpose of this report is to provide those who are interested in reducing the cost and improving the safety of advanced nuclear power plants with a generic design that possesses enough detail in a non-sensitive manner to give merit to their conclusions. The report is focused on light water reactor technology, but does add details on what could be different in a more advanced design (see Appendix). Numerous reactor and facility concepts were used for inspiration (documented in the bibliography). The final design described here is conceptual and does not reflect any proposed concept or sub-systems, thus any details given here are only relevant within this report. This report does not include any design or engineering calculations.

  14. Oklo reactors and implications for nuclear science

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, E D; Sharapov, E I


    We summarize the nuclear physics interests in the Oklo natural nuclear reactors, focusing particularly on developments over the past two decades. Modeling of the reactors has become increasingly sophisticated, employing Monte Carlo simulations with realistic geometries and materials that can generate both the thermal and epithermal fractions. The water content and the temperatures of the reactors have been uncertain parameters. We discuss recent work pointing to lower temperatures than earlier assumed. Nuclear cross sections are input to all Oklo modeling and we discuss a parameter, the $^{175}$Lu ground state cross section for thermal neutron capture leading to the isomer $^{176\\mathrm{m}}$ Lu, that warrants further investigation. Studies of the time dependence of dimensionless fundamental constants have been a driver for much of the recent work on Oklo. We critically review neutron resonance energy shifts and their dependence on the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ and the ratio $X_q=m_q/\\Lambda$ (where $m_...

  15. Gaseous fuel reactor systems for aerospace applications (United States)

    Thom, K.; Schwenk, F. C.


    Research on the gaseous fuel nuclear rocket concept continues under the programs of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Office for Aeronautics and Space Technology and now includes work related to power applications in space and on earth. In a cavity reactor test series, initial experiments confirmed the low critical mass determined from reactor physics calculations. Recent work with flowing UF6 fuel indicates stable operation at increased power levels. Preliminary design and experimental verification of test hardware for high-temperature experiments have been accomplished. Research on energy extraction from fissioning gases has resulted in lasers energized by fission fragments. Combined experimental results and studies indicate that gaseous-fuel reactor systems have significant potential for providing nuclear fission power in space and on earth.

  16. Reactor control rod timing system. [LMFBR (United States)

    Wu, P.T.K.


    A fluid driven jet-edge whistle timing system is described for control rods of a nuclear reactor for producing real-time detection of the timing of each control rod in its scram operation. An important parameter in reactor safety, particularly for liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR), is the time deviation between the time the control rod is released and the time the rod actually reaches the down position. The whistle has a nearly pure tone signal with center frequency (above 100 kHz) far above the frequency band in which the energy of the background noise is concentrated. Each control rod can be fitted with a whistle with a different frequency so that there is no ambiguity in differentiating the signal from each control rod.

  17. Ultra high temperature particle bed reactor design (United States)

    Lazareth, Otto; Ludewig, Hans; Perkins, K.; Powell, J.


    A direct nuclear propulsion engine which could be used for a mission to Mars is designed. The main features of this reactor design are high values for I(sub sp) and very efficient cooling. This particle bed reactor consists of 37 cylindrical fuel elements embedded in a cylinder of beryllium which acts as a moderator and reflector. The fuel consists of a packed bed of spherical fissionable fuel particles. Gaseous H2 passes over the fuel bed, removes the heat, and is exhausted out of the rocket. The design was found to be neutronically critical and to have tolerable heating rates. Therefore, this particle bed reactor design is suitable as a propulsion unit for this mission.

  18. Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor for Space Power (United States)

    Weitzberg, Abraham


    The conceptual design is for a liquid metal (LM) cooled nuclear reactor that would provide heat to a closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion subsystem to provide electricity for electric propulsion thrusters and spacecraft power. The baseline power level is 100 kWe to the user. For long term power generation, UN pin fuel with Nb1Zr alloy cladding was selected. As part of the SP-100 Program this fuel demonstrated lifetime with greater than six atom percent burnup, at temperatures in the range of 1400-1500 K. The CBC subsystem was selected because of the performance and lifetime database from commercial and aircraft applications and from prior NASA and DOE space programs. The high efficiency of the CBC also allows the reactor to operate at relatively low power levels over its 15-year life, minimizing the long-term power density and temperature of the fuel. The scope of this paper is limited to only the nuclear components that provide heated helium-xenon gas to the CBC subsystem. The principal challenge for the LM reactor concept was to design the reactor core, shield and primary heat transport subsystems to meet mission requirements in a low mass configuration. The LM concept design approach was to assemble components from prior programs and, with minimum change, determine if the system met the objective of the study. All of the components are based on technologies having substantial data bases. Nuclear, thermalhydraulic, stress, and shielding analyses were performed using available computer codes. Neutronics issues included maintaining adequate operating and shutdown reactivities, even under accident conditions. Thermalhydraulic and stress analyses calculated fuel and material temperatures, coolant flows and temperatures, and thermal stresses in the fuel pins, components and structures. Using conservative design assumptions and practices, consistent with the detailed design work performed during the SP-100 Program, the mass of the reactor, shield, primary heat

  19. The Traveling Wave Reactor: Design and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gilleland


    Full Text Available The traveling wave reactor (TWR is a once-through reactor that uses in situ breeding to greatly reduce the need for enrichment and reprocessing. Breeding converts incoming subcritical reload fuel into new critical fuel, allowing a breed-burn wave to propagate. The concept works on the basis that breed-burn waves and the fuel move relative to one another. Thus either the fuel or the waves may move relative to the stationary observer. The most practical embodiments of the TWR involve moving the fuel while keeping the nuclear reactions in one place−sometimes referred to as the standing wave reactor (SWR. TWRs can operate with uranium reload fuels including totally depleted uranium, natural uranium, and low-enriched fuel (e.g., 5.5% 235U and below, which ordinarily would not be critical in a fast spectrum. Spent light water reactor (LWR fuel may also serve as TWR reload fuel. In each of these cases, very efficient fuel usage and significant reduction of waste volumes are achieved without the need for reprocessing. The ultimate advantages of the TWR are realized when the reload fuel is depleted uranium, where after the startup period, no enrichment facilities are needed to sustain the first reactor and a chain of successor reactors. TerraPower's conceptual and engineering design and associated technology development activities have been underway since late 2006, with over 50 institutions working in a highly coordinated effort to place the first unit in operation by 2026. This paper summarizes the TWR technology: its development program, its progress, and an analysis of its social and economic benefits.

  20. Nuclear reactor kinetics and plant control

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Yoshiaki


    Understanding time-dependent behaviors of nuclear reactors and the methods of their control is essential to the operation and safety of nuclear power plants. This book provides graduate students, researchers, and engineers in nuclear engineering comprehensive information on both the fundamental theory of nuclear reactor kinetics and control and the state-of-the-art practice in actual plants, as well as the idea of how to bridge the two. The first part focuses on understanding fundamental nuclear kinetics. It introduces delayed neutrons, fission chain reactions, point kinetics theory, reactivit

  1. Slow clean-up for fast reactor (United States)

    Banks, Michael


    The year 2300 is so distant that one may be forgiven for thinking of it only in terms of science fiction. But this is the year that workers at the Dounreay power station in Northern Scotland - the UK's only centre for research into "fast" nuclear reactors - term as the "end point" by which time the site will be completely clear of radioactive material. More than 180 facilities - including the iconic dome that housed the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) - were built at at the site since it opened in 1959, with almost 50 having been used to handle radioactive material.

  2. Reaction kinetic analysis of reactor surveillance data (United States)

    Yoshiie, T.; Kinomura, A.; Nagai, Y.


    In the reactor pressure vessel surveillance data of a European-type pressurized water reactor (low-Cu steel), it was found that the concentration of matrix defects was very high, and a large number of precipitates existed. In this study, defect structure evolution obtained from surveillance data was simulated by reaction kinetic analysis using 15 rate equations. The saturation of precipitation and the growth of loops were simulated, but it was not possible to explain the increase in DBTT on the basis of the defect structures. The sub-grain boundary segregation of solutes was discussed for the origin of the DBTT increase.

  3. From reactors to long pulse sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezei, F. [Eotvos Univ., Budapest (Hungary)]|[Hahn-Meitner Institut, Berlin (Germany)


    We will show, that by using an adapted instrumentation concept, the performance of a continuous source can be emulated by one switch on in long pulses for only about 10% of the total time. This 10 fold gain in neutron economy opens up the way for building reactor like sources with an order of magnitude higher flux than the present technological limits. Linac accelerator driven spallation lends itself favorably for the realization of this kind of long pulse sources, which will be complementary to short pulse spallation sources, the same way continuous reactor sources are.

  4. Complete dismantling of the research reactor DIORIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Hans-Frieder [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    The research reactor DIORIT at the Paul Scherrer Institute was a natural uranium reactor moderated by D{sub 2}O. It was put into operation in August 1960 and finally shut down in August 1977. The original dismantling plan, developed in 1980, comprised 3 phases and 13 steps. The dismantling started in 1982. It was interrupted for several times due to financial restrictions and during the last dismantling step due to the unexpected occurrence of asbestos. The dismantling could be successfully finished on September 11{sup th}, 2012. (orig.)

  5. Stade NPP. Dismantling of the reactor pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharf, Daniel; Dziwis, Joachim [E.ON Anlagenservice GmbH Nukleartechnik, Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Kemp, Lutz-Hagen [KKW Stade GmbH und Co. oHG, Stade (Germany)


    Within the scope of the 4{sup th} partial decommissioning permission of Stade NPP the activated and contaminated structures of the reactor pool had to be dismantled in order to gain a completely non-radioactive reactor pool area for the subsequent clearance measurement of the reactor building. In order to achieve the aim it was intended to remove the activated pool liner sheets, its activated framework and several contaminated ventilation channels made of stainless steel, the concrete walls of the reactor pool entirely or in parts depending on their activation level, as well as the remaining activated carbon steel structures of the reactor pool bottom. Embedded in the concrete walls there were several highly contaminated excore tubes and the contaminated pool top edge, which were intended to be removed to its full extent. The contract of the Stade NPP initiated reactor pool dismantling project had been awarded to E.ON Anlagenservice GmbH (EAS) and its subsupplier sat. Kerntechnik GmbH for the concrete dismantling works and was performed as follows. In order to minimize the radiation level in the main working area in accordance with the ALARA principle, the liner sheets and middle parts of its framework were removed by means of angle grinders first, as they were the most dose rate relevant parts. As a result the primary average radiation level in the reactor pool (measured in a distance of 500 mm from the walls) was lowered from 40 {mu}Sv/h to less than 2 {mu}Sv/h. After the minimization of the radiation level in the working area the main dismantling step started with the cutting of the reactor pool walls in blocks by means of diamond rope cutters. Once a concrete block was cut out, it was transported into the fuel pool by means of a crane and crane fork, examined radiologically, marked area by area and segmented to debris by means of an electrical excavator with a hydraulic chisel. Afterwards the debris and carbon steel parts were fractioned and packed for further

  6. Enhanced dibenzothiophene biodesulfurization in a microchannel reactor. (United States)

    Noda, Ken-Ichi; Kogure, Tomonari; Irisa, Shiro; Murakami, Yuji; Sakata, Minoru; Kuroda, Akio


    A microchannel reactor system was used in a biodesulfurization process in which the rate of biodesulfurization in the oil/water phase of the microchannel reaction was more than nine-fold that in a batch (control) reaction. In addition, the microchannel reaction system using a bacterial cell suspension degraded alkylated dibenzothiophene that was not degraded by the batch reaction system. This work provides a foundation for the application of a microchannel reactor system consisting of biological catalysts using an oil/water phase reaction.

  7. Perspectives on reactor safety. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Engineering Technology Div.


    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) the development of safety concepts; (2) severe accident perspectives; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  8. Exploring new coolants for nuclear breeder reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, A. [ETSI Industriales-Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2. 28006 Madrid (Spain)


    Breeder reactors are considered the unique tool for fully exploiting the natural nuclear resources. In current LWR, only a 0.5% of the primary energy contained in the nuclei removed from the mine is converted into useful heat, with the rest remaining in the depleted uranium or in the spent fuel. The objective of resource-efficiency stimulated the interest in Fast- Reactor-based fuel cycles which can exploit a much higher fraction of the energy content of the mined uranium by burning U-238, mainly after conversion into Pu-239. Thorium fuel cycles would also offers several potential advantages over a uranium fuel cycle. The coolant initially chosen for most of the FBR programs launched in the 60's was sodium, which still is considered the best candidate for these reactors. However, Na-cooled FBR have a positive void reactivity coefficient, which has been among others, a fundamental drawback that has cancelled the deployment of these reactors. Therefore, it seems reasonable to explore totally new options on coolants for breeders. In this paper, a proposal is presented on a new molten salt (F{sub 2}Be) coolant that could overcome the safety issues related to the positive void reactivity coefficient of molten metal coolants. Although it is a very innovative proposal that would need an extensive R and D programme, this paper presents the very appealing properties of this salt, in the case of using a specific type of fuel, similar to that of pebble bed reactors. The concept will be studied over a typical MOX composition and extended to a Thorium-based cycle. The general analysis takes into account requirements for criticality (opening the option of hybrid subcritical systems); requirements for breeding; and the safety requirement of having a negative coolant void reactivity coefficient. A design window is found in the definition of a F{sub 2}Be cooled reactor where the safety requirement is met, unlike for molten metal cooled reactors which always have positive void

  9. Linear inverse problem of the reactor dynamics (United States)

    Volkov, N. P.


    The aim of this work is the study transient processes in nuclear reactors. The mathematical model of the reactor dynamics excluding reverse thermal coupling is investigated. This model is described by a system of integral-differential equations, consisting of a non-stationary anisotropic multispeed kinetic transport equation and a delayed neutron balance equation. An inverse problem was formulated to determine the stationary part of the function source along with the solution of the direct problem. The author obtained sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of a generalized solution of this inverse problem.

  10. Neutrino Physics with Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Ciuffoli, Emilio; Zhao, Fengyi


    Accelerator driven system (ADS) subcritical nuclear reactors are under development around the world. They will be intense sources of free, 30-50 MeV antimuon decay at rest antimuon neutrinos. These ADS reactor neutrinos can provide a robust test of the LSND anomaly and a precise measurement of the leptonic CP-violating phase delta, including sign(cos(delta)). The first phase of many ADS programs includes the construction of a low energy, high intensity proton or deuteron accelerator, which can yield competitive bounds on sterile neutrinos.

  11. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters with reactors



    We review the potential of long and intermediate baseline reactor neutrino experiments in measuring the mass and mixing parameters. The KamLAND experiment can measure the solar mass squared difference very precisely. However it is not at the ideal baseline for measuring the solar neutrino mixing angle. If low-LMA is confirmed by the next results from KamLAND, a reactor experiment with a baseline of 70 km should be ideal to measure precisely the solar neutrino mixing angle. If on the contrary ...

  12. Characterization of CIM monoliths as enzyme reactors. (United States)

    Vodopivec, Martina; Podgornik, Ales; Berovic, Marin; Strancar, Ales


    The immobilization of the enzymes citrate lyase, malate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase to CIM monolithic supports was performed. The long-term stability, reproducibility, and linear response range of the immobilized enzyme reactors were investigated along with the determination of the kinetic behavior of the enzymes immobilized on the CIM monoliths. The Michaelis-Menten constant K(m) and the turnover number k(3) of the immobilized enzymes were found to be flow-unaffected. Furthermore, the K(m) values of the soluble and immobilized enzyme were found to be comparable. Both facts indicate the absence of a diffusional limitation in immobilized CIM enzyme reactors.

  13. Methodology for the integral comparison of nuclear reactors: selecting a reactor for Mexico; Metodologia para la comparacion integral de reactores nucleares: seleccion de un reactor para Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes R, R.; Martin del Campo M, C. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Laboratorio de Analisis de Ingenieria de Reactores Nucleares, Paseo Cuauhnahuac 8532, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    In this work it was built a methodology to compare nuclear reactors of third generation that can be contemplated for future electric planning in Mexico. This methodology understands the selection of the reactors to evaluate eliminating the reactors that still are not sufficiently mature at this time of the study. A general description of each reactor together with their main ones characteristic is made. It was carried out a study for to select the group of parameters that can serve as evaluation indicators, which are the characteristics of the reactors with specific values for each considered technology, and it was elaborated an evaluation matrix indicators including the reactors in the columns and those indicators in the lines. Since that none reactor is the best in all the indicators were necessary to use a methodology for multi criteria taking decisions that we are presented. It was used the 'Fuzzy Logic' technique, the which is based in those denominated diffuse groups and in a system of diffuse inference based on heuristic rules in the way 'If Then consequence> ', where the linguistic values of the condition and of the consequence is defined by diffuse groups, it is as well as the rules always they transform a diffuse group into another. Later on they combine all the diffuse outputs to create a single output and an inverse transformation is made that it transfers the output from the diffuse domain to the real one. They were carried out two studies one with the entirety of the indicators and another in which the indicators were classified in three approaches: the first one refers to indicators related with the planning of the plants inside the context of the general electric sector, the second approach includes indicators related with the characteristics of the fuel and the third it considers indicators related with the acting of the plant in safety and environmental impact. This second study allowed us to know the qualities of

  14. Modeling of Reactor Kinetics and Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Johnson; Scott Lucas; Pavel Tsvetkov


    In order to model a full fuel cycle in a nuclear reactor, it is necessary to simulate the short time-scale kinetic behavior of the reactor as well as the long time-scale dynamics that occur with fuel burnup. The former is modeled using the point kinetics equations, while the latter is modeled by coupling fuel burnup equations with the kinetics equations. When the equations are solved simultaneously with a nonlinear equation solver, the end result is a code with the unique capability of modeling transients at any time during a fuel cycle.

  15. Application of invariant embedding to reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, Akinao; Parsegian, V L


    Application of Invariant Embedding to Reactor Physics describes the application of the method of invariant embedding to radiation shielding and to criticality calculations of atomic reactors. The authors intend to show how this method has been applied to realistic problems, together with the results of applications which will be useful to shielding design. The book is organized into two parts. Part A deals with the reflection and transmission of gamma rays by slabs. The chapters in this section cover topics such as the reflection and transmission problem of gamma rays; formulation of the probl

  16. Pressure vessel calculations for VVER-440 reactors. (United States)

    Hordósy, G; Hegyi, Gy; Keresztúri, A; Maráczy, Cs; Temesvári, E; Vértes, P; Zsolnay, E


    For the determination of the fast neutron load of the reactor pressure vessel a mixed calculational procedure was developed. The procedure was applied to the Unit II of Paks NPP, Hungary. The neutron source on the outer surfaces of the reactor was determined by a core design code, and the neutron transport calculations outside the core were performed by the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The reaction rate in the activation detectors at surveillance positions and at the cavity were calculated and compared with measurements. In most cases, fairly good agreement was found.

  17. Control of SHARON reactor for autotrophic nitrogen removal in two-reactor configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde Perez, Borja; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Sin, Gürkan


    With the perspective of investigating a suitable control design for autotrophic nitrogen removal, this work explores the control design for a SHARON reactor. With this aim, a full model is developed, including the pH dependency, in order to simulate the reactor and determine the optimal operating...... conditions. Then, the screening of controlled variables and pairing is carried out by an assessment of the effect of the disturbances based on the closed loop disturbance gain plots. Two controlled structures are obtained and benchmarked by their capacity to reject the disturbances before the Anammox reactor....

  18. The RES Reactor. A test reactor for the French naval propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivet, Sylvestre [CEA, Centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Minguet, Jean-Luc [AREVA-Technicatome, BP17, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    In the Cadarache nuclear research centre the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) operates, with the support of TECHNICATOME as nuclear operator, the experimental facilities which are necessary for the French naval propulsion program. Since the sixties these facilities have brought a large contribution to the development and to the technical support for the nuclear propulsion; they have been used also to train the French Navy operators. The last experimental reactor, the RNG, is now at the end of its life cycle after thirty years of a profitable operation. A replacement reactor is needed to sustain any evolution of the naval propulsion reactors as well as to guarantee a safe operation and a high level of availability of the existing onboard reactors. The aim of the RES program is namely to build such a test facility. Its construction program started in 2003. By the year 2009 the RES reactor will take over the mission of the RNG. We present hereafter: - A brief history of the French experimental reactors built in support to the naval propulsion, - The needs of the naval propulsion and the related objectives of the RES program, - The corresponding architecture and main characteristics of the RES facility, - The current status of the RES construction. The contents of the paper is as follows: 1. Introduction; 2. History of the French nuclear propulsion experimental reactors; 3. Needs of the naval propulsion and related objectives of the RES reactor; 4. RES architecture and main characteristics; 4.1. The pool module; 4.2. The reactor module; 4.3. The RES reactor, an innovative concept; 5. Realisation status; 6. Conclusion. To summarize, from the year 2009 the RES will be an efficient facility available for irradiation and qualification programs. Its large experimental capabilities will allow relevant fuel and core irradiations. This will give access to a real progress in the knowledge of fuel and core physics as well as in the related simulation tools. This reactor

  19. Simulation of Reactor Transient and Design Criteria of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors


    Gottfridsson, Filip


    The need for energy is growing in the world and the market of nuclear power is now once more expanding. Some issues of the current light-water reactors can be solved by the next generation of nuclear power, Generation IV, where sodium-cooled reactors are one of the candidates. Phénix was a French prototype sodium-cooled reactor, which is seen as a success. Although it did encounter an earlier unexperienced phenomenon, A.U.R.N., in which a negative reactivity transient followed by an oscillati...

  20. Advanced Computational Thermal Fluid Physics (CTFP) and Its Assessment for Light Water Reactors and Supercritical Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.M. McEligot; K. G. Condie; G. E. McCreery; H. M. McIlroy; R. J. Pink; L.E. Hochreiter; J.D. Jackson; R.H. Pletcher; B.L. Smith; P. Vukoslavcevic; J.M. Wallace; J.Y. Yoo; J.S. Lee; S.T. Ro; S.O. Park


    Background: The ultimate goal of the study is the improvement of predictive methods for safety analyses and design of Generation IV reactor systems such as supercritical water reactors (SCWR) for higher efficiency, improved performance and operation, design simplification, enhanced safety and reduced waste and cost. The objective of this Korean / US / laboratory / university collaboration of coupled fundamental computational and experimental studies is to develop the supporting knowledge needed for improved predictive techniques for use in the technology development of Generation IV reactor concepts and their passive safety systems. The present study emphasizes SCWR concepts in the Generation IV program.