Sample records for cai tien giong

  1. A CAI Study Skills Program. (United States)

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.

    This paper describes a computer assisted instruction (CAI) study skills program and reports the results of a study conducted to determine its effectiveness. The program consists of ten CAI study skills modules, a CAI study skills notebook, and a CAI study skills test. The modules address (1) managing time, (2) improving memory, (3) taking lecture…

  2. cai en Tijuana

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    Silvia López Estrada


    Full Text Available Debido a que en México se ha dado poca atención al cuidado infantil como tema central de política pública, el objetivo de este artículo es analizar las estrategias de cuidado infantil que las familias y el Estado llevan a cabo en la ciudad de Tijuana, para lo cual se toma como caso de estudio el proyecto Casas de Atención Infantil (CAI que formaba parte del Programa Jefas de Familia. En el contexto de la breve historia de las políticas de cuidado infantil en el país, se analizan los impactos de dicho proyecto para las mujeres que trabajan como madres educadoras, así como para los niños que acuden a las CAI. Para ello se considera el diseño del proyecto, una pequeña encuesta llevada a cabo con las mujeres jefas de familia, así como entrevistas con algunas de ellas. De acuerdo con los hallazgos, las CAI son un mecanismo de generación de ingresos para aliviar la pobreza que no expresa preocupación por los derechos de las mujeres, lo cual pone en cuestión su acceso a la ciudadanía.


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    Rusyanti Rusyanti


    ABSTRAK Keberadaan makam dan inskripsi padanisan kuno sebagai bukti arkeologis memiliki informasi yang penting dan berhubungan dengan banyak hal. Tulisan ini bertujuan melacak tokoh dan peran seorang China yang bernamaTan Sam Cai Kongyang makamnya berada di Sukalila, Cirebon. Melalui analisis arkeologi dan sejarah diketahui bahwa Tan Sam Cai Kongmerupakan tokoh sejarah yang hidup pada sekitar abad ke-17M. Gelar sebagai Tumenggung Aria Wira Cula yang tertulis pada prasasti menandakan perananya sebagai orang penting dan dekat dengan lingkungan keraton.   Kata Kunci: Cirebon, Tan Sam CaiKong, China.

  4. NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handler, B.H. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA)); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); Hunnum, W.H. (North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (USA)); Smith, D.L. (Memphis State Univ., TN (USA))


    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.

  5. Constraints on the formation of rims on CAIs (United States)

    Davis, A. M.; MacPherson, G. J.


    Several years ago we examined trace-element abundances and Mg isotopic compositions of Wark-Lovering rims (W-L rims) in the Vigarano type A Ca-Al rich inclusion (CAI) 477-5 and concluded that enrichments in refractory elements in the rim relative to the interior of this Ca-Al rich inclusion (CAI) were probably not due to evaporation of the more volatile major elements. We have reexamined 477-5 and begun study of two other Vigarano CAIs, 1623-2 (type A) and 1623-11 (type B), as well as Leoville 3536-3b (type A). All these CAIs have experienced less secondary alteration than the widely studied Allende inclusions, so that primary rim features are better preserved. The ion microprobe was used to profile trace-element contents from the interior of each CAI through the rim into the matrix, attempting to analyze each individual rim layer in turn. All four CAIs studied have the same sequence of outer rim layers. The rim layers in these CAIs share common chemical features. (1) In all three type A CAIs, the spinel-rich layer contains perovskite and is enriched in Rare Earth Elements (REE) and other refractory lithophile elements by approximately 100x CI chondrites. (2) The clinopyroxene layer of the W-L rim, analyzed in two CAIs, has a REE pattern typical of fassaitic pyroxene. (3) Rims and cores of all four CAIs have either no Yb anomaly or small Yb anomalies of the same size. The lack of Ce anomalies and absence of isotopically heavy Mg in rims compared to cores of CAIs indicate that W-L rims are not evaporation residues. W-L rim formation on CAIs appears to involve local melting and reaction between the CAI and surrounding gas.

  6. Pharmacovigilance: Tiens Slimming Tea Causes Increased Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Pharmacovigilance: Tiens Slimming Tea Causes Increased Blood Pressure. SEO Oriaifo, AA Omokhafe, JO Ohaju-Obodo, RI Okoli. Abstract. Imported herbal products that did not go through the official channel of laboratory testing ...

  7. Marshall McLuhan and the Case Against CAI. (United States)

    Hirvela, Alan


    Presents some of the conventional arguments against computer assisted instruction (CAI) in language education and explores humanistic concerns raised in the works of Marshall McLuhan. It is concluded that CAI is introduced into the instructional process before proper research has demonstrated that this method of teaching is not harmful for…

  8. High School Students Participate in a CAI Study Skills Program. (United States)

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.

    A 10-module computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program on study skills was field tested to determine its effectiveness with high school students, using 50 advanced seniors in a large Texas high school as subjects. The program consisted of a study skills pretest, the CAI modules, a notebook on study skills, and a posttest. The modules were…

  9. Tien Shan Geohazards Database: Earthquakes and landslides (United States)

    Havenith, H. B.; Strom, A.; Torgoev, I.; Torgoev, A.; Lamair, L.; Ischuk, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.


    In this paper we present new and review already existing landslide and earthquake data for a large part of the Tien Shan, Central Asia. For the same area, only partial databases for sub-regions have been presented previously. They were compiled and new data were added to fill the gaps between the databases. Major new inputs are products of the Central Asia Seismic Risk Initiative (CASRI): a tentative digital map of active faults (even with indication of characteristic or possible maximum magnitude) and the earthquake catalogue of Central Asia until 2009 that was now updated with USGS data (to May 2014). The new compiled landslide inventory contains existing records of 1600 previously mapped mass movements and more than 1800 new landslide data. Considering presently available seismo-tectonic and landslide data, a target region of 1200 km (E-W) by 600 km (N-S) was defined for the production of more or less continuous geohazards information. This target region includes the entire Kyrgyz Tien Shan, the South-Western Tien Shan in Tajikistan, the Fergana Basin (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) as well as the Western part in Uzbekistan, the North-Easternmost part in Kazakhstan and a small part of the Eastern Chinese Tien Shan (for the zones outside Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, only limited information was available and compiled). On the basis of the new landslide inventory and the updated earthquake catalogue, the link between landslide and earthquake activity is analysed. First, size-frequency relationships are studied for both types of geohazards, in terms of Gutenberg-Richter Law for the earthquakes and in terms of probability density function for the landslides. For several regions and major earthquake events, case histories are presented to outline further the close connection between earthquake and landslide hazards in the Tien Shan. From this study, we concluded first that a major hazard component is still now insufficiently known for both types of geohazards

  10. Study on Teaching Strategies in Mathematics Education based on CAI

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    Wei Yan Feng


    Full Text Available With the development of information technology and the popularization of internet, mobile phone, new media represented is gradually influencing and changing people’s study and life, become the centre and social consensus of cultural information, according to the China Internet Network Information centre, the youth is the main use of CAI(Computer Assisted Instruction, which is the most active group of customers, fully understand the impact of the new media environment for students, higher mathematics education of college students in CAI. In this paper, the CAI is proposed for mathematics education of college students.

  11. Common Airborne Instrumentation System: CAIS Bus Interface Standard, A00.00-C001. Revision A

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Sidney


    .... This interface control document (ICD) was written to provide a single document that designers of CAIS bus controllers and data acquisition units could reference to ensure interoperability on the CAIS bus. This ICD establishes the requirements for digital command/response, time division multiplexing techniques for a single CAIS bus. It encompasses the physical, electrical, and protocol aspects of the CAIS bus.

  12. Common Airborne Instrumentation System; CAIS Configuration ID List A00.00-C009. Revision A

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Sidney


    .... This interface control document (ICD) was written to provide a single document that designers of CAIS bus controllers and data acquisition units could reference to ensure interoperability on the CAIS bus. This ICD establishes the requirements for digital command/response, time division multiplexing techniques for a single CAIS bus. It encompasses the physical, electrical, and protocol aspects of the CAIS bus.

  13. Dansk dyrlæge i Lao Cai

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anders


    Louise Poulsen forlod danske køer med yverbetændelse for at forske i smitsomme sygdomme blandt etniske minoriteter og deres husdyr i Lao Cai-provinsen i Vietnam......Louise Poulsen forlod danske køer med yverbetændelse for at forske i smitsomme sygdomme blandt etniske minoriteter og deres husdyr i Lao Cai-provinsen i Vietnam...

  14. Cualquier tiempo futuro tiene que ser mejor

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    Paquita Armas Fonseca


    Full Text Available Cuba tiene un importante movimiento caricaturista, conocido y laureado en los diversos lugares del mundo. No es el caso de la historieta que, a pesar de contar con muy buenos dibujantes, el desarrollo dramatúrgico no está a la altura de la imagen por lo que se ha visto limitada en su desarrollo. El guión es el talón de Aquiles del cómic cubano que no ha evolucionado como se hermana la caricatura. Es con la animación que el cómic cubano ha trascendido sus fronteras. Se trata de un movimiento vivo que ha saltado los más increíbles obstáculos.

  15. TICCIT to the Future: Advances in Instructional Theory for CAI. (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.

    The Time-shared Interactive Computer-Controlled Information Television (TICCIT) system represents a considerable technological advance over previous CAI systems, primarily because of its unprecedented foundation in instructional theory. This paper briefly describes the theory-base of the TICCIT system; it summarizes some recent advances in…

  16. Du Bollettino del CAI à la revue Le Alpi

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    Jean-Paul Zuanon


    Full Text Available Comme les autres clubs alpins créés à la même époque, le CAI s’est rapidement doté d’outils de communication pour établir un lien entre ses membres et faire connaître sa philosophie en matière de pratique de la montagne.   Fondé en 1865, le bulletin trimestriel a été complété par la Rivista mensile en 1881. De fait,  l’organe du CAI est vieux de près de 140 ans.  Il est un reflet fidèle de l’évolution du club et des grands débats qui l’ont animé. Sans prétendre retracer cette longue histoire,...

  17. Oxygen Isotope Measurements of a Rare Murchison Type A CAI and Its Rim (United States)

    Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, J. I.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Jacobsen, B.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.


    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from CV chondrites commonly show oxygen isotope heterogeneity among different mineral phases within individual inclusions reflecting the complex history of CAIs in both the solar nebula and/or parent bodies. The degree of isotopic exchange is typically mineral-specific, yielding O-16-rich spinel, hibonite and pyroxene and O-16-depleted melilite and anorthite. Recent work demonstrated large and systematic variations in oxygen isotope composition within the margin and Wark-Lovering rim of an Allende Type A CAI. These variations suggest that some CV CAIs formed from several oxygen reservoirs and may reflect transport between distinct regions of the solar nebula or varying gas composition near the proto-Sun. Oxygen isotope compositions of CAIs from other, less-altered chondrites show less intra-CAI variability and 16O-rich compositions. The record of intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability in CM chondrites, which commonly show evidence for low-temperature aqueous alteration, is less clear, in part because the most common CAIs found in CM chondrites are mineralogically simple (hibonite +/- spinel or spinel +/- pyroxene) and are composed of minerals less susceptible to O-isotopic exchange. No measurements of the oxygen isotope compositions of rims on CAIs in CM chondrites have been reported. Here, we present oxygen isotope data from a rare, Type A CAI from the Murchison meteorite, MUM-1. The data were collected from melilite, hibonite, perovskite and spinel in a traverse into the interior of the CAI and from pyroxene, melilite, anorthite, and spinel in the Wark-Lovering rim. Our objectives were to (1) document any evidence for intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability; (2) determine the isotopic composition of the rim minerals and compare their composition(s) to the CAI interior; and (3) compare the MUM-1 data to oxygen isotope zoning profiles measured from CAIs in other chondrites.

  18. Silicon Isotopic Fractionation of CAI-like Vacuum Evaporation Residues

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    Knight, K; Kita, N; Mendybaev, R; Richter, F; Davis, A; Valley, J


    Calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are often enriched in the heavy isotopes of magnesium and silicon relative to bulk solar system materials. It is likely that these isotopic enrichments resulted from evaporative mass loss of magnesium and silicon from early solar system condensates while they were molten during one or more high-temperature reheating events. Quantitative interpretation of these enrichments requires laboratory determinations of the evaporation kinetics and associated isotopic fractionation effects for these elements. The experimental data for the kinetics of evaporation of magnesium and silicon and the evaporative isotopic fractionation of magnesium is reasonably complete for Type B CAI liquids (Richter et al., 2002, 2007a). However, the isotopic fractionation factor for silicon evaporating from such liquids has not been as extensively studied. Here we report new ion microprobe silicon isotopic measurements of residual glass from partial evaporation of Type B CAI liquids into vacuum. The silicon isotopic fractionation is reported as a kinetic fractionation factor, {alpha}{sub Si}, corresponding to the ratio of the silicon isotopic composition of the evaporation flux to that of the residual silicate liquid. For CAI-like melts, we find that {alpha}{sub Si} = 0.98985 {+-} 0.00044 (2{sigma}) for {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si with no resolvable variation with temperature over the temperature range of the experiments, 1600-1900 C. This value is different from what has been reported for evaporation of liquid Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} (Davis et al., 1990) and of a melt with CI chondritic proportions of the major elements (Wang et al., 2001). There appears to be some compositional control on {alpha}{sub Si}, whereas no compositional effects have been reported for {alpha}{sub Mg}. We use the values of {alpha}Si and {alpha}Mg, to calculate the chemical compositions of the unevaporated precursors of a number of isotopically fractionated CAIs from CV chondrites whose

  19. Oxygen isotope variations at the margin of a CAI records circulation within the solar nebula. (United States)

    Simon, Justin I; Hutcheon, Ian D; Simon, Steven B; Matzel, Jennifer E P; Ramon, Erick C; Weber, Peter K; Grossman, Lawrence; DePaolo, Donald J


    Micrometer-scale analyses of a calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) and the characteristic mineral bands mantling the CAI reveal that the outer parts of this primitive object have a large range of oxygen isotope compositions. The variations are systematic; the relative abundance of (16)O first decreases toward the CAI margin, approaching a planetary-like isotopic composition, then shifts to extremely (16)O-rich compositions through the surrounding rim. The variability implies that CAIs probably formed from several oxygen reservoirs. The observations support early and short-lived fluctuations of the environment in which CAIs formed, either because of transport of the CAIs themselves to distinct regions of the solar nebula or because of varying gas composition near the proto-Sun.

  20. Modern status of the Tien-Shan cosmic ray station

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    Ryabov V.A.


    Full Text Available We present a description of the new complex installation for the study of extensive air showers which was created at the Tien Shan mountain cosmic ray station, as well as the results of the first measurements made there in 2015–2016. We also present new results on high-energy radiation observed during a thunderstorm.

  1. Mantle transition zone discontinuities beneath the Tien Shan (United States)

    Yu, Youqiang; Zhao, Dapeng; Lei, Jianshe


    To better understand geodynamic processes of intracontinental mountain building, we conduct a systematic investigation of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) beneath the Tien Shan and its surrounding areas using a receiver function method under non-plane wave front assumption. The resulting apparent depths of the 410 km (d410) and 660 km (d660) discontinuities and the MTZ thickness display significant lateral variations. Both the central Tien Shan and the Pamir Plateau are characterized by a thick MTZ, which can be well explained by the existence of lithospheric segments resulted from possible break-off of the subducted slab or lithosphere delamination. A thin MTZ and an obviously depressed d410, which may be induced by asthenosphere upwelling associated with the dropping lithospheric segment, are revealed beneath the Kazakh Shield. Seismic evidence is obtained for the potential existence of lower mantle upwelling beneath the Tarim Basin based on the observed thin MTZ and relatively significant uplift of d660. The subduction of the Kazakh Shield and Tarim lithosphere driven by the India-Eurasia collision possibly plays an essential role in the formation and evolution of the Tien Shan orogenic belt, and the lower mantle upwelling revealed beneath the Tarim Basin may promote the uplift of the Tien Shan by softening the upper mantle.

  2. The Impact of Different Support Vectors on GOSAT-2 CAI-2 L2 Cloud Discrimination

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    Yu Oishi


    Full Text Available Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite-2 (GOSAT-2 will be launched in fiscal year 2018. GOSAT-2 will be equipped with two sensors: the Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation (TANSO-Fourier Transform Spectrometer 2 (FTS-2 and the TANSO-Cloud and Aerosol Imager 2 (CAI-2. CAI-2 is a push-broom imaging sensor that has forward- and backward-looking bands to observe the optical properties of aerosols and clouds and to monitor the status of urban air pollution and transboundary air pollution over oceans, such as PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter. CAI-2 has important applications for cloud discrimination in each direction. The Cloud and Aerosol Unbiased Decision Intellectual Algorithm (CLAUDIA1, which applies sequential threshold tests to features is used for GOSAT CAI L2 cloud flag processing. If CLAUDIA1 is used with CAI-2, it is necessary to optimize the thresholds in accordance with CAI-2. However, CLAUDIA3 with support vector machines (SVM, a supervised pattern recognition method, was developed, and then we applied CLAUDIA3 for GOSAT-2 CAI-2 L2 cloud discrimination processing. Thus, CLAUDIA3 can automatically find the optimized boundary between clear and cloudy areas. Improvements in CLAUDIA3 using CAI (CLAUDIA3-CAI continue to be made. In this study, we examined the impact of various support vectors (SV on GOSAT-2 CAI-2 L2 cloud discrimination by analyzing (1 the impact of the choice of different time periods for the training data and (2 the impact of different generation procedures for SV on the cloud discrimination efficiency. To generate SV for CLAUDIA3-CAI from MODIS data, there are two times at which features are extracted, corresponding to CAI bands. One procedure is equivalent to generating SV using CAI data. Another procedure generates SV for MODIS cloud discrimination at the beginning, and then extracts decision function, thresholds, and SV corresponding to CAI bands. Our results indicated the following


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellors, R J


    The northern Tien Shan of Central Asia is an area of active mid-continent deformation. Although far from a plate boundary, this region has experienced 5 earthquakes larger than magnitude 7 in the past century and includes one event that may as be as large as Mw 8.0. Previous studies based on GPS measurements indicate on the order of 23 mm/yr of shortening across the entire Tien Shan and up to 15 mm/year in the northern Tien Shan (Figure 1). The seismic moment release rate appears comparable with the geodetic measured slip, at least to first order, suggesting that geodetic rates can be considered a proxy for accumulation rates of stress for seismic hazard estimation. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar may provide a means to make detailed spatial measurements and hence in identifying block boundaries and assisting in seismic hazard. Therefore, we hoped to define block boundaries by direct measurement and by identifying and resolving earthquake slip. Due to political instability in Kyrgzystan, the existing seismic network has not performed as well as required to precisely determine earthquake hypocenters in remote areas and hence InSAR is highly useful. In this paper we present the result of three earthquake studies and show that InSAR is useful for refining locations of teleseismically located earthquakes. ALOS PALSAR data is used to investigate crustal motion in the Tien Shan mountains of Central Asia. As part of the work, considerable software development was undertaken to process PALSAR data. This software has been made freely available. Two damaging earthquakes have been imaged in the Tien Shan and the locations provided by ALOS InSAR have helped to refine seismological velocity models. A third earthquake south of Kyrgyzstan was also imaged. The use of InSAR data and especially L band is therefore very useful in providing groundtruth for earthquake locations.

  4. The Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing autoinducer CAI-1: analysis of the biosynthetic enzyme CqsA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, R.; Bolitho, M; Higgins, D; Lu, W; Ng, W; Jeffrey, P; Rabinowitz, J; Semmelhack, M; Hughson, F; Bassler, B


    Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes the disease cholera, controls virulence factor production and biofilm development in response to two extracellular quorum-sensing molecules, called autoinducers. The strongest autoinducer, called CAI-1 (for cholera autoinducer-1), was previously identified as (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one. Biosynthesis of CAI-1 requires the enzyme CqsA. Here, we determine the CqsA reaction mechanism, identify the CqsA substrates as (S)-2-aminobutyrate and decanoyl coenzyme A, and demonstrate that the product of the reaction is 3-aminotridecan-4-one, dubbed amino-CAI-1. CqsA produces amino-CAI-1 by a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent acyl-CoA transferase reaction. Amino-CAI-1 is converted to CAI-1 in a subsequent step via a CqsA-independent mechanism. Consistent with this, we find cells release {ge}100 times more CAI-1 than amino-CAI-1. Nonetheless, V. cholerae responds to amino-CAI-1 as well as CAI-1, whereas other CAI-1 variants do not elicit a quorum-sensing response. Thus, both CAI-1 and amino-CAI-1 have potential as lead molecules in the development of an anticholera treatment.

  5. Effects of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Secondary School Students' Performance in Biology (United States)

    Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Afolabi, Adedeji Olufemi


    This study investigated the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on secondary school students' performance in biology. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI in individualised or cooperative learning settings package was examined. The research was a quasi experimental involving a 3 x 2 factorial…

  6. Personality preference influences medical student use of specific computer-aided instruction (CAI

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    Halsey Martha


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that personality preference, which can be related to learning style, influences individual utilization of CAI applications developed specifically for the undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods Personality preferences of students were obtained using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI test. CAI utilization for individual students was collected from entry logs for two different web-based applications (a discussion forum and a tutorial used in the basic science course on human anatomy. Individual login data were sorted by personality preference and the data statistically analyzed by 2-way mixed ANOVA and correlation. Results There was a wide discrepancy in the level and pattern of student use of both CAI. Although individual use of both CAI was positively correlated irrespective of MBTI preference, students with a "Sensing" preference tended to use both CAI applications more than the "iNtuitives". Differences in the level of use of these CAI applications (i.e., higher use of discussion forum vs. a tutorial were also found for the "Perceiving/Judging" dimension. Conclusion We conclude that personality/learning preferences of individual students influence their use of CAI in the medical curriculum.

  7. Personality preference influences medical student use of specific computer-aided instruction (CAI). (United States)

    McNulty, John A; Espiritu, Baltazar; Halsey, Martha; Mendez, Michelle


    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that personality preference, which can be related to learning style, influences individual utilization of CAI applications developed specifically for the undergraduate medical curriculum. Personality preferences of students were obtained using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) test. CAI utilization for individual students was collected from entry logs for two different web-based applications (a discussion forum and a tutorial) used in the basic science course on human anatomy. Individual login data were sorted by personality preference and the data statistically analyzed by 2-way mixed ANOVA and correlation. There was a wide discrepancy in the level and pattern of student use of both CAI. Although individual use of both CAI was positively correlated irrespective of MBTI preference, students with a "Sensing" preference tended to use both CAI applications more than the "iNtuitives". Differences in the level of use of these CAI applications (i.e., higher use of discussion forum vs. a tutorial) were also found for the "Perceiving/Judging" dimension. We conclude that personality/learning preferences of individual students influence their use of CAI in the medical curriculum.

  8. Two Generations of Sodic Metasomatism in an Allende Type B CAI (United States)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.


    Calcium-Aluminum rich inclusions (CAI) in Allende, along with other chondritic compo-nents, experienced variable amounts and types of alter-ation of their mineralogy and chemistry. In CAIs, one of the principal types of alteration led to the depo-sition of nepheline and sodalite. Here we extend initial obervations of alteration in an Allende CAI, focus-ing on occurences of nepheline and a nepheline-like phase with unusally high Ca (referred to as "calcic nepheline" in this abstract). Detailed petrographic and microchemical observations of alteration phases in an Allende Type B CAI (TS4) show that two separate generations of "nepheline", with very distinct composi-tions, crystallized around the margins and in the interi-or of this CAI. We use observations of micro-faults as potential temporal markers, in order to place constraints on the timing of alteration events in Allende. These observa-tions of micro-faulting that truncate and offset one gen-eration of "nepheline" indicate that some "nepheline" crystallized before incorporation of the CAI into the Allende parent-body. Some of the sodic metasomatism in some Allende CAIs occurred prior to Allende par-ent-body assembly. The earlier generation of "calcic-nepheline" has a very distinctive, calcium-rich compo-sition, and the second generation is low in calcium, and matches the compositions of nephelines found in near-by altered chondrules, and in the Allende matrix.

  9. Rancang Bangun Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI Sebagai Media Pembelajaran Dalam Mata Pelajaran Fisika Sekolah Menengah Atas

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    Arif Harjanto


    Full Text Available Strategy of using of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI as learning media is needed for solving problems that rise in learning process. Good learning packaging give positive effect in improving human potency. CAI as learning media based on computer microprocessor is built as complement and support learning method that usually use lecturing method, information discussion, and presentation.  The goal of this research is design and build interactive learning media CAI by multimedia technology. Result of this research is CAI visualisation by tutorial model and simulation as physics learning media by computer for senior high school students, XI Grade. This research involve a number of 8 teachers and 90 student XI Grade as respondents. Respondents questionnaire result show that 91.11% of students state that CAI product is qualified, 75.11% of students state that material presentation are qualified, 95.11% of students state that CAI program can increase study motivation.Keywords : Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI; Learning Media; Multimedia; Physics.

  10. Reciever Function Transect Across Tibet, Tarim and Tien Shan (United States)

    Marshall, B.; Levin, V. L.; Huang, G.; Roecker, S. W.; Wang, H.


    We investigate the region of the ongoing collision between the India and Eurasia tectonic plates that results in widespread deformation of the continental lithosphere. Over the past decade, numerous regional studies were conducted between the Himalaya and the Tien Shan mountains, each illuminating a small part of the area. We combine the data from a number of portable and permanent networks to construct a ~1800 km long profile of lithospheric properties that cross three very different tectonic domains: the Tibetan plateau, the Tarim basin, and the Tien Shan mountains. We use data from 60 stations operated in the region by US, Chinese and French researchers. We use records of distant earthquakes to construct receiver function gathers for each station. The uniformity of processing ensures that our results are comparable along the transect. We examine receiver function gathers at each site, and rank their quality on the basis of number of records, noise levels, and directional stability of the wavefield. We select 27 sites with high-quality data. For these we construct average receiver function traces using data in the 60-85 degree range, and use them as a guide to the lithospheric layering beneath the region. On most receiver functions we constructed the most prominent feature is a positive phase likely associated with the crust-mantle transition. The timing of this phase varies significantly over the length of the profile. Beneath the Tibetan plateau delay times ~7-8 s are seen close to the Himalayas, and nearly 10 s delays are found further north. Delays of 6 to 8 s are seen beneath sites in the Tarim basin and the Tien Shan mountains, and nearly 10 s delays are seen at the border between them. In addition to the pulse associated with the crust-mantle transition we see other locally-consistent features, for example a negative phase with delay values between 3 and 5 s beneath much of the Tibetan plateau.

  11. CAD/CAM/CAI Application for High-Precision Machining of Internal Combustion Engine Pistons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Postnov


    Full Text Available CAD/CAM/CAI application solutions for internal combustion engine pistons machining was analyzed. Low-volume technology of internal combustion engine pistons production was proposed. Fixture for CNC turning center was designed.

  12. Retrieving XCO2 from GOSAT FTS over East Asia Using Simultaneous Aerosol Information from CAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woogyung Kim


    Full Text Available In East Asia, where aerosol concentrations are persistently high throughout the year, most satellite CO2 retrieval algorithms screen out many measurements during quality control in order to reduce retrieval errors. To reduce the retrieval errors associated with aerosols, we have modified YCAR (Yonsei Carbon Retrieval algorithm to YCAR-CAI to retrieve XCO2 from GOSAT FTS measurements using aerosol retrievals from simultaneous Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI measurements. The CAI aerosol algorithm provides aerosol type and optical depth information simultaneously for the same geometry and optical path as FTS. The YCAR-CAI XCO2 retrieval algorithm has been developed based on the optimal estimation method. The algorithm uses the VLIDORT V2.6 radiative transfer model to calculate radiances and Jacobian functions. The XCO2 results retrieved using the YCAR-CAI algorithm were evaluated by comparing them with ground-based TCCON measurements and current operational GOSAT XCO2 retrievals. The retrievals show a clear annual cycle, with an increasing trend of 2.02 to 2.39 ppm per year, which is higher than that measured at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. The YCAR-CAI results were validated against the Tsukuba and Saga TCCON sites and show an root mean square error of 2.25, a bias of −0.81 ppm, and a regression line closer to the linear identity function compared with other current algorithms. Even after post-screening, the YCAR-CAI algorithm provides a larger dataset of XCO2 compared with other retrieval algorithms by 21% to 67%, which could be substantially advantageous in validation and data analysis for the area of East Asia. Retrieval uncertainty indicates a 1.39 to 1.48 ppm at the TCCON sites. Using Carbon Tracker-Asia (CT-A data, the sampling error was analyzed and was found to be between 0.32 and 0.36 ppm for each individual sounding.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Paris


    Full Text Available El marketing esencial se basa en la determinación de los significados en la mente del consumidor y de los códigos en la mente del mercado. Para poder sustentar esto se han creado metodologías como las técnicas de afloramiento de significado y las técnicas proyectivas entre otras. Pero, el nuevo problema que surge de esta conceptualización teórica es si vamos a poner al significado en la base del plan de marketing, la pregunta es ¿cuántos significados se deben determinar? Por lo que sabemos cada cultura tiene sus propias significaciones y los significados también cambian con el tiempo incluso lo hacen contextualmente. Lo cual hace aún más complejo el dilema presentado como título de este artículo. En se presentan los argumentos teóricos que sustentan uno de los descubrimientos más importantes del marketing esencial que sostenemos: en general para cada producto o servicio hay cuatro significados dominantes.

  14. A multielement isotopic study of refractory FUN and F CAIs: Mass-dependent and mass-independent isotope effects (United States)

    Kööp, Levke; Nakashima, Daisuke; Heck, Philipp R.; Kita, Noriko T.; Tenner, Travis J.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Park, Changkun; Davis, Andrew M.


    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the oldest dated objects that formed inside the Solar System. Among these are rare, enigmatic objects with large mass-dependent fractionation effects (F CAIs), which sometimes also have large nucleosynthetic anomalies and a low initial abundance of the short-lived radionuclide 26Al (FUN CAIs). We have studied seven refractory hibonite-rich CAIs and one grossite-rich CAI from the Murchison (CM2) meteorite for their oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopic compositions. The 26Al-26Mg system was also studied in seven of these CAIs. We found mass-dependent heavy isotope enrichment in all measured elements, but never simultaneously in the same CAI. The data are hard to reconcile with a single-stage melt evaporation origin and may require reintroduction or reequilibration for magnesium, oxygen and titanium after evaporation for some of the studied CAIs. The initial 26Al/27Al ratios inferred from model isochrons span a range from <1 × 10-6 to canonical (∼5 × 10-5). The CAIs show a mutual exclusivity relationship between inferred incorporation of live 26Al and the presence of resolvable anomalies in 48Ca and 50Ti. Furthermore, a relationship exists between 26Al incorporation and Δ17O in the hibonite-rich CAIs (i.e., 26Al-free CAIs have resolved variations in Δ17O, while CAIs with resolved 26Mg excesses have Δ17O values close to -23‰). Only the grossite-rich CAI has a relatively enhanced Δ17O value (∼-17‰) in spite of a near-canonical 26Al/27Al. We interpret these data as indicating that fractionated hibonite-rich CAIs formed over an extended time period and sampled multiple stages in the isotopic evolution of the solar nebula, including: (1) an 26Al-poor nebula with large positive and negative anomalies in 48Ca and 50Ti and variable Δ17O; (2) a stage of 26Al-admixture, during which anomalies in 48Ca and 50Ti had been largely diluted and a Δ17O value of ∼-23‰ had been achieved in the CAI formation region; and (3

  15. Mineralogy and Petrology of EK-459-5-1, A Type B1 CAI from Allende (United States)

    Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.


    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are a type of coarse-grained clast composed of Ca-, Al-, and Mg-rich silicates and oxides found in chondrite meteorites. Type B (CAIs) are exclusively found in the CV chondrite meteorites and are the most well studied type of inclusion found in chondritic meteorites. Type B1 CAIs are distinguished by a nearly monomineralic rim of melilite that surrounds an interior predominantly composed of melilite, fassaite (Ti and Al-rich clinopyroxene), anorthite, and spinel with varying amounts of other minor primary and secondary phases. The formation of Type B CAIs has received considerable attention in the course of CAI research and quantitative models, experimental results and observations from Type B inclusions remain largely in disagreement. Recent experimental results and quantitative models have shown that the formation of B1 mantles could have occurred by the evaporative loss of Si and Mg during the crystallization of these objects. However, comparative studies suggest that the lower bulk SiO2 compositions in B1s result in more prior melilite crystallization before the onset of fassaite and anorthite crystallization leading to the formation of thick melilite rich rims in B1 inclusions. Detailed petrographic and cosmochemical studies of these inclusions will further our understanding of these complex objects.

  16. Closed system oxygen isotope redistribution in igneous CAIs upon spinel dissolution (United States)

    Aléon, Jérôme


    In several Calcium-Aluminum-rich Inclusions (CAIs) from the CV3 chondrites Allende and Efremovka, representative of the most common igneous CAI types (type A, type B and Fractionated with Unknown Nuclear isotopic anomalies, FUN), the relationship between 16O-excesses and TiO2 content in pyroxene indicates that the latter commonly begins to crystallize with a near-terrestrial 16O-poor composition and becomes 16O-enriched during crystallization, reaching a near-solar composition. Mass balance calculations were performed to investigate the contribution of spinel to this 16O-enrichment. It is found that a back-reaction of early-crystallized 16O-rich spinel with a silicate partial melt having undergone a 16O-depletion is consistent with the O isotopic evolution of CAI minerals during magmatic crystallization. Dissolution of spinel explains the O isotopic composition (16O-excess and extent of mass fractionation) of pyroxene as well as that of primary anorthite/dmisteinbergite and possibly that of the last melilite crystallizing immediately before pyroxene. It requires that igneous CAIs behaved as closed-systems relative to oxygen from nebular gas during a significant fraction of their cooling history, contrary to the common assumption that CAI partial melts constantly equilibrated with gas. The mineralogical control on O isotopes in igneous CAIs is thus simply explained by a single 16O-depletion during magmatic crystallization. This 16O-depletion occurred in an early stage of the thermal history, after the crystallization of spinel, i.e. in the temperature range for melilite crystallization/partial melting and did not require multiple, complex or late isotope exchange. More experimental work is however required to deduce the protoplanetary disk conditions associated with this 16O-depletion.

  17. The effects of gender and cooperative learning with CAI on college students' computer science achievement and attitudes toward computers (United States)

    Shen, Ching-Heng

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of gender and cooperative learning with CAI on college students' computer science achievement and attitudes toward computers, when the effects of computer ownership, prior computer instruction, previous software and programming experience were controlled. The participants were 155 undergraduates enrolled in introductory computer courses at two colleges in North Taiwan during the Fall 1996 semester. Before the treatment period, they were asked to fill out the Background Data Form, instructed with cooperative learning strategy, and trained on cooperative and individual learning with CAI. During the treatment period, they were randomly assigned to the treatment (78 students) or the control group (77 students). The treatment group students used a CAI program on computer numbering, encoding, and hardware systems with their partner throughout all six CAI sessions. The control group students used the same CAI program individually within the six CAI sessions. After the 6-week treatment period, both groups were posttested by a 40-item multiple-choice Computer Science Achievement Test (CSAT) and a 30-item Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). Data for both posttests were collected from 153 students (77 in the treatment, 76 in the control group; 62 males, 91 females) and analyzed by MANCOVA and follow-up univariate hierarchical MRC analyses for ANCOVAs. Based on the covariate-adjusted CSAT scores, the results indicated that students using CAI cooperatively had a significantly higher mean than those using CAI individually. Neither gender nor interaction effects were found. Regarding the covariate-adjusted CAS scores, the results showed that males had a significantly higher mean than females. No treatment or interaction effects were found. Due to the higher computer achievement resulted from cooperative learning with CAI, this study suggested that instructors apply cooperative learning strategy in CAI settings in computer courses

  18. On native Danish learners' challenges in distinguishing /tai/, /cai/ and /zai/

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloos, Marjoleine; Zhang, Chun


    Chinese (L2) initial consonants, namely , phonologically /th ts tsh/. Impressionistically, disentangling tai-cai-zai is extremely challenging for Danish learners, but experimental confirmation is lacking (Wang, Sloos & Zhang 2015, forthcoming). Eighteen native Danish learners of Chinese of Aarhus...... University participated in an ABX experiment. They were auditorily presented pairs of the critical stimuli tai-cai-zai, te-ce-ze and tuo-cuo-zuo combined with all four tones and alternated with fillers. The subjects indicated for each pair which of the two words matched the pinyin description. The expected...

  19. Stable Magnesium Isotope Variation in Melilite Mantle of Allende Type B1 CAI EK 459-5-1 (United States)

    Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Jeffcoat, C. R.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.


    Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the earliest formed crystalline material in our solar system and they record early Solar System processes. Here we present petrographic and delta Mg-25 data of melilite mantles in a Type B1 CAI that records early solar nebular processes.

  20. Gender Role, Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation in CAIS ("XY-Women") Compared With Subfertile and Infertile 46,XX Women. (United States)

    Brunner, Franziska; Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara; Richter-Appelt, Hertha


    The perception of gender development of individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) as unambiguously female has recently been challenged in both qualitative data and case reports of male gender identity. The aim of the mixed-method study presented was to examine the self-perception of CAIS individuals regarding different aspects of gender and to identify commonalities and differences in comparison with subfertile and infertile XX-chromosomal women with diagnoses of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study sample comprised 11 participants with CAIS, 49 with MRKHS, and 55 with PCOS. Gender identity was assessed by means of a multidimensional instrument, which showed significant differences between the CAIS group and the XX-chromosomal women. Other-than-female gender roles and neither-female-nor-male sexes/genders were reported only by individuals with CAIS. The percentage with a not exclusively androphile sexual orientation was unexceptionally high in the CAIS group compared to the prevalence in "normative" women and the clinical groups. The findings support the assumption made by Meyer-Bahlburg ( 2010 ) that gender outcome in people with CAIS is more variable than generally stated. Parents and professionals should thus be open to courses of gender development other than typically female in individuals with CAIS.

  1. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with fractionation and unknown nuclear effects (FUN CAIs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Wasserburg, Gerald J.


    and gas-melt oxygen-isotope exchange in a 16O-poor gaseous reservoir that resulted in crystallization of 16O-depleted fassaite, melilite and plagioclase. The final oxygen isotopic compositions of melilite and plagioclase in the CV FUN CAIs may have been established on the CV parent asteroid as a result...

  2. A Comparison of CAI and Class Instruction Approaches on Study Skills. (United States)

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.

    A study was conducted to compare the effects of study skills instructions on students' study behaviors and attitudes when such instructions were offered through study guides, class instructions, and discussions, or via computer assisted instruction (CAI). Undergraduate students were separated into three groups which (1) read study skills guides…

  3. Consumption of fa cai Nostoc soup: a potential for BMAA exposure from Nostoc cyanobacteria in China? (United States)

    Roney, Britton R; Renhui, Li; Banack, Sandra Anne; Murch, Susan; Honegger, Rosmarie; Cox, Paul Alan


    Grown in arid regions of western China the cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme--called fa cai in Mandarin and fat choy in Cantonese--is wild-harvested and used to make soup consumed during New Year's celebrations. High prices, up to $125 USD/kg, led to overharvesting in Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, and Xinjiang. Degradation of arid ecosystems, desertification, and conflicts between Nostoc harvesters and Mongol herdsmen concerned the Chinese environmental authorities, leading to a government ban of Nostoc commerce. This ban stimulated increased marketing of a substitute made from starch. We analysed samples purchased throughout China as well as in Chinese markets in the United States and the United Kingdom. Some were counterfeits consisting of dyed starch noodles. A few samples from California contained Nostoc flagelliforme but were adulterated with starch noodles. Other samples, including those from the United Kingdom, consisted of pure Nostoc flagelliforme. A recent survey of markets in Cheng Du showed no real Nostoc flagelliforme to be marketed. Real and artificial fa cai differ in the presence of beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Given its status as a high-priced luxury food, the government ban on collection and marketing, and the replacement of real fa cai with starch substitutes consumed only on special occasions, it is anticipated that dietary exposure to BMAA from fa cai will be reduced in the future in China.

  4. High-Throughput Proteomic Approaches to the Elucidation of Potential Biomarkers of Chronic Allograft Injury (CAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Cassidy


    Full Text Available This review focuses on the role of OMICs technologies, concentrating in particular on proteomics, in biomarker discovery in chronic allograft injury (CAI. CAI is the second most prevalent cause of allograft dysfunction and loss in the first decade post-transplantation, after death with functioning graft (DWFG. The term CAI, sometimes referred to as chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN, describes the deterioration of renal allograft function and structure as a result of immunological processes (chronic antibody-mediated rejection, and other non-immunological factors such as calcineurin inhibitor (CNI induced nephrotoxicity, hypertension and infection. Current methods for assessing allograft function are costly, insensitive and invasive; traditional kidney function measurements such as serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR display poor predictive abilities, while the current “gold-standard” involving histological diagnosis with a renal biopsy presents its own inherent risks to the overall health of the allograft. As early as two years post-transplantation, protocol biopsies have shown more than 50% of allograft recipients have mild CAN; ten years post-transplantation more than 50% of the allograft recipients have progressed to severe CAN which is associated with diminishing graft function. Thus, there is a growing medical requirement for minimally invasive biomarkers capable of identifying the early stages of the disease which would allow for timely intervention. Proteomics involves the study of the expression, localization, function and interaction of the proteome. Proteomic technologies may be powerful tools used to identify novel biomarkers which would predict CAI in susceptible individuals. In this paper we will review the use of proteomics in the elucidation of novel predictive biomarkers of CAI in clinical, animal and in vitro studies.

  5. Northwest Africa 10758: A New CV3 Chondrite Bearing a Giant CAI with Hibonite-Rich Wark-Lovering Rim (United States)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Zolensky, M.


    Northwest Africa (NWA) 10758 is a newly identified carbonaceous chondrite that is a Bali-like oxidized CV3. The large Ca-Al rich inclusion (CAI) in this sample is approx. 2.4 x 1.4 cm. The CAI is transitional in composition between type A and type B, with interior mineralogy dominated by melilite, plus less abundant spinel and Al-Ti rich diopside, and only very minor anorthite (Fig. 1A). This CAI is largely free of secondary alteration in the exposed section we examined, with almost no nepheline, sodalite or Ca-Fe silicates. The Wark-Lovering (WL) rim on this CAI is dominated by hibonite, with lower abundances of spinel and perovskite, and with hibonite locally overlain by melilite plus perovskite (as in Fig. 1B). Note that the example shown in 1B is exceptional. Around most of the CAI, hibonite + spinel + perovskite form the WL rim, without overlying melilite. The WL rim can be unusually thick, ranging from approx.20 microns up to approx. 150 microns. A well-developed, stratified accretionary rim infills embayments of the CAI, and thins over protuberances in the convoluted CAI surface.

  6. NWA10758: A New CV3 Chondrite Bearing a Giant CAI with Hibonite-Rich Wark-Lovering Rim (United States)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Zolensky, M.


    Northwest Africa (NWA) 10758 is a newly identified carbonaceous chondrite that is a Bali-like oxidized CV3. The large Ca-Al rich inclusion (CAI) in this sample is approx. 2.4 x 1.4 cm. The CAI is transitional in composition between type A and type B, with interior mineralogy dominated by melilite, plus less abundant spinel and Al-Ti rich diopside, and only very minor anorthite (Fig. 1A). This CAI is largely free of secondary alteration in the exposed section we examined, with almost no nepheline, sodalite or Ca-Fe silicates. The Wark-Lovering (WL) rim on this CAI is dominated by hibonite, with lower abundances of spinel and perovskite, and with hibonite locally overlain by melilite plus perovskite (as in Fig. 1B). Note that the example shown in 1B is exceptional. Around most of the CAI, hibonite + spinel + perovskite form the WL rim, without overlying melilite. The WL rim can be unusually thick, ranging from approx. 20 microns up to approx. 150 microns. A well-developed, stratified accretionary rim infills embayments of the CAI, and thins over protuberances in the convoluted CAI surface.

  7. Multiple Nebular Gas Reservoirs Recorded by Oxygen Isotope Variation in a Spinel-rich CAI in CO3 MIL 090019 (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Nguyen, A. N.; Ross, D. K.; Messenger, S.


    We conducted NanoSIMS O-isotopic imaging of a primitive spinel-rich CAI spherule (27-2) from the MIL 090019 CO3 chondrite. Inclusions such as 27-2 are proposed to record inner nebula processes during an epoch of rapid solar nebula evolution. Mineralogical and textural analyses suggest that this CAI formed by high temperature reactions, partial melting, and condensation. This CAI exhibits radial O-isotopic heterogeneity among multiple occurrences of the same mineral, reflecting interactions with distinct nebular O-isotopic reservoirs.

  8. Alternative communication network designs for an operational Plato 4 CAI system (United States)

    Mobley, R. E., Jr.; Eastwood, L. F., Jr.


    The cost of alternative communications networks for the dissemination of PLATO IV computer-aided instruction (CAI) was studied. Four communication techniques are compared: leased telephone lines, satellite communication, UHF TV, and low-power microwave radio. For each network design, costs per student contact hour are computed. These costs are derived as functions of student population density, a parameter which can be calculated from census data for one potential market for CAI, the public primary and secondary schools. Calculating costs in this way allows one to determine which of the four communications alternatives can serve this market least expensively for any given area in the U.S. The analysis indicates that radio distribution techniques are cost optimum over a wide range of conditions.

  9. Experimental investigation of CAI combustion in a two-stroke poppet valve DI engine


    Zhang, Yan


    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London Due to their ability to simultaneously reduce fuel consumption and NOx emissions, Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) and HCCI combustion processes have been extensively researched over the last decade and adopted on prototype gasoline engines. These combustion processes were initially achieved on conventional two-stroke ported gasoline engines, but there have been significantly fewer stu...

  10. Numerical investigation of CAI Combustion in the Opposed- Piston Engine with Direct and Indirect Water Injection (United States)

    Pyszczek, R.; Mazuro, P.; Teodorczyk, A.


    This paper is focused on the CAI combustion control in a turbocharged 2-stroke Opposed-Piston (OP) engine. The barrel type OP engine arrangement is of particular interest for the authors because of its robust design, high mechanical efficiency and relatively easy incorporation of a Variable Compression Ratio (VCR). The other advantage of such design is that combustion chamber is formed between two moving pistons - there is no additional cylinder head to be cooled which directly results in an increased thermal efficiency. Furthermore, engine operation in a Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) mode at high compression ratios (CR) raises a possibility of reaching even higher efficiencies and very low emissions. In order to control CAI combustion such measures as VCR and water injection were considered for indirect ignition timing control. Numerical simulations of the scavenging and combustion processes were performed with the 3D CFD multipurpose AVL Fire solver. Numerous cases were calculated with different engine compression ratios and different amounts of directly and indirectly injected water. The influence of the VCR and water injection on the ignition timing and engine performance was determined and their application in the real engine was discussed.

  11. A Study on Application of CAI Dynamic Image-Guided Method in College Physical Education Technical Course


    Baokui Wang


    In this study, we have a study on application of CAI dynamic image-guided method in college physical education technical course. In college physical education teaching, the Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) dynamic image-guided method is employed to build the sport image diagnosis and implement 2-way feedback mechanism. This is for helping the students to create or modify the sport image, and strengthen the concept of action to set up the correct technical dynamic stereotype. The practice o...

  12. Design specifications for NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction): Phase 2, Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twitty, A.F.; Handler, B.H.; Duncan, L.D.; Halsey, P.J.; Bryant, R.A.; Shaffer, K.E.; Hallbick, A.M.; Alvaro, D.R.


    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel are developing a prototype computer aided instruction (CAI) system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project is to provide a prototype for implementing CAI as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project is being performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. In Phase II a structured design and specification document was completed that will provide the basis for development and implementation of the desired CAI system. Phase III will consist of designing, developing, and testing a user interface which will extend the features of the Phase II prototype. The design of the CAI prototype has followed a rigorous structured analysis based on Yourdon/DeMarco methodology and Information Engineering tools. This document includes data flow diagrams, a data dictionary, process specifications, an entity-relationship diagram, a curriculum description, special function key definitions, and a set of standards developed for the NALDA CAI Prototype.

  13. Rare Earth Element Measurements of Melilite and Fassaite in Allende Cai by Nanosims (United States)

    Ito, M.; Messenger, Scott


    The rare earth elements (REEs) are concentrated in CAIs by approx. 20 times the chondritic average [e.g., 1]. The REEs in CAIs are important to understand processes of CAI formation including the role of volatilization, condensation, and fractional crystallization [1,2]. REE measurements are a well established application of ion microprobes [e.g., 3]. However the spatial resolution of REE measurements by ion microprobe (approx.20 m) is not adequate to resolve heterogeneous distributions of REEs among/within minerals. We have developed methods for measuring REE with the NanoSIMS 50L at smaller spatial scales. Here we present our initial measurements of REEs in melilite and fassaite in an Allende Type-A CAI with the JSC NanoSIMS 50L. We found that the key parameters for accurate REE abundance measurements differ between the NanoSIMS and conventional SIMS, in particular the oxide-to-element ratios, the relative sensitivity factors, the energy distributions, and requisite energy offset. Our REE abundance measurements of the 100 ppm REE diopside glass standards yielded good reproducibility and accuracy, 0.5-2.5 % and 5-25 %, respectively. We determined abundances and spatial distributions of REEs in core and rim within single crystals of fassaite, and adjacent melilite with 5-10 m spatial resolution. The REE abundances in fassaite core and rim are 20-100 times CI abundance but show a large negative Eu anomaly, exhibiting a well-defined Group III pattern. This is consistent with previous work [4]. On the other hand, adjacent melilite shows modified Group II pattern with no strong depletions of Eu and Yb, and no Tm positive anomaly. REE abundances (2-10 x CI) were lower than that of fassaite. These patterns suggest that fassaite crystallized first followed by a crystallization of melilite from the residual melt. In future work, we will carry out a correlated study of O and Mg isotopes and REEs of the CAI in order to better understand the nature and timescales of its


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, A N; Chaussidon, M; Yurimoto, H; Sakamoto, N; Nagashima, K; Hutcheon, I D; MacPherson, G J


    Based on the mineralogy and petrography, coarse-grained, igneous, anorthite-rich (Type C) calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende have been recently divided into three groups: (i) CAIs with melilite and Al,Ti-diopside of massive and lacy textures (coarse grains with numerous rounded inclusions of anorthite) in a fine-grained anorthite groundmass (6-1-72, 100, 160), (ii) CAI CG5 with massive melilite, Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite, and (iii) CAIs associated with chondrule material: either containing chondrule fragments in their peripheries (ABC, TS26) or surrounded by chondrule-like, igneous rims (93) (Krot et al., 2007a,b). Here, we report in situ oxygen isotopic measurements of primary (melilite, spinel, Al,Ti-diopside, anorthite) and secondary (grossular, monticellite, forsterite) minerals in these CAIs. Spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -25{per_thousand} to -20{per_thousand}), massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -20{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}) and fine-grained anorthite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -15{per_thousand} to -2{per_thousand}) in 100, 160 and 6-1-72 are {sup 16}O-enriched relative spinel and coarse-grained Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite in ABC, 93 and TS26 ({Delta}{sup 17}O ranges from -20{per_thousand} to -15{per_thousand}, from -15{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}, and from -5{per_thousand} to 0{per_thousand}, respectively). In 6-1-72, massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside grains are {sup 16}O-depleted ({Delta}{sup 17}O {approx} -13{per_thousand}) relative to spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -23{per_thousand}). Melilite is the most {sup 16}O-depleted mineral in all Allende Type C CAIs. In CAI 100, melilite and secondary grossular, monticellite and forsterite (minerals replacing melilite) are similarly {sup 16}O-depleted, whereas grossular in CAI 160 is {sup 16}O-enriched ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -10{per_thousand} to -6{per_thousand}) relative to melilite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -5{per_thousand} to -3{per_thousand}). We infer

  15. Characterization of Meteorites by Focused Ion Beam Sectioning: Recent Applications to CAIs and Primitive Meteorite Matrices (United States)

    Christoffersen, Roy; Keller, Lindsay P.; Han, Jangmi; Rahman, Zia; Berger, Eve L.


    Focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning has revolutionized preparation of meteorite samples for characterization by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and other techniques. Although FIB is not "non-destructive" in the purest sense, each extracted section amounts to no more than nanograms (approximately 500 cubic microns) removed intact from locations precisely controlled by SEM imaging and analysis. Physical alteration of surrounding material by ion damage, fracture or sputter contamination effects is localized to within a few micrometers around the lift-out point. This leaves adjacent material intact for coordinate geochemical analysis by SIMS, microdrill extraction/TIMS and other techniques. After lift out, FIB sections can be quantitatively analyzed by electron microprobe prior to final thinning, synchrotron x-ray techniques, and by the full range of state-of-the-art analytical field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM) techniques once thinning is complete. Multiple meteorite studies supported by FIB/FE-STEM are currently underway at NASA-JSC, including coordinated analysis of refractory phase assemblages in CAIs and fine-grained matrices in carbonaceous chondrites. FIB sectioning of CAIs has uncovered epitaxial and other overgrowth relations between corundum-hibonite-spinel consistent with hibonite preceding corundum and/or spinel in non-equilibrium condensation sequences at combinations of higher gas pressures, dust-gas enrichments or significant nebular transport. For all of these cases, the ability of FIB to allow for coordination with spatially-associated isotopic data by SIMS provides immense value for constraining the formation scenarios of the particular CAI assemblage. For carbonaceous chondrites matrix material, FIB has allowed us to obtain intact continuous sections of the immediate outer surface of Murchison (CM2) after it has been experimentally ion processed to simulate solar wind space weathering. The surface

  16. Complete genome sequence of Defluviimonas alba cai42(T), a microbial exopolysaccharides producer. (United States)

    Zhao, Jie-Yu; Geng, Shuang; Xu, Lian; Hu, Bing; Sun, Ji-Quan; Nie, Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Wu, Xiao-Lei


    Defluviimonas alba cai42(T), isolated from the oil-production water in Xinjiang Oilfield in China, has a strong ability to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS). We hereby present its complete genome sequence information which consists of a circular chromosome and three plasmids. The strain characteristically contains various genes encoding for enzymes involved in EPS biosynthesis, modification, and export. According to the genomic and physiochemical data, it is predicted that the strain has the potential to be utilized in industrial production of microbial EPS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CAI多媒體教學軟體之開發模式 Using an Instructional Design Model for Developing a Multimedia CAI Courseware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yih Shyu


    Full Text Available 無This article outlined a systematic instructional design model for developing a multimedia computer-aided instruction (CAI courseware. The model illustrated roles and tasks as two dimensions necessary in a CAI production teamwork. Four major components (Analysis, Design, Development, and Revise/Evaluation following by totally 25 steps are provided. Eight roles with each competent skills were identified. The model will be useful in serving as a framework for developing a mulrimedia CAI courseware for educators, instructional designers and CAI industry developers.

  18. FIB-NanoSIMS-TEM Coordinated Study of a Wark-Lovering Rim in a Vigarano Type A CAI (United States)

    Cai, A.; Ito, M.; Keller, L. P.; Ross, D. K.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.


    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi layered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Unaltered WL rims are composed of the same primary high temperature minerals as CAIs, such as melilite, spinel, pyroxene, hibonite, perovskite, anorthite and olivine. It is still unclear whether the rim minerals represent a different generation formed by a separate event from their associated CAIs or are a byproduct of CAI formation. Several models have been proposed for the origins of WL rims including condensation, flashheating, reaction of a CAI with a Mg-Si-rich reservoir (nebular gas or solid); on the basis of mineralogy, abundances of trace elements, O and Mg isotopic studies. Detailed mineralogical characterizations of WL rims at micrometer to nanometer scales have been obtained by TEM observations, but so far no coordinated isotopic - mineralogical studies have been performed. Thus, we have applied an O isotopic imaging technique by NanoSIMS 50L to investigate heterogeneous distributions of O isotopic ratios in minerals within a cross section of a WL rim prepared using a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument. After the isotopic measurements, we determine the detailed mineralogy and microstructure of the same WL FIB section to gain insight into its petrogenesis. Here we present preliminary results from O isotopic and elemental maps by NanoSIMS and mineralogical analysis by FE-SEM of a FIB section of a WL rim in the Vigarano reduced CV3 chondrite.

  19. Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and CAIs from Short-Lived and Long-Lived Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kita, N T; Huss, G R; Tachibana, S; Amelin, Y; Nyquist, L E; Hutcheon, I D


    The high time resolution Pb-Pb ages and short-lived nuclide based relative ages for CAIs and chondrules are reviewed. The solar system started at 4567.2 {+-} 0.6Ma inferred from the high precision Pb-Pb ages of CAIs. Time scales of CAIs ({le}0.1Myr), chondrules (1-3Myr), and early asteroidal differentiation ({ge}3Myr) inferred from {sup 26}Al relative ages are comparable to the time scale estimated from astronomical observations of young star; proto star, classical T Tauri star and week-lined T Tauri star, respectively. Pb-Pb ages of chondrules also indicate chondrule formation occur within 1-3 Myr after CAIs. Mn-Cr isochron ages of chondrules are similar to or within 2 Myr after CAI formation. Chondrules from different classes of chondrites show the same range of {sup 26}Al ages in spite of their different oxygen isotopes, indicating that chondrule formed in the localized environment. The {sup 26}Al ages of chondrules in each chondrite class show a hint of correlation with their chemical compositions, which implies the process of elemental fractionation during chondrule formation events.

  20. Effects of Lactobacillus curvatus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides on Suan Cai Fermentation in Northeast China. (United States)

    Yang, Hongyan; Wu, Hao; Gao, Lijuan; Jia, Hongbai; Zhang, Yuan; Cui, Zongjun; Li, Yuhua


    To investigate the effects of Lactobacillus curvatus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides on suan cai (pickled Chinese cabbage) fermentation, L. curvatus and/or Ln. mesenteroides were inoculated into suan cai. Physicochemical indexes were measured, and the microbial dynamics during the fermentation were analyzed by Illumina MiSeq sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results showed that inoculation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) lowered the pH of the fermentation system more rapidly. The decrease in water-soluble carbohydrates in the inoculated treatments occurred more rapidly than in the control. The LAB counts in the control were lower than in other inoculated treatments during the first 12 days of fermentation. According to the Illumina MiSeq sequencing analyses, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Fusobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia were present in the fermentations, along with other unclassified bacteria. Generally, Firmicutes was predominant during the fermentation in all treatments. At the genus level, 16 genera were detected. The relative abundance of Lactobacillus in all inoculated treatments was higher than in the control. The relative abundance of Lactobacillus in the treatments containing L. curvatus was higher than in the Ln. mesenteroides-only treatment. The relative abundance of Leuconostoc in the Ln. mesenteroides-containing treatments increased continuously throughout the fermentation. Leuconostoc was highest in the Ln. mesenteroides-only treatment. According to the qPCR results, L. curvatus and/or Ln. mesenteroides inoculations could effectively inhabit the fermentation system. L. curvatus dominated the fermentation in the inoculated treatments.

  1. Calcium and Titanium Isotope Fractionation in CAIS: Tracers of Condensation and Inheritance in the Early Solar Protoplanetary Disk (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Jordan, M. K.; Tappa, M. J.; Kohl, I. E.; Young, E. D.


    The chemical and isotopic compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) can be used to understand the conditions present in the protoplantary disk where they formed. The isotopic compositions of these early-formed nebular materials are largely controlled by chemical volatility. The isotopic effects of evaporation/sublimation, which are well explained by both theory and experimental work, lead to enrichments of the heavy isotopes that are often exhibited by the moderately refractory elements Mg and Si. Less well understood are the isotopic effects of condensation, which limits our ability to determine whether a CAI is a primary condensate and/or retains any evidence of its primordial formation history.

  2. Tien Shan, Pamir, and Tibet: History and geodynamics of phanerozoic oceanic basins (United States)

    Burtman, V. S.


    Geological and biogeographical data on the paleooceanic basins of the Tien Shan and High Asia are summarized. The oceanic crustal rocks in the Tien Shan, Pamir, and Tibet belong to the Tethian and Turkestan-Paleoasian systems of paleooceanic basins. The tectonic evolution of these systems in the Phanerozoic was not coeval and unidirectional. The sialic blocks of the future Tien Shan, Pamir, and Tibet were incorporated into the Eurasian continent during several stages. In the Late Ordovician and Silurian several microcontinents were preliminarily combined into the Kazakh-Kyrgyz continent as a composite aggregation. The territories of the Tien Shan and Tarim became a part of Eurasia after the closure of the Turkestan, Ural, and Paleotethian oceans in the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian. The territories of the Pamir, Karakorum, Kunlun, and most of Tibet attached to the Eurasian continent in the Triassic. The Lhasa and Kohistan blocks were incorporated into Eurasia in the Cretaceous, whereas Hindustan was docked to Eurasia in the Paleogene.

  3. Empirical Relationship between particulate matter and Aerosol Optical Depth over Northern Tien-Shan, Central Asia (United States)

    Measurements were obtained at two sites in northern Tien-Shan in Central Asia during a 1-year period beginning July 2008 to examine the statistical relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and of fine [PM2.5, particles less than 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD)] and coars...

  4. The origin and evolution of Iskanderkul Lake in the western Tien Shan and related geomorphic hazards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Emmer, Adam; Kalvoda, J.


    Roč. 99, č. 2 (2017), s. 139-154 ISSN 0435-3676 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : iskanderkul lake * rockslide dam * outburst flood * tien shan Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.302, year: 2016

  5. From Corporate Social Responsibility, through Entrepreneurial Orientation, to Knowledge Sharing: A Study in Cai Luong (Renovated Theatre) Theatre Companies (United States)

    Tuan, Luu Trong


    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the role of antecedents such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and entrepreneurial orientation in the chain effect to knowledge sharing among members of Cai Luong theatre companies in the Vietnamese context. Knowledge sharing contributes to the depth of the knowledge pool of both the individuals and the…

  6. A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a CAI Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972). (United States)

    Brown, John S.; And Others

    A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…

  7. Hunting and use of terrestrial fauna used by Caiçaras from the Atlantic Forest coast (Brazil

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    Alves Rômulo RN


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is considered one of the hotspots for conservation, comprising remnants of rain forest along the eastern Brazilian coast. Its native inhabitants in the Southeastern coast include the Caiçaras (descendants from Amerindians and European colonizers, with a deep knowledge on the natural resources used for their livelihood. Methods We studied the use of the terrestrial fauna in three Caiçara communities, through open-ended interviews with 116 native residents. Data were checked through systematic observations and collection of zoological material. Results The dependence on the terrestrial fauna by Caiçaras is especially for food and medicine. The main species used are Didelphis spp., Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, and small birds (several species of Turdidae. Contrasting with a high dependency on terrestrial fauna resources by native Amazonians, the Caiçaras do not show a constant dependency on these resources. Nevertheless, the occasional hunting of native animals represents a complimentary source of animal protein. Conclusion Indigenous or local knowledge on native resources is important in order to promote local development in a sustainable way, and can help to conserve biodiversity, particularly if the resource is sporadically used and not commercially exploited.

  8. Investigating Learning Achievements of Thai High School Students in a Sequences and Series Lesson Delivered on CAI-Based Materials (United States)

    Chundang, Ungsana; Singhaprink, Wipawaan; Pongpullponsak, Adisak; Tantipisalkul, Tasanee; Praekhaow, Puchong


    The current experimental research aims to investigate students' learning outcomes in classes in which the interactive CAI (computer-assisted instruction)-based materials were implemented. It also aims to compare the learning outcomes of the students based on regions in which their school is located. The participants were 326 Matthayom-4 students…

  9. Changes in flavour and microbial diversity during natural fermentation of suan-cai, a traditional food made in Northeast China. (United States)

    Wu, Rina; Yu, Meiling; Liu, Xiaoyu; Meng, Lingshuai; Wang, Qianqian; Xue, Yating; Wu, Junrui; Yue, Xiqing


    We measured changes in the main physical and chemical properties, flavour compounds and microbial diversity in suan-cai during natural fermentation. The results showed that the pH and concentration of soluble protein initially decreased but were then maintained at a stable level; the concentration of nitrite increased in the initial fermentation stage and after reaching a peak it decreased significantly to a low level by the end of fermentation. Suan-cai was rich in 17 free amino acids. All of the free amino acids increased in concentration to different degrees, except histidine. Total free amino acids reached their highest levels in the mid-fermentation stage. The 17 volatile flavour components identified at the start of fermentation increased to 57 by the mid-fermentation stage; esters and aldehydes were in the greatest diversity and abundance, contributing most to the aroma of suan-cai. Bacteria were more abundant and diverse than fungi in suan-cai; 14 bacterial species were identified from the genera Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Lactobacillus. The predominant fungal species identified were Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida tropicalis and Penicillium expansum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary Changes over Time in a Caiçara Community from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Priscila L. MacCord


    Full Text Available Because they are occurring at an accelerated pace, changes in the livelihoods of local coastal communities, including nutritional aspects, have been a subject of interest in human ecology. The aim of this study is to explore the dietary changes, particularly in the consumption of animal protein, that have taken place in Puruba Beach, a rural community of caiçaras on the São Paulo Coast, Brazil, over the 10-yr period from 1992-1993 to 2002-2003. Data were collected during six months in 1992-1993 and during the same months in 2002-2003 using the 24-hr recall method. We found an increasing dependence on external products in the most recent period, along with a reduction in fish consumption and in the number of fish species eaten. These changes, possibly associated with other nonmeasured factors such as overfishing and unplanned tourism, may cause food delocalization and a reduction in the use of natural resources. Although the consequences for conservation efforts in the Atlantic Forest and the survival of the caiçaras must still be evaluated, these local inhabitants may be finding a way to reconcile both the old and the new dietary patterns by keeping their houses in the community while looking for sources of income other than natural resources. The prospect shown here may reveal facets that can influence the maintenance of this and other communities undergoing similar processes by, for example, shedding some light on the ecological and economical processes that may occur within their environment and in turn affect the conservation of the resources upon which the local inhabitants depend.

  11. 電腦輔助教學與個別教學結合: 電腦輔助教學課堂應用初探 Computer-Assisted Instruction Under the Management of Individualized Instruction: A Classroom Management Approach of CAI


    Lin, Sunny S. J.


    無First reviews the development of Computer. Assisted Instruction (CAI) in Taiwan. This study describes the training of teachers from different levels of schools to design CAI coursewares, and the planning of CAI courseware bank possesses 2,000 supplemental coursewares. Some CAI's c1assroom application system should be carefully established to prevent the easy abuse of a CAI courseware as an instructional plan. The study also claims to steer CAI in our elemantary and secondary education could ...

  12. Tectonics of the Ural paleozoides in comparison with the Tien Shan (United States)

    Samygin, S. G.; Burtman, V. S.


    The main differences and similarities between the tectonic features of the Urals and the Tien Shan are considered. In the Neoproterozoic and Early and Middle Paleozoic, the Ural and Turkestan oceanic basins were parts of one oceanic domain, with several distinct regions in which tectonic events took different courses. The Baltic continental margin of the Ural paleoocean was active, whereas the Tarim-Alay margin of the Turkestan ocean, similar in position, was passive. The opposite continental margin in the Urals is known beginning from the Devonian as the Kazakh-Kyrgyz paleocontinent. In the Tien Shan, a similar margin developed until the Late Ordovician as the Syr Darya block with the ancient continental crust. In the Silurian, this block became a part of the Kazakh-Kyrgyz paleocontinent. The internal structures of the Ural and Turkestan paleooceans were different. The East Ural microcontinent occurred in the Ural paleoocean during the Early and Middle Paleozoic. No microcontinents are established in the Turkestan oceanic basin. Volcanic arcs in the Ural paleoocean were formed in the Vendian (Ediacarian), at the Ordovician-Silurian boundary, and in the Devonian largely along the Baltic margin at different distances from its edge. In the Turkestan paleoocean, a volcanic arc probably existed in the Ordovician at its Syr Darya margin, i.e., on the other side of the ocean in comparison with the Urals. The subduction of the Turkestan oceanic crust developed with interruptions always in the same direction. The evolution of subduction in the Urals was more complicated. The island arc-continent collision occurred here in the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous; the continent-continent collision took place in the Moscovian simultaneously with the same process in the Tien Shan. The deepwater flysch basins induced by collision appeared at the Baltic margin in the Famennian and Visean, whereas in the Bashkirian and Moscovian they appeared at the Alay-Tarim margin. In the

  13. A new species of Gynacantha Rambur, 1842 from Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam (Odonata: Aeshnidae). (United States)

    Kompier, Tom; Holden, James


    Gynacantha cattienensis spec. nov. is described from Cat Tien National Park, Dong Nai Province, Vietnam, on the basis of male and female specimens. This species is close in structure to G. khasiaca McLachlan, 1896, and differs in details of cerci, auricles and thorax coloration. Historical records of G. khasiaca from Vietnam may refer to this new species. Some information on its biology is provided.

  14. ¿Qué tienes en la cara, eso se quita?

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    Jimmy Arévalo Romero


    Full Text Available El presente texto es un ensayo preparado por estudiantes de Medicina que tiene origen en su experiencia personal, ya que trata del padecimiento del acné en lo adolescencia, en él quieren concienciar a lo comunidad en general sobre las consecuencias psicológicas que genera el padecimiento del acné en el adolescente, y estimular a las personas a contribuir al desarrollo de estos jóvenes en la sociedad.

  15. Oxygen, Magnesium, and Aluminum Isotopes in the Ivuna CAI: Re-Examining High-Temperature Fractionations in CI Chondrites (United States)

    Frank, D. R.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.; Zolensky, M. E.; Le, L.


    CI chondrites are thought to approximate the bulk solar system composition since they closely match the composition of the solar photosphere. Thus, chemical differences between a planetary object and the CI composition are interpreted to result from fractionations of a CI starting composition. This interpretation is often made despite the secondary mineralogy of CI chondrites, which resulted from low-T aqueous alteration on the parent asteroid(s). Prevalent alteration and the relatively large uncertainties in the photospheric abundances (approx. +/-5-10%) permit chemical fractionation of CI chondrites from the bulk solar system, if primary chondrules and/or CAIs have been altered beyond recognition. Isolated olivine and pyroxene grains that range from approx. 5 microns to several hundred microns have been reported in CI chondrites, and acid residues of Orgueil were found to contain refractory oxides with oxygen isotopic compositions matching CAIs. However, the only CAI found to be unambiguously preserved in a CI chondrite was identified in Ivuna. The Ivuna CAI's primary mineralogy, small size (approx.170 microns), and fine-grained igneous texture classify it as a compact type A. Aqueous alteration infiltrated large portions of the CAI, but other regions remain pristine. The major primary phases are melilite (Ak 14-36 ), grossmanite (up to 20.8 wt.% TiO 2 ), and spinel. Both melilite and grossmanite have igneous textures and zoning patterns. An accretionary rim consists primarily of olivine (Fa 2-17 ) and low-Ca pyroxene (Fs 2-10 ), which could be either surviving CI2 material or a third lithology.

  16. Lead isotope variations across terrane boundaries of the Tien Shan and Chinese Altay (United States)

    Chiaradia, Massimo; Konopelko, Dmitry; Seltmann, Reimar; Cliff, Robert A.


    The Altaid orogen was formed by aggregation of Paleozoic subduction-accretion complexes and Precambrian basement blocks between the Late Proterozoic and the Early Mesozoic. Because the Altaids are the site of abundant granitic plutonism and host some of the largest gold deposits in the world, understanding their formation has important implications on the comprehension of Phanerozoic crustal growth and metallogeny. In this study, we present the first extensive lead isotope data on magmatic and metasedimentary rocks as well as ore deposits of the southern part of the Altaids, including the Tien Shan (Tianshan) and southern Altay (Altai) orogenic belts. Our results show that each terrane investigated within the Tien Shan and southern Altay is characterized by a distinct Pb isotope signature and that there is a SW-NE Pb isotope gradient suggesting a progressive transition from a continental crust environment in the West (the Kyzylkum and Kokshaal segments of the Southern Tien Shan) to an almost 100% juvenile (MORB-type mantle-derived) crust environment in the East (Altay). The Pb isotope signatures of the studied ore deposits follow closely those of magmatic and metasedimentary rocks of the host terranes, thus supporting the validity of lead isotopes to discriminate terranes. Whereas this apparently suggests that no unique reservoir has been responsible for the huge gold concentration in this region, masking of a preferential Pb-poor Au-bearing reservoir by mixing with Pb-rich crustal reservoirs during the mineralizing events cannot be excluded.

  17. 2.5d teleseismic waveform tomography with application to the tien shan (United States)

    Baker, Benjamin Ian

    The analysis of passive source seismic data recorded by quasi-linear deployments of broadband stations at teleseismic distances has proven to be an effective means of probing the subsurface of the Earth. However, current methodologies are far from being able to exploit all the interpretable signal in these data sets. In this thesis, I describe a 2.5D, frequency domain, visco-elastic waveform tomography algorithm for imaging with this type of data. To compute synthetic seismograms (the forward problem), the general equations of motion are discretized with p-adaptive finite elements. This approach allows for geometric flexibility and accurate solutions as a function of wavelength. Artificial force distributions manifesting Huygen's principle for the teleseismic events are introduced locally through a Bielak layer. Because of the relatively low frequency content of teleseismic data, regional scale tectonic settings can be parameterized with a modest number of variables and perturbations can be determined directly from a regularized Gauss-Newton system of equations. Waveforms generated by the forward problem compare well with analytic solutions for simple 1D media and with those generated in heterogeneous structures by a finite difference technique. It is demonstrated through examples that the regularized approximate Hessian is particularly effective at focusing backpropagated residuals to their true location. It is observed that full waveform inversion can provide significantly better vertical resolution than arrival time tomography and significantly better lateral resolution than standard surface wave tomography. Used in tandem in a multi-scale approach, surface wave tomography followed by joint surface wave/body wave tomography is shown to be an effective strategy for image reconstruction from a simple starting model. This inversion strategy is then applied to body and surface wave teleseismic waves recorded in the Tien Shan. The work of previous investigators is

  18. Comparison of the earth's crust geothermal field in Northern Tien Shan region with seismic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilayev Andrey


    Full Text Available The deep crustal temperatures of the Northern Tien Shan region are being calculated on the basis of direct measurements of the heat flow and empirical relation of geothermal parameters and seismic velocities. For this purpose the applied method of numerical solution of conductive heat transfer equation takes into account additional sources of heat release due to radioactive decay. Thermoelastic deformations, reaching 20-40% of the total lithostatic pressure at depths of 35-60 km, are determined. The criteria controlling the distribution of hypocenters of earthquakes have been determined in accordance with the morphology of the regions of excess temperatures and thermal stresses.

  19. Comparison of the earth's crust geothermal field in Northern Tien Shan region with seismic characteristics (United States)

    Vilayev, Andrey; Zhantaev, Zhumabek


    The deep crustal temperatures of the Northern Tien Shan region are being calculated on the basis of direct measurements of the heat flow and empirical relation of geothermal parameters and seismic velocities. For this purpose the applied method of numerical solution of conductive heat transfer equation takes into account additional sources of heat release due to radioactive decay. Thermoelastic deformations, reaching 20-40% of the total lithostatic pressure at depths of 35-60 km, are determined. The criteria controlling the distribution of hypocenters of earthquakes have been determined in accordance with the morphology of the regions of excess temperatures and thermal stresses.

  20. Three new species of Macrobiotus (Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae, tenuis-group from Tien Shan (Kirghizia and Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis V. TUMANOV


    Full Text Available Illustrated descriptions of Macrobiotus danilovi sp. n., Macrobiotus tenuiformis sp. n. from Tien Shan (Kirghizia and Macrobiotus voronkovi sp. n. from Spitsbergen are given. These new species belong to the tenuis-group of the genus Macrobiotus. Members of the tenius-group have claws with a particularly long and thin common tract with a prominent frontal appendage at the base. Macrobiotus danilovi and M. tenuiformis differ from all known species of this group in the structure of their buccal armature. Macrobiotus voronkovi differs from all known species of the tenuis-group in its combination of features in adult animals and in the egg shell.

  1. Changes of Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries Under Polluted Conditions with Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Nguyen Thi Thanh


    Full Text Available The pollution on the Thi Vai River has been spreading out rapidly over the two lasted decades caused by the wastewater from the industrial parks in the left bank of Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. The evaluation of the benthic macroinvertebrate changes was very necessary to identify the consequences of the industrial wastewater on water quality and aquatic ecosystem of Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. In this study, the variables of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality were investigated in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries, Southern Vietnam. The monitoring data of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality parameters covered the period from 1989 to 2015 at 6 sampling sites in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. The basic water quality parameters were also tested including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. The biodiversity indices of benthic macroinvertebrates were applied for water quality assessment. The results showed that pH ranged from 6.4 – 7.6 during the monitoring. The DO concentrations were in between 0.20 - 6.70 mg/L. The concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorous ranged from 0.03 - 5.70 mg/L 0.024 - 1.380 mg/L respectively. Macroinvertebrate community in the study area consisted of 36 species of polychaeta, gastropoda, bivalvia, and crustacea, of which, species of polychaeta were dominant in species number. The benthic macroinvertebartes density ranged from 0 - 2.746 individuals/m−1 with the main dominant species of Neanthes caudata, Prionospio malmgreni, Paraprionospio pinnata, Trichochaeta carica, Maldane sarsi, Capitella capitata, Terebellides stroemi, Euditylia polymorpha, Grandidierella lignorum, Apseudes vietnamensis. The biodiversity index values during the monitoring characterized for aquatic environmental conditions of mesotrophic to polytrophic. Besides, species richness positively correlated with DO, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. The results

  2. Salud Tiene Sabor: a model for healthier restaurants in a Latino community. (United States)

    Nevarez, Carmen R; Lafleur, Mariah S; Schwarte, Liz U; Rodin, Beth; de Silva, Pri; Samuels, Sarah E


    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has risen nationally in recent decades, and is exceptionally high in low-income communities of color such as South Los Angeles CA. Independently owned restaurants participating in the Salud Tiene Sabor program at ethnic foods marketplace Mercado La Paloma in South Los Angeles are responding to the childhood obesity crisis by posting calories for menu items and providing nutrition information to patrons. To evaluate whether menu labeling and nutrition information at point of purchase have an influence on availability of healthy food options, patron awareness of calorie information, and restaurant owners' support of the program. A case-study design using mixed methods included restaurant owner and stakeholder interviews, patron surveys, and environmental assessments. Data were collected using originally designed tools, and analyzed in 2009-2011. Healthy eating options were available at the Mercado La Paloma; restaurant owners and the larger community supported the Salud Tiene Sabor program; 33% of patrons reported calorie information-influenced purchase decisions. Owners of independent restaurants have an important role in improving access to healthy foods in low-income, Latino communities. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kuzmichenok


    Full Text Available Industrial development of the Kumtor Gold Mine in the nival-glacial zone of Tien Shan (altitude ranging from 4000 to 4500 m a.s.l. is inevitably accompanied by the release of some additional amounts of dust in atmosphere. Sampling in 7 points and an analysis of the quantity (weight of dust in the seasonal snow (September–April on glaciers show that the dust pollution does not substantially exceed the natural level of dust in Tien Shan. An analysis of almost 3 000 daily measurements of dust in the surface layer of air at 4 points around the gold mine has also shown that the economic activity has no significant impact on dust production. It is likely that the manmade component of overall dust in the immediate vicinity of the deposit and the gob pile does not exceed 20%. No increase in the content of dust and in its anthropogenic component with time has been found. Thus, we suggest that the principal amount of dust in the area is brought during the cold season from snow-free areas of Central Asia.

  4. Evaluación del bullying como victimización: Estructura, fiabilidad y validez del Cuestionario de Acoso entre Iguales (CAI)


    Magaz, Ana M.; Chorot, Paloma; Santed, Miguel A.; Valiente, Rosa M; Sandín, Bonifacio


    El objetivo del presente estudio consistió en proporcionar evidencia preliminar sobre la validación del Cuestionario de Acoso entre Iguales (CAI). Examinamos la estructura factorial, la fiabilidad y la validez convergente y discriminante de la escala

  5. Cais do Valongo: patrimonialização de locais, objetos e herança africana

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    Sandra de Sá Carneiro


    Full Text Available Resumo Neste artigo problematizamos diferentes sentidos (culturais e religiosos atribuídos ao Cais do Valongo, considerado o principal porto de entrada dos africanos escravizados no Brasil, desde que foi redescoberto nas escavações e entrou na pauta do projeto de revitalização da Zona Portuária da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. De uma “africanidade” cultural com nexos religiosos específicos, em um primeiro momento, transformou-se em símbolo da “diáspora africana”, sem que se desse destaque às referências religiosas e, depois, em uma obra realizada pelo Porto Maravilha, recuperada no processo de revitalização em curso, e lugar de promoção turística. Por último, discutimos como hoje segmentos do movimento negro e lideranças religiosas buscam manter o caráter religioso e sacralizado do Cais, promovendo ali a “Lavagem do Cais do Valongo”.

  6. Titanium isotopes and rare earth patterns in CAIs: Evidence for thermal processing and gas-dust decoupling in the protoplanetary disk (United States)

    Davis, Andrew M.; Zhang, Junjun; Greber, Nicolas D.; Hu, Jingya; Tissot, François L. H.; Dauphas, Nicolas


    Titanium isotopic compositions (mass-dependent fractionation and isotopic anomalies) were measured in 46 calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the Allende CV chondrite. After internal normalization to 49Ti/47Ti, we found that ε50Ti values are somewhat variable among CAIs, and that ε46Ti is highly correlated with ε50Ti, with a best-fit slope of 0.162 ± 0.030 (95% confidence interval). The linear correlation between ε46Ti and ε50Ti extends the same correlation seen among bulk solar objects (slope 0.184 ± 0.007). This observation provides constraints on dynamic mixing of the solar disk and has implications for the nucleosynthetic origin of titanium isotopes, specifically on the possible contributions from various types of supernovae to the solar system. Titanium isotopic mass fractionation, expressed as δ‧49Ti, was measured by both sample-standard bracketing and double-spiking. Most CAIs are isotopically unfractionated, within a 95% confidence interval of normal, but a few are significantly fractionated and the range δ‧49Ti is from ∼-4 to ∼+4. Rare earth element patterns were measured in 37 of the CAIs. All CAIs with significant titanium mass fractionation effects have group II and related REE patterns, implying kinetically controlled volatility fractionation during the formation of these CAIs.

  7. Climatic vs. Seismic Controlled Rockglacier Advances in Northern Tien Shan - Insights from Lichenometry (United States)

    Rosenwinkel, S.; Korup, O.; Landgraf, A.; Dzhumabaeva, A.


    Glaciers and permafrost landforms in high mountain areas are of major importance for storing and providing fresh water for the surroundings, especially in arid or semi-arid areas as Central Asia. Rockglaciers have been traditionally used as landform proxies of the distribution of alpine permafrost. In the northern Tien Shan mountains, the most distinct lobes of >200 rockglaciers that we mapped from satellite imagery occur at minimum elevations between 2500 and 3700 m. However, individual and particularly low-lying lobes extend down to well below 3000 m, and seem difficult to reconcile with regional paleoclimatic fluctuations. To support ground based and satellite imagery estimates on rockglacier advances (1 to 10 m/yr) and to gain information on their morphological characteristics, we present results of terrestrial LiDAR measurements on six rockglaciers in four steep mountain valleys in the Kyrgyz and Kazakh Tien Shan. Having the ability to destabilize, and thus provide massive sediment input from hillslopes, we hypothesize that strong earthquakes may also have influenced the formation or advance of some of the region's rockglaciers. This hypothesis is based on the observation that the tectonically active area was affected by a series of major earthquakes in the late 19th and earliest 20th centuries, which have subsequently triggered numerous landslides and rock falls. Using lichenometry, we aim to resolve age patterns on lobes of different rockglaciers located both, in the vicinity and distal from large young historic earthquakes. This method has been used successfully to reconstruct glaciation histories, and paleoseismicity. To gain information about and to compare advance histories of the rockglaciers from the relative ages of their lobes, we compiled a dataset of several thousand lichen diameter measurements of different species (e.g., Rhizocarpon geographicum, Aspicilia tianshanica, Lecanora muralis, and Xanthoria elegans). Results show that lichen age

  8. Climate change impacts on glaciers and runoff in Tien Shan (Central Asia) (United States)

    Sorg, A. F.; Bolch, T.; Stoffel, M.; Solomina, O.; Beniston, M.


    Climate-driven changes in glacier-fed streamflow regimes have direct implications on freshwater supply, irrigation and hydropower potential. Reliable information about current and future glaciation and runoff is crucial for water allocation and, hence, for social and ecological stability. Although the impacts of climate change on glaciation and runoff have been addressed in previous work undertaken in the Tien Shan (known as the 'water tower of Central Asia'), a coherent, regional perspective of these findings has not been presented until now. In our study, we explore the range of changes in glaciation in different climatic regions of the Tien Shan based on existing data. We show that the majority of Tien Shan glaciers experienced accelerated glacier wasting since the mid-1970s and that glacier shrinkage is most pronounced in peripheral, lower-elevation ranges near the densely populated forelands, where summers are dry and where snow and glacial meltwater is essential for water availability. The annual glacier area shrinkage rates since the middle of the twentieth century are 0.38-0.76% per year in the outer ranges, 0.15-0.40% per year in the inner ranges and 0.05-0.31% per year in the eastern ranges. This regionally non-uniform response to climate change implies that glacier shrinkage is less severe in the continental inner ranges than in the more humid outer ranges. Glaciers in the inner ranges react with larger time lags to climate change, because accumulation and thus mass turnover of the mainly cold glaciers are relatively small. Moreover, shrinkage is especially pronounced on small or fragmented glaciers, which are widely represented in the outer regions. The relative insensitivity of glaciers in the inner ranges is further accentuated by the higher average altitude, as the equilibrium line altitude ranges from 3'500 to 3'600 masl in the outer ranges to 4'400 masl in the inner ranges. For our study, we used glacier change assessments based both on direct data

  9. Glacial Retreat and Associated Glacial Lake Hazards in the High Tien Shan (United States)

    Smith, T. T.


    A number of studies have identified glacial retreat throughout the greater Himalayan region over the past few decades, but the Karakorum region remains an anomaly with large stagnating or advancing glaciers. The glacial behavior in the Tien Shan is still unclear, as few studies have investigated mass balances in the region. This study focuses on the highest peaks of the Tien Shan mountain range, in the region of Jengish Chokusu along the Kyrgyzstan-China-Kazakhstan border. In a first step, a 30-year time series of Landsat imagery (n=27) and ASTER imagery (n=10) was developed to track glacial growth and retreat in the region. Using a combination of spectral and topographic information, glacial outlines are automatically delineated. As several important glaciers in the study region contain medium to high levels of debris cover, our algorithm also improves upon current methods of detecting debris-covered glaciers by using topography, distance weighting methods, river networks, and additional spectral data. Linked to glacial retreat are glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) that have become increasingly common in High Mountain Asia over the last few decades. As glaciers retreat, their melt water is often trapped by weakly bonded moraines. These moraines have been known to fail due to overtopping caused by surge waves created by avalanches, rockslides, or glacial calving. A suite of studies throughout High Mountain Asia have used remotely-sensed data to monitor the formation and growth of glacial lakes. In a second step of the work, lake-area changes over the past 15 years were tracked monthly and seasonally using dense Landsat/ASTER coverage (n=30) with an automatic procedure based on spectral and topographic information. Previous work has identified GLOFs as a significant process for infrastructural damage in the southern Tien Shan/northern Pamir, as well as in the better studied Himalaya region. Lake identification and quantification of lake-growth rates is a valuable

  10. Miseria y violencia en El Coronel no tiene quien le escriba

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    Gloria Escobar Soriano


    Full Text Available El trabajo describe la marginación y la pobreza de un sector de la sociedad colombiana en El Coronel no tiene quien le escriba, la célebre novela de Gabriel García Márquez. Mientras el Coronel espera la llegada de la carta, su hijo Agustín, ha muerto por sus actividades revolucionarias. El y su mujer enferma viven en una casa hipotecada y comen de las migajas que le sobran al gallo. El grado de injusticia y violencia política que se respira en el ambiente aumentan la crisis económica del Coronel y generan en él una resistencia pasiva que recobra cuando se niega a vender el gallo y decide esperar la fecha de la pelea.

  11. La alucinación verbal tiene la estructura de la holofrase

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    Arturo de la Pava Ossa


    Full Text Available ¿En qué sentido la alucinaciónauditiva tiene la estructura dela holofrase? La holofrase es lainterjección, dice Lacan en 1958.En 1964, plantea que cuando enel primer par significante no hayintervalo, se solidifica, “se holofrasea”;a lo que añade que algo delmismo orden ocurre en la psicosis.Esta afirmación aporta elementospara pensar que la alucinación esuna holofrase y cómo a partir deella el psicótico construye su delirioparanoico.Palabras clave: holofrase, interjección,alucinación, discurso, funciónfálica.

  12. Mantle transition zone beneath the central Tien Shan: Lithospheric delamination and mantle plumes (United States)

    Kosarev, Grigoriy; Oreshin, Sergey; Vinnik, Lev; Makeyeva, Larissa


    We investigate structure of the mantle transition zone (MTZ) under the central Tien Shan in central Asia by using recordings of seismograph stations in Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and adjacent northern China. We apply P-wave receiver functions techniques and evaluate the differential time between the arrivals of seismic phases that are formed by P to SV mode conversion at the 410-km and 660-km seismic boundaries. The differential time is sensitive to the thickness of the MTZ and insensitive to volumetric velocity anomalies above the 410-km boundary. Under part of the southern central Tien Shan with the lowest S wave velocity in the uppermost mantle and the largest thickness of the crust, the thickness of the MTZ increases by 15-20 km relative to the ambient mantle and the reference model IASP91. The increased thickness is a likely effect of low (about - 150 K) temperature. This anomaly is indicative of delamination and sinking of the mantle lithosphere. The low temperature in the MTZ might also be a relic of subduction of the oceanic lithosphere in the Paleozoic, but this scenario requires strong coupling and coherence between structures in the MTZ and in the lithosphere during plate motions in the last 300 Myr. Our data reveal a reduction of thickness of the MTZ of 10-15 km under the Fergana basin, in the neighborhood of the region of small-scale basaltic volcanism at the time near the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. The reduced thickness of the MTZ is the effect of a depressed 410-km discontinuity, similar to that found in many hotspots. This depression suggests a positive temperature anomaly of about 100-150 K, consistent with the presence of a thermal mantle plume. A similar depression on the 410-km discontinuity is found underneath the Tarim basin.

  13. Using isotope methods to study alpine headwater regions in the Northern Caucasus and Tien Shan (United States)

    Rets, Ekaterina; Chizhova, Julia N.; Loshakova, Nadezhda; Tokarev, Igor; Kireeva, Maria B.; Budantseva, Nadine A.; Vasil'chuk, Yurij K.; Frolova, Natalia; Popovnin, Viktor; Toropov, Pavel; Terskaya, Elena; Smirnov, Andrew M.; Belozerov, Egor; Karashova, Maria


    High mountain areas provide water resources for a large share of the world's population. The ongoing deglaciation of these areas is resulting in great instability of mountainous headwater regions, which could significantly affect water supply and intensify dangerous hydrological processes. The hydrological processes in mountains are still poorly understood due to the complexity of the natural conditions, great spatial variation and a lack of observation. A knowledge of flow-forming processes in alpine areas is essential to predict future possible trends in hydrological conditions and to calculate river runoff characteristics. The goal of this study is to gain detailed field data on various components of natural hydrological processes in the alpine areas of the North Caucasus and Central Tien Shan, and to investigate the possibility that the isotopic method can reveal important regularities of river flow formation in these regions. The study is based on field observations in representative alpine river basins in the North Caucasus (the Dzhankuat river basin) and the Central Tien Shan (the Chon-Kyzyl-Suu river basin) during 2013-2015. A mixing-model approach was used to conduct river hydrograph separation. Isotope methods were used to estimate the contribution of different nourishment sources in total runoff and its regime. d18O, dD and mineralization were used as indicators. Two equation systems for the study sites were derived: in terms of water routing and runoff genesis. The Dzhankuat and Chon-Kyzyl-Suu river hydrographs were separated into 4 components: liquid precipitation/meltwaters, surface routed/subsurface routed waters.

  14. Geodynamics of late Paleozoic magmatism in the Tien Shan and its framework (United States)

    Biske, Yu. S.; Konopelko, D. L.; Seltmann, R.


    The Devonian-Permian history of magmatic activity in the Tien Shan and its framework has been considered using new isotopic datings. It has been shown that the intensity of magmatism and composition of igneous rocks are controlled by interaction of the local thermal upper mantle state (plumes) and dynamics of the lithosphere on a broader regional scale (plate motion). The Kazakhstan paleocontinent, which partly included the present-day Tien Shan and Kyzylkum, was formed in the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian as a result of amalgamation of ancient continental masses and island arcs. In the Early Devonian, heating of the mantle resulted in the within-plate basaltic volcanism in the southern framework of the Kazakhstan paleocontinent (Turkestan paleoocean) and development of suprasubduction magmatism over an extensive area at its margin. In the Middle-Late Devonian, the margins of the Turkestan paleoocean were passive; the area of within-plate oceanic magmatism shifted eastward, and the active margin was retained at the junction with the Balkhash-Junggar paleoocean. A new period of active magmatism was induced by an overall shortening of the region under the settings of plate convergence. The process started in the Early Carboniferous at the Junggar-Balkhash margin of the Kazakhstan paleocontinent and the southern (Paleotethian) margin of the Karakum-Tajik paleocontinent. In the Late Carboniferous, magmatism developed along the northern boundary of the Turkestan paleoocean, which was closing between them. The disappearance of deepwater oceanic basins by the end of the Carboniferous was accompanied by collisional granitic magmatism, which inherited the paleolocations of subduction zones. Postcollision magmatism fell in the Early Permian with a peak at 280 Ma ago. In contrast to Late Carboniferous granitic rocks, the localization of Early Permian granitoids is more independent of collision sutures. The magmatism of this time comprises: (1) continuation of the

  15. Episodic Aggradation and Asynchronous Incision of River Terraces in the Kyrgyz Tien Shan (United States)

    Burgette, R. J.; Weldon, R. J.; Abdkrakhmatov, K. Y.; Ormukov, C.


    Sequences of terraces and alluvial fans with characteristic geomorphic expression lie above or at the mouth of rivers in all of the major basins in the Tien Shan mountains of Kyrgyzstan. The similarity of terraces and fans in different drainage basins, despite being bounded by faults of varying activity and style, has been used to argue for synchronous regional climatic variations controlling the timing of aggradation and incision. Our emerging set of radiocarbon dates (currently 24) from terrace deposits and overlying sediments suggest that despite the general regional synchroneity of a late Pleistocene terrace-forming event, deep incision below broad aggradational surfaces may be locally controlled and occurred over time spans up to 30 k.y. The most prominent intra-canyon terrace is known as QIII(2) in the characteristic sequence of Tien Shan terraces. QIII(2) is a fill terrace everywhere except for the hanging walls of the most active thrust faults in the Tien Shan, where it has a strath terrace morphology. In many places the base of the QIII(2) fill is not visible even at the level of the modern river. Five dates in the fill from the Ak-Terek and Tong Rivers in the Issyk-Kul basin and Kajerty River in the Naryn basin are all >40 Ka, and may be beyond the limit of radiocarbon. The Issyk-Kul basin is occupied by a large lake, which provides additional dating possibilities, while potentially complicating the geomorphic system. In Issyk-Kul dates from sediment overlying the QIII(2) gravel in thick colluvial wedges far from the edge of the riser to lower terraces along the Ak-Terek and Tamga rivers show that at least the highest level of the fill was abandoned by 33-30 Ka. However, the downstream reaches of Issyk- Kul rivers' QIII(2) surfaces clearly remained active through a high stand of the lake that persisted from 38 to 20 Ka. Remnants of terraces with steeper gradients that merge upstream with surfaces inset only a few m into the main QIII(2) post-date the high

  16. South Tien Shan orogenic belt: structure, magmatism and gold mineralization (Uzbekistan) (United States)

    Koneev, Rustam; Seltmann, Reimer


    The Southern Tien Shan represents one of the key units of the Central Asian orogenic belt in Uzbekistan. Together with the Beltau-Kurama volcano-plutonic arc it formed as a result of subduction of the crust under the Turkistan paleoocean and the Kazakhstan continent, followed by collision and post-collisional strike-slip processes. The Southern Tien Shan is of particular interest due to its gold mineralisation. It hosts the giant Muruntau gold deposit and the large gold deposits of Amantaitau, Daugyztau, Myutenbay (Kyzylkum ore district) and Charmitan, Guzhumsay, Urtalik (Nurata ore district). The Middle Tienshan hosts within the Beltau-Kurama volcano-plutonic arc the Kurama ore district with the giant Kalmakyr Cu-Au porphyry and large epithermal Au-Ag deposits of Kochbulak and Kyzylalma. Yakubchuk et al. (2005) and others stress that the largest ore clusters are confined by the intersections of volcano-plutonic belts and transform faults in result of sinistral strike slip dislocations during the Permo-Carboniferous. Others believe that the ore giants are in addition controlled by hot spots - a mantle plume, superimposed on the crust architecture shaped by the subduction processes. Zircon U-Pb geochronology of main intrusive massifs of Uzbekistan (CERCAMS data) showed that granitoid magmatism is predominantly of postcollisional age, manifested in the accretionary units at 270-290 Ma, whereas subduction magmatism prevails as characteristic in the volcano-plutonic arc at 300-320 Ma. Determination of sulphide mineralization ages using Os-Re method (CERCAMS data), are respectively 283-289 Ma and 298-314 Ma. The studies were performed in the framework of IGCP- 592. References 1. Yakubchuk A.S., Shatov V.V., Kirwin D. et al., (2005) Gold and base metal metallogeny of the Central Asian Orogenic supercollage: Society of Economic Geologists, Inc. Economic Geology, 100th, Anniversary Volume, 1035-1068. 2. Groves, D.I., Goldfarb, R.J., Gebre-Mariam, M., Hagemann, S.G. and

  17. Development of Petrov glacial-lake system (Tien Shan and outburst risk assessment

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    I. A. Torgoev


    Full Text Available Global climate warming causes an intensive melting and retreat of glaciers in the Tien Shan mountains. Melting water of glaciers causes overfilling of high mountain lakes. The increase of the surface and volume of the Petrov Lake accompanied with the decrease of stability of the dam represents an extremely dangerous situation that can produce a natural disaster. Failure can happen due to erosion, a buildup of water pressure, an earthquake or if a large enough portion of a glacier breaks off and massively displaces the waters in a glacial lake at its base. In case of the lake dam rupture, flooding of a disposal site of highly toxic tailing from the gold mine Kumtor is a threat. If this happens, the toxic waste containing cyanides would contaminate a large area in the Naryn (Syrdarya river basin. Even if the flooding of the disposal site does not occur, the damage after lake dam fracture will be immense due to the glacial lake outburst flood may be a devastating mudslide. In order to prevent or reduce the risk of this event we recommend performing engineering surveys for the development and implementation of the project for the controlled reduction of water level in the Blue Bay of the Petrov Lake to a safe volume.

  18. A revista Cais entre o protagonismo e o assistencialismo: Uma análise discursiva crítica

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    Viviane de Melo Resende


    Full Text Available Como parte dos resultados de um projeto integrado cujo escopo é investigar, por meio de análises discursivas, as práticas envolvidas na produção e na distribuição de cinco publicações em língua portuguesa voltadas para a situação de rua, este artigo focaliza, com base na Análise de Discurso Crítica, a revista Cais, publicada em Lisboa. Configurando‑se como jornal de rua, a revista é vendida na rua e por pessoas em situação de rua ou de risco, para as quais revertem 70% da venda de cada exemplar. Mais que um meio de comunicação e difusão de problemas sociais, acredita‑se que esse tipo de imprensa proporciona a configuração de posições e relações diferentes, podendo por isso alterar a experiência da exclusão. Neste artigo, tomando como dados excertos de uma entrevista com o seu editor, exploro em que medida se dá a participação de pessoas em situação de rua na produção da revista Cais e na representação desta mesma situação.

  19. Thermal maturity patterns in the Ordovician and Devonian of Pennsylvania using conodont color alteration index (CAI) and vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) (United States)

    Repetski, J.E.; Ryder, R.T.; Harper, J.A.; Trippi, M.H.


    This new series of maps enhances previous thermal maturity maps in Pennsylvania by establishing: 1) new subsurface CAI data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Group are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved CAI-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.

  20. Groundwater resources vulnerability due to melting glaciers in the Talgar alluvian fan, northern Tien-Shan (United States)

    Saks, Tomas; Timuhins, Andrejs; Sennikovs, Juris; Ibraimov, Vitaliy; Sotnikov, Evgeniy; Salybekova, Valentina; Rahimov, Timur; Popovs, Konrads


    Alluvial fans on the mountain slopes in Central Asia are an important source of the groundwater, due to there capacity of storing large quantities of the fresh groundwater and due to the fact that most urban centres are situated in the mountainous terrain or along mountain slopes. The groundwater resources in the alluvial fans are replenished by the infiltration from the rivers, which drain the mountain catchments and by infiltration from the precipitation, and released on there lower reaches as a series of seasonal springs or infiltrated into the lower lying aquifers. The rivers with there catchments in the mountainous terrain are fed by the precipitation (with the peak in May-June due to snow melt) and glacier melt. The glacier meltwater constitutes up to 90% of the river runoff in July-August, due to peak in glacier melt and low precipitation, providing much needed freshwater for agriculture in the dry season. In this study an attempt to quantify the importance of the glacier meltwater on the groundwater resources through groundwater modelling in the Talgar alluvial fan, Ili-Alatau mountain range has been performed. The results suggest that glacier meltwater is a substantial portion of the groundwater resources in the Talgar alluvial fan, with up to 30m drop of the groundwater level, if the glaciers disappear, endangering existing groundwater supply. The transient simulations suggest that disappearance of the glaciers and highly variable annual precipitation would result in highly fluctuating groundwater levels, as well as disappearance of most of the springs at the foot of the alluvial fan. These results are especially relevant for the northern Tien-Shan, where glaciers have been rapidly retreating over last 50 years, and some of the glaciers could disappear in next decades.

  1. Seismic triggering of landslides, Part A: Field evidence from the Northern Tien Shan

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    H.-B. Havenith


    Full Text Available Landslides triggered by strong earthquakes often caused most of the global damage and most of all casualties related to the events, such as shown by the M = 7.7 Peru earthquake in 1970, by the M = 7.6 El Salvador earthquake in 2001 or by the M = 7.4 Khait (Tajikistan earthquake in 1949. The obvious impact of a landslide on the population is directly related to its movement. Yet, prediction of future failure potential and hence future risk to population is necessary in order to avoid further catastrophes and involves the analyses of the origin of seismic instability. The seismic landslide potential is mainly determined by the interaction between the regional seismic hazard and local geological conditions. At a local scale, seismic factors interfering with geological conditions can produce site-specific ground motions. The influence of such Site Effects on instability is the principal topic of this paper, which is divided into two parts, A and B. The present Part A is concerned with the correlation of field data with observed instability phenomena. Field data were obtained on mainly three landslide sites in the Northern Tien Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. Geophysical prospecting, earthquake recordings, geological observation, trenching and geotechnical tests were the main investigation tools. The collected information gives an insight in the geological background of the slope failure and allows us to roughly infer failure mechanisms from field evidence. A detailed analysis of the susceptibility of a mechanism to specific geological conditions will be shown in Part B.

  2. As populações caiçaras e o mito do bom selvagem: a necessidade de uma nova abordagem interdisciplinar


    Adams, Cristina


    A caracterização, na literatura, das comunidades caiçaras como pescadoras, tradicionais, isoladas, auto-suficientes, primitivas e dotadas de um referencial marítimo é discutida com base numa perspectiva diacrônica. Ressalta-se o papel transformador da chegada do barco a motor e da pesca embarcada para as comunidades caiçaras, que as levou a abandonar total ou parcialmente as atividades agrícolas. Esta mudança é inserida num contexto histórico mais amplo, que considera essa passagem como um do...

  3. Inhibition of metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liquid

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    Sun Andy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advanced cancer is a multifactorial disease that demands treatments targeting multiple cellular pathways. Chinese herbal cocktail which contains various phytochemicals may target multiple dys-regulated pathways in cancer cells and thus may provide an alternative/complementary way to treat cancers. Previously we reported that the Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liguid (THL can specifically induce apoptosis in various cancer cells and have immuno-modulating activity. In this study, we further evaluated the anti-metastatic, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of THL with a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods The migration and invasion of cancer cells and endothelial cells was determined by Boyden chamber transwell assays. The effect of THL on pulmonary metastasis was done by injecting CT-26 colon cancer cells intravenously to syngenic mice. The in vitro and in vivo microvessel formation was determined by the tube formation assay and the Matrigel plug assay, respectively. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of THL was determined by a human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. The expression of metalloproteinase (MMP-2, MMP-9, and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA was measured by gelatin zymography. The expression of HIF-1α and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were determined by Western blot. Results THL inhibited the migration and invasion ability of various cancer cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA and the activity of ERK1/2 in cancer cells, and suppressed pulmonary metastasis of CT-26 cancer cells in syngenic mice. Moreover, THL inhibited the migration, invasion, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2 and uPA in endothelial cells, and suppressed neovascularization in Matrigel plugs in mice. Besides its inhibitory effect on endothelial cells, THL inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression

  4. Chronological study of oxygen isotope composition for the solar protoplanetary disk recorded in a fluffy Type A CAI from Vigarano (United States)

    Kawasaki, Noriyuki; Itoh, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi


    Fluffy Type A Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) containing reversely zoned melilite crystals are suggested to be aggregates of direct condensates from solar nebular gas. We conducted an investigation of 26Al-26Mg systematics of a fluffy Type A CAI from Vigarano, named V2-01, with known oxygen isotopic distributions of reversely zoned melilite crystals; we also conducted oxygen isotope measurements of coexisting minerals. Two of six reversely zoned melilite crystals show continuous variations in magnesium isotopic composition, with δ25Mg decreasing along the inferred direction of crystal growth, which supports the idea that they originated through condensation. Petrography suggests that the constituent minerals of V2-01 formed in the following order: first spinel and fassaite enclosed by melilite, then reversely zoned melilite crystals, and spinel and diopside in the Wark-Lovering rim. The spinel enclosed by melilite has 16O-rich compositions (Δ17O ∼ -24‰) and on an Al-Mg evolutionary diagram plots along model isochron with an initial value of (26Al/27Al)0 = (5.6 ± 0.2) × 10-5. The fassaite enclosed by melilite crystals shows variable oxygen isotopic compositions (Δ17O ∼ -12‰ and -17‰) and plots on an isochron with (26Al/27Al)0 = (5.6 ± 0.2) × 10-5. The oxygen isotopic compositions of reversely zoned melilite showed continuous variations in Δ17O along the inferred direction of crystal growth, suggesting that surrounding nebular gas, during the formation of the reversely zoned melilite, changed from 16O-poor (Δ17O values larger than -10‰) to 16O-rich (Δ17O ∼ -25‰). The six reversely zoned melilite crystals show indistinguishable initial 26Al/27Al values with an average (26Al/27Al)0 of (4.7 ± 0.3) × 10-5, which is clearly distinguishable from the value of enclosed spinel and fassaite, indicating a younger formation age than the enclosed spinel and fassaite. The spinel and diopside from the Wark-Lovering rim show 16O-rich compositions (Δ17O

  5. Perceptions on hospitality when visiting secluded communities of guaranis, caiçaras e quilombolas in Paraty region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Beares


    Full Text Available Tourism in secluded communities puts different cultures in contact with each other and must be handled carefully not to cause environmental damage as well as cultural loss which might jeopardize the local development and create hostile relationships. The proposal of in sito tourism, considering the local memory and patrimony as a hospitality potential, was observed during technical visitations to three communities located in the Paraty region and surroundings: Guarani, Caiçara (fishermen and Quilombola(African slaves descendants. Through field work involving visitations to communities and interviews with locals, information regarding cultural differences and the importance of the land occupation in the history of each of the communities was assessed. The common link in the history of these peoples is the struggle for the right of land possession. During visits when people shared their territory various forms of hospitality in each community were verified, issued from different cultures and cultural values.

  6. Is Upper Lake Merzbacher (Central Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan) the result of a fluctuating glacier? (United States)

    Häusler, H.; Leber, D.; Kopecny, A.


    Based on time series analysis of topographic maps, aerial photos and satellite images, and on fieldwork at the Global Change Observatory "Gottfried Merzbacher", we reconstruct the retreat and advance of the Northern Inylchek Glacier and the development of supraglacial and proglacial lakes respectively. The aerial photo of 1943 reveals a Northern Inylchek Glacier with abundant supraglacial lakes. Change detection since 1943 documents the formation of a proglacial lake, which until 1981 increased in size and was termed Upper Lake Merzbacher. In contrast to the increase of the Upper Lake, an undulated terrain with a dozen of small lakes did not change at all during the last 70 years. We term this area of about one square kilometre in size the "stable-moraine-lake-ensemble". It is situated northeast of the terminal moraine of the Northern Inylchek Glacier. Regarding its geomorphologic features, this stable-moraine-lake-ensemble represents an old stage of glacier karst. Since this area is covered by several meters of fine-grained and thin-layered lake sediments we postulate a former proglacial lake, which was dammed by both the Northern and Southern Inylchek Glacier. In view of the fact that a meter thick massive till, rich in striated pebbles, overlies these lake sediments, we conclude that the Northern Inylchek Glacier overthrusted these lake sediments; a process which must have happened before 1943, and hence long before the (present) Upper Lake Merzbacher came to exist. From our findings we postulate the following fluctuations of the Northern Inylchek Glacier: 1) An ice stream net consisting of both the Northern and Southern Inylchek Glaciers jointly flowing down the Inylchek Valley existed during Würm glaciation. 2) At the end of the Little Ice Age, the moraines of which are poorly dated in the Central Tien Shan, the glaciers rapidly retreated. As soon as the Southern Inylchek Glacier stagnated and the Northern Inylchek Glacier separated and retreated, part of the

  7. Analysis of meteorological data and the surface energy balance of Keqicar Glacier, Tien Shan, China (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, S.; Fujita, K.; Han, H.; Li, J.


    Northwestern China currently experiences a climate change with fundamental consequences for the hydrological cycle. In the strongly arid region where water resources are essential for agriculture and food production, glaciers represent important water resources, contributing significantly to streamflow. The debris is an important glaciological feature of the region and has major impact on melt rates. It is essential to understand and quantify the interaction of climate and sub-debris melt in order to assess the current situation and to predict future water yield. Note that the surface energy balance determines glacier melt. However, little is known about the variability characteristics of the surface energy fluxes in this region. For this reason, we set up two automatic weather stuation (AWSs) in the ablation area of Keqicar Glacier. Keqicar Glacier is located in the Tarim River basin (largest inland river basin in China), southwestern Tien Shan, China. It is a representative debris-covered glacier with a length of 26.0 km and a total surface area of 83.6 km2. The thickness of the debris layer varies from 0.0 to 2.50 m in general. In some places large rocks are piled up to several meters. In this study, we report on analysis of meteorological data for the period 1 July-13 September 2003, from two automatic weather stations, aimed at studying the relationship between climate and ablation. One station is located on the lower part of the ablation area where the glacier is covered by debris layer, and the other near the equilibrium line altitude (ELA). All sensors were sampled every 10 seconds, and data were stored as hourly averages. The stations were visited regularly for maintenance at two weeks intervals depending on the weather conditions and location of the AWS. A total of 17 ablation stakes were drilled into the glacier at different elevations to monitor glacier melt during the study period. Readings were taken regularly in connection with AWS maintenance. The

  8. Results from the 2009 Investigations at the Global Change Observatory "Gottfried Merzbacher" (Tien Shan, Kyrgyz Republic) (United States)

    Häusler, Hermann; Leber, Diethard; Scheibz, Jürgen; Kopecny, Alexander; Wetzel, Hans-Ulrich; Echtler, Helmut; Moldobekov, Bolot


    The Global Change Observatory "Gottfried Merzbacher", which was installed near the former confluence of the Southern and Northern Inylchek Glacier, served as a platform for intensive field work in August 2009. "Peremitschka" (meaning "the area between") is a test site in front of the retreating Northern Inylchek Glacier, which regularly is flooded by the increasing glacier-dammed Lake Merzbacher, before it bursts out. Mapping the micro-geomorphology and conducting electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) profiles resulted in a sound interpretation of the surface morphology and of subsurface layers of the Peremitschka plain, which probably is underlain by both, permafrost and dead ice of the retreating Northern Inylchek Glacier. The flat 780 meters long high resolution ERT-profile reveals an undulated multilayer resistivity distribution. The uppermost 3-5 m of the profile show low resistivities ranging from 10 to about 200 ohm.m, indicating fine clastic sediments. In this area the surface of the whole test area is covered by silt and sand, the weathered material from the surrounding hills, which mainly consist of shists and calcareous shists of Upper Silurian to Lower Devonian age (Jamansu-Formation). The second "layer" below this low resistivity zone is characterized by resistivities up to 30.000 ohm.m to the final depth of the profile in approximately 45 m, and probably portraits permafrost overlying dead ice of the retreating Northern Inylchek Glacier. The geophysical measurements enable sound interpretations of the local geomorphology which consequently can be mapped in remote sensing images as flooded plain directly underlain by melting permafrost. Time series analysis of oblique aerial photos and remote sensing images allowed for a detailed reconstruction of the glacier retreat from 1943 to nowadays. It is still under discussion, however, if the Northern Inylchek Glacier surged in the late 1990ies. Compared to other regions in the Tien Shan range the youngest

  9. Central Asia Climate Change: Altai, Tien Shan And Pamir Ice Cores Contemporary And Paleo-Reconstruction (United States)

    Aizen, E.; Aizen, V. B.; Takeuchi, N.; Mayewski, P. A.; Grigholm, B. O.; Fujita, K.; Joswiak, D.


    (e.g., Hypsithermal and Medival, Bolling-Allerod (BA)) occurred in the SA, it was significantly dryer and maybe cooler than in the Tien Shan (TS) mountains. The 14C analysis of organic soil obtained from the bottom of ice-core recovered from the Grigoriev Ice-cap, at 4700masl, 41°58’N, 77°55’E The Grigoriev ice-core (1200 km to the South from SA) dated of 10640 14C years, close to the onset of the YD cold period. This result may conclude that glaciers did not exist in the BA period in TS at elevations up to 5000masl because it was significantly warmer. Formation of organic soil requires wet and warm conditions during hundreds/thousands of years thus, much warmer and wet climate rather than arid climate caused the TS glacial recession in the BA period that we did not revealed in the SA. We assume that threshold climate changes occurred prior to YD in the TS (warmer and more wet) and in the SA (much warmer, but dry) was not observed in the Pamir. Differences in prevailing atmospheric circulation, maintaining Pamir glaciers from modern and historical climatic thresholds, occurred in central TS and SA and while the Pamir glaciers might be remnants of the LGM.

  10. Ensiled and dry cassava leaves, and sweet potato vines as a protein source in diets for growing Vietnamese large white Mong Cai pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.H.L.; Le, N.G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.


    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of replacing 70% of the protein from fish meal by protein from ensiled or dry cassava leaves and sweet potato vines on the performance and carcass characters of growing F1 (Large White¿Mong Cai) pigs in Central Vietnam. Twenty-five crossbred

  11. Petrological interpretation of the magnetotelluric data of the depth zone of the Tarim and Tien Shan junction (United States)

    Batalev, V. Yu.


    Electrical conductance of lower crust and mantle rocks samples from the Tarim and Tien Shan junction zone were measured in a laboratory under P-T conditions determined on the basis of thermobarometry data. The geothermic curve for the moment of xenolith delivery (K - rlap{-} P) corresponding to a thermal flux of 80 mW/m2 was determined. Its comparison with the present-day geothermic curve corresponding to 60 mW/m2 demonstrates general cooling of the lithosphere. The Moho surface position also changed from 35-40 km (as the boundary between lherzolites and granulites) to 55-60 km, as a proper geophysical Moho discontinuity. Results of laboratory measurements of electrical conductance of upper mantle and lower crust rocks samples in correlation to geoelectric and thermal models make it possible to define lherzolite, granulite, and eclogite massifs in the depth zone of the Tarim and Tien Shan junction.

  12. Paleoclimatological and Geoarchaeological Significance of the Holocene Loess – Soil Successions of the Tien Shan Foothills of Uzbekistan


    Welc Fabian; Toychiew Khodjiakbar; Suska-Malawska Małgorzata; Marks Leszek; Mętrak Monika


    Scenario of climate changes in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene in Central Asia is very fragmentary and inconsistent. Therefore, interaction between the development and decline of ancient cultures and the climate fluctuations are difficult to be traced. To resolve this problem, the key role can be played by multidisciplinary studies of unique Late Pleistocene and especially Holocene loess – soil succession of the Tien Shan foothills in Uzbekistan. This area yields unique successions of paleo...

  13. Mapping and inventorying active rock glaciers in the northern Tien Shan of China using satellite SAR interferometry (United States)

    Wang, Xiaowen; Liu, Lin; Zhao, Lin; Wu, Tonghua; Li, Zhongqin; Liu, Guoxiang


    Rock glaciers are widespread in the Tien Shan. However, rock glaciers in the Chinese part of the Tien Shan have not been systematically investigated for more than 2 decades. In this study, we propose a new method that combines SAR interferometry and optical images from Google Earth to map active rock glaciers (ARGs) in the northern Tien Shan (NTS) of China. We compiled an inventory that includes 261 ARGs and quantitative information about their locations, geomorphic parameters, and downslope velocities. Our inventory shows that most of the ARGs are moraine-derived (69 %) and facing northeast (56 %). The altitude distribution of ARGs in the western NTS is significantly different from those located in the eastern part. The downslope velocities of the ARGs vary significantly in space, with a maximum of about 114 cm yr-1 and a mean of about 37 cm yr-1. Using the ARG locations as a proxy for the extent of alpine permafrost, our inventory suggests that the lowest altitudinal limit for the presence of permafrost in the NTS is about 2500-2800 m, a range determined by the lowest ARG in the entire inventory and by a statistics-based estimation. The successful application of the proposed method would facilitate effective and robust efforts to map rock glaciers over mountain ranges globally. This study provides an important dataset to improve mapping and modeling permafrost occurrence in vast western China.

  14. Discussion of vicarious calibration of GOSAT/TANSO-CAI UV-band (380nm) and aerosol retrieval in wildfire region in the OCO-2 and GOSAT observation campaign at Railroad Valley in 2016 (United States)

    Hashimoto, M.; Kuze, A.; Bruegge, C. J.; Shiomi, K.; Kataoka, F.; Kikuchi, N.; Arai, T.; Kasai, K.; Nakajima, T.


    The GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite) / TANSO-CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager, CAI) is an imaging sensor to measure cloud and aerosol properties and observes reflected sunlight from the atmosphere and surface of the ground. The sensor has four bands from near ultraviolet (near-UV) to shortwave infrared, 380, 674, 870 and 1600nm. The field of view size is 0.5 km for band-1 through band-3, and 1.5km for band-4. Band-1 (380nm) is one of unique function of the CAI. The near-UV observation offers several advantages for the remote sensing of aerosols over land: Low reflectance of most surfaces; Sensitivity to absorbing aerosols; Absorption of trace gases is weak (Höller et al., 2004). CAI UV-band is useful to distinguish absorbing aerosol (smoke) from cloud. GOSAT-2/TANSO-CAI-2 that will be launched in the future also has UV-bands, 340 and 380nm. We carried out an experiment to calibrate CAI UV-band radiance using data taken in a field campaign of OCO-2 and GOSAT at Railroad Valley in 2016. The campaign period is June 27 to July 3 in 2016. We measured surface reflectance by using USB4000 Spectrometer with 74-UV collimating lens (Ocean Optics) and Spectralon (Labsphere). USB4000 is a UV spectrometer, and its measurement range from 300 to 520nm. We simulated CAI UV-band radiance using a vector type of radiation transfer code, i.e. including polarization calculation, pstar3 (Ota et al., 2010) using measured surface reflectance and atmospheric data, pressure and relative humidity by radiosonde in the same campaign, and aerosol optical depth by AERONET, etc. Then, we evaluated measured UV radiances with the simulated data. We show the result of vicarious calibration of CAI UV-band in the campaign, and discuss about this method for future sensor, CAI-2. Around the campaign period, there was wildfire around Los Angeles, and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) observed by AERONET at Rail Road valley and Caltech sites is also high. We tried to detect and retrieve aerosol

  15. Regional vegetation patterns at lake Son Kul reveal Holocene climatic variability in central Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia) (United States)

    Mathis, Marie; Sorrel, Philippe; Klotz, Stefan; Huang, Xiangtong; Oberhänsli, Hedi


    A multiproxy study was conducted on Holocene sediments from the alpine lake Son Kul (3010 m a.s.l, 41°48‧33N/75°07‧38E) in central Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan). The combination of high-resolution pollen, palynofacies and magnetic susceptibility data allowed reconstruction of changes in sedimentary and vegetation dynamics regionally at Son Kul between 8350 and ca 2000 cal. BP. Using pollen data to quantify climatic parameters, a quantitative reconstruction of climatic conditions was performed using the "Modern Analogue Vegetation types" (MAV) method and a ranged index of seasonality. The most temperate (e.g. moister) climate conditions occurred between 8350 and 5000-4500 cal. BP when alpine meadow vegetation was enriched in plants requiring moister conditions and trees developed regionally. Conversely, more continental and arid conditions prevailed after 4500 cal. BP with the decline of arboreal vegetation (especially Juniperus) and the extension of an alpine steppe-meadow along with a regional decrease in Poaceae. This climate transition was associated with a change in seasonality as the continentality greatly intensified after 5000-4500 cal. BP. Our results are consistent with other records from the Tien Shan range and the Chinese Province Xinjiang showing that relatively wet conditions prevailed regionally before 5000 cal. BP, whereas reduced moisture conditions were established after that time. From a more global perspective, we highlight that regional rainfall in central Tien Shan and western Central Asia is likely to be predominantly controlled by the Eastern Mediterranean cyclonic system and North Atlantic climate, as based on the close correspondence between climatic archives from western Central Asia, the Levant, the Eastern Mediterranean and Caspian Sea regions. However, the effect of monsoonal dynamics on the regional climatic system in central Tien Shan still remains dubious, since recent modelling studies have shown that no dynamic link exists between

  16. Paleomagnetic Study of Mesozoic Continental Sediments Along the Northern Tien Shan (China) and Heterogeneous Strain in Central Asia


    Chen, Yan; Cogne, Jean-Pascal; Courtillot, Vincent; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Tapponnier, Paul; Wang, Gongque; Bai, Meixiang; You, Hongzi; Li, Ming; Wei, Chunsheng; Buffetaut, Eric


    A paleomagnetic study of rocks from the northern foot of the Tien Shan and the southern border of the Dzungar Basin, east of Urumqi (44.2°N, 86.0°E), spanning ages from middle Jurassic to early Tertiary was carried out to constrain the tectonic evolution in central Asia since Mesozoic time. Five middle Jurassic sites reveal a remagnetized direction close to the present Earth field in geographic coordinates: D = 6.6°, I = 72.6° (α_(95) = 7.4°). Thirteen out of 17 upper Jurassic and lower Creta...

  17. A New Type of Foreign Clast in A Polymict Ureilite: A CAI or AL-Rich Chondrule (United States)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Ross, D. K.; Treiman, A. H.


    Introduction: Polymict ureilites are breccias interpreted to represent regolith formed on a ureilitic asteroid [1-3]. They consist of approximately 90-95% clasts of various ureilite types (olivine-pyroxene rocks with Fo 75-95), a few % indigenous feldspathic clasts, and a few % foreign clasts [4-20]. The foreign clasts are diverse, including fragments of H, L, LL and R chondrites, angrites, other achondrites, and dark clasts similar to CC [6,7,9-19]. We report a new type of foreign clast in polymict ureilite DaG 999. Methods: Clast 8 in Dar al Gani (DaG) 999/1 (Museum fur Naturkunde) was discovered during a survey of feldspathic clasts in polymict ureilites [19,20]. It was studied by BEI, EMPA, and X-ray mapping on the JEOL 8530F electron microprobe at ARES, JSC. Petrography and Mineral Compositions: Clast 8 is sub-rounded to irregular in shape, approximately 85 micrometers in diameter, and consists of approximately 68% pyroxene and 32% mesostasis (by area). Part of the pyroxene (top half of clast in Fig. 1a and 2) shows a coarse dendritic morphology; the rest appears massive. Mesostasis may be glassy and contains fine needles/grains of pyroxene. The pyroxene has very high CaO (23.5 wt.%) and Al2O3 (19.7 wt.%), with the formula: (Ca(0.91)Mg(0.63)Fe(0.01)Al(sup VI) (0.38)Cr(0.01)Ti(0.05)1.99 Si2O6. The bulk mesostasis also has very high Al2O3 (approximately 26 wt.%). A bulk composition for the clast was obtained by combining modal abundances with phase compositions (Table 1, Fig. 3). Discussion: The pyroxene in clast 8 has a Ca-Al-(Ti)- rich (fassaitic) composition that is clearly distinct from compositions of pyroxenes in main group ureilites [22] or indigenous feldspathic clasts in polymict ureilites [4-8]. It also has significantly higher Al than fassaite in angrites (up to approximately 12 wt.% [23]), which occur as xenoliths in polymict ureilites. Ca-Al-Ti rich pyroxenes are most commonly found in CAIs, Al-rich chondrules and other types of refractory

  18. Procedimiento para medir y valorar la eficiencia empresarial en el CAI Arrocero Sur del Jíbaro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Luis Rodríguez Rodríguez


    Full Text Available En la presente investigación titulada Procedimiento para medir y valorar la eficiencia empresarial en el CAI Arrocero “Sur del Jíbaro” se realiza un amplio análisis de la bibliografía, basado en dos variables fundamentales, procedimientos específicos y eficiencia empresarial definiendo como objetivo la necesidad que existe de desarrollar un procedimiento específico para medir y valorar la eficiencia. Es por ello que se propone un procedimiento específico, a través de la siguiente secuencia de pasos lógicos: Identificación de los indicadores de eficiencia, importancia de los indicadores según expertos, comportamiento de los indicadores en la organización, determinación del indicador general de eficiencia, valoración integral de la eficiencia en la organización. Resulta de gran utilidad práctica para la empresa el cálculo del IGE pues permite desde el punto de vista cuantitativo brindar una información de cómo está la empresa partiendo de la importancia relativa de cada uno de los indicadores y el comportamiento de ellos en el marco de la empresa, comprobando que el indicador general de eficiencia no se comporta de manera uniforme en todas las Unidades Empresariales de Base (UEB.

  19. Constitutive activity of inwardly rectifying K+ channel at physiological [Ca]i is mediated by Ca2+/CaMK II pathway in opossum kidney proximal tubule cells. (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Hideyo; Miyamoto, Manabu; Sohma, Yoshiro; Kubota, Takahiro


    Using patch-clamp technique, we studied the role of the Ca2+/calmodulin kinase II (CaMK II)-mediated phosphorylation process on the K+ channel with an inward conductance of 90 pS in opossum kidney proximal tubule cells (OKPCs). The intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca]i) was measured by use of the fluorescent dye fura 2. The following results were obtained: (i) In cell-attached patches, the channel activity was inhibited by a decrease in [Ca]i induced by perfusion with low Ca2+ (10(-8) M), La3+ (100 microM), or EGTA/AM (100 microM) contained in the bath solution. The application of KN-62 (10 microM) or KN-93 (5 microM), inhibitors of CaMK II, also inhibited the channel activity. (ii) The membrane potential measured with nystatin-perforated patches was significantly decreased by the fall in [Ca]i induced by the perfusion with EGTA- or La(3+)-containing solution. Also, the application of KN-62 (10 microM) or KN-93 (5 microM) to the bath significantly decreased the membrane potential. (iii) In inside-out patches, the channel activity was significantly stimulated by the application of CaMK II (300 pM) at 10(-7) M Ca2+ in the bath. Furthermore, the application of KN-62 (10 microM) to the bath significantly decreased the channel activity. Our findings show that the constitutive activity of inwardly rectifying K+ channel at physiological [Ca]i is mediated by the Ca2+/CaMK II pathway in OKPCs.

  20. La falta de financiacion publica hipoteca el futuro del acelerador de protones valenciano. La Universidad de Valencia tiene avanzado el diseno de este dispositivo de alta tecnologia

    CERN Multimedia

    Jatvia, J M


    "La Universidad de Valencia tiene avanzado el diseno de un acelerador lineal de protones, cuya culminacion depende del compromiso del Consell en sufragar la plantilla que necesitaria el centro para estar operativo" (1 page).

  1. Dynamics of intracontinental convergence between the western Tarim basin and central Tien Shan constrained by centroid moment tensors of regional earthquakes (United States)

    Huang, Guo-chin Dino; Roecker, Steven W.; Levin, Vadim; Wang, Haitao; Li, Zhihai


    Among the outstanding tectonic questions regarding the convergence between the Tien Shan and Tarim basin in northwestern China are the manner in which deformation is accommodated within their lithospheres, and the extent that the Tarim lithosphere underthrusts the Tien Shan. In particular, the amount and type of deformation within the Tarim basin is poorly understood. It is also uncertain if the convergence between the Tarim and the Tien Shan takes place mainly along a discrete boundary, or if the Tarim lithosphere simply indents into the Kazach shield, forming the Tien Shan through crustal thickening accommodated by a distributed series of thrust faults. In this study we use hypocentres from published earthquake catalogues and waveforms recorded by regional seismic networks to determine earthquake source parameters through regional centroid moment tensor inversion. The entire dataset consists of 160 earthquakes that occurred between 1969 and 2009 and with moment magnitudes between 3.5 and 7 distributed throughout the central Tien Shan and northwestern Tarim Basin. The estimated focal depths of these earthquakes range from the near-surface to about 44 km. Focal mechanisms throughout much of the Tien Shan indicate active deformation accommodated by thrust faults from at least the upper crust to 30 km depth. South of the Tien Shan, the Jia-shi earthquake sequence within the Tarim basin suggests that both crustal shortening and localized flexure are part of a complicated process involving rotational convergence. Inside the Tarim basin, two earthquakes with thrust faulting mechanisms near the crust-mantle boundary beneath the Bachu uplift imply a brittle rheology of the lower crust. High-angle thrust events occur broadly across the Tien Shan, suggesting that the Tarim lithosphere as a whole is strong and indents into the Kazach shield to create the mountain range.

  2. Late orogenic, large-scale rotations in the Tien Shan and adjacent mobile belts in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan (United States)

    Van der Voo, Rob; Levashova, Natalia M.; Skrinnik, Ludmila I.; Kara, Taras V.; Bazhenov, Mikhail L.


    Most of Kazakhstan belongs to the central part of the Eurasian Paleozoic mobile belts for which previously proposed tectonic scenarios have been rather disparate. Of particular interest is the origin of strongly curved Middle and Late Paleozoic volcanic belts of island-arc and Andean-arc affinities that dominate the structure of Kazakhstan. We undertook a paleomagnetic study of Carboniferous to Upper Permian volcanics and sediments from several localities in the Ili River basin between the Tien Shan and the Junggar-Alatau ranges in southeast Kazakhstan. Our main goal was to investigate the Permian kinematic evolution of these belts, particularly in terms of rotations about vertical axes, in the hope of deciphering the dynamics that played a role during the latest Paleozoic deformation in this area. This deformation, in turn, can then be related to the amalgamation of this area with Baltica, Siberia, and Tarim in the expanding Eurasian supercontinent. Thermal demagnetization revealed that most Permian rocks retained a pretilting and likely primary component, which is of reversed polarity at three localities and normal at the fourth. In contrast, most Carboniferous rocks are dominated by postfolding reversed overprints of probably "mid-Permian" age, whereas presumably primary components are isolated from a few sites at two localities. Mean inclinations of primary components generally agree with coeval reference values extrapolated from Baltica, whereas declinations from primary as well as secondary components are deflected counterclockwise (ccw) by up to ˜ 90°. Such ccw rotated directions have previously also been observed in other Tien Shan sampling areas and in the adjacent Tarim Block to the south. However, two other areas in Kazakhstan show clockwise (cw) rotations of Permian magnetization directions. One area is located in the Kendyktas block about 300 km to the west of the Ili River valley, and the other is found in the Chingiz Range, to the north of Lake

  3. Une description philologique de quelques mots du français régional haïtien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberson Pierre


    Full Text Available Cet article décrit quelques exemples de mots relevant du français régional haïtien, autrement dit du français contemporain tel qu'il est représenté en Haïti. Dans une approche philologique, les auteurs sollicitent la méthodologie de la lexicographie différentielle francophone de manière à soulever, plus indirectement, quelques unes des questions d'ordre sociolinguistique qui ont toujours préoccupé Pierre Vernet. Sont traités à titre d'illustration les mots bérégène, bouillon, calalou*, camionette, carnet, chadèque, pistache, rigoise et suret(te.

  4. A gravidade do trauma em vítimas de traumatismo crânio-encefálico avaliada pelo manual AIS/90 e mapas CAIS/85 La gravedad del trauma en víctimas de traumatismo cráneo-encefálico por medio del manual AIS/90 y mapas CAIS/85 Injury severity measures by AIS/90 manual and CAIS/85 chart in head injured patients


    Regina Marcia Cardoso de Sousa; Maria Sumie Koizumi; Ana Maria Calil; Grossi,Sonia Aurora A.; Lisbela Chaib


    Estudo comparativo do uso do manual da ABBREVIATED INJURY SCALE (AIS) e dos mapas da CONDENSED ABBREVIATED INJURY SCALE (CAIS), como bases para cálculo do INJURY SEVERITY SCORE (ISS) em vítimas de trauma crânio-encefálico. Os resultados evidenciaram que o valor do ISS foi coincidente na maioria (59,51%) das vítimas passíveis de codificação pelos dois instrumentos. Quanto à indicação da faixa de gravidade do trauma (grave, moderado e leve) não existiram diferenças estatisticamente significante...

  5. The Jurassic to Paleogene detrital record of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: results from the Kyrgyz Tien Shan (United States)

    De Pelsmaeker, Elien; Jolivet, Marc; Dransart Laborde, Amandine; Robin, Cécile; Zhimulev, Fedor; Poujol, Marc; Nachtergaele, Simon; Glorie, Stijn; De Clercq, Shana; Batalev, Vladislav; De Grave, Johan


    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) represents one of the largest Phanerozoic accretionary orogens in the world, pinched between North China - Tarim, Kazakhstan and the Siberian craton. It stretches from the Pamir in the southwest, over the Tien Shan, Junggar, Altai and Sayan mountain ranges to the Baikal rift in the northeast. The basement of the CAOB exists of various tectonic units that were assembled during several Paleozoic collision-accretion events. By the Permian, the accretionary tectonics in the CAOB culminated as all major composing units were joined. After final construction in the Late Paleozoic, the CAOB was subjected to several phases of Mesozoic deformation and was again reactivated in the Late Cenozoic as distant effect of the India-Eurasia collision. The Meso-Cenozoic reactivation episodes occurred in an intracontinental setting, related to tectonic far-field effects originating at the Eurasian margins. Subsequently intracontinental orogens, such as Tien Shan, were built superimposed on the inherited basement architecture and the erosion products of their exhuming mountain ranges accumulated in sedimentary basins. New sedimentological and detrital zircon U-Pb (LA-ICP-MS) results from several Jurassic to Paleogene sedimentary sections in Kyrgyzstan provide new insights in the Mesozoic - early Cenozoic geodynamic evolution and related basin-range interactions of the Kyrgyz Tien Shan. Studied sedimentary sections are located in the Fergana and Yarkand-Fergana basins to the west of the Talas-Fergana Fault (TFF) and in the Issyk-Kul and Ming-Kush-Kökömeren basins to the east of the TFF. The U-Pb ages of the post-Precambrian zircon grains found in 18 Jurassic to Paleogene sandstones, can be generally divided into four groups: Caledonian (470-390 Ma), Hercynian (315-260 Ma), Triassic (250-210 Ma) and Jurassic (190-160 Ma) ages. The differences in sedimentation pattern and detrital zircon U-Pb age components suggest that the TFF played an important

  6. Geomorphology and Ice Content of Glacier - Rock Glacier – Moraine Complexes in Ak-Shiirak Range (Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan) (United States)

    Bolch, Tobias; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Rohrbach, Nico; Fischer, Andrea; Osmonov, Azamat


    Meltwater originating from the Tien Shan is of high importance for the runoff to the arid and semi-arid region of Central Asia. Previous studies estimate a glaciers' contribution of about 40% for the Aksu-Tarim Catchment, a transboundary watershed between Kyrgyzstan and China. Large parts of the Ak-Shiirak Range drain into this watershed. Glaciers in Central and Inner Tien Shan are typically polythermal or even cold and surrounded by permafrost. Several glaciers terminate into large moraine complexes which show geomorphological indicators of ice content such as thermo-karst like depressions, and further downvalley signs of creep such as ridges and furrows and a fresh, steep rock front which are typical indicators for permafrost creep ("rock glacier"). Hence, glaciers and permafrost co-exist in this region and their interactions are important to consider, e.g. for the understanding of glacial and periglacial processes. It can also be assumed that the ice stored in these relatively large dead-ice/moraine-complexes is a significant amount of the total ice storage. However, no detailed investigations exist so far. In an initial study, we investigated the structure and ice content of two typical glacier-moraine complexes in the Ak-Shiirak-Range using different ground penetrating radar (GPR) devices. In addition, the geomorphology was mapped using high resolution satellite imagery. The structure of the moraine-rock glacier complex is in general heterogeneous. Several dead ice bodies with different thicknesses and moraine-derived rock glaciers with different stages of activities could be identified. Few parts of these "rock glaciers" contain also massive ice but the largest parts are likely characterised by rock-ice layers of different thickness and ice contents. In one glacier forefield, the thickness of the rock-ice mixture is partly more than 300 m. This is only slightly lower than the maximum thickness of the glacier ice. Our measurements revealed that up to 20% of

  7. Upper Paleozoic tectonics in the Tien Shan (Central Asian Orogenic Belt): insight from new structural data (Kyrgyzstan) (United States)

    Jourdon, Anthony; Petit, Carole; Rolland, Yann; Loury, Chloé; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Guillot, Stéphane; Ganino, Clément


    Due to successive block accretions, the polarity of structures and tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) are still a matter of debate. There are several conflicting models about the polarity of subduction during the Paleozoic, the number of microplates and oceanic basins and the timing of tectonic events in Kyrgyz and Chinese Tien Shan. In this study, we propose new structural maps and cross-sections of Middle and South Kyrgyz Tien Shan (MTS and STS respectively). These cross-sections highlight an overall dextral strike-slip shear zone in the MTS and a north verging structure related to south-dipping subduction in the STS. These structures are Carboniferous in age and sealed by Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits. In detail, the STS exhibits two deformation phases. The first one is characterized by coeval top-to-the north thrusting and top-to-the-South normal shearing at the boundaries of large continental unit that underwent High-Pressure (Eclogite facies) metamorphism. We ascribe this phase to the exhumation of underthrusted passive margin units of the MTS. The second one corresponds to a top to the North nappe stacking that we link to the last collisional events between the MTS and the Tarim block. Later on, during the Late Carboniferous, a major deformation stage is characterized by the deformation of the MTS and its thrusting over the NTS. This deformation occurred on a large dextral shear zone between the NTS and the MTS known as Song-Kul Zone or Nikolaiev Line as a "side effect" of the Tarim/MTS collision. Based on these observations, we propose a new interpretation of the tectonic evolution of the CAOB. The resulting model comprises the underthrusting of the MTS-Kazakh platform beneath the Tarim and its exhumation followed by the folding, shortening and thickening of the internal metamorphic units during the last collisional events which partitioned the deformation between the STS and the MTS. Finally, the docking of the large Tarim Craton

  8. Une catastrophe glorieuse : le martyre des premiers chrétiens du Japon, Nagasaki, 1597

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    Clotilde Jacquelard


    Full Text Available Le naufrage du galion San Felipe dans le port de Urado (Shikoku, Japon en octobre 1596 fut le déclencheur d’un désastre missionnaire : le martyre de vingt-six chrétiens, franciscains espagnols et chrétiens japonais, à Nagasaki, le 5 février 1597. Cet article s’attache à examiner la relation dialectique entre les deux événements par l’étude de deux discours missionnaires franciscains hagiographiques. Il s’agit tout d’abord de rappeler la lecture providentialiste du temps à travers la perception de présages matériels et spirituels de la part des acteurs, puis de montrer que ces évènements paroxystiques révèlent en même temps qu’ils résolvent – temporairement – des tensions et des crises latentes, résultat de la confrontation entre plusieurs communautés culturelles comme la japonaise, l’espagnole et la portugaise, autour de prétentions géopolitiques, commerciales et religieuses dans cette zone de frontière de l’antiméridien du Pacifique nord.El naufragio del galeón San Felipe en el puerto de Urado (Shikoku, Japón en octubre de 1596 desembocó en un desastre misionero : el martirio de veintiséis cristianos, franciscanos españoles y cristianos japoneses, en Nagasaki, el 5 de febrero de 1597. Este artículo quiere examinar la relación dialéctica entre ambos acontecimientos, mediante el estudio de dos discursos misioneros franciscanos hagiográficos. Se trata de recordar primero la lectura providencialista de la época a través de la percepción de presagios tanto materiales como espirituales por parte de los actores, y mostrar luego que estos acontecimientos paroxísticos revelan, al mismo tiempo que resuelven –temporalmente– tensiones y crisis latentes, resultados de la confrontación de varias comunidades culturales como la japonesa, la española y la portuguesa, en torno a pretensiones geopolíticas, comerciales y religiosas en la zona fronteriza del antimeridiano del Pacífico norte.

  9. A Modified Aerosol Free Vegetation Index Algorithm for Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval Using GOSAT TANSO-CAI Data

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    Guosheng Zhong


    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduced a new algorithm for retrieving aerosol optical depth (AOD over land, from the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI, which is one of the instruments on the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT for detecting and correcting cloud and aerosol interference. We used the GOSAT and AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET collocated data from different regions over the globe to analyze the relationship between the top-of-atmosphere (TOA reflectance in the shortwave infrared (1.6 μm band and the surface reflectance in the red (0.67 μm band. Our results confirmed that the relationships between the surface reflectance at 0.67 μm and TOA reflectance at 1.6 μm are not constant for different surface conditions. Under low AOD conditions (AOD at 0.55 μm < 0.1, a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI based regression function for estimating the surface reflectance of 0.67 μm band from the 1.6 μm band was summarized, and it achieved good performance, proving that the reflectance relations of the 0.67 μm and 1.6 μm bands are typically vegetation dependent. Since the NDVI itself is easily affected by aerosols, we combined the advantages of the Aerosol Free Vegetation Index (AFRI, which is aerosol resistant and highly correlated with regular NDVI, with our regression function, which can preserve the various correlations of 0.67 μm and 1.6 μm bands for different surface types, and developed a new surface reflectance and aerosol-free NDVI estimation algorithm, which we named the Modified AFRI1.6 algorithm. This algorithm was applied to AOD retrieval, and the validation results for our algorithm show that the retrieved AOD has a consistent relationship with AERONET measurements, with a correlation coefficient of 0.912, and approximately 67.7% of the AOD retrieved data were within the expected error range (± 0.1 ± 0.15AOD(AERONET.

  10. A gravidade do trauma em vítimas de traumatismo crânio-encefálico avaliada pelo manual AIS/90 e mapas CAIS/85


    Sousa, Regina Marcia Cardoso de; Koizumi,Maria Sumie; Calil,Ana Maria; Grossi,Sonia Aurora A.; Chaib, Lisbela


    Estudo comparativo do uso do manual da ABBREVIATED INJURY SCALE (AIS) e dos mapas da CONDENSED ABBREVIATED INJURY SCALE (CAIS), como bases para cálculo do INJURY SEVERITY SCORE (ISS) em vítimas de trauma crânio-encefálico. Os resultados evidenciaram que o valor do ISS foi coincidente na maioria (59,51%) das vítimas passíveis de codificação pelos dois instrumentos. Quanto à indicação da faixa de gravidade do trauma (grave, moderado e leve) não existiram diferenças estatisticamente significante...

  11. “Outros lugares, começam aqui...” com O «muro vegetal» do Museu do Cais Branly em Paris




    Este artigo é dedicado à arte, à arquitetura e à paisagem urbana através da análise do Museu do Cais Branly, em Paris, na margem esquerda do rio Sena, em um ambiente urbano marcado pelas exposições mundiais de 1889 e de 1937, (Champs de Mars, Trocadero, o Palais de Tokyo, o Grand Palace, Gare d'Orsay, etc.). Um dos indiscutíveis marcos dessa paisagem urbana é a Torre de Gustave Eiffel (1889), embora tenha sido necessário esperar a criação da série de pinturas de Robert Delaunay, para se...

  12. 電腦輔助教學與個別教學結合: 電腦輔助教學課堂應用初探 Computer-Assisted Instruction Under the Management of Individualized Instruction: A Classroom Management Approach of CAI

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    Sunny S. J. Lin


    Full Text Available 無First reviews the development of Computer. Assisted Instruction (CAI in Taiwan. This study describes the training of teachers from different levels of schools to design CAI coursewares, and the planning of CAI courseware bank possesses 2,000 supplemental coursewares. Some CAI's c1assroom application system should be carefully established to prevent the easy abuse of a CAI courseware as an instructional plan. The study also claims to steer CAI in our elemantary and secondary education could rely on the mastery learning as the instructional plan. In this case, CAI must limit its role as the formative test and remedial material only. In the higher education , the Keller's Personalized System of Instruction could be an effective c1assroom management system. Therefore, CAI will offer study guide and formative test only. Using these 2 instructional system may enhance student's achievement , and speed up the learning rate at the same time. Combining with individualized instruction and CAI will be one of the most workable approach in current c1assroom . The author sets up an experiment 10 varify their effectiveness and efficiency in the near future.

  13. Paleoclimatological and Geoarchaeological Significance of the Holocene Loess – Soil Successions of the Tien Shan Foothills of Uzbekistan

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    Welc Fabian


    Full Text Available Scenario of climate changes in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene in Central Asia is very fragmentary and inconsistent. Therefore, interaction between the development and decline of ancient cultures and the climate fluctuations are difficult to be traced. To resolve this problem, the key role can be played by multidisciplinary studies of unique Late Pleistocene and especially Holocene loess – soil succession of the Tien Shan foothills in Uzbekistan. This area yields unique successions of paleosols interbedded with loesses that are particularly useful for paleoclimate analysis. They are represented by continuous and uninterrupted sedimentary sequences with a highly varied record of magnetic susceptibility. As such, they contain a full sequence of short-term climatic oscillations of the Holocene in high resolution and therefore, in this case, they are exceptional on global scale. The correlation of Late Pleistocene and Holocene climate changes scenario with stages of development and collapse of the past human settlement in Central Asia seems at present one of the most promising research directions, in line with the substantial course of interdisciplinary research on the interaction between humans and the natural environment.

  14. A unique astigmatic nodal property in misaligned Ritchey-Chrétien telescopes with misalignment coma removed. (United States)

    Schmid, Tobias; Thompson, Kevin P; Rolland, Jannick P


    We present the aberration field response of Ritchey-Chrétien telescopes, with the aperture stop on the primary mirror, to secondary mirror misalignments. More specifically, we derive a general condition for the geometry of the binodal astigmatic aberration field for a telescope that has been aligned to remove field-constant coma. It has been observed that when the coma caused by secondary mirror misalignments is removed the astigmatic field is typically not symmetric around the periphery, but, significantly, it is always effectively zero on-axis. This observation is a manifestation of binodal astigmatism where one of the astigmatic nodes remains near the field center. Here, we show how the condition to remove field-constant coma simultaneously creates a constraint whereby one of the astigmatic nodes must remain effectively on-axis. This result points to why the alignment of a large telescope based on axial imagery is insufficient and demonstrates exactly the geometry of the remaining misalignment aberration field, which dominates the performance of the telescope, providing insights into more complete alignment approaches.

  15. Spatial-temporal structure of seismicity of the North Tien Shan and its changeunder effect of high energy electromagnetic pulses

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    N. V. Tarasova


    Full Text Available The effect of high-energy electromagnetic pulses emitted by a magnetohydrodynamic generator used as a source for deep electrical sounding of the crust on spatial-temporal structure of seismicity of the North Tien Shan is explored. Five-six years periodicity of changes in spatial distribution of seismicity was revealed. The effect of electromagnetic pulses increases the stability of the spatial distribution of seismicity over time and simultaneously speeds up cycles of its transformations, which develop on stabilization background. Increasing of seismic energy release after electromagnetic impacts is observed basically in most active zones. Periodic variation of efficiency of earthquakes triggering on the distance to the MHD-generator was detected. It was shown that electromagnetic pulses give rise to an appreciable increase in the rate of local earthquakes, occurring around 2-6 days after the pulses. Total earthquakes energy released after start-ups was by 2.03·1015 J greater than the energy released before them. At the same time, the total energy transmitted by the MHD-generator was 1.1·109 J, i.e. six orders of magnitude smaller. Consequently, the electromagnetic pulses initiated the release of the energy that had been stored in the crust due to activity of natural tectonic processes in the form of comparatively small earthquakes, which leads to an additional release of tectonic stresses.

  16. The possibility of controlled auto-ignition (CAI) in gasoline engine and gas to liquid (GTL) as a fuel of diesel engine in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, D. [Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejou (Korea)


    A significant challenge grows from the ever-increasing demands for the optimization of performance, emissions, fuel economy and drivability. The most powerful technologies in the near future to improve these factors are believed Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) in gasoline engine and Gas to Liquid (GTL) as a fuel of Diesel engine. In recent years there has been an increasing trend to use more complex valvetrain designs from traditional camshaft driven mechanical systems to camless electromagnetic or electrohydraulic solutions. Comparing to fixed valve actuation systems, variable valve actuation (VVA) should be powerful to optimize the engine cycle. The matching of valve events to the engine performance and to emission requirements at a given engine or vehicle operating condition can be further optimized to the Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) in gasoline engine, which has benefits in NOx emission, fuel consumption, combustion stability and intake throttle load. In case of Diesel engine, the increasing demands for NOx and soot emission reduction have introduced aftertreatment technologies recently, but been in need of basic solution for the future, such as a super clean fuel like Gas to Liquid (GTL), which has benefits in comparability to diesel fuel, independency from crude oil and reduction of CO, THC and soot emissions. Korea looks to the future with these kinds of technologies, and tries to find the possibility for reaching the future targets in the internal combustion engine. (orig.)

  17. A twentieth century major soluble ion record of dust and anthropogenic pollutants from Inilchek Glacier, Tien Shan (United States)

    Grigholm, B.; Mayewski, P. A.; Aizen, V.; Kreutz, K.; Aizen, E.; Kang, S.; Maasch, K. A.; Sneed, S. B.


    Using a high-resolution ( 18 samples/year) major soluble ion record (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, NO3-, and SO42-) covering the period 1908-1995 A.D. from the Inilchek Glacier, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, we provide a detailed climate and environmental proxy record for the region. Chemical concentrations, empirical orthogonal function analyses, and noncrustal excess calculations are used to identify natural and potential anthropogenic depositional trends. Dominant dust proxy species (i.e., Ca2+) reveal highest concentrations during the 1950s-1970s, with declining decadal trends through the end of the record. These trends likely reflect decreases in central Asian dust storm activity post-1950, which has been associated with coupled atmospheric circulation variability and anthropogenic activities. Comparison between Ca2+ and ERA-Interim (1979-1995) climate reanalysis data indicates a strong relationship to spring (March-May) geopotential height patterns in northwest China and southern Siberia associated with the Siberian High. Noncrustal contribution (excess) estimates of NO3-, K+, SO42-, and Cl- concentrations suggest discernable anthropogenic inputs began between the 1950s and 1970s, increased into the middle/late 1980s, and declined in the 1990s. Excess trends coincide with Former Soviet Union consumption, production, and emission of fossil fuels and fertilizers, reflecting the rapid growth of agriculture and industry, as well as economic declines in the middle to late 1980s/early 1990s. Excess-Cl- trends reflect timings that coincide with the construction of the Pavlodar Chemical Plant and the military production of Cl2 in Kazakhstan. NOAA Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory back trajectory frequency analysis suggests eastern Uzbekistan (e.g., Fergana Valley), Kyrgyzstan, and southern Kazakhstan as the primary pollutant sources to the study region.

  18. Livres et pratique de la lecture chez les chrétiens (Syrie, Liban XVIIe - XVIIIe siècles

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    Bernard Heyberger


    Full Text Available L'idée humaniste que l'homme ne peut faire son Salut sans savoir lire pénètre la société chrétienne arabe et grecque à partir du XVIIe siècle. Elle s'accompagne de la diffusion des productions imprimées européennes, ainsi que d'une renaissance locale du manuscrit. Le livre devient un objet convoité, vendu, acheté, offert, dont la possession peut être un signe de reconnaissance sociale, et la marque de relations privilégiées avec les "Francs".L'Église catholique quant à elle, exerce aussi son monopole sur la production arabe imprimée au XVIIe siècle pour contrôler la production intellectuelle. Néanmoins la diffusion des manuscrits, par définition moins normalisés, permet de maintenir une certaine autonomie par rapport à cette volonté d'expurgation et de censure. Au XVIIIe siècle, en outre, l'arrivée d'imprimés protestants, la création d'ateliers d'impression orientaux, la diffusion d'ouvrages provenant des pays orthodoxes, élargissent la palette des lectures offertes aux chrétiens, sans sortir du champ religieux. C'est, en quelque sorte, la rançon inévitable des efforts de scolarisation du clergé et des fidèles.On ne peut se contenter de ranger ces livres dans la catégorie "religion". On peut en fait distinguer deux grands genres : sciences ecclésiastiques, à destination du clergé, et littérature d'édification, à destination du public. Cette dernière me paraît mériter une étude plus attentive, car elle contribue à former le goût et la psychologie "modernes" des futurs lecteurs de la "Renaissance arabe".

  19. Parasitism by argulids (Crustacea: Branchiura in piranhas (Osteichthyes: Serrasalmidae captured in the Caiçara bays, upper Paraguay River, Pantanal, Mato Grosso state, Brazil

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    Márcio Fontana

    Full Text Available In this study, 446 fishes were analyzed: 190 Pygocentrus nattereri, 193 Serrasalmus maculatus, and 63 S. marginatus.They were captured in two bays, upper and lower Caiçara, in the upper Paraguay River basin, during one hydrological cycle from May 2008 to April 2009. Six species of Branchiura were found: Dolops bidentata, D. longicauda, Dolops sp., Argulus multicolor, A. chicomendesi, and Dipteropeltis hirundo. All fish species were infested by more than one species of Branchiura and the overall prevalence was 33.4%. The following prevalences were observed: 52.6% in P. nattereri; 20.3% in S. maculatus, and 15.8% in S. marginatus. The relative condition factor (Kn differed significantly between parasitized and non parasitized individuals only in P. nattereri and S. maculatus. There was no correlation between Kn and abundance of parasites nor between body length (Ls and intensity of infestation, in all three host species.

  20. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from pao cai, a Chinese traditional fermented vegetable, with inhibitory activity against Salmonella associated with fresh-cut apple, using a modelling study. (United States)

    Luo, W; Chen, M; Chen, A; Dong, W; Hou, X; Pu, B


    To isolate lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from pao cai, a Chinese traditional fermented vegetable, with outstanding inhibitory activity against Salmonella inoculated on fresh-cut apple, using a modelling method. Four kinds of pao cai were selected. A total of 122 isolates exhibited typical LAB characteristics: Gram-positive and catalase negative, among which 104 (85·24%) colonies showed antibacterial activity against Salmonella by the well diffusion assay. Four colonies showing maximum antibacterial radius against Salmonella were selected to co-inoculate with Salmonella on fresh-cut apple and stored at 10°C, further identified as three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and one strain of Lactobacillus brevis by 16s rRNA gene sequence analysis. The modified Gompertz model was employed to analyse the growth of the micro-organisms on apple wedges. Two of the four selected strains showed antagonistic activity against Salmonella on fresh-cut apple, one of which, RD1, exhibited best inhibitory activity (Salmonella were greatly inhibited when co-inoculated with RD1 at 10°C at 168 h). No deterioration in odour or appearance of the apple piece was observed by the triangle test when fresh-cut apple was inoculated with RD1. The mathematical modelling method is essential to select LAB with outstanding inhibitory activity against Salmonella associated with fresh-cut apple. LAB RD1 holds promise for the preservation of fresh-cut apple. This study provided a new method on fresh-cut product preservation. Besides, to make the LAB isolating procedure a more correct one, this study first added the mathematical modelling method to the isolating procedure. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Devonian paleomagnetism of the North Tien Shan: Implications for the middle-Late Paleozoic paleogeography of Eurasia (United States)

    Levashova, Natalia M.; Mikolaichuk, Alexander V.; McCausland, Philip J. A.; Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Van der Voo, Rob


    The Ural-Mongol belt (UMB), between Siberia, Baltica and Tarim, is widely recognized as the locus of Asia's main growth during the Paleozoic, but its evolution remains highly controversial, as illustrated by the disparate paleogeographic models published in the last decade. One of the largest tectonic units of the UMB is the Kokchetav-North Tien Shan Domain (KNTD) that stretches from Tarim in the south nearly to the West Siberian Basin. The KNTD comprises several Precambrian microcontinents and numerous remnants of Early Paleozoic island arcs, marginal basins and accretionary complexes. In Late Ordovician time, all these structures had amalgamated into a single contiguous domain. Its paleogeographic position is of crucial importance for elucidating the Paleozoic evolution of the UMB in general and of the Urals in particular. The Aral Formation, located in Kyrgyzstan in the southern part of the KNTD, consists of a thick Upper Devonian (Frasnian) basalt-andesite sequence. Paleomagnetic data show a dual-polarity characteristic component (Dec/Inc = 286° / + 56°, α95 = 9°, k = 21, N = 15 sites). The primary origin of this magnetization is confirmed by a positive test on intraformational conglomerates. We combine this result with other Paleozoic data from the KNTD and show its latitudinal motion from the Late Ordovician to the end of the Paleozoic. The observed paleolatitudes are found to agree well with the values extrapolated from Baltica to a common reference point (42.5°N, 73°E) in our sampling area for the entire interval; hence coherent motion of the KNTD and Baltica is strongly indicated for most of the Paleozoic. This finding contradicts most published models of the UMB evolution, where the KNTD is separated from Baltica by a rather wide Ural Ocean containing one or more major plate boundaries. An exception is the model of Şengör and Natal'in [A.M.C. Şengör, B.A. Natal'in, Paleotectonics of Asia: fragments of a synthesis, in: A. Yin and M. Harrison (eds

  2. Snow algae in an ice core drilled on Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains (United States)

    Honda, M.; Takeuchi, N.; Sera, S.; Fujita, K.; Okamoto, S.; Naoki, K.; Aizen, V. B.


    Snow algae are photosynthetic microorganisms and are living on the surfase of glaciers. They grow on melting surface from spring to summer and their biomass and community structure are changed with physical and chemical conditions on glaciers. Ice cores drilled from glaciers also contain snow algae that grew in the past. Studying biomass and community structure of snow algae in ice cores could reveal the temporal variation in snow algae in the past, and also environmental conditions relating propagation of snow algae. In this study, we anlalyzed snow algae preserved in an ice core of Grigoriev Ice cap located in eastern Kyrgyzstan of the central Asia, and to describe their temporal variations for the last 200 years. The ice core drilling was carried out on September in 2007 on the Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains. A 87 m long ice core from the surface to the bedrock was recovered at the top of the ice cap. The core was horizontally cut every 5 cm (total 1212 samples). The samples were melted and preserved as a 3% formalin solution. After the sample water was filtered through a hydrophilized PTFE membrane filter, observed by microscope. Snow algae in the sample water were counting. The algal biomass was represented by the cell number per unit water volume. Here, we showed the results between the surface to the 64 m in depth. We also analyzed the snow algal communities on the surface of the ice cap collected from five different sites from the top down to the terminus. Microscopy revealed that the ice core contained three taxa of filamentous cyanobacteria, an unicellular cyanobacterium, and two green algae. They were also found on the ice or snow surface of the i Ice cap. The quantitative analyses of the algae in the part of upper 64 m deep of the ice core samples revealed that the algal biomass varied significantly and showed many peaks. Furthermore, the biomass profile differed among the taxa. The filamentous cyanobacterium varied from 0.0 to 4

  3. Mesozoic reactivation of the Talas-Fergana Fault in the Kyrgyz Tien Shan revealed by multi-method low-temperature geochronology (United States)

    Nachtergaele, Simon; De Pelsmaeker, Elien; Jolivet, Marc; Glorie, Stijn; Zhimulev, Fedor; Batalev, Vlad; De Grave, Johan


    The Kyrgyz Tien Shan is a mountain belt that represents a part of the vast intracontinental Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). It assembled at the end of the Paleozoic as a result of the closure of the Turkestan Ocean and consists of three main tectonic domains: the Northern, Middle and Southern Tien Shan. These blocks were displaced with an offset of over 100 km by the Talas-Fergana Fault (TFF) since they amalgamated at the end of the Paleozoic. The reactivated TFF remains in fact a dominant structural feature of the Mesozoic (and Cenozoic) Tien Shan, and kilometers of Mesozoic sediments accumulated in intracontinental basins along the TFF. New zircon (U-Th-Sm)/He (ZHe) and apatite fission track (AFT) age data obtained on crystalline basement samples close to the TFF indicate a multi-staged reactivation history during the Mesozoic. The reactivation of the Kyrgyz Tien Shan is probably a result of Mesozoic accretion events to the growing Eurasian continent. Strike-slip movement of the TFF occurred during the Late Jurassic (±200 Ma) as a result of the collision of the Qiangtang block to the CAOB. The collision of the Lhasa block to the CAOB that occurred around 150 to 120 Ma ago reactivated the TFF again, as recorded in our data. A sedimentary hiatus in the Cretaceous east of the TFF and a continued sedimentation west of the TFF suggests that the TFF fault geometry changed and movements progressed from a dominant horizontal direction (Late Jurassic) to a more vertical one (Cretaceous) The Paleogene history of the Kyrgyz Tien Shan is a tectonic quiet period in which paleosols could formed. This tectonic quiet episode is followed by a major tectonic reactivation event in the Neogene induced by the India-Eurasia collision. It is ultimately responsible for the modern topography of the Kyrgyz Tien Shan. This is confirmed by low temperature thermochronological data and the deposition of kilometers of coarse-grained Neogene sediments. Detrital AFT results obtained on

  4. In situ isotopic studies of the U-depleted Allende CAI Curious Marie: Pre-accretionary alteration and the co-existence of 26Al and 36Cl in the early solar nebula (United States)

    Tang, Haolan; Liu, Ming-Chang; McKeegan, Kevin D.; Tissot, Francois L. H.; Dauphas, Nicolas


    The isotopic composition of oxygen as well as 26Al-26Mg and 36Cl-36S systematics were studied in Curious Marie, an aqueously altered Allende CAI characterized by a Group II REE pattern and a large 235U excess produced by the decay of short-lived 247Cm. Oxygen isotopic compositions in the secondary minerals of Curious Marie follow a mass-dependent fractionation line with a relatively homogenous depletion in 16O (Δ17O of -8‰) compared to unaltered minerals of CAI components. Both Mg and S show large excesses of radiogenic isotopes (26Mg∗ and 36S∗) that are uniformly distributed within the CAI, independent of parent/daughter ratio. A model initial 26Al/27Al ratio [(6.2 ± 0.9) × 10-5], calculated using the bulk Al/Mg ratio and the uniform δ26Mg∗ ∼ +43‰, is similar to the canonical initial solar system value within error. The exceptionally high bulk Al/Mg ratio of this CAI (∼95) compared to other inclusions is presumably due to Mg mobilization by fluids. Therefore, the model initial 26Al/27Al ratio of this CAI implies not only the early condensation of the CAI precursor but also that aqueous alteration occurred early, when 26Al was still at or near the canonical value. This alteration event is most likely responsible for the U depletion in Curious Marie and occurred at most 50 kyr after CAI formation, leading to a revised estimate of the early solar system 247Cm/235U ratio of (5.6 ± 0.3) × 10-5. The Mg isotopic composition in Curious Marie was subsequently homogenized by closed-system thermal processing without contamination by chondritic Mg. The large, homogeneous 36S excesses (Δ36S∗ ∼ +97‰) detected in the secondary phases of Curious Marie are attributed to 36Cl decay (t1/2 = 0.3 Myr) that was introduced by Cl-rich fluids during the aqueous alteration event that led to sodalite formation. A model 36Cl/35Cl ratio of (2.3 ± 0.6) × 10-5 is calculated at the time of aqueous alteration, translating into an initial 36Cl/35Cl ratio of ∼1.7-3

  5. Jeux et enjeux d’écriture chez Chrétien de Troyes: l’exemple de «Cligès»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Lucia Machado


    Full Text Available Neste artigo, nos propomos descrever a estética da trama irônica presente na escritura de Chrétien de Troyes, tomando por base seu romance Cligès. A destacar algumas estratégias passíveis de criar o fenômeno irônico, estaremos também mostrando o poder de sedução que emana desta escritura.Nous nous proposons, dans cet artible, de décrire l’esthétique du jeu ironique chez Chrétien de Troyes, em puisant dans son roman Cligès. Enn dégageant qulques unes dês stratégies susceptibles de créer le phénomène ironique, nous montrerons, à la fois, le pouvoir de séduction qui emane de cette écriture.

  6. Images du mal ou images maléfiques? Les images populaires du Diable chez les chrétiens du Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, B.


    Cet article, qui se concentre sur les images du mal, explore l’écart entre les modes de vision induits d’une part par l’exposition « All About Evil » au Royal Tropical Museum d’Amsterdam, et d’autre part par le cadre chrétien dans lequel apparaissent d’ordinaire les objets ainsi exposés. Tandis que

  7. Parasitism by argulids (Crustacea: Branchiura in piranhas (Osteichthyes: Serrasalmidae captured in the Caiçara bays, upper Paraguay River, Pantanal, Mato Grosso state, Brazil

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    Márcio Fontana


    Full Text Available In this study, 446 fishes were analyzed: 190 Pygocentrus nattereri, 193 Serrasalmus maculatus, and 63 S. marginatus.They were captured in two bays, upper and lower Caiçara, in the upper Paraguay River basin, during one hydrological cycle from May 2008 to April 2009. Six species of Branchiura were found: Dolops bidentata, D. longicauda, Dolops sp., Argulus multicolor, A. chicomendesi, and Dipteropeltis hirundo. All fish species were infested by more than one species of Branchiura and the overall prevalence was 33.4%. The following prevalences were observed: 52.6% in P. nattereri; 20.3% in S. maculatus, and 15.8% in S. marginatus. The relative condition factor (Kn differed significantly between parasitized and non parasitized individuals only in P. nattereri and S. maculatus. There was no correlation between Kn and abundance of parasites nor between body length (Ls and intensity of infestation, in all three host species.Foram analisados 446 peixes: 190 Pygocentrus nattereri, 193 Serrasalmus maculatus e 63 S. marginatus, capturados nas baías Caiçara superior e inferior na bacia do alto rio Paraguai, durante um ciclo hidrológico nos meses de maio de 2008 a abril de 2009. Foram encontradas seis espécies de Branchiura: Dolops bidentata, D. longicauda, Dolops sp., Argulus multicolor, A. chicomendesi e Dipteropeltis hirundo. Todos os peixes estavam parasitados por mais de uma espécie de Branchiura e a prevalência geral foi 33,4%. As prevalências foram: P. nattereri 52,6%, S. maculatus 20,3% e S. marginatus 15,8%. O fator de condição relativo (Kn diferiu significativamente entre indivíduos parasitados e não parasitados apenas em P. nattereri e S. maculatus. Não houve correlação significativa entre Kn e abundância de parasitos, nem entre comprimento padrão (Ls e intensidade de infestação, nas três espécies de piranhas analisadas.

  8. Challenges in understanding strain localization and deformation at different spatiotemporal scales - examples from the north-central Tien Shan and northern Pamir, Central Asia (United States)

    Landgraf, A.; Strecker, M. R.; Arrowsmith, R.; Metzger, S.; Codilean, A.; Korup, O.; Dzhumabaeva, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.


    Strain accumulation and deformation in tectonically active mountain belts are generally well documented over decadal times and on time-scales averaging millions of years. Across timescale data sets, however, are still rare. The intracontinental mountain belts of Central Asia offer a very good possibility to overcome this dilemma because of a relatively long geodetic measurement period, good historical seismic records and a high preservation potential of deformed landscape markers. Observations across instrumental and geologic scales may challenge our concepts of strain localization and accumulation. Shortening across the central Tien Shan, for instance, is homogenous across the entire width of the belt, as seen from geodesy and from averaged Quaternary fault-slip rates showing little variation in deformation rate among slowly-slipping single faults. Preliminary results from basin-wide denudation rates that might be indicative of intermediate-term deformation of the respective ranges show also little variation. Indeed, such a pattern is expected for thick-skinned orogens, like the Tien Shan, where basement-cored uplifts are spatiotemporally disparate and a clear deformation front (as common for thin-skinned provinces) is missing. Contrasting to distributed deformation, the northern rim of the Kyrgyz and Kazakh Tien Shan has experienced a remarkable series of major earthquakes between 1885 and 1938, with a cumulative seismic moment adding to a magnitude of approximately 9. Moderate seismicity still coincides with this well-defined zone; a pattern resembling a deformation front on decadal to perhaps centennial times. Present internal deformation of the Pamir indenter, in turn, seems concentrated along the northern and (north)western margins, virtually irrespective of neighboring thin-skinned and thick-skinned provinces. We will highlight these complexities and discuss how paleoseismic records help to unravel the deformation history over millenial time scales.

  9. Sexual violence and the risk of HIV transmission in sexual partners of male injecting drug users in Tien Du district, Bac Ninh province of Vietnam. (United States)

    Vinh, Do Thi; Hien, Ho Thi; Tri, Nguyen Manh; Huynh, Do Khac


    We conducted a cross-sectional study among 148 women who were regular sexual partners of male injecting drug users in Tien Du, Bac Ninh province, Vietnam to identify the rate of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV transmission among them. HIV infection rate among sexual partners was high, 11.5%. Sexual violence was prevalent, 63.5% among sexual partners; 94.1% (16/17) among those with HIV. We discovered an association between sexual violence and HIV infection. Sexual partners suffering from sexual violence caused by their regular sexual partners faced 9.24 times higher HIV risk than those who did not have sexual violence.

  10. Understanding the Influences of Thermal and Mixture Inhomogeneities on the Auto-Ignition Process in a Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI Engine Using LES

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    Yildar Esra


    Full Text Available This work applies Large Eddy Simulation (LES to the combustion process within a CAI engine. The chemical reaction is treated with a pre-tabulation approach based on homogeneous reactor simulations. At this juncture, a five-dimensional chemistry database is employed where the thermo-chemical properties are a function of the unburnt gas temperature, the air–fuel ratio, the exhaust gas ratio, the pressure, and the reaction progress variable. Statistical quantities are gathered for 20 simulated cycles and the averaged pressure curves get compared to measurements. The simulation data are then used to provide further insight into the auto-ignition process. It will be shown how thermo-chemical states are distributed within the cylinder and how the ignition quality depends on them. A statistical analysis is conducted to identify manifolds in the multi-dimensional scalar space along which the conditions leading to ignition evolve. Furthermore the strong influence in between consecutive cycles caused by the exhaust gas is investigated to identify the mechanism of cycle-to-cycle variations.

  11. Modelo matemático para o Problema de Alocação de Berços em portos com limitações de operação de carga ao longo do cais

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    Ivan Bridi Gimenes Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Resumo: A exploração de petróleo no Brasil é realizada por plataformas em alto-mar que demandam diversas cargas levadas por navios. Os portos para atender esses navios têm de manusear vários tipos de carga e, por conta dessa variedade, trechos para movimentar cada tipo de carga são determinados ao longo do cais, aumentando a complexidade do planejamento da atracação dos navios. Visando aumentar a eficiência na operação desses portos, este artigo propõe um modelo matemático para o problema de alocação de berços contínuos que difere das demais por apresentar restrições nas operações de cargas ao longo do cais. Utilizaram-se dados reais da Companhia Portuária de Vila Velha (CPVV para avaliar o modelo. Utilizou-se o CPLEX 12.6 para executar o modelo e instâncias de até 147 navios com 440 metros de cais foram resolvidas de forma ótima. Os resultados são apresentados e comparados com os alcançados pelo método manual atual, evidenciando ganhos importantes.

  12. Da Chrétien de Troyes a Shakespeare («The tragedy of King Richard the Third», a. I, sc. 2

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    Alfonso D'Agostino


    Full Text Available L’articolo si propone di considerare le somiglianze fra alcune vicende antico-francesi (l’Yvain di Chrétien de Troyes e il fabliau anonimo De celle que se fist foutre sur la fosse son mari con una scena del Riccardo III di Shakespeare. Anche se non si può dire che il dramma inglese dipenda dai testi narrativi oitanici, esso sviluppa lo stesso motivo della vedova consolata e una serie di motivi secondarî, di immagini (il sangue, il diavolo, la seduzione e di espressioni letterarie in modo sintomaticamente affine. The paper aims to evaluate similarities between some Old-French narratives (Chrétien de Troyes’ Yvain and the anonymous fabliau De celle que se fist foutre sur la fosse son mari and a scene from Shakespeare’s Richard III. Although we cannot affirm that Shakespeare’s play derives from the French narratives, it develops the same theme of “comforted widow” along with a series of secondary themes, of images (the blood, the devil, the seduction and literary expressions in a symptomatically, very similar way.

  13. Paleo-Climate and Glaciological Reconstruction in Central Asia through the Collection and Analysis of Ice Cores and Instrumental Data from the Tien Shan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Aizen; Donald Bren; Karl Kreutz; Cameron Wake


    While the majority of ice core investigations have been undertaken in the polar regions, a few ice cores recovered from carefully selected high altitude/mid-to-low latitude glaciers have also provided valuable records of climate variability in these regions. A regional array of high resolution, multi-parameter ice core records developed from temperate and tropical regions of the globe can be used to document regional climate and environmental change in the latitudes which are home to the vase majority of the Earth's human population. In addition, these records can be directly compared with ice core records available from the polar regions and can therefore expand our understanding of inter-hemispheric dynamics of past climate changes. The main objectives of our paleoclimate research in the Tien Shan mountains of middle Asia combine the development of detailed paleoenvironmental records via the physical and chemical analysis of ice cores with the analysis of modern meteorological and hydrological data. The first step in this research was the collection of ice cores from the accumulation zone of the Inylchek Glacier and the collection of meteorological data from a variety of stations throughout the Tien Shan. The research effort described in this report was part of a collaborative effort with the United State Geological Survey's (USGS) Global Environmental Research Program which began studying radionuclide deposition in mid-latitude glaciers in 1995.

  14. Structural and seismic indications of the elements of recent and present-day stress fields in several epicentral regions of western Tien Shan (United States)

    Umurzakov, R. A.


    This study presents the results of stress field reconstruction for the epicentral zones of large-magnitude earthquakes in some folded-mountain regions of western Tien Shan. Field studies, including geostructural and tectonophysical interpretations, performed for the Talas-Suusamyr, Chatkal-Kurama, Turkestan-Zarafshan, Gissar and Nurata-Kyzylkum regions allow the reconstruction of some regional components of the tectonic stress field. The nearly E-W orientations of the lower-order compressional axes are identified in the Chatkal-Kurama and Turkestan-Zarafshan mountain areas. Detailed structural-dynamical diagrams of several epicentral zones and reconstructions of focal mechanisms of some strong earthquakes are derived from the geostructural data. The coincidence of the present-day stress field manifested in the earthquake sources and the recent stress field derived from the geostructural determinations is revealed. The focal mechanisms of the strong earthquakes in the folded-mountain regions of western Tien Shan relate to the thrust/strike-slip faulting and breakup of large tectonic blocks.

  15. Application of remote sensing and GIS in glacier monitoring: Glacier variability in Central Asia (Tien Shan and Altai) during the last 30--60 years (United States)

    Surazakov, Arzhan

    This study aims to estimate glacier changes in the two mountain systems of Central Asia - Tien Shan and Altai, during the last 30-60 years as a consequence of regional climatic changes using remote sensing and GIS methods. To this goal two methodological studies were undertaken demonstrating the potential of Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and declassified KH-9 Hexagon images for estimation of glacier changes. Glacier area and volume changes were estimated in three pilot basins in Tien Shan and Altai: Akshiirak, Ala-Archa and Aktru using data from historical geodetic surveys, topographic maps, aerial photography, declassified KH-9 Hexagon photographs, ASTER and ALOS/PRISM satellite images, SRTM and IceSAT elevation data and DGPS in situ measurements. Using SRTM data and a DEM from 1:25,000 topographic map glacier surface changes can be estimated with error about 8.2 m. In spite of SRTM error and the occasional absence of data on steep slopes, major long-term changes on relatively flat ablation and accumulation areas are clearly identifiable. Furthermore, the presence of local areas of rebound on glacier surfaces allowed decoupling of dynamic and climatic components of glacier changes that are not available solely from planimetric data. The high metric qualities of KH-9 imagery demonstrated a unique opportunity to extend high-resolution land cover/land use change studies to early 70s on regional to global scales. An IDL program was developed for automatic geometric preprocessing of KH-9 images. The distortions of scanned KH-9 film frames were about 6 mum (maximum 47.32 mum) with non uniform local patterns that had to be removed by local interpolation. In bundle triangulation of KH-9 images horizontal accuracies below 8 m were achieved. The KH-9 DEM vertical accuracy over flat terrain was about 6 m and 30 m over high mountains. The triple overlap of the KH-9 images enabled good DEM definition and accuracy on both north and south facing steep mountain

  16. Paleozoic structure of Middle Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan Central Asian Orogenic Belt): Insights on the polarity and timing of tectonic motions, subductions, and lateral correlations (United States)

    Jourdon, Anthony; Loury, Chloé; Rolland, Yann; Petit, Carole; Bellahsen, Nicolas


    The structure and Palaeozoic tectonic evolution in Kyrgyz and Chinese Tien Shan Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) are still a matter of debate. There are numerous and conflicting models about the polarity of tectonic motions in the Paleozoic, the number of continental blocks and oceanic basins involved and the timing of tectonic events. In this study we propose new maps and structural cross-sections of Middle and South Kyrgyz Tien Shan (TS). These cross-sections allow us to highlight an overall South-verging structure in the Middle TS, with a thick-skin style involving the crystalline basement. This deformation occurred during the Early Carboniferous, and is sealed by an Upper Carboniferous unconformity. We ascribe this structure to an Upper Plate deformation linked to north-dipping subduction below Middle TS. In contrast, the South TS exhibits a north-verging structure, linked to south-dipping subduction, which is evidenced by an accretionary prism, a volcanic arc, and high-pressure rocks (Loury et al., 2015), and is correlated to similar structures in the Chinese TS (e.g., Charvet et al., 2011). Based on these observations, we propose a new interpretation of the tectonic evolution of the Middle and South TS CAOB. The resulting model comprises a long-lived north-dipping subduction of the Turkestan Ocean below the Middle TS-Karazakh Platform and a short-lived south-dipping subduction of a marginal back-arc basin below the Tarim. Consequently, the South TS is interpreted as a rifted block from the Tarim. Finally, the docking of the large Tarim Craton to the CAOB corresponds to a rapid collision phase (320-300 Ma). This put an end to the long-lived Paleozoic subduction history in the CAOB. Charvet, J., Shu, L., et al., 2011. Palaeozoic tectonic evolution of the Tianshan belt, NW China. Science China Earth Sciences, 54, 166-184. Loury, C. , Rolland, Y., Guillot S., Mikolaichuk, A.V., Lanari, P., Bruguier, O., D.Bosch, 2015. Crustal-scale structure of South Tien Shan

  17. Abundance, distribution and bioavailability of major and trace elements in surface sediments from the Cai River estuary and Nha Trang Bay (South China Sea, Vietnam) (United States)

    Koukina, S. E.; Lobus, N. V.; Peresypkin, V. I.; Dara, O. M.; Smurov, A. V.


    Major (Si, Al, Fe, Ti, Mg, Ca, Na, K, S, P), minor (Mn) and trace (Li, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Ag, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Pb, Bi and U) elements, their chemical forms and the mineral composition, organic matter (TOC) and carbonates (TIC) in surface sediments from the Cai River estuary and Nha Trang Bay were first determined along the salinity gradient. The abundance and ratio of major and trace elements in surface sediments are discussed in relation to the mineralogy, grain size, depositional conditions, reference background and SQG values. Most trace-element contents are at natural levels and are derived from the composition of rocks and soils in the watershed. A severe enrichment of Ag is most likely derived from metal-rich detrital heavy minerals such as Ag-sulfosalts. Along the salinity gradient, several zones of metal enrichment occur in surface sediments because of the geochemical fractionation of the riverine material. The parts of actually and potentially bioavailable forms (isolated by four single chemical reagent extractions) are most elevated for Mn and Pb (up to 36% and 32% of total content, respectively). The possible anthropogenic input of Pb in the region requires further study. Overall, the most bioavailable parts of trace elements are associated with easily soluble amorphous Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides. The sediments are primarily enriched with bioavailable metal forms in the riverine part of the estuary. Natural (such as turbidities) and human-generated (such as urban and industrial activities) pressures are shown to influence the abundance and speciation of potential contaminants and therefore change their bioavailability in this estuarine system.

  18. A 'college of astrology and medicine'? Charles V, Gervais Chrétien, and the scientific manuscripts of Maître Gervais's College. (United States)

    Boudet, Jean-Patrice


    Considered an institution mainly devoted to astrology and medicine by Simon de Phares and by some historians who believe that he was reliable, the college founded in 1371 by Charles V's first physician, Gervais Chrétien, was in fact primarily dedicated to theological students. It was not before 1377 that there were created there two bursaries for scholares regis, specialising in 'licit mathematical sciences', and two medical fellowships. Yet the influence of the activity of these fellows seems to have been rather moderate and-as far as we can learn from the material still extant, notably from manuscripts that belonged to Maître Gervais' College and to some of its members-this institution was devoted much more to theological studies than to medicine and the quadrivium.

  19. Marie-Françoise Baslez (dir.), Chrétiens persécuteurs. Destructions, exclusions, violences religieuses au ive siècle


    Kerchove, Anna van den


    Marie-Françoise Baslez a réuni plusieurs historiens des religions spécialistes de la fin de l’Antiquité autour de la thématique des « violences religieuses » au ive siècle et plus particulièrement autour de l’étude de l’attitude des chrétiens, qui de pratiquants d’un culte minoritaire et illégal deviennent membres d’un culte légal et peu à peu majoritaire. Bien que le point d’interrogation ne fasse pas partie du titre (pour des raisons principalement éditoriales), la question qui est à l’arri...

  20. Search for EAS radio-emission at the Tien-Shan shower installation at a height of 3340 m above sea level (United States)

    Beisenova, A.; Boos, E.; Haungs, A.; Sadykov, T.; Salihov, N.; Shepetov, A.; Tautayev, Y.; Vildanova, L.; Zhukov, V.


    The complex EAS installation of the Tien Shan mountain cosmic ray station which is situated at a height of 3340 m above sea level includes the scintillation and Cherenkov detectors of charged shower particles, an ionization calorimeter and a set of neutron detectors for registering the hadronic component of the shower, and a number of underground detectors of the penetrative EAS component. Now it is intended to expand this installation with a promising method for detecting the radio-emission generated by the particles of the developing shower. The facility for radio-emission detection consists of a three crossed dipole antennae, one being set vertically, and another two - mutually perpendicularly in a horizontal plane, all of them being connected to a three-channel radio-frequency amplifier of German production. By the passage of an extensive air shower, which is defined by a scintillation shower detector system, the output signal of antenna amplifier is digitized by a fast multichannel DT5720 ADC of Italian production, and kept within computer memory. The further analysis of the detected signal anticipates its operation according to a special algorithm and a search for the pulse of radio-emission from the shower. A functional test of the radio-installation is made with artificial signals which imitate those of the shower, and with the use of a N1996A type wave analyzer of Agilent Technologies production. We present preliminary results on the registration of extensive air shower emission at the Tien Shan installation which were collected during test measurements held in Summer 2016.

  1. Todo 11 tiene su 13


    Guerrero, Modesto Emilio


    Si la Venezuela bolivariana de Chávez sufrió un golpe de Estado no tradicional que puede considerarse el primer golpe mediático de la región, la de Maduro no sufrió ningún tipo de golpe sino algo mucho peor: un ensayo de guerra civil. Usos y abusos de las expresiones “golpe suave” y “golpe mediático”. Facultad de Periodismo y Comunicación Social

  2. Inventory and state of activity of rockglaciers in the Ile and Kungöy Ranges of Northern Tien Shan from satellite SAR interferometry (United States)

    Strozzi, Tazio; Caduff, Rafael; Kääb, Andreas; Bolch, Tobias


    The best visual expression of mountain permafrost are rockglaciers, which, in contrast to the permafrost itself, can be mapped and monitored directly using remotely sensed data. Studies carried out in various parts of the European Alps have shown surface acceleration of rockglaciers and even destabilization of several such landforms over the two last decades, potentially related to the changing permafrost creep conditions. Changes in rockglacier motion are therefore believed to be the most indicative short- to medium-term response of rockglaciers to environmental changes and thus an indicator of mountain permafrost conditions in general. The ESA DUE GlobPermafrost project develops, validates and implements EO products to support research communities and international organizations in their work on better understanding permafrost characteristics and dynamics. Within this project we are building up a worldwide long-term monitoring network of active rockglacier motion investigated using remote sensing techniques. All sites are analysed through a uniform set of data and methods, and results are thus comparable. In order to quantify the rate of movement and the relative changes over time we consider two remote sensing methods: (i) matching of repeat optical data and (ii) satellite radar interferometry. In this contribution, we focus on the potential of recent high spatial resolution SAR data for the analysis of periglacial processes in mountain environments with special attention to the Ile and Kungöy Ranges of Northern Tien Shan at the border between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, an area which contains a high number of large and comparably fast (> 1m/yr) rockglaciers and is of interest as dry-season water resource and source of natural hazards. As demonstrated in the past with investigations conducted in the Swiss Alps, the visual analysis of differential SAR interferograms can be employed for the rough estimation of the surface deformation rates of rockglaciers and

  3. Procedimiento para evaluar el impacto de la Maestría en Dirección en el CAI Arrocero “Sur del Jíbaro” sobre el desarrollo individual, empresarial y local.

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    Renier Esquivel García


    Full Text Available El objetivo general de la investigación es diseñar e implementar un procedimiento general para evaluar el impacto de la Maestría en Dirección que permita conocer los cambios realizados a la gestión empresarial en el CAI Arrocero “Sur del Jíbaro”. Los procedimientos hallados en la literatura se analizaron minuciosamente proponiéndose un procedimiento general para evaluar el impacto de la Maestría en Dirección que permita conocer los cambios realizados a la gestión empresarial en el CAI Arrocero “Sur del Jíbaro”. El mismo está estructurado en consta de cinco fases, en la primera se caracteriza la empresa, luego en la fase preparatoria, ocurre un acercamiento al departamento relacionado con el problema y se describe el Clima Organizacional, en la fase de ejecución se seleccionan los instrumentos y se aplican para conocer el impacto de la Maestría. En la cuarta fase se analizan los resultados de la aplicación de los instrumentos, y en la quinta se comprueba si se realizaron los pasos anteriores de acuerdo a lo planificado, para mejorar cualquier problema detectado con la aplicación del procedimiento. La información obtenida permitirá trazar un plan de acción para mejorar el subsistema. Seguidamente se implementó el procedimiento en el CAI Arrocero “Sur del Jíbaro”. El impacto es favorable porque los indicadores de impacto se encuentran entre 0,9 y 1 como se establece en la escala.

  4. Effect of Fibre Level and Fibre Source on Gut Morphology and Micro-environment in Local (Mong Cai and Exotic (Landrace×Yorkshire Pigs

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    T. T. B. Ngoc


    Full Text Available The effect of genotype, fibre level and fibre source on gut morphology, environment and microflora was studied using 18 Mong Cai (MC and 18 Landrace×Yorkshire (LY pigs, aged around 60 d. The diets were based on maize, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal and soybean oil, and cassava residue (CR or brewer’s grain (BG as fibrous ingredient sources in the high-fibre diets (HF. A low-fibre diet (LF, containing around 200 g NDF/kg dry matter (DM, was formulated without CR and BG as feed ingredients. The HF diets (HF-CR and HF-BG were formulated to contain around 270 g NDF/kg DM. The experiment was arranged according to a 2×3 factorial completely randomized design with six replications, and lasted 30 d. Crypt density in ileum was lowest (p<0.05 and villus height in jejunum and ileum were the greatest (p<0.05 in pigs fed diet HF-BG. Villus width in ileum was greatest in pigs fed diets HF-CR and HF-BG (p<0.05. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB counts in stomach were greatest (p<0.05 and E. coli counts in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05 in pigs fed diet HF-CR. The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05, and pH in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05 in pigs fed diet HF-CR. Crypt density in ileum was lowest, and villus height in ileum and villus width in jejunum and ileum was greatest in LY pigs (p<0.05. LAB counts in stomach and ileum were greatest, and E. coli counts in ileum were lowest in MC pigs (p<0.05. The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05 and pH lowest (p<0.05 in MC pigs.

  5. “Outros lugares, começam aqui...” com O «muro vegetal» do Museu do Cais Branly em Paris

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    Full Text Available Este artigo é dedicado à arte, à arquitetura e à paisagem urbana através da análise do Museu do Cais Branly, em Paris, na margem esquerda do rio Sena, em um ambiente urbano marcado pelas exposições mundiais de 1889 e de 1937, (Champs de Mars, Trocadero, o Palais de Tokyo, o Grand Palace, Gare d'Orsay, etc.. Um dos indiscutíveis marcos dessa paisagem urbana é a Torre de Gustave Eiffel (1889, embora tenha sido necessário esperar a criação da série de pinturas de Robert Delaunay, para se fixar na imaginação parisiense a Torre Eiffel como monumento. Assim, uma vez que a arte pode servir de intérprete para mostrar um monumento, - eu faço o seguinte pressuposto: que a arte pode inversamente influenciar uma obra urbana, não só avalizando, mas desta vez em frente de sua criação. Branly é o caso em que a arte contemporânea (Novo Realismo, Arte Povera, etc, tem influenciado algumas diretrizes arquitetônicas. Isso introduz a seguinte observação, ou seja, que as coleções do museu Branly não “dialogam” somente entre si, mas também com as do Museu de Arte Moderna da Cidade de Paris que se localizam em frente a essa ultima. Neste contexto, a fachada do escritório administrativo do Museu, "vestida" pelo artista e naturalista francês Patrick Blanc, não pode ser vista como uma obra isolada, porque o "Muro Vegetal" é aqui uma parte do cenário urbano global destinado a criar um território que é uma passagem ou um "caminho que vai de um mundo para outros mundos". “Terra natal, outros lugares começam aqui...” - é o título da exposição realizada na Fundação Cartier, em Paris (2009, onde o filósofo Paul Virilio apresentou o seu conceito de "futurismo do instante", o que poderia ajudar a explicar a proliferação atual de muros vegetais em áreas urbanas.

  6. Comparison of total tract digestibility, development of visceral organs and digestive tract of Mong cai and Yorkshire x Landrace piglets fed diets with different fibre sources. (United States)

    Len, N T; Hong, T T T; Ogle, B; Lindberg, J E


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of piglet age and dietary fibre source on the development of visceral organs and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and on growth performance and total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) in local [pure-breed Mong cai (MC)] and exotic [Landrace x Yorkshire (LY)] piglets. The experimental diets contained different fibre sources: C (basal diet), RB (basal diet + rice bran), SPVM (basal diet + sweet potato vine meal) and CReM (basal diet + cassava residue meal). The neutral detergent fibre (NDF) content in diet C and the fibrous diets was 8.8% and 17.1%-17.7% respectively (dry matter basis). Collection of faecal samples to determine TTAD was carried out for five consecutive days before the experiment was finished (63 days). The piglets were killed at the age of 10 days (before being given the same solid feed), 30 days (weaning, 20 days after solid feed introduced) and 63 days (33 days after being given the different fibrous diets) when the length of intestinal segments, weight of organs (liver, heart, kidneys) and empty weight of the GIT (stomach, small intestine, caecum and colon + rectum) were measured. As the age of animals increased, the relative weight of organs and the length of intestines (expressed on a mass-specific basis) decreased (p piglets fed fibrous diets had heavier GIT than those fed diet C with the highest values in CReM (p digestibility (CTTAD) of nutrients in the fibrous diets was lower than in C (p 0.05). The weight and length of GIT were not significantly different between the two breeds at day 10 and day 30, but were greater for MC at day 63. The caecum and colon + rectum at 10 and 30 days were longer in MC than in LY (p piglets developed more rapidly than LY when they were introduced to solid feed, and that the difference was more marked on the fibrous diets and after weaning, which resulted in higher total tract digestibility of nutrients in MC compared with LY. Cassava residue meal was better

  7. ¿Nada en biología tiene sentidosi no es a la luz de la evolución?

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    Julio Alejandro Castro Moreno


    Full Text Available Se critica la pertinencia de la famosa frase de Dobzhansky "Nada tiene sentido en biología si no es a la luz de la evolución", la cual denominamos como el Dogma Central de la Síntesis Evolutiva (DCSE. En la primera sección se explica el origen del DCSE y se retoman los puntos centrales del artículo en el que Dobzhansky lo propuso. En el segundo apartado se desarrollan tres puntos: se hace una reflexión sobre cómo el trabajo científico de dicho autor pone en aprietos la idea de Mayr acerca de que existen "dos biologías"; se cuestiona en qué medida es factible sostener que la columna vertebral de la biología es la evolución; y se plantean algunas implicaciones del DCSE en la filosofía y en la didáctica de la biología. En las conclusiones se argumenta por qué el DCSE debe ser abandonado de una vez por todas.

  8. Profilaxis con antibióticos en fracturas de base de cráneo: ¿tiene justificación esa conducta?

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    Justo Luis González González

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de 380 pacientes con fractura de la base del cráneo y a 71 de ellos (18,7 % se les administraron antibióticos como profilaxis de la meningoencefalitis y a 309 (81,3 % no se les suministraron estos agentes. Se evaluó la relación entre uso profiláctico o terapéutico de antimicrobianos, localización de la fractura, lesiones asociadas, complicaciones sépticas, edad y sexo, con la aparición de meningoencefalitis. Desarrollaron infección del sistema nervioso central 7 pacientes (1,8 %, 3 de ellos (4,2 % entre los que recibieron profilaxis y 4 (1,3 % entre los que no la recibieron. Se probó que la presencia de meningoencefalitis estaba asociada con el tipo de complicaciones sépticas que además pudieron tener los pacientes, así como al uso de antibióticos como terapéutica de éstas en análisis bivariado, lo que no se corroboró en el multivariado. Se concluye que el empleo de antibióticos profilácticos en estos pacientes no tiene justificación, lo que convierte a esta conducta en una práctica negativa desde el punto de vista médico y económico

  9. La dignidad del embrión humano. ¿Qué sentido tiene que se le niegue al embrión humano el derecho a vivir?

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    Juan de Dios Vial Correa


    Full Text Available El concepto de “dignidad humana” ha ido evolucionando en la historia de la culturaoccidental hasta verla como algo intrínseco a la persona humana y no vinculado a una o más de las cualidades del ser humano con más o menos gradación; “todas las cosas tienen precio; pero el hombre tiene dignidad”. Más bien, es propio cuando el hombre pierde sus cualidades físicas, intelectuales, morales que resplandece más su pura dignidad. Por tanto, si el embrión es un ser humano (porque ha empezado un desarrollo específicamente humano se le debe el mismo respeto que a un adulto. Negarle este respeto, como ocurre con frecuencia, significa haber elegido una ética racionalista, utilitarista, de búsqueda de consensos sociales, una ética que ha reducido el ser humano a objeto. Sólo una concepción del ser humano como ser abierto al Absoluto, un “yo inhabitado por Dios” (F. Rielo tendrá la garantía de ser respetado en su dignidad, siempre y por todos.

  10. Elimination of Cancer Stem-Like “Side Population” Cells in Hepatoma Cell Lines by Chinese Herbal Mixture “Tien-Hsien Liquid”

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    Chih-Jung Yao


    Full Text Available There are increasing pieces of evidence suggesting that the recurrence of cancer may result from a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells, which are resistant to the conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We investigated the effects of Chinese herbal mixture Tien-Hsien Liquid (THL on the cancer stem-like side population (SP cells isolated from human hepatoma cells. After sorting and subsequent culture, the SP cells from Huh7 hepatoma cells appear to have higher clonogenicity and mRNA expressions of stemness genes such as SMO, ABCG2, CD133, β-catenin, and Oct-4 than those of non-SP cells. At dose of 2 mg/mL, THL reduced the proportion of SP cells in HepG2, Hep3B, and Huh7 cells from 1.33% to 0.49%, 1.55% to 0.43%, and 1.69% to 0.27%, respectively. The viability and colony formation of Huh7 SP cells were effectively suppressed by THL dose-dependently, accompanied with the inhibition of stemness genes, e.g., ABCG2, CD133, and SMO. The tumorigenicity of THL-treated Huh7 SP cells in NOD/SCID mice was also diminished. Moreover, combination with THL could synergize the effect of doxorubicin against Huh7 SP cells. Our data indicate that THL may act as a cancer stem cell targeting therapeutics and be regarded as complementary and integrative medicine in the treatment of hepatoma.

  11. Seasonal and diurnal variations in dust characteristics on the northern slopes of the Tien Shan - Grain-size, mineralogy, chemical signatures and isotope composition of attached nitrate (United States)

    Schettler, Georg; Shabunin, Anton; Kemnitz, Helga; Knoeller, Kay; Imashev, Sanjar; Rybin, Anatoly; Wetzel, Hans-Ulrich


    A dust monitoring program was initiated in the summer of 2010 to (i) improve the informative value of aeolian components of varved lake sediments in Central Asia for palaeoclimatic interpretations, (ii) evaluate the impact of aeolian influx on modern lakes in the region and (iii) obtain data for a future comparison with dust east of the high mountain belt formed by the Alay, Pamir, Tien Shan and Altai mountains. We collected the coarse (>2.5 μm) dust fraction on the northern slopes of the Tien Shan 42°40‧49.69″N, (74°41‧37.36″E, 1740 m asl) using a high-volume slit-impactor at 3-day sampling intervals. We present data on the mineralogical composition, particle-size distribution, soluble salts and nitrate isotope composition of the collected dust. The short-term and seasonal changes in dust concentration and composition are discussed in the context of high temporal resolution measurements of meteorological parameters and particle counts for 31 grain-size bands. Throughout the study period, CaCO3 was a major dust constituent (average particle frequency 14%). Between July 2010 and October 2012, the average content of soluble salts was 10 wt.%; mole percentages of water-leachable anions were 60% NO3, 30% SO4, 10% Cl. Ca was the dominant leachable cation (>90%). The collected dust comprised (i) gypsum which forms pedogenically in the topsoils of arid regions and (ii) secondary gypsum originating from the interaction of sulphuric acid aerosols with CaCO3 in the atmosphere. Variable proportions of (i) and (ii) and the extent of Ca(NO3)2 formation (verified by chemical mass budgets) were documented in the Ca/Sr and Ca/SO4 ratios of the aqueous leachates. The isotopic compositions of the dust nitrate in the majority of the samples clustered between -10 and +10‰ for δ15N[NO3] (VSMOW) and +50 and +100‰ for δ18O[NO3] (Air). The δ18O[NO3] values of a majority of the collected samples exhibited a weak positive correlation with the NO3 load of the collected dust

  12. ¿El sentido del humor, tiene sentido en el aula? / Does Sense of the Humor Make Sense in the Classroom?

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    Freddy Antonio González Ynfante


    Full Text Available Recibido 09 de junio de 2011 • Aceptado 24 de octubre de 2011 • Corregido 27 de setiembre de 2011 Resumen. El presente ensayo tiene como finalidad reflexionar sobre la importancia del humor pedagógico como estrategia de enseñanza aprendizaje en el aula; esto, tomando en cuenta la problemática de desmotivación y aburrimiento que sucede normalmente en la clase. Para plantear si “el enseñar contento y el aprender con alegría” pueden aumentar la eficacia en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, se abordará cómo, a pesar de las múltiples ventajas que puede aportar el humor en las aulas, se omite su empleo por la existencia de ciertos prejuicios y temores. La idea no es que los docentes hagan el papel de comediantes o payasos, sino la de mediar y acercar la clase de manera pedagógica y didáctica a través del uso del humor, y sobre esto reflexionaba Platón (1992, cuando planteaba que muchas veces ayudaba una broma, en donde la seriedad oponía resistencia. Abstract. This paper studies the importance of humor as a teaching strategy in the classroom, considering the usual lack of motivation and boredom. To analyze whether the “happy teaching and happy learning” may increase effectiveness in the teaching-learning process, the author will discuss how, despite the many benefits it may bring, humor is not used in the classroom due to prejudices and fears. The idea is not for teachers to play the role of a comedian or a clown, but to intervene and get closer to the group with a teaching, didactic purpose through humor. Plato (1992 thought about this; he used to say that sometimes a joke may help, where seriousness put up resistance.

  13. Ora et labora. Paradigmes du modèle monacal médiéval chez Chrétien de Troyes / Ora et labora. Paradigms of the Medieval Monastic Model in Chrétien de Troyes’s Work

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    Diana Gradu


    Full Text Available The medieval monachal model is marked out by the faith, by the power, by the morality. It is also shared between confidence and fear with regard to the power on the earth, but, certainly, all the clerks and the monks of the Middle Age know and assume the rule Redde Caesari quae sunt Cesaris and quae sunt Dei Deo. The medieval literature, the unfaithful mirror, is reflected in an incomplete and sometimes idealized way, the example of the hermit, but it constitutes in the essential source of its paradigm. I shall stop to Chrétien of Troyes and to its novels, they are the most glorious proof of the Renaissance of the 12th century.

  14. Boosting the trench: Paleoseimic Record of Three Holocene Earthquakes Rupturing the Issyk-Ata Fault near Bishkek, North Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    Patyniak, Magda; Landgraf, Angela; Dzhumabaeva, Atyrgul; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek; Rosenwinkel, Swenja; Strecker, Manfred; Korup, Oliver; Arrowsmith, Ramon


    The evaluation of thrust paleoearthquakes and associated fault scarps is often hampered by the size of their cumulative fault scarps and interaction with sedimentary processes during interseismic periods. This is especially true if these events occur in areas undergoing low strain accumulation with long recurrence intervals. Furthermore, the earthquakes might occur in environments that provide limited datable material, rendering an event chronology difficult to develop. Here we present a paleoseismological study from one site (Belek) along the Issyk-Ata fault, a major range-bounding fault that constitutes the northern edge of the Central Tien Shan. The historic and paleoseismic record of this fault is limited, although it defines the southern boundary of Bishkek, the Kyrgyz capital. The only historically known earthquake ruptured along the Issyk-Ata fault in 1885 AD (M6.9). We use a range of tools, including photogrammetry, differential GPS, and 3D visualization and modeling, combined with different chronometers (IRSL, Radiocarbon) to boost the production of an event chronology from the trench stratigraphy and fault geometry. Our age control from both trench walls shows consistent age data in stratigraphic order irrespective of the chronometer. We were able to distinguish three different surface rupturing paleoearthquakes that affected the area at 8.9 ± 0.3 cal kyr BP; 4.7 ± 2.0 cal kyr BP; and 700 ± 80 cal yr BP, and interpret an extended episode of loess accumulation against the scarp between the oldest identified and penultimate events. Associated paleomagnitudes for the last two earthquakes range between M6.7 - M7.4 with a cumulative slip rate of 0.7 ± 0.2 mm/a. We did not find evidence for the 1885 AD event at Belek. Combined our results underline two major points: first, the historic and paleoseismic catalogue is incomplete; second, single ruptures do not necessarily involve the entire extend of the Issyk-Ata fault but point to segmented rupture behavior

  15. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion study of the Kuru-Tegerek Au-Cu-Mo skarn deposit in the Middle Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey; Dvurechenskaya, Svetlana


    The Kuru-Tegerek Cu-Au-Mo deposit is situated in a system of Late Carboniferous subduction-related magmatic arcs of the Middle Tien Shan, which together constitute a metallogenic belt of Cu-Au-Mo (±W) porphyry, with local skarns, deposits. The deposit is related to magnetite-series gabbro-diorite to tonalite intrusion. It contains prograde magnesian and calcic skarns with abundant magnetite, associated with gabbro-diorite, and retrograde skarn with Cu mineralization, formed after intrusion of tonalite. Subsequent propylitic alteration introduced abundant chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite, and native Au culminating in zones overprinting magnetite and garnet skarn. Later quartz-muscovite-carbonate veins, formed after intrusion of late mafic quartz monzogabbro dikes, contain chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and other sulfides and sulfosalts, tellurides, and native Au. The earliest retrograde skarn garnet contains gaseous low-salinity (1.7-3.4 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid inclusions homogenizing at 460-500 °C into vapor, indicating that the early fluid released from crystallizing magma was a low-density vapor. It was followed by more saline (4.0-5.0 wt.% NaCl eq.), high-temperature (400-440 °C) aqueous fluid, as fluid release from the magma progressed. Boiling of this fluid at temperatures of 420 to 370 °C and a pressure of 350-300 bar produced a low-salinity (0.6-1.2 wt.% NaCl eq.), essentially gaseous, and high-salinity (from 39 to 31 wt.% NaCl eq.) brine, with possible metal (including Cu) partitioning into both gaseous and aqueous-saline phases. Boiling was coeval with sulfide deposition in the retrograde skarn. The latest episode of the retrograde skarn stage included direct separation of saline ( 40-42 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid from crystallizing magma. The separation of saline ( 40 to 14 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluids from a crystallizing magmatic melt continued during the propylitic stage, when fluid cooling from 370 to 320 °C, together with decreasing fO2, caused Cu and especially

  16. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Kumbel oxidized W-Cu-Mo skarn and Au-W stockwork deposit in Kyrgyzstan, Tien Shan (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.


    The Kumbel deposit is located within a metallogenic belt of W-Mo, Cu-Mo, Au-W, and Au deposits along the Late Paleozoic active continental margin of Tien Shan. The deposit is related to a Late Carboniferous multiphase pluton, with successive intrusive phases from early olivine monzogabbro through monzonite-quartz monzonite to granodiorite and granite, with the latest monzogabbro-porphyry dikes. The deposit represents an example of a complex W-Cu-Mo-Au magmatic-hydrothermal system related to magnetite-series high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic igneous suite. It contains large bodies of W-Cu-Mo oxidized prograde and retrograde skarns, with abundant andradite garnet, magnetite, and especially hematite, as well as K-feldspar, molybdoscheelite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite, with transitions to zones of intense quartz-K-feldspar (with minor andradite and hematite) veining. The skarns are cut by quartz-carbonate ± adularia ± sericite veins (locally sheeted) and stockworks bearing scheelite and minor Cu, Zn, Pb sulfides, as well as Au, Bi, Te, and As mineralization. The association of these veins with the oxidized skarns and magnetite-series intrusion is consistent with the general oxidized, intrusion-related W-Mo-Cu-Au type of deposit, with an affinity to the alkalic (silica-saturated) Cu-Au ± Mo porphyry deposits. The fluid inclusion data show the predominance of magmatic-hydrothermal aqueous chloride fluid during the formation of skarns and quartz-carbonate-scheelite-sulfide veins. The high fluid pressures (˜1,750 bars), together with their high temperature (up to 600 °C) and high salinity (˜50-60 wt% NaCl-equiv.), suggest the formation of skarns and quartz-K-feldspar-andradite-hematite veins under conditions typical of magmatic-hydrothermal transition (depth of ≥4-5 km) of intrusion-related mineralized system, possibly by exsolution of the fluids from crystallizing magma. The auriferous quartz-carbonate-scheelite-sulfide veins formed from high to moderate

  17. Profilaxis con antibióticos en fracturas de base de cráneo: ¿tiene justificación esa conducta?

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    Justo Luis González González


    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de 380 pacientes con fractura de la base del cráneo y a 71 de ellos (18,7 % se les administraron antibióticos como profilaxis de la meningoencefalitis y a 309 (81,3 % no se les suministraron estos agentes. Se evaluó la relación entre uso profiláctico o terapéutico de antimicrobianos, localización de la fractura, lesiones asociadas, complicaciones sépticas, edad y sexo, con la aparición de meningoencefalitis. Desarrollaron infección del sistema nervioso central 7 pacientes (1,8 %, 3 de ellos (4,2 % entre los que recibieron profilaxis y 4 (1,3 % entre los que no la recibieron. Se probó que la presencia de meningoencefalitis estaba asociada con el tipo de complicaciones sépticas que además pudieron tener los pacientes, así como al uso de antibióticos como terapéutica de éstas en análisis bivariado, lo que no se corroboró en el multivariado. Se concluye que el empleo de antibióticos profilácticos en estos pacientes no tiene justificación, lo que convierte a esta conducta en una práctica negativa desde el punto de vista médico y económicoA study of 380 patients with basilar skull fracture was performed. 71 (18.7 % of these patients were given antibiotic prophylaxis for meningoencephalitis and 309 (81.3 % were not. The relation of prophylactic or therapeutical use of antimicrobial agents, fracture location, associated injures, septic complications, age and sex to the meningoencephalitis coming out was evaluated. 7 patients (1.8 % developed infections of the central nervous system, 3 (4.2 % had been treated with antibiotics and 4 (1.3 % had not. The bivariate analysis proved that the meningoencephalitis was linked to the type of septic complications that might affect patients as well as the therapeutical use of antibiotics to eliminate them but the multivariate analysis did not demonstrate so. It is concluded that the use of the antibiotic prophylaxis in these patients is not substantiated which turns

  18. Atmospheric circulation patterns and geochemistry time series from ice/firn cores and snow samples of central Asian glaciers (Pamir, Tien Shan and Altai). (United States)

    Aizen, E. M.; Aizen, V. B.; Joswiak, D. R.; Mayewski, P. A.


    from Aral region are for the Tien Shan; 3. Western and central Gobi and Kazakhstan dust are for the Altai. The Aral region is the source of dust aerosol for Altai also. Based on in-situ data in the western Central Asia and Altai ice core records of particle number content there is tendency on decrease of dust storms frequency from the 30th in central and eastern Asia.

  19. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion study of the Kuru-Tegerek Au-Cu-Mo skarn deposit in the Middle Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey; Dvurechenskaya, Svetlana


    The Kuru-Tegerek Cu-Au-Mo deposit is situated in a system of Late Carboniferous subduction-related magmatic arcs of the Middle Tien Shan, which together constitute a metallogenic belt of Cu-Au-Mo (±W) porphyry, with local skarns, deposits. The deposit is related to magnetite-series gabbro-diorite to tonalite intrusion. It contains prograde magnesian and calcic skarns with abundant magnetite, associated with gabbro-diorite, and retrograde skarn with Cu mineralization, formed after intrusion of tonalite. Subsequent propylitic alteration introduced abundant chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite, and native Au culminating in zones overprinting magnetite and garnet skarn. Later quartz-muscovite-carbonate veins, formed after intrusion of late mafic quartz monzogabbro dikes, contain chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and other sulfides and sulfosalts, tellurides, and native Au. The earliest retrograde skarn garnet contains gaseous low-salinity (1.7-3.4 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid inclusions homogenizing at 460-500 °C into vapor, indicating that the early fluid released from crystallizing magma was a low-density vapor. It was followed by more saline (4.0-5.0 wt.% NaCl eq.), high-temperature (400-440 °C) aqueous fluid, as fluid release from the magma progressed. Boiling of this fluid at temperatures of 420 to 370 °C and a pressure of 350-300 bar produced a low-salinity (0.6-1.2 wt.% NaCl eq.), essentially gaseous, and high-salinity (from 39 to 31 wt.% NaCl eq.) brine, with possible metal (including Cu) partitioning into both gaseous and aqueous-saline phases. Boiling was coeval with sulfide deposition in the retrograde skarn. The latest episode of the retrograde skarn stage included direct separation of saline ( 40-42 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid from crystallizing magma. The separation of saline ( 40 to 14 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluids from a crystallizing magmatic melt continued during the propylitic stage, when fluid cooling from 370 to 320 °C, together with decreasing fO2, caused Cu and especially

  20. ARTE RUPESTRE E PROBLEMAS DE CONSERVAÇÃO DO SÍTIO ARQUEOLÓGICO CAMINHO DA CAIÇARA I (Rock Art and Conservation Problems at the Caminho da Caiçara I Archaeological Site

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    Luis Carlos Duarte Cavalcante


    Full Text Available O sítio arqueológico Caminho da Caiçara I está localizado no povoado Cadoz Velho, área rural de Piripiri, estado do Piauí, Brasil. As paredes de rocha arenítica estão decoradas com 205 pinturas rupestres, representando figuras abstratas, ornitomorfos/propulsores de dardos, fitomorfos e antropomorfos, pintados predominantemente em diferentes tonalidades de vermelho, mas também em preto, amarelo, marrom, vinho e alaranjado. Além da elevada densidade de inscrições rupestres, há sobreposições e recorrências dos motivos pintados, como ornitomorfos/propulsores de dardos, círculos concêntricos, sequências de bastonetes, aglomerados de digitais e fitomorfos. As gravuras rupestres representam cúpules. Principalmente infiltrações de água e de compostos salinos, eflorescências salinas e insetos, como cupins, vespas e abelhas, afetam a conservação desse sítio arqueológico. Outros problemas de conservação são mencionados. ENGLISH: The Caminho da Caiçara I archaeological site is located in Cadoz Velho, a village in the rural area of Piripiri, state of Piauí, Brazil. The sandstone walls are decorated with 205 rock paintings, representing abstract figures, ornithomorphs/atlatls, phytomorphs and anthropomorphs, painted predominantly in different tones of red, but also in black, yellow, brown, wine and orange. In addition to a high density of rock inscriptions, there are overlaps and recurrences of painted motifs, such as ornithomorphs/atlatls, concentric circles, sequences of sticks, agglomerates of fingerings and phytomorphs. The rock engravings include cupules. Infiltrations of water and of saline compounds, thick layers of saline efflorescences, and insects, such as termites, wasps and bees, affect the conservation of this archaeological site. Other conservations problems are mentioned.

  1. Significant efficiency findings while controlling for the frequent confounders of CAI research in the PlanAlyzer project's computer-based, self-paced, case-based programs in anemia and chest pain diagnosis. (United States)

    Lyon, H C; Healy, J C; Bell, J R; O'Donnell, J F; Shultz, E K; Wigton, R S; Hirai, F; Beck, J R


    Richard E. Clark in his widely published comprehensive studies and meta-analyses of the literature on computer assisted instruction (CAI) has decried the lack of carefully controlled research, challenging almost every study which shows the computer-based intervention to result in significant post-test proficiency gains over a non-computer-based intervention. We report on a randomized study in a medical school setting where the usual confounders found by Clark to plague most research, were carefully controlled. PlanAlyzer is a microcomputer-based, self-paced, case-based, event-driven system for medical education which was developed and used in carefully controlled trials in a second year medical school curriculum to test the hypothesis that students with access to the interactive programs could integrate their didactic knowledge more effectively and/or efficiently than with access only to traditional textual "nonintelligent" materials. PlanAlyzer presents cases, elicits and critiques a student's approach to the diagnosis of two common medical disorders: anemias and chest pain. PlanAlyzer uses text, hypertext, images and critiquing theory. Students were randomized, one half becoming the experimental group who received the interactive PlanAlyzer cases in anemia, the other half becoming the controls who received the exact same content material in a text format. Later in each year there was a crossover, the controls becoming the experimentals for a similar intervention with the cardiology PlanAlyzer cases. Preliminary results at the end of the first two full trials shows that the programs have achieved most of the proposed instructional objectives, plus some significant efficiency and economy gains. 96 faculty hours of classroom time were saved by using PlanAlyzer in their place, while maintaining high student achievement. In terms of student proficiency and efficiency, the 328 students in the trials over two years were able to accomplish the project's instructional

  2. El control intensivo de la glucemia no tiene beneficios respecto al control estándar en los resultados renales de los diabéticos tipo 2: un metaanálisis


    Asensio González, María del Rosario


    La asociación que existe entre el mal control de la glucemia y la aparición de problemas microvasculares en pacientes con Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 es un problema complicado. Sin embargo, parece que el control intensivo mediante fármacos de la glucemia solo tiene impacto en los primeros estadíos de la nefropatía diabética. Por tanto, buscamos examinar si el control intensivo de la glucemia está asociado con una mejora en la enfermedad crónica renal(ERC) en comparación con el control estándar (...

  3. Differential uplift and denudation of the Kungei and Terzkey ranges bordering the Issyk-Kul intermontane basin, Kyrgyz Tien Shan mountains (Central Asia): constraints from apatite fission-track analysis (United States)

    de Grave, J.; Buslov, M. M.; van den Haute, P.


    The Tien Shan mountain belt forms one of the most active intracontinental belts in the world. Its Cenozoic evolution is directly related to ongoing convergence of the Indian and Eurasian plates. The Tien Shan are draped along the northern rim of the rigid and stable Tarim Basin in Central Asia, north of the Tibetan Plateau. The mountain belt is composed of E-W trending ranges, alternating with intermontane basins. The lens shaped Issyk-Kul (IK) basin in northern Kyrgyzstan is a striking example of such a basin and accommodates the Issyk-Kul Lake. It is bordered by the Kungei (north) and the Terzkey ranges (south). While the present lake level is situated at 1607 m a.s.l., the elevation of both ranges reaches 5000 m. Both mountain ranges (cored by pink Ordovician granites and exhibiting large altitude differences) were sampled for AFT analysis along elevation profiles. In addition, samples from other IK basement rocks were collected in areas outside the ranges. AFT ages in the Kungei range fall roughly between 120 Ma and 170 Ma, while those for the Terzkey range were substantially lower (60 Ma to 110 Ma). The additional basement apatites sampled throughout the area have ages between 110 Ma and 160 Ma, corresponding to those of the Kungei range. The Kungei age-elevation plot is quite normal with ages decreasing with decreasing altitude, while the Terzkey range samples exhibit additional scatter. No "break in slope" is observed in any of the profiles and this together with the fact that all track length distributions carry a substantial Apatite Partial Annealing Zone signature (mean lengths are between 12.5 and 13.0 µm for both ranges) gives evidence of the mixed nature of the AFT ages. In contrast with the AFT data by Bullen et al. (2001) from the Kyrgyz range to the west of the IK basin, no late Cenozoic AFT ages were found for our samples. Hence the active tectonic phase experienced by the Tien Shan since the Late Miocene must undoubtedly have uplifted the Kungei

  4. Evaluación del nivel del conocimiento que tiene el personal de enfermería sobre la guía de manejo de Trastorno Afectivo Bipolar (TAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Lizcano


    Full Text Available El Trastorno Afectivo Bipolar (TAB ocupa el primer lugar de las quince primeras causas por consulta externa en el año 2009 con 1.423 casos sobre un total de 7.177 consultas. La investigación realizada tiene como objetivo determinar el nivel de conocimiento del personal de enfermería que labora en una Empresa Social del Estado especializado en psiquiatría. La prevalencia de esta patología hace relevante la evaluación de la guía del Trastorno Afectivo Bipolar (TAB. El instrumento utilizado fue aplicado a 52 trabajadores de la institución, arrojando como resultado un bajo nivel de conocimiento con relación a la aplicación guía de atención de enfermería de manejo para el paciente con Trastorno Afectivo Bipolar (TAB.

  5. Les lignes brouillées de la ségrégation : les immigrants chrétiens et les morisques à Grenade après la conquête, 1492-1569


    Coleman, David


    D’après les livres de classe, Grenade est devenue une ville « chrétienne »le 2 janvier 1492 – date à laquelle les forces des Rois Catholiques espagnols Isabelle et Ferdinand se rendirent maîtres de la dernière citadelle de l’Espagne islamique. Bien que sous contrôle politique chrétien après 1492, Grenade resta cependant longtemps, et sous bien des aspects, une ville islamique. Par exemple, l’Islam demeura, pendant huit ans après la conquête, la religion pratiquée par une écrasante majorité de...

  6. Odd Bed-fellows: British Christians and Communists in the Struggle for Peace D’étranges compagnons : chrétiens et communistes britanniques dans la lutte pour la paix

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    Jeremy Tranmer


    Full Text Available Au début des années 1950, le doyen de l’archevêché de Cantorbéry œuvra au sein du mouvement pour la paix et participa à des activités organisées par le parti communiste britannique. En 1983, le prêtre catholique Bruce Kent, leader de la Campagne pour le Désarmement Nucléaire, loua l’engagement des communistes britanniques en faveur de la paix. Cet article cherche à examiner pourquoi et comment chrétiens et communistes surmontèrent leurs différences et coopérèrent dans la lutte contre l’arme nucléaire.

  7. Improved Accuracy of Chlorophyll-a Concentration Estimates from MODIS Imagery Using a Two-Band Ratio Algorithm and Geostatistics: As Applied to the Monitoring of Eutrophication Processes over Tien Yen Bay (Northern Vietnam

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    Nguyen Thi Thu Ha


    Full Text Available Sea eutrophication is a natural process of water enrichment caused by increased nutrient loading that severely affects coastal ecosystems by decreasing water quality. The degree of eutrophication can be assessed by chlorophyll-a concentration. This study aims to develop a remote sensing method suitable for estimating chlorophyll-a concentrations in tropical coastal waters with abundant phytoplankton using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS/Terra imagery and to improve the spatial resolution of MODIS/Terra-based estimation from 1 km to 100 m by geostatistics. A model based on the ratio of green and blue band reflectance (rGBr is proposed considering the bio-optical property of chlorophyll-a. Tien Yen Bay in northern Vietnam, a typical phytoplankton-rich coastal area, was selected as a case study site. The superiority of rGBr over two existing representative models, based on the blue-green band ratio and the red-near infrared band ratio, was demonstrated by a high correlation of the estimated chlorophyll-a concentrations at 40 sites with values measured in situ. Ordinary kriging was then shown to be highly capable of predicting the concentration for regions of the image covered by clouds and, thus, without sea surface data. Resultant space-time maps of concentrations over a year clarified that Tien Yen Bay is characterized by natural eutrophic waters, because the average of chlorophyll-a concentrations exceeded 10 mg/m3 in the summer. The temporal changes of chlorophyll-a concentrations were consistent with average monthly air temperatures and precipitation. Consequently, a combination of rGBr and ordinary kriging can effectively monitor water quality in tropical shallow waters.

  8. ¿Tiene sexo la mente?


    Muñoz Páez, Adela


    La respuesta obvia es: NO. Pero entonces ¿por qué no aparecen mujeres en la historia de la ciencia? Si revisamos la historia con otros ojos, encontramos que las mujeres han tenido papeles muy relevantes en la ciencia y la tecnología. Para ilustrar esta afirmación se hablará de la vida y la obra de tres mujeres: la alemana Maria Sibylla Merian  (s XVII), artista, entomóloga y mujer de negocios, la francesa Marie Lavoisier (s XVIII-XIX), madre de la química moderna, y la austriaca Hedy Lamarr (...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Tweedens: In die koninkryk van doeleindes het elkeen of 'n prys of 'n waardigheid. Wat 'n prys het kan altyd deur iets anders as sy ekwivalent vervang word; aan die ander kant, dit wat bo alle prys verhewe is en dus geen ekwivalent het nie, het 'n waardigheid … dit wat die voorwaarde daarstel, slegs waaronder iets 'n doel ...

  10. Tien vragen en antwoorden over organische stof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, K.B.; Wolfs, A.; Kikkert, A.; Termorshuizen, A.; Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.


    Er is reeds veel informatie beschikbaar over het onderwerp ‘organische stof in de bodem’ In dt rapport is een deel van die informatie nog eens samengevat in de vorm van 10 vragen en antwoorden. Wat is organische stof? Welke rol speelt organische stof in de bodem? Welke rol speelt organische stof in

  11. Pharmacovigilance: Tiens Slimming Tea Causes Increased Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... possible link between the constituents of the slimming tea and increased blood pressure and also provide evidence of other possible harmful effects that may occur with the use of the slimming tea. Keywords: Pharmacovigilance, hypertension, slimming tea. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research Vol.

  12. Tien eeue leksikografie: Van woordelys tot woordeboek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1953 het die Lexicon in Veteris Testamenti Libros van Ludwig. Koehler en Walter Baumgartner verskyn, 'n gebeurtenis van deurslag- gewende betekenis op die gebied van die studie van die Ou Testament. Dit was die resultaat van ongeveer veertig jaar se werk, soos Koehler dit self in die inleiding tot sy woordeboek ...

  13. If Your Child Learns in Two Languages: A Parent's Guide for Improving Educational Opportunities for Children Acquiring English as a Second Language = Si su nino aprende en dos idiomes: Una guia para que las familias sepan como mejorar las oportunidades educativas de los ninos que adquieren el ingles como segunda lengua = Neu lon Ban Hoc Bang Hai Thu Tieng: Chi-nam cua phu-huynh de cai tien co hoi hoc van cua con em dang hoc Anh van nhu sinh ngu thu hai. (United States)

    Zelasko, Nancy; Antunez, Beth

    This guide, in English, Spanish, and Vietnamese, aims to inform parents of students who have learned or are learning English as a Second Language about appropriate approaches for educating children so that they can work with schools to ensure a high quality education for their children. The emphasis is on explaining the laws, schools, and research…

  14. Choices Outlined 2013-2017. An analysis of ten election programmes for accessibility effects. PBL-CPB background document; Keuzes in kaart 2013-2017. Een analyse van tien verkiezingsprogramma's op bereikbaarheidseffecten. PBL-CPB Achtergronddocument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwaneveld, P.; Verrips, A. [CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, The Hague (Netherlands); Hilbers, H.; Zondag, B.; Van Meerkerk, J. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Weijschede-van der Straaten, W. [CBS Statistics Netherlands, The Hague (Netherlands)


    In their report 'Keuzes in Kaart 2013-2017' (Choices outlined 2013-2017) the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) and the Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) made calculations for thirteen themes of the election programs of ten Dutch political parties. Accessibility is one of these thirteen themes. Analyses on this theme were conducted jointly by PBL and CPB. This paper addresses which different political choices the Dutch parties have made for the theme of accessibility, how PBL and CPB conducted analyses and which results were yielded. The effect of the party program is compared to a basic path, the expected image for 2020 based on implementation of the Budget Agreement 2013 ('Spring Agreement'). [Dutch] Het Centraal Planbureau (CPB) en het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) hebben in het rapport 'Keuzes in Kaart 2013-2017' de verkiezingsprogramma's van tien politieke partijen doorgerekend op dertien thema's. Bereikbaarheid is één van de dertien thema's. De analyses rond dit thema zijn gezamenlijk uitgevoerd door PBL en CPB. Dit paper gaat in op welke verschillende politieke keuzes de partijen ten aanzien van bereikbaarheid hebben gemaakt, op welke wijze de planbureaus dit hebben geanalyseerd en tot welke resultaten dit heeft geleid. Het effect van het partijprogramma wordt vergeleken met het 'basispad', het verwachte beeld voor 2020 uitgaande van uitvoering van het Begrotingsakkoord 2013 (het 'Lenteakkoord')

  15. Charted Choices 2013-2017. An analysis of ten election programmes. Effects on the economy and the environment; Keuzes in Kaart 2013-2017. Een analyse van tien verkiezingsprogramma's. Effecten op economie en milieu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    At the request of ten political parties, the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency have mapped out the effects of the respective election platforms on the economy and the environment. The analysis shows that each of the proposed policy measures included in the platforms has both advantages and disadvantages. The platforms thus reflect the diverse choices that have been made by the parties. The publication presents the impact of party programs on public finances, purchasing power and employment. Also included in the publication are analyses in the field of mobility, energy and climate, nature, education, housing and healthcare [Dutch] De verkiezingsprogramma's 2012 laten zien welke keuzes politieke partijen maken voor de jaren 2013-2017. De programma's tonen aan dat er echt iets te kiezen valt voor de komende kabinetsperiode. Hoe gaan we na de economische crisis de overheidsfinancien weer op orde brengen en hoe snel? Verhogen we de AOW-leeftijd en beperken we de aftrek van de hypotheekrente, of juist niet? Hoe verminderen we de filedruk? Willen we klimaatverandering aanpakken en zo ja, hoe dan? Is het de moeite waarde om meer geld uit te geven aan onderwijs of innovatie? Hoeveel trekken we uit voor natuur? Hoe kunnen we de woningmarkt beter laten functioneren? Hoe gaan we om met de stijging van de kosten van de zorg? In de aanloop naar de verkiezingen van 12 september 2012 hebben tien politieke partijen - VVD, PvdA, PVV, CDA, SP, D66, GroenLinks, ChristenUnie, SGP, DPK - gevraagd om een analyse van hun verkiezingsprogramma's. Het CPB heeft de economische effecten geanalyseerd, het PBL de effecten op milieu.

  16. Histoire officielle et mémoires en conflit dans le Sud du Mont-Liban : les affrontements druzo-chrétiens du xixe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dima de Clerck


    Full Text Available L’espace libanais est caractérisé par l’absence d’une mémoire collective nationale au profit de plusieurs mémoires sociales portées par les différents groupes identitaires confessionnels et élaborées en fonction des relations conflictuelles ou conviviales qu’ils entretenaient entre eux. Ces mémoires rivalisent entre elles et avec une autre mémoire, construite à partir du début du xxe siècle par des tenants de la coexistence et hissée au rang d’histoire officielle, dans une vaine tentative de promouvoir une vision fédératrice de l’histoire du pays. Les mémoires élaborées autour des affrontements druzo-chrétiens du xixe siècle sont particulièrement illustratives de cette disjonction. Le fait que ce moment fondateur de la question du Liban, soit le produit d’un conflit sanglant est presque passé sous silence dans l’histoire officielle. Un sondage des mémoires communautaires chrétienne et druze pour la période 1820-61 permet de saisir comment ces mémoires vives, elles-mêmes en conflit, ont sapé l’histoire officielle, rendant compte d’un échec des historiens de la coexistence à imposer un récit censuré et pudique comme base d’une mémoire historique commune.

  17. Informe Final Perfil de proyecto Mejoramiento de las capacidades técnicas e infraestructura que tiene IFOP en Aysén para mejorar las mareas rojas e intentar reducir los efectos causados por estos eventos. InnovaChile (CORFO).


    Guzmán Méndez, F. L.; Vidal Santana, G.; Murillo Haro, V.; Pizarro Nova, G.; Mercado Leal, S.


    El presente documento corresponde al informe final del perfil del estudio "Mejoramiento de las capacidades técnicas e infraestructura que tiene IFOP en Aysén para manejar las mareas rojas e intentar reducir los efectos causados por estos eventos" desarrollado entre mayo y diciembre de 2010.

  18. Anticipating Central Asian Water Stress: Variation in River Flow Dependency on Melt Waters from Alpine to Plains in the Remote Tien Shan Range, Kyrgyzstan Using a Rapid Hydro Assessment Methodology (United States)

    Hill, A. F.; Wilson, A. M.; Williams, M. W.


    The future of mountain water resources in High Asia is of high interest to water managers, development organizations and policy makers given large populations downstream reliant on snow and ice sourced river flow. Together with historical and cultural divides among ex-Soviet republics, a lack of central water management following the Soviet break-up has led to water stress as trans-boundary waters weave through and along borders. New upstream hydropower development, a thirsty downstream agricultural sector and a shrinking Aral Sea has led to increasing tension in the region. Despite these pressures and in contrast to eastern High Asia's Himalayan basins (Ganges, Brahmaputra), little attention has been given to western High Asia draining the Pamir and Tien Shan ranges (Syr Darya and Amu Darya basins) to better understand the hydrology of this vast and remote area. Difficult access and challenging terrain exacerbate challenges to working in this remote mountain region. As part of the Contributions to High Asia Runoff from Ice and Snow (CHARIS) project, we asked how does river flow source water composition change over an alpine-to-plains domain of Kyrgyzstan's Naryn River in the Syr Darya basin? In addition, what may the future hold for river flow in Central Asia given the differing responses of snow and ice to climate changes? Utilizing a Rapid Hydrologic Assessment methodology including a suite of pre-field mapping techniques we collected in situ water chemistry data at targeted, remote mountain sites over 450km of the Naryn River over an elevation gradient from glacial headwaters to the lower lying areas - places where people, hydropower and agriculture utilize water. Chemical and isotope tracers were used to separate stream flow to understand relative dependency on melt waters as the river moves downstream from glaciers and snow covered areas. This case study demonstrates a technique to acquire field data over large scales in remote regions that facilitates

  19. De la dédiasporisation des jeunes Haïtiens à New-York On De-diasporization of Second-generation Haitians in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Melyon-Reinette


    Full Text Available Les facteurs répulsifs de l’émigration haïtienne ont complètement changé depuis les années 1950 qui marquèrent le début de ce mouvement avec le régime duvaliériste. Les entités géopolitiques et sociopolitiques qui en résultent évoluent, elles aussi, proportionnellement et rationnellement aux motivations des individus en partance. Ainsi, les exilés forcés rêvaient de retrouver leur chère Haïti, les nouveaux primo-arrivants sont des individus qui cherchent à se ré-enraciner dans un terreau aux airs d’ailleurs. Le diasporique est-il un individu dont l’identité est figée ? Dans cet article, une étude statistique simple cherche à démontrer l’évolution des mentalités des jeunes Haïtiens à travers un questionnement des identités et des orientations culturelles. Des dynamiques se font jour montrant que la diaspora est fluctuante comme les identités et les cultures qui la composent.The Push factors of Haitian emigration have completely changed since the late 1950s which marked the beginning of this movement with the Duvalier regime. The geopolitical and sociopolitical entities which result from it are changing as well, in proportion and accordance with the motivations of the people who leave. Thus, the forced exiles dreamt of going back to their dearest Haiti, the latest newly-arrived immigrants are individuals who desire to re-root into a land that sounds like “elsewhere”. Must the diasporic individual’s identity be stable? In this article, a simple survey seeks to shed light on the changing mentalities of young Haitians, examining their identities and cultural choices.  Emerging trends show that diaspora is a flow, not unlike the identities and the cultures of which it is composed.

  20. El fin de la situación de transitoriedad: la Ley Orgánica 15/1999, de 13 de diciembre, de Protección de Datos de Carácter Personal ya tiene desarrollo reglamentario

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    Mònica Vilasau


    Full Text Available El 19 de abril del 2008 entró en vigor el Reglamento 1720/2007, de 21 de diciembre, que desarrolla la Ley Orgánica de Protección de Datos (LOPD. Este texto había sido muy esperado por los aplicadores del derecho, por las empresas de consultoría y de seguridad, por sectores del marketing y publicidad, por empresas dedicadas a la solvencia patrimonial y crédito y, en un grado menor, por los consumidores y usuarios. La norma responde a la necesidad de dotar la Ley Orgánica sobre la materia del correspondiente desarrollo reglamentario y dar respuesta a las nuevas necesidades de la sociedad de la información constantemente en evolución. En el Reglamento de la LOPD se regula el otorgamiento del consentimiento por silencio positivo, el otorgamiento del consentimiento de los menores, se sistematiza el ejercicio de los derechos por parte del afectado, se regulan detalladamente los ficheros de marketing y publicidad, los de solvencia patrimonial y crédito, se dota la figura del encargado de un estatuto jurídico, se proporciona un nuevo marco a las medidas de seguridad y se sistematizan los procedimientos tramitados por la Agencia Española de Protección de Datos. El texto aprobado, evidentemente, no complacerá a todo el mundo, la existencia de múltiples instancias involucradas (estatales y autonómicas y de múltiples agentes con diferentes perspectivas hace que las soluciones proporcionadas no se ajusten a los ideales de todos los implicados.Sin embargo, el nuevo reglamento es un paso adelante en la consolidación del derecho a la protección de datos de carácter personal, aporta mayor seguridad jurídica y flexibilización y se tiene que ver como una oportunidad de crear una nueva cultura de protección de datos integrada en el tratamiento de la información de una forma global.

  1. Cambio en la clasificación macroscópica de la apendicitis. ¿Tiene algún impacto? Estudio retrospectivo en un Hospital Universitario Pediátrico

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    Sergio David Castañeda-Espinosa


    Full Text Available Antecedentes. La definición actual de apendicitis diferencia la aguda en apéndices no perforados y perforados. Esta clasificación describe los apéndices perforados como aquellos con la presencia de un orificio visible en el apéndice o la presencia de un fecalito libre en la cavidad y ha cambiado el manejo postoperatorio actual. Objetivo. Determinar si el cambio en la definición macroscópica de la apendicitis aguda tiene alguna influencia en la duración de la estancia hospitalaria y la tasa de complicaciones dado el cambio en el manejo antibiótico postoperatorio. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un rastreo de aquellos pacientes llevados a cirugía con diagnóstico de apendicitis aguda durante el primer semestre del año 2009 y el segundo semestre del año 2011 en la Fundación HOMI. Se excluyeron los pacientes llevados a laparoscopia diagnóstica por estudio del dolor abdominal, apendicectomias incidentales y los pacientes manejados en el protocolo de apendicectomía de Intervalo. Resultados. Se observó una disminución en el número de días de hospitalización/año y en el número de dosis de antibiótico/año y reducción en el número de complicaciones, lo cual demuestra que la clasificación y el protocolo de manejo actual no se correlacionan con un aumento en el número de complicaciones y se asocia con menores costos. Conclusión. El cambio en la clasificación macroscópica y el aportar la nueva definición sobre apendicitis perforada ha logrado disminuir la estancia hospitalaria y la cantidad de antibióticos utilizados sin una repercusión significativa en la tasa de complicaciones.

  2. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Kashkasu W-Mo-Cu skarn deposit associated with a high-potassic to shoshonitic igneous suite in Kyrgyzstan, Tien Shan: Toward a diversity of W mineralization in Central Asia (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey G.


    The Kashkasu deposit is part of the subduction-related Late Paleozoic (Late Carboniferous) metallogenic belt of Tien Shan. It is associated with a multiphase monzodiorite-monzonite-granodiorite-granite pluton of the magnetite-series high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic igneous suite. The deposit contains zones of W-Mo-Cu oxidized prograde and retrograde skarns, with abundant andraditic garnet, magnetite, locally scapolite and K-feldspar, as well as scheelite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite. Skarns are overprinted by quartz-carbonate-sericite (phyllic alteration) zones with scheelite and sulfides. Prograde calcic skarn and initial retrograde skarns were formed from a high temperature (650 °C to 450-550 °C), high pressure (2000 bars to 600-900 bars) magmatic-hydrothermal low- to high-salinity aqueous chloride fluid. The gradual fluid evolution was interrupted by the intrusion of granodiorite and likely associated release of low-salinity (∼7-8 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluid. Ascent of this fluid to shallower levels and/or its cooling to 400-500 °C has resulted in phase separation into low-salinity (2.1-3.1 wt% NaCl equiv.) vapor and coexisting brine (35-40 wt% NaCl equiv.). The boiling was coincident with most intense scheelite deposition in retrograde skarn. Later retrograde skarn assemblages were formed from a gaseous, low- to moderate-salinity (3.4-8.1 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluid and then from high salinity (37-42 wt% NaCl equiv.) aqueous chloride fluids, the latter being enriched in Ca (17-20 wt% CaCl2) that could also affect scheelite deposition. Another cycle of fluid exsolution from crystallizing magma corresponded to quartz-carbonate-sericite-scheelite-sulfide (phyllic) alteration stage, with the early low-salinity (5.3-8.4 wt% NaCl-equiv.) fluid followed by later high-salinity (33.5-38.2 wt% NaCl-equiv.) fluid. The sulfur isotope data (δ34S = +5.1 to +9.0) suggest significant sulfur sourcing from sedimentary rocks enriched in seawater sulfate, possibly evaporites.

  3. El tratamiento amodiaquina-sulfadoxinapirimetamina tiene eficacia del 98% para la malaria falciparum no complicada (Antioquia, Colombia; 2003 Treatment with amodiaquine-sulfadoxine- pyrimethamine is 98% effective against uncomplicated falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blair Trujillo


    Full Text Available Antecedentes: la combinación amodiaquina (AQ con sulfadoxinapirimetamina (SP es el tratamiento de primera elección para la malaria falciparum no complicada (MFNC en el departamento de Antioquia desde 1985 y en Colombia desde 2000. Objetivo: medir la frecuencia de falla terapéutica de AQ-SP en pacientes con MFNC, residentes en Turbo (zona de Urabá y en El Bagre (zona del Bajo Cauca, Antioquia. Metodología: este estudio hace parte de uno mayor, que tiene diseño experimental balanceado, con ocho grupos; muestra de tamaño 50 en cada municipio, diseñada con criterios estadísticos y epidemiológicos; tratamiento aplicado en orden de llegada de los pacientes y según los esquemas usuales; seguimiento por 21 días; evaluación no ciega del efecto con el protocolo 1998 de la Organización Mundial de la Salud OMS. Resultados: se evaluaron 90 pacientes con MFNC; la falla terapéutica fue 2.2%: un caso precoz y otro tardío. El tratamiento fue bien tolerado. La parasitemia asexual se eliminó totalmente en 90% en los tres días de tratamiento (otro 10% mistenía 40-80 parásitos/μL, que no es falla y en 100% antes de 7 días de haber iniciado el tratamiento. AQ-SP mostró total capacidad de eliminar la fiebre: 100% afebriles el día 3. En los pacientes con gametocitos la cantidad de estos creció entre los días 0 y 7 y decreció luego hasta el día 21, cuando 52% los presentaban (promedio: 63 gametocitos/ μL, pero no se evaluaron la viabilidad ni la fertilidad de tales gametocitos. Conclusión: el tratamiento de la MFNC con AQ-SP es altamente eficaz y debe mantenerse como la primera opción terapéutica, reforzada su eficacia antimalárica por el bajo costo, la buena tolerancia y la escasez y levedad de los efectos adversos imputables al tratamiento. Background: The combination of amodiaquine (AQ and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP is the firstchoice treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria (UCFM in Antioquia (northwestern Colombia since

  4. População caiçara, Mata Atlântica e situação atual do palmito-juçara (Euterpe edulis Mart. na região do Rio Una da Aldeia (Iguape-SP, entorno da Estação Ecológica Jureia-Itatins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis José Fernandes de Oliveira Junior


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram desenvolvidos estudos na região do Rio Una da Aldeia, afluente do ribeira de Iguape, no entorno da Estação Ecológica Jureia-Itatins, Município de Iguape, São Paulo. Esses estudos consistiram de levantamento em campo das populações de Euterpe edulis Mart. (palmito-juçara e também de estudos preliminares etnobotânicos, através da aplicação de questionários semiestruturados e realização de seminário para diagnóstico do uso atual da área, sensibilização e percepção da sustentabilidade ambiental pelos comunitários. O trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o estado de conservação das populações do palmito-juçara e também estudar relações que as comunidades caiçaras da região mantinham com o ambiente natural. Os resultados indicaram a urgente necessidade de elaboração de um plano para enriquecimento e manejo de Euterpe edulis Mart. Foi constatada também a imensa potencialidade de uso econômico da floresta, bem como o desejo das populações tradicionais em manejar sustentavelmente os recursos naturais.

  5. El sentido que tiene para los estudiantes de décimo grado de una institución pública-rural, el aprendizaje de la escritura del inglés y la contribución de los maestros en dicho aprendizaje


    Soto Cabezas, Indira Carolina


    Este trabajo es el resultado de una investigación de corte cualitativo cuyo objetivo principal era conocer, en términos de expectativas, el sentido que tiene para los estudiantes que cursan actualmente décimo grado en la institución educativa Cristóbal Colón del corregimiento de San Bernando- Dagua, aprender la escritura del inglés y la medida en que contribuyen los maestros en dicho aprendizaje. Se tomó como base el enfoque antropo-sociológico de la teoría de origen francés RAS (Rapport a...

  6. Incidencia que tiene la participación de los jóvenes en los grupos juveniles respecto a su formación integral, calidad de vida y compromiso social, en la Universidad Nacional, Universidad de Medellín, Universidad de Antioquia tres instituciones de educación superior, de Medellín.


    Martínez Arroyave, Olga Luz; Ocampo Mejía, Martha Cecilia; Arango Ríos, Silvia


    En la Universidad de Medellín, se planteó por parte de un grupo interdisciplinario de investigadores, la posibilidad de mirar la Incidencia que tiene la participación de los jóvenes, en los grupos juveniles, respecto a la Formación Integral, Calidad de Vida y Compromiso Social. El estudio fue realizado en tres Instituciones de Educación Superior de Medellín, escogiéndose: la Universidad Nacional, la Universidad de Medellín, y la Universidad de Antioquia. El grupo de investigadores ident...

  7. Concepto y aplicación práctica que dan los profesores de química a la evaluación final, análisis de falencias y potencialidades que tiene en el proceso de enseñanza y de aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Martínez


    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de analizar qué imagen, concepto y aplicación práctica respecto a la evaluación final tienen los profesores de nivel universitario, se realiza una pequeña indagación en la UPN, con docentes del departamento de química. Se busca entonces evidenciar algunas de las falencias y potencialidades que tiene la evaluación final en el proceso de enseñanza y de aprendizaje, con relación a tal visión, cuando finalmente esta, es el resultado de la planeación previa del profesor.

  8. Menswaardigheid na tien jaar van regstaatlikheid in Suid-Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LWH Ackermann


    Full Text Available HUMAN DIGNITY AFTER TEN YEARS OF TEH CONSTITUTIONAL STATE IN SOUTH AFRICASpeech delivered on 16 March 2004 on the Potchefstroom campus of the North-West UniversityHuman dignity has been the marrow of our Constitution and our constitutional state since 1994. The inherent dignity of man is also a key principle of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. The Kantian categorical imperatives continue to provide guidance regarding the meaning of human dignity. At the very least, people are entitled to be regarded as moral subjects and not as objects: as subjects with absolute and inherent worth and therefore also as moral subjects of equal worth.The juridical core of the pathology of apartheid was the extensive and sustained attempt to deprive the majority of South Africans of the right to self-identification and self-determination. It amounted to an inversion of the Kantian imperatives. A reversal of this inversion has been attempted over the past ten years. The Constitution not only elevates human dignity to a specially entrenched value, but also affords it special protection in the context of fundamental rights. It is furthermore a specific consideration in the limitation of rights and in the development of the common law. It applies not only to the state/subject relationship, but also to "horizontal" relationships and it must be taken into account in the interpretation of the Constitution.Constitutional jurisprudence has established that the Constitution is more than a formal document, but that it also represents an objective, normative value system. Thus the foundational norm of human dignity radiates into all areas of the law. The role of human dignity in the interpretation and application of norms applicable to remedial or restitutionary equality, as well as in the achievement of constitutional equilibrium in the "horizontal" operation of the Bill of Rights, has also been established.The realization of human dignity is but in its initial stages: civil society, including educational institutions, are called upon to make their contribution to the process.

  9. Moroccorp: tien miljoen woorden uit twee Marokkaans-Nederlandse chatkanalen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tom Ruette; Freek Van de Velde


      Moroccorp: Ten Million Words from two Moroccan Dutch Chat Channels. In this article we introduce a new corpus of computer-mediated communication in Dutch by Maroccan-Dutch language users, consisting of ten million words of chat material...

  10. La construction relative dans Chrétien de Troyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabriek, Pieter


    1. On peut reléguer à la syntaxe figée la construction relative avec la pronom neutre que dans feire que sages, que je sache, (au) plus tost qu'il pot, je n'ai que feire; avec le pronom adjectif qui dans il n'i a celui (nul, un seul) qui, com cil qui; en outre qui vive dans riens (om) qui vive

  11. Dominio informativo, ¿quién tiene el poder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mauricio Velásquez


    Full Text Available A través de la historia, las relaciones entre los gobiernos y la prensa han sido definitivas en el éxito o fracaso de quienes ostentan el poder. No es extraño que algunos jefes de Estado se sientan incómodos con la manera de informar de algunos medios o, por el contrario, decidan aliarse para estructurar determinadas agendas que se manejan de manera unánime para orientar el temario que decida el ejecutivo. El Observatorio de Medios de la Facultad de Comunicación Social y Periodismo realizó un estudio para conocer el estado de la relación entre el presidente Álvaro Uribe Vélez y la prensa. La investigación reveló presiones directas e indirectas que el gobierno ejerce sobre los periodistas.

  12. De refranes y cantares tiene el pueblo mil millares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Alfonso Soler


    Full Text Available Esta experiencia trata de acercarnos a la palabra para mejorar las competencias comunicativas orales y escritas de los nuevos hablantes de nuestro idioma. El uso de los refranes se incluye en el ámbito del nivel popular; en él abunda la subjetividad, se economizan considerablemente los medios lingüísticos y aparecen numerosas apelaciones al oyente. Relativo a esto podemos señalar que los proverbios y refranes son expresiones de contenido moral y didáctico que se transmiten de manera oral.

  13. Tien jaar Duurzaam Veilig : verkeersveiligheidsbalans 1998-2007.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W.A.M. & Schagen, I.N.L.G. van (red.)


    Ten years of Sustainable Safety; Road safety assessment 1998-2007. The road safety vision Sustainable Safety was introduced at the beginning of the Nineties. The concrete implementation of Sustainable Safety began in 1998 after the Covenant for the Start-up Programme had been signed. This road

  14. Muerte embrionaria temprana: ¿Tiene influencia el factor masculino?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gil Villa, Aura María; Cardona-Maya, Wálter Darío; Cadavid Jaramillo, Ángela Patricia


    ... de maduración que permita la fecundación y el desarrollo embrionario exitosos. El estudio de las parejas con muerte embrionaria temprana, usualmente se aborda desde el factor femenino por la obvia...

  15. Strategische marketing : De tien geboden van het gezonden verstand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moenaert, R.K.; Robben, M.


    Door de jaren heen is de klassieke strategische doctrine nogal eens ter discussie gesteld. En het boek ‘Blue Ocean Strategy’ versterkt die trend alleen maar. In het boek staat waarde-innovatie centraal en het biedt, in tegenstelling tot eerdere werken zoals het pamflettistisch-kritische betoog van

  16. Moroccorp: tien miljoen woorden uit twee Marokkaans- Nederlandse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . 463. Tabel 2: De twintig meest productieve chatters. Nickname. Aantal woorden. Manal. 160.258 koekje. 134.301. Aketoef. 108.481 lady_mamita. 85.482 kipsate. 84.435 groentebol. 78.249. KYRA. 72.585 nourdine. 71.264 meisjepraatveel.

  17. Bodemvruchtbaarheid daalt langzaam - tien jaar fosfaatevenwichtsbemesting op grasland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, van J.C.; Salm, van der C.; Ehlert, P.A.I.


    De bodemvruchtbaarheid van grasland blijkt langzaam te dalen als gedurende 10 jaar evenwichtsbemesting voor fosfaat is toegepast. Ook worden de graslandopbrengst en het fosforgehalte van het gras dan iets lager, zo blijkt uit een veldproef van ASG en Alterra

  18. No High School Diploma? You've Got Options! = No tienes un diploma de la escuela preparatoria? Tienes opciones! (United States)

    EdSource, 2006


    If a student completes high school but is unable to graduate, there are still options. The student can still get a high school diploma whether he or she dropped out, failed the California High School Exit Exam, or did not have enough course credits. As many know, a high school diploma is a passport to a more interesting and better paying job.…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tous nos patients, a permis d'éIiminer une localisation pulmonaire associée au moment du diagnostic. Le cliché d'abdomen sans préparation. (ASP) a mis en évidence des calcifications au niveau de I'aire rénale chez ... Sur le plan biologique, une hyperéosino- philie a été retrouvée .... et la tuberculose rénale. Le type lV du.

  20. Teaching English 101CAI: From Romance to Realism. (United States)

    Pair, Joyce M.

    This project/study introduced the use of computers in one freshman composition course to determine whether the instructor and the students could accomplish more in a computer-based rather than a traditionally structured course. The assumption was that students would produce better essays on the word-processor and printer, and that the instructor…

  1. Audible Computer-Assisted Instruction: Toward the Compleat CAI. (United States)

    Hertzler, Emanuel C.


    Presents the technical details of the hardware and software used with two kinds of computers, the Radio Shack TRS-80 and the Apple II, in developing personalized computer-assisted instruction with the addition of the instructor's voice interfaced with the computer. Programing controls for this interface are listed. (RAO)

  2. SMITH: How to Produce CAI Courses without Programming (United States)

    Osin, Louis


    A computer-assisted instruction system called SMITH (Self-directed Mixed Initiative Tutorial Helper) has been developed. SMITH relieves the course author of the burden of computer programming, thus greatly reducing course preparation time. (Author)

  3. Learning Priniciples Essential for effective computer assisted instruction (cai)


    Havlicek, Larry L.; Ghandour, Mahmoud M.


    Guidelines and recommendations for effective computer assisted instruction are presented based on a review of the current theories and research relating to cognitive conceptions of learning and instructional design which are documented by meta-analytic techniques. The main focus is on how meta-cognitive processes are conceptualized and integrated for the most effective development of any interactive technology for learning. These concepts are then integrated into sequencing and synthesizin...

  4. CAI and Its Application in Rural Junior English Class (United States)

    He, Xiaojun


    Superiority in developing students' listening, speaking, etc. This thesis explores how to provide a better environment for English teaching in rural junior school with the aid of multimedia and find some ways to improve teaching efficiency. In recent years, using multimedia is the direction of reform and mainstream in English teaching. Compared…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Alcaraz Sintes


    Full Text Available This article offer a general but thorougli survey of Computer Assisted lnstruction as applied to the Old English language íkoni the work of the late 80's pioneers to December 2001. It enibraces all the different facets of the question: stand-alone and web-based applications, Internet sites. CD-ROMs, grammars, dictioriaries, general courses, reading software, extralinguistic material, exercises, handouts, audio files ... Each instruction itee whether it be a website, a java exercise, an online course or an electronic book- is reviewed and URLs are provided in Sootiiotes. These reviews are accompanied all throughout by the pertinent theoretical background and practical advice.

  6. A visão da família sobre a experiência de ter uma criança gastrostomizada La visión de la familia sobre la experiencia de tener un niño que tiene gastrostomía The views of the family about the experience of having a child with gastrostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cascaes Cruz


    Full Text Available A gastrostomia é cada vez mais usada para tratar de problemas nutricionais e de crescimento em crianças com doenças crónicas ou deficientes. Embora seja um procedimento simples para a equipa de saúde, a criação de estomas na criança pode gerar consequências emocionais e sociais na vida familiar. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar as evidências científicas acerca da experiência da família que possui uma criança gastrostomizada. Elaborou-se uma revisão integrativa da literatura no período de 2005 a 2011 e busca de artigos em diferentes bases de dados, sendo selecionados 10 artigos sobre o tema. A análise dos textos permitiu organizar os resultados em quatro temas: o significado da alimentação para os pais; o desempenho do papel parental; a experiência da família na interação com a equipa de saúde; a vida após a gastrostomia. Os resultados demonstram que a família que tem uma criança gastrostomizada experiencia uma grande sobrecarga emocional, sobretudo no período anterior ao procedimento, em virtude do significado sociocultural que a alimentação tem para ela. A família necessita de receber informações e apoio da equipa de saúde que acompanha a criança.La gastrostomía se utiliza cada vez más para tratar problemas nutricionales y de crecimiento en niños con enfermedades crónicas o incapacidades. A pesar de que el equipo sanitario considera que es un procedimiento simple, la realización de un estoma en el niño puede tener consecuencias emocionales y sociales en la vida familiar. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las evidencias científicas relacionadas con la experiencia de la familia que tiene un niño con gastrostomía. Se realizó una revisión integrativa de la literatura en el periodo comprendido entre 2005 y 2011 y se buscaron artículos en diferentes bases de datos, de los cuales se seleccionaron 10 sobre el tema. El análisis de los textos permitió organizar los resultados en cuatro

  7. Espacialidade do ser-profissional-de-enfermagem no mundo do cuidado à criança que tem câncer Especialidad del ser profesional de enfermería en el mundo del cuidado al niño que tiene cáncer Spaciality of being-nursing-professional in the world of caring to children who has cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Flores Mutti


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: compreender o significado para equipe de enfermagem de cuidar de crianças que têm doença oncológica avançada, cuja enfermidade não responde mais aos tratamentos curativos. MÉTODO: Investigação fenomenológica heideggeriana. Etapa de campo desenvolvida no período de dezembro/2010 a março/2011, com 15 profissionais de enfermagem no Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. RESULTADOS: O profissional de enfermagem expressa que, no cotidiano de cuidado à criança que tem câncer, tem que separar o profissional do emocional. Descreve o seu dia a dia dentro e fora do hospital. Com o tempo, aprende a separar o trabalho da vida pessoal. CONCLUSÕES: Aponta a necessidade do desenvolvimento de estratégias de ação multiprofissional entre a equipe que cuida, considerando que também precisa ser cuidada.OBJETIVO: comprender el significado para el equipo de enfermería de atención a niños que tienen enfermedad oncológica avanzada, cuya enfermedad no responde más a los tratamientos curativos. MÉTODO: Investigación fenomenológica heideggeriana. Etapa de campo desarrollada en el período de diciembre/2010 a marzo/2011, con 15 profesionales de enfermería en el Hospital Universitario de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. RESULTADOS: El profesional de enfermería expresa que, en el cotidiano de cuidado al niño que tiene cáncer, tiene que separar el profesional del emocional. Describe su rutina dentro y fuera del hospital. Con el tiempo aprende a separar el trabajo de la vida profesional. CONCLUSIONES: Apunta la necesidad del desarrollo de estrategias de acción multiprofesional entre el equipo que cuida, considerando que también necesita atención.OBJECTIVE: to comprehend the meaning of taking care of children who have an advanced cancer that no longer responds to curative treatments for nursing staff. METHODS: heideggerian phenomenological research. Field step developed from December/2010 to March

  8. Un environnement multimédia privilégiant l’expression en langage naturel, pour des activités éducatives de type piagétien A multimedia environment favouring natural language expression, for educational piagetian games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élisabeth Godbert


    Full Text Available Nous nous intéressons dans cet article au développement de logiciels éducatifs proposant, dans un environnement multimédia, multimodal et réactif privilégiant l’expression en langage naturel, des exercices de type piagétien pour l’aide à l’apprentissage du langage. Dans ce type de système, chaque exercice met en jeu un micro-monde d’objets graphiques sur lesquels l’enfant utilisateur peut agir (modification, déplacement, suppression d’objets, etc., en formulant des requêtes en langage naturel auxquelles le système répond. Nous présentons un logiciel éducatif de cette famille, que nous avons conçu et développé ces dernières années. Nous décrivons en premier lieu les objectifs pédagogiques et les fonctionnalités de notre logiciel, puis le système que nous y utilisons pour le traitement automatique du langage. Nous décrivons ensuite l’ensemble des composants qui structure les connaissances qu’il a été nécessaire de modéliser, articuler et gérer pour la réalisation de ce système.This paper deals with the development of educational software, which proposes, in a multimedia, multimodal and reactive environment favoring natural language expression, piagetian games designed for natural language learning. In such systems, each exercise brings into play a micro-world of graphic objects on which the user can act (for example to modify, move or withdraw the objects, by composing natural language queries to which the system gives an answer. We present a software of this type, that has been designed and implemented these last years. We firstly describe the educational objectives and the functionality of the software, then the natural language processing system which is used in it. Finally we describe the set of components that structures knowledge modeled, articulated and managed in order to carry out this educational system.

  9. « Comment se comporter avec un roi chrétien » : l’ouvrage perdu d’Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī Ibn al-Qaṭṭān et les enjeux du cérémonial almohade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghouirgate


    Full Text Available Cet article propose de revenir sur un document aussi exceptionnel que méconnu. Il s’agit du résumé d’un ouvrage (maqāla, aujourd’hui perdu, intitulé « Comment se comporter avec un roi chrétien », et que l’on trouve dans le dictionnaire bio-bibliographique d’Ibn ʿAbd al-Malik. Cette maqāla fut rédigée, par un homme de lettres au service des Almohades, Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī Ibn al-Qaṭṭān (m. 1231. C’est la seule source qui ait consigné des indications sur la conduite que devait adopter le souverain lors d’une cérémonie, en présence d’un prince étranger. À ce titre, on y trouve des renseignements essentiels sur le cérémonial almohade ainsi que sur les dilemmes que devaient résoudre le calife : d’un point de vue idéologique, il ne pouvait souffrir aucun autre pouvoir, mais l’impossibilité de mener des opérations d’envergure sur deux fronts à la fois l’amena à composer avec le roi du León. De même, c’est le seul document à avoir fait état d’une divergence de point de vue entre le calife et les intellectuels organiques du système, les Ṭalaba. Ce différend met en lumière des tensions latentes au sommet entre divers serviteurs de l’État, qui n’avaient pas la même forme de légitimité, ni tout à fait les mêmes intérêts.

  10. O significado de cuidado para crianças vítimas de violência intrafamiliar que tiene el cuidado El significado para niños víctimas de violencia familiar The meaning of care for children victims of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Irmgard Bärtschi Gabatz


    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa que objetivou descrever o significado de cuidado vivenciado em família por crianças abrigadas que sofreram violência intrafamiliar. Foi desenvolvida em duas instituições que abrigam crianças e adolescentes vítimas de violência familiar no sul do Brasil, com quatro crianças entre 8 e 11 anos de idade. A produção dos dados ocorreu em junho/julho de 2008 por meio do Método Criativo Sensível, com as dinâmicas de criatividade e sensibilidade Brincar em Cena e Corpo Saber. Os dados foram analisados por meio da análise de discurso francesa. Foi evidenciado como tema o significado atribuído pela criança acerca de cuidado, que se desdobrou nos subtemas Sentimento de amor e de carinho pelo familiar que cuidava e Os cuidados básicos de higiene como forma de cuidado. Recomenda-se um trabalho preventivo, realizado junto às famílias com foco em ações que propiciem o apego, o fortalecimento do vínculo mãe-filho e as relações familiares.La presente investigación cualitativa tuvo como objetivo describir el significado que tiene recibir cuidado y atención, dentro de un entorno familiar, para niños albergados que sufrieron violencia familiar. Se desarrolló con cuatro niños, entre 8 y 11 años de edad, en dos instituciones que albergan niños y adolescentes víctimas de violencia doméstica en el sur de Brasil. Los datos fueron obtenidos en junio y julio de 2008 por medio del Método Creativo Sensible (Método Criativo Sensível, más específicamente, a través de la realización de las dinámicas de creatividad y sensibilidad: "Jugar en escena" (Brincar em Cena y "Cuerpo Saber" (Corpo Saber. Para analizar los datos se utilizó la corriente francesa de análisis del discurso. El significado que estos niños le atribuyeron al cuidado y atención se dividió en dos subtemas, el sentimiento de amor y afecto que sienten por la familia delegada para cuidarlos, y los cuidados básicos de higiene como

  11. Bogotá no tiene mar pero tiene playa: el vallenato y sus intérpretes costeños en Bogotá


    Jaramillo Acuña, Juan Guillermo


    La Playa es un sector de la ciudad de Bogotá, donde se encuentra la oferta de músicos informales más grande de Colombia: mariachis, tríos de cuerda y grupos vallenatos. En esta investigación, se analiza la migración de músicos vallenatos provenientes del Caribe colombiano a este sector de la capital del país; se examina el trabajo de estos músicos en La Playa; y se revisa el proceso de consolidación del vallenato como música nacional.

  12. Tectonic and gravity-induced deformation along the active Talas-Fergana Fault, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    Tibaldi, A.; Corazzato, C.; Rust, D.; Bonali, F. L.; Pasquarè Mariotto, F. A.; Korzhenkov, A. M.; Oppizzi, P.; Bonzanigo, L.


    This paper shows, by field palaeoseismological data, the Holocene activity of the central segment of the intracontinental Talas-Fergana Fault (TFF), and the relevance of possible future seismic shaking on slope stability around a large water reservoir. The fault, striking NW-SE, is marked by a continuous series of scarps, deflected streams and water divides, and prehistoric earthquakes that offset substrate and Holocene deposits. Fault movements are characterised by right-lateral strike-slip kinematics with a subordinate component of uplift of the NE block. Structural, geological and geomorphological field data indicate that shallow and deep landslides are aligned along the TFF, and some of them are active. Where the TFF runs close to the reservoir, the fault trace is obscured by a series of landslides, affecting rock and soil materials and ranging in size from small slope instabilities to deep-seated gravity-induced slope deformations (DGSDs). The largest of these, which does not show clear evidence of present-day activity, involves a volume of about 1 km3 and is associated with smaller but active landslides in its lower part, with volumes in the order of 2.5 × 104 m3 to 1 × 106 m3. Based on the spatial and temporal relations between landslides and faults, we argue that at least some of these slope failures may have a coseismic character. Stability analyses by means of limit equilibrium methods (LEMs), and stress-strain analysis by finite difference numerical modelling (FDM), were carried out to evaluate different hazard scenarios linked to these slope instabilities. The results indicate concern for the different threats posed, ranging from the possible disruption of the M-41 highway, the main transportation route in central Asia, to the possible collapse of huge rock masses into the reservoir, possibly generating a tsunami.

  13. ¡Chile tiene fiesta! El origen del 18 de Septiembre (1810-1837

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Lastra


    Full Text Available Ad portas de la celebración del Bicentenario de la Primera Junta de Gobierno, el trabajo de Paulina Peralta, una joven historiadora, toma un realce sustantivo dentro de la amplia gama de ensayos que han abordado últimamente los temas referentes a la construcción de la nación chilena. Enmarcado en una línea que oscila entre las dimensiones políticas y sociales, el estudio sobre el origen del 18 de Septiembre como fiesta nacional posee como finalidad mostrar una manera de hacer nación desde arriba, convirtiendo un acto puramente cívico potenciado por las elites, en una herramienta constructora de la nacionalidad chilena. Dentro de este tema, el estudio de Peralta es en sí novedoso, al tomar como su objeto de análisis un aspecto específico e identitario como la celebración del 18 de Septiembre y esbozarnos su raigambre histórica...

  14. Movilizarse tiene sentido: Análisis cultural en el estudio de movilizaciones sociales




    Este artículo expone algunas de las perspectivas teóricas que permiten analizar las movilizaciones sociales desde una mirada cultural. En primer lugar se realiza un diagnóstico de la situación en el campo de estudios de la movilización social, argumentado la hegemonía de las perspectivas estratégicas y estructurales, así como el actual boom en la producción de acercamientos de orientación cultural. Luego, partiendo de los argumentos proporcionados por el interaccionismo simbólico, se revisan ...

  15. ¿Tiene Anaxímenes una teoría del cambio?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Graham


    Full Text Available For a long time it has been argued that, amongst the first presocratics, Anaximenes is whom possessed the most detailed theory of change. Indeed, his theory of change was one of his fundamental contributions to history of philosophy. Thirty years ago this opinion was questioned and the argument was recently repeated in a revised edition of Anaximenes. So far, I have no notice that such question has been answered. In the present essay I want to argue that, although there is something erroneous in the traditional interpretation of Anaximenes theory of change, it is not what the objectors say it is: truly, Anaximenes possess an important theory of change, of which we have significant antique evidence.

  16. Tiene Arte Valor Afuera Del Barrio: The Murals of East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights (United States)

    Holscher, Louis M.


    Discusses the themes of the murals and explores the possible uses that the murals in Los Angeles have for the outsider, the non-Chicano, for those who have only a little understanding or awareness of the Chicano community. (Author/AM)

  17. The role of violence in the romances of Chrétien de Troyes

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    Miha Pintarič


    Full Text Available Chretien de Troyes, the most famous of the French 12th-century authors of chivalric romaces, comes to a very personal view of violence towards the end of his writing career, in his Perceval or the grail story. While in his previous works, the first of which was Erec and Enid, the object of the present article, he abided by the commonly accepted norms concerning the description of »violence«: there's no »abstract violence«, and it should never befall and idea or a tradition while the violence against the individual is a common occurrence considered "creative" and legitimate, if not indispensable, for the making of social hierarchy and order, violence ceases to be a topic of interest in his last, unfinished text.

  18. ¿Es el plagio una sorpresa? ¿Acaso tiene clase?


    Marco González T; Salim Mattar V


    Entendemos que no es posible abordar en un espacio editorial el vasto tema del plagio, susimplicaciones y temas conexos presente en libros, artículos científicos, historias, películas,frases, logotipos, inventos, marcas, colores de productos e ideas entre otros muchos temasdesarrollados por el ser humano. Este mal es muy antiguo, pero parafraseando términosde los infectólogos, hoy día se encuentra en plena reemergencia. Al patógeno de estaepidemia le favorece indiscutiblemente la moderna vía ...

  19. ¿Es el plagio una sorpresa? ¿Acaso tiene clase?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco González T.


    Full Text Available Entendemos que no es posible abordar en un espacio editorial el vasto tema del plagio, sus implicaciones y temas conexos presente en libros, artículos científicos, historias, películas, frases, logotipos, inventos, marcas, colores de productos e ideas entre otros muchos temas desarrollados por el ser humano. Este mal es muy antiguo, pero parafraseando términos de los infectólogos, hoy día se encuentra en plena reemergencia. Al patógeno de esta epidemia le favorece indiscutiblemente la moderna vía de transmisión global que es el internet, ya que través de la red, el cibernauta dispone de toneladas de información; la mayoría gratuita.

  20. What's in a nudge? : Tien aanbevelingen voor nudge-experimenten in de openbare gezondheidszorg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ridder, D.T.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070706174; Gillebaart, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344390365


    Nudging, kortweg gedefinieerd als het gemakkelijker maken van de gewenste (gezonde) keuze zonder de ongewenste keuze te verbieden, wint aan populariteit als alternatief voor gebruikelijke (veelal educatieve) interventies in de openbare gezondheidszorg. Duidelijke aanknopingspunten om te gaan

  1. ¿Tiene lugar la recreación en la escuela? Las ludotecas como estrategia


    Esperanza Osorio Correa


    Este artículo plantea en principio la pregunta sobre el lugar de la recreación en la escuela y la posición que el campo de la recreación deberá plantearse en algún momento, más aún cuando en nuestro país se están formando licenciados en recreación que obligan a pensar la praxis misma en el ámbito escolar. En segundo lugar propone a las ludotecas escolares como una opción posible para generar de manera intencional procesos de educación para la recreación en la escuela, en tanto éstas se resign...

  2. ¿Respetamos a la persona que tiene una orientación sexual diferente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar de Jiménez Martha


    Full Text Available

    En este artículo se describen las observaciones realizadas en el trabajo con distintos grupos de la comunidad, sobre el tema de la homosexualidad. Conviene aclarar que con el término homosexualidad se hace referencia tanto al hombre como a la mujer, esto por cuanto dicho término procede del griego ''homo'' que significa "mismo" "igual" no de la palabra latina ''homo'' que significa hombre. En los talleres que se realizan sobre sexualidad humana, el tema de homosexualidad es casi siempre solicitado por los participantes, pero el grupo en que más se registra esta necesidad es en el de los maestros. Al iniciar la discusión la sola mención de la palabra produce reacción y no propiamente de aceptación, en el lenguaje no verbal de los participantes se perciben gestos de desagrado, o el chiste un poco mordaz que luego se traduce en palabras y expresiones más concretas que muestran lo que esa comunicación ha tratado de transmitir.

  3. De drinkwaterkwaliteit in Nederland van 1992 tot 2002 - Een overzicht van tien jaar kwaliteitsbewaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh JFM; Morgenstern PP; Biesebeek JD Te; IMD


    The Minister for Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environ-ment (VROM) informs the Dutch Parliament every year on the quality of the drinking water in the Netherlands. The drinking water quality has been overviewed in this report for a ten-year period, from1992 to 2002. From the digital data sent

  4. Conocimiento que tiene el personal de salud del servicio de maternidad sobre lactancia materna exclusiva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Villalobos Núñez


    Full Text Available The following article presents the results of educational needs assessment aimed at medical and nursing staff to strengthen Breastfeeding Clinic Hospital Max Peralta, the purpose of this was to identify the educational needs of staff regarding breastfeeding, to promote practices that promote exclusive breastfeeding. The same was done in 2005. By using a qualitative action research type. The population consisted of 28 people team members professional and technical nursing and two medical professionals. Information was collected through a structured interview. Among the significant findings found the absence of a physical and organizational structure of the breastfeeding clinic. On the other hand there are differences in the knowledge possessed by the participants regarding the breastfeeding technique. It is necessary that the maternity service management guidelines provide for the operation of the breastfeeding clinic to strengthen the promotion and maintenance of it.

  5. La sociedad civil tiene que tener participación en los procesos comunicativos

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    Martha Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Comunicación y Género, acopia trabajos que vinculan a la mujer y la comunicación y sus esfuerzos por no ser consideradas inferiores. Del libro a la pantalla, acerca a algunas reflexiones sobre el proceso que lleva del libro a la pantalla por la polémica que despierta la adaptación de las novelas, puesto que muchos señalan que la trama se ve desfigurada. Se agregan varios temas sobre el cine. En "Días de Radio", se plantea el que a pesar de la censura y los problemas económicos que deben enfrentar, las radios populares de América Latina, siguen ganando espacios, de su desarrollo depende una mayor profundización de la democracia. Tema de debate es Estrategias comunicativas en Chiapas y Haití. Se añaden dos entrevistas a un caricaturista brasileño y a un corresponsal de guerra muy prestigiado.

  6. The Muruntau gold deposit (Uzbekistan – A unique ancient hydrothermal system in the southern Tien Shan

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    Ulf Kempe


    Full Text Available The Muruntau gold deposit in the Central Kyzylkum, Uzbekistan is one of the largest single gold deposits worldwide. Data available from the literature are reviewed with the aim to (1 integrate the present knowledge on this unique deposit from Russian and English literature; (2 show the considerable progress made in the understanding of the genesis of the Muruntau deposit during the last decades; and (3 point to problems still open for future research. Deposit formation occurred through a multi-stage process involving sedimentation, regional metamorphism including thrusting, magmatism with formation of hornfels aureoles and several stages of hydrothermal activity. According to recent knowledge, synsedimentary or pure metamorphic formation of gold mineralization seems unlikely. The role of granite magmatism occurring roughly within the same time interval as the main hydrothermal gold precipitation remains uncertain. There are no signs of interaction of matter between the magma(s and the hydrothermal system(s. On the other hand, there was an intense, high-temperature (above 400 °C fluid – wall rock interaction resulting in the formation of gold-bearing, cone-like stockworks with veins, veinlets and gold-bearing metasomatites. Several chemical and isotope indicators hint at an involvement of lower-crustal or mantle-related sources as well as of surface waters in ore formation. Deposit formation through brecciation involving explosion, hydrothermal or tectonic breccias might explain these data. Further investigations on breccia formation as well as on the exact timing of relevant sedimentary, metamorphic, magmatic and hydrothermal events are recommended.

  7. Quantitative Biostratigraphic Analysis of Central Asia with Implications for the Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    McLaughlin, W. N.; Hopkins, S. S.


    Central Asia lies at a nexus both in terms of geology and evolutionary biogeography. With the convergence of the Indian and Asian plates creating high rates of deformation over broad regions, shortening of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic basement rocks has created a rich history of late Cenozoic sedimentary basins. In fact, Kyrgyzstan is the most seismically active country in the world. Additionally, Central Asia is a biogeographic crossroads, facilitating the intercontinental migrations of distant faunas from North American, Europe, Africa, and Southern Asia. With such an active geologic and biological evolution, the usefulness of temporal constraints is apparent. However, the continental collision environment has provided few volcanic rocks suitable for radiometric dating. Therefore, while less precise, the biostratigraphic analysis of Central Asia I present is an ideal method for both establishing ages and correlating between disparate basins. The last several decades provided great advancements in quantitative biostratigraphic methods applied to marine microfossils from drill cores. While these newer methods such as RASC (ranking and scaling), its sister program CASC, and CONOP (constrained optimization) provide a clear improvement over older methods such as graphic correlation, they have yet to be applied to terrestrial vertebrate faunas. Graphic correlation only allows comparison between two stratigraphic columns at a time and is heavily weighted by the initial selection of a type section. Both RASC and CONOP compare all stratigraphic sections simultaneously, eliminating type section bias. Previous vertebrate biostratigraphy methods attempted to predict FADs and LADs with the assumption they are generally minimum estimates. RASC instead establishes average stratigraphic ranges for each taxon and with CASC actually provides confidence intervals for each prediction, reducing the potential error resulting from reworking. CONOP generates maximum stratigraphic ranges observed in all sections, yet also includes error bars for the estimates of each biological event such as an extinction or origination. Used in conjunction, RASC, CASC, and CONOP provide both a solid evaluation of land mammal ages or zones for Central Asia and a predictive composite column for new late Cenozoic fossil localities. With a high degree of endemicity and migration, Central Asia cannot rely on the European Neogene Mammal Zones. This study aims to support and evaluate the emerging Asian biostratigraphic and geochronologic framework. With little fossil material currently collected from Kyrgyzstan, this study also sets a temporal framework for future paleontological work. Material is included from countries with much better constrained biostratigraphic records, preferably associated with existing radiometric dates. Specifically included were sites from Asiatic Russia, Mongolia, Western China, India, and Nepal. This geographic range is selected both to preserve the signal of faunas endemic to the Himalayan and Tibetan highlands, but also to provide a large enough sample to account for the well-known problems with the terrestrial fossil record such as high sampling errors and diachrony.

  8. Rock waste dumps on the Davydov Glacier (Akshyirak Range, Tien Shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kuzmichenok


    Full Text Available Since 1995, a barren rock has been formed at the Davydov Glacier, due to the works at the Kumtor Gold Mine. By the end of 2010, total amount of the rock, stockpiled on the glacier, apparently exceeded 200 million tons, the height of dumps of rock sometimes exceeded 50 meters. The most noticeable effects of this are provoking local surges of the Davydov Glacier and squeezing glacier ice out of the dumps of rock. For a detailed analysis of both processes, we also used the results of periodic geodetic measurements (over 8000 of monitoring rods (about 800 rods of the gold mining company. A number of local surges of the glacier has been found, the first of which began in March–April 2002. To analyze glacier squeezing out of the dumps of rock, mathematical modeling of that process has been done. It was established that in most cases, the glacier is almost completely squeezed out of for 1–2 years.

  9. "El coronel no tiene quien le escriba," Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts. (United States)

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and…

  10. "Todo Tiene que ver con lo que se Habla." It's All About the Talk (United States)

    Frey, Nancy; Fisher, Douglas; Nelson, John


    Chula Vista Elementary School District, the largest in California, dramatically raised its student achievement while taking on increasing proportions of English learners by focusing on what it calls teacher talk--the way lessons are developed, delivered, and executed.

  11. Trends in ouTpaTienT malaria cases, following mass long lasTing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with increasing cases being reported in 2014-2015. Conclusion: despite a high llin coverage malaria cases increased over time. There is need for patient-level studies to assess if llins are being used appropriately and to look towards other complimentary malaria prevention strategies. inTroducTion. Malaria remains a major ...

  12. ¿Tiene sentido una teoría de la empresa?


    Martínez-Echevarría-y-Ortega, M.A. (Miguel Alfonso)


    Este cuaderno contiene:"Introducción", "La teoría neoclásica de la economía", " La apertura de la “caja negra” de la empresa neoclásica", "Los intentos de superación del enfoque neoclásico", "La empresa vista por sus directivos","Una visión no racionalista de la empresa".

  13. Competitive Advantage of New Entrant Company in Intermodal Container Leasing Industry : The Case of CAI


    Sahara, Taichiro; Watanabe, Tatsuro


    Containers have been making tremendous contribution for maritime transportation, especially for liner shipping industry since the global standardization. Their use has dramatically enhanced both speed and effectiveness for cross-border shipping. As the matter of the fact that the container traffic volume has significantly increased. Today, roughly half of containers in the world are owned by shipping company and the rest half is lease containers leased by container leasing companies to shippi...

  14. A CAI System for Visually Impaired Children to Improve Abilities of Orientation and Mobility (United States)

    Yoneda, Takahiro; Kudo, Hiroaki; Minagawa, Hiroki; Ohnishi, Noboru; Matsubara, Shizuya

    Some visually impaired children have difficulty in simple locomotion, and need orientation and mobility training. We developed a computer assisted instruction system which assists this training. A user realizes a task given by a tactile map and synthesized speech. The user walks around a room according to the task. The system gives the gap of walk path from its target path via both auditory and tactile feedback after the end of a task. Then the user can understand how well the user walked. We describe the detail of the proposed system and task, and the experimental result with three visually impaired children.

  15. Evaluation of the Vesicating Properties of Neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Set (CAIS) Components (United States)


    necrosis, hemorrhage, and pustular epidermitis) were graded by a veterinary pathologist. Eleven animals were dermally dosed with 1 gL neat HD and with 10...If signs of pain are exhibited following decontamination, buprenorphine at a dose of approximately 0.1-0.25 mg/kg sc can be given every 8-12 hr...and the slides are examined for histopathology and the presence or absence of microblisters by a qualified, experienced veterinary pathologist. a

  16. The Formation of Boundary Clinopyroxenes and Associated Glass Veins in Type B1 CAIs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paque, J M; Beckett, J R; Ishii, H A; Toppani, A; Burnett, D S; Teslich, N; Dai, Z R; Bradley, J P


    We used focused ion beam thin section preparation and scanning transmission electron microscopy (FIB/STEM) to examine the interfacial region between spinel and host melilite for three spinel grains, two from the mantle and one from the core of an Allende type B1 inclusion, and a second pair of spinel grains from a type B1 inclusion from the Leoville carbonaceous chondrite. The compositions of boundary clinopyroxenes decorating spinel surfaces are generally consistent with those of coarser clinopyroxenes from the same region of the inclusion, suggesting little movement of spinels between mantle and core regions after the formation of boundary clinopyroxenes. The host melilite displays no anomalous compositions near the interface, and anorthite or other late-stage minerals are not observed, suggesting that crystallization of residual liquid was not responsible for the formation of boundary clinopyroxenes. Allende spinels display either direct spinel-melilite contact or an intervening boundary clinopyroxene between the two phases. In the core, boundary clinopyroxene is mantled by a thin (1-2 {micro}m thick) layer of normally zoned (X{sub Ak} increasing away from the melilite-clinopyroxene contact) melilite with X{sub Ak} matching that of the host melilite at the melilite-melilite contact. In the mantle, X{sub Ak} near boundary spinels is constant. Spinels in a Leoville type B1 inclusion are more complex with boundary clinopyroxene, as observed in Allende, but also variable amounts of glass ({approx}1 {micro}m width), secondary calcite, perovskite, and an unknown Mg-, Al-, OH-rich and Ca-, Si-poor crystalline phase that may be a layered double hydrate. Glass compositions are consistent to first order with a precursor consisting mostly of Mg-carpholite or sudoite with some aluminous diopside. One possible scenario of formation for the glass veins is that open system alteration of melilite produced a porous, hydrated aggregate of Mg-carpholite or sudoite + aluminous diopside that was shock melted and quenched to a glass. The unknown crystalline phase may be a shocked remnant of the precursor phase assemblage but is more likely to have formed later by alteration of the glass. Calcite appears to be an opportunistic fracture filling that postdated all major shock events. Boundary clinopyroxenes probably share a common origin with coarser-grained pyroxenes from the same region of the inclusion. In the mantle, these crystals may represent clinopyroxene crystallized in Ti-rich liquids caused by the direct dissolution of perovskite and an associated Sc-Zr-rich phase or as a reaction product between dissolving perovskite and liquid (i.e., indirect dissolution of perovskite). In the core, any perovskite and associated Ti-enriched liquids that may have originally been present disappeared before the growth of boundary clinopyroxene.

  17. A Numerical/Experimental Study on the Impact and CAI Behaviour of Glass Reinforced Compsite Plates (United States)

    Perillo, Giovanni; Jørgensen, Jens K.; Cristiano, Roberta; Riccio, Aniello


    This paper focuses on the development of an advance numerical model specifically for simulating low velocity impact events and related stiffness reduction on composite structures. The model is suitable for low cost thick composite structures like wind turbine blade and maritime vessels. The model consist of a combination of inter and intra laminar models. The intra-laminar model present a combination of Puck and Hashin failure theories for the evaluation of the fibre and matrix failure. The inter-laminar damage is instead simulated by Cohesive Zone Method based on energy approach. Basic material properties, easily measurable according to standardized tests, are required. The model has been used to simulate impact and compression after impact tests. Experimental tests have been carried out on thick E-Glass/Epoxy composite commonly used in the wind turbine industry. The clustering effect as well as the consequence of the impact energy have been experimentally tested. The accuracy of numerical model has been verified against experimental data showing a very good accuracy of the model.

  18. Waterford School and the WICAT Education Institute: An Alternative Model for CAI and Development Research. (United States)

    O'Neal, Fred


    The first two years' experience at the Waterford School are described by an administrator and a parent. Waterford is a private, nontuition school conducted as the major activity of an educational institute dedicated to research, innovation, and the application of advanced technologies such as microcomputers and videodiscs to education and…

  19. Chinese Flashcards on Computer: A CAI System for Chinese with Voice, Characters and Pinyin Tonal Diacritics. (United States)

    Kunst, Richard


    Describes a system for computer-assisted practice of Chinese vocabulary. Its main goal is to help students improve their association between the sound of a Chinese word or phrase and its graphic shape in Chinese characters. This system is currently for use with the Victor 9000. (Author/LMO)

  20. A Low Temperature Synthetic Route to Nanocrystalline TiN | Cai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple chemical synthetic route has been developed to prepare nanocrystalline titanium nitride (TiN) in an autoclave, by the reaction of metallic Ti with NaNH2 at low temperature of 500–600 °C. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron ...

  1. Student learning styles and CAI and/or lecturing: The differential effects of instructional method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carisma Dreyer


    Full Text Available A question frequently asked is whether the use of technology is better than the non-use of technology for L2 learning. The purpose of this study is to determine whether instructional method (i.e. lecture vs. CAl vs. combined affects language achievement differentially for ESL students with dissimilar learning styles. The results of the study indicate that students with dissimilar learning styles achieve differentially as a result of instructional meth~d. The interaction between learning styles and instructional method was statistically significant. I 'n Vraag wat baie gevra word is of die gebruik van tegnologie beter is vir tweedetdal leerders as die nie-gebruik van tegnologie. Die doel van hierdie studie is om vas te stellof onderrigmetode (/esing of rekenaar gesteunde onderrig of 'n. kombinasie van die twe1e taalleer uitkomste van Engels tweedetaal leerders met verskil/ende leerstyle verskillefd bei'nvloed. Die bevindinge van hierdie studie toon aan dat leerders met verskil/enae leerstyle verskillend presteer as gevolg van die onderrigmetode. Die wisselwerking tuss~n leerstyle en onderrigmetode was statisties beduidend.

  2. Why Has CAI Not Been More Successful in Economic Education: A Note. (United States)

    Schenk, Robert; Silvia, John E.


    The negative judgment about computers reached by Siegfried and Fels in their article, "Teaching College Economics: A Survey" (Journal of Economic Literature, September 1979) is questioned. There are research questions in need of answers before economists reject the generally positive picture across disciplines of the efficacy of computer…

  3. Conodont color alteration (CAI) as an aid to structural interpretation in the Black Pine Mountains, Idaho (United States)

    Smith, Fred J.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.


    The Black Pine Mountains, southeastern Cassia County, Idaho, consist of southern and northern blocks separated by a northeast-trending, high-angle fault. Differences in conodont color alteration values distinguish the two blocks. The southern block has significantly higher organic maturation levels than the northern block and is interpreted to have been thrust northeastward adjacent to the northern block.

  4. Cai-Beneficial Teaching Tool at Texas School for the Deaf (United States)

    Culberton, Lynda B.


    Described are efforts of 15 schools for the deaf to continue for their 2000 students (after federal project funding termination) the computer assisted instruction program transmitted through telephone lines between 1971 and 1973 from the Institute for Mathematical Studies in Social Sciences, Stanford University. (Author/MC)

  5. CAI in Learning Voice in English Grammar among Eighth Standard Students--An Experimental Study (United States)

    Ramesh, R.; Sumathi, B.


    English is a language, which is spoken by numerous people across the world. It has acquired a prominent place in meeting the communicational needs of the people. Grammar is a set of rules that helps the people to use the language better. In schools, the teachers of English are considered as the most important factor in making the study of English…

  6. O sentido do ser-mãe-que-tem-a-possibilidade-de-tocar-o-filho-prematuro na unidade intensiva: contribuições para a enfermagem neonatal El significado de ser la madre-que-tiene-la-posibilidad-de-tocar-al-hijo-prematuro en la unidad de cuidados intensivos: contribuciones para la enfermería neonatal The meaning of being the mother-that-has-the-possibility-to-touch-the-premature-baby in the intensive unit: contributions for the neonatal nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Jesus Melo


    Full Text Available Estudo na abordagem teórico-metodológica heideggeriana com o objetivo de desvelar o sentido do ser-mãe que tem a possibilidade de tocar o filho prematuro na UTIN. Após aprovação foi desenvolvida entrevista fenomenológica com nove mulheres-mães. A análise compreensiva constituiu oito unidades de significação, e a hermenêutica permitiu desvelar o movimento existencial do sermãe em sua cotidianidade, nos modos de ser da inautenticidade e impessoalidade, movida pelo falatório, ambiguidade e temor, modos de ocupação. Ao compreender como sua a possibilidade de ter um filho prematuro, toca-o cautelosamente e cuidadosamente, transita para um entendimento no qual não mais se ocupa, se preo-cupa. Ao pre-ocupar, o ser-mãe estabelece a possibilidade de ser-aí-com-o-filho. Foi possível entender este modo de ser mãe, no qual passa por estágios antes de ver o bebê como seu e confiar em si. Possibilitar que toque seu filho, compreendendo-a em sua individualidade, singularidade, mostrou-se como um cuidado ao RNP em sua complexidade como ser-aí.Estudio en el enfoque teórico-metodológico heideggeriana con el objetivo de revelar el sentido del ser la madre que tiene la possibilidad de tocar el hijo prematuro en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal. Después de la aprobación, fue desarrollada una entrevista fenomenológica con nueve madres. El análisis comprehensivo constituyó ocho unidades de significación, la hermenéutica permitió revelar el movimiento existencial del ser madre en su cotidianidad, en los modos de ser de la falta de autenticidad e impersonalidad, movida por el chisme, la ambigüedad y miedo, modos de ocupación. Al comprender como de ella la posibilidad de tener un bebé prematuro, lo toca con cautela y cuidado, transita para un entendimiento en el cual no más se ocupa, se preocupa. Al preocuparse, el ser madre establece la posibilidad de ser-ahí-con-el-hijo. Fue posible entender este modo de ser madre, que

  7. Remote-sensing-based analysis of the 1996 surge of Northern Inylchek Glacier, central Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan (United States)

    Häusler, Hermann; Ng, Felix; Kopecny, Alexander; Leber, Diethard


    The evolution of Northern Inylchek Glacier and its proglacial lake - Upper Lake Merzbacher - during its 1996 surge and the surrounding decades is analyzed with remote sensing imagery. Overall retreat of the glacier from 1943 to 1996 enlarged the lake to 4 km long and ≈ 100 m deep. The surge in 1996 initiated between 12 September and 7 October and advanced the glacier by 3.7 km to override most of Upper Lake Merzbacher. The surge phase probably ended in December 1996 and involved mean flow velocities across the lower trunk of the glacier that reached 50 m d- 1 over a 32-day period. Water displaced by the surge from Upper Lake Merzbacher, totalling 1.5 × 108 m3 in volume, accelerated filling of Lower Lake Merzbacher downvalley and helped trigger this marginal ice-dammed lake to outburst in a jökulhlaup around late November/early December. The characteristics and duration of the surge render it as similar to temperate glacier surges elsewhere. It may have been facilitated by low basal friction caused by water-saturated sediments in the upper lake bed. Furthermore, bathymetric measurements show that the surge evacuated much sediment into the upper lake, causing its depth to reduce from 20 to 30 m in 1996 to 8 m by 2005 and 2 m by 2011; the corresponding deposition rates imply glacier-catchment specific mean sediment yields of 1.4 to 3.4 × 103 Mg km- 2 a- 1 in the years after the surge. Our study documents novel interactions within a cascade system of glaciers and lakes that exhibits surging and outburst-flood behavior.

  8. Y a-t-il quelqu'un qui écoute les Haïtiens ? | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    12 oct. 2010 ... Maintes fois, les personnes interrogées ont indiqué qu'elles comptaient sur les membres de leur famille et de la collectivité pour leur fournir l'hébergement, de la nourriture, un endroit où dormir à l'extérieur et de l'argent. Cette aide a contribué à diminuer considérablement la probabilité de souffrir de la faim ...

  9. Y a-t-il quelqu'un qui écoute les Haïtiens ? | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    12 oct. 2010 ... Maintes fois, les personnes interrogées ont indiqué qu'elles comptaient sur les membres de leur famille et de la collectivité pour leur fournir l'hébergement, de la nourriture, un endroit où dormir à l'extérieur et de l'argent. Cette aide a contribué à diminuer considérablement la probabilité de souffrir de la faim ...

  10. Presentación del estudio "Links" de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina. (United States)

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M; Balán, Iván C; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria


    Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos ("teteras"), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA.

  11. Presentación del estudio “Links” de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina (United States)

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ávila, María M; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria


    Resumen Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos (“teteras”), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

  12. ¿Tiene el concepto de política de J. Rancière presupuestos marxistas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Parra Ayala


    Full Text Available Este artículo interroga críticamente la pretensión de Jacques Rancière de pensar la política sin referencia a espacios sociales ni a las relaciones de poder que tienen lugar en ellos. En este texto se pretende mostrar que estas descripciones y cartografías de los espacios sociales operan como presupuestos ocultos de la teoría rancieriana, a pesar de ser rechazadas por el mismo filósofo francés como elementos fundamentales de la reflexión sobre la política. El artículo se acerca en la primera parte a las objeciones del pensador francés en contra de las teorías que derivan la naturaleza del conflicto político de la comprensión de los conflictos sociales, como el marxismo. En la segunda parte se muestra que el concepto rancieriano de la política, sin referirse a descripciones sociológicas de la sociedad como las del marxismo, caería en contradicciones internas a la hora de vincular la política con la emancipación, pues la figura de la actualización de la igualdad no basta para definir el carácter emancipatorio la irrupción política.

  13. Living Joyfully after Losing Social Hope: Kierkegaard and Chrétien on Selfhood and Eschatological Expectation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aaron Simmons


    Full Text Available In this essay, I offer an existential-phenomenological consideration of what it might look like to live joyfully after losing social hope. Using the example of the widespread hopelessness that many are feeling in light of the election of Donald Trump, I suggest that the danger of losing hope is that we can also lose our selfhood in the process. In order to develop a conception of “eschatological hope” that would be resistant to the loss of such social and political expectations, I draw specifically on Søren Kierkegaard’s notion that “the expectancy of faith is victory,” and Jean-Louis Chrétien’s idea of “the unhoped for,” in order to develop a model of hope that remains when it seems like all other hope has been lost. Rather than being overcome by anxiety about the future, eschatological hope fosters joy in the present.

  14. Toxico-epidemiologie 1997-2006: Wie, wat en hoeveel - Overzicht van tien jaar toxicologie in de Apotheek Haagse Ziekenhuizen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimmink, Afra; Touw, Daan J.


    Objective: To collect data of toxicological cases for a 10-year period and to develop a database for comparing epidemiology of intoxications with data from the national poisoning information centre (NVIC) and national prescription data (GIP). Design: Retrospective database study. Methods: All drug

  15. La moral mediática en Venezuela (O de cómo perder lo que no se tiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson González Leal


    Full Text Available Hace algunos meses atrás (creo que algo así como 9 o 10, el semanario de análisis y opinión política venezolano ‘Temas’ ( convocó a varios periodistas, historiadores e intelectuales nativos para reflexionar por escrito sobre “el quiebre (moral de los medios de comunicación en Venezuela”. En la convocatoria enviada vía correo electrónico tuvieron cuidado de colocar la palabra moral exactamente de esa manera, entre paréntesis, como para advertir, en una clara toma de posición, que la única quiebra visible de estas empresas del espectáculo mediático es la que concierne al carácter de honestidad que se vincula a su deber de ser portavoces de la realidad social. Sobre ese aspecto no estuve -ni estoy- de acuerdo y ahora explicaré por qué.

  16. ¿Qué tiene que ver el género con el sexo? Lenguaje, heterosexualidad y heteronormatividad


    Cameron, Deborah; Kulick, Don


    “En su ensayo «La heterosexualidad obligatoria y la existencia lesbiana» (1980), Adrienne Rich señaló que heterosexualidad y lesbianismo no son simplemente opciones «diferentes pero iguales» que las mujeres pueden tomar; una de ellas –la heterosexualidad- es obligatoria, la otra –el lesbianismo– es prohibida. El desarrollo «normal» de las mujeres se considera equivalente al paso por una serie de etapas de la vida, definidas en gran parte en términos de heterosexualidad (salir con amigos, tene...

  17. Trends of reporTed ouTpaTienT malaria cases To assess The TesT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Medical Journal Vol: 93 No. 10 (Supplement) October 2016. TrEnds of rEporTEd ouTpATiEnT MAlAriA cAsEs To AssEss ThE TEsT, TrEAT And TrAck. (T3) policy in kEnyA c. W. Mbuli, Bsc, MA, E. Waqo, MBchB, Mph, national Malaria control programme, Ministry of health, nairobi, kenya, p. o. owiti, MBchB, Msc, ...

  18. Trends of reporTed ouTpaTienT malaria cases To assess The TesT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AMpATh), Eldoret, kenya, The international union Against Tuberculosis and lung disease (The union), paris, france, h. Tweya, Msc, The international union Against Tuberculosis and lung disease (The union), paris, france, The lighthouse Trust, ...

  19. Thema’s en trends in tien jaar zorgvastgoed : Een analyse van de Barometer Maatschappelijk Vastgoed 2008-2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voordt, Theo; Veuger, Jan


    Zorgvastgoed neemt in de Barometer Maatschappelijk Vastgoed een steeds prominentere plaats in. Waar de eerste Barometers nog volledig gefocust waren op gemeentelijk vastgoed, wordt vanaf 2013 een groeiend deel aan zorgvastgoed gewijd, met als kernboodschap: meer marktwerking, extramuralisering en

  20. "La clase obrera tiene dos sexos". Avances de los estudios latinoamericanos sobre género y trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Gabriela Arango


    Full Text Available En este artículo se revisan algunas de las temáticas que jalonaron el desarrollo de los estudios de género y trabajo en América Latina durante los últimos diez años. En él se incluyen los debates suscitados por la participación de las mujeres en la división internacional del trabajo, particularmente en la industria maquiladora en varios países, especialmente en México, y en cadenas internacionales de subcontratación. También se analizan las discusiones actuales sobre el impacto de la reconversión industrial, la introducción de nuevas tecnologías y las teorías gerenciales inspiradas en el "modelo japonés", sobre la división genérica del trabajo en las empresas. Se examinan los avances en la medición de la participación femenina en el mercado de trabajo y se hace un balance de los enfoques sobre las interrelaciones familia-trabajo, con énfasis en el concepto de estrategias familiares.

  1. CARTA AL CORONEL QUE NO TIENE QUIEN LE ESCRIBA. Entre el diario y las cuentas del otro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Su caso, señor coronel, es tal vez el más célebre y representa el de muchos colombianos que están a la espera de una escritura, de una "carta en sufrimiento" que venga a redimir algo de su historia, a restablecer su dignidad de sujetos. No es una simple misiva lo anhelado, es la posibilidad de salir del mero registro en la contabilidad de una economía aniquilante, del conteo de los bienes; es la búsqueda de un espacio para inscribir la vida y la muerte más allá de la repetición constante de los mismos padecimientos que toman dimensiones sociales. Que el suyo sea un caso literario no obsta para que encontremos en él, junto con otros en nuestras letras colombianas, las luces que nos obligan a tomarlo de manera literal. Fue esta lectura la que roo movió a escribirle estas líneas; espero no haberlo importunado con ellas y que comprenda lo que me animó apresentarle la interpretación que en mí suscitó la suya.

  2. Malestar familiar. ¿Tiene incidencia la pobreza infantil y juvenil en los resultados académicos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Tahull Fort


    Full Text Available This research is a description, analysis, and reflection on child and youth poverty. Spain has a very deep economic crisis. Proposals for the Government to address social problems are based on the neoliberal model. Students go to school, but in many cases the results are poor, so Spain presents a high rate of school failure. The methodology includes bibliographic research, interviews in depth and treatment of quantitative and qualitative data. The results show a very high dropout. In Spain, there is a significant number of children and adolescents in situation of poverty, which allows establishing a relationship between child and youth poverty and dropout. The Government focuses its atention on the educational institution and only gets to discredit it; performances and results are insuficient. Therefore, the proposal is that the Ministry of education (together with other relevant institutions develop global and comprehensive policies in order to deal with the problem.

  3. ¿Qué impresiones tiene la gente sobre la bibliotecología como carrera profesional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Newbutt


    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the impressions that youth have of bibliotecology as a career, what barriers are presented to those who enter the profession and what attracts them the same. Two questionnaires were used: the first was applied to a sample of young people aged between 18 and 24 years, who were planning to make a decision about your future career, and the second was applied to students of the mastery in bibliotecology from the University of Sheffield,who theirs had already chosen that program as career. The questionnaires inquired by the impressions of people about bibliotecology as a career and realized that presented barriers when entering the profession. The study found that both the lack of knowledge about the implications of the role of the librarian, as the lack of knowledge of the choice of bibliotecology as a career, influence the negative perception of young people to become librarians. Students in the mastery in bibliotecology identified a number of obstacles that interfered with access to the profession and suggested possible solutions to address this situation. The bibliotecology does not appeal to young people because of the impressions they have about it. Therefore, in order to eradicate the misconceptions held about this race, librarians should promote their work as more knowledge of bibliotecology, lead to this becoming a more attractive option for young people.

  4. “La clase obrera tiene dos sexos” avances de los estudios latinoamericanos sobre género y trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Gabriela Arango


    Full Text Available En este artículo se revisan algunas de las temáticas que jalonaron el desarrollo de los estudios de género y trabajo en América Latina durante los últimos diez años. En él se incluyen los debates suscitados por la participación de las mujeres en la división internacional del trabajo, particularmente en la industria maquiladora en varios países, especialmente en México, y en cadenas internacionales de subcontratación. También se analizan las discusiones actuales sobre el impacto de la reconversión industrial, la introducción de nuevas tecnologías y las teorías gerenciales inspiradas en el “modelo japonés”, sobre la división genérica del trabajo en las empresas. Se examinan los avances en la medición de la participación femenina en el mercado de trabajo y se hace un balance de los enfoques sobre las interrelaciones familia-trabajo, con énfasis en el concepto de estrategias familiares.

  5. Autismo y cálculo I: ¿Tiene sentido realizar una intervención de este tipo?


    Fernández Fuertes, Oliva


    Son pocos los profesionales que trabajan con niños con autismo, los que se han interesado por introducir en su instrucción aspectos esenciales de las matemáticas, como la noción de número o el conteo, algo que no es casual: cualquier educador que haya trabajado con niños autistas sabe que esto no es una tarea fácil. Sin embargo, si concebimos la educación como un valioso instrumento para la integración, no podemos ser ajenos a la importancia que tienen las nociones elementales de las matemáti...

  6. Impact of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) to Local Communities and Environment in Hop Tien Commune, Dong Hy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wageningen International,


    This case-study is designed to support the development of the Viet Nam – Netherlands Water Partnership on Water for Food and Ecosystems. The partnership is between Viet Nam’s Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) and the Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality

  7. Peggy Raffy-Hideux, Les Réalismes haïtiens contemporains. Récits et conscience sociale


    Cacchioli, Emanuela


    Inserito nella collezione «Francophonies» che Honoré Champion dedica alle letterature francofone del mondo intero, il volume di Peggy Raffy-Hideux si pone l’obiettivo di analizzare le diverse rappresentazioni delle realtà socio-politiche nel romanzo haitiano contemporaneo. Fino alla salita al potere di François Duvalier, nel 1957, s’individuano due tendenze realiste negli scrittori haitiani: da un lato, troviamo un realismo socialista che intende il romanzo come voce collettiva e arte popola...

  8. La justicia no tiene rostro de mujer. Obstáculos para el acceso a la justicia de las mujeres


    Balbuena Palacios, Patricia


    Como en otros países de América Latina en el Perú el sistema de justicia padece diversos y complejos problemas estructurales que impiden el cumplimiento del rol central que la sociedad le da en el marco de un estado democrático. Algunos de estos problemas son: el sometimiento político a gobiernos y partidos políticos con el fin de mantener debilitado al sistema de justicia y poder controlar a jueces y fiscales; la anacrónica formación jurídica universitaria, apegada al estudio de códigos dond...

  9. Characteristics of a partially debris-covered glacier and its response to atmospheric warming in Mt. Tomor, Tien Shan, China (United States)

    Wang, Puyu; Li, Zhongqin; Li, Huilin; Wang, Wenbin; Zhou, Ping; Wang, Lin


    Qingbingtan Glacier No. 72 in Mt. Tomor region is a cirque-valley glacier with complex topography and debris-covered areas. In-situ measurements from 2008 to 2013 revealed that both ice temperature and velocity are obviously higher than in other glaciers in this region. Comparison of digitized earlier topographic maps with recent satellite images indicates that the glacier had been retreating and thinning during the past decades. Between 1964 and 2008, its terminus retreat and area reduction was 41.16 ± 0.6 m a- 1 and 0.034 ± 0.030 × 10- 3 km2 a- 1, respectively, and thickness decreased at an average rate of 0.22 ± 0.14 m a- 1 in the ablation area. The strongest ablation and terminus retreat occurred at the end of the last century and the beginning of this century rather than in most recent years, seeming to be related to increase in the debris coverage and thickness. The debris-covered area was 0.87 km2, of which 0.66 km2 is thicker than the critical thickness of 4 cm, and thus the debris cover on this glacier has an alleviating ablation effect overall. Based on a comprehensive analysis of climate change, glacier response delay, glacial topographic features and debris cover influence, the glacier is likely to continue to retreat in the upcoming decades, yet with a gradually decreasing speed.

  10. A Design of Computer Aided Instructions (CAI) for Undirected Graphs in the Discrete Math Tutorial (DMT). Part 2 (United States)


    theorem_4_8 about the trees. Besides, if the userS /* wants, it gives the proof for this theorem . static void theorein 4_8(void) struct _onkeyjt *kblist...whelpcat(H_WINTLTLE); wputs(’Nn We have a theorem for you!") pressa key(3); wcloseO; if((w[ I ]=wopeni(3 ,4, 10,71,3 ,LCYANIGREEN,WHITEI_LGREY))0...backcolor); bair (29*x.23*v.80*x.49*y/2). set col or( forecol or): 889 o)uttextxy(56*x.1 I *y,Ŝ"); outtextxy(60*x, I O"y ,"J"); outtextxy(64 *x,1 I0

  11. Um Corpo que Não Cai: A cidade e o sujeito migrante em suspensão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Schneider


    Full Text Available Neste artigo propomos a discussão de diversas teorias culturais contemporâneas sobre o corpo, o sujeito migrante e sua relação com as fronteiras, discurso aqui justaposto à crítica literária, enfocando uma narrativa em que a protagonista e as representações de seu corpo desvelam marcas linguísticas e culturais em um espaço de inserção provisória. Buscamos veriicar se o estado de suspensão é, na narrativa em questão, uma estratégia de sobrevivência psicológica, linguística e cultural encontrada pela protagonista ao longo de seus deslocamentos. O romance em foco é o de Paloma Vidal, intitulado Algum lugar (2009, a partir do qual tecemos nossas considerações sobre corpo migrante e estado de suspensão, conceito que tangencialmente se aproxima da ideia de entre lugar, mas numa perspectiva mais espacial do que geográica. Utilizamos as teorias desenvolvidas por Elizabeth Grosz, Glória Anzaldúa, Susan Bordo, entre outras, na leitura crítica aqui apresentada do romance em foco.

  12. CAI (Computer-Aided Instruction) Evaluation Checklist: Human Factors Guidelines for the Design of Computer Aided Instruction. (United States)


    for Ccmputer-Assisted Instruction. Bedford, MA: Digital Press. Hunt, E., & Lansnan, M. Cognitive theory applied to individual differences. In W.K...Technical Library 400 Army-Navy Drive Washington, DC 20319 Arlington, VA 22202 National Defense Institute Technical Libarary Research Directorate Naval

  13. Determinación de los principales parámetros de calidad que afectan la cosecha mecanizada de arroz


    Alexander Miranda Caballero; Ciro E. Iglesias Coronel; Erwin Herrera González; Nathali Abraham Ferro; Santiago Castells Hernández


    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la calidad de la cosecha mecanizada de la semilla de arroz, realizada por las cosechadoras de arroz New Holland L521, en las condiciones de trabajo del Complejo Agroindustrial (CAI) Arrocero "Los Palacios". Fueron evaluados los parámetros tecnológicos de la cosechadora en función de la calidad del producto cosechado, tales como: grano entero, pelado y/o quebrado, contenido de impurezas y pérdidas totales. Los resultados obtenidos para los parám...

  14. ¿Colombia tiene recursos económicos suficientes para atacar el narcotráfico y sus actividades vinculadas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Felipe Jiménez Trucco


    Full Text Available Colombia es criticada permanentemente por la comunidad internacional en lo referente a su lucha contra la violencia. Sin embargo, no encuentra un apoyo real en algunos de sus vecinos (Nicaragua, Ecuador y Venezuela y otros actores en el ataque a generadores de violencia como son la guerrilla o los paramilitares, los cuales están a su vez relacionados con el narcotráfico. Es necesario que la comunidad internacional conozca el verdadero esfuerzo que realiza Colombia en la lucha contra el narcotráfico y la violencia asociada a este delito. Colombia ha incrementado considerablemente sus gastos en seguridad y defensa en la última década haciendo grandes esfuerzos para atacar, entre otros, el narcotráfico. Realmente ha encontrado un apoyo de sus vecinos y aliados para combatir idóneamente este delito? Con este escrito se evalúa la cooperación obtenida por Colombia por parte de otros actores en la lucha contra el narcotráfico, no solo en términos monetarios, sino también en términos de apoyo institucional.

  15. La primaquina tiene alta eficacia en la quimioprofilaxis primaria simple antipalúdica. Metanálisis High efficacy of primary chemoprophylaxis with primaquine. metanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona Fonseca


    Full Text Available Problema: existen informes sobre la capacidad quimioprofiláctica primaria (QP1 antipalúdica de la primaquina (PQ en humanos, pero no conocemos ningún metanálisis sobre el tema. Preguntas: ¿Es eficaz la primaquina para prevenir el paludismo en seres humanos? ¿Depende esa eficacia del lugar, la edad de las personas y de la especie de Plasmodium? Metodología: se aplicaron procedimientos recomendados para metanálisis. Resultados: se incluyeron 4 estudios experimentales de laboratorio (EEL y 7 estudios clínicos controlados (ECC. Según los EEL, para adultos, la dosis de primaquina apropiada en QP1 es 30 mg/d, tomados desde el día previo a la exposición. Los ECC mostraron protección de 93% entre quienes recibieron primaquina y de 45% entre quienes no la recibieron (p = 0,0000000. CONCLUSIONES: la QP1 con primaquina es altamente eficaz en adultos y niños, es igual frente a Plasmodium falciparum y P. vivax y debe adoptarse como alternativa válida. Faltan evaluaciones sobre la seguridad y la toxicidad en niños. Background: There are many reportss about primaquine as primary chemoprophylactic (1-CP in humans, but we do not know of any metaanalysis about this subject. Specific Questions: Is primaquine effective to prevent malaria in humans? Does primaquine efficacy to prevent malaria depend on the place, the age of patients, or the Plasmodium species? Methodology: Procedures recommended for metanalysis were applied. Results: Four laboratory experimental studies (LES in humans and seven clinical controlled studies (CCS were included. According to LES the adequate primaquine dose as 1-CP for adults is 30 mg/day from the day before exposition and during the time of exposition. According to CCS protection was 93% in people that received primaquine and 45% in those who did not receive it (p = 0.0000000.

  16. Efficiëntie van de fotosynthese kan met een factor tien omhoog : plant gaat slordig om met zonne-energie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Lankhorst, R.M.; Kierkels, T.; Heuvelink, E.


    Een plant gaat bijzonder slordig om met zonne-energie. Hij vertaalt slechts 0,5% van de opgevangen energie in biomassa. Voor de plant zelf is dat genoeg, voor ons niet. Als je de fotosynthese-efficiëntie weet te verbeteren, kan de (voedsel) productie enorm omhoog. Daar wordt nu hard aan gewerkt

  17. "Es la preocupación que nos tiene ahorita traumados". El impacto del cubrimiento sobre la violencia en la prensa escrita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Isabel Lara Guevara


    Full Text Available Si bien no es novedad el uso de la violencia en medios de comunicación, sí ha evolucionado la percepción de la cobertura informativa de la violencia, por ello fue importante comprender y describir el impacto del cubrimiento sobre la violencia de los periódicos: El Sol del Bajío, La Prensa, A. M. y Al Día, en ciudadanos mayores de 18 años, y a su vez explorar la apreciación de las personas involucradas en el proceso de edición de los diarios sobre la producción de tal contenido. Para dichos fines se utilizó una metodología cualitativa del análisis del discurso; se obtuvieron respuestas como "hace más agresiva a la gente", entre otras, constatando que el cubrimiento de la violencia genera un impacto de temor y preocupación en la audiencia. Se propone a las empresas editoriales supervisar el manejo y el tratamiento que le dan a la nota roja.

  18. Quality should be our brand: Myriam Ovalle La calidad tiene que ser el sello: Myriam Ovalle A qualidade deve ser o selo: Myriam Ovalle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available AEn la Universidad Nacional de Colombia se han formado y trabajado muchas de las docentes-enfermeras que realizan aportes significativos a la profesión y a la enfermería nacional e internacional, a pesar de enfrentar diversas dificultades, incluso las que comprometen la salud. En esta especial ocasión nos referimos a la enfermera y profesora Myriam Ovalle de Casals, quien fuera la primera graduada como Licenciada de la Facultad de Enfermería de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia2, decana entre 1966 y 1968 y además cofundadora de la Asociación Colombiana de Facultades de Enfermería (Acofaen. Myriam Ovalle nació en Bogotá y vivió la mayor parte de su vida en el extranjero, fue una enfermera comprometida con la mejora de la calidad del cuidado a los pacientes a través de la excelencia en la educación en enfermería.A

  19. Conocimientos que tiene el profesional de enfermeria sobre legislacion colombiana en enfermeria y el sistema obligatorio de garantia de calidad de la atencion de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Merchan-Niño


    Full Text Available Introducción: Se desarrolló un estudio descriptivo transversal con abordaje cuantitativo con el objetivo de determinar el nivel de conocimientos de 98 profesionales de enfermería que laboran en la FOSCAL sobre legislación de enfermería y el sistema obligatorio de garantía de calidad de la atención de salud en el 2009. Materiales y Métodos: El instrumento que se utilizó fue una entrevista auto aplicada de 19 preguntas de selección simple, al cuál se le realizó una validez facial y de contenido expuesto a una comisión de siete expertos de la ciudad de Bucaramanga. Resultados: Las ramas del conocimiento evaluadas el 51% es bueno y el 43.8% es aceptable, resultado atribuible mas a los conocimientos sobre legislación colombiana en enfermería que a los del Sistema Obligatorio de Garantía de Calidad de la Atención de la Salud. Discusión y Conclusiones: El nivel de conocimientos que posee el personal en estudio es bueno con tendencia a aceptable, pues la diferencia entre estas dos no es tan significativa, generando encender una alarma a nivel institucional incrementando el desarrollo de actividades en pro del conocimiento en ésta área de cultura organizacional. (Rev Cuid 2011; 2(2: 175-81Palabras clave: Legislación, Enfermería, Calidad, Atencion de Salud, Seguridad. (Fuente: DeCs BIREME.

  20. Briser la mosaïque. Lien social et identités collectives chez les chrétiens de Madaba, Jordanie, 1870-1997


    Chatelard, Géraldine


    Minority and community are concepts that have dominated the analysis of Christians in the Arab world, leading to a perception of Middle-Eastern societies as confessional or sectarian mosaics. This paradigm posits that religious and political identities and dynamics are closely intertwined in countries where the dominant culture is Islam, and that religious and ethnic groups live side by side, maintaining limited interactions while their immutable identities offer a strong potential for confli...

  1. ¿Tiene límites el uso de las matemáticas en la economía?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Fariña, M. C.


    Full Text Available Las matemáticas han jugado un papel decisivo en el desarrollo del pensamiento, en particular del económico, convirtiéndose en las últimas décadas en un instrumento de trabajo indispensable en la elaboración de modelos teóricos capaces de explicar relaciones económicas cada vez más complejas. No obstante, parece lógico que aún valorando positivamente las teorías más abstractas, se deba evitar un uso abusivo de sofisticados modelos matemáticos siempre que se manifiesten como una especie de “fuga técnica de la realidad” o contribuyan a propagar una visión deformada de la economía. La relación entre ambas se basa no tanto en que los resultados concretos que hoy se conocen en matemáticas tengan su análogo o no en la ciencia económica, sino en que la metodología que usa la matemática desde sus principios no es fundamentalmente distinta de la que vienen usando los economistas teóricos para resolver sus problemas. En este trabajo, después de la introducción hacemos un breve recorrido histórico por las matemáticas y su relación con otras ciencias, para centrar posteriormente su atención en el desarrollo de la ciencia económica. Finalizamos destacando algunas teorías matemáticas que por sus características, pueden ayudar a resolver algunos de los problemas actuales de la ciencia económica.

  2. "Rengo es el que tiene pelotas": discapacidad motriz, deporte adaptado y masculinidad hegemónica en la ciudad de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ferrante


    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el rol de la masculinidad hegemónica en el campo del deporte para personas con discapacidad motriz de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Para ello se parte de los datos recogidos en una investigación cualitativa realizada en dicha ciudad. Se trata de análisis de contenido de prensa escrita producida por los fundadores locales del deporte adaptado, 21 entrevistas en profundidad a hombres usuarios del campo y 26 entrevistas en profundidad a expertos y expertas en la materia. Entre los principales resultados se halla que la masculinidad hegemónica posee un papel nodal en la filosofía del deporte adaptado. A través de la inculcación de un peculiar modo de comprender a la discapacidad – asociado a la categoría nativa "rengo" – se promueve una "cultura del campeón" tributaria del cuerpo capaz y de los valores asociados a este modelo de masculinidad. Se concluye indicando que si bien dicha cultura cuestiona el carácter estigmatizador de la discapacidad (la presunta incapacidad sexual, la improductividad y la dependencia impone una ideología de la capacidad que reproduce las estructuras sociales opresivas.

  3. "Es la preocupación que nos tiene ahorita traumados". El impacto del cubrimiento sobre la violencia en la prensa escrita

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chantal Isabel Lara Guevara; Michell Aguilar López; Christian Paulina Mendoza Torres


    ... la percepción de la cobertura informativa de la violencia, por ello fue importante comprender y describir el impacto del cubrimiento sobre la violencia de los periódicos: El Sol del Bajío, La Prensa, A. M. y Al...

  4. ¿debe el paciente conocer que tiene un cáncer?: Nuestra experiencia en las pacientes con cáncer de mama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo Piñeiro Fernández


    Full Text Available Se realiza un enfoque eticofilosófico sobre el conocimiento que deben tener los pacientes que padecen de un cáncer, sobre su enfermedad. El cáncer es la segunda causa de muerte en Cuba. Los tratamientos y adelantos tecnológicos hacen que la sobrevida de estos pacientes cada día sea mayor y con mejor calidad de vida. En la mujer es el cáncer de la mama y el del cerviz los más frecuentes, el primero, evidentemente más mutilante por tener la mama un significado sexual, de belleza, de feminidad y materno; en nuestra experiencia el conocimiento previo por la paciente y sus familiares de que se detectó un cáncer en la mama implica de inicio un gran choque emocional y afectivo, que es superado prontamente con una magnífica relación médico-paciente y médico-familiar. Sobre la base de esta experiencia preconizamos exponerles a los pacientes el tipo de enfermedad que poseeAn ethical and philosophical analysis on the knowledge patients suffering from cancer should have about their disease is made. Cancer is the second cause of death in Cuba. The treatments and technological advances make these patients survive longer every day and have a better quality of life. In women, breast cancer and cervix cancer are the most frequent. The first is evidently more mutilating due to the fact that the breast has to do with sex, beauty, feminity and maternity. According to our experience, when the patient and his family previously know that a breast cancer has been detected it causes at first an emotional and affective shock that will be overcome fast through an excellent physician-patient and physician-family relationship. On the basis of this experience, we recommend to tell the patients the type of disease they have

  5. Tarptautinė konferencija "Biblioteka: informacija ir žinios kiekvienam" / Viktorija Pukėnaitė, Žydrė Vėtienė

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pukėnaitė, Viktorija


    Eesti Raamatukoguhoidjate Ühingu esindus osales 27.-28. aprillini Vilniuse parlamendis toimunud rahvusvahelisel konverentsil „Raamatukogu: teave ja teadmised kõigile“. Juuresolevatel fotodel Eesti Raamatukoguhoidjate Ühingu juhatuse esinaine Katre Riisalu ja Viljandi Linnaraamatukogu töötaja Veronika Raudsepp Linnupuu. Nr. 6 juttu Tallinna Keskraamatukogu esindaja Angelica Õunapuu ja Tartu Ülikooli esindaja Mai Põldaasa ettekannetest

  6. “Canto porque la guitarra / tiene sentido y razón”: folklore and politics in the music of Víctor Jara (1966-1973)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    The present paper is dedicated to analyze the political and cultural discourse identified to the Chilean New Song Movement through the musical work of the singer, composer and theater director Víctor Jara (1932-73...

  7. La violencia a través de las fases del amor pasional: Porque la pasión también tiene un lado obscuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Eduardo Kú Hernández


    Full Text Available La pasión ha sido caracterizada por la alegría, sensación de realización, optimismo, éxtasis y profunda idealización del objeto amoroso (Villanueva Orozco, 2004. Sin embargo, autores como Hatfield y Rapson (1993 reconocen un lado más oscuro teñido de desesperanza, ansiedad y vacío. Por su parte, Sánchez Aragón (2004 propone un continuo del amor pasional que va de la atracción al amor desesperado, en donde el matiz negativo se va intensificando básicamente durante el amor obsesivo en donde hay una falta de mutualidad en el sentimiento. Así, la violencia puede surgir y con ello facilitar la presencia de actos dañinos a las personas y a la relación romántica. Con base en esto, el presente trabajo tuvo por objetivos: a identificar las posibles diferencias en términos de atracción, enamoramiento, amor obsesivo y amor desesperado en receptores y ejecutores de violencia en la pareja, y b conocer la posible relación entre la violencia y las fases del continuo del amor pasional. Para ello se trabajó con una muestra de 518 personas residentes de la Ciudad de México a quienes se les aplicó: 1 Escala Multifacética del Amor Pasional (Sánchez Aragón, 2006 y 2 Escala de Violencia en la Pareja (Cienfuegos Martínez, Sánchez Aragón y Rivera Aragón, en prensa. Los resultados muestran efectos diferenciales en las primeras dos fases y correlaciones signi- ficativas principalmente entre los factores de violencia y las fases de amor obsesivo y amor desesperado.

  8. “Canto porque la guitarra / tiene sentido y razón”: folklore and politics in the music of Víctor Jara (1966-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The present paper is dedicated to analyze the political and cultural discourse identified to the Chilean New Song Movement through the musical work of the singer, composer and theater director Víctor Jara (1932-73. Despite his premature death - due to the coup of 1973 - Jara left a varied artistic legacy which constitutes a privileged source for thinking about the Chilean context of the 1960s and 1970s, a period marked by the strong presence of social movements that had as background the growing of the political polarization. Affiliated to the Communist Party, the musician used the communicative and expressive potential of music to defend the need to promote structural political changes in the country, which necessarily pass through the sphere of culture. Asking for the presence of identity elements in his musical work, we will analyze the dialogue established by the artist with the national political context, indicating the heterogeneity of the repertoire enclosed under the term Chilean New Song Movement.

  9. Euskal Herria tiene forma de corazón. La escuela en la construcción de la identidad nacional vasca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available RESUMEN: la construcción de la identidad nacional vasca ha recurrido a los más variados elementos para su formación, con el rasgo añadido de que ha tenido que convivir, resistir o diferenciarse de otras identidades cercanas y presentes en el mismo territorio. Es necesario partir de esta premisa para analizar los diversos planos en los que se ha construido la identidad nacional vasca en el ámbito educativo: el primer plano administrativo y escolar; el segundo, desde la elaboración de un currículo vasco y, finalmente, desde las actividades extraescolares. Hemos preferido elegir un periodo de tiempo lo suficientemente largo para poder mostrar los cambios y las continuidades en su construcción, partiendo desde 1876, con la pérdida de los Fueros, hasta la Segunda República. Se trata de un periodo en el que se fragua la construcción nacional vasca, priorizando unos elementos culturales y étnicos, sobre la base de la lengua vasca.ABSTRACT: The construction of Basque national identity has made use of a wide range of elements, in addition to which Basque identity has had to co-exist with, resist, or distinguish itself from neighbouring identities as well as identities present within the same territory. It is necessary to begin with this premise in order to analyze the various levels on which Basque national identity has been built within the sphere of education: firstly, in the administrative and educational sphere; secondly, in drawing up a Basque curriculum; and finally, in extracurricular activities. We have chosen to focus on a period that would be long enough to demonstrate both continuity and change during the process of construction. This period ranges in time from the loss of the Fueros (Traditional Basque Law in 1876, until the advent of the Second Republic in Spain in 1931. It was during this time that the Basque nation was forged, with priority being given to cultural and ethnic elements and using the Basque language as a foundation.

  10. Un repaso por el origen y una mirada puesta en el presente. ¿Qué tiene para ofrecernos el periodismo digital?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Mónica Tejera Cruz


    Full Text Available El fenómeno de Internet no pasa inadvertido a ningún mortal. Mucho menos cuando se dedican al mundo de la comunicación. Para los periodistas, la aparición de la Red y el desarrollo de la Word Wide Web ha venido a coquetear con su ansia de comunicar, informar, expresar; a fin de cuentas, transmitir mensajes. El desarrollo de la tecnología ha puesto en bandeja de plata un nuevo soporte que permite llegar a las personas a través de los ordenadores y abre un universo de posibilidades para explotar, pero que al mismo tiempo hay que entender y asimilar. Un repaso hacia el origen de un nuevo medio con el que ya convivimos y una mirada puesta en el presente de su desarrollo vertiginoso.



    Remolina Angarita, Nelson; Universidad de los Andes


    Este artículo es resultado parcial de la investigación Doctoral sobreprotección de datos personales que el autor realiza en el Doctorado de laFacultad de Ciencias Jurídicas de la Pontificia Universidad Javeriana. Sepretende pretende establecer si Colombia, a la luz de la actual legislaciónpuede considerarse como un país que garantiza un nivel adecuado de protección de los datos personales frente a las exigencias de la Unión Europea que se derivan, especialmente, de la Directiva 95/46/CE.El qu...

  12. Entrevista a Iñaki Rivera Beiras. “La Universidad tiene que jugar un papel importantísimo en la cárcel”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afilo Revista Digital - Universidad Nacional de Córdoba


    Full Text Available Considerado uno de los más destacados especialistas a nivel internacional de la criminología “garantista”, este argentino-catalán es también uno de esos tipos que incomoda al poder. Siempre. Esté donde esté. Desde la academia, en su puesto de profesor titular de ejecución penal y derecho penitenciario en la universidad de Barcelona, o desde la acción, a través del Observatorio de Derechos Humanos que en 2001 ayudó a crear con el objetivo de abordar el complejo mundo penitenciario. Hipercrítico de la situación argentina y mundial por sus fracasadas políticas de encierro indiscriminado y violación sistemática de los derechos humanos de los presos, Iñaki Rivera Beiras en entrevista con Alfilo habla de todo lo que sucede adentro y afuera de la institución insigne del sistema penal: la cárcel.

  13. Constraints on timing and rates of strath terrace formation on actively uplifting anticlines in the foreland of the Chinese Tien Shan. (United States)

    Bufe, A.; Burbank, D. W.; Chen, J.; Liu, L.; Li, T.; Thompson, J. A.


    The formation of strath surfaces (fluvially created, sub-horizontal erosion surfaces) requires that the rate of lateral erosion outpaces the rate of incision of a river. The change from incision to strath cutting has commonly been linked to a decrease of incision rates due to shielding of the river bed by a thick sediment cover1. Straths are abandoned when the bed cover is reduced and incision resumes. A more recent study suggests that strath terrace formation might be linked to a change between a braided and a single-thread river2. Finally, several models have explored strath formation due to inherent dynamics of meandering systems3,4. In the foreland of the Tian Shan in northwest China, weakly consolidated Pliocene sand and siltstones are being actively uplifted at rates of 1 - 3 mm/y by a series of detachment anticlines. A number of elevated, several-kilometer-wide planation surfaces bear witness to a history of multiple strath cutting events by braided streams. In contrast, modern rivers incise into the uplifting folds creating 10 - 200 m deep canyons while the up- and downstream alluvial fans remain unincised. We use GIS analysis, field mapping, and OSL dating to describe incision and beveling of the folds. Our chronologic data reveal at least 2 - 3 beveling events over the last 40 ky on the Mutule fold. We find that lateral erosion of the bedrock during beveling events occurs at rates that are more than an order of magnitude higher than average incision rates. During times of incision (which can be tens of thousands of years long), lateral erosion rates need to be considerably lower in order to explain the formation of narrow canyons. Thus, our observations of scale, rate, and intermittency of strath cutting, seem difficult to reconcile with models that explain strath formation by variations of the incision rate1 or intrinsic meandering dynamics under steady forcing3,4. The critical requirement to explain our observations appears to be repeated changes in the rate of lateral erosion, for example, by climatically modulated changes in river lateral mobility. 1 Hancock, G. S. & Anderson, R. S. (2002), GSA Bulletin 114, 1131-1142. 2 Finnegan, N. J. & Balco, G. (2013), GSA Bulletin 125, 1114-1124. 3 Finnegan, N. J. & Dietrich, W. E. (2011), Geology 39, 143-146. 4 Limaye, A. B. S. & Lamb, M. P. (2014), JGR: Earth Surface 119, 927-950.

  14. La Biblioteca Médica Nacional de Cuba tiene la primicia: curso Cochrane Library, aprendizaje con estrategias para obtener las mejores evidencias en salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Santana Arroyo


    Full Text Available La Biblioteca Médica Nacional de Cuba ha puesto en marcha un programa de alfabetización informacional para adiestrar a sus usuarios y fomentar en ellos las habilidades necesarias para el uso de bases de datos, así como para fomentar el uso de estrategias de búsquedas bien diseñadas y validadas por los bibliotecarios especialistas en información. En el presente trabajo se describen contenidos y habilidades que se fomentan en el curso “Cochrane Library: La Medicina Basada en Evidencias”, cuyo objetivo es que el usuario domine esta base de datos y el concepto de medicina basada en evidencias para la toma de mejores decisiones en la atención médica. Durante el curso se introduce además el Modelo Big 6, como guía del pensamiento para resolver problemas de información que facilite la búsqueda y la organización de la información médica basada en evidencias. Igualmente, se capacita al estudiante para que diseñe productos informativos, como boletines electrónicos, que le permitan tanto presentar los resultados de búsquedas de información como promover información para el cuidado de la salud en el futuro


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozzana Sánchez Aragón


    Full Text Available La pasión ha sido caracterizada por la alegría, sensación de realización, optimismo, éxtasis y profunda idealización del objeto amoroso (Villanueva Orozco, 2004. Sin embargo, autores como Hatfield y Rapson (1993 reconocen un lado más oscuro teñido de desesperanza, ansiedad y vacío. Por su parte, Sánchez Aragón (2004 propone un continuo del amor pasional que va de la atracción al amor desesperado, en donde el matiz negativo se va intensificando básicamente durante el amor obsesivo en donde hay una falta de mutualidad en el sentimiento. Así, la violencia puede surgir y con ello facilitar la presencia de actos dañinos a las personas y a la relación romántica. Con base en esto, el presente trabajo tuvo por objetivos: a identificar las posibles diferencias en términos de atracción, enamoramiento, amor obsesivo y amor desesperado en receptores y ejecutores de violencia en la pareja, y b conocer la posible relación entre la violencia y las fases del continuo del amor pasional. Para ello se trabajó con una muestra de 518 personas residentes de la Ciudad de México a quienes se les aplicó: 1 Escala Multifacética del Amor Pasional (Sánchez Aragón, 2006 y 2 Escala de Violencia en la Pareja (Cienfuegos Martínez, Sánchez Aragón y Rivera Aragón, en prensa. Los resultados muestran efectos diferenciales en las primeras dos fases y correlaciones significativas principalmente entre los factores de violencia y las fases de amor obsesivo y amor desesperado.

  16. ¿El nanocomposite arenado con Corindón Blanco tiene efecto sobre la adhesión y proliferación bacteriana? Estudio in vitro


    Piacentini, Giacomo


    Introducción: Los implantes dentales sustituyen a dientes ausentes en el paciente totalmente o parcialmente edéntulo. Las características físico-químicas de las superficies pueden tener influencia sobre la formación de biofilm y la manifestación de patologías peri-implantarias, pero también se ha demostrado que pueden favorecer la re-osteointegración en su tratamiento. El objetivo del presente trabajo es comprobar si la superficie de un disco de material compuesto cerámico-c...

  17. Juifs, chrétiens et musulmans après l'expulsion d'Espagne : le cas Nord-Africain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Abitol


    Full Text Available Le 9 février 1616, on assista á la Haye á un spectacle peu commun, celui d'un convoi fúnebre juif, conduit en grande pompe par le Prince Maurice de Nassau, entouré de membres éminents de son Conseil d'Etat et des Etats-Généraux. Le notable honoré de la serte n'était pourtant ni une grande sommité intellectuelle ni méme un personnage natif de Hollando. C'était tout juste un juif du Maroc, nommé Samuel Pallache qui, entre autres activités ténébreuses, faisait fonction d'agent du Rol du Maroc, Mawlay Zidan, aux Pays-Bas.

  18. Effect of Na/Ca exchange on plateau fraction and [Ca]i in models for bursting in pancreatic beta-cells.


    Gall, D.; Susa, I


    In the presence of an insulinotropic glucose concentration, beta-cells, in intact pancreatic islets, exhibit periodic bursting electrical activity consisting of an alternation of active and silent phases. The fraction of time spent in the active phase over a period is called the plateau fraction and is correlated with the rate of insulin release. However, the mechanisms that regulate the plateau fraction remain unclear. In this paper we investigate the possible role of the plasma membrane Na+...

  19. Considerations about waste water irrigation characteristics at the Ciro Redondo Agroindustrial sugar complex; Consideraciones sobre las caracteristicas de las aguas residuales del CAI Ciro Redondo para el fertirriego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obaya Abreu, M. C.; Valdes Jimenez, E.; Leon Perez, O. L.; Diez Perez, K.; Valencia Rodriguez, R.


    The irrigation of wastewater from sugar industry and byproducts is today, in Cuba, the most useful way for the treatment of these waters. With the characterization of the waters from AIC Ciro Redondo it has been proved that these waters must be used as organic matter in the established way for sugar mill wastewaters mix with Torula yeast plants ones. (Author) 10 refs.

  20. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B-1, ochratoxin A and fuminisins of adults in Lao Cai province, Viet Nam: A total dietary study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Huong Mai; Le Danh Tuyen; Do Huu Tuan


    B1 was 2.7 cases/100,000 person/year. Margin of exposure (MOE) of renal cancer linked to ochratoxin A and liver cancer associated with fumonisins were 1124 and 1954, respectively indicating risk levels of public health concern. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficiency of technical...

  1. MICROPIK: A Multiple-Alternatives, Criterion-Referenced Decisioning Model for Evaluating CAI Software and Microcomputer Hardware Against Selected Curriculum Instructional Objectives. Paper and Report Series No. 73. (United States)

    Wholeben, Brent Edward

    This report describing the use of operations research techniques to determine which courseware packages or what microcomputer systems best address varied instructional objectives focuses on the MICROPIK model, a highly structured evaluation technique for making such complex instructional decisions. MICROPIK is a multiple alternatives model (MAA)…

  2. Dermal Toxicity Evaluation of Neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS) with an Overview of the Dermal Toxicity of Vesicant Agents and their Degradation Products. (United States)


    female New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were procured by Veterinary Services, ERDEC from Charles River Laboratories, Wilmington, MA. On receipt animals...synopsis of the systemic effects observed in rabbits exposed to the various wastestreams is presented in Table 17. 1 Buprenorphine hydrochloride...compliance with veterinary concerns d regarding testing with this material. Animals dosed with 1.0 ml/kg of test material. Initial group of four rabbits

  3. Remote estimation of cyanobacterial blooms using the risky grade index (RGI) and coverage area index (CAI): a case study in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China. (United States)

    Zhou, Botian; Shang, Mingsheng; Wang, Guoyin; Feng, Li; Shan, Kun; Liu, Xiangnan; Wu, Ling; Zhang, Xuerui


    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms are exemplified as a major environmental concern due to producing toxin, and have generated a serious threat to public health. Knowledge on the spatial-temporal distribution of cyanobacterial blooms is therefore crucial for public health organizations and environmental agencies. In this study, field data and charge coupled device (CCD) image were collected in Lakes Gaoyang and Hanfeng of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China. We conducted the risky grade index (RGI) and coverage area index to develop a feasible estimation framework of cyanobacterial blooms. First, the close relationships between CCD reflectance spectral indices and water quality parameters were constructed based on water optical classification. Then, a regional algorithm for the RGI classification was established by density peaks. Finally, our proposed algorithm was applied to investigate dynamics of cyanobacterial blooms in the two lakes from 6-year series of CCD images. Encouraging results demonstrated that satellite remote sensing in conjunction with field observation can aid in the estimation of cyanobacterial blooms in the TGR.

  4. O porto de Viana e a construção do Cais da Alfândega (1631-1633)


    Barros, Amândio Jorge Morais


    During the Early Modern Period the maritime traffic became a decisive factor for the prosperity of the societies. As noted by James D. Tracy in the introduction to an important book on the organisation of the world’s economy (The political economy of merchant empires), it was necessary to deal “with important changes in the growth and composition of the long distance commerce grosso modo between 1450 and 1750” which resulted in the primacy of Europe in the global trade. Researchers consider t...

  5. Evaluation of Streptomyces strains isolated from herbal vermicompost for their plant growth-promotion traits in rice. (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Vadlamudi, Srinivas; Bandikinda, Prakash; Sathya, Arumugam; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Rupela, Om; Kudapa, Himabindu; Katta, Krishnamohan; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar


    Six actinomycetes, CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-93, CAI-140, CAI-155 and KAI-180, isolated from six different herbal vermi-composts were characterized for in vitro plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties and further evaluated in the field for PGP activity in rice. Of the six actinomycetes, CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-93, CAI-140 and CAI-155 produced siderophores; CAI-13, CAI-93, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced chitinase; CAI-13, CAI-140, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced lipase; CAI-13, CAI-93, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced protease; and CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-140 and CAI-155 produced ß-1-3-glucanase whereas all the six actinomycetes produced cellulase, hydrocyanic acid and indole acetic acid (IAA). The actinomycetes were able to grow in NaCl concentrations of up to 8%, at pH values between 7 and 11, temperatures between 20 and 40 °C and compatible with fungicide bavistin at field application levels. In the rice field, the actinomycetes significantly enhanced tiller numbers, panicle numbers, filled grain numbers and weight, stover yield, grain yield, total dry matter, root length, volume and dry weight over the un-inoculated control. In the rhizosphere, the actinomycetes also significantly enhanced total nitrogen, available phosphorous, % organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and dehydrogenase activity over the un-inoculated control. Sequences of 16S rDNA gene of the actinomycetes matched with different Streptomyces species in BLAST analysis. Of the six actinomycetes, CAI-85 and CAI-93 were found superior over other actinomycetes in terms of PGP properties, root development and crop productivity. qRT-PCR analysis on selected plant growth promoting genes of actinomycetes revealed the up-regulation of IAA genes only in CAI-85 and CAI-93. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Biocontrol of charcoal-rot of sorghum by actinomycetes isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 137 actinomycetes, isolated from 25 different herbal vermicomposts, were characterized for their antagonistic potential against Macrophomina phaseolina by dual-culture assay. Of them, eight most promising isolates (CAI-17, CAI-21, CAI-26, CAI-68, CAI-78, KAI-26, KAI-27 and MMA-32) were characterized for the ...

  7. "Canto porque la guitarra / tiene sentido y razón": folclore e política na música de Víctor Jara * “Canto porque la guitarra / tiene sentido y razón”: folklore and politics in the music of Víctor Jara (1966-1973)




    Resumo: O presente artigo se dedica a analisar o discurso político e cultural identificado com o movimento da Nova Canção Chilena através da obra musical do cantor, compositor e diretor de teatro Víctor Jara (1932-73). Apesar da morte prematura – decorrente do golpe de Estado de 1973 –, Jara deixou um legado artístico variado que se constitui em fonte privilegiada para pensar o contexto chileno dos anos 1960 e 1970, período marcado pela forte atuação de movimentos sociais que tinham como plan...

  8. "Canto porque la guitarra / tiene sentido y razón": folclore e política na música de Víctor Jara * “Canto porque la guitarra / tiene sentido y razón”: folklore and politics in the music of Víctor Jara (1966-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo se dedica a analisar o discurso político e cultural identificado com o movimento da Nova Canção Chilena através da obra musical do cantor, compositor e diretor de teatro Víctor Jara (1932-73. Apesar da morte prematura – decorrente do golpe de Estado de 1973 –, Jara deixou um legado artístico variado que se constitui em fonte privilegiada para pensar o contexto chileno dos anos 1960 e 1970, período marcado pela forte atuação de movimentos sociais que tinham como plano de fundo uma crescente polarização política. Filiado ao Partido Comunista, o músico se valeu do potencial comunicativo e expressivo da canção para defender a necessidade de se promoverem mudanças políticas estruturais no país, as quais necessariamente passariam pela esfera da cultura. Perguntando pela presença de elementos identitários em sua obra musical, analisaremos os diálogos estabelecidos pelo artista com a conjuntura política nacional, apontando para a heterogeneidade do repertório englobado sob o termo Nova Canção Chilena.Palavras-chave: Víctor Jara – Nova Canção Chilena – Unidade Popular. Abstract: The present paper is dedicated to analyze the political and cultural discourse identified to the Chilean New Song Movement through the musical work of the singer, composer and theater director Víctor Jara (1932-73. Despite his premature death - due to the coup of 1973 - Jara left a varied artistic legacy which constitutes a privileged source for thinking about the Chilean context of the 1960s and 1970s, a period marked by the strong presence of social movements that had as background the growing of the political polarization. Affiliated to the Communist Party, the musician used the communicative and expressive potential of music to defend the need to promote structural political changes in the country, which necessarily pass through the sphere of culture. Asking for the presence of identity elements in his musical work, we will analyze the dialogue established by the artist with the national political context, indicating the heterogeneity of the repertoire enclosed under the term Chilean New Song Movement.Keywords: Víctor Jara – Chilean New Song Movement – Popular Unity.

  9. Multivariable control of controlled self-ignition CAI in a one-cylinder research engine. Path modelling and nonlinear mode-based predictive control using neuronal nets; Mehrgroessenregelung der kontrollierten Selbstzuendung CAI in einem Einzylinder Forschungsmotor. Streckenmodellierung und nichtlineare modellgestuetzte praediktive Regelung mit Neuronalen Netzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, K.; Seebach, D.; Pischinger, S.; Abel, D. [RWTH Aachen (Germany)


    Exhaust recirculation will become more important in future engines. It results in low-temperature combustion but also causes combustion instabilities and strongly nonlinear combustion characteristics. The contribution shows that neuronal nets of the NNSSIF type (Neural Network State Space Innovations Form) can be used for establishing an observer. A NNSSIF model without recirculation is linearised and enhanced by an extended Kalman filter; it is then compared with a NNSSIF network with error feedback as an observer using measured data with noise. The better observer of the two is combined with a model-based predictive control unit with a square cost function. The consideration of cost limits by limiting control variables can indeed improve the result as is explained here by means of a control circuit simulation. (orig.)

  10. Karyotype variation and conservation in morphotypes of non-heading Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Jin Shuang; Sun, Cheng Zhen; Xiao, Dong; Zhang, Shu Ning; Bonnema, Guusje; Hou, Xi Lin


    Non-heading Chinese cabbage encompasses a wide diversity of morphotypes, like the well-known Pak-choi, Wu ta cai, Cai xin, Tai cai, and Fen nei cai. Despite recent developments in re-sequencing which results in the detection of SNPs, insertions, deletions and copy number variants, there has been

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-03-0478 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-03-0478 emb|CAI22745.2| chromosome 20 open reading frame 23 [Homo sapiens...] emb|CAI43180.2| chromosome 20 open reading frame 23 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI43063.2| chromosome 20 open reading frame 23 [Homo sapiens] CAI22745.2 1e-72 62% ...

  12. Effectiveness of Cognitive Skills-Based Computer-Assisted Instruction for Students with Disabilities: A Synthesis (United States)

    Weng, Pei-Lin; Maeda, Yukiko; Bouck, Emily C.


    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for students with disabilities can be categorized into the following categories: visual, auditory, mobile, and cognitive skills-based CAI. Cognitive-skills based CAI differs from other types of CAI largely in terms of an emphasis on instructional design features. We conducted both systematic review of…

  13. "La frontera norte tiene tres problemas: tráfico de armas, de drogas y de migrantes". Migración irregular y discursos ´securitarios´ en Centroamérica: el caso de Costa Rica


    Stefanie Kron


    Tomando Costa Rica como caso ejemplar, en el ensayo se explora la tematización y el tratamiento institucional de la migración irregular en Centroamérica. Partiendo del paradigma mundial de una “securitización” de la migración irregular (Waeveret al., 1993; Weiner, 1995), y aplicando un marco de análisis transnacional y de multiniveles, se preguntará por los repertorios discursivos, los actores y medidas específicos que confluyen en la creación de un nexo migración/(in)seguridad en Centroaméri...

  14. A farmacobotânica, ainda tem lugar na moderna anestesiologia? ¿La farmacobotánica, aún tiene lugar en la moderna anestesiología? Is there still a place for pharmacobotany in modern anesthesiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Bezerra do Vale


    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Recentemente, o uso de chás medicinais - infusões, decoctos, tisanas, tinturas - ou medicamentos de origem vegetal vem sendo retomado de maneira sistemática e crescente na profilaxia e tratamento das doenças, ao lado da terapêutica convencional, na maioria dos países ocidentais. A presente revisão objetiva analisar as principais plantas que serviram como base de progresso para a moderna terapêutica anestesiológica através de sua utilização como modelos moleculares para síntese orgânica na moderna química fina de ponta, bem como fornecer mais embasamento sobre benefícios, potenciais efeitos adversos, interações e risco de efeitos colaterais que possam afetar o ato anestésico no paciente cirúrgico usuário habitual de fitoterapia. CONTEÚDO: Considerações anestesiológicas selecionadas são discutidas focalizando uma pequena revisão sobre ervas medicinais mais populares que foram essenciais no desenvolvimento de uma farmacologia anestesiológica e, ainda, as potenciais interações de plantas medicinais usadas por pacientes para tratar suas doenças ou controlar seus sintomas com drogas sintéticas usadas na anestesia. CONCLUSÕES: Enquanto a Medicina especializada fascina-se cada vez mais com a tecnologia avançada de novos fármacos e de fantásticos monitores, cresce em vários países o número de pacientes que desejam uma abordagem mais holística com rejeição dos modernos métodos de tratamento, optando por chás, meditações, dietas vegetarianas, anti-oxidantes, entre outros. Cabe ao anestesiologista avaliar quanto o conhecimento de farmacognosia e de farmacobotânica pode ajudá-lo na prática anestésica e, principalmente, na segurança de seu paciente.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Recientemente, el uso de tés medicinales - infusiones, decocciones, tisanas, tinturas - o medicamentos de origen vegetal viene siendo retomado de manera sistemática y creciente en la profilaxis y tratamiento de las enfermedades al lado de la terapéutica convencional en la mayoría de los países occidentales. La presente revisión objetiva analizar las principales plantas que servirán como base de progreso para la moderna terapéutica anestesiólogica a través de su utilización como modelos moleculares para síntesis orgánica en la moderna química fina de punta, bien como suministrar más fundamento sobre beneficios, potenciales efectos adversos, interacciones y riesgo de efectos colaterales que puedan afectar el acto anestésico en el paciente cirúrgico usuario habitual de la fitoterapia. CONTENIDO: Son discutidas las consideraciones anestesiológicas seleccionadas, focalizando una pequeña revisión sobre hierbas medicinales más populares que fueron esenciales en el desenvolvimiento de una farmacología anestesiológica y aún, las potenciales interacciones de plantas medicinales usadas por pacientes para tratar sus enfermedades o controlar sus síntomas con drogas sintéticas usadas en la anestesia. CONCLUSIONES: En cuanto la Medicina especializada se fascina cada vez más con la tecnología avanzada de nuevos fármacos y de fantásticos monitores, crece en varios países el número de pacientes que desean una abordaje mas holística con rechazo de los modernos métodos de tratamiento, optando por tés, meditaciones, dietas vegetarianas, anti-oxidantes, entre otros. Cabe al anestesiologista evaluar cuanto el conocimiento de farmacognosia y de farmacobotánica puede ayudarlo en la práctica anestésica y, principalmente, en la seguridad de su paciente.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recently, the use of medicinal teas - infusions, decoction, tisanes, dyeings - or drugs of vegetal origin are being systematically and increasingly revived to prevent and treat diseases together with conventional medicine in most Western countries. This review aimed at analyzing major herbs that were the basis for the progress of modern anesthetic therapy through their use as molecular models for organic synthesis in fine leading edge modern chemistry, as well as shedding more light on the advantages, potential adverse effects, interactions and risks for side-effects which may affect anesthesia in surgical patients users of phytotherapy. CONTENTS: Selected anesthesiologic considerations are discussed focusing a brief review of popular herbs essentials on the development of anesthetic pharmacology and the potential drug-herb interactions between synthetic drugs used in anesthesia and the medicinal herbs used by patients in their illness and symptoms management. CONCLUSIONS: While specialized Medicine is increasingly fascinated by the advanced technology of new drugs and fantastic monitors, there is an increasing trend in several countries for a more holistic approach and rejection of new treatment methods, with an option for teas, meditation, vegetarian diets and anti-oxidants, among others. It is the anesthesiologist’s role to evaluate how much pharmacognosy and pharmacobotany knowledge may help him in the anesthetic practice and, especially, in patients safety.

  15. El aspecto social de la desertifi cación: Análisis de la percepción que la administración pública tiene en Centroamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Carolina Garay Romero


    Full Text Available La desertifi cación es un fenómeno complejo y no sólo representa la degradación de algunosecosistemas terrestres. Hoy día, es bien conocido que este proceso se encuentra vinculado tanto aldeterioro ambiental como a factores sociales y económicos, dejando a su paso grandes impactos enla seguridad alimentaria, pobreza, migración y desequilibrio en innumerables países.El análisis de la percepción de la desertifi cación es un aspecto esencial en el diseño depolíticas que ayudarían en la lucha contra este problema. La percepción de la desertifi cación en CentroAmérica se ha convertido en un tema polémico y debería incluirse en las estrategias de aplicaciónde instrumentos de gestión, como los convenios internacionales que llegan a formar parte de laspolíticas públicas de los países.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Da Silva Pinto


    Full Text Available Dentro de los linderos de un mundo que se desvela por explicarlo todo desde una racionalidad portadora de principios capaces de darle sentido a las causas y sus efectos, como también del tupido entramado de relaciones que tocan por igual a personas y cosas, tenemos que es de vital importancia puntualizar el lugar que ontológicamente posee el bien y la maldad. Para Baruch de Spinoza este era un problema de primer orden que debería ser abordado por el discurso filosófico, porque ayudaría a definir el rol del entendimiento, de las pasiones y con ello la factibilidad de un mundo capaz de ofrecer respuestas a las agresiones y violencias acostumbradas a maniobrar bajo el amparo del poder religioso, político y social de turno.

  17. Marco Palacios Rozo: “…la violencia pública en Colombia tiene en parte un origen: la ausencia histórica de populismo en el Estado…”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan David Jimenez Patiño


    Full Text Available Marco Palacios Rozo es abogado de la Universidad Libre de Colombia, Magister en Estudios Chinos de El Colegio de México y en 1978 se graduó como  PhD en Historia por la Universidad de Oxford (Reino Unido. En Colombia, fue rector de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia en dos ocasiones (1984-1988 y 2003-2005, Director del Instituto Colombiano para el Fomento de la Educación Superior ICFES (1989-1990, profesor de la Facultad de Administración de la Universidad de los Andes  (desde 2005, y  recientemente hizo parte de la Misión Estudios Competitividad Caficultura en Colombia designado por Juan Manuel Santos, Presidente de la República. En México, entre 1978 y 1982, fue profesor investigador del Centro de Estudios Internacionales de El Colegio de México, donde se encuentra adscrito al Centro de Estudios Históricos de la misma institución desde 1994. Otra experiencia del profesor Palacios Rozo es haber sido profesor visitante en Tsukuba University (Japón, Chicago University y Duke University (Estados Unidos, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona (España e investigador visitante del Instituto de Estudios Latinoamericanos de la Universidad de Londres (Reino Unido.

  18. Cambio en la clasificación macroscópica de la apendicitis. ¿Tiene algún impacto? Estudio retrospectivo en un Hospital Universitario Pediátrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio David Castañeda Espinosa


    Conclusión. El cambio en la clasificación macroscópica y el aportar la nueva definición sobre apendicitis perforada ha logrado disminuir la estancia hospitalaria y la cantidad de antibióticos utilizados sin una repercusión significativa en la tasa de complicaciones.

  19. Avril 1947 : la « Déclaration de Montevideo ». Le projet démocrate-chrétien en Amérique latine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Compagnon


    Full Text Available Entre le 18 et le 23 avril 1947 se réunissent à Montevideo une poignée d’intellectuels catholiques sud-américains : parmi eux, Eduardo Frei, futur président de la République du Chili ; Alceu Amoroso Lima, figure importante de l’intelligentsia brésilienne contemporaine ; l’uruguayen Dardo Regules, fondateur de l’Unión Cívica en 1912 ; ou encore l’avocat argentin Manuel V. Ordoñez, ancien professeur de philosophie à la faculté de droit de Buenos Aires. Au total trente et un hommes qui, au terme...

  20. Operación de Pickrell o graciloplastía no estimulada: ¿Tiene un rol en el manejo quirúrgico actual de la incontinencia anal severa?




    Se presenta la casuística de Operación de Pickrell o graciloplastía no estimulada realizada por uno de los autores (CJB). Se analizan sus indicaciones, técnica, complicaciones, manejo postoperatorio y resultados. Se presentan 5 pacientes (4 hombres y una mujer) operados por incontinencia anal severa, realizándose una graciloplastía no estimulada u operación de Pickrell. Las principales complicaciones fueron dehiscencia cutánea en 2 pacientes, trombosis venosa profunda y dolor crónico de la zo...

  1. El control fiscal y la revisoría fiscal en las entidades públicas: frente al dictamen sobre los estados contables, ¿quién tiene la razón?


    Castillo, Jesús Iván


    El control fiscal y la revisoría fiscal hacenparte de los mecanismos de control externo diseñados porel Estado para la vigilancia de la gestión fiscal de la administracióny para el aseguramiento del buen uso y conservaciónde los recursos públicos y privados, de conformidadcon las normas legales, que dadas las características y naturalezafuncional, presentan similitudes, pero también marcadasdiferencias.El control fiscal es una función pública, mediante la cual serealiza vigilancia sobre la fo...

  2. La violencia de género no tiene fronteras. Estudio comparativo de las normativas colombiana y española en materia de violencia de género (2004-2014)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beatriz Londoño Toro; Leticia Olga Rubio; Juan Fernando Castro


    ... la protección de los derechos de las mujeres frente a la violencia de género, el objetivo del estudio es construir propuestas que fortalezcan los instrumentos existentes y permitan compartir las buenas prácticas normativas...

  3. El coactivador de receptores nucleares RAC3 tiene un rol protector de la Apoptosis inducida por distintos estímulos RAC3 nuclear receptor co-activator has a protective role in the apoptosis induced by different stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina P. Coló


    Full Text Available RAC3 pertenece a la familia de coactivadores de receptores nucleares p160, y se encuentra sobreexpresado en varios tumores. Demostramos previamente que RAC3 es coactivador del factor de transcripción anti-apoptótico NF-kapa;B. En este trabajo investigamos su rol en la apoptosis inducida por H2O2 en una línea celular no tumoral derivada de riñón embrionario humano (HEK293, y por el ligando inductor de apoptosis relacionado a TNF (TRAIL en una línea de leucemia mieloide crónica humana (K562, naturalmente resistente a la muerte por este estímulo. Observamos que las células tumorales K562 poseen niveles altos de RAC3 comparados con las células no tumorales HEK293. La sobreexpresión normal de coactivador o por transfección, inhibe la apoptosis mediante una disminución de la activación de caspasas, translocación del factor inductor de apoptosis (AIF al núcleo, aumento de la actividad de NF-kapa;B y las quinasas AKT y p38 y disminución de la quinasa ERK. Lo opuesto fue observado por disminución de RAC3 mediante la técnica de ARN interferente (RNAi en K562, aumentando así la apoptosis inducida por TRAIL. Estas evidencias sugieren que una sobreexpresión de RAC3 contribuye al desarrollo de tumores, participando en las cascadas que controlan la muerte celular por mecanismos no estrictamente dependientes de hormonas esteroideas y/o de acetilación, constituyendo esto un posible blanco de ataque para el tratamiento de tumores.RAC3 belongs to the family of p160 nuclear receptors coactivators and it is over-expressed in several tumors. We have previously shown that RAC3 is a NF-kappa;B coactivator. In this paper, we investigated the role of RAC3 in cell-sensitivity to apoptosis, using H2O2 in the human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293, and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL in a human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line (K562 naturally resistant to TRAIL. We observed that the tumoral K562 cells have high levels of RAC3 if compared with the non-tumoral HEK293 cells. The normal or transfected coactivator over-expression inhibits apoptosis through a diminished caspase activity and AIF nuclear translocation, increased NF-kappa;B, AKT and p38, and decreased ERK activities. In contrast, inhibition of RAC3 by siRNA induced sensitivity of K562 to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Such results suggest that over-expression of RAC3 contributes to tumor development through molecular mechanisms that do not depend strictly on acetylation and/or steroid hormones, which control cell death. This could be a possible target for future tumor therapies.

  4. La memoria de la ciudad en TAFOS: antropología visual cuando el otro tiene la cámara (portafolio fotográfico con breve prólogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ramírez Corzo


    Full Text Available En el artículo se presenta y analiza una selección de imágenes de escenas urbanas que forman parte de la colección de fotos del taller de Fotografía Social Tafos. Se busca explicitar algunas inquietudes importantes en el marco de la discusión contemporánea sobre la antropología en general y la antropología visual en particular: (1 las interrogantes y los cuestionamientos teóricos y metodológicos que la experiencia de TAFOS conlleva para la antropología visual y (2 el rol que pueden tener estas imágenes en la construcción de la memoria colectiva de la ciudad de Lima.---This paper offers and analyses a selection of pictures —with special emphasis on those representing urban scenes — from the photographic collection of Tafos’ Social Photography Workshop. Its main purpose is to highlight some important issues in contemporary discussion about anthropology in general and visual anthropology in particular: (1 theoretical and methodological issues and aspects associated with the experience developed by TAFOS in the field of visual anthropology, and (2 the role that these pictures may have in the construction of Lima’s collective memory.


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    Bernardo Congote Ochoa


    Full Text Available El artículo somete a prueba dos hipótesis: la que expone conceptos tradicionales del tipo congelar la dinámica campo-ciudad o conservar al campesino en el campo explotando áreas mínimas y la modernista, que utiliza conceptos económicos del tipo tiempo de trabajo socialmente necesario, costos sociales, demanda efectiva y movilidad de factores. El artículo falsea de manera preliminar la hipótesis tradicional y valida la modernista, tanto teórica como empíricamente sobre un caso observado en la zona del Alto Chicamocha, (Boyacá con datos capturados entre 1999 y 2010. Formula al final algunas conclusiones y recomendaciones.

  6. Médias et coexistence entre musulmans et chrétiens au nord-Cameroun : de la période coloniale française au début du XXIème siècle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fogue Kuate, Francis Arsene


    This thesis explores the interplay between media, politics and religion in Northern Cameroon, from the French colonial period (1916-1960) to the beginning of the 21st century. Invoking post-colonial theory (Mbembe 2000), the political economy of communication by the Fulani hegemony over the

  7. Pérennès Jean-Jacques, Georges Anawati (1905-1994, un chrétien égyptien devant le mystère de l’islam, Cerf, Histoire à vif, 2008, 361 p.

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    Catherine Mayeur-Jaouen


    Full Text Available Après la somme imposante de Dominique Avon sur les dominicains du Caire (Les Frères prêcheurs en Orient. Les dominicains du Caire (années 1910-années 1960, Cerf-Histoire, 2005, 1029 pages dont nous avions déjà rendu compte dans cette revue, un nouveau livre vient évoquer de façon plus accessible et surtout plus sensible la belle figure du père Georges Anawati (1905-1994. Ce dominicain égyptien, célèbre islamologue, aura bâti une œuvre scientifique d’importance tout en participant au premie...

  8. À propos du lexique juridique en ancien français avant le 13e siècle : la Règle de saint Benoît et le Perceval de Chrétien de Troyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schauwecker Yela


    Full Text Available La plus ancienne traduction de la {em Règle} de saint Benoît en franc{c}ais, rédigée en dialecte picard-wallon, date de la première moitié ou du milieu du {sc xii}$^{m e}$~siècle. On veut montrer que son auteur, pour qui le changement de langue, n'est pas le premier objectif s'efforce de transférer le texte de son milieu originel de l'Antiquité tardive dans le monde chevaleresque-féodal du {sc xii}$^{m e}$~siècle. Même sans nécessité apparente, quand il a eu à sa disposition l'équivalent du mot employé dans la {em Regula}, il substitue aux mots latins des termes juridiques et féodaux franc{c}ais. par Son texte, en tant que document de droit pour les moines, devient ainsi une source de vocabulaire juridique franc{c}ais avant le {sc xiii}$^{m e}$~siècle, c'est-à-dire dans un temps où les documents juridiques en langue vulgaire sont extrêmement rares. Cela est dû au fait que la justice, dans le Nord, fondée sur des coutumes, utilisait la langue vernaculaire à l'oral. La terminologie juridique franc{c}aise est bien enracinée dans la langue courante de l'époque~: leur insertion dans les Lais et les Chansons de geste en fait preuve. Mais cette terminologie est souvent méconnue par la lexicographie traditionnelle de l'ancien franc{c}ais, en raison des contextes littéraires et figurés. par

  9. Is there still a role for intraoperative enteroscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding? ¿Tiene aún sentido la enteroscopia intraoperatoria en pacientes con hemorragia gastrointestinal de origen oscuro?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Monsanto


    Full Text Available Background: in 21st century, endoscopic study of the small intestine has undergone a revolution with capsule endoscopy and balloon-assisted enteroscopy. The difficulties and morbidity associated with intraoperative enteroscopy, the gold-standard in the 20th century, made this technique to be relegated to a second level. Aims: evaluate the actual role and assess the diagnostic and therapeutic value of intraoperative enteroscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients and methods: we conducted a retrospective study of 19 patients (11 males; mean age: 66.5 ± 15.3 years submitted to 21 IOE procedures for obscure GI bleeding. Capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy had been performed in 10 and 5 patients, respectively. Results: with intraoperative enteroscopy a small bowel bleeding lesion was identified in 79% of patients and a gastrointestinal bleed-ing lesion in 94%. Small bowel findings included: angiodysplasia (n = 6, ulcers (n = 4, small bowel Dieulafoy's lesion (n = 2, bleed-ing from anastomotic vessels (n = 1, multiple cavernous hemangiomas (n = 1 and bleeding ectopic jejunal varices (n = 1. Agreement between capsule endoscopy and intraoperative enteroscopy was 70%. Endoscopic and/or surgical treatment was used in 77.8% of the patients with a positive finding on intraoperative enteroscopy, with a rebleeding rate of 21.4% in a mean 21-month follow-up period. Procedure-related mortality and postoperative complications have been 5 and 21%, respectively. Conclusions: intraoperative enteroscopy remains a valuable tool in selected patients with obscure GI bleeding, achieving a high diagnostic yield and allowing an endoscopic and/or surgical treatment in most of them. However, as an invasive procedure with relevant mortality and morbidity, a precise indication for its use is indispensable.

  10. Antijudaïsme, pouvoir politique et administration de la justice. Juifs, chrétiens et convertis dans l’espace juridictionnel de la Chancillería de Valladolid (xve-xvie siècles

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    Elisa Caselli


    Full Text Available Composition du juryMonsieur. Bernard Vincent, Directeur de thèses (ÉHESS,Monsieur. Bartolomé Bennassar (Université de Toulouse le Mirail,Monsieur. Ricardo Garcia Carcel (Université Autonome de Barcelone,Madame. Claude Gauvard (Université de Paris I,Madame. Béatrice Perez (Université de Rennes II,Monsieur. Jean-Paul Zuñiga, (ÉHESSMention très honorable avec félicitation du juryThèse soutenue le 28 juin 2010RésuméÀ travers des procès judiciaires impliquant des juifs, plaidant entre eux ou...

  11. Segregation of waste water currents for fertirrigation at the Camilo Cienfuegos Agroindustrial Sugar Complex; Segregacion de las corrientes para el fertirriego de las aguas residuales del CAI Camilo Cienfuegos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obaya, M. C.; Valdes, E.; Rodirugez, D. F.; Cuellar, A.


    Agricultural irrigation using the waste waters generated in the industrial sugar production process is the most commonly employed way of treating and depositing of such waste once of has been suitably homogenized. However, this solution also has its limitations. It is therefore necessary to characterise the different waste water currents, especially the saline currents, so that they can be segregated, thereby allowing fertirrigation to take into account the need to preserve the structure of the soil and ensure the viability of the type of crop being grown. A set of analytical techniques for determining the ionic composition of these waters is presented which facilitate decisions on how best to manage them in the future. (Author) 10 refs.

  12. A Medical Research and Evaluation Facility Defense and Studies Supporting the Medical Chemical Defense Program. Task 95-38: Evaluation of the Vesicating Properties of Neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Set (CAIS) Components. (United States)


    epidermal necrosis, follicular necrosis, dermal necrosis, vascular necrosis, hemorrhage, and pustular epidermitis) were graded by a veterinary pathologist...following decontamination, buprenorphine at a dose of approximately 0.1-0.25 mg/kg sc can be given every 8-12 hr following consultation with a staff...absence of microblisters by a qualified, experienced veterinary pathologist. a. Injections: Anesthetics only. b. Biosamples: No biological samples taken

  13. Biomasa de hojas caídas y otros indicadores de sustentabilidad en asociaciones de especies forestales con cacao “CCN51” en la zona Central del Litoral ecuatoriano

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    Gary Ramírez Huila


    Full Text Available Se realizó el estudio de cuatro especies forestales Cybistax donnell-smithii Rose, Cordia macranthaChadat, Colubrina arborescens (Mill. Sarg y Triplaris guayaquilensis Weed, en asociación con Theobroma cacao L. Var. CCN51. El sistema agroforestal estuvo ubicado en Quevedo, provincia de Los Ríos, Ecuador. Los árboles tuvieron seis años y el cacao de cinco años de edad, establecidos en un marco de plantación de 9 x 9 m y 3 x 3 m, respectivamente. Se aplicó un diseño de bloques al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. Las variables evaluadas fueron producción de madera y cacao, sombra, producción de hojas caídas, transferencia de N, P, K, Ca y Mg, nutrientes y contenido de humedad en el suelo. El volumen total de madera para C. donnell-smithii, C. macrantha, C. arborescens y T. guayaquilensis fue 46.49; 27.06; 21.03 y 61.37 m3 ha-1, respectivamente. La producción de cacao no presentó diferencias signi cativas entre asociaciones. Los mayores aportes anuales de biomasa de hojas caídas se produjeron en la asociación C. arborescens + cacao con 4079 kg ha-1, esta asociación realizó la mayor transferencia de N, K, Ca y Mg con 56.45; 29.54; 73.96 y 16.38 kg ha-1 a-1, respectivamente.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    computer software designed to enhance the learning process namely. Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI),. Computer Based Instruction(CBI) and. Computer Based Learning (CBL). Among them CAI is the most interactive method. This method provides instruction with or without the involvement of the teacher. CAI has three ...

  15. Effectiveness of Using Computer-Assisted Supplementary Instruction for Teaching the Mole Concept. (United States)

    Yalcinalp, Serpil; And Others


    Examines the effect of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on students' understanding of chemical formulas and mole concept, and their attitudes toward chemistry and CAI. Reports that students who used the CAI accompanied with lectures scored significantly higher and demonstrated significant improvement in attitudes compared to the control group…

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1632 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1632 emb|CAI12641.1| caspase 7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [...Homo sapiens] emb|CAI16007.1| caspase 7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [Homo sapiens] CAI12641.1 3e-25 69% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1277 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1277 emb|CAI12641.1| caspase 7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [...Homo sapiens] emb|CAI16007.1| caspase 7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [Homo sapiens] CAI12641.1 2e-09 73% ...

  18. User Interface Improvements in Computer-Assisted Instruction, the Challenge. (United States)

    Chalmers, P. A.


    Identifies user interface problems as they relate to computer-assisted instruction (CAI); reviews the learning theories and instructional theories related to CAI user interface; and presents potential CAI user interface improvements for research and development based on learning and instructional theory. Focuses on screen design improvements.…

  19. Pull-Down Menus, Menu Design, and Usage Patterns in Computer-Assisted Instruction. (United States)

    Schuerman, Robert L.; Peck, Kyle L.


    Discussion of menu design strategies for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) focuses on a study that investigated whether menu design would affect undergraduate learners' usage patterns during a CAI lesson. Sequential versus random selection of options is discussed, and new measures for describing usage patterns in CAI are explained. (eight…

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-1249 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-1249 emb|CAI20337.1| opioid receptor, mu 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI20458.1| opioid... receptor, mu 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47705.1| opioid receptor, mu 1, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] CAI20337.1 0.0 89% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-0744 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-0744 emb|CAI20337.1| opioid receptor, mu 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI20458.1| opioid... receptor, mu 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47705.1| opioid receptor, mu 1, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] CAI20337.1 1e-168 89% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-2824 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-2824 emb|CAI20337.1| opioid receptor, mu 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI20458.1| opioid... receptor, mu 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47705.1| opioid receptor, mu 1, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] CAI20337.1 0.0 94% ...

  3. General Purpose Cost Distribution Model for Computer Assisted Instruction. (United States)

    Voeller, Rick

    To compare the unit cost of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs, there must be a standard model for calculating the cost of computer services. Such cost can be classified into direct costs--expenditures made directly by the group in charge of CAI programs, and indirect costs--expenditures made by other groups in support of CAI services.…

  4. Student Achievement and the Use of the Program "Study Island" (United States)

    Bernard, Benjamin Thomas


    Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) has been used for many years in an attempt to increase student achievement. Districts have spent millions of dollars implementing different forms of CAI that may or may not be working. This study was an attempt to describe one such district and its CAI implementation. The study sought to complete three tasks. The…

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-04-0055 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-04-0055 emb|CAI20337.1| opioid receptor, mu 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI20458.1| receptor, mu 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47705.1| opioid receptor, mu 1, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] CAI20337.1 0.0 98% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-07-0091 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-07-0091 emb|CAI20337.1| opioid receptor, mu 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI20458.1| receptor, mu 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAW47705.1| opioid receptor, mu 1, isoform CRA_b [Homo sapiens] CAI20337.1 1e-168 97% ...

  7. Intracellular calcium and vulnerability to fibrillation and defibrillation in Langendorff-perfused rabbit ventricles. (United States)

    Hwang, Gyo-Seung; Hayashi, Hideki; Tang, Liang; Ogawa, Masahiro; Hernandez, Heidy; Tan, Alex Y; Li, Hongmei; Karagueuzian, Hrayr S; Weiss, James N; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng


    The role of intracellular calcium (Ca(i)) in defibrillation and vulnerability is unclear. We simultaneously mapped epicardial membrane potential and Ca(i) during shock on T-wave episodes (n=104) and attempted defibrillation episodes (n=173) in 17 Langendorff-perfused rabbit ventricles. Unsuccessful and type B successful defibrillation shocks were followed by heterogeneous distribution of Ca(i), including regions of low Ca(i) surrounded by elevated Ca(i) ("Ca(i) sinkholes") 31+/-12 ms after shock. The first postshock activation then originated from the Ca(i) sinkhole 53+/-14 ms after the shock. No sinkholes were present in type A successful defibrillation. A Ca(i) sinkhole also was present 39+/-32 ms after a shock on T that induced ventricular fibrillation, followed 22+/-15 ms later by propagated wave fronts that arose from the same site. This wave propagated to form a spiral wave and initiated ventricular fibrillation. Thapsigargin and ryanodine significantly decreased the upper limit of vulnerability and defibrillation threshold. We studied an additional 7 rabbits after left ventricular endocardial cryoablation, resulting in a thin layer of surviving epicardium. Ca(i) sinkholes occurred 31+/-12 ms after the shock, followed in 19+/-7 ms by first postshock activation in 63 episodes of unsuccessful defibrillation. At the Ca(i) sinkhole, the rise of Ca(i) preceded the rise of epicardial membrane potential in 5 episodes. There is a heterogeneous postshock distribution of Ca(i). The first postshock activation always occurs from a Ca(i) sinkhole. The Ca(i) prefluorescence at the first postshock early site suggests that reverse excitation-contraction coupling might be responsible for the initiation of postshock activations that lead to ventricular fibrillation.

  8. Scientific Performance Analysis of the SYZ Telescope Design versus the RC Telescope Design (United States)

    Ma, Donglin; Cai, Zheng


    Recently, Su et al. propose an innovative design, referred as the “SYZ” design, for China’s new project of a 12 m optical-infrared telescope. The SYZ telescope design consists of three aspheric mirrors with non-zero power, including a relay mirror below the primary mirror. SYZ design yields a good imaging quality and has a relatively flat field curvature at Nasmyth focus. To evaluate the science-compatibility of this three-mirror telescope, in this paper, we thoroughly compare the performance of SYZ design with that of Ritchey–Chrétien (RC) design, a conventional two-mirror telescope design. Further, we propose the Observing Information Throughput (OIT) as a metric for quantitatively evaluating the telescopes’ science performance. We find that although a SYZ telescope yields a superb imaging quality over a large field of view, a two-mirror (RC) telescope design holds a higher overall throughput, a better diffraction-limited imaging quality in the central field of view (FOV < 5‧) which is better for the performance of extreme Adaptive Optics (AO), and a generally better scientific performance with a higher OIT value. D. Ma & Z. Cai contributed equally to this paper.

  9. Academic learning time in physical education (ALT-PE: is it related to fundamental movement skill acquisition and learning?. Tiempo de aprendizaje académico en educación física (ALT-PE: ¿tiene que ver con la adquisición y aprendizaje de habilidades motrices fundamentales?

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    Loza Olave, Edmundo


    Full Text Available AbstractIn this study, the relationship between time-variables of the physical education lesson and fundamental movement skill acquisition and learning was examined. One hundred and ten first grade students and their six physical educators participated. Students were pre-, post-, and re-tested both qualitatively and quantitatively on overhand throwing and catching. The Test of Gross Motor Development (Ulrich, 1985 was used for the assessment of qualitative skill performance and the Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP, 1984 for the assessment of quantitative skill performance. Between pre- and post-tests students received an eight lessons unit instruction with emphasis on overhand throwing and catching. A total number of thirty-six students (6 students X 6 schools were selected, andtheir videotaped motor behavior in the lessons was analyzed with the Academic Learning Time ¿ Physical Education (ALT-PE,Parker, 1989. Regression analysis was applied to calculate students´ residual scores of achievement and to enable further data analysis. Correlation analysis between students´ achievement and ALT-PE categories indicated significant relationships between skill acquisition, learning and ALT-PE categories. It can be concluded that time devoted to practice skills, unlike times pent on activities irrelevant to the instructional task oron games, contributes to skill learning.ResumenEn este trabajo se estudia la relación entre variables temporales de las clases de Educación Física y la adquisición y aprendizaje de habilidades motrices fundamentales. En él participaron ciento diez alumnos de primer grado y seis profesores de Educación Física de Grecia. Los alumnos fueron examinados antes, durante y después tanto en términos cuantitativos como cualitativos en cuanto a lanzamientos y recepciones por encima de la cabeza. Se utilizó el Test de Desarrollo Motor Grueso (Ulrich, 1985 para evaluar el rendimiento en habilidades cualitativas y el Programa de Evaluación Educativa de Michigan (MEAP, 1984 para evaluar el rendimiento en habilidades cuantitativas. Entre las pre y post-pruebas, los alumnos recibieron una unidad formativa de ocho clases con especial énfasis en los lanzamientos y recepciones por encima de la cabeza. Se seleccionó a un total de 36 alumnos (6 alumnos x 6 escuelas y su comportamiento motor, grabado en vídeo durante las clases, fue analizado con el Tiempo de Aprendizaje Académico – Educación Física (ALT-PE, Parker, 1989. Se aplicó un análisis de regresión para calcular las puntuaciones residuales de los alumnos en cuanto a sus logros y permitir el posterior análisis de los datos. El análisis de la correlación entre los logros de los alumnos y las categorías de ALT-PE indicó la existencia de unas importantes relaciones entre la adquisición de habilidades, el aprendizaje y las categorías de ALT-PE. Puede concluirse que el tiempo dedicado al entrenamiento de las habilidades, a diferencia del tiempo dedicado a las habilidades irrelevantes para la tarea formativa o los juegos, contribuye al aprendizaje de habilidades.

  10. Cotidianidade da mulher que tem HIV/AIDS: modo de ser diante da (impossibilidade de amamentar Cotidianidad de la mujer que tiene VIH/SIDA: modo de ser ante la (imposibilidad de amamantar The daily routine of women infected with HIV/AIDS: way of being in the face of the impossibility of breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Maris de Mello Padoin


    Full Text Available Investigação fenomenológica que objetivou compreender a cotidianidade da mulher infectada pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana, diante da impossibilidade de amamentar. Desenvolveu-se entrevista com 12 mulheres, em um hospital universitário no sul do Brasil. Os depoimentos, analisados pelo método heideggeriano, revelaram que a mulher se mostra como ser-no-mundo e se mantém, predominantemente, na impessoalidade. Desvelou-se o modo de ser da de-cadência, expresso pela ocupação, falatório, curiosidade, ambigüidade e temor, além da inautenticidade do pacto de silêncio e do não dito. O cuidado solícito, mediado pela relação dialógica entre a mãe e o/a filho/a, entre a mulher e o/a profissional, mostrou a possibilidade do movimento da inautenticidade para a autenticidade. Recomenda-se, como estratégia assistencial, o encontro vivido e dialogado, mediado pela escuta, empatia e intersubjetividade, que se desenvolva a partir da compreensão do modo de ser do humano diante das impossibilidades da condição sorológica e na busca de desvelar suas possibilidades.Investigación fenomenológica que tuvo como objetivo comprender la cotidianidad de la mujer infectada por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, ante la imposibilidad de amamantar. Se desarrolló una entrevista con 12 mujeres, en un hospital universitario en el sur de Brasil. Las declaraciones, analizadas por el método heideggeriano, revelaron que la mujer se muestra como ser-en-el-mundo y se mantiene, predominantemente, en la impersonalidad. Se desveló el modo de ser de la decadencia, expreso por la ocupación, por las habladurías, curiosidad, ambigüedad y temor, además de la inautenticidad del pacto de silencio y de lo no dicho. El cuidado solícito, mediado por la relación dialógica entre la madre y el/la hijo/a, entre la mujer y el/la profesional, mostró la posibilidad del movimiento de la inautenticidad para la autenticidad. Se recomienda, como estrategia asistencial, el encuentro vivido y dialogado, mediado por la escucha, empatía e intersubjetividad, que se desarrolla a partir de la comprensión del modo de ser del humano ante las imposibilidades de la condición serológica y en la búsqueda de desvelar sus posibilidades.The purpose of this phenomenological research is to understand the daily routine of women infected with the virus of human immunodeficiency (HIV prevented from breastfeeding. Twelve women were interviewed in a university hospital in southern Brazil. Their statements, analyzed through a Heideggerian approach, showed that the women reveal themselves as beings-in-the-world and are mainly impersonal. The way of being of de-cadence was unveiled and expressed by occupation, gossip, curiosity, ambiguity, fear, and the inauthenticity of the pact of silence and the unsaid. The helpful care mediated by a dialogic relationship between mother and son/daughter, between the woman and the professional, showed the possibility of movement from inauthenticity to authenticity. We recommend the use of direct and dialogued interaction as an assistance strategy, mediated by listening, empathy and intersubjectivity, and developed through the comprehension of the way of being of the human being in the face of the impossibilities imposed by the serological condition and in their attempt to unveil their possibilities.

  11. "El cliente siempre tiene la razón": procesos de construcción de subjetividad en trabajadores jóvenes de una cadena multinacional de supermercados en la ciudad de Rosario "Client´s always right": Subjectivity construction´s process in young workers of a multinational chain of supermarkets in Rosario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Guiamet


    Full Text Available En este trabajo abordamos la problemática de la construcción de subjetividad de trabajadores jóvenes de supermercados desde la perspectiva de su relación con el cliente, ya que consideramos que en ésta se articulan una serie de dimensiones significativas del trabajo en supermercados. Las políticas empresariales en la actualidad tienden a incorporar a la subjetividad obrera en el proceso de valorización del capital y, en este sentido, la atención al cliente se constituye en un mecanismo clave para lograrlo. Además, nos preguntamos cómo se da la apropiación de estos mecanismos por parte de los trabajadores en los procesos de trabajo concretos de atención al cliente, destacando que, si bien estas políticas son eficaces, las prácticas de los trabajadores también conllevan implícitas resignificaciones, apropiaciones y límites frente a estas políticas.In this work we deal with the problem of the subjectivity construction of supermarket´s young workers from the perspective of their relationship with the client, since we consider that in this one a series of significant dimentions of the work in supermarkets are articulated. Nowadays, business politics tend to incorporate workers´ subjectivity in the capital´s appreciation process and, in this sense, attention to customer becomes a key mechanism to achieve it. Besides, we ask ourselves how workers aproppiate this mechanisms in concrete work process of attention to client, emphasizing that, beyond this politics´s effectiveness, workers´ practices also take implicit resignifications, appropiations and limits.

  12. Peyrouse Sébastien, Des chrétiens entre athéisme et islam. Regards sur la question religieuse en Asie centrale soviétique et post-soviétique, Paris, Maisonneuve et Larose, Institut Français d’Études sur l’Asie Centrale, 2003, 406 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Balci


    Full Text Available L’ouvrage de Sébastien Peyrouse est sans doute un des meilleurs travaux parus ces dernières années sur l’Asie centrale post-soviétique. Il s’agit d’un travail de longue haleine, qui, s’appuyant sur de solides enquêtes empiriques menées sur un vaste terrain comprenant les cinq États d’Asie centrale (Kazakhstan, Kirghizstan, Ouzbékistan, Tadjikistan et Turkménistan ainsi que la Russie, combine une approche historique et sociologique et aboutit à une remarquable analyse de la situation passée e...

  13. Application of Polarimetric-Interferometric Phase Coherence Optimization (PIPCO) Procedure to SIR-C/X-SAR Tien-Shan Tracks 122.20(94 Oct. 08)/154.20(94 Oct. 09) Repeat-Orbit C/L-Band Pol-D-InSAR Imag (United States)

    Boerner, W. M.; Mott, H.; Verdi, J.; Darizhapov, D.; Dorjiev, B.; Tsybjito, T.; Korsunov, V.; Tatchkov, G.; Bashkuyev, Y.; Cloude, S.; hide


    During the past decade, Radar Polarimetry has established itself as a mature science and advanced technology in high resolution POL-SAR imaging, image target characterization and selective image feature extraction.

  14. ¿Qué Efecto Tiene Asistir a Sala Cuna y Jardín Infantil Desde los Tres Meses Hasta los Cuatro Años de Edad?: Estudio Longitudinal en la Junta Nacional de Jardines Infantiles What Is the Effect of Attending Nursery School Between Three Months and Four Years of Age?: A Longitudinal Study in the National Preschool Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Seguel


    Full Text Available Este estudio longitudinal cuasi-experimental con grupo de comparación examinó el efecto de asistir desde 1 a 4 años de edad a jardines de la Junta Nacional de Jardines Infantiles (JUNJI de Chile sobre el desarrollo/aprendizaje de los párvulos y el efecto diferencial de asistir a partir de los 3 años. El muestreo fue bietápico (41 jardines y 427 niños al inicio y estratificado por región del país. El grupo de comparación, con características socioeconómicas similares (184 niños al inicio, no asistía a sala cuna. Los niños fueron evaluados anualmente con el Inventario de Desarrollo Battelle. También se recogieron variables familiares y educativas con entrevistas semi-estructuradas y pautas de observación. Comparaciones usando Propensity Score Matching y análisis de Mínimos Cuadrados Ordinarios arrojaron que alrededor del 80% de los niños cursa un desarrollo normal, independientemente de que asistan a los jardines infantiles JUNJI o permanezcan en sus casas. Asistir desde los 3 años tendría un efecto positivo en el desarrollo infantil. La calidad de las prácticas pedagógicas en lactantes y la actitud didáctica familiar explicarían mayormente el desarrollo de los párvulos.This quasi-experimental longitudinal study with comparison group examined the effect on the learning and developmental levels of infants attending the National Preschool Association (JUNJI nursery schools in Chile (between 3 months and 4 years of age and the differential effect of attending them from 3 years of age onward. A two-stage (41 nurseries and 427 children at the beginning and stratified sample by region was used. The comparison group, with similar socioeconomic characteristics (184 children at the beginning, did not attend a nursery school. Children were assessed yearly with the Battelle Developmental Inventory. Family and educational variables were collected using semi-structured interviews and an observational guideline. Comparisons using Propensity Score Matching and Least Squares analysis showed that nearly 80% of the children were learning and developing according to their age, regardless of whether they were attending a JUNJI nursery school or staying at home. Attending from 3 years of age onwards is likely to have positive effects on infant development. The quality of pedagogical practices in babies and family educational attitudes are the most probable explanations for children development.

  15. Has the identification of rectal hypersensitivity any implication in the clinical outcome of irritable bowel syndrome? ¿Tiene alguna repercusión clínica la identificación de hipersensibilidad en el síndrome de intestino irritable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Izquierdo


    Full Text Available Background: sixty percent of patients with irritable bowel disease (IBS are hypersensitive to rectal distension. It is uncertain to what extend the identification of this abnormality has an impact in the clinical outcome. Objective: to evaluate if rectal hypersensitivity is associated with a different clinical outcome, prognosis and use of medical resources. Material and methods: patients with IBS (Rome II criteria who underwent a rectal distension study at least one year before were eligible if they have not been included in any research protocol since then. We reviewed how many times in the last year they came to emergency room, underwent an endoscopy, and consulted a gastroenterologist or other medical physician for any reason. Also, a telephone interview was done by a gastroenterology fellow using a structured questionnaire to evaluate the frequency and severity of their symptoms in the last year and last month. Results: a total of 52 patients were eligible and 38 were included. Forteen were not included because inability to made a phone contact or did not consent to phone interview. Twenty six patients were hypersensitive and 12 normosensitive. Both groups had similar symptoms (frequency and severity but hypersensitive patients visited less to the gastroenterologist (1.2 ± 0.2 vs. 2.9 ± 0.6 times yearly, p Introducción: el 60% de los pacientes con SII tienen hipersensibilidad a la distensión rectal. Se desconoce si la identificación de esta alteración puede modificar su evolución. Objetivo: evaluar si la hipersensibilidad a la distensión rectal se asocia con un diferente pronóstico respecto a la presentación de síntomas y la utilización de recursos sanitarios en pacientes con SII. Material y métodos: se incluyeron pacientes con SII según criterios de Roma II, que habían sido sometidos a un estudio de distensión rectal. Se recogieron datos de los registros informáticos sobre asistencia a consultas especializadas, realización de endoscopias, asistencia a urgencias e ingresos hospitalarios. Además, se realizó entrevista telefónica en la que se interrogó acerca de la existencia de síntomas a lo largo del último año y último mes (características, duración y severidad. Resultados: se evaluaron 38 pacientes, 26 con hipersensibilidad en el estudio de distensión basal y 12 normosensibles. En el momento de la recogida de datos (registro informático y entrevista telefónica el seguimiento medio era de 2,39 años después del estudio de distensión. Los sujetos hipersensibles presentaron una clínica similar a aquellos normosensibles. Se registró una menor tasa de frecuentación anual en las consultas de Aparato Digestivo (1,2 ± 0,2 vs. 2,9 ± 0,6, p < 0,01 por parte de los pacientes hipersensibles sin existir diferencias en el resto de variables estudiadas. Conclusión: la identificación de hipersensibilidad visceral en pacientes con SII conlleva una notable reducción de las consultas al gastroenterólogo, sin que esto pueda explicarse por la mejoría de los síntomas, ni por una menor tendencia a realizar otras consultas médicas.

  16. Quantification of the influence of the choice of the algorithm and planning system on the calculation of a treatment plan; Cuantificacion de la influencia que tiene la eleccion del algoritmo y del sistema de planificacion en el calculo de una dosimetria clinica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moral, F. del; Ramos, A.; Salgado, M.; Andrade, B; Munoz, V.


    In this work an analysis of the influence of the choice of the algorithm or planning system, on the calculus of the same treatment plan is introduced. For this purpose specific software has been developed for comparing plans of a series of IMRT cases of prostate and head and neck cancer calculated using the convolution, superposition and fast superposition algorithms implemented in the XiO 4.40 planning system (CMS). It has also been used for the comparison of the same treatment plan for lung pathology calculated in XiO with the mentioned algorithms, and calculated in the Plan 4.1 planning system (Brainlab) using its pencil beam algorithm. Differences in dose among the treatment plans have been quantified using a set of metrics. The recommendation for the dosimetry of a careful choice of the algorithm has been numerically confirmed. (Author).

  17. Quelle place au travail des agriculteurs dans la fabrication d’une agriculture durable ? How does the work of the farmers fits in the making of a sustainable agriculture? Que lugar tiene el trabajo de los agricultores en la construcción de una agricultura sostenible ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Béguin


    Full Text Available Après avoir rappelé le contexte de mutation que connaît actuellement le secteur agricole, nous nous interrogeons sur la place du travail dans la fabrication d’une agriculture durable. Dans cette perspective, nous soulignons trois types d’enjeux. Le premier est relatif à l’objectivation des liens travail-santé. En effet, les conditions de travail se dégradent dans le secteur et celui-ci génère de l’exclusion. Et il est loin d’être attractif. Le second renvoie au lien entre conception et travail. L’agriculture actuelle n’est pas soutenable. Et les pratiques productives des agriculteurs sont en pleine mutation. Mais encore faut-il que ces techniques soient actionnables dans le travail. Nous désignons donc trois voies à la prise en compte du travail dans la conception. Le troisième enjeu est relatif au vivre ensemble. Le développement durable pose en effet très profondément la question d’un futur à faire advenir collectivement. Nous considérons alors cette dimension politique comme un « projet », en posant la question de la prise en compte des projets des agriculteurs dans la définition des visées du développement durable.This paper is focused on work in the making of a sustainable agriculture. We emphasize three types of issue. The first one is related to the objectification of occupational health. Agriculture is a tough sector, which produces exclusion and which is far from attractive. The second is related to design. Farming today is not sustainable, and technical systems need to be designed. But the changes need to be actionable at work. So we present three ways needed in order to think out the workers’ activity during the design process. The third issue is related to Policy: sustainable development is also a future to bring together. We suggest that this collective dimension could be grasped as a « project », which takes into consideration the projects of farmers in order to define the aims of sustainable agriculture.Despues de haber recordado el contexto de mutación que conoce actualmente el sector agrícola, nos interrogamos sobre el lugar del trabajo en la construcción de una agricultura sostenible. Dentro de esta perspectiva, subrayamos tres tipos de desafíos. El primero es relativo a la objetivación de los lazos trabajo-salud. En efecto, las condiciones de trabajo se degradan en el sector y este genera exclusión. Lo que esta lejos de ser atractivo. El segundo devuelve al lazo entre concepción y trabajo. La agricultura actual no es sostenible. Y las prácticas productivas de los agricultores estan en plena mutación. Pero es todavía necesario que estas prácticas sean accionables en el trabajo. Designamos tres vías que permiten tomar en cuenta el trabajo en la concepción. El tercer desafío es relativo al vivir juntos. El desarrollo sostenible conlleva profundamente la cuestión de un futuro a construir colectivamente. Consideramos esta dimensión política como un « proyecto », que toma en cuenta los proyectos de los agricultores para definir los objetivos del desarrollo sostenible.

  18. Guillon Jean-Marie, Paul-Albert Février, un historien dans l’Algérie en guerre. Un engagement chrétien, 1959-1962 (préface de Pierre Vidal- Naquet, Éditions du Cerf, 2006, 525 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Direche-Slimani


    Full Text Available Paul-Albert Février est connu des universitaires algériens comme le spécialiste de l’Afrique romaine. Célèbre pour ses fouilles et ses travaux archéologiques dans la région de Sétif (notamment sur le site de Djémila et pour ses recherches sur l’Antiquité tardive en Algérie, il a également enseigné à l’université d’Alger après l’indépendance en 1962. On connaît moins cet épisode de sa vie, où jeune appelé (il achève son service militaire, il fut affecté durant dix mois dans un CTT (centre de...

  19. Propagation properties of the chirped Airy beams through the gradient-index medium (United States)

    Feng, Liyan; Zhang, Jianbin; Pang, Zihao; Wang, Linyi; Zhong, Tianfen; Yang, Xiangbo; Deng, Dongmei


    Through analytical derivation and numerical analysis, the propagation properties of the chirped Airy(CAi) beams in the gradient-index medium are investigated. The intensity and the phase distributions, the propagation trajectory and the Poynting vector of the CAi beams are demonstrated to investigate the propagation properties. Owing to the special and symmetrical refractive index profile of the gradient-index medium, the CAi beams propagate periodically. The effects of the distribution factor and the chirped parameter on the propagation of the CAi beams are analyzed. As the increasing of the distribution factor, the intensity distribution of the CAi beams is more scattering. However, with the chirped parameter increasing, the focusing property of the CAi beams strengthens. The variation of the chirped parameter can change the position of the peak intensity maximum, but it cannot alter the period of the peak intensity. The variations of the initial phase and the energy of the beams in the transverse plane expedite accordingly.

  20. Comment on "Valence state of titanium in the Wark-Lovering rim of a Leoville CAI as a record of progressive oxidation in the early Solar Nebula" by K.A. Dyl, J.I. Simon and E.D. Young (United States)

    Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.; Sutton, S. R.


    Dyl et al. (2011) state that their results confirm the conclusion of J. Simon et al. (2005) that the pyroxene in Wark-Lovering rims (Wark and Lovering, 1977) found on Ca-, Al-rich refractory inclusions has lower Ti3+/Titot ratios than the primary pyroxene in the interiors of inclusions. While true, the claim is misleading because J. Simon et al. (2005) concluded that there was no Ti3+ in the rims, whereas Dyl et al. (2011) found Ti3+ in 41 of 42 new rim analyses. In addition, J. Simon et al. (2005) concluded that rims formed under much more oxidizing conditions, log fO2 ⩾ IW-1, or ⩾6-7 log units higher, than inclusion interiors. The conclusions of J. Simon et al. (2005) were disputed by S. Simon et al. (2007) and are not supported by the new data of Dyl et al. (2011). The present work is intended for clarification of this and other issues.

  1. Comment on "Valence state of titanium in the Wark-Lovering rim of a Leoville CAI as a record of progressive oxidation in the early Solar Nebula" by K.A. Dyl, J.I. Simon and E.D. Young

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, S B; Grossman, L; Sutton, S R [UC


    Dyl et al. (2011) state that their results confirm the conclusion of J. Simon et al. (2005) that the pyroxene in Wark-Lovering rims (Wark and Lovering, 1977) found on Ca-, Al-rich refractory inclusions has lower Ti3+/Titot ratios than the primary pyroxene in the interiors of inclusions. While true, the claim is misleading because J. Simon et al. (2005) concluded that there was no Ti3+ in the rims, whereas Dyl et al. (2011) found Ti3+ in 41 of 42 new rim analyses. In addition, J. Simon et al. (2005) concluded that rims formed under much more oxidizing conditions, log fO2 ≥ IW-1, or ≥ 6-7 log units higher, than inclusion interiors. The conclusions of J. Simon et al. (2005) were disputed by S. Simon et al. (2007) and are not supported by the new data of Dyl et al. (2011). The present work is intended for clarification of this and other issues.

  2. Comment on "ancient asteroids enriched in refractory inclusions". (United States)

    Hezel, Dominik C; Russell, Sara S


    Sunshine et al. (Reports, 25 April 2008, p. 514) reported that certain asteroids contain 30 +/- 10 volume percent calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). We contend that the amount of CAIs in CV chondrites is two to three times as low as the 10 volume percent assumed by the authors; thus, we question whether the CAI-rich bodies they studied are indeed older than known asteroids or formed before the injection of (26)Al into the solar nebula.

  3. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome and anti-Müllerian hormone levels before and after laparoscopic gonadectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Kusumi


    Full Text Available We report cases of two sisters with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS. A complete female appearance, blind-ending vagina, and testes in the pelvis are characteristics of CAIS. Prophylactic laparoscopic gonadectomy was performed in both cases. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH level is known to be very high in patients with CAIS; AMH is secreted by Sertoli cells and testosterone suppresses the secretion. In our cases, serum AMH was very high before gonadectomy and dramatically decreased after gonadectomy. AMH could be the diagnostic feature for patients with CAIS.

  4. One Size Does Not Fit All: A Smarter Way to Develop Computer Assisted Interventions for Children with ASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bennett Casale


    Full Text Available The number of individuals seeking treatment for autism spectrum disorders (ASD is increasing quickly and families often have difficulty accessing effective therapy. A number of computer assisted interventions (CAI have been developed in an attempt to address these needs. However, most development of CAI has taken place in the absence of an understanding of how variability in ASD behavioral phenotypes may affect CAI effectiveness. The current effort describes the first step towards developing a framework to understand how behavioral phenotypes among those diagnosed with ASD can inform the design of CAI. Specifically, we propose a four-step methodology to better inform the design and development of such CAI. Generally, these steps involve by (1 identifying a need where CAI is appropriate, (2 identifying a technology or set of technologies that are relevant for that population, (3 identifying an appropriate population that stands to benefit from our CAI, and (4 identifying specific content to be included in our CAI. We also describe the results of an effort applying this proposed methodology for the development of our CAI

  5. Gastronomia, Sustentabilidade e Turismo na Praia de Caçandoca, Ubatuba (São Paulo-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielys Siqueira Bueno


    Ubatuba, tiene uma comunidad de pesca artesanal que es también remanesciente de um “quilombo”. Después de la apertura de rodovias permitiendo acceso al litoral norte de São Paulo, em los años setenta, la comunidade sufrió muchas pressiones de la especulación inmobiliaria para su desahucio o transferência, por causa de la belleza del lugar y sus possibilidades de uso turístico. Mas ella obtuvo el reconocimiento de su propriedade territorial, como “tierra de quilombo”, y hoy busca mantener su identidade y su cultura material. Una parte importante de esa cultura es su culinaria de peces, investigada por el A. en entrevistas abiertas com antiguos moradores de Caçandoca. Y hoy, proyectos comunitários y de gobierno ofrecen alternativas de aprovechamiento de esa cocina tradicional en uma actividad de turismo sustentable. Palabras-clave: turismo sustentable; pesca artesanal; quilombo ; culinária caiçara; ; Ubatuba-SP.

  6. De Actividades de Innovación y su Presencia en Pymes Santafesinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela S. Ambrosini


    Full Text Available La asimilación y la incorporación de nuevas tecnologías son cuestiones ineludibles al pensar en la permanencia y/o crecimiento de las empresas en el mercado. El reconocimiento de la innovación como ventaja competitiva sustentable es creciente y las Pymes requieren de estrategias que contemplen competencias y habilidades para mejorar su competitividad. Si bien el objeto de la transferencia de tecnología es el conocimiento, la viabilidad de un proceso con dinámica sistémica involucra una multiplicidad de instituciones, organismos y agentes; requiere de adaptaciones de productos, procesos y técnicas de gestión, y demanda la difusión de diseños alternativos para la inserción en diferentes mercados. Todas éstas cuestiones relevantes a contemplar por las Pymes cuando enfrentan el desafío de concretar la novedad en el mercado. En este marco, el texto que se presenta tiene por objetivo retomar parte de los resultados alcanzados y divulgados en el proyecto CAI+D 2005 “Estrategias de competitividad de Pymes de la región”. En tal sentido, la estructura de abordaje de este trabajo responde a tres aspectos: inicialmente se tratan los conceptos de innovación y competitividad en general y en las Pymes en particular. En una segunda parte se presentan los resultados obtenidos en entrevistas realizadas a 75 Pymes de Santa Fe. Finalmente se presentan las conclusiones que se obtuvieron en el escenario de innovación en el que se desenvuelven las Pymes de nuestra región.

  7. Using Computer-Assisted Interviewing to Consult with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study (United States)

    Barrow, Wilma; Hannah, Elizabeth F.


    This article explores the use of computer-assisted interviewing (CAI) as a tool for consulting with children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This is considered within the context of a research study which utilized one CAI programme, "In My Shoes", to investigate children and young people's views of provision, support, and participation in…

  8. The absolute chronology and thermal processing of solids in the solar protoplanetary disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connelly, James; Bizzarro, Martin; Krot, Alexander N.


    Transient heating events that formed calcium-aluminum - rich inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules are fundamental processes in the evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk, but their chronology is not understood. Using U-corrected Pb-Pb dating, we determined absolute ages of individual CAIs and cho...

  9. A Method for Evaluating Competency in Assessment and Management of Suicide Risk (United States)

    Hung, Erick K.; Binder, Renee L.; Fordwood, Samantha R.; Hall, Stephen E.; Cramer, Robert J.; McNiel, Dale E.


    Objective: Although health professionals increasingly are expected to be able to assess and manage patients' risk for suicide, few methods are available to evaluate this competency. This report describes development of a competency-assessment instrument for suicide risk-assessment (CAI-S), and evaluates its use in an objective structured clinical…

  10. Computer-Assisted Instruction: What the Research Shows. (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.


    Briefly reviews current research on the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and microcomputers. The Hawthorne Effect and research results for elementary, secondary, and college level students are discussed, courseware requirements are described, and research studies showing positive and negative effects of CAI are listed. (LRW)

  11. Using Dynamic Software in Mathematics: The Case of Reflection Symmetry (United States)

    Tatar, Enver; Akkaya, Adnan; Kagizmanli, Türkan Berrin


    This study was carried out to examine the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) using dynamic software on the achievement of students in mathematics in the topic of reflection symmetry. The study also aimed to ascertain the pre-service mathematics teachers' opinions on the use of CAI in mathematics lessons. In the study, a mixed research…

  12. A First Look at Harm Toward Animals by Bahamians in Childhood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fielding, William J; Oenbring, Raymond A; Brennen, Shane; Carroll, Marie C; Bethel, Nicolette; Minnis, Jessica


    .... While the use of violence to train children was not associated with a higher CAI score, domestic violence and the presence of a gun in the home were associated with a higher CAI score. The implications of these findings as they relate to the treatment of living creatures are discussed.

  13. Effectiveness of Computer-Based Education in Elementary Schools. (United States)

    Kulik, James A.; And Others


    This metaanalysis of 32 comparative studies shows that computer-based education has generally had positive effects on the achievement of elementary school pupils. However, these effects are different for off-line computer managed instruction and interactive computer assisted instruction (CAI); interactive CAI produces greater increases in student…

  14. What's a Computer Doing in My Music Room? (United States)

    Franklin, James L.


    Computers and humans use similar methods to process information. Advantages of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) include individual instruction, immediate positive reinforcement, high motivation, consistency, and organized instruction. Disadvantages of CAI include inadequate instructional programs, time needed to develop software,…

  15. Computer-Assisted Mathematics Instruction for Students with Specific Learning Disability: A Review of the Literature (United States)

    Stultz, Sherry L.


    This review was conducted to evaluate the current body of scholarly research regarding the use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to teach mathematics to students with specific learning disability (SLD). For many years, computers are utilized for educational purposes. However, the effectiveness of CAI for teaching mathematics to this specific…

  16. Effects of Chunked Reading among Learning Disabled Students: An Experimental Comparison of Computer and Traditional Chunked Passages. (United States)

    Casteel, Clifton A.


    This study compared the effects of chunking sentences on the retention and comprehension of two groups of learning disabled high school students, who received chunked reading via computer assisted instruction (CAI) or traditional methods. Both experimental groups performed better on the posttest than the control group, who received CAI without…

  17. DLI-IBM Joint Feasibility Study in Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Instruction. Final Report. (United States)

    Adams, Edward N.; Rosenbaum, Peter S.

    This document is the final report on a study of the use of computer assisted instruction (CAI). The objective of the study was to evaluate the potential applicability and usefulness of CAI in the instructional environment of the Defense Language Institute (DLI). The operational phases of the study were implemented in the Russian Aural…

  18. Clinical and genetic characterization of six cases with complete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Themutations of androgen receptor (AR) gene are the most common cause for complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). We aimed to characterize the six cases enrolled in our hospital (the First People's Hospital of Yunnan, China) and explore the molecular mechanism of CAIS. Between 2010 and 2013, six female ...

  19. Clinical and genetic characterization of six cases with complete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Aug 31, 2017 ... Abstract. The mutations of androgen receptor (AR) gene are the most common cause for complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. (CAIS). We aimed to characterize the six cases enrolled in our hospital (the First People's Hospital of Yunnan, China) and explore the molecular mechanism of CAIS. Between ...

  20. Automatization of Mathematics Skills via Computer-Assisted Instruction among Students with Mild Mental Handicaps. (United States)

    Podell, David M.; And Others


    This evaluation study with 94 elementary students (50 with mild mental handicap) compared computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and paper-and-pencil practices in promoting automatization of basic addition and subtraction skills. Findings suggested CAI was more effective but that the students with mental handicap required more practice than…

  1. Gross Anatomy Videos: Student Satisfaction, Usage, and Effect on Student Performance in a Condensed Curriculum (United States)

    Topping, Daniel B.


    Anatomy educators are being tasked with delivering the same quantity and quality of material in the face of fewer classroom and laboratory hours. As a result they have turned to computer-aided instruction (CAI) to supplement and augment curriculum delivery. Research on the satisfaction and use of anatomy videos, a form of CAI, on examination…

  2. 182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jesper Christian; Olsen, Mia Bjørg Stolberg; Paton, Chad


    Refractory inclusions [calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., 26Al, 41Ca, and 182Hf) synthesize...

  3. The Effect of Display Rate and Memory Support on Correct Responses, Trials, Total Instructional Time and Response Latency in a Computer-Based Learning Environment. (United States)

    Dennis, Verl E.


    Investigates the influence of display rate and viewing field on student-machine interaction in CAI. It was shown that these variables exert an influence upon the student's interaction with a tutorial CAI program and that planners should be aware of this interaction. (RAO)

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-EEUR-01-1220 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available me-associated protein of 350 kDa) emb|CAH72345.1| centrosomal protein 350kDa [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14833.1| centros...omal protein 350kDa [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI15177.1| centrosomal protein 350kDa [Homo sapiens] Q5VT06 0.0 76% ...

  5. Effect of genotype and dietary protein level on growth performance and carcass characteristics of fattening pigs in central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, K.T.; Nghia, D.H.; Ngoan, L.D.; Hendriks, W.H.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Verstegen, M.W.A.


    This study aimed to determine the optimum dietary crude protein level in a typical diet for fattening pigs fed ad libitum under normal climate conditions in Central Vietnam. One hundred and ninety two gilts of Mong Cai local breed (MC), F1 Large White??Mong Cai and F2 crossbreds of (Landrace??Mong

  6. RASCAL: A Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning. (United States)

    Stewart, John Christopher

    Both the background of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems in general and the requirements of a computer-aided learning system which would be a reasonable assistant to a teacher are discussed. RASCAL (Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning) is a first attempt at defining a CAI system which would individualize the learning…

  7. Renal Diet Therapy--A Computer-Assisted Instruction Model. (United States)

    Schroeder, Lois; Thiele, Victoria F.


    A computer-assisted instruction (CAI) unit was designed to teach renal diet therapy. Utilizing this unit, differences in performance and attitudes between traditionally taught and CAI taught students (N=34), and differences in achievement between students in two nutrition fields were assessed. (DS)

  8. A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Instruction and Tutorials in Hematology and Oncology. (United States)

    Garrett, T. J.; And Others


    A study comparing the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and small group instruction found no significant difference in medical student achievement in oncology but higher achievement through small-group instruction in hematology. Students did not view CAI as more effective, but saw it as a supplement to traditional methods. (MSE)

  9. Effects of 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol on Recovery and Resolution of Late Transient Neonatal Hypocalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKay SiripoomV


    Full Text Available Background. Late transient neonatal hypocalcemia with hyperphosphatemia is potentially life-threatening. The use of dihydroxycholecalciferol in the management of neonatal hypocalcemia is unexplored. Objective. We hypothesized adding dihydroxycholecalciferol to intravenous continuous calcium infusion (CaI will achieve accelerated correction of hypocalcemia. Design/Methods. A controlled double-blind randomized placebo group was organized to compare the addition of dihydroxycholecalciferol to CaI in 3–14 day old neonates presenting with hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and seizures. Ionized calcium and phosphorus were measured to adjust CaI and maintain eucalcemia. Time to resolution of hypocalcemia was defined as time from starting CaI to the first ionized calcium of  mmol/L. CaI was discontinued when ionized calcium levels were  mmol/L on two measurements and the infant tolerated feeds. Results. Fourteen neonates were studied without statistical difference between groups. Time to correction of hypocalcemia for 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol versus placebo was versus hours respectively (. The duration of CaI was versus hours respectively (. Conclusions. The addition of dihydroxycholecalciferol to standard CaI therapy reduced the duration of CaI, but did not reduce the time to correct hypocalcemia in neonates with late transient hypocalcemia.

  10. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Struggling Elementary Readers with Disabilities (United States)

    Regan, Kelley; Berkeley, Sheri; Hughes, Melissa; Kirby, Suzanne


    Despite a lack of conclusive evidence, many researchers in the field view computer-assisted instruction (CAI) as an opportunity for improved instruction for students with disabilities. This study examined the effects of a CAI program, Lexia Strategies for Older Students (SOS)™ on the word recognition skills of four, upper elementary students with…

  11. Is Computer-Aided Instruction an Effective Tier-One Intervention for Kindergarten Students at Risk for Reading Failure in an Applied Setting? (United States)

    Kreskey, Donna DeVaughn; Truscott, Stephen D.


    This study investigated the use of computer-aided instruction (CAI) as an intervention for kindergarten students at risk for reading failure. Headsprout Early Reading (Headsprout 2005), a type of CAI, provides internet-based, reading instruction incorporating the critical components of reading instruction cited by the National Reading Panel (NRP…

  12. Computer-Assisted Instruction Program. A Three Year Report Covering July 1, 1971 Through June 30, 1974. (United States)

    Dunn, Alex, Ed.; And Others

    The Montgomery County Public Schools Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) Program began in 1968, was federally funded for its first three years, and since 1971 its activities have been supported through local funds and an outside grant covering the lease of the computer for the project. During the last three years validated CAI materials developed…

  13. Ancient asteroids enriched in refractory inclusions. (United States)

    Sunshine, J M; Connolly, H C; McCoy, T J; Bus, S J; La Croix, L M


    Calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) occur in all classes of chondritic meteorites and contain refractory minerals predicted to be the first condensates from the solar nebula. Near-infrared spectra of CAIs have strong 2-micrometer absorptions, attributed to iron oxide-bearing aluminous spinel. Similar absorptions are present in the telescopic spectra of several asteroids; modeling indicates that these contain approximately 30 +/- 10% CAIs (two to three times that of any meteorite). Survival of these undifferentiated, large (50- to 100-kilometer diameter) CAI-rich bodies suggests that they may have formed before the injection of radiogenic 26Al into the solar system. They have also experienced only modest post-accretionary alteration. Thus, these asteroids have higher concentrations of CAI material, appear less altered, and are more ancient than any known sample in our meteorite collection, making them prime candidates for sample return.

  14. Acute effects of whole body vibration on balance in persons with and without chronic ankle instability. (United States)

    Rendos, Nicole K; Jun, Hyung-Pil; Pickett, Nancy M; Lew Feirman, Karen; Harriell, Kysha; Lee, Sae Yong; Signorile, Joseph F


    Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a common condition following ankle injury that is associated with compromised balance. Whole body vibration training (WBVT) programmes are linked with improved balance and function in athletic and non-athletic populations and may improve balance in CAI. Twelve healthy and seven CAI participants completed two randomly assigned interventions. Two Power Plate® platforms were attached back to back using a Theraband®. Participants stood on the active plate and inactive plate for WBVT and sham interventions, respectively. Each intervention included vibration of the active plate. Centre of pressure (COP) and the star excursion balance test (SEBT) were measured before and at 3, 15 and 30 min following the interventions. Significant improvements were found in the anterior direction of the SEBT following both interventions in CAI and varying patterns of improvement were observed for COP measurements in all participants. Therefore, WBVT does not appear to acutely improve balance in CAI.

  15. Ultra-Refractory Calcium-Aluminum-Rich Inclusion in an AOA in CR Chondrite Yamato-793261 (United States)

    Komatsu, M.; Fagan, T. J.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mikouchi, T.; Yasutake, M.; Zolensky, M. E.


    CR chondrites are a group of primitive carbonaceous chondrites that preserve nebular records of the formation conditions of their components. We have been investigating a set of Antarctic CR chondrites from the Japanese-NIPR collection in order to study variations within this group. During our study, we have found an AOA that encloses an ultrarefractory (UR) CAI in Yamato-793261 (Y-793261). UR CAIs are rare in carbonaceous chondrites, and only three UR CAIs in AOAs have been identified so far. UR CAIs can provide information on crystallization processes at very high temperatures in the solar nebula. Here we describe the petrology of Y-793261, and preliminary results on this newly discovered AOA enclosing a UR CAI.

  16. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions recycled during formation of porphyritic chondrules from CH carbonaceous chondrites (United States)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; van Kooten, Elishevah M. M.; Bizzarro, Martin


    We report on the mineralogy, petrography, and O-isotope compositions of ∼60 Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) incompletely melted during formation of porphyritic chondrules from the CH metal-rich carbonaceous chondrites and Isheyevo (CH/CB). These include (i) relict polymineralic CAIs in porphyritic chondrules, (ii) CAIs surrounded by chondrule-like igneous rims, (iii) igneous pyroxene-rich and Type C-like CAIs, and (iv) plagioclase-rich chondrules with clusters of relict spinel grains. 26Al-26Mg systematics were measured in 10 relict CAIs and 11 CAI-bearing plagioclase-rich chondrules. Based on the mineralogy, the CH CAIs incompletely melted during chondrule formation can be divided into grossite-rich (n = 13), hibonite-rich (n = 11), spinel ± melilite-rich (n = 33; these include plagioclase-rich chondrules with clusters of relict spinel grains) types. Mineralogical observations indicate that these CAIs were mixed with different proportions of ferromagnesian silicates and experienced incomplete melting and gas-melt interaction during chondrule formation. These processes resulted in partial or complete destruction of the CAI Wark-Lovering rims, replacement of melilite by Na-bearing plagioclase, and dissolution and overgrowth of nearly end-member spinel by chromium- and iron-bearing spinel. Only two relict CAIs and two CAI-bearing chondrules show resolvable excess of radiogenic 26Mg; the inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios are (1.7 ± 1.3) × 10-6, (3.7 ± 3.1) × 10-7, (1.9 ± 0.9) × 10-6 and (4.9 ± 2.6) × 10-6. There is a large range of Δ17O among the CH CAIs incompletely melted during chondrule formation, from ∼-37‰ to ∼-5‰; the unmelted minerals in individual CAIs, however, are isotopically uniform and systematically 16O-enriched relative to the host chondrules and chondrule-like igneous rims, which have Δ17O ranging from ∼-7‰ to ∼+4‰. Most of the CH CAIs incompletely melted during chondrule formation are mineralogically and isotopically

  17. Therapeutic efficacy of carboxyamidotriazole on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis model is associated with the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB activation. (United States)

    Du, Xiaowan; Chen, Wei; Wang, Yufeng; Chen, Chen; Guo, Lei; Ju, Rui; Li, Juan; Zhang, Dechang; Zhu, Lei; Ye, Caiying


    Excess proinflammatory cytokines owing to the activation of NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome play the key role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Previously, we reported the anti-inflammatory activity of carboxyamidotriazole (CAI) resulting from decreasing cytokines. Therefore, we investigated the therapeutic effects of CAI in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat colitis and the involvement of CAI action with NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB pathway. CAI was orally administered to TNBS-induced colitis rat. The severity of colitis was assessed, and NLRP3 inflammasome, NF-κB pathway and cytokines were determined. Our results showed that CAI significantly reduced weight loss and disease activity index (DAI) scores in colitis rats and alleviated the colonic macroscopic signs and pathological damage. In addition, the intestinal inflammatory markers and permeability index were markedly ameliorated by CAI treatment. The decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-18 were also detected in the colon tissues of CAI-treated colitis rats. Moreover, the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in inflamed colon was significantly suppressed by showing an obvious reduction in the NLRP3 and activated caspase-1 levels. Furthermore, CAI reduced NF-κB p65 expression and IκBα phosphorylation and degradation in colitis rats. Therefore, CAI attenuates TNBS-induced colitis, which may be attributed to its inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB activation, and down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines. These results provide further understanding of the intestinal anti-inflammatory effect of CAI and highlight it as a potential drug for the treatment of IBD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Oxygen- and magnesium-isotope compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions from CR2 carbonaceous chondrites (United States)

    Makide, Kentaro; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Bischoff, Addi


    We report both oxygen- and magnesium-isotope compositions measured in situ using a Cameca ims-1280 ion microprobe in 20 of 166 CAIs identified in 47 polished sections of 15 CR2 (Renazzo-type) carbonaceous chondrites. Two additional CAIs were measured for oxygen isotopes only. Most CR2 CAIs are mineralogically pristine; only few contain secondary phyllosilicates, sodalite, and carbonates - most likely products of aqueous alteration on the CR2 chondrite parent asteroid. Spinel, hibonite, grossite, anorthite, and melilite in 18 CAIs have 16O-rich (Δ 17O = -23.3 ± 1.9‰, 2 σ error) compositions and show no evidence for postcrystallization isotopic exchange commonly observed in CAIs from metamorphosed CV carbonaceous chondrites. The inferred initial 26Al/ 27Al ratios, ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0, in 15 of 16 16O-rich CAIs measured are consistent with the canonical value of (4.5-5) × 10 -5 and a short duration (magnesium and lower-than-canonical 26Al abundance. Another 16O-enriched (Δ 17O = -20.3 ± 1.2‰) inclusion, a spinel-melilite CAI fragment Gao-Guenie (b) #3, has highly-fractionated oxygen- and magnesium-isotope compositions (˜11 and 23‰/amu, respectively), a deficit of 26Mg, and a relatively low ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 = (2.0 ± 1.7) × 10 -5. This could be the first FUN ( Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear effects) CAI found in CR2 chondrites. Because this inclusion is slightly 16O-depleted compared to most CR2 CAIs and has lower than the canonical ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0, it may have experienced multistage formation from precursors with nonsolar magnesium-isotope composition and recorded evolution of oxygen-isotope composition in the early solar nebula over 0.9+2.2-0.7 My. Eight of the 166 CR2 CAIs identified are associated with chondrule materials, indicating that they experienced late-stage, incomplete melting during chondrule formation. Three of these CAIs show large variations in oxygen-isotope compositions (Δ 17O ranges from -23.5‰ to -1.7‰), suggesting dilution by

  19. Masonería y política: una nueva cara del rito masonería- revolución. ¿La masonería tiene una ideología y "hace política"? ¿Los políticos fueron y son tales porque fueron masones y los masones siempre fueron hombres que tomaron partido o fueron de partido?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available RESUMEN: ¿La Masonería es depositaria de una doctrina política y de un programa político? Hubo un tiempo en que «política» significaba educación, gobierno de la polis, es decir, de los ciudadanos (que para ser titulares de derechos y de deberes debían ser necesariamente cultos. Ahora, en la edad del universalismo, por política se entiende la administración de las necesidades. ¿Cuál es el papel de la Masonería ante el hombre secularizado? A la Masonería se le han atribuido objetivos partidistas: la lucha contra el poder del clero y las doctrinas religiosas, contra la monarquía (pero esto no es válido para las organizaciones masónicas de Gran Bretaña, Países Bajos, Bélgica, Grecia y, en muchos épocas, también para Italia, España, incluso Francia, donde la Masonería fue borbónica y bonapartista, el militarismo (aunque muchos oficiales y suboficiales fueron masones… La comprobación de la autenticidad de los objetivos de las organizaciones masónicas se puede llevar a cabo analizando si algunos masones famosos eran sólo famosos o eran además masones. Sirvan como ejemplo Azaña, Voltaire, Cavour, Mazzini, Garibaldi ... Ya que no es religión, la Masonería no es política politicienne, ni una revolución permanente. La elección entre «educación» y «administración de las necesidades». Palabras clave: Política, Naciones/Nacionalismo, Risorgimento y Unificación italiana, Masonería e Ilustración, Masonería y Revolución, Educación y Tolerancia, Programa de partido = administración de las necesidades. ABSTRACT: Is masonry the repository of a political doctrine and a political programme? There was a time when politics meant education, government of the polis, i. e. of the citizens (who, to have rights and duties, must necessarily be educated. Now, in the age of universalism, by politics we understand the administration of needs. What is the role of masonry in the face of secularized man? Masonry has been attributed whith partisan objectives: the struggle against the power of the clergy and religiuous doctrine, against the monarchy (although this is not true for Great Britain, Holland, Belgium, Greece and often not true for Italy, Spain and even France, where masonry was pro-Bourbon and pro-Napoleon. Against militarism (although many officers and non-commissioned officers were masons... The authenticity of the objectives of masonic organizations can be verified by analysing whether certain famous masons were only famous or were actually masons as well. As examples of these we have Azaña, Voltaire, Cavour, Mazzini, Garibaldi, etc. Since it is not a religion, masonry is not politicienne politics, nor a permanent revolution. The choise between «education» and «administrations of needs».

  20. Do You Know a Child with a Handicap? Children with Handicaps Have a Right to an Education [and] Do You Know Someone with a Handicap? Individuals with Handicaps Have a Right to an Education = Conoce Usted a un Nino que Tiene Alguna Desventaja? Los Ninos con Desventajas Tienen Derecho a Recibir Educacion [and] Conoce Usted Alguna Persona que Tenga Alguna Desventaja? Las Personas que Tienen Desventajas Tienen Derecho a Recibir Educacion. (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Div. of Special Education.

    Two advertisements and two brochures for the California Search and Serve program are presented in this excerpt from the California Search and Serve "Search Guidelines and Resource Manual." The materials are designed to promote community involvement in the identification of handicapped persons, from birth through age 21, so that they may…

  1. Involvement of coenzyme A esters and two new enzymes, an enoyl-CoA hydratase and a CoA-transferase, in the hydration of crotonobetaine to L-carnitine by Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Elssner, T; Engemann, C; Baumgart, K; Kleber, H P


    Two proteins (CaiB and CaiD) were found to catalyze the reversible biotransformation of crotonobetaine to L-carnitine in Escherichia coli in the presence of a cosubstrate (e.g., gamma-butyrobetainyl-CoA or crotonobetainyl-CoA). CaiB (45 kDa) and CaiD (27 kDa) were purified in two steps to electrophoretic homogeneity from overexpression strains. CaiB was identified as crotonobetainyl-CoA:carnitine CoA-transferase by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and enzymatic assays. The enzyme exhibits high cosubstrate specificity to CoA derivatives of trimethylammonium compounds. In particular, the N-terminus of CaiB shows significant identity with other CoA-transferases (e.g., FldA from Clostridium sporogenes, Frc from Oxalobacter formigenes, and BbsE from Thauera aromatica) and CoA-hydrolases (e.g., BaiF from Eubacterium sp.). CaiD was shown to be a crotonobetainyl-CoA hydratase using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and enzymatic assays. Besides crotonobetainyl-CoA CaiD is also able to hydrate crotonyl-CoA with a significantly lower Vmax (factor of 10(3)) but not crotonobetaine. The substrate specificity of CaiD and its homology to the crotonase confirm this enzyme as a new member of the crotonase superfamily. Concluding these results, it was verified that hydration of crotonobetaine to L-carnitine proceeds at the CoA level in two steps: the CaiD catalyzed hydration of crotonobetainyl-CoA to L-carnitinyl-CoA, followed by a CoA transfer from L-carnitinyl-CoA to crotonobetaine, catalyzed by CaiB. When gamma-butyrobetainyl-CoA was used as a cosubstrate (CoA donor), the first reaction is the CoA transfer. The optimal ratios of CaiB and CaiD during this hydration reaction, determined to be 4:1 when crotonobetainyl-CoA was used as cosubstrate and 5:1 when gamma-butyrobetainyl-CoA was used as cosubstrate, are different from that found for in vivo conditions (1:3).

  2. The effectiveness of foot orthotics in improving postural control in individuals with chronic ankle instability: a critically appraised topic. (United States)

    Gabriner, Michael L; Braun, Brittany A; Houston, Megan N; Hoch, Matthew C


    Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a condition commonly experienced by physically active individuals. It has been suggested that foot orthotics may increase a CAI patient's postural control. For patients with CAI, is there evidence to suggest that an orthotic intervention will help improve postural control? The literature was searched for studies of level 2 evidence or higher that investigated the effects of foot orthotics on postural control in patients with CAI. The search of the literature produced 5 possible studies for inclusion; 2 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included. One randomized controlled trial and 1 outcomes study were included. Foot orthotics appear to be effective at improving postural control in patients with CAI. There is moderate evidence to support the use of foot orthotics in the treatment of CAI to help improve postural control. There is grade B evidence that foot orthotics help improve postural control in people with CAI. The Centre of Evidence Based Medicine recommends a grade of B for level 2 evidence with consistent findings.

  3. Neural Excitability and Joint Laxity in Chronic Ankle Instability, Coper, and Control Groups. (United States)

    Bowker, Samantha; Terada, Masafumi; Thomas, Abbey C; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Hiller, Claire E; Gribble, Phillip A


    Neuromuscular and mechanical deficiencies are commonly studied in participants with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Few investigators have attempted to comprehensively consider sensorimotor and mechanical differences among people with CAI, copers who did not present with prolonged dysfunctions after an initial ankle sprain, and a healthy control group. To determine if differences exist in spinal reflex excitability and ankle laxity among participants with CAI, copers, and healthy controls. Case-control study. Research laboratory. Thirty-seven participants with CAI, 30 participants categorized as copers, and 26 healthy control participants. We assessed spinal reflex excitability of the soleus using the Hoffmann reflex protocol. Participants' ankle laxity was measured with an instrumented ankle arthrometer. The maximum Hoffmann reflex : maximal muscle response ratio was calculated. Ankle laxity was measured as the total displacement in the anterior-posterior directions (mm) and total rotation in the inversion and eversion directions (°). Spinal reflex excitability was diminished in participants with CAI compared with copers and control participants (P = .01). No differences were observed among any of the groups for ankle laxity. Changes in the spinal reflex excitability of the soleus that likely affect ankle stability were seen only in the CAI group, yet no mechanical differences were noted across the groups. These findings support the importance of finding effective ways to increase spinal reflex excitability for the purpose of treating neural excitability dysfunction in patients with CAI.

  4. Does Oxygen Isotopic Heterogeneity in Refractory Inclusions and Their Wark-Lovering Rims Record Nebular Repressing? (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.


    Large systematic variations in O-isotopic compositions found within individual mineral layers of rims surrounding Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) and at the margins of some CAIs imply formation from distinct environments [e.g., 1-3]. The O-isotope compositions of many CAIs preserve a record of the Solar nebula gas believed to initially be O-16-rich (delta O-17 less than or equal to -25%0) [4-5]. Data from a recent study of the compact Type A Allende CAI, A37, preserve a diffusion profile in the outermost 70 micrometers of the inclusion and show greater than 25%0 variations in delta O-17 within its 100 micrometer-thick Wark-Lovering rim (WL-rim) [3]. This and comparable heterogeneity measured in several other CAIs have been explained by isotopic mixing between the O-16-rich Solar reservoir and a second O-16-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a planetary-like isotopic composition, e.g., [1,2,3,6]. However, there is mineralogical and isotopic evidence from the interiors of CAIs, in particular those from Allende, for parent body alteration. At issue is how to distinguish the record of secondary reprocessing in the nebula from that which occurred on the parent body. We have undertaken the task to study a range of CAI types with varying mineralogies, in part, to address this problem.

  5. Multicomponent chemistry in the synthesis of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. (United States)

    Kalinin, Stanislav; Supuran, Claudiu T; Krasavin, Mikhail


    Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) are of growing interest since various isoforms of the enzyme are identified as promising drug targets for treatment of disease. The principal drawback of the clinically used CAIs is the lack of isoform selectivity, which may lead to observable side effects. Studies aiming at the design of isoform-selective CAIs entail generation and biological testing of arrays of compounds, which is a resource- and time-consuming process. Employment of multicomponent reactions is an efficient synthetic strategy in terms of gaining convenient and speedy access to a range of scaffolds with a high degree of molecular diversity. However, this powerful tool appears to be underutilized for the discovery of novel CAIs. A number of studies employing multicomponent reactions in CAI synthesis have been reported in literature. Some of these reports provide inspiring examples of successful use of multicomponent chemistry to construct novel potent and often isoform-selective inhibitors. On critical reading of several publications, however, it becomes apparent that for some chemical series designed as CAIs, the desired inhibitory properties are only assumed and never tested for. In these cases, the biological profile is reported based on the results of phenotypical cellular assays, with no correlation with the intended on-target activity. Present review aims at critically assessing the current literature on the multicomponent chemistry in the CAI design.

  6. Glutathione monoethyl ester and inhibition of the oxyhemoglobin-induced increase in cytosolic calcium in cultured smooth-muscle cells. (United States)

    Arai, T; Takeyama, N; Tanaka, T


    The mechanism of arterial vasoconstriction caused by oxyhemoglobin production after subarachnoid hemorrhage was investigated. Using a fluorescent Ca++ indicator (fura-2 acetoxymethyl ester), the change in the cytosolic intracellular Ca++ concentration, [Ca++]i. was measured in cultured rat vascular smooth-muscle cells exposed to oxyhemoglobin and other substances. Oxyhemoglobin induced transient elevation of smooth-muscle cell [Ca++]i in either the presence or absence of ethyleneglycol-bis (beta-aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid, indicating that Ca++ released by oxyhemoglobin was derived from [Ca++]i stores. In contrast, methemoglobin had no effect on the smooth-muscle cells. Exposure of the cells to reactive oxygen species generated by xanthine plus xanthine oxidase yielded the same results as with oxyhemoglobin, that is, transient elevation of smooth-muscle cell [Ca++]i. Procaine (a Ca++ channel blocker) failed to inhibit the oxyhemoglobin-induced elevation of [Ca++]i. Ryanodine (a Ca++ channel opener) plus oxyhemoglobin caused markedly greater elevation of [Ca++]i than ryanodine alone, whereas thapsigargin (an adenosine triphosphate [ATP]-dependent Ca++ pump inhibitor) plus oxyhemoglobin had no additional effect when compared with thapsigargin alone. The oxyhemoglobin-induced elevation of [Ca++]i could be blocked by an Fe++ chelator (ferene), but not by an Fe chelator (deferoxamine mesylate). Treatment with either dithiothreitol or glutathione monoethyl ester markedly inhibited the oxyhemoglobin-induced elevation of [Ca++]i. These results indicate that Fe++-catalyzed hydroxyl radicals generated from oxyhemoglobin-derived free radicals induce the elevation of [Ca++]i by inhibiting the ATP-dependent Ca++ pump rather than the Ca++ channels in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and that thiols may prevent Ca++ pump inactivation by inhibiting the oxidation of membrane sulfhydryl groups.

  7. Keratitis in six dogs after topical treatment with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors for glaucoma. (United States)

    Beckwith-Cohen, Billie; Bentley, Ellison; Gasper, David J; McLellan, Gillian J; Dubielzig, Richard R


    6 dogs (10 eyes) with keratitis following long-term topical treatment with a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI) were evaluated. In 4 dogs (6 eyes), CAI treatment was discontinued. Three dogs (4 eyes) underwent enucleation because of end-stage corneal disease. One dog was treated differently in each eye and thus was represented in both aforementioned groups. Following initiation of treatment with a CAI (ie, brinzolamide or dorzolamide), the median time to development of severe ocular signs was 266 days (range, 133 to 679 days). Clinically severe ocular signs included ulcerative and nonulcerative perilimbal keratitis or severe diffuse keratitis with marked vascularization. The keratitis was refractory to treatment with anti-inflammatory medications. Histologic and immunohistochemical examination of enucleated globes was performed in 3 affected dogs and in 1 dog with keratitis that recovered. Corneal lesions included 2 distinct inflammatory infiltrates with plasma cells predominating in the anterior stroma and both T cells and neutrophils in the epithelium. Stromal plasma cells and overlying epithelium exhibited strong positive immunoreactivity for IgG. Topical CAI treatment was discontinued in 4 dogs after a median of 209 days (range, 44 to 433 days), and in these dogs, clinical improvement was evident within 2 to 4 days of CAI treatment cessation. Signs of keratitis resolved in 12 to 25 days in these 4 dogs, and median follow-up time after CAI discontinuation was 25.5 months (range, 6 to 42 months), during which time signs of corneal disease did not recur. On the basis of this small series, presumed topical CAI-associated keratitis in dogs appeared to be an uncommon immune-mediated disease that was not responsive to corticosteroid treatment. Affected patients improved rapidly, but only after discontinuation of CAI treatment. In dogs with glaucoma, clinicians should consider the development of punctate keratopathy and severe diffuse keratitis as potential adverse

  8. 182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System. (United States)

    Holst, Jesper C; Olsen, Mia B; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K; Connelly, James N; Jørgensen, Jes K; Krot, Alexander N; Nordlund, Ake; Bizzarro, Martin


    Refractory inclusions [calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., (26)Al, (41)Ca, and (182)Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of (26)Al corresponding to (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼5 × 10(-5), rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and (26)Al/(27)Al of Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the (182)Hf-(182)W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼3 × 10(-6). The decoupling between (182)Hf and (26)Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for (182)Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for (26)Al. Admixing of stellar-derived (26)Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the (26)Al-(26)Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support (182)Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the (182)Hf-(182)W clock.

  9. Oxygen- and magnesium-isotope compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions from Rumuruti (R) chondrites (United States)

    Rout, S. S.; Bischoff, A.; Nagashima, K.; Krot, A. N.; Huss, G. R.; Keil, K.


    We report oxygen- and magnesium-isotope compositions of Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from several Rumuruti (R) chondrites measured in situ using a Cameca ims-1280 ion microprobe. On a three-isotope oxygen diagram, δ 17O vs. δ 18O, compositions of individual minerals in most R CAIs analyzed fall along a slope-1 line. Based on the variations of Δ 17O values (Δ 17O = δ 17O - 0.52 × δ 18O) within individual inclusions, the R CAIs are divided into (i) 16O-rich (Δ 17O ˜ -23-26‰), (ii) uniformly 16O-depleted (Δ 17O ˜ -2‰), and (iii) isotopically heterogeneous (Δ 17O ranges from -25‰ to +5‰). One of the hibonite-rich CAIs, H030/L, has an intermediate Δ 17O value of -12‰ and a highly fractionated composition (δ 18O ˜ +47‰). We infer that like most CAIs in other chondrite groups, the R CAIs formed in an 16O-rich gaseous reservoir. The uniformly 16O-depleted and isotopically heterogeneous CAIs subsequently experienced oxygen-isotope exchange during remelting in an 16O-depleted nebular gas, possibly during R chondrite chondrule formation, and/or during fluid-assisted thermal metamorphism on the R chondrite parent asteroid. Three hibonite-bearing CAIs and one spinel-plagioclase-rich inclusion were analyzed for magnesium-isotope compositions. The CAI with the highly fractionated oxygen isotopes, H030/L, shows a resolvable excess of 26Mg ( 26Mg ∗) corresponding to an initial 26Al/ 27Al ratio of ˜7 × 10 -7. Three other CAIs show no resolvable excess of 26Mg ( 26Mg ∗). The absence of 26Mg ∗ in the spinel-plagioclase-rich CAI from a metamorphosed R chondrite NWA 753 (R3.9) could have resulted from metamorphic resetting. Two other hibonite-bearing CAIs occur in the R chondrites (NWA 1476 and NWA 2446), which appear to have experienced only minor degrees of thermal metamorphism. These inclusions could have formed from precursors with lower than canonical 26Al/ 27Al ratio.

  10. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome associated with male gender identity or female precocious puberty in the same family. (United States)

    Bermúdez de la Vega, José A; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Bernal, Susana; Audí, Laura


    In 4 complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) members of one family, 2 presented extreme and unusual clinical features: male gender identity disorder (case 1) and female precocious central puberty (case 2). The AR gene carried the mutation c.1752C>G, p.Phe584Leu. Gender dysphoria in CAIS may be considered as a true transgender and has been described in 3 other cases. Central precocious puberty has only been described in 1 case; Müllerian ducts in case 2 permitted menarche. Despite the common CAIS phenotype, there was a familial disparity for gender identity adequacy and timing and type of puberty.

  11. Fatores associados ao comportamento alimentar inadequado em adolescentes escolares Factors associated with inappropriate eating behavior in adolescent students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes


    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Evidências demonstram que a prevalência do comportamento alimentar inadequado (CAI entre jovens tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Parece que a insatisfação corporal (IC, a prática excessiva de exercício físico, a composição corporal, o nível econômico (NE, além da etnia, podem ser fatores de risco para o CAI. OBJETIVO: Associar IC, grau de comprometimento psicológico ao exercício (GCPE, adiposidade corporal (AC, estado nutricional (EN, NE e etnia ao CAI em adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Participaram 362 jovens de ambos os sexos com idades entre 10 e 19 anos. Utilizou-se o Eating Attitudes Test para avaliar o CAI. O Body Shape Questionnaire e a Commitment Exercise Scale foram utilizados para mensurar IC e GCPE, respectivamente. Aferiram-se dobras cutâneas para classificar a AC segundo sexo. Peso e estatura foram aferidos para calcular-se o índice de massa corporal (IMC e classificar o EN. O NE foi avaliado pelo Critério de Classificação Econômica Brasil. Aplicou-se questionário que buscava avaliar etnia, idade e sexo. RESULTADOS: Os resultados evidenciaram associação do CAI com IC, GCPE e NE no sexo feminino (p BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that the prevalence of inappropriate eating behavior (CAI among young people has increased in recent years. It seems that body dissatisfaction (IC, the practice of excessive exercise, body composition, the socioeconomic status (NE, and ethnicity may be risk factors for CAI. OBJECTIVE: To associate IC, degree of psychological impairment to exercise (GCPE, adiposity (AC, nutritional status (EN, NE and ethnicity with CAI in adolescents. METHODS: Participants 362 young people of both sexes aged between 10 and 19 years. We used the Eating Attitudes Test to assess the CAI. The Body Shape Exercise Questionnaire and Commitment Exercise Scale were used to measure IC and GCPE, respectively. We evaluated skinfold thickness is to classify the AC second sex. Weight and height were measured to

  12. TRPV4 mediates flow-induced increases in intracellular Ca in medullary thick ascending limbs (United States)

    Cabral, Pablo D.; Capurro, Claudia; Garvin, Jeffrey L.


    Medullary thick ascending limbs (mTAL) regulate Na balance and therefore blood pressure. We previously showed that cell swelling and luminal flow activates the mechano-sensitive channel TRPV4 in mTAL. Aim We hypothesized that TRPV4 mediates flow-induced increases in intracellular Ca (Cai) in rat mTALs. Methods We performed ratiometric measurements of Cai in perfused mTALs. Results Increasing luminal flow from 0 to 20 nL min-1 caused Cai to peak 231±29 nmol L-1 above basal concentrations (n=18). The general TRPV inhibitor ruthenium red at 15 and 50 umol L-1 reduced peak Cai by 41±9 (p<0.01;n=5) and 77±10 % (p<0.02;n=6). The selective TRPV4 inhibitor RN1734 at 10 and 50 umol L-1 reduced peak Cai by 46±11 (p<0.01;n=7) and 76±5% (p<0.02;n=5) respectively. To specifically target TRPV4, mTALs were transduced with adenoviruses expressing TRPV4 small hairpin (sh) RNA. In non-transduced control mTALs, luminal flow generated a peak increase in Cai of 111±21 nmol L-1 (n=8). In TRPV4shRNA-transduced mTALs, the Cai peak was reduced to 56±8 nmol L-1 (p<0.03,n=9). Removing extracellular Ca completely abolished flow-induced increases in Cai. Increasing luminal flow in the presence of hexokinase 20 (U/ml) to scavenge extracellular ATP did not modify significantly the increases in Cai induced by luminal flow. Finally, we studied the effect of the TRPV4 selective agonist GSK1016790A on Cai. In the absence of luminal flow, GSK1016790A (10 nmol L-1) increased Cai from 60±11 nmol L-1 to 262±71 nmol L-1 (p<0.05;n=7). Conclusion We conclude that flow-induced increases in Cai are mediated primarily by TRPV4 in the rat mTAL. PMID:25980432

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-1153 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAH73867.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autos...omal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAH72781.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autos...omal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI16676.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autos...omal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI20324.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autosomal r...ecessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI20233.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autosomal recessive) [Homo sapiens] NP_619639.3 0.0 76% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0404 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0404 ref|NP_000134.2| fumarate hydratase precursor [Homo sapiens] sp|P...e hydratase [Homo sapiens] gb|AAP88841.1| fumarate hydratase [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI15144.1| fumarate... hydratase [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI13908.1| fumarate hydratase [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI14951.1| fumarate... hydratase [Homo sapiens] gb|AAX32244.1| fumarate hydratase [synthetic construct] gb|AAX32245.1| fumarate... hydratase [synthetic construct] gb|EAW70092.1| fumarate hydratase, isofo

  15. Depolarization by K+ and glutamate activates different neurotransmitter release mechanisms in GABAergic neurons: vesicular versus non-vesicular release of GABA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, Gert Helge; Schousboe, A


    Neurotransmitter release and changes in the concentration of intracellular free calcium ([Ca++]i) were studied in cultured GABAergic cerebral cortical neurons, from mice, upon depolarization with either an unphysiologically high potassium concentration (55 mM) or the physiological excitatory...... neurotransmitter glutamate (100 microM). Both depolarizing stimuli exerted prompt increases in the release of preloaded [3H]GABA as well as in [Ca++]i. However, the basic properties of transmitter release and the increase in [Ca++]i under a variety of conditions were different during stimulation with K...... in nature whereas that induced by the neurotransmitter glutamate is not....

  16. Trace Element Abundances in an Unusual Hibonite-Perovskite Refractory Inclusion from Allende (United States)

    Mane, Prajkta; Wadhwa, M.; Keller, L. P.


    Calcium-aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) are thought to be the first-formed solids in the Solar protoplanetary disk and can provide information about the earliest Solar System processes (e.g., [1]). A hibonite-perovskitebearing CAI from the Allende CV3 chondrite (SHAL, [2]) contains a single of 500 micrometers hibonite grain and coarse-grained perovskite. The mineralogy and oxygen isotopic composition of this CAI shows similarities with FUN inclusions, especially HAL [2]. Here we present trace element abundances in SHAL.

  17. The Getafe rock: Fall, composition and cosmic ray records of an unusual ultrarefractory scoriaceous material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Frías, J.


    Full Text Available In 1994 a moving car and its driver, on a highway in southern Madrid (Getafe, were struck by a falling rock. Eighty-one additional fragments (total weight: 55.926 kg were later recovered, which all pointed towards a meteorite fall. A study of the composition of this object revealed an ultrarefractory material displaying a most unusual chemical make-up which differs from any known meteorite class, and for some elements and minerals approaches the composition of CAI (Ca-Al-rich inclusions in chondrites. A study of some cosmic-ray-produced stable and radioactive nuclides indicates: a space and terrestrial exposure ages which do not exceed 1,000 and 520,000 years, respectively; b the presence of a small 22Ne excess (1,100°C fraction, which suggests either a nucleogenic contribution from the 19F(α,n22Ne reaction or a trapped Ne signature distinct from atmospheric Ne, and c the existence of minor variations in the 38Ar/36Ar ratios also indicating a nucleogenic component or fractionation effects. 14C data are consistent with "modern" carbon originated in the period 1955-1958 and not earlier or more recently. The possibility that the Getafe rock could have a man-made origin (i.e. ceramic and refractory tiles, industrial slag is also considered.

    Posteriormente, se recuperaron otros ochenta y un fragmentos adicionales, con un peso total de 55.926 kg, apuntando todo ello a que se trataba de una típica caída meteorítica. El estudio mineralógico y geoquímico de la roca de Getafe revela que se trata de un material ultrarrefractario, que muestra una composición muy inusual que difiere de los meteoritos conocidos y que, para algunos elementos y minerales, se aproxima a la composición de las CAI (inclusiones ricas en Ca-Al en condritas. El estudio de algunos núclidos estables y radiactivos producidos por los rayos cósmicos indica: a edades de exposición en el espacio y

  18. ORF Alignment: NC_006513 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available protein, ortholog involved in agglutination in some ... bacteria [Azoarcus sp. EbN1] emb|CAI07093.1| ...outer ... membrane protein, ortholog involved in agglutination in ... some bacteria [Azoarcus

  19. Evidence for multiple sources of 10Be in the early solar system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.


    Beryllium-10 is a short-lived radionuclide (t 1/2 = 1.4 Myr) uniquely synthesized by spallation reactions and inferred to have been present when the solar system's oldest solids (calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, CAIs) formed. Yet, the astrophysical site of 10Be nucleosynthesis is uncertain. We...... recorded by FUN-CAIs represents a baseline level present in presolar material inherited from the protosolar molecular cloud, generated via enhanced trapping of galactic cosmic rays. The higher and possibly variable apparent 10Be/9Be ratios of canonical CAIs reflect additional spallogenesis, either...... in the gaseous CAI-forming reservoir, or in the inclusions themselves: this indicates at least two nucleosynthetic sources of 10Be in the early solar system. The most promising locale for 10Be synthesis is close to the proto-Sun during its early mass-accreting stages, as these are thought to coincide...

  20. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 9, No 44 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The progress and issues in the Dutch, Chinese and Kenyan floriculture industries · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Abu Kargbo, Jing Mao, Cai-yun Wang, 7401-7408 ...

  1. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome due to X chromosome inversion: a clinical report. (United States)

    Xu, Weizhen; Robert, Claudia; Thornton, Paul S; Spinner, Nancy B


    We have studied a patient with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) and a 46, inv(X),Y karyotype. The patient's mother and maternal aunt also carry the inverted X, and the mother is phenotypically normal, with a 46, inv(X),X karyotype, while a maternal aunt has CAIS with a 46,inv(X),Y karyotype. Molecular cytogenetic studies demonstrate that one of the X inversion breakpoints occurs within Xq11.2-12, which is the locus for the androgen receptor. FISH analysis demonstrated that a BAC clone containing the androgen receptor gene was disrupted by the inversion. We therefore hypothesize that disruption of the androgen receptor gene causes CAIS in this patient. This is the first report of CAIS caused by a chromosome inversion. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Neural Excitability and Joint Laxity in Chronic Ankle Instability, Coper, and Control Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bowker, Samantha; Terada, Masafumi; Thomas, Abbey C; Pietrosimone, Brian G; Hiller, Claire E; Gribble, Phillip A


    ... ankle sprain, and a healthy control group. To determine if differences exist in spinal reflex excitability and ankle laxity among participants with CAI, copers, and healthy controls. Case-control study...

  3. 78 FR 69755 - International Product and Price Changes (United States)


    ... CAI 19 El Salvador SAL 17 Equatorial Guinea SSG 19 Eritrea ASM 19 Estonia TLL 16 Ethiopia ADD 19... Grenadines.. KTN 17 San Marino, via Italy MIL 12 Sao Tome and Principe, via LIS 16 Portugal. Saudi Arabia DMM...

  4. SOPHIE: A Step Toward Creating A Reactive Learning Environment (United States)

    Brown, Seely J.; And Others


    A description of a fully operational AI-CAI system which incorporates artificial intelligence techniques to perform question answering, hypothesis verification, and theory formation activities in the domain of electronic trouble-shooting. (Author)

  5. Selected Topics on Advanced Information Systems Engineering: Editorial Introduction to the Issue 5 of CSIMQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Grabis


    Full Text Available The 5th issue of the journal on Complex Systems Informatics and Modeling (CSIMQ presents extended versions of five papers selected from the CAiSE Forum 2015. The forum was part of the 27th edition of international Conference on Advanced Information Systems engineering (CAiSE 2015, which took place in June 2015 in Stockholm, Sweden. Information systems engineering draws its foundation from various interrelated disciplines including, e.g., conceptual modeling, database systems, business process management, requirements engineering, human computer interaction, and enterprise computing to address various practical challenges in development and application of information systems. The guiding subjects of CAiSE 2015 were Creativity, Ability, and Integrity. The CAiSE Forum aimed at presenting and discussing new ideas and tools related to information systems Engineering.

  6. Evidence for supernova injection into the solar nebula and the decoupling of r-process nucleosynthesis. (United States)

    Brennecka, Gregory A; Borg, Lars E; Wadhwa, Meenakshi


    The isotopic composition of our Solar System reflects the blending of materials derived from numerous past nucleosynthetic events, each characterized by a distinct isotopic signature. We show that the isotopic compositions of elements spanning a large mass range in the earliest formed solids in our Solar System, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), are uniform, and yet distinct from the average Solar System composition. Relative to younger objects in the Solar System, CAIs contain positive r-process anomalies in isotopes A 140. This fundamental difference in the isotopic character of CAIs around mass 140 necessitates (i) the existence of multiple sources for r-process nucleosynthesis and (ii) the injection of supernova material into a reservoir untapped by CAIs. A scenario of late supernova injection into the protoplanetary disk is consistent with formation of our Solar System in an active star-forming region of the galaxy.

  7. Structural characterization of inclusion complex of arbutin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cyclodextrin. Yun Li, Fang Li, Hongyan Cai, Xuan Chen, Wei Sun, Wangyang Shen. Abstract. Purpose: To improve the solubility and stability of arbutin and to expand its application by preparing its inclusion complex with hydroxypropyl-β- ...

  8. Temporal and spatial differences in intracellular Ca++ changes elicited by K+ and glutamate in single cultured neocortical neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Frandsen, A; Schousboe, A


    Changes as a function of time in the intracellular Ca++ concentration ([Ca++]i) in cultured cerebral cortical neurons were monitored after exposure of the cells to either 55 mM KCl or 100 microM glutamate using the fluorescent Ca++ chelator fura-2. The changes in [Ca++]i were followed in both cell...... after exposure to K+. The Ca++ channel blockers verapamil and nifedipine affecting N- and L-type channels, respectively had differential effects on K+ stimulated increases in [Ca++]i. Nifedipine only affected the increase marginally whereas verapamil inhibited the response by 50-60% both in cell bodies...... and neurites. The glutamate-induced increase in [Ca++]i was inhibited by nifedipine by 60% in neurites whereas no effect was observed in cell bodies. The results show that depolarization elicited by K+ and glutamate has different effects in different parts of the neurons and that the pharmacological...

  9. Developmental Change in the Effects of Sexual Partner and Relationship Characteristics on Sexual Risk Behavior in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men. (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E; Mustanski, Brian


    Young men who have sex with men are substantially impacted by HIV/AIDS, and most new infections occur in serious romantic dyads. Young people experience substantial psychosocial and neurocognitive change between adolescence and emerging adulthood which impacts engagement in risk behaviors. We aimed to examine developmental change in the association between sexual partnership characteristics and condomless anal intercourse (CAI). Data were taken from an analytic sample of 114 young adult MSM from a longitudinal study of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth with 4-year follow-up. Rates of CAI were approximately 12 times higher in serious compared to casual partnerships, but this effect diminished in size over time. Partner age differences and violence were associated with more CAI, and these associations strengthened across development. Characteristics of serious relationships (e.g., power dynamics) were also examined. We discuss the need for HIV prevention strategies that address dyadic influences on CAI during this critical developmental period.

  10. Microstructural Constraints on the Formation History of Hibonite in Refractory Inclusions (United States)

    Han, J.; Koop, L.; Keller, L. P.; Davis, A. M.


    Hibonite is a primary refractory phase occurring in many Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs), typically with spinel and perovskite [1]. Previous mi-crostructural studies of hibonite in CAIs revealed the presence of numerous stacking defects along the (001) plane and correlated non-stoichiometry in hibonite [2,3]. These features are interpreted as complex inter-growths of stoichiometric and Ca-deficient hibonites, as shown by experimental studies of reaction-sintered CaO-Al2O3 compounds [4]. Here, we extend our transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies to hibonite-bearing CAIs in CM chondrites that have been well characterized isotopically [5-7]. In addition, we have undertaken a series of anneal-ing experiments to explore the effect of minor elements (Mg and Ti) on the microstucure of hibonite [8,9,this study]. The results of these experiments are being applied to hibonite in CAIs in order to better understand its formation conditions.

  11. Historical Development of Computer Assisted Instruction (United States)

    Blaisdell, F. J.


    The scope of this historical overview includes the salient contributions from the several scientific and engineering disciplines which made CAI possible during the late 1950's. The time span covered runs from Plato to PLATO. (Author/BD)

  12. Computer-Aided Instruction at the Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind. (United States)

    Hoffmeyer, Dennis B.


    The computer assisted instruction (CAI) center at the Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind is described in terms of scheduling; monitoring of student progress in mathematics, language, and reading; comparing student achievement; and funding. (CL)

  13. Trunk-rotation differences at maximal reach of the star excursion balance test in participants with chronic ankle instability. (United States)

    de la Motte, Sarah; Arnold, Brent L; Ross, Scott E


    Functional reach on the Star Excursion Balance Test is decreased in participants with chronic ankle instability (CAI). However, comprehensive 3-dimensional kinematics associated with these deficits have not been reported. To determine if lower extremity kinematics differed in CAI participants during anteromedial, medial, and posteromedial reach on the Star Excursion Balance Test. Case-control study. Sports medicine research laboratory. Twenty CAI participants (age = 24.15 ± 3.84 years, height = 168.95 ± 11.57 cm, mass = 68.95 ± 16.29 kg) and 20 uninjured participants (age = 25.65 ± 5.58 years, height = 170.14 ± 8.75 cm, mass = 69.89 ± 10.51 kg) with no history of ankle sprain. We operationally defined CAI as repeated episodes of ankle "giving way" or "rolling over" or both, regardless of neuromuscular deficits or pathologic laxity. All CAI participants scored ≤26 on the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool. Star Excursion Balance Test reaches in the anteromedial, medial, and posteromedial directions. The CAI participants used the unstable side as the stance leg. Control participants were sex, height, mass, and side matched to the CAI group. The 3-dimensional kinematics were assessed with a motion-capture system. Group differences on normalized reach distance, trunk, pelvis, and hip-, knee-, and ankle-joint angles at maximum Star Excursion Balance Test reach. No reach-distance differences were detected between CAI and uninjured participants in any of the 3 reach directions. With anteromedial reach, trunk rotation (t(1,38) = 3.06, P = .004), pelvic rotation (t(1,38) = 3.17, P = .003), and hip flexion (t(1,38) = 2.40, P = .002) were greater in CAI participants. With medial reach, trunk flexion (t(1,38) = 6.39, P = .05) was greater than for uninjured participants. No differences were seen with posteromedial reach. We did not detect reach-distance differences in any direction. However, participants with CAI rotated the trunk and pelvis more toward the stance leg

  14. The discriminant validity of the culture assessment instrument: A comparison of company sub-cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Petkoon


    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to assess the discriminant validity of the Culture Assessment Instrument (CAI; that is to distinguish between company mean sub-culture scores and between mean scores of a target company and that of a norm group. The primary data was obtained by a sample of convenience (N = 593 from a transport organisation. The secondary data of the norm group was constituted by convenience samples (N = 4066 from various companies originating from different industries. The 56 item scores of the CAI were factor analysed on two levels followed by iterative item analyses. Although significant differences were detected between mean culture scores, only a small proportion of the variance in these scores could be attributed to culture differences. On these grounds, the CAI does not possess discriminant validity. Suggestions for improving the CAI were made. Opsomming Die primêre doel van die studie was om die diskriminante geldigheid van die ‘Culture Assessment Instrument’ (CAI te beoordeel; dit is om tussen ondernemings se gemiddelde kultuur-subtelling te onderskei en tussen die gemiddelde tellings van ‘n teiken onderneming en ’n normgroep. Die primêre data is verkry van ’n geleentheidsteekproef (N = 593 uit ’n transport-onderneming. Die sekondêre data van die normgroep is saamgestel uit geleentheidsteekproewe (N = 4066 van verskillende ondernemings afkomstig uit verskeie industrieë. Die 56 itemtellings van die CAI is op twee vlakke gefaktoranaliseer, gevolg deur iteratiewe itemontledings. Ofskoon beduidende verskille tussen gemiddelde kultuurtellings gevind is, kon slegs ’n klein proporsie van die variansie in die tellings aan kultuurverskille toegeskryf word. Op hierdie gronde beskik die CAI nie oor diskriminante geldigheid nie. Voorstelle ter verbetering van die CAI is gemaak.

  15. An environmental signature for 323 microbial genomes based on codon adaptation indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willenbrock, Hanni; Friis, Carsten; Juncker, Agnieszka


    Background: Codon adaptation indices ( CAIs) represent an evolutionary strategy to modulate gene expression and have widely been used to predict potentially highly expressed genes within microbial genomes. Here, we evaluate and compare two very different methods for estimating CAI values, one......, we show that codon usage preference provides an environmental signature by which it is possible to group bacteria according to their lifestyle, for instance soil bacteria and soil symbionts, spore formers, enteric bacteria, aquatic bacteria, and intercellular and extracellular pathogens. Conclusion...

  16. Effect of taping on multi-segmental foot kinematic patterns during walking in persons with chronic ankle instability. (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Deschamps, Kevin; Delchambre, Frauke; Van Peer, Evelien; Staes, Filip F; Matricali, Giovanni A


    To evaluate multi-segmental foot kinematic patterns in chronic ankle instability (CAI) participants during walking, and to investigate the influence of high-Dye and low-Dye taping on these kinematic patterns. Cross-sectional study. Kinematic data of 12 non-injured controls and 15 CAI participants were measured with a three-dimensional motion analysis system during barefoot walking. In addition, the CAI participants walked with high-Dye and low-Dye taping. A rigid Plug-in gait model and the Rizzoli 3D Multi-Segment Foot Model were used to measure multi-segmental foot kinematic patterns. One-dimensional statistical parametric mapping was used to compare barefoot walking of the control and CAI group, and to evaluate differences between walking barefoot and walking with high-Dye and low-Dye taping within the CAI group. Compared to the control group, CAI participants showed a decreased ankle dorsiflexion during loading response (p=0.025) and a more inverted calcaneus in relation to the shank during the initial swing phase (p=0.024). A more inverted position of the metatarsus in relation to the midfoot was observed after low-Dye taping during almost the entire stance phase (p=0.017). No significant differences were found for high-Dye taping. Significant differences in kinematic patterns were found in the ankle joint and rearfoot, but not in the mid- and forefoot in CAI participants. The application of low-Dye taping resulted in a significantly increased inverted position of the forefoot, which can be considered as a less desirable effect for patients with CAI. No other effects of high-Dye and low-Dye taping on kinematic patterns were revealed. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of a semi-rigid brace or taping on talocrural and subtalar kinematics in chronic ankle instability. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takumi; Saka, Masayuki; Suzuki, Eiichi; Yamazaki, Naohito; Suzukawa, Makoto; Akaike, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kuniaki; Gamada, Kazuyoshi


    A semi-rigid brace or taping is often used to prevent giving-ways in the joint with chronic ankle instability (CAI). However, it remains unknown whether the application of a semi-rigid brace or taping modifies abnormal kinematics in CAI joints. The objective of this study was to determine if the application of a semi-rigid brace or taping of the ankle normalizes abnormal weight-bearing kinematics in CAI joints during ankle internal rotation in plantar flexion. A total of 14 male patients with unilateral CAI (mean age 21.1 ± 2.5 years) were enrolled. Three-dimensional bone models created from the computed tomography images were matched to the fluoroscopic images to compute the 6 degrees-of-freedom talocrural, subtalar, and ankle joint complex (AJC) kinematics for the healthy and contralateral CAI joints, as well as for CAI joints with a brace or taping. Selected outcome measures were talocrural anterior translation, talocrural internal rotation, and subtalar internal rotation. There was no significant difference in talocrural anterior translation and internal rotation induced by applying either a semi-rigid brace or taping (P > .05). For subtalar internal rotation, there was a tendency toward restoration of normal kinematics in CAI joints after applying a semi-rigid brace or taping. However, the difference was not significant (P > .05). Application of a semi-rigid brace or taping had limited effects on the CAI joint during weight-bearing ankle internal rotation in plantar flexion. Further studies using a variety of testing conditions should be conducted in the future. Therapeutic, Level IV: Cross-Sectional Case Series. © 2014 The Author(s).

  18. Effect of metabolic and respiratory acidosis on intracellular calcium in osteoblasts (United States)

    Bushinsky, David A.


    In vivo, metabolic acidosis {decreased pH from decreased bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3−])} increases urine calcium (Ca) without increased intestinal Ca absorption, resulting in a loss of bone Ca. Conversely, respiratory acidosis [decreased pH from increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2)] does not appreciably alter Ca homeostasis. In cultured bone, chronic metabolic acidosis (Met) significantly increases cell-mediated net Ca efflux while isohydric respiratory acidosis (Resp) does not. The proton receptor, OGR1, appears critical for cell-mediated, metabolic acid-induced bone resorption. Perfusion of primary bone cells or OGR1-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with Met induces transient peaks of intracellular Ca (Cai). To determine whether Resp increases Cai, as does Met, we imaged Cai in primary cultures of bone cells. pH for Met = 7.07 ([HCO3−] = 11.8 mM) and for Resp = 7.13 (Pco2 = 88.4 mmHg) were similar and lower than neutral (7.41). Both Met and Resp induced a marked, transient increase in Cai in individual bone cells; however, Met stimulated Cai to a greater extent than Resp. We used OGR1-transfected CHO cells to determine whether OGR1 was responsible for the greater increase in Cai in Met than Resp. Both Met and Resp induced a marked, transient increase in Cai in OGR1-transfected CHO cells; however, in these cells Met was not different than Resp. Thus, the greater induction of Cai by Met in primary bone cells is not a function of OGR1 alone, but must involve H+ receptors other than OGR1, or pathways sensitive to Pco2, HCO3−, or total CO2 that modify the effect of H+ in primary bone cells. PMID:20504884

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0085 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0085 ref|YP_002737606.1| hypothetical protein SPP_0390 [Streptococcus ...pneumoniae P1031] emb|CAB05926.1| unknown [Streptococcus pneumoniae] emb|CAI32705.1| oligosaccharide repeat unit polymerase Wzy [Stre...ptococcus pneumoniae] emb|CAI30300.1| oligosaccharide repeat unit polymerase Wzy [Streptococcus... pneumoniae] gb|ACO21593.1| membrane protein, putative [Streptococcus pneumoniae P1031] YP_002737606.1 0.001 25% ...

  20. Determining Antifungal Target Sites in the Sterol Pathway of the Yeasts Candida and Saccharomyces (United States)


    Candida ERG6 DNA were YPD plates grown at 37"C. Cells were suspended in YPD medium to a concen- subcloned into the Saccharomyces vector pRS316 for...Calif. Media. CAI4 was grown on YPD complete medium containing 1% yeast extract (Difco), 2% Bacto Peptone (Difco), and 2% glucose. Complete synthetic...plasmid was obtained from Stratagene (La Jolla, California). Media. CAI4 was grown on YPD complete medium containing 1% yeast extract (Difco), 2% Bacto

  1. A Computer Aided Instruction Tutorial for the Ramtek 9400 Color Graphics Display System at the Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California. (United States)


    Univesity , 1971 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS from the NAVAL...of the graphics computer. The Socratic or tutorial method of intruction has long been acknowledged as an educational ideal. It is not normally used...Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) for developing application software is the subject of this thesis. The history and growth of CAI, its educational goals

  2. A 51-item calcium-focused food frequency questionnaire is a reliable tool to assess dietary calcium intake in postmenopausal women. (United States)

    Ong, Angel M; Weiler, Hope A; Wall, Michelle; Goltzman, David; Whiting, Susan J; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Morin, Suzanne N


    Given the lack in a valid biomarker to assess dietary calcium intake (dCai), reproducible estimation of usual dCai is crucial for better understanding of its interaction with health outcomes in specific populations. This study tested the hypothesis that a calcium-focused food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) may be used to estimate dCai of women ≥50 years residing in a multicultural environment (Montreal, Canada). One hundred and eight women (age, 63.1±7.7 years; 98% postmenopausal) completed the FFQ twice and 4 nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls (24HRs) over 1 month. Medians of dCai were compared by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Reproducibility and relative validity of the FFQ were assessed by Spearman correlation (rs) and Cohen's weighted kappa (κw). Agreement was further assessed by cross-classification by quartiles, Bland-Altman plot, and sensitivity and specificity analyses. The median (interquartile range) dCai estimated by the FFQ and 24HRs were 723 (524-1033) mg/d and 854 (666-1068) mg/d, respectively (P<.001). The FFQs had a strong correlation (rs=0.72, P<.001) and moderate agreement (κw=0.55). The FFQ and 24HRs were moderately correlated (rs=0.65, P<.001). Cross-classification showed moderate agreement (κw=0.42), with 85% of the participants classified into identical or contiguous quartiles and 2.8% into extreme opposite quartiles. According to the Bland-Altman plot, the FFQ underestimated dCai with a bias of 99 mg/d (95% limits of agreement, -677 to +480 mg/d). Sensitivity and specificity of identifying intakes <1000 mg/d were 90% and 57%, respectively. This FFQ is a useful tool to discriminate dCai <600 and ≥1000 mg/d in postmenopausal women and to rank dCai in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Brain responses to sexual images in 46,XY women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome are female-typical. (United States)

    Hamann, Stephan; Stevens, Jennifer; Vick, Janice Hassett; Bryk, Kristina; Quigley, Charmian A; Berenbaum, Sheri A; Wallen, Kim


    Androgens, estrogens, and sex chromosomes are the major influences guiding sex differences in brain development, yet their relative roles and importance remain unclear. Individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) offer a unique opportunity to address these issues. Although women with CAIS have a Y chromosome, testes, and produce male-typical levels of androgens, they lack functional androgen receptors preventing responding to their androgens. Thus, they develop a female physical phenotype, are reared as girls, and develop into women. Because sexually differentiated brain development in primates is determined primarily by androgens, but may be affected by sex chromosome complement, it is currently unknown whether brain structure and function in women with CAIS is more like that of women or men. In the first functional neuroimaging study of (46,XY) women with CAIS, typical (46,XX) women, and typical (46, XY) men, we found that men showed greater amygdala activation to sexual images than did either typical women or women with CAIS. Typical women and women with CAIS had highly similar patterns of brain activation, indicating that a Y chromosome is insufficient for male-typical human brain responses. Because women with CAIS produce male-typical or elevated levels of testosterone which is aromatized to estradiol these results rule out aromatization of testosterone to estradiol as a determinate of sex differences in patterns of brain activation to sexual images. We cannot, however, rule out an effect of social experience on the brain responses of women with CAIS as all were raised as girls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic ankle instability alters eccentric eversion/inversion and dorsiflexion/plantarflexion ratio. (United States)

    Abdel-aziem, Amr Almaz; Draz, Amira Hussin


    To determine if the eccentric evertor/invertor and dorsiflexor/plantar-flexor ratio are altered in subjects with chronic ankle instability. Twenty chronic ankle instability (CAI) subjects as an experimental group, and twenty healthy subjects as a control group, were matched in age, gender, and activity level. CAI subjects have a history of at least one ankle sprain and repeated episodes of giving way were included in CAI group. Subjects with no prior history of ankle injury were included in the control group. Ankle evertor/invertor and dorsiflexor/plantar-flexor muscles eccentric torque ratios were measured using the eccentric muscle contraction at angular velocities 60 and 120°/s. Analysis of variance revealed that the eccentric contraction eversion/inversion ratio of CAI group was significantly lower than normal group ratio at angular velocities 60 and 120°/s (p=0.041 and 0.012) respectively. The eccentric contraction dorsiflexion/plantarflexion ratio of CAI group was significantly higher than normal group ratio at both angular velocities (p=0.036 and 0.013) respectively. Moreover, at angular velocities of 60°/s and 120°/s a deficit in inversion and eversion eccentric torques were identified in CAI group (p=0.000), plantarflexion torque deficit of CAI group (p=0.034 and 0.028), respectively, and no deficit was identified for dorsiflexion torque of CAI group (p=0.595 and 0.696) respectively. Chronic ankle instability increases the dorsiflexion/plantarflexion muscles torque ratio and decreases the eversion/inversion ratio at angular velocities 60 and 120°/s. Therefore, the restoration of a normal eccentric inversion, eversion, and plantarflexion strength may prevent recurrent lateral ankle ligament sprain.

  5. Chronic ankle instability affects learning rate during repeated proprioception testing. (United States)

    Witchalls, Jeremy B; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Blanch, Peter


    1. To determine whether individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) have lower proprioception sensitivity scores from a test on the Active Movement Extent Discrimination Apparatus (AMEDA). 2. To determine whether individuals with CAI can improve proprioception sensitivity scores with repeated active movement testing using the AMEDA. 3. To assess the test-retest reliability of the AMEDA. A cohort study comparing those with CAI or healthy ankles. University clinical laboratory. 61 healthy university students, 36 with CAI, 25 with stable ankles. A 2-way ANOVA was conducted to compare performance of CAI and stable ankle groups, over 3 test repetitions on the AMEDA. The reliability intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was obtained for test repetitions. The scores improved in both groups when the AMEDA test was repeated (p = proprioception test scores differed, with the CAI group showing a slower learning rate than the stable ankle group (p = 0.047). The ICC for the whole group across the three trials was 0.80 (95% CI = 0.69 to 0.87, p = proprioception scores more slowly upon repeated AMEDA testing, suggesting differences in learning strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of post-cervical and cervical porcine artificial insemination in nulliparous and multiparous

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    Luchetti CG


    Full Text Available The post-cervical artificial insemination (PCAI in sows increases semen performance compared to cervical artificial insemination (CAI. In Argentina the use of the PCAI is restricted to multiparous while it is not applied to nulliparous. The aim of this study was to compare porcine CAI and PCAI in nulliparous and multiparous. Pregnancy rates and number of live pups with CAI and PCAI in nulliparous and multiparous, assessing advantages and disadvantages of each method were compared. This is a small-scale work (4 CAI and 7 PCAI in nulliparous, 3 CAI and 3 PCAI in multiparous in a small field productive site in the Province of Buenos Aires. Here the boar was omitted for heat detection and to stimulate the sow during AI. Pregnancy rates and the number of pups born alive per pregnant sow were similar with the two techniques and two categories. The PCAI is a good practice in nulliparous and multiparous because this technique increases semen performance compared to CAI and it is omitted the presence of the boar.

  7. An evaluation of factors associated with sexual risk taking among Black men who have sex with men: a comparison of younger and older populations. (United States)

    Maksut, Jessica L; Eaton, Lisa A; Siembida, Elizabeth J; Driffin, Daniel D; Baldwin, Robert


    In the United States, rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are highest among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). Prior research indicates that younger BMSM in particular (i.e., BMSM 29 years of age and younger) are most at risk for HIV infection, and that HIV incidence in this subpopulation has risen in recent years. It remains unclear, however, why younger BMSM, relative to BMSM 30 years of age and older, are at increased risk for HIV infection. For the current study, we surveyed 450 BMSM located in the Atlanta, GA metropolitan and surrounding areas. We assessed BMSM's depressive symptoms, substance use during sex, psycho-social risk factors (i.e., HIV risk perceptions, condom use self-efficacy, internalized homophobia, and perceived HIV stigmatization), and sexual risk taking (i.e., condomless anal intercourse [CAI]). We found that younger BMSM (YBMSM) and older BMSM (OBMSM) differed with respect to factors associated with CAI. In multivariable models, alcohol use before or during sex, lower educational attainment, and sexual orientation (i.e., bisexual sexual orientation) were significantly associated with increased CAI for YBMSM, while HIV risk perceptions and internalized homophobia were significantly, negatively associated with CAI among OBMSM. Rates of engaging in CAI were similar across the two age cohorts; however, factors related to CAI varied by these two groups. Findings emphasize the need to consider targeted interventions for different generational cohorts of BMSM.

  8. Conodont color alteration index and upper Paleozoic thermal history of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil (United States)

    Cardoso, Cassiane Negreiros; Sanz-López, Javier; Blanco-Ferrera, Silvia; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Scomazzon, Ana Karina


    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) was determined in elements from core samples of the Frasnian Barreirinha Formation (one well) and of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Tapajós Group (twenty three wells and one limestone quarry) in the Amazonas Basin. The thermal history of the basin is analyzed using the CAI value distribution represented in maps and stratigraphic sections through correlation schemes, and in conjunction with previously published data. The pattern of palaeotemperatures for CAI values of 1.5-3 is coincident with organic matter maturation under a sedimentary overburden providing diagenetic conditions in the oil/gas window. Locally, conodonts show metamorphism (CAI value of 6-7) in relation to the intrusion of diabase bodies in beds including high geothermal gradient evaporites. Microtextural alteration on the surface conodonts commonly shows several types of overgrowth microtextures developed in diagenetic conditions. Locally, recrystallization in conodonts with a high CAI value is congruent with contact metamorphism in relation to Mesozoic intrusions. The CAI values of 1.5 or 2 observed close to the surface in several areas of the basin may be interpreted in relation to a high thermal palaeogradient derived from the magmatic episode or/and to the local denudation of the upper part of the Paleozoic succession prior to this thermal event.

  9. Chronic Alcohol Intoxication and Cortical Ischemia: Study of Their Comorbidity and the Protective Effects of Minocycline

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    Enéas Andrade Fontes-Júnior


    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol intoxication (CAI increases both morbidity and mortality of stroke patients. Despite the high prevalence of CAI and ischemic stroke, studies addressing their comorbidity and/or protective alternatives remain scarce. Thus, the influence of CAI on both stroke outcome and minocycline treatment (recognized for its neuroprotective effect was investigated. Female Wistar rats (35 days old were treated with water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v for 55 days. Then, focal ischemia was induced by endothelin-1 in the motor cortex. Two hours later, four doses of 50 mg/kg of minocycline every 12 hours followed by five doses of 25 mg/kg every 24 hours were administered. Behavioral performance (open field and rotarod tests and immunohistochemical (cellular density, neuronal death, and astrocytic activation and biochemical (lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels analyses were performed. CAI increased motor disruption, nitrite and lipid peroxidation levels, and neuronal loss caused by ischemia, whereas it reduced the astrogliosis. Minocycline was effective in preventing the motor and tissue damage caused by stroke. However, these effects were attenuated when CAI preceded stroke. Our data suggest that CAI beginning in adolescence contributes to a worse outcome in ischemic stroke survivors and reduces the benefits of minocycline, possibly requiring adjustments in therapy.

  10. Computer-assisted instruction as a learning resource for applied anatomy and kinesiology in the occupational therapy curriculum. (United States)

    Toth-Cohen, S


    The purpose of these studies was to examine the learning outcomes of a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) tutorial in applied anatomy and kinesiology for occupational therapy students and to determine its applicability for use in two university settings. Two separate pilot studies were conducted at two universities. In each study, the learning outcomes of an experimental group of occupational therapy students using a CAI program and a control group using books to study the same material were compared. Learning outcomes were assessed with post-test achievement test scores on an applied anatomy and kinesiology test and responses to an attitude questionnaire with Likert-scale items and open-ended questions. There was no significant difference in the means on achievement test scores for the experimental and control groups in the first pilot study. In the second study, the CAI group scored significantly higher on the achievement test than the control group. In both pilot studies, subjects displayed significantly more positive attitudes toward the CAI program as a learning tool than they did toward traditional self-study with books. A CAI program in applied anatomy and kinesiology can be an effective supplemental resource for occupational therapy students and can offer a learning experience that students value and perceive as helpful. Establishment of clear learning objectives, use of a theoretical base to design instruction, and development and testing in different educational settings can help improve the quality of CAI programs and ensure their relevance to other curricula.

  11. Spatiotemporal postural control deficits are present in those with chronic ankle instability

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    McKeon Patrick O


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postural control deficits have been purported to be a potential contributing factor in chronic ankle instability (CAI. Summary forceplate measures such as center of pressure velocity and area have not consistently detected postural control deficits associated with CAI. A novel measurement technique derived from the dynamical systems theory of motor control known as Time-to-boundary (TTB has shown promise in detecting deficits in postural control related to chronic ankle instability (CAI. In a previous study, TTB deficits were detected in a sample of females with CAI. The purpose of this study was to examine postural control in sample of males and females with and without CAI using TTB measures. Methods This case-control study was performed in a research laboratory. Thirty-two subjects (18 males, 14 females with self-reported CAI were recruited and matched to healthy controls. All subjects performed three, ten-second trials of single-limb stance on a forceplate with eyes open and eyes closed. Main outcome measures included the TTB absolute minimum (s, mean of TTB minima (s, and standard deviation of TTB minima (s in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. A series of group by gender analyses of variance were conducted to evaluate the differences in postural control for all TTB variables separately with eyes open and eyes closed. Results There were no significant group by gender interactions or gender main effects for any of the measures. There, however, significant group main effects for 4 of the 6 measures with eyes closed as the CAI group demonstrated significant deficits in comparison to the control group. There were no significant differences between groups in any of the TTB measures with eyes open. Conclusion TTB deficits were present in the CAI group compared to the control group. These deficits were detected with concurrent removal of visual input. CAI may place significantly greater constraints on the

  12. The application of Reiki in nurses diagnosed with Burnout Syndrome has beneficial effects on concentration of salivary IgA and blood pressure Una sesión de Reiki en enfermeras diagnosticadas con síndrome de Burnout tiene efectos beneficiosos sobre la concentración de IgA salival y la presión arterial Uma sessão de Reiki em enfermeiras diagnosticadas com síndrome de Burnout tem efeitos benéficos sobre a concentração de IgA salivar e a pressão arterial

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    Lourdes Díaz-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the immediate effects of the secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA, α-amylase activity and blood pressure levels after the application of a Reiki session in nurses with Burnout Syndrome. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design was conducted to compare the immediate effects of Reiki versus control intervention (Hand-off sham intervention in nurses with Burnout Syndrome. Sample was composed of eighteen nurses (aged 34-56 years with burnout syndrome. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a Reiki treatment or a placebo (sham Reiki treatment, according to the established order in two different days. The ANOVA showed a significant interaction time x intervention for diastolic blood pressure (F=4.92, P=0.04 and sIgA concentration (F=4.71, P=0.04. A Reiki session can produce an immediate and statistically significant improvement in sIgA concentration and diastolic blood pressure in nurses with Burnout Syndrome.El objetivo fue investigar los efectos inmediatos en inmunoglobulina A salival (IgAs, actividad de α-amilasa y presión arterial de una aplicación de reiki en enfermeras sufriendo síndrome de Burnout. Se utilizó un ensayo preliminar placebo randomizado con cegamiento doble utilizando un diseño cruzado. Dieciocho enfermeras (edad 34-56 con síndrome de Burnout participaron en el estudio. Las participantes recibieron tratamiento con Reiki o Reiki fingido según el orden establecido por la randomización en dos días distintos. El test de ANOVA mostró un interacción significativa momento intervención para la presión arterial diastólica (F=4.92, P=0.04 a y la concentración de sIgA (F=4.71, P=0.04. Una sesión de Reiki de 30 minutos puede mejorar de manera inmediata la respuesta de IgAs y la presión arterial diastólica en enfermeras con síndrome de Burnout.O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos imediatos na imunoglobulina A salivar (IgAs, na atividade de α-amilase e na pressão arterial, após uma aplicação de Reiki em enfermeiras que sofrem da síndrome de Burnout. Foi realizado ensaio clínico randomizado duplo-cego e placebo controlado, com desenho cruzado. Dezoito enfermeiras (idade entre 34 e 56 anos, com síndrome de Burnout, participaram do estudo. As participantes receberam tratamento com Reiki ou Reiki falso, de acordo com a ordem estabelecida, através da randomização em dois dias distintos. O teste de Anova mostrou interação significativa entre o momento da intervenção e a pressão arterial diastólica (F=4,92, p=0,04 e os níveis de sIgA (F=4,71, p=0,04. Conclui-se que uma sessão de Reiki de 30 minutos pode melhorar de forma imediata a resposta de IgAs e da pressão arterial diastólica em enfermeiras com síndrome de Burnout.

  13. Single color attribute index for shade conformity judgment of dental resin composites

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    Yong-Keun Lee


    Full Text Available Introduction: Commercial dental resin composites under the same shade designations show color discrepancies by brand. Moreover, three Commission Internationale de l′Eclairage (CIE color coordinates show significant variations by measurement method; therefore, direct comparisons of the color coordinates based on different methods are meaningless. This study aimed to assess a hypothesis that a new color attribute index (CAI, which could reduce the color coordinate variations by measurement method, was applicable for the shade conformity judgment of dental resin composites. The Hypothesis: CAI is applicable in the shade conformity judgment of commercial dental resin composites. Using the CIE color coordinates of shade guide tabs and resin composites, combined color indices such as Wa = CIE aFNx01 × DEFNx01 ab /C ab FNx01 and Wb = CIE bFNx01 × DEFNx01 ab /C ab FNx01 were defined, in which DEFNx01 ab was the color difference with a standard white tile. Ratio of Wa/Wb to that of an arbitrary reference shade (A2 in the same brand and measurement was defined as the CAI. The CAI values were significantly different by the shade designation and showed a logical trend by the shade designation number. The CAI of commercial resin composites and the keyed shade guide tabs showed overlaps. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: The CAI might be used to judge the shade conformity of resin composites using the values based on different measurement methods. The application of the CAI, instead of conventional three-color coordinates, could efficiently simplify the shade conformity judgment of commercial resin composites. Although the hypothesis of the present study was partially confirmed, further studies for the practical application of this index are highly recommended.

  14. Tectonothermal evolution of the northeastern Cantabrian zone (Spain) (United States)

    Blanco-Ferrera, Silvia; Sanz-López, Javier; García-López, Susana; Bastida, Fernando


    A tectonothermal study of the northeastern sector of the Cantabrian zone (Ponga-Cuera and Picos de Europa units) using the conodont color alteration index (CAI) and Kübler index (KI) methods shows a variation from diagenetic to anchizonal conditions. The latter are illustrated in geological maps and cross sections. The greater part of the studied area has CAI values lower than 2, caused by two long periods of burial separated by a compressive interval (corresponding to the Variscan deformation), in which thrusts were the dominant structures. Tectonic superimposition was balanced by intense and fast erosion and had little effect on the CAI values. In contrast, a high thermal gradient was produced in the southern outcrops that led to recognize the transition between diagenetic and anchizonal conditions through CAI values near the basal thrust of the Picos de Europa unit. The diagenesis/anchizone boundary appears a little further south through the determination of the Kübler index in phyllosilicate minerals (KI = 0.42). CAI isograds cut the Variscan structures as a consequence of a thermal episode that occurred near the Carboniferous-Permian boundary at the beginning of an extensional regime. The thermal source was located further south, in the adjacent Pisuerga-Carrión unit. Alterations in the CAI values, as well as dolomitization and ore deposits, locally resulted from Permian-Mesozoic hydrothermal activity. Microtextural analysis of the conodonts allowed us to relate several types of apatite overgrowth to diagenetic conditions and recrystallization to anchizonal ones, whereas dissolution was common during hydrothermalism. Alpine deformation hardly produced any changes in the previous thermal pattern, but was responsible of the northwards tilting of the structure and CAI isograds.

  15. Does adaptation to vertebrate codon usage relate to flavivirus emergence potential?

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    Nicholas Di Paola

    Full Text Available Codon adaptation index (CAI is a measure of synonymous codon usage biases given a usage reference. Through mutation, selection, and drift, viruses can optimize their replication efficiency and produce more offspring, which could increase the chance of secondary transmission. To evaluate how higher CAI towards the host has been associated with higher viral titers, we explored temporal trends of several historic and extensively sequenced zoonotic flaviviruses and relationships within the genus itself. To showcase evolutionary and epidemiological relationships associated with silent, adaptive synonymous changes of viruses, we used codon usage tables from human housekeeping and antiviral immune genes, as well as tables from arthropod vectors and vertebrate species involved in the flavivirus maintenance cycle. We argue that temporal trends of CAI changes could lead to a better understanding of zoonotic emergences, evolutionary dynamics, and host adaptation. CAI appears to help illustrate historically relevant trends of well-characterized viruses, in different viral species and genetic diversity within a single species. CAI can be a useful tool together with in vivo and in vitro kinetics, phylodynamics, and additional functional genomics studies to better understand species trafficking and viral emergence in a new host.

  16. Does adaptation to vertebrate codon usage relate to flavivirus emergence potential? (United States)

    Di Paola, Nicholas; Freire, Caio César de Melo; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade


    Codon adaptation index (CAI) is a measure of synonymous codon usage biases given a usage reference. Through mutation, selection, and drift, viruses can optimize their replication efficiency and produce more offspring, which could increase the chance of secondary transmission. To evaluate how higher CAI towards the host has been associated with higher viral titers, we explored temporal trends of several historic and extensively sequenced zoonotic flaviviruses and relationships within the genus itself. To showcase evolutionary and epidemiological relationships associated with silent, adaptive synonymous changes of viruses, we used codon usage tables from human housekeeping and antiviral immune genes, as well as tables from arthropod vectors and vertebrate species involved in the flavivirus maintenance cycle. We argue that temporal trends of CAI changes could lead to a better understanding of zoonotic emergences, evolutionary dynamics, and host adaptation. CAI appears to help illustrate historically relevant trends of well-characterized viruses, in different viral species and genetic diversity within a single species. CAI can be a useful tool together with in vivo and in vitro kinetics, phylodynamics, and additional functional genomics studies to better understand species trafficking and viral emergence in a new host.

  17. Immediate effects of Mulligan's fibular repositioning taping on postural control in athletes with and without chronic ankle instability. (United States)

    Someeh, Marjan; Norasteh, Ali Asghar; Daneshmandi, Hassan; Asadi, Abbas


    To determine whether fibular repositioning tape influenced the postural control performance in athletes with and without chronic ankle instability (CAI). Research laboratory. A cross-sectional study, within subjects experimental study design between 4 ankle conditions (taped and untaped: CAI and healthy athletes). Sixteen volunteer professional athletes with unilateral CAI (10 men and 6 women; age 23.2 ± 3 y, height 175.4 ± 10.3 cm, and weight 73 ± 14.5 kg) and sixteen volunteer healthy professional athletes (10 men and 6 women; age 22.8 ± 1.7 y, height 173.6 ± 12.2 cm, and weight 66.4 ± 11.4 kg). Fibular repositioning taping (FRT). Star excursion balance test (postural control) in anteromedial (AM), medial (M), and posteromedial (PM) directions were measured for the both group in two conditions: tape and untape. FRT improved significantly postural control (M, AM and PM) in both groups (p postural control in athletes with CAI and healthy athletes. Therefore, FRT can be an effective management for athletes who suffer from CAI. Also, this type of taping can apply immediately prior to activity and sport event to increase joint awareness of ankle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of reduced plantar cutaneous sensation on static postural control in individuals with and without chronic ankle instability. (United States)

    Song, Kyeongtak; Kang, Tae Kyu; Wikstrom, Erik A; Jun, Hyung-Pil; Lee, Sae Yong


    The purpose of this study was to determine how reduced plantar cutaneous sensation influences static postural control in individuals with and without CAI. A case-control study design. Twenty-six individuals with self-reported CAI and 26 matched healthy controls participated in this study. The plantar aspect of the participants' foot was then submersed in ice water (0°C) for 10min to reduce plantar sensation. Before and after the cooling procedure, plantar cutaneous sensation thresholds and single leg balance with eyes open and closed were assessed. Significantly, higher scores were observed in both groups after ice water submersion (ppostural control improvement in both groups post-cooling. In single limb balance with eyes closed, Group×Intervention interactions were observed for the TTB AP mean (p=0.003) and TTB AP SD (p=0.017); indicating postural control deficits in CAI group post-cooling, but no changes in the control group. The main finding of this study was that reduced plantar cutaneous sensation induced by an ice submersion procedure caused eyes closed postural control impairments in those with CAI but not healthy controls. The present investigation demonstrated that the ability to dynamically reweight among sensory inputs to maintain postural stability appears to be diminished in CAI patients compared to healthy controls. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. [The effect of the severity of congenital pectus excavatum on the cardiac morphology in children: evaluation with multislice helical CT]. (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Deng, Kaihong


    This paper is aimed to evaluate the CT manifestation of congenital pectus excavatum and its effect on the cardiac morphology. CT features of 34 children with pectus excavatum were retrospectively reviewed. The Haller index (HI), CT depression index (CTDI), cardiac rotation angle (CRA), pulmonary vein angle (PVA), cardiac compression index (CCI) and cardiac asymmetry index (CAI) were measured from the images on the PACS system. The relationships among these indexes were evaluated. The HI was 4.12 +/- 1.48, the CTDI was 2.39+/- 0.70, CRA was (53.52 +/- 7.68) degrees, PVA was (66.51 +/- 11.02) degrees, CCI was 2.43 +/- 0.95, and CAI was 1.55 +/- 0.56. There was statistical significance of CCI and CAI between children with severe or slight pectus excavatum. The HI and CTDI were positively related with CCI and CAI respectively, whereas there was no statistical significance of CRA and PVA between children with severe or slight pectus excavatum. There was no statistical significance of HI, CTDI, CRA, PVA, CCI and CAI among different age groups. The morphological change of the heart compressed in children with pectus excavatum can be accurately evaluated by multislice helical CT.

  20. Spatially discordant alternans in cardiac tissue: role of calcium cycling. (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Shiferaw, Yohannes; Garfinkel, Alan; Weiss, James N; Qu, Zhilin; Karma, Alain


    Spatially discordant alternans, where the action potential duration (APD) and intracellular calcium transient (Ca(i)) alternate with opposite phase in different regions of tissue, is known to promote wave break and reentry. However, this phenomenon is not completely understood. It is known that alternans at the cellular level can be caused by dynamical instabilities arising from either membrane voltage (V(m)) attributable to steep APD restitution or to calcium (Ca) cycling. Here, we used a mathematical model of intracellular Ca cycling, coupled with membrane ion currents, to investigate the dynamics of V(m) and Ca(i) transient alternans in an isolated cell, in two electrotonically coupled cells, and in 1D spatially homogeneous tissue. Our main finding is a novel instability mechanism in which the bidirectional coupling of V(m) and Ca(i) can drive the Ca(i) transient of two neighboring cells to be out of phase. This instability is manifested in cardiac tissue by the dynamical formation of spatially discordant alternans. In this case, Ca(i) transient alternans can reverse phase over a length scale of one cell, whereas APD alternans reverses phase over a much longer length scale set by the electrotonic coupling. We analyze this mechanism in detail and show that it is a robust consequence of experimentally established properties of the bidirectional coupling between Ca cycling and V(m) dynamics. Finally, we address the experimental relevance of these findings and suggest physiological conditions under which these patterns can be observed.

  1. Management of advanced hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer with and without cartilage invasion. (United States)

    Scherl, Claudia; Mantsopoulos, Konstantinos; Semrau, Sabine; Fietkau, Rainer; Kapsreiter, Markus; Koch, Michael; Traxdorf, Maximilian; Grundtner, Philipp; Iro, Heinrich


    To compare efficacy, in terms of disease control/survival in advanced hypopharyngeal and laryngeal lesions, according to treatment strategy (primary surgery, PS or primary chemoradiotherapy, CRT) and invasion pattern (cartilage, CAI or soft tissue involvement, STI). Records from 463 patients with T3 and T4a carcinoma with CAI (n=221) or STI (n=242) treated at a university clinic over 18 years were retrospectively reviewed. Disease-specific survival (DSS) for the CAI group was 70.1% (PS) and 38.4% (CRT), and 76.6% and 46% for the STI group, respectively. Overall survival (OS) for STI was 56.4% (PS) and 30.6% (CRT), and for CAI 51.1% (PS) and 28.5% (CRT) respectively. Positive resection margins and regional neck metastases reduced survival. T3 lesions treated non-operatively still had significantly improved survival versus T4a by >20%. Surgery remains an indispensable part of treatment in local advanced hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer with high survival results. It should be part of a concept that includes adjuvant (C)RT. For T3 lesions, primary CRT is also acceptable and CAI is not a contraindication for primary CRT. Regional disease is a strong prognostic factor. In spite of adjuvant treatment, DSS deteriorates by about 20% in cases with positive resection margins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Postural stabilization after single-leg vertical jump in individuals with chronic ankle instability. (United States)

    Nunes, Guilherme S; de Noronha, Marcos


    To investigate the impact different ways to define reference balance can have when analysing time to stabilization (TTS). Secondarily, to investigate the difference in TTS between people with chronic ankle instability (CAI) and healthy controls. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Fifty recreational athletes (25 CAI, 25 controls). TTS of the center of pressure (CoP) after maximal single-leg vertical jump using as reference method the single-leg stance, pre-jump period, and post-jump period; and the CoP variability during the reference methods. The post-jump reference period had lower values for TTS in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction when compared to single-leg stance (P = 0.001) and to pre-jump (P = 0.002). For TTS in the medio-lateral (ML) direction, the post-jump reference period showed lower TTS when compared to single-leg stance (P = 0.01). We found no difference between CAI and control group for TTS for any direction. The CAI group showed more CoP variability than control group in the single-leg stance reference period for both directions. Different reference periods will produce different results for TTS. There is no difference in TTS after a maximum vertical jump between groups. People with CAI have more CoP variability in both directions during single-leg stance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of heart rate on central hemodynamics and stroke: a meta-analysis of β-blocker trials. (United States)

    Ding, Feng-Hua; Li, Yan; Li, Li-Hua; Wang, Ji-Guang


    In a meta-analysis, we investigated effects of β-blockers on central hemodynamic measurements and explored the impact of heart rate (HR) on central hemodynamics and the risk of stroke. We searched randomized controlled trials that compared β-blockers with other classes of antihypertensive drugs in reducing central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) and augmentation index (cAI) and in preventing stroke. A random-effects model was used to compute pooled estimates. In 9 trials (n = 754), β-blockers were less efficacious in reducing cAI than all the other classes of drugs (8.6%, P classes of drugs (P ≥ 0.50). In a meta-regression analysis of these 9 trials, the baseline-adjusted difference in HR between randomized groups was associated with cAI (7.0% increase for each 10 bpm decrease in HR, P = 0.02), which was associated with cSBP (1.2 mm Hg increase for each 1% increase in cAI, P = 0.009). In 5 outcome trials, the pooled OR of stroke was 1.23 (P meta-regression analysis. Slowing HR with β-blockers may increase cAI and in turn may decrease cSBP less than with other classes of drugs. This mechanism might account for a smaller reduction in the risk of stroke when using β-blockers to treat hypertension.

  4. Corundum-Hibonite Inclusions and the Environments of High Temperature Processing in the Early Solar System (United States)

    Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.


    Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are composed of the suite of minerals predicted to be the first to condense from a cooling gas of solar composition [1]. Yet, the first phase to condense, corundum, is rare in CAIs, having mostly reacted to form hibonite followed by other phases at lower temperatures. Many CAIs show evidence of complex post-formational histories, including condensation, evaporation, and melting [e.g. 2, 3]. However, the nature of these thermal events and the nebular environments in which they took place are poorly constrained. Some corundum and corundum-hibonite grains appear to have survived or avoided these complex CAI reprocessing events. Such ultra-refractory CAIs may provide a clearer record of the O isotopic composition of the Sun and the evolution of the O isotopic composition of the planet-forming region [4-6]. Here we present in situ O and Mg isotopic analyses of two corundum/hibonite inclusions that record differing formation histories.

  5. Quantitative Evaluation of Female Pattern Hair Loss in Chinese Women: A Preliminary Study. (United States)

    Hung, Pei-Kai; Tsai, Jerry; Chen, Chung-Ming; Tsai, Ren-Yeu


    The common grading systems for female pattern hair loss (FPHL), such as Ludwig and Savin scales, are subjective to visual inspection. To provide a more objective evaluation of baldness, the authors have developed a method to calculate baldness quantitatively through a computer-aided imaging system (CAIS). To investigate the use of CAIS on Chinese women with FPHL. Thirty-eight Chinese women with FPHL (Savin Scale I-2 to II-2) were recruited. A total of 215 photographs were taken. The central balding areas (CBAs) were calculated after exposure correction by CAIS for comparison with clinical staging. The average CBA was 9,391.12 mm in all patients, 3,828.84 mm in Type I-2, 5,880.38 mm in I-3, 8,267.44 mm in I-4, 12,999.26 mm in II-1, and 15,979.71 mm in II-2. The values of CBA correlated with clinical staging using Savin scales. A 7.53% difference was found in the calculated CBA by exposure correction. The CAIS allows physicians to evaluate the severity of baldness more accurately through quantitative calculation, rather than qualitative visual observation. The values of the CBA measured by the CAIS, used in conjunction with the present grading systems, may be more precise and efficient to evaluate the severity of FPHL.

  6. Cortisol-dependent stress effects on cell distribution in healthy individuals and individuals suffering from chronic adrenal insufficiency. (United States)

    Geiger, Ashley M; Pitts, Kenneth P; Feldkamp, Joachim; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Wolf, Jutta M


    Chronic adrenal insufficiency (CAI) is characterized by a lack of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid production due to destroyed adrenal cortex cells. However, elevated cortisol secretion is thought to be a central part in a well-orchestrated immune response to stress. This raises the question to what extent lack of cortisol in CAI affects stress-related changes in immune processes. To address this question, 28 CAI patients (20 females) and 18 healthy individuals (11 females) (age: 44.3 ± 8.4 years) were exposed to a psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Half the patients received a 0.03 mg/kg body weight injection of hydrocortisone (HC) post-TSST to mimic a healthy cortisol stress response. Catecholamines and immune cell composition were assessed in peripheral blood and free cortisol measured in saliva collected before and repeatedly after TSST. CAI patients showed norepinephrine (NE) stress responses similar to healthy participants, however, epinephrine (E) as well as cortisol levels were significantly lower. HC treatment post-TSST resulted in cortisol increases comparable to those observed in healthy participants (interaction effects--NE: F=1.05, p=.41; E: F=2.56, p=.045; cortisol: F=13.28, pcortisol's central involvement in post-stress lymphocyte migration from blood into immune-relevant body compartments. As such, future studies should investigate whether psychosocial stress exposure may put CAI patients at an increased health risk due to attenuated immune responses to pathogens. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Normalization of Impact Energy by Laminate Thickness for Compression After Impact Testing (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Hromisin, S. M.


    The amount of impact energy used to damage a composite laminate is a critical parameter when assessing residual strength properties. The compression after impact (CAI) strength of impacted laminates is dependent upon how thick the laminate is and this has traditionally been accounted for by normalizing (dividing) the impact energy by the laminate's thickness. However, when comparing CAI strength values for a given lay-up sequence and fiber/resin system, dividing the impact energy by the specimen thickness has been noted by the author to give higher CAI strength values for thicker laminates. A study was thus undertaken to assess the comparability of CAI strength data by normalizing the impact energy by the specimen thickness raised to a power to account for the higher strength of thicker laminates. One set of data from the literature and two generated in this study were analyzed by dividing the impact energy by the specimen thickness to the 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 powers. Results show that as laminate thickness and damage severity decreased, the value which the laminate thickness needs to be raised to in order to yield more comparable CAI data increases.

  8. Boston children's hospital community asthma initiative: Five-year cost analyses of a home visiting program. (United States)

    Bhaumik, Urmi; Sommer, Susan J; Giller-Leinwohl, Judith; Norris, Kerri; Tsopelas, Lindsay; Nethersole, Shari; Woods, Elizabeth R


    To evaluate the costs and benefits of the Boston Children's Hospital Community Asthma Initiative (CAI) through reduction of Emergency Department (ED) visits and hospitalizations for the full pilot-phase program participants. A cost-benefit analyses was conducted using hospital administrative data to determine an adjusted Return on Investment (ROI): on all 268 patients enrolled in the CAI program during the 33-month pilot program phase of CAI intervention between October 1, 2005 and June 30, 2008 using a comparison group of 818 patients from a similar cohort in neighboring ZIP codes without CAI intervention. Cost data through June 30, 2013 were used to examine cost changes and calculate an adjusted ROI over a 5-year post-intervention period. CAI patients had a cost reduction greater than the comparison group of $1,216 in Year 1 (P = 0.001), $1,320 in Year 2 (P management programs can decrease the incidence of costly hospitalizations and ED visits from asthma. An ROI of greater than one, as found in this cost analysis, supports the business case for the provision of community-based asthma services as part of patient-centered medical homes and Accountable Care Organizations.

  9. Novel matrix resins for composites for aircraft primary structures, phase 1 (United States)

    Woo, Edmund P.; Puckett, P. M.; Maynard, S.; Bishop, M. T.; Bruza, K. J.; Godschalx, J. P.; Mullins, M. J.


    The objective of the contract is the development of matrix resins with improved processability and properties for composites for primarily aircraft structures. To this end, several resins/systems were identified for subsonic and supersonic applications. For subsonic aircraft, a series of epoxy resins suitable for RTM and powder prepreg was shown to give composites with about 40 ksi compressive strength after impact (CAI) and 200 F/wet mechanical performance. For supersonic applications, a thermoplastic toughened cyanate prepreg system has demonstrated excellent resistance to heat aging at 360 F for 4000 hours, 40 ksi CAI and useful mechanical properties at greater than or equal to 310 F. An AB-BCB-maleimide resin was identified as a leading candidate for the HSCT. Composite panels fabricated by RTM show CAI of approximately 50 ksi, 350 F/wet performance and excellent retention of mechanical properties after aging at 400 F for 4000 hours.

  10. Discovery of a New Garnet Mineral, Hutcheonite, in the Allende Meteorite (United States)

    Martel, L. M. V.


    A new titanium-rich garnet mineral has been found in a FUN CAI (a rare type of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion, CAI) from the Allende carbonaceous chondrite, as reported by the discovery team of Chi Ma (CalTech) and Alexander Krot (University of Hawaii). The mineral, IMA 2013-029, was officially approved in June 2013 by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature, and Classification of the International Mineralogical Association as hutcheonite. The mineral's name honors Ian D. Hutcheon, a researcher at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, who is a leading authority in the chronology of the early Solar System, especially known for his significant contributions to the development of instrumentation and techniques for isotopic and elemental microanalysis. Researchers Ma and Krot say hutcheonite in Allende is likely an alteration phase formed by iron-alkali-halogen metasomatism of the primary phases in the FUN CAI.

  11. Evaluating spectral indices for determining conservation and conventional tillage systems in a vetch-wheat rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Eskandari


    CAI had a linear relationship with crop residue cover, which the comparative intensity of cellulose and lignin absorption features near 2100 nm can be measure by it. Coefficients of determination (r2 for crop residue cover as a function of CAI and LCA were 0.89 and 0.79 respectively. Absorption specifications near 2.1 and 2.3 µm in the reflectance spectra of crop residues in minimum and no- tillage systems were related to cellulose and lignin. These specifications were not evident in the spectra of conventional tillage system. In this study the best index to use was CAI, which showed complete separation tillage systems, followed by LCA and NDTI. Four tillage intensity classes, corresponding to intensive (60% cover tillage, were recognized in this study.

  12. A First Look at Harm Toward Animals by Bahamians in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fielding, William J.


    Full Text Available This paper reports the first known study on childhood cruelty towards animals in The Bahamas. An internet survey involving 1,558 respondents allowed childhood cruelty, using the Children and Animals Inventory (CAI, to be investigated in the context of other violent behaviours in the child’s home. The homes of children who did no harm animals were less violent than the homes of children who harmed animals. Consistent with other studies, males were more likely to harm animals than females. Males were more likely than females to harm sentient animals. While the use of violence to train children was not associated with a higher CAI score, domestic violence and the presence of a gun in the home were associated with a higher CAI score. The implications of these findings as they relate to the treatment of living creatures are discussed.

  13. JUNCTION Code User’s Manual. Electromagnetic Scattering and Radiation by Arbitrary Configurations of Conducting Bodies and Wires. (United States)



  14. Existence of an 16O-rich gaseous reservoir in the solar nebula. (United States)

    Krot, Alexander N; McKeegan, Kevin D; Leshin, Laurie A; MacPherson, Glenn J; Scott, Edward R D


    Carbonaceous chondrite condensate olivine grains from two distinct petrographic settings, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) accretionary rims and amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), are oxygen-16 (16O) enriched at the level previously observed inside CAIs. This requires that the gas in the nebular region where these grains condensed was 16O-rich. This contrasts with an 16O-poor gas present during the formation of chondrules, suggesting that CAIs and AOAs formed in a spatially restricted region of the solar nebula containing 16O-rich gas. The 16O-rich gas composition may have resulted either from mass-independent isotopic chemistry or from evaporation of regions with enhanced dust/gas ratios, possibly in an X-wind environment near the young Sun.

  15. Shooting stars: Our guide to the early solar system`s formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Reilly, J.


    Plagioclase grains were studied from the Allende meteorite, sample 916, to determine a chronology of events that occurred within the first ten million years of the solar system`s formation. Radiometric dating of the {sup 26}-Al-{sup 26}Mg system was accomplished on the ion microprobe mass spectromer. The excess {sup 26}-Mg in core plagioclase grains of calcium-aluminum rich inclusions (CAIs) provided a time of original condensation for {sup 26}-Al of {approximately}4.55 million years ago, a hundred million years prior to the formation of the planets. This data has been found to correlate with other excess {sup 26}-Mg samples. Measurements of plagioclase in the CAI`s periphery dated 1.52 million years later, suggesting an interesting history of collision and melting.

  16. The effect of kinesiotape on dynamic balance following muscle fatigue in individuals with chronic ankle instability. (United States)

    Kodesh, Einat; Dar, Gali


    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of kinesiotape (KT) on dynamic stability following ankle muscle fatigue among individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Twenty participants with CAI participated in the study. Participants were tested under three conditions: KT, non-elastic tape, and no tape pre- and post-fatigue of the ankle muscles. Ankle muscles fatigue was induced using an isokinetic apparatus, activity of the fibularis muscle was recorded using one-channel vibromyography (VMG), and dynamic balance and neuromuscular control were assessed using the Y-Balance Test. Following fatigue exercises, the VMG signal significantly decreased in all groups (p < 0.01), without differences between groups. No significant difference in dynamic balance test scores was found between the pre- and post-fatigue condition for each group and between groups. Our results demonstrate that KT had no significant effects on dynamic balance and muscle activity following ankle muscle fatigue among individuals with CAI.

  17. Critical Review: When the Party is Over: A Systematic Review of Behavioral Interventions for Substance-Using Men Who Have Sex with Men. (United States)

    Carrico, Adam W; Zepf, Roland; Meanley, Steven; Batchelder, Abigail; Stall, Ronald


    Because problematic patterns of alcohol and other substance use are prevalent drivers of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, comprehensive interventions are needed for substance-using men who have sex with men (SUMSM). We conducted a systematic review of 12 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioral interventions for reducing condomless anal intercourse (CAI) in SUMSM. Three RCTs observed that cognitive behavioral or motivational interviewing interventions achieved a 24% to 40% decrease in CAI. Interventions also tended to demonstrate greater efficacy for reducing CAI and substance use among those who had lower severity of substance use disorder symptoms. Although behavioral interventions for SUMSM are one potentially important component of biobehavioral HIV/AIDS prevention, further research is needed to examine whether integrative approaches that cultivate resilience and target co-occurring syndemic conditions demonstrate greater efficacy. Multilevel intervention approaches are also needed to optimize the effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis and HIV treatment as prevention with SUMSM.

  18. Cryptanalysis on a modified Baptista-type cryptosystem with chaotic masking algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yong [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Liao Xiaofeng [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)]. E-mail:


    Based on chaotic masking algorithm, an enhanced Baptista-type cryptosystem is proposed by Li et al. to resist all known attacks [S. Li, X. Mou, Z. Ji, J. Zhang, Y. Cai, Phys. Lett. A 307 (2003) 22; S. Li, G. Chen, K.-W. Wong, X. Mou, Y. Cai, Phys. Lett. A 332 (2004) 368]. In this Letter, we show that the second class bit extracting function in [S. Li, X. Mou, Z. Ji, J. Zhang, Y. Cai, Phys. Lett. A 307 (2003) 22] still leak partial information on the current chaotic state and reduce the security of cryptosystem. So, this type bit extracting function is not a good candidate for the masking algorithm.

  19. Climate Change Awareness among the High School Students: Case Study from a Climate Vulnerable Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.A. Rahman


    Full Text Available Bangladesh is one the worst sufferers of climate change. Climate change awareness creation is pivotal to adaptation and mitigation strategies. Effective dissemination of knowledge among the citizens during high school years is crucial to that end. In Bangladesh, secondary school students follow common curricula which include entries on climate change. This paper investigates the role of the diverse demographic profiles and inherent scholastic background of students on their informedness. The research is based on responses from secondary schools students in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Based on their understanding of climate change, we have constructed the Climate Awareness Index (CAI. Then the relative roles of demographic determinants of the awareness have been compared using the CAI. The quality of schools, and grade, major and merit position of students have affected the CAI values. Besides, the study concluded that the religion, gender, parental education, occupation and income, etc. could affect students’ climate change informedness in Bangladesh.

  20. Using symptom and interference questionnaires to identify recovery among children with anxiety disorders. (United States)

    Evans, Rachel; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy


    Questionnaires are widely used in routine clinical practice to assess treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. This study was conducted to determine whether 2 widely used child and parent report questionnaires of child anxiety symptoms and interference (Spence Child Anxiety Scale [SCAS-C/P] and Child Anxiety Impact Scale [CAIS-C/P]) accurately identify recovery from common child anxiety disorder diagnoses as measured by a 'gold-standard' diagnostic interview. Three hundred thirty-seven children (7-12 years, 51% female) and their parents completed the ADIS-IV-C/P diagnostic interview and questionnaire measures (SCAS-C/P and CAIS-C/P) before (Time 1) and after (Time 2) treatment or wait-list. Time 2 parent reported interference (CAIS-P) was found to be a good predictor of absence of any diagnoses (area under the curve [AUC] = .81). In terms of specific diagnoses, Time 2 SCAS-C/P separation anxiety subscale (SCAS-C/P-SA) identified recovery from separation anxiety disorder well (SCAS-C-SA, AUC = .80; SCAS-P-SA, AUC = .82) as did the CAIS-P (AUC = .79). The CAIS-P also successfully identified recovery from social phobia (AUC = .78) and generalized anxiety disorder (AUC = .76). These AUC values were supported by moderate to good sensitivity (.70-.78) and specificity (.70-.73) at the best identified cut-off scores. None of the measures successfully identified recovery from specific phobia. The results suggest that questionnaire measures, particularly the CAIS-P, can be used to identify whether children have recovered from common anxiety disorders, with the exception of specific phobias. Cut-off scores have been identified that can guide the use of routine outcome measures in clinical practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).