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Sample records for cai tien giong

  1. Maxi CAI with a Micro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, George; And Others

    This paper describes an effective microprocessor-based CAI system which has been repeatedly tested by a large number of students and edited accordingly. Tasks not suitable for microprocessor based systems (authoring, testing, and debugging) were handled on larger multi-terminal systems. This approach requires that the CAI language used on the…

  2. CAIs in Semarkona (LL3.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, R. K.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.; Marhas, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the first forming solids of the Solar system. Their observed abundance, mean size, and mineralogy vary quite significantly between different groups of chondrites. These differences may reflect the dynamics and distinct cosmochemical conditions present in the region(s) of the protoplanetary disk from which each type likely accreted. Only about 11 such objects have been found in L and LL type while another 57 have been found in H type ordinary chondrites, compared to thousands in carbonaceous chondrites. At issue is whether the rare CAIs contained in ordinary chondrites truly reflect a distinct population from the inclusions commonly found in other chondrite types. Semarkona (LL3.00) (fall, 691 g) is the most pristine chondrite available in our meteorite collection. Here we report petrography and mineralogy of 3 CAIs from Semarkona

  3. The Relevance of AI Research to CAI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This article provides a tutorial introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI) research for those involved in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The general theme is that much of the current work in AI, particularly in the areas of natural language understanding systems, rule induction, programming languages, and socratic systems, has important…

  4. A Unified Framework for Producing CAI Melting, Wark-Lovering Rims and Bowl-Shaped CAIs

    CERN Document Server

    Liffman, Kurt; Paterson, David A

    2016-01-01

    Calcium Aluminium Inclusions (CAIs) formed in the Solar System, some 4,567 million years ago. CAIs are almost always surrounded by Wark-Lovering Rims (WLRs), which are a sequence of thin, mono/bi-mineralic layers of refractory minerals, with a total thickness in the range of 1 to 100 microns. Recently, some CAIs have been found that have tektite-like bowl-shapes. To form such shapes, the CAI must have travelled through a rarefied gas at hypersonic speeds. We show how CAIs may have been ejected from the inner solar accretion disc via the centrifugal interaction between the solar magnetosphere and the inner disc rim. They subsequently punched through the hot, inner disc rim wall at hypersonic speeds. This re-entry heating partially or completely evaporated the CAIs. Such evaporation could have significantly increased the metal abundances of the inner disc rim. High speed movement through the inner disc produced WLRs. To match the observed thickness of WLRs required metal abundances at the inner disc wall that a...

  5. NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handler, B.H. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA)); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); Hunnum, W.H. (North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (USA)); Smith, D.L. (Memphis State Univ., TN (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.

  6. Why igneous wollastonite is so rare in CAIs

    OpenAIRE

    Beckett, J. R.; Thrane, K.; Krot, A. N.

    2008-01-01

    Primary wollastonite (wo) thought to have crystallized from a liquid is quite rare in CAIs, having been reported in only two igneous inclusions, White Angel and KT-1 [1, 2]. Both of these CAIs exhibit significant mass fractionations in multiple elements and KT-1 is a FUN inclusion, so it is highly desirable to place as many constraints as possible on their formation. Since phase diagrams previously developed for CAIs do not involve wo [3], we use literature data on wo-satura...

  7. E-CAI: a novel server to estimate an expected value of Codon Adaptation Index (eCAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Vallvé Santiago

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI is a measure of the synonymous codon usage bias for a DNA or RNA sequence. It quantifies the similarity between the synonymous codon usage of a gene and the synonymous codon frequency of a reference set. Extreme values in the nucleotide or in the amino acid composition have a large impact on differential preference for synonymous codons. It is thence essential to define the limits for the expected value of CAI on the basis of sequence composition in order to properly interpret the CAI and provide statistical support to CAI analyses. Though several freely available programs calculate the CAI for a given DNA sequence, none of them corrects for compositional biases or provides confidence intervals for CAI values. Results The E-CAI server, available at http://genomes.urv.es/CAIcal/E-CAI, is a web-application that calculates an expected value of CAI for a set of query sequences by generating random sequences with G+C and amino acid content similar to those of the input. An executable file, a tutorial, a Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ section and several examples are also available. To exemplify the use of the E-CAI server, we have analysed the codon adaptation of human mitochondrial genes that codify a subunit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (excluding those genes that lack a prokaryotic orthologue and are encoded in the nuclear genome. It is assumed that these genes were transferred from the proto-mitochondrial to the nuclear genome and that its codon usage was then ameliorated. Conclusion The E-CAI server provides a direct threshold value for discerning whether the differences in CAI are statistically significant or whether they are merely artifacts that arise from internal biases in the G+C composition and/or amino acid composition of the query sequences.

  8. Tien Shan geohazards database: Earthquakes and landslides

    OpenAIRE

    Havenith, Hans-Balder; Strom, Alexander; Torgoev, Isakbek; Torgoev, Almazbek; Lamair, Laura; Ischuk, Anatoly; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present new and review already existing landslide and earthquake data for a large part of the Tien Shan, Central Asia. For the same area, only partial databases for sub-regions have been presented previously. They were compiled and new data were added to fill the gaps between the databases. Major new inputs are products of the Central Asia Seismic Risk Initiative (CASRI): a tentative digital map of active faults (even with indication of characteristic or possible maximum magn...

  9. Tien Shan Geohazards Database: Landslide susceptibility analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Havenith, Hans-Balder; Torgoev, Almazbek; Schlögel, Romy; Braun, Anika; Torgoev, Isakbek; Ischuk, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the second part of a new geohazards analysis applied to a large part of the Tien Shan, Central Asia, focused on landslide susceptibility computations that are based on recently compiled geographic, geological and geomorphological data. The core data are a digital elevation model, an updated earthquake catalogue, an active fault map as well as a new landslide inventory. The most recently added digital data are a new simplified geological map, an annual precipitation map, as well ...

  10. Tien Shan Geohazards Database: Earthquakes and landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenith, H. B.; Strom, A.; Torgoev, I.; Torgoev, A.; Lamair, L.; Ischuk, A.; Abdrakhmatov, K.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we present new and review already existing landslide and earthquake data for a large part of the Tien Shan, Central Asia. For the same area, only partial databases for sub-regions have been presented previously. They were compiled and new data were added to fill the gaps between the databases. Major new inputs are products of the Central Asia Seismic Risk Initiative (CASRI): a tentative digital map of active faults (even with indication of characteristic or possible maximum magnitude) and the earthquake catalogue of Central Asia until 2009 that was now updated with USGS data (to May 2014). The new compiled landslide inventory contains existing records of 1600 previously mapped mass movements and more than 1800 new landslide data. Considering presently available seismo-tectonic and landslide data, a target region of 1200 km (E-W) by 600 km (N-S) was defined for the production of more or less continuous geohazards information. This target region includes the entire Kyrgyz Tien Shan, the South-Western Tien Shan in Tajikistan, the Fergana Basin (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan) as well as the Western part in Uzbekistan, the North-Easternmost part in Kazakhstan and a small part of the Eastern Chinese Tien Shan (for the zones outside Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, only limited information was available and compiled). On the basis of the new landslide inventory and the updated earthquake catalogue, the link between landslide and earthquake activity is analysed. First, size-frequency relationships are studied for both types of geohazards, in terms of Gutenberg-Richter Law for the earthquakes and in terms of probability density function for the landslides. For several regions and major earthquake events, case histories are presented to outline further the close connection between earthquake and landslide hazards in the Tien Shan. From this study, we concluded first that a major hazard component is still now insufficiently known for both types of geohazards

  11. Lengua y sociedad: El que no tiene de inga tiene de mandinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Alcocer Martínez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo explora tanto lingüística como culturalmente el dicho El que no tiene de inga tiene de mandinga. Uno de sus propósitos es determinar su origen y establecer el momento en que fue empleado en el Perú por primera vez. También se propone demostrar que la unidad sintáctica encuestión no es un refrán, adagio, proverbio o frase célebre, sino un dicho.Finalmente, se demuestra que la expresión referida no fue generada en circunstancias vinculadas con nuestro devenir cultural y que no fue Ricardo Palma su creador como se suponía hasta hoy. El estudio utiliza materialesprovenientes de la literatura y la historia y trabaja con fichas que sirven como soporte para la demostración de sus hipótesis. Palabras claves: El que no tiene de inga tiene de mandinga, dicta, delimitación lexicográfica, uso social.

  12. Tien Shan Geohazards Database: Landslide susceptibility analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenith, H. B.; Torgoev, A.; Schlögel, R.; Braun, A.; Torgoev, I.; Ischuk, A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is the second part of a new geohazards analysis applied to a large part of the Tien Shan, Central Asia, focused on landslide susceptibility computations that are based on recently compiled geographic, geological and geomorphological data. The core data are a digital elevation model, an updated earthquake catalogue, an active fault map as well as a new landslide inventory. The most recently added digital data are a new simplified geological map, an annual precipitation map, as well as river and road network maps that were produced for the Kyrgyz and Tajik parts of the Tien Shan. On the basis of these records we determine landslide densities with respect to morphological (M), geological (G), river distance (R), precipitation (P), earthquake (E) and fault (F) distance factors. Correlations were also established between scarp locations and the slope angle, distance to rivers, curvature. These correlations show that scarps tend to be located on steeper slopes, farther from rivers and on more convex terrain than the entire landslides. On the basis of the landslide density values computed for each class of the aforementioned factors, two landslide susceptibility maps are created according to the Landslide Factor analysis: the first one considers correlations between the landslide occurrences and the first four factors (MGRP); the second one is based on the first map (MGRP) combined with the seismo-tectonic influence (+ E + F) on landslide distributions. From the comparison of these two maps with actual landslide distributions we infer that the distances to rivers as well as to faults and past earthquakes most strongly constrain the susceptibility of slopes to landslides. We highlight several zones where the landslide susceptibilities computed for the MGRP + E + F factors fit better the observed concentration of landslides than those computed for the MGRP factors alone. For a few zones, both maps produce high landslide susceptibilities that do not well reflect

  13. Silicon Isotopic Fractionation of CAI-like Vacuum Evaporation Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, K; Kita, N; Mendybaev, R; Richter, F; Davis, A; Valley, J

    2009-06-18

    Calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are often enriched in the heavy isotopes of magnesium and silicon relative to bulk solar system materials. It is likely that these isotopic enrichments resulted from evaporative mass loss of magnesium and silicon from early solar system condensates while they were molten during one or more high-temperature reheating events. Quantitative interpretation of these enrichments requires laboratory determinations of the evaporation kinetics and associated isotopic fractionation effects for these elements. The experimental data for the kinetics of evaporation of magnesium and silicon and the evaporative isotopic fractionation of magnesium is reasonably complete for Type B CAI liquids (Richter et al., 2002, 2007a). However, the isotopic fractionation factor for silicon evaporating from such liquids has not been as extensively studied. Here we report new ion microprobe silicon isotopic measurements of residual glass from partial evaporation of Type B CAI liquids into vacuum. The silicon isotopic fractionation is reported as a kinetic fractionation factor, {alpha}{sub Si}, corresponding to the ratio of the silicon isotopic composition of the evaporation flux to that of the residual silicate liquid. For CAI-like melts, we find that {alpha}{sub Si} = 0.98985 {+-} 0.00044 (2{sigma}) for {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si with no resolvable variation with temperature over the temperature range of the experiments, 1600-1900 C. This value is different from what has been reported for evaporation of liquid Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} (Davis et al., 1990) and of a melt with CI chondritic proportions of the major elements (Wang et al., 2001). There appears to be some compositional control on {alpha}{sub Si}, whereas no compositional effects have been reported for {alpha}{sub Mg}. We use the values of {alpha}Si and {alpha}Mg, to calculate the chemical compositions of the unevaporated precursors of a number of isotopically fractionated CAIs from CV chondrites whose

  14. Curriculum planning and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) within clinical nursing education.

    OpenAIRE

    Perciful, E. G.

    1992-01-01

    Some experts in nursing and computers have stated that the integration of the computer within nursing education needs to be planned. It has also been declared that there is a need for a body of knowledge that describes the planning and implementing of CAI and the degree of success with the implementation of CAI within nursing education. There is a paucity of literature addressing the planning, implementing, and evaluation of CAI within clinical nursing education. The purpose of this paper is ...

  15. The Intelligent CAI System for Chemistry Based on Automated Reasoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓京; 张景中

    1999-01-01

    A new type of intelligent CAI system for chemistry is developed in this paper based on automated reasoning with chemistry knowledge.The system has shown its ability to solve chemistry problems,to assist students and teachers in studies and instruction with the automated reasoning functions.Its open mode of the knowledge base and its unique style of the interface between the system and human provide more opportunities for the users to acquire living knowledge through active participation.The automated reasoning based on basic chemistry knowledge also opened a new approach to the information storage and management of the ICAI system for sciences.

  16. The Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing autoinducer CAI-1: analysis of the biosynthetic enzyme CqsA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, R.; Bolitho, M; Higgins, D; Lu, W; Ng, W; Jeffrey, P; Rabinowitz, J; Semmelhack, M; Hughson, F; Bassler, B

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes the disease cholera, controls virulence factor production and biofilm development in response to two extracellular quorum-sensing molecules, called autoinducers. The strongest autoinducer, called CAI-1 (for cholera autoinducer-1), was previously identified as (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one. Biosynthesis of CAI-1 requires the enzyme CqsA. Here, we determine the CqsA reaction mechanism, identify the CqsA substrates as (S)-2-aminobutyrate and decanoyl coenzyme A, and demonstrate that the product of the reaction is 3-aminotridecan-4-one, dubbed amino-CAI-1. CqsA produces amino-CAI-1 by a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent acyl-CoA transferase reaction. Amino-CAI-1 is converted to CAI-1 in a subsequent step via a CqsA-independent mechanism. Consistent with this, we find cells release {ge}100 times more CAI-1 than amino-CAI-1. Nonetheless, V. cholerae responds to amino-CAI-1 as well as CAI-1, whereas other CAI-1 variants do not elicit a quorum-sensing response. Thus, both CAI-1 and amino-CAI-1 have potential as lead molecules in the development of an anticholera treatment.

  17. CAI in New York City: Report on the First Year's Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Cornelius F.

    1969-01-01

    "The nation's largest CAI operation in a public school system concluded its first full year of operation in June, 1969. The results indicate a very definite success for education's most closely watched use of technology. Three major criteria for success of such a project are 1) acceptance of CAI by the schools and their pupils, 2) per pupil costs…

  18. Structural basis of Na+-independent and cooperative substrate/product antiport in CaiT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulze, Sabrina; Köster, Stefan; Geldmacher, Ulrike; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Transport of solutes across biological membranes is performed by specialized secondary transport proteins in the lipid bilayer, and is essential for life. Here we report the structures of the sodium-independent carnitine/butyrobetaine antiporter CaiT from Proteus mirabilis (PmCaiT) at 2.3-Å and from

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of the Tien-Shan effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo simulation of the Tien-Shan effect is carried out. Interaction between hadrons with the energy above 10 TeV and the nuclei of lead atoms with the cross sections ∼ 40% of inelastic interaction is shown to result in production of decaying (unstable) particles (Λc-baryon and D-meson), extracting the main share of interacting hadron energy. These particles production results in irregular energy dependence of the mean-free path for absorption of energy flux of hadron component of a wide atmosphere shower (Tien-Shan effect)

  20. Brief Introduction to the Foundation of CAI Shidong Award for Plasma Physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Zhengming

    2010-01-01

    @@ The late Academician Professor CAI Shidong was an outstanding plasma physicist who had made seminal contributions in both fundamental plasma theories and controlled thermonuclear fusion energy research.Professor CAI was also one of the pioneers in China's plasma physics research.In 1973,Professor CAI decided to leave U.S.and return to China in order to help pushing forward plasma physics research in China.Professor CAI formed a research group consisting of young scientists and carried out high-level works in this important physics discipline.He worked tirelessly,set examples by his own deeds,and made outstanding contributions in plasma physics research,educating younger generations of plasma physicists,as well as establishing collaborations with plasma scientists in other Asian-African developing nations.In short,Professor CAI devoted the best years of his life to China's plasma physics research.

  1. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with fractionation and unknown nuclear effects (FUN CAIs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Wasserburg, Gerald J.;

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed characterization of the mineralogy, petrology, and oxygen isotopic compositions of twelve FUN CAIs, including C1 and EK1-4-1 from Allende (CV), that were previously shown to have large isotopic fractionation patterns for magnesium and oxygen, and large isotopic anomalies of...... several elements. The other samples show more modest patterns of isotopic fractionation and have smaller but significant isotopic anomalies. All FUN CAIs studied are coarse-grained igneous inclusions: Type B, forsterite-bearing Type B, compact Type A, and hibonite-rich. Some inclusions consist of two...... mineralogically distinct lithologies, forsterite-rich and forsterite-free/poor. All the CV FUN CAIs experienced postcrystallization open-system iron-alkali-halogen metasomatic alteration resulting in the formation of secondary minerals commonly observed in non-FUN CAIs from CV chondrites. The CR FUN CAI GG#3...

  2. Isotope age of zircons of metamorphic formations of Tien Shan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of U-Pb and Pb-Pb determinations of age of zircons of metamorphic layers of Tien Shan, subjected to obvious and concealed contact action of intrusions tearing them are presented. It is shown that construction of discordance in these cases presents intrusion age as the true one

  3. INVESTIGATION OF CRUSTAL MOTION IN THE TIEN SHAN USING INSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellors, R J

    2011-02-25

    The northern Tien Shan of Central Asia is an area of active mid-continent deformation. Although far from a plate boundary, this region has experienced 5 earthquakes larger than magnitude 7 in the past century and includes one event that may as be as large as Mw 8.0. Previous studies based on GPS measurements indicate on the order of 23 mm/yr of shortening across the entire Tien Shan and up to 15 mm/year in the northern Tien Shan (Figure 1). The seismic moment release rate appears comparable with the geodetic measured slip, at least to first order, suggesting that geodetic rates can be considered a proxy for accumulation rates of stress for seismic hazard estimation. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar may provide a means to make detailed spatial measurements and hence in identifying block boundaries and assisting in seismic hazard. Therefore, we hoped to define block boundaries by direct measurement and by identifying and resolving earthquake slip. Due to political instability in Kyrgzystan, the existing seismic network has not performed as well as required to precisely determine earthquake hypocenters in remote areas and hence InSAR is highly useful. In this paper we present the result of three earthquake studies and show that InSAR is useful for refining locations of teleseismically located earthquakes. ALOS PALSAR data is used to investigate crustal motion in the Tien Shan mountains of Central Asia. As part of the work, considerable software development was undertaken to process PALSAR data. This software has been made freely available. Two damaging earthquakes have been imaged in the Tien Shan and the locations provided by ALOS InSAR have helped to refine seismological velocity models. A third earthquake south of Kyrgyzstan was also imaged. The use of InSAR data and especially L band is therefore very useful in providing groundtruth for earthquake locations.

  4. Personality preference influences medical student use of specific computer-aided instruction (CAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halsey Martha

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that personality preference, which can be related to learning style, influences individual utilization of CAI applications developed specifically for the undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods Personality preferences of students were obtained using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI test. CAI utilization for individual students was collected from entry logs for two different web-based applications (a discussion forum and a tutorial used in the basic science course on human anatomy. Individual login data were sorted by personality preference and the data statistically analyzed by 2-way mixed ANOVA and correlation. Results There was a wide discrepancy in the level and pattern of student use of both CAI. Although individual use of both CAI was positively correlated irrespective of MBTI preference, students with a "Sensing" preference tended to use both CAI applications more than the "iNtuitives". Differences in the level of use of these CAI applications (i.e., higher use of discussion forum vs. a tutorial were also found for the "Perceiving/Judging" dimension. Conclusion We conclude that personality/learning preferences of individual students influence their use of CAI in the medical curriculum.

  5. Al-Mg systematics of CAIs, POI, and ferromagnesian chondrules from Ningqiang

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Weibiao; Huss, Gary R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2003-01-01

    We have made aluminum-magnesium isotopic measurements on 4 melilite-bearing calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), 1 plagioclase-olivine inclusion (POI), and 2 ferromagnesian chondrules from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. All of the CAIs measured contain clear evidence for radiogenic ^(26)Mg^* from the decay of ^(26)Al (τ = 1.05 Ma). Although the low Al/Mg ratios of the melilites introduce large uncertainties, the inferred initial ^(26)Al/^(27)Al ratios for the CAIs are generally con...

  6. New data on uranium-lead age of stratified formations in Tien Shan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radiological determinations of age (by zircons) of intrusive, effusive and metamorphic rocks in Northen and Middle. Tien Shan are presented. The presence of ancient Archean formations in Middle Tien Shan is confirmed. The magmatic behaviour in Tien Shan on the verge of 1100, 710 and 465 million years (Northen Tien Shan) and 830, 730, 690 million years (Middle Tien Shan) is detected. The obtained isotopic ages are in good agreement with the geologic data

  7. CAD/CAM/CAI Application for High-Precision Machining of Internal Combustion Engine Pistons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Postnov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CAD/CAM/CAI application solutions for internal combustion engine pistons machining was analyzed. Low-volume technology of internal combustion engine pistons production was proposed. Fixture for CNC turning center was designed.

  8. 77 FR 9625 - Presentation of Final Conventional Conformance Test Criteria and Common Air Interface (CAI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Presentation of Final Conventional Conformance Test Criteria and Common Air Interface (CAI) Features/Functionalities Under Test in the Project 25...

  9. Strong Calcite-Like Spectra Cathodoluminescence Emission from Allende Meteorite Cai Phases

    OpenAIRE

    García Guinea, Javier; Tornos Arroyo, Fernando; Azumendi García, Oscar; Ruiz Pérez, Javier; Correcher Delgado, Virgilio

    2011-01-01

    Calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) of Allende CV3 chondrite were studied by Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS), Backscattering (BS), and Spectra Cathodoluminescence (CL). CAI minerals show spectra CL curves exceeding the 450,000 a.u. with a large homogeneity along the white inclusions. CL curve features fit perfectly with terrestrial patterns of stressed specimens of weathered marble and limestone in which hydroxyl gr...

  10. Predicting low velocity impact damage and Compression-After-Impact (CAI) behaviour of composite laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Wei; Falzon, Brian G.; Chiu, Louis N S; Price, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Low-velocity impact damage can drastically reduce the residual strength of a composite structure even when the damage is barely visible. The ability to computationally predict the extent of damage and compression-after-impact (CAI) strength of a composite structure can potentially lead to the exploration of a larger design space without incurring significant time and cost penalties. A high-fidelity three-dimensional composite damage model, to predict both low-velocity impact damage and CAI st...

  11. The Anatomy and Bulk Composition of CAI Rims in the Vigarano (CV3) Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, A.; Boynton, W. V.

    1993-07-01

    A striking feature of Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondrites is the presence of mineralogical layers that typically form rim sequences up to 50 micrometers thick [1]. Many ideas regarding the origin of CAI rims have been proposed, but none are entirely satisfactory. The detailed mineralogy and bulk compositions of relatively unaltered CAI rims in the Vigarano (CV3) chondrite described here provide constraints on hypotheses of rim formation. Rim Mineralogy: CAIs in Vigarano consist of melilite (mel)- and spinel (sp)- rich varieties, both of which are rimmed [2]. Around mel-rich objects, the layer sequence is CAI interior --> sp-rich layer (sometimes absent) --> mel/anorthite (anor) layer --> Ti-Al-rich clinopyroxene (Tpx) layer --> Al- diopside (Al-diop) layer --> olivine (ol) +/- Al-diop layer --> host matrix. The sequence around sp-rich objects differs from this in that the mel/anor layer is absent. Both the sp-rich layer around mel-cored CAIs and the cores of sp-rich CAIs in Vigarano are largely comprised of a fine-grained (anor layer is sometimes monomineralic, consisting of mel alone, or bimineralic, consisting of both mel and anor. Where bimineralic, anor typically occurs in the outer part of the layer. In places, anor (An(sub)99-100) has partially altered to nepheline and voids. Rim mel is systematically less gehlenitic than mel in the CAI interiors, especially compared to mel in the interior adjacent to the rims. The Tpx layer (>2 and up to 15 wt% TiO2) and Al-diop layer ( sp + fo --> sp + fo + anor or mel or Tpx) that does not correspond to observed rim sequences. It thus appears that (1) the rim region did not form through crystallization of molten CAIs; and (2) rim layers did not originate solely by the crystallization of a melt layer present on a solid CAI core [4,5]. References: [1] Wark D. A. and Lovering J. F. (1977) Proc. LSC 8th, 95-112. [2] Ruzicka A. and Boynton W. V. (1991) Meteoritics, 26, 390-391. [3] Stolper E. (1982) GCA, 46, 2159

  12. The Effect of the Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI on Student Attitude in Mathematics Teaching of Primary School 8th Class and Views of Students towards CAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Hangül

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to research the effect of the subject of “Geometric Objects” which is included in mathematics curriculum at the eighth grade on the student attitude using computer assisted instruction (CAI and find out grade 8 primary school students’ views about the computer-assisted instruction. In this study the pre-post attitude with experimental control group design was performed. The research was done under control and experiment groups consisting of fifty-three eighth grade students who were randomly identified in the year of 2009-2010. Attitude was applied to the both groups before and at the end of teaching. The method of constructivism was applied to control the group while CAI was applied to the experiment group. After teaching, fourteen students who were randomly selected from the experimental group were interviewed. Quantitative data was analyzed using Independent Samples t-test and qualitative data was analyzed by description analyze. At the end of the study, the data put forward that teaching through CAI improves the students’ attitudes positively than the method of Constructivism and students have positive opinions on CAI.

  13. Mineralogy and Petrology of EK-459-5-1, A Type B1 CAI from Allende

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are a type of coarse-grained clast composed of Ca-, Al-, and Mg-rich silicates and oxides found in chondrite meteorites. Type B (CAIs) are exclusively found in the CV chondrite meteorites and are the most well studied type of inclusion found in chondritic meteorites. Type B1 CAIs are distinguished by a nearly monomineralic rim of melilite that surrounds an interior predominantly composed of melilite, fassaite (Ti and Al-rich clinopyroxene), anorthite, and spinel with varying amounts of other minor primary and secondary phases. The formation of Type B CAIs has received considerable attention in the course of CAI research and quantitative models, experimental results and observations from Type B inclusions remain largely in disagreement. Recent experimental results and quantitative models have shown that the formation of B1 mantles could have occurred by the evaporative loss of Si and Mg during the crystallization of these objects. However, comparative studies suggest that the lower bulk SiO2 compositions in B1s result in more prior melilite crystallization before the onset of fassaite and anorthite crystallization leading to the formation of thick melilite rich rims in B1 inclusions. Detailed petrographic and cosmochemical studies of these inclusions will further our understanding of these complex objects.

  14. Commerces haïtiens de Little Haiti à Miami

    OpenAIRE

    Audebert, Cédric

    2001-01-01

    Les commerces haïtiens de Little Haiti sont souvent mis en scène par une sémiotique rappelant clairement le lien avec le pays d'origine de leurs propriétaires. La langue est également un marqueur de cette présence : l'anglais cohabite allègrement avec le français et le créole. La nature des trois commerces dont il est question - un restaurant, deux entreprises de multi-services - est révélatrice de l'orientation d'une économie marchande locale répondant avant tout aux besoins culturels de la ...

  15. THERMAL HISTORY OF THE CARNIC ALPS (NE ITALY-S. AUSTRIA USING CAI ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA PONDRELLI

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal patterns of an area which underwent a polyphase deformation history such as the Carnic Alps were analyzed using the Colour Alteration Index (CAI of conodonts in order to constrain some aspects of the metamorphic history of this part of the Southern Alps. Hercynian and alpine tectonothermal events were distinguished using CAI analysis.  The Hercynian event developed temperatures up to low metamorphic conditions. Alpine tectonogenesis did not produce thermal levels in excess of the diagenetic zone. Moreover, CAI patterns allow recognition and evaluation of a hydrothermal metamorphic overprint of Permo-Triassic or Oligocene age that was superimposed on the pre-existing regional metamorphic zonation.   

  16. Gender Role, Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation in CAIS ("XY-Women") Compared With Subfertile and Infertile 46,XX Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Franziska; Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-01-01

    The perception of gender development of individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) as unambiguously female has recently been challenged in both qualitative data and case reports of male gender identity. The aim of the mixed-method study presented was to examine the self-perception of CAIS individuals regarding different aspects of gender and to identify commonalities and differences in comparison with subfertile and infertile XX-chromosomal women with diagnoses of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study sample comprised 11 participants with CAIS, 49 with MRKHS, and 55 with PCOS. Gender identity was assessed by means of a multidimensional instrument, which showed significant differences between the CAIS group and the XX-chromosomal women. Other-than-female gender roles and neither-female-nor-male sexes/genders were reported only by individuals with CAIS. The percentage with a not exclusively androphile sexual orientation was unexceptionally high in the CAIS group compared to the prevalence in "normative" women and the clinical groups. The findings support the assumption made by Meyer-Bahlburg ( 2010 ) that gender outcome in people with CAIS is more variable than generally stated. Parents and professionals should thus be open to courses of gender development other than typically female in individuals with CAIS. PMID:26133743

  17. Stable Magnesium Isotope Variation in Melilite Mantle of Allende Type B1 CAI EK 459-5-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Jeffcoat, C. R.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the earliest formed crystalline material in our solar system and they record early Solar System processes. Here we present petrographic and delta Mg-25 data of melilite mantles in a Type B1 CAI that records early solar nebular processes.

  18. Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Cat Tien National Park, South Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Y. Sinev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cladocera of Cat Tien National Park, South Vietnam, and the surrounding agricultural area, were surveyed during the spring of 2009 (onset of the wet season and autumn 2010 (end of the wet season. The studied water bodies included two large lakes (Bau Sau and Bau Chim, small lakes and ponds, temporary pools, rivers and streams, as well as rice fields and ponds in an agricultural area beyond the boundaries of the National Park. Fifty three species of Cladocera were found, 18 of them new for Vietnam. Distribution and taxonomical status of the species are discussed. Of the recorded species, 58.5% (31 were found only in the National Park, 34% (18 both in the National Park and the agricultural area, and only 7.5% (4 exclusively in the agricultural area. Of the 20 species new for Vietnam, only one was found both in the National Park and the agricultural area, all others were found in the National Park only. Such a difference can be directly attributed to the loss of natural habitats (forest ponds and streams in agricultural areas and to the pollution by pesticides. Our study shows the importance of surveys in pristine and protected areas, for the full evaluation of regional microcrustacean richness.

  19. ¿CUÁNTOS SIGNIFICADOS TIENE UN PRODUCTO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Paris

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El marketing esencial se basa en la determinación de los significados en la mente del consumidor y de los códigos en la mente del mercado. Para poder sustentar esto se han creado metodologías como las técnicas de afloramiento de significado y las técnicas proyectivas entre otras. Pero, el nuevo problema que surge de esta conceptualización teórica es si vamos a poner al significado en la base del plan de marketing, la pregunta es ¿cuántos significados se deben determinar? Por lo que sabemos cada cultura tiene sus propias significaciones y los significados también cambian con el tiempo incluso lo hacen contextualmente. Lo cual hace aún más complejo el dilema presentado como título de este artículo. En se presentan los argumentos teóricos que sustentan uno de los descubrimientos más importantes del marketing esencial que sostenemos: en general para cada producto o servicio hay cuatro significados dominantes.

  20. Deposits monitoring and health consequences in Tien-Shan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There are nature uranium geo-anomaly (100 times higher compared with European soil); after-effects of the USSR uranium-factories (working in 1950-1988); landslides, earthquakes dangers, groundwater peculiarities - the presence of all complicated the radioactive danger in the Tien-Shan region. We have made ranking of the territory by eco-catstrofes danger level, each of factors separately, and by common cumulative consequences of the factors. Secondly, we have made ranking of the territory by human ecology position, and here we include biogeochemistry disturbances and hypoxia level. We studied several mountain isolated Asian populations according to the above mentioned ranking of the territory. Uranium deposits have been chosen as target areas (with water and soil level monitoring) and their biological peculiarities were studied (flowers mutation, human immunity and biomembranes peculiarities). We try to find any correlation among environment radioactivity, isotope bio-deposition (which includes isotopes in teeth) in one hand, and bio/health tests in the other hand. Blood samples were taken from the groups of aboriginal population. Erythrocite membranes were examined, immunity tests (first and second levels) were done simultaneously. Gas-liquid chromatography and electromagnite-resonance have been used. We may conclude that same markers will be sensitive and earlier indicators of complex radionuclide-chemical pollution. (author)

  1. A Pseudo-Language for Creating CAI Programs on APL Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucker, Edward J.

    1973-01-01

    Encourages the use of APL as a language for computer assisted instruction (CAI) instead of such languages as BASIC or COURSEWRITER. Describes a set of APL functions that can simulate to some extent the features of COURSEWRITER, while permitting a more experienced course author to use the full mathematical power of APL. (Author/JF)

  2. Using CAI To Enhance the Peer Acceptance of Mainstreamed Students with Mild Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliver, Concetta; Obi, Sunday

    This study applied computer-assisted instruction (CAI) techniques to improve peer acceptance among 92 mainstreamed students with mild disabilities from 10 to 13 years of age. Participants in the treatment group received their generalized curriculum program (including mathematics, language arts, reading, health, social studies, and science)…

  3. Web Pages: An Effective Method of Providing CAI Resource Material in Histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    Presents research that introduces computer-aided instruction (CAI) resource material as an integral part of the second-year histology course at the University of Natal Medical School. Describes the ease with which this software can be developed, using limited resources and available skills, while providing students with valuable learning…

  4. Magnetotelluric monitoring experiment at the northern Tien Shan seismogenic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. High-density array MT soundings of the crust in the seismically active northern Tien Shan were performed using Phoenix MTU-5 stations in the Bishkek Geodynamic Polygon, at the junction of the Chu basin and the Kyrgyz Range. The MT transfer functions were determined to an accuracy of 1-2% (amplitude) and about 0.5-0.8 deg (phase) in most of 145 soundings. Preliminary analysis of the collected data aimed at estimating the geoelectrical dimensionality. The Bahr decomposition analysis indicated the presence of local 3D structures in the crust of the area superposed on the regional 2D structure. As a result of 2D inversion of amplitude and phase data with Randy Mackie codes, the geoelectric cross-sections along MT profiles have been constructed. Inversion models image upper-mid crustal zone of enhanced conductivity of the Issyk-Ata fault. Resistivity of this conductive zone is not exceeding 100 ohm-m. The conductor is connected to the surface structure and its upper part coincides with the line of Issyk-Ata fault on the surface. The low resistivity zone in the southern part of the investigated area is gently plunged into the southern direction beneath the rise of the Kyrgyz Range. Apparently, this zone represents large crust's zone of tectonic decollement and weakening with high fluid-gas environment permeability with properties of the waveguide. Next actual implication reveals from comparison of local seismicity spatial distribution and resistivity structure. One can clearly see the high seismicity clustering around the edge of conductive zones, thus we suggest that the local seismicity results either from the migration of the fluids to less permeable crust or from local stress concentration near the structural boundaries. So, presented results of high resolution magnetotelluric survey show that geoelectric imaging of fault zones deliver us the unique information of deep structure features and sometimes it can give us new

  5. Motivace distributorů společnosti Tiens Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Teislerová, Květa

    2014-01-01

    Teislerová, K. The motivation of distributor in the company Tiens Czech Republic. Bachelor thesis. Brno: Mendel University in Brno, 2014. The aim of this work is to analyse motivation system of company's distributors Tiens Czech Republic. The part of literary research is based on professional literature and explains terms about motivation. In the practical part I introduce the company Tiens Czech Republic and analyse motivation system by ques-tionnaire method. Finally, I suggest some recommen...

  6. The Effect of the Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Student Attitude in Mathematics Teaching of Primary School 8th Class and Views of Students towards CAI

    OpenAIRE

    Tuğba Hangül; Devrim Uzel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to research the effect of the subject of “Geometric Objects” which is included in mathematics curriculum at the eighth grade on the student attitude using computer assisted instruction (CAI) and find out grade 8 primary school students’ views about the computer-assisted instruction. In this study the pre-post attitude with experimental control group design was performed. The research was done under control and experiment groups consisting of fifty-three eighth grade s...

  7. Development of an intelligent CAI system for a distributed processing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to operate a nuclear power plant optimally in both normal and abnormal situations, the operators are trained using an operator training simulator in addition to classroom instruction. Individual instruction using a CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction) system has become popular as a method of learning plant information, such as plant dynamics, operational procedures, plant systems, plant facilities, etc. The outline is described of a proposed network-based intelligent CAI system (ICAI) incorporating multi-medial PWR plant dynamics simulation, teaching aids and educational record management using the following environment: existing standard workstations and graphic workstations with a live video processing function, TCP/IP protocol of Unix through Ethernet and X window system. (Z.S.) 3 figs., 2 refs

  8. A study on VR-based mutual adaptive CAI system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel framework of human-computer-interaction for computer aided instruction (CAI) system is presented which aims at introducing a new off-the-job training environment to master nuclear power plant monitoring skill by more user-friendly manner than by present. The framework is based on the following two new ideas: one is mutual adaptive interface (MADI) concept, and the other is virtual realty (VR). In order to realize a hardware mechanism of mutual adaptive interface based on VR, a new head-mounted-display (HMD) was developed which can not only provide the user with virtual environment conventionally but also detect the user's eyes images for in-situ analysis of various ocular information. The information are expected to utilize for realizing advanced human-computer-interaction in the CAI system

  9. Produktový mix firmy Pekařství Cais

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Iveta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of my thesis was to describe product mix in a chosen company. I chose bakery Vladimír Cais in Vlachovo Březí for this work. Another aim was to analyze the product portfolio by means of the Boston Matrix and to propose possible modifications of the product portfolio based on the results. There were also a SWOT analysis and a product life cycle compiled within the analytic part.

  10. Limited subsolidus diffusion in type B1 CAI: Evidence from Ti distribution in spinel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, G. P.; Quick, J. E.; Paque, Julie M.

    1993-01-01

    Most models of calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI) have focused on early stages of formation by equilibrium crystallization of a homogeneous liquid. Less is known about the subsolidus cooling history of CAI. Chemical and isotopic heterogeneties on a scale of tens to hundreds of micrometers (e.g. MacPherson et al. (1989) and Podosek, et al. (1991)) suggest fairly rapid cooling with a minimum of subsolidus diffusion. However, transmission electron microscopy indicates that solid state diffusion may have been an important process at a smaller scale (Barber et al. 1984). If so, chemical evidence for diffusion could provide constraints on cooling times and temperatures. With this in mind, we have begun an investigation of the Ti distribution in spinels from two type B1 CAI from Allende to determine if post-crystallization diffusion was a significant process. The type B1 CAIs, 3529Z and 5241 have been described by Podosek et al. (1991) and by El Goresy et al. (1985) and MacPherson et al. (1989). We have analyzed spinels in these inclusions using the electron microprobe. These spinels are generally euhedral, range in size from less than 10 to 15 micron and are poikilitically enclosed by millimeter-sized pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite. Analyses were obtained from both the mantles and cores of the inclusions. Compositions of pyroxene in the vicinity of individual spinel grains were obtained by analyzing at least two points on opposite sides of the spinel and averaging the compositions. The pyroxene analyses were obtained within 15 microns of the spinel-pyroxene interface. No compositional gradients were observed within single spinel crystals. Ti concentrations in spinels included within pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite are presented.

  11. HIV-1 Capsid Assembly Inhibitor (CAI) Peptide: Structural Preferences and Delivery into Human Embryonic Lung Cells and Lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Klaus; Frank, Martin; Pipkorn, Rüdiger; Reed, Jennifer; Spring, Herbert; Debus, Jürgen; Didinger, Bernd; von der Lieth, Claus-Wilhelm; Wiessler, Manfred; Waldeck, Waldemar

    2008-01-01

    The Human immunodeficiency virus 1 derived capsid assembly inhibitor peptide (HIV-1 CAI-peptide) is a promising lead candidate for anti-HIV drug development. Its drawback, however, is that it cannot permeate cells directly. Here we report the transport of the pharmacologically active CAI-peptide into human lymphocytes and Human Embryonic Lung cells (HEL) using the BioShuttle platform. Generally, the transfer of pharmacologically active substances across membranes, demonstrated by confocal las...

  12. HIV-1 Capsid Assembly Inhibitor (CAI) Peptide: Structural Preferences and Delivery into Human Embryonic Lung Cells and Lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Braun, Martin Frank, Rüdiger Pipkorn, Jennifer Reed, Herbert Spring, Jürgen Debus, Bernd Didinger, Claus-Wilhelm von der Lieth, Manfred Wiessler, Waldemar Waldeck

    2008-01-01

    The Human immunodeficiency 1 derived capsid assembly inhibitor peptide (HIV-1 CAI-peptide) is a promising lead candidate for anti-HIV drug development. Its drawback, however, is that it cannot permeate cells directly. Here we report the transport of the pharmacologically active CAI-peptide into human lymphocytes and Human Embryonic Lung cells (HEL) using the BioShuttle platform. Generally, the transfer of pharmacologically active substances across membranes, demonstrated by confocal laser sca...

  13. A Study on Application of CAI Dynamic Image-Guided Method in College Physical Education Technical Course

    OpenAIRE

    Baokui Wang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have a study on application of CAI dynamic image-guided method in college physical education technical course. In college physical education teaching, the Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) dynamic image-guided method is employed to build the sport image diagnosis and implement 2-way feedback mechanism. This is for helping the students to create or modify the sport image, and strengthen the concept of action to set up the correct technical dynamic stereotype. The practice o...

  14. Hunting and use of terrestrial fauna used by Caiçaras from the Atlantic Forest coast (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Alves Rômulo RN; Hanazaki Natalia; Begossi Alpina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is considered one of the hotspots for conservation, comprising remnants of rain forest along the eastern Brazilian coast. Its native inhabitants in the Southeastern coast include the Caiçaras (descendants from Amerindians and European colonizers), with a deep knowledge on the natural resources used for their livelihood. Methods We studied the use of the terrestrial fauna in three Caiçara communities, through open-ended interviews with 116 nati...

  15. Crystal structures of hydrates of simple inorganic salts. II. Water-rich calcium bromide and iodide hydrates: CaBr2 · 9H2O, CaI2 · 8H2O, CaI2 · 7H2O and CaI2 · 6.5H2O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennings, Erik; Schmidt, Horst; Voigt, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    Single crystals of calcium bromide enneahydrate, CaBr(2) · 9H2O, calcium iodide octahydrate, CaI(2) · 8H2O, calcium iodide heptahydrate, CaI(2) · 7H2O, and calcium iodide 6.5-hydrate, CaI(2) · 6.5H2O, were grown from their aqueous solutions at and below room temperature according to the solid-liquid phase diagram. The crystal structure of CaI(2) · 6.5H2O was redetermined. All four structures are built up from distorted Ca(H2O)8 antiprisms. The antiprisms of the iodide hydrate structures are connected either via trigonal-plane-sharing or edge-sharing, forming dimeric units. The antiprisms in calcium bromide enneahydrate are monomeric. PMID:25186361

  16. Oxygen isotopes in the early protoplanetary disk inferred from pyroxene in a classical type B CAI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aléon, Jérôme

    2016-04-01

    A major unanswered question in solar system formation is the origin of the oxygen isotopic dichotomy between the Sun and the planets. Individual Calcium-Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from CV chondrites exhibit almost the full isotopic range, but how their composition evolved is still unclear, which prevents robust astrochemical conclusions. A key issue is notably the yet unsolved origin of the 16O-rich isotopic composition of pyroxene in type B CAIs. Here, I report an in-situ oxygen isotope study of the archetypal type B CAI USNM-3529-Z from Allende with emphasis on the isotopic composition of pyroxene and its isotopic and petrographic relationships with other major minerals. The O isotopic composition of pyroxene is correlated with indicators of magmatic growth, indicating that the pyroxene evolved from a 16O-poor composition and became progressively enriched in 16O during its crystallization, contrary to the long held assumption that pyroxene was initially 16O-rich. This variation is well explained by isotopic exchange between a 16O-poor partial melt having the isotopic composition of melilite and a 16O-rich gas having the isotopic composition of spinel, during pyroxene crystallization. The isotopic evolution of 3529-Z is consistent with formation in an initially 16O-rich environment where spinel and gehlenitic melilite crystallized, followed by a 16O-depletion associated with melilite partial melting and recrystallization and finally a return to the initial 16O-rich environment before pyroxene crystallization. This strongly suggests that the environment of CAI formation was globally 16O-rich, with local 16O-depletions systematically associated with high temperature events. The Al/Mg isotopic systematics of 3529-Z further indicates that this suite of isotopic changes occurred in the first 150 000 yr of the solar system, during the main CAI formation period. A new astrophysical setting is proposed, where the 16O-depletion occurs in an optically thin surface

  17. Preliminary forest plant biomass inventory in monsoon tropical forest in Cat Tien National park (South Vietnam)

    OpenAIRE

    Novichonok, A.; Evdokimova, E.; Markovskaya, E.; J. Kurbatova

    2012-01-01

    The results of forest plant biomass inventory in monsoon tropical forest in Cat Tien National Park are presented. The study demonstrates the differences in plant biomass production between forest areas with different levels of anthropogenic disturbance.

  18. OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF THE ALLENDE TYPE C CAIs: EVIDENCE FOR ISOTOPIC EXCHANGE DURING NEBULAR MELTING AND ASTEROIDAL THERMAL METAMORPHISM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, A N; Chaussidon, M; Yurimoto, H; Sakamoto, N; Nagashima, K; Hutcheon, I D; MacPherson, G J

    2008-02-21

    Based on the mineralogy and petrography, coarse-grained, igneous, anorthite-rich (Type C) calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende have been recently divided into three groups: (i) CAIs with melilite and Al,Ti-diopside of massive and lacy textures (coarse grains with numerous rounded inclusions of anorthite) in a fine-grained anorthite groundmass (6-1-72, 100, 160), (ii) CAI CG5 with massive melilite, Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite, and (iii) CAIs associated with chondrule material: either containing chondrule fragments in their peripheries (ABC, TS26) or surrounded by chondrule-like, igneous rims (93) (Krot et al., 2007a,b). Here, we report in situ oxygen isotopic measurements of primary (melilite, spinel, Al,Ti-diopside, anorthite) and secondary (grossular, monticellite, forsterite) minerals in these CAIs. Spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -25{per_thousand} to -20{per_thousand}), massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -20{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}) and fine-grained anorthite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -15{per_thousand} to -2{per_thousand}) in 100, 160 and 6-1-72 are {sup 16}O-enriched relative spinel and coarse-grained Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite in ABC, 93 and TS26 ({Delta}{sup 17}O ranges from -20{per_thousand} to -15{per_thousand}, from -15{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}, and from -5{per_thousand} to 0{per_thousand}, respectively). In 6-1-72, massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside grains are {sup 16}O-depleted ({Delta}{sup 17}O {approx} -13{per_thousand}) relative to spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -23{per_thousand}). Melilite is the most {sup 16}O-depleted mineral in all Allende Type C CAIs. In CAI 100, melilite and secondary grossular, monticellite and forsterite (minerals replacing melilite) are similarly {sup 16}O-depleted, whereas grossular in CAI 160 is {sup 16}O-enriched ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -10{per_thousand} to -6{per_thousand}) relative to melilite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -5{per_thousand} to -3{per_thousand}). We infer

  19. Pliocene-Pleistocene initiation, style, and sequencing of deformation in the central Tien Shan

    OpenAIRE

    Goode, JK; Burbank, DW; Ormukov, C

    2014-01-01

    In response to the Indo-Asian collision, deformation of the Tien Shan initiated at ∼25 Ma along the northwestern margin of the Tarim Basin. 300 km north, the Kyrgyz Range began deforming ∼15 Ma later. Although multiple intervening structures across the Tien Shan are currently active, the sequencing of initial deformation across the orogen's entire width remains poorly known. To determine whether deformation migrated sequentially northward or developed less predictably, we documented deformati...

  20. CAI多媒體教學軟體之開發模式 Using an Instructional Design Model for Developing a Multimedia CAI Courseware

    OpenAIRE

    Hsin-Yih Shyu

    1995-01-01

    無This article outlined a systematic instructional design model for developing a multimedia computer-aided instruction (CAI) courseware. The model illustrated roles and tasks as two dimensions necessary in a CAI production teamwork. Four major components (Analysis, Design, Development, and Revise/Evaluation) following by totally 25 steps are provided. Eight roles with each competent skills were identified. The model will be useful in serving as a framework for developing a mulrimedia CAI cours...

  1. Problem Solving Process Research of Everyone Involved in Innovation Based on CAI Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Shao, Yunfei; Tang, Xiaowo

    It is very important that non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee serve as innovators under the requirements of everyone involved in innovation. According the view of this paper, it is feasible and necessary to build everyone involved in innovation problem solving process under Total Innovation Management (TIM) based on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). The tools under the CAI technology: How TO mode and science effects database could be very useful for all employee especially non-technical department and bottom line for innovation. The problem solving process put forward in the paper focus on non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee for innovation.

  2. The Clinical Experiences of Dr.CAI Gan in Treating Chronic Constipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zheng-li; ZHU Mei-ping; LIU Qun; LEI Yun-xia

    2009-01-01

    @@ Prof.CAI Gan (蔡淦) is an academic leader in TCM treatment of the spleen and stomach disease.He insisted that liver depression, spleen deficiency and poor nourishment of the intestines are the core of pathogenesis for chronic constipation.Therefore he often treats the disease by strengthening the spleen,relieving the depressed liver, nourishing yin and moistening the intestines.Meanwhile he attaches great importance to syndrome differentiation and comprehensive regulation and treatment.As a result,good therapeutic effects are often achieved.The authors summarized his ways for treating chronic constipation with the following 10 methods, which are introduced below.

  3. CAI多媒體教學軟體之開發模式 Using an Instructional Design Model for Developing a Multimedia CAI Courseware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yih Shyu

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available 無This article outlined a systematic instructional design model for developing a multimedia computer-aided instruction (CAI courseware. The model illustrated roles and tasks as two dimensions necessary in a CAI production teamwork. Four major components (Analysis, Design, Development, and Revise/Evaluation following by totally 25 steps are provided. Eight roles with each competent skills were identified. The model will be useful in serving as a framework for developing a mulrimedia CAI courseware for educators, instructional designers and CAI industry developers.

  4. HIV-1 Capsid Assembly Inhibitor (CAI Peptide: Structural Preferences and Delivery into Human Embryonic Lung Cells and Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Braun, Martin Frank, Rüdiger Pipkorn, Jennifer Reed, Herbert Spring, Jürgen Debus, Bernd Didinger, Claus-Wilhelm von der Lieth, Manfred Wiessler, Waldemar Waldeck

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Human immunodeficiency 1 derived capsid assembly inhibitor peptide (HIV-1 CAI-peptide is a promising lead candidate for anti-HIV drug development. Its drawback, however, is that it cannot permeate cells directly. Here we report the transport of the pharmacologically active CAI-peptide into human lymphocytes and Human Embryonic Lung cells (HEL using the BioShuttle platform. Generally, the transfer of pharmacologically active substances across membranes, demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, could lead to a loss of function by changing the molecule's structure. Molecular dynamics (MD simulations and circular dichroism (CD studies suggest that the CAI-peptide has an intrinsic capacity to form a helical structure, which seems to be critical for the pharmacological effect as revealed by intensive docking calculations and comparison with control peptides. This coupling of the CAI-peptide to a BioShuttle-molecule additionally improved its solubility. Under the conditions described, the HIV-1 CAI peptide was transported into living cells and could be localized in the vicinity of the mitochondria.

  5. HIV-1 Capsid Assembly Inhibitor (CAI) Peptide: Structural Preferences and Delivery into Human Embryonic Lung Cells and Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Klaus; Frank, Martin; Pipkorn, Rüdiger; Reed, Jennifer; Spring, Herbert; Debus, Jürgen; Didinger, Bernd; von der Lieth, Claus-Wilhelm; Wiessler, Manfred; Waldeck, Waldemar

    2008-01-01

    The Human immunodeficiency virus 1 derived capsid assembly inhibitor peptide (HIV-1 CAI-peptide) is a promising lead candidate for anti-HIV drug development. Its drawback, however, is that it cannot permeate cells directly. Here we report the transport of the pharmacologically active CAI-peptide into human lymphocytes and Human Embryonic Lung cells (HEL) using the BioShuttle platform. Generally, the transfer of pharmacologically active substances across membranes, demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), could lead to a loss of function by changing the molecule's structure. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and circular dichroism (CD) studies suggest that the CAI-peptide has an intrinsic capacity to form a helical structure, which seems to be critical for the pharmacological effect as revealed by intensive docking calculations and comparison with control peptides. This coupling of the CAI-peptide to a BioShuttle-molecule additionally improved its solubility. Under the conditions described, the HIV-1 CAI peptide was transported into living cells and could be localized in the vicinity of the mitochondria. PMID:18695744

  6. Structural framework of a major intracontinental orogenic termination zone: The easternmost Tien Shan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, D.; Owen, L.A.; Snee, L.W.; Li, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Barkol Tagh and Karlik Tagh ranges of the easternmost Tien Shan are a natural laboratory for studying the fault architecture of an active termination zone of a major intracontinental mountain range. Barkol and Karlik Tagh and lesser ranges to the north are bounded by active thrust faults that locally deform Quaternary sediments. Major thrusts in Karlik Tagh connect along strike to the east with the left-lateral Gobi-Tien Shan Fault System in SW Mongolia. From a Mongolian perspective. Karlik Tagh represents a large restraining bend for this regional strike-slip fault system, and the entire system of thrusts and strike-slip faults in the Karlik Tagh region defines a horsetail splay fault geometry. Regionally, there appears to be a kinematic transition from thrust-dominated deformation in the central Tien Shan to left-lateral transpressional deformation in the easternmost Tien Shan. This transition correlates with a general eastward decrease in mountain belt width and average elevation and a change in the angular relationship between the NNE-directed maximum horizontal stress in the region and the pre-existing basement structural grain, which is northwesterly in the central Tien Shan (orthogonal to SHmax) but more east-west in the eastern Tien Shan (acute angular relationship with SHmax . Ar-Ar ages indicate that major range-bounding thrusts in Barkol and Karlik Tagh are latest Permian-Triassic ductile thrust zones that underwent brittle reactivation in the Late Cenozoic. It is estimated that the modern mountain ranges of the extreme easternmost Tien Shan could have been constructed by only 10-15 km of Late Cenozoic horizontal shortening.

  7. Recent glacier changes in the Tien Shan observed by satellite gravity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuanggen; Tian, X.; Feng, G.

    2016-08-01

    The glaciers in the Tien Shan are extensive and play an important role in water cycle in central Asia. However, it is difficult to accurately monitor glacier variations in the Tien Shan due to the lack of in situ widespread measurements. In this paper, glacier mass variations in the Tian Shan are obtained and investigated from 10 years of monthly GRACE gravity solutions (January 2003-December 2012) and the WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM), including seasonal, secular and interannual variations . Results show that significant seasonal variations of glacier mass are found with the maximum normally in April-June and the minimum around in November-December. The trends in all four regions are positive from 2002 to 2005 and negative from 2005 to 2012, indicating that the Tien Shan glaciers are increasing prior to 2005 and significantly melting after 2005. These changes are consistent with the temperature change in the Tien Shan. In addition, in the past decade the precipitation has decreased and evapotranspiration has increased, which have joint influences on glacier mass changes in different regions of the Tien Shan.

  8. [Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) of the Tien Shan: morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, M I; Zvantsov, A B; Goriacheva, I I; Shaĭkevich, E V; Ezhov, M N; Usenbaev, N T; Shapieva, Zh Zh; Zhakhongirov, Sh M

    2008-01-01

    Morphological, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic studies of the Anopheles fauna in the valley and foothills of the Tien Shan identified 5 species of malaria mosquitoes: An. artemievi Gordeev et al., An. messeae Fall, An. claviger Meigen, An. hyrcanus Pallas, An. pulcherrimus Theobald, and superpictus Grassi. An. claviger, An. hyrcanus, and An. messeae were prevalent in the Northern Tien-Shan. An. artemievi, An. claviger, An. hyrcanus, An. messeae, and An. superpictus were detected in the Western Tien Shan. An. artemievi was first recorded in Kazakhstan. An. artemievi, An. claviger, and An. superpictus were noted in the Inferior Tien Shan. An. messeae was first observed in the Issyk Kul hollow. An. artemievi, An. claviger, and An. superpictus were habitants of the foothills of the South-Western Tien Shan. An. artemievi, An. hyrcanus, An. superpictus, and An. pulcherrimus were in the plain. An. pulcherrimus and An. superpicts mosquitoes are regarded as important vectors in the new malaria foci of the Fergana regions. The role of An. artemievi in the transmission of malaria is to be specified. PMID:18822504

  9. Supra-canonical 26Al/27Al and the residence time of CAIs in the solar protoplanetary disk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Edward D; Simon, Justin I; Galy, Albert; Russell, Sara S; Tonui, Eric; Lovera, Oscar

    2005-04-01

    The canonical initial 26Al/27Al ratio of 4.5 x 10(-5) has been a fiducial marker for the beginning of the solar system. Laser ablation and whole-rock multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma-source mass spectrometry magnesium isotope analyses of calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from CV3 meteorites demonstrate that some CAIs had initial 26Al/27Al values at least 25% greater than canonical and that the canonical initial 26Al/27Al cannot mark the beginning of solar system formation. Using rates of Mg diffusion in minerals, we find that the canonical initial 26Al/27Al is instead the culmination of thousands of brief high-temperature events incurred by CAIs during a 10(5)-year residence time in the solar protoplanetary disk. PMID:15746387

  10. In Situ Trace Element Analysis of an Allende Type B1 CAI: EK-459-5-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    Variations in refractory major and trace element composition of calcium, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) provide constraints on physical and chemical conditions and processes in the earliest stages of the Solar System. Previous work indicates that CAIs have experienced complex histories involving, in many cases, multiple episodes of condensation, evaporation, and partial melting. We have analyzed major and trace element abundances in two core to rim transects of the melilite mantle as well as interior major phases of a Type B1 CAI (EK-459-5-1) from Allende by electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to investigate the behavior of key trace elements with a primary focus on the REEs Tm and Yb.

  11. A braça da rede, uma técnica caiçara de medir

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Chieus Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Este artigo relata como os caiçaras da cidade de Ubatuba litoral norte paulista medem suas redes de pesca. Mas antes de estar analisando sua técnica de medir estaremos fazendo uma pequena abordagem da cultura caiçara e suas transformações. Em seguida mostraremos alguns momentos históricos da construção do metro. Depois como os caiçaras medem suas redes e o problema ocorrido no Brasil na implantação do sistema métrico decimal e a resistência de determinadas civilizações que se utiliza de outro...

  12. [Demotion and promotion of CAI Jing and the Medicine School's establishment and abolition three times in the North Song dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Qing

    2011-03-01

    CAI Jing was appointed the prime minister in the Chongning period of Song Hui-tsung. The Medical School was moved to the Imperial College from Taichang Temple. It used a 3-year education system and divided graduates into three grades. The preferential policies promised top students as 8 or 9-rank official position, which attracted a lot of intellectuals into the field of medicine. CAI Jing was demoted three times respectively in the fifth year of the Chongning period, the third year of the Daguan period and the second year of the Zhenghe period, and was promoted again after each demotion. Influenced by changes of CAI Jing's position and relative policies, the Medical School was also established and abolished three times. PMID:21624269

  13. Characterizing Pyroxene Reaction Space in Calcium-Aluminum Rich Inclusions: Oxidation During CAI Rim Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyl, K. A.; Young, E. D.

    2009-12-01

    We define the reaction space that controls changes in pyroxene composition in CAIs and Wark-Lovering (WL) rims in an oxidizing solar nebula. Ti-rich pyroxenes in CAIs record a sub-solar oxygen fugacity (Ti3+/Ti4+~1.5). WL rim pyroxenes in the CAI Leoville 144A have a distinctly lower oxidation state.This difference supports WL rim condensation in an environment of increasing O2(g) and Mg(g) (Simon et al. 2005). We used the following phase components to identify four linearly independent reactions (Thompson 1982): diopside, CaTs (Al2Mg-1Si-1), T3 (Ti3+AlMg-1Si-1), T4 (Ti4+Al2Mg-1Si-2), En (MgCa-1), perovskite, O(g), Mg(g), SiO(g), and Ca(g). Compositional variation in this system is dominated by two reactions. The first is oxidation of Ti3+ via reaction with O and Mg in the gas phase: 1.5 O(g) + Mg(g) → ¼ Di + [Ti4+Mg3/4Ti3+-1Ca-1/4Si-1/2] (1). Pyroxene is produced and En is introduced. The second reaction (2) is perovskite formation. It is observed in the WL rim of Leoville 144A, and experiments confirm that an elevated Ti component converts pyroxene to perovskite(Gupta et al. 1973). MgCa-1 is the third linearly independent reaction (3). They combine to give: ½ Di + x Ca(g)→ x Mg(g)+ Pv + [Mg1/2-xSiTi4+-1Ca-1/2+x](2,3). Unlike (1), pyroxene is consumed in this reaction. The parameter x defines the extent of Mg-Ca exchange. When x > 0.5, WL rim formation occurs in an environment where Mg is volatile and Ca condenses. The reaction space defined by reactions (1) and (2,3) describes the transition from CAI interior to WL rims. WL rim pyroxene Ti contents, [CaTs], and Ca < 1 pfu are all explained in this space. The fourth linearly independent reaction is SiO(g):1/8 Di + ¼ Mg(g)→ ¾ SiO(g) + [Mg3/8Ca1/8Ti4+Ti3+-1Si-1/2](4). Silica reduction forms Ti4+, releasing SiO(g). (4) does not describe the oxidation of Ti3+ in WL rim pyroxene, but (1) - (4) results in En formation directly from the gas phase. This may explain WL rim analyses that have Si contents in excess

  14. Ca-Fe and Alkali-Halide Alteration of an Allende Type B CAI: Aqueous Alteration in Nebular or Asteroidal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-Fe and alkali-halide alteration of CAIs is often attributed to aqueous alteration by fluids circulating on asteroidal parent bodies after the various chondritic components have been assembled, although debate continues about the roles of asteroidal vs. nebular modification processes [1-7]. Here we report de-tailed observations of alteration products in a large Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende, one of the oxidized subgroup of CV3s, and propose a speculative model for aqueous alteration of CAIs in a nebular setting. Ca-Fe alteration in this CAI consists predominantly of end-member hedenbergite, end-member andradite, and compositionally variable, magnesian high-Ca pyroxene. These phases are strongly concentrated in an unusual "nodule" enclosed within the interior of the CAI (Fig. 1). The Ca, Fe-rich nodule superficially resembles a clast that pre-dated and was engulfed by the CAI, but closer inspection shows that relic spinel grains are enclosed in the nodule, and corroded CAI primary phases interfinger with the Fe-rich phases at the nodule s margins. This CAI also contains abundant sodalite and nepheline (alkali-halide) alteration that occurs around the rims of the CAI, but also penetrates more deeply into the CAI. The two types of alteration (Ca-Fe and alkali-halide) are adjacent, and very fine-grained Fe-rich phases are associated with sodalite-rich regions. Both types of alteration appear to be replacive; if that is true, it would require substantial introduction of Fe, and transport of elements (Ti, Al and Mg) out of the nodule, and introduction of Na and Cl into alkali-halide rich zones. Parts of the CAI have been extensively metasomatized.

  15. Calcium and Titanium Isotope Fractionation in CAIS: Tracers of Condensation and Inheritance in the Early Solar Protoplanetary Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Jordan, M. K.; Tappa, M. J.; Kohl, I. E.; Young, E. D.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) can be used to understand the conditions present in the protoplantary disk where they formed. The isotopic compositions of these early-formed nebular materials are largely controlled by chemical volatility. The isotopic effects of evaporation/sublimation, which are well explained by both theory and experimental work, lead to enrichments of the heavy isotopes that are often exhibited by the moderately refractory elements Mg and Si. Less well understood are the isotopic effects of condensation, which limits our ability to determine whether a CAI is a primary condensate and/or retains any evidence of its primordial formation history.

  16. Neogene coupling between Kuqa Basin and Southern Tien Shan Orogen, Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guang-Yu; Chen, Han-Lin

    2004-08-01

    Based on the sedimentary and subsiding features of Kuqa foreland basin, this paper presents the following characteristics of Neogene coupling relationship between Kuqa Basin and Southern Tien Shan Orogen, Northwestern China: (1) The Southern Tien Shan Orogen underwent Neogene uplifting of 4 km in height and the Kuqa Basin underwent Neogene subsidence of 4-6 km in depth accordingly beginning in 25 Ma; (2) The Southern Tien Shan Orogen moved continuously toward the Kuqa Basin, with largest structural shortening rate of greater than 53.7%, and the north boundary of the Kuqa Basin retreated continuously southward accordingly since the Miocene; (3) There are two subsidence centers with high subsiding rates and large subsiding extent, located in the eastern and western Kuqa Basin respectively, with the subsiding maximizing in the deposition period of Kuqa Formation. PMID:15236483

  17. ¿puede o no decirse del metro patrón que tiene 1 metro?

    OpenAIRE

    Gordillo, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo critica la afirmación de Wittgentein, según la cual no se puede decir del metro patrón que tiene 1 metro ni que no lo tiene (Investigaciones Filosóficas, 50) y sumistra y examina varios usos diferentes de la afirmación: "el (objeto) patrón del sistema métrico tiene 1 metro de longitud". Sin embargo sostiene, dentro de una línea de argumentación wittgensteiniana, que los usos diferentes de dicha oración constituyen un reflejo del rol especial que el objeto patrón desempeña en el ...

  18. Neogene coupling between Kuqa Basin and Southern Tien Shan Orogen, Northwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何光玉; 陈汉林

    2004-01-01

    Based on the sedimentary and subsiding features of Kuqa foreland basin, this paper presents the following characteristics of Neogene coupling relationship between Kuqa Basin and Southern Tien Shan Orogen, Northwestern China:(l) The Southern Tien Shan Orogen underwent Neogene uplifting of 4 km in height and the Kuqa Basin underwent Neogene subsidence of 4-6 km in depth accordingly beginning in 25 Ma; (2) The Southern Tien Shan Orogen moved continuously toward the Kuqa Basin, with largest structural shortening rate of greater than 53.7%, and the north boundary of the Kuqa Basin retreated continuously southward accordingly since the Miocene; (3) There are two subsidence centers with high subsiding rates and large subsiding extent, located in the eastern and western Kuqa Basin respectively, with the subsiding maximizing in the deposition period of Kuqa Formation.

  19. Magnetotelluric investigation of the Central Tien Shan. Profile interpretation and spatial analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The ancient Tien Shan intra-continental range reactivated in the late Cenozoic due to India-Eurasia collision continues to grow rapidly up to the present. The magnetotelluric investigations of the Central (Kyrgyz) Tien Shan, the focus of modern geodynamic activity, are carried out by the Research Station RAS (Bishkek) during last twenty years with the main goal to formulate and constrain different hypotheses of its evolution. The researchers of NARYN WG have developed effective approaches to analyze and interpret the Tien Shan array of EM soundings. In this presentation we show the multi-component inversion results for magnetotelluric (MT) and magnetovariational (MV) data along three sub-longitudinal profiles across the Central Tien Shan. The comprehensive interpretation of the broad-band and long-period data of the most representative NARYN transect (going from the Kazakh plate to the Tarim Basin along 76 deg E) are supported by the results of imitation studies as well as by the latest seismological data. The anomalous structures of geoelectric cross-section along 76 deg E line are correlated with the features revealed in the course of broad-band sounding data inversions at two shorter regional profiles (74 deg E and 78.5 deg E). On the way to the spatial synthesis of multi-profile conductivity sections into a Tien Shan volume geoelectric model we analyzed the behavior of main MT/MV transfer functions over the area. The presented spatial-period distributions of these responses are characterized by bright anomalies, which correlate with other geophysical data and outline principle geotectonic structures of the Central Tien Shan. Acknowledgements to RFBR grants 08-05-00875 and 07-05-00594.

  20. Magnetotelluric investigation of the central Tien Shan. Profile interpretation and spatial analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The ancient Tien Shan intra-continental range reactivated in the late Cenozoic due to India-Eurasia collision continues to grow rapidly up to the present. The magnetotelluric investigations of the Central (Kyrgyz) Tien Shan, the focus of modern geodynamic activity, are carried out by the Research Station RAS (Bishkek) during last twenty years with the main goal to formulate and constrain different hypotheses of its evolution. The researchers of NARYN WG have developed effective approaches to analyze and interpret the Tien Shan array of EM soundings. In this presentation we show the multi-component inversion results for magnetotelluric (MT) and magnetovariational (MV) data along three sub-longitudinal profiles across the Central Tien Shan. The comprehensive interpretation of the broad-band and long-period data of the most representative NARYN transect (going from the Kazakh plate to the Tarim Basin along 76 degE) are supported by the results of imitation studies as well as by the latest seismological data. The anomalous structures of geoelectric cross-section along 76 degE line are correlated with the features revealed in the course of broad-band sounding data inversions at two shorter regional profiles (74 degE and 78.5 degE). On the way to the spatial synthesis of multi-profile conductivity sections into a Tien Shan volume geoelectric model we analyzed the behavior of main MT/MV transfer functions over the area. The presented spatial-period distributions of these responses are characterized by bright anomalies, which correlate with other geophysical data and outline principle geotectonic structures of the Central Tien Shan. Acknowledgements to RFBR grants 08-05-00875 and 07-05-00594.

  1. Density Structure, Isostatic Balance and Tectonic Models of the Central Tien Shan

    OpenAIRE

    M. K. Kaban; T. Reiza Yuanda

    2014-01-01

    A new combined satellite-terrestrial model of the gravity field is used together with seismic data for construction of a density model of the lithosphere of the Central Tien Shan and for estimation of its isostatic balance. The Tien Shan is one of the most active intraplate orogens in the world, located about 1,500 km north of the convergence between Indian and Eurasian plate, and surrounded by stable Kazakh platform to the north and the Tarim block to the south. Although this area was extens...

  2. A new gravity model of Tien Shan: constraints for structure and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Kaban; T. R. Yuanda

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study is construction of an integrated model of Central Tien Shan, which is based on a joint analysis of the gravity, GPS and geophysical data. Tien Shan is one of the most active intraplate orogens in the world, located ~1500 km north of the convergence between Indian and Eurasian plate, and surrounded by stable Kazakh platform to the north and the Tarim block and Parim block to the south. Despite this area was extensively studied during last decades, several principal ...

  3. The Lithosphere-Asthenospere boundary Beneath Tien Shan and Tibet Regions using S-receiver functions

    OpenAIRE

    P. Kumar; Xiaohui Yuan; Rainer Kind

    2005-01-01

    We use S receiver function technique to investigate the structure of the lithosphere of the western Tien Shan, the western edge of the Tarim Basin and the arakoram regions and in central Tibet. Significant energy of S-to-P converted waves at the crustmantle and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundaries have been observed and used for determination of the thickness of the crust and the mantle lithosphere. The Moho lies at depth of 55-65 km in most parts of the Tien Shan and shallows to 40-55 km to ...

  4. DUST LOADING OF THE ATMOSPHERE AND GLACIERS IN THE KUMTOR MINING AREA (AKSHYYRAK, TIEN SHAN)

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Kuzmichenok

    2015-01-01

    Industrial development of the Kumtor Gold Mine in the nival-glacial zone of Tien Shan (altitude ranging from 4000 to 4500 m a.s.l.) is inevitably accompanied by the release of some additional amounts of dust in atmosphere. Sampling in 7 points and an analysis of the quantity (weight) of dust in the seasonal snow (September–April) on glaciers show that the dust pollution does not substantially exceed the natural level of dust in Tien Shan. An analysis of almost 3 000 daily measurements of dust...

  5. Un syncrétisme pagano-chrétien : la glose du Pectoral d’Aaron dans le Lapidaire chrétien

    OpenAIRE

    Gontero, Valérie

    2010-01-01

    Le Lapidaire chrétien, qui décrit et commente les douze gemmes du Pectoral d’Aaron et de la Jérusalem Céleste, est un texte bipartite d’environ mille trois cents vers (version du ms. M). La première partie, païenne, décrit les douze gemmes et leurs vertus, dans la lignée du De Lapidibus de Marbode de Rennes. La seconde partie, chrétienne, reprend chaque pierre pour en donner la signification symbolique et religieuse, une glose qui procède par analogie en se fondant sur les couleurs, les nombr...

  6. On native Danish learners' challenges in distinguishing /tai/, /cai/ and /zai/

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloos, Marjoleine; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    With a growing interest in learning Chinese globally, there is a growing interest for phonologists and language instructors to understand how nonnative Chinese learners perceive the Chinese sound inventory. We experimentally investigated the Danish (L 1) speaker’s perception of three Mandarin...... results show that beginner learners perform on chance level regarding the distinction between t and z and between c and z. The reason is that in Danish, which has an aspiration contrast between plosives (like Chinese) /th/ is variably pronounced as affricated /ts/ and many speakers are unaware of this...... optional variation. This inhibits the distinction between Chinese t and z (pronounced as /th ts/). Further, Danish has no affricates, which makes the distinction between different affricates based on the aspiration contrast (like cai-zai) particularly difficult....

  7. Empirical Relationship between particulate matter and Aerosol Optical Depth over Northern Tien-Shan, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements were obtained at two sites in northern Tien-Shan in Central Asia during a 1-year period beginning July 2008 to examine the statistical relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and of fine [PM2.5, particles less than 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD)] and coars...

  8. Glaciers and hydrological changes in the Tien Shan: simulation and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we estimated the current glacier state and forecast the potential impact of global and regional climate change on the glaciers and glacier runoff in the Tien Shan. General (G) and detailed (D) simulations were developed based on assessment of the Tien Shan glacier recession between 1943 and 2003 using an iterative stepwise increase in the equilibrium line altitude of 20 m. The G simulation was developed for 2777 grids each of which covered over 1000 km2 of glacier surface and D for the 15 953 Tien Shan glaciers. Both simulations employed glacier morphometric characteristics derived from Digital Elevation Model based on remote sensing data, high resolution maps and in situ GPS validation. Simulated changes in glacier area demonstrated that a possible increase in air temperature of 1 deg. C at E-barLA must be compensated by a 100 mm increase in precipitation at the same altitude if Tien Shan glaciers are to be maintained in their current state. An increase in mean air temperature of 4 deg. C and precipitation of 1.1 times the current level could increase E-barLA by 570 m during the 21st century. Under these conditions, the number of glaciers, glacier covered area, glacier volume, and glacier runoff are predicted to be 94%, 69%, 75%, and 75% of current values. The maximum glacier runoff may reach as much as 1.25 times current levels while the minimum will likely equal zero

  9. Charm hadroproduction and long-flying cascades in cosmic rays (Tien-Shan effect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental data on cosmic ray cascades with enlarged attenuation lengths (Tien-Shan effect) are presented and analyzed in terms of charm hadroproduction. From this analysis it is predicted that charmed particles are produced with hard spectrum and a large cross section (about 4-5 mb at Spp-barS collider energies)

  10. Glaciers and hydrological changes in the Tien Shan: simulation and prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizen, V B [Department of Geography, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-3025 (United States); Aizen, E M [Department of Geography, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844-3025 (United States); Kuzmichonok, V A [Institute of Water Problems and Hydro Power, Kyrgyz National Academy of Science, 533 Frunze Street, Bishkek 720033 (Kyrgyzstan)

    2007-10-15

    In this study, we estimated the current glacier state and forecast the potential impact of global and regional climate change on the glaciers and glacier runoff in the Tien Shan. General (G) and detailed (D) simulations were developed based on assessment of the Tien Shan glacier recession between 1943 and 2003 using an iterative stepwise increase in the equilibrium line altitude of 20 m. The G simulation was developed for 2777 grids each of which covered over 1000 km{sup 2} of glacier surface and D for the 15 953 Tien Shan glaciers. Both simulations employed glacier morphometric characteristics derived from Digital Elevation Model based on remote sensing data, high resolution maps and in situ GPS validation. Simulated changes in glacier area demonstrated that a possible increase in air temperature of 1 deg. C at E-barLA must be compensated by a 100 mm increase in precipitation at the same altitude if Tien Shan glaciers are to be maintained in their current state. An increase in mean air temperature of 4 deg. C and precipitation of 1.1 times the current level could increase E-barLA by 570 m during the 21st century. Under these conditions, the number of glaciers, glacier covered area, glacier volume, and glacier runoff are predicted to be 94%, 69%, 75%, and 75% of current values. The maximum glacier runoff may reach as much as 1.25 times current levels while the minimum will likely equal zero.

  11. From Corporate Social Responsibility, through Entrepreneurial Orientation, to Knowledge Sharing: A Study in Cai Luong (Renovated Theatre) Theatre Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Luu Trong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the role of antecedents such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and entrepreneurial orientation in the chain effect to knowledge sharing among members of Cai Luong theatre companies in the Vietnamese context. Knowledge sharing contributes to the depth of the knowledge pool of both the individuals and the…

  12. Phenotypic diversity and correlation between white-opaque switching and the CAI microsatellite locus in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Guan, Guobo; Dai, Yu; Tao, Li; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Houmin; Huang, Guanghua

    2016-08-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal pathogen that is often found as part of the human microbial flora. The aim of the present study was to establish a relationship between diverse genotypes and phenotypes of clinical isolates of C. albicans. Totally 231 clinical isolates were collected and used for genotyping and phenotypic switching analysis. Based on the microsatellite locus (CAI) genotyping assay, 65 different genotypes were identified, and some dominant types were found in certain human niches. For example, the genotypes of 30-44 and 30-45 were enriched in vaginal infection samples. C. albicans has a number of morphological forms including the single-celled yeasts, multicellular filaments, white, and opaque cell types. The relationship between the CAI genotype and the ability to undergo phenotypic switching was examined in the clinical isolates. We found that the strains with longer CAA/G repeats in both alleles of the CAI locus were more opaque competent. We also discovered that some MTL heterozygous (a/alpha) isolates could undergo white-opaque switching when grown on regular culture medium (containing glucose as the sole carbon source). Our study establishes a link between phenotypic switching and genotypes of the CAI microsatellite locus in clinical isolates of C. albicans. PMID:26832141

  13. Hunting and use of terrestrial fauna used by Caiçaras from the Atlantic Forest coast (Brazil

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    Alves Rômulo RN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is considered one of the hotspots for conservation, comprising remnants of rain forest along the eastern Brazilian coast. Its native inhabitants in the Southeastern coast include the Caiçaras (descendants from Amerindians and European colonizers, with a deep knowledge on the natural resources used for their livelihood. Methods We studied the use of the terrestrial fauna in three Caiçara communities, through open-ended interviews with 116 native residents. Data were checked through systematic observations and collection of zoological material. Results The dependence on the terrestrial fauna by Caiçaras is especially for food and medicine. The main species used are Didelphis spp., Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, and small birds (several species of Turdidae. Contrasting with a high dependency on terrestrial fauna resources by native Amazonians, the Caiçaras do not show a constant dependency on these resources. Nevertheless, the occasional hunting of native animals represents a complimentary source of animal protein. Conclusion Indigenous or local knowledge on native resources is important in order to promote local development in a sustainable way, and can help to conserve biodiversity, particularly if the resource is sporadically used and not commercially exploited.

  14. Dietary Changes over Time in a Caiçara Community from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Priscila L. MacCord

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Because they are occurring at an accelerated pace, changes in the livelihoods of local coastal communities, including nutritional aspects, have been a subject of interest in human ecology. The aim of this study is to explore the dietary changes, particularly in the consumption of animal protein, that have taken place in Puruba Beach, a rural community of caiçaras on the São Paulo Coast, Brazil, over the 10-yr period from 1992–1993 to 2002–2003. Data were collected during six months in 1992–1993 and during the same months in 2002–2003 using the 24-hr recall method. We found an increasing dependence on external products in the most recent period, along with a reduction in fish consumption and in the number of fish species eaten. These changes, possibly associated with other nonmeasured factors such as overfishing and unplanned tourism, may cause food delocalization and a reduction in the use of natural resources. Although the consequences for conservation efforts in the Atlantic Forest and the survival of the caiçaras must still be evaluated, these local inhabitants may be finding a way to reconcile both the old and the new dietary patterns by keeping their houses in the community while looking for sources of income other than natural resources. The prospect shown here may reveal facets that can influence the maintenance of this and other communities undergoing similar processes by, for example, shedding some light on the ecological and economical processes that may occur within their environment and in turn affect the conservation of the resources upon which the local inhabitants depend.

  15. VARIABLE AND EXTREME IRRADIATION CONDITIONS IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM INFERRED FROM THE INITIAL ABUNDANCE OF {sup 10}Be IN ISHEYEVO CAIs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gounelle, Matthieu [Laboratoire de Mineralogie et de Cosmochimie du Museum, CNRS and Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, UMR 7202, CP52, 57 rue Cuvier, F-75005 Paris (France); Chaussidon, Marc; Rollion-Bard, Claire, E-mail: gounelle@mnhn.fr [Centre de Recherches Petrographiques et Geochimiques, CRPG-CNRS, BP 20, F-54501 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)

    2013-02-01

    A search for short-lived {sup 10}Be in 21 calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from Isheyevo, a rare CB/CH chondrite, showed that only 5 CAIs had {sup 10}B/{sup 11}B ratios higher than chondritic correlating with the elemental ratio {sup 9}Be/{sup 11}B, suggestive of in situ decay of this key short-lived radionuclide. The initial ({sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be){sub 0} ratios vary between {approx}10{sup -3} and {approx}10{sup -2} for CAI 411. The initial ratio of CAI 411 is one order of magnitude higher than the highest ratio found in CV3 CAIs, suggesting that the more likely origin of CAI 411 {sup 10}Be is early solar system irradiation. The low ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al){sub 0} [{<=} 8.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}] with which CAI 411 formed indicates that it was exposed to gradual flares with a proton fluence of a few 10{sup 19} protons cm{sup -2}, during the earliest phases of the solar system, possibly the infrared class 0. The irradiation conditions for other CAIs are less well constrained, with calculated fluences ranging between a few 10{sup 19} and 10{sup 20} protons cm{sup -2}. The variable and extreme value of the initial {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios in carbonaceous chondrite CAIs is the reflection of the variable and extreme magnetic activity in young stars observed in the X-ray domain.

  16. Landslide Detection Methods, Inventory Analysis and Susceptibility Mapping Applied to the Tien Shan, Kyrgyz Republic.

    OpenAIRE

    Danneels, Gaëlle; Havenith, Hans-Balder; Strom, A.; Pirard, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results of the last five years of landslide detection and landslide susceptibility mapping in the Central and Southern Tien Shan. Landslide inventories have been compiled for areas of major interest in the Kyrgyz Republic. For those areas, landslides were first mapped manually using KFA satellite images and aerial photographs. Recently, a landslide detection method has been developed in order to map landslides automatically. This method is based on a neural network scheme ...

  17. Development of Petrov glacial-lake system (Tien Shan) and outburst risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Torgoev; Yu. G. Aleshin; S. A. Erokhin

    2015-01-01

    Global climate warming causes an intensive melting and retreat of glaciers in the Tien Shan mountains. Melting water of glaciers causes overfilling of high mountain lakes. The increase of the surface and volume of the Petrov Lake accompanied with the decrease of stability of the dam represents an extremely dangerous situation that can produce a natural disaster. Failure can happen due to erosion, a buildup of water pressure, an earthquake or if a large enough portion of a glacier breaks off a...

  18. Three new species of Macrobiotus (Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae, tenuis-group) from Tien Shan (Kirghizia) and Spitsbergen

    OpenAIRE

    Denis V. TUMANOV

    2007-01-01

    Illustrated descriptions of Macrobiotus danilovi sp. n., Macrobiotus tenuiformis sp. n. from Tien Shan (Kirghizia) and Macrobiotus voronkovi sp. n. from Spitsbergen are given. These new species belong to the tenuis-group of the genus Macrobiotus. Members of the tenius-group have claws with a particularly long and thin common tract with a prominent frontal appendage at the base. Macrobiotus danilovi and M. tenuiformis differ from all known species of this group in the structure of their buccal...

  19. ¿Qué tienes en la cara, eso se quita?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Arévalo Romero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto es un ensayo preparado por estudiantes de Medicina que tiene origen en su experiencia personal, ya que trata del padecimiento del acné en lo adolescencia, en él quieren concienciar a lo comunidad en general sobre las consecuencias psicológicas que genera el padecimiento del acné en el adolescente, y estimular a las personas a contribuir al desarrollo de estos jóvenes en la sociedad.

  20. Cosmic rays and thunderstorms at the Tien-Shan mountain station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental work of the past few years has shown that runaway breakdown determines the maximum electric field strength in thunderclouds and is behind a variety of phenomena newly observed in thunderstorm atmosphere, such as TGFs, TLEs, etc. The necessary condition for the occurrence of runaway avalanche is the existence of high-energy electrons. In the atmosphere, these are the cosmic ray secondary electrons. Therefore the observed effects reflect close relationship between cosmic rays and electrodynamic processes in a thunderstorm atmosphere. The Tien-Shan high-altitude cosmic ray station is a unique site for investigations effects of cosmic rays and thunderstorm discharge. 'Thunderstorm' detector complex is designed especially for a systematical study of atmospheric discharges by the means of simultaneous recording of the different kinds of radiation. The presence of a widespread extensive air shower trigger set-up at the Tien-Shan station permits to study the role of energetic cosmic ray particles in lightning development. Overview of main results, obtain during last several years at the Tien-Shan are presented. A phenomenological description and theoretical vision of the cosmic rays role in atmosphere processes during thunderstorm are discussed.

  1. Building Forecast Maps Of Water Quality For Main Rivers And Canals In Tien Giang Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Duc Pham

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to enhance the mapping of forecast for water quality assessment in Mekong Delta provinces. The data from 32 sites from main rivers and canals in an area of around 2,482 km2 in Tien Giang Province, Vietnam, were used for calculation and mapping. The ArcGIS 9.3 software, Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW interpolation method, hydrologic data, and water quality parameters in March (2010-2014 were applied to build the maps showing 2020 water quality predictions for main rivers and canals in Tien Giang Province. The estimation was based on the Water Quality Index (WQI with 6 parameters such as pH, total suspended solid (TSS, dissolved oxygen (DO, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, total nitrogen (T_N, and coliform. The results showed that water quality in the studied area in dry season will not be improved by the year 2020. The finding could be a scientific reference for the selection of effective approaches to improve water quality in main rivers and canals in Tien Giang Province.

  2. Temporal and Spatial Changes of Permafrost in the Tien Shan Mountains Since the Little Ice Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, S.; Romanovsky, V.

    2006-12-01

    During the Late Holocene there were numerous periods of warming and cooling in the Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia. Ground temperatures and permafrost area in the Tien Shan have been subjected to repeated fluctuations during the last millennia brought about by the general planetary changes in climate. The altitudinal oscillations of the mean annual air temperature (MAAT) zero Centigrade isotherm had a range of about 300 m during that time. Air temperature in the Tien Shan Mountains has increased at a higher rate than the global mean during the 20th century. Climate warming in the high-mountains regions could induce the further near-surface permafrost degradation, which may lead to slope instability and permafrost-related hazards. The main objectives of the modeling process were to estimate the permafrost thermal regime and assess the area where permafrost disappeared since the second part of the nineteenth century. To estimate the effect of climate change on permafrost a one-dimensional process-based model was used to simulate the ground thermal regime of the Tien Shan at a resolution of a half-degree latitude-longitude since the Little Ice Age up to present. The results of numerical simulation show that at an altitude of 2500 m a.s.l. the permafrost temporary formed at least three times during the last 500 years. At the lover altitudinal boundary of permafrost distribution the permafrost temperatures now are close to 0°C and at some sites permafrost degradation has already started. Analysis of measured active layer and permafrost temperatures coupled with numerical thermal modeling (permafrost temperature reanalysis) shows that most of the recently thawed permafrost was formed during the Little Ice Age. The modeling of alpine permafrost dynamics shows that the altitudinal lower boundary of permafrost distribution has shifted by about 150-200 m upward since the end of the Little Ice Age (circa 1850). During the same period, the area of permafrost distribution

  3. 基于Delphi的制图课件设计%Engineering Graphics CAI Design Based on Delphi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋先刚; 钟化兰; 涂晓斌

    2001-01-01

    Introduces programming technologies and methods of EngineeringGraphics CAI design based on Delphi, it focus on system configuration and software methods. It also presents methods and skills of using TTreeView component to construct the CAI'S database.%介绍基于Delphi开发环境下的制图课件的设计技术和实现方法。重点介绍画法几何与工程制图CAI课件系统的构造和软件实现方法,提出了用Delphi中的树状显示控件构造和管理制图CAI系统中的数据库设计方法和技巧。

  4. Organic pollution and salt intrusion in Cai Nuoc District, Ca Mau Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tho, Nguyen; Vromant, Nico; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Hens, Luc

    2006-07-01

    In Ca Mau, Vietnam, farmers converted from rice to shrimp farming, while ignoring the degradation of the aquatic environment. We assessed the seasonal variations in organic pollution of the surface water and salt intrusion in one district and assessed the difference in chemical characteristics of the surface water of shrimp ponds and canals. Several variables reflecting salinity and organic pollution were measured in the wet and dry season. The results show that in the dry season salinity increased to 37.36-42.73 g l(-1) and COD and suspended solids increased to a maximum of 268.7 mg l(-1) and 1312.0 mg l(-1), respectively. In the wet season salinity values of 8.16 to 10.60 g l(-1) were recorded, indicating that salinity could no longer be washed out completely in this season. It is concluded that salinity and suspended solids in the aquatic environment in the Cai Nuoc district are increased by shrimp monoculture, whereas organic pollution is contributed by human population pressure. PMID:16929642

  5. The ethnoecology of Caiçara metapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions

    OpenAIRE

    Begossi Alpina

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7,5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves especial attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particula...

  6. 2.5d teleseismic waveform tomography with application to the tien shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Benjamin Ian

    The analysis of passive source seismic data recorded by quasi-linear deployments of broadband stations at teleseismic distances has proven to be an effective means of probing the subsurface of the Earth. However, current methodologies are far from being able to exploit all the interpretable signal in these data sets. In this thesis, I describe a 2.5D, frequency domain, visco-elastic waveform tomography algorithm for imaging with this type of data. To compute synthetic seismograms (the forward problem), the general equations of motion are discretized with p-adaptive finite elements. This approach allows for geometric flexibility and accurate solutions as a function of wavelength. Artificial force distributions manifesting Huygen's principle for the teleseismic events are introduced locally through a Bielak layer. Because of the relatively low frequency content of teleseismic data, regional scale tectonic settings can be parameterized with a modest number of variables and perturbations can be determined directly from a regularized Gauss-Newton system of equations. Waveforms generated by the forward problem compare well with analytic solutions for simple 1D media and with those generated in heterogeneous structures by a finite difference technique. It is demonstrated through examples that the regularized approximate Hessian is particularly effective at focusing backpropagated residuals to their true location. It is observed that full waveform inversion can provide significantly better vertical resolution than arrival time tomography and significantly better lateral resolution than standard surface wave tomography. Used in tandem in a multi-scale approach, surface wave tomography followed by joint surface wave/body wave tomography is shown to be an effective strategy for image reconstruction from a simple starting model. This inversion strategy is then applied to body and surface wave teleseismic waves recorded in the Tien Shan. The work of previous investigators is

  7. Building Forecast Maps Of Water Quality For Main Rivers And Canals In Tien Giang Province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Anh Duc Pham; Duong Truong Thi Thuy; Dung Dang Quoc

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to enhance the mapping of forecast for water quality assessment in Mekong Delta provinces. The data from 32 sites from main rivers and canals in an area of around 2,482 km2 in Tien Giang Province, Vietnam, were used for calculation and mapping. The ArcGIS 9.3 software, Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation method, hydrologic data, and water quality parameters in March (2010-2014) were applied to build the maps showing 2020 water quality predictions for main rivers and...

  8. Tien Shan installation data bann for studying broad atmospheric cosmic showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system for formation of data bank at the Tien Shan installation used for studying inelastic cosmic ray interactions with atmosphere at energies of 1013-1017 eV is described. Initial data recorded in a non-standardized form on the 6.25 magnetic tape, are filtered with the PDP-11/05 computer and recorded on the 12.7 mm tape in the EC format. Subsequent filtration is performed with the PDP-11/70 computer. As a result considerable decrease in data carrier volume, possibility of their processing at different computers and long-term storage relaibility increase are obtained

  9. Three new species of Macrobiotus (Eutardigrada, Macrobiotidae, tenuis-group from Tien Shan (Kirghizia and Spitsbergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis V. TUMANOV

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Illustrated descriptions of Macrobiotus danilovi sp. n., Macrobiotus tenuiformis sp. n. from Tien Shan (Kirghizia and Macrobiotus voronkovi sp. n. from Spitsbergen are given. These new species belong to the tenuis-group of the genus Macrobiotus. Members of the tenius-group have claws with a particularly long and thin common tract with a prominent frontal appendage at the base. Macrobiotus danilovi and M. tenuiformis differ from all known species of this group in the structure of their buccal armature. Macrobiotus voronkovi differs from all known species of the tenuis-group in its combination of features in adult animals and in the egg shell.

  10. Forbush-effects and atmospheric pressure dynamics at high-altitude Tien Shan station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present atmospheric pressure dynamics studies at the high-altitude Tien Shan station (3340 m above sea level) during 23rd cycle of solar activity after Forbush-effects. It is established that 80 % of Forbush effects with delay 1 ÷ 3 days are accompanied with steady depression of atmospheric pressure irrespective of geomagnetic field conditions. We found that atmospheric pressure dynamics at mountains and ground levels during investigated periods is different. Experimental results are compared with possible mechanisms of influence of sporadic effects of solar activity on circulation of the lower atmosphere.

  11. Climate- vs. Earthquake-induced Rock-Glacier Advances in the Tien Shan: Insights from Lichenometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwinkel, Swenja; Landgraf, Angela; Korup, Oliver; Sorg, Annina

    2014-05-01

    Rock glaciers have been traditionally used as landform proxies of the distribution of sporadic alpine permafrost. In the northern Tien Shan mountains of Kyrgyzstan, most distinct lobes of >200 rock glaciers that we mapped from satellite imagery occur at two major elevation levels. However, a number of particularly low-lying lobes seem difficult to reconcile with palaeoclimatic fluctuations and commensurate changes of permafrost patterns: The minimum elevation of the majority of rock-glacier snouts lies between ~2500 up to ~3700 m a.s.l., but some 10% of rock-glaciers extend down to well below 3000 m a.s.l. We hypothesize that some of the rock glaciers in this area may have formed following strong earthquakes that could have triggered massive supraglacial rock-slope failures, which would have subsequently created sediment-rich rock glaciers from clear-ice glaciers. Our hypothesis is based on the observation that the tectonically active northern Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan was affected by a series of major earthquakes in the late 19th and earliest 20th centuries, e.g. in 1885 (Ms 6.9), 1887 (Ms 7.3), 1889 (Ms 8.3), and 1911 (Ms 8.1). All of these earthquakes had triggered numerous landslides in the northern Tien Shan. It is also likely that similarly strong earthquakes had happened before, but their recurrence intervals are long and more palaeoseismological work is in progress. We test whether lichenometry of rock-glacier surfaces together with morphometric analysis are suitable methods to testing our hypothesis. We focus on assessing the possibility of earthquake-triggered rock-glacier advances, and use lichenometry to resolve age patterns of different rock-glacier lobes. We use a dataset of several thousand lichen diameter measurements encompassing seven different species calibrated by gravestones and dated mass-movement deposits. Data on four single and two merging rock glaciers in four selected valleys in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan support the notion

  12. The deep-seated xenoliths in alkaline basaltoids and upper mantle composition of the Karamazar (Middle Tien-Shane)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information about general composition and conditions of upper Karomazar mantle which belongs to Tien-Shane Averages are presented for the first time on the basis of deep-laid xenolith diatreme study in ''Oltin'' and Kichikarea

  13. Meso-Cenozoic tectonics of the Central Kyrgyz Tien Shan (Central Asia), based on apatite fission track thermochronology.

    OpenAIRE

    Glorie, Stijn

    2008-01-01

    Apatite fission track thermochronology on the Kyrgyz Tien Shan basement revealed a polyphased thermal history of the study-area. We interpret the Mesozoic and Cenozoic cooling-events as periods of tectonic reactivation.

  14. DUST LOADING OF THE ATMOSPHERE AND GLACIERS IN THE KUMTOR MINING AREA (AKSHYYRAK, TIEN SHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kuzmichenok

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Industrial development of the Kumtor Gold Mine in the nival-glacial zone of Tien Shan (altitude ranging from 4000 to 4500 m a.s.l. is inevitably accompanied by the release of some additional amounts of dust in atmosphere. Sampling in 7 points and an analysis of the quantity (weight of dust in the seasonal snow (September–April on glaciers show that the dust pollution does not substantially exceed the natural level of dust in Tien Shan. An analysis of almost 3 000 daily measurements of dust in the surface layer of air at 4 points around the gold mine has also shown that the economic activity has no significant impact on dust production. It is likely that the manmade component of overall dust in the immediate vicinity of the deposit and the gob pile does not exceed 20%. No increase in the content of dust and in its anthropogenic component with time has been found. Thus, we suggest that the principal amount of dust in the area is brought during the cold season from snow-free areas of Central Asia.

  15. Impacts of climate change on glaciers, rock glaciers and water availability in the Tien Shan, Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Sorg, Annina

    2013-01-01

    The Tien Shan ranges play a pivotal role in supplying freshwater for the Central Asian region. There, climate-driven streamflow changes have direct implications on freshwater supply, irrigation and hydropower potential. The objective of this thesis is to assess the impacts of climate change on glaciers, rock glaciers and water availability in the Tien Shan region. For this purpose, a comprehensive literature review has been carried out as a basis for a climate change impact case study. Modeli...

  16. An investigative study into the effectiveness of using computer-aided instruction (CAI) as a laboratory component of college-level biology: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joan Beverly

    Community colleges serve the most diverse student populations in higher education. They consist of non-traditional, part-time, older, intermittent, and mobile students of different races, ethnic backgrounds, language preferences, physical and mental abilities, and learning style preferences. Students who are academically challenged may have diverse learning characteristics that are not compatible with the more traditional approaches to the delivery of instruction. With this need come new ways of solving the dilemma, such as Computer-aided Instruction (CAI). This case study investigated the use of CAI as a laboratory component of college-level biology in a small, rural community college setting. The intent was to begin to fill a void that seems to exist in the literature regarding the role of the faculty in the development and use of CAI. In particular, the investigator was seeking to understand the practice and its effectiveness, especially in helping the under prepared student. The case study approach was chosen to examine a specific phenomenon within a single institution. Ethnographic techniques, such as interviewing, documentary analysis, life's experiences, and participant observations were used to collect data about the phenomena being studied. Results showed that the faculty was primarily self-motivated and self-taught in their use of CAI as a teaching and learning tool. The importance of faculty leadership and collegiality was evident. Findings showed the faculty confident that expectations of helping students who have difficulties with mathematical concepts have been met and that CAI is becoming the most valuable of learning tools. In a traditional college classroom, or practice, time is the constant (semesters) and competence is the variable. In the CAI laboratory time became the variable and competence the constant. The use of CAI also eliminated hazardous chemicals that were routinely used in the more traditional lab. Outcomes showed that annual savings

  17. Crustal block structure by GPS data using neural network in the Northern Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostuk, A.; Carmenate, D.

    2010-05-01

    For over ten years regular GPS measurements have been carried out by Research Station RAS in the Central Asia. The results of these measurements have not only proved the conclusion that the Earth's crust meridional compression equals in total about 17 mm/year from the Tarim massif to the Kazakh shield, but have also allowed estimating deformation behavior in the region. As is known, deformation behavior of continental crust is an actively discussed issue. On the one hand, the Earth's crust is presented as a set of microplates (blocks) and deformation here is a result of shifting along the blocks boundaries, on the other hand, lithospheric deformation is distributed by volume and meets the rheological model of nonlinear viscous fluid. This work represents an attempt to detect the block structure of the surface of the Northern Tien Shan using GPS velocity fields. As a significant difference from analogous works, appears the vector field clustering with the help of neural network used as a classifier by many criteria that allows dividing input space into areas and using of all three components of GPS velocity. In this case, we use such a feature of neural networks as self-organization. Among the mechanisms of self-organization there are two main classes: self-organization based on the Hebb associative rule and the mechanism of neuronal competition based on the generalized Kohonen rule. In this case, we use an approach of self-organizing networks in which we take neuronal competition as an algorithm for their training. As a rule, these are single-layer networks where each neuron is connected to all components of m-dimensional input vector. GPS vectors of the Central Asian velocity field located within the territory of the Northern Tien Shan were used as input patterns. Measurements at GPS sites were fulfilled in 36 hour-long sessions by double-frequency receivers Trimble and Topcon. In so doing, measurement discreteness equaled 30 seconds; the data were processed by

  18. La alucinación verbal tiene la estructura de la holofrase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo de la Pava Ossa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available ¿En qué sentido la alucinaciónauditiva tiene la estructura dela holofrase? La holofrase es lainterjección, dice Lacan en 1958.En 1964, plantea que cuando enel primer par significante no hayintervalo, se solidifica, “se holofrasea”;a lo que añade que algo delmismo orden ocurre en la psicosis.Esta afirmación aporta elementospara pensar que la alucinación esuna holofrase y cómo a partir deella el psicótico construye su delirioparanoico.Palabras clave: holofrase, interjección,alucinación, discurso, funciónfálica.

  19. The new data about the anomalously delayed events apparent on the Tien Shan shower installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tien Shan shower installation arranged at the altitude 3,340 meters above sea level and consisting from the neutron monitor HM64 and different detectors was essentially upgraded with the purpose of learning dependence of intensity of fission particles of a extensive atmospheric shower (EAS) from depth of an absorbent and their nature. For finding out of re-productivity results and uptake abnormal components of EAS in an atmosphere at the altitude 1,700 meters above sea level the new point of recording is built, that consists of the neutron monitor and detector of recording EPC. The obtained data confirm a made earlier about existence in a blanket stream of abnormal events with the delayed time-shared neutral and charged components

  20. ATHLET Tien Shan experimental setup for comprehensive investigation of cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three-level experimental complex ATHLET is intended for studying the extensive air shower within the range of 1015-1018 eV. The ATHLET complex is based on the HADRON-M facility of the Tien-Shan mountainous station FIAN (3340 m above the sea level), which consists of the ionization-neutron calorimeters in combination with the X-ray-emulsion chambers and shower facility.Two intermediate stations of the complex are located at the height of 1750 and 850 m correspondingly. Each of them included the central neutron monitor and surrounding scintillation detectors. The ATHLET complex is provided with modern automated systems for the data registration and acquisition

  1. Climate change impacts on glaciers and runoff in Tien Shan (Central Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, A. F.; Bolch, T.; Stoffel, M.; Solomina, O.; Beniston, M.

    2012-12-01

    Climate-driven changes in glacier-fed streamflow regimes have direct implications on freshwater supply, irrigation and hydropower potential. Reliable information about current and future glaciation and runoff is crucial for water allocation and, hence, for social and ecological stability. Although the impacts of climate change on glaciation and runoff have been addressed in previous work undertaken in the Tien Shan (known as the 'water tower of Central Asia'), a coherent, regional perspective of these findings has not been presented until now. In our study, we explore the range of changes in glaciation in different climatic regions of the Tien Shan based on existing data. We show that the majority of Tien Shan glaciers experienced accelerated glacier wasting since the mid-1970s and that glacier shrinkage is most pronounced in peripheral, lower-elevation ranges near the densely populated forelands, where summers are dry and where snow and glacial meltwater is essential for water availability. The annual glacier area shrinkage rates since the middle of the twentieth century are 0.38-0.76% per year in the outer ranges, 0.15-0.40% per year in the inner ranges and 0.05-0.31% per year in the eastern ranges. This regionally non-uniform response to climate change implies that glacier shrinkage is less severe in the continental inner ranges than in the more humid outer ranges. Glaciers in the inner ranges react with larger time lags to climate change, because accumulation and thus mass turnover of the mainly cold glaciers are relatively small. Moreover, shrinkage is especially pronounced on small or fragmented glaciers, which are widely represented in the outer regions. The relative insensitivity of glaciers in the inner ranges is further accentuated by the higher average altitude, as the equilibrium line altitude ranges from 3'500 to 3'600 masl in the outer ranges to 4'400 masl in the inner ranges. For our study, we used glacier change assessments based both on direct data

  2. Lo que no tiene nombre. Manifestaciones del arte en la novela de Piedad Bonnett

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia Londoño, Jonathan Asdrúbal

    2015-01-01

    Este artículo presenta en el libro Lo que no tiene nombre de la escritora colombiana Piedad Bonnet una suerte de paralelo entre el objeto verbal enunciado a través de la narración y el objeto plástico que abre cada capítulo o que, en algunos casos se referencia en él -- Para ello se abordan diferentes manifestaciones del arte que se encuentran diseminadas a lo largo del texto y que son analizadas desde su función de predecesoras de la narración, desde la teoría de la écfrasis y como construct...

  3. Tien Shan geohazards database: Landslides versus other geomorphic features, seismic versus climatic triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenith, Hans-Balder; Strom, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Recently, we compiled a new landslide inventory for the Tien Shan, Central Asia, containing about 3500 mapped mass movements within a target region of 1200 km (E-W) by 600 km (N-S). While compiling this inventory, we met several problems: which features need to be combined to identify a landslide - combination of scarp and depositional area? Are all deposits below scarps landslide deposits? Should we map scarps as a landslide feature even if no deposits are found below it? How to clearly distinguish landslide from moraine deposits in the higher mountain areas? ... and finally, as the Tien Shan is prone to strong earthquakes (and comparatively less to severe climatic events), can we consider that most giant landslides are triggered by large seismic events .. and, then, could they be used a paleoseismic markers? Identification problems are partly due to the low resolution of imagery that was used for the landslide mapping (mainly based on Google Earth imagery); the other main reason for related uncertainties is the likely great age (> 1000 years) of the mapped features (even though conservation of geomorphic features can be considered as good in those semi-arid areas - much better than in the Alps). For some of those 'old' features, the uncertainty of their origin remained even after having visited the sites. The tendency was that 'landslide geologists' generally considered the mapped features as landslide deposits while some other geoscientists preferred the moraine hypothesis. The problem of the possible seismic origin of proved landslide morphologies is either directly solved if the triggering earthquake event is known (in recent historical times, after 1885) or indirectly in the other (more frequent) case. We consider that most giant landslides (>107 m3) in the Tien Shan had been triggered by earthquakes - while most occurred in 'pre-historic' times (here, before 1885) and a direct proof is thus missing. Actually, several hard rock slopes and many soft rock

  4. A revista Cais entre o protagonismo e o assistencialismo: Uma análise discursiva crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Melo Resende

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Como parte dos resultados de um projeto integrado cujo escopo é investigar, por meio de análises discursivas, as práticas envolvidas na produção e na distribuição de cinco publicações em língua portuguesa voltadas para a situação de rua, este artigo focaliza, com base na Análise de Discurso Crítica, a revista Cais, publicada em Lisboa. Configurando‑se como jornal de rua, a revista é vendida na rua e por pessoas em situação de rua ou de risco, para as quais revertem 70% da venda de cada exemplar. Mais que um meio de comunicação e difusão de problemas sociais, acredita‑se que esse tipo de imprensa proporciona a configuração de posições e relações diferentes, podendo por isso alterar a experiência da exclusão. Neste artigo, tomando como dados excertos de uma entrevista com o seu editor, exploro em que medida se dá a participação de pessoas em situação de rua na produção da revista Cais e na representação desta mesma situação.

  5. Design of CAI Courseware Based on Virtual Reality Mechanism%基于VR机制的CAI课件设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管群

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,the application feature and significance of VR technology in the educational field are summarized.In particular,the design mechanism of CAI courseware of the instruction aiming at individuals is studied,and with virtual reality mechanism a learning-while-doing environment is realized for the user in the CAI courseware in the major of the computer application.The design theory,the technique way,some of the algorithm flowchart and the interface of the exercise of operation are given.%论述了虚拟现实技术在教育领域中的应用特点和重要意义。特别研究了针对个别化教学的CAI课件设计机制,并运用虚拟现实机制在计算机应用类CAI课件设计中实现了一个可供用户边学边做的学习环境。给出了设计原理、技术路线、部分算法流程和操作练习界面。

  6. Radiative lifetimes of the A2Π, B2Σ+, C2Π and D2Σ+ states of the CaBr and CaI radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lifetimes of the A2Π, B2Σ+, C2Π and D2Σ+ states of the CaBr and CaI radicals have been measured directly from the time rate of fluorescence decay using an appropriate pulsed dye laser as an excitation source. The zero pressure radiative lifetimes determined for the first time for the C2Π1/2 state of CaI and D2Σ+ state of CaBr were (50.5 ± 1.5) ns and (21.0 ± 2.6) ns, respectively. The measured lifetimes agree well with trends predicted by a Ligand Field (L-F) model. For the CaI C2Π3/2 state (τ = 31.2 ns at 1 mbar pressure) and D2Σ+ state (τ < 11 ns), anomalously short lifetimes are observed, indicating that these states are predissociated

  7. Reconstruction of glacial lake outburst floods in northern Tien Shan: Implications for hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaginaev, V.; Ballesteros-Cánovas, J. A.; Erokhin, S.; Matov, E.; Petrakov, D.; Stoffel, M.

    2016-09-01

    Glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and related debris flows are among the most significant natural threats in the Tien Shan Mountains of Kyrgyzstan and have even caused the loss of life and damage to infrastructure in its capital Bishkek. An improved understanding of the occurrence of this process is essential so as to be able to design reliable disaster risk reduction strategies, even more so in view of ongoing climate change and scenarios of future evolutions. Here, we apply a dendrogeomorphic approach to reconstruct past debris-flow activity on the Aksay cone (Ala-Archa valley, Kyrgyz range), where outbursting glacier lakes and intense rainfalls have triggered huge debris flows over the past decades. A total of 96 Picea abies (L.) Karst. trees growing on the cone and along the main channel have been selected based on the evidence of past debris-flow damage in their trunks; these trees were then sampled using increment borers. The dating of past events was based on the assessment of growth disturbances (GD) in the tree-ring records and included the detection of injuries, tangential rows of traumatic resin ducts, reaction wood, and abrupt growth changes. In total, 320 GD were identified in the tree-ring samples. In combination with aerial imagery and geomorphic recognition in the field, reactions in trees and their position on the cone have allowed reconstruction of the main spatial patterns of past events on the Aksay cone. Our findings suggest that at least 27 debris flows have occurred on the site between 1877 and 2015 and point to the occurrence of at least 17 events that were not documented prior to this study. We also observe high process activity during the 1950s and 1960s, with major events on the cone in 1950, 1966, and 1968, coinciding with phases of slight glacier advance. The spatial analyses of events also point to two different spatial patterns, suggesting that quite dissimilar magnitudes probably occurred during glacier lake outburst floods and

  8. Accelerated glacier shrinkage in the Ak-Shyirak massif, Inner Tien Shan, during 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakov, Dmitry; Shpuntova, Alyona; Aleinikov, Alexandr; Kääb, Andreas; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Lavrentiev, Ivan; Stoffel, Markus; Tutubalina, Olga; Usubaliev, Ryskul

    2016-08-15

    The observed increase in summer temperatures and the related glacier downwasting has led to a noticeable decrease of frozen water resources in Central Asia, with possible future impacts on the economy of all downstream countries in the region. Glaciers in the Ak-Shyirak massif, located in the Inner Tien Shan, are not only affected by climate change, but also impacted by the open pit gold mining of the Kumtor Gold Company. In this study, glacier inventories referring to the years 2003 and 2013 were created for the Ak-Shyirak massif based on satellite imagery. The 193 glaciers had a total area of 351.2±5.6km(2) in 2013. Compared to 2003, the total glacier area decreased by 5.9±3.4%. During 2003-2013, the shrinkage rate of Ak-Shyirak glaciers was twice than that in 1977-2003 and similar to shrinkage rates in Tien Shan frontier ranges. We assessed glacier volume in 2013 using volume-area (VA) scaling and GlabTop modelling approaches. Resulting values for the whole massif differ strongly, the VA scaling derived volume is 30.0-26.4km(3) whereas the GlabTop derived volume accounts for 18.8-13.2km(3). Ice losses obtained from both approaches were compared to geodetically-derived volume change. VA scaling underestimates ice losses between 1943 and 2003 whereas GlabTop reveals a good match for eight glaciers for the period 2003-2012. In comparison to radio-echo soundings from three glaciers, the GlabTop model reveals a systematic underestimation of glacier thickness with a mean deviation of 16%. GlabTop tends to significantly underestimate ice thickness in accumulation areas, but tends to overestimate ice thickness in the lowermost parts of glacier snouts. Direct technogenic impact is responsible for about 7% of area and 5% of mass loss for glaciers in the Ak-Shyirak massif during 2003-2013. Therefore the increase of summer temperature seems to be the main driver of accelerated glacier shrinkage in the area. PMID:27100016

  9. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary in the Tien Shan-Karakoram region from S receiver functions: Evidence for continental subduction

    OpenAIRE

    P. Kumar; Xiaohui Yuan; Rainer Kind; Kosarev, G.

    2005-01-01

    Significant S-to-P converted wave energy from the crust-mantle and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundaries (the Moho and the LAB, respectively) has been observed in the Tien Shan and Karakoram orogenic belts and used for the determination of the thickness of the crust and the mantle lithosphere. The Moho lies at depths of 45–65 km in the Tien Shan and adjacent regions and deepens to ∼70 km depth in Pamir and Karakoram. The thickness of the lithosphere varies between 90 and 120 km underneath the ...

  10. Development of Petrov glacial-lake system (Tien Shan and outburst risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Torgoev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate warming causes an intensive melting and retreat of glaciers in the Tien Shan mountains. Melting water of glaciers causes overfilling of high mountain lakes. The increase of the surface and volume of the Petrov Lake accompanied with the decrease of stability of the dam represents an extremely dangerous situation that can produce a natural disaster. Failure can happen due to erosion, a buildup of water pressure, an earthquake or if a large enough portion of a glacier breaks off and massively displaces the waters in a glacial lake at its base. In case of the lake dam rupture, flooding of a disposal site of highly toxic tailing from the gold mine Kumtor is a threat. If this happens, the toxic waste containing cyanides would contaminate a large area in the Naryn (Syrdarya river basin. Even if the flooding of the disposal site does not occur, the damage after lake dam fracture will be immense due to the glacial lake outburst flood may be a devastating mudslide. In order to prevent or reduce the risk of this event we recommend performing engineering surveys for the development and implementation of the project for the controlled reduction of water level in the Blue Bay of the Petrov Lake to a safe volume.

  11. The events in the underground neutron monitor of Tien-Shan mountain station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: By the neutron monitor placed in the underground room of Tien-Shan mountain station (3340∼m a.s.l.) at the depth of 20∼m of water equivalent is measured the spectrum of neutron multiplicities M of the registered events. The differential spectrum has an approximately power shape, its absolute intensity being 350-450 times lower than that of the events in the on-ground NM64 type supermonitor. The value of the power slope index, 3.7, coincides with the index of the energy spectrum of bremsstrahlung gamma-quanta produced by energetic muons (with the energy above 1 TeV) inside the monitor's lead absorber. However, the experimental intensity of the underground multiplicity spectrum is two orders of magnitude higher than the expected intensity of muon-born events. According to the lateral distribution of the neutrons, the underground events are produced by the single particles (or narrow particle groups) and the temporal distribution of neutron signals has an exponential shape with lifetime parameter 400 - 430 μs. Explanation of the observed multiplicity spectrum of underground neutron events seems to be difficult in the frame of electromagnetic and nuclear muon interactions without attraction of some another penetrative particles

  12. Ontogenetic features of West Tien-Shan-Alai endemic Rhinopetalum stenantherum Regel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Ivaschenko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of the stages of ontogeny of West Tien-Shan-Alai endemic Rhinopetalum stenantherum Regel from family Liliaceae Juss. based on the author’s research, carried out in natural populations of Talas Alatau (Aksu Zhabagly reserve and in a botanical garden (Almaty are given in the article. Individuals of first, second and third and fourth years of life, differing by size of bulbs, leaf lamina and mass are allocated as a part of the juvenile group. Also immature, virginal and generative individuals are described, the latter are divided into three groups depending on the number of flowers (from 1 to 10 and more, and inflorescence leaves. As a result was established that by the type of root system structure Rhinopetalum genus is intermediate between the genera Tulipa, Korolkowia and Lilium. Also long-term data about the dynamic of the structure of the cultivated population in the conditions of the Main Botanical Garden are given in the article.

  13. Temperature-sensitive Tien Shan tree ring chronologies show multi-centennial growth trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esper, J. [Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Shiyatov, S.G.; Mazepa, V.S. [Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Marta Street 202, 620144 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Wilson, R.J.S. [School of GeoSciences, Grant Institute, Edinburgh University, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JW (United Kingdom); Graybill, D.A.; Funkhouser, G. [Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)

    2003-12-01

    Two millennia-length juniper ring width chronologies, processed to preserve multi-centennial growth trends, are presented for the Alai Range of the western Tien Shan in Kirghizia. The chronologies average the information from seven near-timberline sampling sites, and likely reflect summer temperature variation. For comparison, chronologies are also built using standard dendrochronological techniques. We briefly discuss some qualities of these ''inter-decadal'' records, and show the low frequency components removed by the standardization process include a long-term negative trend in the first half of the last millennium and a long-term positive trend since about AD 1800. The multi-centennial scale Alai Range chronologies, where these trends are retained, are both systematically biased (but in an opposite sense) in their low frequency domains. Nevertheless, they represent the best constraints and estimates of long-term summer temperature variation, and reflect the Medieval Warm Period, the Little Ice Age, and a period of warming since about the middle of the nineteenth century. (orig.)

  14. Association between atmospheric circulation patterns and firn-ice core records from the Inilchek glacierized area, central Tien Shan, Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, V.B.; Aizen, E.M.; Melack, J.M.; Kreutz, K.J.; Cecil, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Glacioclimatological research in the central Tien Shan was performed in the summers of 1998 and 1999 on the South Inilchek Glacier at 5100-5460 m. A 14.36 m firn-ice core and snow samples were collected and used for stratigraphic, isotopic, and chemical analyses. The firn-ice core and snow records were related to snow pit measurements at an event scale and to meteorological data and synoptic indices of atmospheric circulation at annual and seasonal scales. Linear relationships between the seasonal air temperature and seasonal isotopic composition in accumulated precipitation were established. Changes in the ??18O air temperature relationship, in major ion concentration and in the ratios between chemical species, were used to identify different sources of moisture and investigate changes in atmospheric circulation patterns. Precipitation over the central Tien Shan is characterized by the lowest ionic content among the Tien Shan glaciers and indicates its mainly marine origin. In seasons of minimum precipitation, autumn and winter, water vapor was derived from the and and semiarid regions in central Eurasia and contributed annual maximal solute content to snow accumulation in Tien Shan. The lowest content of major ions was observed in spring and summer layers, which represent maximum seasonal accumulation when moisture originates over the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean and Black Seas. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. A revista Cais entre o protagonismo e o assistencialismo: Uma análise discursiva crítica

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane de Melo Resende

    2012-01-01

    Como parte dos resultados de um projeto integrado cujo escopo é investigar, por meio de análises discursivas, as práticas envolvidas na produção e na distribuição de cinco publicações em língua portuguesa voltadas para a situação de rua, este artigo focaliza, com base na Análise de Discurso Crítica, a revista Cais, publicada em Lisboa. Configurando‑se como jornal de rua, a revista é vendida na rua e por pessoas em situação de rua ou de risco, para as quais revertem 70% da venda de cada exempl...

  16. Towards an improved glacier monitoring program in the Kyrgyz Tien Shan and Pamir Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandun, Martina; Huss, Matthias; Azisov, Erlan; Gafurov, Abror; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Usubaliev, Ryskul; Kronenberg, Marlene; Hoelzle, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The monitoring of glacier mass balance in remote regions is important to understand the response of glaciers to climate change. The coverage of monitored glaciers in Central Asia has been very limited for the past 15 years; however the necessity of enhanced understanding regarding glacier dynamics and long term evolution in this particular region is crucial. Moisture availability importantly determines glacier response. Glaciers located in the Northern Tien Shan and Pamir Mountains are likely not to be directly influenced by monsoon such as most monitored Peri-Himalayan glaciers. However, not only scientific reasons make glacier monitoring to be of great relevance, also the link to political and socio-economic constraints on water scarcity carries high importance. First steps towards the establishment of a new glacier monitoring network were performed in 2010/2011 and since then modernization and extension of the monitoring strategies are continuously aspired. Close cooperation of international and local scientists build the basis of the program. Today four glaciers located in the Kyrgyz Tien Shan (Golubin Glacier, Suek Zapadniy Glacier, Glacier No. 354) and the North-Western Pamir (Abramov Glacier) are regularly monitored. The network is planned to be extended in the next years to cover selected glaciers in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Further, we intend to develop new approaches to remotely monitor sub-seasonal glacier mass balance at a regional scale. In-situ mass balance measurements are taken at all four glaciers continuously in late summer. Automatic weather stations installed at Abramov Glacier in 2011 and at Golubin Glacier in 2013 deliver daily meteorological data allowing the application of a simple mass balance model driven with local precipitation and temperature data. Model calibration is performed using glaciological measurements and results are validated with snowline observations based on remote imagery. Automatic cameras at Abramov Glacier take

  17. Seismic triggering of landslides, Part A: Field evidence from the Northern Tien Shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-B. Havenith

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides triggered by strong earthquakes often caused most of the global damage and most of all casualties related to the events, such as shown by the M = 7.7 Peru earthquake in 1970, by the M = 7.6 El Salvador earthquake in 2001 or by the M = 7.4 Khait (Tajikistan earthquake in 1949. The obvious impact of a landslide on the population is directly related to its movement. Yet, prediction of future failure potential and hence future risk to population is necessary in order to avoid further catastrophes and involves the analyses of the origin of seismic instability. The seismic landslide potential is mainly determined by the interaction between the regional seismic hazard and local geological conditions. At a local scale, seismic factors interfering with geological conditions can produce site-specific ground motions. The influence of such Site Effects on instability is the principal topic of this paper, which is divided into two parts, A and B. The present Part A is concerned with the correlation of field data with observed instability phenomena. Field data were obtained on mainly three landslide sites in the Northern Tien Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. Geophysical prospecting, earthquake recordings, geological observation, trenching and geotechnical tests were the main investigation tools. The collected information gives an insight in the geological background of the slope failure and allows us to roughly infer failure mechanisms from field evidence. A detailed analysis of the susceptibility of a mechanism to specific geological conditions will be shown in Part B.

  18. Source parameters of the major historical earthquakes in the Tien-Shan region from the late 19th to the early 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikova, Galina (Dr. rer. nat.)

    2016-01-01

    The Tien-Shan and the neighboring Pamir region are two of the largest mountain belts in the world. Their deformation is dominated by intermontane basins bounded by active thrust and reverse faulting. The Tien-Shan mountain belt is characterized by a very high rate of seismicity along its margins as well as within the Tien-Shan interior. The study area of the here presented thesis, the western part of the Tien-Shan region, is currently seismically active with small and moderate sized earthquak...

  19. Inhibition of metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Andy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advanced cancer is a multifactorial disease that demands treatments targeting multiple cellular pathways. Chinese herbal cocktail which contains various phytochemicals may target multiple dys-regulated pathways in cancer cells and thus may provide an alternative/complementary way to treat cancers. Previously we reported that the Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liguid (THL can specifically induce apoptosis in various cancer cells and have immuno-modulating activity. In this study, we further evaluated the anti-metastatic, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of THL with a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods The migration and invasion of cancer cells and endothelial cells was determined by Boyden chamber transwell assays. The effect of THL on pulmonary metastasis was done by injecting CT-26 colon cancer cells intravenously to syngenic mice. The in vitro and in vivo microvessel formation was determined by the tube formation assay and the Matrigel plug assay, respectively. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of THL was determined by a human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. The expression of metalloproteinase (MMP-2, MMP-9, and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA was measured by gelatin zymography. The expression of HIF-1α and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were determined by Western blot. Results THL inhibited the migration and invasion ability of various cancer cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA and the activity of ERK1/2 in cancer cells, and suppressed pulmonary metastasis of CT-26 cancer cells in syngenic mice. Moreover, THL inhibited the migration, invasion, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2 and uPA in endothelial cells, and suppressed neovascularization in Matrigel plugs in mice. Besides its inhibitory effect on endothelial cells, THL inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression

  20. Response of thunderstorm activity in data of neutron monitoring at Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, Valentina; Kryukov, Sergey; Lutsenko, Vadim

    2015-04-01

    We present results of the study of data of the monitoring of high-energy and thermal neutrons at Tien Shan at different stages of thunderstorm activity. The data of the neutron monitoring were used taking into account the barometric effect. The intensity of the neutron component of cosmic rays is recorded in seven energy ranges. The electric field has values of ~ 100 V/m under fair weather conditions. Standard deviation of minute values of the neutron monitor data at the high altitude station does not exceed 0.5-0.6 %. Found that the standard deviation of the data during thunderstorms always exceeds these values. We selected events during the passage of thunderstorm clouds over the high altitude station without lightning discharges or with a small number of them. It was found that the particle rate of the neutron monitor changes in antiphase with the electric field changes. Atmospheric electric field of positive polarity decreases the count rate of the neutron monitor, and negative polarity - increases. Change of the count rate occurs at values of electric field ≥ 10-15 kV/m and reaches 2 %. The neutron monitor at the high-altitude station has the ability to measure the energy of recorded particles through determination of their multiplicity. We experimentally established that the sensitivity of the detected particles to change in Ez increases with decreasing their energy. The upper energy threshold of sensitivity of neutrons to change electric field is ~10 GeV. The physical mechanism of effect is based on lead nucleus capture of soft negative muons with the subsequent generation of neutrons. It is known that 7% of the neutron monitor count rate caused by negative muons. Absence of this effect in thermal neutrons data confirms the conclusion since the main difference of the thermal neutrons detector from the neutron monitor is the absence of the lead. In the active phase of a thunderstorm in the formed thundercloud the picture of distribution of charges is

  1. Inhibition of metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced cancer is a multifactorial disease that demands treatments targeting multiple cellular pathways. Chinese herbal cocktail which contains various phytochemicals may target multiple dys-regulated pathways in cancer cells and thus may provide an alternative/complementary way to treat cancers. Previously we reported that the Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liguid (THL) can specifically induce apoptosis in various cancer cells and have immuno-modulating activity. In this study, we further evaluated the anti-metastatic, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of THL with a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. The migration and invasion of cancer cells and endothelial cells was determined by Boyden chamber transwell assays. The effect of THL on pulmonary metastasis was done by injecting CT-26 colon cancer cells intravenously to syngenic mice. The in vitro and in vivo microvessel formation was determined by the tube formation assay and the Matrigel plug assay, respectively. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of THL was determined by a human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. The expression of metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) was measured by gelatin zymography. The expression of HIF-1α and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were determined by Western blot. THL inhibited the migration and invasion ability of various cancer cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA and the activity of ERK1/2 in cancer cells, and suppressed pulmonary metastasis of CT-26 cancer cells in syngenic mice. Moreover, THL inhibited the migration, invasion, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2 and uPA in endothelial cells, and suppressed neovascularization in Matrigel plugs in mice. Besides its inhibitory effect on endothelial cells, THL inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in cancer cells. Finally, our results show that THL

  2. Regional geomagnetic field variations and seismic activity of the northern Tien Shan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. At present the problem of short-term earthquake prediction based on 'precursors' (featured variations of various geophysical fields) is far from solving. At the same time an evidence of earthquake triggering by natural and man-made factors is world-wide verified. Based on well-monitored triggering impacts the new concept of earthquake prediction may be developed. One of the possible powerful triggering mechanisms was proposed by G. Duma and Yu. Ruzhin [2003], indicating the generation of mechanical force in the Earth crust due to interaction of telluric currents with geomagnetic field. For verification of this hypothesis a territory of Bishkek geodynamical proving ground was selected where seismic, geomagnetic, magnetotelluric, and GPS observatories are concentrated, and extensive geophysical databases are available. Possible correlations of seismic activity of the Northern Tien Shan region (40.5 deg-44.5 degN, 71.5 deg-78.5 degE) and variations of geomagnetic magnetic field, as well as and lunar-solar tides within the period 1994-2007 are analyzed. Various statistical methods (cross-correlation, spectral analysis) were employed. The earthquake daily frequency distribution shows a common performance with the regular diurnal geomagnetic field variations. Time difference [T(E)-T(Max GMF)] between the earthquake occurrence and time of maximal daily geomagnetic field has normal distribution. 40% of earthquakes occurred in the range of -4 to +4 hour from maximal daily geomagnetic field. The effect is more pronounced for weak earthquakes (M<4), but it is observed for the whole seismic activity as well. There are a number of common long periods (7, 9, 14, 28 days) in the z-component of the earth tide and seismic activity. Nevertheless, no effect of the diurnal tidal cycle on the seismicity has been revealed. The geomagnetic correlations, which have been found, are observed for the entire region under study, and they do not depend on

  3. Autonomous geodynamics of the Pamir-Tien Shan junction zone from seismology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukk, A. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.; Leonova, V. G.

    2015-11-01

    The geodynamics of the Tajik Depression, the junction zone of the Pamirs and Tien Shan, is typically considered in the context of plate tectonic concept, which implies intense subhorizontal compression of the zone resulting from the subduction of the Indian and Eurasian lithospheric plates. This convergence has been reliably confirmed by the GPS measurements. However, the joint analysis of the geological structure, seismicity, and geodimeter measurements conducted during a few years at the Garm geodynamical testing site of the Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, demonstrates a widening of the Tajik Depression instead of its shortening, as should be expected from the subhorizontal compression predominant in the present-day stress-state of this region. This conclusion, together with the data from the other regions, suggests that, along with the plate tectonic mechanisms, there are also other, local, autonomous drivers that contribute to the tectogenesis of this region. Besides, the probable existence of these autonomous sources within the Tajik Depression directly follows from the seismology data. Among them is the crustal spreading within the depression suggested by the seismotectonic displacements in the focal mechanisms of the earthquakes. These displacements are directed in different azimuths off the axial's most subsided part of the depression at a depth of 20-30 km. Above this region the distribution of seismotectonic deformations (STD) is chaotic. This pattern of deformation is barely accounted for by a simple model of subhorizontal compression of the Earth's crust in the region. In our opinion, these features of the seismotectonic deformation in the crust within the studied part of the Tajik Depression is probably associated with the gain in the volume of the rocks due to the inflow of the additional material, which is supplied from the bottom crust or upper mantle by the deep fluids. This increase in the rock volume

  4. [Molecular-genetic analysis of the yeast Komagataea (williopsis) pratensis populations from Caucasian and Tien Shan regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, E S; Tokareva, N G; Bab'eva, I P; Naumov, G I

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of sixteen Komagataea (Williopsis) pratensis from the Caucasian and Tien Shan soils by the PCR, blot hybridization, and isoenzyme electrophoresis techniques showed that fifteen of them do belong to the species K. pratensis. The isolates from the two geographic areas differed in some physiological characteristics and in the PCR product profiles obtained with the microsatellite primers (CAC)5 and (GACA)4. PMID:11386057

  5. Spatial-temporal structure of seismicity of the North Tien Shan and its changeunder effect of high energy electromagnetic pulses

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Tarasova; N. T. Tarasov

    2004-01-01

    The effect of high-energy electromagnetic pulses emitted by a magnetohydrodynamic generator used as a source for deep electrical sounding of the crust on spatial-temporal structure of seismicity of the North Tien Shan is explored. Five-six years periodicity of changes in spatial distribution of seismicity was revealed. The effect of electromagnetic pulses increases the stability of the spatial distribution of seismicity over time and simultaneously speeds up cycles of its transforma...

  6. Favorable climatic regime for maintaining the present-day geometry of the Gregoriev Glacier, Inner Tien Shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fujita

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We conducted 2 yr (2005–2007 of in situ meteorological and glaciological observations on the Gregoriev Glacier, a flat-top glacier within the Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Relative carrier-phase GPS surveys reveal a vertical lowering at the summit of the glacier. Based on snow density data and an energy-mass balance model, we estimate that the annual precipitation and summer mean temperature required to maintain the glacier in the current state are 289 mm and −3.8 °C at the glacier summit (4600 m a.s.l., respectively. The good agreement between dynamically derived precipitation and the long-term observed precipitation at a nearby station in the Tien Shan (296 mm at 3614 m a.s.l. for the period 1930–2002 suggests that the glacier has been in a near steady-state in terms of mass supply. The glacier mass-balance, reconstructed based on meteorological data from the Tien Shan station for the past 80 yr, explains the observed fluctuations in glacier extent, particularly the negative mass balance in the 1990s.

  7. CAI课件在《家畜寄生虫学》教学中的应用%The use of CAI courseware in veterinary parasitology teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建民; 姚龙泉; 刘明春; 何剑斌; 葛云侠

    2012-01-01

    通过多种途径收集素材,制备适合动物医学专业学生使用的《家畜寄生虫学》CAI课件,使原来枯燥的讲解课程变成生动的展示课程.该课件帮助同学们日后对寄生虫病诊断以及寄生虫分类奠定了良好基础.%Collecting materials by diverseness ways, and preparation computer assisted instruction ( CAI) courseware of animal parasitology which was suit for animal medicine undergraduate students using. The CAI of animal parasitology had turned the original boring lectures into vivid display courses. The courseware would establish a satisfactory basis for students diagnosis and classification parasitosis in the future work.

  8. New Petrology, Mineral Chemistry and Stable MG Isotope Compositions of an Allende CAI: EK-459-7-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Lapen, T. J.; Righter, M.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the key to understanding physical and chemical conditions in the nascent solar nebula. These inclusions have the oldest radiometric ages of solar system materials and are composed of phases that are predicted to condense early from a gas of solar composition. Thus, their chemistry and textures record conditions and processes in the earliest stages of development of the solar nebula. Type B inclusions are typically larger and more coarse grained than other types with substantial evidence that many of them were at least partially molten. Type B inclusions are further subdivided into Type B1 (possess thick melilite mantle) and Type B2 (lack melilite mantle). Despite being extensively studied, the origin of the melilite mantles of Type B1 inclusions remains uncertain. We present petrologic and chemical data for a Type B inclusion, EK-459-7-2, that bears features found in both Type B1 and B2 inclusions and likely represents an intermediate between the two types. Detailed studies of more of these intermediate objects may help to constrain models for Type B1 rim formation.

  9. Search for Sources of Primary Cosmic Rays at Energies Above 0.1 Pev at Tien Shan

    CERN Document Server

    Benko, J; Nikolsky, S I; Nesterova, N M; Romakhin, V A; Chubenko, A P; Shepetov, A L; Somogyi, A; Varga, A

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the experimental data of joint Russian - Hungrian research was carried out at Tien Shan station on the search of sources of primary cosmic rays (PCR) at energies 0.1-1.0 PeV. Maps of extensive air shower arrival directions were presented where the standard deviation of mean event numbers in equatorial co-ordinates exceeded a definite value. The excess of EAS number was observed from an Galaxy object - the SN remnant and some other directions. The young pulsar PSR 0656+14 located near the centre of this object.

  10. Glacier characteristics and changes in the Sary-Jaz River Basin (Central Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan) – 1990–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Osmonov, Azamat; Bolch, Tobias; Xi, Chen; Kurban, Alishir; Guo, Wanqing

    2013-01-01

    The water discharge from the heavily glacierized Sary-Jaz River Basin (Eastern Kyrgyzstan) is of high importance for the very arid Tarim Basin located in Xinjiang (north-western China). We investigated glacier changes in the entire Sary-Jaz River Basin, which covers a large part of the Central Tien Shan, for the period from 1990 to 2010 based on Landsat ‘TM’/‘ETM+’data. We found 1310 glaciers (>0.1 km²), which covered 2055 ± 41.1 km² (∼18% of the entire basin) in 1990. The glaciers shrank by ...

  11. Age of magmatic and metasomatic rocks of Chorukhdayron graben according to K-Ar dating (Middle Tien-Shan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    43 K-Ar data related to magmatic and metasomatic rocks of Late Hercynic Chorukhdayron graben (Kuramin structure-formation zone of Middle Tien-Shan) are presented; 19 are original. Their interpretation is based on the certain violation regulations for K-Ar volconite system from other Late Hercynic throughs of the same zone. It is show a that the formation of Chorukhdayron granitoid massif and host volcanites traditionally related to Early Permian, occurs in reality between Middle and Late Carbon iferous, and the age of skarns known in the region is Late Carboniferous

  12. Search for sources of primary cosmic rays at energy above 0.1 PeV at the Tien Shan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benko, G. [Research Institute for Particles and Nuclear Physics of Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Chubenko, A.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Erdoes, G. [Research Institute for Particles and Nuclear Physics of Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Nikolsky, S.I.; Nesterova, N.M.; Romakhin, V.A.; Shchepetov, A.L. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Somogy, A.; Varga, A. [Research Institute for Particles and Nuclear Physics of Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary)

    2008-01-15

    Analysis of the experimental data of joint Russian-Hungarian (FIAN and KFKI) research was carried out at Tien Shan station for the search of sources of primary cosmic rays (PCR) at energies (E{sub 0}=10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} eV). Maps of extensive air shower (EAS) arrival directions are presented where the standard deviation of mean event numbers in equatorial coordinates exceeded a definite value. The excess of EAS number was observed from some directions. It was observed from an extended galactic object - the SN remnant. The young pulsar PSR 0656+14 is located near the centre of this object.

  13. The form of the CR energy spectrum up to 10{sup 18} eV (Tien-Shan data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulov, S.B., E-mail: shaul@sci.lebedev.r [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, FIAN, Leninsky prospect 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Besshapov, S.P.; Cherdintseva, K.V.; Chubenko, A.P.; Danilova, E.V. [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, FIAN, Leninsky prospect 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Janseitova, J.K.; Nam, R.A. [Tien-Shan Highmountain Station, Mitina 3, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Nesterova, N.M.; Nikolskaya, N.M.; Pavluchenko, V.P. [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, FIAN, Leninsky prospect 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Piskal, V.V.; Vildanov, N.G.; Vildanova, L.I. [Tien-Shan Highmountain Station, Mitina 3, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2009-12-15

    The N{sub e} spectrum of extensive air showers at Tien-Shan (experiment HADRON) is analyzed. It is shown, that around 10{sup 17} eV a bump is observed in the spectrum. A sharp break in the spectrum at 3 PeV and the bump at 100 PeV are interpreted as an additional CR component, caused by the radiation from one or two close CR sources. It is noticed, that the mass composition of the basic CR component and the additional one can differ.

  14. Search for Sources of Primary Cosmic Rays at Energies Above 0.1 Pev at Tien Shan

    OpenAIRE

    Benko, G.; Erdos, G.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Nesterova, N. M.; Romakhin, V. A.; Chubenko, A. P.; Shepetov, A. L.; SOMOGYI, A.; Varga, A.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of the experimental data of joint Russian - Hungarian research was carried out at Tien Shan station on the search of sources of primary cosmic rays (PCR) at energies 0.1-1.0 PeV. Maps of extensive air shower arrival directions were presented where the standard deviation of mean event numbers in equatorial co-ordinates exceeded a definite value. The excess of EAS number was observed from an Galaxy object - the SN remnant and some other directions. The young pulsar PSR 0656+14 located ...

  15. Favorable climatic regime for maintaining the present-day geometry of the Gregoriev Glacier, Inner Tien Shan

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, K.; Takeuchi, N.; S.A. Nikitin; A. B. Surazakov; Okamoto, S; V. B. Aizen; Kubota, J.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted 2 yr (2005–2007) of in situ meteorological and glaciological observations on the Gregoriev Glacier, a flat-top glacier within the Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Relative carrier-phase GPS surveys reveal a vertical lowering at the summit of the glacier. Based on snow density data and an energy-mass balance model, we estimate that the annual precipitation and summer mean temperature required to maintain the glacier in the current state are 289 mm and −3.8 °C at the glacier summit (46...

  16. Search for sources of primary cosmic rays at energy above 0.1 PeV at the Tien Shan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the experimental data of joint Russian-Hungarian (FIAN and KFKI) research was carried out at Tien Shan station for the search of sources of primary cosmic rays (PCR) at energies (E0=1014-1015 eV). Maps of extensive air shower (EAS) arrival directions are presented where the standard deviation of mean event numbers in equatorial coordinates exceeded a definite value. The excess of EAS number was observed from some directions. It was observed from an extended galactic object - the SN remnant. The young pulsar PSR 0656+14 is located near the centre of this object

  17. The form of the CR energy spectrum up to 1018 eV (Tien-Shan data)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ne spectrum of extensive air showers at Tien-Shan (experiment HADRON) is analyzed. It is shown, that around 1017 eV a bump is observed in the spectrum. A sharp break in the spectrum at 3 PeV and the bump at 100 PeV are interpreted as an additional CR component, caused by the radiation from one or two close CR sources. It is noticed, that the mass composition of the basic CR component and the additional one can differ.

  18. Peculiarities of geodynamic processes in the region of Central Tien Shan: determination of anomaly region using seismic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conduct an analysis of seismic data for the Central Tien Shan region on the base of qualitative model for large crustal earthquake preparation, which has been suggested earlier. We analyze spatial variations of transverse wave absorb field structure in the earth's crust and upper mantle, and also peculiarities of seismic regime in the region under consideration. We developed an abnormal area to the south-east of Bishkek city, where enough strong earthquake (M>6.0) can occur in a few years. The other geological, geophysical and geochemical data agree with such a conclusion. (author)

  19. La falta de financiacion publica hipoteca el futuro del acelerador de protones valenciano. La Universidad de Valencia tiene avanzado el diseno de este dispositivo de alta tecnologia

    CERN Multimedia

    Jatvia, J M

    2002-01-01

    "La Universidad de Valencia tiene avanzado el diseno de un acelerador lineal de protones, cuya culminacion depende del compromiso del Consell en sufragar la plantilla que necesitaria el centro para estar operativo" (1 page).

  20. Taxonomic study of Central Asian species of the genus Macropsis Lewis, 1836 (Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae). I: Redescriptions of willow-dwelling species from West Tien Shan Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishechkin, Dmitri Yu

    2013-01-01

    Macropsis abdullaevi Dubovskiy, 1966 = M. arslanbobica Dlabola, 1967 syn. nov., M. ibragimovi Dubovskiy, 1966 and M. asiatica Dubovskiy, 1966 from West Tien Shan Mts. (Kyrgyzstan) are redescribed and illustrated based on material from type localities or/and adjacent territories. M. tarbagataica Mityaev, 1971 from Kazakhstan is recorded from West Tien Shan for the first time. Data on host plants and male vibrational calling signals for all species considered are provided. PMID:26171543

  1. Oligo-Miocene onset of exhumation of the Tien Shan: the role of the Talas-Fergana strike-slip fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bande, A.; Sobel, E. R.; Mikolaichuk, A.; Auxietre, J.; Munsch, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Talas-Fergana dextral strike-slip fault (TFF) in Central Asia is one of the world's most prominent strike-slip faults. Separating the Western and Central Tien Shan, the TFF forms a prominent feature in the mountainous topography. Geological knowledge about the Western Tien Shan is substantially less developed than the surrounding areas and it is an area where the Pamir indentation should play an important role in its geodynamic evolution. In this contribution we present new thermochronological data from the Kyrgyz Western Tien Shan and relate them to the evolution of the mountain belt. Apatite fission track samples from the northern Western Tien Shan (Talas and Shandalash ranges) show clustered reset Oligo-Miocene (22-29 Ma) ages. This first group of samples was collected less than 15 km away from TFF and shows the maximum amount of Cenozoic exhumation. In contrast, a vertical profile located in the Shandalash range but ~60 km away from the TFF exhibit partially reset, Eocene (30-43 Ma) ages, implying a smaller amount of exhumation along strike moving further away from the main strike-slip fault. The northernmost samples (Ugam range) also showed partially reset ages (37-51 Ma), showing that exhumation also decrease moving towards the Kazakh platform. In addition, the Oligo-Miocene episode is also recorded in the stratigraphic section of the adjacent Fergana basin by a change in the source area, detected using detrital zircon age populations. Several studies in the northern Central Tien Shan show a regional increase in the exhumation rate by the late Miocene (~10 Ma). Although our data come from similar latitudes within the Tien Shan we have little evidence to extrapolate this event to the Western Tien Shan. However, our results can be compared with the onset of exhumation of the southernmost basement involved thrusts in the Chinese South Tien Shan. Studies north of the Kashgar area determined the initiation of exhumation there to be around 25 Ma. Paleomagnetic

  2. Archaeoseismological studies and structural position of the medieval earthquakes in the South of the Issyk-Kul depression (Tien Shan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhenkov, A. M.; Kol'chenko, V. A.; Luzhanskii, D. V.; Abdieva, S. V.; Deev, E. V.; Mazeika, J. V.; Rogozhin, E. A.; Rodina, S. N.; Rodkin, M. V.; Fortuna, A. B.; Charimov, T. A.; Yudakhin, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    We carried out archaeoseismological studies in the Southern Issyk-Kul region (Kyrgyz Tien Shan) and obtained radiocarbon datings of the collected samples. These data suggest that the sources of strong earthquakes have occurred in this territory in the 11th and (probably) 16th centuries. These earthquakes had magnitude M ≥ 7 and seismic intensity of at least I ≥ 9. The sources of these earthquakes were associated with the local adyr (piedmont) faults—components of the Pre-Terskei border fault. Our results demonstrate considerable underestimation of the seismic hazard for the South Issyk-Kul region in the latest Seismic Zoning Map of Kyrgyz Republic (2012), which should be taken into account in the construction of the new seismic zoning map for Kyrgyzstan.

  3. New data on geodynamic process in anomaly area of north Tien Shan: possible preparation of a strong earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New data on geodynamic process in the area of North Tien Shan, revealed earlier based in anomaly absorption of seismic waves, is being analyzed. It was established that here for last 5-7 years (since 1999 till 2005) features of S-wave absorption field in earth crust and upper mantle within anomaly area had been significantly changed - new elliptic structure had been formed, generated by focuses of relatively deep earthquakes. Within the boundaries of this area in 2005, earthquakes with mechanism of normal faulting and oblique normal prevailed. Amount of the obtained data indicate active increase of juvenile fluids in earth crust and in upper mantle within anomaly area that may testify preparation of a strong earthquake ( ∼6.5). (author)

  4. Une description philologique de quelques mots du français régional haïtien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberson Pierre

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article décrit quelques exemples de mots relevant du français régional haïtien, autrement dit du français contemporain tel qu'il est représenté en Haïti. Dans une approche philologique, les auteurs sollicitent la méthodologie de la lexicographie différentielle francophone de manière à soulever, plus indirectement, quelques unes des questions d'ordre sociolinguistique qui ont toujours préoccupé Pierre Vernet. Sont traités à titre d'illustration les mots bérégène, bouillon, calalou*, camionette, carnet, chadèque, pistache, rigoise et suret(te.

  5. Une description philologique de quelques mots du français régional haïtien

    OpenAIRE

    Roberson Pierre; Frédéric Torterat

    2012-01-01

    Cet article décrit quelques exemples de mots relevant du français régional haïtien, autrement dit du français contemporain tel qu'il est représenté en Haïti. Dans une approche philologique, les auteurs sollicitent la méthodologie de la lexicographie différentielle francophone de manière à soulever, plus indirectement, quelques unes des questions d'ordre sociolinguistique qui ont toujours préoccupé Pierre Vernet. Sont traités à titre d'illustration les mots bérégène, bouillon, calalou*, camion...

  6. Los incendios cañeros en el CAI Jesus Rabí. Influencia de las condiciones meteorológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Medina Torres

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Los incendios cañeros constituyen una de las causas de pérdidas importantes en el CAI Jesús Rabí. Con una base de datos de los archivos del Cuerpo de Bomberos de Matanzas, que abarca desde 1989 hasta 2000 y la información de las estación meteorológica Colón, se estudia el comportamiento más general de los estallidos de fuegos y su relación con los elementos meteorológicos, lo que permite perfeccionar un Plan de Protección Contra Incendios

  7. Glacier area and mass changes since 1964 in the Ala Archa Valley, Kyrgyz Ala-Too, northern Tien Shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bolch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers are an important source of fresh water for Central Asia as they release water during the summer months when precipitation is low and water demand highest. Many studies address glacier area changes but only changes in glacier mass can be directly linked to climate and runoff. Despite the importance, investigations of glacier mass changes have been restricted to only a few glaciers in the Tien Shan until now. Geodetic mass balance measurements are suitable to complement and extend existing in-situ measurements. In this study, both area and mass changes of the ~40 km² glacier ice in the Ala Archa Valley, Kyrgyz Tien Shan, were investigated using 1964 and 1971 stereo Corona, 2012 stereo ASTER, the SRTM digital terrain model and other optical data such as Landsat ETM+ or Rapid Eye. In addition, ice thickness was modeled taking the basal shear stress and the glacier surface topography into account. The results indicate an area loss of 18.3±5.0% from 1964 until 2010 with continuous shrinkage in all investigated periods. The glacier’s mass balance was −0.45±0.27 m w.e. a−1 for the period 1964–1999 and −0.42±0.66 m w.e. a−1 for 1999–2012. Golubin Glacier showed a possible slight mass gain for 1964– 1971 and a decelerated mass loss for the 1999–2012 period. This is in good agreement with existing in-situ measurements exiting from 1962 until 1994 and since 2010. The overall ice volume was estimated to be 1.56±0.47 km³ of ice in the year 2000. Hence, the entire ice would be lost by 2100 if the mass loss would continue at the same rate

  8. 電腦輔助教學與個別教學結合: 電腦輔助教學課堂應用初探 Computer-Assisted Instruction Under the Management of Individualized Instruction: A Classroom Management Approach of CAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny S. J. Lin

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available 無First reviews the development of Computer. Assisted Instruction (CAI in Taiwan. This study describes the training of teachers from different levels of schools to design CAI coursewares, and the planning of CAI courseware bank possesses 2,000 supplemental coursewares. Some CAI's c1assroom application system should be carefully established to prevent the easy abuse of a CAI courseware as an instructional plan. The study also claims to steer CAI in our elemantary and secondary education could rely on the mastery learning as the instructional plan. In this case, CAI must limit its role as the formative test and remedial material only. In the higher education , the Keller's Personalized System of Instruction could be an effective c1assroom management system. Therefore, CAI will offer study guide and formative test only. Using these 2 instructional system may enhance student's achievement , and speed up the learning rate at the same time. Combining with individualized instruction and CAI will be one of the most workable approach in current c1assroom . The author sets up an experiment 10 varify their effectiveness and efficiency in the near future.

  9. Comparative Study on Cloud Parameter Estimation Among GOSAT/CAI, MODIS, CALIPSO/CALIOP and Landsat-8/OLI with Laser Radar: Lidar as Truth Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study on cloud parameter estimation among GOSAT/CAI, MODIS, CALIPSO/CALIOP and Landsat-8/OLI is carried out using Laser Radar: Lidar as a truth data. Optical depth, size distribution, as well as cirrus type of clouds are cloud parameters. In particular, cirrus cloud detection is tough issue. 1.38 µm channel is required for its detection. Although MODIS and Landsat-8/OLI have such channel, the other mission instruments, CAI and CALIPSO/CALIOP do not have such channel. As a truth data of cloud parameter, ground based Lidar is used in this comparative study. From the Lidar, backscattered echo signal and depolarization coefficient are obtained as a function of altitude. Therefore, cloud type, vertical profile can be derived from the Lidar data. CALIPSO/CALIOP is satellite based Lidar which allows observation of clouds from space. Although the directions of laser light emissions between CALIPSO/CALIOP and the ground based Lidar are different, their principles are same. Therefore, it is expected that CALIPSO/CALIOP data derived cloud parameters are similar to the ground based Lidar data derived cloud parameters. The experimental results show the aforementioned facts and are useful for improvement of cloud parameter estimation accuracy with several sensor data combinations.

  10. Conhecimento e uso de plantas em uma comunidade caiçara do litoral sul do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Knowledge and use of plants in a Caiçara community located on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Borges

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A Área de Proteção Ambiental de Cairuçu (APA localiza-se no município de Paraty, RJ. É uma unidade de conservação de uso sustentável e dispõe-se a proteger o ambiente natural e as comunidades caiçaras da região. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um inventário etnobotânico das plantas conhecidas e utilizadas pela comunidade caiçara que habita a praia de Martim de Sá. Moram no local 30 pessoas das quais 10 foram entrevistadas. As informações etnobotânicas foram obtidas através da observação participante e entrevistas semi-estruturadas. O material botânico coletado foi depositado no Herbário do Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro (RB. Foram identificadas 76 espécies pertencentes a 59 gêneros e 30 famílias botânicas consideradas úteis pelos caiçaras. As três espécies mais citadas foram: Sloanea obtusifolia (Sapopema, Scherolobium denudatum (Ingá-ferro e Balizia pedicelaris (Timbuíba. Utilizou-se o Índice de Shannon (H' = 1,81 - base 10 para a análise da diversidade de espécies. O registro sobre o uso dos recursos vegetais na comunidade estudada fornece informações que podem ser utilizadas para programas de conservação baseados no conhecimento local do ambiente.The Cairuçu Environmental Protection Area (APA was created to help assure the protection of the natural environment and its sustainable use by the caiçara communities in the region. This work presents an ethnobotanical inventory of the plants known and used by the caiçara community living on Martim de Sá beach in Paraty municipality, RJ. Thirty people live in the locality and ten of them were interviewed. Ethnobotanical information was obtained through participatory observations and semi-structured interviews with the local residents. All botanical material collected was deposited in the herbarium of the Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro (RB. A total of 76 species belonging to 59 genera and 30

  11. Geomorphology and Ice Content of Glacier - Rock Glacier – Moraine Complexes in Ak-Shiirak Range (Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, Tobias; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Rohrbach, Nico; Fischer, Andrea; Osmonov, Azamat

    2015-04-01

    Meltwater originating from the Tien Shan is of high importance for the runoff to the arid and semi-arid region of Central Asia. Previous studies estimate a glaciers' contribution of about 40% for the Aksu-Tarim Catchment, a transboundary watershed between Kyrgyzstan and China. Large parts of the Ak-Shiirak Range drain into this watershed. Glaciers in Central and Inner Tien Shan are typically polythermal or even cold and surrounded by permafrost. Several glaciers terminate into large moraine complexes which show geomorphological indicators of ice content such as thermo-karst like depressions, and further downvalley signs of creep such as ridges and furrows and a fresh, steep rock front which are typical indicators for permafrost creep ("rock glacier"). Hence, glaciers and permafrost co-exist in this region and their interactions are important to consider, e.g. for the understanding of glacial and periglacial processes. It can also be assumed that the ice stored in these relatively large dead-ice/moraine-complexes is a significant amount of the total ice storage. However, no detailed investigations exist so far. In an initial study, we investigated the structure and ice content of two typical glacier-moraine complexes in the Ak-Shiirak-Range using different ground penetrating radar (GPR) devices. In addition, the geomorphology was mapped using high resolution satellite imagery. The structure of the moraine-rock glacier complex is in general heterogeneous. Several dead ice bodies with different thicknesses and moraine-derived rock glaciers with different stages of activities could be identified. Few parts of these "rock glaciers" contain also massive ice but the largest parts are likely characterised by rock-ice layers of different thickness and ice contents. In one glacier forefield, the thickness of the rock-ice mixture is partly more than 300 m. This is only slightly lower than the maximum thickness of the glacier ice. Our measurements revealed that up to 20% of

  12. Une catastrophe glorieuse : le martyre des premiers chrétiens du Japon, Nagasaki, 1597

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Jacquelard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Le naufrage du galion San Felipe dans le port de Urado (Shikoku, Japon en octobre 1596 fut le déclencheur d’un désastre missionnaire : le martyre de vingt-six chrétiens, franciscains espagnols et chrétiens japonais, à Nagasaki, le 5 février 1597. Cet article s’attache à examiner la relation dialectique entre les deux événements par l’étude de deux discours missionnaires franciscains hagiographiques. Il s’agit tout d’abord de rappeler la lecture providentialiste du temps à travers la perception de présages matériels et spirituels de la part des acteurs, puis de montrer que ces évènements paroxystiques révèlent en même temps qu’ils résolvent – temporairement – des tensions et des crises latentes, résultat de la confrontation entre plusieurs communautés culturelles comme la japonaise, l’espagnole et la portugaise, autour de prétentions géopolitiques, commerciales et religieuses dans cette zone de frontière de l’antiméridien du Pacifique nord.El naufragio del galeón San Felipe en el puerto de Urado (Shikoku, Japón en octubre de 1596 desembocó en un desastre misionero : el martirio de veintiséis cristianos, franciscanos españoles y cristianos japoneses, en Nagasaki, el 5 de febrero de 1597. Este artículo quiere examinar la relación dialéctica entre ambos acontecimientos, mediante el estudio de dos discursos misioneros franciscanos hagiográficos. Se trata de recordar primero la lectura providencialista de la época a través de la percepción de presagios tanto materiales como espirituales por parte de los actores, y mostrar luego que estos acontecimientos paroxísticos revelan, al mismo tiempo que resuelven –temporalmente– tensiones y crisis latentes, resultados de la confrontación de varias comunidades culturales como la japonesa, la española y la portuguesa, en torno a pretensiones geopolíticas, comerciales y religiosas en la zona fronteriza del antimeridiano del Pacífico norte.

  13. Upper Paleozoic tectonics in the Tien Shan (Central Asian Orogenic Belt): insight from new structural data (Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdon, Anthony; Petit, Carole; Rolland, Yann; Loury, Chloé; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Guillot, Stéphane; Ganino, Clément

    2016-04-01

    Due to successive block accretions, the polarity of structures and tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) are still a matter of debate. There are several conflicting models about the polarity of subduction during the Paleozoic, the number of microplates and oceanic basins and the timing of tectonic events in Kyrgyz and Chinese Tien Shan. In this study, we propose new structural maps and cross-sections of Middle and South Kyrgyz Tien Shan (MTS and STS respectively). These cross-sections highlight an overall dextral strike-slip shear zone in the MTS and a north verging structure related to south-dipping subduction in the STS. These structures are Carboniferous in age and sealed by Mesozoic and Cenozoic deposits. In detail, the STS exhibits two deformation phases. The first one is characterized by coeval top-to-the north thrusting and top-to-the-South normal shearing at the boundaries of large continental unit that underwent High-Pressure (Eclogite facies) metamorphism. We ascribe this phase to the exhumation of underthrusted passive margin units of the MTS. The second one corresponds to a top to the North nappe stacking that we link to the last collisional events between the MTS and the Tarim block. Later on, during the Late Carboniferous, a major deformation stage is characterized by the deformation of the MTS and its thrusting over the NTS. This deformation occurred on a large dextral shear zone between the NTS and the MTS known as Song-Kul Zone or Nikolaiev Line as a "side effect" of the Tarim/MTS collision. Based on these observations, we propose a new interpretation of the tectonic evolution of the CAOB. The resulting model comprises the underthrusting of the MTS-Kazakh platform beneath the Tarim and its exhumation followed by the folding, shortening and thickening of the internal metamorphic units during the last collisional events which partitioned the deformation between the STS and the MTS. Finally, the docking of the large Tarim Craton

  14. The multiplicity of the Tien-Shan neutron super-monitor NM-64 and its relation to the energy spectrum of the hadron component at the mountain level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental data of the Tien-Shan neutron super-monitor NM-64 on the multiplicity spectrum in the range from 1 to 2000 (measurements of 1995-1996) are presented. Based on comparison of the measured multiplicity spectrum with hadron energy spectra of the Tien-Shan ionization calorimeter (level 690 g/cm2) and the Aragats magnetic spectrometer (700 g/cm2) the following dependence of the hadron energy E on the multiplicity m is obtained: E (GeV) = 0.1 m2.05 for the range of 20 < m < 150

  15. A link between oxygen, calcium and titanium isotopes in 26Al-poor hibonite-rich CAIs from Murchison and implications for the heterogeneity of dust reservoirs in the solar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kööp, Levke; Davis, Andrew M.; Nakashima, Daisuke; Park, Changkun; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Tenner, Travis J.; Heck, Philipp R.; Kita, Noriko T.

    2016-09-01

    PLACs (platy hibonite crystals) and related hibonite-rich calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs; hereafter collectively referred to as PLAC-like CAIs) have the largest nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies of all materials believed to have formed in the solar system. Most PLAC-like CAIs have low inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios and could have formed prior to injection or widespread distribution of 26Al in the solar nebula. In this study, we report 26Al-26Mg systematics combined with oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopic compositions for a large number of newly separated PLAC-like CAIs from the Murchison CM2 chondrite (32 CAIs studied for oxygen, 26 of these also for 26Al-26Mg, calcium and titanium). Our results confirm (1) the large range of nucleosynthetic anomalies in 50Ti and 48Ca (our data range from -70‰ to +170‰ and -60‰ to +80‰, respectively), (2) the substantial range of Δ17O values (-28‰ to -17‰, with Δ17O = δ17O - 0.52 × δ18O), and (3) general 26Al-depletion in PLAC-like CAIs. The multielement approach reveals a relationship between Δ17O and the degree of variability in 50Ti and 48Ca: PLAC-like CAIs with the highest Δ17O (∼-17‰) show large positive and negative 50Ti and 48Ca anomalies, while those with the lowest Δ17O (∼-28‰) have small to no anomalies in 50Ti and 48Ca. These observations could suggest a physical link between anomalous 48Ca and 50Ti carriers and an 16O-poor reservoir. We suggest that the solar nebula was isotopically heterogeneous shortly after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud, and that the primordial dust reservoir, in which anomalous carrier phases were heterogeneously distributed, was 16O-poor (Δ17O ⩾ -17‰) relative to the primordial gaseous (CO + H2O) reservoir (Δ17O calcium and titanium isotopes in PLAC-like CAIs.

  16. Bursts of gamma-rays, electrons and low-energy neutrons during thunderstorms at the Tien-Shan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New data of the last measurement season held at the Tien-Shan complex for investigation gamma-radiation, accelerated electrons and low-energy neutrons during thunderstorms are presented. The flux of gamma-radiation in the energy range of 40 – 1200 keV shows a strict correlation with instantaneous intensity of atmospheric discharge. Its energy spectra measured for the first time with riches statistics and improved resolution typically have an absolute intensity about 50 – 100 quanta·cm−2·s−1, and demonstrate considerable evolution in the course of discharge. The signals from an avalanche of accelerated electrons have been directly observed inside thunderclouds. A lower energy estimation for these electrons is about 10 MeV. For the first time, during electric discharge moments in thunderstorms, there were found considerable intensity enhancements of the neutron intensity in the range of thermal energies: up to 100 – 200 standard deviations, or 3 – 8 times above the background, so the observed neutron flux reaches the values of (20 – 40) · 103 m−2 · min−1.

  17. Spatial-temporal structure of seismicity of the North Tien Shan and its changeunder effect of high energy electromagnetic pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Tarasova

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high-energy electromagnetic pulses emitted by a magnetohydrodynamic generator used as a source for deep electrical sounding of the crust on spatial-temporal structure of seismicity of the North Tien Shan is explored. Five-six years periodicity of changes in spatial distribution of seismicity was revealed. The effect of electromagnetic pulses increases the stability of the spatial distribution of seismicity over time and simultaneously speeds up cycles of its transformations, which develop on stabilization background. Increasing of seismic energy release after electromagnetic impacts is observed basically in most active zones. Periodic variation of efficiency of earthquakes triggering on the distance to the MHD-generator was detected. It was shown that electromagnetic pulses give rise to an appreciable increase in the rate of local earthquakes, occurring around 2-6 days after the pulses. Total earthquakes energy released after start-ups was by 2.03·1015 J greater than the energy released before them. At the same time, the total energy transmitted by the MHD-generator was 1.1·109 J, i.e. six orders of magnitude smaller. Consequently, the electromagnetic pulses initiated the release of the energy that had been stored in the crust due to activity of natural tectonic processes in the form of comparatively small earthquakes, which leads to an additional release of tectonic stresses.

  18. Seasonal deuterium excess in a Tien Shan ice core: Influence of moisture transport and recycling in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, K.J.; Wake, C.P.; Aizen, V.B.; DeWayne, Cecil L.; Synal, H.-A.

    2003-01-01

    Stable water isotope (??18O, ??D) data from a high elevation (5100 masl) ice core recovered from the Tien Shan Mountains, Kyrgyzstan, display a seasonal cycle in deuterium excess (d = ??D - 8*??18O) related to changes in the regional hydrologic cycle during 1994-2000. While there is a strong correlation (r2 = 0.98) between ??18O and ??D in the ice core samples, the regression slope (6.9) and mean d value (23.0) are significantly different than the global meteoric water line values. The resulting time-series ice core d profile contains distinct winter maxima and summer minima, with a yearly d amplitude of ???15-20???. Local-scale processes that may affect d values preserved in the ice core are not consistent with the observed seasonal variability. Data from Central Asian monitoring sites in the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) have similar seasonal d changes. We suggest that regional-scale hydrological conditions, including seasonal changes in moisture source, transport, and recycling in the Caspian/Aral Sea region, are responsible for the observed spatial and temporal d variability.

  19. Space-temporal variations of macroseismic effects for large earthquakes in the regions of Tien Shan and Pamirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze space-temporal variations of macroseismic effects using data for 32 large earthquakes (M≥6.0) in the regions of Tien Shan and Pamirs occurred in 1885-1992. We consider the following parameters: average radius of intensity of 6 degree isoseist R'6 equal to magnitude of M=7.0, and also a ratio of average radius of intensities 4 and 6 isoseists (R4/R6). A gradual diminishing of R parameter values since the end of 1800-es to 1970-1975 is observed; these values increase rapidly since 1975. Besides, often value of R'6 decrease sharply after large close crustal earthquakes and deep-focus Hindu Kush events and R6/R4 . We suggest an interpretation of the effects observed, which is connected with juvenile fluids ascending into the upper crust in source zones of large earthquakes and subsequent migration in horizontal direction. This leads to increasing the attenuation of strong motion amplitudes. (author)

  20. Paleoclimatological and Geoarchaeological Significance of the Holocene Loess – Soil Successions of the Tien Shan Foothills of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welc Fabian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scenario of climate changes in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene in Central Asia is very fragmentary and inconsistent. Therefore, interaction between the development and decline of ancient cultures and the climate fluctuations are difficult to be traced. To resolve this problem, the key role can be played by multidisciplinary studies of unique Late Pleistocene and especially Holocene loess – soil succession of the Tien Shan foothills in Uzbekistan. This area yields unique successions of paleosols interbedded with loesses that are particularly useful for paleoclimate analysis. They are represented by continuous and uninterrupted sedimentary sequences with a highly varied record of magnetic susceptibility. As such, they contain a full sequence of short-term climatic oscillations of the Holocene in high resolution and therefore, in this case, they are exceptional on global scale. The correlation of Late Pleistocene and Holocene climate changes scenario with stages of development and collapse of the past human settlement in Central Asia seems at present one of the most promising research directions, in line with the substantial course of interdisciplinary research on the interaction between humans and the natural environment.

  1. Microstructural constraints on complex thermal histories of refractory CAI-like objects in an amoeboid olivine aggregate from the ALHA77307 CO3.0 chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jangmi; Brearley, Adrian J.

    2016-06-01

    We have carried out a FIB/TEM study of refractory CAI-like objects in one AOA from the ALHA77307 CO3.0 chondrite. The CAI-like objects in the AOA consist of a zoned sequence with a spinel-rich core through an intergrowth layer of spinel and Al-Ti-rich diopside to a diopside rim. The spinel-rich core consists of polycrystalline aggregates of spinel and ±minor melilite showing equilibrated grain boundary textures. The intergrowth layer contains fine-grained diopside and spinel with minor anorthite with highly curved and embayed grain boundaries. The diopside rim consists of polycrystalline aggregates of diopside. The compositions of pyroxene change significantly outward from Al-Ti-rich diopside in contact with the spinel-rich core to Al-Ti-poor diopside next to the surrounding olivine of the AOA. Overall microstructural and chemical characteristics suggest that the spinel-rich core formed under equilibrium conditions whereas the intergrowth layer is the result of reactions that occurred under conditions that departed significantly from equilibrium. The remarkable changes in formation conditions of the CAI-like objects may have been achieved by transport and injection of refractory objects into a region of a partially-condensed, Ca,Ti-saturated gas which reacted with spinel and melilite to form Al-Ti-rich diopside. Crystallographically-oriented TiO2 nanoparticles decorate the grain boundaries between spinel grains and between spinel and Al-Ti-rich diopside grains. During the disequilibrium back-reaction of spinel with a partially-condensed, Ca,Ti-saturated gas, metastable TiO2 nanoparticles may have condensed by an epitaxial nucleation mechanism and grown on the surface of spinel. These TiO2 nanoparticles are disordered intergrowths of the two TiO2 polymorphs, anatase and rutile. These nanoparticles are inferred to have nucleated as anatase that underwent partial transformation into rutile. The local presence of the TiO2 nanoparticles and intergrowth of anatase and

  2. “材”类黎药资源的传统利用%Traditional Utilization of "Cai" - A Kind of Medicinal Plant Resources Used by Li Minority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑希龙; 甘炳春; 孙伟; 杨云; 许明会; 李榕涛

    2014-01-01

    "Cai" which are stem or heartwood of trees or stem of woody liana are a kind of medicinal plant resources traditionally used by Li Minoriy. Ethnobotanical methods were adopted for the investigation on traditional utilization of "cai". Totally, 44 species in 26 families and 30 genera were reported to be used as "cai". Most of the species were applied as decoction (70.5%) and medicinal liquor (27.3%) to treat a wide range of diseases, such as rheuma-toid arthritis (34.1%), liver diseases (18.2%), injuries and weak (15.9% respectively). Through literature survey, it was found that 7 species (15.9%) were used by Li Minority only. Besides, 13 species (29.5%) were used differently compared with that of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Consequently, it is indicated that indigenous knowledge of using medicinal plants by Li Minority is unique.%“材”是以乔木的树干或心材部分以及大型木质藤本的茎藤入药的一类黎药。应用民族植物学的研究方法,对“材”类黎药资源的传统利用进行了调查研究。结果发现“材”类黎药资源44种,隶属于26科38属。以煎水内服(31种,70.5%)和泡酒内服(12种,27.3%)为主,用于治疗风湿(15种,34.1%)、肝病(8种,18.2%)、跌打损伤及身体虚弱(各7种,各占15.9%)等症的种类较多。其中7种(15.9%)“材”类黎药仅被黎族使用,13种(29.5%)与文献记载的使用不同,体现了黎族传统医药知识的独特性。

  3. Lithospheric structure across the central Tien Shan constrained by gravity anomalies and joint inversions of receiver function and Rayleigh wave dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghua; Shi, Lei; Gao, Jiayi

    2016-07-01

    Shear wave velocity structure across the central Tien Shan orogeny was generated by jointly inverting Rayleigh wave phase and group velocity with teleseismic P-wave receiver functions at 40 broadband seismic stations. The inferred seismic structure was validated by forward modeling of the complete Bouguer anomaly data. The joint inversion result reveals larger crust thicknesses beneath the Kokshaal (∼68-72 km) and Kyrgyz ranges (∼62-64 km), while other units have crustal thicknesses between 48 and 58 km. A fast velocity layer (Vs = 3.6-3.9 km/s) in the upper crust is found in some seismic stations within the Kazakh Shield. Our models show the presence of high velocity and density layers in the lowermost crust throughout the region, consistent with the presence of mafic/ultramafic lithologies. The large crustal thickness is associated with a thickened mafic layer in the lower crust, indicating that the thickened crust may be partly caused by magmatic underplating. The low velocity and density anomaly in the middle crust, and low upper mantle velocity observed in our model beneath the middle Tien Shan reflect the presence of partial melt in the crust due to the intrusion of hot mantle material. The lack of correlation between Moho depth and topography, together with the gravity results, suggests that the topographic compensation in the central Tien Shan is not confined to the crust. This requires significant support from the mantle to account for the relative high elevation of the middle Tien Shan.

  4. Los orígenes del grial en la literatura medieval: de Chrétien de Troyes a Robert de Boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Martín Botero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra el origen literario del tema del Grial en la literatura medieval francesa, abordando dos textos esenciales para el surgimiento y consolidación de la “literatura del Grial”: Le Conte du Graal de Chrétien de Troyes y Le Roman de l’Estoire dou Graal de Robert de Boron. Los autores de estas obras establecen las bases para el desarrollo de toda una temática que gira alrededor del Grial a partir del siglo XII hasta nuestros días. El artículo muestra cómo de un objeto apenas sagrado en el texto de Chrétien de Troyes se pasa a una reliquia de la sangre de Cristo en la versión de Robert de Boron.This paper studies the literary origin of the Grail legend in medieval French literature, taking into account two important romances: Le Conte du Graal by Chrétien de Troyes and Le Roman de l’Estoire dou Graal by Robert de Boron. In these two texts the authors established the basis for the development of a new subject matter around the mysterious object called “Grail” from the Middle Ages to the present times. It will also be shown how an object, not totally sacred in Chrétien de Troyes, becomes a relic related with Jesus’s blood in Robert de Boron.

  5. Active Seismicity and Tectonics in Central Asia from Seismological Data Recorded in the Pamir and Tien Shan Mountain Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippl, Christian; Schurr, Bernd; Schneider, Felix M.; Yuan, Xiaohui; Mechie, James; Minaev, Vladislav; Abdybachaev, Ulan A.; Gadoev, Mustafo; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon

    2010-05-01

    Active tectonics in the Pamir mountains in central Asia, the westernmost part of the India-Eurasia collision zone, are controlled by ongoing convergence (about 20 mm/yr), causing substantial crustal shortening and compressional deformation. This leads to high seismicity rates throughout the region. Whereas seismic activity along the rim of the Pamir plateau is mostly compressional and concentrated along the Main Pamir Thrust, the distribution and focal mechanisms of earthquakes in its interior are more diffuse, with extensional events occurring along North-South trending rift zones (Kara Kul, Wachan). Seismicity in the south-western Pamir and in the Hindu Kush features frequent intermediate-depth earthquakes, reaching hypocentral depths of 300 km, which is rare for regions not obviously related to active subduction of oceanic lithosphere. These mantle earthquakes, which are not observed beneath the Himalayas and Tibet further east, form a rather well-defined Wadati-Benioff zone that was readily interpreted as subducted lithosphere present below the current collisional orogen. Earlier seismological studies showed the presence of a northward-dipping lithospheric slab under the Hindu Kush and a southward-dipping one beneath the Pamirs, with a small seismic gap in-between. Different hypotheses concerning the nature of these slabs (oceanic or continental lithosphere) and tectonic geometry in general (two slabs subducting in opposite directions or a single, hugely contorted slab) have been proposed in literature. Political instability in the region in the last two decades hampered on-site studies and field work, leaving many key issues poorly understood. In the framework of the multidisciplinary project TIPAGE (Tien Shan Pamir Geodynamic Programme), for the first time, new field campaigns collecting high quality data have been made possible. Local seismicity in the Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges (Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan) is currently being recorded by a temporary

  6. Mineral Mapping and Ore Prospecting with HyMap Data over Eastern Tien Shan, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyuan Huo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Using HyMap data, mineral identification and mineral mapping were conducted on the basis of the spectral absorption index (SAI and other spectral absorption features in a study area in Tudun, eastern Tien Shan. Alteration minerals, such as calcite, alumina-rich (Al-rich muscovite, epidote, and antigorite, were explored, and their relative abundance was depicted. A cross-validation was performed, and it showed a high degree of consistency between the imagery results and the results of previous literature. To further validate the mineral mapping from HyMap data, a field survey was carried out and rock samples were collected for quantitative analysis using a Por Infrared Mineral Analyzer (PIMA and the software affiliated with it. Minerals were discriminated, and their relative abundance was calculated from the spectra. Although we found that the absorption band-depth and SAI agreed well with each other and with the relative abundance of mineral alterations, the spectral absorption band-depth provided a better representation. Finally, ore prospecting of the study area was presented, and we found the distribution and close spatial relationships among the minerals extracted using the HyMap data. In the northern and northwestern part of the Gold-mine area, there was a mineralized muscovite alteration showing a sheet or block distribution. In the Copper-mine area, Al-poor muscovite with a sheet distribution was distributed in the north and northeast region, and Al-rich muscovite showed a block distribution enclosed by the distribution area of Al-poor muscovite. These all showed good ore prospects for the study area.

  7. PM₁₀ concentration in urban atmosphere around the eastern Tien Shan, Central Asia during 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengjie; Zhang, Mingjun; Minguillón, María Cruz; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Feng, Fang; Qiu, Xue

    2015-05-01

    Based on the daily records from 16 cities around the eastern Tien Shan (Tianshan Mountains), central Asia from 2007 to 2013, the spatial pattern and seasonal/interannual variation of urban particulate matter up to 10 μm in size (PM10) concentrations and influencing factors were analyzed. Annual mean PM10 concentrations (±standard deviation) in most cities on the northern slope mainly range from 55 ± 28 μg/m(3) to 92 ± 75 μg/m(3), and those on the southern slope range between 96 ± 65 and 195 ± 144 μg/m(3). PM10 concentrations are maxima in winter on the northern slope, while they maximize in springtime on the southern slope. There is an increasing trend in annual mean concentrations during the period 2007-2013, which is not statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Urban PM10 concentration in the study region is jointly influenced by anthropogenic emission and regional natural processes, especially dust events and precipitation. The northern slope usually has heavy anthropogenic air pollution (mostly in winter) and relatively rich precipitation especially in summer, and the southern slope always suffers more frequent dust events (mostly in spring) and less precipitation. Modeled back-trajectory indicated that the Taklimakan desert source can greatly increase the PM10 concentration on the southern slope, and the mountain ranges may hinder the transport of dust to the northern slope. PMID:25471722

  8. Crustal structure of the northern margin of the eastern Tien Shan, China, and its tectonic implications for the 1906 M~7.7 Manas earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yong; Yang, Zhu-En; Luo, Hai; Mooney, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    The Tien Shan orogenic belt is the most active intracontinental mountain belt in the world. We describe an 86-km-long N–S-trending deep seismic reflection profile (which passes through the southern Junggar basin) located on the northeastern Tien Shan piedmont. Two distinct anticlines beneath the northern margin of the Tien Shan are clearly imaged in the seismic section. In addition, we have imaged two detachment surfaces at depths of ∼7 and ∼16 km. The detachment surface at 16-km depth corresponds to the main detachment that converges with the steep angle reverse fault (the Junggar Southern Marginal Fault) on which the 1906 M~7.7 Manas earthquake occurred. A 12–14-km-thick sedimentary basin is imaged beneath the southern Junggar basin near Shihezi. The crust beneath the northern margin of the Tien Shan is 50–55-km thick, and decreases beneath the Junggar basin to 40–45-km thick. The crustal image of the deep seismic reflection profile is consistent with models derived from nearby seismic refraction data and Bouguer gravity anomalies in the same region. The faulting associated with the 1906 Manas earthquake also fits within the structural framework imaged by the seismic reflection profile. Present-day micro-seismicity shows a hypocentral depth-distribution between 5 and 35 km, with a peak at 20 km. We hypothesize that the 1906 Manas earthquake initiated at a depth of ∼20 km and propagated upwards, causing northward slip on the sub-horizontal detachments beneath the southern Junggar basin. Thus, in accord with regional geological mapping, the current shortening within the eastern Tien Shan is accommodated both by high-angle reverse faulting and detachment faulting that can be clearly imaged at depth in seismic reflection data.

  9. Jeux et enjeux d’écriture chez Chrétien de Troyes: l’exemple de «Cligès»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Lucia Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, nos propomos descrever a estética da trama irônica presente na escritura de Chrétien de Troyes, tomando por base seu romance Cligès. A destacar algumas estratégias passíveis de criar o fenômeno irônico, estaremos também mostrando o poder de sedução que emana desta escritura.Nous nous proposons, dans cet artible, de décrire l’esthétique du jeu ironique chez Chrétien de Troyes, em puisant dans son roman Cligès. Enn dégageant qulques unes dês stratégies susceptibles de créer le phénomène ironique, nous montrerons, à la fois, le pouvoir de séduction qui emane de cette écriture.

  10. Observation of the prior earthquake effect on the flux of environmental neutrons, gamma-radiation, and on the local electric field in Tien Shan mountain

    OpenAIRE

    Salikhov, N. M.; Shepetov, A. L.; Chubenko, A. P.; Kryakunova, O. N.; G.D. Pak

    2013-01-01

    A search for the possible precursors of an earthquake and its effect on the data series of diverse geophysical parameters has been made in the mountain of Northern Tien Shan. The complex installation included the NM64 type neutron supermonitor, detectors of the environmental low-energy neutrons, the scintillation gamma-detector, the sensor of the local electric field, a seismograph, and a weather-station. The specialized data filtration methodic was elaborated with an enhanced sensitivity to ...

  11. Determinants of Biogas Adoption in Manure Management of Vietnamese Household Pig Production : A Case Study in Tien Lu District, Hung Yen Province

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Nguyen Thi; Nanseki, Teruaki; Chomei, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    Although biogas technology is one of the useful ways managing the animal manure to reduce environmental problems in rural area, many Vietnamese households that produce pigs still do not apply biogas digesters. This study aim to investigate the main factors contributing to biogas adoption in household pig production based on primary data collected in Tien Lu district, Hung Yen province in Vietnam and the use of Logit regression. The empirical results highlighted that socioeconomic characterist...

  12. Late Paleozoic evolution of the South Tien Shan: Insights from P-T estimates and allanite geochronology on retrogressed eclogites (Chatkal range, Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loury, Chloé; Rolland, Yann; Cenki-Tok, Bénédicte; Lanari, Pierre; Guillot, Stéphane

    2016-05-01

    In the South Tien Shan range (Kyrgyzstan), the Late Paleozoic geodynamic evolution remains debated especially to the west of the Talas-Fergana fault (TFF) fault where suture-related high-pressure (HP) rocks are scarce. We provide new petrological and geochronological data on garnet amphibolites from the Chatkal range, to the west of the TFF, northwest of the South Tien Shan suture. These rocks are retrogressed eclogites. We used a micro-mapping approach combined with forward modeling and empirical thermobarometry to decipher the P-T path of these amphibolitized eclogites. The metamorphic peak conditions culminated at 490 ± 50 °C and 18.5 ± 2 kbar and were followed by higher temperature retrogression (∼560 °C at 11-7 kbar). In order to constrain the age of the HP stage, we dated allanite crystals texturally coeval to the HP mineral assemblage. Allanite grains dated in situ with a U-Pb LA-ICPMS methodology yield an age of 301 ± 15 Ma. Compared with previously published data for the east of the TFF, these P-T constraints allow improving the understanding of the Late Paleozoic geodynamic evolution of the South Tien Shan. To the east of TFF, the Turkestan Ocean closed around 320 Ma with the collision of the Tarim Craton with the Kazakh microcontinent. To the west of TFF, the Turkestan Ocean closed around 300 Ma, when the Alai block collided with the Kazakh microcontinent. This later collision involved nappe-stacking and intense subvertical folding in the western South Tien Shan. This complex folding explains the S-shape of the suture to the west of the TFF that cannot be observed in the eastern part. These new data allow us to propose a distinct tectonic evolution of the two sides of the TFF, which suggests that this fault was a major transform fault before being a strike-slip intra-continental fault.

  13. Time sharing of hadrons in a core of extensive atmospheric showers of a software to the Tien Shan data of High-Mountainous Scientific Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actuation of the neutron screen monitor such as Nm-64 in the structure of the complex installation 'Hadron' arranged on Tien Shan High-mountain Station has allowed during 1995-1997 to conduct systematic analysis of the temporary distribution of neutrons from hadron components of intensive atmospheric showers. In the measurements for formation master signal about transit extensive atmospheric showers, near to the screen monitor (R≤20 m) the shower system of detectors of the installation 'Hadron' was used. (author)

  14. Ideal climatic variables for the present-day geometry of the Gregoriev Glacier, Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, derived from GPS data and energy-mass balance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fujita

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted 2 yr (2005–2007 of in situ meteorological and glaciological observations on the Gregoriev Glacier, a flat-top glacier within the Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Differential GPS surveys reveal a vertical surface deletion at the summit of the glacier. Based on snow density data and an energy-mass balance model, we estimate that the annual precipitation and summer mean temperature required to maintain the glacier in the modern state are 289 mm and −3.85 °C at the glacier summit (4600 m above sea level, a.s.l., respectively. The good agreement between the long-term estimated and observed precipitation at a nearby station in the Tien Shan (292 mm at 3614 m a.s.l. for the period 1930–2002 suggests that the glacier dynamics have been regulated by the long-term average accumulation. The glacier mass-balance, reconstructed based on meteorological data from the Tien Shan station for the past 80 yr, explains the observed fluctuations in glacier extent, particularly the negative mass balance in the 1990s.

  15. About correlation between modern deformation field and deep geoelectric structure of the Central Tien Shan according to GPS and MT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The work examines deformations of the Central Tien Shan Earth's crust using the method of calculation of two-dimensional deformation field according to the results of Global Positioning System (GPS) observations. New data on geoelectric structure of the regional lithospheric scale as interpretation results of detailed magnetotelluric soundings along the NARYN profile that indicate deep geoelectric image of the Central Tien Shan orogen along the 76 deg E meridian are discussed. There was held a joint analysis of the obtained deformation field and the parameters of deep geoelectric cross-section of the Central Tien Shan along the NARYN profile. In the northern part of the profile we have received the 0.84 correlation coefficient between the values of 2D deformation on the surface and the integral conductivity of the lithosphere in the depths interval 10-60 km. Such correlation shows that deformation observed on the Earth's surface by means of GPS techniques contains information about horizontal structure of plastic flow of substance in the lower crust of the region.

  16. Snow algae in an ice core drilled on Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, M.; Takeuchi, N.; Sera, S.; Fujita, K.; Okamoto, S.; Naoki, K.; Aizen, V. B.

    2012-12-01

    Snow algae are photosynthetic microorganisms and are living on the surfase of glaciers. They grow on melting surface from spring to summer and their biomass and community structure are changed with physical and chemical conditions on glaciers. Ice cores drilled from glaciers also contain snow algae that grew in the past. Studying biomass and community structure of snow algae in ice cores could reveal the temporal variation in snow algae in the past, and also environmental conditions relating propagation of snow algae. In this study, we anlalyzed snow algae preserved in an ice core of Grigoriev Ice cap located in eastern Kyrgyzstan of the central Asia, and to describe their temporal variations for the last 200 years. The ice core drilling was carried out on September in 2007 on the Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains. A 87 m long ice core from the surface to the bedrock was recovered at the top of the ice cap. The core was horizontally cut every 5 cm (total 1212 samples). The samples were melted and preserved as a 3% formalin solution. After the sample water was filtered through a hydrophilized PTFE membrane filter, observed by microscope. Snow algae in the sample water were counting. The algal biomass was represented by the cell number per unit water volume. Here, we showed the results between the surface to the 64 m in depth. We also analyzed the snow algal communities on the surface of the ice cap collected from five different sites from the top down to the terminus. Microscopy revealed that the ice core contained three taxa of filamentous cyanobacteria, an unicellular cyanobacterium, and two green algae. They were also found on the ice or snow surface of the i Ice cap. The quantitative analyses of the algae in the part of upper 64 m deep of the ice core samples revealed that the algal biomass varied significantly and showed many peaks. Furthermore, the biomass profile differed among the taxa. The filamentous cyanobacterium varied from 0.0 to 4

  17. 论蔡元培美育思想的形成基础%On the Formative Foundation of Cai Yuanpei's Aesthetic Education Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 翁再红

    2011-01-01

    Cai Yuanpei's aesthetic education thought explains, first, his active response to the movement of saving the nation and enlightenment as a modem intellectual, and second, his conscious selection for a educational system as a modem educator, which provided necessary premises for recognizing the legal status of aesthetic education. Furthermore, the formation of Cai's aesthetic education thought, in terms of its nature, goal and social role, shared similarities and differences with many other aesthetic education ideas of that period.%蔡元培美育思想的形成,首先是他作为一个现代知识分子对救国与启蒙主题所做的积极回应。其次,也是作为现代教育家的蔡元培建构其教育体系的自觉选择,这一选择为美育的合法地位提供了必要的前提。最后,在性质、目标及社会角色三个方面,蔡元培美育思想的最终形成又与同时代的诸多美育观念各有异同。

  18. 地学領域における CAI の実践的研究(II) : 中・高等学校における指導例

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Takehiro; Tanaka, Masaki; Arita, Masashi; Suzuki, Morihisa

    1993-01-01

    On CAI in earth science education, the authors have a principle that interests of students in natural materials and phenomena must be promoted by the effective use of computer. Based upon the principle, BASIC programs for drawing the three-dimensional topographic map of western Hiroshima Prefecture are developed. Using the programs, given are earth science instructions in junior and senior high schools. Through the instructions, the students are progressed to be interested in the topography o...

  19. Radiative lifetimes of the A{sup 2}{pi}, B{sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}, C{sup 2}{pi} and D{sup 2}{sigma}{sup +} states of the CaBr and CaI radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrini, C. [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Atomique, Moleculaire et Applications, Faculte des Sciences, Universite El Manar, Tunis 1060 (Tunisia); Auge-Rochereau, F. [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquee, ENSTA, Ecole Polytechnique, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Rostas, J. [Laboratoire de Photophysique Moleculaire du CNRS, Universite de Paris XI, Bat. 210, 91405 Orsay (France); Taieb, G. [Laboratoire de Photophysique Moleculaire du CNRS, Universite de Paris XI, Bat. 210, 91405 Orsay (France)], E-mail: guy.taieb@ppm.u-psud.fr

    2006-11-08

    The lifetimes of the A{sup 2}{pi}, B{sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}, C{sup 2}{pi} and D{sup 2}{sigma}{sup +} states of the CaBr and CaI radicals have been measured directly from the time rate of fluorescence decay using an appropriate pulsed dye laser as an excitation source. The zero pressure radiative lifetimes determined for the first time for the C{sup 2}{pi}{sub 1/2} state of CaI and D{sup 2}{sigma}{sup +} state of CaBr were (50.5 {+-} 1.5) ns and (21.0 {+-} 2.6) ns, respectively. The measured lifetimes agree well with trends predicted by a Ligand Field (L-F) model. For the CaI C{sup 2}{pi}{sub 3/2} state ({tau} = 31.2 ns at 1 mbar pressure) and D{sup 2}{sigma}{sup +} state ({tau} < 11 ns), anomalously short lifetimes are observed, indicating that these states are predissociated.

  20. Le statut linguistique des pronoms du créole haïtien et du français : une étude de corpus1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barriere Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Le statut syntaxique et phonologique des pronoms en créole haïtien et en français a fait l’objet de débats. Les analyses linguistiques classiques du français formulées dans la tradition générative ont proposé une distinction entre les pronoms forts et les pronoms faibles ou ‘clitiques’. Tandis que les pronoms forts se comportent comme des syntagmes nominaux (SN, les clitiques diffèrent de ceux-ci de par leur distribution syntaxique. Ces premières analyses se fondent sur des jugements de grammaticalité et certaines de ces analyses ont été remises en question lorsque des corpus de parole spontanée ont été mis a la disposition des chercheurs et ont permis des analyses quantitatives et phonologiques. La présente étude comparative a pour objectif l’analyse des pronoms personnels du français et du créole haïtien et se fondent sur l’analyse de corpus CHILDES (Demuth & Tremblay, 2008; MacWhinney, 2000 pour le français et un nouveau corpus que nous avons enregistré et transcrit pour le créole haïtien. Les analyses portent sur la distribution syntaxique des pronoms sujets et objets et sur leurs réductions phonologiques. Ces deux sources d’information nous permettent de conclure aux statuts contrastifs des pronoms en créole haïtien qui arborent toutes les caractéristiques des pronoms forts en ce qui concerne leur distribution syntaxique tandis qu’au niveau phonologique ils peuvent être réduits et se comportent donc comme des clitiques phonologiques. En revanche le français comprend des pronoms forts et des pronoms faibles/clitiques qui se distinguent de part leurs trait phonologiques et leur distribution syntaxique.

  1. ¿El sentido del humor, tiene sentido en el aula? / Does Sense of the Humor Make Sense in the Classroom?

    OpenAIRE

    Freddy Antonio González Ynfante

    2011-01-01

    Recibido 09 de junio de 2011 • Aceptado 24 de octubre de 2011 • Corregido 27 de setiembre de 2011 Resumen. El presente ensayo tiene como finalidad reflexionar sobre la importancia del humor pedagógico como estrategia de enseñanza aprendizaje en el aula; esto, tomando en cuenta la problemática de desmotivación y aburrimiento que sucede normalmente en la clase. Para plantear si “el enseñar contento y el aprender con alegría” pueden aumentar la eficacia en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje...

  2. Search of primary cosmic rays sources at 5x10**13 - 5x10**14 eV with Tien Shan CHRONOTRON - KLARA array

    CERN Document Server

    Gudkova, E N

    2015-01-01

    The primary cosmic ray sources are searched by means of CHRONOTRON - KLARA separate array of the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute Tien Shan station. It was done on the base of 35 millions observed PCR extensive air showers from 5x10**13 to 5x10**14 eV energies. The data analysis was carried on the method of the direct selection of local areas in equatorial coordinates where the deviation of event numbers exceeded the definite value from normal Gaussian standard. These directions are compared with other arrays observed results and with coordinates of astrophysical sources.

  3. Investigation of unusual phenomena in cosmic rays with Tien Shan and Pamir experimental setups at energy higher than 1 PeV - I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous unusual phenomena observed in cosmic ray experiments at energy > 1 PeV can be effectively studied with modern large-scale combined setups located at high mountain altitudes. Construction in the nearest future of the new setups at Chacaltaya, Tien Shan and Pamir Mountain Stations situated at different altitudes will provide physicists with important additional information on the nature of unusual phenomena. In this report, it is discussed the main physics problems that should be investigated by means of the mountain-level setups

  4. Characteristics of short-period s wave attenuation field in the lithosphere of Tien Shan and Djungaria and their relation to seismicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mapping of shear wave attenuation field in the lithosphere of Tien Shan and Djungaria was done. A method, based on an analysis of Sn and Pn waves amplitude ratio, was applied. Earthquake recordings, obtained by station Makanchi (MKAR) at distances of ∼ 300 - 1300 km were processed. It was shown, that higher attenuation corresponds to rupture zones of large earthquakes with M≥7.0, occurred in 1978 - 1992. Areas of high attenuation were picked out, where no large seismic events have occurred during the last 130 years. We believe, that this areas are related to a preparation for large earthquakes. (author)

  5. Ideal climatic variables for the present-day geometry of the Gregoriev Glacier, Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan, derived from GPS data and energy-mass balance measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, K.; Takeuchi, N.; S.A. Nikitin; A. B. Surazakov; Okamoto, S; V. B. Aizen; Kubota, J.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted 2 yr (2005–2007) of in situ meteorological and glaciological observations on the Gregoriev Glacier, a flat-top glacier within the Inner Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. Differential GPS surveys reveal a vertical surface deletion at the summit of the glacier. Based on snow density data and an energy-mass balance model, we estimate that the annual precipitation and summer mean temperature required to maintain the glacier in the modern state are 289 mm and −3.85 °C at the gl...

  6. Search of primary cosmic rays sources at 5x10**13 - 5x10**14 eV with Tien Shan CHRONOTRON - KLARA array

    OpenAIRE

    Gudkova, E. N.; Nesterova, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    The primary cosmic ray sources are searched by means of CHRONOTRON - KLARA separate array of the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute Tien Shan station. It was done on the base of 35 millions observed PCR extensive air showers from 5x10**13 to 5x10**14 eV energies. The data analysis was carried on the method of the direct selection of local areas in equatorial coordinates where the deviation of event numbers exceeded the definite value from normal Gaussian standard. These directions are compared w...

  7. Dynamics of Land Surface Temperature in the Central Tien Shan Mountains: Analysis Based on RS Retrieved Data Validated With In Situ Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhandong Sun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost conditions in mountain ranges are sensitive to regional land surface temperature (LST, among other factors. To explore that relationship, this study carried out 3 steps: (1 validated Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer 1-km daily LST data using data measured in situ, (2 used the Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS algorithm for fitting and removing the influence of clouds, and (3 analyzed the spatial and temporal characteristics of LST dynamics in the central Tien Shan mountain range based on remote-sensing data improved by covariance and empirical orthogonal function analysis. The results indicate that the in situ data present a basic reference for rebuilding invalid values in the retrieved data, and the data gap in daily LST products can be logically reconstructed with the HANTS algorithm. Major long-term and large-scale patterns can be well extracted with the reconstructed LST data. The most dynamic and sensitive LST areas occurred in the buffers around the periglacial areas. Areas above the periglacial line mainly exhibited a decrease in LST, while areas below it showed an increase. This suggests that the periglacial line of the central Tien Shan region has risen during the past decade. These findings can provide a reference for how periglacial areas respond to climate change and how this may affect hydrological and ecological processes.

  8. Paleo-Climate and Glaciological Reconstruction in Central Asia through the Collection and Analysis of Ice Cores and Instrumental Data from the Tien Shan; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the majority of ice core investigations have been undertaken in the polar regions, a few ice cores recovered from carefully selected high altitude/mid-to-low latitude glaciers have also provided valuable records of climate variability in these regions. A regional array of high resolution, multi-parameter ice core records developed from temperate and tropical regions of the globe can be used to document regional climate and environmental change in the latitudes which are home to the vase majority of the Earth's human population. In addition, these records can be directly compared with ice core records available from the polar regions and can therefore expand our understanding of inter-hemispheric dynamics of past climate changes. The main objectives of our paleoclimate research in the Tien Shan mountains of middle Asia combine the development of detailed paleoenvironmental records via the physical and chemical analysis of ice cores with the analysis of modern meteorological and hydrological data. The first step in this research was the collection of ice cores from the accumulation zone of the Inylchek Glacier and the collection of meteorological data from a variety of stations throughout the Tien Shan. The research effort described in this report was part of a collaborative effort with the United State Geological Survey's (USGS) Global Environmental Research Program which began studying radionuclide deposition in mid-latitude glaciers in 1995

  9. Paleo-Climate and Glaciological Reconstruction in Central Asia through the Collection and Analysis of Ice Cores and Instrumental Data from the Tien Shan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the majority of ice core investigations have been undertaken in the polar regions, a few ice cores recovered from carefully selected high altitude/mid-to-low latitude glaciers have also provided valuable records of climate variability in these regions. A regional array of high resolution, multi-parameter ice core records developed from temperate and tropical regions of the globe can be used to document regional climate and environmental change in the latitudes which are home to the vase majority of the Earth's human population. In addition, these records can be directly compared with ice core records available from the polar regions and can therefore expand our understanding of inter-hemispheric dynamics of past climate changes. The main objectives of our paleoclimate research in the Tien Shan mountains of middle Asia combine the development of detailed paleoenvironmental records via the physical and chemical analysis of ice cores with the analysis of modern meteorological and hydrological data. The first step in this research was the collection of ice cores from the accumulation zone of the Inylchek Glacier and the collection of meteorological data from a variety of stations throughout the Tien Shan. The research effort described in this report was part of a collaborative effort with the United State Geological Survey's (USGS) Global Environmental Research Program which began studying radionuclide deposition in mid-latitude glaciers in 1995

  10. Paleozoic structure of Middle Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan Central Asian Orogenic Belt): Insights on the polarity and timing of tectonic motions, subductions, and lateral correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdon, Anthony; Loury, Chloé; Rolland, Yann; Petit, Carole; Bellahsen, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    The structure and Palaeozoic tectonic evolution in Kyrgyz and Chinese Tien Shan Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) are still a matter of debate. There are numerous and conflicting models about the polarity of tectonic motions in the Paleozoic, the number of continental blocks and oceanic basins involved and the timing of tectonic events. In this study we propose new maps and structural cross-sections of Middle and South Kyrgyz Tien Shan (TS). These cross-sections allow us to highlight an overall South-verging structure in the Middle TS, with a thick-skin style involving the crystalline basement. This deformation occurred during the Early Carboniferous, and is sealed by an Upper Carboniferous unconformity. We ascribe this structure to an Upper Plate deformation linked to north-dipping subduction below Middle TS. In contrast, the South TS exhibits a north-verging structure, linked to south-dipping subduction, which is evidenced by an accretionary prism, a volcanic arc, and high-pressure rocks (Loury et al., 2015), and is correlated to similar structures in the Chinese TS (e.g., Charvet et al., 2011). Based on these observations, we propose a new interpretation of the tectonic evolution of the Middle and South TS CAOB. The resulting model comprises a long-lived north-dipping subduction of the Turkestan Ocean below the Middle TS-Karazakh Platform and a short-lived south-dipping subduction of a marginal back-arc basin below the Tarim. Consequently, the South TS is interpreted as a rifted block from the Tarim. Finally, the docking of the large Tarim Craton to the CAOB corresponds to a rapid collision phase (320-300 Ma). This put an end to the long-lived Paleozoic subduction history in the CAOB. Charvet, J., Shu, L., et al., 2011. Palaeozoic tectonic evolution of the Tianshan belt, NW China. Science China Earth Sciences, 54, 166-184. Loury, C. , Rolland, Y., Guillot S., Mikolaichuk, A.V., Lanari, P., Bruguier, O., D.Bosch, 2015. Crustal-scale structure of South Tien Shan

  11. Registration of intensive hard X-rays and soft gamma-rays from the thunderstorm clouds at Tien-Shan installation Adron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Adron installation mounted at the Tien-Shan station is intended for studying the extensive air showers. The Adron installation consists of a neutron supermonitor charged particles detector, muon detector and detector for registering the hard X-ray and soft gamma-radiation from the thunderstorm clouds accomplished on the basis of the Geiger-Mueller counters with sensitivity area of 16-17 m2. The intensive fluxes of the hard X-ray and soft gamma-radiation from the thunderstorm clouds passing over the Adron installation at the height below 1 km are registered using this installation. The short-time radiation flares of 1-5 min duration are separated at the background of the intensity slow change. This testifies to the benefit of existence of the runaway electron effect in the thunderstorm clouds

  12. Effect of the muon component of cosmic rays on the results of hadron experiments with the big ionization calorimeter (BIC) of the Tien Shan station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, A. G., E-mail: AGBogdanov@mephi.ru; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Shalabaeva, A. V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) (Russian Federation); Yakovlev, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Institute of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    A full-scale simulation of the response of the big ionization calorimeter (BIC) at the Tien Shan station to the passage of single protons and muons was performed on the basis of the GEANT4 package in order to estimate the contribution of the muon cosmic-ray component to the generation of unusual events (such as Anti-Centauros), which were recorded by this facility, and to the imitation of the long-flying component, which changes the shape of the average cascade curve. A comparison of the results of this simulation with experimental data reveals that the appearance of Anti-Centauros may be reasonably explained by the contribution of multiple interactions of single muons, but that muon events are insufficient for explaining the change in the shape of the cascade curve (in particular, the emergence of a second maximum).

  13. Tien Shan experimental results on the inelastic proton-air cross section at 0.5 – 5 PeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of experimental data from the Tien Shan complex array on extensive air showers originated from 0.5-5 PeV primary cosmic rays is presented. Conclusions are made on the rise of the inelastic proton–air cross section with energy on the base of comparisons with different interaction models. The analysis showed that the rise conforms to (7-9) % per one order of energy from 0.2 TeV (accelerator experiments with fixed targets) to 5 PeV (cosmic rays). These data correspond better to the new QGSJET-II-04 version of the interaction model based on the recent LHC results. This model predicts the slower rise of the cross-section than previous versions of QGSJET-II models.

  14. Effect of the muon component of cosmic rays on the results of hadron experiments with the big ionization calorimeter (BIC) of the Tien Shan station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A full-scale simulation of the response of the big ionization calorimeter (BIC) at the Tien Shan station to the passage of single protons and muons was performed on the basis of the GEANT4 package in order to estimate the contribution of the muon cosmic-ray component to the generation of unusual events (such as Anti-Centauros), which were recorded by this facility, and to the imitation of the long-flying component, which changes the shape of the average cascade curve. A comparison of the results of this simulation with experimental data reveals that the appearance of Anti-Centauros may be reasonably explained by the contribution of multiple interactions of single muons, but that muon events are insufficient for explaining the change in the shape of the cascade curve (in particular, the emergence of a second maximum).

  15. Study of chemical composition of precipitation at an alpine site and a rural site in the Urumqi River Valley, Eastern Tien Shan, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Z.P.; Tian, L.; Fischer, E.; Li, Z.Q.; Jiao, K.Q. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2008-12-15

    We report on a 1-year continuous precipitation sampling record from an alpine site and a rural site in the Urumqi River Valley, East Tien Shan, China. The 128 samples, collected from April 2003 to February 2004, at two sites were analyzed for the major inorganic ions, pH, electrical conductivity and insoluble microparticles. The precipitation was typically alkaline with a volume-weighted mean pH of 6.99 and 7.27 at the alpine site and the rural site, respectively. Ca{sup 2+} was the dominant cation, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} was the dominant anion. The precipitation chemistry in this region was mainly controlled by regional Asian dust storms, local dust and anthropogenic activities. The relative impact of anthropogenic activities, specifically uncontrolled coal combustion, was larger at the rural site compared to the alpine monitoring site.

  16. Study on the energy spectra of γ-families and γ-quanta with the hadron set-up of Tien-Shan high mountain station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential energy spectra of γ-families within E0=102-105 TeV primary energy range for ΣEγ ≥ 10 TeV were measured experimentally for the first time with the HADRON set-up of Tien-Shan high mounatin station. Conclusion is made that form and absolute intensity of differential spectra by E0 for showers with γ-families restrict essentially possible type of models of strong interaction and spectrum of primary cosmic radiation. There is lgE0(TeV)/1600 ∼ ΣEγ/190 ± 1 correlation between mean values of E0 and ΣEγ but in E0 independent case they may differ by more that two times for the given value of ΣEγ. Multiplicity in proton p-events is essentially higher than in mix-events of nuclei

  17. Fluxes of 10-2000 GeV hadrons in EAS produced by 1-100 PeV PCR according to Tien Shan data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental data on the hadrons spectra with the energy of 10-2000 GeV in the extensive air showers with the electrons number Ne=3 x 105-108 at the distances of 3-60 m from the axis are obtained at the Tien-Shan mountainous facility (690 g/cm2) by means of the 18NM64 neutron monitor and ionization calorimeter. The obtained results are compared with the calculations by the MS0-model. The comparison shows that the singular hadrons experimental number significantly exceeds the calculational value. This may be brought by the change in the PCR character and its interaction with the air atoms nuclei by the energies above several PeV

  18. A 'college of astrology and medicine'? Charles V, Gervais Chrétien, and the scientific manuscripts of Maître Gervais's College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudet, Jean-Patrice

    2010-06-01

    Considered an institution mainly devoted to astrology and medicine by Simon de Phares and by some historians who believe that he was reliable, the college founded in 1371 by Charles V's first physician, Gervais Chrétien, was in fact primarily dedicated to theological students. It was not before 1377 that there were created there two bursaries for scholares regis, specialising in 'licit mathematical sciences', and two medical fellowships. Yet the influence of the activity of these fellows seems to have been rather moderate and-as far as we can learn from the material still extant, notably from manuscripts that belonged to Maître Gervais' College and to some of its members-this institution was devoted much more to theological studies than to medicine and the quadrivium. PMID:20513621

  19. La Historia tiene la palabra (1944), de María Teresa León: los tesoros artísticos en el joyero de la Historia

    OpenAIRE

    Peyraga, P. (Pascale)

    2008-01-01

    Al publicar María Teresa León La Historia tiene la palabra (1944), deja constancia de un objetivo puntual: la justificación de la política cultural de la República española durante la guerra civil, basada en la Protección del Tesoro Artístico en la que ella misma participó. Narra, pues, un episodio de la Historia, siendo a la par testigo y actor del mismo, ve su índole modificada por su inclusión dentro de una temporalidad más amplia, que apela a la potencia de la imaginación. Se halla pues i...

  20. Integrating satellite imagery and geostatistics of point samples for monitoring spatio-temporal changes of total suspended solids in bay waters: application to Tien Yen Bay (Northern Vietnam)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nguyen Thi Thu HA; Katsuaki KOIKE

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS)in coastal and bay areas strongly affect water quality and aquatic ecosystems.Frequent monitoring of spatiotemporal changes of TSS distribution in such areas is indispensable for understanding sediment fluxes and water cycles,and to preserve ecosystem health.This study aimed to identify appropriate and sufficient tools for assessing changes in TSS distribution in Tien Yen Bay in Northem Vietnam,a typical closed bay,which was selected as the study area because of its rich biodiversity.Initially,a physical based model using the reflectance at the sea surface was developed for estimating TSS concentrations from satellite image data,and a model with an exponential function was identified as suitable for the estimation.This model was fitted appropriately to provide a relationship between reflectance from the MODIS/Terra band 1(visible red)after the atmospheric correction and the in situ TSS concentrations at 40 points.Ordinary kriging was then shown to be effective in improving the spatial resolution of the MODIS/Terra image-based estimation of the TSS concentration at a 250 m interval,because it could detect TSS variation in detail,in particular in the local estuaries.TSS distributions derived from 12 MODIS/Terra images from November 2009 to October 2010 clarified seasonal changes in TSS during one year.TSS concentrations were high during summer and lower during fall and winter.Such trends were conformable with the hydrodynamics in Tien Yen Bay.Consequently,the proposed method was more effective for TSS estimation than traditional methods using satellite image data only.

  1. De lo sórdido a lo vintage, de la marginalización a la distinción. Gentrificación y ocio nocturno en Cais do Sodré, Lisboa

    OpenAIRE

    Nofre, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Ao longo das últimas três décadas, as estratégias culturais para a renovação urbana têm desempenhado um papel fundamental na transformação da cidade central. Junto com o consumo hedonista juvenil, a elitização do lazer noturno aparece como processo nuclear de renovação urbana (e social) em áreas urbanas degradadas dos centros históricos. Este artigo apresenta os primeiros resultados do trabalho de campo qualitativo sobre gentrificação e lazer noturno no velho bairro marinheiro do Cais do Sodr...

  2. 论蔡襄的勤政廉政实践及其历史启示%On Cai Xiang’s Practice of Keeping a Diligent and Honest Government and its Historical Inspiration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐明彦

    2015-01-01

    Cai Xiang who was a famous minister in Chinese history had a good reputation of first expostulate officer in Northern Song. During Cai Xiang’s thirty years in politics, he kept a diligent and honest government, selfless for the public interest, may be called a generation of honest an upright official officer. Cai Xiang’s practice of keeping a diligent and honest government mainly includes four aspects: firstly, the diligent practice for “the official term, the benefit of a party”; secondly, people-based thought for“civil rights, solid intrinsically safe help”;thirdly, the honest government thought for “punishing corruption, the sleeves swaying with every soft breeze”;fourthly, the sense of social responsibility and history mission for“upright and outspoken, be loyal to their duties”. In the new historical conditions, carrying forward Cai Xiang’s practice of keeping a diligent and honest government, taking history as a mirror towards the future still have important historical and realistic significance.%蔡襄是中国历史名臣,素有北宋第一谏官之盛誉。蔡襄从政30多年,勤政廉政,克己奉公,堪称一代清官廉吏。蔡襄的勤政廉政实践主要表现四个方面:一是“为官一任,造福一方”的勤政实践;二是“民重君轻”、“固本安帮”的民本思想;三是惩治腐败、两袖清风的廉政思想;四是刚正不阿、忠于职守的社会责任感和历史使命感。在新的历史条件下,弘扬借鉴蔡襄勤政廉政实践,以史为鉴,继往开来,仍然具有重要的历史意义和现实意义。

  3. ARTE RUPESTRE E PROBLEMAS DE CONSERVAÇÃO DO SÍTIO ARQUEOLÓGICO CAMINHO DA CAIÇARA I (Rock Art and Conservation Problems at the Caminho da Caiçara I Archaeological Site)

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Carlos Duarte Cavalcante; Andrews Araújo Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    O sítio arqueológico Caminho da Caiçara I está localizado no povoado Cadoz Velho, área rural de Piripiri, estado do Piauí, Brasil. As paredes de rocha arenítica estão decoradas com 205 pinturas rupestres, representando figuras abstratas, ornitomorfos/propulsores de dardos, fitomorfos e antropomorfos, pintados predominantemente em diferentes tonalidades de vermelho, mas também em preto, amarelo, marrom, vinho e alaranjado. Além da elevada densidade de inscrições rupestres, há sobreposições e r...

  4. Developing CAI project with multimedia control in Visual Basic about image%用Visual Basic软件开发多媒体CAI课件——图像篇

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲双为

    2001-01-01

    Some skills that how to treat picture for multimedia Computer Aided Introduction (CAI) are introduced in this paper. This skills are based on Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 which is a popular programming tool used by many programmers at present.%从编程的角度出发,介绍了以Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0为开发平台,在开发多媒体CAI课件的过程中对图像的部分处理技巧.

  5. 计算机辅助创新驱动的产品概念设计创新设想产生过程模型%Process model of new ideas generation for product conceptual design driven by CAI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建辉; 檀润华; 张鹏; 曹国忠

    2013-01-01

    Generation of creative ideas was critical in the product conceptual design process. The obstacle to idea generation in the process was that desigers didn't make full use of knowledge in different fields. Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) based Computer-aided Innovation Systems (CAIs) provided a platform for knowledge application in different fields. Principles of creative idea generation driven by Computer-aided Innovation (CAI) was put forward, the inventive problem was solved based on the design scenario of CAIs, the extended solution space was set up by (Unexpected Discoveries)UXD which was implied in the source design in order to drive the generation of creative idea, then, an integrated process model of creative idea generation for product conceptual design driven by CAI was developed. Idea generation for a safety isolation butterfly valve was carried out using the process model and demonstrated its feasibility.%创新设想产生是产品概念设计阶段的关键环节,影响该阶段设想产生的障碍是设计人员不能很好地利用多学科领域的知识.鉴于此,基于发明问题解决理论的计算机辅助创新软件系统提供了应用多学科领域知识的一个平台.提出了计算机辅助创新驱动的创新设想产生原理,以计算辅助创新软件为设计场景进行问题求解,基于源设计中的未预见的发现建立扩展解空间,驱动创新设想产生,进而建立了计算机辅助创新驱动的产品概念设计创新设想产生过程模型.通过安全隔离蝶阀创新设想产生验证了该模型的可行性.

  6. 冯子材、刘永福爱国精神内涵及其当代启示%Historical Meaning and Modern Value of the Patriotism of LIU Yong-fu and FENG Zi-cai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁芷铭

    2011-01-01

    The Patriotism of LIU Yong-fu and FENG Zi-cai include three spheres which love their country, rural and people. It should be important theoretical and practical significance from the political, economic, social, cultural and administrative levels to explore modern value of the patriotism of LIU Yong-fu and FENG Zi-cai in the GuangXi Beibu Gulf Economic Zone's development.%冯子材、刘永福爱国精神内涵包含爱国、爱乡、爱民的三个圈层,具有深刻的历史价值。从政治、经济、社会、文化以及行政的层面探寻冯子材、刘永福爱国精神的时代内涵,对北部湾区域经济发展具有重要的理论和现实意义。

  7. Exploration of Cai Yuanpei’s University Management Thought%蔡元培高校管理思想摭探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩延明

    2015-01-01

    在中国新文化运动中,蔡元培作为开教育新风之先驱,其教育思想至今闪耀着可资借鉴之处。在高校目标管理方面,他在“自发状态”中积极进行探索和应用,强调德育、智育、体育、美育和劳动技术教育的和谐发展;在教学管理中,他从学制、讲义、教法、学风等方面进行全面改革;在师资管理方面,他首倡“兼容并蓄”,以六个“不论”“网罗众家”,并使其群雄竞赛,各显其能;同时又严治教风,倡导尊师重业;在科研管理方面,他倡导思想自由,通过建立学术社团、创设研究机构、创造良好科研氛围、激发师生的科研兴趣,使北大的科研风气为之一新;在学生管理方面,他支持学生的爱国运动,贯彻“五自”方针,引导学生自立,开阔学生思路,教育学生“礼貌”待人;在改革学校旧有组织管理形式与行政管理体制方面,他首倡男女同校,提议限制校长及各科学长的任期,力行教授治校,创办校役夜班,这都是开风气之先的创新举措。%As the pioneer of Chinese new culture movement,Cai Yuanpei has created a new edu-cation style and his education thought still shines with reference nowadays. For the university target management,he conducts active exploration and application in a spontaneous state. He emphasizes the harmonious development of moral,intellectual,physical,aesthetic,labor and technical education. As to the teaching management,he advocates comprehensive reform from the perspective of school system,hand-outs,teaching method and study style. For the faculty management,he initiates full inclusion and equi-tability,recruits public talents with the six irrespective to enhance competition. He also promotes strict teaching style governance and teacher respect. For the research management,he advocates thought free-dom and refreshes the Peking university’s research culture through

  8. 论泥盆纪和布克河珊瑚及其相关属*%HEBUKOPHYLLUM LIAO AND CAI (DEVONIAN RUGOSA) AND ITS RELATED GENERA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    和布克河珊瑚(Hebukophyllum Liao and Cai,1987)产于新疆北部和布克赛尔蒙古族自治县上泥盆统洪 古勒楞组。该属的特征明显,描述清楚,个体发育各个阶段的图影齐全,而且在国际学术界已经得到不少珊瑚专家 的认可(Weyer,1994),但目前仍有一些学者主张将它视为Circellia Ye and Wang 1983的同义名(Yu,1988;Poty and Boland,1996;Boland,1997)。经最近对这2属模式标本的进一步深入研究表明,虽然Hebukophyllum成年期的特 征与Circellia,Conilophyllum,Siphonophyllia等属有某些相似之处,但其幼年期的隔壁强烈加厚并在个体中央形 成一个明显的轴管(aulos),明显不同于后3属。Hebukophyllum明显不属于caninoid型珊瑚;Circellia是一种隔壁 构造十分不发育的小单体珊瑚,也不属于caninoid型珊瑚;Conilophyllum Poty and Boland,1996和Siphonophyllia Scouler MS in McCoy,1844则属于典型的caninoid型珊瑚。因此,上述几个属之间并无密切的亲缘关系,它们应分 属于不同的科: Family (科) Amplexidae Chapman, 1893 Genus (属) Circellia Ye and Wang, 1983 Family (科) Laccophyllidae Grabau, 1928 Cenus (属) Hebukophyllum Liao and Cai, 1987 Family (科) Caninidae Fomichev, 1953 Genus (属) Conilophyllum Poty and Boland, 1996 Genus (属) Siphonophyllia Scouler MS in McCoy, 1844 本文曾在1999年9月在日本仙台市召开的第8次国际化石刺丝胞与多孔类大会上(8th International Sympo- slum on Fossil Cnidaria and Porifera)宣读,会上笔者曾与比利时珊瑚专家Poty博士进行了交流和讨论。会后我们又 特地向中国地质大学(武汉)王治平、叶干教授借阅了Circellia的模式标本进行了比较深入的研究。我们在此表示 衷心的感谢。

  9. Observation of the prior earthquake effect on the flux of environmental neutrons, gamma-radiation, and on the local electric field in Tien Shan mountain

    CERN Document Server

    Salikhov, N M; Chubenko, A P; Kryakunova, O N; Pak, G D

    2013-01-01

    A search for the possible precursors of an earthquake and its effect on the data series of diverse geophysical parameters has been made in the mountain of Northern Tien Shan. The complex installation included the NM64 type neutron supermonitor, detectors of the environmental low-energy neutrons, the scintillation gamma-detector, the sensor of the local electric field, a seismograph, and a weather-station. The specialized data filtration methodic was elaborated with an enhanced sensitivity to the transient signals of seismic origin. On the eve of, and after a 5.4 magnitude earthquake the fine features in temporal behavior of the intensity of low-energy neutron and gamma-radiation background, so as irregularities of the local electric field were observed which seem to be in a close correlation with each other. These results may be an evidence of the possibility of experimental identification of earthquake's precursors in the time up to 2-3 days before the beginning of a period of intensive tectonic activity.

  10. ¿Nada en biología tiene sentidosi no es a la luz de la evolución?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alejandro Castro Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se critica la pertinencia de la famosa frase de Dobzhansky "Nada tiene sentido en biología si no es a la luz de la evolución", la cual denominamos como el Dogma Central de la Síntesis Evolutiva (DCSE. En la primera sección se explica el origen del DCSE y se retoman los puntos centrales del artículo en el que Dobzhansky lo propuso. En el segundo apartado se desarrollan tres puntos: se hace una reflexión sobre cómo el trabajo científico de dicho autor pone en aprietos la idea de Mayr acerca de que existen "dos biologías"; se cuestiona en qué medida es factible sostener que la columna vertebral de la biología es la evolución; y se plantean algunas implicaciones del DCSE en la filosofía y en la didáctica de la biología. En las conclusiones se argumenta por qué el DCSE debe ser abandonado de una vez por todas.

  11. Elimination of Cancer Stem-Like “Side Population” Cells in Hepatoma Cell Lines by Chinese Herbal Mixture “Tien-Hsien Liquid”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jung Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing pieces of evidence suggesting that the recurrence of cancer may result from a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells, which are resistant to the conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We investigated the effects of Chinese herbal mixture Tien-Hsien Liquid (THL on the cancer stem-like side population (SP cells isolated from human hepatoma cells. After sorting and subsequent culture, the SP cells from Huh7 hepatoma cells appear to have higher clonogenicity and mRNA expressions of stemness genes such as SMO, ABCG2, CD133, β-catenin, and Oct-4 than those of non-SP cells. At dose of 2 mg/mL, THL reduced the proportion of SP cells in HepG2, Hep3B, and Huh7 cells from 1.33% to 0.49%, 1.55% to 0.43%, and 1.69% to 0.27%, respectively. The viability and colony formation of Huh7 SP cells were effectively suppressed by THL dose-dependently, accompanied with the inhibition of stemness genes, e.g., ABCG2, CD133, and SMO. The tumorigenicity of THL-treated Huh7 SP cells in NOD/SCID mice was also diminished. Moreover, combination with THL could synergize the effect of doxorubicin against Huh7 SP cells. Our data indicate that THL may act as a cancer stem cell targeting therapeutics and be regarded as complementary and integrative medicine in the treatment of hepatoma.

  12. Targeting PML-RARα and Oncogenic Signaling Pathways by Chinese Herbal Mixture Tien-Hsien Liquid in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia NB4 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jung Yao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tien-Hsien Liquid (THL is a Chinese herbal mixture that has been used worldwide as complementary treatment for cancer patients in the past decade. Recently, THL has been shown to induce apoptosis in various types of solid tumor cells in vitro. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been well elucidated. In this study, we explored the effects of THL on acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL NB4 cells, which could be effectively treated by some traditional Chinese remedies containing arsenic trioxide. The results showed THL could induce G2/M arrest and apoptosis in NB4 cells. Accordingly, the decrease of cyclin A and B1 were observed in THL-treated cells. The THL-induced apoptosis was accompanied with caspase-3 activation and decrease of PML-RARα fusion protein. Moreover, DNA methyltransferase 1 and oncogenic signaling pathways such as Akt/mTOR, Stat3 and ERK were also down-regulated by THL. By using ethyl acetate extraction and silica gel chromatography, an active fraction of THL named as EAS5 was isolated. At about 0.5–1% of the dose of THL, EAS5 appeared to have most of THL-induced multiple molecular targeting effects in NB4 cells. Based on the findings of these multi-targeting effects, THL might be regarding as a complementary and alternative therapeutic agent for refractory APL.

  13. Holocene River Dynamics, Climate Change and Floodwater Farming in the Watersheds of the Pamir and Tien Shan Mountains of Inner Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, M. G.; Panyushkina, I. P.; Toonen, W. H. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Ili, Syr Dayra and Amu Dayra rivers of Inner Asia are emerging as critical areas for the development of irrigation-based agriculture in the ancient world. Following research by Russian archaeologists in the 1970s it is evident that these watersheds had flourishing riverine civilizations comparable to those in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley. But unlike these areas where the relationship between Holocene river dynamics, climate change and floodwater farming is increasingly underpinned by radiometric dating, the alluvial archaeology of Inner Asia is significantly under researched. To address this, a major multi-disciplinary research program was begun in 2011 centred on the Talgar catchment, a south-bank tributary of the Ili river, southeast Kazakhstan. Building on archaeological excavations and surveys conducted over the past 20 years, we have undertaken one of the most detailed investigations of Holocene people-river environment interactions in Inner Asia. River development has been reconstructed over the last 20,000 years and human settlement histories from the Eneolithic to the Medieval period documented. Periods of Holocene river aggradation and high water levels in Lake Balkhash and Aral Sea correspond with cooler and wetter neoglacial episodes while river entrenchment and floodplain soil development are associated with warmer and drier conditions. Floodwater farming in the Talgar river reached its acme in the late Iron Age (400-200 cal. BC) with more than 60 settlement sites and 550 burial mounds. This corresponds to a period of reduced flood flows, river stability and glacier retreat in the Tien Shan headwaters. A new hydroclimatic-based model for the spatial and temporal dynamics of floodwater farming in the Ili, Syr Dayra and Amu Dayra watersheds is proposed, which explains the large scale expansion (down-river) and contraction (up-river) of settlements since the first use of irrigation in the Neolithic through to the late Medieval period.

  14. La fin des temps : millénarisme chrétien et temporalités The end of Time: Christian millennialism and temporalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Dubar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available L’article propose et développe une interprétation du millénarisme chrétien – issu de l’Apocalypse de saint Jean et des prophéties du judaïsme antique – dans la ligne ouverte par Max Weber, en y ajoutant la question des relations entre temporalités passées, présentes et futures. Utilisant la méthode des différences, il confronte plusieurs conjonctures historiques de poussée et de condamnation du millénarisme : celle des premiers siècles du christianisme et notamment de Saint Augustin, au IVe siècle ; celle de Joachim de Flore au XIIIe siècle, celle de Thomas Munzer et de la commune anabaptiste de Munster au XVIe siècle et celle de la théologie de la libération dans l’Amérique du sud des années 1960-1970. De cette comparaison ressortent des configurations différentes des temporalités renvoyant à plusieurs figures de l’utopie de la fin des temps.The article suggests and pursues the interpretation of Christian millennialism - that sprang from Saint-John’s Apocalypse and ancient Judaic prophesies – proposed by Max Weber’s but adding the question of how past, present and future temporalities interrelate. Applying the method of differences, it confronts several historical occasions when millennialism was either promoted or condemned: during the first centuries of Christianity, particularly with Saint Augustine in the 1Vth century; Joachim de Flore in the XIIIth century; Thomas Munzer and the Anabaptist Commune in the 1960-70s. The comparison casts light on various temporal configurations of the Utopia of the End of Time.

  15. Mid-twentieth century increases in anthropogenic Pb, Cd and Cu in central Asia set in hemispheric perspective using Tien Shan ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigholm, B.; Mayewski, P. A.; Aizen, V.; Kreutz, K.; Wake, C. P.; Aizen, E.; Kang, S.; Maasch, K. A.; Handley, M. J.; Sneed, S. B.

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution major and trace element (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Ti, and V) ice core records from Inilchek glacier (5120 m above sea level) on the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau provide the first multi-decadal ice core record spanning the period 1908-1995 AD in central Tien Shan. The trace element records reveal pronounced temporal baseline trends and concentration maxima characteristic of post-1950 anthropogenic emissions. Examination of Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations, along with non-crustal calculation estimates (i.e. excess (ex) and enrichment factor (EF)), reveal that discernable anthropogenic inputs began during the 1950s and rapidly increased to the late-1970s and early 1980s, by factors up to of 5, 6 and 3, respectively, relative to a 1910-1950 means. Pb, Cd and Cu concentrations between the 1950s-1980s are reflective of large-scale Soviet industrial and agricultural development, including the growth of production and/or consumption of the non-ferrous metals, coal and phosphate fertilizers. NOAA HYSPLIT back-trajectory frequency analysis suggests pollutant sources originating primarily from southern Kazakhstan (e.g. Shymkent and Balkhash) and the Fergana Valley (located in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan). Inilchek ice core Pb, Cd and Cu reveals declines during the 1980s concurrent with Soviet economic declines, however, due to the rapid industrial and agricultural growth of western China, Pb, Cd and Cu trends increase during the 1990s reflecting a transition from primarily central Asian sources to emission sources from western China (e.g. Xinjiang Province).

  16. ¿El sentido del humor, tiene sentido en el aula? / Does Sense of the Humor Make Sense in the Classroom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Antonio González Ynfante

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 09 de junio de 2011 • Aceptado 24 de octubre de 2011 • Corregido 27 de setiembre de 2011 Resumen. El presente ensayo tiene como finalidad reflexionar sobre la importancia del humor pedagógico como estrategia de enseñanza aprendizaje en el aula; esto, tomando en cuenta la problemática de desmotivación y aburrimiento que sucede normalmente en la clase. Para plantear si “el enseñar contento y el aprender con alegría” pueden aumentar la eficacia en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, se abordará cómo, a pesar de las múltiples ventajas que puede aportar el humor en las aulas, se omite su empleo por la existencia de ciertos prejuicios y temores. La idea no es que los docentes hagan el papel de comediantes o payasos, sino la de mediar y acercar la clase de manera pedagógica y didáctica a través del uso del humor, y sobre esto reflexionaba Platón (1992, cuando planteaba que muchas veces ayudaba una broma, en donde la seriedad oponía resistencia. Abstract. This paper studies the importance of humor as a teaching strategy in the classroom, considering the usual lack of motivation and boredom. To analyze whether the “happy teaching and happy learning” may increase effectiveness in the teaching-learning process, the author will discuss how, despite the many benefits it may bring, humor is not used in the classroom due to prejudices and fears. The idea is not for teachers to play the role of a comedian or a clown, but to intervene and get closer to the group with a teaching, didactic purpose through humor. Plato (1992 thought about this; he used to say that sometimes a joke may help, where seriousness put up resistance.

  17. 王翠霞教授运用温经汤加减治疗痛经经验%Warm Decoction for Treating Dysmenorrhea Used by Professor WANG Cai-xia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉芝; 王翠霞

    2012-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is the abdominal pain during or before or after menstrual period. Professor WANG Cai-xia thinks that dysmenorrhea is due to cold coagulation and blood stasis, so based on cold and stasis, the treatment should be warming meridians and dispersing cold and resolving stasis and relieving pain, with a significant clinical effect.%痛经是指正值经期或者经行前后,出现周期性小腹疼痛,吾师认为导致痛经的主要病因为寒凝血瘀,因此从“寒”、“瘀”着手,治疗上多用温经散寒、祛瘀止痛之温经汤治疗,临床上取得了显著的效果.

  18. ARTE RUPESTRE E PROBLEMAS DE CONSERVAÇÃO DO SÍTIO ARQUEOLÓGICO CAMINHO DA CAIÇARA I (Rock Art and Conservation Problems at the Caminho da Caiçara I Archaeological Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Duarte Cavalcante

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available O sítio arqueológico Caminho da Caiçara I está localizado no povoado Cadoz Velho, área rural de Piripiri, estado do Piauí, Brasil. As paredes de rocha arenítica estão decoradas com 205 pinturas rupestres, representando figuras abstratas, ornitomorfos/propulsores de dardos, fitomorfos e antropomorfos, pintados predominantemente em diferentes tonalidades de vermelho, mas também em preto, amarelo, marrom, vinho e alaranjado. Além da elevada densidade de inscrições rupestres, há sobreposições e recorrências dos motivos pintados, como ornitomorfos/propulsores de dardos, círculos concêntricos, sequências de bastonetes, aglomerados de digitais e fitomorfos. As gravuras rupestres representam cúpules. Principalmente infiltrações de água e de compostos salinos, eflorescências salinas e insetos, como cupins, vespas e abelhas, afetam a conservação desse sítio arqueológico. Outros problemas de conservação são mencionados. ENGLISH: The Caminho da Caiçara I archaeological site is located in Cadoz Velho, a village in the rural area of Piripiri, state of Piauí, Brazil. The sandstone walls are decorated with 205 rock paintings, representing abstract figures, ornithomorphs/atlatls, phytomorphs and anthropomorphs, painted predominantly in different tones of red, but also in black, yellow, brown, wine and orange. In addition to a high density of rock inscriptions, there are overlaps and recurrences of painted motifs, such as ornithomorphs/atlatls, concentric circles, sequences of sticks, agglomerates of fingerings and phytomorphs. The rock engravings include cupules. Infiltrations of water and of saline compounds, thick layers of saline efflorescences, and insects, such as termites, wasps and bees, affect the conservation of this archaeological site. Other conservations problems are mentioned.

  19. Observation of the huge neutron bursts in Tien-Shan neutron super monitor in the cores of extensive air showers with energy above 3 PeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Investigations being carried out at the NM64 type neutron supermonitor [1] based on the shower installation of the Tien-Shan mountain station of the Lebedev Physical Institute, have led to the discovery of an anomalous delay of the neutron signals in EAS cores [2]. The essence of this phenomenon consists of the following. The NM64 monitor (just as all other types of neutron monitors) registers the evaporation neutrons from nuclear fission produced by high energy hadrons (with energies above 100 MeV) within the lead monitor's generator. Before detection, these evaporation neutrons, created with energies of a few MeV, are thermalized to the energies about 10-2 eV) diffusing inside the monitor. The diffusion process results in an exponential time distribution of the neutron signals with a characteristic relaxation time of about 360-400 μs. Such a picture is reproduced with high accuracy when EAS with an energy below 3 PeV passes through the monitor. However, at energies above 3 PeV a small part of the showers (of about 2-3% of the whole) has a prolonged shape of the intensity of neutron signals. The fraction of such anomalous showers rapidly increases with increasing energy, and reaches about 20-30% at an EAS energy of about 10 PeV. An attempt to explain this effect as a result of neutron signal losses in registration channels [3] leads to a contradiction with the existing models of EAS development in the atmosphere, because the hadron multiplicities, necessary for an explanation of the experimental time distribution of the intensity of neutron signals, prove to be two to three orders of magnitude higher than the values predicted by the models. It should be noted that the observed effect has a threshold character: it starts to become apparent in the energy region above 3 PeV, where a characteristic knee in primary cosmic ray spectrum, of still unknown nature, is present. In the same energy region, a wide range of unexplained phenomena are also observed in

  20. Re-analysis of the primary mass composition in the 'knee region' on the basis of the Tien Shan data and the independent-nucleon model of A-A interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results on EAS muon and electron size fluctuations obtained in the Tien Shan experiment are reanalysed using a more realistic model of nucleus-nucleus collision and taking into account the influence of the zenith angle distribution on the width of fluctuations and the difference in the shape of muon lateral distributions in EAS initiated by different primary nuclei. The corrected primary mass composition in the 'knee region' is likely to be heavier than at lower energies. (author)

  1. The enigmas of The grail. on The ConTroversy over The UniTy of Li Contes deL GraaL of ChréTien de Troyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Cirlot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the controversy about the unity of the last roman of Chrétien de Troyes, Li Contes del Graal which took place in the late fifties between Martí de Riquer, Jean Frappier and Erich Köhler. More than fifty years later, this paper will appraise the contributions that this controversy made to Romance philology, and, in particular, to the assessment of the last work of the Champenian writer.

  2. Assembly of the Pamirs: Age and origin of magmatic belts from the southern Tien Shan to the southern Pamirs and their relation to Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, M.; Ratschbacher, L.; Siebel, W.; McWilliams, M.; Minaev, V.; Lutkov, V.; Chen, F.; Stanek, K.; Nelson, B.; Frisch, W.; Wooden, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Magmatic rocks and depositional setting of associated volcaniclastic strata along a north-south traverse spanning the southern Tien Shan and eastern Pamirs of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan constrain the tectonics of the Pamirs and Tibet. The northern Pamirs and northwestern Tibet contain the north facing Kunlun suture, the south facing Jinsha suture, and the intervening Carboniferous to Triassic Karakul-Mazar subduction accretion system; the latter is correlated with the Songpan-Garze-Hoh Xi system of Tibet. The Kunlun arc is a composite early Paleozoic to late Paleozoic-Triassic arc. Arc formation in the Pamirs is characterized by ???370-320 Ma volcanism that probably continued until the Triassic. The cryptic Tanymas suture of the southern northern Pamirs is part of the Jinsha suture. A massive ??????227 Ma batholith stitches the Karakul-Mazar complex in the Pamirs. There are striking similarities between the Qiangtang block in the Pamirs and Tibet. Like Tibet, the regional structure of the Pamirs is an anticlinorium that includes the Muskol and Sares domes. Like Tibet, the metamorphic rocks in these domes are equivalents to the Karakul-Mazar-Songpan-Garze system. Granitoids intruding the Qiangtang block yield ???200-230 Ma ages in the Pamirs and in central Tibet. The stratigraphy of the eastern Pshart area in the Pamirs is similar to the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone in the Amdo region of eastern central Tibet, but a Triassic ocean basin sequence is preserved in the Pamirs. Arc-type granitoids that intruded into the eastern Pshart oceanic-basin-arc sequence (???190-160 Ma) and granitoids that cut the southern Qiangtang block (???170-160 Ma) constitute the Rushan-Pshart arc. Cretaceous plutons that intruded the central and southern Pamirs record a long-lasting magmatic history. Their zircons and those from late Miocene xenoliths show that the most distinct magmatic events were Cambro-Ordovician (???410-575 Ma), Triassic (???210-250 Ma; likely due to subduction along the

  3. Research on Biological Characteristics and Control Methods of Phobaecticuo Sihuanensis Cai%蜀刺腿的生物学特性及防治方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡良成; 任凭; 李中祥; 曾林

    2012-01-01

    The biological characteristics and control methods of Phobaecticuo sihuanensis Cai were conducted.The results showed that the insect repr-oduces one generation in one year and two years exist together in the east of Chongqing.The insect distributes mainly in the cypress woods and oak woods in the altitude between 300 meters and 1 200 meters in Three Gorges area and Hunan,Guizhou,Wuling Mountain Area of Hubei Province.Its body and appetite are big.Its harm time could last more than 200 days in one year.Planting mixed forest and protecting natural enemies were the basic measures to control its harm.In the big density location where the insects gather,it could use chemistry agricultural chemicals such as 20% fenvalerale EC.Before winter,making use of the beauveria bassiana produced by the froze Phobaecticuo sihuanensis Cai to control the insect,the effect could reach above 70%.%进行蜀刺腿的生物学特性及防治方法的研究,结果表明:该虫在渝东地区1年发生1代和2年完成1代同时存在;主要分布于三峡库区以及湘、黔、鄂武陵山区海拔300~1 200 m的柏树林、栎林内;其个体大,食性杂、食量大,危害期逾200 d;营造混交林,保护天敌是抑制该虫成灾的根本措施;在虫口密度较大的虫源地,用20%氰戊菊酯乳油等化学农药防治。在越冬前,喷施从蜀刺腿僵虫上分离生产的白僵菌,防效可达70%以上。

  4. 蔡元培音乐美育思想主要内涵及其具体实践%The Main Connotation and Concrete Practice of Cai Yuanpei's Music Education Thoughts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李作方

    2014-01-01

    蔡元培先生是我国近代音乐教育的积极提倡者和实践者,其音乐美育思想主要内涵包括:以提高国民素质为目标的普及音乐思想,东西方音乐融合创新思想,重视挖掘民族传统音乐思想,重视音乐美育的社会作用思想等。同时他注重身体力行,在北京大学等地实践其音乐美育教育的思想。%Cai Yuanpei is an active advocate and practitioner of music education in modern China. The main connotations of his music education thoughts include:massive music education with the purpose to raise people's qualities,creative music in the west and the east,traditional national music and emphasis on social function of music education. In the mean time,he focused on pactice,and carried out music education in Peking University.

  5. The dependence of EAS electron-photon component lateral characteristics on electron sizes at Tien-Shan and the PCR nuclear composition at 1-50 PeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper presents the experimental data one obtained by means of the Hadron Tien-Shan located facility on dependence of s age parameter characterizing electron spatial distribution in EAS on Ne number of electrons. Paper presents distributions by s, their width and average values depending on Ne ranging from 5x105 up to 3x107. Comparison of the experimental data with the calculated ones shows conservation of increase of the proportion of light nuclei, for the most part, protons, in the range behind the spectrum bend at Ne > 106, at least up to Ne = 107 (E0 ≅ 20 PeV)

  6. Results of the Cyg X-3 X-ray source observation in the energy range more than 1012 eV by the Tien-Shan installation for Cherenkov flashes detection from extensive air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of observations of the X-ray source Cyg X-3 for the energy > 1012 eV by the Tien-Shan installation for Cerenkov flashes detection from extensive air showers. The Tien-Shan installation for detection Cherenkov radiation from cosmic-ray air showers has been described. The observational results of the Cyg X-3 X-ray source for the energy more than 3x1012 eV which have been obtained during July-November 1977 are presented. The excess of the flux in direction to this object is (2.77+-0.54)% of cosmic-ray background. The periodic component of γ-ray flux is explored. The effect is (4.0+-1.0)% of cosmic-ray background or approximately 1.6x10-10 quantaxcm-2xs-1 E > 3x1012 eV in phase interval 0.157-0.212. At this stage of the investigations it can be said only about reliable detection of a periodical component of gamma radiation flux with an energy > 1012 eV from the Cyg X-3 X-ray source

  7. Conflict determination oriented to CAI based on design-centric complexity%面向CAI的设计过程复杂性理论冲突确定原理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 杨伯军; 张换高; 檀润华

    2013-01-01

    Determine the conflict in the system was the basis of product innovation, the conflict determination direct at Computer Aided Innovation (CAI) based on design-centric complexity was studied. The theory for definitions of complexity and complexity types were firstly introduced. Secondly, according to the definitions the unified representation of Design-Centric Complexity was proposed, and this representation was used to judge Design-Centric Complexity types. Further the unified method of Design-Centric Complexity was refined, and was corresponding to the concepts of problems, conflicts and conflict to form a conflict determination principle based on Design-Centric Complexity. Finally, the proposed method was applied in engineering examples to verify the principles.%确定系统中的冲突是产品创新的基础,研究了面向计算机辅助创新设计过程复杂性理论冲突确定原理,介绍了设计过程复杂性理论中对复杂性的定义以及复杂性的类型;根据相应的定义提出了设计过程复杂性统一表示方法,并应用该方法进行设计过程复杂性类型判定;将设计过程复杂性的统一表示方法进一步细化,并与问题、矛盾和冲突等概念相对应,形成设计过程复杂性冲突确定原理;应用工程实例验证了设计过程复杂性的冲突确定原理.

  8. 延宕的思考者——蔡伯喈与哈姆雷特形象比较研究%Procrastinative Thinkers: a Comparative Study of Cai Bojie and Hamlet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕

    2011-01-01

    In the history of both east and west plays, similarities in historical contexts brought about similar typical thinkers. Hamlet, an image depicted in the Elizabethan period, represented the ideal tragedy in the eyes of humanists. He becomes a common name of global significance characterized by melancholy and procrastination. Cai Bojie in Chinese classical play The Story of the Lute is similar to Hamlet in that he is laden with heavy reflections of human beings and a character endowed with great cultural elements. Therefore, these two images are quite comparable. Beyond their similarities, they differ greatly in their endings, reflecting the difference in western and eastern concepts of plays and cultural traditions.%东、西方戏剧史上,相似的历史背景下出现了相似的思考者典型。英国伊丽莎白时期诞生的哈姆雷特形象以人生的负重者出现,他的个人悲剧代表了当时人文主义者的理想悲剧,他以忧郁、延宕的性格成为具有世界意义的共名。中国明代古典戏剧《琵琶记》中的蔡伯喈,背负沉重的人生思考,包涵深厚的文化性格,与哈姆雷特具有很强的可比性。二剧皆对主要人物延宕为主的性格进行渲染,并由此展开尖锐的戏曲冲突,但矛盾的调解方式及结局却大相径庭,由此烛照出东西方文化传统与戏剧观念的差异。

  9. « Attendre au Purgatoire » : Les réseaux religieux de migrants chrétiens d’Irak en transit à Istanbul

    OpenAIRE

    Daniş, Didem

    2009-01-01

    La migration de transit est devenue un modèle migratoire important au Moyen-Orient du fait du durcissement des législations sur l’immigration dans les pays occidentaux. Depuis la Guerre du Golfe de 1991, les Chrétiens d’Irak (principalement les Assyro-Chaldéens) font partie des groupes qui font le choix d’une migration de transit en passant par le « corridor turc » afin de se rendre en Australie et au Canada.En plus des réseaux familiaux, les réseaux religieux jouent un rôle considérable dans...

  10. PCR nuclear composition at 1-20 PeV according to lateral distributions of all EAS and EAS accompanied high-energy-gamma rays and hadrons in EC at Tien-Shan level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tien-Shan array Adron data are presented on electron-photon component lateral distributions (age parameter S) of extensive air showers of cosmic rays. The data are given as a dependence on the electron size Ne for all showers and for showers accompanied by high-energy gamma rays and hadrons in X-ray films. Ne characterizes the energy of primary-cosmic-ray nuclei E0. Later events are generated by primary photons chiefly. That allows judging on the proton role with E0 change. S distributions point to the considerable part of light nuclei, protons mainly, at the region above knee of the spectrum at Ne > 106 up to Ne = 5 x 106 (E0 ∼ 10 PeV) at least

  11. Improved Accuracy of Chlorophyll-a Concentration Estimates from MODIS Imagery Using a Two-Band Ratio Algorithm and Geostatistics: As Applied to the Monitoring of Eutrophication Processes over Tien Yen Bay (Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Thu Ha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sea eutrophication is a natural process of water enrichment caused by increased nutrient loading that severely affects coastal ecosystems by decreasing water quality. The degree of eutrophication can be assessed by chlorophyll-a concentration. This study aims to develop a remote sensing method suitable for estimating chlorophyll-a concentrations in tropical coastal waters with abundant phytoplankton using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS/Terra imagery and to improve the spatial resolution of MODIS/Terra-based estimation from 1 km to 100 m by geostatistics. A model based on the ratio of green and blue band reflectance (rGBr is proposed considering the bio-optical property of chlorophyll-a. Tien Yen Bay in northern Vietnam, a typical phytoplankton-rich coastal area, was selected as a case study site. The superiority of rGBr over two existing representative models, based on the blue-green band ratio and the red-near infrared band ratio, was demonstrated by a high correlation of the estimated chlorophyll-a concentrations at 40 sites with values measured in situ. Ordinary kriging was then shown to be highly capable of predicting the concentration for regions of the image covered by clouds and, thus, without sea surface data. Resultant space-time maps of concentrations over a year clarified that Tien Yen Bay is characterized by natural eutrophic waters, because the average of chlorophyll-a concentrations exceeded 10 mg/m3 in the summer. The temporal changes of chlorophyll-a concentrations were consistent with average monthly air temperatures and precipitation. Consequently, a combination of rGBr and ordinary kriging can effectively monitor water quality in tropical shallow waters.

  12. Authoring a CAI Lesson in Nutrition Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Carol P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A nutrition lesson on vegetarianism (focusing on vegetarian types, complementary protein, special-care nutrients, and diet planning) that uses a pre-developed plan which concentrates on lesson content and design has been developed. Initial planning and procedures involved in developing the unit (selecting teaching modes, text writing, formatting,…

  13. Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin; Jing

    2015-01-01

    There are many ways to use computers for English language teaching.First of all,teachers can use them to prepare for classes.They can use a word processing program to write teaching materials and tests.They can use dictionaries,encyclopedias,et c.,available on the computer as resources to help them prepare

  14. 新生大鼠海马 CAl神经元突触反应和树突分枝的关系%The relationship between synaptic responses and dendritic arborization in neonatal hippocampal CAI neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿仕; 李继硕

    2002-01-01

    In vitro hippocampal slices were prepared from neonate rats (3 ~ 5 days old). Whole-cell patch-clamp re-cordings were obtained from CAI neurons by using voltage-clamp technique combined with biocytin intracellular staining method to study the relationship between the evoked synaptic responses and the dendritic arborization of pyramidal neurons. We reported that during the period of P3 ~ 5 pyramidal neurons were morphologically heterogeneous. Fifty-two percent of the neurons had poorly branched apical dendrites, with neither spontaneous nor evoked postsynaptic currents (PSCs); 48% of the neurons had much more developed dendritic arborization and synaptic responses when stimulation electrode was positioned in the stratum radiatum. Furthermore, the amplitudes of PSCs evoked at half-maximal intensity of stimuli positively correlated with the apical dendritic length and number of terminal branches. The present results demonstrate that the apical dendritic arborization relates to the responsiveness of CA1 pyramidal neurons to stimulation of stratum radiatum.%应用盲法脑片膜片钳记录并结合biocytin细胞内染色方法,研究了新生大鼠(生后3~5 d)离体海马脑片CA1锥体神经元突触反应和树突分枝的关系.发现,在生后3~5 d锥体神经元的形态呈现多形性.52%的神经元具有分枝很少的树突,并且既无自发性也无诱发性的突触后电流(postsynaptic currents,PSCs);48%的神经元具有较为发达的树突分枝且当刺激海马辐射层时,可引起突触反应.而且在半最大刺激强度时引起的PSCs的幅值与神经元顶树突的长度及终末分枝数呈正相关.上述研究结果表明,CAl锥体神经元的反应性是与顶树突的分枝状况相关的.

  15. If Your Child Learns in Two Languages: A Parent's Guide for Improving Educational Opportunities for Children Acquiring English as a Second Language = Si su nino aprende en dos idiomes: Una guia para que las familias sepan como mejorar las oportunidades educativas de los ninos que adquieren el ingles como segunda lengua = Neu lon Ban Hoc Bang Hai Thu Tieng: Chi-nam cua phu-huynh de cai tien co hoi hoc van cua con em dang hoc Anh van nhu sinh ngu thu hai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelasko, Nancy; Antunez, Beth

    This guide, in English, Spanish, and Vietnamese, aims to inform parents of students who have learned or are learning English as a Second Language about appropriate approaches for educating children so that they can work with schools to ensure a high quality education for their children. The emphasis is on explaining the laws, schools, and research…

  16. ¿Tiene sexo la mente?

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Páez, Adela

    2014-01-01

    La respuesta obvia es: NO. Pero entonces ¿por qué no aparecen mujeres en la historia de la ciencia? Si revisamos la historia con otros ojos, encontramos que las mujeres han tenido papeles muy relevantes en la ciencia y la tecnología. Para ilustrar esta afirmación se hablará de la vida y la obra de tres mujeres: la alemana Maria Sibylla Merian  (s XVII), artista, entomóloga y mujer de negocios, la francesa Marie Lavoisier (s XVIII-XIX), madre de la química moderna, y la austriaca Hedy Lamarr (...

  17. Tervan tien maisemallinen kehittäminen

    OpenAIRE

    Hänninen, Minna

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli miettiä maisemallisia kehittämistoimenpiteitä, tietaiteen mahdollisuuksia sekä matkailullisen vetovoimaisuuden kehittämistä Tervan tie matkailutien(valtatie 22) Pohjois-Pohjanmaan osuudelle. Suunnittelualueella tarkasteltiin valtatie 22:n lähialuetta Oulun, Muhoksen ja Utajärven kuntien alueella. Opinnäytetyön tilaajana toimi Valtatie 22 -yhdistys ry. Opinnäytetyön lähdeaineistona käytettiin Maisemasuunnittelun metodit – opintojaksolla syksyllä 2011 tuotettuj...

  18. Chinese Herbal Mixture, Tien-Hsien Liquid, Induces G2/M Cycle Arrest and Radiosensitivity in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells through Mechanisms Involving DNMT1 and Rad51 Downregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jung Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese herbal mixture, Tien-Hsien Liquid (THL, has been proven to suppress the growth and invasiveness of cancer cells and is currently regarded as a complementary medicine for the treatment of cancer. Our previous study using acute promyelocytic leukemia cells uncovered its effect on the downregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1 which is often overexpressed in cancer cells resulting in the repression of tumor suppressors via hypermethylation. Herein, we explored the effects of THL in MCF-7 breast cancer cells that also demonstrate elevated DNMT1. The results show that THL dose-dependently downregulated DNMT1 accompanied by the induction of tumor suppressors such as p21 and p15. THL arrested cell cycle in G2/M phase and decreased the protein levels of cyclin A, cyclin B1, phospho-pRb, and AKT. DNMT1 inhibition was previously reported to exert a radiosensitizing effect in cancer cells through the repression of DNA repair. We found that THL enhanced radiation-induced clonogenic cell death in MCF-7 cells and decreased the level of DNA double-strand break repair protein, Rad51. Our observations may be the result of DNMT1 downregulation. Due to the fact that DNMT1 inhibition is now a mainstream strategy for anticancer therapy, further clinical trials of THL to confirm its clinical efficacy are warranted.

  19. Chinese Herbal Mixture, Tien-Hsien Liquid, Induces G2/M Cycle Arrest and Radiosensitivity in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells through Mechanisms Involving DNMT1 and Rad51 Downregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jyh-Ming; Yang, Chia-Ming; Kuo, Hui-Ching; Chang, Chia-Lun; Lee, Hsin-Lun; Lai, I-Chun; Chuang, Shuang-En

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese herbal mixture, Tien-Hsien Liquid (THL), has been proven to suppress the growth and invasiveness of cancer cells and is currently regarded as a complementary medicine for the treatment of cancer. Our previous study using acute promyelocytic leukemia cells uncovered its effect on the downregulation of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) which is often overexpressed in cancer cells resulting in the repression of tumor suppressors via hypermethylation. Herein, we explored the effects of THL in MCF-7 breast cancer cells that also demonstrate elevated DNMT1. The results show that THL dose-dependently downregulated DNMT1 accompanied by the induction of tumor suppressors such as p21 and p15. THL arrested cell cycle in G2/M phase and decreased the protein levels of cyclin A, cyclin B1, phospho-pRb, and AKT. DNMT1 inhibition was previously reported to exert a radiosensitizing effect in cancer cells through the repression of DNA repair. We found that THL enhanced radiation-induced clonogenic cell death in MCF-7 cells and decreased the level of DNA double-strand break repair protein, Rad51. Our observations may be the result of DNMT1 downregulation. Due to the fact that DNMT1 inhibition is now a mainstream strategy for anticancer therapy, further clinical trials of THL to confirm its clinical efficacy are warranted. PMID:27525019

  20. Informe Final Perfil de proyecto Mejoramiento de las capacidades técnicas e infraestructura que tiene IFOP en Aysén para mejorar las mareas rojas e intentar reducir los efectos causados por estos eventos. InnovaChile (CORFO).

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán Méndez, F. L.; Vidal Santana, G.; Murillo Haro, V.; Pizarro Nova, G.; Mercado Leal, S.

    2011-01-01

    El presente documento corresponde al informe final del perfil del estudio "Mejoramiento de las capacidades técnicas e infraestructura que tiene IFOP en Aysén para manejar las mareas rojas e intentar reducir los efectos causados por estos eventos" desarrollado entre mayo y diciembre de 2010.

  1. Charted Choices 2013-2017. An analysis of ten election programmes. Effects on the economy and the environment; Keuzes in Kaart 2013-2017. Een analyse van tien verkiezingsprogramma's. Effecten op economie en milieu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    At the request of ten political parties, the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency have mapped out the effects of the respective election platforms on the economy and the environment. The analysis shows that each of the proposed policy measures included in the platforms has both advantages and disadvantages. The platforms thus reflect the diverse choices that have been made by the parties. The publication presents the impact of party programs on public finances, purchasing power and employment. Also included in the publication are analyses in the field of mobility, energy and climate, nature, education, housing and healthcare [Dutch] De verkiezingsprogramma's 2012 laten zien welke keuzes politieke partijen maken voor de jaren 2013-2017. De programma's tonen aan dat er echt iets te kiezen valt voor de komende kabinetsperiode. Hoe gaan we na de economische crisis de overheidsfinancien weer op orde brengen en hoe snel? Verhogen we de AOW-leeftijd en beperken we de aftrek van de hypotheekrente, of juist niet? Hoe verminderen we de filedruk? Willen we klimaatverandering aanpakken en zo ja, hoe dan? Is het de moeite waarde om meer geld uit te geven aan onderwijs of innovatie? Hoeveel trekken we uit voor natuur? Hoe kunnen we de woningmarkt beter laten functioneren? Hoe gaan we om met de stijging van de kosten van de zorg? In de aanloop naar de verkiezingen van 12 september 2012 hebben tien politieke partijen - VVD, PvdA, PVV, CDA, SP, D66, GroenLinks, ChristenUnie, SGP, DPK - gevraagd om een analyse van hun verkiezingsprogramma's. Het CPB heeft de economische effecten geanalyseerd, het PBL de effecten op milieu.

  2. Le refus de « parler chrétien » : dissidence d’un motif à travers La Farce de Maître Pathelin, Pantagruel et le Cymbalum mundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Bernard

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La Farce de maître Pathelin, Pantagruel et le Cymbalum mundi présentent tous trois un personnage qui a la particularité de communiquer pour ne pas se faire comprendre alors qu’il a la possibilité de le faire en toute intelligence avec ses interlocuteurs. Pathelin et Panurge s’expriment en langues et les chiens du Cymbalum mundi aboient alors qu’ils savent parler. Cet article explore les modalités et les motivations de ce refus de « parler chrétien », à travers ces trois œuvres de la fin du Moyen-Âge et du début de la Renaissance où la valeur du langage, gloire de l’humain, fondement de la société, est remise en question.La Farce de maître Pathelin, Pantagruel and the Cymbalum mundi each involve a character whose distinctive feature is that he communicates so as not to make himself understood, when he is perfectly able to make himself understood to the people he is addressing. Pathelin and Panurge speak in tongues and the dogs from the Cymbalum mundi bark whereas they can speak. This article investigates the workings and motivations of this refusal to « speak Christian », through three works from the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Renaissance in which the value of language as human glory and foundation of society is questioned.

  3. De la dédiasporisation des jeunes Haïtiens à New-York On De-diasporization of Second-generation Haitians in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Melyon-Reinette

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les facteurs répulsifs de l’émigration haïtienne ont complètement changé depuis les années 1950 qui marquèrent le début de ce mouvement avec le régime duvaliériste. Les entités géopolitiques et sociopolitiques qui en résultent évoluent, elles aussi, proportionnellement et rationnellement aux motivations des individus en partance. Ainsi, les exilés forcés rêvaient de retrouver leur chère Haïti, les nouveaux primo-arrivants sont des individus qui cherchent à se ré-enraciner dans un terreau aux airs d’ailleurs. Le diasporique est-il un individu dont l’identité est figée ? Dans cet article, une étude statistique simple cherche à démontrer l’évolution des mentalités des jeunes Haïtiens à travers un questionnement des identités et des orientations culturelles. Des dynamiques se font jour montrant que la diaspora est fluctuante comme les identités et les cultures qui la composent.The Push factors of Haitian emigration have completely changed since the late 1950s which marked the beginning of this movement with the Duvalier regime. The geopolitical and sociopolitical entities which result from it are changing as well, in proportion and accordance with the motivations of the people who leave. Thus, the forced exiles dreamt of going back to their dearest Haiti, the latest newly-arrived immigrants are individuals who desire to re-root into a land that sounds like “elsewhere”. Must the diasporic individual’s identity be stable? In this article, a simple survey seeks to shed light on the changing mentalities of young Haitians, examining their identities and cultural choices.  Emerging trends show that diaspora is a flow, not unlike the identities and the cultures of which it is composed.

  4. Cambio en la clasificación macroscópica de la apendicitis. ¿Tiene algún impacto? Estudio retrospectivo en un Hospital Universitario Pediátrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio David Castañeda-Espinosa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. La definición actual de apendicitis diferencia la aguda en apéndices no perforados y perforados. Esta clasificación describe los apéndices perforados como aquellos con la presencia de un orificio visible en el apéndice o la presencia de un fecalito libre en la cavidad y ha cambiado el manejo postoperatorio actual. Objetivo. Determinar si el cambio en la definición macroscópica de la apendicitis aguda tiene alguna influencia en la duración de la estancia hospitalaria y la tasa de complicaciones dado el cambio en el manejo antibiótico postoperatorio. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un rastreo de aquellos pacientes llevados a cirugía con diagnóstico de apendicitis aguda durante el primer semestre del año 2009 y el segundo semestre del año 2011 en la Fundación HOMI. Se excluyeron los pacientes llevados a laparoscopia diagnóstica por estudio del dolor abdominal, apendicectomias incidentales y los pacientes manejados en el protocolo de apendicectomía de Intervalo. Resultados. Se observó una disminución en el número de días de hospitalización/año y en el número de dosis de antibiótico/año y reducción en el número de complicaciones, lo cual demuestra que la clasificación y el protocolo de manejo actual no se correlacionan con un aumento en el número de complicaciones y se asocia con menores costos. Conclusión. El cambio en la clasificación macroscópica y el aportar la nueva definición sobre apendicitis perforada ha logrado disminuir la estancia hospitalaria y la cantidad de antibióticos utilizados sin una repercusión significativa en la tasa de complicaciones.

  5. El fin de la situación de transitoriedad: la Ley Orgánica 15/1999, de 13 de diciembre, de Protección de Datos de Carácter Personal ya tiene desarrollo reglamentario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Vilasau

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El 19 de abril del 2008 entró en vigor el Reglamento 1720/2007, de 21 de diciembre, que desarrolla la Ley Orgánica de Protección de Datos (LOPD. Este texto había sido muy esperado por los aplicadores del derecho, por las empresas de consultoría y de seguridad, por sectores del marketing y publicidad, por empresas dedicadas a la solvencia patrimonial y crédito y, en un grado menor, por los consumidores y usuarios. La norma responde a la necesidad de dotar la Ley Orgánica sobre la materia del correspondiente desarrollo reglamentario y dar respuesta a las nuevas necesidades de la sociedad de la información constantemente en evolución. En el Reglamento de la LOPD se regula el otorgamiento del consentimiento por silencio positivo, el otorgamiento del consentimiento de los menores, se sistematiza el ejercicio de los derechos por parte del afectado, se regulan detalladamente los ficheros de marketing y publicidad, los de solvencia patrimonial y crédito, se dota la figura del encargado de un estatuto jurídico, se proporciona un nuevo marco a las medidas de seguridad y se sistematizan los procedimientos tramitados por la Agencia Española de Protección de Datos. El texto aprobado, evidentemente, no complacerá a todo el mundo, la existencia de múltiples instancias involucradas (estatales y autonómicas y de múltiples agentes con diferentes perspectivas hace que las soluciones proporcionadas no se ajusten a los ideales de todos los implicados.Sin embargo, el nuevo reglamento es un paso adelante en la consolidación del derecho a la protección de datos de carácter personal, aporta mayor seguridad jurídica y flexibilización y se tiene que ver como una oportunidad de crear una nueva cultura de protección de datos integrada en el tratamiento de la información de una forma global.

  6. Nuclear composition of 1- to 20-PeV primary cosmic rays according to lateral features of the electron-photon component of all extensive air showers and of extensive air showers accompanying high-energy gamma rays and hadrons in X-ray emulsion chambers at the Tien Shan level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from the Tien Shan array Adron on the dependence of the lateral distributions of the electron-photon component (age parameter S) in extensive air showers of cosmic rays on the number of electrons, Ne, which is a quantity that characterizes the primary-nucleus energy E0, are subjected to a comparative analysis. The distributions in question are given both for all showers and for showers accompanying high-energy gamma rays and hadrons in x-ray emulsion chambers. According to calculations, events associated with the latter are generated predominantly by primary protons, and this makes it possible to assess their role at various values of E0. The distributions with respect to S suggest a significant fraction of light nuclei, predominantly protons, in the region after the knee in the spectrum for Ne > 106, at least up to Ne = 5.6 x 106 (E0 ∼ 10 PeV)

  7. Eliminating Blind Spots on Gender in Public Policy CAI YIPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Just when Meng Meilian felt she couldn’t go on she was lucky enough to become one of the first in her village to be granted a poverty-relief loan. Although the lack of laborers in Meng’s family made the risk of return greater than for other applicants, it was clearly stipulated in the county’s poverty relief policy that, all other things being equal, women in poverty should have priority.

  8. CAI and Its Application in Rural Junior English Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Superiority in developing students' listening, speaking, etc. This thesis explores how to provide a better environment for English teaching in rural junior school with the aid of multimedia and find some ways to improve teaching efficiency. In recent years, using multimedia is the direction of reform and mainstream in English teaching. Compared…

  9. COMPUTERIZED ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS (CAIS) VERSUS SECURITY THREATS

    OpenAIRE

    BAGHER SHAMSZADEH; ABOLFAZL AZIZI SHARIF

    2012-01-01

    According to the increasing use of information technology in accounting This study has done with the aim of identifying the significant security threats of computerized accounting systems and relationship between security of these systems with the level of education and work experience of system users, quality of system design and industry type in different companies. Methodically this research is a descriptive survey study. The correlation relationship between variables was done. Data collec...

  10. Die voorspelling van standerd tien rekeningkundeprestasie / Sebastiaan Reinhardt

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhardt, Sebastiaan

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this research project was to determine the relative contribution of cognitive and non-cognitive variables to accounting achievement and to determine which variables have the greatest influence on accounting achievement so that these variables can be used to predict accounting achievement. To reach the aim of the study, a literature study was undertaken which was followed by an empirical investigation. The literature study was divided into a study of cognitive {...

  11. De refranes y cantares tiene el pueblo mil millares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Alfonso Soler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta experiencia trata de acercarnos a la palabra para mejorar las competencias comunicativas orales y escritas de los nuevos hablantes de nuestro idioma. El uso de los refranes se incluye en el ámbito del nivel popular; en él abunda la subjetividad, se economizan considerablemente los medios lingüísticos y aparecen numerosas apelaciones al oyente. Relativo a esto podemos señalar que los proverbios y refranes son expresiones de contenido moral y didáctico que se transmiten de manera oral.

  12. Dominio informativo, ¿quién tiene el poder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mauricio Velásquez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A través de la historia, las relaciones entre los gobiernos y la prensa han sido definitivas en el éxito o fracaso de quienes ostentan el poder. No es extraño que algunos jefes de Estado se sientan incómodos con la manera de informar de algunos medios o, por el contrario, decidan aliarse para estructurar determinadas agendas que se manejan de manera unánime para orientar el temario que decida el ejecutivo. El Observatorio de Medios de la Facultad de Comunicación Social y Periodismo realizó un estudio para conocer el estado de la relación entre el presidente Álvaro Uribe Vélez y la prensa. La investigación reveló presiones directas e indirectas que el gobierno ejerce sobre los periodistas.

  13. La subordinación tiene rostro de mujer

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Haro, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    Este ensayo intentará desarrollar cómo es que a lo largo de la historia, el discurso hegemónico ha invisibilizado sistemáticamente a la mujer, desde la literatura clásica hasta la contemporánea, situándola como sujeta de enunciación y acción. (Párrafo extraído del texto a modo de resumen)

  14. Menswaardigheid na tien jaar van regstaatlikheid in Suid-Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LWH Ackermann

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available HUMAN DIGNITY AFTER TEN YEARS OF TEH CONSTITUTIONAL STATE IN SOUTH AFRICASpeech delivered on 16 March 2004 on the Potchefstroom campus of the North-West UniversityHuman dignity has been the marrow of our Constitution and our constitutional state since 1994. The inherent dignity of man is also a key principle of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. The Kantian categorical imperatives continue to provide guidance regarding the meaning of human dignity. At the very least, people are entitled to be regarded as moral subjects and not as objects: as subjects with absolute and inherent worth and therefore also as moral subjects of equal worth.The juridical core of the pathology of apartheid was the extensive and sustained attempt to deprive the majority of South Africans of the right to self-identification and self-determination. It amounted to an inversion of the Kantian imperatives. A reversal of this inversion has been attempted over the past ten years. The Constitution not only elevates human dignity to a specially entrenched value, but also affords it special protection in the context of fundamental rights. It is furthermore a specific consideration in the limitation of rights and in the development of the common law. It applies not only to the state/subject relationship, but also to "horizontal" relationships and it must be taken into account in the interpretation of the Constitution.Constitutional jurisprudence has established that the Constitution is more than a formal document, but that it also represents an objective, normative value system. Thus the foundational norm of human dignity radiates into all areas of the law. The role of human dignity in the interpretation and application of norms applicable to remedial or restitutionary equality, as well as in the achievement of constitutional equilibrium in the "horizontal" operation of the Bill of Rights, has also been established.The realization of human dignity is but in its initial stages: civil society, including educational institutions, are called upon to make their contribution to the process.

  15. Muon pairs observed on Tien-Shan arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of further investigation of muon pairs near the EAS axis registered by spark chambers are presented with better statistics. The aim of the analysis were correlations of muon pairs with hadron cascades in above ground ionization calorimeter as well as with some parameters of EAS. The results don't contradict the previous conclusion about increasing cross-section of muon pairs production by hadrons with energies about 10 TeV as compared with accelerators data up to 2 TeV. However considerable part of muon pairs may be connected with interactions in dense matter of long living new heavy particles. These particles are created in air nuclear cascades initiated by primaries with energies > or approximately= 5.1015 eV

  16. Astro-seismic observations in Tien-Shan Astronomical observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photometric and spectral measurements of brightness variation with Doppler effect of spectral lines on visible stars surface that enables to study spectra of stars own acoustic oscillation and hence their inner structure with significantly best accuracy than it has been possible are presented. (author)

  17. Die verklaring van die Tien Gebooie volgens die Heidelbergse Kategismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. de Bruyn

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available I this article the explication of the Ten Commandments according to the Heidelberg Catechism is analysed. The Heidelberg Catechism indicates the following characteristics: Adherence to the Ten Commandments indicates gratitude. The Ten Commandments are synecdochaic in character. The Ten Commandments are explicated in the context of revelation history. The emphasis is placed on inner conviction. The negative as well as the positive vocation of the Christian is emphasized. The universal significance of the Decalogue is acknowledged. The practical implications of the Ten Commandments are indicated. The authority of the Ten Commandments is considered as absolute. The demands of the Decalogue express a personal character. The Roman Catholic and Lutheran divisions of the Ten Commandments are rejected. Biblicism is rejected. Perfectionism is rejected.

  18. Bodemvruchtbaarheid daalt langzaam - tien jaar fosfaatevenwichtsbemesting op grasland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, van J.C.; Salm, van der C.; Ehlert, P.A.I.

    2007-01-01

    De bodemvruchtbaarheid van grasland blijkt langzaam te dalen als gedurende 10 jaar evenwichtsbemesting voor fosfaat is toegepast. Ook worden de graslandopbrengst en het fosforgehalte van het gras dan iets lager, zo blijkt uit een veldproef van ASG en Alterra

  19. A visão da família sobre a experiência de ter uma criança gastrostomizada La visión de la familia sobre la experiencia de tener un niño que tiene gastrostomía The views of the family about the experience of having a child with gastrostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cascaes Cruz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A gastrostomia é cada vez mais usada para tratar de problemas nutricionais e de crescimento em crianças com doenças crónicas ou deficientes. Embora seja um procedimento simples para a equipa de saúde, a criação de estomas na criança pode gerar consequências emocionais e sociais na vida familiar. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar as evidências científicas acerca da experiência da família que possui uma criança gastrostomizada. Elaborou-se uma revisão integrativa da literatura no período de 2005 a 2011 e busca de artigos em diferentes bases de dados, sendo selecionados 10 artigos sobre o tema. A análise dos textos permitiu organizar os resultados em quatro temas: o significado da alimentação para os pais; o desempenho do papel parental; a experiência da família na interação com a equipa de saúde; a vida após a gastrostomia. Os resultados demonstram que a família que tem uma criança gastrostomizada experiencia uma grande sobrecarga emocional, sobretudo no período anterior ao procedimento, em virtude do significado sociocultural que a alimentação tem para ela. A família necessita de receber informações e apoio da equipa de saúde que acompanha a criança.La gastrostomía se utiliza cada vez más para tratar problemas nutricionales y de crecimiento en niños con enfermedades crónicas o incapacidades. A pesar de que el equipo sanitario considera que es un procedimiento simple, la realización de un estoma en el niño puede tener consecuencias emocionales y sociales en la vida familiar. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las evidencias científicas relacionadas con la experiencia de la familia que tiene un niño con gastrostomía. Se realizó una revisión integrativa de la literatura en el periodo comprendido entre 2005 y 2011 y se buscaron artículos en diferentes bases de datos, de los cuales se seleccionaron 10 sobre el tema. El análisis de los textos permitió organizar los resultados en cuatro

  20. Espacialidade do ser-profissional-de-enfermagem no mundo do cuidado à criança que tem câncer Especialidad del ser profesional de enfermería en el mundo del cuidado al niño que tiene cáncer Spaciality of being-nursing-professional in the world of caring to children who has cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Flores Mutti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: compreender o significado para equipe de enfermagem de cuidar de crianças que têm doença oncológica avançada, cuja enfermidade não responde mais aos tratamentos curativos. MÉTODO: Investigação fenomenológica heideggeriana. Etapa de campo desenvolvida no período de dezembro/2010 a março/2011, com 15 profissionais de enfermagem no Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. RESULTADOS: O profissional de enfermagem expressa que, no cotidiano de cuidado à criança que tem câncer, tem que separar o profissional do emocional. Descreve o seu dia a dia dentro e fora do hospital. Com o tempo, aprende a separar o trabalho da vida pessoal. CONCLUSÕES: Aponta a necessidade do desenvolvimento de estratégias de ação multiprofissional entre a equipe que cuida, considerando que também precisa ser cuidada.OBJETIVO: comprender el significado para el equipo de enfermería de atención a niños que tienen enfermedad oncológica avanzada, cuya enfermedad no responde más a los tratamientos curativos. MÉTODO: Investigación fenomenológica heideggeriana. Etapa de campo desarrollada en el período de diciembre/2010 a marzo/2011, con 15 profesionales de enfermería en el Hospital Universitario de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. RESULTADOS: El profesional de enfermería expresa que, en el cotidiano de cuidado al niño que tiene cáncer, tiene que separar el profesional del emocional. Describe su rutina dentro y fuera del hospital. Con el tiempo aprende a separar el trabajo de la vida profesional. CONCLUSIONES: Apunta la necesidad del desarrollo de estrategias de acción multiprofesional entre el equipo que cuida, considerando que también necesita atención.OBJECTIVE: to comprehend the meaning of taking care of children who have an advanced cancer that no longer responds to curative treatments for nursing staff. METHODS: heideggerian phenomenological research. Field step developed from December/2010 to March

  1. “娜拉”形象的重塑在韩国无产阶级文学中的作用--论蔡万植的《走出玩偶之家后》%The Role on the Refounding of Nora’s Image in South Korea Proletarian Literature--A Study on Cai Wanzhi’sAfter Leaving The Doll’s House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苑英奕

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1920s of the last century, Norwegian writer Ibsen’s work A Doll’s housewas introduced in Korea, where the heroine “Nora” attracted much attention. 10 years later, Cai Wanzhi, a Korean writer, wrote a sequel namedAfter Leaving the Doll’s House in 1993. So far, the Korean scholars argue that the two works share the same strain. The latter actually intensifies the idea “Emancipation of women”. However, the idea the article holds is that Cai Wanzhi shaped an image of “new political subject” by means of the much-talked-about character “Nora”, who had been symbolized under “the women issue”. Meanwhile he also tried to dig up the political line along which the Korean folks toiled for survival under the colonial background. At the end of the ifction, “Nora”, a middle class lady, converted into a proletarian worker dramatically. In fact, it is a mechanical mixture of ideology and novel fodder. The author's delicate deceitful act made his works accepted by the Japanese colonial governmental publication inspection system successfully. It can be said that the change of “Nora”image is the concentrated relfection of the transformation of ideology and arts of Korean literature in 1930s and shows a new expressive way of the proletarian literature.%上世纪20年代初,易卜生的《玩偶之家》被介绍到韩国,主人公“娜拉”作为“自由女性像”受到广泛的关注。十余年后的1933年,作家蔡万植以翻案的形式创作了小说《走出玩偶之家后》。迄今为止,韩国学界普遍认为作品中的“娜拉”是对前者妇女解放思想的继承和强化。然而,小说中的“娜拉”在历经种种人生的磨难后,最终从中产阶级夫人转变为一个自食其力的无产阶级工人,这一变身的结局具有深刻的寓意。本文认为,作者蔡万植把当时敏感的社会主义意识形态问题巧妙地嫁接到妇女解放的传统主题里,借助当时已

  2. Contemporary Comments on "Four Reviews" of "A Dream of Red Mansions"——taking Zhou Ruchang,Feng Qiyong,Cai Yijiang,Wang Meng as examples%当代《红楼梦》评点“四家评”综论之一——以周汝昌、冯其庸、蔡义江、王蒙为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高淮生

    2011-01-01

    The comment about "A Dream of Red Mansions" since "Zhi Yanzhai",an earlier commentator,has been a special form of literary appreciating and literary criticism,which is quite popular among readers.The most influential contemporary comments are the ones made by Zhou Ruchang,Feng Qiyong,Cai Yijiang and Wang Meng."Four Reviews" are very popular and loved by readers of A Dream of Red Mansions.Not only did "Four Reviews" widened the perspectives and approaches on the study of "A Dream of Red Mansions",but have achieved traditional Chinese fiction commentary's self-improvement to some extent,especially the quality of comments about "A Dream of Red Mansions".Besides,it is also beneficial for the construction of contemporary literary appreciation.%《红楼梦》评点自脂砚斋以来一直是受到《红楼梦》读者喜爱的一种文学鉴赏和文学批评的特有形式。当代《红楼梦》评点影响最大的当属周汝昌、冯其庸、蔡义江、王蒙等"四家评","四家评"正广为流传,并受到《红楼梦》读者的喜爱。"四家评"不仅拓宽了《红楼梦》的研究视野和研究途径,也在一定程度上实现了传统小说评点尤其是《红楼梦》评点理论品格的自我提升,并且有益于当代文艺鉴赏学的建设。

  3. Un environnement multimédia privilégiant l’expression en langage naturel, pour des activités éducatives de type piagétien A multimedia environment favouring natural language expression, for educational piagetian games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élisabeth Godbert

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Nous nous intéressons dans cet article au développement de logiciels éducatifs proposant, dans un environnement multimédia, multimodal et réactif privilégiant l’expression en langage naturel, des exercices de type piagétien pour l’aide à l’apprentissage du langage. Dans ce type de système, chaque exercice met en jeu un micro-monde d’objets graphiques sur lesquels l’enfant utilisateur peut agir (modification, déplacement, suppression d’objets, etc., en formulant des requêtes en langage naturel auxquelles le système répond. Nous présentons un logiciel éducatif de cette famille, que nous avons conçu et développé ces dernières années. Nous décrivons en premier lieu les objectifs pédagogiques et les fonctionnalités de notre logiciel, puis le système que nous y utilisons pour le traitement automatique du langage. Nous décrivons ensuite l’ensemble des composants qui structure les connaissances qu’il a été nécessaire de modéliser, articuler et gérer pour la réalisation de ce système.This paper deals with the development of educational software, which proposes, in a multimedia, multimodal and reactive environment favoring natural language expression, piagetian games designed for natural language learning. In such systems, each exercise brings into play a micro-world of graphic objects on which the user can act (for example to modify, move or withdraw the objects, by composing natural language queries to which the system gives an answer. We present a software of this type, that has been designed and implemented these last years. We firstly describe the educational objectives and the functionality of the software, then the natural language processing system which is used in it. Finally we describe the set of components that structures knowledge modeled, articulated and managed in order to carry out this educational system.

  4. « Comment se comporter avec un roi chrétien » : l’ouvrage perdu d’Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī Ibn al-Qaṭṭān et les enjeux du cérémonial almohade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghouirgate

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose de revenir sur un document aussi exceptionnel que méconnu. Il s’agit du résumé d’un ouvrage (maqāla, aujourd’hui perdu, intitulé « Comment se comporter avec un roi chrétien », et que l’on trouve dans le dictionnaire bio-bibliographique d’Ibn ʿAbd al-Malik. Cette maqāla fut rédigée, par un homme de lettres au service des Almohades, Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī Ibn al-Qaṭṭān (m. 1231. C’est la seule source qui ait consigné des indications sur la conduite que devait adopter le souverain lors d’une cérémonie, en présence d’un prince étranger. À ce titre, on y trouve des renseignements essentiels sur le cérémonial almohade ainsi que sur les dilemmes que devaient résoudre le calife : d’un point de vue idéologique, il ne pouvait souffrir aucun autre pouvoir, mais l’impossibilité de mener des opérations d’envergure sur deux fronts à la fois l’amena à composer avec le roi du León. De même, c’est le seul document à avoir fait état d’une divergence de point de vue entre le calife et les intellectuels organiques du système, les Ṭalaba. Ce différend met en lumière des tensions latentes au sommet entre divers serviteurs de l’État, qui n’avaient pas la même forme de légitimité, ni tout à fait les mêmes intérêts.

  5. Mundo da vida da mulher que tem HIV/AIDS no cotidiano da (impossibilidade de amamentar Mundo de la vida de la mujer que tiene VIH/SIDA en el cotidiano de la (imposibilidad de amamantar Life-world of woman with HIV/AIDS in the daily life of the (impossibility of breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Maris de Mello Padoin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo apresentar a compreensão do mundo da vida da mulher que tem o vírus da imunodeficiência humana no cotidiano da (impossibilidade de amamentar. Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa com abordagem fenomenológica, desenvolvida no Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria - Brasil. A partir da entrevista fenomenológica, a análise se deu conforme o método heideggeriano. Nos resultados tem-se que a mulher se mostra como ser-no-mundo-com-o-outro em um mundo que descreve com familiaridade no modo de ser da convivência, do estar só, da impessoalidade. Conclui-se que, no mundo do cuidado, é a partir dessa compreensão que dar-se-á a possibilidade de ajudar a mulher nessa situação vivida, a enfrentar as implicações a partir do diagnóstico, buscando desenvolver um cuidado solícito.Este artículo pretende presentar la comprensión del mundo de la vida de la mujer que tiene el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana en el cotidiano de la (imposibilidad de amamantar. Se trata de una investigación cualitativa con abordaje fenomenológico, desarrollado en el Hospital Universitario de Santa Maria - Brasil. A partir de la entrevista fenomenológica, el análisis se dio conforme el método Heideggeriano. En los resultados se verifica que la mujer se muestra como ser en el mundo con el otro, en un mundo que describe con familiaridad en el modo de ser de la convivencia, de estar sola, de la impersonalidad. Se concluye que es a partir de esa comprensión - en el mundo del cuidado - que se dará la posibilidad de ayudar la mujer en esa situación vivida, a enfrentar las implicaciones a partir del diagnóstico, visando desarrollar un cuidado solícito.This paper aimed to present the understanding of the life-world of woman with acquired immunodeficiency virus in the daily life of the (impossibility of breastfeeding. It is a qualitative research in the phenomenological approach which was developed in a teaching hospital in the southern

  6. TREE RING BASED MEAN MAXIMUM TEMPERATURE RECONSTRUCTION FOR THE GONGNAISI REGION ON THE SOUTHERN SLOPE OF THE CENTRAL TIEN SHAN MOUNTAINS,CHINA SINCE A.D.1777%利用树轮资料重建天山中段南坡巩乃斯地区公元1777年来平均最高气温变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张同文; 刘禹; 袁玉江; 魏文寿; 喻树龙; 陈峰

    2011-01-01

    利用年轮平均灰度年表重建了天山巩乃斯地区自公元1777年来当年5月至8月平均最高气温,方差解释量达41%(调整自由度后为39%).过去232年来,巩乃斯地区平均最高气温变化存在2个偏冷阶段和1个偏暖阶段.重建序列具有154年、77年、2.7年和2.3年的准周期,并且在1842年前后、1880年前后、1923年前后发生了突变.与北半球平均最高气温网格点资料和多种涛动指数的相关性分析表明,巩乃斯地区平均最高气温变化不仅反映了区域气候变化,对于大范围气候变化也存在一定程度上的响应.%The Gongnaisi region is located on the southern slope of the Central Tien Shan Mountains in Xinjiang Province. In recent years, there are some dendroclimatological studies in this region, which were focused on the analyses of correlations of chronologies with meteorological data and the precipitation reconstruction. However, the temperature variation history of the region remains unclear.Healthy spruce ( Picea schrenkiana) trees grow in sparse ground vegetation. Spruce trees with little or no apparent evidence of human or other disturbances were selected for sampling. Two cores(5. 15mm diameter) were extracted from each tree in different directions for cross-dating. A total of 62 cores from 31 spruce trees were collected from AKS sampling site(2420 ~2482m a. S. L.,43°12'12. 8" N and 84°47'47. 7" E) in May 2009,which is located in a mountainous area of the Aikendaban region. All of tree-ring samples were dried, mounted, surfaced and cross-dated following standard dendrochronological procedure. Three kinds of tree-ring width data(TRW,EWW and LWW)and five kinds of tree-ring gray values( TRG,EWG,LWG,MXG and MIG)were obtained through a tree-ring image analysis system(WINDENDRO? 2005a) ,which includes a high resolution scanner,a PC computer and a software program. The quality control of cross-dating was carried out using COFECHA and ARSTAN program was used

  7. O significado de cuidado para crianças vítimas de violência intrafamiliar que tiene el cuidado El significado para niños víctimas de violencia familiar The meaning of care for children victims of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Irmgard Bärtschi Gabatz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa que objetivou descrever o significado de cuidado vivenciado em família por crianças abrigadas que sofreram violência intrafamiliar. Foi desenvolvida em duas instituições que abrigam crianças e adolescentes vítimas de violência familiar no sul do Brasil, com quatro crianças entre 8 e 11 anos de idade. A produção dos dados ocorreu em junho/julho de 2008 por meio do Método Criativo Sensível, com as dinâmicas de criatividade e sensibilidade Brincar em Cena e Corpo Saber. Os dados foram analisados por meio da análise de discurso francesa. Foi evidenciado como tema o significado atribuído pela criança acerca de cuidado, que se desdobrou nos subtemas Sentimento de amor e de carinho pelo familiar que cuidava e Os cuidados básicos de higiene como forma de cuidado. Recomenda-se um trabalho preventivo, realizado junto às famílias com foco em ações que propiciem o apego, o fortalecimento do vínculo mãe-filho e as relações familiares.La presente investigación cualitativa tuvo como objetivo describir el significado que tiene recibir cuidado y atención, dentro de un entorno familiar, para niños albergados que sufrieron violencia familiar. Se desarrolló con cuatro niños, entre 8 y 11 años de edad, en dos instituciones que albergan niños y adolescentes víctimas de violencia doméstica en el sur de Brasil. Los datos fueron obtenidos en junio y julio de 2008 por medio del Método Creativo Sensible (Método Criativo Sensível, más específicamente, a través de la realización de las dinámicas de creatividad y sensibilidad: "Jugar en escena" (Brincar em Cena y "Cuerpo Saber" (Corpo Saber. Para analizar los datos se utilizó la corriente francesa de análisis del discurso. El significado que estos niños le atribuyeron al cuidado y atención se dividió en dos subtemas, el sentimiento de amor y afecto que sienten por la familia delegada para cuidarlos, y los cuidados básicos de higiene como

  8. Caiçaras, caboclos and natural resources: rules and scale patterns Caiçaras, caboclos e recursos naturais: regras e padrões de escala

    OpenAIRE

    Alpina Begossi

    1999-01-01

    One important question concerning the sustainability of local or native populations refers to their interaction with local and global institutions. We should expect that populations with capacity to interact economically and politically with institutions, might show a better chance for their ecological and cultural continuity, as well as for their system of trade and subsistence. The level of ecological and social interaction of local populations, following concepts from ecology, occurs on di...

  9. 开罗夜未眠%SLEEPLESS iN CaiRo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ During the last few years,my neighborhood in Cairo has experienced such an influx of refugees from the Iraq war that longtime residents have begun,with a mixture of affection and unease,to call it New Baghdad.Two dialects of Arabic are spoken in the streets,and there is Iraqi flatbread for sale in the local market.The family living in the apartment upstairs came to Egypt from Iraq nine months ago.

  10. Student learning styles and CAI and/or lecturing: The differential effects of instructional method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carisma Dreyer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A question frequently asked is whether the use of technology is better than the non-use of technology for L2 learning. The purpose of this study is to determine whether instructional method (i.e. lecture vs. CAl vs. combined affects language achievement differentially for ESL students with dissimilar learning styles. The results of the study indicate that students with dissimilar learning styles achieve differentially as a result of instructional meth~d. The interaction between learning styles and instructional method was statistically significant. I 'n Vraag wat baie gevra word is of die gebruik van tegnologie beter is vir tweedetdal leerders as die nie-gebruik van tegnologie. Die doel van hierdie studie is om vas te stellof onderrigmetode (/esing of rekenaar gesteunde onderrig of 'n. kombinasie van die twe1e taalleer uitkomste van Engels tweedetaal leerders met verskil/ende leerstyle verskillefd bei'nvloed. Die bevindinge van hierdie studie toon aan dat leerders met verskil/enae leerstyle verskillend presteer as gevolg van die onderrigmetode. Die wisselwerking tuss~n leerstyle en onderrigmetode was statisties beduidend.

  11. Using CAI To Improve Participation and Achievement in Science Research Projects in Middle School Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Suzanne M.

    The high percentage of students not participating in or completing a science research project has been a recurring problem for science teachers. In this project, three variables influencing the problem are identified: (1) students' failure to engage in an active search for science research topics; (2) inadequate resource materials at the middle…

  12. The Formation of Boundary Clinopyroxenes and Associated Glass Veins in Type B1 CAIs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paque, J M; Beckett, J R; Ishii, H A; Toppani, A; Burnett, D S; Teslich, N; Dai, Z R; Bradley, J P

    2008-05-18

    We used focused ion beam thin section preparation and scanning transmission electron microscopy (FIB/STEM) to examine the interfacial region between spinel and host melilite for three spinel grains, two from the mantle and one from the core of an Allende type B1 inclusion, and a second pair of spinel grains from a type B1 inclusion from the Leoville carbonaceous chondrite. The compositions of boundary clinopyroxenes decorating spinel surfaces are generally consistent with those of coarser clinopyroxenes from the same region of the inclusion, suggesting little movement of spinels between mantle and core regions after the formation of boundary clinopyroxenes. The host melilite displays no anomalous compositions near the interface, and anorthite or other late-stage minerals are not observed, suggesting that crystallization of residual liquid was not responsible for the formation of boundary clinopyroxenes. Allende spinels display either direct spinel-melilite contact or an intervening boundary clinopyroxene between the two phases. In the core, boundary clinopyroxene is mantled by a thin (1-2 {micro}m thick) layer of normally zoned (X{sub Ak} increasing away from the melilite-clinopyroxene contact) melilite with X{sub Ak} matching that of the host melilite at the melilite-melilite contact. In the mantle, X{sub Ak} near boundary spinels is constant. Spinels in a Leoville type B1 inclusion are more complex with boundary clinopyroxene, as observed in Allende, but also variable amounts of glass ({approx}1 {micro}m width), secondary calcite, perovskite, and an unknown Mg-, Al-, OH-rich and Ca-, Si-poor crystalline phase that may be a layered double hydrate. Glass compositions are consistent to first order with a precursor consisting mostly of Mg-carpholite or sudoite with some aluminous diopside. One possible scenario of formation for the glass veins is that open system alteration of melilite produced a porous, hydrated aggregate of Mg-carpholite or sudoite + aluminous diopside that was shock melted and quenched to a glass. The unknown crystalline phase may be a shocked remnant of the precursor phase assemblage but is more likely to have formed later by alteration of the glass. Calcite appears to be an opportunistic fracture filling that postdated all major shock events. Boundary clinopyroxenes probably share a common origin with coarser-grained pyroxenes from the same region of the inclusion. In the mantle, these crystals may represent clinopyroxene crystallized in Ti-rich liquids caused by the direct dissolution of perovskite and an associated Sc-Zr-rich phase or as a reaction product between dissolving perovskite and liquid (i.e., indirect dissolution of perovskite). In the core, any perovskite and associated Ti-enriched liquids that may have originally been present disappeared before the growth of boundary clinopyroxene.

  13. ENIGMA, CAI-CMI for Introductory Logic: Some of Its Abilities with English Sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laymon, Ronald

    The philosophy department of the Ohio State University began development of a computer-tutorial program, called ENIGMA, in 1972. The aim of the course was to help students to use various logical tools in the analysis of everyday arguments by giving drill-and-practice sessions, testing, and grading examinations. Part of ENIGMA is the propositional…

  14. 温暖如春的美园功放—Cary CAI-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时途

    2006-01-01

    Cary以电子管机起家,20世纪90年代生产了一系列电子管放大器,在世界上很有名气。在中国发烧友心目中,Cary电子管放大器也足品味高雅的标志。但是Cary并不像有此电子管机厂家一样,一部电子管机吃到底。其创办人Dennis Had不是一个死脑筋的人。

  15. In Memory of Mr.Cai Jikun%悼念蔡继琨先生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪天瑞

    2004-01-01

    老友蔡继琨逝世的噩耗传来时,我正住在北京朝阳医院治疗气管炎,我的儿子裴言以我的名义给蔡夫人秀灼发了唁电。四月初我出院后子女们仍未将此事告我,中旬接读台湾交响乐团的《乐览》才得知此事。凝视着《乐览》封面上他的照片,我不禁怅然。

  16. A CAI System for Visually Impaired Children to Improve Abilities of Orientation and Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Takahiro; Kudo, Hiroaki; Minagawa, Hiroki; Ohnishi, Noboru; Matsubara, Shizuya

    Some visually impaired children have difficulty in simple locomotion, and need orientation and mobility training. We developed a computer assisted instruction system which assists this training. A user realizes a task given by a tactile map and synthesized speech. The user walks around a room according to the task. The system gives the gap of walk path from its target path via both auditory and tactile feedback after the end of a task. Then the user can understand how well the user walked. We describe the detail of the proposed system and task, and the experimental result with three visually impaired children.

  17. Para reconstruir el sentido que tiene el intento de desconstruir las ciencias sociales

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Serrano, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Es sabido que un ciclo de expansión económica que se inicia al concluir la Segunda Guerra mundial se invierte en 1973 cuando la crisis del petróleo. Manuel Martín Serrano considera que esa fecha puede servir para datar otra crisis, la de las sociologías utópicas, que se inicia sólo cinco años después de que alcanzasen su clímax, durante la Revolución de Mayo de 1968. Los rasgos distintivos del pensamiento contrautópico, según el autor, se corresponden con los intereses y con la visión del mun...

  18. ¿Tiene la empresa española el peor entorno institucional de la OCDE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Arruñada

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo discute la calidad del marco institucional de la empresa española mediante una nueva base de datos del Banco Mundial: Doing Business 2004. Pese a algunos errores, este informe de vocación anual se convertirá en una herramienta esencial para comparar las instituciones entre países y medir los efectos de sus reformas. Tras comparar las instituciones españolas con las de nuestro entorno, concluimos que, en general, nuestras instituciones son inferiores a las de los países de la Unión Europea y la OCDE. Sucede así, con más rotundidad, en el ámbito de las relaciones laborales, en que nuestras normas son comparativamente muy rígidas.

  19. Arquitectura invisible (o lo que no es no tiene por qué no ser)

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Gutiérrez, Pablo Jeremías

    2009-01-01

    Comunicación presentada en el IV Congreso de Arquitectos de España, Valencia, 1-3 julio 2009. La historia, y a la memoria suele sucederle lo mismo, posee una actitud irremediablemente selectiva que la vincula con una aparente linealidad. El pasado no es lo mismo que la historia del pasado (que se pretende posible) igual que la ciudad es más compleja que la suma de todas sus arquitecturas. En este sentido la arquitectura invisible es la arquitectura que no vemos, la que podría ser, la que h...

  20. Tiene Arte Valor Afuera Del Barrio: The Murals of East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holscher, Louis M.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the themes of the murals and explores the possible uses that the murals in Los Angeles have for the outsider, the non-Chicano, for those who have only a little understanding or awareness of the Chicano community. (Author/AM)

  1. ¿Tiene futuro en España la agricultura del mañana?

    OpenAIRE

    Valero Ubierna, Constantino

    2006-01-01

    A veces parece que la agricultura de precisión es ese sueño dorado del futuro agrícola que nunca termina de llegar. En este artículo vamos a intentar contestar a algunas preguntas: ¿Es futuro o presente? ¿Realmente se usa? ¿Cómo puede evolucionar? En España, por el momento, el agricultor se ha lanzado a comprar sistemas de guiado y autoguiado, pero existen muchas otras utilidades que la agricultura de precisión ofrece, aplicables a cultivos con mayores márgenes de beneficios que el cereal, co...

  2. ¡Chile tiene fiesta! El origen del 18 de Septiembre (1810-1837

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Lastra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ad portas de la celebración del Bicentenario de la Primera Junta de Gobierno, el trabajo de Paulina Peralta, una joven historiadora, toma un realce sustantivo dentro de la amplia gama de ensayos que han abordado últimamente los temas referentes a la construcción de la nación chilena. Enmarcado en una línea que oscila entre las dimensiones políticas y sociales, el estudio sobre el origen del 18 de Septiembre como fiesta nacional posee como finalidad mostrar una manera de hacer nación desde arriba, convirtiendo un acto puramente cívico potenciado por las elites, en una herramienta constructora de la nacionalidad chilena. Dentro de este tema, el estudio de Peralta es en sí novedoso, al tomar como su objeto de análisis un aspecto específico e identitario como la celebración del 18 de Septiembre y esbozarnos su raigambre histórica...

  3. The call in the thought of Lévinas, Marion and Chrétien

    OpenAIRE

    Isabelle Thomas-Fogiel

    2012-01-01

    Setting out from an analysis of the notion of the call in the works of Lévinas and his adherents, my task will be to show how that which is presented as description of a phenomenon is in fact the deconstruction of the text of tradition. In order to accomplish this, it will be apposite first to carry out an overview of the uses of the notion of the call in order to flesh out its recurring constants; subsequently, it will become possible to demonstrate the ways in which description is entirely...

  4. Rock waste dumps on the Davydov Glacier (Akshyirak Range, Tien Shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kuzmichenok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1995, a barren rock has been formed at the Davydov Glacier, due to the works at the Kumtor Gold Mine. By the end of 2010, total amount of the rock, stockpiled on the glacier, apparently exceeded 200 million tons, the height of dumps of rock sometimes exceeded 50 meters. The most noticeable effects of this are provoking local surges of the Davydov Glacier and squeezing glacier ice out of the dumps of rock. For a detailed analysis of both processes, we also used the results of periodic geodetic measurements (over 8000 of monitoring rods (about 800 rods of the gold mining company. A number of local surges of the glacier has been found, the first of which began in March–April 2002. To analyze glacier squeezing out of the dumps of rock, mathematical modeling of that process has been done. It was established that in most cases, the glacier is almost completely squeezed out of for 1–2 years.

  5. Meer dan zes op de tien webwinkels actief op social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weltevreden, J.W.J.; De Berg, E.; Boels, H.; De Boer, R.; Adelaar, T.; Krawczyk, A.

    2011-01-01

    Onderzoek naar het gebruik van social media door webwinkels. In het onderzoek worden twee typen webwinkels onderscheiden: click-and-mortar bedrijven (bedrijven met fysieke winkels en online verkoop) en web-only bedrijven (bedrijven met online verkoop maar zonder fysieke winkels). Begin 2011 was 63 p

  6. Nicolas Vonarx, Le Vodou haïtien. Entre médecine, magie et religion

    OpenAIRE

    Grosshans, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Dans l'imaginaire collectif, le vaudou évoque une série d'images stéréotypées, telles la magie noire, les poupées vaudou, les rituels occultes et la transformation d’êtres humains en zombies. Cette représentation, véhiculée par des films hollywoodiens d’épouvante et à forte teneur en hémoglobine, puise sa source dans la littérature para-anthropologique, c’est-à-dire dans des discours produits par des auteurs qui ont voulu informer des mœurs, coutumes et manières de vivre des populations obser...

  7. Tectonic and gravity-induced deformation along the active Talas-Fergana Fault, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaldi, A.; Corazzato, C.; Rust, D.; Bonali, F. L.; Pasquarè Mariotto, F. A.; Korzhenkov, A. M.; Oppizzi, P.; Bonzanigo, L.

    2015-08-01

    This paper shows, by field palaeoseismological data, the Holocene activity of the central segment of the intracontinental Talas-Fergana Fault (TFF), and the relevance of possible future seismic shaking on slope stability around a large water reservoir. The fault, striking NW-SE, is marked by a continuous series of scarps, deflected streams and water divides, and prehistoric earthquakes that offset substrate and Holocene deposits. Fault movements are characterised by right-lateral strike-slip kinematics with a subordinate component of uplift of the NE block. Structural, geological and geomorphological field data indicate that shallow and deep landslides are aligned along the TFF, and some of them are active. Where the TFF runs close to the reservoir, the fault trace is obscured by a series of landslides, affecting rock and soil materials and ranging in size from small slope instabilities to deep-seated gravity-induced slope deformations (DGSDs). The largest of these, which does not show clear evidence of present-day activity, involves a volume of about 1 km3 and is associated with smaller but active landslides in its lower part, with volumes in the order of 2.5 × 104 m3 to 1 × 106 m3. Based on the spatial and temporal relations between landslides and faults, we argue that at least some of these slope failures may have a coseismic character. Stability analyses by means of limit equilibrium methods (LEMs), and stress-strain analysis by finite difference numerical modelling (FDM), were carried out to evaluate different hazard scenarios linked to these slope instabilities. The results indicate concern for the different threats posed, ranging from the possible disruption of the M-41 highway, the main transportation route in central Asia, to the possible collapse of huge rock masses into the reservoir, possibly generating a tsunami.

  8. The large scintillation charged particles detector of the Tien-Shan complex ''ATHLET''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of scintillation detectors for the mountain cosmic ray complex ATHLET is designed at the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP). The detector is implemented on the basis of 10mm thick molded polystyrene plates in conjunction with wavelength shifting fibers. It has a 1x1m2 sensitive area, ∼99% registration efficiency of charged particles and a homogeneity of the scintillation light output better than 90%. Due to its relatively low mass and cost characteristics and the absence of an external high-voltage power source it suits well for the use in wide-spread multi-channel extensive air shower installations

  9. Organic geochemical characterization of terrestrial source rocks of the Triassic Madygen formation (Southern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U.; Scheeder, G.; Kus, J. [Section Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, BGR, Hannover (Germany); Voigt, S.; Schneider, J.W. [Geological Inst., TU Bergakademic Freiberg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Along the northern foothills of the Turkestan-Alai Range (SW Kyrgyzstan), a 1000 to 1500m thick succession of Mesozoic deposits is exposed recording regional changes of the paleo-landscape during Triassic to Cretaceous times. Detailed litho- and biofacies analyses, conducted by the TU Bergakademie Freiberg since 2006, provided for the first time a nearly complete columnar section of the continental Triassic Madygen Formation of Kyrgyzstan. Organic petrographical and organic geochemical methods (including RockEval pyrolyses, and biomarker analyses) have been applied to a suite of terrestrial sedimentary rocks of Triassic age with the intention to identify the depositional environment. Our investigations suggest that the potential source rocks of the terrestrial pluvial Madygen Formation might generate predominantly gaseous hydrocarbons at higher maturities. (orig.)

  10. X-ray film chamber with carbon target of Tien-Shan complex array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray films were exposed inside the ionization calorimeter under 74g/sq cm of carbon and 5 cm of lead. The X-ray film chamber area is 35 sq. m. Moving X-ray films were used, 50% of the events, which yield incidence time, were identified with corresponding extensive air showers (EAS). For such events the size spectrum of associated EAS was derived. Two methods of energy measurement using X-ray films and ionization calorimeter were compared. The energy transfer from selected hadrons to electromagnetic components is illustrated. It is found that in cascades with high energy release into electromagnetic components the hadron component is practically absent

  11. Uranium and other microelement ditribution in granites and host rocks of Kumyshtag mass (Northern Tien Shan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behaviour of uranium and other micro-elements for stating the dependence of their distribution in granites and enclosing rocks on the conditions of magma crystallization is considered. Distribution of the mentioned elements is characterized with account of geological and petrological factors and carbon isotope composition in inclusions of the volatile phase in granite minerals. Uranium weakly migrated in the volatile phase during the intrusive formation; uranium migration increases by the end of granite crystallization when melt acidity and its saturation with uranium grow to the utmost. Matter mass transfer in time covered magmatic-autometasomatic stages and proceeded on the background of sharp increase of the melt acidity. The main tendency in substance migration is evacuation of strong bases and accumulation of amphoteric elements including uranium

  12. Project of the Tien-Shan HADRON-M array for complex cosmic rays investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper describes a project of the HADRON-M array designed to investigate into spatial, energy and time characteristics of the basic components of the extensive air showers (EAS) within 1-100 PeV primary energy range. The HADRON-M array represents a structure consisting of a system to record electrons in EAS on the basis of 128 scintillation detectors; the Geiger-Mueller counter base hodoscope to detect 5 GeV muons; X-ray emulsion chamber; 18 spark chambers; 12 time scintillation detectors. Ionization and neutron calorimeter with 162 m2 recording efficient area is a critically new element of the array. High level of neutron rejection to separate EAS from primary gamma-quanta, as well as, from protons and nuclei enables to investigate into gamma-astronomy within 0.2-10 PeV range

  13. ¿Es el plagio una sorpresa? ¿Acaso tiene clase?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco González T.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Entendemos que no es posible abordar en un espacio editorial el vasto tema del plagio, sus implicaciones y temas conexos presente en libros, artículos científicos, historias, películas, frases, logotipos, inventos, marcas, colores de productos e ideas entre otros muchos temas desarrollados por el ser humano. Este mal es muy antiguo, pero parafraseando términos de los infectólogos, hoy día se encuentra en plena reemergencia. Al patógeno de esta epidemia le favorece indiscutiblemente la moderna vía de transmisión global que es el internet, ya que través de la red, el cibernauta dispone de toneladas de información; la mayoría gratuita.

  14. ¿Qué impacto ambiental tiene el tratamiento del agua residual de una localidad?

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Rodríguez, Cristina; Fernández Marzo, Florencio

    2014-01-01

    Nivel educativo: Grado. Duración (en horas): Más de 50 horas La competencia específica de la asignatura Ingeniería Ambiental que cursan los y las estudiantes de Ingeniería Civil es la Capacidad para aplicar metodologías de estudios y evaluaciones de impacto ambiental. Por ello este proyecto se ha orientado hacia la realización del Estudio de Impacto Ambiental de un proyecto de obra civil. El escenario que se plantea es el Estudio de Impacto Ambiental de una estación depuradora de aguas res...

  15. Tien jaar monitor GGZ-preventie: inzichten en vraagstukken. Ontwikkelingen in organisatie, capaciteit, financiering en bereik

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus-Dijkstra, M.; Ruiter, M.; Poel, A. van der; Hosman, C.M.H.; Boon, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    The organizational characteristics and capacity of preventive mental health care, the financing structure for prevention activities as well as the participation rates, have been investigated by the Dutch ’Monitor Aard en Omvang GGZpreventie’. This article outlines developments between 2000 and 2010

  16. Rock waste dumps on the Davydov Glacier (Akshyirak Range, Tien Shan)

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Kuzmichenok

    2012-01-01

    Since 1995, a barren rock has been formed at the Davydov Glacier, due to the works at the Kumtor Gold Mine. By the end of 2010, total amount of the rock, stockpiled on the glacier, apparently exceeded 200 million tons, the height of dumps of rock sometimes exceeded 50 meters. The most noticeable effects of this are provoking local surges of the Davydov Glacier and squeezing glacier ice out of the dumps of rock. For a detailed analysis of both processes, we also used the results of periodic ge...

  17. ¿Es el plagio una sorpresa? ¿Acaso tiene clase?

    OpenAIRE

    Marco González T; Salim Mattar V

    2015-01-01

    Entendemos que no es posible abordar en un espacio editorial el vasto tema del plagio, susimplicaciones y temas conexos presente en libros, artículos científicos, historias, películas,frases, logotipos, inventos, marcas, colores de productos e ideas entre otros muchos temasdesarrollados por el ser humano. Este mal es muy antiguo, pero parafraseando términosde los infectólogos, hoy día se encuentra en plena reemergencia. Al patógeno de estaepidemia le favorece indiscutiblemente la moderna vía ...

  18. De "este país no tiene arreglo" a ... Salto a la gloria (1959)

    OpenAIRE

    Carrascal Marino, Eliseo

    2005-01-01

    [ES] Salto a la gloria desgrana la vida del eminente histólogo español Santiago Ramón y Cajal, desde su infancia en Petilla de Aragón hasta la concesión del premio Nobel de Fisiología y Medicina en 1906. Sin huir de los tópicos (el niño travieso, el científico despistado y dedicado exclusivamente a la ciencia) y del arquetipo del científico de la época, plasma una biografía amena y bastante próxima a la realidad. Incluye mensajes moralizantes propios del momento histórico en que se rodó y esc...

  19. ¿Qué tiene SDLX 2007 que no tengan los demás?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Ramos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available SDLX es un programa de traducción asistida por ordenador (o computadora que forma parte del conjunto de programas SDL Trados. Por su compatiblidad prácticamente con cualquier tipo de archivos, su facilidad de gestión y su sencillez de uso, en los últimos años ha escalado la tabla de posiciones de programas más solicitados en la industria de la traducción hasta ubicarse entre los primeros. Sin dejar de lado la uniformidad y la coherencia terminológica y estilística, permite al traductor avanzar rápidamente en su labor. ------------------------------------------------------- What does SDLX 2007 have that other applications are missing? SDLX is a computer-assisted software included in the SDL Trados suite. Compatible with virtually any file type, ease to manage and user-friendly, it has moved up recently to the top performers in the ranking of hot software products across the translation industry. It allows translators to advance quickly in the translation cycle without loosing track of terminology and style consistency.

  20. Mass-balance reconstruction for Glacier No. 354, Tien Shan, from 2003 to 2014

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a reconstruction of the seasonal mass balance of Glacier No. 354, located in the Akshiirak range, Kyrgyzstan, from 2003 to 2014. We use a distributed accumulation and temperature-index melt model driven by daily air temperature and precipitation from a nearby meteorological station. The model is calibrated with in situ measurements of the annual mass balance collected from 2011 to 2014. The snow-cover depletion pattern observed using satellite imagery provides additional i...

  1. ¿Respetamos a la persona que tiene una orientación sexual diferente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar de Jiménez Martha

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En este artículo se describen las observaciones realizadas en el trabajo con distintos grupos de la comunidad, sobre el tema de la homosexualidad. Conviene aclarar que con el término homosexualidad se hace referencia tanto al hombre como a la mujer, esto por cuanto dicho término procede del griego ''homo'' que significa "mismo" "igual" no de la palabra latina ''homo'' que significa hombre. En los talleres que se realizan sobre sexualidad humana, el tema de homosexualidad es casi siempre solicitado por los participantes, pero el grupo en que más se registra esta necesidad es en el de los maestros. Al iniciar la discusión la sola mención de la palabra produce reacción y no propiamente de aceptación, en el lenguaje no verbal de los participantes se perciben gestos de desagrado, o el chiste un poco mordaz que luego se traduce en palabras y expresiones más concretas que muestran lo que esa comunicación ha tratado de transmitir.

  2. ¿Respetamos a la persona que tiene una orientación sexual diferente?

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar de Jiménez Martha

    1992-01-01

    En este artículo se describen las observaciones realizadas en el trabajo con distintos grupos de la comunidad, sobre el tema de la homosexualidad. Conviene aclarar que con el término homosexualidad se hace referencia tanto al hombre como a la mujer, esto por cuanto dicho término procede del griego ''homo'' que significa "mismo" "igual" no de la palabra latina ''homo'' que significa hombre. En los talleres que se realizan sobre sexualidad humana, el tema de homosexualidad es casi siem...

  3. O sentido do ser-mãe-que-tem-a-possibilidade-de-tocar-o-filho-prematuro na unidade intensiva: contribuições para a enfermagem neonatal El significado de ser la madre-que-tiene-la-posibilidad-de-tocar-al-hijo-prematuro en la unidad de cuidados intensivos: contribuciones para la enfermería neonatal The meaning of being the mother-that-has-the-possibility-to-touch-the-premature-baby in the intensive unit: contributions for the neonatal nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Jesus Melo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo na abordagem teórico-metodológica heideggeriana com o objetivo de desvelar o sentido do ser-mãe que tem a possibilidade de tocar o filho prematuro na UTIN. Após aprovação foi desenvolvida entrevista fenomenológica com nove mulheres-mães. A análise compreensiva constituiu oito unidades de significação, e a hermenêutica permitiu desvelar o movimento existencial do sermãe em sua cotidianidade, nos modos de ser da inautenticidade e impessoalidade, movida pelo falatório, ambiguidade e temor, modos de ocupação. Ao compreender como sua a possibilidade de ter um filho prematuro, toca-o cautelosamente e cuidadosamente, transita para um entendimento no qual não mais se ocupa, se preo-cupa. Ao pre-ocupar, o ser-mãe estabelece a possibilidade de ser-aí-com-o-filho. Foi possível entender este modo de ser mãe, no qual passa por estágios antes de ver o bebê como seu e confiar em si. Possibilitar que toque seu filho, compreendendo-a em sua individualidade, singularidade, mostrou-se como um cuidado ao RNP em sua complexidade como ser-aí.Estudio en el enfoque teórico-metodológico heideggeriana con el objetivo de revelar el sentido del ser la madre que tiene la possibilidad de tocar el hijo prematuro en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal. Después de la aprobación, fue desarrollada una entrevista fenomenológica con nueve madres. El análisis comprehensivo constituyó ocho unidades de significación, la hermenéutica permitió revelar el movimiento existencial del ser madre en su cotidianidad, en los modos de ser de la falta de autenticidad e impersonalidad, movida por el chisme, la ambigüedad y miedo, modos de ocupación. Al comprender como de ella la posibilidad de tener un bebé prematuro, lo toca con cautela y cuidado, transita para un entendimiento en el cual no más se ocupa, se preocupa. Al preocuparse, el ser madre establece la posibilidad de ser-ahí-con-el-hijo. Fue posible entender este modo de ser madre, que

  4. Ascensión y caída en la poesía amorosa de Pedro Salinas

    OpenAIRE

    Martins-Frias, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Las dinámicas del ascenso y del descenso marcan parte de la estructura poemática en las obras de Pedro Salinas La voz a ti debida, Razón de amor y Largo lamento. En este artículo, tras hacer un breve recorrido por la tradición literaria del motivo de la elevación y la caída (se hace referencia a la poesía mística, al neoplatonismo, a los mitos de Ícaro y del ángel caído, a la poesía romántica y a la poesía de Baudelaire), se analizan los elementos ascendentes y desc...

  5. Natural gas diffusion model and diffusion computation in well Cai25 Bashan Group oil and gas reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas diffusion through the cap rock is mainly by means ofdissolving in water, so its concentration can be replaced by solubility, which varies with temperature, pressure and salinity in strata. Under certain geological conditions the maximal solubility is definite, so the diffusion com-putation can be handled approximately by stable state equation. Furthermore, on the basis of the restoration of the paleo-buried history, the diffusion is calculated with the dynamic method, and the result is very close to the real diffusion value in the geological history.

  6. A Web-based on-machine mould matching and measurement system based on CAD/CAM/CAI integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHOI Jin-hwa; JEON Byung-cheol; KIM Gun-hee; SHIN Bong-cheol; LEE Honghee; CHO Myeong-woo; SEONG Eun-je; PARK Dong-sam

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a Web-based on-machine mould identification and measurement system. The Web-based mould identification system matches obtained vision information with CAD database. Developed Web-based system is to exchange messages between a server and a client by making of ActiveX control, and the result of mould identification is shown on Web-browser at remote site. For effective feature classification and extraction, the signature method is used to make meaningful information from obtained image data. For on-machine measurement of the matched mould, inspection database is constructed from CAD database using developed inspection planning methods. The results are simulated and analyzed using developed system to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  7. 网络环境中工程制图CAI的研究%A Study on Internet CAI Engineering Drawings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高兰尊; 董金华; 李穆; 丁亚红

    2002-01-01

    通过对网上图形格式的分析,探讨了利用图形浏览WHIP插件和网络制作工具,将工程图形放在网上发布的方法.文中采用AutoCAD2000创建超级连接,用goldwave 3.2X和GIF Animator软件将系统的CAI声音文件*.wav和视频文件*.avi分别转化成*.au和*.gif格式,开发出能在网上运行的工程制图CAI软件.

  8. Development of CAI Courseware%《Visual Basic程序设计》CAI课件的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关维娟; 陈清华; 鲁世斌

    2005-01-01

    CAI课件作为计算机辅助教学手段的主体,向来被教学人员充分重视,其设计方法也丰富多样.在已有成功经验的基础上,以计算机高级语言课程为例,结合实际教学经验,采用VB编程实现核心功能,结合PhotoShop等外部软件设计了一套教学多媒体课件,详尽介绍了课件的设计思想和实现步骤,并给出了实现主要功能的VB程序示范代码,以供读者参考.实践证明:该课件具有界面美观、设计新颖、交互功能强和功能全面等特点.与用其他工具开发的类似课件相比,更能充分地激发学生学习VB的兴趣.

  9. Natural gas diffusion model and diffusion computation in well Cai25 Bashan Group oil and gas reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; Dequan; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Liu Yican, Xu Shutong, Jiang Laili, The meta-flysch nappe in the northern part of the Dabie mountains, Regional Geology of China (in Chinese), 1998, 17(2): 156.[2]Zhang Erpeng (ed.), Geological map of Qinling-Dabie mountains and adjacent region of the People’s Republic of China (1:1 000 000), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1992.[3]Liu Zhigang, Niu Baogui, Ren Jishun, Disintegration of the Xinyang group and its tectonicimplications, Geological Review (in Chinese), 1992, 38 (4): 293.[4]Yang Kunguang, Ma Changqian, Yang Weiran, Significanse of study of Mafan Caledonian intrusion in Beihuaiyang depression, Earth Science (in Chinese), 1998, 23(3): 236.[5]Taylor, S. R., Mclenan, S. M., The Continental Crust, Its Composition and Evolution, Oxford: Blackwell, 1990, 312.[6]Hafmann, A. W., Chemical differentiation of the Earth, the relationship between mantle, continental crust and oceanic crust, Amer. Reviews in Mineralogy, 1988, 13: 201.[7]Bathchelor, R. A., ,Bowden, P., Petrogenetic interpretation of granitoid rocks series using multiation parameters, Chem. Geol., 1985, 4: 45.[8]Briqueu, L., Bougault, H., Joron, J. L., Quantification of Nb, Ta, Ti and anomalies in magma associated with subduction zones: petrogenetic implication, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 1984, 85: 386.[9]Ma Changqian, Li Zhichang, Ehlers, C. et al., A post-collisional magmatic plumbing system: Mesozoic granitoid plutons from the Dabieshan high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic zones, east-central China, Lithos, 1988, 45: 431.[10]Yang Kunguang, Ma Changqian, Xu Changhai et al., Differential uplift between Beihuaiyang and Dabie orogenic belt, Science in China, Ser. D, 2000, 43(2): 193.[11]Gower, T. J. W., Simpson, C., Phase boundary mobility in naturally deformed high-grade quartzo-feldstathic rocks: evidence for diffusional creep, J. Struct. Geol., 1992, 14: 301.[12]Tullis, J. A., Christis, J. M., Griggs, D. T., Microstructures and preferred orientation of experimentally deformed quartzites, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 1973, 8: 297.[13]Ramsay, J. G., Huber, M., The Techniques of Modern Structural Geology, Vol. 1, Strain Analysis, New York: Academic Press, 1983, 73-124.[14]Li Shuguang, Ge Ningjie, Liu Deliang et al., The Sm-Nd isotopic age of C-type eclogite from the Dabie group in the northern Dabie mountains and its tectonic implication, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1989, 34(19): 1625.[15]Ye Bodan, Jian Ping, Xu Junwen et al., The Sujiahe Terrene Collage Belt and Its Constitution and Evolution Along the North Hillslope of the Tongbai-Dabie Orogenic Belt (in Chinese), Wuhan: China University of Geosciences Press, 1993, 1-69.[16]Jian Ping, Yan Weiran, Li Zhchang et al., Isotopic geochronological evidence for the Caledonian Xiongdian eclogite in the western Dabie mountains, China, Acta Geologica Sinica (in Chinese), 1997, 71(2): 133.[17]Liu Zhigang, Niu Baogui, Fu Yunlian et al., The tectonostratigraphic units at the northern foot of the Dabie mountains, Regional Geology of China (in Chinese), 1994, 13(1): 246.[18]Zhai Xiaoming, Day, H. W., Hacker, B. R. et al., Paleozoic metamorphism in the Qinling orogen, Tongbai Mountain, central China, Geology, 1998, 26: 371.[19]Li, S., Jagoutz., E., Xiao, Y. et al., Chronology of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in the Dabie Mountains and Su-Lu terrene: I. Sm-Nd isotope system, Science in China, Ser. D, 1996, 39(6): 597.[20]Zhang, Z., You, Z., Han, Y. et al., Petrology metamorphic process and genesis of the Dabie-Sulu eclogite belt, east-central China, Acta Geologica Sinica, 1995, 96(2): 306.[21]Cong Bolin, Wang Qingchen, The Dabie-Sulu UHP rocks belt: review and prospect, Chinese Science Bulletin, 1999, 44(12): 1074.[22]Xu Shutong, Jiang laili, Liu Yican et al., Tectonic framework and evolution of the Dabie mountains in Anhui, eastern China, Acta Geologica Sinica (in Chinese), 1992, 66(1): 1.[23]Ren Jishun, Niu Baogui, Liu Zhigang, Soft collision, superposition orogeny and polycyclic suturing, Earth Science Frontiers (in Chinese), 1999, 6(3): 85.[24]Zhang Li, Zhang Hongfei, Huanggang intrusive complex in northern Tongbai area: island-arc tectonic environment and its geological significance, Jour. China Uni. Geosciences, 1998, 9(3): 223.

  10. Stark effect, hyperfine structure and isotope shifts in highly excited states of BaI and CaI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric dipole polarizabilities of 9 even-parity barium states (6s8s 1S0, 3S1; 6s 7d 1D2; 3Dsub(1,2); 5d 7s 1D2 and 6p23Psub(0,1,2)) in the interval 33,800 - 35,800 cm-1 have been measured with high resolution laser-atomic-beam spectroscopy. Simultaneously, values of isotope shifts and hyperfine coupling constants for the J=1 states have been obtained. Comparison of the experimental polarizabilities with calculated values as well as inspection of the data on isotope shifts and hyperfine structure from the present and earlier work strongly suggests erroneous assignments of the J=2 states, with an exception for the 5d 7s 1D2 state. The influence of an electric field on the 3d23Psub(0,1,2) states of calcium has also been studied. A marked departure from a qudratic Stark effect has been observed relatively small field strengths. This can be attributed to the large polarizabilities of neighbouring Rydbergstates. The low field data allow the determination of admixtures of Rydberg states into the 3d23P-states as small as 0.02%. (orig.)

  11. CAI与地理思维品质的培养%Develop CAI and the Quality of Geographic Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱杰

    2012-01-01

    地理思维是指分析、综合、抽象、概括、推理等基本思维形式与地理学科内在逻辑融合后,而特有的思维方式,它间接反映地理客观事实的认识过程。培养学生地理思维品质的方式和方法有很多,计算机辅助教学(CAI)这一现代科学产物在培养地理思维品质方面具有不可估量的作用。%Geographical thinking is the analysis, synthesis, abstraction, generalization, reasoning and other basic forms of thinking and the internal logic of geography fusion, and the unique way of thinking, which indirectly reflects the geographical knowledge of the process of objective facts. There are many ways of developing students' thinking quality of geography, computer-aided instruction (CAI) of the product of modem science to develop geographical thinking in terms of quality will have an incalculable effect.

  12. CAI design of control system based on MATLAB%基于MATLAB的控制系统CAI设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢锋云

    2007-01-01

    基于MATLAB开发平台,利用其可视化编程能力的GUI,对控制系统进行分析、设计与仿真,开发了控制系统CAI应用软件,它具有较强的教学、实验、工程应用价值.

  13. Snow algae in an ice core drilled on Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains

    OpenAIRE

    本多, 愛美; 竹内, 望; 世良, 峻太郎; 藤田, 耕史; 岡本, 祥子; 直木, 和弘; Vladimr, Aizen

    2010-01-01

    Snow algae are photosynthetic microorganisms and are living on the surfase of glaciers. They grow on melting surface from spring to summer and their the biomass and community structure are changed with physical and chemical conditions on the glacier. Ice cores drilled from glaciers also contain snow algae that grew in the past. Studing biomass and community structure of snow algae in ice cores may clean that not only restoring the amont of the paleo-snow algae but also environmental condition...

  14. Subjetividad contemporánea en relatos biográficos: el yo que sufre tiene la palabra

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Susana Martins

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo propone historizar y discutir los procesos de autorreferencia desde el análisis de un blog, diariodeunamujeresteril.blogspot.com, que funciona como un pequeño manifiesto en las redes sociales y que cataliza procesos de construcción de subjetividad a partir de la puesta en escena de las narrativas biográficas.

  15. Ozone Variations over Central Tien-Shan in Central Asia and Implications for Regional Emissions Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The variability of total column ozone (TCO) and tropospheric column ozone (TrCO) was examined in Central Asia. Measurements were conducted at the Lidar Station Teplokluchenka in eastern Kyrgyzstan for one year, July 2008–July 2009. TCO was obtained using a handheld Microtops II ...

  16. ¿Qué impresiones tiene la gente sobre la bibliotecología como carrera profesional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Newbutt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the impressions that youth have of bibliotecology as a career, what barriers are presented to those who enter the profession and what attracts them the same. Two questionnaires were used: the first was applied to a sample of young people aged between 18 and 24 years, who were planning to make a decision about your future career, and the second was applied to students of the mastery in bibliotecology from the University of Sheffield,who theirs had already chosen that program as career. The questionnaires inquired by the impressions of people about bibliotecology as a career and realized that presented barriers when entering the profession. The study found that both the lack of knowledge about the implications of the role of the librarian, as the lack of knowledge of the choice of bibliotecology as a career, influence the negative perception of young people to become librarians. Students in the mastery in bibliotecology identified a number of obstacles that interfered with access to the profession and suggested possible solutions to address this situation. The bibliotecology does not appeal to young people because of the impressions they have about it. Therefore, in order to eradicate the misconceptions held about this race, librarians should promote their work as more knowledge of bibliotecology, lead to this becoming a more attractive option for young people.

  17. Impact of varying debris cover thickness on catchment scale ablation: a case study for Koxkar glacier in the Tien Shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Juen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the ablation processes on a debris covered glacier, a simple distributed ablation model has been developed and applied to a selected glacier. For this purpose, a bundle of field measurements was carried out to collect empirical data. A morphometric analysis of the glacier surface enables us to statistically capture the areal distribution of topographic features that influence debris thickness and consequently ablation. Remote sensing techniques, using high resolution satellite imagery, were used to extrapolate the ground truth results to the whole ablation area and to map and classify melt-relevant surface types. As a result, a practically applicable method is presented, that allows the estimation of ablation on a debris covered glacier by combining field data and remote sensing information. The sub-debris ice ablation accounts for about 19% of the entire ice ablation, while the percentage of the moraine covered area accounts for approximately 32% of the entire glacerized area. Although the ice cliffs occupy only 1.7% of the debris covered area the melt amount accounts for approximately 15% of the total sub-debris ablation and 2.7% of the total ablation respectively. Our study highlights the influence of debris cover on the response of the glacier terminus to climate warming. Due to the fact that melt rates beyond 0.1m of moraine cover are highly restricted the shielding effect of the debris cover dominates over the temperature- and elevation dependence of the ablation in the bare ice case.

  18. The large scintillation charged particles detector of the Tien-Shan complex ''ATHLET''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britvich, G.I. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281 Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Chernichenko, S.K. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281 Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Chubenko, A.P. [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, 119991, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gilitsky, Yu.V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281 Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Kushnirenko, A.E. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281 Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Mamidzhanyan, E.A. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281 Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Pavlyuchenko, V.P. [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, 119991, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shein, I.V. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281 Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Soldatov, A.P. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281 Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Shepetov, A.L. [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, 119991, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: shepetov@sci.lebedev.ru; Vasil' chenko, V.G. [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142281 Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: Vladimir.Vasilchenko@ihep.ru

    2006-08-01

    A new type of scintillation detectors for the mountain cosmic ray complex ATHLET is designed at the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP). The detector is implemented on the basis of 10mm thick molded polystyrene plates in conjunction with wavelength shifting fibers. It has a 1x1m{sup 2} sensitive area, {approx}99% registration efficiency of charged particles and a homogeneity of the scintillation light output better than 90%. Due to its relatively low mass and cost characteristics and the absence of an external high-voltage power source it suits well for the use in wide-spread multi-channel extensive air shower installations.

  19. Hadron component of EAS cores detected at Tien-Shan mountain station in comparison with CORSIKA+QGSJET simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sveshnikova, L.G. [Moscow State University, 119992, Moscow, Leninskie gory, MSU, SINP (Russian Federation); Chubenko, A.P. [Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, 117924, Moscow, Leninskii prospect, 53 (Russian Federation); Chubenko, P.A.; Galkin, V.I. [Moscow State University, 119992, Moscow, Leninskie gory, MSU, SINP (Russian Federation); Nesterova, N.M. [Lebedev Physical Institute of RAS, 117924, Moscow, Leninskii prospect, 53 (Russian Federation); Popova, N.S.; Roganova, T.M. [Moscow State University, 119992, Moscow, Leninskie gory, MSU, SINP (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    In this paper we study how the knee in primary cosmic ray (PCR) spectrum can reveal itself in the hadron component of EAS cores. The comparison of CORSIKA+QGSJET calculations with available experimental data at mountain level (3340 m a. s. l.) shows that the suggestion about rigidity dependent energy position of the knee and the moderate change of spectrum slope in every nuclear component of PCR does not contradict experimental data.

  20. Hadron component of EAS cores detected at Tien-Shan mountain station in comparison with CORSIKA+QGSJET simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we study how the knee in primary cosmic ray (PCR) spectrum can reveal itself in the hadron component of EAS cores. The comparison of CORSIKA+QGSJET calculations with available experimental data at mountain level (3340 m a. s. l.) shows that the suggestion about rigidity dependent energy position of the knee and the moderate change of spectrum slope in every nuclear component of PCR does not contradict experimental data

  1. La cultura tiene permiso. XEJB y la política cultural del Estado de Jalisco 1941-1992.

    OpenAIRE

    RAMÍREZ SOLÍS Edgar Rogelio

    1993-01-01

    Investigación que parte de la identificación de la política cultural en Jalisco y su relación con el desarrollo y utilización de la emisora estatal XEJB, para conocer el papel de los medios de difusión en los planes sobre educación y cultura del Gobierno de la República. Para ello, se realizó la reconstrucción del desarrollo de la estación XEJB de 1941 a 1992, mediante una perspectiva historiográfica. Primeramente, se ubicó a la estación dentro del desarrollo nacional del medio paralelo a un ...

  2. CARTA AL CORONEL QUE NO TIENE QUIEN LE ESCRIBA. Entre el diario y las cuentas del otro

    OpenAIRE

    MARIO BERNARDO FlGUEROA

    2009-01-01

    Su caso, señor coronel, es tal vez el más célebre y representa el de muchos colombianos que están a la espera de una escritura, de una "carta en sufrimiento" que venga a redimir algo de su historia, a restablecer su dignidad de sujetos. No es una simple misiva lo anhelado, es la posibilidad de salir del mero registro en la contabilidad de una economía aniquilante, del conteo de los bienes; es la búsqueda de un espacio para inscribir la vida y la muerte más allá de la repetición constante de l...

  3. CARTA AL CORONEL QUE NO TIENE QUIEN LE ESCRIBA. Entre el diario y las cuentas del otro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO BERNARDO FlGUEROA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Su caso, señor coronel, es tal vez el más célebre y representa el de muchos colombianos que están a la espera de una escritura, de una "carta en sufrimiento" que venga a redimir algo de su historia, a restablecer su dignidad de sujetos. No es una simple misiva lo anhelado, es la posibilidad de salir del mero registro en la contabilidad de una economía aniquilante, del conteo de los bienes; es la búsqueda de un espacio para inscribir la vida y la muerte más allá de la repetición constante de los mismos padecimientos que toman dimensiones sociales. Que el suyo sea un caso literario no obsta para que encontremos en él, junto con otros en nuestras letras colombianas, las luces que nos obligan a tomarlo de manera literal. Fue esta lectura la que roo movió a escribirle estas líneas; espero no haberlo importunado con ellas y que comprenda lo que me animó apresentarle la interpretación que en mí suscitó la suya.

  4. Presentación del estudio "Links" de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M; Balán, Iván C; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-03-01

    Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos ("teteras"), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

  5. Presentación del estudio “Links” de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ávila, María M; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos (“teteras”), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

  6. Provenance research of the archaeological earthenware collected at Cat Tien relic by nuclear analytical methods and multivariate statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, methods of INAA, XRF, AAS combined with the multivariate statistics have been applied for provenance search of the earthenware at the Cattien relic. About 34 elements in 363 samples have been characterized. Number of samples are 111; 16; 158; 65; 10 and 3 for clay; sand; ancient brick; ancient ceramic; ancient tile and agglutinative substance, respectively. The sampling area was 12,600 ha, 30 km in length along Dongnai river belonging to Dateh, Cattien districts of Lamdong province and Tanphu district of Dongnai province. Three reference clay sources with area of approximately 500 ha at Quangngai town, Cattien have been localized and classified. Multivariate statistics such as CA, PCA, CD, MD were applied to analyze set of data. The results showed that: The C2 field is a combination of 3 different sources of clay that are the riverside, the field center and the hill base rather than a homogenous source. These three sources are characterized by indicator elements such as Mn (PC1, PC4), As (PC1, PC3), Ba (PC2) and Tb (PC2), in which pair of Mn - As is the most important. Through multivariate analysis, clay from riverside of the C2 field was identified to be the source of 93% of the ancient brick used to build twelve towers 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D (2D1, 2D2), 3, 4, 6A, 6B, 7, 8A, 8B and C out of 14 towers at Cattien relic. On the other hand, it is found that there is no clear relation between the bricks collected at the relic and those at Bay-Mau field. Distribution of ancient pottery and tile is quite diverse, therefore, their source has not been found in this study. (author)

  7. Impact of varying debris cover thickness on catchment scale ablation: a case study for Koxkar glacier in the Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juen, M.; Mayer, C.; Lambrecht, A.; Haidong, H.; Shiyin, L.

    2013-11-01

    To quantify the ablation processes on a debris covered glacier, a simple distributed ablation model has been developed and applied to a selected glacier. For this purpose, a bundle of field measurements was carried out to collect empirical data. A morphometric analysis of the glacier surface enables us to statistically capture the areal distribution of topographic features that influence debris thickness and consequently ablation. Remote sensing techniques, using high resolution satellite imagery, were used to extrapolate the ground truth results to the whole ablation area and to map and classify melt-relevant surface types. As a result, a practically applicable method is presented, that allows the estimation of ablation on a debris covered glacier by combining field data and remote sensing information. The sub-debris ice ablation accounts for about 19% of the entire ice ablation, while the percentage of the moraine covered area accounts for approximately 32% of the entire glacerized area. Although the ice cliffs occupy only 1.7% of the debris covered area the melt amount accounts for approximately 15% of the total sub-debris ablation and 2.7% of the total ablation respectively. Our study highlights the influence of debris cover on the response of the glacier terminus to climate warming. Due to the fact that melt rates beyond 0.1m of moraine cover are highly restricted the shielding effect of the debris cover dominates over the temperature- and elevation dependence of the ablation in the bare ice case.

  8. Impact of varying debris cover thickness on ablation: a case study for Koxkar Glacier in the Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juen, M.; Mayer, C.; Lambrecht, A.; Han, H.; Liu, S.

    2014-03-01

    To quantify the ablation processes on a debris covered glacier, a simple distributed ablation model has been developed and applied to a selected glacier. For this purpose, a set of field measurements was carried out to collect empirical data. A morphometric analysis of the glacier surface enables us to capture statistically the areal distribution of topographic features that influence debris thickness and consequently ablation. Remote-sensing techniques, using high-resolution satellite imagery, were used to extrapolate the in situ point measurements to the whole ablation area and to map and classify melt-relevant surface types. As a result, a practically applicable method is presented that allows the estimation of ablation on a debris covered glacier by combining field data and remote-sensing information. The sub-debris ice ablation accounts for about 24% of the entire ice ablation, while the percentage of the moraine covered area accounts for approximately 32% of the entire glacierized area. Although the ice cliffs occupy only 1.7% of the debris covered area, the melt amount accounts for approximately 12% of the total sub-debris ablation and 2.5% of the total ablation respectively. Our study highlights the influence of debris cover on the response of the glacier terminus in a particular climate setting. Due to the fact that melt rates beyond 0.1 m of moraine cover are highly restricted, the shielding effect of the debris cover dominates over the temperature and elevation dependence of the ablation in the bare ice case.

  9. Change in glacier area and thickness in the Tomur Peak, western Chinese Tien Shan over the past four decades

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Huai Baojuan; Li Zhongqin; Sun Meiping; Wang Wenbin; Jin Shang; Li Kaiming

    2015-03-01

    This paper looks at glacier area change in the Tomur Peak for the 1964/71–2000 and 2000–2011 periods. The results show that the total area of the selected 78 glaciers has decreased from 555.45 km2 in 1964/71 to 530.39 km2 in 2000, and further reduced to 521.89 km2 in 2011. Overall, the selected glaciers have lost 4.50% of their surface area between 1964/71 and 2000, and have lost 1.60% more between 2000 and 2011. The area reduction rate of the 78 glaciers increased from 0.12%/a during 1964/71–2000 to 0.13%/a during 2000–2011. In addition, this paper describes a method for estimating the ice surface elevation change using the SRTM (2000) and elevation data generated from topographic maps (1964/71) to quantify the ice thickness change for the 1964/71–2000 period. The surface elevation for about 73.50% of grid area decreased, mostly in the glacier ablation zone. The overall average thickness loss is 22.35 m which yields an annual loss of 0.60 m/a.

  10. THE EFFECT OF AN INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEM (ITS) ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai Chen Chien; Aida Suraya Md.Yunus; Wan Zah Wan Ali; Ab. Rahim Bakar

    2008-01-01

    In this experimental study, use of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) followed by use of an Intelligent Tutoring System (CAI+ITS) was compared to the use of CAI (CAI only) in tutoring students on the topic of Algebraic Expression. Two groups of students participated in the study. One group of 32 students studied algebraic expression in a CAI learning environment, while the other group of 30 students was in a CAI and ITS (CAI+ITS) environment. Before the experimental treatment began, subje...

  11. Os marginalizados e(m) o Pão Não Cai do Céu de José Rodrigues Miguéis

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Bertília Martins Pires

    2008-01-01

    In the first part of the present study, we introduce the political, social and literary setting of Rodrigues Miguéis lifetime and writing. As for the political background, the causes leading to the fall of the monarchy, the subsequent turbulent years, the revolutions and counter-revolutions which then took people, the Republican dream and the .Estado Novo.; in social terms, we pay particular attention to the wheat campaign and the famine which spread through the country, as for the Portuguese...

  12. Modelo B-Cube para el modelado del conocimiento en un marco FBS y su vinculación con herramientas CAI

    OpenAIRE

    Chulvi Ramos, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    La Tesis trata, a nivel general, de hacer una aportación relevante para lograr una automatización del diseño funcional en su fase conceptual elaborando un modelo para modelar el conocimiento en la capa de comportamientos del marco FBS que permita llevar implícita una ontología, que será lo que permitirá integrarlo en un sistema basado en el conocimiento para la automatización de la toma de decisiones del diseño en su fase conceptual. Para ello se ha recurrido al campo de las taxonomías y las ...

  13. The predictive value of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA> and PTEN for anti-EGFR treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Christina; Bergmann, Troels K; Henrichsen-Schnack, Tine; Ladelund, Steen; Nilbert, Mef

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In metastatic colorectal cancer, mutation testing for KRAS exon 2 is widely implemented to select patients with wild-type tumors for treatment with the monocloncal anti-EGFR antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab. The added predictive value of additional biomarkers in the RAS-RAF-MAPK a...

  14. 电教媒体在音乐教学中的运用%The role of CAI -media in music teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程龙

    2001-01-01

    本文就电教媒体在音乐教学中的运用提出多种手段,电教媒体对改变传统音乐教学模式有一定促进作用,电教媒体运用在音乐教学中,集讲、听、看融为一体,开拓了教学与审美新视野.

  15. Discussion on Visual Basic CAI System Based on Case Teaching%基于案例教学的Visual Basic CAI系统探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈辉; 孙会强

    2012-01-01

    For non-computer science students at university studying Visual Basic Programming course, there is difficult, ineffective learning situations. The system based on case study, uses inquirybased learning method for the wire, combined with learning self-evaluation, so that students can improve learning quality and efficiency, to achieve optimal learning.%针对高校非计算机专业学生在学习《Visual Basic程序设计》课程时,存在难度大、学习效果不佳的情况。本系统以案例教学为基础,采用探究性学习方法为导线.结合学习效果自我评测,使学生能有效地提高学习质量和效率,实现最优化的学习效果。

  16. 如何利用多媒体CAI课件进行辅助教学%How to utilize the CAI mass media accessories in the teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁

    2001-01-01

    计算机技术和多媒体技术的飞速发展对教育改革,尤其是教学方式和教学手段的改革带来了深刻的影响,而有效地使用多媒体CAI课件对提高教学效率和教学质量起了重要作用.

  17. Evaluation of Streptomyces strains isolated from herbal vermicompost for their plant growth-promotion traits in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Vadlamudi, Srinivas; Bandikinda, Prakash; Sathya, Arumugam; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Rupela, Om; Kudapa, Himabindu; Katta, Krishnamohan; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar

    2014-01-20

    Six actinomycetes, CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-93, CAI-140, CAI-155 and KAI-180, isolated from six different herbal vermi-composts were characterized for in vitro plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties and further evaluated in the field for PGP activity in rice. Of the six actinomycetes, CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-93, CAI-140 and CAI-155 produced siderophores; CAI-13, CAI-93, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced chitinase; CAI-13, CAI-140, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced lipase; CAI-13, CAI-93, CAI-155 and KAI-180 produced protease; and CAI-13, CAI-85, CAI-140 and CAI-155 produced ß-1-3-glucanase whereas all the six actinomycetes produced cellulase, hydrocyanic acid and indole acetic acid (IAA). The actinomycetes were able to grow in NaCl concentrations of up to 8%, at pH values between 7 and 11, temperatures between 20 and 40 °C and compatible with fungicide bavistin at field application levels. In the rice field, the actinomycetes significantly enhanced tiller numbers, panicle numbers, filled grain numbers and weight, stover yield, grain yield, total dry matter, root length, volume and dry weight over the un-inoculated control. In the rhizosphere, the actinomycetes also significantly enhanced total nitrogen, available phosphorous, % organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and dehydrogenase activity over the un-inoculated control. Sequences of 16S rDNA gene of the actinomycetes matched with different Streptomyces species in BLAST analysis. Of the six actinomycetes, CAI-85 and CAI-93 were found superior over other actinomycetes in terms of PGP properties, root development and crop productivity. qRT-PCR analysis on selected plant growth promoting genes of actinomycetes revealed the up-regulation of IAA genes only in CAI-85 and CAI-93. PMID:24113511

  18. LA VIOLENCIA A TRAVÉS DE LAS FASES DEL AMOR PASIONAL: PORQUE LA PASIÓN TAMBIÉN TIENE UN LADO OBSCURO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozzana Sánchez Aragón

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La pasión ha sido caracterizada por la alegría, sensación de realización, optimismo, éxtasis y profunda idealización del objeto amoroso (Villanueva Orozco, 2004. Sin embargo, autores como Hatfield y Rapson (1993 reconocen un lado más oscuro teñido de desesperanza, ansiedad y vacío. Por su parte, Sánchez Aragón (2004 propone un continuo del amor pasional que va de la atracción al amor desesperado, en donde el matiz negativo se va intensificando básicamente durante el amor obsesivo en donde hay una falta de mutualidad en el sentimiento. Así, la violencia puede surgir y con ello facilitar la presencia de actos dañinos a las personas y a la relación romántica. Con base en esto, el presente trabajo tuvo por objetivos: a identificar las posibles diferencias en términos de atracción, enamoramiento, amor obsesivo y amor desesperado en receptores y ejecutores de violencia en la pareja, y b conocer la posible relación entre la violencia y las fases del continuo del amor pasional. Para ello se trabajó con una muestra de 518 personas residentes de la Ciudad de México a quienes se les aplicó: 1 Escala Multifacética del Amor Pasional (Sánchez Aragón, 2006 y 2 Escala de Violencia en la Pareja (Cienfuegos Martínez, Sánchez Aragón y Rivera Aragón, en prensa. Los resultados muestran efectos diferenciales en las primeras dos fases y correlaciones significativas principalmente entre los factores de violencia y las fases de amor obsesivo y amor desesperado.

  19. ¿Tiene límites el uso de las matemáticas en la economía?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Fariña, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Las matemáticas han jugado un papel decisivo en el desarrollo del pensamiento, en particular del económico, convirtiéndose en las últimas décadas en un instrumento de trabajo indispensable en la elaboración de modelos teóricos capaces de explicar relaciones económicas cada vez más complejas. No obstante, parece lógico que aún valorando positivamente las teorías más abstractas, se deba evitar un uso abusivo de sofisticados modelos matemáticos siempre que se manifiesten como una especie de “fuga técnica de la realidad” o contribuyan a propagar una visión deformada de la economía. La relación entre ambas se basa no tanto en que los resultados concretos que hoy se conocen en matemáticas tengan su análogo o no en la ciencia económica, sino en que la metodología que usa la matemática desde sus principios no es fundamentalmente distinta de la que vienen usando los economistas teóricos para resolver sus problemas. En este trabajo, después de la introducción hacemos un breve recorrido histórico por las matemáticas y su relación con otras ciencias, para centrar posteriormente su atención en el desarrollo de la ciencia económica. Finalizamos destacando algunas teorías matemáticas que por sus características, pueden ayudar a resolver algunos de los problemas actuales de la ciencia económica.

  20. "Dos polos tiene la tierra, / universal movimiento" : dineros, musas y porfías en la última bibliografía lopesca

    OpenAIRE

    García-Bermejo Giner, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Obres ressenyades: Carmen SANZ AYÁN, Hacer escena: capítulos de historia de la empresa teatral en el Siglo de Oro. Madrid, Real Academia de la Historia, 2013 ; Alejandro GARCÍA REIDY, Las musas rameras. Oficio dramático y conciencia profesional en Lope de Vega. Madrid-Frankfurt, Iberoamericana-Vervuert, 2013; Antonio CORTIJO OCAÑA, La porfía: identidad personal y nacional en Lope de Vega. Barcelona, Anthropos, 2013.

  1. "Es la preocupación que nos tiene ahorita traumados". El impacto del cubrimiento sobre la violencia en la prensa escrita

    OpenAIRE

    Chantal Isabel Lara Guevara; Michell Aguilar López; Christian Paulina Mendoza Torres

    2013-01-01

    Si bien no es novedad el uso de la violencia en medios de comunicación, sí ha evolucionado la percepción de la cobertura informativa de la violencia, por ello fue importante comprender y describir el impacto del cubrimiento sobre la violencia de los periódicos: El Sol del Bajío, La Prensa, A. M. y Al Día, en ciudadanos mayores de 18 años, y a su vez explorar la apreciación de las personas involucradas en el proceso de edición de los diarios sobre la producción de tal contenido. Para dichos fi...

  2. Oissila Saaidia, Algérie coloniale. Musulmans et chrétiens : le contrôle de l’État (1830-1914)

    OpenAIRE

    André, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Après les monumentales thèses d’État de Charles-André Julien, Jacques Frémeaux, André Nouschi ou encore Charles-Robert Ageron, l’Algérie coloniale reste un thème de recherche fécond. En témoignent tout autant le dynamique séminaire animé par Sylvie Thénault et Emmanuel Blanchard sur l’« histoire sociale de l’Algérie colonisée » que le volumineux ouvrage collectif publié en 2012 sur l’histoire de l’Algérie à la période coloniale. Spécialiste du fait religieux en contexte colonial, Oissila Saai...

  3. Efecto sobre la rentabilidad que tiene para el afiliado la comisión cobrada por las administradoras de fondos de pensiones

    OpenAIRE

    Medina, Alex; Gallegos, Cecilia; Vivallo, Celso; Cea, Yasna; Alarcón, Alexi

    2013-01-01

    El sistema previsional en Chile es gestionado por entidades privadas, denominadas AFP, a las cuales cada trabajador debe cotizar un 10% de su renta en planes individuales de ahorro obligatorio para jubilación más una comisión variable a beneficio directo de la AFP. Por otro lado, el empleador cotiza un porcentaje de la remuneración del trabajador para financiar el seguro de invalidez y sobrevivencia por intermedio de la propia AFP. El afiliado puede libremente elegir el fondo en que integrará...

  4. Efecto sobre la rentabilidad que tiene para el afiliado la comisión cobrada por las administradoras de fondos de pensiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Medina Giacomozzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El sistema previsional en Chile es gestionado por entidades privadas, denominadas AFP, a las cuales cada trabajador debe cotizar un 10% de su renta en planes individuales de ahorro obligatorio para jubilación más una comisión variable a beneficio directo de la AFP. Por otro lado, el empleador cotiza un porcentaje de la remuneración del trabajador para financiar el seguro de invalidez y sobrevivencia por intermedio de la propia AFP. El afiliado puede libremente elegir el fondo en que integrará su cotización individual, según sea el nivel de riesgo a asumir y la rentabilidad esperada, entre los cinco fondos disponibles. Se espera que la AFP con la comisión cobrada por su gestión logre la mayor rentabilidad posible para sus afiliados, pero de acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos no se encuentra evidencia para afirmar irrefutablemente que las comisiones influyan en el comportamiento de las rentas de los distintos fondos.

  5. Los museos etnológicos como instrumentos de formación ciudadana para hacer frente a los problemas que la humanidad tiene planteados

    OpenAIRE

    Redondo Castillo, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Desde hace algunas décadas se viene llamando la atención desde diferentes ámbitos acerca de la insostenible situación de auténtica emergencia socioambiental planetaria en la que estamos inmersos y de la necesidad de contribuir a la formación de una ciudadanía consciente de dicha situación y preparada para participar en la toma de decisiones fundamentadas para hacer frente a la misma. Esta investigación responde a los llamamientos por Naciones Unidas a los educadores de todos los niveles, ...

  6. La Biblioteca Médica Nacional de Cuba tiene la primicia: curso Cochrane Library, aprendizaje con estrategias para obtener las mejores evidencias en salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Santana Arroyo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La Biblioteca Médica Nacional de Cuba ha puesto en marcha un programa de alfabetización informacional para adiestrar a sus usuarios y fomentar en ellos las habilidades necesarias para el uso de bases de datos, así como para fomentar el uso de estrategias de búsquedas bien diseñadas y validadas por los bibliotecarios especialistas en información. En el presente trabajo se describen contenidos y habilidades que se fomentan en el curso “Cochrane Library: La Medicina Basada en Evidencias”, cuyo objetivo es que el usuario domine esta base de datos y el concepto de medicina basada en evidencias para la toma de mejores decisiones en la atención médica. Durante el curso se introduce además el Modelo Big 6, como guía del pensamiento para resolver problemas de información que facilite la búsqueda y la organización de la información médica basada en evidencias. Igualmente, se capacita al estudiante para que diseñe productos informativos, como boletines electrónicos, que le permitan tanto presentar los resultados de búsquedas de información como promover información para el cuidado de la salud en el futuro

  7. Constraints on timing and rates of strath terrace formation on actively uplifting anticlines in the foreland of the Chinese Tien Shan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufe, A.; Burbank, D. W.; Chen, J.; Liu, L.; Li, T.; Thompson, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The formation of strath surfaces (fluvially created, sub-horizontal erosion surfaces) requires that the rate of lateral erosion outpaces the rate of incision of a river. The change from incision to strath cutting has commonly been linked to a decrease of incision rates due to shielding of the river bed by a thick sediment cover1. Straths are abandoned when the bed cover is reduced and incision resumes. A more recent study suggests that strath terrace formation might be linked to a change between a braided and a single-thread river2. Finally, several models have explored strath formation due to inherent dynamics of meandering systems3,4. In the foreland of the Tian Shan in northwest China, weakly consolidated Pliocene sand and siltstones are being actively uplifted at rates of 1 - 3 mm/y by a series of detachment anticlines. A number of elevated, several-kilometer-wide planation surfaces bear witness to a history of multiple strath cutting events by braided streams. In contrast, modern rivers incise into the uplifting folds creating 10 - 200 m deep canyons while the up- and downstream alluvial fans remain unincised. We use GIS analysis, field mapping, and OSL dating to describe incision and beveling of the folds. Our chronologic data reveal at least 2 - 3 beveling events over the last 40 ky on the Mutule fold. We find that lateral erosion of the bedrock during beveling events occurs at rates that are more than an order of magnitude higher than average incision rates. During times of incision (which can be tens of thousands of years long), lateral erosion rates need to be considerably lower in order to explain the formation of narrow canyons. Thus, our observations of scale, rate, and intermittency of strath cutting, seem difficult to reconcile with models that explain strath formation by variations of the incision rate1 or intrinsic meandering dynamics under steady forcing3,4. The critical requirement to explain our observations appears to be repeated changes in the rate of lateral erosion, for example, by climatically modulated changes in river lateral mobility. 1 Hancock, G. S. & Anderson, R. S. (2002), GSA Bulletin 114, 1131-1142. 2 Finnegan, N. J. & Balco, G. (2013), GSA Bulletin 125, 1114-1124. 3 Finnegan, N. J. & Dietrich, W. E. (2011), Geology 39, 143-146. 4 Limaye, A. B. S. & Lamb, M. P. (2014), JGR: Earth Surface 119, 927-950.

  8. Dime qué biblioteca tienes y te diré qué Alcalde eres: panorama de las bibliotecas municipales de la Región Metropolitana.

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez Soto, Carla; Díaz Bustamante, Vanessa; Siech Godoy, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Exploratory study on the situation of 40 municipal central libraries of the metropolitan area. It highlights the role of the Chilean government and the participation of mayors in the development of such cultural and civic centers.

  9. Quality should be our brand: Myriam Ovalle La calidad tiene que ser el sello: Myriam Ovalle A qualidade deve ser o selo: Myriam Ovalle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARGAS ROSERO ELIZABETH

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available AEn la Universidad Nacional de Colombia se han formado y trabajado muchas de las docentes-enfermeras que realizan aportes significativos a la profesión y a la enfermería nacional e internacional, a pesar de enfrentar diversas dificultades, incluso las que comprometen la salud. En esta especial ocasión nos referimos a la enfermera y profesora Myriam Ovalle de Casals, quien fuera la primera graduada como Licenciada de la Facultad de Enfermería de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia2, decana entre 1966 y 1968 y además cofundadora de la Asociación Colombiana de Facultades de Enfermería (Acofaen. Myriam Ovalle nació en Bogotá y vivió la mayor parte de su vida en el extranjero, fue una enfermera comprometida con la mejora de la calidad del cuidado a los pacientes a través de la excelencia en la educación en enfermería.A

  10. “Canto porque la guitarra / tiene sentido y razón”: folklore and politics in the music of Víctor Jara (1966-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATÁLIA AYO SCHMIEDECKE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is dedicated to analyze the political and cultural discourse identified to the Chilean New Song Movement through the musical work of the singer, composer and theater director Víctor Jara (1932-73. Despite his premature death - due to the coup of 1973 - Jara left a varied artistic legacy which constitutes a privileged source for thinking about the Chilean context of the 1960s and 1970s, a period marked by the strong presence of social movements that had as background the growing of the political polarization. Affiliated to the Communist Party, the musician used the communicative and expressive potential of music to defend the need to promote structural political changes in the country, which necessarily pass through the sphere of culture. Asking for the presence of identity elements in his musical work, we will analyze the dialogue established by the artist with the national political context, indicating the heterogeneity of the repertoire enclosed under the term Chilean New Song Movement.

  11. Tarptautinė konferencija "Biblioteka: informacija ir žinios kiekvienam" / Viktorija Pukėnaitė, Žydrė Vėtienė

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pukėnaitė, Viktorija

    2015-01-01

    Eesti Raamatukoguhoidjate Ühingu esindus osales 27.-28. aprillini Vilniuse parlamendis toimunud rahvusvahelisel konverentsil „Raamatukogu: teave ja teadmised kõigile“. Juuresolevatel fotodel Eesti Raamatukoguhoidjate Ühingu juhatuse esinaine Katre Riisalu ja Viljandi Linnaraamatukogu töötaja Veronika Raudsepp Linnupuu. Nr. 6 juttu Tallinna Keskraamatukogu esindaja Angelica Õunapuu ja Tartu Ülikooli esindaja Mai Põldaasa ettekannetest

  12. Haciendo lo que se puede con lo que se tiene: el saber hacer de las organizaciones populares en el contexto de la última década

    OpenAIRE

    Petrucci, Alicia Raquel; Cazzaniga, Susana del Valle; Franco, Rosa María; Pieruzzini, María Rosana; Salazar, Laura Leonor; Villagra, Verónica Evangelina; Puntin, Lorena

    2014-01-01

    En este trabajo se presentan algunos aspectos analizados en el marco del proyecto de investigación “Las estrategias colectivas y su expresión territorial. El caso de la ciudad de Paraná” llevado adelante en la Facultad de Trabajo Social, en el periodo 2012-2014, cuyo objetivo primordial ha sido estudiar los modos en que los sujetos en tanto actores colectivos participan de la recomposición social en los territorios que habitan, en contextos de pobreza. Específicamente en este trabajo abordare...

  13. Origine et originalité de la controverse religieuse initiée par Abd el-Kader al-Hassanî avec les Chrétiens

    OpenAIRE

    Bouyerdene, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    La polémique qui a suivi la conférence du pape Benoît XVI à Ratisbonne en septembre 2006 a enclenché un processus qui a mené à une rencontre entre le chef de l’Église catholique et des représentants de l’islam : une première dans l’histoire des relations islamo-chrétiennes. Et pourtant, dès le milieu du xixe siècle une idée semblable avait été clairement formulée. En 1848, l’émir Abd el-Kader s’est proposé de se rendre à Rome, accompagné d’une délégation d’oulémas, pour y rencontrer le pape P...

  14. ¿Tiene relevancia la gestión de calidad total? Reflexiones a la luz de las ideas de sus fundadores.

    OpenAIRE

    Yacuzzi, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    La gestión de calidad total, o TQMii, pone en el centro de la conducta empresarial valores y técnicas. Los valores conforman un criterio de trabajo, con mandamientos del estilo: debemos escuchar al cliente, pues él define la calidad. Las técnicas son herramientas sencillas, que transforman datos en información y llevan a la práctica los valores: la matriz de calidad, por ejemplo, es una técnica para escuchar la voz del clienteiii. Ahora bien, ¿es la TQM un cuerpo de ideas coherentes que puede...

  15. Well settled and smart building. Ten self-builders on energy conservation and comfort; Goed bekeken, slim gebouwd. Tien zelfbouwers over energiebesparing en comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhard, R.; Adolfsen, K. (eds.)

    2003-01-01

    In part 1 of this report insight is given into the possibilities of energy efficient building for people who want to build their own house. Also attention is paid to the role of the architect, builder and installer. In part 2 the experiences of other self-builders are presented and discussed. [Dutch] De brochure is opgesplitst in twee delen. Deel 1 geeft inzicht in de mogelijkheden van energiebesparend bouwen en de wijzewaarop met zo min mogelijk moeite een zo groot mogelijk effect kan worden bereikt. Ook wordt ingegaan op de rol van de architect, de catalogusbouwer en de installateur. Deel 2 geeft inzicht in de ervaringen van andere zelfbouwers. De voorbeelden varieren van woningen in traditionele stijl tot moderne villa's. Met als motto: wat zij kunnen, kunt u ook.

  16. Impacto que tiene la falta de sueño sobre las habilidades cognitivas de una población de estudiantes de medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Alvarado Fernández

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Los estudiantes que ingresan a la Escuela de Medicina son personas que pasarán los próximos años de su vida preparándose para entender la composición, la anatomía y la fisiología tanto normal como patológica del cuerpo humano con el fin de luego, aplicar ese conocimiento en el tratamiento de sus pacientes. Sin embargo, ser estudiante de Medicina se ha descrito como un extenuante proceso en el cual los jóvenes sufren alteraciones notables en sus horas de sueño, niveles de estrés, presión y frustración emocional e incluso depresión. Esta investigación se llevó a cabo para identificar en una población de estudiantes de segundo semestre de segundo año de Medicina de la Universidad de Costa Rica, el deterioro cognitivo que puede tener dicho estilo de vida y cómo influye en la capacidad de aprendizaje y los resultados que estos puedan obtener. A través de la Figura Compleja de Rey-Osterrieth y la prueba MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assesment se evaluó la muestra en dos oportunidades distintas: al encontrarse los estudiantes en un período de evaluación normal y con un nivel de cansancio notable tras un período de evaluación más intenso. Los datos obtenidos comprobaron que efectivamente existe un deterioro en el rendimiento y las capacidades cognitivas de los jóvenesStudents that start medical school are people spend next years of their lives preparing themselves to understand the composition, anatomy and physiology of the human body both in a healthy and pathologic state, so that they can later apply this knowledge to treat their patients. Being a medical student has been described as an exhausting process in which the students suffer: differences in their sleep hours, stress levels, emotional frustration, pressure and even depression. This research has been made to identify, in a select group of students that attend the University of Costa Rica and are coursing their fourth semester of their carrer, the cognitive deterioration that this lifestyle may present and how this affects the quality, learning capacity and results they may obtain. Using the Complex figure of Rey-Osterrieth and the MoCA test (Montreal Cognitive Assesment the population was evaluated in two different opportunities in which the stress and exhaustment levels have been clearly different. The obtained data has prooved a clear deterioration in their performance and cognitive capacities

  17. Un repaso por el origen y una mirada puesta en el presente. ¿Qué tiene para ofrecernos el periodismo digital?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Mónica Tejera Cruz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El fenómeno de Internet no pasa inadvertido a ningún mortal. Mucho menos cuando se dedican al mundo de la comunicación. Para los periodistas, la aparición de la Red y el desarrollo de la Word Wide Web ha venido a coquetear con su ansia de comunicar, informar, expresar; a fin de cuentas, transmitir mensajes. El desarrollo de la tecnología ha puesto en bandeja de plata un nuevo soporte que permite llegar a las personas a través de los ordenadores y abre un universo de posibilidades para explotar, pero que al mismo tiempo hay que entender y asimilar. Un repaso hacia el origen de un nuevo medio con el que ya convivimos y una mirada puesta en el presente de su desarrollo vertiginoso.

  18. Nunca es triste la verdad, lo que no tiene es remedio: Los sapos de la memoria de Graciela Bialet

    OpenAIRE

    Carám, Graciela Noemí

    2014-01-01

    Hablar con nuestros jóvenes de la memoria reciente del país manteniendo un equilibrio deseado entre el decir y el pensar parece un hecho imposible para algunos. Si bien los chicos atraviesan estas experiencias en distintos momentos de su desarrollo, sabemos que estos procesos de cambio vital traen aparejados duelos, que son la evidencia dolorosa de una pérdida y tienden a repararse o compensarse con momentos de logros y gratificaciones. El abordaje desde la ficción literaria de estos te...

  19. ”¡Ay, de la que tiene los pechos de arena!” : En studie av metaforiken i Federico Garcia Lorcas Yerma

    OpenAIRE

    Wickberg Månsson, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Föreliggande uppsats syftar till att undersöka metaforiken i Federico Garcia Lorcas drama Yerma. Undersökningen tar sin utgångspunkt i föreställningen att metaforiken är betydelsebärande för dramat. Metaforiken fokuseras genom en analys som syftar till att blottlägga struktur hos metaforerna. Denna analys fungerar som övergång till en tolkning med hermeneutisk prägel. I strukturanalysen tillämpas Max Blacks interaktionsteori och tolkningen utgår framförallt från Paul Ricoeurs hermeneutiska fe...

  20. La primaquina tiene alta eficacia en la quimioprofilaxis primaria simple antipalúdica. Metanálisis High efficacy of primary chemoprophylaxis with primaquine. metanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Carmona Fonseca

    2006-01-01

    Problema: existen informes sobre la capacidad quimioprofiláctica primaria (QP1) antipalúdica de la primaquina (PQ) en humanos, pero no conocemos ningún metanálisis sobre el tema. Preguntas: ¿Es eficaz la primaquina para prevenir el paludismo en seres humanos? ¿Depende esa eficacia del lugar, la edad de las personas y de la especie de Plasmodium? Metodología: se aplicaron procedimientos recomendados para metanálisis. Resultados: se incluyeron 4 estudios experimentales de laboratorio (EEL) y 7 ...

  1. North Tien Shan: regularities in the distribution of excess uranium-234 anomalies in natural water with special reference to mineral occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown, that correlation between the uranium-234 anomalous excess in underground waters and localization of non uranium ores is expressed in the areas of sedimentary and metamorphic ores. This regularity makes it possible to identify with higher probability large industrial deposits, which essentially change the uranium-isotope background in underground waters in the area of ores distribution

  2. Investigation of unusual phenomena in cosmic rays with Tien Shan and Pamir experimental setups at energy higher than 1 PeV - II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project of upgrading of the Pamir and the Hadron experimental setups currently operating at high mountain altitudes is proposed. The setups are designed for comprehensive investigations of the primary cosmic rays (PCR) as well as nuclear interactions in the energy range 1-1000 PeV where some new phenomena beyond the conventional conceptions of nuclear cascade processes have been recently observed

  3. The extreme high concentration of rare elements in mantle of Yagnob zone (Southern Tien-Shan) on the problem of metallo-gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mantle alkali bassets of the region and deep-xenoliths is characterized anomalously high concentration of rare elements (Li, Cs, F, Sn, Hg, Sb, ats.). The accumulation of these elements in mantle alkaline mafic-ultramafic rocks is probably related to the form mantle sources of the plume type

  4. Results of observations of the galactic disk in the superhigh energy range at the Tien-Shan high-altitude station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of observation of the galactic disk for energy E>3x1012 eV by using the atmospheric Cherenkov technique are presented. It is shown that the counting rate of showers is lower in the direction to the galactic equator b2e. The amplitude of decrease is - 0.8% of the cosmic ray background for the confidence level being about 95%. These results are in good agreement with those obtained earlier in Crimean observatory

  5. Conocimientos que tiene el profesional de enfermeria sobre legislacion colombiana en enfermeria y el sistema obligatorio de garantia de calidad de la atencion de salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Merchan-Niño

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Se desarrolló un estudio descriptivo transversal con abordaje cuantitativo con el objetivo de determinar el nivel de conocimientos de 98 profesionales de enfermería que laboran en la FOSCAL sobre legislación de enfermería y el sistema obligatorio de garantía de calidad de la atención de salud en el 2009. Materiales y Métodos: El instrumento que se utilizó fue una entrevista auto aplicada de 19 preguntas de selección simple, al cuál se le realizó una validez facial y de contenido expuesto a una comisión de siete expertos de la ciudad de Bucaramanga. Resultados: Las ramas del conocimiento evaluadas el 51% es bueno y el 43.8% es aceptable, resultado atribuible mas a los conocimientos sobre legislación colombiana en enfermería que a los del Sistema Obligatorio de Garantía de Calidad de la Atención de la Salud. Discusión y Conclusiones: El nivel de conocimientos que posee el personal en estudio es bueno con tendencia a aceptable, pues la diferencia entre estas dos no es tan significativa, generando encender una alarma a nivel institucional incrementando el desarrollo de actividades en pro del conocimiento en ésta área de cultura organizacional. (Rev Cuid 2011; 2(2: 175-81Palabras clave: Legislación, Enfermería, Calidad, Atencion de Salud, Seguridad. (Fuente: DeCs BIREME.

  6. "La leyenda tiene una base real" : Análisis crítico del discurso de un artículo de El País

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper carries out a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of the article "¿Chinofobia?” published by the Spanish newspaper El País. It applies the theory of racist discourse in the media as formulated by Teun A. van Dijk. Its hypothesis is that the article, which supposedly analyses discrimination against the Chinese minority in Spain, covertly blames the Chinese minority itself for the discrimination. Applying CDA methodology as exemplified in previous studies by van Dijk, the paper analyse...

  7. LA ATENCIÓN Y EVOLUCIÓN DE LAS NECESIDADES BÁSICAS EN LA PRIMERA INFANCIA. ASPECTOS QUE TIENE QUE SABER EL EDUCADOR INFANTIL

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Merlos Pascual

    2010-01-01

    Las actividades de la vida diaria o actividades cotidianas constituyen en el periodo de la etapa infantil gran parte de las actividades que deben realizar los educadores, en la escuela infantil, por lo que se convierte en necesario que los/as alumnos/as que cursan el ciclo formativo de Educación Infantil tengan unos conocimientos sobre estas actividades, y sobre su evolución para la realización de un trabajo más eficiente y completo.

  8. Entrevista a Iñaki Rivera Beiras. “La Universidad tiene que jugar un papel importantísimo en la cárcel”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afilo Revista Digital - Universidad Nacional de Córdoba

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerado uno de los más destacados especialistas a nivel internacional de la criminología “garantista”, este argentino-catalán es también uno de esos tipos que incomoda al poder. Siempre. Esté donde esté. Desde la academia, en su puesto de profesor titular de ejecución penal y derecho penitenciario en la universidad de Barcelona, o desde la acción, a través del Observatorio de Derechos Humanos que en 2001 ayudó a crear con el objetivo de abordar el complejo mundo penitenciario. Hipercrítico de la situación argentina y mundial por sus fracasadas políticas de encierro indiscriminado y violación sistemática de los derechos humanos de los presos, Iñaki Rivera Beiras en entrevista con Alfilo habla de todo lo que sucede adentro y afuera de la institución insigne del sistema penal: la cárcel.

  9. Euskal Herria tiene forma de corazón. La escuela en la construcción de la identidad nacional vasca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulí DÁVILA BALSERA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: la construcción de la identidad nacional vasca ha recurrido a los más variados elementos para su formación, con el rasgo añadido de que ha tenido que convivir, resistir o diferenciarse de otras identidades cercanas y presentes en el mismo territorio. Es necesario partir de esta premisa para analizar los diversos planos en los que se ha construido la identidad nacional vasca en el ámbito educativo: el primer plano administrativo y escolar; el segundo, desde la elaboración de un currículo vasco y, finalmente, desde las actividades extraescolares. Hemos preferido elegir un periodo de tiempo lo suficientemente largo para poder mostrar los cambios y las continuidades en su construcción, partiendo desde 1876, con la pérdida de los Fueros, hasta la Segunda República. Se trata de un periodo en el que se fragua la construcción nacional vasca, priorizando unos elementos culturales y étnicos, sobre la base de la lengua vasca.ABSTRACT: The construction of Basque national identity has made use of a wide range of elements, in addition to which Basque identity has had to co-exist with, resist, or distinguish itself from neighbouring identities as well as identities present within the same territory. It is necessary to begin with this premise in order to analyze the various levels on which Basque national identity has been built within the sphere of education: firstly, in the administrative and educational sphere; secondly, in drawing up a Basque curriculum; and finally, in extracurricular activities. We have chosen to focus on a period that would be long enough to demonstrate both continuity and change during the process of construction. This period ranges in time from the loss of the Fueros (Traditional Basque Law in 1876, until the advent of the Second Republic in Spain in 1931. It was during this time that the Basque nation was forged, with priority being given to cultural and ethnic elements and using the Basque language as a foundation.

  10. La crítica de la psicopatología sólo tiene sentido desde la psicopatología crítica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Villagrán Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En respuesta a un artículo anterior se argumenta a favor de una psicopatología crítica que tenga en cuenta los factores socioculturales que intervienen en los procesos de formación, consolidación e intelección del síntoma psiquiátrico, en detrimento de una crítica de la psicopatología como empresa científica que asume una postura nominalista extrema, un concepto de trastorno mental exclusivamente evaluativo y, por tanto, reduccionista sociológico, soslaya el debate actual acerca del propio concepto de trastorno mental y adopta una postura cercana a la denominada pospsiquiatría.

  11. La primaquina tiene alta eficacia en la quimioprofilaxis primaria simple antipalúdica. Metanálisis High efficacy of primary chemoprophylaxis with primaquine. metanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona Fonseca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Problema: existen informes sobre la capacidad quimioprofiláctica primaria (QP1 antipalúdica de la primaquina (PQ en humanos, pero no conocemos ningún metanálisis sobre el tema. Preguntas: ¿Es eficaz la primaquina para prevenir el paludismo en seres humanos? ¿Depende esa eficacia del lugar, la edad de las personas y de la especie de Plasmodium? Metodología: se aplicaron procedimientos recomendados para metanálisis. Resultados: se incluyeron 4 estudios experimentales de laboratorio (EEL y 7 estudios clínicos controlados (ECC. Según los EEL, para adultos, la dosis de primaquina apropiada en QP1 es 30 mg/d, tomados desde el día previo a la exposición. Los ECC mostraron protección de 93% entre quienes recibieron primaquina y de 45% entre quienes no la recibieron (p = 0,0000000. CONCLUSIONES: la QP1 con primaquina es altamente eficaz en adultos y niños, es igual frente a Plasmodium falciparum y P. vivax y debe adoptarse como alternativa válida. Faltan evaluaciones sobre la seguridad y la toxicidad en niños. Background: There are many reportss about primaquine as primary chemoprophylactic (1-CP in humans, but we do not know of any metaanalysis about this subject. Specific Questions: Is primaquine effective to prevent malaria in humans? Does primaquine efficacy to prevent malaria depend on the place, the age of patients, or the Plasmodium species? Methodology: Procedures recommended for metanalysis were applied. Results: Four laboratory experimental studies (LES in humans and seven clinical controlled studies (CCS were included. According to LES the adequate primaquine dose as 1-CP for adults is 30 mg/day from the day before exposition and during the time of exposition. According to CCS protection was 93% in people that received primaquine and 45% in those who did not receive it (p = 0.0000000.

  12. ¿El nanocomposite arenado con Corindón Blanco tiene efecto sobre la adhesión y proliferación bacteriana? Estudio in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Piacentini, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Los implantes dentales sustituyen a dientes ausentes en el paciente totalmente o parcialmente edéntulo. Las características físico-químicas de las superficies pueden tener influencia sobre la formación de biofilm y la manifestación de patologías peri-implantarias, pero también se ha demostrado que pueden favorecer la re-osteointegración en su tratamiento. El objetivo del presente trabajo es comprobar si la superficie de un disco de material compuesto cerámico-c...

  13. "Es la preocupación que nos tiene ahorita traumados". El impacto del cubrimiento sobre la violencia en la prensa escrita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Isabel Lara Guevara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Si bien no es novedad el uso de la violencia en medios de comunicación, sí ha evolucionado la percepción de la cobertura informativa de la violencia, por ello fue importante comprender y describir el impacto del cubrimiento sobre la violencia de los periódicos: El Sol del Bajío, La Prensa, A. M. y Al Día, en ciudadanos mayores de 18 años, y a su vez explorar la apreciación de las personas involucradas en el proceso de edición de los diarios sobre la producción de tal contenido. Para dichos fines se utilizó una metodología cualitativa del análisis del discurso; se obtuvieron respuestas como "hace más agresiva a la gente", entre otras, constatando que el cubrimiento de la violencia genera un impacto de temor y preocupación en la audiencia. Se propone a las empresas editoriales supervisar el manejo y el tratamiento que le dan a la nota roja.

  14. " L'onomastique iranienne dans les sources syriaques. Quand les chrétiens d'Iran changent de nom (IVe-VIIe s.) "

    OpenAIRE

    Jullien, Christelle; Gignoux, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    International audience Dans le cadre d'un programme international d'anthroponomastique sur les noms propres d'origine iranienne dans la littérature syriaque, les auteurs montrent ici l'importance des implications offertes par ce type de prospection. A moyen terme par exemple, ces études sur l'onomastique iranienne dans les sources syriaques pourraient permettre de mieux définir et cerner la notion d'identité chrétienne en Iran. Cette recherche apporte ainsi sa contribution à notre connaiss...

  15. Vegetation and climate history in arid western China during MIS2: New insights from pollen and grain-size data of the Balikun Lake, eastern Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongtao; An, Cheng-Bang; Mao, Limi; Zhao, Jiaju; Tang, Lingyu; Zhou, Aifeng; Li, Hu; Dong, Weimiao; Duan, Futao; Chen, Fahu

    2015-10-01

    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 is mostly a cold period encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but the regional expression of MIS2 in arid areas of China is not well known. In this paper, we use high-resolution lacustrine pollen and grain-size records from Balikun Lake to infer vegetation, lake evolution, and climate in arid western China during MIS2. Our results suggest that: 1) the regional vegetation around Balikun was mainly dominated by desert and/or desert-steppe, and Balikun Lake was relatively shallow and experienced high aeolian input during MIS2; 2) distinctive runoff from mountain glacial meltwater in the eastern parts of the Balikun basin caused a high relative abundance of Artemisia pollen during the LGM (26.5-19.2 cal kyr BP), while simultaneously the desert areas expanded as indicated by the high abundance of desert shrubs (e.g., Elaeagnaceae, Rhamnaceae, Hippophae). This cold and dry LGM climate triggered a substantial lowering of lake level; 3) an extremely cold and dry climate prevailing from 17.0 to 15.2 cal kyr BP, correlated with Heinrich event 1 (H1), would explain the low vegetation cover found then; and 4) the warm and humid Bølling/Allerød interstadial (BA: ca. 15-ca. 13 cal kyr BP) is clearly recorded in the Balikun region by the development of wetland herb communities (e.g., Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Typha), and the lake level rose due to increased runoff. Our results challenge the traditional view of cold and wet climatic conditions and high lake levels in arid western China during the LGM, and we propose that changes in local temperature modulated by July insolation was an indispensable factor in triggering vegetation evolution in the Balikun region during MIS2.

  16. Un "tiens" vaut-il mieux que deux "tu l'auras" : les actions courtes qualifiantes et les philosophies scolaires de l'insertion

    OpenAIRE

    Buisson-Fenet, Hélène

    2004-01-01

    Les difficultés des jeunes, telles qu'elles sont rendues visibles par le prisme de leur traitement institutionnel, commencent avec l'école. Le constat paraît aujourd'hui aller de soi ; il renvoie pourtant à un contexte sociétal récent, qui se met en place dans les années 60 : B.Charlot et D.Glasman nous rappellent que se construit alors « un univers de l'école et de la jeunesse, fort différent du monde du travail, que ce soit par son mode d'activité ou ses valeurs. Désormais, on ne passe plus...

  17. Percepción de los Docentes sobre la Importancia que tiene la Actualización en el Desarrollo de su Labor Educativa

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero-Sánchez, Efraín

    2013-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación se realizó en una institución perteneciente al nivel educativo medio superior, con la intención de obtener información sobre la percepción que tienen los docentes acerca de la actualización, pues se sabe que el docente asiste a cursos de actualización pero no los ven como un elemento de apoyo en la práctica docente, generando una problemática que indudablemente se convierte en un factor que limita al sistema educativo en el logro de avances ...

  18. De publieke bekendheid van het stimuleringsplan actie min 25% : begeleidende nota bij de resultaten van tien peilingen onder de Nederlandse bevolking in de periode 1987-1990.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.A.G.

    1990-01-01

    In the Dutch Multi- year plan for traffic safety 1987- 1991 the government has set the concrete task of 25% less traffic victims in the year 2000. To realize this aim the stimulation plan "Action minus 25%" was introduced. An evaluation was made, by means of an interview, to the comprehension of thi

  19. Dubois, Colette & Soumille, Pierre. — Des chrétiens à Djibouti en terre d’islam (xixe-xxe siècles)

    OpenAIRE

    Gascon, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Dans sa préface, Claude Prudhomme rappelle que ce livre est le fruit de la collaboration d’équipes de recherches d’Aix-en-Provence (Colette Dubois) et de Lyon (Pierre Soumille). Ce dernier, qui enseigna en Tunisie et en Centrafrique, est décédé avant la publication de son ouvrage. Le préfacier insiste sur l’originalité du livre qui tranche avec les travaux sur l’histoire des missions relatant les « succès » des mouvements d’évangélisation. Or, à Djibouti, même sous l’épiscopat de Monseigneur ...

  20. "Canto porque la guitarra / tiene sentido y razón": folclore e política na música de Víctor Jara * “Canto porque la guitarra / tiene sentido y razón”: folklore and politics in the music of Víctor Jara (1966-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATÁLIA AYO SCHMIEDECKE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo se dedica a analisar o discurso político e cultural identificado com o movimento da Nova Canção Chilena através da obra musical do cantor, compositor e diretor de teatro Víctor Jara (1932-73. Apesar da morte prematura – decorrente do golpe de Estado de 1973 –, Jara deixou um legado artístico variado que se constitui em fonte privilegiada para pensar o contexto chileno dos anos 1960 e 1970, período marcado pela forte atuação de movimentos sociais que tinham como plano de fundo uma crescente polarização política. Filiado ao Partido Comunista, o músico se valeu do potencial comunicativo e expressivo da canção para defender a necessidade de se promoverem mudanças políticas estruturais no país, as quais necessariamente passariam pela esfera da cultura. Perguntando pela presença de elementos identitários em sua obra musical, analisaremos os diálogos estabelecidos pelo artista com a conjuntura política nacional, apontando para a heterogeneidade do repertório englobado sob o termo Nova Canção Chilena.Palavras-chave: Víctor Jara – Nova Canção Chilena – Unidade Popular. Abstract: The present paper is dedicated to analyze the political and cultural discourse identified to the Chilean New Song Movement through the musical work of the singer, composer and theater director Víctor Jara (1932-73. Despite his premature death - due to the coup of 1973 - Jara left a varied artistic legacy which constitutes a privileged source for thinking about the Chilean context of the 1960s and 1970s, a period marked by the strong presence of social movements that had as background the growing of the political polarization. Affiliated to the Communist Party, the musician used the communicative and expressive potential of music to defend the need to promote structural political changes in the country, which necessarily pass through the sphere of culture. Asking for the presence of identity elements in his musical work, we will analyze the dialogue established by the artist with the national political context, indicating the heterogeneity of the repertoire enclosed under the term Chilean New Song Movement.Keywords: Víctor Jara – Chilean New Song Movement – Popular Unity.

  1. Karyotype variation and conservation in morphotypes of non-heading Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Jin Shuang; Sun, Cheng Zhen; Xiao, Dong; Zhang, Shu Ning; Bonnema, Guusje; Hou, Xi Lin

    2015-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage encompasses a wide diversity of morphotypes, like the well-known Pak-choi, Wu ta cai, Cai xin, Tai cai, and Fen nei cai. Despite recent developments in re-sequencing which results in the detection of SNPs, insertions, deletions and copy number variants, there has been

  2. de caña CAMECO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Suárez Ponciano

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El aumento de la producción de caña en Cuba se ha vuelto más que un objetivo una necesidad, es por ello que se introducen nuevas máquinas que den respuesta a esta situación. Teniendo esto como premisa y considerando la importancia que el cultivo de la caña tiene para el país es que se ha escogido el Complejo Agroindustrial (CAI «Héctor Molina Riaño» por la influencia que tiene, en la provincia La Habana, en los resultados de este cultivo para analizar el producto de los medios que intervienen en la cosecha y transporte de la caña de azúcar, así como las condiciones de explotación en que se desarrollan, lo cual constituye el objetivo de este trabajo. Se desarrolló una base metodológica para el análisis de los resultados.

  3. Systematic review of chronic ankle instability in children

    OpenAIRE

    Mandarakas, Melissa; Pourkazemi, Fereshteh; Sman, Amy; Burns, Joshua; Hiller, Claire E

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a disabling condition often encountered after ankle injury. Three main components of CAI exist; perceived instability; mechanical instability (increased ankle ligament laxity); and recurrent sprain. Literature evaluating CAI has been heavily focused on adults, with little attention to CAI in children. Hence, the objective of this study was to systematically review the prevalence of CAI in children. Methods Studies were retrieved from major databas...

  4. The 24 July 2008 outburst flood at the western Zyndan glacier lake and recent regional changes in glacier lakes of the Teskey Ala-Too range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narama, C.; Duishonakunov, M.; Kääb, A.; Daiyrov, M.; Abdrakhmatov, K.

    2010-04-01

    On 24 July 2008, a glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF) occurred at the western (w-) Zyndan glacier lake in the Tong District of Ysyk-Köl Oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The flood killed three people and numerous livestock, destroyed infrastructure, and devastated potato and barley crops as well as pastures. Tuurasuu village and a downstream reservoir on the Zyndan river escaped heavy damage because the main flood was diverted toward the Tong river. RTK-GPS and satellite data (Landsat 7 ETM+, ALOS/PRISM, and ALOS/AVNIR-2) reveal that the flood reduced the lake area from 0.0422 km2 to 0.0083 km2, discharging 437 000 m3 of water. This glacier lake was not present in a Landsat 7 ETM+ image taken on 26 April 2008. It formed rapidly over just two and half months from early May to the late July, when large amounts of snow and glacier melt water became trapped in a basin in the glacier terminus area, blocked by temporary closure of the drainage channel through the terminal moraine that included much dead-ice. In the same mountain region, most other glacier-lake expansions were not particularly large during the period from 1999-2008. Although events like the w-Zyndan glacier lake outburst occur infrequently in the high Central Asian mountains, such fast developing, short-lived lakes are particularly dangerous and not easy to monitor using satellite data. Appropriate measures to protect against such lake outburst hazards in this region include educating residents on glacier hazards and monitoring techniques, providing frequently updated maps of glacier lakes, and planning and monitoring land-use, including house locations.

  5. El fin de la situación de transitoriedad: la Ley Orgánica 15/1999, de 13 de diciembre, de Protección de Datos de Carácter Personal ya tiene desarrollo reglamentario

    OpenAIRE

    Mònica Vilasau

    2008-01-01

    El 19 de abril del 2008 entró en vigor el Reglamento 1720/2007, de 21 de diciembre, que desarrolla la Ley Orgánica de Protección de Datos (LOPD). Este texto había sido muy esperado por los aplicadores del derecho, por las empresas de consultoría y de seguridad, por sectores del marketing y publicidad, por empresas dedicadas a la solvencia patrimonial y crédito y, en un grado menor, por los consumidores y usuarios. La norma responde a la necesidad de dotar la Ley Orgánica sobre la materia del ...

  6. Is there still a role for intraoperative enteroscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding? ¿Tiene aún sentido la enteroscopia intraoperatoria en pacientes con hemorragia gastrointestinal de origen oscuro?

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    Pedro Monsanto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: in 21st century, endoscopic study of the small intestine has undergone a revolution with capsule endoscopy and balloon-assisted enteroscopy. The difficulties and morbidity associated with intraoperative enteroscopy, the gold-standard in the 20th century, made this technique to be relegated to a second level. Aims: evaluate the actual role and assess the diagnostic and therapeutic value of intraoperative enteroscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients and methods: we conducted a retrospective study of 19 patients (11 males; mean age: 66.5 ± 15.3 years submitted to 21 IOE procedures for obscure GI bleeding. Capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy had been performed in 10 and 5 patients, respectively. Results: with intraoperative enteroscopy a small bowel bleeding lesion was identified in 79% of patients and a gastrointestinal bleed-ing lesion in 94%. Small bowel findings included: angiodysplasia (n = 6, ulcers (n = 4, small bowel Dieulafoy's lesion (n = 2, bleed-ing from anastomotic vessels (n = 1, multiple cavernous hemangiomas (n = 1 and bleeding ectopic jejunal varices (n = 1. Agreement between capsule endoscopy and intraoperative enteroscopy was 70%. Endoscopic and/or surgical treatment was used in 77.8% of the patients with a positive finding on intraoperative enteroscopy, with a rebleeding rate of 21.4% in a mean 21-month follow-up period. Procedure-related mortality and postoperative complications have been 5 and 21%, respectively. Conclusions: intraoperative enteroscopy remains a valuable tool in selected patients with obscure GI bleeding, achieving a high diagnostic yield and allowing an endoscopic and/or surgical treatment in most of them. However, as an invasive procedure with relevant mortality and morbidity, a precise indication for its use is indispensable.

  7. Stefanie Kron y Karoline Noack, (eds.), ¿Qué género tiene el derecho? Ciudadanía, historia y globalización, Berlin, Edition Tranvía, Verlag Walter Frey, 2008, 320 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Albornoz Vásquez, María Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    Los doce trabajos reunidos en este libro reflexionan, según diferentes sociedades latinoamericanas y temáticas histórico-políticas, sobre la articulación entre las nociones de ciudadanía, derecho y género. Los autores, cinco sociólogas, tres antropólogas, una economista, dos politólogas y una historiadora, proceden de distintos centros europeos (Instituto de Estudios Latinoamericanos de la Universidad Libre de Berlin, la belga Universidad Católica de Louvain, Instituto de las Américas de la ...

  8. El coactivador de receptores nucleares RAC3 tiene un rol protector de la Apoptosis inducida por distintos estímulos RAC3 nuclear receptor co-activator has a protective role in the apoptosis induced by different stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina P. Coló

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available RAC3 pertenece a la familia de coactivadores de receptores nucleares p160, y se encuentra sobreexpresado en varios tumores. Demostramos previamente que RAC3 es coactivador del factor de transcripción anti-apoptótico NF-kapa;B. En este trabajo investigamos su rol en la apoptosis inducida por H2O2 en una línea celular no tumoral derivada de riñón embrionario humano (HEK293, y por el ligando inductor de apoptosis relacionado a TNF (TRAIL en una línea de leucemia mieloide crónica humana (K562, naturalmente resistente a la muerte por este estímulo. Observamos que las células tumorales K562 poseen niveles altos de RAC3 comparados con las células no tumorales HEK293. La sobreexpresión normal de coactivador o por transfección, inhibe la apoptosis mediante una disminución de la activación de caspasas, translocación del factor inductor de apoptosis (AIF al núcleo, aumento de la actividad de NF-kapa;B y las quinasas AKT y p38 y disminución de la quinasa ERK. Lo opuesto fue observado por disminución de RAC3 mediante la técnica de ARN interferente (RNAi en K562, aumentando así la apoptosis inducida por TRAIL. Estas evidencias sugieren que una sobreexpresión de RAC3 contribuye al desarrollo de tumores, participando en las cascadas que controlan la muerte celular por mecanismos no estrictamente dependientes de hormonas esteroideas y/o de acetilación, constituyendo esto un posible blanco de ataque para el tratamiento de tumores.RAC3 belongs to the family of p160 nuclear receptors coactivators and it is over-expressed in several tumors. We have previously shown that RAC3 is a NF-kappa;B coactivator. In this paper, we investigated the role of RAC3 in cell-sensitivity to apoptosis, using H2O2 in the human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293, and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL in a human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line (K562 naturally resistant to TRAIL. We observed that the tumoral K562 cells have high levels of RAC3 if compared with the non-tumoral HEK293 cells. The normal or transfected coactivator over-expression inhibits apoptosis through a diminished caspase activity and AIF nuclear translocation, increased NF-kappa;B, AKT and p38, and decreased ERK activities. In contrast, inhibition of RAC3 by siRNA induced sensitivity of K562 to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Such results suggest that over-expression of RAC3 contributes to tumor development through molecular mechanisms that do not depend strictly on acetylation and/or steroid hormones, which control cell death. This could be a possible target for future tumor therapies.

  9. Análisis de la unión del rotavirus a los glóbulos rojos y el efecto que tiene dicha unión en la capacidad infecciosa en líneas tumorales.

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Bautista, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Los virus oncolíticos (VO) son una alternativa prometedora para el tratamiento del cáncer. Estos virus se caracterizan por ser partículas no patógenas que infectan específicamente células cancerosas provocando su muerte, mientras que no afectan los tejidos sanos. El grupo de biología molecular de virus de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia ha realizado trabajos que evalúan la capacidad oncolitica del rotavirus. Inicialmente se seleccionaron 5 aislados de rotavirus, que fueron cultivados en...

  10. La représentation des passions dans le théâtre tragique de la Renaissance [Texte imprimé] : Garnier, La Taille, Montchrétien

    OpenAIRE

    Cezette, Mitsué

    2007-01-01

    Chez Jean de La Taille, Robert Garnier et Antoine de Montchrestien, représentants du théâtre tragique de la Renaissance, les passions deviennent le moteur de l'action et déterminent la caractérisation des personnages. Le théâtre tragique de la Renaissance concilie le pathétique lié à la déploration à une dramaturgie des passions qui oriente les règles de déroulement de l'action. Les influences bibliques, historiques et sénéquienne définissent les conditions d'imitation, mais la poétique et la...

  11. Antijudaïsme, pouvoir politique et administration de la justice. Juifs, chrétiens et convertis dans l’espace juridictionnel de la Chancillería de Valladolid (xve-xvie siècles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Caselli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Composition du juryMonsieur. Bernard Vincent, Directeur de thèses (ÉHESS,Monsieur. Bartolomé Bennassar (Université de Toulouse le Mirail,Monsieur. Ricardo Garcia Carcel (Université Autonome de Barcelone,Madame. Claude Gauvard (Université de Paris I,Madame. Béatrice Perez (Université de Rennes II,Monsieur. Jean-Paul Zuñiga, (ÉHESSMention très honorable avec félicitation du juryThèse soutenue le 28 juin 2010RésuméÀ travers des procès judiciaires impliquant des juifs, plaidant entre eux ou...

  12. Cinématique tertiaire et rotations de blocs dans l'ouest de l'Asie Centrale (Tien Shan Kirghiz et dépression Tadjik). Etude structurale et paléomagnétique

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Jean-Charles

    1993-01-01

    Depuis 45 Ma, le continent asiatique se déforme sous l'effet de la collision continentale de l'Inde. L'épaississement crustal et l'extrusion de blocs le long de grands décrochements sont considérés comme les deux principaux mécanismes accommodant la déformation. Par ailleurs, des observations structurales suggèrent la présence de rotations de blocs autour d'axes verticaux au niveau des syntaxes Est et Ouest himalayennes et dans une zone allant de l'Afghanistan au Baïkal. L'étude des relations...

  13. Entre la vigne et la croix. Dionysos dans les discours littéraires et figurés chrétiens (iie-ive siècles)1

    OpenAIRE

    Massa, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Mon doctorat est consacré à l'analyse du rôle du dieu grec Dionysos dans la production littéraire et figurée chrétienne des premiers siècles de l'époque impériale romaine (iie-ive siècles). La recherche s'inscrit dans deux courants d'études principaux : le premier renouvelle l'analyse des contacts religieux pendant les premiers siècles de notre ère, en proposant d'éclairer comment les situations de contact interviennent dans la formation et la définition des identités religieuses ; le deuxièm...

  14. A farmacobotânica, ainda tem lugar na moderna anestesiologia? ¿La farmacobotánica, aún tiene lugar en la moderna anestesiología? Is there still a place for pharmacobotany in modern anesthesiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Bezerra do Vale

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Recentemente, o uso de chás medicinais - infusões, decoctos, tisanas, tinturas - ou medicamentos de origem vegetal vem sendo retomado de maneira sistemática e crescente na profilaxia e tratamento das doenças, ao lado da terapêutica convencional, na maioria dos países ocidentais. A presente revisão objetiva analisar as principais plantas que serviram como base de progresso para a moderna terapêutica anestesiológica através de sua utilização como modelos moleculares para síntese orgânica na moderna química fina de ponta, bem como fornecer mais embasamento sobre benefícios, potenciais efeitos adversos, interações e risco de efeitos colaterais que possam afetar o ato anestésico no paciente cirúrgico usuário habitual de fitoterapia. CONTEÚDO: Considerações anestesiológicas selecionadas são discutidas focalizando uma pequena revisão sobre ervas medicinais mais populares que foram essenciais no desenvolvimento de uma farmacologia anestesiológica e, ainda, as potenciais interações de plantas medicinais usadas por pacientes para tratar suas doenças ou controlar seus sintomas com drogas sintéticas usadas na anestesia. CONCLUSÕES: Enquanto a Medicina especializada fascina-se cada vez mais com a tecnologia avançada de novos fármacos e de fantásticos monitores, cresce em vários países o número de pacientes que desejam uma abordagem mais holística com rejeição dos modernos métodos de tratamento, optando por chás, meditações, dietas vegetarianas, anti-oxidantes, entre outros. Cabe ao anestesiologista avaliar quanto o conhecimento de farmacognosia e de farmacobotânica pode ajudá-lo na prática anestésica e, principalmente, na segurança de seu paciente.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Recientemente, el uso de tés medicinales - infusiones, decocciones, tisanas, tinturas - o medicamentos de origen vegetal viene siendo retomado de manera sistemática y creciente en la profilaxis y tratamiento de las enfermedades al lado de la terapéutica convencional en la mayoría de los países occidentales. La presente revisión objetiva analizar las principales plantas que servirán como base de progreso para la moderna terapéutica anestesiólogica a través de su utilización como modelos moleculares para síntesis orgánica en la moderna química fina de punta, bien como suministrar más fundamento sobre beneficios, potenciales efectos adversos, interacciones y riesgo de efectos colaterales que puedan afectar el acto anestésico en el paciente cirúrgico usuario habitual de la fitoterapia. CONTENIDO: Son discutidas las consideraciones anestesiológicas seleccionadas, focalizando una pequeña revisión sobre hierbas medicinales más populares que fueron esenciales en el desenvolvimiento de una farmacología anestesiológica y aún, las potenciales interacciones de plantas medicinales usadas por pacientes para tratar sus enfermedades o controlar sus síntomas con drogas sintéticas usadas en la anestesia. CONCLUSIONES: En cuanto la Medicina especializada se fascina cada vez más con la tecnología avanzada de nuevos fármacos y de fantásticos monitores, crece en varios países el número de pacientes que desean una abordaje mas holística con rechazo de los modernos métodos de tratamiento, optando por tés, meditaciones, dietas vegetarianas, anti-oxidantes, entre otros. Cabe al anestesiologista evaluar cuanto el conocimiento de farmacognosia y de farmacobotánica puede ayudarlo en la práctica anestésica y, principalmente, en la seguridad de su paciente.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recently, the use of medicinal teas - infusions, decoction, tisanes, dyeings - or drugs of vegetal origin are being systematically and increasingly revived to prevent and treat diseases together with conventional medicine in most Western countries. This review aimed at analyzing major herbs that were the basis for the progress of modern anesthetic therapy through their use as molecular models for organic synthesis in fine leading edge modern chemistry, as well as shedding more light on the advantages, potential adverse effects, interactions and risks for side-effects which may affect anesthesia in surgical patients users of phytotherapy. CONTENTS: Selected anesthesiologic considerations are discussed focusing a brief review of popular herbs essentials on the development of anesthetic pharmacology and the potential drug-herb interactions between synthetic drugs used in anesthesia and the medicinal herbs used by patients in their illness and symptoms management. CONCLUSIONS: While specialized Medicine is increasingly fascinated by the advanced technology of new drugs and fantastic monitors, there is an increasing trend in several countries for a more holistic approach and rejection of new treatment methods, with an option for teas, meditation, vegetarian diets and anti-oxidants, among others. It is the anesthesiologist’s role to evaluate how much pharmacognosy and pharmacobotany knowledge may help him in the anesthetic practice and, especially, in patients safety.

  15. Aimé Pallière, le paradoxe d’un président chrétien pour l’Union universelle de la jeunesse juive

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Poujol

    2008-01-01

    « C’est en 1926, au Congrès de Paris, que l’Union universelle de la Jeunesse juive (U.U.J.J.) fit d’Aimé Pallière son président. Il le resta jusqu’à la fin, c’est-à-dire jusqu’au moment où, en 1935, l’U.U.J.J. poussa son chant du cygne en un ultime et grotesque cocorico. Quand je songe à toute cette période futile de notre adolescence, je n’échappe pas à un certain sentiment de honte. Toute notre activité était fondée sur le bluff, le tapage et l’orchestre de foire. Charles Nehama, notre char...

  16. The 24 July 2008 outburst flood at the western Zyndan glacier lake and recent regional changes in glacier lakes of the Teskey Ala-Too range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Narama

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available On 24 July 2008, a glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF occurred at the western (w- Zyndan glacier lake in the Tong District of Ysyk-Köl Oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The flood killed three people and numerous livestock, destroyed infrastructure, and devastated potato and barley crops as well as pastures. Tuurasuu village and a downstream reservoir on the Zyndan river escaped heavy damage because the main flood was diverted toward the Tong river. RTK-GPS and satellite data (Landsat 7 ETM+, ALOS/PRISM, and ALOS/AVNIR-2 reveal that the flood reduced the lake area from 0.0422 km2 to 0.0083 km2, discharging 437 000 m3 of water. This glacier lake was not present in a Landsat 7 ETM+ image taken on 26 April 2008. It formed rapidly over just two and half months from early May to the late July, when large amounts of snow and glacier melt water became trapped in a basin in the glacier terminus area, blocked by temporary closure of the drainage channel through the terminal moraine that included much dead-ice. In the same mountain region, most other glacier-lake expansions were not particularly large during the period from 1999–2008. Although events like the w-Zyndan glacier lake outburst occur infrequently in the high Central Asian mountains, such fast developing, short-lived lakes are particularly dangerous and not easy to monitor using satellite data. Appropriate measures to protect against such lake outburst hazards in this region include educating residents on glacier hazards and monitoring techniques, providing frequently updated maps of glacier lakes, and planning and monitoring land-use, including house locations.

  17. Aimé Pallière, le paradoxe d’un président chrétien pour l’Union universelle de la jeunesse juive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Poujol

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available « C’est en 1926, au Congrès de Paris, que l’Union universelle de la Jeunesse juive (U.U.J.J. fit d’Aimé Pallière son président. Il le resta jusqu’à la fin, c’est-à-dire jusqu’au moment où, en 1935, l’U.U.J.J. poussa son chant du cygne en un ultime et grotesque cocorico. Quand je songe à toute cette période futile de notre adolescence, je n’échappe pas à un certain sentiment de honte. Toute notre activité était fondée sur le bluff, le tapage et l’orchestre de foire. Charles Nehama, notre char...

  18. Le vœu de Louis XIII et la naissance de Louis XIV : observations iconographiques sur la célébration du roi très chrétien

    OpenAIRE

    Minois, Léo

    2012-01-01

    La France du Grand Siècle constitue un terrain privilégié pour l’étude de la relation dialectique entre arts et pouvoir. L’analyse des représentations du vœu de Louis XIII, l’acte par lequel le souverain consacra le royaume de France à Dieu par l’intermédiaire de la Vierge, permet d’appréhender la définition d’une typologie de l’image du roi par la monarchie elle-même et la manière dont celle-ci contribua aux stratégies de légitimation de son autorité durant une période d’affermissement du po...

  19. El escaso reflejo que todavía tiene en los medios de comunicación la imagen corporal de las chicas y el acoso escolar. Cuando se trata de algo más que causa y efecto

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Guerrero, Manuel; Suárez Ramírez, Miriam; Godoy Merino, María José

    2012-01-01

    Con este trabajo pretendemos reseñar la poca transcendencia que tienen en los mass media al acoso escolar. Actualmente, el acoso escolar es casi un tema “tabú” no solo en los medios de comunicación, sino también en la educación, a pesar de que son actos que ocurren a diario en todos los centros educativos con más o menos frecuencia en el que predomina el género masculino como agresor y el femenino como víctima. Para profundizar en este asunto, hemos realizado una investigación basada en ...

  20. « L’onomastique iranienne dans les sources syriaques. Quand les chrétiens d’Iran changent de nom (IVe-VIIe s.) ». Parole de l’Orient, 31, 2006, pp. 279-294.

    OpenAIRE

    Gyselen, Rika (Hrsg.)

    2008-01-01

    Après un survol du programme de l’Iranisches Personennamenbuch (dictionnaire des noms propres iraniens) de l’Académie autrichienne des Sciences, les AA. présentent les sources utilisées pour le dictionnaire des noms iraniens dans les sources syriaques qu’ils préparent et donnent les « règles » selon lesquelles un nom iranien (langue indo-iranienne) est transposé en syriaque (langue sémitique). L’article comporte de très nombreux exemples ayant trait au maintien ou au changement de leur nom ir...

  1. L᾽idée impériale dans les pays Roumains et le «crypto-empire chrétien» sous la domination ottomane. État et importance du problème

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. NASTASE

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available   Δ. Ναστάσε Ἡ αὐτοκρατορικὴ ἰδέα στὶς ρουμανικὲς χῶρες καὶ «ἡ Χριστιανικὴ κρυπτο-αὐτοκρατορία» κατὰ τὴν ΤουρκοκρατίαΤὸ πρῶτο μέρος τῆς ἐργασίας παρουσιάζει τὸ ἱστορικὸ τοῦ προβλήματος τῆς βυζαντινῆς αὐτοκρατορικῆς κληρονομιᾶς στὶς ρουμανικὲς ἡγεμονίες τῆς Βλαχίας καὶ τῆς Μολδαβίας. Τονίζεται ἰδιαιτέρως ἡ συμβολὴ τοῦ Nicolae Iorga, ὁ ὁποῖος ἔθεσε σὲ ἐπιστημονικὲς βάσεις αὐτὸ τὸ πρόβλημα στὰ πλαίσια τῆς βυζαντινῆς ἐπιβίωσης, ποὺ ὁ ἴδιος ὀνόμασε Byzance après Byzance.Ἡ γνώμη τοῦ συγγραφέα, τὴν ὁποία ἔχει ἤδη ἀναπτύξει καὶ σὲ προηγούμενες ἐργασίες, εἶναι ὅτι τὰ ἱστορικά τεκμήρια ποὺ συσχετίστηκαν μὲ αὐτὴ τὴν κληρονομιὰ ἀνταποκρίνονται στὴν πραγματικότητα σὲ μία διαρκὴ αὐτοκρατορικὴ διεκδίκηση τῶν ηγεμόνων τῆς Βλαχίας καὶ τῆς Μολδαβίας (τῶν Ρουμάνων πρῶτα καὶ ὕστερα τῶν Φαναριωτῶν. Ἡ διεκδίκηση αὐτὴ ἀνάγεται χρονικῶς πολὺ πρὶν ἀπὸ τὴν ἅλωση τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως καὶ συνεχίζεται στὴν ἐποχὴ τῆς Τουρκοκρατίας. Τότε ἀναγκάζεται νὰ πάρει μία κρυφὴ μορφή, πολὺ χαρακτηριστική, ποὺ ἀντιστοιχεῖ στὴ δημιουργία μιᾶς «Χριστιανικῆς κρυπτο-αὐτοκρατορίας», ὑπόγεια συνέχιση καὶ ἐπιβίωση τῆς βυζαντινῆς. Αὐτὴ ἡ sui generis πολιτικο-ἰδεολογικὴ δομὴ στηρίχτηκε στὴ στενὴ συμμαχία ἀνάμεσα στοὺς ἡγετικούς κύκλους τοῡ ὑπόδουλου Ἑλληνισμοῦ -πρὸ παντὸς τὸ οἰκουμενικὸ Πατριαρχεῖο, τὰ μοναστικὰ κέντρα καὶ ἀργότερα τὸ Φανάρι- καὶ στοὺς βοεβόδες τῆς ΜολδοΒλαχίας, καὶ διήρκεσε ὥς τὸ 1821.Στὸ δεύτερο μέρος τῆς ἐργασίας τονίζεται ἀφ' ἑνὸς ἡ σημασία αὐτῆς τῆς αὐτοκρατορικής ἰδέας ποὺ φέρνει στὸ φῶς ὁ συγγραφέας καὶ ἡ ὁποία ἀλλάζει πολλὲς ἀπὸ τὶς γνῶμες μας γιὰ τήν ἱστορία, τόσο τοῦ ρουμανικοῦ λαοῦ, ὅσο καὶ τοῦ Ελληνισμοῦ στὴν ὑστερο- καὶ μεταβυζαντινὴ περίοδο. Ἀφ' ἑτέρου, αὐτοκρατορικὰ «συμπτώματα» τοῦ ἰδίου τύπου συναντῶνται σὲ διάφορες ἄλλες εὐρωπαϊκὲς χῶρες, ἀπὸ τὴν Βενετία ὥς τὴν Ρωσία τοῦ Κιέβου, καὶ ἀπὸ τὴν Ἱσπανία ὥς τὴν Ἀγγλία. Συνεπῶς τὰ ἀποτελέσματα τῆς μελέτης αὐτῆς ἀνοίγουν προοπτικὲς ποὺ θὰ ἔπρεπε νὰ ἐξετασθοῦν στὸ ἐπίπεδο τῆς εὐρωπαϊκῆς ἱστορίας, μέσα στὰ πλαίσια ἑνὸς εὐρέος προγράμματος ἐρευνῶν.

  2. El aspecto social de la desertifi cación: Análisis de la percepción que la administración pública tiene en Centroamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Carolina Garay Romero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La desertifi cación es un fenómeno complejo y no sólo representa la degradación de algunosecosistemas terrestres. Hoy día, es bien conocido que este proceso se encuentra vinculado tanto aldeterioro ambiental como a factores sociales y económicos, dejando a su paso grandes impactos enla seguridad alimentaria, pobreza, migración y desequilibrio en innumerables países.El análisis de la percepción de la desertifi cación es un aspecto esencial en el diseño depolíticas que ayudarían en la lucha contra este problema. La percepción de la desertifi cación en CentroAmérica se ha convertido en un tema polémico y debería incluirse en las estrategias de aplicaciónde instrumentos de gestión, como los convenios internacionales que llegan a formar parte de laspolíticas públicas de los países.

  3. DOS HIPÓTESIS SOBRE EL EFECTO QUE TIENE EN LA FORMA DE EXPLOTACIÓN AGROPECUARIA APLICAR SUBSIDIOS A SISTEMAS DE RIEGO. EL CASO DEL ALTO CHICAMOCHA (BOYACÁ, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Congote Ochoa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo somete a prueba dos hipótesis: la que expone conceptos tradicionales del tipo congelar la dinámica campo-ciudad o conservar al campesino en el campo explotando áreas mínimas y la modernista, que utiliza conceptos económicos del tipo tiempo de trabajo socialmente necesario, costos sociales, demanda efectiva y movilidad de factores. El artículo falsea de manera preliminar la hipótesis tradicional y valida la modernista, tanto teórica como empíricamente sobre un caso observado en la zona del Alto Chicamocha, (Boyacá con datos capturados entre 1999 y 2010. Formula al final algunas conclusiones y recomendaciones.

  4. A farmacobotânica, ainda tem lugar na moderna anestesiologia? ¿La farmacobotánica, aún tiene lugar en la moderna anestesiología? Is there still a place for pharmacobotany in modern anesthesiology?

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton Bezerra do Vale

    2002-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Recentemente, o uso de chás medicinais - infusões, decoctos, tisanas, tinturas - ou medicamentos de origem vegetal vem sendo retomado de maneira sistemática e crescente na profilaxia e tratamento das doenças, ao lado da terapêutica convencional, na maioria dos países ocidentais. A presente revisão objetiva analisar as principais plantas que serviram como base de progresso para a moderna terapêutica anestesiológica através de sua utilização como modelos moleculares p...

  5. La primera noticia.Estudio sobre los procedimientos profesionales, las vivencias y las necesidades de los padres cuando se les informa de que su hijo tiene una discapacidad o un trastorno del desarrollo

    OpenAIRE

    Federación Estatal de Asociaciones de Profesionales de la Atención Temprana - GAT

    2013-01-01

    Los profesionales del GAT- Federación Estatal de Asociaciones de Profesionales de Atención Temprana, vienen colaborando con el Real Patronato sobre Discapacidad en diversas iniciativas relacionadas con la regulación de la Atención Temprana en España. En esta ocasión, presta atención a cómo dar ‘la primera noticia’ a los padres de que su hijo presenta una anomalía congénita, un trastorno del desarrollo o cualquier otra discapacidad. A lo largo de las últimas décadas, diversos estudios se han h...

  6. Hiina kunstnikud kaebavad Veneetsia biennaali kohtusse / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2000-01-01

    1999. a. Veneetsia biennaalil auhinna võitnud hiina kunstniku Cai Guo Qiangi teos "Veneetsia maksukoguja hoov" on Hiinas tekitanud diskussiooni autoriõiguste teemal. Kaalutakse kohtuasja algatamist Cai Guo Qiangi, Harald Szeemanni ja Veneetsia biennaali vastu

  7. Research on the Use of Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, C. O.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews recent research studies related to computer assisted instruction (CAI). The studies concerned program effectiveness, teaching of psychomotor skills, tool availability, and factors affecting the adoption of CAI. (CT)

  8. A petrographic, chemical, and isotopic study of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and aluminum-rich chondrules from the Axtell (CV3) chondrite

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, G.; Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2000-01-01

    Petrographic, compositional, and isotopic characteristics were studied for three calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) and four plagioclase-bearing chondrules (three of them Al-rich) from the Axtell (CV3) chondrite. All seven objects have analogues in Allende (CV3) and other primitive chondrites, yet Axtell, like most other chondrites, contains a distinctive suite of CAIs and chondrules. In common with Allende CAIs, CAIs in Axtell exhibit initial ^(26)Al/^(27)Al ratios ((^(26)Al/^(27)Al)0) ...

  9. Effective Computer Aided Instruction in Biomedical Science

    OpenAIRE

    Hause, Lawrence L.

    1985-01-01

    A menu-driven Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) package was integrated with word processing and effectively applied in five curricula at the Medical College of Wisconsin. Integration with word processing facilitates the ease of CAI development by instructors and was found to be the most important step in the development of CAI. CAI modules were developed and are currently used to reinforce lectures in medical pathology, laboratory quality control, computer programming and basic science reviews...

  10. THE EFFECT OF AN INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEM (ITS ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Chen Chien

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental study, use of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI followed by use of an Intelligent Tutoring System (CAI+ITS was compared to the use of CAI (CAI only in tutoring students on the topic of Algebraic Expression. Two groups of students participated in the study. One group of 32 students studied algebraic expression in a CAI learning environment, while the other group of 30 students was in a CAI and ITS (CAI+ITS environment. Before the experimental treatment began, subjects were given a pre-test on algebraic expression. A post-test was also given at the end of the study. The experimental treatment was administered in eight sessions with one hour per session. For the first stage of the study, both groups of subjects studied algebraic expression in a CAI environment. In the second stage, subjects from the CAI group continued with a tutoring session using the drill and practice section of the CAI package, whereas subjects from the CAI+ITS environment continued their learning using the ITS tutorial. The results of the study showed that there was a significant difference in the students’ achievement in algebraic expression between students who learned with CAI+ITS and who learned with CAI only as the delivery system. The findings of the study indicated that CAI+ITS was more effective in helping students learn algebraic expression as compared to using CAI alone. This study suggests that educators and software developers should focus on the development of ITS based learning tools or integrate ITS elements in courseware development rather than developing a mere CAI tool.

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1277 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1277 emb|CAI12641.1| caspase 7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [Homo sap...iens] emb|CAI16007.1| caspase 7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [Homo sapiens] CAI12641.1 2e-09 73% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1632 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1632 emb|CAI12641.1| caspase 7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [Homo sap...iens] emb|CAI16007.1| caspase 7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [Homo sapiens] CAI12641.1 3e-25 69% ...

  13. Student Achievement and the Use of the Program "Study Island"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Benjamin Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) has been used for many years in an attempt to increase student achievement. Districts have spent millions of dollars implementing different forms of CAI that may or may not be working. This study was an attempt to describe one such district and its CAI implementation. The study sought to complete three tasks. The…

  14. Correlation between azole susceptibilities, genotypes, and ERG11 mutations in Candida albicans isolates associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shu-Hua; Wan, Zhe; Li, Juan; Xu, Jianping; Li, Ruo-Yu; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2010-08-01

    The relationship between susceptibilities to fluconazole and itraconazole and microsatellite CAI genotypes were examined from a total of 154 Candida albicans isolates (97 isolates causing vulvovaginitis in Chinese women and 6 vaginal isolates and 51 oral cavity isolates from asymptomatic carriers). The two dominant genotypes, CAI 30-45 (45 isolates) and CAI 32-46 (33 isolates), associated with vulvovaginitis showed significantly different azole susceptibility patterns with strong statistical support. CAI 32-46 isolates were usually less susceptible to both fluconazole and itraconazole than CAI 30-45 isolates and than the oral isolates with other diversified CAI genotypes. Remarkably different mutation patterns in the azole target gene ERG11 were correspondingly observed among C. albicans isolates representing different genotypes and sources. Isolates with the same or similar CAI genotypes usually possessed identical or phylogenetically closely related ERG11 sequences. Loss of heterozygosity in ERG11 was observed in all the CAI 32-46 isolates but not in the CAI 30-45 isolates and most of the oral isolates sequenced. Compared with the ERG11 sequence of strain SC5314 (X13296), two homozygous missense mutations (G487T and T916C) leading to two amino acid changes (A114S and Y257H) in Erg11p were found in CAI 32-46 isolates. The correlation between azole susceptibility and C. albicans genotype may be of potential therapeutic significance. PMID:20516286

  15. EVIDENCE FOR MULTIPLE SOURCES OF {sup 10}Be IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielandt, Daniel; Krot, Alexander N.; Bizzarro, Martin [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen DK-1350 (Denmark); Nagashima, Kazuhide; Huss, Gary R. [Hawai' i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai' i at Manoa, HI 96822 (United States); Ivanova, Marina A. [Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2012-04-01

    Beryllium-10 is a short-lived radionuclide (t{sub 1/2} = 1.4 Myr) uniquely synthesized by spallation reactions and inferred to have been present when the solar system's oldest solids (calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, CAIs) formed. Yet, the astrophysical site of {sup 10}Be nucleosynthesis is uncertain. We report Li-Be-B isotope measurements of CAIs from CV chondrites, including CAIs that formed with the canonical {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratio of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} (canonical CAIs) and CAIs with Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope effects (FUN-CAIs) characterized by {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratios much lower than the canonical value. Our measurements demonstrate the presence of four distinct fossil {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be isochrons, lower in the FUN-CAIs than in the canonical CAIs, and variable within these classes. Given that FUN-CAI precursors escaped evaporation-recondensation prior to evaporative melting, we suggest that the {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratio recorded by FUN-CAIs represents a baseline level present in presolar material inherited from the protosolar molecular cloud, generated via enhanced trapping of galactic cosmic rays. The higher and possibly variable apparent {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratios of canonical CAIs reflect additional spallogenesis, either in the gaseous CAI-forming reservoir, or in the inclusions themselves: this indicates at least two nucleosynthetic sources of {sup 10}Be in the early solar system. The most promising locale for {sup 10}Be synthesis is close to the proto-Sun during its early mass-accreting stages, as these are thought to coincide with periods of intense particle irradiation occurring on timescales significantly shorter than the formation interval of canonical CAIs.

  16. EVIDENCE FOR MULTIPLE SOURCES OF 10Be IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beryllium-10 is a short-lived radionuclide (t1/2 = 1.4 Myr) uniquely synthesized by spallation reactions and inferred to have been present when the solar system's oldest solids (calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, CAIs) formed. Yet, the astrophysical site of 10Be nucleosynthesis is uncertain. We report Li-Be-B isotope measurements of CAIs from CV chondrites, including CAIs that formed with the canonical 26Al/27Al ratio of ∼5 × 10–5 (canonical CAIs) and CAIs with Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope effects (FUN-CAIs) characterized by 26Al/27Al ratios much lower than the canonical value. Our measurements demonstrate the presence of four distinct fossil 10Be/9Be isochrons, lower in the FUN-CAIs than in the canonical CAIs, and variable within these classes. Given that FUN-CAI precursors escaped evaporation-recondensation prior to evaporative melting, we suggest that the 10Be/9Be ratio recorded by FUN-CAIs represents a baseline level present in presolar material inherited from the protosolar molecular cloud, generated via enhanced trapping of galactic cosmic rays. The higher and possibly variable apparent 10Be/9Be ratios of canonical CAIs reflect additional spallogenesis, either in the gaseous CAI-forming reservoir, or in the inclusions themselves: this indicates at least two nucleosynthetic sources of 10Be in the early solar system. The most promising locale for 10Be synthesis is close to the proto-Sun during its early mass-accreting stages, as these are thought to coincide with periods of intense particle irradiation occurring on timescales significantly shorter than the formation interval of canonical CAIs.

  17. The absolute chronology and thermal processing of solids in the solar protoplanetary disk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, James N; Bizzarro, Martin; Krot, Alexander N; Nordlund, Åke; Wielandt, Daniel; Ivanova, Marina A

    2012-11-01

    Transient heating events that formed calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules are fundamental processes in the evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk, but their chronology is not understood. Using U-corrected Pb-Pb dating, we determined absolute ages of individual CAIs and chondrules from primitive meteorites. CAIs define a brief formation interval corresponding to an age of 4567.30 ± 0.16 million years (My), whereas chondrule ages range from 4567.32 ± 0.42 to 4564.71 ± 0.30 My. These data refute the long-held view of an age gap between CAIs and chondrules and, instead, indicate that chondrule formation started contemporaneously with CAIs and lasted ~3 My. This time scale is similar to disk lifetimes inferred from astronomical observations, suggesting that the formation of CAIs and chondrules reflects a process intrinsically linked to the secular evolution of accretionary disks. PMID:23118187

  18. Hf-182-W-182 age dating of a Al-26-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jesper Christian; Olsen, Mia Bjørg Stolberg; Paton, Chad;

    2013-01-01

    , FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the 182Hf–182W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs......Refractory inclusions [calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., 26Al, 41Ca, and 182Hf) synthesized...... in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs...

  19. 182Hf–182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jesper C.; Olsen, Mia Bjørg Stolberg; Paton, Chad;

    2013-01-01

    , FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the 182Hf–182W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs......Refractory inclusions [calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., 26Al, 41Ca, and 182Hf) synthesized...... in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs...

  20. Evaluation of cellular mechanisms for modulation of calcium transients using a mathematical model of fura-2 Ca2+ imaging in Aplysia sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, H; Zablow, L; Sabatini, B

    1992-10-01

    A theoretical model of [Ca++]i diffusion, buffering, and extrusion was developed for Aplysia sensory neurons, and integrated with the measured optical transfer function of our fura-2 microscopic recording system, in order to fully simulate fura-2 video or photomultiplier tube measurements of [Ca++]i. This allowed an analysis of the spatial and temporal distortions introduced during each step of fura-2 measurements of [Ca++]i in cells. In addition, the model was used to evaluate the plausibility of several possible mechanisms for modulating [Ca++]i transients evoked by action potentials. The results of the model support prior experimental work (Blumenfeld, Spira, Kandel, and Siegelbaum, 1990. Neuron. 5: 487-499), suggesting that 5-HT and FMRFamide modulate action potential-induced [Ca++]i transients in Aplysia sensory neurons through changes in Ca++ influx, and not through changes in [Ca++]i homeostasis or release from internal stores. PMID:1420931

  1. Growth of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions by coagulation and fragmentation in a turbulent protoplanetary disk: observations and modelisation

    CERN Document Server

    Charnoz, S; Chaumard, N; Baillie, K; Tallifet, E

    2015-01-01

    Whereas it is generally accepted that calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from chondritic meteorites formed in a hot environment in the solar protoplanetary disk, the conditions of their formation remain debated. Recent laboratory studies of CAIs have provided new kind of data: their size distributions. We show that size distributions of CAIs measured in laboratory from sections of carbonaceous chondrites have a power law size distribution with cumulative size exponent between -1.7 and -1.9, which translates into cumulative size exponent between -2.5 and -2.8 after correction for sectioning. To explain these observations, numerical simulations were run to explore the growth of CAIs from micrometer to centimeter sizes, in a hot and turbulent protoplanetary disk through the competition of coagulation and fragmentation. We show that the size distributions obtained in growth simulations are in agreement with CAIs size distributions in meteorites. We explain the CAI sharp cut-off of their size distribution at ...

  2. Mechanism of the preventive effect of a compound Chinese drug of SanYeXiangChaCai on cardon tetrachloride induced hepatic fibrosis%复方三叶香茶菜抗大鼠肝纤维化的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄茂川; 汪谦; 陈锡林; 曹良启; 黄晓卉

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究复方三叶香茶菜(三叶香茶菜、黄根、三七)的保肝抗肝纤维化作用及其机制.方法 运用腹腔注射四氯化碳致大鼠肝纤维化模型,观察复方三叶香茶菜对大鼠肝纤维化的影响.运用苏木素-伊红染色、Massion染色检测肝纤维化的变化,生化检测肝脏羟脯氨酸、血清丙氨酸氨基转移酶(ALT)及天冬氨酸转移酶(AST),免疫组织化学法观察α-平滑肌肌动蛋白(α-SMA)的表达,分别应用RT-PCR和Western blot法检测转化生长因子β1(TGF-β1)及结缔组织生长因子(CTGF)mRNA和蛋白质表达状况.结果 复方三叶香茶菜能显著改善四氯化碳诱导的肝纤维化损伤,肝组织羟脯氨酸含量显著降低,血清ALT和AST含量明显低于肝纤维化模型组,肝组织TGF-β1及CTGF的mRNA和蛋白质表达均明显下降.结论 复方三叶香茶菜能有效地抑制四氯化碳诱导的肝纤维大鼠的肝损伤及纤维化进程,其主要机制可能与复方三叶香茶菜显著抑TGF-β1和CTGF的表达有关.

  3. The Exploration on Cai Yong's JinShangMen Disaster and Philistines' Ethos at the End of Han Dynasty%蔡邕“金商门之祸”本事以及汉末士林风气探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海燕

    2011-01-01

    东汉名士蔡邕于汉灵帝光和元年因上封事而入狱,后流徒朔方,这场“金商门之祸”是蔡邕政治生涯中的一个重大转折点,不仅改变了他既定的生活轨道和人生历程,同时也在极大程度上影响着他以后的人生态度和命运走向,是研究蔡邕生平、思想乃至汉末政治、社会的一个重点,然而历来众说纷纭.对史料系统分析的结果表明,“金商门之祸”不仅仅是蔡邕与权宦矛盾激化的结果,也暴露出了士大夫群体内部的矛盾,然而,其真正根源则在于蔡邕家族与泰山党魁羊陟等人的密切关系.

  4. 中山市儿童青少年心理健康状况调查及相关因素分析%REN Yan - zhen,HUANG Cai - ying,HUANG Miao - fei,DENG Da - yong,DU Bao - guo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任衍镇; 黄彩英; 黄妙妃; 邓大勇; 杜宝国

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand mental health status and related factors among children and adolescents in Zhongshan,and provide scientific basis for the promotion of their mental health. Methods A total of 2281 students in four primary and secondary schools of Zhongshan City were sampled by stratified random cluster sampling. They were investigated with Achenbach Children Behav-ior Scale(CBCL),Parents’Rearing Style Questionnaire(EMBU)and General situation questionnaire for children and adolescents. Results Among the 2281 students,the prevalence of behavioral problems was 18. 76% ,and there was no significant difference be-tween male and female students(P 0.05)。非父母抚养组及低收入组外化性行为得分分别高于父母抚养组及中高收入组[(7.08±6.41)vs.(6.12±7.10);(6.63±6.72)vs.(5.93±7.59),P 均<0.05],非家庭和睦组在内化性行为得分、外化性行为得分及行为问题总分上都高于家庭和睦组( P 均<0.01)。Pearson 相关分析显示,儿童青少年内化性行为得分、外化性行为得分及行为问题总分均与父、母的温暖理解因子得分呈负相关(r =-0.18~-0.13,P 均<0.01),与父母的惩罚严厉、拒绝否认、过度保护干涉等因子得分呈正相关(r =0.11~0.24,P 均<0.01)。进一步 logistic 回归分析显示儿童青少年行为问题相关因素依次是:家庭氛围、父亲温暖理解、母亲过度保护及干涉(P 均<0.05)。其中,家庭氛围越紧张,父亲温暖理解得分越低,母亲过度保护及干涉得分越高,儿童青少年越倾向于出现行为障碍(P 均<0.05)。结论中山市儿童青少年行为问题较突出,紧张的家庭氛围、母亲过度保护干涉及缺乏父亲温暖理解的教养方式对行为问题的发生有不利影响。

  5. Precursors of aluminum-rich chondrules from the Axtell (CV3) meteorite

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, G.; Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1997-01-01

    Aluminum-rich chondrules are less refractory and have lower ^(26)Al abundance compared to Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) [1-3]. The presence of hibonite grains in a Sharps Al-rich chondrule [2], and of a spinel-fassaite fragment in an Allende ferromagnesian chondrule [4] suggest CAIs as plausible precursors of Al-rich chondrules. To investigate this possibility we have determined major ,-minor-, and rare-earth-element (REE) concentration in dominant mineral phases in CAIs and ...

  6. Growth of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions by coagulation and fragmentation in a turbulent protoplanetary disk: observations and modelisation

    OpenAIRE

    Charnoz, S.; Aleon, J.; Chaumard, N.; Baillie, K.; Tallifet, E.

    2015-01-01

    Whereas it is generally accepted that calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from chondritic meteorites formed in a hot environment in the solar protoplanetary disk, the conditions of their formation remain debated. Recent laboratory studies of CAIs have provided new kind of data: their size distributions. We show that size distributions of CAIs measured in laboratory from sections of carbonaceous chondrites have a power law size distribution with cumulative size exponent between -1.7 and -1...

  7. A Critical Examination of the X-Wind Model for Chondrule and Calcium-rich, Aluminum-rich Inclusion Formation and Radionuclide Production

    OpenAIRE

    Desch, S. J.; Morris, M A; Connolly, Jr., H. C.; Boss, Alan P.

    2010-01-01

    Meteoritic data, especially regarding chondrules and calcium-rich, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), and isotopic evidence for short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in the solar nebula, potentially can constrain how planetary systems form. Intepretation of these data demands an astrophysical model, and the "X-wind" model of Shu et al. (1996) and collaborators has been advanced to explain the origin of chondrules, CAIs and SLRs. It posits that chondrules and CAIs were thermally processed < 0.1 AU fr...

  8. Comment on "ancient asteroids enriched in refractory inclusions".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezel, Dominik C; Russell, Sara S

    2008-11-14

    Sunshine et al. (Reports, 25 April 2008, p. 514) reported that certain asteroids contain 30 +/- 10 volume percent calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). We contend that the amount of CAIs in CV chondrites is two to three times as low as the 10 volume percent assumed by the authors; thus, we question whether the CAI-rich bodies they studied are indeed older than known asteroids or formed before the injection of (26)Al into the solar nebula. PMID:19008430

  9. Recycling (?): Relict Spinels (?) in Type B Calcium-Aluminum-Rich Inclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, H. C.; Burnett, D. S.

    1998-01-01

    Type B calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) can be thought of as a type of chondrule despite obvious differences in size, composition, and texture. Nevertheless, igneous CAIs likely experienced similar thermal histories. A major constraint on the thermal history of chondrules is that they have been recycled, mainly supported by the presence relict grains. Although well known that igneous CAIs experienced at least two melting events (counting Wark-Lovering rims), the identification of re...

  10. Exploring User Experience and Affect to Enhance Creative Artificial Intelligence Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Salevati, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Creative Artificial Intelligence Systems (CAIS) have transformed the nature of creative practices. This transformation has created a need for research on the importance of the human collaborator, the user experience (UX) and practical applications of CAIS.This dissertation addresses the need for research in this respect through three interrelated studies, that focus on supporting the collaboration between users and CAIS in the generation of creative artefacts. The first study...

  11. The Los Alamos controlled air incinerator for radioactive waste: Volume 3, Modifications for processing hazardous chemicals and mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the design and operation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI). This third volume addresses categories of information that pertain to modifications to the CAI in the period between 1981 and 1986. These later system changes were motivated by programmatic objectives to use the CAI for additionally studying combustion of low-level radioactive wastes and hazardous chemicals. 19 figs., 13 tabs

  12. Gastronomia, Sustentabilidade e Turismo na Praia de Caçandoca, Ubatuba (São Paulo-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielys Siqueira Bueno

    2012-12-01

    Ubatuba, tiene uma comunidad de pesca artesanal que es también remanesciente de um “quilombo”. Después de la apertura de rodovias permitiendo acceso al litoral norte de São Paulo, em los años setenta, la comunidade sufrió muchas pressiones de la especulación inmobiliaria para su desahucio o transferência, por causa de la belleza del lugar y sus possibilidades de uso turístico. Mas ella obtuvo el reconocimiento de su propriedade territorial, como “tierra de quilombo”, y hoy busca mantener su identidade y su cultura material. Una parte importante de esa cultura es su culinaria de peces, investigada por el A. en entrevistas abiertas com antiguos moradores de Caçandoca. Y hoy, proyectos comunitários y de gobierno ofrecen alternativas de aprovechamiento de esa cocina tradicional en uma actividad de turismo sustentable. Palabras-clave: turismo sustentable; pesca artesanal; quilombo ; culinária caiçara; ; Ubatuba-SP.

  13. 'Domestic' origin of opaque assemblages in refractory inclusions in meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Joel D.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Beckett, John R.; Stolper, Edward M.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental studies indicate that opaque assemblages rich in refractory siderophile elements were formed within host calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) by exsolution, oxidation and sulphidization of homogeneous alloys, rather than by aggregation of materials in the solar nebula before the formation of CAIs. These opaque assemblages are thus not the oldest known solid materials, as was once thought, and they do not constrain processes in the early solar nebula before CAI formation. Instead, the assemblages record the changing oxygen fugacity experienced by CAIs during slow cooling in nebular and/or planetary environments.

  14. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions from enstatite chondrites: indigenous or foreign?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan; Huss; MacPherson; Wasserburg

    2000-08-25

    The primary mineral assemblages and initial (26)Al/(27)Al ratios of rare calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from enstatite (E) chondrites are similar to those of CAIs from other chondrite classes. CAIs from all chondrite classes formed under oxidizing conditions that are much different from the reducing conditions under which the E chondrites formed. Either CAIs formed at an earlier, more oxidizing epoch in the region where E chondrites ultimately formed, or they formed at a different place in the solar nebula and were transported into the E chondrite formation region. PMID:10958775

  15. Imaging the hypoxia surrogate marker CA IX requires expression and catalytic activity for binding fluorescent sulfonamide inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX expression is increased in response to hypoxia. Recently, sulfonamide based carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAI) showing specificity for CA IX have been designed. Aim was to investigate the CAI binding properties under normoxia, hypoxia and reoxygenation. Material and methods: Cells with varying CA IX expression were incubated with fluorescein labeled CAI (1 mM) during normoxia, hypoxia (0.2%) and reoxygenation. CA IX expression levels were assessed using Western blotting. CAI binding was determined by immunostaining and flow cytometry. Results: CAI binding in hypoxic cells was significantly higher compared with normoxic cells and correlated with upregulated CA IX levels. Binding occurred within 15 min of hypoxia, but was gradually lost upon reoxygenation. Interestingly, although CA IX levels remained high upon reoxygenation, CAI binding was dramatically reduced and no longer correlated with CA IX expression. Similarly, RCC4 cells, constitutively expressing CA IX, do not bind CAI under normoxic conditions. Conclusions: Our results confirm and extend previous results showing that CAI binding occurs only under hypoxia. The inability of CAI to bind CA IX in RCC4 cells and following reoxygenation in other cells demonstrates that formation of the active site not only depends on HIF-1α-dependent gene activity, but also on the absence of oxygen per se

  16. O significado de cuidado para crianças vítimas de violência intrafamiliar que tiene el cuidado El significado para niños víctimas de violencia familiar The meaning of care for children victims of domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Irmgard Bärtschi Gabatz; Eliane Tatsch Neves; Margrid Beuter; Stela Maris de Mello Padoin

    2010-01-01

    Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa que objetivou descrever o significado de cuidado vivenciado em família por crianças abrigadas que sofreram violência intrafamiliar. Foi desenvolvida em duas instituições que abrigam crianças e adolescentes vítimas de violência familiar no sul do Brasil, com quatro crianças entre 8 e 11 anos de idade. A produção dos dados ocorreu em junho/julho de 2008 por meio do Método Criativo Sensível, com as dinâmicas de criatividade e sensibilidade Brincar em Cena e C...

  17. Espacialidade do ser-profissional-de-enfermagem no mundo do cuidado à criança que tem câncer Especialidad del ser profesional de enfermería en el mundo del cuidado al niño que tiene cáncer Spaciality of being-nursing-professional in the world of caring to children who has cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cintia Flores Mutti; Stela Maris de Mello Padoin; Cristiane Cardoso de Paula

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: compreender o significado para equipe de enfermagem de cuidar de crianças que têm doença oncológica avançada, cuja enfermidade não responde mais aos tratamentos curativos. MÉTODO: Investigação fenomenológica heideggeriana. Etapa de campo desenvolvida no período de dezembro/2010 a março/2011, com 15 profissionais de enfermagem no Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. RESULTADOS: O profissional de enfermagem expressa que, no cotidiano de cuidado à criança q...

  18. Rosalía Wincur. Robinson Crusoe ya tiene celular: la conexión como espacio de control de la incertidumbre : Siglo XXI editores, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, México DF, 2010, 167 páginas

    OpenAIRE

    Rothstein, Martina

    2012-01-01

    A lo largo de siete capítulos, Rosalía Winocur propone diversas formas en que la conexión a través de Internet y del teléfono celular se desarrolla, en relación con diversos tiempos, espacios y prácticas sociales.

  19. Cotidianidade da mulher que tem HIV/AIDS: modo de ser diante da (impossibilidade de amamentar Cotidianidad de la mujer que tiene VIH/SIDA: modo de ser ante la (imposibilidad de amamantar The daily routine of women infected with HIV/AIDS: way of being in the face of the impossibility of breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Maris de Mello Padoin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigação fenomenológica que objetivou compreender a cotidianidade da mulher infectada pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana, diante da impossibilidade de amamentar. Desenvolveu-se entrevista com 12 mulheres, em um hospital universitário no sul do Brasil. Os depoimentos, analisados pelo método heideggeriano, revelaram que a mulher se mostra como ser-no-mundo e se mantém, predominantemente, na impessoalidade. Desvelou-se o modo de ser da de-cadência, expresso pela ocupação, falatório, curiosidade, ambigüidade e temor, além da inautenticidade do pacto de silêncio e do não dito. O cuidado solícito, mediado pela relação dialógica entre a mãe e o/a filho/a, entre a mulher e o/a profissional, mostrou a possibilidade do movimento da inautenticidade para a autenticidade. Recomenda-se, como estratégia assistencial, o encontro vivido e dialogado, mediado pela escuta, empatia e intersubjetividade, que se desenvolva a partir da compreensão do modo de ser do humano diante das impossibilidades da condição sorológica e na busca de desvelar suas possibilidades.Investigación fenomenológica que tuvo como objetivo comprender la cotidianidad de la mujer infectada por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, ante la imposibilidad de amamantar. Se desarrolló una entrevista con 12 mujeres, en un hospital universitario en el sur de Brasil. Las declaraciones, analizadas por el método heideggeriano, revelaron que la mujer se muestra como ser-en-el-mundo y se mantiene, predominantemente, en la impersonalidad. Se desveló el modo de ser de la decadencia, expreso por la ocupación, por las habladurías, curiosidad, ambigüedad y temor, además de la inautenticidad del pacto de silencio y de lo no dicho. El cuidado solícito, mediado por la relación dialógica entre la madre y el/la hijo/a, entre la mujer y el/la profesional, mostró la posibilidad del movimiento de la inautenticidad para la autenticidad. Se recomienda, como estrategia asistencial, el encuentro vivido y dialogado, mediado por la escucha, empatía e intersubjetividad, que se desarrolla a partir de la comprensión del modo de ser del humano ante las imposibilidades de la condición serológica y en la búsqueda de desvelar sus posibilidades.The purpose of this phenomenological research is to understand the daily routine of women infected with the virus of human immunodeficiency (HIV prevented from breastfeeding. Twelve women were interviewed in a university hospital in southern Brazil. Their statements, analyzed through a Heideggerian approach, showed that the women reveal themselves as beings-in-the-world and are mainly impersonal. The way of being of de-cadence was unveiled and expressed by occupation, gossip, curiosity, ambiguity, fear, and the inauthenticity of the pact of silence and the unsaid. The helpful care mediated by a dialogic relationship between mother and son/daughter, between the woman and the professional, showed the possibility of movement from inauthenticity to authenticity. We recommend the use of direct and dialogued interaction as an assistance strategy, mediated by listening, empathy and intersubjectivity, and developed through the comprehension of the way of being of the human being in the face of the impossibilities imposed by the serological condition and in their attempt to unveil their possibilities.

  20. Quelle place au travail des agriculteurs dans la fabrication d’une agriculture durable ? How does the work of the farmers fits in the making of a sustainable agriculture? Que lugar tiene el trabajo de los agricultores en la construcción de una agricultura sostenible ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Béguin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Après avoir rappelé le contexte de mutation que connaît actuellement le secteur agricole, nous nous interrogeons sur la place du travail dans la fabrication d’une agriculture durable. Dans cette perspective, nous soulignons trois types d’enjeux. Le premier est relatif à l’objectivation des liens travail-santé. En effet, les conditions de travail se dégradent dans le secteur et celui-ci génère de l’exclusion. Et il est loin d’être attractif. Le second renvoie au lien entre conception et travail. L’agriculture actuelle n’est pas soutenable. Et les pratiques productives des agriculteurs sont en pleine mutation. Mais encore faut-il que ces techniques soient actionnables dans le travail. Nous désignons donc trois voies à la prise en compte du travail dans la conception. Le troisième enjeu est relatif au vivre ensemble. Le développement durable pose en effet très profondément la question d’un futur à faire advenir collectivement. Nous considérons alors cette dimension politique comme un « projet », en posant la question de la prise en compte des projets des agriculteurs dans la définition des visées du développement durable.This paper is focused on work in the making of a sustainable agriculture. We emphasize three types of issue. The first one is related to the objectification of occupational health. Agriculture is a tough sector, which produces exclusion and which is far from attractive. The second is related to design. Farming today is not sustainable, and technical systems need to be designed. But the changes need to be actionable at work. So we present three ways needed in order to think out the workers’ activity during the design process. The third issue is related to Policy: sustainable development is also a future to bring together. We suggest that this collective dimension could be grasped as a « project », which takes into consideration the projects of farmers in order to define the aims of sustainable agriculture.Despues de haber recordado el contexto de mutación que conoce actualmente el sector agrícola, nos interrogamos sobre el lugar del trabajo en la construcción de una agricultura sostenible. Dentro de esta perspectiva, subrayamos tres tipos de desafíos. El primero es relativo a la objetivación de los lazos trabajo-salud. En efecto, las condiciones de trabajo se degradan en el sector y este genera exclusión. Lo que esta lejos de ser atractivo. El segundo devuelve al lazo entre concepción y trabajo. La agricultura actual no es sostenible. Y las prácticas productivas de los agricultores estan en plena mutación. Pero es todavía necesario que estas prácticas sean accionables en el trabajo. Designamos tres vías que permiten tomar en cuenta el trabajo en la concepción. El tercer desafío es relativo al vivir juntos. El desarrollo sostenible conlleva profundamente la cuestión de un futuro a construir colectivamente. Consideramos esta dimensión política como un « proyecto », que toma en cuenta los proyectos de los agricultores para definir los objetivos del desarrollo sostenible.

  1. Cotidianidade da mulher que tem HIV/AIDS: modo de ser diante da (im)possibilidade de amamentar Cotidianidad de la mujer que tiene VIH/SIDA: modo de ser ante la (im)posibilidad de amamantar The daily routine of women infected with HIV/AIDS: way of being in the face of the impossibility of breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Stela Maris de Mello Padoin; Ívis Emília de Oliveira Souza; Cristiane Cardoso de Paula

    2010-01-01

    Investigação fenomenológica que objetivou compreender a cotidianidade da mulher infectada pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana, diante da impossibilidade de amamentar. Desenvolveu-se entrevista com 12 mulheres, em um hospital universitário no sul do Brasil. Os depoimentos, analisados pelo método heideggeriano, revelaram que a mulher se mostra como ser-no-mundo e se mantém, predominantemente, na impessoalidade. Desvelou-se o modo de ser da de-cadência, expresso pela ocupação, falatório, curio...

  2. The aphasic in the society of monologue——the analysis to Tiening's novel "An-delie's evening"%独白型社会中的"失声之人"——铁凝短篇小说《安德烈的晚上》简析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳瑞霞

    2010-01-01

    铁凝的短篇小说通过对各种叙述技法的大胆独特而又精熟的运用,出色地揭示出小人物在独白型社会之下被控制被支配的命运,传递出人物对自身命运的无力感与痛感.其叙事技法包括叙述语言的选择叙事视角的改变;叙事节奏的打破以及对象征手法的巧妙运用.

  3. Religiosus ou les métamorphoses du “religieux” dans le monde romain de la fin de la République à l’Empire chrétien (IIe siècle av. J.-C. - début du Ve siècle ap. J.-C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Souza

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans ce travail, j’ai essayé de montrer que la notion de “religieux” a connu de profondes transformations au cours de l’Antiquité romaine. Le mot religiosus, ici systématiquement traduit par “religieux”, a servi de support à cette étude. Cet adjectif dérive du substantif religio, dont il amplifie la signification par la construction avec un suffixe en –osus. Il désigne littéralement ce qui est “plein de religio”. Cette amplification du sens en fait un terme pratique pour repérer les modificat...

  4. "El cliente siempre tiene la razón": procesos de construcción de subjetividad en trabajadores jóvenes de una cadena multinacional de supermercados en la ciudad de Rosario "Client´s always right": Subjectivity construction´s process in young workers of a multinational chain of supermarkets in Rosario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Guiamet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo abordamos la problemática de la construcción de subjetividad de trabajadores jóvenes de supermercados desde la perspectiva de su relación con el cliente, ya que consideramos que en ésta se articulan una serie de dimensiones significativas del trabajo en supermercados. Las políticas empresariales en la actualidad tienden a incorporar a la subjetividad obrera en el proceso de valorización del capital y, en este sentido, la atención al cliente se constituye en un mecanismo clave para lograrlo. Además, nos preguntamos cómo se da la apropiación de estos mecanismos por parte de los trabajadores en los procesos de trabajo concretos de atención al cliente, destacando que, si bien estas políticas son eficaces, las prácticas de los trabajadores también conllevan implícitas resignificaciones, apropiaciones y límites frente a estas políticas.In this work we deal with the problem of the subjectivity construction of supermarket´s young workers from the perspective of their relationship with the client, since we consider that in this one a series of significant dimentions of the work in supermarkets are articulated. Nowadays, business politics tend to incorporate workers´ subjectivity in the capital´s appreciation process and, in this sense, attention to customer becomes a key mechanism to achieve it. Besides, we ask ourselves how workers aproppiate this mechanisms in concrete work process of attention to client, emphasizing that, beyond this politics´s effectiveness, workers´ practices also take implicit resignifications, appropiations and limits.

  5. Early postoperative oral feeding impacts positively in patients undergoing colonic resection: results of a pilot study La alimentación oral precoz posoperatoria tiene un impacto positivo en pacientes sometidos a resección colónica: resultados de un estudio piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lobato Dias Consoli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Early oral feeding after colorectal resections is one of the many factors that contributes to enhance recovery after surgery, mainly impacting on postoperative ileus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of early postoperative oral feeding in patients undergoing elective colorectal resection. Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to either a conventional postoperative dietary regimen or a free diet on the first postoperative day. Results: Altogether 29 patients were enrolled. Clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Good nutritional status was seen in 86% of patient in the traditional care (TRAD group versus 46% in the early fed (EF group (pAntecedentes y objetivos: La alimentación oral precoz tras las resecciones colorrectales es uno de los muchos factores que contribuyen a favorecer la recuperación tras la cirugía, teniendo sobre todo una influencia en el íleo posoperatorio. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar el impacto de la alimentación oral precoz posoperatoria en pacientes sometidos a resección colorrectal programada. Métodos: Se distribuyó al azar a los pacientes para recibir un régimen alimenticio posoperatorio convencional o una dieta libre en el primer día de posoperatorio. Resultados: Se reclutó a un total de 29 pacientes. Las características clínicas fueron similares en ambos grupos. Se observó buen estado nutritivo en el 86% de los pacientes con la atención tradicional (TRAD frente al 46% en el grupo con alimentación precoz (EF (p < 0,05. No hubo diferencias entre los grupos con respecto a los procedimientos. La estancia media hospitalaria fue de 5,0 días en el grupo TRAD frente a 3,0 días en el grupo EF (p < 0,05. Las tasas de complicación y aceptación de la dieta fueron similares en ambos grupos. La diarrea ocurrió más frecuentemente en el grupo TRAD (OR = 1,86; IC95%: 1,08-3,20. Conclusión: La alimentación oral precoz se tolera bien, conlleva una estancia hospitalaria más corta y no aumenta las complicaciones.

  6. Academic learning time in physical education (ALT-PE: is it related to fundamental movement skill acquisition and learning?. Tiempo de aprendizaje académico en educación física (ALT-PE: ¿tiene que ver con la adquisición y aprendizaje de habilidades motrices fundamentales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loza Olave, Edmundo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this study, the relationship between time-variables of the physical education lesson and fundamental movement skill acquisition and learning was examined. One hundred and ten first grade students and their six physical educators participated. Students were pre-, post-, and re-tested both qualitatively and quantitatively on overhand throwing and catching. The Test of Gross Motor Development (Ulrich, 1985 was used for the assessment of qualitative skill performance and the Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP, 1984 for the assessment of quantitative skill performance. Between pre- and post-tests students received an eight lessons unit instruction with emphasis on overhand throwing and catching. A total number of thirty-six students (6 students X 6 schools were selected, andtheir videotaped motor behavior in the lessons was analyzed with the Academic Learning Time ¿ Physical Education (ALT-PE,Parker, 1989. Regression analysis was applied to calculate students´ residual scores of achievement and to enable further data analysis. Correlation analysis between students´ achievement and ALT-PE categories indicated significant relationships between skill acquisition, learning and ALT-PE categories. It can be concluded that time devoted to practice skills, unlike times pent on activities irrelevant to the instructional task oron games, contributes to skill learning.ResumenEn este trabajo se estudia la relación entre variables temporales de las clases de Educación Física y la adquisición y aprendizaje de habilidades motrices fundamentales. En él participaron ciento diez alumnos de primer grado y seis profesores de Educación Física de Grecia. Los alumnos fueron examinados antes, durante y después tanto en términos cuantitativos como cualitativos en cuanto a lanzamientos y recepciones por encima de la cabeza. Se utilizó el Test de Desarrollo Motor Grueso (Ulrich, 1985 para evaluar el rendimiento en habilidades cualitativas y el Programa de Evaluación Educativa de Michigan (MEAP, 1984 para evaluar el rendimiento en habilidades cuantitativas. Entre las pre y post-pruebas, los alumnos recibieron una unidad formativa de ocho clases con especial énfasis en los lanzamientos y recepciones por encima de la cabeza. Se seleccionó a un total de 36 alumnos (6 alumnos x 6 escuelas y su comportamiento motor, grabado en vídeo durante las clases, fue analizado con el Tiempo de Aprendizaje Académico – Educación Física (ALT-PE, Parker, 1989. Se aplicó un análisis de regresión para calcular las puntuaciones residuales de los alumnos en cuanto a sus logros y permitir el posterior análisis de los datos. El análisis de la correlación entre los logros de los alumnos y las categorías de ALT-PE indicó la existencia de unas importantes relaciones entre la adquisición de habilidades, el aprendizaje y las categorías de ALT-PE. Puede concluirse que el tiempo dedicado al entrenamiento de las habilidades, a diferencia del tiempo dedicado a las habilidades irrelevantes para la tarea formativa o los juegos, contribuye al aprendizaje de habilidades.

  7. Academic learning time in physical education (ALT-PE): is it related to fundamental movement skill acquisition and learning?. Tiempo de aprendizaje académico en educación física (ALT-PE): ¿tiene que ver con la adquisición y aprendizaje de habilidades motrices fundamentales?

    OpenAIRE

    Loza Olave, Edmundo; Vassiliadou , Olga; Kioumourtzoglou, Efthimis; Kyriaki EMMANOUILIDOU; Vassiliki DERRI

    2007-01-01

    AbstractIn this study, the relationship between time-variables of the physical education lesson and fundamental movement skill acquisition and learning was examined. One hundred and ten first grade students and their six physical educators participated. Students were pre-, post-, and re-tested both qualitatively and quantitatively on overhand throwing and catching. The Test of Gross Motor Development (Ulrich, 1985) was used for the assessment of qualitative skill performance and the Michigan ...

  8. Has the identification of rectal hypersensitivity any implication in the clinical outcome of irritable bowel syndrome? ¿Tiene alguna repercusión clínica la identificación de hipersensibilidad en el síndrome de intestino irritable?

    OpenAIRE

    S. Izquierdo; E. Rey; M. García Alonso; Almansa, C; M. Díaz-Rubio

    2005-01-01

    Background: sixty percent of patients with irritable bowel disease (IBS) are hypersensitive to rectal distension. It is uncertain to what extend the identification of this abnormality has an impact in the clinical outcome. Objective: to evaluate if rectal hypersensitivity is associated with a different clinical outcome, prognosis and use of medical resources. Material and methods: patients with IBS (Rome II criteria) who underwent a rectal distension study at least one year before were eligib...

  9. Has the identification of rectal hypersensitivity any implication in the clinical outcome of irritable bowel syndrome? ¿Tiene alguna repercusión clínica la identificación de hipersensibilidad en el síndrome de intestino irritable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Izquierdo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: sixty percent of patients with irritable bowel disease (IBS are hypersensitive to rectal distension. It is uncertain to what extend the identification of this abnormality has an impact in the clinical outcome. Objective: to evaluate if rectal hypersensitivity is associated with a different clinical outcome, prognosis and use of medical resources. Material and methods: patients with IBS (Rome II criteria who underwent a rectal distension study at least one year before were eligible if they have not been included in any research protocol since then. We reviewed how many times in the last year they came to emergency room, underwent an endoscopy, and consulted a gastroenterologist or other medical physician for any reason. Also, a telephone interview was done by a gastroenterology fellow using a structured questionnaire to evaluate the frequency and severity of their symptoms in the last year and last month. Results: a total of 52 patients were eligible and 38 were included. Forteen were not included because inability to made a phone contact or did not consent to phone interview. Twenty six patients were hypersensitive and 12 normosensitive. Both groups had similar symptoms (frequency and severity but hypersensitive patients visited less to the gastroenterologist (1.2 ± 0.2 vs. 2.9 ± 0.6 times yearly, p Introducción: el 60% de los pacientes con SII tienen hipersensibilidad a la distensión rectal. Se desconoce si la identificación de esta alteración puede modificar su evolución. Objetivo: evaluar si la hipersensibilidad a la distensión rectal se asocia con un diferente pronóstico respecto a la presentación de síntomas y la utilización de recursos sanitarios en pacientes con SII. Material y métodos: se incluyeron pacientes con SII según criterios de Roma II, que habían sido sometidos a un estudio de distensión rectal. Se recogieron datos de los registros informáticos sobre asistencia a consultas especializadas, realización de endoscopias, asistencia a urgencias e ingresos hospitalarios. Además, se realizó entrevista telefónica en la que se interrogó acerca de la existencia de síntomas a lo largo del último año y último mes (características, duración y severidad. Resultados: se evaluaron 38 pacientes, 26 con hipersensibilidad en el estudio de distensión basal y 12 normosensibles. En el momento de la recogida de datos (registro informático y entrevista telefónica el seguimiento medio era de 2,39 años después del estudio de distensión. Los sujetos hipersensibles presentaron una clínica similar a aquellos normosensibles. Se registró una menor tasa de frecuentación anual en las consultas de Aparato Digestivo (1,2 ± 0,2 vs. 2,9 ± 0,6, p < 0,01 por parte de los pacientes hipersensibles sin existir diferencias en el resto de variables estudiadas. Conclusión: la identificación de hipersensibilidad visceral en pacientes con SII conlleva una notable reducción de las consultas al gastroenterólogo, sin que esto pueda explicarse por la mejoría de los síntomas, ni por una menor tendencia a realizar otras consultas médicas.

  10. "El cliente siempre tiene la razón": procesos de construcción de subjetividad en trabajadores jóvenes de una cadena multinacional de supermercados en la ciudad de Rosario "Client´s always right": Subjectivity construction´s process in young workers of a multinational chain of supermarkets in Rosario

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Guiamet

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo abordamos la problemática de la construcción de subjetividad de trabajadores jóvenes de supermercados desde la perspectiva de su relación con el cliente, ya que consideramos que en ésta se articulan una serie de dimensiones significativas del trabajo en supermercados. Las políticas empresariales en la actualidad tienden a incorporar a la subjetividad obrera en el proceso de valorización del capital y, en este sentido, la atención al cliente se constituye en un mecanismo clave ...

  11. Framework for Computer Assisted Instruction Courseware: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betlach, Judith A.

    1987-01-01

    Systematically investigates, defines, and organizes variables related to production of internally designed and implemented computer assisted instruction (CAI) courseware: special needs of users; costs; identification and definition of realistic training needs; CAI definition and design methodology; hardware and software requirements; and general…

  12. Gross Anatomy Videos: Student Satisfaction, Usage, and Effect on Student Performance in a Condensed Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Daniel B.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy educators are being tasked with delivering the same quantity and quality of material in the face of fewer classroom and laboratory hours. As a result they have turned to computer-aided instruction (CAI) to supplement and augment curriculum delivery. Research on the satisfaction and use of anatomy videos, a form of CAI, on examination…

  13. The Current Status of Instructional Design Theories in Relation to Today's Authoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, A. Fred

    2008-01-01

    It is of course very difficult to accurately project important characteristics of the future state of any rapidly evolving field, and the field of authoring systems for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is no exception. However, strong trends in evolving CAI systems of today would seem to indicate some important characteristics of the software…

  14. Opening Remarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liu

    2010-01-01

    @@ On behalf of the Foundation of CAI Shidong(also Shih-tung Tsai)Award for plasma physics,I am grateful to the Editorial Board,Editor's Office and the Publisher of Plasma Science and Technology for suggesting the publication of this Special Section on the CAI Award.

  15. A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Instruction and Tutorials in Hematology and Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, T. J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study comparing the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and small group instruction found no significant difference in medical student achievement in oncology but higher achievement through small-group instruction in hematology. Students did not view CAI as more effective, but saw it as a supplement to traditional methods. (MSE)

  16. The absolute chronology and thermal processing of solids in the solar protoplanetary disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connelly, James Norman; Bizzarro, Martin; Krot, Alexander N.; Nordlund, Åke; Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel; Ivanova, Marina A.

    2012-01-01

    Transient heating events that formed calcium-aluminum - rich inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules are fundamental processes in the evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk, but their chronology is not understood. Using U-corrected Pb-Pb dating, we determined absolute ages of individual CAIs and...

  17. Effects of 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol on Recovery and Resolution of Late Transient Neonatal Hypocalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKay SiripoomV

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Late transient neonatal hypocalcemia with hyperphosphatemia is potentially life-threatening. The use of dihydroxycholecalciferol in the management of neonatal hypocalcemia is unexplored. Objective. We hypothesized adding dihydroxycholecalciferol to intravenous continuous calcium infusion (CaI will achieve accelerated correction of hypocalcemia. Design/Methods. A controlled double-blind randomized placebo group was organized to compare the addition of dihydroxycholecalciferol to CaI in 3–14 day old neonates presenting with hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and seizures. Ionized calcium and phosphorus were measured to adjust CaI and maintain eucalcemia. Time to resolution of hypocalcemia was defined as time from starting CaI to the first ionized calcium of  mmol/L. CaI was discontinued when ionized calcium levels were  mmol/L on two measurements and the infant tolerated feeds. Results. Fourteen neonates were studied without statistical difference between groups. Time to correction of hypocalcemia for 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol versus placebo was versus hours respectively (. The duration of CaI was versus hours respectively (. Conclusions. The addition of dihydroxycholecalciferol to standard CaI therapy reduced the duration of CaI, but did not reduce the time to correct hypocalcemia in neonates with late transient hypocalcemia.

  18. The Use of Modular Computer-Based Lessons in a Modification of the Classical Introductory Course in Organic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotter, Philip L.; Culp, George H.

    An experimental course in organic chemistry utilized computer-assisted instructional (CAI) techniques. The CAI lessons provided tutorial drill and practice and simulated experiments and reactions. The Conversational Language for Instruction and Computing was used, along with a CDC 6400-6600 system; students scheduled and completed the lessons at…

  19. Ionized calcium measurements are influenced by albumin - should ionized calcium be corrected?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Trine R; Galthen-Sørensen, Mathias; Antonsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Measurement of ionized calcium (CaI) has been reported to be dependent on albumin concentration. We examined the correlation between albumin and CaI measured on different ion selective electrode analyzers and in different groups of patients in a large dataset, extracted from the laboratory...

  20. The Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Instruction in Teaching Introductory Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturk, Ramazan

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this study is to demonstrate and discuss the educational advantages of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). A quasi-experimental design compared learning outcomes of participants in an introductory statistics course that integrated CAI to participants in a Lecture-only introductory statistics course. Reviews of participants' identical…

  1. Critical Thinking Outcomes of Computer-Assisted Instruction versus Written Nursing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Bonnie L.; Stevens, Kathleen R.; Williams, Gail B.

    2000-01-01

    Nursing students (n=43) who used clinical case studies via computer-assisted instruction (CAI) were compared with 37 who used the written nursing process (WNP). California Critical Thinking Skills Test results did not show significant increases in critical thinking. The WNP method was more time consuming; the CAI group was more satisfied. Use of…

  2. Computer Series, 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Nine computer programs (available from the authors) are described including graphic display of molecular structures from crystallographic data, computer assisted instruction (CAI) with MATH subroutine, CAI preparation-for-chemistry course, calculation of statistical thermodynamic properties, qualitative analysis program, automated conductimetric…

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-0512 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-0512 sp|Q9Y3S1|WNK2_HUMAN Serine/threonine-protein kinase WNK2 (Protein kinase with ... no lysine ... 2) (Protein kinase, lysine -deficient 2) (Serologic ... e kinase kinase [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI12344.3| WNK lysine ... deficient protein kinase 2 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI1 ...

  4. The Effects of Fatigue and Chronic Ankle Instability on Dynamic Postural Control

    OpenAIRE

    Gribble, Phillip A.; Hertel, Jay; Denegar, Craig R.; Buckley, William E

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Deficits in static postural control related to chronic ankle instability (CAI) and fatigue have been investigated separately, but little evidence links these factors to performance of dynamic postural control. Our purpose was to investigate the effects of fatigue and CAI on performance measures of a dynamic postural-control task, the Star Excursion Balance Test.

  5. Design Theory of Intellectualized Computer Aided Instruction and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Hong-bin; WANG Ai-min; YU Dong-mei

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents design theory and method of the intellectualized CAI. which includes the organization and expression of the teaching content and the teaching requirement determination in teaching process, and develops a highly intellectualized CA1 software. LA-CAI, to use for liner arithmetic teaching program.

  6. The Effects of Trait Anxiety and Dogmatism on State Anxiety During Computer-Assisted Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Edward

    In this study of the interaction between anxiety trait (A-trait), anxiety state (A-state), and dogmatism in computer-assisted instruction (CAI), subjects were selected on the basis of extreme scores on a measure of anxiety and on a measure of dogmatism. The subjects were presented with a CAI task consisting of difficult mathematical problems. The…

  7. An environmental signature for 323 microbial genomes based on codon adaptation indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willenbrock, Hanni; Friis, Carsten; Juncker, Agnieszka; Ussery, David

    2006-01-01

    Background: Codon adaptation indices ( CAIs) represent an evolutionary strategy to modulate gene expression and have widely been used to predict potentially highly expressed genes within microbial genomes. Here, we evaluate and compare two very different methods for estimating CAI values, one cor...

  8. Computer-Assisted Learning Design for Reflective Practice Supporting Multiple Learning Styles for Education and Training in Pre-Hospital Emergency Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Indra; Cookson, John

    2001-01-01

    Students in paramedic education used a model combining computer-assisted instruction (CAI), reflective practice, and learning styles. Although reflective practice normally requires teacher-student interaction, CAI with reflective practice embedded enabled students to develop learning style competencies and achieve curricular outcomes. (SK)

  9. Effect of genotype and dietary protein level on growth performance and carcass characteristics of fattening pigs in central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, K.T.; Nghia, D.H.; Ngoan, L.D.; Hendriks, W.H.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimum dietary crude protein level in a typical diet for fattening pigs fed ad libitum under normal climate conditions in Central Vietnam. One hundred and ninety two gilts of Mong Cai local breed (MC), F1 Large White??Mong Cai and F2 crossbreds of (Landrace??Mong C

  10. A note on cement in asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Bilalbegovic, G

    2016-01-01

    Cement mineral tobermorite was formed in hydrothermal experiments on alternation of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Unidentified bands at 14 microns were measured for CAIs and the matrix of the Allende meteorite sample, as well as for Hektor and Agamemnon asteroids. The presence of cement nanoparticles may explain the feature at 14 microns.

  11. Proactive and reactive neuromuscular control in subjects with chronic ankle instability: evidence from a pilot study on landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levin, O.; Vanwanseele, B.; Thijsen, J.R.; Helsen, W.F.; Staes, F.F.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2015-01-01

    To understand why subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI) have frequent sprains, one must study the preparation/reactions of these subjects to situations related to ankle inversion in real life. In the present pilot study, we examined whether subjects with CAI altered their neuromuscular contr

  12. Secondary School Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics Computer--Assisted Instruction Environment in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwei, Philip K.; Wando, Dave; Too, Jackson K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of research conducted in six classes (Form IV) with 205 students with a sample of 94 respondents. Data represent students' statements that describe (a) the role of Mathematics teachers in a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) environment and (b) effectiveness of CAI in Mathematics instruction. The results indicated…

  13. Ancient asteroids enriched in refractory inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine, J M; Connolly, H C; McCoy, T J; Bus, S J; La Croix, L M

    2008-04-25

    Calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) occur in all classes of chondritic meteorites and contain refractory minerals predicted to be the first condensates from the solar nebula. Near-infrared spectra of CAIs have strong 2-micrometer absorptions, attributed to iron oxide-bearing aluminous spinel. Similar absorptions are present in the telescopic spectra of several asteroids; modeling indicates that these contain approximately 30 +/- 10% CAIs (two to three times that of any meteorite). Survival of these undifferentiated, large (50- to 100-kilometer diameter) CAI-rich bodies suggests that they may have formed before the injection of radiogenic 26Al into the solar system. They have also experienced only modest post-accretionary alteration. Thus, these asteroids have higher concentrations of CAI material, appear less altered, and are more ancient than any known sample in our meteorite collection, making them prime candidates for sample return. PMID:18356491

  14. Intelligent tutoring systems research in the training systems division: Space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regian, J. Wesley

    1988-01-01

    Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI) is a mature technology used to teach students in a wide variety of domains. The introduction of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology of the field of CAI has prompted research and development efforts in an area known as Intelligent Computer-Aided Instruction (ICAI). In some cases, ICAI has been touted as a revolutionary alternative to traditional CAI. With the advent of powerful, inexpensive school computers, ICAI is emerging as a potential rival to CAI. In contrast to this, one may conceive of Computer-Based Training (CBT) systems as lying along a continuum which runs from CAI to ICAI. Although the key difference between the two is intelligence, there is not commonly accepted definition of what constitutes an intelligent instructional system.

  15. The Effect of Computer Assisted Instruction on Elementary Reading and Writing Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gülhan ORHAN KARSAK

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research investigated the effect of computer assisted instruction (CAI on elementary reading and writing achievement (ERWA. The sample consisted of 64 first graders (32 in the experimental group and 32 in the control group in the 2006-2007 academic year. This quasi-experimental study had a posttest only control group design and was conducted during the first semester. The experimental group was taught by CAI and the control group was taught by traditional instruction. Data were gathered through ‘Parent Questionnaire’, ‘Reading Concepts Scale’, ‘Achievement Test’, ‘Reading and Handwriting Observation Form’ and analyzed by chi-square, frequency and t test through SPSS 12.0. The main findings of the study were as follows: (1 CAI affected first graders’ handwriting, reading fluency and punctuation, (2 CAI didn’t affect their writing and reading comprehension, (3 CAI affected ERWA of those who did not have any computer at home.

  16. Ready, set,...quit exclamation point A review of the controlled-air incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Controlled-Air Incinerator (CAI) has had a long and productive past as a research and development tool. It now appears that use of the CAI to treat LANL legacy and other wastes under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act is no longer viable due to numerous programmatic problems. This paper will review the history of the CAI. Various aspects associated with the CAI and how those aspects resulted in the loss of this Department of Energy asset as a viable waste treatment option will also be discussed. Included are past missions and tests-CAI capabilities, emissions, and permits; Federal Facility Compliance Act and associated Agreement; National Environmental Policy Act coverage; cost; budget impacts; public perception; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Combustion Strategy; Independent Technical Review open-quotes Redclose quotes Team review; waste treatment alternative technologies; the New Mexico Environment Department; and future options and issues

  17. The Chronology of Asteroid Accretion, Differentiation, and Secondary Mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Kleine, T.; Shih, C.-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluate initial (Al-26/Al-27)(sub I), (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I), (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I), and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages for igneous differentiated meteorites and chondrules from ordinary chondrites for consistency with radioactive decay of the parent nuclides within a common, closed isotopic system, i.e., the early solar nebula. We find that the relative abundances of Al-26, Mn-53, and Hf-182, here denoted by I(Al)(sub CAI, I(Mn)(sub CAI) and I(Hf)(sub CAI), are consistent with decay from common initial values for the bulk solar system. I(Mn)(sub CAI) and I(Hf)(sub CAI) = 9.1+/-1.7 x 10(exp -6) and 1.06+/-0.09 x 10(exp -6) respectively, correspond to the canonical value of I(Al)(sub CAI) = 5.1 x 10(exp -5). I(Hf)(sub CAI) thus determined is consistent with I(Hf)(sub CAI) = 1.003+/-0.045 x 10(exp -6) directly determined in separate work. I(Mn)(sub CAI) is within error of the lowest value directly determined for CAI. We suggest that erratically higher values directly determined for CAI in carbonaceous chondrites reflect proton irradiation of unaccreted CAIs by the early Sun after other asteroids destined for melting by Al-26 decay had already accreted. The Mn-53 incorporated within such asteroids would have been shielded from further "local" spallogenic contributions. The relative abundances of the short-lived nuclides are less consistent with the Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of the corresponding materials with the best consistency being obtained between (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I) and Pb-207/Pb-206 ages of angrites. (Hf-182/Hf-180)(sub I) decreases with decreasing Pb-207/Pb-206 ages at the rate expected from the 8.90+/-0.09 Ma half-life of Hf-182. However, the model "CAI age" thus determined, T(sub CAI,Mn-W) = 4568.6+/-0.7 Ma, is older than the commonly accepted directly measured value T(sub CAI) = 4567.l+/-0.2 Ma. I(Al)(sub I), and (Mn-53/Mn-55)(sub I) are less consistent with Pb-207/Pb-206 ages, but determine T(sub CAI, Mn-Cr) = 4568.3+/-0.5 Ma relative to I(AI)(sub CAI)= 5.1 x 10(exp -5

  18. Proactive and reactive neuromuscular control in subjects with chronic ankle instability: evidence from a pilot study on landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Oron; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; Thijsen, Jo R J; Helsen, Werner F; Staes, Filip F; Duysens, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    To understand why subjects with chronic ankle instability (CAI) have frequent sprains, one must study the preparation/reactions of these subjects to situations related to ankle inversion in real life. In the present pilot study, we examined whether subjects with CAI altered their neuromuscular control and reflex responses during and after ankle perturbations in landing. EMG signals were collected from the tibialis anterior (TA), peroneus longus (PL), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and gluteus medius (GLM) of both legs in 9 subjects with CAI and 9 subjects with intact ankles (control). A trapdoor was used to produce an ankle inversion of 25° with the left leg (control) or the affected leg (CAI) in 0%, 50% or 100% of the landing trials. As compared to controls, subjects with CAI had increased proactive activity in the contralateral side prior to touchdown during landing trials with 50% (PL) and 100% (PL and MG) chance of inversion (all, p proactive control on the contralateral side could be part of a strategy to smooth the impact of landing on the affected side in subjects with CAI. Following touchdown, the CAI group showed decreased ipsilateral short latency reflex (SLR) responses in all test conditions both in distal (PL and MG) and in proximal muscles (GLM) on the affected side (all, p strategies from controls while landing. PMID:25439444

  19. Detection of combustion start in the controlled auto ignition engine by wavelet transform of the engine block vibration signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CAI (controlled auto ignition) engine ignites fuel and air mixture by trapping high temperature burnt gas using a negative valve overlap. Due to auto ignition in CAI combustion, efficiency improvements and low level NOx emission can be obtained. Meanwhile, the CAI combustion regime is restricted and control parameters are limited. The start of combustion data in the compressed ignition engine are most critical for controlling the overall combustion. In this research, the engine block vibration signal is transformed by the Meyer wavelet to analyze CAI combustion more easily and accurately. Signal acquisition of the engine block vibration is a more suitable method for practical use than measurement of in-cylinder pressure. A new method for detecting combustion start in CAI engines through wavelet transformation of the engine block vibration signal was developed and results indicate that it is accurate enough to analyze the start of combustion. Experimental results show that wavelet transformation of engine block vibration can track the start of combustion in each cycle. From this newly developed method, the start of combustion data in CAI engines can be detected more easily and used as input data for controlling CAI combustion

  20. Coded aperture imaging of alpha source spatial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Coded Aperture Imaging (CAI) technique has been applied with CR-39 nuclear track detectors to image alpha particle source spatial distributions. The experimental setup comprised: a 226Ra source of alpha particles, a laser-machined CAI mask, and CR-39 detectors, arranged inside a vacuum enclosure. Three different alpha particle source shapes were synthesized by using a linear translator to move the 226Ra source within the vacuum enclosure. The coded mask pattern used is based on a Singer Cyclic Difference Set, with 400 pixels and 57 open square holes (representing ρ = 1/7 = 14.3% open fraction). After etching of the CR-39 detectors, the area, circularity, mean optical density and positions of all candidate tracks were measured by an automated scanning system. Appropriate criteria were used to select alpha particle tracks, and a decoding algorithm applied to the (x, y) data produced the de-coded image of the source. Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) values obtained for alpha particle CAI images were found to be substantially better than those for corresponding pinhole images, although the CAI-SNR values were below the predictions of theoretical formulae. Monte Carlo simulations of CAI and pinhole imaging were performed in order to validate the theoretical SNR formulae and also our CAI decoding algorithm. There was found to be good agreement between the theoretical formulae and SNR values obtained from simulations. Possible reasons for the lower SNR obtained for the experimental CAI study are discussed.