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Sample records for cai tien giong

  1. TIEN VAN DO

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. TIEN VAN DO. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 41 Issue 8 August 2016 pp 817-823. A closed-form solution for a two-server heterogeneous retrial queue with threshold policy · TIEN VAN DO DENES PAPP RAM CHAKKA JINTING WANG JANOS SZTRIK · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  2. CAI: Overcoming Attitude Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netusil, Anton J.; Kockler, Lois H.

    During each of two school quarters, approximately 60 college students enrolled in a mathematics course were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The control group received instruction by the lecture method only; the experimental group received the same instruction, except that six computer-assisted instruction (CAI) units…

  3. Computers for Your Classroom: CAI and CMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David B.; Bozeman, William C.

    1981-01-01

    The availability of compact, low-cost computer systems provides a means of assisting classroom teachers in the performance of their duties. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and computer-managed instruction (CMI) are two applications of computer technology with which school administrators should become familiar. CAI is a teaching medium in which…

  4. A risk management approach to CAIS development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Hal; Kerner, Judy; Alden, Tony; Belz, Frank; Tadman, Frank

    1986-01-01

    The proposed DoD standard Common APSE Interface Set (CAIS) was developed as a framework set of interfaces that will support the transportability and interoperability of tools in the support environments of the future. While the current CAIS version is a promising start toward fulfilling those goals and current prototypes provide adequate testbeds for investigations in support of completing specifications for a full CAIS, there are many reasons why the proposed CAIS might fail to become a usable product and the foundation of next-generation (1990'S) project support environments such as NASA's Space Station software support environment. The most critical threats to the viability and acceptance of the CAIS include performance issues (especially in piggybacked implementations), transportability, and security requirements. To make the situation worse, the solution to some of these threats appears to be at conflict with the solutions to others.

  5. CAIs in Semarkona (LL3.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, R. K.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.; Marhas, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the first forming solids of the Solar system. Their observed abundance, mean size, and mineralogy vary quite significantly between different groups of chondrites. These differences may reflect the dynamics and distinct cosmochemical conditions present in the region(s) of the protoplanetary disk from which each type likely accreted. Only about 11 such objects have been found in L and LL type while another 57 have been found in H type ordinary chondrites, compared to thousands in carbonaceous chondrites. At issue is whether the rare CAIs contained in ordinary chondrites truly reflect a distinct population from the inclusions commonly found in other chondrite types. Semarkona (LL3.00) (fall, 691 g) is the most pristine chondrite available in our meteorite collection. Here we report petrography and mineralogy of 3 CAIs from Semarkona

  6. The Relevance of AI Research to CAI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This article provides a tutorial introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI) research for those involved in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The general theme is that much of the current work in AI, particularly in the areas of natural language understanding systems, rule induction, programming languages, and socratic systems, has important…

  7. NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handler, B.H. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA)); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (USA)); Hunnum, W.H. (North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (USA)); Smith, D.L. (Memphis State Univ., TN (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.

  8. E-CAI: a novel server to estimate an expected value of Codon Adaptation Index (eCAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Vallvé Santiago

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Codon Adaptation Index (CAI is a measure of the synonymous codon usage bias for a DNA or RNA sequence. It quantifies the similarity between the synonymous codon usage of a gene and the synonymous codon frequency of a reference set. Extreme values in the nucleotide or in the amino acid composition have a large impact on differential preference for synonymous codons. It is thence essential to define the limits for the expected value of CAI on the basis of sequence composition in order to properly interpret the CAI and provide statistical support to CAI analyses. Though several freely available programs calculate the CAI for a given DNA sequence, none of them corrects for compositional biases or provides confidence intervals for CAI values. Results The E-CAI server, available at http://genomes.urv.es/CAIcal/E-CAI, is a web-application that calculates an expected value of CAI for a set of query sequences by generating random sequences with G+C and amino acid content similar to those of the input. An executable file, a tutorial, a Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ section and several examples are also available. To exemplify the use of the E-CAI server, we have analysed the codon adaptation of human mitochondrial genes that codify a subunit of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (excluding those genes that lack a prokaryotic orthologue and are encoded in the nuclear genome. It is assumed that these genes were transferred from the proto-mitochondrial to the nuclear genome and that its codon usage was then ameliorated. Conclusion The E-CAI server provides a direct threshold value for discerning whether the differences in CAI are statistically significant or whether they are merely artifacts that arise from internal biases in the G+C composition and/or amino acid composition of the query sequences.

  9. Cualquier tiempo futuro tiene que ser mejor

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    Paquita Armas Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuba tiene un importante movimiento caricaturista, conocido y laureado en los diversos lugares del mundo. No es el caso de la historieta que, a pesar de contar con muy buenos dibujantes, el desarrollo dramatúrgico no está a la altura de la imagen por lo que se ha visto limitada en su desarrollo. El guión es el talón de Aquiles del cómic cubano que no ha evolucionado como se hermana la caricatura. Es con la animación que el cómic cubano ha trascendido sus fronteras. Se trata de un movimiento vivo que ha saltado los más increíbles obstáculos.

  10. Numerical simulation and validation of SI-CAI hybrid combustion in a CAI/HCCI gasoline engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyan; Xie, Hui; Xie, Liyan; Zhang, Lianfang; Li, Le; Chen, Tao; Zhao, Hua

    2013-02-01

    SI-CAI hybrid combustion, also known as spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI), is a promising concept to extend the operating range of CAI (Controlled Auto-Ignition) and achieve the smooth transition between spark ignition (SI) and CAI in the gasoline engine. In this study, a SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) has been constructed on the basis of the 3-Zones Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM3Z). An ignition model is included to initiate the ECFM3Z calculation and induce the flame propagation. In order to precisely depict the subsequent auto-ignition process of the unburned fuel and air mixture independently after the initiation of flame propagation, the tabulated chemistry concept is adopted to describe the auto-ignition chemistry. The methodology for extracting tabulated parameters from the chemical kinetics calculations is developed so that both cool flame reactions and main auto-ignition combustion can be well captured under a wider range of thermodynamic conditions. The SI-CAI hybrid combustion model (HCM) is then applied in the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3-D CFD) engine simulation. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data obtained from a single cylinder VVA engine. The detailed analysis of the simulations demonstrates that the SI-CAI hybrid combustion process is characterised with the early flame propagation and subsequent multi-site auto-ignition around the main flame front, which is consistent with the optical results reported by other researchers. Besides, the systematic study of the in-cylinder condition reveals the influence mechanism of the early flame propagation on the subsequent auto-ignition.

  11. Particulated articular cartilage: CAIS and DeNovo NT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Jack; Cole, Brian J; Sherman, Seth; Karas, Vasili

    2012-03-01

    Cartilage Autograft Implantation System (CAIS; DePuy/Mitek, Raynham, MA) and DeNovo Natural Tissue (NT; ISTO, St. Louis, MO) are novel treatment options for focal articular cartilage defects in the knee. These methods involve the implantation of particulated articular cartilage from either autograft or juvenile allograft donor, respectively. In the laboratory and in animal models, both CAIS and DeNovo NT have demonstrated the ability of the transplanted cartilage cells to "escape" from the extracellular matrix, migrate, multiply, and form a new hyaline-like cartilage tissue matrix that integrates with the surrounding host tissue. In clinical practice, the technique for both CAIS and DeNovo NT is straightforward, requiring only a single surgery to affect cartilage repair. Clinical experience is limited, with short-term studies demonstrating both procedures to be safe, feasible, and effective, with improvements in subjective patient scores, and with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of good defect fill. While these treatment options appear promising, prospective randomized controlled studies are necessary to refine the indications and contraindications for both CAIS and DeNovo NT.

  12. The Instructional Use of CAI in the Education of the Mentally Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, John J., Jr.; And Others

    Computer assisted instruction (CAI) studies with the mentally retarded in the United States and Canada reveal that the retarded benefit from CAI in academic and social skills. Their learning is enhanced to the same extent as that of the nonretarded. CAI can be cost-effective, especially with the reduced costs of mini and micro-computers; however,…

  13. Perancangan Perangkat Lunak Media Pembelajaran Menggunakan Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI untuk Pembelajaran Ilmu Tajwid Berbasis Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenny Purwani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Strategi penggunaan Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI sebagai media pembelajaran dibutuhkan untuk mengatasi permasalahan yang muncul dalam proses pembelajaran. Pembelajaran yang dikemas dengan baik memberikan dampak yang positif dalam memajukan potensi pada diri manusia. CAI sebagai media pembelajaran berbasis computer dibangun sebagai pelengkap dan pendukung metode pembelajaran yang selama ini hanya menggunakan metode ceramah, diskusi informasi dan demonstrasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah merancang dan membangun media pembelajaran CAI yang interaktif dengan berbasis Web. Kemudian hasilnya berupa rancangan CAI dengan model tutorial, serta dilengkapi dengan latihan soal-soal dari materi yang diberikan. Perancangan CAI ini kemudian digunakan untuk media pembelajaran ilmu Tajwid dengan komputer. Strategic use of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI as a learning media needed to overcome the problems that appeared in the learning process. Learning that was packaged well gave a positive impact in advancing the potential in human beings. CAI as a computer-based learning media was built to complement and support the learning method which as long as only used the speech, discussions, information and demonstrations method. The purpose of this study was to design and build learning media of CAI which was interactive with Web-based. Then the result was a design of CAI with tutorial model and completed with practicing questions from the material provided. This CAI design was then used for learning media of Tajwid with computer.

  14. Oxygen isotope variations at the margin of a CAI records circulation within the solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Justin I; Hutcheon, Ian D; Simon, Steven B; Matzel, Jennifer E P; Ramon, Erick C; Weber, Peter K; Grossman, Lawrence; DePaolo, Donald J

    2011-03-04

    Micrometer-scale analyses of a calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) and the characteristic mineral bands mantling the CAI reveal that the outer parts of this primitive object have a large range of oxygen isotope compositions. The variations are systematic; the relative abundance of (16)O first decreases toward the CAI margin, approaching a planetary-like isotopic composition, then shifts to extremely (16)O-rich compositions through the surrounding rim. The variability implies that CAIs probably formed from several oxygen reservoirs. The observations support early and short-lived fluctuations of the environment in which CAIs formed, either because of transport of the CAIs themselves to distinct regions of the solar nebula or because of varying gas composition near the proto-Sun.

  15. The Impact of Different Support Vectors on GOSAT-2 CAI-2 L2 Cloud Discrimination

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    Yu Oishi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite-2 (GOSAT-2 will be launched in fiscal year 2018. GOSAT-2 will be equipped with two sensors: the Thermal and Near-infrared Sensor for Carbon Observation (TANSO-Fourier Transform Spectrometer 2 (FTS-2 and the TANSO-Cloud and Aerosol Imager 2 (CAI-2. CAI-2 is a push-broom imaging sensor that has forward- and backward-looking bands to observe the optical properties of aerosols and clouds and to monitor the status of urban air pollution and transboundary air pollution over oceans, such as PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter. CAI-2 has important applications for cloud discrimination in each direction. The Cloud and Aerosol Unbiased Decision Intellectual Algorithm (CLAUDIA1, which applies sequential threshold tests to features is used for GOSAT CAI L2 cloud flag processing. If CLAUDIA1 is used with CAI-2, it is necessary to optimize the thresholds in accordance with CAI-2. However, CLAUDIA3 with support vector machines (SVM, a supervised pattern recognition method, was developed, and then we applied CLAUDIA3 for GOSAT-2 CAI-2 L2 cloud discrimination processing. Thus, CLAUDIA3 can automatically find the optimized boundary between clear and cloudy areas. Improvements in CLAUDIA3 using CAI (CLAUDIA3-CAI continue to be made. In this study, we examined the impact of various support vectors (SV on GOSAT-2 CAI-2 L2 cloud discrimination by analyzing (1 the impact of the choice of different time periods for the training data and (2 the impact of different generation procedures for SV on the cloud discrimination efficiency. To generate SV for CLAUDIA3-CAI from MODIS data, there are two times at which features are extracted, corresponding to CAI bands. One procedure is equivalent to generating SV using CAI data. Another procedure generates SV for MODIS cloud discrimination at the beginning, and then extracts decision function, thresholds, and SV corresponding to CAI bands. Our results indicated the following

  16. Coordinated Oxygen Isotopic and Petrologic Studies of CAIS Record Varying Composition of Protosolar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Justin I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) record the O-isotope composition of Solar nebular gas from which they grew [1]. High spatial resolution O-isotope measurements afforded by ion microprobe analysis across the rims and margin of CAIs reveal systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 and suggest formation from a diversity of nebular environments [2-4]. This heterogeneity has been explained by isotopic mixing between the O-16-rich Solar reservoir [6] and a second O-16-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a "planetary-like" isotopic composition [e.g., 1, 6-7], but the mechanism and location(s) where these events occur within the protoplanetary disk remain uncertain. The orientation of large and systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 reported by [3] for a compact Type A CAI from the Efremovka reduced CV3 chondrite differs dramatically from reports by [4] of a similar CAI, A37 from the Allende oxidized CV3 chondrite. Both studies conclude that CAIs were exposed to distinct, nebular O-isotope reservoirs, implying the transfer of CAIs among different settings within the protoplanetary disk [4]. To test this hypothesis further and the extent of intra-CAI O-isotopic variation, a pristine compact Type A CAI, Ef-1 from Efremovka, and a Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende were studied. Our new results are equally intriguing because, collectively, O-isotopic zoning patterns in the CAIs indicate a progressive and cyclic record. The results imply that CAIs were commonly exposed to multiple environments of distinct gas during their formation. Numerical models help constrain conditions and duration of these events.

  17. The Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing autoinducer CAI-1: analysis of the biosynthetic enzyme CqsA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, R.; Bolitho, M; Higgins, D; Lu, W; Ng, W; Jeffrey, P; Rabinowitz, J; Semmelhack, M; Hughson, F; Bassler, B

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes the disease cholera, controls virulence factor production and biofilm development in response to two extracellular quorum-sensing molecules, called autoinducers. The strongest autoinducer, called CAI-1 (for cholera autoinducer-1), was previously identified as (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one. Biosynthesis of CAI-1 requires the enzyme CqsA. Here, we determine the CqsA reaction mechanism, identify the CqsA substrates as (S)-2-aminobutyrate and decanoyl coenzyme A, and demonstrate that the product of the reaction is 3-aminotridecan-4-one, dubbed amino-CAI-1. CqsA produces amino-CAI-1 by a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent acyl-CoA transferase reaction. Amino-CAI-1 is converted to CAI-1 in a subsequent step via a CqsA-independent mechanism. Consistent with this, we find cells release {ge}100 times more CAI-1 than amino-CAI-1. Nonetheless, V. cholerae responds to amino-CAI-1 as well as CAI-1, whereas other CAI-1 variants do not elicit a quorum-sensing response. Thus, both CAI-1 and amino-CAI-1 have potential as lead molecules in the development of an anticholera treatment.

  18. Structural basis of Na+-independent and cooperative substrate/product antiport in CaiT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulze, Sabrina; Köster, Stefan; Geldmacher, Ulrike; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Anke C.; Kühlbrandt, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Transport of solutes across biological membranes is performed by specialized secondary transport proteins in the lipid bilayer, and is essential for life. Here we report the structures of the sodium-independent carnitine/butyrobetaine antiporter CaiT from Proteus mirabilis (PmCaiT) at 2.3-Å and from

  19. An Object-Oriented Architecture for a Web-Based CAI System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, Kiyoshi; Hoshide, Takahide; Seshimo, Hitoshi; Fukuhara, Yoshimi

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an object-oriented World Wide Web-based CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction) system. The goal of the design is to provide a flexible CAI/ITS (Intelligent Tutoring System) framework with full extendibility and reusability, as well as to exploit Web-based software technologies such as JAVA, ASP (a…

  20. Generative Computer Assisted Instruction: An Application of Artificial Intelligence to CAI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffman, Elliot B.

    Frame-oriented computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems dominate the field, but these mechanized programed texts utilize the computational power of the computer to a minimal degree and are difficult to modify. Newer, generative CAI systems which are supplied with a knowledge of subject matter can generate their own problems and solutions, can…

  1. Reciever Function Transect Across Tibet, Tarim and Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, B.; Levin, V. L.; Huang, G.; Roecker, S. W.; Wang, H.

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the region of the ongoing collision between the India and Eurasia tectonic plates that results in widespread deformation of the continental lithosphere. Over the past decade, numerous regional studies were conducted between the Himalaya and the Tien Shan mountains, each illuminating a small part of the area. We combine the data from a number of portable and permanent networks to construct a ~1800 km long profile of lithospheric properties that cross three very different tectonic domains: the Tibetan plateau, the Tarim basin, and the Tien Shan mountains. We use data from 60 stations operated in the region by US, Chinese and French researchers. We use records of distant earthquakes to construct receiver function gathers for each station. The uniformity of processing ensures that our results are comparable along the transect. We examine receiver function gathers at each site, and rank their quality on the basis of number of records, noise levels, and directional stability of the wavefield. We select 27 sites with high-quality data. For these we construct average receiver function traces using data in the 60-85 degree range, and use them as a guide to the lithospheric layering beneath the region. On most receiver functions we constructed the most prominent feature is a positive phase likely associated with the crust-mantle transition. The timing of this phase varies significantly over the length of the profile. Beneath the Tibetan plateau delay times ~7-8 s are seen close to the Himalayas, and nearly 10 s delays are found further north. Delays of 6 to 8 s are seen beneath sites in the Tarim basin and the Tien Shan mountains, and nearly 10 s delays are seen at the border between them. In addition to the pulse associated with the crust-mantle transition we see other locally-consistent features, for example a negative phase with delay values between 3 and 5 s beneath much of the Tibetan plateau.

  2. INAA of CAIs from the Maralinga CK4 chondrite: Effects of parent body thermal metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Keller, L. P.; Martinez, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    Maralinga is an anomalous CK4 carbonaceous chondrite which contains numerous Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) unlike the other members of the CK group. These CAI's are characterized by abundant green hercynitic spinel intergrown with plagioclase and high-Ca clinopyroxene, and a total lack of melilite. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to further characterize the meteorite, with special focus on the CAI's. High sensitivity INAA was done on eight sample disks about 100-150 microns in diameter obtained from a normal 30 micron thin section with a diamond microcoring device. The CAI's are enriched by 60-70X bulk meteorite values in Zn, suggesting that the substantial exchange of Fe for Mg that made the spinel in the CAI's hercynitic also allowed efficient scavenging of Zn from the rest of the meteorite during parent body thermal metamorphism. Less mobile elements appear to have maintained their initial heterogeneity.

  3. CAD/CAM/CAI Application for High-Precision Machining of Internal Combustion Engine Pistons

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    V. V. Postnov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CAD/CAM/CAI application solutions for internal combustion engine pistons machining was analyzed. Low-volume technology of internal combustion engine pistons production was proposed. Fixture for CNC turning center was designed.

  4. Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Cat Tien National Park, South Vietnam

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    Artem Y. Sinev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cladocera of Cat Tien National Park, South Vietnam, and the surrounding agricultural area, were surveyed during the spring of 2009 (onset of the wet season and autumn 2010 (end of the wet season. The studied water bodies included two large lakes (Bau Sau and Bau Chim, small lakes and ponds, temporary pools, rivers and streams, as well as rice fields and ponds in an agricultural area beyond the boundaries of the National Park. Fifty three species of Cladocera were found, 18 of them new for Vietnam. Distribution and taxonomical status of the species are discussed. Of the recorded species, 58.5% (31 were found only in the National Park, 34% (18 both in the National Park and the agricultural area, and only 7.5% (4 exclusively in the agricultural area. Of the 20 species new for Vietnam, only one was found both in the National Park and the agricultural area, all others were found in the National Park only. Such a difference can be directly attributed to the loss of natural habitats (forest ponds and streams in agricultural areas and to the pollution by pesticides. Our study shows the importance of surveys in pristine and protected areas, for the full evaluation of regional microcrustacean richness.

  5. ¿CUÁNTOS SIGNIFICADOS TIENE UN PRODUCTO?

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    Jose Antonio Paris

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El marketing esencial se basa en la determinación de los significados en la mente del consumidor y de los códigos en la mente del mercado. Para poder sustentar esto se han creado metodologías como las técnicas de afloramiento de significado y las técnicas proyectivas entre otras. Pero, el nuevo problema que surge de esta conceptualización teórica es si vamos a poner al significado en la base del plan de marketing, la pregunta es ¿cuántos significados se deben determinar? Por lo que sabemos cada cultura tiene sus propias significaciones y los significados también cambian con el tiempo incluso lo hacen contextualmente. Lo cual hace aún más complejo el dilema presentado como título de este artículo. En se presentan los argumentos teóricos que sustentan uno de los descubrimientos más importantes del marketing esencial que sostenemos: en general para cada producto o servicio hay cuatro significados dominantes.

  6. CAI System with Multi-Media Text Through Web Browser for NC Lathe Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizugaki, Yoshio; Kikkawa, Koichi; Mizui, Masahiko; Kamijo, Keisuke

    A new Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) system for NC lathe programming has been developed with use of multi-media texts including movies, animations, pictures, sound and texts through Web browser. Although many CAI systems developed previously for NC programming consist of text-based instructions, it is difficult for beginners to learn NC programming with use of them. In the developed CAI system, multi-media texts are adopted for the help of users' understanding, and it is available through Web browser anytime and anywhere. Also the error log is automatically recorded for the future references. According to the NC programming coded by a user, the movement of the NC lathe is animated and shown in the monitor screen in front of the user. If its movement causes the collision between a cutting tool and the lathe, some sound and the caution remark are generated. If the user makes mistakes some times at a certain stage in learning NC, the corresponding suggestion is shown in the form of movies, animations, and so forth. By using the multimedia texts, users' attention is kept concentrated during a training course. In this paper, the configuration of the CAI system is explained and the actual procedures for users to learn the NC programming are also explained too. Some beginners tested this CAI system and their results are illustrated and discussed from the viewpoint of the efficiency and usefulness of this CAI system. A brief conclusion is also mentioned.

  7. A multielement isotopic study of refractory FUN and F CAIs: Mass-dependent and mass-independent isotope effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kööp, Levke; Nakashima, Daisuke; Heck, Philipp R.; Kita, Noriko T.; Tenner, Travis J.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Park, Changkun; Davis, Andrew M.

    2018-01-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the oldest dated objects that formed inside the Solar System. Among these are rare, enigmatic objects with large mass-dependent fractionation effects (F CAIs), which sometimes also have large nucleosynthetic anomalies and a low initial abundance of the short-lived radionuclide 26Al (FUN CAIs). We have studied seven refractory hibonite-rich CAIs and one grossite-rich CAI from the Murchison (CM2) meteorite for their oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopic compositions. The 26Al-26Mg system was also studied in seven of these CAIs. We found mass-dependent heavy isotope enrichment in all measured elements, but never simultaneously in the same CAI. The data are hard to reconcile with a single-stage melt evaporation origin and may require reintroduction or reequilibration for magnesium, oxygen and titanium after evaporation for some of the studied CAIs. The initial 26Al/27Al ratios inferred from model isochrons span a range from <1 × 10-6 to canonical (∼5 × 10-5). The CAIs show a mutual exclusivity relationship between inferred incorporation of live 26Al and the presence of resolvable anomalies in 48Ca and 50Ti. Furthermore, a relationship exists between 26Al incorporation and Δ17O in the hibonite-rich CAIs (i.e., 26Al-free CAIs have resolved variations in Δ17O, while CAIs with resolved 26Mg excesses have Δ17O values close to -23‰). Only the grossite-rich CAI has a relatively enhanced Δ17O value (∼-17‰) in spite of a near-canonical 26Al/27Al. We interpret these data as indicating that fractionated hibonite-rich CAIs formed over an extended time period and sampled multiple stages in the isotopic evolution of the solar nebula, including: (1) an 26Al-poor nebula with large positive and negative anomalies in 48Ca and 50Ti and variable Δ17O; (2) a stage of 26Al-admixture, during which anomalies in 48Ca and 50Ti had been largely diluted and a Δ17O value of ∼-23‰ had been achieved in the CAI formation region; and (3

  8. The enhancement of students’ mathematical representation in junior high school using cognitive apprenticeship instruction (CAI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusepa, B. G. P.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Kartasasmita, B. G.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to get an in-depth understanding of the enhancement of students’ mathematical representation. This study is experimental research with pretest-posttest control group design. The subject of this study is the students’ of the eighth grade from junior high schools in Bandung: high-level and middle-level. In each school, two parallel groups were chosen as a control group and an experimental group. The experimental group was given cognitive apprenticeship instruction (CAI) treatment while the control group was given conventional learning. The results show that the enhancement of students’ mathematical representation who obtained CAI treatment was better than the conventional one, viewed which can be observed from the overall, mathematical prior knowledge (MPK), and school level. It can be concluded that CAI can be used as a good alternative learning model to enhance students’ mathematical representation.

  9. Rancangan Perangkat Lunak Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI Untuk Ilmu Tajwid Berbasis Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenny Purwani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of information technology and science refer to the need of teching-learning concept and mechanism wich are based on information technology, undoubtedly. Regarding the development, it needs qualified human resources and flexible material changing and it should be appropriate with technology and science development. Additionaly, this combines between education based on religious and techology (IMTAK and IPTEK. Internet techology can be used as teaching tool which is known as Computer Assisted Intruction (CAI. CAI software might be one of media or tool in learnig tajwid and it can help people to learn Tajwid easier.

  10. Thermal and chemical evolution in the early solar system as recorded by FUN CAIs: Part I - Petrology, mineral chemistry, and isotopic composition of Allende FUN CAI CMS-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. D.; Ushikubo, T.; Bullock, E. S.; Janney, P. E.; Hines, R. R.; Kita, N. T.; Hervig, R. L.; MacPherson, G. J.; Mendybaev, R. A.; Richter, F. M.; Wadhwa, M.

    2017-03-01

    Detailed petrologic, geochemical and isotopic analyses of a new FUN CAI from the Allende CV3 meteorite (designated CMS-1) indicate that it formed by extensive melting and evaporation of primitive precursor material(s). The precursor material(s) condensed in a 16O-rich region (δ17O and δ18O ∼ -49‰) of the inner solar nebula dominated by gas of solar composition at total pressures of ∼10-3-10-6 bar. Subsequent melting of the precursor material(s) was accompanied by evaporative loss of magnesium, silicon and oxygen resulting in large mass-dependent isotope fractionations in these elements (δ25Mg = 30.71-39.26‰, δ29Si = 14.98-16.65‰, and δ18O = -41.57 to -15.50‰). This evaporative loss resulted in a bulk composition similar to that of compact Type A and Type B CAIs, but very distinct from the composition of the original precursor condensate(s). Kinetic fractionation factors and the measured mass-dependent fractionation of silicon and magnesium in CMS-1 suggest that ∼80% of the silicon and ∼85% of the magnesium were lost from its precursor material(s) through evaporative processes. These results suggest that the precursor material(s) of normal and FUN CAIs condensed in similar environments, but subsequently evolved under vastly different conditions such as total gas pressure. The chemical and isotopic differences between normal and FUN CAIs could be explained by sorting of early solar system materials into distinct physical and chemical regimes, in conjunction with discrete heating events, within the protoplanetary disk.

  11. Stable Magnesium Isotope Variation in Melilite Mantle of Allende Type B1 CAI EK 459-5-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Jeffcoat, C. R.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the earliest formed crystalline material in our solar system and they record early Solar System processes. Here we present petrographic and delta Mg-25 data of melilite mantles in a Type B1 CAI that records early solar nebular processes.

  12. Gender Role, Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation in CAIS ("XY-Women") Compared With Subfertile and Infertile 46,XX Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Franziska; Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-01-01

    The perception of gender development of individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) as unambiguously female has recently been challenged in both qualitative data and case reports of male gender identity. The aim of the mixed-method study presented was to examine the self-perception of CAIS individuals regarding different aspects of gender and to identify commonalities and differences in comparison with subfertile and infertile XX-chromosomal women with diagnoses of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study sample comprised 11 participants with CAIS, 49 with MRKHS, and 55 with PCOS. Gender identity was assessed by means of a multidimensional instrument, which showed significant differences between the CAIS group and the XX-chromosomal women. Other-than-female gender roles and neither-female-nor-male sexes/genders were reported only by individuals with CAIS. The percentage with a not exclusively androphile sexual orientation was unexceptionally high in the CAIS group compared to the prevalence in "normative" women and the clinical groups. The findings support the assumption made by Meyer-Bahlburg ( 2010 ) that gender outcome in people with CAIS is more variable than generally stated. Parents and professionals should thus be open to courses of gender development other than typically female in individuals with CAIS.

  13. Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI): Validity as a co-primary measure of cognition across phases of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Joseph; Subotnik, Kenneth L; Ered, Arielle; Hellemann, Gerhard S; Nuechterlein, Keith H

    2016-04-01

    Progress has been made in developing interview-based measures for the assessment of cognitive functioning, such as the Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI), as co-primary measures that compliment objective neurocognitive assessments and daily functioning. However, a few questions remain, including whether the relationships with objective cognitive measures and daily functioning are high enough to justify the CAI as an co-primary measure and whether patient-only assessments are valid. Participants were first-episode schizophrenia patients (n=60) and demographically-similar healthy controls (n=35), chronic schizophrenia patients (n=38) and demographically similar healthy controls (n=19). Participants were assessed at baseline with an interview-based measure of cognitive functioning (CAI), a test of objective cognitive functioning, functional capacity, and role functioning at baseline, and in the first episode patients again 6 months later (n=28). CAI ratings were correlated with objective cognitive functioning, functional capacity, and functional outcomes in first-episode schizophrenia patients at similar magnitudes as in chronic patients. Comparisons of first-episode and chronic patients with healthy controls indicated that the CAI sensitively detected deficits in schizophrenia. The relationship of CAI Patient-Only ratings with objective cognitive functioning, functional capacity, and daily functioning were comparable to CAI Rater scores that included informant information. These results confirm in an independent sample the relationship of the CAI ratings with objectively measured cognition, functional capacity, and role functioning. Comparison of schizophrenia patients with healthy controls further validates the CAI as an co-primary measure of cognitive deficits. Also, CAI change scores were strongly related to objective cognitive change indicating sensitivity to change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Consumption of fa cai Nostoc soup: a potential for BMAA exposure from Nostoc cyanobacteria in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roney, Britton R; Renhui, Li; Banack, Sandra Anne; Murch, Susan; Honegger, Rosmarie; Cox, Paul Alan

    2009-01-01

    Grown in arid regions of western China the cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme--called fa cai in Mandarin and fat choy in Cantonese--is wild-harvested and used to make soup consumed during New Year's celebrations. High prices, up to $125 USD/kg, led to overharvesting in Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, and Xinjiang. Degradation of arid ecosystems, desertification, and conflicts between Nostoc harvesters and Mongol herdsmen concerned the Chinese environmental authorities, leading to a government ban of Nostoc commerce. This ban stimulated increased marketing of a substitute made from starch. We analysed samples purchased throughout China as well as in Chinese markets in the United States and the United Kingdom. Some were counterfeits consisting of dyed starch noodles. A few samples from California contained Nostoc flagelliforme but were adulterated with starch noodles. Other samples, including those from the United Kingdom, consisted of pure Nostoc flagelliforme. A recent survey of markets in Cheng Du showed no real Nostoc flagelliforme to be marketed. Real and artificial fa cai differ in the presence of beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Given its status as a high-priced luxury food, the government ban on collection and marketing, and the replacement of real fa cai with starch substitutes consumed only on special occasions, it is anticipated that dietary exposure to BMAA from fa cai will be reduced in the future in China.

  15. CAIS/ACSI 2001: Beyond the Web: Technologies, Knowledge and People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents abstracts of papers presented at the 29th Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for Information Science (CAIS) held in Quebec on May 27-29, 2001. Topics include: professional development; librarian/library roles; information technology uses; virtual libraries; information seeking behavior; literacy; information retrieval;…

  16. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with fractionation and unknown nuclear effects (FUN CAIs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Wasserburg, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed characterization of the mineralogy, petrology, and oxygen isotopic compositions of twelve FUN CAIs, including C1 and EK1-4-1 from Allende (CV), that were previously shown to have large isotopic fractionation patterns for magnesium and oxygen, and large isotopic anomalies...

  17. Exhumation history of the western Kyrgyz Tien Shan: Implications for intramontane basin formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bande, Alejandro; Sobel, Edward R.; Mikolaichuk, Alexander; Schmidt, Alexander; Stockli, Daniel F.

    2017-01-01

    The dextral Talas-Fergana Fault separates the western from the central Tien Shan. Recent work has shed light on the Cenozoic evolution of the eastern and central Tien Shan; much less attention has been paid to the western Tien Shan. In this contribution we present new thermochronological ages for the Fergana and Alai ranges that, combined with the available data set, constrain the Cenozoic exhumation history of the western Tien Shan. Following a tectonically quiet early Cenozoic period, we suggest an onset of exhumation at 25 Ma. This early onset was followed by a period of slower exhumation and in some areas minor reheating. A final, strong late Miocene rapid cooling event is well represented in the western Tien Shan as in other sectors of the range. The early onset of uplift of the western Tien Shan dissected the previously continuous westernmost Parathethyan Sea, progressively isolating basins (e.g., Fergana, Tarim, and Alai basins) in the central Asian hinterland. Moreover, the coeval timing of late Miocene uplift along the length of entire Tien Shan implies that neither the Pamir nor Tarim can be the sole driver for exhumation of the entire range.

  18. An ion microprobe study of CAIs from CO3 meteorites. [Abstract only

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, S. S.; Greenwood, R. C.; Fahey, A. J.; Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    When attempting to interpret the history of Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) it is often difficult to distinguish between primary features inherited from the nebula and those produced during secondary processing on the parent body. We have undertaken a systematic study of CAIs from 10 CO chondrites, believed to represent a metamorphic sequence with the goal of distinguishing primary and secondary features. ALHA 77307 (3.0), Colony (3.0), Kainsaz (3.1), Felix (3.2), ALH 82101 (3.3), Ornans (3.3), Lance (3.4), ALHA 77003 (3.5), Warrenton (3.6), and Isna (3.7) were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. We have identified 141 CAIs within these samples, and studied in detail the petrology of 34 inclusions. The primary phases in the lower petrologic types are spinel, melilite, and hibonite. Perovskite, FeS, ilmenite, anorthite, kirschsteinite, and metallic Fe are present as minor phases. Melilite becomes less abundant in higher petrologic types and was not detected in chondrites of type 3.5 and above, confirming previous reports that this mineral easily breaks down during heating. Iron, an element that would not be expected to condense at high temperatures, has a lower abundance in spinel from low-petrologic-type meteorites than those of higher grade, and CaTiO3 is replaced by FeTiO3 in meteorites of higher petrologic type. The abundance of CAIs is similar in each meteorite. Eight inclusions have been analyzed by ion probe. The results are summarized. The results obtained to date show that CAIs in CO meteorites, like those from other meteorite classes, contain Mg* and that Mg in some inclusions has been redistributed.

  19. Northwest Africa 10758: A New CV3 Chondrite Bearing a Giant CAI with Hibonite-Rich Wark-Lovering Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Zolensky, M.

    2017-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 10758 is a newly identified carbonaceous chondrite that is a Bali-like oxidized CV3. The large Ca-Al rich inclusion (CAI) in this sample is approx. 2.4 x 1.4 cm. The CAI is transitional in composition between type A and type B, with interior mineralogy dominated by melilite, plus less abundant spinel and Al-Ti rich diopside, and only very minor anorthite (Fig. 1A). This CAI is largely free of secondary alteration in the exposed section we examined, with almost no nepheline, sodalite or Ca-Fe silicates. The Wark-Lovering (WL) rim on this CAI is dominated by hibonite, with lower abundances of spinel and perovskite, and with hibonite locally overlain by melilite plus perovskite (as in Fig. 1B). Note that the example shown in 1B is exceptional. Around most of the CAI, hibonite + spinel + perovskite form the WL rim, without overlying melilite. The WL rim can be unusually thick, ranging from approx.20 microns up to approx. 150 microns. A well-developed, stratified accretionary rim infills embayments of the CAI, and thins over protuberances in the convoluted CAI surface.

  20. NWA10758: A New CV3 Chondrite Bearing a Giant CAI with Hibonite-Rich Wark-Lovering Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Zolensky, M.

    2017-01-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 10758 is a newly identified carbonaceous chondrite that is a Bali-like oxidized CV3. The large Ca-Al rich inclusion (CAI) in this sample is approx. 2.4 x 1.4 cm. The CAI is transitional in composition between type A and type B, with interior mineralogy dominated by melilite, plus less abundant spinel and Al-Ti rich diopside, and only very minor anorthite (Fig. 1A). This CAI is largely free of secondary alteration in the exposed section we examined, with almost no nepheline, sodalite or Ca-Fe silicates. The Wark-Lovering (WL) rim on this CAI is dominated by hibonite, with lower abundances of spinel and perovskite, and with hibonite locally overlain by melilite plus perovskite (as in Fig. 1B). Note that the example shown in 1B is exceptional. Around most of the CAI, hibonite + spinel + perovskite form the WL rim, without overlying melilite. The WL rim can be unusually thick, ranging from approx. 20 microns up to approx. 150 microns. A well-developed, stratified accretionary rim infills embayments of the CAI, and thins over protuberances in the convoluted CAI surface.

  1. Multiple Nebular Gas Reservoirs Recorded by Oxygen Isotope Variation in a Spinel-rich CAI in CO3 MIL 090019

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Nguyen, A. N.; Ross, D. K.; Messenger, S.

    2017-01-01

    We conducted NanoSIMS O-isotopic imaging of a primitive spinel-rich CAI spherule (27-2) from the MIL 090019 CO3 chondrite. Inclusions such as 27-2 are proposed to record inner nebula processes during an epoch of rapid solar nebula evolution. Mineralogical and textural analyses suggest that this CAI formed by high temperature reactions, partial melting, and condensation. This CAI exhibits radial O-isotopic heterogeneity among multiple occurrences of the same mineral, reflecting interactions with distinct nebular O-isotopic reservoirs.

  2. Development of an intelligent CAI system for a distributed processing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, M.; Sasaki, K.; Ohi, T.; Itoh, T.

    1993-01-01

    In order to operate a nuclear power plant optimally in both normal and abnormal situations, the operators are trained using an operator training simulator in addition to classroom instruction. Individual instruction using a CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction) system has become popular as a method of learning plant information, such as plant dynamics, operational procedures, plant systems, plant facilities, etc. The outline is described of a proposed network-based intelligent CAI system (ICAI) incorporating multi-medial PWR plant dynamics simulation, teaching aids and educational record management using the following environment: existing standard workstations and graphic workstations with a live video processing function, TCP/IP protocol of Unix through Ethernet and X window system. (Z.S.) 3 figs., 2 refs

  3. Bird community structure in riparian environments in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jaqueline Brummelhaus; Marcia Suelí Bohn; Maria Virginia Petry

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization produces changes in riparian environments, causing effects in the structure of bird communities, which present different responses to the impacts. We compare species richness, abundance, and composition of birds in riparian environments with different characteristics in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We carried out observations in woodland, grassland, and urban environments, between September 2007 and August 2008. We listed 130 bird species, 29 species unique to woodland e...

  4. Numerical investigation of CAI Combustion in the Opposed- Piston Engine with Direct and Indirect Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyszczek, R.; Mazuro, P.; Teodorczyk, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper is focused on the CAI combustion control in a turbocharged 2-stroke Opposed-Piston (OP) engine. The barrel type OP engine arrangement is of particular interest for the authors because of its robust design, high mechanical efficiency and relatively easy incorporation of a Variable Compression Ratio (VCR). The other advantage of such design is that combustion chamber is formed between two moving pistons - there is no additional cylinder head to be cooled which directly results in an increased thermal efficiency. Furthermore, engine operation in a Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) mode at high compression ratios (CR) raises a possibility of reaching even higher efficiencies and very low emissions. In order to control CAI combustion such measures as VCR and water injection were considered for indirect ignition timing control. Numerical simulations of the scavenging and combustion processes were performed with the 3D CFD multipurpose AVL Fire solver. Numerous cases were calculated with different engine compression ratios and different amounts of directly and indirectly injected water. The influence of the VCR and water injection on the ignition timing and engine performance was determined and their application in the real engine was discussed.

  5. DUST LOADING OF THE ATMOSPHERE AND GLACIERS IN THE KUMTOR MINING AREA (AKSHYYRAK, TIEN SHAN)

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Kuzmichenok

    2012-01-01

    Industrial development of the Kumtor Gold Mine in the nival-glacial zone of Tien Shan (altitude ranging from 4000 to 4500 m a.s.l.) is inevitably accompanied by the release of some additional amounts of dust in atmosphere. Sampling in 7 points and an analysis of the quantity (weight) of dust in the seasonal snow (September–April) on glaciers show that the dust pollution does not substantially exceed the natural level of dust in Tien Shan. An analysis of almost 3 000 daily measurements of dust...

  6. OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF THE ALLENDE TYPE C CAIs: EVIDENCE FOR ISOTOPIC EXCHANGE DURING NEBULAR MELTING AND ASTEROIDAL THERMAL METAMORPHISM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, A N; Chaussidon, M; Yurimoto, H; Sakamoto, N; Nagashima, K; Hutcheon, I D; MacPherson, G J

    2008-02-21

    Based on the mineralogy and petrography, coarse-grained, igneous, anorthite-rich (Type C) calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende have been recently divided into three groups: (i) CAIs with melilite and Al,Ti-diopside of massive and lacy textures (coarse grains with numerous rounded inclusions of anorthite) in a fine-grained anorthite groundmass (6-1-72, 100, 160), (ii) CAI CG5 with massive melilite, Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite, and (iii) CAIs associated with chondrule material: either containing chondrule fragments in their peripheries (ABC, TS26) or surrounded by chondrule-like, igneous rims (93) (Krot et al., 2007a,b). Here, we report in situ oxygen isotopic measurements of primary (melilite, spinel, Al,Ti-diopside, anorthite) and secondary (grossular, monticellite, forsterite) minerals in these CAIs. Spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -25{per_thousand} to -20{per_thousand}), massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -20{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}) and fine-grained anorthite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -15{per_thousand} to -2{per_thousand}) in 100, 160 and 6-1-72 are {sup 16}O-enriched relative spinel and coarse-grained Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite in ABC, 93 and TS26 ({Delta}{sup 17}O ranges from -20{per_thousand} to -15{per_thousand}, from -15{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}, and from -5{per_thousand} to 0{per_thousand}, respectively). In 6-1-72, massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside grains are {sup 16}O-depleted ({Delta}{sup 17}O {approx} -13{per_thousand}) relative to spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -23{per_thousand}). Melilite is the most {sup 16}O-depleted mineral in all Allende Type C CAIs. In CAI 100, melilite and secondary grossular, monticellite and forsterite (minerals replacing melilite) are similarly {sup 16}O-depleted, whereas grossular in CAI 160 is {sup 16}O-enriched ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -10{per_thousand} to -6{per_thousand}) relative to melilite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -5{per_thousand} to -3{per_thousand}). We infer

  7. The Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI): development and validation of an empirically derived, brief interview-based measure of cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Joseph; Reise, Steven P; Keefe, Richard S E; Baade, Lyle E; Gold, James M; Green, Michael F; Kern, Robert S; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Seidman, Larry J; Bilder, Robert M

    2010-08-01

    Practical, reliable "real world" measures of cognition are needed to supplement neurocognitive performance data to evaluate possible efficacy of new drugs targeting cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Because interview-based measures of cognition offer one possible approach, data from the MATRICS initiative (n=176) were used to examine the psychometric properties of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) and the Clinical Global Impression of Cognition in Schizophrenia (CGI-CogS). We used classical test theory methods and item response theory to derive the 10-item Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI) from the SCoRS and CGI-CogS ("parent instruments"). Sources of information for CAI ratings included the patient and an informant. Validity analyses examined the relationship between the CAI and objective measures of cognitive functioning, intermediate measures of cognition, and functional outcome. The rater's score from the newly derived CAI (10 items) correlate highly (r=.87) with those from the combined set of the SCoRS and CGI-CogS (41 items). Both the patient (r=.82) and the informant (r=.95) data were highly correlated with the rater's score. The CAI was modestly correlated with objectively measured neurocognition (r=-.32), functional capacity (r=-.44), and functional outcome (r=-.32), which was comparable to the parent instruments. The CAI allows for expert judgment in evaluating a patient's cognitive functioning and was modestly correlated with neurocognitive functioning, functional capacity, and functional outcome. The CAI is a brief, repeatable, and potentially valuable tool for rating cognition in schizophrenia patients who are participating in clinical trials. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Glaciers and hydrological changes in the Tien Shan: simulation and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizen, V B; Aizen, E M; Kuzmichonok, V A

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the current glacier state and forecast the potential impact of global and regional climate change on the glaciers and glacier runoff in the Tien Shan. General (G) and detailed (D) simulations were developed based on assessment of the Tien Shan glacier recession between 1943 and 2003 using an iterative stepwise increase in the equilibrium line altitude of 20 m. The G simulation was developed for 2777 grids each of which covered over 1000 km 2 of glacier surface and D for the 15 953 Tien Shan glaciers. Both simulations employed glacier morphometric characteristics derived from Digital Elevation Model based on remote sensing data, high resolution maps and in situ GPS validation. Simulated changes in glacier area demonstrated that a possible increase in air temperature of 1 deg. C at E-barLA must be compensated by a 100 mm increase in precipitation at the same altitude if Tien Shan glaciers are to be maintained in their current state. An increase in mean air temperature of 4 deg. C and precipitation of 1.1 times the current level could increase E-barLA by 570 m during the 21st century. Under these conditions, the number of glaciers, glacier covered area, glacier volume, and glacier runoff are predicted to be 94%, 69%, 75%, and 75% of current values. The maximum glacier runoff may reach as much as 1.25 times current levels while the minimum will likely equal zero

  9. The origin and evolution of Iskanderkul Lake in the western Tien Shan and related geomorphic hazards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Emmer, Adam; Kalvoda, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 2 (2017), s. 139-154 ISSN 0435-3676 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : iskanderkul lake * rockslide dam * outburst flood * tien shan Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.302, year: 2016

  10. Empirical Relationship between particulate matter and Aerosol Optical Depth over Northern Tien-Shan, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements were obtained at two sites in northern Tien-Shan in Central Asia during a 1-year period beginning July 2008 to examine the statistical relationship between aerosol optical depth (AOD) and of fine [PM2.5, particles less than 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD)] and coars...

  11. CAI and training system for the emergency operation procedure in the advanced thermal reactor, FUGEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaki, T.; Imanaga, K.; Nakamura, S.; Maeda, K.; Sakurai, N.; Miyamoto, M.

    2003-01-01

    In the Advanced Thermal Reactor (ATR ) of the JNC, 'FUGEN', a symptom based Emergency Operating Procedure (EOF) was introduced in order to operate Fugen more safely and it became necessary for the plant operators to master the EOF. However it took a lot of time for the instructor to teach the EOP to operators and to train them. Thus, we have developed a Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) and Training System for the EOP, by which the operators can learn the EOP and can be trained. This system has two major functions, i.e., CAI and training. In the CAI function, there are three learning courses, namely, the EOP procedure, the simulation with guidance and Q and A, and the free simulation. In the training function, all of necessary control instruments (indicators, switches, annunciators and so forth) and physics models for the EOP training are simulated so that the trainees can be trained for all of the EOPs. In addition, 50 kinds of malfunction models are installed in order to perform appropriate accident scenarios for the EOP. The training of the EOP covers the range from AOO (Anticipated Operational Occurrence) to Over-DBAs (Design Based Accidents). This system is built in three personal computers that are connected by the computer network. One of the computers is expected to be used for the instructor and the other two are for the trainees. The EOP is composed of eight guidelines, such as 'Reactor Control' and 'Depression and Cooling', and the operation screens which are corresponded to the guidelines are respectively provided. According to the trial, we have estimated that the efficiency of the learning and the training would be improved about 30% for the trainee and about 75% for the instructor in the actual learning and training. (author)

  12. Exploring Chondrule and CAI Rims Using Micro- and Nano-Scale Petrological and Compositional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, J. A.; Perez-Huerta, A.; Leitner, J.; Vollmer, C.

    2017-12-01

    As the major components within chondrites, chondrules (mm-sized droplets of quenched silicate melt) and calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI, refractory) represent the most abundant and the earliest materials that solidified from the solar nebula. However, the exact formation mechanisms of these clasts, and whether these processes are related, remains unconstrained, despite extensive petrological and compositional study. By taking advantage of recent advances in nano-scale tomographical techniques, we have undertaken a combined micro- and nano-scale study of CAI and chondrule rim morphologies, to investigate their formation mechanisms. The target lithologies for this research are Wark-Lovering rims (WLR), and fine-grained rims (FGR) around CAIs and chondrules respectively, present within many chondrites. The FGRs, which are up to 100 µm thick, are of particular interest as recent studies have identified presolar grains within them. These grains predate the formation of our Solar System, suggesting FGR formation under nebular conditions. By contrast, WLRs are 10-20 µm thick, made of different compositional layers, and likely formed by flash-heating shortly after CAI formation, thus recording nebular conditions. A detailed multi-scale study of these respective rims will enable us to better understand their formation histories and determine the potential for commonality between these two phases, despite reports of an observed formation age difference of up to 2-3 Myr. We are using a combination of complimentary techniques on our selected target areas: 1) Micro-scale characterization using standard microscopic and compositional techniques (SEM-EBSD, EMPA); 2) Nano-scale characterization of structures using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and elemental, isotopic and tomographic analysis with NanoSIMS and atom probe tomography (APT). Preliminary nano-scale APT analysis of FGR morphologies within the Allende carbonaceous chondrite has successfully discerned

  13. Complete genome sequence of Defluviimonas alba cai42T, a microbial exopolysaccharides producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie-Yu; Geng, Shuang; Xu, Lian; Hu, Bing; Sun, Ji-Quan; Nie, Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2016-12-10

    Defluviimonas alba cai42 T , isolated from the oil-production water in Xinjiang Oilfield in China, has a strong ability to produce exopolysaccharides (EPS). We hereby present its complete genome sequence information which consists of a circular chromosome and three plasmids. The strain characteristically contains various genes encoding for enzymes involved in EPS biosynthesis, modification, and export. According to the genomic and physiochemical data, it is predicted that the strain has the potential to be utilized in industrial production of microbial EPS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. On native Danish learners' challenges in distinguishing /tai/, /cai/ and /zai/

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloos, Marjoleine; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    University participated in an ABX experiment. They were auditorily presented pairs of the critical stimuli tai-cai-zai, te-ce-ze and tuo-cuo-zuo combined with all four tones and alternated with fillers. The subjects indicated for each pair which of the two words matched the pinyin description. The expected...... results show that beginner learners perform on chance level regarding the distinction between t and z and between c and z. The reason is that in Danish, which has an aspiration contrast between plosives (like Chinese) /th/ is variably pronounced as affricated /ts/ and many speakers are unaware...

  15. CAI多媒體教學軟體之開發模式 Using an Instructional Design Model for Developing a Multimedia CAI Courseware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Yih Shyu

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available 無This article outlined a systematic instructional design model for developing a multimedia computer-aided instruction (CAI courseware. The model illustrated roles and tasks as two dimensions necessary in a CAI production teamwork. Four major components (Analysis, Design, Development, and Revise/Evaluation following by totally 25 steps are provided. Eight roles with each competent skills were identified. The model will be useful in serving as a framework for developing a mulrimedia CAI courseware for educators, instructional designers and CAI industry developers.

  16. An experimental study of fuel injection strategies in CAI gasoline engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunicz, J.; Kordos, P. [Department of Combustion Engines and Transport, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36, 20-618 Lublin (Poland)

    2011-01-15

    Combustion of gasoline in a direct injection controlled auto-ignition (CAI) single-cylinder research engine was studied. CAI operation was achieved with the use of the negative valve overlap (NVO) technique and internal exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). Experiments were performed at single injection and split injection, where some amount of fuel was injected close to top dead centre (TDC) during NVO interval, and the second injection was applied with variable timing. Additionally, combustion at variable fuel-rail pressure was examined. Investigation showed that at fuel injection into recompressed exhaust fuel reforming took place. This process was identified via an analysis of the exhaust-fuel mixture composition after NVO interval. It was found that at single fuel injection in NVO phase, its advance determined the heat release rate and auto-ignition timing, and had a strong influence on NO{sub X} emission. However, a delay of single injection to intake stroke resulted in deterioration of cycle-to-cycle variability. Application of split injection showed benefits of this strategy versus single injection. Examinations of different fuel mass split ratios and variable second injection timing resulted in further optimisation of mixture formation. At equal share of the fuel mass injected in the first injection during NVO and in the second injection at the beginning of compression, the lowest emission level and cyclic variability improvement were observed. (author)

  17. A Braça da Rede, uma Técnica Caiçara de Medir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Chieus Jr.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo relata como os caiçaras da cidade de Ubatuba litoral norte paulista medem suas redes de pesca.Mas antes de estar analisando sua técnica de medir estaremos fazendo uma pequena abordagem da cultura caiçara e suas transformações. Em seguida mostraremos alguns momentos históricos da construção do metro. Depois como os caiçaras medem suas redes e o problema ocorrido no Brasil na implantação do sistema métrico decimal e a resistência de determinadas civilizações que se utiliza de outros padrões para realizar suas medidas, ignorando o atual sistema métrico, devidos o seu contexto cultural. Toda esta discussão está enfocada numa perspectiva histórica da Etnomatemática.

  18. Source processes of strong earthquakes in the North Tien-Shan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, G.; Krueger, F.

    2013-12-01

    Tien-Shan region attracts attention of scientists worldwide due to its complexity and tectonic uniqueness. A series of very strong destructive earthquakes occurred in Tien-Shan at the turn of XIX and XX centuries. Such large intraplate earthquakes are rare in seismology, which increases the interest in the Tien-Shan region. The presented study focuses on the source processes of large earthquakes in Tien-Shan. The amount of seismic data is limited for those early times. In 1889, when a major earthquake has occurred in Tien-Shan, seismic instruments were installed in very few locations in the world and these analog records did not survive till nowadays. Although around a hundred seismic stations were operating at the beginning of XIX century worldwide, it is not always possible to get high quality analog seismograms. Digitizing seismograms is a very important step in the work with analog seismic records. While working with historical seismic records one has to take into account all the aspects and uncertainties of manual digitizing and the lack of accurate timing and instrument characteristics. In this study, we develop an easy-to-handle and fast digitization program on the basis of already existing software which allows to speed up digitizing process and to account for all the recoding system uncertainties. Owing to the lack of absolute timing for the historical earthquakes (due to the absence of a universal clock at that time), we used time differences between P and S phases to relocate the earthquakes in North Tien-Shan and the body-wave amplitudes to estimate their magnitudes. Combining our results with geological data, five earthquakes in North Tien-Shan were precisely relocated. The digitizing of records can introduce steps into the seismograms which makes restitution (removal of instrument response) undesirable. To avoid the restitution, we simulated historic seismograph recordings with given values for damping and free period of the respective instrument and

  19. ¿Qué tienes en la cara, eso se quita?

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    Jimmy Arévalo Romero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto es un ensayo preparado por estudiantes de Medicina que tiene origen en su experiencia personal, ya que trata del padecimiento del acné en lo adolescencia, en él quieren concienciar a lo comunidad en general sobre las consecuencias psicológicas que genera el padecimiento del acné en el adolescente, y estimular a las personas a contribuir al desarrollo de estos jóvenes en la sociedad.

  20. Ca-Fe and Alkali-Halide Alteration of an Allende Type B CAI: Aqueous Alteration in Nebular or Asteroidal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-Fe and alkali-halide alteration of CAIs is often attributed to aqueous alteration by fluids circulating on asteroidal parent bodies after the various chondritic components have been assembled, although debate continues about the roles of asteroidal vs. nebular modification processes [1-7]. Here we report de-tailed observations of alteration products in a large Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende, one of the oxidized subgroup of CV3s, and propose a speculative model for aqueous alteration of CAIs in a nebular setting. Ca-Fe alteration in this CAI consists predominantly of end-member hedenbergite, end-member andradite, and compositionally variable, magnesian high-Ca pyroxene. These phases are strongly concentrated in an unusual "nodule" enclosed within the interior of the CAI (Fig. 1). The Ca, Fe-rich nodule superficially resembles a clast that pre-dated and was engulfed by the CAI, but closer inspection shows that relic spinel grains are enclosed in the nodule, and corroded CAI primary phases interfinger with the Fe-rich phases at the nodule s margins. This CAI also contains abundant sodalite and nepheline (alkali-halide) alteration that occurs around the rims of the CAI, but also penetrates more deeply into the CAI. The two types of alteration (Ca-Fe and alkali-halide) are adjacent, and very fine-grained Fe-rich phases are associated with sodalite-rich regions. Both types of alteration appear to be replacive; if that is true, it would require substantial introduction of Fe, and transport of elements (Ti, Al and Mg) out of the nodule, and introduction of Na and Cl into alkali-halide rich zones. Parts of the CAI have been extensively metasomatized.

  1. Microstructures of Hibonite From an ALH A77307 (CO3.0) CAI: Evidence for Evaporative Loss of Calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jangmi; Brearley, Adrian J.; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2014-01-01

    Hibonite is a comparatively rare, primary phase found in some CAIs from different chondrite groups and is also common in Wark-Lovering rims [1]. Hibonite is predicted to be one of the earliest refractory phases to form by equilibrium condensation from a cooling gas of solar composition [2] and, therefore, can be a potential recorder of very early solar system processes. In this study, we describe the microstructures of hibonite from one CAI in ALH A77307 (CO3.0) using FIB/TEM techniques in order to reconstruct its formational history.

  2. Developing the Coach Analysis and Intervention System (CAIS): establishing validity and reliability of a computerised systematic observation instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushion, Christopher; Harvey, Stephen; Muir, Bob; Nelson, Lee

    2012-01-01

    We outline the evolution of a computerised systematic observation tool and describe the process for establishing the validity and reliability of this new instrument. The Coach Analysis and Interventions System (CAIS) has 23 primary behaviours related to physical behaviour, feedback/reinforcement, instruction, verbal/non-verbal, questioning and management. The instrument also analyses secondary coach behaviour related to performance states, recipient, timing, content and questioning/silence. The CAIS is a multi-dimensional and multi-level mechanism able to provide detailed and contextualised data about specific coaching behaviours occurring in complex and nuanced coaching interventions and environments that can be applied to both practice sessions and competition.

  3. Calcium and Titanium Isotope Fractionation in CAIS: Tracers of Condensation and Inheritance in the Early Solar Protoplanetary Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Jordan, M. K.; Tappa, M. J.; Kohl, I. E.; Young, E. D.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) can be used to understand the conditions present in the protoplantary disk where they formed. The isotopic compositions of these early-formed nebular materials are largely controlled by chemical volatility. The isotopic effects of evaporation/sublimation, which are well explained by both theory and experimental work, lead to enrichments of the heavy isotopes that are often exhibited by the moderately refractory elements Mg and Si. Less well understood are the isotopic effects of condensation, which limits our ability to determine whether a CAI is a primary condensate and/or retains any evidence of its primordial formation history.

  4. Two years since SSAMS: Status of {sup 14}C AMS at CAIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi Prasad, G.V.; Cherkinsky, Alexander; Culp, Randy A.; Dvoracek, Doug K.

    2015-10-15

    The NEC 250 kV single stage AMS accelerator (SSAMS) was installed two years ago at the Center for Applied Isotope Studies (CAIS), University of Georgia. The accelerator is primarily being used for radiocarbon measurements to test the authenticity of natural and bio-based samples while all other samples such as geological, atmospheric, marine and archaeological. are run on the 500 kV, NEC 1.5SDH-1 model tandem accelerator, which has been operating since 2001. The data obtained over a six months period for OXI, OXII, ANU sucrose and FIRI-D are discussed. The mean value of ANU sucrose observed to be slightly lower than the consensus value. The processed blanks on SSAMS produce lower apparent age compared to the tandem accelerator as expected.

  5. Hypertext and three-dimensional computer graphics in an all digital PC-based CAI workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, D. L.; Wind, G. G.

    1991-01-01

    In the past several years there has been an enormous increase in the number of computer-assisted instructional (CAI) applications. Many medical educators and physicians have recognized the power and utility of hypertext. Some developers have incorporated simple diagrams, scanned monochrome graphics or still frame photographs from a laser disc or CD-ROM into their hypertext applications. These technologies have greatly increased the role of the microcomputer in education and training. There still remain numerous applications for these tools which are yet to be explored. One of these exciting areas involves the use of three-dimensional computer graphics. An all digital platform increases application portability. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1807767

  6. Hunting and use of terrestrial fauna used by Caiçaras from the Atlantic Forest coast (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Rômulo RN

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is considered one of the hotspots for conservation, comprising remnants of rain forest along the eastern Brazilian coast. Its native inhabitants in the Southeastern coast include the Caiçaras (descendants from Amerindians and European colonizers, with a deep knowledge on the natural resources used for their livelihood. Methods We studied the use of the terrestrial fauna in three Caiçara communities, through open-ended interviews with 116 native residents. Data were checked through systematic observations and collection of zoological material. Results The dependence on the terrestrial fauna by Caiçaras is especially for food and medicine. The main species used are Didelphis spp., Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, and small birds (several species of Turdidae. Contrasting with a high dependency on terrestrial fauna resources by native Amazonians, the Caiçaras do not show a constant dependency on these resources. Nevertheless, the occasional hunting of native animals represents a complimentary source of animal protein. Conclusion Indigenous or local knowledge on native resources is important in order to promote local development in a sustainable way, and can help to conserve biodiversity, particularly if the resource is sporadically used and not commercially exploited.

  7. From Corporate Social Responsibility, through Entrepreneurial Orientation, to Knowledge Sharing: A Study in Cai Luong (Renovated Theatre) Theatre Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Luu Trong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the role of antecedents such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and entrepreneurial orientation in the chain effect to knowledge sharing among members of Cai Luong theatre companies in the Vietnamese context. Knowledge sharing contributes to the depth of the knowledge pool of both the individuals and the…

  8. A Design of Computer Aided Instructions (CAI) for Undirected Graphs in the Discrete Math Tutorial (DMT). Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    The objective of this thesis research is to create a tutorial for teaching aspects of undirected graphs in discrete math . It is one of the submodules...of the Discrete Math Tutorial (DMT), which is a Computer Aided Instructional (CAI) tool for teaching discrete math to the Naval Academy and the

  9. A Design of Computer Aided Instructions (CAI) for Undirected Graphs in the Discrete Math Tutorial (DMT). Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    The objective of this thesis research is to create a tutorial for teaching aspects of undirected graphs in discrete math . It is one of the submodules...of the Discrete Math Tutorial (DMT), which is a Computer Aided Instructional (CAI) tool for teaching discrete math to the Naval Academy and the

  10. Changes in flavour and microbial diversity during natural fermentation of suan-cai, a traditional food made in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rina; Yu, Meiling; Liu, Xiaoyu; Meng, Lingshuai; Wang, Qianqian; Xue, Yating; Wu, Junrui; Yue, Xiqing

    2015-10-15

    We measured changes in the main physical and chemical properties, flavour compounds and microbial diversity in suan-cai during natural fermentation. The results showed that the pH and concentration of soluble protein initially decreased but were then maintained at a stable level; the concentration of nitrite increased in the initial fermentation stage and after reaching a peak it decreased significantly to a low level by the end of fermentation. Suan-cai was rich in 17 free amino acids. All of the free amino acids increased in concentration to different degrees, except histidine. Total free amino acids reached their highest levels in the mid-fermentation stage. The 17 volatile flavour components identified at the start of fermentation increased to 57 by the mid-fermentation stage; esters and aldehydes were in the greatest diversity and abundance, contributing most to the aroma of suan-cai. Bacteria were more abundant and diverse than fungi in suan-cai; 14 bacterial species were identified from the genera Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Lactobacillus. The predominant fungal species identified were Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida tropicalis and Penicillium expansum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a CAI Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, John S.; And Others

    A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…

  12. Multiple Nebular Gas Reservoirs Recorded by Oxygen Isotope Variation in a Spinel-Rich CAI in CO3 MIL 090019

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Nguyen, A. N.; Ross, D. K.; Messenger, S.

    2017-07-01

    We conducted NanoSIMS ion imaging studies of a primitive spinel-rich CAI from the MIL 090019 CO3 chondrite. It records radial O-isotopic heterogeneity among multiple occurrences of the same mineral, reflecting distinct nebular O-isotopic reservoirs.

  13. Dietary Changes over Time in a Caiçara Community from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila L. MacCord

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Because they are occurring at an accelerated pace, changes in the livelihoods of local coastal communities, including nutritional aspects, have been a subject of interest in human ecology. The aim of this study is to explore the dietary changes, particularly in the consumption of animal protein, that have taken place in Puruba Beach, a rural community of caiçaras on the São Paulo Coast, Brazil, over the 10-yr period from 1992-1993 to 2002-2003. Data were collected during six months in 1992-1993 and during the same months in 2002-2003 using the 24-hr recall method. We found an increasing dependence on external products in the most recent period, along with a reduction in fish consumption and in the number of fish species eaten. These changes, possibly associated with other nonmeasured factors such as overfishing and unplanned tourism, may cause food delocalization and a reduction in the use of natural resources. Although the consequences for conservation efforts in the Atlantic Forest and the survival of the caiçaras must still be evaluated, these local inhabitants may be finding a way to reconcile both the old and the new dietary patterns by keeping their houses in the community while looking for sources of income other than natural resources. The prospect shown here may reveal facets that can influence the maintenance of this and other communities undergoing similar processes by, for example, shedding some light on the ecological and economical processes that may occur within their environment and in turn affect the conservation of the resources upon which the local inhabitants depend.

  14. The Range of Initial 10Be/9Be Ratios in the Early Solar System: A Re-Assessment Based on Analyses of New CAIs and Melilite Composition Glass Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, E.; Wadhwa, M.; Liu, M.-C.

    2017-07-01

    We report a more accurate range of initial 10Be/9Be in CAIs including FUN CAI CMS-1 from Allende (CV3) and a new CAI from NWA 5508 (CV3) using melilite composition glass standards; we suggest 10Be is largely produced by irradiation in the nebula.

  15. Salud Tiene Sabor: a model for healthier restaurants in a Latino community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevarez, Carmen R; Lafleur, Mariah S; Schwarte, Liz U; Rodin, Beth; de Silva, Pri; Samuels, Sarah E

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children has risen nationally in recent decades, and is exceptionally high in low-income communities of color such as South Los Angeles CA. Independently owned restaurants participating in the Salud Tiene Sabor program at ethnic foods marketplace Mercado La Paloma in South Los Angeles are responding to the childhood obesity crisis by posting calories for menu items and providing nutrition information to patrons. To evaluate whether menu labeling and nutrition information at point of purchase have an influence on availability of healthy food options, patron awareness of calorie information, and restaurant owners' support of the program. A case-study design using mixed methods included restaurant owner and stakeholder interviews, patron surveys, and environmental assessments. Data were collected using originally designed tools, and analyzed in 2009-2011. Healthy eating options were available at the Mercado La Paloma; restaurant owners and the larger community supported the Salud Tiene Sabor program; 33% of patrons reported calorie information-influenced purchase decisions. Owners of independent restaurants have an important role in improving access to healthy foods in low-income, Latino communities. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DUST LOADING OF THE ATMOSPHERE AND GLACIERS IN THE KUMTOR MINING AREA (AKSHYYRAK, TIEN SHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kuzmichenok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial development of the Kumtor Gold Mine in the nival-glacial zone of Tien Shan (altitude ranging from 4000 to 4500 m a.s.l. is inevitably accompanied by the release of some additional amounts of dust in atmosphere. Sampling in 7 points and an analysis of the quantity (weight of dust in the seasonal snow (September–April on glaciers show that the dust pollution does not substantially exceed the natural level of dust in Tien Shan. An analysis of almost 3 000 daily measurements of dust in the surface layer of air at 4 points around the gold mine has also shown that the economic activity has no significant impact on dust production. It is likely that the manmade component of overall dust in the immediate vicinity of the deposit and the gob pile does not exceed 20%. No increase in the content of dust and in its anthropogenic component with time has been found. Thus, we suggest that the principal amount of dust in the area is brought during the cold season from snow-free areas of Central Asia.

  17. Crustal block structure by GPS data using neural network in the Northern Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostuk, A.; Carmenate, D.

    2010-05-01

    For over ten years regular GPS measurements have been carried out by Research Station RAS in the Central Asia. The results of these measurements have not only proved the conclusion that the Earth's crust meridional compression equals in total about 17 mm/year from the Tarim massif to the Kazakh shield, but have also allowed estimating deformation behavior in the region. As is known, deformation behavior of continental crust is an actively discussed issue. On the one hand, the Earth's crust is presented as a set of microplates (blocks) and deformation here is a result of shifting along the blocks boundaries, on the other hand, lithospheric deformation is distributed by volume and meets the rheological model of nonlinear viscous fluid. This work represents an attempt to detect the block structure of the surface of the Northern Tien Shan using GPS velocity fields. As a significant difference from analogous works, appears the vector field clustering with the help of neural network used as a classifier by many criteria that allows dividing input space into areas and using of all three components of GPS velocity. In this case, we use such a feature of neural networks as self-organization. Among the mechanisms of self-organization there are two main classes: self-organization based on the Hebb associative rule and the mechanism of neuronal competition based on the generalized Kohonen rule. In this case, we use an approach of self-organizing networks in which we take neuronal competition as an algorithm for their training. As a rule, these are single-layer networks where each neuron is connected to all components of m-dimensional input vector. GPS vectors of the Central Asian velocity field located within the territory of the Northern Tien Shan were used as input patterns. Measurements at GPS sites were fulfilled in 36 hour-long sessions by double-frequency receivers Trimble and Topcon. In so doing, measurement discreteness equaled 30 seconds; the data were processed by

  18. La alucinación verbal tiene la estructura de la holofrase

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    Arturo de la Pava Ossa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available ¿En qué sentido la alucinaciónauditiva tiene la estructura dela holofrase? La holofrase es lainterjección, dice Lacan en 1958.En 1964, plantea que cuando enel primer par significante no hayintervalo, se solidifica, “se holofrasea”;a lo que añade que algo delmismo orden ocurre en la psicosis.Esta afirmación aporta elementospara pensar que la alucinación esuna holofrase y cómo a partir deella el psicótico construye su delirioparanoico.Palabras clave: holofrase, interjección,alucinación, discurso, funciónfálica.

  19. Miseria y violencia en El Coronel no tiene quien le escriba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Escobar Soriano

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo describe la marginación y la pobreza de un sector de la sociedad colombiana en El Coronel no tiene quien le escriba, la célebre novela de Gabriel García Márquez. Mientras el Coronel espera la llegada de la carta, su hijo Agustín, ha muerto por sus actividades revolucionarias. El y su mujer enferma viven en una casa hipotecada y comen de las migajas que le sobran al gallo. El grado de injusticia y violencia política que se respira en el ambiente aumentan la crisis económica del Coronel y generan en él una resistencia pasiva que recobra cuando se niega a vender el gallo y decide esperar la fecha de la pelea.

  20. Crystal structures of coordination polymers from CaI2 and proline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lamberts

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Completing our reports concerning the reaction products from calcium halides and the amino acid proline, two different solids were found for the reaction of l- and dl-proline with CaI2. The enantiopure amino acid yields the one-dimensional coordination polymer catena-poly[[aqua-μ3-l-proline-tetra-μ2-l-proline-dicalcium] tetraiodide 1.7-hydrate], {[Ca2(C5H9NO25(H2O]I4·1.7H2O}n, (1, with two independent Ca2+ cations in characteristic seven- and eightfold coordination. Five symmetry-independent zwitterionic l-proline molecules bridge the metal sites into a cationic polymer. Racemic proline forms with Ca2+ cations heterochiral chains of the one-dimensional polymer catena-poly[[diaquadi-μ2-dl-proline-calcium] diiodide], {[Ca(C5H9NO22(H2O2]I2}n, (2. The centrosymmetric structure is built by one Ca2+ cation that is bridged towards its symmetry equivalents by two zwitterionic proline molecules. In both structures, the iodide ions remain non-coordinating and hydrogen bonds are formed between these counter-anions, the amino groups, coordinating and co-crystallized water molecules. While the overall composition of (1 and (2 is in line with other structures from calcium halides and amino acids, the diversity of the carboxylate coordination geometry is quite surprising.

  1. Bird community structure in riparian environments in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Brummelhaus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization produces changes in riparian environments, causing effects in the structure of bird communities, which present different responses to the impacts. We compare species richness, abundance, and composition of birds in riparian environments with different characteristics in Cai River, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We carried out observations in woodland, grassland, and urban environments, between September 2007 and August 2008. We listed 130 bird species, 29 species unique to woodland environment, and an endangeredspecies: Triclaria malachitacea. Bird abundance differed from woodland (n = 426 individuals to urban environments (n = 939 individuals (F2,6 = 7.315; P = 0.025. Species composition and feeding guilds differed significantly in the bird community structures among these three riparian environments. In the grassland and urban environments there were more generalist insectivorous species, while in the woodland environments we find more leaf and trunk insectivorous species and frugivorous species, sensitive to human impacts. Bird species can be biological quality indicators and they contribute to ecosystems performing relevant functions. With the knowledge on bird community structure and their needs, it is possible to implement management practices for restoration of degraded riparian environments.

  2. Changes of Benthic Macroinvertebrates in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries Under Polluted Conditions with Industrial Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Nguyen Thi Thanh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The pollution on the Thi Vai River has been spreading out rapidly over the two lasted decades caused by the wastewater from the industrial parks in the left bank of Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. The evaluation of the benthic macroinvertebrate changes was very necessary to identify the consequences of the industrial wastewater on water quality and aquatic ecosystem of Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. In this study, the variables of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality were investigated in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries, Southern Vietnam. The monitoring data of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality parameters covered the period from 1989 to 2015 at 6 sampling sites in Thi Vai River and Cai Mep Estuaries. The basic water quality parameters were also tested including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. The biodiversity indices of benthic macroinvertebrates were applied for water quality assessment. The results showed that pH ranged from 6.4 – 7.6 during the monitoring. The DO concentrations were in between 0.20 - 6.70 mg/L. The concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorous ranged from 0.03 - 5.70 mg/L 0.024 - 1.380 mg/L respectively. Macroinvertebrate community in the study area consisted of 36 species of polychaeta, gastropoda, bivalvia, and crustacea, of which, species of polychaeta were dominant in species number. The benthic macroinvertebartes density ranged from 0 - 2.746 individuals/m−1 with the main dominant species of Neanthes caudata, Prionospio malmgreni, Paraprionospio pinnata, Trichochaeta carica, Maldane sarsi, Capitella capitata, Terebellides stroemi, Euditylia polymorpha, Grandidierella lignorum, Apseudes vietnamensis. The biodiversity index values during the monitoring characterized for aquatic environmental conditions of mesotrophic to polytrophic. Besides, species richness positively correlated with DO, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. The results

  3. Numerical Investigation Into Effect of Fuel Injection Timing on CAI/HCCI Combustion in a Four-Stroke GDI Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Zhao, Hua; Jiang, Xi; Kalian, Navin

    2006-02-01

    The Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) combustion, also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), was achieved by trapping residuals with early exhaust valve closure in conjunction with direct injection. Multi-cycle 3D engine simulations have been carried out for parametric study on four different injection timings in order to better understand the effects of injection timings on in-cylinder mixing and CAI combustion. The full engine cycle simulation including complete gas exchange and combustion processes was carried out over several cycles in order to obtain the stable cycle for analysis. The combustion models used in the present study are the Shell auto-ignition model and the characteristic-time combustion model, which were modified to take the high level of EGR into consideration. A liquid sheet breakup spray model was used for the droplet breakup processes. The analyses show that the injection timing plays an important role in affecting the in-cylinder air/fuel mixing and mixture temperature, which in turn affects the CAI combustion and engine performance.

  4. Heterogeneities of the shear wave attenuation field in the lithosphere of East Tien Shan and their relationship with seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopnichev, Yu. F.; Sokolova, I. N.

    2012-02-01

    The shear wave attenuation field in the lithosphere of Eastern Tien Shan has been mapped. The method based on analysis of the ratio between amplitudes of Sn and Pn waves was used. On aggregate, about 120 seismograms made at the Makanchi station (MKAR), mainly in the period of 2003-2009, at epicentral distances of about 350-1200 km were analyzed. It was found that shear wave attenuation in the lithosphere of Eastern Tien Shan is weaker than that in the region of Central Tien Shan. This agrees with the fact that the rate of deformation of the Earth's crust in Eastern Tien Shan is lower (based on GPS data), as is the seismicity level, in comparison to Central Tien Shan. The zones of high attenuation, where strong earthquakes with M > 7.0 have not occurred for the last 200 years, have been identified: first of all, these are the area west of Urumqi and that of the Lop Nur test site. It is suggested that in the first zone, where an annular seismicity structure has formed over the last 30 years, a strong earthquake may be being prepared. The second zone is most probably related to the uplift of mantle fluids resulting from a long-term intensive technogenic effect, analogous to what has occurred in areas of other nuclear test sites (Nevada and Semipalatinsk).

  5. Development of Petrov glacial-lake system (Tien Shan and outburst risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Torgoev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Global climate warming causes an intensive melting and retreat of glaciers in the Tien Shan mountains. Melting water of glaciers causes overfilling of high mountain lakes. The increase of the surface and volume of the Petrov Lake accompanied with the decrease of stability of the dam represents an extremely dangerous situation that can produce a natural disaster. Failure can happen due to erosion, a buildup of water pressure, an earthquake or if a large enough portion of a glacier breaks off and massively displaces the waters in a glacial lake at its base. In case of the lake dam rupture, flooding of a disposal site of highly toxic tailing from the gold mine Kumtor is a threat. If this happens, the toxic waste containing cyanides would contaminate a large area in the Naryn (Syrdarya river basin. Even if the flooding of the disposal site does not occur, the damage after lake dam fracture will be immense due to the glacial lake outburst flood may be a devastating mudslide. In order to prevent or reduce the risk of this event we recommend performing engineering surveys for the development and implementation of the project for the controlled reduction of water level in the Blue Bay of the Petrov Lake to a safe volume.

  6. Seismic triggering of landslides, Part A: Field evidence from the Northern Tien Shan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenith, H.-B.; Strom, A.; Jongmans, D.; Abdrakhmatov, A.; Delvaux, D.; Tréfois, P.

    Landslides triggered by strong earthquakes often caused most of the global damage and most of all casualties related to the events, such as shown by the M = 7.7 Peru earthquake in 1970, by the M = 7.6 El Salvador earthquake in 2001 or by the M = 7.4 Khait (Tajikistan) earthquake in 1949. The obvious impact of a landslide on the population is directly related to its movement. Yet, prediction of future failure potential and hence future risk to population is necessary in order to avoid further catastrophes and involves the analyses of the origin of seismic instability. The seismic landslide potential is mainly determined by the interaction between the regional seismic hazard and local geological conditions. At a local scale, seismic factors interfering with geological conditions can produce site-specific ground motions. The influence of such Site Effects on instability is the principal topic of this paper, which is divided into two parts, A and B. The present Part A is concerned with the correlation of field data with observed instability phenomena. Field data were obtained on mainly three landslide sites in the Northern Tien Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. Geophysical prospecting, earthquake recordings, geological observation, trenching and geotechnical tests were the main investigation tools. The collected information gives an insight in the geological background of the slope failure and allows us to roughly infer failure mechanisms from field evidence. A detailed analysis of the susceptibility of a mechanism to specific geological conditions will be shown in Part B.

  7. Seismic triggering of landslides, Part A: Field evidence from the Northern Tien Shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-B. Havenith

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides triggered by strong earthquakes often caused most of the global damage and most of all casualties related to the events, such as shown by the M = 7.7 Peru earthquake in 1970, by the M = 7.6 El Salvador earthquake in 2001 or by the M = 7.4 Khait (Tajikistan earthquake in 1949. The obvious impact of a landslide on the population is directly related to its movement. Yet, prediction of future failure potential and hence future risk to population is necessary in order to avoid further catastrophes and involves the analyses of the origin of seismic instability. The seismic landslide potential is mainly determined by the interaction between the regional seismic hazard and local geological conditions. At a local scale, seismic factors interfering with geological conditions can produce site-specific ground motions. The influence of such Site Effects on instability is the principal topic of this paper, which is divided into two parts, A and B. The present Part A is concerned with the correlation of field data with observed instability phenomena. Field data were obtained on mainly three landslide sites in the Northern Tien Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. Geophysical prospecting, earthquake recordings, geological observation, trenching and geotechnical tests were the main investigation tools. The collected information gives an insight in the geological background of the slope failure and allows us to roughly infer failure mechanisms from field evidence. A detailed analysis of the susceptibility of a mechanism to specific geological conditions will be shown in Part B.

  8. CO-Bridged H-Cluster Intermediates in the Catalytic Mechanism of [FeFe]-Hydrogenase CaI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzloff, Michael W; Artz, Jacob H; Mulder, David W; Collins, Reuben T; Furtak, Thomas E; King, Paul W

    2018-06-20

    The [FeFe]-hydrogenases ([FeFe] H 2 ases) catalyze reversible H 2 activation at the H-cluster, which is composed of a [4Fe-4S] H subsite linked by a cysteine thiolate to a bridged, organometallic [2Fe-2S] ([2Fe] H ) subsite. Profoundly different geometric models of the H-cluster redox states that orchestrate the electron/proton transfer steps of H 2 bond activation have been proposed. We have examined this question in the [FeFe] H 2 ase I from Clostridium acetobutylicum (CaI) by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with temperature annealing and H/D isotope exchange to identify the relevant redox states and define catalytic transitions. One-electron reduction of H ox led to formation of H red H + ([4Fe-4S] H 2+ -Fe I -Fe I ) and H red ' ([4Fe-4S] H 1+ -Fe II -Fe I ), with both states characterized by low frequency μ-CO IR modes consistent with a fully bridged [2Fe] H . Similar μ-CO IR modes were also identified for H red H + of the [FeFe] H 2 ase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrHydA1). The CaI proton-transfer variant C298S showed enrichment of an H/D isotope-sensitive μ-CO mode, a component of the hydride bound H-cluster IR signal, H hyd . Equilibrating CaI with increasing amounts of NaDT, and probed at cryogenic temperatures, showed H red H + was converted to H hyd . Over an increasing temperature range from 10 to 260 K catalytic turnover led to loss of H hyd and appearance of H ox , consistent with enzymatic turnover and H 2 formation. The results show for CaI that the μ-CO of [2Fe] H remains bridging for all of the "H red " states and that H red H + is on pathway to H hyd and H 2 evolution in the catalytic mechanism. These results provide a blueprint for designing small molecule catalytic analogs.

  9. Inhibition of metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Andy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advanced cancer is a multifactorial disease that demands treatments targeting multiple cellular pathways. Chinese herbal cocktail which contains various phytochemicals may target multiple dys-regulated pathways in cancer cells and thus may provide an alternative/complementary way to treat cancers. Previously we reported that the Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liguid (THL can specifically induce apoptosis in various cancer cells and have immuno-modulating activity. In this study, we further evaluated the anti-metastatic, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of THL with a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods The migration and invasion of cancer cells and endothelial cells was determined by Boyden chamber transwell assays. The effect of THL on pulmonary metastasis was done by injecting CT-26 colon cancer cells intravenously to syngenic mice. The in vitro and in vivo microvessel formation was determined by the tube formation assay and the Matrigel plug assay, respectively. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of THL was determined by a human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. The expression of metalloproteinase (MMP-2, MMP-9, and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA was measured by gelatin zymography. The expression of HIF-1α and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were determined by Western blot. Results THL inhibited the migration and invasion ability of various cancer cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA and the activity of ERK1/2 in cancer cells, and suppressed pulmonary metastasis of CT-26 cancer cells in syngenic mice. Moreover, THL inhibited the migration, invasion, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2 and uPA in endothelial cells, and suppressed neovascularization in Matrigel plugs in mice. Besides its inhibitory effect on endothelial cells, THL inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression

  10. Inhibition of metastasis, angiogenesis, and tumor growth by Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, Jean-San; Du, Jia-Ling; Hsu, Wei-Bin; Sun, Andy; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Wang, Won-Bo

    2010-01-01

    Advanced cancer is a multifactorial disease that demands treatments targeting multiple cellular pathways. Chinese herbal cocktail which contains various phytochemicals may target multiple dys-regulated pathways in cancer cells and thus may provide an alternative/complementary way to treat cancers. Previously we reported that the Chinese herbal cocktail Tien-Hsien Liguid (THL) can specifically induce apoptosis in various cancer cells and have immuno-modulating activity. In this study, we further evaluated the anti-metastatic, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of THL with a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. The migration and invasion of cancer cells and endothelial cells was determined by Boyden chamber transwell assays. The effect of THL on pulmonary metastasis was done by injecting CT-26 colon cancer cells intravenously to syngenic mice. The in vitro and in vivo microvessel formation was determined by the tube formation assay and the Matrigel plug assay, respectively. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of THL was determined by a human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. The expression of metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) was measured by gelatin zymography. The expression of HIF-1α and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were determined by Western blot. THL inhibited the migration and invasion ability of various cancer cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA and the activity of ERK1/2 in cancer cells, and suppressed pulmonary metastasis of CT-26 cancer cells in syngenic mice. Moreover, THL inhibited the migration, invasion, and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro, decreased the secretion of MMP-2 and uPA in endothelial cells, and suppressed neovascularization in Matrigel plugs in mice. Besides its inhibitory effect on endothelial cells, THL inhibited hypoxia-induced HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in cancer cells. Finally, our results show that THL

  11. Autonomous geodynamics of the Pamir-Tien Shan junction zone from seismology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukk, A. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.; Leonova, V. G.

    2015-11-01

    The geodynamics of the Tajik Depression, the junction zone of the Pamirs and Tien Shan, is typically considered in the context of plate tectonic concept, which implies intense subhorizontal compression of the zone resulting from the subduction of the Indian and Eurasian lithospheric plates. This convergence has been reliably confirmed by the GPS measurements. However, the joint analysis of the geological structure, seismicity, and geodimeter measurements conducted during a few years at the Garm geodynamical testing site of the Schmidt Institute of Physics of the Earth, Russian Academy of Sciences, demonstrates a widening of the Tajik Depression instead of its shortening, as should be expected from the subhorizontal compression predominant in the present-day stress-state of this region. This conclusion, together with the data from the other regions, suggests that, along with the plate tectonic mechanisms, there are also other, local, autonomous drivers that contribute to the tectogenesis of this region. Besides, the probable existence of these autonomous sources within the Tajik Depression directly follows from the seismology data. Among them is the crustal spreading within the depression suggested by the seismotectonic displacements in the focal mechanisms of the earthquakes. These displacements are directed in different azimuths off the axial's most subsided part of the depression at a depth of 20-30 km. Above this region the distribution of seismotectonic deformations (STD) is chaotic. This pattern of deformation is barely accounted for by a simple model of subhorizontal compression of the Earth's crust in the region. In our opinion, these features of the seismotectonic deformation in the crust within the studied part of the Tajik Depression is probably associated with the gain in the volume of the rocks due to the inflow of the additional material, which is supplied from the bottom crust or upper mantle by the deep fluids. This increase in the rock volume

  12. CaI and SrI molecules for iodine determination by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry: Greener molecules for practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Melina Borges Teixeira; Nakadi, Flávio Venâncio; da Veiga, Márcia Andreia Mesquita Silva

    2018-03-01

    A new method to determine iodine in drug samples by high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF MAS) has been developed. The method measures the molecular absorption of a diatomic molecule, CaI or SrI (less toxic molecule-forming reagents), at 638.904 or 677.692nm, respectively, and uses a mixture containing 5μg of Pd and 0.5μg of Mg as chemical modifier. The method employs pyrolysis temperatures of 1000 and 800°C and vaporization temperatures of 2300 and 2400°C for CaI and SrI, respectively. The optimized amounts of Ca and Sr as molecule-forming reagents are 100 and 150µg, respectively. On the basis of interference studies, even small chlorine concentrations reduce CaI and SrI absorbance significantly. The developed method was used to analyze different commercial drug samples, namely thyroid hormone pills with three different iodine amounts (15.88, 31.77, and 47.66µg) and one liquid drug with 1% m v -1 active iodine in their compositions. The results agreed with the values informed by the manufacturers (95% confidence level) regardless of whether CaI or SrI was determined. Therefore, the developed method is useful for iodine determination on the basis of CaI or SrI molecular absorption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of meteorological data and the surface energy balance of Keqicar Glacier, Tien Shan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, S.; Fujita, K.; Han, H.; Li, J.

    2009-04-01

    Northwestern China currently experiences a climate change with fundamental consequences for the hydrological cycle. In the strongly arid region where water resources are essential for agriculture and food production, glaciers represent important water resources, contributing significantly to streamflow. The debris is an important glaciological feature of the region and has major impact on melt rates. It is essential to understand and quantify the interaction of climate and sub-debris melt in order to assess the current situation and to predict future water yield. Note that the surface energy balance determines glacier melt. However, little is known about the variability characteristics of the surface energy fluxes in this region. For this reason, we set up two automatic weather stuation (AWSs) in the ablation area of Keqicar Glacier. Keqicar Glacier is located in the Tarim River basin (largest inland river basin in China), southwestern Tien Shan, China. It is a representative debris-covered glacier with a length of 26.0 km and a total surface area of 83.6 km2. The thickness of the debris layer varies from 0.0 to 2.50 m in general. In some places large rocks are piled up to several meters. In this study, we report on analysis of meteorological data for the period 1 July-13 September 2003, from two automatic weather stations, aimed at studying the relationship between climate and ablation. One station is located on the lower part of the ablation area where the glacier is covered by debris layer, and the other near the equilibrium line altitude (ELA). All sensors were sampled every 10 seconds, and data were stored as hourly averages. The stations were visited regularly for maintenance at two weeks intervals depending on the weather conditions and location of the AWS. A total of 17 ablation stakes were drilled into the glacier at different elevations to monitor glacier melt during the study period. Readings were taken regularly in connection with AWS maintenance. The

  14. De l’utopie socialiste au réalisme chrétien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Richet

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Le New Deal est le premier mouvement réformiste d’ampleur dans l’histoire des Etats‑Unis qui n’ait pas été inspiré, ni soutenu, par les forces du protestantisme. Si une majorité des protestants et de leur clergé se sont opposés au New Deal à partir de positions conservatrices, le théologien Reinhold Niebuhr en a développé au départ une virulente critique de gauche avant de finalement rallier le président démocrate à la fin des années trente. Nourrie par le rejet de l’idéalisme du Social Gospel, incapable à ses yeux de comprendre les rapports sociaux en terme de classe et de pouvoir, la critique de Niebuhr emprunte les outils d’analyse marxistes pour développer une approche réaliste, tant du point de vue des fins que des moyens de la lutte politique. Le New Deal lui apparaît avant tout comme un programme visant à sauver le capitalisme, alors que la société fondée sur la justice qu’il envisage passe par la socialisation des moyens de production qui ne pourra émerger qu’à travers des conflits sociaux au cours desquels les moyens de lutte même violents sont justifiés. Mais sous l’influence des évènements en Europe au lendemain de la victoire d’Hitler, Reinhold Niebuhr se tourne au milieu des années trente vers une réflexion théologique inspirée de l’orthodoxie de Karl Barth et de son frère Richard Niebuhr, qui l’amène à réintroduire le péché comme la limite absolue de toute l’expérience humaine, interdisant d’envisager la création d’une société de paix et de justice. Ce nouvel absolutisme théologique nourrit un relativisme politique, le réalisme chrétien consistant désormais à choisir la moins mauvaise des options en présence. De ce point de vue, le président démocrate qui appelle à la préparation militaire s’impose désormais comme le choix le plus réaliste face à la montée du fascisme en Europe.The New Deal was the first major reformist experiment in the

  15. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with fractionation and unidentified nuclear effects (FUN CAIs): II. Heterogeneities of magnesium isotopes and 26Al in the early Solar System inferred from in situ high-precision magnesium-isotope measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changkun; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.; Huss, Gary R.; Davis, Andrew M.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions with isotopic mass fractionation effects and unidentified nuclear isotopic anomalies (FUN CAIs) have been studied for more than 40 years, but their origins remain enigmatic. Here we report in situ high precision measurements of aluminum-magnesium isotope systematics of FUN CAIs by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Individual minerals were analyzed in six FUN CAIs from the oxidized CV3 carbonaceous chondrites Axtell (compact Type A CAI Axtell 2271) and Allende (Type B CAIs C1 and EK1-4-1, and forsterite-bearing Type B CAIs BG82DH8, CG-14, and TE). Most of these CAIs show evidence for excess 26Mg due to the decay of 26Al. The inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios [(26Al/27Al)0] and the initial magnesium isotopic compositions (δ26Mg0) calculated using an exponential law with an exponent β of 0.5128 are (3.1 ± 1.6) × 10-6 and 0.60 ± 0.10‰ (Axtell 2271), (3.7 ± 1.5) × 10-6 and -0.20 ± 0.05‰ (BG82DH8), (2.2 ± 1.1) × 10-6 and -0.18 ± 0.05‰ (C1), (2.3 ± 2.4) × 10-5 and -2.23 ± 0.37‰ (EK1-4-1), (1.5 ± 1.1) × 10-5 and -0.42 ± 0.08‰ (CG-14), and (5.3 ± 0.9) × 10-5 and -0.05 ± 0.08‰ (TE) with 2σ uncertainties. We infer that FUN CAIs recorded heterogeneities of magnesium isotopes and 26Al in the CAI-forming region(s). Comparison of 26Al-26Mg systematics, stable isotope (oxygen, magnesium, calcium, and titanium) and trace element studies of FUN and non-FUN igneous CAIs indicates that there is a continuum among these CAI types. Based on these observations and evaporation experiments on CAI-like melts, we propose a generic scenario for the origin of igneous (FUN and non-FUN) CAIs: (i) condensation of isotopically normal solids in an 16O-rich gas of approximately solar composition; (ii) formation of CAI precursors by aggregation of these solids together with variable abundances of isotopically anomalous grains-possible carriers of unidentified nuclear (UN) effects; and (iii) melt evaporation of these precursors

  16. Perceptions on hospitality when visiting secluded communities of guaranis, caiçaras e quilombolas in Paraty region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Beares

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism in secluded communities puts different cultures in contact with each other and must be handled carefully not to cause environmental damage as well as cultural loss which might jeopardize the local development and create hostile relationships. The proposal of in sito tourism, considering the local memory and patrimony as a hospitality potential, was observed during technical visitations to three communities located in the Paraty region and surroundings: Guarani, Caiçara (fishermen and Quilombola(African slaves descendants. Through field work involving visitations to communities and interviews with locals, information regarding cultural differences and the importance of the land occupation in the history of each of the communities was assessed. The common link in the history of these peoples is the struggle for the right of land possession. During visits when people shared their territory various forms of hospitality in each community were verified, issued from different cultures and cultural values.

  17. An Evaluation of the Cognitive and Affective Performance of an Integrated Set of CAI Materials in the Principles of Macroeconomics. Studies in Economic Education, No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daellenbach, Lawrence A.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on the cognitive and affective development of college students enrolled in a principles of macroeconomics course. The hypotheses of the experiment were stated as follows: In relation to the traditional principles course, the experimental treatment will…

  18. 《采薇》的叙事伦理分析%Narrative Ethics of Cai Wei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕

    2014-01-01

    The controversial dilemma of how to understand Boyi, Shuqi in Luxun’ s novel Cai Wei, it is not a realistic ethical problem, which should be based on the novel's narrative ethics to answer. Narrative ethics refers to various forms of arrangement of ethical dimension revealed. Novel manifests sympathy ethics to Boyi, Shu Qi through the narrative angle choice and narrative distance controlling. Also, by the counterpoint to character, event and ironic expression in structure, novel conveys the ethics excluding to all sorts of characters from emperor Zhouwu to A Jin. Compared to other “Generational change” theme novels of Luxun, the complication of narrative ethics of Cai Wei not only is the projection of reality, but also reflects the further conscious to narrative art of Luxun.%《采薇》中颇有争议的“如何理解伯夷、叔齐”这一难点,并不是一个现实伦理问题,而应依据小说的叙事伦理来解答。叙事伦理即各种形式安排透露出的伦理维度。小说通过叙事角度的选择与叙事距离的控制体现出对伯夷、叔齐的伦理同情,而由结构上的人物对位与事件对位及反讽表达的是对自周武王至阿金诸色人物的伦理拒斥。与前期同是“易代”主题的小说相比,《采薇》叙事伦理的复杂化既是现实的投射,也体现了鲁迅对于小说叙事艺术的进一步自觉。

  19. A New Type of Foreign Clast in A Polymict Ureilite: A CAI or AL-Rich Chondrule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Ross, D. K.; Treiman, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Polymict ureilites are breccias interpreted to represent regolith formed on a ureilitic asteroid [1-3]. They consist of approximately 90-95% clasts of various ureilite types (olivine-pyroxene rocks with Fo 75-95), a few % indigenous feldspathic clasts, and a few % foreign clasts [4-20]. The foreign clasts are diverse, including fragments of H, L, LL and R chondrites, angrites, other achondrites, and dark clasts similar to CC [6,7,9-19]. We report a new type of foreign clast in polymict ureilite DaG 999. Methods: Clast 8 in Dar al Gani (DaG) 999/1 (Museum fur Naturkunde) was discovered during a survey of feldspathic clasts in polymict ureilites [19,20]. It was studied by BEI, EMPA, and X-ray mapping on the JEOL 8530F electron microprobe at ARES, JSC. Petrography and Mineral Compositions: Clast 8 is sub-rounded to irregular in shape, approximately 85 micrometers in diameter, and consists of approximately 68% pyroxene and 32% mesostasis (by area). Part of the pyroxene (top half of clast in Fig. 1a and 2) shows a coarse dendritic morphology; the rest appears massive. Mesostasis may be glassy and contains fine needles/grains of pyroxene. The pyroxene has very high CaO (23.5 wt.%) and Al2O3 (19.7 wt.%), with the formula: (Ca(0.91)Mg(0.63)Fe(0.01)Al(sup VI) (0.38)Cr(0.01)Ti(0.05)1.99 Si2O6. The bulk mesostasis also has very high Al2O3 (approximately 26 wt.%). A bulk composition for the clast was obtained by combining modal abundances with phase compositions (Table 1, Fig. 3). Discussion: The pyroxene in clast 8 has a Ca-Al-(Ti)- rich (fassaitic) composition that is clearly distinct from compositions of pyroxenes in main group ureilites [22] or indigenous feldspathic clasts in polymict ureilites [4-8]. It also has significantly higher Al than fassaite in angrites (up to approximately 12 wt.% [23]), which occur as xenoliths in polymict ureilites. Ca-Al-Ti rich pyroxenes are most commonly found in CAIs, Al-rich chondrules and other types of refractory

  20. La falta de financiacion publica hipoteca el futuro del acelerador de protones valenciano. La Universidad de Valencia tiene avanzado el diseno de este dispositivo de alta tecnologia

    CERN Multimedia

    Jatvia, J M

    2002-01-01

    "La Universidad de Valencia tiene avanzado el diseno de un acelerador lineal de protones, cuya culminacion depende del compromiso del Consell en sufragar la plantilla que necesitaria el centro para estar operativo" (1 page).

  1. Du neuf dans les relations de l'Église orthodoxe avec les autres chrétiens

    OpenAIRE

    Famerée, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Cette note évoque quatre réunions scientifiques (Athènes, Chambésy, Thessalonique, Iasi) qui, coup sur coup, de mai 2013 à mai 2014, ont permis à des Orthodoxes d’échanger avec d’autres chrétiens, catholiques notamment, sur des sujets théologiques et œcuméniques importants pour l’évolution des différentes Églises. Une nouvelle génération de théologiens orthodoxes se lève, osant parler librement à propos de leur Église et montrer l’écart entre l’Orthodoxie idéale et l’Orthodoxie réelle, spécia...

  2. New Petrology, Mineral Chemistry and Stable MG Isotope Compositions of an Allende CAI: EK-459-7-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Lapen, T. J.; Righter, M.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the key to understanding physical and chemical conditions in the nascent solar nebula. These inclusions have the oldest radiometric ages of solar system materials and are composed of phases that are predicted to condense early from a gas of solar composition. Thus, their chemistry and textures record conditions and processes in the earliest stages of development of the solar nebula. Type B inclusions are typically larger and more coarse grained than other types with substantial evidence that many of them were at least partially molten. Type B inclusions are further subdivided into Type B1 (possess thick melilite mantle) and Type B2 (lack melilite mantle). Despite being extensively studied, the origin of the melilite mantles of Type B1 inclusions remains uncertain. We present petrologic and chemical data for a Type B inclusion, EK-459-7-2, that bears features found in both Type B1 and B2 inclusions and likely represents an intermediate between the two types. Detailed studies of more of these intermediate objects may help to constrain models for Type B1 rim formation.

  3. Une catastrophe glorieuse : le martyre des premiers chrétiens du Japon, Nagasaki, 1597

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Jacquelard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Le naufrage du galion San Felipe dans le port de Urado (Shikoku, Japon en octobre 1596 fut le déclencheur d’un désastre missionnaire : le martyre de vingt-six chrétiens, franciscains espagnols et chrétiens japonais, à Nagasaki, le 5 février 1597. Cet article s’attache à examiner la relation dialectique entre les deux événements par l’étude de deux discours missionnaires franciscains hagiographiques. Il s’agit tout d’abord de rappeler la lecture providentialiste du temps à travers la perception de présages matériels et spirituels de la part des acteurs, puis de montrer que ces évènements paroxystiques révèlent en même temps qu’ils résolvent – temporairement – des tensions et des crises latentes, résultat de la confrontation entre plusieurs communautés culturelles comme la japonaise, l’espagnole et la portugaise, autour de prétentions géopolitiques, commerciales et religieuses dans cette zone de frontière de l’antiméridien du Pacifique nord.El naufragio del galeón San Felipe en el puerto de Urado (Shikoku, Japón en octubre de 1596 desembocó en un desastre misionero : el martirio de veintiséis cristianos, franciscanos españoles y cristianos japoneses, en Nagasaki, el 5 de febrero de 1597. Este artículo quiere examinar la relación dialéctica entre ambos acontecimientos, mediante el estudio de dos discursos misioneros franciscanos hagiográficos. Se trata de recordar primero la lectura providencialista de la época a través de la percepción de presagios tanto materiales como espirituales por parte de los actores, y mostrar luego que estos acontecimientos paroxísticos revelan, al mismo tiempo que resuelven –temporalmente– tensiones y crisis latentes, resultados de la confrontación de varias comunidades culturales como la japonesa, la española y la portuguesa, en torno a pretensiones geopolíticas, comerciales y religiosas en la zona fronteriza del antimeridiano del Pacífico norte.

  4. Tectonically controlled relief evolution in the Northern Tien Shan and Junggar Alatau from the Eocene to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, N.; Kley, J.; Voigt, T.; Kober, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Cenozoic Tien Shan and Junggar Alatau mountains developed on the southern part of the Paleozoic Altaid orogen as a far-field effect of the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates. Highland terrain, active seismicity, and fast GPS-derived motions are evidence of rapid ongoing mountain growth today. Variations in relief energy, hight-to-width ratio of ranges and apatite fission track (AFT) exhumation ages suggest they rose at different times. The strong dissection of the higher ridges (heights of up to 2km), indicates an earlier onset and higher rates of uplift. At the other end of the spectrum are low, little dissected ridges. According to AFT ages, exhumation in the Junggar Range began at 9 Ma (Jolivet et al., 2010), circa 11 Ma in the central Kyrgyz Range (Sobel et al., 2006) and 10 Ma in the Terskey Alatau. An AFT age of the low Sogety range is 77 Ma, suggesting that the Cenozic exhumation of the ridge was insufficient to expose rocks from below c.3 km depth. The synclinal lows between the basement highs preserve Cenozoic strata of Eocene to Quaternary age, probably deposited in a once continuous basin (the Ili Basin) and recording the entire history of Tien Shan uplift. Facies pattern of proximal alluvial fans are strictly related to the recent higher mountain areas in the north and in the south. During Middle Miocene, a large lake developed in the basin center. Up to the Middle Miocene sedimentation was accompanied by normal faulting of small magnitude. The main Cenozoic folding and thrusting occurred after that time and before deposition of the Chorgos formation. Shortening was accommodated by reactivation of inherited basement structures, by a switch to reverse or strike-slip motion on normal faults, and the nucleation of new thrusts. The majority of faults which emplace basement rocks over upper Cenozoic sediments dip steeply at angles of 60-70˚, and some have throws of more than 200 m. They are marked by topographic steps and contrasting morphology

  5. Sexual life and sexual wellness in individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome (MRKHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Brunner, Franziska; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara Y; Briken, Peer; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2014-03-01

    Sexual wellness depends on a person's physical and psychological constitution. Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS) and Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome (MRKHS) can compromise sexual well-being. To compare sexual well-being in CAIS and MRKHS using multiple measures: To assess sexual problems and perceived distress. To gain insight into participants' feelings of inadequacy in social and sexual situations, level of self-esteem and depression. To determine how these psychological factors relate to sexual (dys)function. To uncover what participants see as the source of their sexual problems. Data were collected using a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Eleven individuals with CAIS and 49 with MRKHS with/without neovagina treatment were included. Rates of sexual dysfunctions, overall sexual function, feelings of inadequacy in social and sexual situations, self-esteem and depression scores were calculated. Categorizations were used to identify critical cases. Correlations between psychological variables and sexual function were computed. Sexually active subjects were compared with sexually not active participants. A qualitative content analysis was carried out to explore causes of sexual problems. An extended list of sexual problems based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text revision, by the American Psychiatric Association and related distress. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), German Questionnaire on Feelings of Inadequacy in Social and Sexual Situations (FUSS social scale, FUSS sexual scale), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) subscale depression. Open question on alleged causes of sexual problems. The results point to a far-reaching lack of sexual confidence and sexual satisfaction in CAIS. In MRKHS apprehension in sexual situations is a source of distress, but sexual problems seem to be more focused on issues of vaginal functioning. MRKHS women report being satisfied with their

  6. Adaptation of an aerosol retrieval algorithm using multi-wavelength and multi-pixel information of satellites (MWPM) to GOSAT/TANSO-CAI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, M.; Takenaka, H.; Higurashi, A.; Nakajima, T.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosol in the atmosphere is an important constituent for determining the earth's radiation budget, so the accurate aerosol retrievals from satellite is useful. We have developed a satellite remote sensing algorithm to retrieve the aerosol optical properties using multi-wavelength and multi-pixel information of satellite imagers (MWPM). The method simultaneously derives aerosol optical properties, such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT), single scattering albedo (SSA) and aerosol size information, by using spatial difference of wavelegths (multi-wavelength) and surface reflectances (multi-pixel). The method is useful for aerosol retrieval over spatially heterogeneous surface like an urban region. In this algorithm, the inversion method is a combination of an optimal method and smoothing constraint for the state vector. Furthermore, this method has been combined with the direct radiation transfer calculation (RTM) numerically solved by each iteration step of the non-linear inverse problem, without using look up table (LUT) with several constraints. However, it takes too much computation time. To accelerate the calculation time, we replaced the RTM with an accelerated RTM solver learned by neural network-based method, EXAM (Takenaka et al., 2011), using Rster code. And then, the calculation time was shorternd to about one thouthandth. We applyed MWPM combined with EXAM to GOSAT/TANSO-CAI (Cloud and Aerosol Imager). CAI is a supplement sensor of TANSO-FTS, dedicated to measure cloud and aerosol properties. CAI has four bands, 380, 674, 870 and 1600 nm, and observes in 500 meters resolution for band1, band2 and band3, and 1.5 km for band4. Retrieved parameters are aerosol optical properties, such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT) of fine and coarse mode particles at a wavelenth of 500nm, a volume soot fraction in fine mode particles, and ground surface albedo of each observed wavelength by combining a minimum reflectance method and Fukuda et al. (2013). We will show

  7. Los orígenes del grial en la literatura medieval: de Chrétien de Troyes a Robert de Boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Martín Botero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra el origen literario del tema del Grial en la literatura medieval francesa, abordando dos textos esenciales para el surgimiento y consolidación de la “literatura del Grial”: Le Conte du Graal de Chrétien de Troyes y Le Roman de l’Estoire dou Graal de Robert de Boron. Los autores de estas obras establecen las bases para el desarrollo de toda una temática que gira alrededor del Grial a partir del siglo XII hasta nuestros días. El artículo muestra cómo de un objeto apenas sagrado en el texto de Chrétien de Troyes se pasa a una reliquia de la sangre de Cristo en la versión de Robert de Boron.This paper studies the literary origin of the Grail legend in medieval French literature, taking into account two important romances: Le Conte du Graal by Chrétien de Troyes and Le Roman de l’Estoire dou Graal by Robert de Boron. In these two texts the authors established the basis for the development of a new subject matter around the mysterious object called “Grail” from the Middle Ages to the present times. It will also be shown how an object, not totally sacred in Chrétien de Troyes, becomes a relic related with Jesus’s blood in Robert de Boron.

  8. 電腦輔助教學與個別教學結合: 電腦輔助教學課堂應用初探 Computer-Assisted Instruction Under the Management of Individualized Instruction: A Classroom Management Approach of CAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny S. J. Lin

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available 無First reviews the development of Computer. Assisted Instruction (CAI in Taiwan. This study describes the training of teachers from different levels of schools to design CAI coursewares, and the planning of CAI courseware bank possesses 2,000 supplemental coursewares. Some CAI's c1assroom application system should be carefully established to prevent the easy abuse of a CAI courseware as an instructional plan. The study also claims to steer CAI in our elemantary and secondary education could rely on the mastery learning as the instructional plan. In this case, CAI must limit its role as the formative test and remedial material only. In the higher education , the Keller's Personalized System of Instruction could be an effective c1assroom management system. Therefore, CAI will offer study guide and formative test only. Using these 2 instructional system may enhance student's achievement , and speed up the learning rate at the same time. Combining with individualized instruction and CAI will be one of the most workable approach in current c1assroom . The author sets up an experiment 10 varify their effectiveness and efficiency in the near future.

  9. The possibility of controlled auto-ignition (CAI) in gasoline engine and gas to liquid (GTL) as a fuel of diesel engine in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, D. [Korea Inst. of Machinery and Materials, Daejou (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    A significant challenge grows from the ever-increasing demands for the optimization of performance, emissions, fuel economy and drivability. The most powerful technologies in the near future to improve these factors are believed Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) in gasoline engine and Gas to Liquid (GTL) as a fuel of Diesel engine. In recent years there has been an increasing trend to use more complex valvetrain designs from traditional camshaft driven mechanical systems to camless electromagnetic or electrohydraulic solutions. Comparing to fixed valve actuation systems, variable valve actuation (VVA) should be powerful to optimize the engine cycle. The matching of valve events to the engine performance and to emission requirements at a given engine or vehicle operating condition can be further optimized to the Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) in gasoline engine, which has benefits in NOx emission, fuel consumption, combustion stability and intake throttle load. In case of Diesel engine, the increasing demands for NOx and soot emission reduction have introduced aftertreatment technologies recently, but been in need of basic solution for the future, such as a super clean fuel like Gas to Liquid (GTL), which has benefits in comparability to diesel fuel, independency from crude oil and reduction of CO, THC and soot emissions. Korea looks to the future with these kinds of technologies, and tries to find the possibility for reaching the future targets in the internal combustion engine. (orig.)

  10. Crystal Growth and Scintillation Properties of Eu2+ doped Cs4CaI6 and Cs4SrI6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stand, L.; Zhuravleva, M.; Chakoumakos, B.; Johnson, J.; Loyd, M.; Wu, Y.; Koschan, M.; Melcher, C. L.

    2018-03-01

    In this work we present the crystal growth and scintillation properties of two new ternarymetal halide scintillators activated with divalent europium, Cs4CaI6 and Cs4SrI6. Single crystals of each compound were grown in evacuated quartz ampoules via the vertical Bridgman technique using a two-zone transparent furnace. Single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments showed that both crystals have a trigonal (R-3c) structure, with a density of 3.99 g/cm3 and 4.03 g/cm3. The radioluminescence and photoluminescence measurements showed typical luminescence properties due to the 5d-4f radiative transitions in Eu2+. At this early stage of development Cs4SrI6:Eu and Cs4CaI6:Eu have shown very promising scintillation properties, with light yields and energy resolutions of 62,300 ph/MeV and 3.3%, and 51,800 photons/MeV and 3.6% at 662 keV, respectively.

  11. Conhecimento e uso de plantas em uma comunidade caiçara do litoral sul do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Knowledge and use of plants in a Caiçara community located on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Borges

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A Área de Proteção Ambiental de Cairuçu (APA localiza-se no município de Paraty, RJ. É uma unidade de conservação de uso sustentável e dispõe-se a proteger o ambiente natural e as comunidades caiçaras da região. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar um inventário etnobotânico das plantas conhecidas e utilizadas pela comunidade caiçara que habita a praia de Martim de Sá. Moram no local 30 pessoas das quais 10 foram entrevistadas. As informações etnobotânicas foram obtidas através da observação participante e entrevistas semi-estruturadas. O material botânico coletado foi depositado no Herbário do Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro (RB. Foram identificadas 76 espécies pertencentes a 59 gêneros e 30 famílias botânicas consideradas úteis pelos caiçaras. As três espécies mais citadas foram: Sloanea obtusifolia (Sapopema, Scherolobium denudatum (Ingá-ferro e Balizia pedicelaris (Timbuíba. Utilizou-se o Índice de Shannon (H' = 1,81 - base 10 para a análise da diversidade de espécies. O registro sobre o uso dos recursos vegetais na comunidade estudada fornece informações que podem ser utilizadas para programas de conservação baseados no conhecimento local do ambiente.The Cairuçu Environmental Protection Area (APA was created to help assure the protection of the natural environment and its sustainable use by the caiçara communities in the region. This work presents an ethnobotanical inventory of the plants known and used by the caiçara community living on Martim de Sá beach in Paraty municipality, RJ. Thirty people live in the locality and ten of them were interviewed. Ethnobotanical information was obtained through participatory observations and semi-structured interviews with the local residents. All botanical material collected was deposited in the herbarium of the Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro (RB. A total of 76 species belonging to 59 genera and 30

  12. Permian charnockites in the Pobeda area: Implications for Tarim mantle plume activity and HT metamorphism in the South Tien Shan range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loury, Chloé; Rolland, Yann; Lanari, Pierre; Guillot, Stéphane; Bosch, Delphine; Ganino, Clément; Jourdon, Anthony; Petit, Carole; Gallet, Sylvain; Monié, Patrick; Riel, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    The Permian history of the Central Asian Orogenic belt is marked by large-scale strike-slip faults that reactivate former Paleozoic structures, delineated by widespread alkaline magmatism. The genetic link between the syn-kinematic granitoids emplaced in the Tien Shan range and magmas emplaced within the Tarim Large Igneous Province, and the interaction between this plume and transcurrent tectonics, are still unsolved issues. We investigated the Pobeda massif, in the eastern Kyrgyz Tien Shan, located at the boundary between the Tien Shan range and the Tarim Craton, which exhibits a high-temperature unit. In this unit, Permian magmatism resulted in the emplacement of alkaline charnockites at mid-crustal levels. The primary mineralogical assemblage is nominally anhydrous and made of ortho- and clino-pyroxenes, fayalite, K-feldspar, plagioclase and quartz. These charnockites are associated with partially-molten paragneisses and marbles. Thermobarometry on these rocks indicates that the charnockites emplaced following the intrusion of a melt at a temperature > 1000 °C and pressure of around 6 kbar, corresponding to depth of 20 km. The resulting thermal anomaly triggered the partial melting of paragneisses. Bulk geochemistry including Sr, Nd, Pb and Hf isotopes suggests that charnockites fit into the Tarim Large Igneous Province magmatic series, with minor crustal assimilation. U-Pb ages on zircons of charnockites and surrounding paragneisses indicate that charnockites intruded and triggered partial melting of the gneisses at c. 287, 275 and 265 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar dating on amphibole gives a similar age as the U-Pb age at 276.2 ± 2.0 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar dating on biotite from the Charnockite unit marbles gives ages at ca. 256-265 Ma, which shows that exhumation onset directly follows the HT history, and is tentatively correlated to top-to-the-North thrusting of the Charnockite unit in a transpressive context. Additional 40Ar/39Ar dating on syn-kinematic white micas from an

  13. Devonian paleomagnetism of the North Tien Shan: Implications for the middle-Late Paleozoic paleogeography of Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levashova, Natalia M.; Mikolaichuk, Alexander V.; McCausland, Philip J. A.; Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Van der Voo, Rob

    2007-05-01

    The Ural-Mongol belt (UMB), between Siberia, Baltica and Tarim, is widely recognized as the locus of Asia's main growth during the Paleozoic, but its evolution remains highly controversial, as illustrated by the disparate paleogeographic models published in the last decade. One of the largest tectonic units of the UMB is the Kokchetav-North Tien Shan Domain (KNTD) that stretches from Tarim in the south nearly to the West Siberian Basin. The KNTD comprises several Precambrian microcontinents and numerous remnants of Early Paleozoic island arcs, marginal basins and accretionary complexes. In Late Ordovician time, all these structures had amalgamated into a single contiguous domain. Its paleogeographic position is of crucial importance for elucidating the Paleozoic evolution of the UMB in general and of the Urals in particular. The Aral Formation, located in Kyrgyzstan in the southern part of the KNTD, consists of a thick Upper Devonian (Frasnian) basalt-andesite sequence. Paleomagnetic data show a dual-polarity characteristic component (Dec/Inc = 286° / + 56°, α95 = 9°, k = 21, N = 15 sites). The primary origin of this magnetization is confirmed by a positive test on intraformational conglomerates. We combine this result with other Paleozoic data from the KNTD and show its latitudinal motion from the Late Ordovician to the end of the Paleozoic. The observed paleolatitudes are found to agree well with the values extrapolated from Baltica to a common reference point (42.5°N, 73°E) in our sampling area for the entire interval; hence coherent motion of the KNTD and Baltica is strongly indicated for most of the Paleozoic. This finding contradicts most published models of the UMB evolution, where the KNTD is separated from Baltica by a rather wide Ural Ocean containing one or more major plate boundaries. An exception is the model of Şengör and Natal'in [A.M.C. Şengör, B.A. Natal'in, Paleotectonics of Asia: fragments of a synthesis, in: A. Yin and M. Harrison (eds

  14. Jeux et enjeux d’écriture chez Chrétien de Troyes: l’exemple de «Cligès»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Lucia Machado

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, nos propomos descrever a estética da trama irônica presente na escritura de Chrétien de Troyes, tomando por base seu romance Cligès. A destacar algumas estratégias passíveis de criar o fenômeno irônico, estaremos também mostrando o poder de sedução que emana desta escritura.Nous nous proposons, dans cet artible, de décrire l’esthétique du jeu ironique chez Chrétien de Troyes, em puisant dans son roman Cligès. Enn dégageant qulques unes dês stratégies susceptibles de créer le phénomène ironique, nous montrerons, à la fois, le pouvoir de séduction qui emane de cette écriture.

  15. ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DEL EFECTO DE ZHONGJI (RM3) MOXADO MAS PUNTOS REGULARES VS PUNTOS REGULARES EN PACIENTES CON NEUROPATIA DIABETICA -NO TIENE CARATULA-

    OpenAIRE

    LERMA GARCIA, HECTOR ALFONSO

    2010-01-01

    ANTECEDENTES: DESDE LA ANTIGUEDAD SE HA COMPROBADO LA EFECTIVIDAD DE LA ACUPUNTURA PARA EL TRATAMIENTO DEL DOLOR Y PARA LA DIABETES EN EL SER HUMANO. OBJETIVO: EL PRESENTE ESTUDIO TIENE COMO OBJETIVO ANALIZAR EL EFECTO DEL TRATAMIENTO DEL DOLOR Y ALTERACIONES SENSITIVAS EN PACIENTES CON NEUROPATIA DIABETICA. METODO: SE ESTUDIARON TREINTA PACIENTES CON UN DIAGNOSTICO DE NEUROPATIA DIABETICA LOS CUALES SE DIVIDIERON EN TRES GRUPOS A LOS CUALES SE LES APLICO EN EL GRUPO 1 ZHONG...

  16. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B-1, ochratoxin A and fuminisins of adults in Lao Cai province, Viet Nam: A total dietary study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bui, Huong Mai; Le Danh Tuyen; Do Huu Tuan

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins, fumonisins and ochratoxin A that contaminate various agricultural commodities are considered of significant toxicity and potent human carcinogens. This study took a total dietary study approach and estimated the dietary exposure of these mycotoxins for adults living in Lao Cai province...... higher than recommended provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) values mainly due to contaminated cereals and meat. The exposure to total fumonisins (1400 ng/kg bw/day) was typically lower than the PTDI value (2000 ng/kg bw/day). The estimated risk of liver cancer associated with exposure to aflatoxin...... B1 was 2.7 cases/100,000 person/year. Margin of exposure (MOE) of renal cancer linked to ochratoxin A and liver cancer associated with fumonisins were 1124 and 1954, respectively indicating risk levels of public health concern. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficiency of technical...

  17. Sexual violence and the risk of HIV transmission in sexual partners of male injecting drug users in Tien Du district, Bac Ninh province of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Vinh Thi; Ho, Hien Thi; Nguyen, Tri Manh; Do, Huynh Khac

    2018-04-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study among 148 women who were regular sexual partners of male injecting drug users in Tien Du, Bac Ninh province, Vietnam to identify the rate of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV transmission among them. HIV infection rate among sexual partners was high, 11.5%. Sexual violence was prevalent, 63.5% among sexual partners; 94.1% (16/17) among those with HIV. We discovered an association between sexual violence and HIV infection. Sexual partners suffering from sexual violence caused by their regular sexual partners faced 9.24 times higher HIV risk than those who did not have sexual violence.

  18. Los enigmas del Grial. En torno a la polémica sobre la unidad de El Cuento del Grial de Chrétien de Troyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Cirlot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Relectura de la polémica acerca de la unidad del último roman de Chrétien de Troyes, Li Contes del Graal que tuvo lugar a finales de los años cincuenta entre Martín de Riquer, Jean Frappier y Erich Köhler. Más de cincuenta años después se trata de valorar las aportaciones que dicha polémica supuso para la filología románica y, en concreto, para la valoración de la última obra del escritor de la Champaña.

  19. Orelhas de elefante, olhos de coruja, dentes de javali: maravilhoso e descritivo em Yvain ou le chevalier au lion, de Chrétien de Troyes

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Claudio Kinker Caliendo

    2009-01-01

    No final do século XII, Chrétien de Troyes considerado por muitos críticos o maior poeta francês da chamada Idade Média compõe um poema narrativo Yvain ou le Chevalier au Lion no qual se percebem elementos tidos como característicos do gênero maravilhoso, tais quais objetos mágicos e seres extraordinários, como monstros e gigantes. Esses elementos entre outros fatores levaram boa parte da crítica a enxergar na poesia medieval, durante muito tempo, uma certa ingenuidade, típica de uma in...

  20. «Si una mujer tiene la cabeza grande»: fisionomía y carácter femenino en un texto asiriobabilónico

    OpenAIRE

    Couto Ferreira, Érica

    2008-01-01

    El cuerpo humano en Mesopotamia era entendido como objeto adivinatorio: un sistema de signos, portador de mensajes sobre el propio individuo, cuyo significado debía decodificarse mediante la observación y la interpretación. Tomando como fuente principal de mi trabajo la serie fisionómica Šumma sinništu qaqqada rabât («Si una mujer tiene la cabeza grande»), analizo, por una parte, los mecanismos por los que se promueve una determinada visión de las mujeres en la adivinación fisionómica a parti...

  1. Paleo-Climate and Glaciological Reconstruction in Central Asia through the Collection and Analysis of Ice Cores and Instrumental Data from the Tien Shan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir Aizen; Donald Bren; Karl Kreutz; Cameron Wake

    2001-01-01

    While the majority of ice core investigations have been undertaken in the polar regions, a few ice cores recovered from carefully selected high altitude/mid-to-low latitude glaciers have also provided valuable records of climate variability in these regions. A regional array of high resolution, multi-parameter ice core records developed from temperate and tropical regions of the globe can be used to document regional climate and environmental change in the latitudes which are home to the vase majority of the Earth's human population. In addition, these records can be directly compared with ice core records available from the polar regions and can therefore expand our understanding of inter-hemispheric dynamics of past climate changes. The main objectives of our paleoclimate research in the Tien Shan mountains of middle Asia combine the development of detailed paleoenvironmental records via the physical and chemical analysis of ice cores with the analysis of modern meteorological and hydrological data. The first step in this research was the collection of ice cores from the accumulation zone of the Inylchek Glacier and the collection of meteorological data from a variety of stations throughout the Tien Shan. The research effort described in this report was part of a collaborative effort with the United State Geological Survey's (USGS) Global Environmental Research Program which began studying radionuclide deposition in mid-latitude glaciers in 1995

  2. Paleo-Climate and Glaciological Reconstruction in Central Asia through the Collection and Analysis of Ice Cores and Instrumental Data from the Tien Shan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Aizen; Donald Bren; Karl Kreutz; Cameron Wake

    2001-05-30

    While the majority of ice core investigations have been undertaken in the polar regions, a few ice cores recovered from carefully selected high altitude/mid-to-low latitude glaciers have also provided valuable records of climate variability in these regions. A regional array of high resolution, multi-parameter ice core records developed from temperate and tropical regions of the globe can be used to document regional climate and environmental change in the latitudes which are home to the vase majority of the Earth's human population. In addition, these records can be directly compared with ice core records available from the polar regions and can therefore expand our understanding of inter-hemispheric dynamics of past climate changes. The main objectives of our paleoclimate research in the Tien Shan mountains of middle Asia combine the development of detailed paleoenvironmental records via the physical and chemical analysis of ice cores with the analysis of modern meteorological and hydrological data. The first step in this research was the collection of ice cores from the accumulation zone of the Inylchek Glacier and the collection of meteorological data from a variety of stations throughout the Tien Shan. The research effort described in this report was part of a collaborative effort with the United State Geological Survey's (USGS) Global Environmental Research Program which began studying radionuclide deposition in mid-latitude glaciers in 1995.

  3. Da Chrétien de Troyes a Shakespeare («The tragedy of King Richard the Third», a. I, sc. 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso D'Agostino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo si propone di considerare le somiglianze fra alcune vicende antico-francesi (l’Yvain di Chrétien de Troyes e il fabliau anonimo De celle que se fist foutre sur la fosse son mari con una scena del Riccardo III di Shakespeare. Anche se non si può dire che il dramma inglese dipenda dai testi narrativi oitanici, esso sviluppa lo stesso motivo della vedova consolata e una serie di motivi secondarî, di immagini (il sangue, il diavolo, la seduzione e di espressioni letterarie in modo sintomaticamente affine. The paper aims to evaluate similarities between some Old-French narratives (Chrétien de Troyes’ Yvain and the anonymous fabliau De celle que se fist foutre sur la fosse son mari and a scene from Shakespeare’s Richard III. Although we cannot affirm that Shakespeare’s play derives from the French narratives, it develops the same theme of “comforted widow” along with a series of secondary themes, of images (the blood, the devil, the seduction and literary expressions in a symptomatically, very similar way.

  4. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and fuminisins of adults in Lao Cai province, Viet Nam: A total dietary study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Bui Thi Mai; Tuyen, Le Danh; Tuan, Do Huu; Brimer, Leon; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2016-12-01

    Aflatoxins, fumonisins and ochratoxin A that contaminate various agricultural commodities are considered of significant toxicity and potent human carcinogens. This study took a total dietary study approach and estimated the dietary exposure of these mycotoxins for adults living in Lao Cai province, Vietnam. A total of 42 composite food samples representing 1134 individual food samples were prepared according to normal household practices and analysed for the three mycotoxins. Results showed that the dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 (39.4 ng/kg bw/day) and ochratoxin A (18.7 ng/kg bw/day) were much higher than recommended provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) values mainly due to contaminated cereals and meat. The exposure to total fumonisins (1400 ng/kg bw/day) was typically lower than the PTDI value (2000 ng/kg bw/day). The estimated risk of liver cancer associated with exposure to aflatoxin B1 was 2.7 cases/100,000 person/year. Margin of exposure (MOE) of renal cancer linked to ochratoxin A and liver cancer associated with fumonisins were 1124 and 1954, respectively indicating risk levels of public health concern. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficiency of technical solutions which could reduce mycotoxin contamination as well as to determine the health effects of the co-exposure to different types of mycotoxins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fluxes of 10-2000 GeV hadrons in EAS produced by 1-100 PeV PCR according to Tien Shan data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterova, N.M.; Pavlyuchenko, V.P.; Chubenko, A.P.; Shchepetov, A.L.; Mukhamedshin, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The experimental data on the hadrons spectra with the energy of 10-2000 GeV in the extensive air showers with the electrons number N e =3 x 10 5 -10 8 at the distances of 3-60 m from the axis are obtained at the Tien-Shan mountainous facility (690 g/cm 2 ) by means of the 18NM64 neutron monitor and ionization calorimeter. The obtained results are compared with the calculations by the MS0-model. The comparison shows that the singular hadrons experimental number significantly exceeds the calculational value. This may be brought by the change in the PCR character and its interaction with the air atoms nuclei by the energies above several PeV [ru

  6. Registration of intensive hard X-rays and soft gamma-rays from the thunderstorm clouds at Tien-Shan installation Adron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, V.P.; Kryukov, S.V.; Vil'danova, L.I.; Gurevich, A.V.; Zybin, K.P.; Kokobaev, M.M.; Nesterova, N.M.; Piskal', V.V.; Ptitsyn, M.O.; Chubenko, A.P.; Shchepetov, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Adron installation mounted at the Tien-Shan station is intended for studying the extensive air showers. The Adron installation consists of a neutron supermonitor charged particles detector, muon detector and detector for registering the hard X-ray and soft gamma-radiation from the thunderstorm clouds accomplished on the basis of the Geiger-Mueller counters with sensitivity area of 16-17 m 2 . The intensive fluxes of the hard X-ray and soft gamma-radiation from the thunderstorm clouds passing over the Adron installation at the height below 1 km are registered using this installation. The short-time radiation flares of 1-5 min duration are separated at the background of the intensity slow change. This testifies to the benefit of existence of the runaway electron effect in the thunderstorm clouds [ru

  7. Effect of the muon component of cosmic rays on the results of hadron experiments with the big ionization calorimeter (BIC) of the Tien Shan station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, A. G., E-mail: AGBogdanov@mephi.ru; Kokoulin, R. P.; Petrukhin, A. A.; Shalabaeva, A. V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (State University) (Russian Federation); Yakovlev, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Institute of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2008-01-15

    A full-scale simulation of the response of the big ionization calorimeter (BIC) at the Tien Shan station to the passage of single protons and muons was performed on the basis of the GEANT4 package in order to estimate the contribution of the muon cosmic-ray component to the generation of unusual events (such as Anti-Centauros), which were recorded by this facility, and to the imitation of the long-flying component, which changes the shape of the average cascade curve. A comparison of the results of this simulation with experimental data reveals that the appearance of Anti-Centauros may be reasonably explained by the contribution of multiple interactions of single muons, but that muon events are insufficient for explaining the change in the shape of the cascade curve (in particular, the emergence of a second maximum).

  8. A 'college of astrology and medicine'? Charles V, Gervais Chrétien, and the scientific manuscripts of Maître Gervais's College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudet, Jean-Patrice

    2010-06-01

    Considered an institution mainly devoted to astrology and medicine by Simon de Phares and by some historians who believe that he was reliable, the college founded in 1371 by Charles V's first physician, Gervais Chrétien, was in fact primarily dedicated to theological students. It was not before 1377 that there were created there two bursaries for scholares regis, specialising in 'licit mathematical sciences', and two medical fellowships. Yet the influence of the activity of these fellows seems to have been rather moderate and-as far as we can learn from the material still extant, notably from manuscripts that belonged to Maître Gervais' College and to some of its members-this institution was devoted much more to theological studies than to medicine and the quadrivium.

  9. Search for EAS radio-emission at the Tien-Shan shower installation at a height of 3340 m above sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisenova, A.; Boos, E.; Haungs, A.; Sadykov, T.; Salihov, N.; Shepetov, A.; Tautayev, Y.; Vildanova, L.; Zhukov, V.

    2017-06-01

    The complex EAS installation of the Tien Shan mountain cosmic ray station which is situated at a height of 3340 m above sea level includes the scintillation and Cherenkov detectors of charged shower particles, an ionization calorimeter and a set of neutron detectors for registering the hadronic component of the shower, and a number of underground detectors of the penetrative EAS component. Now it is intended to expand this installation with a promising method for detecting the radio-emission generated by the particles of the developing shower. The facility for radio-emission detection consists of a three crossed dipole antennae, one being set vertically, and another two - mutually perpendicularly in a horizontal plane, all of them being connected to a three-channel radio-frequency amplifier of German production. By the passage of an extensive air shower, which is defined by a scintillation shower detector system, the output signal of antenna amplifier is digitized by a fast multichannel DT5720 ADC of Italian production, and kept within computer memory. The further analysis of the detected signal anticipates its operation according to a special algorithm and a search for the pulse of radio-emission from the shower. A functional test of the radio-installation is made with artificial signals which imitate those of the shower, and with the use of a N1996A type wave analyzer of Agilent Technologies production. We present preliminary results on the registration of extensive air shower emission at the Tien Shan installation which were collected during test measurements held in Summer 2016.

  10. Thermal and chemical evolution in the early Solar System as recorded by FUN CAIs: Part II - Laboratory evaporation of potential CMS-1 precursor material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendybaev, Ruslan A.; Williams, Curtis D.; Spicuzza, Michael J.; Richter, Frank M.; Valley, John W.; Fedkin, Alexei V.; Wadhwa, Meenakshi

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of laboratory experiments in which a forsterite-rich melt estimated to be a potential precursor of Allende CMS-1 FUN CAI was evaporated into vacuum for different lengths of time at 1900 °C. The evaporation of this melt resulted in residues that define trajectories in chemical as well as magnesium, silicon and oxygen isotopic composition space and come very close to the measured properties of CMS-1. The isotopic composition of the evaporation residues was also used to determine the kinetic isotopic fractionation factors [α2,1 (vapor-melt) defined as the ratio of isotopes 2 and 1 of a given element in the evaporating gas divided by their ratio in the evaporating source] for evaporation of magnesium (α25,24 for 25Mg/24Mg), silicon (α29,28 for 29Si/28Si) and oxygen (α18,16 for 18O/16O) from the forsterite-rich melt at 1900 °C. The values of α25,24 = 0.98383 ± 0.00033 and α29,28 = 0.99010 ± 0.00038 are essentially independent of change in the melt composition as evaporation proceeds. In contrast, α18,16 changes from 0.9815 ± 0.0016 to ∼0.9911 when the residual melt composition changes from forsteritic to melilitic. Using the determined values of α25,24 and α29,28 and present-day bulk chemical composition of the CMS-1, the composition of the precursor of the inclusion was estimated to be close to the clinopyroxene + spinel + forsterite assemblage condensed from a solar composition gas. The correspondence between the chemical composition and isotopic fractionation of experimental evaporation residues and the present-day bulk chemical and isotopic compositions of CMS-1 is evidence that evaporation played a major role in the chemical evolution of CMS-1.

  11. Abundance, distribution and bioavailability of major and trace elements in surface sediments from the Cai River estuary and Nha Trang Bay (South China Sea, Vietnam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukina, S. E.; Lobus, N. V.; Peresypkin, V. I.; Dara, O. M.; Smurov, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Major (Si, Al, Fe, Ti, Mg, Ca, Na, K, S, P), minor (Mn) and trace (Li, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Ag, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Pb, Bi and U) elements, their chemical forms and the mineral composition, organic matter (TOC) and carbonates (TIC) in surface sediments from the Cai River estuary and Nha Trang Bay were first determined along the salinity gradient. The abundance and ratio of major and trace elements in surface sediments are discussed in relation to the mineralogy, grain size, depositional conditions, reference background and SQG values. Most trace-element contents are at natural levels and are derived from the composition of rocks and soils in the watershed. A severe enrichment of Ag is most likely derived from metal-rich detrital heavy minerals such as Ag-sulfosalts. Along the salinity gradient, several zones of metal enrichment occur in surface sediments because of the geochemical fractionation of the riverine material. The parts of actually and potentially bioavailable forms (isolated by four single chemical reagent extractions) are most elevated for Mn and Pb (up to 36% and 32% of total content, respectively). The possible anthropogenic input of Pb in the region requires further study. Overall, the most bioavailable parts of trace elements are associated with easily soluble amorphous Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides. The sediments are primarily enriched with bioavailable metal forms in the riverine part of the estuary. Natural (such as turbidities) and human-generated (such as urban and industrial activities) pressures are shown to influence the abundance and speciation of potential contaminants and therefore change their bioavailability in this estuarine system.

  12. Elimination of Cancer Stem-Like “Side Population” Cells in Hepatoma Cell Lines by Chinese Herbal Mixture “Tien-Hsien Liquid”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Jung Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are increasing pieces of evidence suggesting that the recurrence of cancer may result from a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells, which are resistant to the conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We investigated the effects of Chinese herbal mixture Tien-Hsien Liquid (THL on the cancer stem-like side population (SP cells isolated from human hepatoma cells. After sorting and subsequent culture, the SP cells from Huh7 hepatoma cells appear to have higher clonogenicity and mRNA expressions of stemness genes such as SMO, ABCG2, CD133, β-catenin, and Oct-4 than those of non-SP cells. At dose of 2 mg/mL, THL reduced the proportion of SP cells in HepG2, Hep3B, and Huh7 cells from 1.33% to 0.49%, 1.55% to 0.43%, and 1.69% to 0.27%, respectively. The viability and colony formation of Huh7 SP cells were effectively suppressed by THL dose-dependently, accompanied with the inhibition of stemness genes, e.g., ABCG2, CD133, and SMO. The tumorigenicity of THL-treated Huh7 SP cells in NOD/SCID mice was also diminished. Moreover, combination with THL could synergize the effect of doxorubicin against Huh7 SP cells. Our data indicate that THL may act as a cancer stem cell targeting therapeutics and be regarded as complementary and integrative medicine in the treatment of hepatoma.

  13. Population genetic diversity and structure analysis of wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) revealed by ssr markers in the Tien-Shan mountains of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, X.; Ni, B.; Zheng, P.; Li, M.

    2018-01-01

    The simple sequence repeat markers were used to investigate the population genetic diversity and structure of 212 germplasm samples from 14 apricot (Prunus armeniaca) populations in the western of Tien-Shan Mountains, Sinkiang, China. The relatively high expected heterozygosity and Shannon's diversity index indicated the apricot populations maintained a high level of genetic diversity (He = 0.6109, I = 1.2208), with the population in Tuergen ditch of Xinyuan County having the highest genetic diversity index. A high level of intra-population genetic differentiation (91.51%) and a lower level of inter-population genetic differentiation were occurred, as well as a moderate but steady inter-population gene flow (Nm = 2.3735). The self-incompatible pattern, wide distribution, and long-distance pollen transmission via insects and gale are the main factors underlying the genetic variation structure. The UPGMA cluster analysis and genetic structure analysis showed that apricot germplasm could be divided into two or four groups, which was basically consistent with the geographic distribution pattern. The inter-population genetic distance and geographic distance showed a significant correlation (r = 0.2658, p<0.05). (author)

  14. La Fábula Ovidiana de Filomela revisada por la Edad Media: de Chrétien de Troyes a Alfonso x

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Martín Botero García

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se expone el contraste entre las dos traducciones al francés y al castellano de Filomela, una de las fábulas de las Metamorfosis de Ovidio, realizadas en los siglos xii y xiii por Chrétien de Troyes y Alfonso X. Por medio del análisis y cotejo de tres momentos narrativos, veremos la forma en que la materia antigua es tratada según el contexto determinado en el que se producen las traducciones. La versión francesa hace énfasis en una dimensión cortés en donde el personaje femenino es altamente valorado; por su parte, la versión castellana reivindica una racionalización de la fábula ovidiana, supeditada a una visión política e histórica. Se puede constatar así que las traducciones medievales no son serviles con respecto a la fuente latina sino que demuestran una gran libertad en la selección y combinación de elementos.

  15. The First Expert CAI System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurzeig, Wallace

    1984-01-01

    The first expert instructional system, the Socratic System, was developed in 1964. One of the earliest applications of this system was in the area of differential diagnosis in clinical medicine. The power of the underlying instructional paradigm was demonstrated and the potential of the approach for valuably supplementing medical instruction was recognized. Twenty years later, despite further educationally significant advances in expert systems technology and enormous reductions in the cost of computers, expert instructional methods have found very little application in medical schools.

  16. Inventory and state of activity of rockglaciers in the Ile and Kungöy Ranges of Northern Tien Shan from satellite SAR interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strozzi, Tazio; Caduff, Rafael; Kääb, Andreas; Bolch, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    The best visual expression of mountain permafrost are rockglaciers, which, in contrast to the permafrost itself, can be mapped and monitored directly using remotely sensed data. Studies carried out in various parts of the European Alps have shown surface acceleration of rockglaciers and even destabilization of several such landforms over the two last decades, potentially related to the changing permafrost creep conditions. Changes in rockglacier motion are therefore believed to be the most indicative short- to medium-term response of rockglaciers to environmental changes and thus an indicator of mountain permafrost conditions in general. The ESA DUE GlobPermafrost project develops, validates and implements EO products to support research communities and international organizations in their work on better understanding permafrost characteristics and dynamics. Within this project we are building up a worldwide long-term monitoring network of active rockglacier motion investigated using remote sensing techniques. All sites are analysed through a uniform set of data and methods, and results are thus comparable. In order to quantify the rate of movement and the relative changes over time we consider two remote sensing methods: (i) matching of repeat optical data and (ii) satellite radar interferometry. In this contribution, we focus on the potential of recent high spatial resolution SAR data for the analysis of periglacial processes in mountain environments with special attention to the Ile and Kungöy Ranges of Northern Tien Shan at the border between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, an area which contains a high number of large and comparably fast (> 1m/yr) rockglaciers and is of interest as dry-season water resource and source of natural hazards. As demonstrated in the past with investigations conducted in the Swiss Alps, the visual analysis of differential SAR interferograms can be employed for the rough estimation of the surface deformation rates of rockglaciers and

  17. Effect of Fibre Level and Fibre Source on Gut Morphology and Micro-environment in Local (Mong Cai and Exotic (Landrace×Yorkshire Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. B. Ngoc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of genotype, fibre level and fibre source on gut morphology, environment and microflora was studied using 18 Mong Cai (MC and 18 Landrace×Yorkshire (LY pigs, aged around 60 d. The diets were based on maize, rice bran, soybean meal, fish meal and soybean oil, and cassava residue (CR or brewer’s grain (BG as fibrous ingredient sources in the high-fibre diets (HF. A low-fibre diet (LF, containing around 200 g NDF/kg dry matter (DM, was formulated without CR and BG as feed ingredients. The HF diets (HF-CR and HF-BG were formulated to contain around 270 g NDF/kg DM. The experiment was arranged according to a 2×3 factorial completely randomized design with six replications, and lasted 30 d. Crypt density in ileum was lowest (p<0.05 and villus height in jejunum and ileum were the greatest (p<0.05 in pigs fed diet HF-BG. Villus width in ileum was greatest in pigs fed diets HF-CR and HF-BG (p<0.05. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB counts in stomach were greatest (p<0.05 and E. coli counts in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05 in pigs fed diet HF-CR. The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05, and pH in ileum and colon were lowest (p<0.05 in pigs fed diet HF-CR. Crypt density in ileum was lowest, and villus height in ileum and villus width in jejunum and ileum was greatest in LY pigs (p<0.05. LAB counts in stomach and ileum were greatest, and E. coli counts in ileum were lowest in MC pigs (p<0.05. The concentration of total organic acids in ileum, caecum and colon were greatest (p<0.05 and pH lowest (p<0.05 in MC pigs.

  18. ¿El sentido del humor, tiene sentido en el aula? / Does Sense of the Humor Make Sense in the Classroom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Antonio González Ynfante

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 09 de junio de 2011 • Aceptado 24 de octubre de 2011 • Corregido 27 de setiembre de 2011 Resumen. El presente ensayo tiene como finalidad reflexionar sobre la importancia del humor pedagógico como estrategia de enseñanza aprendizaje en el aula; esto, tomando en cuenta la problemática de desmotivación y aburrimiento que sucede normalmente en la clase. Para plantear si “el enseñar contento y el aprender con alegría” pueden aumentar la eficacia en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, se abordará cómo, a pesar de las múltiples ventajas que puede aportar el humor en las aulas, se omite su empleo por la existencia de ciertos prejuicios y temores. La idea no es que los docentes hagan el papel de comediantes o payasos, sino la de mediar y acercar la clase de manera pedagógica y didáctica a través del uso del humor, y sobre esto reflexionaba Platón (1992, cuando planteaba que muchas veces ayudaba una broma, en donde la seriedad oponía resistencia. Abstract. This paper studies the importance of humor as a teaching strategy in the classroom, considering the usual lack of motivation and boredom. To analyze whether the “happy teaching and happy learning” may increase effectiveness in the teaching-learning process, the author will discuss how, despite the many benefits it may bring, humor is not used in the classroom due to prejudices and fears. The idea is not for teachers to play the role of a comedian or a clown, but to intervene and get closer to the group with a teaching, didactic purpose through humor. Plato (1992 thought about this; he used to say that sometimes a joke may help, where seriousness put up resistance.

  19. Holocene River Dynamics, Climate Change and Floodwater Farming in the Watersheds of the Pamir and Tien Shan Mountains of Inner Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, M. G.; Panyushkina, I. P.; Toonen, W. H. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Ili, Syr Dayra and Amu Dayra rivers of Inner Asia are emerging as critical areas for the development of irrigation-based agriculture in the ancient world. Following research by Russian archaeologists in the 1970s it is evident that these watersheds had flourishing riverine civilizations comparable to those in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley. But unlike these areas where the relationship between Holocene river dynamics, climate change and floodwater farming is increasingly underpinned by radiometric dating, the alluvial archaeology of Inner Asia is significantly under researched. To address this, a major multi-disciplinary research program was begun in 2011 centred on the Talgar catchment, a south-bank tributary of the Ili river, southeast Kazakhstan. Building on archaeological excavations and surveys conducted over the past 20 years, we have undertaken one of the most detailed investigations of Holocene people-river environment interactions in Inner Asia. River development has been reconstructed over the last 20,000 years and human settlement histories from the Eneolithic to the Medieval period documented. Periods of Holocene river aggradation and high water levels in Lake Balkhash and Aral Sea correspond with cooler and wetter neoglacial episodes while river entrenchment and floodplain soil development are associated with warmer and drier conditions. Floodwater farming in the Talgar river reached its acme in the late Iron Age (400-200 cal. BC) with more than 60 settlement sites and 550 burial mounds. This corresponds to a period of reduced flood flows, river stability and glacier retreat in the Tien Shan headwaters. A new hydroclimatic-based model for the spatial and temporal dynamics of floodwater farming in the Ili, Syr Dayra and Amu Dayra watersheds is proposed, which explains the large scale expansion (down-river) and contraction (up-river) of settlements since the first use of irrigation in the Neolithic through to the late Medieval period.

  20. Ora et labora. Paradigmes du modèle monacal médiéval chez Chrétien de Troyes / Ora et labora. Paradigms of the Medieval Monastic Model in Chrétien de Troyes’s Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Gradu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The medieval monachal model is marked out by the faith, by the power, by the morality. It is also shared between confidence and fear with regard to the power on the earth, but, certainly, all the clerks and the monks of the Middle Age know and assume the rule Redde Caesari quae sunt Cesaris and quae sunt Dei Deo. The medieval literature, the unfaithful mirror, is reflected in an incomplete and sometimes idealized way, the example of the hermit, but it constitutes in the essential source of its paradigm. I shall stop to Chrétien of Troyes and to its novels, they are the most glorious proof of the Renaissance of the 12th century.

  1. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion study of the Kuru-Tegerek Au-Cu-Mo skarn deposit in the Middle Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey; Dvurechenskaya, Svetlana

    2018-02-01

    The Kuru-Tegerek Cu-Au-Mo deposit is situated in a system of Late Carboniferous subduction-related magmatic arcs of the Middle Tien Shan, which together constitute a metallogenic belt of Cu-Au-Mo (±W) porphyry, with local skarns, deposits. The deposit is related to magnetite-series gabbro-diorite to tonalite intrusion. It contains prograde magnesian and calcic skarns with abundant magnetite, associated with gabbro-diorite, and retrograde skarn with Cu mineralization, formed after intrusion of tonalite. Subsequent propylitic alteration introduced abundant chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite, and native Au culminating in zones overprinting magnetite and garnet skarn. Later quartz-muscovite-carbonate veins, formed after intrusion of late mafic quartz monzogabbro dikes, contain chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and other sulfides and sulfosalts, tellurides, and native Au. The earliest retrograde skarn garnet contains gaseous low-salinity (1.7-3.4 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid inclusions homogenizing at 460-500 °C into vapor, indicating that the early fluid released from crystallizing magma was a low-density vapor. It was followed by more saline (4.0-5.0 wt.% NaCl eq.), high-temperature (400-440 °C) aqueous fluid, as fluid release from the magma progressed. Boiling of this fluid at temperatures of 420 to 370 °C and a pressure of 350-300 bar produced a low-salinity (0.6-1.2 wt.% NaCl eq.), essentially gaseous, and high-salinity (from 39 to 31 wt.% NaCl eq.) brine, with possible metal (including Cu) partitioning into both gaseous and aqueous-saline phases. Boiling was coeval with sulfide deposition in the retrograde skarn. The latest episode of the retrograde skarn stage included direct separation of saline ( 40-42 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluid from crystallizing magma. The separation of saline ( 40 to 14 wt.% NaCl eq.) fluids from a crystallizing magmatic melt continued during the propylitic stage, when fluid cooling from 370 to 320 °C, together with decreasing fO2, caused Cu and especially

  2. Early Permian intrusions of the Alai range: Understanding tectonic settings of Hercynian post-collisional magmatism in the South Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopelko, D.; Wilde, S. A.; Seltmann, R.; Romer, R. L.; Biske, Yu. S.

    2018-03-01

    We present geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope data as well as the results of single grain U-Pb zircon dating for ten granitoid and alkaline intrusions of the Alai segment of Kyrgyz South Tien Shan (STS). The intrusions comprise four geochemically contrasting series or suites, including (1) I-type and (2) shoshonitic granitoids, (3) peraluminous granitoids including S-type leucogranites and (4) alkaline rocks and carbonatites, closely associated in space. New geochronological data indicate that these diverse magmatic series of the Alai segment formed in a post-collisional setting. Five single grain U-Pb zircon ages in the range 287-281 Ma, in combination with published ages, define the main post-collisional magmatic pulse at 290-280 Ma, which is similar to ages of post-collisional intrusions elsewhere in the STS. An age of 287 ± 4 Ma, obtained for peraluminous graniodiorite of the Liayliak massif, emplaced in amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks of the Zeravshan-Alai block, is indistinguishable from ca. 290 Ma age of peraluminous granitoids emplaced coevally with Barrovian-type metamorphism in the Garm block, located ca. 40 km south-west of the research area. The Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions of the studied intrusions are consistent with the reworking of crustal material with 1.6-1.1 Ga average crustal residence times, indicating the formation of the Alai segment on a continental basement with Mesoproterozoic or older crust. The pattern of post-collisional magmatism in the Alai segment, characterized by emplacement of I-type and shoshoninitic granitoids in combination with coeval Barrovian-type metamorphism, is markedly different from the pattern of post-collisional magmatism in the adjacent Kokshaal segment of the STS with predominant A-type granitoids that formed on a former passive margin of the Tarim Craton. We suggest that during the middle-late Carboniferous the Alai segment probably comprised a microcontinent with Precambrian basement located between

  3. Mineralogy and geochemistry of triassic carbonatites in the Matcha alkaline intrusive complex (Turkestan-Alai Ridge, Kyrgyz Southern Tien Shan), SW Central Asian orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrublevskii, V. V.; Morova, A. A.; Bukharova, O. V.; Konovalenko, S. I.

    2018-03-01

    Postorogenic intrusions of essexites and alkaline and nepheline syenites in the Turkestan-Alai segment of the Kyrgyz Southern Tien Shan coexist with dikes and veins of carbonatites dated at ∼220 Ma by the Ar-Ar and Rb-Sr age methods. They are mainly composed of calcite and dolomite (60-85%), as well as sodic amphibole, phlogopite, clinopyroxene, microcline, albite, apatite, and magnetite, with accessory niobate, ilmenite, Nb-rutile, titanite, zircon, baddeleyite, monazite-(Ce), barite, and sulfides. The rocks share mineralogical and geochemical similarity with carbonatites that originated by liquid immiscibility at high temperatures above 500 °C. Alkaline silicate and salt-carbonate melts are derived from sources with mainly negative bulk εNd(t) ∼ from -11 to 0 and high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (∼0.7061-0.7095) which may be due to mixing of PREMA and EM-type mantle material. Pb isotopic ratios in accessory pyrrhotite (206Pb/204Pb = 18.38; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.64; 208Pb/204Pb = 38.41) exhibit an EM2 trend. The intrusions bear signatures of significant crustal contamination as a result of magma genesis by syntexis and hybridism. Concordant isotope composition changes of δ13C (-6.5 to -1.9‰), δ18O (9.2-23‰), δD (-58 to -41‰), and δ34S (12.6-12.8‰) in minerals and rocks indicate inputs of crustal material at the stage of melting and effect of hot fluids released during dehydration of metamorphosed oceanic basalts or sediments. The observed HFSE patterns of the oldest alkaline gabbro may be due to interaction of the primary mafic magma with IAB-type material. The isotope similarity of alkaline rocks with spatially proximal basalts of the Tarim large igneous province does not contradict the evolution of the Turkestan-Alai Triassic magmatism as the "last echo" of the Tarim mantle plume.

  4. Profilaxis con antibióticos en fracturas de base de cráneo: ¿tiene justificación esa conducta?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo Luis González González

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de 380 pacientes con fractura de la base del cráneo y a 71 de ellos (18,7 % se les administraron antibióticos como profilaxis de la meningoencefalitis y a 309 (81,3 % no se les suministraron estos agentes. Se evaluó la relación entre uso profiláctico o terapéutico de antimicrobianos, localización de la fractura, lesiones asociadas, complicaciones sépticas, edad y sexo, con la aparición de meningoencefalitis. Desarrollaron infección del sistema nervioso central 7 pacientes (1,8 %, 3 de ellos (4,2 % entre los que recibieron profilaxis y 4 (1,3 % entre los que no la recibieron. Se probó que la presencia de meningoencefalitis estaba asociada con el tipo de complicaciones sépticas que además pudieron tener los pacientes, así como al uso de antibióticos como terapéutica de éstas en análisis bivariado, lo que no se corroboró en el multivariado. Se concluye que el empleo de antibióticos profilácticos en estos pacientes no tiene justificación, lo que convierte a esta conducta en una práctica negativa desde el punto de vista médico y económicoA study of 380 patients with basilar skull fracture was performed. 71 (18.7 % of these patients were given antibiotic prophylaxis for meningoencephalitis and 309 (81.3 % were not. The relation of prophylactic or therapeutical use of antimicrobial agents, fracture location, associated injures, septic complications, age and sex to the meningoencephalitis coming out was evaluated. 7 patients (1.8 % developed infections of the central nervous system, 3 (4.2 % had been treated with antibiotics and 4 (1.3 % had not. The bivariate analysis proved that the meningoencephalitis was linked to the type of septic complications that might affect patients as well as the therapeutical use of antibiotics to eliminate them but the multivariate analysis did not demonstrate so. It is concluded that the use of the antibiotic prophylaxis in these patients is not substantiated which turns

  5. The enigmas of The grail. on The ConTroversy over The UniTy of Li Contes deL GraaL of ChréTien de Troyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Cirlot

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of the controversy about the unity of the last roman of Chrétien de Troyes, Li Contes del Graal which took place in the late fifties between Martí de Riquer, Jean Frappier and Erich Köhler. More than fifty years later, this paper will appraise the contributions that this controversy made to Romance philology, and, in particular, to the assessment of the last work of the Champenian writer.

  6. “Et qui or me vaurra entendre, cuer et oreilles me doit rendre”: espacios de lectura y público de los roman courtois de Chrétien de Troyes (siglos XII-XIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo Améndolla Spinola

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Basado en los planteamientos de la lógica social del texto, este artículo presenta un estudio del público que escuchaba los romances corteses entre los siglo XII y XIII, específicamente los realizados por Chrétien de Troyes –clérigo lector de la Corte de Leonor de Aquitania y de Enrique II Plantagenet–, además de establecer y analizar las diversas salas de los castillos donde estas obras literarias eran narradas.

  7. Vers une “écriture métisse”: le roman des immigrants haïtiens du Québec Writing the cultural cross-currents: the Haitian immigrants’ novel in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Kwaterko

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available mémoriel et langagier dans les romans des immigrants haïtiens au Québec.Après quelques considérations sociologiques sur l’écriture migrante(diasporique, on observera les enjeux esthétiques du métissage sur un axediachronique : les années 1970 où l’espace-temps du pays d’origine dominela représentation, les années 1980 où le travail du deuil apporte des effetsd’hybridation, et à partir du milieu des années 1980 à nos jours lorsque lesromanciers haïtiens assument l’exil et se réapproprient à distance leur paysdélaissé.The aim of this paper is to recognize the manifestations of the culturalhybridization (métissage among Haitian novelists who immigrated to Quebec. After some sociological characteristics of the migrant writing, the mainaesthetics features will be observed on diachronic level: during the 1970s,when the place of the country of origin dominate the representation, duringthe 1980s when the feeling of split identity increase the effects of hybridity,and since the middle of 1980s when the Haitian writers assume their exileby entering into an intercultural, dialogic relationship with their abandonedcountry.

  8. PCR nuclear composition at 1-20 PeV according to lateral distributions of all EAS and EAS accompanied high-energy-gamma rays and hadrons in EC at Tien-Shan level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterova, N.M.; Pavlyuchenko, V.P.; Chubenko, A.P.; Shaulov, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    The Tien-Shan array Adron data are presented on electron-photon component lateral distributions (age parameter S) of extensive air showers of cosmic rays. The data are given as a dependence on the electron size N e for all showers and for showers accompanied by high-energy gamma rays and hadrons in X-ray films. N e characterizes the energy of primary-cosmic-ray nuclei E 0 . Later events are generated by primary photons chiefly. That allows judging on the proton role with E 0 change. S distributions point to the considerable part of light nuclei, protons mainly, at the region above knee of the spectrum at N e > 10 6 up to N e = 5 x 10 6 (E 0 ∼ 10 PeV) at least [ru

  9. Odd Bed-fellows: British Christians and Communists in the Struggle for Peace D’étranges compagnons : chrétiens et communistes britanniques dans la lutte pour la paix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Tranmer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Au début des années 1950, le doyen de l’archevêché de Cantorbéry œuvra au sein du mouvement pour la paix et participa à des activités organisées par le parti communiste britannique. En 1983, le prêtre catholique Bruce Kent, leader de la Campagne pour le Désarmement Nucléaire, loua l’engagement des communistes britanniques en faveur de la paix. Cet article cherche à examiner pourquoi et comment chrétiens et communistes surmontèrent leurs différences et coopérèrent dans la lutte contre l’arme nucléaire.

  10. Evaluación del nivel del conocimiento que tiene el personal de enfermería sobre la guía de manejo de Trastorno Afectivo Bipolar (TAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Lizcano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Trastorno Afectivo Bipolar (TAB ocupa el primer lugar de las quince primeras causas por consulta externa en el año 2009 con 1.423 casos sobre un total de 7.177 consultas. La investigación realizada tiene como objetivo determinar el nivel de conocimiento del personal de enfermería que labora en una Empresa Social del Estado especializado en psiquiatría. La prevalencia de esta patología hace relevante la evaluación de la guía del Trastorno Afectivo Bipolar (TAB. El instrumento utilizado fue aplicado a 52 trabajadores de la institución, arrojando como resultado un bajo nivel de conocimiento con relación a la aplicación guía de atención de enfermería de manejo para el paciente con Trastorno Afectivo Bipolar (TAB.

  11. Field evaluation of spatial repellency of metofluthrin-impregnated latticework plastic strips against Aedes aegypti (L.) and analysis of environmental factors affecting its efficacy in My Tho City, Tien Giang, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Iwasaki, Tomonori; LE Loan, Luu; Tien, Tran Khanh; Mai, Nguyen Thi Nhu; Shono, Yoshinori; Katayama, Yasuyuki; Takagi, Masahiro

    2006-12-01

    Spatial repellency of metofluthrin-impregnated polyethylene latticework plastic strips against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes was evaluated. Analysis of environmental factors affecting the efficacy of these strips, such as room temperature, humidity, and house structure, was performed in a residential area in My Tho City, Tien Giang Province, Vietnam. Treatment with the strips at the rate of 1 strip per 2.6-5.52 m(2) (approximately 600 mg per 2.6-5.52 m(2)) reduced the collection of Ae. aegypti resting inside the houses for at least eight weeks. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both increase in the average room temperature and decrease in the area of openings in the rooms that were treated with the strips positively affected the spatial repellency of metofluthrin.

  12. Zigzag et « carré plastique » haïtiens en Amérique du nord à travers l’Autobiographie américaine de Dany Laferrière

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier-Messonnier, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    L’ « Autobiographie américaine » de Dany Laferrière et le « carré plastique » de Léonel Jules, artistes et amis haïtiens émigrés au Québec, déconstruisent la ville américaine par l’éclatement textuel et la plasticité picturale. Mythifient-ils pour autant le berceau natal ? L’écriture plastique et poétique efface les frontières. The « American Autobiography » by Dany Laferrière and the « Carré Plastique » by Léonel Jules, Haitian artists and friends who emigrated to Quebec, deconstruct the ...

  13. De la chair imbibée de foi : la viande comme marqueur de la frontière entre chrétiens et musulmans en Éthiopie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éloi Ficquet

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Jamais en Éthiopie un chrétien et un musulman ne mangent de viande ensemble. Consommer de la viande qui n’a pas été consacrée à sa propre foi est appréhendé comme un acte hautement sacrilège équivalent à une apostasie. Cet interdit doit être compris dans une perspective comparative large sur les pratiques et les débats qui restreignent la commensalité de la viande entre les chrétiens et les musulmans. Les usages éthiopiens ont accentué cette question pour en faire un interdit puissant, marqueur d’une frontière interreligieuse. Comme toute frontière, cette « frontière carnée » a été le lieu de confrontations, d’aménagements et de transgressions dont les effets ont contribué à la construction de l’espace national éthiopien contemporain.Christians and Muslims in Ethiopia never eat meat together. Consuming meat that was not consecrated to one’s faith is seen as a highly sacrilegious act equal to apostasy. This interdict must be understood in comparative perspective that looks at the restrictions regarding the sharing of meat between Christians and Muslims. Ethiopian customs have emphasized this issue to turn it into a powerful interdict, tracing an inter-religious boundary. Like any boundary, this “dietary boundary” has been the site of confrontations, readjustments and transgressions whose effects have contributed to the building of a contemporary Ethiopian national space.

  14. MENSWAARDIGHEID NA TIEN JAAR VAN REGSTAATLIKHEID IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    rasionele mens daarvoor moet hê. Outonomie is gevolglik die grondslag van die waardigheid van die menslike natuur en van iedere rasionele skepsel. 11. Bekende Angelsaksiese regsfilosowe onderskryf 'n soortgelyke benadering. Volgens Ronald. Dworkin, wat deels vir John Rawls aanhaal, is die gelyke respek wat aan ...

  15. Een speld in tien miljoen hooibergen

    CERN Multimedia

    Minkema, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Deeply under the ground in Geneva, thousands of scientists work with a giant particle accelerator. A discovery machine which will brew particles as from this summer and perhaps even create mini black holes.

  16. Pharmacovigilance: Tiens Slimming Tea Causes Increased Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... possible link between the constituents of the slimming tea and increased blood pressure and also provide evidence of other possible harmful effects that may occur with the use of the slimming tea. Keywords: Pharmacovigilance, hypertension, slimming tea. West African Journal of Pharmacology and Drug Research Vol.

  17. If Your Child Learns in Two Languages: A Parent's Guide for Improving Educational Opportunities for Children Acquiring English as a Second Language = Si su nino aprende en dos idiomes: Una guia para que las familias sepan como mejorar las oportunidades educativas de los ninos que adquieren el ingles como segunda lengua = Neu lon Ban Hoc Bang Hai Thu Tieng: Chi-nam cua phu-huynh de cai tien co hoi hoc van cua con em dang hoc Anh van nhu sinh ngu thu hai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelasko, Nancy; Antunez, Beth

    This guide, in English, Spanish, and Vietnamese, aims to inform parents of students who have learned or are learning English as a Second Language about appropriate approaches for educating children so that they can work with schools to ensure a high quality education for their children. The emphasis is on explaining the laws, schools, and research…

  18. Choices Outlined 2013-2017. An analysis of ten election programmes for accessibility effects. PBL-CPB background document; Keuzes in kaart 2013-2017. Een analyse van tien verkiezingsprogramma's op bereikbaarheidseffecten. PBL-CPB Achtergronddocument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwaneveld, P.; Verrips, A. [CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, The Hague (Netherlands); Hilbers, H.; Zondag, B.; Van Meerkerk, J. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Weijschede-van der Straaten, W. [CBS Statistics Netherlands, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    In their report 'Keuzes in Kaart 2013-2017' (Choices outlined 2013-2017) the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) and the Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) made calculations for thirteen themes of the election programs of ten Dutch political parties. Accessibility is one of these thirteen themes. Analyses on this theme were conducted jointly by PBL and CPB. This paper addresses which different political choices the Dutch parties have made for the theme of accessibility, how PBL and CPB conducted analyses and which results were yielded. The effect of the party program is compared to a basic path, the expected image for 2020 based on implementation of the Budget Agreement 2013 ('Spring Agreement'). [Dutch] Het Centraal Planbureau (CPB) en het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) hebben in het rapport 'Keuzes in Kaart 2013-2017' de verkiezingsprogramma's van tien politieke partijen doorgerekend op dertien thema's. Bereikbaarheid is één van de dertien thema's. De analyses rond dit thema zijn gezamenlijk uitgevoerd door PBL en CPB. Dit paper gaat in op welke verschillende politieke keuzes de partijen ten aanzien van bereikbaarheid hebben gemaakt, op welke wijze de planbureaus dit hebben geanalyseerd en tot welke resultaten dit heeft geleid. Het effect van het partijprogramma wordt vergeleken met het 'basispad', het verwachte beeld voor 2020 uitgaande van uitvoering van het Begrotingsakkoord 2013 (het 'Lenteakkoord')

  19. STAF: A Powerful and Sophisticated CAI System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loach, Ken

    1982-01-01

    Describes the STAF (Science Teacher's Authoring Facility) computer-assisted instruction system developed at Leeds University (England), focusing on STAF language and major program features. Although programs for the system emphasize physical chemistry and organic spectroscopy, the system and language are general purpose and can be used in any…

  20. Charted Choices 2013-2017. An analysis of ten election programmes. Effects on the economy and the environment; Keuzes in Kaart 2013-2017. Een analyse van tien verkiezingsprogramma's. Effecten op economie en milieu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    At the request of ten political parties, the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency have mapped out the effects of the respective election platforms on the economy and the environment. The analysis shows that each of the proposed policy measures included in the platforms has both advantages and disadvantages. The platforms thus reflect the diverse choices that have been made by the parties. The publication presents the impact of party programs on public finances, purchasing power and employment. Also included in the publication are analyses in the field of mobility, energy and climate, nature, education, housing and healthcare [Dutch] De verkiezingsprogramma's 2012 laten zien welke keuzes politieke partijen maken voor de jaren 2013-2017. De programma's tonen aan dat er echt iets te kiezen valt voor de komende kabinetsperiode. Hoe gaan we na de economische crisis de overheidsfinancien weer op orde brengen en hoe snel? Verhogen we de AOW-leeftijd en beperken we de aftrek van de hypotheekrente, of juist niet? Hoe verminderen we de filedruk? Willen we klimaatverandering aanpakken en zo ja, hoe dan? Is het de moeite waarde om meer geld uit te geven aan onderwijs of innovatie? Hoeveel trekken we uit voor natuur? Hoe kunnen we de woningmarkt beter laten functioneren? Hoe gaan we om met de stijging van de kosten van de zorg? In de aanloop naar de verkiezingen van 12 september 2012 hebben tien politieke partijen - VVD, PvdA, PVV, CDA, SP, D66, GroenLinks, ChristenUnie, SGP, DPK - gevraagd om een analyse van hun verkiezingsprogramma's. Het CPB heeft de economische effecten geanalyseerd, het PBL de effecten op milieu.

  1. Charted Choices 2013-2017. An analysis of ten election programmes. Effects on the economy and the environment; Keuzes in Kaart 2013-2017. Een analyse van tien verkiezingsprogramma's. Effecten op economie en milieu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    At the request of ten political parties, the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency have mapped out the effects of the respective election platforms on the economy and the environment. The analysis shows that each of the proposed policy measures included in the platforms has both advantages and disadvantages. The platforms thus reflect the diverse choices that have been made by the parties. The publication presents the impact of party programs on public finances, purchasing power and employment. Also included in the publication are analyses in the field of mobility, energy and climate, nature, education, housing and healthcare [Dutch] De verkiezingsprogramma's 2012 laten zien welke keuzes politieke partijen maken voor de jaren 2013-2017. De programma's tonen aan dat er echt iets te kiezen valt voor de komende kabinetsperiode. Hoe gaan we na de economische crisis de overheidsfinancien weer op orde brengen en hoe snel? Verhogen we de AOW-leeftijd en beperken we de aftrek van de hypotheekrente, of juist niet? Hoe verminderen we de filedruk? Willen we klimaatverandering aanpakken en zo ja, hoe dan? Is het de moeite waarde om meer geld uit te geven aan onderwijs of innovatie? Hoeveel trekken we uit voor natuur? Hoe kunnen we de woningmarkt beter laten functioneren? Hoe gaan we om met de stijging van de kosten van de zorg? In de aanloop naar de verkiezingen van 12 september 2012 hebben tien politieke partijen - VVD, PvdA, PVV, CDA, SP, D66, GroenLinks, ChristenUnie, SGP, DPK - gevraagd om een analyse van hun verkiezingsprogramma's. Het CPB heeft de economische effecten geanalyseerd, het PBL de effecten op milieu.

  2. De la dédiasporisation des jeunes Haïtiens à New-York On De-diasporization of Second-generation Haitians in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Melyon-Reinette

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les facteurs répulsifs de l’émigration haïtienne ont complètement changé depuis les années 1950 qui marquèrent le début de ce mouvement avec le régime duvaliériste. Les entités géopolitiques et sociopolitiques qui en résultent évoluent, elles aussi, proportionnellement et rationnellement aux motivations des individus en partance. Ainsi, les exilés forcés rêvaient de retrouver leur chère Haïti, les nouveaux primo-arrivants sont des individus qui cherchent à se ré-enraciner dans un terreau aux airs d’ailleurs. Le diasporique est-il un individu dont l’identité est figée ? Dans cet article, une étude statistique simple cherche à démontrer l’évolution des mentalités des jeunes Haïtiens à travers un questionnement des identités et des orientations culturelles. Des dynamiques se font jour montrant que la diaspora est fluctuante comme les identités et les cultures qui la composent.The Push factors of Haitian emigration have completely changed since the late 1950s which marked the beginning of this movement with the Duvalier regime. The geopolitical and sociopolitical entities which result from it are changing as well, in proportion and accordance with the motivations of the people who leave. Thus, the forced exiles dreamt of going back to their dearest Haiti, the latest newly-arrived immigrants are individuals who desire to re-root into a land that sounds like “elsewhere”. Must the diasporic individual’s identity be stable? In this article, a simple survey seeks to shed light on the changing mentalities of young Haitians, examining their identities and cultural choices.  Emerging trends show that diaspora is a flow, not unlike the identities and the cultures of which it is composed.

  3. Geology, mineralization, and fluid inclusion characteristics of the Kashkasu W-Mo-Cu skarn deposit associated with a high-potassic to shoshonitic igneous suite in Kyrgyzstan, Tien Shan: Toward a diversity of W mineralization in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, Serguei G.; Kryazhev, Sergey G.

    2018-03-01

    The Kashkasu deposit is part of the subduction-related Late Paleozoic (Late Carboniferous) metallogenic belt of Tien Shan. It is associated with a multiphase monzodiorite-monzonite-granodiorite-granite pluton of the magnetite-series high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic igneous suite. The deposit contains zones of W-Mo-Cu oxidized prograde and retrograde skarns, with abundant andraditic garnet, magnetite, locally scapolite and K-feldspar, as well as scheelite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite. Skarns are overprinted by quartz-carbonate-sericite (phyllic alteration) zones with scheelite and sulfides. Prograde calcic skarn and initial retrograde skarns were formed from a high temperature (650 °C to 450-550 °C), high pressure (2000 bars to 600-900 bars) magmatic-hydrothermal low- to high-salinity aqueous chloride fluid. The gradual fluid evolution was interrupted by the intrusion of granodiorite and likely associated release of low-salinity (∼7-8 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluid. Ascent of this fluid to shallower levels and/or its cooling to 400-500 °C has resulted in phase separation into low-salinity (2.1-3.1 wt% NaCl equiv.) vapor and coexisting brine (35-40 wt% NaCl equiv.). The boiling was coincident with most intense scheelite deposition in retrograde skarn. Later retrograde skarn assemblages were formed from a gaseous, low- to moderate-salinity (3.4-8.1 wt% NaCl equiv.) fluid and then from high salinity (37-42 wt% NaCl equiv.) aqueous chloride fluids, the latter being enriched in Ca (17-20 wt% CaCl2) that could also affect scheelite deposition. Another cycle of fluid exsolution from crystallizing magma corresponded to quartz-carbonate-sericite-scheelite-sulfide (phyllic) alteration stage, with the early low-salinity (5.3-8.4 wt% NaCl-equiv.) fluid followed by later high-salinity (33.5-38.2 wt% NaCl-equiv.) fluid. The sulfur isotope data (δ34S = +5.1 to +9.0) suggest significant sulfur sourcing from sedimentary rocks enriched in seawater sulfate, possibly evaporites.

  4. Anticipating Central Asian Water Stress: Variation in River Flow Dependency on Melt Waters from Alpine to Plains in the Remote Tien Shan Range, Kyrgyzstan Using a Rapid Hydro Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A. F.; Wilson, A. M.; Williams, M. W.

    2016-12-01

    The future of mountain water resources in High Asia is of high interest to water managers, development organizations and policy makers given large populations downstream reliant on snow and ice sourced river flow. Together with historical and cultural divides among ex-Soviet republics, a lack of central water management following the Soviet break-up has led to water stress as trans-boundary waters weave through and along borders. New upstream hydropower development, a thirsty downstream agricultural sector and a shrinking Aral Sea has led to increasing tension in the region. Despite these pressures and in contrast to eastern High Asia's Himalayan basins (Ganges, Brahmaputra), little attention has been given to western High Asia draining the Pamir and Tien Shan ranges (Syr Darya and Amu Darya basins) to better understand the hydrology of this vast and remote area. Difficult access and challenging terrain exacerbate challenges to working in this remote mountain region. As part of the Contributions to High Asia Runoff from Ice and Snow (CHARIS) project, we asked how does river flow source water composition change over an alpine-to-plains domain of Kyrgyzstan's Naryn River in the Syr Darya basin? In addition, what may the future hold for river flow in Central Asia given the differing responses of snow and ice to climate changes? Utilizing a Rapid Hydrologic Assessment methodology including a suite of pre-field mapping techniques we collected in situ water chemistry data at targeted, remote mountain sites over 450km of the Naryn River over an elevation gradient from glacial headwaters to the lower lying areas - places where people, hydropower and agriculture utilize water. Chemical and isotope tracers were used to separate stream flow to understand relative dependency on melt waters as the river moves downstream from glaciers and snow covered areas. This case study demonstrates a technique to acquire field data over large scales in remote regions that facilitates

  5. El fin de la situación de transitoriedad: la Ley Orgánica 15/1999, de 13 de diciembre, de Protección de Datos de Carácter Personal ya tiene desarrollo reglamentario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Vilasau

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El 19 de abril del 2008 entró en vigor el Reglamento 1720/2007, de 21 de diciembre, que desarrolla la Ley Orgánica de Protección de Datos (LOPD. Este texto había sido muy esperado por los aplicadores del derecho, por las empresas de consultoría y de seguridad, por sectores del marketing y publicidad, por empresas dedicadas a la solvencia patrimonial y crédito y, en un grado menor, por los consumidores y usuarios. La norma responde a la necesidad de dotar la Ley Orgánica sobre la materia del correspondiente desarrollo reglamentario y dar respuesta a las nuevas necesidades de la sociedad de la información constantemente en evolución. En el Reglamento de la LOPD se regula el otorgamiento del consentimiento por silencio positivo, el otorgamiento del consentimiento de los menores, se sistematiza el ejercicio de los derechos por parte del afectado, se regulan detalladamente los ficheros de marketing y publicidad, los de solvencia patrimonial y crédito, se dota la figura del encargado de un estatuto jurídico, se proporciona un nuevo marco a las medidas de seguridad y se sistematizan los procedimientos tramitados por la Agencia Española de Protección de Datos. El texto aprobado, evidentemente, no complacerá a todo el mundo, la existencia de múltiples instancias involucradas (estatales y autonómicas y de múltiples agentes con diferentes perspectivas hace que las soluciones proporcionadas no se ajusten a los ideales de todos los implicados.Sin embargo, el nuevo reglamento es un paso adelante en la consolidación del derecho a la protección de datos de carácter personal, aporta mayor seguridad jurídica y flexibilización y se tiene que ver como una oportunidad de crear una nueva cultura de protección de datos integrada en el tratamiento de la información de una forma global.

  6. Reseña de: Caselli, Elisa, Antijudaïsme, pouvoir politique et administration de la justice. Juifs, chrétiens et converts dans l’ espace jurisdictionnel de la Chancillería de Valladolid (XVe-XVIe siècles.Villeneuve d’Ascq...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Cantera Montenegro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Caselli, Elisa, Antijudaïsme, pouvoir politique et administration de la justice. Juifs, chrétiens et converts dans l’ espace jurisdictionnel de la Chancillería de Valladolid (XVe-XVIe siècles. Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex. Atelier National de Reproduction des Thèses, 2016. 396 págs. isbn: 978-2-7295-8891-5.

  7. Incidencia que tiene la participación de los jóvenes en los grupos juveniles respecto a su formación integral, calidad de vida y compromiso social, en la Universidad Nacional, Universidad de Medellín, Universidad de Antioquia tres instituciones de educación superior, de Medellín.

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Arroyave, Olga Luz; Ocampo Mejía, Martha Cecilia; Arango Ríos, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    En la Universidad de Medellín, se planteó por parte de un grupo interdisciplinario de investigadores, la posibilidad de mirar la Incidencia que tiene la participación de los jóvenes, en los grupos juveniles, respecto a la Formación Integral, Calidad de Vida y Compromiso Social. El estudio fue realizado en tres Instituciones de Educación Superior de Medellín, escogiéndose: la Universidad Nacional, la Universidad de Medellín, y la Universidad de Antioquia. El grupo de investigadores ident...

  8. Concepto y aplicación práctica que dan los profesores de química a la evaluación final, análisis de falencias y potencialidades que tiene en el proceso de enseñanza y de aprendizaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Martínez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de analizar qué imagen, concepto y aplicación práctica respecto a la evaluación final tienen los profesores de nivel universitario, se realiza una pequeña indagación en la UPN, con docentes del departamento de química. Se busca entonces evidenciar algunas de las falencias y potencialidades que tiene la evaluación final en el proceso de enseñanza y de aprendizaje, con relación a tal visión, cuando finalmente esta, es el resultado de la planeación previa del profesor.

  9. Tien procent minder emissies (interview met Chris Karman)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkers, H.; Karman, C.C.

    2012-01-01

    De nieuwe havensleepboot E3-Tug bespaart brandstof en vermindert emissies. IMARES Wageningen UR ontwikkelde de software die een optimale combinatie berekent van de elektrische en de dieselvoortstuwing.

  10. Tien jaar Duurzaam Veilig : verkeersveiligheidsbalans 1998-2007.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, W.A.M. & Schagen, I.N.L.G. van (red.)

    2009-01-01

    Ten years of Sustainable Safety; Road safety assessment 1998-2007. The road safety vision Sustainable Safety was introduced at the beginning of the Nineties. The concrete implementation of Sustainable Safety began in 1998 after the Covenant for the Start-up Programme had been signed. This road

  11. Tien jaar Knolcyperus (Cyperus esculentus L.) in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rotteveel, A.J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Yellow nutsedge ( Cyperus esculentus L.) was first recorded in 1981 as an agricultural pest. A considerable number of fields was found to be infested. Because the species is very damaging to agriculture legal measures were taken to restrict the dispersion and promote the control of the weed. During

  12. Moroccorp: tien miljoen woorden uit twee Marokkaans- Nederlandse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    beperkt tot Genk en ook straattaal (Appel 1999) is regiogebonden. Maar een goed begrip van deze variëteiten kan .... werd het eerste chatkanaal gelogd, en van juli tot en met september werd het tweede chatkanaal gelogd. Onze logactiviteiten .... is marked by certain contact phenomena". Die definities zien er op het eerste.

  13. Strategische marketing : De tien geboden van het gezonden verstand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moenaert, R.K.; Robben, M.

    2007-01-01

    Door de jaren heen is de klassieke strategische doctrine nogal eens ter discussie gesteld. En het boek ‘Blue Ocean Strategy’ versterkt die trend alleen maar. In het boek staat waarde-innovatie centraal en het biedt, in tegenstelling tot eerdere werken zoals het pamflettistisch-kritische betoog van

  14. De refranes y cantares tiene el pueblo mil millares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Alfonso Soler

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta experiencia trata de acercarnos a la palabra para mejorar las competencias comunicativas orales y escritas de los nuevos hablantes de nuestro idioma. El uso de los refranes se incluye en el ámbito del nivel popular; en él abunda la subjetividad, se economizan considerablemente los medios lingüísticos y aparecen numerosas apelaciones al oyente. Relativo a esto podemos señalar que los proverbios y refranes son expresiones de contenido moral y didáctico que se transmiten de manera oral.

  15. El contrabando de armas no tiene fronteras (Internacional)

    OpenAIRE

    López, Noemí

    2011-01-01

    El tráfico de armas transfronterizo se ha convertido en una situación a combatir para los gobiernos locales. En el año 2004 la violencia en México se incrementó, al tiempo que el crecía el tráfico ilegal de armas desde los Estados Unidos. Esto aumentó los casos de violencia en el país y las bandas dedicadas al contrabando de armamento. En el año 2008 las autoridades de Estados Unidos y México crearon el plan "Armas Cruzadas" para combatir el contrabando de armas a través de su frontera común....

  16. Dominio informativo, ¿quién tiene el poder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Mauricio Velásquez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A través de la historia, las relaciones entre los gobiernos y la prensa han sido definitivas en el éxito o fracaso de quienes ostentan el poder. No es extraño que algunos jefes de Estado se sientan incómodos con la manera de informar de algunos medios o, por el contrario, decidan aliarse para estructurar determinadas agendas que se manejan de manera unánime para orientar el temario que decida el ejecutivo. El Observatorio de Medios de la Facultad de Comunicación Social y Periodismo realizó un estudio para conocer el estado de la relación entre el presidente Álvaro Uribe Vélez y la prensa. La investigación reveló presiones directas e indirectas que el gobierno ejerce sobre los periodistas.

  17. In memory of Professor Tianqin Cao(Tien-chin Tsao)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youshang Zhang

    2010-01-01

    @@ In December this year,the 4th Tianqin Cao Memorial Symposium on Protein Research will be held in Xiamen(Amoy).On this occasion,it is my pleasure to write a recollection in memory of Professor Tianqin Cao.It was rather late when Ⅰ was able to study in Prof.Cao's laboratory as a graduate student in the Institute of Biochemistry.After graduating from the Department of Chemical Engineering of Zhejiang University in 1948,Ⅰ could not find a job in a chemical engineering factory; therefore,Ⅰ changed my profession to biochemistry and worked as an assistant in the Department of Biochemistry of Hunan Yale Medical College.

  18. La construction relative dans Chrétien de Troyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabriek, Pieter

    1924-01-01

    1. On peut reléguer à la syntaxe figée la construction relative avec la pronom neutre que dans feire que sages, que je sache, (au) plus tost qu'il pot, je n'ai que feire; avec le pronom adjectif qui dans il n'i a celui (nul, un seul) qui, com cil qui; en outre qui vive dans riens (om) qui vive

  19. Menswaardigheid na tien jaar van regstaatlikheid in Suid-Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LWH Ackermann

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available HUMAN DIGNITY AFTER TEN YEARS OF TEH CONSTITUTIONAL STATE IN SOUTH AFRICASpeech delivered on 16 March 2004 on the Potchefstroom campus of the North-West UniversityHuman dignity has been the marrow of our Constitution and our constitutional state since 1994. The inherent dignity of man is also a key principle of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. The Kantian categorical imperatives continue to provide guidance regarding the meaning of human dignity. At the very least, people are entitled to be regarded as moral subjects and not as objects: as subjects with absolute and inherent worth and therefore also as moral subjects of equal worth.The juridical core of the pathology of apartheid was the extensive and sustained attempt to deprive the majority of South Africans of the right to self-identification and self-determination. It amounted to an inversion of the Kantian imperatives. A reversal of this inversion has been attempted over the past ten years. The Constitution not only elevates human dignity to a specially entrenched value, but also affords it special protection in the context of fundamental rights. It is furthermore a specific consideration in the limitation of rights and in the development of the common law. It applies not only to the state/subject relationship, but also to "horizontal" relationships and it must be taken into account in the interpretation of the Constitution.Constitutional jurisprudence has established that the Constitution is more than a formal document, but that it also represents an objective, normative value system. Thus the foundational norm of human dignity radiates into all areas of the law. The role of human dignity in the interpretation and application of norms applicable to remedial or restitutionary equality, as well as in the achievement of constitutional equilibrium in the "horizontal" operation of the Bill of Rights, has also been established.The realization of human dignity is but in its initial stages: civil society, including educational institutions, are called upon to make their contribution to the process.

  20. De refranes y cantares tiene el pueblo mil millares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Alfonso Soler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta experiencia trata de acercarnos a la palabra para mejorar las competencias comunicativas orales y escritas de los nuevos hablantes de nuestro idioma. El uso de los refranes se incluye en el ámbito del nivel popular; en él abunda la subjetividad, se economizan considerablemente los medios lingüísticos y aparecen numerosas apelaciones al oyente. Relativo a esto podemos señalar que los proverbios y refranes son expresiones de contenido moral y didáctico que se transmiten de manera oral.

  1. A visão da família sobre a experiência de ter uma criança gastrostomizada La visión de la familia sobre la experiencia de tener un niño que tiene gastrostomía The views of the family about the experience of having a child with gastrostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cascaes Cruz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A gastrostomia é cada vez mais usada para tratar de problemas nutricionais e de crescimento em crianças com doenças crónicas ou deficientes. Embora seja um procedimento simples para a equipa de saúde, a criação de estomas na criança pode gerar consequências emocionais e sociais na vida familiar. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar as evidências científicas acerca da experiência da família que possui uma criança gastrostomizada. Elaborou-se uma revisão integrativa da literatura no período de 2005 a 2011 e busca de artigos em diferentes bases de dados, sendo selecionados 10 artigos sobre o tema. A análise dos textos permitiu organizar os resultados em quatro temas: o significado da alimentação para os pais; o desempenho do papel parental; a experiência da família na interação com a equipa de saúde; a vida após a gastrostomia. Os resultados demonstram que a família que tem uma criança gastrostomizada experiencia uma grande sobrecarga emocional, sobretudo no período anterior ao procedimento, em virtude do significado sociocultural que a alimentação tem para ela. A família necessita de receber informações e apoio da equipa de saúde que acompanha a criança.La gastrostomía se utiliza cada vez más para tratar problemas nutricionales y de crecimiento en niños con enfermedades crónicas o incapacidades. A pesar de que el equipo sanitario considera que es un procedimiento simple, la realización de un estoma en el niño puede tener consecuencias emocionales y sociales en la vida familiar. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las evidencias científicas relacionadas con la experiencia de la familia que tiene un niño con gastrostomía. Se realizó una revisión integrativa de la literatura en el periodo comprendido entre 2005 y 2011 y se buscaron artículos en diferentes bases de datos, de los cuales se seleccionaron 10 sobre el tema. El análisis de los textos permitió organizar los resultados en cuatro

  2. Spectroscopy and Photometry of CAI-rich asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanga, P.; Devogele, M.; Bendjoya, Ph.; Cellino, A.; Surdej, J.

    2017-09-01

    Asteroids with an anomalous amount of primitive elements, formed in ancient times in the solar nebula, exist. Our study confirms their nature and provides hints to the interpretation of the ancient evolution of asteroids.

  3. Development of the CAI system for inheritance of maintenance expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafusa, Hidemitsu; Chigusa, Naoki; Furuta, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    High quality maintenance is required in order to secure the safety of nuclear power plants. The engineers engaged in maintenance activities have to master various knowledge, including the explicit and tacit knowledge of experienced experts, through education and training. Moreover, it is also very important to prevent these knowledge from getting scattered and lost with a change of generation and to share the knowledge or expertise. The purpose of this study is to develop a support system for the next generation experts to help them master and make use of the knowledge of their predecessors. The knowledge or expertise consist of ''knowledge about the maintenance tasks'', ''knowledge about structure/function of plant system/equipment'', and ''individual knowledge based on trouble experience etc.''. The ways this knowledge could be represented were considered first, then this support system was developed based on such representation. (author)

  4. CAI and Its Application in Rural Junior English Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Superiority in developing students' listening, speaking, etc. This thesis explores how to provide a better environment for English teaching in rural junior school with the aid of multimedia and find some ways to improve teaching efficiency. In recent years, using multimedia is the direction of reform and mainstream in English teaching. Compared…

  5. « Comment se comporter avec un roi chrétien » : l’ouvrage perdu d’Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī Ibn al-Qaṭṭān et les enjeux du cérémonial almohade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghouirgate

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose de revenir sur un document aussi exceptionnel que méconnu. Il s’agit du résumé d’un ouvrage (maqāla, aujourd’hui perdu, intitulé « Comment se comporter avec un roi chrétien », et que l’on trouve dans le dictionnaire bio-bibliographique d’Ibn ʿAbd al-Malik. Cette maqāla fut rédigée, par un homme de lettres au service des Almohades, Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī Ibn al-Qaṭṭān (m. 1231. C’est la seule source qui ait consigné des indications sur la conduite que devait adopter le souverain lors d’une cérémonie, en présence d’un prince étranger. À ce titre, on y trouve des renseignements essentiels sur le cérémonial almohade ainsi que sur les dilemmes que devaient résoudre le calife : d’un point de vue idéologique, il ne pouvait souffrir aucun autre pouvoir, mais l’impossibilité de mener des opérations d’envergure sur deux fronts à la fois l’amena à composer avec le roi du León. De même, c’est le seul document à avoir fait état d’une divergence de point de vue entre le calife et les intellectuels organiques du système, les Ṭalaba. Ce différend met en lumière des tensions latentes au sommet entre divers serviteurs de l’État, qui n’avaient pas la même forme de légitimité, ni tout à fait les mêmes intérêts.

  6. O significado de cuidado para crianças vítimas de violência intrafamiliar que tiene el cuidado El significado para niños víctimas de violencia familiar The meaning of care for children victims of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Irmgard Bärtschi Gabatz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa que objetivou descrever o significado de cuidado vivenciado em família por crianças abrigadas que sofreram violência intrafamiliar. Foi desenvolvida em duas instituições que abrigam crianças e adolescentes vítimas de violência familiar no sul do Brasil, com quatro crianças entre 8 e 11 anos de idade. A produção dos dados ocorreu em junho/julho de 2008 por meio do Método Criativo Sensível, com as dinâmicas de criatividade e sensibilidade Brincar em Cena e Corpo Saber. Os dados foram analisados por meio da análise de discurso francesa. Foi evidenciado como tema o significado atribuído pela criança acerca de cuidado, que se desdobrou nos subtemas Sentimento de amor e de carinho pelo familiar que cuidava e Os cuidados básicos de higiene como forma de cuidado. Recomenda-se um trabalho preventivo, realizado junto às famílias com foco em ações que propiciem o apego, o fortalecimento do vínculo mãe-filho e as relações familiares.La presente investigación cualitativa tuvo como objetivo describir el significado que tiene recibir cuidado y atención, dentro de un entorno familiar, para niños albergados que sufrieron violencia familiar. Se desarrolló con cuatro niños, entre 8 y 11 años de edad, en dos instituciones que albergan niños y adolescentes víctimas de violencia doméstica en el sur de Brasil. Los datos fueron obtenidos en junio y julio de 2008 por medio del Método Creativo Sensible (Método Criativo Sensível, más específicamente, a través de la realización de las dinámicas de creatividad y sensibilidad: "Jugar en escena" (Brincar em Cena y "Cuerpo Saber" (Corpo Saber. Para analizar los datos se utilizó la corriente francesa de análisis del discurso. El significado que estos niños le atribuyeron al cuidado y atención se dividió en dos subtemas, el sentimiento de amor y afecto que sienten por la familia delegada para cuidarlos, y los cuidados básicos de higiene como

  7. Bogotá no tiene mar pero tiene playa: el vallenato y sus intérpretes costeños en Bogotá

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Acuña, Juan Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    La Playa es un sector de la ciudad de Bogotá, donde se encuentra la oferta de músicos informales más grande de Colombia: mariachis, tríos de cuerda y grupos vallenatos. En esta investigación, se analiza la migración de músicos vallenatos provenientes del Caribe colombiano a este sector de la capital del país; se examina el trabajo de estos músicos en La Playa; y se revisa el proceso de consolidación del vallenato como música nacional.

  8. What's in a nudge? : Tien aanbevelingen voor nudge-experimenten in de openbare gezondheidszorg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ridder, D.T.D.; Gillebaart, M.

    2016-01-01

    Nudging, kortweg gedefinieerd als het gemakkelijker maken van de gewenste (gezonde) keuze zonder de ongewenste keuze te verbieden, wint aan populariteit als alternatief voor gebruikelijke (veelal educatieve) interventies in de openbare gezondheidszorg. Duidelijke aanknopingspunten om te gaan

  9. Tien jaar Nijmeegs onderzoek naar het leren van leraren op de werkplek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, T.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Toen ik in 1994 de verantwoordelijkheid kreeg om een interfacultair onderzoekprogramma op te zetten dat relevant was voor de universitaire lerarenopleiding, kreeg ik van het toenmalige College van Bestuur ook de opdracht om te zorgen dat een groot deel van de universitaire lerarenopleiders in een

  10. ¿Tiene sentido un proyecto docente en Derecho Financiero y Tributario?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Almendral, Violeta

    2007-01-01

    It is now more necessary than ever to enquire about the goals and aims of teaching Tax and Finance Law in Universities. Simply put, two reasons justify this need: the most obvious one is the need to adapt teaching methods to the Bolonia agreemens, which call for a thorough rethinking of all teaching curricula. A second reason is the dramatic transformation of Tax and Finance Law in Spain ever since it joined the European Union on Jan 1st 1986. This transformation, that some call tax revolutio...

  11. Quantitative Biostratigraphic Analysis of Central Asia with Implications for the Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, W. N.; Hopkins, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Central Asia lies at a nexus both in terms of geology and evolutionary biogeography. With the convergence of the Indian and Asian plates creating high rates of deformation over broad regions, shortening of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic basement rocks has created a rich history of late Cenozoic sedimentary basins. In fact, Kyrgyzstan is the most seismically active country in the world. Additionally, Central Asia is a biogeographic crossroads, facilitating the intercontinental migrations of distant faunas from North American, Europe, Africa, and Southern Asia. With such an active geologic and biological evolution, the usefulness of temporal constraints is apparent. However, the continental collision environment has provided few volcanic rocks suitable for radiometric dating. Therefore, while less precise, the biostratigraphic analysis of Central Asia I present is an ideal method for both establishing ages and correlating between disparate basins. The last several decades provided great advancements in quantitative biostratigraphic methods applied to marine microfossils from drill cores. While these newer methods such as RASC (ranking and scaling), its sister program CASC, and CONOP (constrained optimization) provide a clear improvement over older methods such as graphic correlation, they have yet to be applied to terrestrial vertebrate faunas. Graphic correlation only allows comparison between two stratigraphic columns at a time and is heavily weighted by the initial selection of a type section. Both RASC and CONOP compare all stratigraphic sections simultaneously, eliminating type section bias. Previous vertebrate biostratigraphy methods attempted to predict FADs and LADs with the assumption they are generally minimum estimates. RASC instead establishes average stratigraphic ranges for each taxon and with CASC actually provides confidence intervals for each prediction, reducing the potential error resulting from reworking. CONOP generates maximum stratigraphic ranges observed in all sections, yet also includes error bars for the estimates of each biological event such as an extinction or origination. Used in conjunction, RASC, CASC, and CONOP provide both a solid evaluation of land mammal ages or zones for Central Asia and a predictive composite column for new late Cenozoic fossil localities. With a high degree of endemicity and migration, Central Asia cannot rely on the European Neogene Mammal Zones. This study aims to support and evaluate the emerging Asian biostratigraphic and geochronologic framework. With little fossil material currently collected from Kyrgyzstan, this study also sets a temporal framework for future paleontological work. Material is included from countries with much better constrained biostratigraphic records, preferably associated with existing radiometric dates. Specifically included were sites from Asiatic Russia, Mongolia, Western China, India, and Nepal. This geographic range is selected both to preserve the signal of faunas endemic to the Himalayan and Tibetan highlands, but also to provide a large enough sample to account for the well-known problems with the terrestrial fossil record such as high sampling errors and diachrony.

  12. Síncope y escalas de riesgo: ¿Qué evidencia se tiene?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Mora

    Full Text Available Objetivo: hacer una revisión de las escalas de riesgo existentes para predecir eventos adversos relacionados con síncope. Metodología: se realizó una búsqueda de artículos en MEDLINE, EMBASE y Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews con el uso de las palabras clave relacionadas con reglas de predicción clínica (algoritmos, análisis multivariado, guías de predicción clínica, escalas, modelos logísticos, valoración de riesgo y síncope. Adicionalmente, se buscó literatura con el uso de la estrategia de bola de nieve. Resultados: se encontraron nueve escalas que relacionaron el síncope con predicción de eventos adversos. Se hallaron diferencias en los criterios para definir riesgo, las variables de desenlace, la población estudiada, el uso de una estrategia prospectiva o retrospectiva y el tiempo de seguimiento. Conclusiones: aunque existen varias escalas para la definición de riesgo con el paciente que ingresa por síncope a urgencias, no hay evidencia de que alguna sea superior a otra, tienen poca validez externa y no se han aplicado en nuestro medio.

  13. Síncope y escalas de riesgo ¿Qué evidencia se tiene?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Mora, MD

    2011-11-01

    Conclusiones: aunque existen varias escalas para la definición de riesgo con el paciente que ingresa por síncope a urgencias, no hay evidencia de que alguna sea superior a otra, tienen poca validez externa y no se han aplicado en nuestro medio.

  14. ¿Es el plagio una sorpresa? ¿Acaso tiene clase?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco González T.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Entendemos que no es posible abordar en un espacio editorial el vasto tema del plagio, sus implicaciones y temas conexos presente en libros, artículos científicos, historias, películas, frases, logotipos, inventos, marcas, colores de productos e ideas entre otros muchos temas desarrollados por el ser humano. Este mal es muy antiguo, pero parafraseando términos de los infectólogos, hoy día se encuentra en plena reemergencia. Al patógeno de esta epidemia le favorece indiscutiblemente la moderna vía de transmisión global que es el internet, ya que través de la red, el cibernauta dispone de toneladas de información; la mayoría gratuita.

  15. ¿Tiene éxito el outsourcing de sistemas de información?

    OpenAIRE

    González Ramírez, María Reyes

    2009-01-01

    La tendencia imparable hacia el outsourcing de Sistemas de Información contrasta con la falta de resultados positivos en muchos de estos contratos, por lo que es necesario un estudio sobre los factores que determinan su éxito. El presente trabajo propone un conjunto de factores clave para conseguir el éxito del outsourcing de Sistemas de Información y determina una serie de medidas para valorar el grado de éxito alcanzado en el outsourcing por las empresas.Todo ello se ha contrastado a través...

  16. ¿Tiene Anaxímenes una teoría del cambio?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Graham

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time it has been argued that, amongst the first presocratics, Anaximenes is whom possessed the most detailed theory of change. Indeed, his theory of change was one of his fundamental contributions to history of philosophy. Thirty years ago this opinion was questioned and the argument was recently repeated in a revised edition of Anaximenes. So far, I have no notice that such question has been answered. In the present essay I want to argue that, although there is something erroneous in the traditional interpretation of Anaximenes theory of change, it is not what the objectors say it is: truly, Anaximenes possess an important theory of change, of which we have significant antique evidence.

  17. Saving Energy around the House = Tien Tan Trong Viec Tieu Thu Nang Luc Trong Nha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Marilyn; Jarrett, Von

    This bilingual booklet is intended to help Vietnamese refugees learn basic energy conservation skills. Included in the booklet are Vietnamese and English translations of basic energy conservation practices related to the following areas: heating, cooling, cooking, using refrigerators and freezers, lighting, water heating, doing laundry, pursuing…

  18. Manure digestion in the Netherlands. Mestvergisting in Nederland; Tien jaar kennis en ervaring in de praktijk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Nes, W.J.; Van Diemen, F.M.P. (Centrum voor Energiebesparing en Schone Technologie (CE), Delft (Netherlands)); Schomaker, A.H.H.M. (Haskoning BV, Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1990-05-01

    The experiences with digestion of effluent animal manure in the Netherlands are complemented with relevant information from other sources. Mesophylic manure digestion at farmscale is discussed. This type of manure digestion is most used in the Netherlands. With the surplus of manure in large parts of the Netherlands and the increasing awareness of the environmental issue, digestion is regularly mentioned as a manner to deal more efficiently with materials from manure and to improve the processability. Furthermore digestion offers a source of energy by way of biogas and environmental hygienic advantages, such as stench reduction and destruction of bacteria and seeds. With the modest research done so far, the agricultural and environmental effects are only quantified very superficially. These effects are not financially valued. Opposing the advantages manure digestion offers, are the relatively high investments as well as possible technical and processing problems with the system management. Given the experience with 5 existing manure digestion plants as well as other results from research and practice, the issue is thoroughly discussed, so that many problems can already be avoided in the design phase. Based on the present results, at a gas production of 18 m{sup 3} manure gas per m{sup 3} supplied (cattle) manure, a manure digestion plant is not cost-efffectively exploitable. With regard to the present price of energy of Hfl. 12.00 per GJ, the price of energy from manure gas is Hfl. 24.00-32.00 per GJ. The future of manure digestion depends on the degree to which gas production can be improved as well as the value that is assigned to agricultural and environmental aspects. For both fields an increase of value is expected in the near future. In Denmark, with adding organic matter, already double the amount of gas per kg organic matter is extracted compared to the Netherlands. (Abstract Truncated)

  19. Organic geochemical characterization of terrestrial source rocks of the Triassic Madygen formation (Southern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U.; Scheeder, G.; Kus, J. [Section Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, BGR, Hannover (Germany); Voigt, S.; Schneider, J.W. [Geological Inst., TU Bergakademic Freiberg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Along the northern foothills of the Turkestan-Alai Range (SW Kyrgyzstan), a 1000 to 1500m thick succession of Mesozoic deposits is exposed recording regional changes of the paleo-landscape during Triassic to Cretaceous times. Detailed litho- and biofacies analyses, conducted by the TU Bergakademie Freiberg since 2006, provided for the first time a nearly complete columnar section of the continental Triassic Madygen Formation of Kyrgyzstan. Organic petrographical and organic geochemical methods (including RockEval pyrolyses, and biomarker analyses) have been applied to a suite of terrestrial sedimentary rocks of Triassic age with the intention to identify the depositional environment. Our investigations suggest that the potential source rocks of the terrestrial pluvial Madygen Formation might generate predominantly gaseous hydrocarbons at higher maturities. (orig.)

  20. Trends in ouTpaTienT malaria cases, following mass long lasTing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paris, france, Aids and Tb department, Ministry of Health and child care, Harare, Zimbabwe request for reprints to: ... look towards other complimentary malaria prevention strategies. ... in child welfare clinics, 2) social marketing at a subsidised.

  1. Draadloos sensornetwerk praktjkrijp: De wandelende meetbox: klimaat op tien plekken tegelijk meten (interview met Jos Balendonck)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kierkels, T.; Balendonck, J.

    2010-01-01

    Meten op meer plekken in de kas geeft een beter inzicht in vocht- en temperatuurverschillen. Een sensorsysteem daarvoor is nu voorhanden. Een hulpmiddel bij meer energiebesparing en opsporen van probleemplekken. De eerste telers verkennen de mogelijkheden.

  2. "¡QUIZÁS TAMBIÉN LA RISA TIENE AÚN UN PORVENIR!"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Wotling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza y estudia las implicaciones de la renovación de la idea de conocimiento inducida por el ¿saber jovial¿ en el pensamiento de Nietzsche. Muestra que las diversas comprensiones de la ciencia resultan de la dominación de ciertos afectos. Igualmente afirma que la cuestión de la jerarquía es central en la filosofía nietzscheana, y el problema de los valores es medular en su idea de saber jovial. Desde este punto de vista, se comprende el privilegio acordado a la jovialidad de espíritu (heiterkeit, garante de salud y de porvenir para la humanidad.

  3. La sociedad civil tiene que tener participación en los procesos comunicativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Comunicación y Género, acopia trabajos que vinculan a la mujer y la comunicación y sus esfuerzos por no ser consideradas inferiores. Del libro a la pantalla, acerca a algunas reflexiones sobre el proceso que lleva del libro a la pantalla por la polémica que despierta la adaptación de las novelas, puesto que muchos señalan que la trama se ve desfigurada. Se agregan varios temas sobre el cine. En "Días de Radio", se plantea el que a pesar de la censura y los problemas económicos que deben enfrentar, las radios populares de América Latina, siguen ganando espacios, de su desarrollo depende una mayor profundización de la democracia. Tema de debate es Estrategias comunicativas en Chiapas y Haití. Se añaden dos entrevistas a un caricaturista brasileño y a un corresponsal de guerra muy prestigiado.

  4. The role of violence in the romances of Chrétien de Troyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Pintarič

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Chretien de Troyes, the most famous of the French 12th-century authors of chivalric romaces, comes to a very personal view of violence towards the end of his writing career, in his Perceval or the grail story. While in his previous works, the first of which was Erec and Enid, the object of the present article, he abided by the commonly accepted norms concerning the description of »violence«: there's no »abstract violence«, and it should never befall and idea or a tradition while the violence against the individual is a common occurrence considered "creative" and legitimate, if not indispensable, for the making of social hierarchy and order, violence ceases to be a topic of interest in his last, unfinished text.

  5. ¿Respetamos a la persona que tiene una orientación sexual diferente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar de Jiménez Martha

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En este artículo se describen las observaciones realizadas en el trabajo con distintos grupos de la comunidad, sobre el tema de la homosexualidad. Conviene aclarar que con el término homosexualidad se hace referencia tanto al hombre como a la mujer, esto por cuanto dicho término procede del griego ''homo'' que significa "mismo" "igual" no de la palabra latina ''homo'' que significa hombre. En los talleres que se realizan sobre sexualidad humana, el tema de homosexualidad es casi siempre solicitado por los participantes, pero el grupo en que más se registra esta necesidad es en el de los maestros. Al iniciar la discusión la sola mención de la palabra produce reacción y no propiamente de aceptación, en el lenguaje no verbal de los participantes se perciben gestos de desagrado, o el chiste un poco mordaz que luego se traduce en palabras y expresiones más concretas que muestran lo que esa comunicación ha tratado de transmitir.

  6. ¿respetamos a la persona que tiene una orientación sexual diferente?

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar de Jiménez, Martha

    2010-01-01

    En este artículo se describen las observaciones realizadas en el trabajo con distintos grupos de la comunidad, sobre el tema de la homosexualidad. Conviene aclarar que con el término homosexualidad se hace referencia tanto al hombre como a la mujer, esto por cuanto dicho término procede del griego ''homo'' que significa "mismo" "igual" no de la palabra latina ''homo'' que significa hombre. En los talleres que se realizan sobre sexualidad humana, el tema de homosexualidad es casi siem...

  7. Rock waste dumps on the Davydov Glacier (Akshyirak Range, Tien Shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kuzmichenok

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1995, a barren rock has been formed at the Davydov Glacier, due to the works at the Kumtor Gold Mine. By the end of 2010, total amount of the rock, stockpiled on the glacier, apparently exceeded 200 million tons, the height of dumps of rock sometimes exceeded 50 meters. The most noticeable effects of this are provoking local surges of the Davydov Glacier and squeezing glacier ice out of the dumps of rock. For a detailed analysis of both processes, we also used the results of periodic geodetic measurements (over 8000 of monitoring rods (about 800 rods of the gold mining company. A number of local surges of the glacier has been found, the first of which began in March–April 2002. To analyze glacier squeezing out of the dumps of rock, mathematical modeling of that process has been done. It was established that in most cases, the glacier is almost completely squeezed out of for 1–2 years.

  8. ¡Panamá, tiene una fiesta! La construcción del 3 de noviembre

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Javier Chirú Barrios

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo aborda la construcción del 3 de noviembre, día de la fiesta nacional de Panamá, el programa conmemorativo y los discursos propalado por los políticos e intelectuales panameños, entre 1904 y 1931. La conmemoración de esta fecha cívica correspondió con el proceso de construcción de una nación moderna que establece los eventos, fechas, héroes que se deben recordar y los lugares de memoria; no obstante, en ese proceso se menoscaban otras memorias. Así fue  “olvidada” la celebración ...

  9. ¡Panamá tiene una fiesta! La construcción del 3 de noviembre

    OpenAIRE

    Chirú Barrios, Félix J.

    2016-01-01

    ResumenEste artículo aborda la construcción del 3 de noviembre, día de la fiesta nacional de Panamá, el programa conmemorativo y los discursos propalados por los políticos e intelectuales panameños, entre 1904 y 1931. La conmemoración de esta fecha cívica correspondió con el proceso de construcción de una nación moderna que establece los eventos, fechas y héroes que se deben recordar, así como los lugares de memoria; no obstante, en ese proceso se menoscaban otras memorias. Así, fue “olvidada...

  10. ¡Chile tiene fiesta! El origen del 18 de Septiembre (1810-1837

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Lastra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ad portas de la celebración del Bicentenario de la Primera Junta de Gobierno, el trabajo de Paulina Peralta, una joven historiadora, toma un realce sustantivo dentro de la amplia gama de ensayos que han abordado últimamente los temas referentes a la construcción de la nación chilena. Enmarcado en una línea que oscila entre las dimensiones políticas y sociales, el estudio sobre el origen del 18 de Septiembre como fiesta nacional posee como finalidad mostrar una manera de hacer nación desde arriba, convirtiendo un acto puramente cívico potenciado por las elites, en una herramienta constructora de la nacionalidad chilena. Dentro de este tema, el estudio de Peralta es en sí novedoso, al tomar como su objeto de análisis un aspecto específico e identitario como la celebración del 18 de Septiembre y esbozarnos su raigambre histórica...

  11. Que valores del deporte olimpico y la percepción juvenil tiene Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    La implementación de programas deportivos para los jóvenes se basan en la suposición de que la práctica deportiva es un importante factor educativo en la educación de los jóvenes. La participación en la actividad física es un aspecto importante en el proceso de socialización de los niños y los jóvenes, lo que le permite un desarrollo de comportamientos éticos. En los últimos años se ha visto que el comportamiento de los jóvenes en el deporte se ha degradado; es decir, hay más actitudes de agr...

  12. O sentido do ser-mãe-que-tem-a-possibilidade-de-tocar-o-filho-prematuro na unidade intensiva: contribuições para a enfermagem neonatal El significado de ser la madre-que-tiene-la-posibilidad-de-tocar-al-hijo-prematuro en la unidad de cuidados intensivos: contribuciones para la enfermería neonatal The meaning of being the mother-that-has-the-possibility-to-touch-the-premature-baby in the intensive unit: contributions for the neonatal nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Jesus Melo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo na abordagem teórico-metodológica heideggeriana com o objetivo de desvelar o sentido do ser-mãe que tem a possibilidade de tocar o filho prematuro na UTIN. Após aprovação foi desenvolvida entrevista fenomenológica com nove mulheres-mães. A análise compreensiva constituiu oito unidades de significação, e a hermenêutica permitiu desvelar o movimento existencial do sermãe em sua cotidianidade, nos modos de ser da inautenticidade e impessoalidade, movida pelo falatório, ambiguidade e temor, modos de ocupação. Ao compreender como sua a possibilidade de ter um filho prematuro, toca-o cautelosamente e cuidadosamente, transita para um entendimento no qual não mais se ocupa, se preo-cupa. Ao pre-ocupar, o ser-mãe estabelece a possibilidade de ser-aí-com-o-filho. Foi possível entender este modo de ser mãe, no qual passa por estágios antes de ver o bebê como seu e confiar em si. Possibilitar que toque seu filho, compreendendo-a em sua individualidade, singularidade, mostrou-se como um cuidado ao RNP em sua complexidade como ser-aí.Estudio en el enfoque teórico-metodológico heideggeriana con el objetivo de revelar el sentido del ser la madre que tiene la possibilidad de tocar el hijo prematuro en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatal. Después de la aprobación, fue desarrollada una entrevista fenomenológica con nueve madres. El análisis comprehensivo constituyó ocho unidades de significación, la hermenéutica permitió revelar el movimiento existencial del ser madre en su cotidianidad, en los modos de ser de la falta de autenticidad e impersonalidad, movida por el chisme, la ambigüedad y miedo, modos de ocupación. Al comprender como de ella la posibilidad de tener un bebé prematuro, lo toca con cautela y cuidado, transita para un entendimiento en el cual no más se ocupa, se preocupa. Al preocuparse, el ser madre establece la posibilidad de ser-ahí-con-el-hijo. Fue posible entender este modo de ser madre, que

  13. Training Corrective Maintenance Performance on Electronic Equipment with CAI Terminals: I. A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigney, Joseph W.

    A report is given of a feasibility study in which several possible relationships between student, computer terminal, and electronic equipment were considered. The simplest of these configurations was set up and examined in terms of its feasibility for teaching the performance of fault localization on a Navy transceiver. An instructional program…

  14. Technical issues and a prospect of ICAI. Chiteki CAI no gijutsu kadai to kongo no doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuki, S. (Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan))

    1992-12-10

    This paper explains technical issues and a prospect for intelligent computer assisted instruction (ICAI) which combines the intelligent tutoring system (ITS) with an open-ended (discovery) type education system. The paper summarizes the ITS characterized by modelling students based on error-origin diagnostic technologies; various functions that have been realized for the first time therefrom; different methods for error diagnosis and error-origin diagnosis; and criteria to evaluate these methods (evaluating generality, coverage, and tractability). The paper indicates that no complete diagnostic methods have been obtained according to these criteria, that, therefore, an issue of incompleteness in the student model still remains, and that unsolved issues in the ITS include some that exceed the framework of the ITS. Also mentioned in the paper are that the discovery type education system has a possibility of realizing an education with new quality, and that a new attempt is being performed to merge the ITS with the discovery type education system. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Post-impact performance of composites; Predicting Compression after Impact (CAI) in composite laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esrall, F.

    2013-01-01

    Impact damage has been known to seriously limit the performance of composite aircraft structures. In the preliminary design phase, tens of thousands of subparts need to be analyzed for impact. Over the years, many approaches have been proposed to study the creation of impact damage and to determine

  16. A Numerical/Experimental Study on the Impact and CAI Behaviour of Glass Reinforced Compsite Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perillo, Giovanni; Jørgensen, Jens K.; Cristiano, Roberta; Riccio, Aniello

    2018-04-01

    This paper focuses on the development of an advance numerical model specifically for simulating low velocity impact events and related stiffness reduction on composite structures. The model is suitable for low cost thick composite structures like wind turbine blade and maritime vessels. The model consist of a combination of inter and intra laminar models. The intra-laminar model present a combination of Puck and Hashin failure theories for the evaluation of the fibre and matrix failure. The inter-laminar damage is instead simulated by Cohesive Zone Method based on energy approach. Basic material properties, easily measurable according to standardized tests, are required. The model has been used to simulate impact and compression after impact tests. Experimental tests have been carried out on thick E-Glass/Epoxy composite commonly used in the wind turbine industry. The clustering effect as well as the consequence of the impact energy have been experimentally tested. The accuracy of numerical model has been verified against experimental data showing a very good accuracy of the model.

  17. Asociativismo Privado e Información Contable. Proyecto CAI+D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Luz Casabianca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La información contable de entidades solidarias debe ser transparente y estar organizada de manera que su mera exposición ponga en evidencia tal condición. A ello se une la trascendencia de la información complementaria en los estados contables que contiene datos esenciales, donde le contenido es más importante que la forma y que puede resultar insuficiente para los asociados, terceros y organismos de control. La manipulación contable como el caso Parmalat -Italía, diciembre de 2003- o la quiebra de Enron -Estados Unidos, diciembre de 2001- alteraron la confianza en los objetivos sociales de la información contable. Conviene proteger al asociativismo, advirtiendo que se maquillan cuentas con Contabilidad Creativa sin desobedecer las disposiciones normativas, lo cual beneficia un sector en detrimento de otro.

  18. Using a CAI Network for Statewide Remediation: GRI in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumford, John

    1988-01-01

    Describes South Carolina's Governor's Remediation Initiative (GRI), an instructional management system that links diagnostic tests and teaching modules for use by high school mathematics and reading laboratories. (TW)

  19. A CAI System for Visually Impaired Children to Improve Abilities of Orientation and Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Takahiro; Kudo, Hiroaki; Minagawa, Hiroki; Ohnishi, Noboru; Matsubara, Shizuya

    Some visually impaired children have difficulty in simple locomotion, and need orientation and mobility training. We developed a computer assisted instruction system which assists this training. A user realizes a task given by a tactile map and synthesized speech. The user walks around a room according to the task. The system gives the gap of walk path from its target path via both auditory and tactile feedback after the end of a task. Then the user can understand how well the user walked. We describe the detail of the proposed system and task, and the experimental result with three visually impaired children.

  20. 77 FR 9625 - Presentation of Final Conventional Conformance Test Criteria and Common Air Interface (CAI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... components of a land mobile radio (LMR) system. LMR systems are commonly used by emergency responders in portable handheld and mobile vehicle-mounted devices. Although formal standards are being developed, no process is currently in place to confirm that LMR equipment advertised as P25-compliant meets all aspects...

  1. Trends of reporTed ouTpaTienT malaria cases To assess The TesT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: kenya reports over six million malaria cases annually. in 2012 the country adopted the Test, Treat and Track (T3) policy to ensure that all suspected .... cases increased by about half in all ages (50% in + 5 ...

  2. Y a-t-il quelqu'un qui écoute les Haïtiens ? | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    12 oct. 2010 ... Project in Haiti to make medical care more efficient through technology. "Rebuild better" has become a mantra in Haiti as the nation struggles to recover from the devastating January earthquake. View moreProject in Haiti to make medical care more efficient through technology ...

  3. On the rare elements geochemistry in mica mega crystals from alkaline basaltoids of Southern Tien-Shane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogarovskiy, V.V.; Sharapov, N.V.

    1992-01-01

    Rare elements without coherent in the mica and basalts are divided in 2 groups: First (K, Rb, Pb) in the first stage of meta soma tos are brought, and located in the mica. The second (Li, Cs, Sn) which brings after micas appearing, using in other minerals and without mineral location

  4. Argentina tiene su primera ley sobre el uso medicinal de la planta de cannabis: Historia y perspectivas

    OpenAIRE

    de Vito, Eduardo L

    2017-01-01

    En los últimos años se ha generado en la sociedad una gran expectativa sobre la posible utilidad terapéutica de compuestos derivados de la planta de cannabis. Es muy bien sabido que están siendo utilizados en el tratamiento de diversas afecciones, ya sea por prescripción médica o por autoadministración. En un extremo de las opiniones están quienes consideran que es una droga dañina y peligrosa, mientras otros mantienen que es la panacea. No obstante, el simple hecho de que exista un sistema e...

  5. Large drainages from short-lived glacial lakes in the Teskey Range, Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narama, Chiyuki; Daiyrov, Mirlan; Duishonakunov, Murataly; Tadono, Takeo; Sato, Hayato; Kääb, Andreas; Ukita, Jinro; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek

    2018-04-01

    Four large drainages from glacial lakes occurred during 2006-2014 in the western Teskey Range, Kyrgyzstan. These floods caused extensive damage, killing people and livestock as well as destroying property and crops. Using satellite data analysis and field surveys of this area, we find that the water volume that drained at Kashkasuu glacial lake in 2006 was 194 000 m3, at western Zyndan lake in 2008 was 437 000 m3, at Jeruy lake in 2013 was 182 000 m3, and at Karateke lake in 2014 was 123 000 m3. Due to their subsurface outlet, we refer to these short-lived glacial lakes as the tunnel-type, a type that drastically grows and drains over a few months. From spring to early summer, these lakes either appear, or in some cases, significantly expand from an existing lake (but non-stationary), and then drain during summer. Our field surveys show that the short-lived lakes form when an ice tunnel through a debris landform gets blocked. The blocking is caused either by the freezing of stored water inside the tunnel during winter or by the collapse of ice and debris around the ice tunnel. The draining then occurs through an opened ice tunnel during summer. The growth-drain cycle can repeat when the ice-tunnel closure behaves like that of typical supraglacial lakes on debris-covered glaciers. We argue here that the geomorphological characteristics under which such short-lived glacial lakes appear are (i) a debris landform containing ice (ice-cored moraine complex), (ii) a depression with water supply on a debris landform as a potential lake basin, and (iii) no visible surface outflow channel from the depression, indicating the existence of an ice tunnel. Applying these characteristics, we examine 60 depressions (> 0.01 km2) in the study region and identify here 53 of them that may become short-lived glacial lakes, with 34 of these having a potential drainage exceeding 10 m3 s-1 at peak discharge.

  6. Large drainages from short-lived glacial lakes in the Teskey Range, Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Narama

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Four large drainages from glacial lakes occurred during 2006–2014 in the western Teskey Range, Kyrgyzstan. These floods caused extensive damage, killing people and livestock as well as destroying property and crops. Using satellite data analysis and field surveys of this area, we find that the water volume that drained at Kashkasuu glacial lake in 2006 was 194 000  m3, at western Zyndan lake in 2008 was 437 000 m3, at Jeruy lake in 2013 was 182 000 m3, and at Karateke lake in 2014 was 123 000 m3. Due to their subsurface outlet, we refer to these short-lived glacial lakes as the tunnel-type, a type that drastically grows and drains over a few months. From spring to early summer, these lakes either appear, or in some cases, significantly expand from an existing lake (but non-stationary, and then drain during summer. Our field surveys show that the short-lived lakes form when an ice tunnel through a debris landform gets blocked. The blocking is caused either by the freezing of stored water inside the tunnel during winter or by the collapse of ice and debris around the ice tunnel. The draining then occurs through an opened ice tunnel during summer. The growth–drain cycle can repeat when the ice-tunnel closure behaves like that of typical supraglacial lakes on debris-covered glaciers. We argue here that the geomorphological characteristics under which such short-lived glacial lakes appear are (i a debris landform containing ice (ice-cored moraine complex, (ii a depression with water supply on a debris landform as a potential lake basin, and (iii no visible surface outflow channel from the depression, indicating the existence of an ice tunnel. Applying these characteristics, we examine 60 depressions (> 0.01 km2 in the study region and identify here 53 of them that may become short-lived glacial lakes, with 34 of these having a potential drainage exceeding 10 m3 s−1 at peak discharge.

  7. "Kompyuter" versus "tien-nao" aneb Co stojí Ujgury přístup k prosperitě?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimeš, Ondřej

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 7 (2008), s. 16-19 ISSN 0543-7962 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90210515 Keywords : Xinjiang * contemporary politics * language policy Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences

  8. "La clase obrera tiene dos sexos". Avances de los estudios latinoamericanos sobre género y trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Gabriela Arango

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se revisan algunas de las temáticas que jalonaron el desarrollo de los estudios de género y trabajo en América Latina durante los últimos diez años. En él se incluyen los debates suscitados por la participación de las mujeres en la división internacional del trabajo, particularmente en la industria maquiladora en varios países, especialmente en México, y en cadenas internacionales de subcontratación. También se analizan las discusiones actuales sobre el impacto de la reconversión industrial, la introducción de nuevas tecnologías y las teorías gerenciales inspiradas en el "modelo japonés", sobre la división genérica del trabajo en las empresas. Se examinan los avances en la medición de la participación femenina en el mercado de trabajo y se hace un balance de los enfoques sobre las interrelaciones familia-trabajo, con énfasis en el concepto de estrategias familiares.

  9. “La clase obrera tiene dos sexos” avances de los estudios latinoamericanos sobre género y trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Gabriela Arango

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se revisan algunas de las temáticas que jalonaron el desarrollo de los estudios de género y trabajo en América Latina durante los últimos diez años. En él se incluyen los debates suscitados por la participación de las mujeres en la división internacional del trabajo, particularmente en la industria maquiladora en varios países, especialmente en México, y en cadenas internacionales de subcontratación. También se analizan las discusiones actuales sobre el impacto de la reconversión industrial, la introducción de nuevas tecnologías y las teorías gerenciales inspiradas en el “modelo japonés”, sobre la división genérica del trabajo en las empresas. Se examinan los avances en la medición de la participación femenina en el mercado de trabajo y se hace un balance de los enfoques sobre las interrelaciones familia-trabajo, con énfasis en el concepto de estrategias familiares.

  10. ¿Qué impresiones tiene la gente sobre la bibliotecología como carrera profesional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Newbutt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the impressions that youth have of bibliotecology as a career, what barriers are presented to those who enter the profession and what attracts them the same. Two questionnaires were used: the first was applied to a sample of young people aged between 18 and 24 years, who were planning to make a decision about your future career, and the second was applied to students of the mastery in bibliotecology from the University of Sheffield,who theirs had already chosen that program as career. The questionnaires inquired by the impressions of people about bibliotecology as a career and realized that presented barriers when entering the profession. The study found that both the lack of knowledge about the implications of the role of the librarian, as the lack of knowledge of the choice of bibliotecology as a career, influence the negative perception of young people to become librarians. Students in the mastery in bibliotecology identified a number of obstacles that interfered with access to the profession and suggested possible solutions to address this situation. The bibliotecology does not appeal to young people because of the impressions they have about it. Therefore, in order to eradicate the misconceptions held about this race, librarians should promote their work as more knowledge of bibliotecology, lead to this becoming a more attractive option for young people.

  11. La moral mediática en Venezuela (O de cómo perder lo que no se tiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson González Leal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Hace algunos meses atrás (creo que algo así como 9 o 10, el semanario de análisis y opinión política venezolano ‘Temas’ (http://www.temasvenezuela.com convocó a varios periodistas, historiadores e intelectuales nativos para reflexionar por escrito sobre “el quiebre (moral de los medios de comunicación en Venezuela”. En la convocatoria enviada vía correo electrónico tuvieron cuidado de colocar la palabra moral exactamente de esa manera, entre paréntesis, como para advertir, en una clara toma de posición, que la única quiebra visible de estas empresas del espectáculo mediático es la que concierne al carácter de honestidad que se vincula a su deber de ser portavoces de la realidad social. Sobre ese aspecto no estuve -ni estoy- de acuerdo y ahora explicaré por qué.

  12. Impact of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) to Local Communities and Environment in Hop Tien Commune, Dong Hy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wageningen International,

    2008-01-01

    This case-study is designed to support the development of the Viet Nam – Netherlands Water Partnership on Water for Food and Ecosystems. The partnership is between Viet Nam’s Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) and the Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality

  13. Mi familia tiene un cura. El clero patrimonial en la España del Antiguo Régimen.

    OpenAIRE

    Catalán Martínez, Elena

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of the medieval idea of Church heritage in Spain, gave birth to a very peculiar ecclesiastical structure. After the Council of Trent, the concept of church patronage is retaken, linking it to the theory of purgatory. Thus it was achieved that, both the haves and the have-nots, gave away an important part of their resources to finance the salvation of their souls, increasing their involvement with the institution. En España, la evolución de la concepción medieval de iglesia pa...

  14. Tien jaar arts : een longitudinaal onderzoek naar de loopbaan van artsen die hun studie begonnen in Groningen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Schotanus, J.; Reinders, J.J.; Agsteribbe, J.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the career development of two cohorts of medical graduates from the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. DESIGN: Structured interviews. METHOD: For all 333 graduates who commenced undergraduate medical training in 1982 and 1983, data were collected for the period 1993-2000

  15. “¡Quizás también la risa tiene aún un porvenir!”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Wotling

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza y estudia las implicaciones de la renovación de la idea de conocimiento inducida por el “saber jovial” en el pensamiento de Nietzsche. Muestra que las diversas comprensiones de la ciencia resultan de la dominación de ciertos afectos. Igualmente afirma que la cuestión de la jerarquía es central en la filosofía nietzscheana, y el problema de los valores es medular en su idea de saber jovial. Desde este punto de vista, se comprende el privilegio acordado a la jovialidad de espíritu (heiterkeit, garante de salud y de porvenir para la humanidad.

  16. Presentación del estudio "Links" de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M; Balán, Iván C; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-03-01

    Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos ("teteras"), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA.

  17. Presentación del estudio “Links” de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ávila, María M; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos (“teteras”), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

  18. Living Joyfully after Losing Social Hope: Kierkegaard and Chrétien on Selfhood and Eschatological Expectation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aaron Simmons

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I offer an existential-phenomenological consideration of what it might look like to live joyfully after losing social hope. Using the example of the widespread hopelessness that many are feeling in light of the election of Donald Trump, I suggest that the danger of losing hope is that we can also lose our selfhood in the process. In order to develop a conception of “eschatological hope” that would be resistant to the loss of such social and political expectations, I draw specifically on Søren Kierkegaard’s notion that “the expectancy of faith is victory,” and Jean-Louis Chrétien’s idea of “the unhoped for,” in order to develop a model of hope that remains when it seems like all other hope has been lost. Rather than being overcome by anxiety about the future, eschatological hope fosters joy in the present.

  19. ¿Tiene el concepto de política de J. Rancière presupuestos marxistas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Parra Ayala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo interroga críticamente la pretensión de Jacques Rancière de pensar la política sin referencia a espacios sociales ni a las relaciones de poder que tienen lugar en ellos. En este texto se pretende mostrar que estas descripciones y cartografías de los espacios sociales operan como presupuestos ocultos de la teoría rancieriana, a pesar de ser rechazadas por el mismo filósofo francés como elementos fundamentales de la reflexión sobre la política. El artículo se acerca en la primera parte a las objeciones del pensador francés en contra de las teorías que derivan la naturaleza del conflicto político de la comprensión de los conflictos sociales, como el marxismo. En la segunda parte se muestra que el concepto rancieriano de la política, sin referirse a descripciones sociológicas de la sociedad como las del marxismo, caería en contradicciones internas a la hora de vincular la política con la emancipación, pues la figura de la actualización de la igualdad no basta para definir el carácter emancipatorio la irrupción política.

  20. Educación del usuario. La pedagogía del caballo que no tiene sed

    OpenAIRE

    Valls Molins, Roser; Isla Pera, Ma. Pilar (María Pilar); López Matheu, Carme

    1995-01-01

    La educación del paciente constituye un rol importantísimo de la Enfermería, pero sólo se podrán conseguir las metas preventivas y de apoyo si la metodología empleada satisface las necesidades del cliente y está en consonancia con sus valores culturales y creencias.

  1. Comments on: understanding the Larson--Miller parameter, by F.T. Furillo, S. Purushothaman and J. K. Tien

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiMelfi, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Larson--Miller parameter has been a useful tool in the handling of creep rupture data. Essentially, this is because, as an empirical scheme, it has so often been successful at correlating such data for a wide range of experimental conditions. Its use has proved invaluable to studies of nuclear fuel cladding embrittlement in reactor environments under diverse loading conditions. The kind of master plot that is generated through the use of this parameter is very helpful for predicting low stress-long time rupture behavior. The basic premise behind the success of the Larson--Miller method lies in the fortuitous elimination of one of the two independent variables that can be controlled during a creep test: the absolute temperature T and the applied stress sigma. When a test sample is stressed at temperature, it will fail after a time t/sub r/, depending upon the values of some unspecified, and usually unknown, material parameters. Larson and Miller (2) presented a simple expression involving these creep rupture variables which is only a function of the applied stress: LMP = T(C+log tr) = f(sigma). The quantity C is specified as a material constant, but is roughly 20 for a wide variety of commercial alloys. The elimination of the temperature dependence allows one to construct master rupture curves. This is the power of the Larson--Miller method. Once the function F(sigma) is determined graphically, regardless of its algebraic form, the stress is needed in order to know LMP. Knowing LMP, one can calculate t/sub r/ as a function of temperature. The paper under discussion does not serve to further an understanding of this useful empirical parameter. In fact, their derivation leads to a parameter similar in form to Larson and Miller's, except that it is a function of both stress and temperature, thereby defeating the purpose of the method

  2. Regional Geomorphological Conditions Related to Recent Changes of Glacial Lakes in the Issyk-Kul Basin, Northern Tien Shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirlan Daiyrov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To assess the current state of glacial lakes, we examine the seasonal lake-area changes of 339 glacial lakes in the Teskey and Kungoy Ranges of the Issyk-Kul Basin, Kyrgyzstan, during 2013–2016 based on optical satellite images (Landsat7/ETM+ and 8/OLI. The glacial lakes are classified into six types based on their seasonal variations in area: stable, increasing, decreasing, appearing, vanishing, and short-lived. We then track the number of each type in a given year and examine how each number changes from one year to the next. We find that many appearing, vanishing, and short-lived types occurred in both mountain ranges, having a large variability in number that is not directly related to the local short-term summer temperature anomaly, nor to precipitation or glacier recession. However, those in the Teskey Range vary significantly more than those in the Kungoy Range. To determine if the changing number and distribution of the various lake types may be due to changes in ground ice, we apply differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR analysis using ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 for the debris landforms behind which glacial lakes appear. In the Teskey Range, ground ice occurs in 413 out of a total of 930 debris landforms, whereas in the Kungoy Range, ground ice occurs in 71 out of 180. In zones with predominant glacier-retreat during 1971–2010 (from Corona KH-4B and ALOS/PRISM, the Teskey Range had 180 new lake depressions as potential lake-basins, whereas the Kungoy Range had just 22. Existing depressions also expanded when melting ice produced subsidence. Such subsidence, together with debris landforms containing ground ice and ice tunnels, appear to cause the observed large number variability. In particular, the deposition of ice and debris by tunnel collapse or the freezing of storage water in a debris landform may close-off an ice tunnel, causing a lake to appear. Subsequent re-opening via melting of such blockage would produce either a vanishing or a short-lived type. In this way, the large variability in the number of each lake type and the distribution of types over this four-year period arises from regional geomorphological conditions and not directly from the local short-term summer temperature anomaly and precipitation or glacier recession.

  3. Natural gas diffusion model and diffusion computation in well Cai25 Bashan Group oil and gas reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas diffusion through the cap rock is mainly by means ofdissolving in water, so its concentration can be replaced by solubility, which varies with temperature, pressure and salinity in strata. Under certain geological conditions the maximal solubility is definite, so the diffusion com-putation can be handled approximately by stable state equation. Furthermore, on the basis of the restoration of the paleo-buried history, the diffusion is calculated with the dynamic method, and the result is very close to the real diffusion value in the geological history.

  4. Relationship Between the Children's Assertiveness Inventory (CAI) and the Revised Behavioral Assertiveness Test for Children (BAT-CR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between a self-report measure of assertive behavior in children and a role-play measure was examined in 69 elementary school children. Self-report of positive assertion related more closely to role-play measures and expert ratings of assertiveness than did self-report of negative assertion. (Author/LHW)

  5. Comparison of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) versus traditional textbook methods for training in abdominal examination (Japanese experience).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayumi, A K; Kurihara, Y; Imai, M; Pachev, G; Seo, H; Hoshino, Y; Cheifetz, R; Matsuura, K; Momoi, M; Saleem, M; Lara-Guerra, H; Miki, Y; Kariya, Y

    2004-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of computer-assisted, text-based and computer-and-text learning conditions on the performances of 3 groups of medical students in the pre-clinical years of their programme, taking into account their academic achievement to date. A fourth group of students served as a control (no-study) group. Participants were recruited from the pre-clinical years of the training programmes in 2 medical schools in Japan, Jichi Medical School near Tokyo and Kochi Medical School near Osaka. Participants were randomly assigned to 4 learning conditions and tested before and after the study on their knowledge of and skill in performing an abdominal examination, in a multiple-choice test and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), respectively. Information about performance in the programme was collected from school records and students were classified as average, good or excellent. Student and faculty evaluations of their experience in the study were explored by means of a short evaluation survey. Compared to the control group, all 3 study groups exhibited significant gains in performance on knowledge and performance measures. For the knowledge measure, the gains of the computer-assisted and computer-assisted plus text-based learning groups were significantly greater than the gains of the text-based learning group. The performances of the 3 groups did not differ on the OSCE measure. Analyses of gains by performance level revealed that high achieving students' learning was independent of study method. Lower achieving students performed better after using computer-based learning methods. The results suggest that computer-assisted learning methods will be of greater help to students who do not find the traditional methods effective. Explorations of the factors behind this are a matter for future research.

  6. The center-to-limb behavior of CaI lambda 6573 and [Ca II] lambda 7324

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, T.R.; Testerman, L.

    1978-01-01

    Center-to-limb measurements of the Ca I lambda 6573 intercombination line and the Ca II lambda 7324 forbidden line are compared with synthetic profiles based on a simple representation of the non-LTE Ca-Ca + ionization equilibrium. The effects of photoionization from low lying excited states of neutral calcium are found to reduce the sensitivity of the lambda 6573 center-to-limb behavior as a thermal structure diagnostic. The synthetic center-to-limb behavior is also sensitive to uncertainties in the nonthermal broadening. Nevertheless, the measured center-to-limb behavior of lambda 6573 favors a 'cool' photospheric model similar to the Vernazza, Avrett, and Loeser model M over hotter models based on the Ca II K wings. The non-LTE calcium abundance obtained from the disk center equivalent widths of lambda 6573 and lambda 7324 using the best fit model is Asub(Ca)approximately=2.1+-0.2x10 -6 (by number relative to hydrogen). Applications of these lines as diagnostics of the Ca-Ca + ionization equilibrium in other stars are briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  7. Quality should be our brand: Myriam Ovalle La calidad tiene que ser el sello: Myriam Ovalle A qualidade deve ser o selo: Myriam Ovalle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARGAS ROSERO ELIZABETH

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available AEn la Universidad Nacional de Colombia se han formado y trabajado muchas de las docentes-enfermeras que realizan aportes significativos a la profesión y a la enfermería nacional e internacional, a pesar de enfrentar diversas dificultades, incluso las que comprometen la salud. En esta especial ocasión nos referimos a la enfermera y profesora Myriam Ovalle de Casals, quien fuera la primera graduada como Licenciada de la Facultad de Enfermería de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia2, decana entre 1966 y 1968 y además cofundadora de la Asociación Colombiana de Facultades de Enfermería (Acofaen. Myriam Ovalle nació en Bogotá y vivió la mayor parte de su vida en el extranjero, fue una enfermera comprometida con la mejora de la calidad del cuidado a los pacientes a través de la excelencia en la educación en enfermería.A

  8. La primaquina tiene alta eficacia en la quimioprofilaxis primaria simple antipalúdica. Metanálisis High efficacy of primary chemoprophylaxis with primaquine. metanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona Fonseca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Problema: existen informes sobre la capacidad quimioprofiláctica primaria (QP1 antipalúdica de la primaquina (PQ en humanos, pero no conocemos ningún metanálisis sobre el tema. Preguntas: ¿Es eficaz la primaquina para prevenir el paludismo en seres humanos? ¿Depende esa eficacia del lugar, la edad de las personas y de la especie de Plasmodium? Metodología: se aplicaron procedimientos recomendados para metanálisis. Resultados: se incluyeron 4 estudios experimentales de laboratorio (EEL y 7 estudios clínicos controlados (ECC. Según los EEL, para adultos, la dosis de primaquina apropiada en QP1 es 30 mg/d, tomados desde el día previo a la exposición. Los ECC mostraron protección de 93% entre quienes recibieron primaquina y de 45% entre quienes no la recibieron (p = 0,0000000. CONCLUSIONES: la QP1 con primaquina es altamente eficaz en adultos y niños, es igual frente a Plasmodium falciparum y P. vivax y debe adoptarse como alternativa válida. Faltan evaluaciones sobre la seguridad y la toxicidad en niños. Background: There are many reportss about primaquine as primary chemoprophylactic (1-CP in humans, but we do not know of any metaanalysis about this subject. Specific Questions: Is primaquine effective to prevent malaria in humans? Does primaquine efficacy to prevent malaria depend on the place, the age of patients, or the Plasmodium species? Methodology: Procedures recommended for metanalysis were applied. Results: Four laboratory experimental studies (LES in humans and seven clinical controlled studies (CCS were included. According to LES the adequate primaquine dose as 1-CP for adults is 30 mg/day from the day before exposition and during the time of exposition. According to CCS protection was 93% in people that received primaquine and 45% in those who did not receive it (p = 0.0000000.

  9. Le rêve entendu par les chrétiens de la Communauté Évangélique du Congo

    OpenAIRE

    MANSIANTIMA MIANKENDA , Alain-Fidèle

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Pour Sigmund FREUD, le rêve est une source de connaissance de soi. C'est la « voie royale » de la connaissance de l'inconscient. Selon lui, le sommeil est un état où le dormeur ne veut rien savoir du monde extérieur. Le rêve est donc le gardien du sommeil, c'est lui qui nous permet de rester endormis puisqu'en réalisant les désirs, il supprime le psychisme de ses excitations. Les fidèles de la Communauté Evangélique du Congo, en particulier ceux de la Paroisse de N'dji...

  10. La violencia a través de las fases del amor pasional: Porque la pasión también tiene un lado obscuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Eduardo Kú Hernández

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La pasión ha sido caracterizada por la alegría, sensación de realización, optimismo, éxtasis y profunda idealización del objeto amoroso (Villanueva Orozco, 2004. Sin embargo, autores como Hatfield y Rapson (1993 reconocen un lado más oscuro teñido de desesperanza, ansiedad y vacío. Por su parte, Sánchez Aragón (2004 propone un continuo del amor pasional que va de la atracción al amor desesperado, en donde el matiz negativo se va intensificando básicamente durante el amor obsesivo en donde hay una falta de mutualidad en el sentimiento. Así, la violencia puede surgir y con ello facilitar la presencia de actos dañinos a las personas y a la relación romántica. Con base en esto, el presente trabajo tuvo por objetivos: a identificar las posibles diferencias en términos de atracción, enamoramiento, amor obsesivo y amor desesperado en receptores y ejecutores de violencia en la pareja, y b conocer la posible relación entre la violencia y las fases del continuo del amor pasional. Para ello se trabajó con una muestra de 518 personas residentes de la Ciudad de México a quienes se les aplicó: 1 Escala Multifacética del Amor Pasional (Sánchez Aragón, 2006 y 2 Escala de Violencia en la Pareja (Cienfuegos Martínez, Sánchez Aragón y Rivera Aragón, en prensa. Los resultados muestran efectos diferenciales en las primeras dos fases y correlaciones signi- ficativas principalmente entre los factores de violencia y las fases de amor obsesivo y amor desesperado.

  11. LA VIOLENCIA A TRAVÉS DE LAS FASES DEL AMOR PASIONAL: PORQUE LA PASIÓN TAMBIÉN TIENE UN LADO OBSCURO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozzana Sánchez Aragón

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available La pasión ha sido caracterizada por la alegría, sensación de realización, optimismo, éxtasis y profunda idealización del objeto amoroso (Villanueva Orozco, 2004. Sin embargo, autores como Hatfield y Rapson (1993 reconocen un lado más oscuro teñido de desesperanza, ansiedad y vacío. Por su parte, Sánchez Aragón (2004 propone un continuo del amor pasional que va de la atracción al amor desesperado, en donde el matiz negativo se va intensificando básicamente durante el amor obsesivo en donde hay una falta de mutualidad en el sentimiento. Así, la violencia puede surgir y con ello facilitar la presencia de actos dañinos a las personas y a la relación romántica. Con base en esto, el presente trabajo tuvo por objetivos: a identificar las posibles diferencias en términos de atracción, enamoramiento, amor obsesivo y amor desesperado en receptores y ejecutores de violencia en la pareja, y b conocer la posible relación entre la violencia y las fases del continuo del amor pasional. Para ello se trabajó con una muestra de 518 personas residentes de la Ciudad de México a quienes se les aplicó: 1 Escala Multifacética del Amor Pasional (Sánchez Aragón, 2006 y 2 Escala de Violencia en la Pareja (Cienfuegos Martínez, Sánchez Aragón y Rivera Aragón, en prensa. Los resultados muestran efectos diferenciales en las primeras dos fases y correlaciones significativas principalmente entre los factores de violencia y las fases de amor obsesivo y amor desesperado.

  12. La violencia a través de las fases del amor pasional: Porque la pasión también tiene un lado obscuro

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Eduardo Kú Hernández; Rozzana Sánchez Aragón

    2006-01-01

    La pasión ha sido caracterizada por la alegría, sensación de realización, optimismo, éxtasis y profunda idealización del objeto amoroso (Villanueva Orozco, 2004). Sin embargo, autores como Hatfield y Rapson (1993) reconocen un lado más oscuro teñido de desesperanza, ansiedad y vacío. Por su parte, Sánchez Aragón (2004) propone un continuo del amor pasional que va de la atracción al amor desesperado, en donde el matiz negativo se va intensificando básicamente durante el...

  13. Stress state of rock mass under open pit mining in the influence zone of tectonic disturbances (in terms of the Oktorkoi Fault, North Tien Shan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhogulov, KCh; Nikolskaya, OV; Rybin, AK; Kuzikov, SI

    2018-03-01

    The qualitative connection between the crack growth direction and the orientation of the main axes of horizontal deformations in rocks mass in the area of the Boordin gold ore province is revealed. The effect of the rock mass quality (RQD) and contact conditions of crack surfaces on the stability index of pit wall rock mass is evaluated, and the influence of the rock mass quality index on the pit wall stability is determined.

  14. “Canto porque la guitarra / tiene sentido y razón”: folklore and politics in the music of Víctor Jara (1966-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATÁLIA AYO SCHMIEDECKE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is dedicated to analyze the political and cultural discourse identified to the Chilean New Song Movement through the musical work of the singer, composer and theater director Víctor Jara (1932-73. Despite his premature death - due to the coup of 1973 - Jara left a varied artistic legacy which constitutes a privileged source for thinking about the Chilean context of the 1960s and 1970s, a period marked by the strong presence of social movements that had as background the growing of the political polarization. Affiliated to the Communist Party, the musician used the communicative and expressive potential of music to defend the need to promote structural political changes in the country, which necessarily pass through the sphere of culture. Asking for the presence of identity elements in his musical work, we will analyze the dialogue established by the artist with the national political context, indicating the heterogeneity of the repertoire enclosed under the term Chilean New Song Movement.

  15. Juifs, chrétiens et musulmans après l'expulsion d'Espagne : le cas Nord-Africain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Abitol

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Le 9 février 1616, on assista á la Haye á un spectacle peu commun, celui d'un convoi fúnebre juif, conduit en grande pompe par le Prince Maurice de Nassau, entouré de membres éminents de son Conseil d'Etat et des Etats-Généraux. Le notable honoré de la serte n'était pourtant ni une grande sommité intellectuelle ni méme un personnage natif de Hollando. C'était tout juste un juif du Maroc, nommé Samuel Pallache qui, entre autres activités ténébreuses, faisait fonction d'agent du Rol du Maroc, Mawlay Zidan, aux Pays-Bas.

  16. Euskal Herria tiene forma de corazón. La escuela en la construcción de la identidad nacional vasca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulí DÁVILA BALSERA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: la construcción de la identidad nacional vasca ha recurrido a los más variados elementos para su formación, con el rasgo añadido de que ha tenido que convivir, resistir o diferenciarse de otras identidades cercanas y presentes en el mismo territorio. Es necesario partir de esta premisa para analizar los diversos planos en los que se ha construido la identidad nacional vasca en el ámbito educativo: el primer plano administrativo y escolar; el segundo, desde la elaboración de un currículo vasco y, finalmente, desde las actividades extraescolares. Hemos preferido elegir un periodo de tiempo lo suficientemente largo para poder mostrar los cambios y las continuidades en su construcción, partiendo desde 1876, con la pérdida de los Fueros, hasta la Segunda República. Se trata de un periodo en el que se fragua la construcción nacional vasca, priorizando unos elementos culturales y étnicos, sobre la base de la lengua vasca.ABSTRACT: The construction of Basque national identity has made use of a wide range of elements, in addition to which Basque identity has had to co-exist with, resist, or distinguish itself from neighbouring identities as well as identities present within the same territory. It is necessary to begin with this premise in order to analyze the various levels on which Basque national identity has been built within the sphere of education: firstly, in the administrative and educational sphere; secondly, in drawing up a Basque curriculum; and finally, in extracurricular activities. We have chosen to focus on a period that would be long enough to demonstrate both continuity and change during the process of construction. This period ranges in time from the loss of the Fueros (Traditional Basque Law in 1876, until the advent of the Second Republic in Spain in 1931. It was during this time that the Basque nation was forged, with priority being given to cultural and ethnic elements and using the Basque language as a foundation.

  17. ¿Tiene el presupuesto participativo algún impacto en la calidad de los servicios públicos? El caso del sector del agua y saneamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Alcázar, Lorena; Alcázar, Lorena; Jaramillo, Miguel; Jaramillo, Miguel; Jaramillo, Miguel; Alcázar, Lorena

    2013-01-01

    Aportes para el debate acerca del efecto de la participación ciudadana en las decisiones presupuestarias sobre la calidad del servicio público a través del análisis del vínculo entre el presupuesto participativo municipal (PP) y los indicadores de cobertura y calidad del servicio de agua y saneamiento en el Perú.

  18. Tarptautinė konferencija "Biblioteka: informacija ir žinios kiekvienam" / Viktorija Pukėnaitė, Žydrė Vėtienė

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pukėnaitė, Viktorija

    2015-01-01

    Eesti Raamatukoguhoidjate Ühingu esindus osales 27.-28. aprillini Vilniuse parlamendis toimunud rahvusvahelisel konverentsil „Raamatukogu: teave ja teadmised kõigile“. Juuresolevatel fotodel Eesti Raamatukoguhoidjate Ühingu juhatuse esinaine Katre Riisalu ja Viljandi Linnaraamatukogu töötaja Veronika Raudsepp Linnupuu. Nr. 6 juttu Tallinna Keskraamatukogu esindaja Angelica Õunapuu ja Tartu Ülikooli esindaja Mai Põldaasa ettekannetest

  19. Un repaso por el origen y una mirada puesta en el presente. ¿Qué tiene para ofrecernos el periodismo digital?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Mónica Tejera Cruz

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El fenómeno de Internet no pasa inadvertido a ningún mortal. Mucho menos cuando se dedican al mundo de la comunicación. Para los periodistas, la aparición de la Red y el desarrollo de la Word Wide Web ha venido a coquetear con su ansia de comunicar, informar, expresar; a fin de cuentas, transmitir mensajes. El desarrollo de la tecnología ha puesto en bandeja de plata un nuevo soporte que permite llegar a las personas a través de los ordenadores y abre un universo de posibilidades para explotar, pero que al mismo tiempo hay que entender y asimilar. Un repaso hacia el origen de un nuevo medio con el que ya convivimos y una mirada puesta en el presente de su desarrollo vertiginoso.

  20. ¿Tiene límites el uso de las matemáticas en la economía?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Fariña, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Las matemáticas han jugado un papel decisivo en el desarrollo del pensamiento, en particular del económico, convirtiéndose en las últimas décadas en un instrumento de trabajo indispensable en la elaboración de modelos teóricos capaces de explicar relaciones económicas cada vez más complejas. No obstante, parece lógico que aún valorando positivamente las teorías más abstractas, se deba evitar un uso abusivo de sofisticados modelos matemáticos siempre que se manifiesten como una especie de “fuga técnica de la realidad” o contribuyan a propagar una visión deformada de la economía. La relación entre ambas se basa no tanto en que los resultados concretos que hoy se conocen en matemáticas tengan su análogo o no en la ciencia económica, sino en que la metodología que usa la matemática desde sus principios no es fundamentalmente distinta de la que vienen usando los economistas teóricos para resolver sus problemas. En este trabajo, después de la introducción hacemos un breve recorrido histórico por las matemáticas y su relación con otras ciencias, para centrar posteriormente su atención en el desarrollo de la ciencia económica. Finalizamos destacando algunas teorías matemáticas que por sus características, pueden ayudar a resolver algunos de los problemas actuales de la ciencia económica.

  1. ¿Colombia tiene recursos económicos suficientes para atacar el narcotráfico y sus actividades vinculadas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Felipe Jiménez Trucco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Colombia es criticada permanentemente por la comunidad internacional en lo referente a su lucha contra la violencia. Sin embargo, no encuentra un apoyo real en algunos de sus vecinos (Nicaragua, Ecuador y Venezuela y otros actores en el ataque a generadores de violencia como son la guerrilla o los paramilitares, los cuales están a su vez relacionados con el narcotráfico. Es necesario que la comunidad internacional conozca el verdadero esfuerzo que realiza Colombia en la lucha contra el narcotráfico y la violencia asociada a este delito. Colombia ha incrementado considerablemente sus gastos en seguridad y defensa en la última década haciendo grandes esfuerzos para atacar, entre otros, el narcotráfico. Realmente ha encontrado un apoyo de sus vecinos y aliados para combatir idóneamente este delito? Con este escrito se evalúa la cooperación obtenida por Colombia por parte de otros actores en la lucha contra el narcotráfico, no solo en términos monetarios, sino también en términos de apoyo institucional.

  2. Impacto que tiene la falta de sueño sobre las habilidades cognitivas de una población de estudiantes de medicina

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Alvarado Fernández; Gloriana de Jesús Arroyo Sánchez; Gabriel Castro Ulloa; Francisco Fuentes Ocampo; Jose Pablo Marín Castro; Gloriana Soto Montero; María Fernanda Zumbado Vásquez

    2012-01-01

    Los estudiantes que ingresan a la Escuela de Medicina son personas que pasarán los próximos años de su vida preparándose para entender la composición, la anatomía y la fisiología tanto normal como patológica del cuerpo humano con el fin de luego, aplicar ese conocimiento en el tratamiento de sus pacientes. Sin embargo, ser estudiante de Medicina se ha descrito como un extenuante proceso en el cual los jóvenes sufren alteraciones notables en sus horas de sueño, niveles de estrés, presión y fru...

  3. La Biblioteca Médica Nacional de Cuba tiene la primicia: curso Cochrane Library, aprendizaje con estrategias para obtener las mejores evidencias en salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Santana Arroyo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La Biblioteca Médica Nacional de Cuba ha puesto en marcha un programa de alfabetización informacional para adiestrar a sus usuarios y fomentar en ellos las habilidades necesarias para el uso de bases de datos, así como para fomentar el uso de estrategias de búsquedas bien diseñadas y validadas por los bibliotecarios especialistas en información. En el presente trabajo se describen contenidos y habilidades que se fomentan en el curso “Cochrane Library: La Medicina Basada en Evidencias”, cuyo objetivo es que el usuario domine esta base de datos y el concepto de medicina basada en evidencias para la toma de mejores decisiones en la atención médica. Durante el curso se introduce además el Modelo Big 6, como guía del pensamiento para resolver problemas de información que facilite la búsqueda y la organización de la información médica basada en evidencias. Igualmente, se capacita al estudiante para que diseñe productos informativos, como boletines electrónicos, que le permitan tanto presentar los resultados de búsquedas de información como promover información para el cuidado de la salud en el futuro

  4. "Rengo es el que tiene pelotas": discapacidad motriz, deporte adaptado y masculinidad hegemónica en la ciudad de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Ferrante

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza el rol de la masculinidad hegemónica en el campo del deporte para personas con discapacidad motriz de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Para ello se parte de los datos recogidos en una investigación cualitativa realizada en dicha ciudad. Se trata de análisis de contenido de prensa escrita producida por los fundadores locales del deporte adaptado, 21 entrevistas en profundidad a hombres usuarios del campo y 26 entrevistas en profundidad a expertos y expertas en la materia. Entre los principales resultados se halla que la masculinidad hegemónica posee un papel nodal en la filosofía del deporte adaptado. A través de la inculcación de un peculiar modo de comprender a la discapacidad – asociado a la categoría nativa "rengo" – se promueve una "cultura del campeón" tributaria del cuerpo capaz y de los valores asociados a este modelo de masculinidad. Se concluye indicando que si bien dicha cultura cuestiona el carácter estigmatizador de la discapacidad (la presunta incapacidad sexual, la improductividad y la dependencia impone una ideología de la capacidad que reproduce las estructuras sociales opresivas.

  5. Entrevista a Iñaki Rivera Beiras. “La Universidad tiene que jugar un papel importantísimo en la cárcel”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afilo Revista Digital - Universidad Nacional de Córdoba

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerado uno de los más destacados especialistas a nivel internacional de la criminología “garantista”, este argentino-catalán es también uno de esos tipos que incomoda al poder. Siempre. Esté donde esté. Desde la academia, en su puesto de profesor titular de ejecución penal y derecho penitenciario en la universidad de Barcelona, o desde la acción, a través del Observatorio de Derechos Humanos que en 2001 ayudó a crear con el objetivo de abordar el complejo mundo penitenciario. Hipercrítico de la situación argentina y mundial por sus fracasadas políticas de encierro indiscriminado y violación sistemática de los derechos humanos de los presos, Iñaki Rivera Beiras en entrevista con Alfilo habla de todo lo que sucede adentro y afuera de la institución insigne del sistema penal: la cárcel.

  6. Sífilis una enfermedad que puede producir serias complicaciones en el organismo y producir la muerte. Puede detectarse a tiempo y tiene cura

    OpenAIRE

    Portilla, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    La sífilis es una ETS que puede causar complicaciones a largo plazo o la muerte, si no se trata de manera adecuada. Los síntomas en los adultos se dividen en fases. Estas fases son sífilis primaria, secundaria, latente y avanzada.

  7. Destruksie ten minste tien maal beklemtoon – ’n interpretasie van 'Kraak die aardbol langs ’n naat' van Wilma Stockenström

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. van der Westhuizen

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Destruction at least ten times emphasized – an interpretation of 'Kraak die aardbol langs ’n naat' ('Cracking the earth along the seam' by Wilma Stockenström In this article the value of syntactical analysis in the interpretation of a poem is investigated from the premise that emphasis can be effected inter alia in the following ways: (a by contravening certain rules that apply in standard language usage in order to compose grammatical sentences, b the exploitation of parallel syntactical structures, and c the relationship between sentence unit and line, and line and/or stanza. These theoretical points of departure form the basis of the syntactical analysis of “Kraak die aardbol langs ’n naat” (Wilma Stockenström, in which there are numerous deviations from the expected, normal and usual ways of constructing sentences. It is by these means that the semantic values gain prominence: the attention is drawn to the deviating behaviour of mankind continuing to destruct the earth until nothing remains. It is evident that the repeated use of irony and the satirical tone of this poem also contribute to persuade the reader to behave in a way opposite to that depicted in the poem. In this way the value of a syntactical analysis of this poem is illustrated. By uncovering the micro-structures (syntactical units within the (macro- structure (the poem, underlying patterns and the place of humanity in the universe can be better understood. In this way the analysis of this poem is then linked to the field of ecocriticism.

  8. Teaching experience of final clinical practice by Chinese pharmacy major students based on the method combined by the learning-guiding teaching method and CAI teaching method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shougang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the gradual implementation of the new medical education reform and thoroughly applying the Educational Development Plan and the Health Care System Reform, the teaching mode of medical discipline will be changed gradually by following the law of medical education and meeting the need to boost the medical education reform. Meanwhile, the changing life-style prompts the traditional dispensing mode for Chinese traditional medicine to various modes. This changing put forward higher requirement for medicine- related professionals During the process of Chinese medicine teaching, the only method which can fulfill the new need for graduates of Chinese medicine and qualified medicine personals is to change the traditional teaching mode to the new ones which can arose the enthusiasm of working and learning by the traditional medicine students.

  9. The predictive value of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA> and PTEN for anti-EGFR treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Christina; Bergmann, Troels K; Henrichsen-Schnack, Tine

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In metastatic colorectal cancer, mutation testing for KRAS exon 2 is widely implemented to select patients with wild-type tumors for treatment with the monocloncal anti-EGFR antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab. The added predictive value of additional biomarkers in the RAS-RAF-MAPK a......BACKGROUND: In metastatic colorectal cancer, mutation testing for KRAS exon 2 is widely implemented to select patients with wild-type tumors for treatment with the monocloncal anti-EGFR antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab. The added predictive value of additional biomarkers in the RAS...

  10. Dermal Toxicity Evaluation of Neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS) with an Overview of the Dermal Toxicity of Vesicant Agents and their Degradation Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Food and Water Consumption and Locomotor Movement in Rats, Lab Animals, 26:180-189 (1992). Mann, F.G. and Pope, W.J., "Production and Reactions of ý...and Use: t-butyl alcohol is used in the manufacture of flotation agents, flavors, perfumes, used extensively as a solvent, as a gasoline additive

  11. Testing of self-repairing composite airplane components by use of CAI and the release of the repair chemicals from carefully inserted small tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Carolyn

    2007-04-01

    The research on self repair of airplane components, under an SBIR phase II with Wright Patterson Air Force Base, has investigated the attributes and best end use applications for such a technology. These attributes include issues related to manufacturability, cost, potential benefits such as weight reduction, and cost reduction. The goal of our research has been to develop self-repairing composites with unique strength for air vehicles. Our revolutionary approach involves the autonomous release of repair chemicals from within the composite matrix itself. The repair agents are contained in hollow, structural fibers that are embedded within the matrix. Under stress, the composite senses external environmental factors and reacts by releasing the repair agents from within the hollow vessels. This autonomous response occurs wherever and whenever cracking, debonding or other matrix damage transpires. Superior performance over the life of the composite is achieved through this self-repairing mechanism. The advantages to the military would be safely executed missions, fewer repairs and eventually lighter vehicles. In particular the research has addressed the issues by correlating the impact of the various factors, such as 1) delivery vessel placement, shape/size and effect on composite strength, chemicals released and their effect on the matrix, release trigger and efficacy and any impact on matrix properties 2) impact of composite processing methods that involve heat and pressure on the repair vessels. Our self repairing system can be processed at temperatures of 300-350F, repairs in less than 30 seconds and does not damage the composite by repair fiber insertion or chemical release. Scaling up and manufacture of components has revealed that anticipating potential problems allowed us to avoid those associated with processing temperatures and pressures. The presentation will focus on compression after impact testing and the placement of repair fibers/tubes into prepreg laminates.

  12. 30 PENGGUNAAN KARBON AKTIF DARI SAMPAH PLASTIK UNTUK MENURUNKAN KANDUNGAN PHOSPHAT PADA LIMBAH CAI R (Studi Kasus: Limbah Cair Industri Laundry di Temb alang, Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawan Wisnu Wardhana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Meningkatnya jumlah industri laundry akan mengakibatkan meningkatnya penggunaan deterjen. Zat yang dominan terkandung dalam deterjen adalah natrium tripolyphosphat yang berfungsi sebagai builder dan surfaktan, sehingga limbahnyapun mengandung phosphat. Hampir semua industri laundry membuang limbahnya tanpa melalui pengolahan terlebih dahulu, hal tersebut akan menyebabkan eutrofikasi dimana badan air menjadi kaya akan nutrien terlarut, menurunnya kandungan oksigen terlarut dan kemampuan daya dukung badan air terhad ap biota air. Menurut hasi uji pendahuluan, limbah cair industri tersebut mengandung kadar phos phat sebesar 10,21 mg/l. Kadar tersebut melebihi baku mutu Perda Prop. Jateng No 10 tahun 2004, dimana kadar maksimum untuk phosphat total adalah 2 mg/l. Salah satu cara pengolahan limbah adalah dengan proses adsorpsi menggunakan karbon aktif dari sampah plastik jenis polyethylene. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemamapuan karbon aktif dari sampah plas tik dalam menurunkan kandungan phosphat dengan percobaan batch dan kontinyu. Percobaan batch menggunakan variasi berat karbon aktif dari sampah plastik 1,2, dan 3 gram untuk masing-masimg variasi ukuran media 30-60 mesh dan 100-200 mesh. Percobaan batch mempunyai efisiensi penurunan phosphat tertinggi pada berat 3 gram (100-200mesh sebesar 45,45%. Sedangkan percobaan kontinyu dilakukan pada kolom berdiameter 1 inchi dengan variasi debit 50 ml/menit dan 100 ml/menit. Percobaan kontinyu mempunyai efisiensi penurunan phosphat terbesar pada debit 50 ml/menit sebesar 54,75%. Nilai konstanta kecepatan (k1 0,0108 ml/mg.dtk dengan kapasitas serap (qo 0,677 mg/g.

  13. The Appropriateness of Canine-Assisted Interventions (CAIs) on the Health and Social Care of Older People Residing in Long Term Care: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Cindy; Pearson, Alan; Chur-Hansen, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Background: Canine-assisted interventions are used frequently in long term care settings, even though their effectiveness has not been definitively proven. One concern commonly described in the literature is the risk of zoonotic infection or animal-related injury/allergy associated with this type of interaction. To date, no systematic review has been undertaken to determine the appropriateness of canine-assisted interventions in relation to these issues. The aim of the review was to synthesise the best available evidence on the appropriateness of canine-assisted interventions on the health and social care of the older population residing in long term care with regards to zoonotic infection or animal-related injury/allergy. A comprehensive search was undertaken on 32 electronic databases and two reputable websites from their inception to 2009. The search was restricted to English language and both published and unpublished studies and papers were considered. The review took an inclusive approach and considered quantitative and qualitative studies that focussed on zoonotic risk/exposure/infection or animal-related injury/allergy from canine-assisted interventions used in long term care settings. In the absence of research studies, text and opinion were also considered. Critical appraisal of papers was to be undertaken using the appropriate Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal instrument and data extraction was to be via the Joanna Briggs Institute data extraction forms, dependant on design. There were no studies located the met the inclusion requirements of this review. There were also no text and opinion pieces that were specific to long term care, older people and canines. There is currently no evidence available to determine the appropriateness of canine-assisted interventions used for older people in long term care in regards to zoonotic risk/exposure/infection or animal-related injuries/allergies. There is a small body of literature available that focuses on health care but it is generalised and does not delineate between different age groups, settings or the animals used. No conclusive recommendations can be made regarding the use of canine-assisted interventions in long term care in the context of zoonotic infection and animal-related injuries/allergies. Text and opinion suggests that if a health care facility of any kind is planning to implement or is currently running this type of intervention (using any animal for people of any age group) the following should be considered:Implications for Research: Quantitative and qualitative research studies are urgently required to determine whether there is an increased risk of zoonotic infections or animalrelated injuries/allergies for those people involved in canine-assisted interventions undertaken in long term care. Those at risk need to be identified in a systematic way.

  14. "Canto porque la guitarra / tiene sentido y razón": folclore e política na música de Víctor Jara * “Canto porque la guitarra / tiene sentido y razón”: folklore and politics in the music of Víctor Jara (1966-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATÁLIA AYO SCHMIEDECKE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo se dedica a analisar o discurso político e cultural identificado com o movimento da Nova Canção Chilena através da obra musical do cantor, compositor e diretor de teatro Víctor Jara (1932-73. Apesar da morte prematura – decorrente do golpe de Estado de 1973 –, Jara deixou um legado artístico variado que se constitui em fonte privilegiada para pensar o contexto chileno dos anos 1960 e 1970, período marcado pela forte atuação de movimentos sociais que tinham como plano de fundo uma crescente polarização política. Filiado ao Partido Comunista, o músico se valeu do potencial comunicativo e expressivo da canção para defender a necessidade de se promoverem mudanças políticas estruturais no país, as quais necessariamente passariam pela esfera da cultura. Perguntando pela presença de elementos identitários em sua obra musical, analisaremos os diálogos estabelecidos pelo artista com a conjuntura política nacional, apontando para a heterogeneidade do repertório englobado sob o termo Nova Canção Chilena.Palavras-chave: Víctor Jara – Nova Canção Chilena – Unidade Popular. Abstract: The present paper is dedicated to analyze the political and cultural discourse identified to the Chilean New Song Movement through the musical work of the singer, composer and theater director Víctor Jara (1932-73. Despite his premature death - due to the coup of 1973 - Jara left a varied artistic legacy which constitutes a privileged source for thinking about the Chilean context of the 1960s and 1970s, a period marked by the strong presence of social movements that had as background the growing of the political polarization. Affiliated to the Communist Party, the musician used the communicative and expressive potential of music to defend the need to promote structural political changes in the country, which necessarily pass through the sphere of culture. Asking for the presence of identity elements in his musical work, we will analyze the dialogue established by the artist with the national political context, indicating the heterogeneity of the repertoire enclosed under the term Chilean New Song Movement.Keywords: Víctor Jara – Chilean New Song Movement – Popular Unity.

  15. Karyotype variation and conservation in morphotypes of non-heading Chinese cabbage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Jin Shuang; Sun, Cheng Zhen; Xiao, Dong; Zhang, Shu Ning; Bonnema, Guusje; Hou, Xi Lin

    2015-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage encompasses a wide diversity of morphotypes, like the well-known Pak-choi, Wu ta cai, Cai xin, Tai cai, and Fen nei cai. Despite recent developments in re-sequencing which results in the detection of SNPs, insertions, deletions and copy number variants, there has been

  16. Marco Palacios Rozo: “…la violencia pública en Colombia tiene en parte un origen: la ausencia histórica de populismo en el Estado…”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan David Jimenez Patiño

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marco Palacios Rozo es abogado de la Universidad Libre de Colombia, Magister en Estudios Chinos de El Colegio de México y en 1978 se graduó como  PhD en Historia por la Universidad de Oxford (Reino Unido. En Colombia, fue rector de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia en dos ocasiones (1984-1988 y 2003-2005, Director del Instituto Colombiano para el Fomento de la Educación Superior ICFES (1989-1990, profesor de la Facultad de Administración de la Universidad de los Andes  (desde 2005, y  recientemente hizo parte de la Misión Estudios Competitividad Caficultura en Colombia designado por Juan Manuel Santos, Presidente de la República. En México, entre 1978 y 1982, fue profesor investigador del Centro de Estudios Internacionales de El Colegio de México, donde se encuentra adscrito al Centro de Estudios Históricos de la misma institución desde 1994. Otra experiencia del profesor Palacios Rozo es haber sido profesor visitante en Tsukuba University (Japón, Chicago University y Duke University (Estados Unidos, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona (España e investigador visitante del Instituto de Estudios Latinoamericanos de la Universidad de Londres (Reino Unido.

  17. The 24 July 2008 outburst flood at the western Zyndan glacier lake and recent regional changes in glacier lakes of the Teskey Ala-Too range, Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Narama

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available On 24 July 2008, a glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF occurred at the western (w- Zyndan glacier lake in the Tong District of Ysyk-Köl Oblast, Kyrgyzstan. The flood killed three people and numerous livestock, destroyed infrastructure, and devastated potato and barley crops as well as pastures. Tuurasuu village and a downstream reservoir on the Zyndan river escaped heavy damage because the main flood was diverted toward the Tong river. RTK-GPS and satellite data (Landsat 7 ETM+, ALOS/PRISM, and ALOS/AVNIR-2 reveal that the flood reduced the lake area from 0.0422 km2 to 0.0083 km2, discharging 437 000 m3 of water. This glacier lake was not present in a Landsat 7 ETM+ image taken on 26 April 2008. It formed rapidly over just two and half months from early May to the late July, when large amounts of snow and glacier melt water became trapped in a basin in the glacier terminus area, blocked by temporary closure of the drainage channel through the terminal moraine that included much dead-ice. In the same mountain region, most other glacier-lake expansions were not particularly large during the period from 1999–2008. Although events like the w-Zyndan glacier lake outburst occur infrequently in the high Central Asian mountains, such fast developing, short-lived lakes are particularly dangerous and not easy to monitor using satellite data. Appropriate measures to protect against such lake outburst hazards in this region include educating residents on glacier hazards and monitoring techniques, providing frequently updated maps of glacier lakes, and planning and monitoring land-use, including house locations.

  18. Cambio en la clasificación macroscópica de la apendicitis. ¿Tiene algún impacto? Estudio retrospectivo en un Hospital Universitario Pediátrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio David Castañeda Espinosa

    2015-04-01

    Conclusión. El cambio en la clasificación macroscópica y el aportar la nueva definición sobre apendicitis perforada ha logrado disminuir la estancia hospitalaria y la cantidad de antibióticos utilizados sin una repercusión significativa en la tasa de complicaciones.

  19. El aspecto social de la desertifi cación: Análisis de la percepción que la administración pública tiene en Centroamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Carolina Garay Romero

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La desertifi cación es un fenómeno complejo y no sólo representa la degradación de algunosecosistemas terrestres. Hoy día, es bien conocido que este proceso se encuentra vinculado tanto aldeterioro ambiental como a factores sociales y económicos, dejando a su paso grandes impactos enla seguridad alimentaria, pobreza, migración y desequilibrio en innumerables países.El análisis de la percepción de la desertifi cación es un aspecto esencial en el diseño depolíticas que ayudarían en la lucha contra este problema. La percepción de la desertifi cación en CentroAmérica se ha convertido en un tema polémico y debería incluirse en las estrategias de aplicaciónde instrumentos de gestión, como los convenios internacionales que llegan a formar parte de laspolíticas públicas de los países.

  20. Beïnvloeding van onveilige automatismen en gewoonten in het verkeer : een literatuurstudie met tien voorbeelden en twintig succes- en faalfactoren. In opdracht van Nederlandse Maatschappij voor Energie en Milieu NOVEM, Sittard.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.B.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (NOVEM) is seeking new ways to encourage efficient energy use by focusing on applying technological measures to affect habitual behaviour. As part of these endeavours, the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research conducted a study into the factors

  1. A farmacobotânica, ainda tem lugar na moderna anestesiologia? ¿La farmacobotánica, aún tiene lugar en la moderna anestesiología? Is there still a place for pharmacobotany in modern anesthesiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Bezerra do Vale

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Recentemente, o uso de chás medicinais - infusões, decoctos, tisanas, tinturas - ou medicamentos de origem vegetal vem sendo retomado de maneira sistemática e crescente na profilaxia e tratamento das doenças, ao lado da terapêutica convencional, na maioria dos países ocidentais. A presente revisão objetiva analisar as principais plantas que serviram como base de progresso para a moderna terapêutica anestesiológica através de sua utilização como modelos moleculares para síntese orgânica na moderna química fina de ponta, bem como fornecer mais embasamento sobre benefícios, potenciais efeitos adversos, interações e risco de efeitos colaterais que possam afetar o ato anestésico no paciente cirúrgico usuário habitual de fitoterapia. CONTEÚDO: Considerações anestesiológicas selecionadas são discutidas focalizando uma pequena revisão sobre ervas medicinais mais populares que foram essenciais no desenvolvimento de uma farmacologia anestesiológica e, ainda, as potenciais interações de plantas medicinais usadas por pacientes para tratar suas doenças ou controlar seus sintomas com drogas sintéticas usadas na anestesia. CONCLUSÕES: Enquanto a Medicina especializada fascina-se cada vez mais com a tecnologia avançada de novos fármacos e de fantásticos monitores, cresce em vários países o número de pacientes que desejam uma abordagem mais holística com rejeição dos modernos métodos de tratamento, optando por chás, meditações, dietas vegetarianas, anti-oxidantes, entre outros. Cabe ao anestesiologista avaliar quanto o conhecimento de farmacognosia e de farmacobotânica pode ajudá-lo na prática anestésica e, principalmente, na segurança de seu paciente.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Recientemente, el uso de tés medicinales - infusiones, decocciones, tisanas, tinturas - o medicamentos de origen vegetal viene siendo retomado de manera sistemática y creciente en la profilaxis y tratamiento de las enfermedades al lado de la terapéutica convencional en la mayoría de los países occidentales. La presente revisión objetiva analizar las principales plantas que servirán como base de progreso para la moderna terapéutica anestesiólogica a través de su utilización como modelos moleculares para síntesis orgánica en la moderna química fina de punta, bien como suministrar más fundamento sobre beneficios, potenciales efectos adversos, interacciones y riesgo de efectos colaterales que puedan afectar el acto anestésico en el paciente cirúrgico usuario habitual de la fitoterapia. CONTENIDO: Son discutidas las consideraciones anestesiológicas seleccionadas, focalizando una pequeña revisión sobre hierbas medicinales más populares que fueron esenciales en el desenvolvimiento de una farmacología anestesiológica y aún, las potenciales interacciones de plantas medicinales usadas por pacientes para tratar sus enfermedades o controlar sus síntomas con drogas sintéticas usadas en la anestesia. CONCLUSIONES: En cuanto la Medicina especializada se fascina cada vez más con la tecnología avanzada de nuevos fármacos y de fantásticos monitores, crece en varios países el número de pacientes que desean una abordaje mas holística con rechazo de los modernos métodos de tratamiento, optando por tés, meditaciones, dietas vegetarianas, anti-oxidantes, entre otros. Cabe al anestesiologista evaluar cuanto el conocimiento de farmacognosia y de farmacobotánica puede ayudarlo en la práctica anestésica y, principalmente, en la seguridad de su paciente.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recently, the use of medicinal teas - infusions, decoction, tisanes, dyeings - or drugs of vegetal origin are being systematically and increasingly revived to prevent and treat diseases together with conventional medicine in most Western countries. This review aimed at analyzing major herbs that were the basis for the progress of modern anesthetic therapy through their use as molecular models for organic synthesis in fine leading edge modern chemistry, as well as shedding more light on the advantages, potential adverse effects, interactions and risks for side-effects which may affect anesthesia in surgical patients users of phytotherapy. CONTENTS: Selected anesthesiologic considerations are discussed focusing a brief review of popular herbs essentials on the development of anesthetic pharmacology and the potential drug-herb interactions between synthetic drugs used in anesthesia and the medicinal herbs used by patients in their illness and symptoms management. CONCLUSIONS: While specialized Medicine is increasingly fascinated by the advanced technology of new drugs and fantastic monitors, there is an increasing trend in several countries for a more holistic approach and rejection of new treatment methods, with an option for teas, meditation, vegetarian diets and anti-oxidants, among others. It is the anesthesiologist’s role to evaluate how much pharmacognosy and pharmacobotany knowledge may help him in the anesthetic practice and, especially, in patients safety.

  2. La eficiencia que tiene elproceso concursal para permitir la reestructuración económica de los clubes de fútbol y así evitar el proceso de quiebra en el Perú, periodo 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Vidal, Inés Marilú

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to demonstrate the efficiency of the bankruptcy process to permit the economic restructuring of football clubs to avoid the bankruptcy process. A correlational descriptive design was used, with a sample of 32 employees from the various clubs Peruvian futbol also considered a questionnaire to measure the bankruptcy process a total of 6 items and another to assess the economic restructuring of a total Peruvian soccer 6 items. The conclusions reached were the following: In the...

  3. La memoria de la ciudad en TAFOS: antropología visual cuando el otro tiene la cámara (portafolio fotográfico con breve prólogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ramírez Corzo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se presenta y analiza una selección de imágenes de escenas urbanas que forman parte de la colección de fotos del taller de Fotografía Social Tafos. Se busca explicitar algunas inquietudes importantes en el marco de la discusión contemporánea sobre la antropología en general y la antropología visual en particular: (1 las interrogantes y los cuestionamientos teóricos y metodológicos que la experiencia de TAFOS conlleva para la antropología visual y (2 el rol que pueden tener estas imágenes en la construcción de la memoria colectiva de la ciudad de Lima.---This paper offers and analyses a selection of pictures —with special emphasis on those representing urban scenes — from the photographic collection of Tafos’ Social Photography Workshop. Its main purpose is to highlight some important issues in contemporary discussion about anthropology in general and visual anthropology in particular: (1 theoretical and methodological issues and aspects associated with the experience developed by TAFOS in the field of visual anthropology, and (2 the role that these pictures may have in the construction of Lima’s collective memory.

  4. DOS HIPÓTESIS SOBRE EL EFECTO QUE TIENE EN LA FORMA DE EXPLOTACIÓN AGROPECUARIA APLICAR SUBSIDIOS A SISTEMAS DE RIEGO. EL CASO DEL ALTO CHICAMOCHA (BOYACÁ, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Congote Ochoa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo somete a prueba dos hipótesis: la que expone conceptos tradicionales del tipo congelar la dinámica campo-ciudad o conservar al campesino en el campo explotando áreas mínimas y la modernista, que utiliza conceptos económicos del tipo tiempo de trabajo socialmente necesario, costos sociales, demanda efectiva y movilidad de factores. El artículo falsea de manera preliminar la hipótesis tradicional y valida la modernista, tanto teórica como empíricamente sobre un caso observado en la zona del Alto Chicamocha, (Boyacá con datos capturados entre 1999 y 2010. Formula al final algunas conclusiones y recomendaciones.

  5. El coactivador de receptores nucleares RAC3 tiene un rol protector de la Apoptosis inducida por distintos estímulos RAC3 nuclear receptor co-activator has a protective role in the apoptosis induced by different stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina P. Coló

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available RAC3 pertenece a la familia de coactivadores de receptores nucleares p160, y se encuentra sobreexpresado en varios tumores. Demostramos previamente que RAC3 es coactivador del factor de transcripción anti-apoptótico NF-kapa;B. En este trabajo investigamos su rol en la apoptosis inducida por H2O2 en una línea celular no tumoral derivada de riñón embrionario humano (HEK293, y por el ligando inductor de apoptosis relacionado a TNF (TRAIL en una línea de leucemia mieloide crónica humana (K562, naturalmente resistente a la muerte por este estímulo. Observamos que las células tumorales K562 poseen niveles altos de RAC3 comparados con las células no tumorales HEK293. La sobreexpresión normal de coactivador o por transfección, inhibe la apoptosis mediante una disminución de la activación de caspasas, translocación del factor inductor de apoptosis (AIF al núcleo, aumento de la actividad de NF-kapa;B y las quinasas AKT y p38 y disminución de la quinasa ERK. Lo opuesto fue observado por disminución de RAC3 mediante la técnica de ARN interferente (RNAi en K562, aumentando así la apoptosis inducida por TRAIL. Estas evidencias sugieren que una sobreexpresión de RAC3 contribuye al desarrollo de tumores, participando en las cascadas que controlan la muerte celular por mecanismos no estrictamente dependientes de hormonas esteroideas y/o de acetilación, constituyendo esto un posible blanco de ataque para el tratamiento de tumores.RAC3 belongs to the family of p160 nuclear receptors coactivators and it is over-expressed in several tumors. We have previously shown that RAC3 is a NF-kappa;B coactivator. In this paper, we investigated the role of RAC3 in cell-sensitivity to apoptosis, using H2O2 in the human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK293, and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL in a human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line (K562 naturally resistant to TRAIL. We observed that the tumoral K562 cells have high levels of RAC3 if compared with the non-tumoral HEK293 cells. The normal or transfected coactivator over-expression inhibits apoptosis through a diminished caspase activity and AIF nuclear translocation, increased NF-kappa;B, AKT and p38, and decreased ERK activities. In contrast, inhibition of RAC3 by siRNA induced sensitivity of K562 to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Such results suggest that over-expression of RAC3 contributes to tumor development through molecular mechanisms that do not depend strictly on acetylation and/or steroid hormones, which control cell death. This could be a possible target for future tumor therapies.

  6. Anti-HBc testing for blood donations in areas with intermediate hepatitis B endemicity Detección de anticuerpos anti-HBc en sangre donada en lugares donde la hepatitis B tiene endemicidad intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Maria Turchi Martelli

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available En otros estudios se ha evaluado el menor riesgo de infecciones transmitidas por transfusión sanguínea que acarrea el tamizaje de anticuerpos contra los antígenos nucleares de la hepatitis B (anti-HBc, sumado a la prueba detectora de antígenos de superficie (HbsAg. No obstante, la mayoría de estos estudios se basaron en datos procedentes de zonas con baja endemicidad por hepatitis B o de bancos de sangre de países desarrollados, donde la mayoría de la sangre proviene de personas que han donado previamente. A fin de examinar los pros y los contras del tamizaje de anticuerpos anti-HBc en el Brasil, los autores describen los antecedentes y la interpretación de las pruebas de tamizaje para prevenir la hepatitis postransfusión. También presentan los datos sobre el tamizaje de la hepatitis B en todas las regiones del Brasil. No hay pruebas suficientes para suspender el tamizaje de los anticuerpos anti-HBc en el país. Debe darse alta prioridad a comparar el costo-efectividad de un marcador basado en la biología molecular con el de la actual prueba detectora de anticuerpos anti-HBc aplicada comúnmente, a fin de mejorar las medidas de tamizaje que garantizan la inocuidad de la sangre.

  7. À propos du lexique juridique en ancien français avant le 13e siècle : la Règle de saint Benoît et le Perceval de Chrétien de Troyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schauwecker Yela

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available La plus ancienne traduction de la {em Règle} de saint Benoît en franc{c}ais, rédigée en dialecte picard-wallon, date de la première moitié ou du milieu du {sc xii}$^{m e}$~siècle. On veut montrer que son auteur, pour qui le changement de langue, n'est pas le premier objectif s'efforce de transférer le texte de son milieu originel de l'Antiquité tardive dans le monde chevaleresque-féodal du {sc xii}$^{m e}$~siècle. Même sans nécessité apparente, quand il a eu à sa disposition l'équivalent du mot employé dans la {em Regula}, il substitue aux mots latins des termes juridiques et féodaux franc{c}ais. par Son texte, en tant que document de droit pour les moines, devient ainsi une source de vocabulaire juridique franc{c}ais avant le {sc xiii}$^{m e}$~siècle, c'est-à-dire dans un temps où les documents juridiques en langue vulgaire sont extrêmement rares. Cela est dû au fait que la justice, dans le Nord, fondée sur des coutumes, utilisait la langue vernaculaire à l'oral. La terminologie juridique franc{c}aise est bien enracinée dans la langue courante de l'époque~: leur insertion dans les Lais et les Chansons de geste en fait preuve. Mais cette terminologie est souvent méconnue par la lexicographie traditionnelle de l'ancien franc{c}ais, en raison des contextes littéraires et figurés. par

  8. “Usted no está completo si no tiene casa propia”: El acceso a la vivienda en el Área Metropolitana de San José: Clases medias, urbanizaciones, residenciales y condominios (1950-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Antonio Blanco Ramos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo analiza el proceso histórico del acceso a la vivienda en el en el Área Metropolitana de San José, que realizaron los sectores medios y populares, en el periodo de 1950-2011. Se parte de la hipótesis de que tanto el Estado como la iniciativa privada (inmobiliarias incidieron en la formación de segregación socio espacial, al proyectar diversos planes habitacionales. El estudio inicia desde el decenio de 1950, debido a que ocurren cambios a nivel urbano y estatal como los siguientes: La creación de un ente que regula los procesos de urbanización (Instituto Nacional de Vivienda y Urbanismo, la formación e intervención de la tugurización y el surgimiento de espacios residenciales para el asentamiento de clases medias. El  análisis finaliza en el año de 2011; debido a que a partir de la década del 2000 surgieron paulatinamente, las llamadas “comunidades cerradas” que reflejan otra lógica de fragmentación socio espacial. Metodológicamente se plantearon dos fases: Una referida a un análisis descriptivo realizado a fuentes primarias. La segunda fase  se  trabajó  desde un enfoque de historia oral, mediante entrevistas semi estructuradas, realizadas a dueños de inmobiliarias, a ingenieros civiles y arquitectos que laboraron en el periodo.

  9. El escaso reflejo que todavía tiene en los medios de comunicación la imagen corporal de las chicas y el acoso escolar. Cuando se trata de algo más que causa y efecto

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Guerrero, Manuel; Suárez Ramírez, Miriam; Godoy Merino, María José

    2012-01-01

    Con este trabajo pretendemos reseñar la poca transcendencia que tienen en los mass media al acoso escolar. Actualmente, el acoso escolar es casi un tema “tabú” no solo en los medios de comunicación, sino también en la educación, a pesar de que son actos que ocurren a diario en todos los centros educativos con más o menos frecuencia en el que predomina el género masculino como agresor y el femenino como víctima. Para profundizar en este asunto, hemos realizado una investigación basada en ...

  10. Antijudaïsme, pouvoir politique et administration de la justice. Juifs, chrétiens et convertis dans l’espace juridictionnel de la Chancillería de Valladolid (xve-xvie siècles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Caselli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Composition du juryMonsieur. Bernard Vincent, Directeur de thèses (ÉHESS,Monsieur. Bartolomé Bennassar (Université de Toulouse le Mirail,Monsieur. Ricardo Garcia Carcel (Université Autonome de Barcelone,Madame. Claude Gauvard (Université de Paris I,Madame. Béatrice Perez (Université de Rennes II,Monsieur. Jean-Paul Zuñiga, (ÉHESSMention très honorable avec félicitation du juryThèse soutenue le 28 juin 2010RésuméÀ travers des procès judiciaires impliquant des juifs, plaidant entre eux ou...

  11. El control fiscal y la revisoría fiscal en las entidades públicas: frente al dictamen sobre los estados contables, ¿quién tiene la razón?

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Jesús Iván

    2008-01-01

    El control fiscal y la revisoría fiscal hacenparte de los mecanismos de control externo diseñados porel Estado para la vigilancia de la gestión fiscal de la administracióny para el aseguramiento del buen uso y conservaciónde los recursos públicos y privados, de conformidadcon las normas legales, que dadas las características y naturalezafuncional, presentan similitudes, pero también marcadasdiferencias.El control fiscal es una función pública, mediante la cual serealiza vigilancia sobre la fo...

  12. Hiina kunstnikud kaebavad Veneetsia biennaali kohtusse / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2000-01-01

    1999. a. Veneetsia biennaalil auhinna võitnud hiina kunstniku Cai Guo Qiangi teos "Veneetsia maksukoguja hoov" on Hiinas tekitanud diskussiooni autoriõiguste teemal. Kaalutakse kohtuasja algatamist Cai Guo Qiangi, Harald Szeemanni ja Veneetsia biennaali vastu

  13. Research on the Use of Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, C. O.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews recent research studies related to computer assisted instruction (CAI). The studies concerned program effectiveness, teaching of psychomotor skills, tool availability, and factors affecting the adoption of CAI. (CT)

  14. LISP教育用ICAIシステムの開発

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 寿勝; 島本, 肇; 黒島, 利一; 杉岡, 一郎

    1989-01-01

    Traditional computer-assisted instruction (CAI) has advantages and also has some of disadvantages that should be improved. To study intelligent CAI (ICAI) is regarded as trial to better CAI by using techniques in knowledge engineering. The system that was constructed in this research consists of three different modules ―a special knowledge module, a student model module and a guide rule module― to solve some problems of conventional CAI. For future researchers, the opportunity for engaging th...

  15. Computer based training for nuclear operations personnel: From concept to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widen, W.C.; Klemm, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Computer Based Training (CBT) can be subdivided into two categories: Computer Aided Instruction (CAI), or the actual presentation of learning material; and Computer Managed Instruction (CMI), the tracking, recording, and documenting of instruction and student progress. Both CAI and CMI can be attractive to the student and to the training department. A brief overview of CAI and CMI benefits is given in this paper

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1277 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1277 emb|CAI12641.1| caspase 7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [...Homo sapiens] emb|CAI16007.1| caspase 7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [Homo sapiens] CAI12641.1 2e-09 73% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1632 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1632 emb|CAI12641.1| caspase 7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [...Homo sapiens] emb|CAI16007.1| caspase 7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [Homo sapiens] CAI12641.1 3e-25 69% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-03-0067 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-03-0067 emb|CAI21049.1| novel protein similar to vertebrate syntaxin 7 (S...TX7) [Danio rerio] emb|CAI29417.1| novel protein similar to vertebrate syntaxin 7 (STX7) [Danio rerio] CAI21049.1 1e-17 24% ...

  19. KAPSE Interface Team (KIT) Public Report. Volume 8, Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    visitors were introduced. Mike Tedd of the University of Wales represented the United Kingdom on the KIT for Sue Bond , who will be the primary...CAIS subprogram callable by APSE tools.I 2.1 Scope of the CAIS. The CAIS shall provide interfaces sufficient to support the use of APSEs for wide

  20. Oxygen isotopic abundances in calcium- aluminum-rich inclusions from ordinary chondrites: implications for nebular heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan, K D; Leshin, L A; Russell, S S; MacPherson, G J

    1998-04-17

    The oxygen isotopic compositions of two calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the unequilibrated ordinary chondrite meteorites Quinyambie and Semarkona are enriched in 16O by an amount similar to that in CAIs from carbonaceous chondrites. This may indicate that most CAIs formed in a restricted region of the solar nebula and were then unevenly distributed throughout the various chondrite accretion regions. The Semarkona CAI is isotopically homogeneous and contains highly 16O-enriched melilite, supporting the hypothesis that all CAI minerals were originally 16O-rich, but that in most carbonaceous chondrite inclusions some minerals exchanged oxygen isotopes with an external reservoir following crystallization.

  1. Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome in Three Sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Verim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of sexual development (DSD are congenital anomalies due to atypical development of chromosomes, gonads and anatomy. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS, also known as testicular feminization (TF is a rare DSD disease. The majority of CAIS patients apply to hospital with the complaint of primary amenorrhea or infertility. Given that CAIS patients are all phenotypically female while having 46, XY karyotypes, CAIS diagnosis should be disclosed in an age-appropriate manner preferably by a mental health professional. Cases are reported here for three 46XY siblings consistent with CAIS.

  2. Scientific Performance Analysis of the SYZ Telescope Design versus the RC Telescope Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Donglin; Cai, Zheng

    2018-02-01

    Recently, Su et al. propose an innovative design, referred as the “SYZ” design, for China’s new project of a 12 m optical-infrared telescope. The SYZ telescope design consists of three aspheric mirrors with non-zero power, including a relay mirror below the primary mirror. SYZ design yields a good imaging quality and has a relatively flat field curvature at Nasmyth focus. To evaluate the science-compatibility of this three-mirror telescope, in this paper, we thoroughly compare the performance of SYZ design with that of Ritchey–Chrétien (RC) design, a conventional two-mirror telescope design. Further, we propose the Observing Information Throughput (OIT) as a metric for quantitatively evaluating the telescopes’ science performance. We find that although a SYZ telescope yields a superb imaging quality over a large field of view, a two-mirror (RC) telescope design holds a higher overall throughput, a better diffraction-limited imaging quality in the central field of view (FOV < 5‧) which is better for the performance of extreme Adaptive Optics (AO), and a generally better scientific performance with a higher OIT value. D. Ma & Z. Cai contributed equally to this paper.

  3. Feedback and Feedforward Control During Walking in Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Sheng-Che; Corkery, Marie B; Donohoe, Amy; Grogan, Maddison; Wu, Yi-Ning

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Recurrent ankle sprains associated with chronic ankle instability (CAI) occur not only in challenging sports but also in daily walking. Understanding whether and how CAI alters feedback and feedforward controls during walking may be important for developing interventions for CAI prevention or treatment. Objective To understand whether CAI is associated with changes in feedback and feedforward control when individuals with CAI are subjected to experimental perturbation during walking. Methods Twelve subjects with CAI and 12 control subjects walked on a treadmill while adapting to external loading that generated inversion perturbation at the ankle joint. Ankle kinematics around heel contact during and after the adaptation were compared between the 2 groups. Results Both healthy and CAI groups showed an increase in eversion around heel contact in early adaptation to the external loading. However, the CAI group adapted back toward the baseline, while the healthy controls showed further increase in eversion in late adaptation. When the external loading was removed in the postadaptation period, healthy controls showed an aftereffect consisting of an increase in eversion around heel contact, but the CAI group showed no aftereffect. Conclusion The results provide preliminary evidence that CAI may alter individuals' feedback and feedforward control during walking. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):775-783. Epub 5 Aug 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6403.

  4. Plant growth-promoting activities of Streptomyces spp. in sorghum and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Srinivas, Vadlamudi; Sree Vidya, Meesala; Rathore, Abhishek

    2013-01-01

    Five strains of Streptomyces (CAI-24, CAI-121, CAI-127, KAI-32 and KAI-90) were earlier reported by us as biological control agents against Fusarium wilt of chickpea caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (FOC). In the present study, the Streptomyces were characterized for enzymatic activities, physiological traits and further evaluated in greenhouse and field for their plant growth promotion (PGP) of sorghum and rice. All the Streptomyces produced lipase, β-1-3-glucanase and chitinase (except CAI-121 and CAI-127), grew in NaCl concentrations of up to 6%, at pH values between 5 and 13 and temperatures between 20 and 40°C and were highly sensitive to Thiram, Benlate, Captan, Benomyl and Radonil at field application level. When the Streptomyces were evaluated in the greenhouse on sorghum all the isolates significantly enhanced all the agronomic traits over the control. In the field, on rice, the Streptomyces significantly enhanced stover yield (up to 25%; except CAI-24), grain yield (up to 10%), total dry matter (up to 18%; except CAI-24) and root length, volume and dry weight (up to 15%, 36% and 55%, respectively, except CAI-24) over the control. In the rhizosphere soil, the Streptomyces significantly enhanced microbial biomass carbon (except CAI-24), nitrogen, dehydrogenase (except CAI-24), total N, available P and organic carbon (up to 41%, 52%, 75%, 122%, 53% and 13%, respectively) over the control. This study demonstrates that the selected Streptomyces which were antagonistic to FOC also have PGP properties.

  5. Conodont geothermometry in pyroclastic kimberlite: constraints on emplacement temperatures and cooling histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Jennifer; Russell, James K.; Zhang, Shunxin

    2018-03-01

    Kimberlite pipes from Chidliak, Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada host surface-derived Paleozoic carbonate xenoliths containing conodonts. Conodonts are phosphatic marine microfossils that experience progressive, cumulative and irreversible colour changes upon heating that are experimentally calibrated as a conodont colour alteration index (CAI). CAI values permit us to estimate the temperatures to which conodont-bearing rocks have been heated. Conodonts have been recovered from 118 samples from 89 carbonate xenoliths collected from 12 of the pipes and CAI values within individual carbonate xenoliths show four types of CAI distributions: (1) CAI values that are uniform throughout the xenolith; (2) lower CAIs in core of a xenolith than the rim; (3) CAIs that increase from one side of the xenolith to the other; and, (4) in one xenolith, higher CAIs in the xenolith core than at the rim. We have used thermal models for post-emplacement conductive cooling of kimberlite pipes and synchronous heating of conodont-bearing xenoliths to establish the temperature-time history of individual xenoliths within the kimberlite bodies. Model results suggest that the time-spans for xenoliths to reach the peak temperatures recorded by CAIs varies from hours for the smallest xenoliths to 2 or 3 years for the largest xenoliths. The thermal modelling shows the first three CAI patterns to be consistent with in situ conductive heating of the xenoliths coupled to the cooling host kimberlite. The fourth pattern remains an anomaly.

  6. EVIDENCE FOR MULTIPLE SOURCES OF 10Be IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielandt, Daniel; Krot, Alexander N.; Bizzarro, Martin; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Huss, Gary R.; Ivanova, Marina A.

    2012-01-01

    Beryllium-10 is a short-lived radionuclide (t 1/2 = 1.4 Myr) uniquely synthesized by spallation reactions and inferred to have been present when the solar system's oldest solids (calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, CAIs) formed. Yet, the astrophysical site of 10 Be nucleosynthesis is uncertain. We report Li-Be-B isotope measurements of CAIs from CV chondrites, including CAIs that formed with the canonical 26 Al/ 27 Al ratio of ∼5 × 10 –5 (canonical CAIs) and CAIs with Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope effects (FUN-CAIs) characterized by 26 Al/ 27 Al ratios much lower than the canonical value. Our measurements demonstrate the presence of four distinct fossil 10 Be/ 9 Be isochrons, lower in the FUN-CAIs than in the canonical CAIs, and variable within these classes. Given that FUN-CAI precursors escaped evaporation-recondensation prior to evaporative melting, we suggest that the 10 Be/ 9 Be ratio recorded by FUN-CAIs represents a baseline level present in presolar material inherited from the protosolar molecular cloud, generated via enhanced trapping of galactic cosmic rays. The higher and possibly variable apparent 10 Be/ 9 Be ratios of canonical CAIs reflect additional spallogenesis, either in the gaseous CAI-forming reservoir, or in the inclusions themselves: this indicates at least two nucleosynthetic sources of 10 Be in the early solar system. The most promising locale for 10 Be synthesis is close to the proto-Sun during its early mass-accreting stages, as these are thought to coincide with periods of intense particle irradiation occurring on timescales significantly shorter than the formation interval of canonical CAIs.

  7. Cotidianidade da mulher que tem HIV/AIDS: modo de ser diante da (impossibilidade de amamentar Cotidianidad de la mujer que tiene VIH/SIDA: modo de ser ante la (imposibilidad de amamantar The daily routine of women infected with HIV/AIDS: way of being in the face of the impossibility of breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Maris de Mello Padoin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigação fenomenológica que objetivou compreender a cotidianidade da mulher infectada pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana, diante da impossibilidade de amamentar. Desenvolveu-se entrevista com 12 mulheres, em um hospital universitário no sul do Brasil. Os depoimentos, analisados pelo método heideggeriano, revelaram que a mulher se mostra como ser-no-mundo e se mantém, predominantemente, na impessoalidade. Desvelou-se o modo de ser da de-cadência, expresso pela ocupação, falatório, curiosidade, ambigüidade e temor, além da inautenticidade do pacto de silêncio e do não dito. O cuidado solícito, mediado pela relação dialógica entre a mãe e o/a filho/a, entre a mulher e o/a profissional, mostrou a possibilidade do movimento da inautenticidade para a autenticidade. Recomenda-se, como estratégia assistencial, o encontro vivido e dialogado, mediado pela escuta, empatia e intersubjetividade, que se desenvolva a partir da compreensão do modo de ser do humano diante das impossibilidades da condição sorológica e na busca de desvelar suas possibilidades.Investigación fenomenológica que tuvo como objetivo comprender la cotidianidad de la mujer infectada por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana, ante la imposibilidad de amamantar. Se desarrolló una entrevista con 12 mujeres, en un hospital universitario en el sur de Brasil. Las declaraciones, analizadas por el método heideggeriano, revelaron que la mujer se muestra como ser-en-el-mundo y se mantiene, predominantemente, en la impersonalidad. Se desveló el modo de ser de la decadencia, expreso por la ocupación, por las habladurías, curiosidad, ambigüedad y temor, además de la inautenticidad del pacto de silencio y de lo no dicho. El cuidado solícito, mediado por la relación dialógica entre la madre y el/la hijo/a, entre la mujer y el/la profesional, mostró la posibilidad del movimiento de la inautenticidad para la autenticidad. Se recomienda, como estrategia asistencial, el encuentro vivido y dialogado, mediado por la escucha, empatía e intersubjetividad, que se desarrolla a partir de la comprensión del modo de ser del humano ante las imposibilidades de la condición serológica y en la búsqueda de desvelar sus posibilidades.The purpose of this phenomenological research is to understand the daily routine of women infected with the virus of human immunodeficiency (HIV prevented from breastfeeding. Twelve women were interviewed in a university hospital in southern Brazil. Their statements, analyzed through a Heideggerian approach, showed that the women reveal themselves as beings-in-the-world and are mainly impersonal. The way of being of de-cadence was unveiled and expressed by occupation, gossip, curiosity, ambiguity, fear, and the inauthenticity of the pact of silence and the unsaid. The helpful care mediated by a dialogic relationship between mother and son/daughter, between the woman and the professional, showed the possibility of movement from inauthenticity to authenticity. We recommend the use of direct and dialogued interaction as an assistance strategy, mediated by listening, empathy and intersubjectivity, and developed through the comprehension of the way of being of the human being in the face of the impossibilities imposed by the serological condition and in their attempt to unveil their possibilities.

  8. Quelle place au travail des agriculteurs dans la fabrication d’une agriculture durable ? How does the work of the farmers fits in the making of a sustainable agriculture? Que lugar tiene el trabajo de los agricultores en la construcción de una agricultura sostenible ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Béguin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Après avoir rappelé le contexte de mutation que connaît actuellement le secteur agricole, nous nous interrogeons sur la place du travail dans la fabrication d’une agriculture durable. Dans cette perspective, nous soulignons trois types d’enjeux. Le premier est relatif à l’objectivation des liens travail-santé. En effet, les conditions de travail se dégradent dans le secteur et celui-ci génère de l’exclusion. Et il est loin d’être attractif. Le second renvoie au lien entre conception et travail. L’agriculture actuelle n’est pas soutenable. Et les pratiques productives des agriculteurs sont en pleine mutation. Mais encore faut-il que ces techniques soient actionnables dans le travail. Nous désignons donc trois voies à la prise en compte du travail dans la conception. Le troisième enjeu est relatif au vivre ensemble. Le développement durable pose en effet très profondément la question d’un futur à faire advenir collectivement. Nous considérons alors cette dimension politique comme un « projet », en posant la question de la prise en compte des projets des agriculteurs dans la définition des visées du développement durable.This paper is focused on work in the making of a sustainable agriculture. We emphasize three types of issue. The first one is related to the objectification of occupational health. Agriculture is a tough sector, which produces exclusion and which is far from attractive. The second is related to design. Farming today is not sustainable, and technical systems need to be designed. But the changes need to be actionable at work. So we present three ways needed in order to think out the workers’ activity during the design process. The third issue is related to Policy: sustainable development is also a future to bring together. We suggest that this collective dimension could be grasped as a « project », which takes into consideration the projects of farmers in order to define the aims of sustainable agriculture.Despues de haber recordado el contexto de mutación que conoce actualmente el sector agrícola, nos interrogamos sobre el lugar del trabajo en la construcción de una agricultura sostenible. Dentro de esta perspectiva, subrayamos tres tipos de desafíos. El primero es relativo a la objetivación de los lazos trabajo-salud. En efecto, las condiciones de trabajo se degradan en el sector y este genera exclusión. Lo que esta lejos de ser atractivo. El segundo devuelve al lazo entre concepción y trabajo. La agricultura actual no es sostenible. Y las prácticas productivas de los agricultores estan en plena mutación. Pero es todavía necesario que estas prácticas sean accionables en el trabajo. Designamos tres vías que permiten tomar en cuenta el trabajo en la concepción. El tercer desafío es relativo al vivir juntos. El desarrollo sostenible conlleva profundamente la cuestión de un futuro a construir colectivamente. Consideramos esta dimensión política como un « proyecto », que toma en cuenta los proyectos de los agricultores para definir los objetivos del desarrollo sostenible.

  9. ¿Qué Efecto Tiene Asistir a Sala Cuna y Jardín Infantil Desde los Tres Meses Hasta los Cuatro Años de Edad?: Estudio Longitudinal en la Junta Nacional de Jardines Infantiles What Is the Effect of Attending Nursery School Between Three Months and Four Years of Age?: A Longitudinal Study in the National Preschool Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Seguel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio longitudinal cuasi-experimental con grupo de comparación examinó el efecto de asistir desde 1 a 4 años de edad a jardines de la Junta Nacional de Jardines Infantiles (JUNJI de Chile sobre el desarrollo/aprendizaje de los párvulos y el efecto diferencial de asistir a partir de los 3 años. El muestreo fue bietápico (41 jardines y 427 niños al inicio y estratificado por región del país. El grupo de comparación, con características socioeconómicas similares (184 niños al inicio, no asistía a sala cuna. Los niños fueron evaluados anualmente con el Inventario de Desarrollo Battelle. También se recogieron variables familiares y educativas con entrevistas semi-estructuradas y pautas de observación. Comparaciones usando Propensity Score Matching y análisis de Mínimos Cuadrados Ordinarios arrojaron que alrededor del 80% de los niños cursa un desarrollo normal, independientemente de que asistan a los jardines infantiles JUNJI o permanezcan en sus casas. Asistir desde los 3 años tendría un efecto positivo en el desarrollo infantil. La calidad de las prácticas pedagógicas en lactantes y la actitud didáctica familiar explicarían mayormente el desarrollo de los párvulos.This quasi-experimental longitudinal study with comparison group examined the effect on the learning and developmental levels of infants attending the National Preschool Association (JUNJI nursery schools in Chile (between 3 months and 4 years of age and the differential effect of attending them from 3 years of age onward. A two-stage (41 nurseries and 427 children at the beginning and stratified sample by region was used. The comparison group, with similar socioeconomic characteristics (184 children at the beginning, did not attend a nursery school. Children were assessed yearly with the Battelle Developmental Inventory. Family and educational variables were collected using semi-structured interviews and an observational guideline. Comparisons using Propensity Score Matching and Least Squares analysis showed that nearly 80% of the children were learning and developing according to their age, regardless of whether they were attending a JUNJI nursery school or staying at home. Attending from 3 years of age onwards is likely to have positive effects on infant development. The quality of pedagogical practices in babies and family educational attitudes are the most probable explanations for children development.

  10. Academic learning time in physical education (ALT-PE: is it related to fundamental movement skill acquisition and learning?. Tiempo de aprendizaje académico en educación física (ALT-PE: ¿tiene que ver con la adquisición y aprendizaje de habilidades motrices fundamentales?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loza Olave, Edmundo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this study, the relationship between time-variables of the physical education lesson and fundamental movement skill acquisition and learning was examined. One hundred and ten first grade students and their six physical educators participated. Students were pre-, post-, and re-tested both qualitatively and quantitatively on overhand throwing and catching. The Test of Gross Motor Development (Ulrich, 1985 was used for the assessment of qualitative skill performance and the Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP, 1984 for the assessment of quantitative skill performance. Between pre- and post-tests students received an eight lessons unit instruction with emphasis on overhand throwing and catching. A total number of thirty-six students (6 students X 6 schools were selected, andtheir videotaped motor behavior in the lessons was analyzed with the Academic Learning Time ¿ Physical Education (ALT-PE,Parker, 1989. Regression analysis was applied to calculate students´ residual scores of achievement and to enable further data analysis. Correlation analysis between students´ achievement and ALT-PE categories indicated significant relationships between skill acquisition, learning and ALT-PE categories. It can be concluded that time devoted to practice skills, unlike times pent on activities irrelevant to the instructional task oron games, contributes to skill learning.ResumenEn este trabajo se estudia la relación entre variables temporales de las clases de Educación Física y la adquisición y aprendizaje de habilidades motrices fundamentales. En él participaron ciento diez alumnos de primer grado y seis profesores de Educación Física de Grecia. Los alumnos fueron examinados antes, durante y después tanto en términos cuantitativos como cualitativos en cuanto a lanzamientos y recepciones por encima de la cabeza. Se utilizó el Test de Desarrollo Motor Grueso (Ulrich, 1985 para evaluar el rendimiento en habilidades cualitativas y el Programa de Evaluación Educativa de Michigan (MEAP, 1984 para evaluar el rendimiento en habilidades cuantitativas. Entre las pre y post-pruebas, los alumnos recibieron una unidad formativa de ocho clases con especial énfasis en los lanzamientos y recepciones por encima de la cabeza. Se seleccionó a un total de 36 alumnos (6 alumnos x 6 escuelas y su comportamiento motor, grabado en vídeo durante las clases, fue analizado con el Tiempo de Aprendizaje Académico – Educación Física (ALT-PE, Parker, 1989. Se aplicó un análisis de regresión para calcular las puntuaciones residuales de los alumnos en cuanto a sus logros y permitir el posterior análisis de los datos. El análisis de la correlación entre los logros de los alumnos y las categorías de ALT-PE indicó la existencia de unas importantes relaciones entre la adquisición de habilidades, el aprendizaje y las categorías de ALT-PE. Puede concluirse que el tiempo dedicado al entrenamiento de las habilidades, a diferencia del tiempo dedicado a las habilidades irrelevantes para la tarea formativa o los juegos, contribuye al aprendizaje de habilidades.

  11. Quantification of the influence of the choice of the algorithm and planning system on the calculation of a treatment plan; Cuantificacion de la influencia que tiene la eleccion del algoritmo y del sistema de planificacion en el calculo de una dosimetria clinica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moral, F. del; Ramos, A.; Salgado, M.; Andrade, B; Munoz, V.

    2010-07-01

    In this work an analysis of the influence of the choice of the algorithm or planning system, on the calculus of the same treatment plan is introduced. For this purpose specific software has been developed for comparing plans of a series of IMRT cases of prostate and head and neck cancer calculated using the convolution, superposition and fast superposition algorithms implemented in the XiO 4.40 planning system (CMS). It has also been used for the comparison of the same treatment plan for lung pathology calculated in XiO with the mentioned algorithms, and calculated in the Plan 4.1 planning system (Brainlab) using its pencil beam algorithm. Differences in dose among the treatment plans have been quantified using a set of metrics. The recommendation for the dosimetry of a careful choice of the algorithm has been numerically confirmed. (Author).

  12. Has the identification of rectal hypersensitivity any implication in the clinical outcome of irritable bowel syndrome? ¿Tiene alguna repercusión clínica la identificación de hipersensibilidad en el síndrome de intestino irritable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Izquierdo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: sixty percent of patients with irritable bowel disease (IBS are hypersensitive to rectal distension. It is uncertain to what extend the identification of this abnormality has an impact in the clinical outcome. Objective: to evaluate if rectal hypersensitivity is associated with a different clinical outcome, prognosis and use of medical resources. Material and methods: patients with IBS (Rome II criteria who underwent a rectal distension study at least one year before were eligible if they have not been included in any research protocol since then. We reviewed how many times in the last year they came to emergency room, underwent an endoscopy, and consulted a gastroenterologist or other medical physician for any reason. Also, a telephone interview was done by a gastroenterology fellow using a structured questionnaire to evaluate the frequency and severity of their symptoms in the last year and last month. Results: a total of 52 patients were eligible and 38 were included. Forteen were not included because inability to made a phone contact or did not consent to phone interview. Twenty six patients were hypersensitive and 12 normosensitive. Both groups had similar symptoms (frequency and severity but hypersensitive patients visited less to the gastroenterologist (1.2 ± 0.2 vs. 2.9 ± 0.6 times yearly, p Introducción: el 60% de los pacientes con SII tienen hipersensibilidad a la distensión rectal. Se desconoce si la identificación de esta alteración puede modificar su evolución. Objetivo: evaluar si la hipersensibilidad a la distensión rectal se asocia con un diferente pronóstico respecto a la presentación de síntomas y la utilización de recursos sanitarios en pacientes con SII. Material y métodos: se incluyeron pacientes con SII según criterios de Roma II, que habían sido sometidos a un estudio de distensión rectal. Se recogieron datos de los registros informáticos sobre asistencia a consultas especializadas, realización de endoscopias, asistencia a urgencias e ingresos hospitalarios. Además, se realizó entrevista telefónica en la que se interrogó acerca de la existencia de síntomas a lo largo del último año y último mes (características, duración y severidad. Resultados: se evaluaron 38 pacientes, 26 con hipersensibilidad en el estudio de distensión basal y 12 normosensibles. En el momento de la recogida de datos (registro informático y entrevista telefónica el seguimiento medio era de 2,39 años después del estudio de distensión. Los sujetos hipersensibles presentaron una clínica similar a aquellos normosensibles. Se registró una menor tasa de frecuentación anual en las consultas de Aparato Digestivo (1,2 ± 0,2 vs. 2,9 ± 0,6, p < 0,01 por parte de los pacientes hipersensibles sin existir diferencias en el resto de variables estudiadas. Conclusión: la identificación de hipersensibilidad visceral en pacientes con SII conlleva una notable reducción de las consultas al gastroenterólogo, sin que esto pueda explicarse por la mejoría de los síntomas, ni por una menor tendencia a realizar otras consultas médicas.

  13. "El cliente siempre tiene la razón": procesos de construcción de subjetividad en trabajadores jóvenes de una cadena multinacional de supermercados en la ciudad de Rosario "Client´s always right": Subjectivity construction´s process in young workers of a multinational chain of supermarkets in Rosario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Guiamet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo abordamos la problemática de la construcción de subjetividad de trabajadores jóvenes de supermercados desde la perspectiva de su relación con el cliente, ya que consideramos que en ésta se articulan una serie de dimensiones significativas del trabajo en supermercados. Las políticas empresariales en la actualidad tienden a incorporar a la subjetividad obrera en el proceso de valorización del capital y, en este sentido, la atención al cliente se constituye en un mecanismo clave para lograrlo. Además, nos preguntamos cómo se da la apropiación de estos mecanismos por parte de los trabajadores en los procesos de trabajo concretos de atención al cliente, destacando que, si bien estas políticas son eficaces, las prácticas de los trabajadores también conllevan implícitas resignificaciones, apropiaciones y límites frente a estas políticas.In this work we deal with the problem of the subjectivity construction of supermarket´s young workers from the perspective of their relationship with the client, since we consider that in this one a series of significant dimentions of the work in supermarkets are articulated. Nowadays, business politics tend to incorporate workers´ subjectivity in the capital´s appreciation process and, in this sense, attention to customer becomes a key mechanism to achieve it. Besides, we ask ourselves how workers aproppiate this mechanisms in concrete work process of attention to client, emphasizing that, beyond this politics´s effectiveness, workers´ practices also take implicit resignifications, appropiations and limits.

  14. “¿La revolución tiene cara de campesina?” Un caso de estudio de la participación activa de las mujeres en el riego del páramo venezolano "Has the Revolution a Peasant Face?" A case study on the activeparticipation of women in an irrigation project in the Venezuelan Páramo

    OpenAIRE

    Caretta, Martina Angela; Cadena Montero, Yulier Cadena; Sulbaran, Luisana; Sandoval, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    En Venezuela, la participación de la mujer en los procesos de tomas de decisiones ha sido profundizada por la revolución bolivariana. Mientras se ha demostrado que los cambios legislativos han logrado involucrar a las mujeres en las zonas urbanas, no existen estudios al respecto equivalentes en las zonas rurales. Este artículo es un primer paso para solventar dicha carencia científica. Se han utilizado para ello metodologías cualitativas y un enfoque de género para conocer la participación de...

  15. Propagation properties of the chirped Airy beams through the gradient-index medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liyan; Zhang, Jianbin; Pang, Zihao; Wang, Linyi; Zhong, Tianfen; Yang, Xiangbo; Deng, Dongmei

    2017-11-01

    Through analytical derivation and numerical analysis, the propagation properties of the chirped Airy(CAi) beams in the gradient-index medium are investigated. The intensity and the phase distributions, the propagation trajectory and the Poynting vector of the CAi beams are demonstrated to investigate the propagation properties. Owing to the special and symmetrical refractive index profile of the gradient-index medium, the CAi beams propagate periodically. The effects of the distribution factor and the chirped parameter on the propagation of the CAi beams are analyzed. As the increasing of the distribution factor, the intensity distribution of the CAi beams is more scattering. However, with the chirped parameter increasing, the focusing property of the CAi beams strengthens. The variation of the chirped parameter can change the position of the peak intensity maximum, but it cannot alter the period of the peak intensity. The variations of the initial phase and the energy of the beams in the transverse plane expedite accordingly.

  16. Canine-assisted therapy for children with ADHD: preliminary findings from the positive assertive cooperative kids study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Sabrina E B; Emmerson, Natasha A; Fine, Aubrey H; Lakes, Kimberley D

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to provide preliminary findings from an ongoing randomized clinical trial using a canine-assisted intervention (CAI) for 24 children with ADHD. Project Positive Assertive Cooperative Kids (P.A.C.K.) was designed to study a 12-week cognitive-behavioral intervention delivered with or without CAI. Children were randomly assigned to group therapy with or without CAI. Parents of children in both groups simultaneously participated in weekly parent group therapy sessions. Across both treatment groups, parents reported improvements in children's social skills, prosocial behaviors, and problematic behaviors. In both groups, the severity of ADHD symptoms declined during the course of treatment; however, children who received the CAI model exhibited greater reductions in the severity of ADHD symptoms than did children who received cognitive-behavioral therapy without CAI. Results suggest that CAI offers a novel therapeutic strategy that may enhance cognitive-behavioral interventions for children with ADHD. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  17. Self-regulation by industry of food marketing is having little impact during children's preferred television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Dubois, Lise; Wanless, Alissa

    2011-10-01

    To examine the efficacy of self-regulation of food marketing to children by comparing, during children's preferred viewing on television, the differences in food/beverage marketing between two groups of corporations: 17 corporations participating in the Canadian Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CAI) and 35 corporations not participating (non-CAI) in this initiative. The food/beverage marketing activities of CAI and non-CAI corporations during 99.5 hours of children's preferred viewing on television were compared. First, the preferred television viewing of 272 children aged 10-12 years from Ontario and Quebec who completed TV viewing journals for a seven-day period was determined. A total of 32 television stations were simultaneously recorded, and a content analysis of children's preferred viewing was conducted and included coding all food/beverage promotions and their nutritional content. Each food/beverage promotion was classified by corporation type (i.e., CAI or non-CAI). The CAI was responsible for significantly more food/beverage promotions, and used media characters and repetition more frequently in their food/beverage promotions than the non-CAI group. Nutritionally, the CAI food/beverage promotions were higher in fats, sugar, sodium and energy per 100 grams. A significantly greater proportion of the CAI food/beverage promotions were considered 'less healthy' compared to the non-CAI promotions. With the exception of the four corporations that did not market to children at all, the commitments that have been made in the CAI are not having a significant impact on the food and beverage marketing environment on television which is viewed by 10-12-year-olds.

  18. Publications | Page 232 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    O cerco flutuante e os caiçaras do litoral norte de São Paulo, com ênfase à pesca de trindade, RJ (open access). O cerco flutuante, armadilha fixa de pesca, é utilizado por caiçaras do litoral sudeste do Brasil na pesca artesanal. Essa técnica faz parte de um conjunto de influências históricas que formou a cultura caiçara e ...

  19. Oxygen isotopic composition of relict olivine grains in cosmic spherules: Links to chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Nagashima, K.; Jones, R.H.

    aluminium rich inclusions (CAIs), amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), and some porphyritic chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites. These grains appear to have recorded the initial oxygen isotopic composition of the inner solar nebula. Three olivine... to the major components of meteorites such as chondrules and calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs). CAIs, the first solar system objects in the solar nebula, are formed by condensation of refractory minerals at high temperatures. They are 16O...

  20. A Theory-Based Exploration of Condomless Anal Intercourse Intention Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men of Different Sexual Roles in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jen-Hao; Huang, Jiun-Hau

    2017-11-28

    In recent years, men who have sex with men (MSM) have accounted for over 80% of all new HIV cases in Taiwan. More than 70% of new cases have occurred in those aged 15-34 years. Condomless anal intercourse (CAI) has been identified as the main route of HIV transmission among MSM. To systematically examine CAI intention and associated factors among young MSM in Taiwan, an anonymous online survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was conducted. Data from 694 MSM aged 15-39 years were included in the analysis. This study found that, overall, all five TPB factors (i.e., attitudes toward positive and negative outcomes regarding CAI, perceived support for CAI from important others, and perceived behavioral control of CAI under facilitating and constraining conditions) were significantly associated with CAI intention. When data were stratified by sexual role (i.e., receptive, versatile, and insertive), the associations between TPB factors and CAI intention varied. Of the five TPB factors, positive attitudes toward positive outcomes regarding CAI were most strongly associated with high CAI intention (AOR 5.68 for all young MSM; AOR 3.80-15.93, depending on sexual role). Findings from this study could inform the development of theory-driven HIV prevention programs as well as future research and practice. These results also highlight the importance of tailoring HIV prevention initiatives for young MSM of different sexual roles to optimize the program effectiveness.

  1. INFEKSI KOMUNITAS (IK/INFEKSI LUAR RUMAH SAKIT (ILRS (COMMUNITY ACQUIRED INFECTION DI RUMAH SAKIT KHUSUS PENYAKIT MENULAR, JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janas Janas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A one year prospective study was conducted at the Infectious Diseases Hospital (IDH of Jakarta in 1982-1983 to survey the rate of community acquired infection (CAI. Blood culture, rectal swab, urine culture and in some patients cerebro spinal fluid culture were obtained randomly from hospitalized patient at the time of admission. From 723 patients with age 2 months-70 years, who were examined and fulfilled the study criteria, 504 (69,7% patients were positive for CAI resulted in total of 611 CAIs. Based on anatomical location, this number consists of 53.5% CAI of GI Tract, 20.9% CAI of Urinary Tract, 9.5% CAI bacteremia and 0.6% CAI involving central nervous system. Incidence rate was significantly higher in female (74.1% compared to male (65.7% (p<0.02. It was also higher in >12 years patients (73.9% compared to children <12 years (p<0,01. Diarrhea patients had significantly higher CAI (77.4% compared to febrile patients (55.2% (p<0,01. Patients who had not received antibiotic prior to admission had higher rate of CAI (70.9% compared to who received it prior to admission (67.1% Etiologic agents most commonly recovered were gram negative bacterias (94.9% with Vibrio cholerae (48.6% as the leading cause, and only 5.1% were gram positive. Some of bacteria found as the etiologic agent of CAI, were Salmonella group D, Salmonella group E4, Proteus vulgaris and ruttgerii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mima polymorpha, Alkaligenes sp showed high rate of resistancy to commonly used antibiotics. (Ampicillin, Tetracycline, Chloramphenicol and Trimethoprim + Sulfamethoxazole. Average duration of hospitalization for CAI cases (6,4 days was longer than in cases without CAI (4,3 days. There were 11 deaths (2.2% in cases with CAI and 2 deaths (1.4% in patients without CAI, with death rate was higher in males (2.4% compared to female (1.9%, and highest was in less than 1 year old age group patient (13.6%, also significantly higher in febrile patients compared to

  2. Gastronomia, Sustentabilidade e Turismo na Praia de Caçandoca, Ubatuba (São Paulo-Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielys Siqueira Bueno

    2012-12-01

    Ubatuba, tiene uma comunidad de pesca artesanal que es también remanesciente de um “quilombo”. Después de la apertura de rodovias permitiendo acceso al litoral norte de São Paulo, em los años setenta, la comunidade sufrió muchas pressiones de la especulación inmobiliaria para su desahucio o transferência, por causa de la belleza del lugar y sus possibilidades de uso turístico. Mas ella obtuvo el reconocimiento de su propriedade territorial, como “tierra de quilombo”, y hoy busca mantener su identidade y su cultura material. Una parte importante de esa cultura es su culinaria de peces, investigada por el A. en entrevistas abiertas com antiguos moradores de Caçandoca. Y hoy, proyectos comunitários y de gobierno ofrecen alternativas de aprovechamiento de esa cocina tradicional en uma actividad de turismo sustentable. Palabras-clave: turismo sustentable; pesca artesanal; quilombo ; culinária caiçara; ; Ubatuba-SP.

  3. De Actividades de Innovación y su Presencia en Pymes Santafesinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela S. Ambrosini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La asimilación y la incorporación de nuevas tecnologías son cuestiones ineludibles al pensar en la permanencia y/o crecimiento de las empresas en el mercado. El reconocimiento de la innovación como ventaja competitiva sustentable es creciente y las Pymes requieren de estrategias que contemplen competencias y habilidades para mejorar su competitividad. Si bien el objeto de la transferencia de tecnología es el conocimiento, la viabilidad de un proceso con dinámica sistémica involucra una multiplicidad de instituciones, organismos y agentes; requiere de adaptaciones de productos, procesos y técnicas de gestión, y demanda la difusión de diseños alternativos para la inserción en diferentes mercados. Todas éstas cuestiones relevantes a contemplar por las Pymes cuando enfrentan el desafío de concretar la novedad en el mercado. En este marco, el texto que se presenta tiene por objetivo retomar parte de los resultados alcanzados y divulgados en el proyecto CAI+D 2005 “Estrategias de competitividad de Pymes de la región”. En tal sentido, la estructura de abordaje de este trabajo responde a tres aspectos: inicialmente se tratan los conceptos de innovación y competitividad en general y en las Pymes en particular. En una segunda parte se presentan los resultados obtenidos en entrevistas realizadas a 75 Pymes de Santa Fe. Finalmente se presentan las conclusiones que se obtuvieron en el escenario de innovación en el que se desenvuelven las Pymes de nuestra región.

  4. Isotopic coherence of refractory inclusions from CV and CK meteorites: Evidence from multiple isotope systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shollenberger, Quinn R.; Borg, Lars E.; Render, Jan; Ebert, Samuel; Bischoff, Addi; Russell, Sara S.; Brennecka, Gregory A.

    2018-05-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the oldest dated materials in the Solar System and numerous previous studies have revealed nucleosynthetic anomalies relative to terrestrial rock standards in many isotopic systems. However, most of the isotopic data from CAIs has been limited to the Allende meteorite and a handful of other CV3 chondrites. To better constrain the isotopic composition of the CAI-forming region, we report the first Sr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Sm isotopic compositions of two CAIs hosted in the CK3 desert meteorites NWA 4964 and NWA 6254 along with two CAIs from the CV3 desert meteorites NWA 6619 and NWA 6991. After consideration of neutron capture processes and the effects of hot-desert weathering, the Sr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Sm stable isotopic compositions of the samples show clearly resolvable nucleosynthetic anomalies that are in agreement with previous results from Allende and other CV meteorites. The extent of neutron capture, as manifested by shifts in the observed 149Sm-150Sm isotopic composition of the CAIs is used to estimate the neutron fluence experienced by some of these samples and ranges from 8.40 × 1013 to 2.11 × 1015 n/cm2. Overall, regardless of CAI type or host meteorite, CAIs from CV and CK chondrites have similar nucleosynthetic anomalies within analytical uncertainty. We suggest the region that CV and CK CAIs formed was largely uniform with respect to Sr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Sm isotopes when CAIs condensed and that CAIs hosted in CV and CK meteorites are derived from the same isotopic reservoir.

  5. Calcium and titanium isotopes in refractory inclusions from CM, CO, and CR chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kööp, Levke; Davis, Andrew M.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Simon, Steven B.

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that CV and CM chondrites incorporated Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) with different isotopic characteristics, which may represent different snapshots in the isotopic evolution of the early Solar System. To better understand how the isotopic characteristics of CAIs vary between different chondrite groups, we have studied calcium and titanium isotopes in CAIs from CM, CO, and CR chondrites. We show that all three chondrite groups contain CAIs with large anomalies in 48Ca and/or 50Ti (10s of ‰ or 100s of ε-units) as well as CAIs with no anomalies resolved beyond measurement uncertainties. Isotopically, the anomalous CO and CR chondrite CAIs resemble the platy hibonite crystals (PLACs) from CM chondrites, but they are more mineralogically complex. The new data are consistent with the well-established mutual exclusivity relationship between incorporation of 26Al and the presence of large anomalies in 48Ca and 50Ti. The two highly anomalous CO chondrite CAIs have correlated anomalies in 46Ti and 50Ti, while most other highly anomalous CAIs do not. This result could indicate that the reservoir with coupled 46Ti and 50Ti that was sampled by bulk meteorites and CV chondrite CAIs already existed before arrival and/or homogeneous distribution of 26Al in the protoplanetary disk. Among the studied CM chondrite CAIs are ten spinel-hibonite inclusions (SHIBs) with known oxygen isotopic compositions. Our results show that these objects sampled a reservoir that was well-mixed in oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopes. We further show that SHIBs tend to be slightly enriched in the heavy calcium isotopes, suggesting that their formation history was different from CV chondrite CAIs.

  6. A Method for Evaluating Competency in Assessment and Management of Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Erick K.; Binder, Renee L.; Fordwood, Samantha R.; Hall, Stephen E.; Cramer, Robert J.; McNiel, Dale E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although health professionals increasingly are expected to be able to assess and manage patients' risk for suicide, few methods are available to evaluate this competency. This report describes development of a competency-assessment instrument for suicide risk-assessment (CAI-S), and evaluates its use in an objective structured clinical…

  7. Secondary School Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics Computer--Assisted Instruction Environment in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwei, Philip K.; Wando, Dave; Too, Jackson K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of research conducted in six classes (Form IV) with 205 students with a sample of 94 respondents. Data represent students' statements that describe (a) the role of Mathematics teachers in a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) environment and (b) effectiveness of CAI in Mathematics instruction. The results indicated…

  8. Computer-Assisted Mathematics Instruction for Students with Specific Learning Disability: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stultz, Sherry L.

    2017-01-01

    This review was conducted to evaluate the current body of scholarly research regarding the use of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to teach mathematics to students with specific learning disability (SLD). For many years, computers are utilized for educational purposes. However, the effectiveness of CAI for teaching mathematics to this specific…

  9. Computer-Assisted Instruction in the N.W.T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraway, Tom

    For the past seven years, the Division of Educational Research Services at the University of Alberta has been operating an IBM 1500 CAI system. This paper describes demonstration projects set up in anticipation of the establishment of remote CAI in the North West Territories. These include a moon landing simulation program; a diagnostic program in…

  10. Intracellular calcium modulation of voltage-gated sodium channels in ventricular myocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casini, Simona; Verkerk, Arie O.; van Borren, Marcel M. G. J.; van Ginneken, Antoni C. G.; Veldkamp, Marieke W.; de Bakker, Jacques M. T.; Tan, Hanno L.

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels control action potential (AP) upstroke and cell excitability. Intracellular calcium (Ca(i)(2+)) regulates AP properties by modulating various ion channels. Whether Ca(i)(2+) modulates sodium channels in ventricular myocytes, is unresolved. We studied

  11. The absolute chronology and thermal processing of solids in the solar protoplanetary disk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connelly, James; Bizzarro, Martin; Krot, Alexander N.

    2012-01-01

    Transient heating events that formed calcium-aluminum - rich inclusions (CAIs) and chondrules are fundamental processes in the evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk, but their chronology is not understood. Using U-corrected Pb-Pb dating, we determined absolute ages of individual CAIs and cho...

  12. A companion agent for automated training systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiël, E.F.T.; Lubbers, J.

    2007-01-01

    TNO Defence, Security & Safety has a long history of applied research in the area of automated simulator-based training by means of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI). Traditionally, a CAI system does not enable a true dialogue between the learner and the virtual instructor. Most frequently, the

  13. Hydroxylamine-O-sulfonamide is a versatile lead compound for the development of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiore, Anna; Vergara, Alessandro; Caterino, Marco; Alterio, Vincenzo; Monti, Simona M; Ombouma, Joanna; Dumy, Pascal; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Winum, Jean-Yves; De Simone, Giuseppina

    2015-07-21

    Hydroxylamine-O-sulfonamide, a molecule incorporating two zinc-binding groups (ZBGs), has been investigated as a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (CAI) by means of kinetic, crystallographic and Raman spectroscopy studies, highlighting interesting results on its mechanism of action. These data can be exploited to design new, effective and selective CAIs.

  14. Ionized calcium measurements are influenced by albumin - should ionized calcium be corrected?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Trine R; Galthen-Sørensen, Mathias; Antonsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Measurement of ionized calcium (CaI) has been reported to be dependent on albumin concentration. We examined the correlation between albumin and CaI measured on different ion selective electrode analyzers and in different groups of patients in a large dataset, extracted from the laboratory...

  15. Lower extremity joint coupling variability during gait in young adults with and without chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Thomas; Herb, Christopher C; Hart, Joseph; Hertel, Jay

    2018-06-01

    Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a condition resulting from a lateral ankle sprain. Shank-rearfoot joint-coupling variability differences have been found in CAI patients; however, joint-coupling variability (VCV) of the ankle and proximal joints has not been explored. Our purpose was to analyse VCV in adults with and without CAI during gait. Four joint-coupling pairs were analysed: knee sagittal-ankle sagittal, knee sagittal-ankle frontal, hip frontal-ankle sagittal and hip frontal-ankle frontal. Twenty-seven adults participated (CAI:n = 13, Control:n = 14). Lower extremity kinematics were collected during walking (4.83 km/h) and jogging (9.66 km/h). Vector-coding was used to assess the stride-to-stride variability of four coupling pairs. During walking, CAI patients exhibited higher VCV than healthy controls for knee sagittal-ankle frontal in latter parts of stance thru mid-swing. When jogging, CAI patients demonstrated lower VCV with specific differences occurring across various intervals of gait. The increased knee sagittal-ankle frontal VCV in CAI patients during walking may indicate an adaptation to deal with the previously identified decrease in variability in transverse plane shank and frontal plane rearfoot coupling during walking; while the decreased ankle-knee and ankle-hip VCV identified in CAI patients during jogging may represent a more rigid, less adaptable sensorimotor system ambulating at a faster speed.

  16. Corporate Involvement in C AI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Justine C.

    1978-01-01

    Historic perspective of computer manufacturers and their contribution to CAI. Corporate CAI products and services are mentioned, as is a forecast for educational involvement by computer corporations. A chart of major computer corporations shows gross sales, net earnings, products and services offered, and other corporate information. (RAO)

  17. The Use of Modular Computer-Based Lessons in a Modification of the Classical Introductory Course in Organic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotter, Philip L.; Culp, George H.

    An experimental course in organic chemistry utilized computer-assisted instructional (CAI) techniques. The CAI lessons provided tutorial drill and practice and simulated experiments and reactions. The Conversational Language for Instruction and Computing was used, along with a CDC 6400-6600 system; students scheduled and completed the lessons at…

  18. Computer-Assisted Instruction: A Case Study of Two Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keengwe, Jared; Hussein, Farhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship in achievement gap between English language learners (ELLs) utilizing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in the classroom, and ELLs relying solely on traditional classroom instruction. The study findings showed that students using CAI to supplement traditional lectures performed better…

  19. A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Instruction and Tutorials in Hematology and Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, T. J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study comparing the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and small group instruction found no significant difference in medical student achievement in oncology but higher achievement through small-group instruction in hematology. Students did not view CAI as more effective, but saw it as a supplement to traditional methods. (MSE)

  20. Keeping the Focus on Underserved Students, Privilege, and Power: A Reaction to Clements and Sarama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Richard; Berk, Sarabeth

    2017-01-01

    In our response to Clements and Sarama (2017), we address the 5 issues that they identify as criticisms of our Research Commentary (Kitchen & Berk, 2016). As in our original commentary, we highlight concerns we have regarding the delivery of [computer-assisted instruction] CAI programs and potential misuses of CAI, particularly at Title I…

  1. An Evaluation of Computer-Aided Instruction in an Introductory Biostatistics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Alan B.; Freed, James R.

    1979-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of computer assisted instruction for teaching biostatistics to first year students at the UCLA School of Dentistry. Results do not demonstrate the superiority of CAI but do suggest that CAI compares favorably to conventional lecture and programed instruction methods. (RAO)

  2. Effects of 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol on Recovery and Resolution of Late Transient Neonatal Hypocalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKay SiripoomV

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Late transient neonatal hypocalcemia with hyperphosphatemia is potentially life-threatening. The use of dihydroxycholecalciferol in the management of neonatal hypocalcemia is unexplored. Objective. We hypothesized adding dihydroxycholecalciferol to intravenous continuous calcium infusion (CaI will achieve accelerated correction of hypocalcemia. Design/Methods. A controlled double-blind randomized placebo group was organized to compare the addition of dihydroxycholecalciferol to CaI in 3–14 day old neonates presenting with hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and seizures. Ionized calcium and phosphorus were measured to adjust CaI and maintain eucalcemia. Time to resolution of hypocalcemia was defined as time from starting CaI to the first ionized calcium of  mmol/L. CaI was discontinued when ionized calcium levels were  mmol/L on two measurements and the infant tolerated feeds. Results. Fourteen neonates were studied without statistical difference between groups. Time to correction of hypocalcemia for 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol versus placebo was versus hours respectively (. The duration of CaI was versus hours respectively (. Conclusions. The addition of dihydroxycholecalciferol to standard CaI therapy reduced the duration of CaI, but did not reduce the time to correct hypocalcemia in neonates with late transient hypocalcemia.

  3. Intelligent Computer-Assisted Instruction: A Review and Assessment of ICAI Research and Its Potential for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Christopher J.; And Others

    The first of five sections in this report places intelligent computer-assisted instruction (ICAI) in its historical context through discussions of traditional computer-assisted instruction (CAI) linear and branching programs; TICCIT and PLATO IV, two CAI demonstration projects funded by the National Science Foundation; generative programs, the…

  4. The Impact of Computer Assisted Instruction As It Relates to Learning Disabled Adults in California Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Mary Jo

    A study was conducted to determine the advantages and disadvantages of using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) with learning disabled (LD) adults attending California community colleges. A questionnaire survey of the directors of the LD programs solicited information on the availability of CAI for LD adults, methods of course advertisement,…

  5. Computer-Assisted Instruction to Teach DOS Commands: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWeeney, Mark G.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program used to teach DOS commands. Pretest and posttest results for 65 graduate students using the program are reported, and it is concluded that the CAI program significantly aided the students. Sample screen displays for the program and several questions from the pre/posttest are included. (nine…

  6. Adaptive Machine Aids to Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkweather, John A.

    With emphasis on man-machine relationships and on machine evolution, computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is examined in this paper. The discussion includes the background of machine assistance to learning, the current status of CAI, directions of development, the development of criteria for successful instruction, meeting the needs of users,…

  7. Computer-Assisted Instruction: Authoring Languages. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Thomas C.

    One of the most perplexing tasks in producing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is the authoring process. Authoring is generally defined as the process of turning the flowcharts, control algorithms, format sheets, and other documentation of a CAI program's design into computer code that will operationalize the simulation on the delivery system.…

  8. 182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jesper Christian; Olsen, Mia Bjørg Stolberg; Paton, Chad

    2013-01-01

    provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the 182Hf–182W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with 26Al/27Al......Refractory inclusions [calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., 26Al, 41Ca, and 182Hf) synthesized...... in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed...

  9. Ready, set,...quit exclamation point A review of the controlled-air incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reader, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Controlled-Air Incinerator (CAI) has had a long and productive past as a research and development tool. It now appears that use of the CAI to treat LANL legacy and other wastes under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act is no longer viable due to numerous programmatic problems. This paper will review the history of the CAI. Various aspects associated with the CAI and how those aspects resulted in the loss of this Department of Energy asset as a viable waste treatment option will also be discussed. Included are past missions and tests-CAI capabilities, emissions, and permits; Federal Facility Compliance Act and associated Agreement; National Environmental Policy Act coverage; cost; budget impacts; public perception; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Combustion Strategy; Independent Technical Review open-quotes Redclose quotes Team review; waste treatment alternative technologies; the New Mexico Environment Department; and future options and issues

  10. Severe neutropenia at time of port insertion is not a risk factor for catheter-associated infections in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Beatriz L P; Connolly, Bairbre; Abla, Oussama; Tomlinson, George; Amaral, Joao G

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this study was to determine whether severe neutropenia on the day of port-a-catheter (PORT) insertion was a risk factor for catheter-associated infection (CAI) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This was a retrospective study of children with ALL who had a PORT insertion between January 2005 and August 2008. Early (≤ 30 days) and late (>30 days) postprocedure complications were reviewed. The length of follow-up ranged between 7 months and 42 months. In total, 192 PORTs were inserted in 179 children. There were 43 CAIs (22%), and the infection rate was 0.35 per 1000 catheter-days. The CAI rate (15%) in children who had severe neutropenia on the day of the procedure did not differ statistically from the CAI rate (24%) in children who did not have severe neutropenia (P = .137). Conversely, patients with severe neutropenia who had a CAI were more likely to have their PORT removed (P = .019). The most common organisms to cause catheter removal were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus aureus. Patients with high-risk ALL had a statistically significant higher incidence of late CAI than patients with standard-risk ALL (P = .012). Age (P = .272), positive blood culture preprocedure (P = 1.0), and dexamethasone use (P = .201) were not risk factors for CAI. Patients who had an early CAI did not have a greater chance of having a late CAI. The catheter infection-free survival rate at 1 year was 88.6%. The current results indicated that severe neutropenia on the day of PORT insertion does not increase the risk of CAI in children with ALL. © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  11. Poder y placer: ¿cuál es el impacto que la intersecionalidad entre género y clase social tiene sobre las prácticas sexuales? Un estudio comparativo en torno a la infidelidad, sexo casual, uso de lencería, ataduras e inmovilizaciones, piropos, sexo oral, orgías y encuentros con prostitutas en hombres y mujeres en los sectores populares y medio-altos en Bogotá, Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Londoño, Andrea del Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Este documento explora la relación que existe entre la interseccionalidad y las relaciones de género y clase social en razón de prácticas sexuales tales como la infidelidad, sexo casual, uso de lencería, ataduras e inmovilizaciones, piropos, sexo oral, orgías y encuentros con prostitutas en Bogotá, Colombia.

  12. Nouvelles données biostratigraphiques et sédimentologiques des formations carbonifères de la région de Bouqachmir (Maroc central). Implications sur la paléogéographie des bassins carbonifères nord-mésétiensNew biostratigraphic and sedimentological data of the Carboniferous formations in the Bouqachmir area (central Morocco). Implications on the palaeogeography of the north Mesetian Carboniferous basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izart, Alain; Tahiri, Abdelfatah; El Boursoumi, Abdou; Vachard, Daniel; Saidi, Mariam; Chèvremont, Philippe; Berkhli, Mostafa

    2001-02-01

    New Visean formations and biozones of foraminifera were defined on the Bouqachmir map. The new biozonation concerns the Moroccan biozone, Cfm1, which is subdivided into two subzones, Cfm1a and Cfm1b. This map exhibited, from north-west to south-east, the Tilouine, Bouqachmir-Tougouroulmès and Fourhal turbiditic basins. The first one, from Tournaisian to Late Visean, was the equivalent of the Sidi Bettache basin, located westwards. The second extended the Tilouine basin eastwards during the Visean. The third was a basin from Visean to Westphalian. They were separated by the Zaer-Oulmes and El Hammam horsts, else emerged or immersed, bordered by faults and with materials feeding chaotic deposits.

  13. Masonería y política: una nueva cara del rito masonería- revolución. ¿La masonería tiene una ideología y "hace política"? ¿Los políticos fueron y son tales porque fueron masones y los masones siempre fueron hombres que tomaron partido o fueron de partido?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo ALESSANDRO MOLA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: ¿La Masonería es depositaria de una doctrina política y de un programa político? Hubo un tiempo en que «política» significaba educación, gobierno de la polis, es decir, de los ciudadanos (que para ser titulares de derechos y de deberes debían ser necesariamente cultos. Ahora, en la edad del universalismo, por política se entiende la administración de las necesidades. ¿Cuál es el papel de la Masonería ante el hombre secularizado? A la Masonería se le han atribuido objetivos partidistas: la lucha contra el poder del clero y las doctrinas religiosas, contra la monarquía (pero esto no es válido para las organizaciones masónicas de Gran Bretaña, Países Bajos, Bélgica, Grecia y, en muchos épocas, también para Italia, España, incluso Francia, donde la Masonería fue borbónica y bonapartista, el militarismo (aunque muchos oficiales y suboficiales fueron masones… La comprobación de la autenticidad de los objetivos de las organizaciones masónicas se puede llevar a cabo analizando si algunos masones famosos eran sólo famosos o eran además masones. Sirvan como ejemplo Azaña, Voltaire, Cavour, Mazzini, Garibaldi ... Ya que no es religión, la Masonería no es política politicienne, ni una revolución permanente. La elección entre «educación» y «administración de las necesidades». Palabras clave: Política, Naciones/Nacionalismo, Risorgimento y Unificación italiana, Masonería e Ilustración, Masonería y Revolución, Educación y Tolerancia, Programa de partido = administración de las necesidades. ABSTRACT: Is masonry the repository of a political doctrine and a political programme? There was a time when politics meant education, government of the polis, i. e. of the citizens (who, to have rights and duties, must necessarily be educated. Now, in the age of universalism, by politics we understand the administration of needs. What is the role of masonry in the face of secularized man? Masonry has been attributed whith partisan objectives: the struggle against the power of the clergy and religiuous doctrine, against the monarchy (although this is not true for Great Britain, Holland, Belgium, Greece and often not true for Italy, Spain and even France, where masonry was pro-Bourbon and pro-Napoleon. Against militarism (although many officers and non-commissioned officers were masons... The authenticity of the objectives of masonic organizations can be verified by analysing whether certain famous masons were only famous or were actually masons as well. As examples of these we have Azaña, Voltaire, Cavour, Mazzini, Garibaldi, etc. Since it is not a religion, masonry is not politicienne politics, nor a permanent revolution. The choise between «education» and «administrations of needs».

  14. Do You Know a Child with a Handicap? Children with Handicaps Have a Right to an Education [and] Do You Know Someone with a Handicap? Individuals with Handicaps Have a Right to an Education = Conoce Usted a un Nino que Tiene Alguna Desventaja? Los Ninos con Desventajas Tienen Derecho a Recibir Educacion [and] Conoce Usted Alguna Persona que Tenga Alguna Desventaja? Las Personas que Tienen Desventajas Tienen Derecho a Recibir Educacion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Div. of Special Education.

    Two advertisements and two brochures for the California Search and Serve program are presented in this excerpt from the California Search and Serve "Search Guidelines and Resource Manual." The materials are designed to promote community involvement in the identification of handicapped persons, from birth through age 21, so that they may…

  15. Coded aperture imaging of alpha source spatial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebitaher, Alireza; Shutler, Paul M.E.; Springham, Stuart V.; Rawat, Rajdeep S.; Lee, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The Coded Aperture Imaging (CAI) technique has been applied with CR-39 nuclear track detectors to image alpha particle source spatial distributions. The experimental setup comprised: a 226 Ra source of alpha particles, a laser-machined CAI mask, and CR-39 detectors, arranged inside a vacuum enclosure. Three different alpha particle source shapes were synthesized by using a linear translator to move the 226 Ra source within the vacuum enclosure. The coded mask pattern used is based on a Singer Cyclic Difference Set, with 400 pixels and 57 open square holes (representing ρ = 1/7 = 14.3% open fraction). After etching of the CR-39 detectors, the area, circularity, mean optical density and positions of all candidate tracks were measured by an automated scanning system. Appropriate criteria were used to select alpha particle tracks, and a decoding algorithm applied to the (x, y) data produced the de-coded image of the source. Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) values obtained for alpha particle CAI images were found to be substantially better than those for corresponding pinhole images, although the CAI-SNR values were below the predictions of theoretical formulae. Monte Carlo simulations of CAI and pinhole imaging were performed in order to validate the theoretical SNR formulae and also our CAI decoding algorithm. There was found to be good agreement between the theoretical formulae and SNR values obtained from simulations. Possible reasons for the lower SNR obtained for the experimental CAI study are discussed.

  16. The cardiac anesthetic index of isoflurane in green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Craig A E; Dyson, Doris; Smith, Dale A

    2003-06-01

    To determine the cardiac anesthetic index (CAI) of isoflurane in green iguanas and whether butorphanol affected the CAI. Prospective randomized controlled trial. 7 healthy mature iguanas. In 5 iguanas, CAI was determined after induction of anesthesia with isoflurane alone, and in 5 iguanas, CAI was determined after induction of anesthesia with isoflurane and IM administration of butorphanol (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb]). Three iguanas underwent both treatments. Animals were equilibrated for 20 minutes at 1.5 times the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane and observed for evidence of cardiovascular arrest. If there was no evidence of cardiovascular arrest, end-tidal isoflurane concentration was increased by 20%, and animals were allowed to equilibrate for another 20 minutes. This process was repeated until cardiovascular arrest occurred or vaporizer output could no longer be consistently increased. The CAI was calculated by dividing the highest end-tidal isoflurane concentration by the MAC. None of the iguanas developed cardiovascular arrest and all survived. Mean +/- SD highest end-tidal isoflurane concentration during anesthesia with isoflurane alone (9.2 +/- 0.60%) was not significantly different from mean concentration during anesthesia with isoflurane and butorphanol (9.0 +/- 0.43%). The CAI was > 4.32. Results suggest that the CAI of isoflurane in green iguanas is > 4.32 and not affected by administration of butorphanol. Isoflurane appears to be a safe anesthetic in green iguanas.

  17. The effectiveness of foot orthotics in improving postural control in individuals with chronic ankle instability: a critically appraised topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriner, Michael L; Braun, Brittany A; Houston, Megan N; Hoch, Matthew C

    2015-02-01

    Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a condition commonly experienced by physically active individuals. It has been suggested that foot orthotics may increase a CAI patient's postural control. For patients with CAI, is there evidence to suggest that an orthotic intervention will help improve postural control? The literature was searched for studies of level 2 evidence or higher that investigated the effects of foot orthotics on postural control in patients with CAI. The search of the literature produced 5 possible studies for inclusion; 2 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included. One randomized controlled trial and 1 outcomes study were included. Foot orthotics appear to be effective at improving postural control in patients with CAI. There is moderate evidence to support the use of foot orthotics in the treatment of CAI to help improve postural control. There is grade B evidence that foot orthotics help improve postural control in people with CAI. The Centre of Evidence Based Medicine recommends a grade of B for level 2 evidence with consistent findings.

  18. Tectono-thermal evolution in a region with thin-skinned tectonics: the western nappes in the Cantabrian Zone (Variscan belt of NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, F.; Brime, C.; García-López, S.; Sarmiento, G. N.

    The palaeotemperature distribution in the transition from diagenesis to metamorphism in the western nappes of the Cantabrian Zone (Somiedo, La Sobia and Aramo Units) are analysed by conodont colour alteration index (CAI) and illite crystallinity (IC). Structural and stratigraphic control in distribution of CAI and IC values is observed. Both CAI and IC value distributions show that anchizonal conditions are reached in the lower part of the Somiedo Unit. A disruption of the thermal trend by basal thrusts is evidenced by CAI and IC values. There is an apparent discrepancy between the IC and CAI values in Carboniferous rocks of the Aramo Unit; the IC has mainly anchizonal values, whereas the CAI has diagenetic values. Discrepant IC values are explained as a feature inherited from the source area. In the Carboniferous rocks of the La Sobia Unit, both IC and CAI indicate diagenetic conditions. The anchimetamorphism predated completion of emplacement of the major nappes; it probably developed previously and/or during the early stages of motion of the units. Temperature probably decreased when the metamorphosed zones of the sheets rose along ramps and were intensely eroded. In the context of the Iberian Variscan belt, influence of tectonic factors on the metamorphism is greater in the internal parts, where the strain and cleavage are always present, than in the external parts (Cantabrian Zone), where brittle deformation and rock translation are dominant, with an increasing role of the burial on the metamorphism.

  19. Detection of combustion start in the controlled auto ignition engine by wavelet transform of the engine block vibration signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seonguk; Min, Kyoungdoug

    2008-01-01

    The CAI (controlled auto ignition) engine ignites fuel and air mixture by trapping high temperature burnt gas using a negative valve overlap. Due to auto ignition in CAI combustion, efficiency improvements and low level NO x emission can be obtained. Meanwhile, the CAI combustion regime is restricted and control parameters are limited. The start of combustion data in the compressed ignition engine are most critical for controlling the overall combustion. In this research, the engine block vibration signal is transformed by the Meyer wavelet to analyze CAI combustion more easily and accurately. Signal acquisition of the engine block vibration is a more suitable method for practical use than measurement of in-cylinder pressure. A new method for detecting combustion start in CAI engines through wavelet transformation of the engine block vibration signal was developed and results indicate that it is accurate enough to analyze the start of combustion. Experimental results show that wavelet transformation of engine block vibration can track the start of combustion in each cycle. From this newly developed method, the start of combustion data in CAI engines can be detected more easily and used as input data for controlling CAI combustion

  20. Diameter dependent electron transfer kinetics in semiconductor-enzyme complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katherine A; Song, Qing; Mulder, David W; King, Paul W

    2014-10-28

    Excited state electron transfer (ET) is a fundamental step for the catalytic conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. To understand the properties controlling ET between photoexcited nanoparticles and catalysts, the ET kinetics were measured for solution-phase complexes of CdTe quantum dots and Clostridium acetobutylicum [FeFe]-hydrogenase I (CaI) using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Over a 2.0-3.5 nm diameter range of CdTe nanoparticles, the observed ET rate (kET) was sensitive to CaI concentration. To account for diameter effects on CaI binding, a Langmuir isotherm and two geometric binding models were created to estimate maximal CaI affinities and coverages at saturating concentrations. Normalizing the ET kinetics to CaI surface coverage for each CdTe diameter led to k(ET) values that were insensitive to diameter, despite a decrease in the free energy for photoexcited ET (ΔGET) with increasing diameter. The turnover frequency (TOF) of CaI in CdTe-CaI complexes was measured at several molar ratios. Normalization for diameter-dependent changes in CaI coverage showed an increase in TOF with diameter. These results suggest that k(ET) and H2 production for CdTe-CaI complexes are not strictly controlled by ΔG(ET) and that other factors must be considered.

  1. New directions in e-learning research in health professions education: Report of two symposia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triola, Marc M; Huwendiek, Sören; Levinson, Anthony J; Cook, David A

    2012-01-01

    The use of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) is rising across health professions education. Research to date is of limited use in guiding the implementation and selection of CAI innovations. In the context of two symposia, systemic reviews were discussed that evaluate literature in Internet-based learning, Virtual Patients, and animations. Each session included a debate with the goal of reaching consensus on best current practices and future research. Thematic analysis of the discussions was performed to arrange the questions by theme, eliminate redundancy, and craft them into a cohesive narrative. The question analysis revealed that there are clear advantages to the use of CAI, and that established educational theories should certainly inform the future development and selection of CAI tools. Schools adopting CAI need to carefully consider the benefits, cost, available resources, and capacity for teachers and learners to accept change in their practice of education. Potential areas for future research should focus on the effectiveness of CAI instructional features, integration of e-learning into existing curricula and with other modalities like simulation, and the use of CAI in assessment of higher-level outcomes. There are numerous opportunities for future research and it will be important to achieve consensus on important themes.

  2. Detection of combustion start in the controlled auto ignition engine by wavelet transform of the engine block vibration signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonguk; Min, Kyoungdoug

    2008-08-01

    The CAI (controlled auto ignition) engine ignites fuel and air mixture by trapping high temperature burnt gas using a negative valve overlap. Due to auto ignition in CAI combustion, efficiency improvements and low level NOx emission can be obtained. Meanwhile, the CAI combustion regime is restricted and control parameters are limited. The start of combustion data in the compressed ignition engine are most critical for controlling the overall combustion. In this research, the engine block vibration signal is transformed by the Meyer wavelet to analyze CAI combustion more easily and accurately. Signal acquisition of the engine block vibration is a more suitable method for practical use than measurement of in-cylinder pressure. A new method for detecting combustion start in CAI engines through wavelet transformation of the engine block vibration signal was developed and results indicate that it is accurate enough to analyze the start of combustion. Experimental results show that wavelet transformation of engine block vibration can track the start of combustion in each cycle. From this newly developed method, the start of combustion data in CAI engines can be detected more easily and used as input data for controlling CAI combustion.

  3. Uncovering driving forces on greenhouse gas emissions in China’ aluminum industry from the perspective of life cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhe; Geng, Yong; Adams, Michelle; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lina; Zhao, Jingjing; Dong, Huijuan; Wu, Jiao; Tian, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy-related GHG emission trajectories, features and driving forces of CAI are analyzed from the perspective of LCA. • CAI experienced a rapid growth of energy-related GHG emissions from 2004 to 2013. • Energy-scale effect is the main driving force for energy-related GHG emissions increase in CAI. • Construction and transportation-related activities account for more than 40% of the total embodied emissions. • Policy implications such as developing secondary aluminum industry, improving energy mix etc, are raised. - Abstract: With the rapid growth of aluminum production, reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China’s aluminum industry (CAI) is posing a significant challenge. In this study, the energy-related GHG emission trajectories, features and driving forces of CAI are analyzed from the perspective of life cycle analysis (LCA) from 2004 to 2013. Results indicate that CAI experienced a rapid growth of energy-related GHG emissions with an average annual growth of 28.5 million tons CO_2e from 2004 to 2013. Energy-scale effect is the main driving force for energy-related GHG emissions increase in CAI, while emission-factor effect of secondary aluminum production plays a marginal effect. Construction and transportation-related activities account for the bulk of the embodied emissions, accounting for more than 40% of the total embodied emissions from CAI. Policy implications for GHG mitigation within the CAI, such as developing secondary aluminum industry, improving energy mix and optimizing resource efficiency of production, are raised.

  4. 182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Jesper C; Olsen, Mia B; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K; Connelly, James N; Jørgensen, Jes K; Krot, Alexander N; Nordlund, Ake; Bizzarro, Martin

    2013-05-28

    Refractory inclusions [calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., (26)Al, (41)Ca, and (182)Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of (26)Al corresponding to (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼5 × 10(-5), rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and (26)Al/(27)Al of Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the (182)Hf-(182)W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼3 × 10(-6). The decoupling between (182)Hf and (26)Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for (182)Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for (26)Al. Admixing of stellar-derived (26)Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the (26)Al-(26)Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support (182)Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the (182)Hf-(182)W clock.

  5. The effects of computer-assisted instruction on the mathematics performance and classroom behavior of children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautone, Jennifer A; DuPaul, George J; Jitendra, Asha K

    2005-08-01

    The present study examines the effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on the mathematics performance and classroom behavior of three second-through fourth-grade students with ADHD. A controlled case study is used to evaluate the effects of the computer software on participants' mathematics performance and on-task behavior. Participants' mathematics achievement improve and their on-task behavior increase during the CAI sessions relative to independent seatwork conditions. In addition, students and teachers consider CAI to be an acceptable intervention for some students with ADHD who are having difficulty with mathematics. Implications of these results for practice and research are discussed.

  6. Peroneal electromechanical delay and fatigue in patients with chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flevas, Dimitrios A; Bernard, Manfred; Ristanis, Stavros; Moraiti, Constantina; Georgoulis, Anastasios D; Pappas, Evangelos

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic ankle instability (CAI) on electromechanical delay times (EMD) before and after fatigue. Understanding the mechanisms that contribute to CAI is essential for the development of effective rehabilitation programmes. It was hypothesized that patients with CAI will demonstrate prolonged EMD times compared to healthy subjects and that fatigue will cause greater increases in EMD times in the CAI group. Twenty-one male volunteers participated in the study providing data on 16 ankles with CAI and 26 with no history of ankle injury. EMD was measured on an isokinetic dynamometer. Measurements were taken with the ankle in neutral (0°) and at 30° of inversion. All subjects followed an isokinetic fatigue protocol until eversion torque fell below 50 % of initial torque for three consecutive repetitions. A 2 × 2 × 2 ANOVA was used to calculate the effect of ankle status (CAI vs. healthy), fatigue, angle (0° vs. 30°) and their interactions on EMD. Fatigue caused a significant increase on EMD [non-fatigued: 122(29)ms vs. fatigue 155(54)ms; p ankle status and angle was found (p = 0.026) with CAI ankles demonstrating longer EMD [CAI: 156(45)ms vs. healthy: 133(40)ms] in neutral but not at 30° of inversion [CAI: 133(46)ms vs. 132(33)ms]. Patients with CAI had longer EMD times in neutral, but not when the ankle was placed in inversion. This suggests that rehabilitation programmes may be more effective when retraining occurs with the ankle in neutral position. It is likely that low EMD times prevent ankle acceleration at the beginning of the mechanism of injury, but they are less important when the ankle has already inverted at 30°. Both CAI and healthy subjects demonstrated longer EMD after fatigue, emphasizing the importance of proper conditioning in the prevention of delayed peroneal response and subsequent ankle injury. Improving resistance to fatigue of the peroneals may prove to be an effective

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-1153 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAH73867.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autos...omal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAH72781.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autos...omal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI16676.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autos...omal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI20324.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autosomal r...ecessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI20233.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autosomal recessive) [Homo sapiens] NP_619639.3 0.0 76% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-1207 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAH73867.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autos...omal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAH72781.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autos...omal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI16676.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autos...omal recessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI20324.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autosomal r...ecessive) [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI20233.1| polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (autosomal recessive) [Homo sapiens] NP_619639.3 0.0 87% ...

  9. Trace Element Abundances in an Unusual Hibonite-Perovskite Refractory Inclusion from Allende

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, Prajkta; Wadhwa, M.; Keller, L. P.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) are thought to be the first-formed solids in the Solar protoplanetary disk and can provide information about the earliest Solar System processes (e.g., [1]). A hibonite-perovskitebearing CAI from the Allende CV3 chondrite (SHAL, [2]) contains a single of 500 micrometers hibonite grain and coarse-grained perovskite. The mineralogy and oxygen isotopic composition of this CAI shows similarities with FUN inclusions, especially HAL [2]. Here we present trace element abundances in SHAL.

  10. Hypopituitarism: growth hormone and corticotropin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capatina, Cristina; Wass, John A H

    2015-03-01

    This article presents an overview of adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) and corticotropin deficiency (central adrenal failure, CAI). Both conditions can result from various ailments affecting the hypothalamus or pituitary gland (most frequently a tumor in the area or its treatment). Clinical manifestations are subtle in AGHD but potentially life-threatening in CAI. The diagnosis needs dynamic testing in most cases. Treatment of AGHD is recommended in patients with documented severe deficiency, and treatment of CAI is mandatory in all cases. Despite significant progress in replacement hormonal therapy, more physiologic treatments and more reliable indicators of treatment adequacy are still needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Computer-assisted instruction: a library service for the community teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkel, J; Cook, V

    1986-04-01

    This paper reports on five years of experience with computer-assisted instruction (CAI) at Winthrop-University Hospital, a major affiliate of the SUNY at Stony Brook School of Medicine. It compares CAI programs available from Ohio State University and Massachusetts General Hospital (accessed by telephone and modem), and software packages purchased from the Health Sciences Consortium (MED-CAPS) and Scientific American (DISCOTEST). The comparison documents one library's experience of the cost of these programs and the use made of them by medical students, house staff, and attending physicians. It describes the space allocated for necessary equipment, as well as the marketing of CAI. Finally, in view of the decision of the National Board of Medical Examiners to administer the Part III examination on computer (the so-called CBX) starting in 1988, the paper speculates on the future importance of CAI in the community teaching hospital.

  12. Erratum: Quantum corrections and black hole spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qing-Quan; Han, Yan; Cai, Xu

    2012-06-01

    In my paper [Qing-Quan Jiang, Yan Han, Xu Cai, Quantum corrections and black hole spectroscopy, JHEP 08 (2010) 049], there was an error in deriving the black hole spectroscopy. In this erratum, we attempt to rectify them.

  13. Increases in cellular calcium concentration stimulate pepsinogen secretion from dispersed chief cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raufman, J.P.; Berger, S.; Cosowsky, L.; Straus, E.

    1986-01-01

    Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca]i) and pepsinogen secretion from dispersed chief cells from guinea pig stomach were determined before and after stimulation with calcium ionophores. [Ca]i was measured using the fluorescent probe quin2. Basal [Ca]i was 105 +/- 4 nM. Pepsinogen secretion was measured with a new assay using 125 I-albumin substrate. This assay is 1000-fold more sensitive than the widely-used spectrophotometric assay, technically easy to perform, rapid, and relatively inexpensive. The kinetics and stoichiometry of ionophore-induced changes in [Ca]i and pepsinogen secretion were similar. These data support a role for calcium as a cellular mediator of pepsinogen secretion

  14. Oxygen isotope exchange between refractory inclusion in allende and solar nebula Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurimoto; Ito; Nagasawa

    1998-12-04

    A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the Allende meteorite was analyzed and found to contain melilite crystals with extreme oxygen-isotope compositions ( approximately 5 percent oxygen-16 enrichment relative to terrestrial oxygen-16). Some of the melilite is also anomalously enriched in oxygen-16 compared with oxygen isotopes measured in other CAIs. The oxygen isotopic variation measured among the minerals (melilite, spinel, and fassaite) indicates that crystallization of the CAI started from oxygen-16-rich materials that were probably liquid droplets in the solar nebula, and oxygen isotope exchange with the surrounding oxygen-16-poor nebular gas progressed through the crystallization of the CAI. Additional oxygen isotope exchange also occurred during subsequent reheating events in the solar nebula.

  15. Evidence for supernova injection into the solar nebula and the decoupling of r-process nucleosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennecka, Gregory A; Borg, Lars E; Wadhwa, Meenakshi

    2013-10-22

    The isotopic composition of our Solar System reflects the blending of materials derived from numerous past nucleosynthetic events, each characterized by a distinct isotopic signature. We show that the isotopic compositions of elements spanning a large mass range in the earliest formed solids in our Solar System, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), are uniform, and yet distinct from the average Solar System composition. Relative to younger objects in the Solar System, CAIs contain positive r-process anomalies in isotopes A 140. This fundamental difference in the isotopic character of CAIs around mass 140 necessitates (i) the existence of multiple sources for r-process nucleosynthesis and (ii) the injection of supernova material into a reservoir untapped by CAIs. A scenario of late supernova injection into the protoplanetary disk is consistent with formation of our Solar System in an active star-forming region of the galaxy.

  16. Origin of opaque assemblages in C3V meteorites - Implications for nebular and planetary processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Joel D.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Beckett, J. R.; Stolper, E. M.

    1989-01-01

    The results of analyses of meteoritic opaque assemblages (OAs) are presented and used in conjunction with literature data on phase equilibria and diffusion to further develop the hypothesis of Blum et al. (1989) for the origin of OAs in Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Based on the results of the analyses, it is suggested that OAs formed after the crystallization of host CAIs by exsolution, sulfidation, and oxidation of precursor alloys at low temperatures (about 770 K) and higher than solar gas sulfur and oxygen fugacities. This model contrasts with previous models that call upon the formation of CAI OAs by aggregation of previously formed phases in the solar nebula prior to the crystallization of CAIs.

  17. Selected Topics on Advanced Information Systems Engineering: Editorial Introduction to the Issue 5 of CSIMQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Grabis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 5th issue of the journal on Complex Systems Informatics and Modeling (CSIMQ presents extended versions of five papers selected from the CAiSE Forum 2015. The forum was part of the 27th edition of international Conference on Advanced Information Systems engineering (CAiSE 2015, which took place in June 2015 in Stockholm, Sweden. Information systems engineering draws its foundation from various interrelated disciplines including, e.g., conceptual modeling, database systems, business process management, requirements engineering, human computer interaction, and enterprise computing to address various practical challenges in development and application of information systems. The guiding subjects of CAiSE 2015 were Creativity, Ability, and Integrity. The CAiSE Forum aimed at presenting and discussing new ideas and tools related to information systems Engineering.

  18. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 12, No 31 (2013)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    induced fatty liver model of consecutive extracts from Rosa davurica Pall · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Ying Wei, Muyi Cai, Ruizeng Gu, Jun Lu, Feng Lin, Baoping Ji ...

  19. hydrochemical assessment of groundwater quality in sagamu area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABDULRASHEED

    alkaline indices (CAI), were calculated for irrigation purposes. The results were presented as spatial distribution maps for interpretation and further inferences. Comparison of the groundwater quality in the area with local and international ...

  20. Disease: H00897 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) ... AUTHORS ... Akizu N, Cantagrel V, Schroth J, Cai N, Vaux K, McCloskey D, Naviaux RK, Van Vleet J, Fenstermaker AG, Silhavy JL, Sche...liga JS, Toyama K, Morisaki H, Sonmez FM, Celep F, Oraby

  1. Codon-optimized antibiotic resistance gene improves efficiency of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... transient transformation and cell growth in selective culture were significantly increased by use of fgmR ... Our result shows that similarity in codon usage pattern is an important factor ... Codon adaptation index (CAI) (Sharp.

  2. Protective effect of rhamnopyranosyl vanilloyl isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cai Tian Di Wang in 2013 and authenticated by. Chang-Wu Wang, a ... purchased from Abcam (Cambridge, UK) and ..... Hosaka T, Suzuki F, Kobayashi M, Seko Y, Kawamura Y, ... Han JJ, Ning N. Research progress on pharmacological.

  3. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activities of extracts from fungal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science, Technology and Innovation through Science, Technology and Innovations (NACOSTI/RCD/ST&I) 5th ... Lake Fuxian, Yunnan China (Cai et al., 2002). Lake Magadi which is ..... some fungi indigenous to Tanzania. Tanz. J. Heal. Res.

  4. Receipt and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence and Condomless Anal Intercourse Among Gay and Bisexual Men in Atlanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Finneran, Catherine

    2017-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) rates are disproportionately high among sexual minority populations, with increasing evident that gay men experience IPV at the same rates as heterosexual women. This study examines the relationship between self-reported condomless anal intercourse (CAI) and IPV among a sample of 750 gay and bisexual men. Participants answered questions regarding recent receipt and perpetration of IPV using the IPV-GBM Scale (Cronbach Alpha 0.90). Of the sample, 46.1% reported recent receipt of any type of IPV and 33.6% reported recent perpetration of any type of IPV. Overall, 55.1% of participants reported CAI at last sex. Significant associations were determined between several forms of IPV and increased odds of reporting CAI at last sex. These findings suggest that IPV may be a risk factor for CAI among men who have sex with men, and highlight the need to understand the IPV prevention and care needs of this population.

  5. ORF Alignment: NC_006513 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [Azoarcus sp. EbN1] emb|CAI06629.1| nudix hydrolase ... [Azoarcus sp. EbN1] ... Length = 151 ... Query: 5 ... EGYRPNVGIILVNT...RNEVFWGKRIREHSWQFPQGGIKHGESPEQAMFRELFEEVGLRPEH 64 ... EGYRPNVGIILVNTRNEVFWGK...RIREHSWQFPQGGIKHGESPEQAMFRELFEEVGLRPEH Sbjct: 1 ... EGYRPNVGIILVNTRNEVFWGKRIREHSWQF

  6. Interactive Computer Lessons for Introductory Economics: Guided Inquiry-From Supply and Demand to Women in the Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John; Weil, Gordon

    1986-01-01

    The interactive feature of computers is used to incorporate a guided inquiry method of learning introductory economics, extending the Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) method beyond drills. (Author/JDH)

  7. sources and use of extension information among maize farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR ADESOPE

    This paper highlights the potentials of agro-tourism for rural development in Nigeria and ... promotion of entrepreneurship and industrialization, economic advancement, ..... Cai, J. (2003), 'Peri-urban Agriculture Development in China, Urban.

  8. Clinical and genetic characterization of 6 cases with complete ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2016-12-16

    Dec 16, 2016 ... secondary sex characters (partial AIS) to a complete AIS (CAIS) (Ferlin et al., 2006;. Zuccarello et al., 2008). ... The physical examination and the .... 2004 Residual activity of mutant androgen receptors explains wolffian duct.

  9. Depolarization by K+ and glutamate activates different neurotransmitter release mechanisms in GABAergic neurons: vesicular versus non-vesicular release of GABA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, Gert Helge; Schousboe, A

    1993-01-01

    differences in the mode of action of the two depolarizing stimuli were reflected in the properties of the increase in [Ca++]i elicited by 55 mM K+ and 100 microM glutamate, respectively. The K(+)-induced increase in [Ca++]i was reduced by both verapamil and Ca(++)-free media whereas the corresponding...... neurotransmitter glutamate (100 microM). Both depolarizing stimuli exerted prompt increases in the release of preloaded [3H]GABA as well as in [Ca++]i. However, the basic properties of transmitter release and the increase in [Ca++]i under a variety of conditions were different during stimulation with K...... was also reduced by organic (verapamil) and inorganic (Co++) Ca++ channel blockers but was insensitive to the GABA transport inhibitor SKF 89976A. In contrast, the second phase was less sensitive to nocodazole and Ca++ channel antagonists but could be inhibited by SKF 89976A. The glutamate-induced [3H...

  10. ORF Alignment: NC_002516 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1] emb|CAI07855.1| conse...rved ... hypothetical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1

  11. ORF Alignment: NC_002695 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1] emb|CAI07855.1| conse...rved ... hypothetical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_004337 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1] emb|CAI07855.1| conse...rved ... hypothetical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1

  13. ORF Alignment: NC_002655 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1] emb|CAI07855.1| conse...rved ... hypothetical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1

  14. ORF Alignment: NC_002947 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1] emb|CAI07855.1| conse...rved ... hypothetical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1

  15. ORF Alignment: NC_006513 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1] emb|CAI07855.1| conse...rved ... hypothetical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1

  16. ORF Alignment: NC_004578 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1] emb|CAI07855.1| conse...rved ... hypothetical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1

  17. ORF Alignment: NC_005966 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1] emb|CAI07855.1| conse...rved ... hypothetical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1

  18. ORF Alignment: NC_000913 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1] emb|CAI07855.1| conse...rved ... hypothetical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1

  19. ORF Alignment: NC_006085 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1] emb|CAI07855.1| conse...rved ... hypothetical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1

  20. ORF Alignment: NC_003197 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1] emb|CAI07855.1| conse...rved ... hypothetical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1

  1. ORF Alignment: NC_006905 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1] emb|CAI07855.1| conse...rved ... hypothetical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1

  2. ORF Alignment: NC_004431 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1] emb|CAI07855.1| conse...rved ... hypothetical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1

  3. ORF Alignment: NC_004741 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1] emb|CAI07855.1| conse...rved ... hypothetical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1

  4. ORF Alignment: NC_006511 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available etical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1] emb|CAI07855.1| conse...rved ... hypothetical protein, probably involved in cell wall ... turnover [Azoarcus sp. EbN1

  5. Computer Assisted Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Paul

    1976-01-01

    Methodology for developing a computer assisted instruction (CAI) lesson (scripting, programing, and testing) is reviewed. A project done by Informatics Education Ltd. (IEL) for the Department of National Defense (DND) is used as an example. (JT)

  6. Continuum Modeling of Biological Network Formation

    KAUST Repository

    Albi, Giacomo; Burger, Martin; Haskovec, Jan; Markowich, Peter A.; Schlottbom, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    We present an overview of recent analytical and numerical results for the elliptic–parabolic system of partial differential equations proposed by Hu and Cai, which models the formation of biological transportation networks. The model describes

  7. Characterization and identification of in vitro metabolites of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization and identification of in vitro metabolites of (-)-epicatechin using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Rui Jun Cai, Xiao Ling Yin, Jing Liu, Da Xu Qin, Gui Zhen Zhao ...

  8. Asjade tegemisest / Mari Laaniste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laaniste, Mari, 1977-

    1999-01-01

    Issey Miyake (s. 1938) näitus "Making Things" Cartier' moodsa kunsti keskuses Raspail' bulvaril Pariisis. Külaliskunstnikud Yasumasa Morimura, Nobuyoshi Araki (fotograaf), Tim Hawkinson, Cai Guo-Qiang.

  9. Mathematical Analysis of a PDE System for Biological Network Formation

    KAUST Repository

    Haskovec, Jan; Markowich, Peter A.; Perthame, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by recent physics papers describing rules for natural network formation, we study an elliptic-parabolic system of partial differential equations proposed by Hu and Cai [13, 15]. The model describes the pressure field thanks to Darcy's type

  10. Biological transportation networks: Modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Albi, Giacomo; Artina, Marco; Foransier, Massimo; Markowich, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a model for biological network formation originally introduced by Cai and Hu [Adaptation and optimization of biological transport networks, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 (2013) 138701]. The modeling of fluid transportation (e.g., leaf venation

  11. Disease: H00801 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Z, Cai B, Hostetler EM, Moran R, Liang D, Estrera A, Safi HJ, Leal SM, Bamshad MJ, Shendure J, Nickerson DA,... ... AUTHORS ... Guo DC, Regalado ES, Gong L, Duan X, Santos-Cortez RL, Arnaud P, Ren

  12. Validity of the lower extremity functional movement screen in patients with chronic ankle instability

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Won-Seob

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to provide evidence of construct validity for the lower extremity functional movement screen (LE-FMS) based on hypothesis testing in patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI). [Subjects] The subjects were 20 healthy subjects and 20 patients with CAI who had a history of ankle sprain with pain for more than 1 day. [Methods] All participants were measured using the Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI) and evaluated with the LE-FMS. The screen includ...

  13. Effect of metabolic and respiratory acidosis on intracellular calcium in osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Kevin K; Bushinsky, David A

    2010-08-01

    In vivo, metabolic acidosis {decreased pH from decreased bicarbonate concentration ([HCO(3)(-)])} increases urine calcium (Ca) without increased intestinal Ca absorption, resulting in a loss of bone Ca. Conversely, respiratory acidosis [decreased pH from increased partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2))] does not appreciably alter Ca homeostasis. In cultured bone, chronic metabolic acidosis (Met) significantly increases cell-mediated net Ca efflux while isohydric respiratory acidosis (Resp) does not. The proton receptor, OGR1, appears critical for cell-mediated, metabolic acid-induced bone resorption. Perfusion of primary bone cells or OGR1-transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with Met induces transient peaks of intracellular Ca (Ca(i)). To determine whether Resp increases Ca(i), as does Met, we imaged Ca(i) in primary cultures of bone cells. pH for Met = 7.07 ([HCO(3)(-)] = 11.8 mM) and for Resp = 7.13 (Pco(2) = 88.4 mmHg) were similar and lower than neutral (7.41). Both Met and Resp induced a marked, transient increase in Ca(i) in individual bone cells; however, Met stimulated Ca(i) to a greater extent than Resp. We used OGR1-transfected CHO cells to determine whether OGR1 was responsible for the greater increase in Ca(i) in Met than Resp. Both Met and Resp induced a marked, transient increase in Ca(i) in OGR1-transfected CHO cells; however, in these cells Met was not different than Resp. Thus, the greater induction of Ca(i) by Met in primary bone cells is not a function of OGR1 alone, but must involve H(+) receptors other than OGR1, or pathways sensitive to Pco(2), HCO(3)(-), or total CO(2) that modify the effect of H(+) in primary bone cells.

  14. Evidence for Widespread 26Al in the Solar Nebula and Constraints for Nebula Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell; Srinivasan; Huss; Wasserburg; MacPherson

    1996-08-09

    A search was made for 26Mg (26Mg*) from the decay of 26Al (half-life = 0.73 million years) in Al-rich objects from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. Two Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) and two Al-rich chondrules (not CAIs) were found that contained 26Al when they formed. Internal isochrons for the CAIs yielded an initial 26Al/27Al ratio [(26Al/27Al)0] of 5 x 10(-5), indistinguishable from most CAIs in carbonaceous chondrites. This result shows that CAIs with this level of 26Al are present throughout the classes of chondrites and strengthens the notion that 26Al was widespread in the early solar system. The two Al-rich chondrules have lower 26Mg*, corresponding to a (26Al/27Al)0 ratio of approximately 9 x 10(-6). Five other Al-rich chondrules contain no resolvable 26Mg*. If chondrules and CAIs formed from an isotopically homogeneous reservoir, then the chondrules with 26Al must have formed or been last altered approximately2 million years after CAIs formed; the 26Mg*-free chondrules formed >1 to 3 million years later still. Because 26Mg*-containing and 26Mg*-free chondrules are both found in Chainpur, which was not heated to more than approximately400°C, it follows that parent body metamorphism cannot explain the absence of 26Mg* in some of these chondrules. Rather, its absence indicates that the lifetime of the solar nebula over which CAIs and chondrules formed extended over approximately5 million years.

  15. Mirror Neurons, Embodied Cognitive Agents and Imitation Learning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wiedermann, Jiří

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2003), s. 545-559 ISSN 1335-9150 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/1456 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1030915 Keywords : complete agents * mirror neurons * embodied cognition * imitation learning * sensorimotor control Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.254, year: 2003 http://www.cai.sk/ojs/index.php/cai/article/view/468

  16. A finite element study on the effects of toughness and permanent out-of-plane deformation on post-impact compressive strength

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Daniel; Spearing, Simon; Sinclair, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This study applies mechanisms observed from previous work (the undamaged cone, toughness and extent of permanent out-of-plane deformation) to parametrically study their effects on residual compression after impact (CAI) strength using finite element models. Based on previous experimental work, tougher material systems exhibited up to 30% greater CAI strength for a given damage area. Based on this, it is necessary to understand what other parameters, beyond damage area, contribute to a loss in...

  17. Deviations in gait metrics in patients with chronic ankle instability: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigi, Roy; Haim, Amir; Luger, Elchanan; Segal, Ganit; Melamed, Eyal; Beer, Yiftah; Nof, Matityahu; Nyska, Meir; Elbaz, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Gait metric alterations have been previously reported in patients suffering from chronic ankle instability (CAI). Previous studies of gait in this population have been comprised of relatively small cohorts, and the findings of these studies are not uniform. The objective of the present study was to examine spatiotemporal gait metrics in patients with CAI and examine the relationship between self-reported disease severity and the magnitude of gait abnormalities. Forty-four patients with CAI were identified and compared to 53 healthy controls. Patients were evaluated with spatiotemporal gait analysis via a computerized mat and with the Short Form (SF) - 36 health survey. Patients with CAI were found to walk with approximately 16% slower walking velocity, 9% lower cadence and approximately 7% lower step length. Furthermore, the base of support, during walking, in the CAI group was approximately 43% wider, and the single limb support phase was 3.5% shorter compared to the control group. All of the SF-36 8-subscales, as well as the SF-36 physical component summary and SF-36 mental component summary, were significantly lower in patients with CAI compared to the control group. Finally, significant correlations were found between most of the objective gait measures and the SF-36 mental component summary and SF-36 physical component summary. The results outline a gait profile for patients suffering from CAI. Significant differences were found in most spatiotemporal gait metrics. An important finding was a significantly wider base of support. It may be speculated that these gait alterations may reflect a strategy to deal with imbalance and pain. These findings suggest the usefulness of gait metrics, alongside with the use of self-evaluation questionnaires, in assessing disease severity of patients with CAI.

  18. Vehicle/Guideway Interaction in Maglev Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Technology Division Materials and Components in Maglev Systems Technology Division Materials and Components Technology Division byY. Cai, S. S. Chen, and D. M...Transportation Systems Reports (UC-330, Vehicle/Guideway Interaction in Maglev Systems by Y. Cai and S. S. Chen Materials and Components Technology Division D. M...Surface Irregularities ...................................... 32 4 Vehicle/Guideway Interaction in Transrapid Maglev System .................. 34 4.1

  19. On the Unsteady-Motion Theory of Magnetic Forces for Maglev

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    DivisionEnergy Technology Division Forces for Maglev Energy Technology DivisionEnergy Technology Division by S. S. Chen, S. Zhu, and Y. Cai APQ 4 袲...On the Unsteady-Motion Theory of Magnetic Forces for Maglev by S. S. Chen, S. Zhu, and Y. Cai Energy Technology Division November 1993 Work supported...vi On The Unsteady-Motion Theory of Magnetic Forces for Maglev by S. S

  20. Effects of 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol on Recovery and Resolution of Late Transient Neonatal Hypocalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefkothea Karaviti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Late transient neonatal hypocalcemia with hyperphosphatemia is potentially life-threatening. The use of 1.25 dihydroxycholecalciferol in the management of neonatal hypocalcemia is unexplored. Objective. We hypothesized adding 1.25 dihydroxycholecalciferol to intravenous continuous calcium infusion (CaI will achieve accelerated correction of hypocalcemia. Design/Methods. A controlled double-blind randomized placebo group was organized to compare the addition of 1.25 dihydroxycholecalciferol to CaI in 3–14 day old neonates presenting with hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and seizures. Ionized calcium and phosphorus were measured to adjust CaI and maintain eucalcemia. Time to resolution of hypocalcemia was defined as time from starting CaI to the first ionized calcium of ≥1.1 mmol/L. CaI was discontinued when ionized calcium levels were ≥1.1 mmol/L on two measurements and the infant tolerated feeds. Results. Fourteen neonates were studied without statistical difference between groups. Time to correction of hypocalcemia for 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol versus placebo was 7.2 ± 1.9 versus 11.5 ± 3.4 hours respectively (p=.26. The duration of CaI was 15.0 ± 1.5 versus 24.8 ± 4.4 hours respectively (p=.012. Conclusions. The addition of 1.25 dihydroxycholecalciferol to standard CaI therapy reduced the duration of CaI, but did not reduce the time to correct hypocalcemia in neonates with late transient hypocalcemia.

  1. The discriminant validity of the culture assessment instrument: A comparison of company sub-cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Petkoon

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to assess the discriminant validity of the Culture Assessment Instrument (CAI; that is to distinguish between company mean sub-culture scores and between mean scores of a target company and that of a norm group. The primary data was obtained by a sample of convenience (N = 593 from a transport organisation. The secondary data of the norm group was constituted by convenience samples (N = 4066 from various companies originating from different industries. The 56 item scores of the CAI were factor analysed on two levels followed by iterative item analyses. Although significant differences were detected between mean culture scores, only a small proportion of the variance in these scores could be attributed to culture differences. On these grounds, the CAI does not possess discriminant validity. Suggestions for improving the CAI were made. Opsomming Die primêre doel van die studie was om die diskriminante geldigheid van die ‘Culture Assessment Instrument’ (CAI te beoordeel; dit is om tussen ondernemings se gemiddelde kultuur-subtelling te onderskei en tussen die gemiddelde tellings van ‘n teiken onderneming en ’n normgroep. Die primêre data is verkry van ’n geleentheidsteekproef (N = 593 uit ’n transport-onderneming. Die sekondêre data van die normgroep is saamgestel uit geleentheidsteekproewe (N = 4066 van verskillende ondernemings afkomstig uit verskeie industrieë. Die 56 itemtellings van die CAI is op twee vlakke gefaktoranaliseer, gevolg deur iteratiewe itemontledings. Ofskoon beduidende verskille tussen gemiddelde kultuurtellings gevind is, kon slegs ’n klein proporsie van die variansie in die tellings aan kultuurverskille toegeskryf word. Op hierdie gronde beskik die CAI nie oor diskriminante geldigheid nie. Voorstelle ter verbetering van die CAI is gemaak.

  2. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cao Ceo.BalaCuO showed a drop in T. to 43K while the Ca-excess compound. Cai BaLaCuO showed an improvement in T. to 72K. The decrease of T. in Ce- doped compound may be due to the tetravalent nature of Ce-ion. Substitution of tetravalent Ce for divalent Cais likely to bring down considerably the number of holes.

  3. Major and trace element geochemistry of S-type cosmic spherules

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rudraswami, N.G.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Babu, E.V.S.S.K.; VijayaKumar, T.

    that pass through the Earth’s atmosphere undergo changes in their chemical compositions thereby making it difficult to understand if they are sourced from the matrix, chondrules or calcium aluminium rich inclusions (CAIs). These components have..., the nature of their precursors, their thermal history while they were a part of parent bodies, and their relation to the chondrites or components such as calcium aluminium rich inclusions (CAIs), chondrules and matrix is masked by ambiguity. There is ample...

  4. IP Infrastructure Geolocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    by non-commercial enti- ties. HostiP is a community-driven geolocation service. It provides an Application Pro- gramming Interface ( API ) for...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS IP INFRASTRUCTURE GEOLOCATION Thesis Advisor: Second Reader: by Guan Yan Cai March...FUNDING NUMBERS IP INFRASTRUCfURE GEOLOCATION N66001-2250-59231 6. AUTHOR(S) Guan Yan Cai 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AOORESS(ES) 9

  5. Student Study Choices in the Principles of Economics: A Case Study of Computer Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Grimes, Paul W.; Sanderson, Patricia L.; Ching, Geok H.

    1996-01-01

    Principles of Economics students at Mississippi State University were provided the opportunity to use computer assisted instruction (CAI) as a supplemental study activity. Students were free to choose the extent of their computer work. Throughout the course, weekly surveys were conducted to monitor the time each student spent with their textbook, computerized tutorials, workbook, class notes, and study groups. The surveys indicated that only a minority of the students actively pursued CAI....

  6. An evaluation of factors associated with sexual risk taking among Black men who have sex with men: A comparison of younger and older populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksut, Jessica L.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Siembida, Elizabeth J.; Driffin, Daniel D.; Baldwin, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background In the United States, rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are highest among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). Prior research indicates that younger BMSM in particular (i.e., BMSM 29 years of age and younger) are most at risk for HIV infection and that HIV incidence in this subpopulation has risen in recent years. It remains unclear, however, why younger BMSM, relative to BMSM 30 years of age and older, are at increased risk for HIV infection. Methods For the current study, we surveyed 450 BMSM located in the Atlanta, GA metropolitan and surrounding areas. We assessed BMSM’s depressive symptoms, substance use during sex, psychosocial risk factors (i.e., HIV risk perceptions, condom use self-efficacy, internalized homophobia, and perceived HIV stigmatization), and sexual risk taking (i.e., condomless anal intercourse [CAI]). Results We found that younger BMSM (YBMSM) and older BMSM (OBMSM) differed with respect to factors associated with CAI. In multivariable models, alcohol use before or during sex, lower educational attainment, and sexual orientation (i.e., bisexual sexual orientation) were significantly associated with increased CAI for YBMSM, while HIV risk perceptions and internalized homophobia were significantly, negatively associated with CAI among OBMSM. Discussion Rates of engaging in CAI were similar across the two age cohorts; however, factors related to CAI varied by these two groups. Findings emphasize the need to consider targeted interventions for different generational cohorts of BMSM. PMID:27001255

  7. Individuals with chronic ankle instability exhibit dynamic postural stability deficits and altered unilateral landing biomechanics: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jeffrey D; Stewart, Ethan M; Macias, David M; Chander, Harish; Knight, Adam C

    2018-06-13

    To evaluate the literature regarding unilateral landing biomechanics and dynamic postural stability in individuals with and without chronic ankle instability (CAI). Four online databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and SportDiscus) were searched from the earliest records to 31 January 2018, as well as reference sections of related journal articles, to complete the systematic search. Studies investigating the influence of CAI on unilateral landing biomechanics and dynamic postural stability were systematically reviewed and evaluated. Twenty articles met the criteria and were included in the systematic review. Individuals with CAI were found to have deficits in dynamic postural stability on the affected limb with medium to large effect sizes and altered lower extremity kinematics, most notably in the ankle and knee, with medium to large effect sizes. Additionally, greater loading rates and peak ground reaction forces, in addition to reductions in ankle muscle activity were also found in individuals with CAI during unilateral jump-landing tasks. Individuals with CAI demonstrate dynamic postural stability deficits, lower extremity kinematic alterations, and reduced neuromuscular control during unilateral jump-landings. These are likely factors that contribute recurrent lateral ankle sprain injuries during dynamic activity in individuals with CAI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Conodont color alteration index and upper Paleozoic thermal history of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Cassiane Negreiros; Sanz-López, Javier; Blanco-Ferrera, Silvia; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Scomazzon, Ana Karina

    2015-12-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) was determined in elements from core samples of the Frasnian Barreirinha Formation (one well) and of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Tapajós Group (twenty three wells and one limestone quarry) in the Amazonas Basin. The thermal history of the basin is analyzed using the CAI value distribution represented in maps and stratigraphic sections through correlation schemes, and in conjunction with previously published data. The pattern of palaeotemperatures for CAI values of 1.5-3 is coincident with organic matter maturation under a sedimentary overburden providing diagenetic conditions in the oil/gas window. Locally, conodonts show metamorphism (CAI value of 6-7) in relation to the intrusion of diabase bodies in beds including high geothermal gradient evaporites. Microtextural alteration on the surface conodonts commonly shows several types of overgrowth microtextures developed in diagenetic conditions. Locally, recrystallization in conodonts with a high CAI value is congruent with contact metamorphism in relation to Mesozoic intrusions. The CAI values of 1.5 or 2 observed close to the surface in several areas of the basin may be interpreted in relation to a high thermal palaeogradient derived from the magmatic episode or/and to the local denudation of the upper part of the Paleozoic succession prior to this thermal event.

  9. Sexual orientation and medical history among Iranian people with Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorashad, Behzad S; Roshan, Ghasem M; Reid, Alistair G; Aghili, Zahra; Hiradfar, Mehran; Afkhamizadeh, Mozhgan; Talaei, Ali; Aarabi, Azadeh; Ghaemi, Nosrat; Taghehchian, Negin; Saberi, Hedieh; Farahi, Nazanin; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    To report sexual orientation, relationship status and medical history of Iranian people with Differences of Sex Development (DSD) who were raised female. Our participants consisted of nineteen 46,XY individuals with Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (CAIS) and eighteen 46,XX individuals with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) who were raised as females and older than 13years. As well as their relationship status and detailed medical history, an expert psychiatrist assessed their sexual orientation by a semi-structured psychiatric interview with them and, where applicable, their parents. Five percent of CAH participants and 42% of CAIS participants were in a relationship, which was significantly different. All CAH individuals had been diagnosed at birth; 89% of CAIS had been diagnosed after puberty and due to primary amenorrhea and 11% were diagnosed in childhood due to inguinal hernia. Genital reconstructive surgery had been performed in 100% of CAH participants and 37% of CAIS. Regarding sexual contact experiences and sexual fantasies (androphilic, gynephilic or both), no significant differences were found. However, CAH females had significantly more gynephilic dreams (P=0.045). This study, notable as one of the rare from a non-western culture, described sexual, medical and socioeconomic status of 46,XX CAH and 46,XY CAIS individuals living in Iran. Although broadly in line with previous findings from Western cultures, Iranian CAH individuals had fewer romantic relationships, but in contrast to previous studies their sexual orientation was only different from CAIS in the contents of sexual dreams. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of post-cervical and cervical porcine artificial insemination in nulliparous and multiparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchetti CG

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The post-cervical artificial insemination (PCAI in sows increases semen performance compared to cervical artificial insemination (CAI. In Argentina the use of the PCAI is restricted to multiparous while it is not applied to nulliparous. The aim of this study was to compare porcine CAI and PCAI in nulliparous and multiparous. Pregnancy rates and number of live pups with CAI and PCAI in nulliparous and multiparous, assessing advantages and disadvantages of each method were compared. This is a small-scale work (4 CAI and 7 PCAI in nulliparous, 3 CAI and 3 PCAI in multiparous in a small field productive site in the Province of Buenos Aires. Here the boar was omitted for heat detection and to stimulate the sow during AI. Pregnancy rates and the number of pups born alive per pregnant sow were similar with the two techniques and two categories. The PCAI is a good practice in nulliparous and multiparous because this technique increases semen performance compared to CAI and it is omitted the presence of the boar.

  11. Computer aided information system for a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidian, T.A.; Karmakar, G.; Rajagopal, R.; Shankar, V.; Patil, R.K.

    1994-01-01

    The computer aided information system (CAIS) is designed with a view to improve the performance of the operator. CAIS assists the plant operator in an advisory and support role, thereby reducing the workload level and potential human errors. The CAIS as explained here has been designed for a PWR type KLT- 40 used in Floating Nuclear Power Stations (FNPS). However the underlying philosophy evolved in designing the CAIS can be suitably adopted for other type of nuclear power plants too (BWR, PHWR). Operator information is divided into three broad categories: a) continuously available information b) automatically available information and c) on demand information. Two in number touch screens are provided on the main control panel. One is earmarked for continuously available information and the other is dedicated for automatically available information. Both the screens can be used at the operator's discretion for on-demand information. Automatically available information screen overrides the on-demand information screens. In addition to the above, CAIS has the features of event sequence recording, disturbance recording and information documentation. CAIS design ensures that the operator is not overburdened with excess and unnecessary information, but at the same time adequate and well formatted information is available. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs

  12. Rhenium-osmium systematics of calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, H.; Morgan, J.W.; Walker, R.J.; MacPherson, G.J.; Grossman, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    The Re-Os isotopic systematics of calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs) in chondrites were investigated in order to shed light on the behavior of the Re-Os system in bulk chondrites, and to constrain the timing of chemical fractionation in primitive chondrites. CAIs with relatively unfractionated rare earth element (REE) patterns (groups I, III, V, VI) define a narrow range of 187Re/188Os (0.3764-0.4443) and 187Os/188Os (0.12599-0.12717), and high but variable Re and Os abundances (3209-41,820 ppb Os). In contrast, CAIs that show depletions in highly refractory elements and strongly fractionated REE patterns (group II) also show a much larger range in 187Re/188Os (0.409-0.535) and 187Os/188Os (0.12695-0.13770), and greater than an order of magnitude lower Re and Os abundances than other groups (e.g., 75.7-680.2 ppb Os). Sixteen bulk CAIs and CAI splits plot within analytical uncertainty of a 4558 Ga reference isochron, as is expected for materials of this antiquity. Eight samples, however, plot off the isochron. Several possible reasons for these deviations are discussed. Data for multiple splits of one CAI indicate that the nonisochronous behavior for at least this CAI is the result of Re-Os reequilibration at approximately 1.6 Ga. Thus, the most likely explanation for the deviations of most of the nonisochronous CAIs is late-stage open-system behavior of Re and Os in the asteroidal environment. The 187Os/188Os-Os systematics of CAIs are consistent with previous models that indicate group II CAIs are mixtures of components that lost the bulk of their highly refractory elements in a previous condensation event and a minor second component that provided refractory elements at chondritic relative proportions. The high Re/Os of group II CAIs relative to other CAIs and chondrite bulk rocks may have been caused by variable mobilization of Re and Os during medium- to low-temperature parent body alteration ??4.5 Ga ago. This model is favored over nebular models, which

  13. Spatiotemporal postural control deficits are present in those with chronic ankle instability

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    McKeon Patrick O

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postural control deficits have been purported to be a potential contributing factor in chronic ankle instability (CAI. Summary forceplate measures such as center of pressure velocity and area have not consistently detected postural control deficits associated with CAI. A novel measurement technique derived from the dynamical systems theory of motor control known as Time-to-boundary (TTB has shown promise in detecting deficits in postural control related to chronic ankle instability (CAI. In a previous study, TTB deficits were detected in a sample of females with CAI. The purpose of this study was to examine postural control in sample of males and females with and without CAI using TTB measures. Methods This case-control study was performed in a research laboratory. Thirty-two subjects (18 males, 14 females with self-reported CAI were recruited and matched to healthy controls. All subjects performed three, ten-second trials of single-limb stance on a forceplate with eyes open and eyes closed. Main outcome measures included the TTB absolute minimum (s, mean of TTB minima (s, and standard deviation of TTB minima (s in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. A series of group by gender analyses of variance were conducted to evaluate the differences in postural control for all TTB variables separately with eyes open and eyes closed. Results There were no significant group by gender interactions or gender main effects for any of the measures. There, however, significant group main effects for 4 of the 6 measures with eyes closed as the CAI group demonstrated significant deficits in comparison to the control group. There were no significant differences between groups in any of the TTB measures with eyes open. Conclusion TTB deficits were present in the CAI group compared to the control group. These deficits were detected with concurrent removal of visual input. CAI may place significantly greater constraints on the

  14. Dynamic ankle control in athletes with ankle instability during sports maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Feng; Chen, Chin-Yang; Lin, Chia-Wei

    2011-09-01

    Ankle sprain is a common sports injury. While the effects of static constraints in stabilizing the ankle joint are relatively well understood, those of dynamic constraints are less clear and require further investigation. This study was undertaken to evaluate the dynamic stability of the ankle joint during the landing phase of running and stop-jump maneuvers in athletes with and without chronic ankle instability (CAI). Controlled laboratory study. Fifteen athletes with CAI and 15 age-matched athletes without CAI performed running and stop-jump landing tasks. The dynamic ankle joint stiffness, tibialis anterior (TA)/peroneus longus (PL) and TA/gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) co-contraction indices, ankle joint angle, and root-mean-square (RMS) of the TA, PL, and GL electromyographic signals were measured during each task. During running, the CAI group exhibited a greater ankle inversion angle than the control group in the pre-landing phase (P = .012-.042) and a lower dynamic ankle joint stiffness in the post-landing phase (CAI: 0.109 ± 0.039 N·m/deg; control: 0.150 ± 0.068 N·m/deg; P = .048). In the stop-jump landing task, athletes with CAI had a significantly lower TA/PL co-contraction index during the pre-landing phase (CAI: 49.1 ± 19; control: 64.8 ± 16; P = .009). In addition, the CAI group exhibited a greater ankle inversion (P = .049), a lower peak eversion (P = .04), and a smaller RMS of the PL electromyographic signal in the post-landing phase (CAI: 0.73 ± 0.32; control: 0.51 ± 0.22; P = .04). Athletes with CAI had a relatively inverted ankle, reduced muscle co-contraction, and a lower dynamic stiffness in the ankle joint during the landing phase of sports maneuvers and this may jeopardize the stability of the ankle. Sports training or rehabilitation programs should differentiate between the pre-landing and post-landing phases of sports maneuvers, and should educate athletes to land with an appropriate ankle position and muscle recruitment.

  15. The application of Reiki in nurses diagnosed with Burnout Syndrome has beneficial effects on concentration of salivary IgA and blood pressure Una sesión de Reiki en enfermeras diagnosticadas con síndrome de Burnout tiene efectos beneficiosos sobre la concentración de IgA salival y la presión arterial Uma sessão de Reiki em enfermeiras diagnosticadas com síndrome de Burnout tem efeitos benéficos sobre a concentração de IgA salivar e a pressão arterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Díaz-Rodríguez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the immediate effects of the secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA, α-amylase activity and blood pressure levels after the application of a Reiki session in nurses with Burnout Syndrome. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design was conducted to compare the immediate effects of Reiki versus control intervention (Hand-off sham intervention in nurses with Burnout Syndrome. Sample was composed of eighteen nurses (aged 34-56 years with burnout syndrome. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a Reiki treatment or a placebo (sham Reiki treatment, according to the established order in two different days. The ANOVA showed a significant interaction time x intervention for diastolic blood pressure (F=4.92, P=0.04 and sIgA concentration (F=4.71, P=0.04. A Reiki session can produce an immediate and statistically significant improvement in sIgA concentration and diastolic blood pressure in nurses with Burnout Syndrome.El objetivo fue investigar los efectos inmediatos en inmunoglobulina A salival (IgAs, actividad de α-amilasa y presión arterial de una aplicación de reiki en enfermeras sufriendo síndrome de Burnout. Se utilizó un ensayo preliminar placebo randomizado con cegamiento doble utilizando un diseño cruzado. Dieciocho enfermeras (edad 34-56 con síndrome de Burnout participaron en el estudio. Las participantes recibieron tratamiento con Reiki o Reiki fingido según el orden establecido por la randomización en dos días distintos. El test de ANOVA mostró un interacción significativa momento intervención para la presión arterial diastólica (F=4.92, P=0.04 a y la concentración de sIgA (F=4.71, P=0.04. Una sesión de Reiki de 30 minutos puede mejorar de manera inmediata la respuesta de IgAs y la presión arterial diastólica en enfermeras con síndrome de Burnout.O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os efeitos imediatos na imunoglobulina A salivar (IgAs, na atividade de α-amilase e na pressão arterial, após uma aplicação de Reiki em enfermeiras que sofrem da síndrome de Burnout. Foi realizado ensaio clínico randomizado duplo-cego e placebo controlado, com desenho cruzado. Dezoito enfermeiras (idade entre 34 e 56 anos, com síndrome de Burnout, participaram do estudo. As participantes receberam tratamento com Reiki ou Reiki falso, de acordo com a ordem estabelecida, através da randomização em dois dias distintos. O teste de Anova mostrou interação significativa entre o momento da intervenção e a pressão arterial diastólica (F=4,92, p=0,04 e os níveis de sIgA (F=4,71, p=0,04. Conclui-se que uma sessão de Reiki de 30 minutos pode melhorar de forma imediata a resposta de IgAs e da pressão arterial diastólica em enfermeiras com síndrome de Burnout.

  16. High-precision Al-Mg isotopic systematics in USNM 3898 - The benchmark "ALL" for initial 87Sr/86Sr in the earliest Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, G. J.; Defouilloy, C.; Kita, N. T.

    2018-06-01

    The Allende CAI USNM 3898 is the basis for "ALL", the lowest measured initial 87Sr/86Sr value in any solar system material including other CAIs (Gray et al., 1973). If the value ALL is correct (debated), then USNM 3898 must be 1-2 million years older than other CAIs (Podosek et al., 1991). This would require in turn that it have a much higher initial 26Al/27Al value than other CAIs, on the order of 4 × 10-4. Podosek et al. (1991) showed that this is not the case, with initial 26Al/27Al = (4.5 ± 0.7) × 10-5, but their Mg-isotopic data had large error bars and there was clear isotopic disturbance in the data having the highest 27Al/24Mg. Without the latter data, the slope of their isochron is higher (5.10 ± 1.19) × 10-5) and within (large) error of being supracanonical. We used high-precision SIMS to re-determine the initial 26Al/27Al in this CAI and obtained a value of (5.013 ± 0.099) × 10-5, with an intercept δ26Mg* = - 0.008 ± 0.048 and MSWD = 1.3. This value is indistinguishable from that measured in many other CAIs and conclusively shows that USNM 3898 is not uniquely ancient. We also confirmed evidence of later isotopic disturbance, similar to what Podosek et al. found, indicating a re-melting and evaporation event some 200,000 years after initial CAI solidification.

  17. Isotopic diversity in nebular dust: The distribution of Ti isotopic anomalies in carbonaceous chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.

    1988-01-01

    Average Ti isotopic patterns are derived for each class of carbonaceous chondrite from a chemically characterized suite of whole-rock samples. There is a well-resolved excess of 50 Ti in a subset of CI meteorites. Mean values of the 50 Ti excess for the four classes span a range of only 2 ε-units, with an apparent positive correlation with Al content. Previous evidence for anomalies in chondrules is augmented here by demonstrating that: (1) the more pristine Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in Efremovka show the same isotopic pattern as the typical Allende CAI; and, (2) CM and CV matrix carry 50 Ti excesses of about 2 ε-units. The distribution of Ti isotopic anomalies among matrix, chondrules, and CAIs suggests a model in which all three constituents formed from precursor-assemblages in which some chemical memories were still intact; the isotopic differences reflect fractionations among the carrier phases of the different isotopic components. Chondrules formed by a mostly closed-system melting of their precursors, and thus provide a recording of the extent of nebular heterogeneity on the mg-size scale. The larger anomalies in CAIs, compared to matrix and most (but not all) chondrules, are attributed primarily to an open- rather than closed-system processing of the CAI precursors. Precursors of both FUN and normal CAIs experienced an episode of intense processing, perhaps partial melting, that created the FUN characteristics, but for normal CAIs the FUN effects were erased by subsequent isotopic equilibration and exchange

  18. Condomless anal intercourse among males and females at high risk for heterosexual HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Danielle; Nguyen, Trang; Ogbue, Christine Powell; Flynn, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding and addressing heterosexual HIV transmission requires attention to the range and context of heterosexual sexual behaviors. We sought to determine population-based prevalence of condomless anal intercourse (CAI) among individuals at increased heterosexual HIV risk in Baltimore and to identify demographic, behavioral, and health related correlates. Methods Data were from a cross-sectional study of 185 males and 198 females at increased heterosexual risk for HIV recruited using respondent driven sampling as part of CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance Project in Baltimore, August-December 2010. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression examined factors associated with heterosexual CAI. Results The sample was majority African-American, with mean age of 38 among men and 34 among women. Forty-two percent of men (95% C.I.: 30.9, 52.0%) and 38% of women (95% C.I.: 29.4, 47.2%) reported any CAI in the past year, with variance by partner type and gender. Among men, CAI was significantly associated with homelessness, casual and exchange partners, same sex partner in past year, and substance use. Among women, CAI was significantly associated with lower education, casual and exchange partners, same sex partner in past year, multiple partners, and substance use. In adjusted gender-specific models, males and females with increasing numbers of partners were more likely to engage in CAI. Conclusions It is important to recognize the efficiency of transmission of HIV and other STIs through CAI. There is a need to broaden heterosexual sexual health promotion and HIV/STI prevention to adequately and appropriately address risks and prevention strategies for anal intercourse. PMID:25970308

  19. Developing a Framework for Ankle Function: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kelli R.; Evans, Todd A.; Neibert, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Addressing clinical outcomes is paramount to providing effective health care, yet there is no consensus regarding the appropriate outcomes to address after ankle injuries. Compounding the problem is the repetitive nature of lateral ankle sprains, referred to as functional (FAI) or chronic (CAI) ankle instability. Although they are commonly used terms in practice and research, FAI and CAI are inconsistently defined and assessed. Objective: To establish definitions of a healthy/normal/noninjured ankle, FAI, and CAI, as well as their characteristics and assessment techniques. Design: Delphi study. Setting: Telephone interviews and electronic surveys. Patients or Other Participants: Sixteen experts representing the fields of ankle function and treatment, ankle research, and outcomes assessment and research were selected as panelists. Data Collection and Analysis: A telephone interview produced feedback regarding the definition of, functional characteristics of, and assessment techniques for a healthy/normal/noninjured ankle, an unhealthy/acutely injured ankle, and FAI/CAI. Those data were compiled, reduced, and returned through electronic surveys and were either included by reaching consensus (80% agreement) or excluded. Results: The definitions of a healthy/normal/noninjured ankle and FAI reached consensus. Experts did not agree on a definition of CAI. Eleven functional characteristics of a healthy/normal/noninjured ankle, 32 functional characteristics of an unhealthy/acutely injured ankle, and 13 characteristics of FAI were agreed upon. Conclusions: Although a consensus was reached regarding the definitions and functional characteristics of a healthy/normal/noninjured ankle and FAI, the experts could only agree on 1 characteristic to include in the FAI definition. Several experts did, however, provide additional comments that reinforced the differences in the interpretation of those concepts. Although the experts could not agree on the definition of CAI, its

  20. Chronic Ankle Instability and Neural Excitability of the Lower Extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Michelle M; Gribble, Phillip A; Pietrosimone, Brian G

    2015-08-01

    Neuromuscular dysfunction of the leg and thigh musculature, including decreased strength and postural control, is common in patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Understanding how CAI affects specific neural pathways may provide valuable information for targeted therapies. To investigate differences in spinal reflexive and corticospinal excitability of the fibularis longus and vastus medialis between limbs in patients with unilateral CAI and between CAI patients and participants serving as healthy controls. Case-control study. Research laboratory. A total of 56 participants volunteered, and complete data for 21 CAI patients (9 men, 12 women; age = 20.81 ± 1.63 years, height = 171.57 ± 11.44 cm, mass = 68.84 ± 11.93 kg) and 24 healthy participants serving as controls (7 men, 17 women; age = 22.54 ± 2.92 years, height = 172.35 ± 10.85 cm, mass = 69.15 ± 12.30 kg) were included in the final analyses. Control participants were matched to CAI patients on sex, age, and limb dominance. We assigned "involved" limbs, which corresponded with the involved limbs of the CAI patients, to control participants. Spinal reflexive excitability was assessed via the Hoffmann reflex and normalized to a maximal muscle response. Corticospinal excitability was assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Active motor threshold (AMT) was defined as the lowest transcranial magnetic stimulation intensity required to elicit motor-evoked potentials equal to or greater than 100 μV in 5 of 10 consecutive stimuli. We obtained motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) at percentages ranging from 100% to 140% of AMT. Fibularis longus MEP amplitudes were greater in control participants than in CAI patients bilaterally at 100% AMT (control involved limb: 0.023 ± 0.031; CAI involved limb: 0.014 ± 0.008; control uninvolved limb: 0.021 ± 0.022; CAI uninvolved limb: 0.015 ± 0.007; F1,41 = 4.551, P = .04) and 105% AMT (control involved limb: 0.029 ± 0.026; CAI involved limb: 0.021 ± 0

  1. Modulation of the Fibularis Longus Hoffmann Reflex and Postural Instability Associated With Chronic Ankle Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Min; Hart, Joseph M.; Saliba, Susan A.; Hertel, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Context: Individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) present with decreased modulation of the Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) from a simple to a more challenging task. The neural alteration is associated with impaired postural control, but the relationship has not been investigated in individuals with CAI. Objective: To determine differences in H-reflex modulation and postural control between individuals with or without CAI and to identify if they are correlated in individuals with CAI. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 15 volunteers with CAI (9 males, 6 females; age = 22.6 ± 5.8 years, height = 174.7 ± 8.1 cm, mass = 74.9 ± 12.8 kg) and 15 healthy sex-matched volunteers serving as controls (9 males, 6 females; age = 23.8 ± 5.8 years, height = 171.9 ± 9.9 cm, mass = 68.9 ± 15.5 kg) participated. Intervention(s): Maximum H-reflex (Hmax) and motor wave (Mmax) from the soleus and fibularis longus were recorded while participants lay prone and then stood in unipedal stance. We assessed postural tasks of unipedal stance with participants' eyes closed for 10 seconds using a forceplate. Main Outcome Measure(s): We normalized Hmax to Mmax to obtain Hmax : Mmax ratios for the 2 positions. For each muscle, H-reflex modulation was quantified using the percentage change scores in Hmax : Mmax ratios calculated from prone position to unipedal stance. Center-of-pressure data were used to compute 4 time-to-boundary variables. Separate independent-samples t tests were performed to determine group differences. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were calculated between the modulation and balance measures in the CAI group. Results: The CAI group presented less H-reflex modulation in the soleus (t26 = −3.77, P = .001) and fibularis longus (t25 = −2.59, P = .02). The mean of the time-to-boundary minima in the anteroposterior direction was lower in the CAI group (t28 = −2.06, P = .048

  2. Evolution of Ca-Al-rich bodies in the earliest solar system: growth by incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wark, D.A.; Lovering, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Many Type B Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) in the Allende carbonaceous chondrite contain two types of spinel structures, 'framboids' and 'palisades'. Framboids are clumps of spinel grains generally < 100 μm across. Experimental studies show that they probably formed in situ by solid state growth processes. Palisades are texturally different and consist of ovoid shells of spinel grains that appear in thin sections as long arcs or rings with diameters ranging from approx. 50 μm up to 2 cm. No in situ formation process seems able to explain the variety of sizes and morphologies of palisades nor the different compositions and textures of the enclosed and enclosing materials. We therefore suggest that palisades are the spinel rims of smaller, earlier-formed Type B CAI's that were incorporated into other CAI material in various ways - by capture into liquid drops, by solid condensate overgrowths and by the partial melting or welding of agglomerates containing the bodies. As some Type B bodies have been found inside Type A host material it appears that in at least some regions, and probably generally, Type A CAI's formed after Type B. Proposals are made concerning the origin of the CAI material. (author)

  3. Effects of reduced plantar cutaneous sensation on static postural control in individuals with and without chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyeongtak; Kang, Tae Kyu; Wikstrom, Erik A; Jun, Hyung-Pil; Lee, Sae Yong

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how reduced plantar cutaneous sensation influences static postural control in individuals with and without CAI. A case-control study design. Twenty-six individuals with self-reported CAI and 26 matched healthy controls participated in this study. The plantar aspect of the participants' foot was then submersed in ice water (0°C) for 10min to reduce plantar sensation. Before and after the cooling procedure, plantar cutaneous sensation thresholds and single leg balance with eyes open and closed were assessed. Significantly, higher scores were observed in both groups after ice water submersion (ppostural control improvement in both groups post-cooling. In single limb balance with eyes closed, Group×Intervention interactions were observed for the TTB AP mean (p=0.003) and TTB AP SD (p=0.017); indicating postural control deficits in CAI group post-cooling, but no changes in the control group. The main finding of this study was that reduced plantar cutaneous sensation induced by an ice submersion procedure caused eyes closed postural control impairments in those with CAI but not healthy controls. The present investigation demonstrated that the ability to dynamically reweight among sensory inputs to maintain postural stability appears to be diminished in CAI patients compared to healthy controls. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Carotid Artery Injury in Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery: Multicenter Cohort Study and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtl, Roger; Alimi, Marjan; Abdelatif Boukebir, Mohamed; Berlin, Connor D; Navarro-Ramirez, Rodrigo; Arnold, Paul M; Fehlings, Michael G; Mroz, Thomas E; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Retrospective study and literature review. To provide more comprehensive data about carotid artery injury (CAI) or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) related to anterior cervical spine surgery. We conducted a retrospective, multicenter, case series study involving 21 high-volume surgical centers from the AOSpine North America Clinical Research Network. Medical records of 17 625 patients who went through cervical spine surgery (levels from C2 to C7) between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, were analyzed. Also, we performed a literature review using Medline and PubMed databases. The following terms were used alone, and in combination, to search for relevant articles: cervical, spine, surgery, complication, iatrogenic, carotid artery, injury, cerebrovascular accident, CVA, and carotid stenosis. Among 17 625 patients that were analyzed, no cases were reported to experienced CAI or CVA after cervical spine surgery. Nevertheless, in our PubMed search we found 157 articles, but only 5 articles matched our study objective criteria; 2 cases were reported to present CAI and 3 cases presented CVA. CAI and CVA related to anterior cervical spine surgeries are extremely rare. We were not able to find neither in our retrospective study nor in our literature research a correlation between the type or length of anterior cervical spine procedure with CVA or CAI complications. However, surgeons should be aware of the possibility of vascular complications and minimize intraoperative direct vascular manipulations or retraction. Preoperative screening for underlying vascular pathology and risk factors is also important.

  5. A new approach of the Star Excursion Balance Test to assess dynamic postural control in people complaining from chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pionnier, Raphaël; Découfour, Nicolas; Barbier, Franck; Popineau, Christophe; Simoneau-Buessinger, Emilie

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively assess dynamic balance with accuracy in individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI). To this aim, a motion capture system was used while participants performed the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Reached distances for the 8 points of the star were automatically computed, thereby excluding any dependence to the experimenter. In addition, new relevant variables were also computed, such as absolute time needed to reach each distance, lower limb ranges of motion during unipodal stance, as well as absolute error of pointing. Velocity of the center of pressure and range of variation of ground reaction forces have also been assessed during the unipodal phase of the SEBT thanks to force plates. CAI group exhibited smaller reached distances and greater absolute error of pointing than the control group (p<0.05). Moreover, the ranges of motion of lower limbs joints, the velocity of the center of pressure and the range of variation of the ground reaction forces were all significantly smaller in the CAI group (p<0.05). These reduced quantitative and qualitative performances highlighted a lower dynamic postural control. The limited body movements and accelerations during the unipodal stance in the CAI group could highlight a protective strategy. The present findings could help clinicians to better understand the motor strategies used by CAI patients during dynamic balance and may guide the rehabilitation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of Relationships Between Joint Motion Quality and Postural Control in Patients With Chronic Ankle Joint Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bączkowicz, Dawid; Falkowski, Krzysztof; Majorczyk, Edyta

    2017-08-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study, cross-sectional. Background Lateral ankle sprains are among the most common injuries encountered during athletic participation. Following the initial injury, there is an alarmingly high risk of reinjury and development of chronic ankle instability (CAI), which is dependent on a combination of factors, including sensorimotor deficits and changes in the biomechanical environment of the ankle joint. Objective To evaluate CAI-related disturbances in arthrokinematic motion quality and postural control and the relationships between them. Methods Sixty-three male subjects (31 with CAI and 32 healthy controls) were enrolled in the study. For arthrokinematic motion quality analysis, the vibroarthrographic signals were collected during ankle flexion/extension motion using an acceleration sensor and described by variability (variance of mean squares [VMS]), amplitude (mean of 4 maximal and 4 minimal values [R4]), and frequency (vibroarthrographic signal bands of 50 to 250 Hz [P1] and 250 to 450 Hz [P2]) parameters. Using the Biodex Balance System, single-leg dynamic balance was measured by overall, anteroposterior, and mediolateral stability indices. Results Values of vibroarthrographic parameters (VMS, R4, P1 and P2) were significantly higher in the CAI group than those in the control group (Pankle arthrokinematic motion and postural control were present. Therefore, physical therapy interventions focused on improving ankle neuromuscular control and arthrokinematic function are necessary in CAI patient care. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(8):570-577. Epub 4 Nov 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.6836.

  7. Hip strength and star excursion balance test deficits of patients with chronic ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Ryan S; Crossett, Ian D; Terada, Masafumi; Kosik, Kyle B; Bolding, Brenn A; Gribble, Phillip A

    2017-11-01

    To examine isometric hip strength in those with and without CAI, and determine the degree of Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) variance explained by isometric hip strength. Single-blinded, cross-sectional, case-control study. Thirty individuals with CAI, 29 lateral ankle sprain (LAS) copers, and 26 healthy controls participated. We assessed dynamic postural control with the SEBT anterior (SEBT-ANT), posteromedial (SEBT-PM), and posterolateral (SEBT-PL) reaches, and isometric hip extension (EXT), abduction (ABD) and external rotation (ER) strength with hand-held dynamometry. The CAI and LAS coper groups' involved limbs and randomly selected limbs in controls were tested. Separate Kruskal-Wallis tests compared SEBT scores and isometric hip strength between groups. Backwards linear regression models determined the degree of SEBT variance explained by isometric hip strength. Statistical significance was set a priori at Phip strength compared to LAS copers and controls. Additionally, the CAI group's isometric hip strength significantly influenced dynamic postural control performance. Future CAI rehabilitation strategies should consider hip muscular strengthening to facilitate improvements in dynamic postural control. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness of Using Computer-Assisted Supplementary Instruction for Teaching the Mole Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçinalp, Serpil; Geban, Ömer; Özkan, Ilker

    This study examined the effect of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), used as a problem-solving supplement to classroom instruction, on students' understanding of chemical formulas and mole concept, their attitudes toward chemistry subjects, and CAI. The objective was to assess the effectiveness of CAI over recitation hours when both teaching methods were used as a supplement to the traditional chemistry instruction. We randomly selected two classes in a secondary school. Each teaching strategy was randomly assigned to one class. The experimental group received supplementary instruction delivered via CAI, while the control group received similar instruction through recitation hours. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and t-test. It was found that the students who used the CAI accompanied with lectures scored significantly higher than those who attended recitation hours, in terms of school subject achievement in chemistry and attitudes toward chemistry subjects. In addition, there was a significant improvement in the attitudes of students in the experimental group toward the use of computers in a chemistry course. There was no significant difference between the performances of females versus males in each treatment group.Received: 26 April 1994; Revised: 6 April 1995;

  9. CORRELATION OF {sup 48}Ca, {sup 50}Ti, AND {sup 138}La HETEROGENEITY IN THE ALLENDE REFRACTORY INCLUSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsin-Wei; Lee, Typhoon; Lee, Der-Chuen; Chen, Jiang-Chang, E-mail: hart.chen@bristol.ac.uk [Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-06-10

    Precise determinations of {sup 48}Ca anomalies in Allende calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are reported in this work. There are endemic positive {sup 48}Ca/{sup 44}Ca anomalies in all analyzed CAIs after normalization to {sup 42}Ca/{sup 44}Ca, and it is clearly shown that there is no simple correlation between {sup 48}Ca/{sup 44}Ca and {sup 50}Ti/{sup 48}Ti anomalies, in agreement with Jungck et al. Compared to the {sup 48}Ca/{sup 44}Ca versus {sup 50}Ti/{sup 48}Ti correlation line defined by differentiated meteorites, reported by Chen et al., the CAIs plot to elevated {sup 50}Ti/{sup 48}Ti. Assuming the {sup 48}Ca/{sup 44}Ca anomalies of both CAIs and differentiated meteorites came from the same source, excess {sup 50}Ti anomalies in CAIs can be calculated by subtracting the part associated with {sup 48}Ca/{sup 44}Ca. These excesses show a linear correlation with {sup 138}La anomalies, a neutrino-process nuclide. According to current stellar nucleosynthetic models, we therefore suggest that the solar system {sup 48}Ca, {sup 50}Ti, and {sup 138}La isotopic variations are made of mixtures between grains condensed from ejecta of neutron-rich accretion-induced SNe Ia and the O/Ne–O/C zone of core-collapse SNe II.

  10. CORRELATION OF 48Ca, 50Ti, AND 138La HETEROGENEITY IN THE ALLENDE REFRACTORY INCLUSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin-Wei; Lee, Typhoon; Lee, Der-Chuen; Chen, Jiang-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Precise determinations of 48 Ca anomalies in Allende calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are reported in this work. There are endemic positive 48 Ca/ 44 Ca anomalies in all analyzed CAIs after normalization to 42 Ca/ 44 Ca, and it is clearly shown that there is no simple correlation between 48 Ca/ 44 Ca and 50 Ti/ 48 Ti anomalies, in agreement with Jungck et al. Compared to the 48 Ca/ 44 Ca versus 50 Ti/ 48 Ti correlation line defined by differentiated meteorites, reported by Chen et al., the CAIs plot to elevated 50 Ti/ 48 Ti. Assuming the 48 Ca/ 44 Ca anomalies of both CAIs and differentiated meteorites came from the same source, excess 50 Ti anomalies in CAIs can be calculated by subtracting the part associated with 48 Ca/ 44 Ca. These excesses show a linear correlation with 138 La anomalies, a neutrino-process nuclide. According to current stellar nucleosynthetic models, we therefore suggest that the solar system 48 Ca, 50 Ti, and 138 La isotopic variations are made of mixtures between grains condensed from ejecta of neutron-rich accretion-induced SNe Ia and the O/Ne–O/C zone of core-collapse SNe II

  11. Controlled air incineration of hazardous chemical and mixed waste at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Hutchins, D.A.; Vavruska, J.J.; Warner, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Controlled Air Incineration (CAI) system, originally developed for transuranic (TRU) waste volume reduction studies, is currently being qualified for hazardous chemical and mixed waste treatment under provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The objective is to obtain a permanent RCRA Part B permit for thermal disposal of hazardous and mixed wastes generated by LANL. Constructed in the mid-1970s as a demonstration project for incineration of TRU solid wastes, the CAI process was substantially modified and tested in 1980-1983 for acceptance of both liquid and solid hazardous chemicals. Successful demonstration of TRU solid waste processing objectives in 1979 and later chemical waste incineration studies have been documented in several publications. In 1984, the LANL CAI became the first US Dept. of Energy (DOE) incinerator to be permitted for polychlorinated biphenyl disposal under the Toxic Substances Control Act. Following establishment of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jurisdiction over DOE chemical waste management in 1984, LANL sought and was granted interim status for the CAI and applied for a trial burn permit in the overall laboratory RCRA Part B application. A trial burn and final report have been completed; results have been submitted to EPA and the New Mexico Environmental Improvement Division. This paper provides an overview of trial burn planning and results together with the operational status of LANL's CAI

  12. Corundum-Hibonite Inclusions and the Environments of High Temperature Processing in the Early Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are composed of the suite of minerals predicted to be the first to condense from a cooling gas of solar composition [1]. Yet, the first phase to condense, corundum, is rare in CAIs, having mostly reacted to form hibonite followed by other phases at lower temperatures. Many CAIs show evidence of complex post-formational histories, including condensation, evaporation, and melting [e.g. 2, 3]. However, the nature of these thermal events and the nebular environments in which they took place are poorly constrained. Some corundum and corundum-hibonite grains appear to have survived or avoided these complex CAI reprocessing events. Such ultra-refractory CAIs may provide a clearer record of the O isotopic composition of the Sun and the evolution of the O isotopic composition of the planet-forming region [4-6]. Here we present in situ O and Mg isotopic analyses of two corundum/hibonite inclusions that record differing formation histories.

  13. SOLAR WIND IMPLANTATION MODEL FOR 10Be IN CALCIUM-ALUMINUM INCLUSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricker, Glynn E.; Caffee, Marc W.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a model for the incorporation of 10 Be within calcium-aluminum inclusions (CAIs) in primitive carbonaceous meteorites. In this model, 10 Be is produced by energetic particle reactions in the proto-solar atmosphere of a more active proto-Sun characterized by energetic particle fluxes higher than contemporary particle fluxes. This 10 Be is incorporated into the solar wind that is then implanted into CAI precursor material. This production mechanism is operational in the contemporary solar system implanting 10 Be in lunar materials. The contemporary production rate of 10 Be at the surface of the Sun is ∼0.1 10 Be cm -2 s -1 . Scaling up the contemporary 10 Be production in the proto-Sun by a factor of 10 5 would increase the production rate to 10 410 Be cm -2 s -1 . Using this enhanced production value in conjunction with refractory mass inflow rates at 0.06 AU from the proto-Sun we model 10 Be concentrations in CAI precursors. We calculate the content of solar-wind-implanted 10 Be would have been of the order of 10 1210 Be g -1 in CAIs, consistent with initial 10 Be content found from boron-beryllium isotopic systematics in CAIs.

  14. Normalization of Impact Energy by Laminate Thickness for Compression After Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Hromisin, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    The amount of impact energy used to damage a composite laminate is a critical parameter when assessing residual strength properties. The compression after impact (CAI) strength of impacted laminates is dependent upon how thick the laminate is and this has traditionally been accounted for by normalizing (dividing) the impact energy by the laminate's thickness. However, when comparing CAI strength values for a given lay-up sequence and fiber/resin system, dividing the impact energy by the specimen thickness has been noted by the author to give higher CAI strength values for thicker laminates. A study was thus undertaken to assess the comparability of CAI strength data by normalizing the impact energy by the specimen thickness raised to a power to account for the higher strength of thicker laminates. One set of data from the literature and two generated in this study were analyzed by dividing the impact energy by the specimen thickness to the 1, 1.5, 2, and 2.5 powers. Results show that as laminate thickness and damage severity decreased, the value which the laminate thickness needs to be raised to in order to yield more comparable CAI data increases.

  15. Cortisol-dependent stress effects on cell distribution in healthy individuals and individuals suffering from chronic adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Ashley M; Pitts, Kenneth P; Feldkamp, Joachim; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-11-01

    Chronic adrenal insufficiency (CAI) is characterized by a lack of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid production due to destroyed adrenal cortex cells. However, elevated cortisol secretion is thought to be a central part in a well-orchestrated immune response to stress. This raises the question to what extent lack of cortisol in CAI affects stress-related changes in immune processes. To address this question, 28 CAI patients (20 females) and 18 healthy individuals (11 females) (age: 44.3 ± 8.4 years) were exposed to a psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Half the patients received a 0.03 mg/kg body weight injection of hydrocortisone (HC) post-TSST to mimic a healthy cortisol stress response. Catecholamines and immune cell composition were assessed in peripheral blood and free cortisol measured in saliva collected before and repeatedly after TSST. CAI patients showed norepinephrine (NE) stress responses similar to healthy participants, however, epinephrine (E) as well as cortisol levels were significantly lower. HC treatment post-TSST resulted in cortisol increases comparable to those observed in healthy participants (interaction effects--NE: F=1.05, p=.41; E: F=2.56, p=.045; cortisol: F=13.28, pcortisol's central involvement in post-stress lymphocyte migration from blood into immune-relevant body compartments. As such, future studies should investigate whether psychosocial stress exposure may put CAI patients at an increased health risk due to attenuated immune responses to pathogens. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Psychological outcomes and gender-related development in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Ahmed, S Faisal; Hughes, Ieuan A

    2003-04-01

    We evaluated psychological outcomes and gender development in 22 women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). Participants were recruited through a medical database (n = 10) or through a patient support group (n = 12). Controls included 14 males and 33 females, of whom 22 were matched to women with CAIS for age, race, and sex-of-rearing. Outcome measures included quality of life (self-esteem and psychological general well-being), gender-related psychological characteristics (gender identity, sexual orientation, and gender role behavior in childhood and adulthood), marital status, personality traits that show sex differences, and hand preferences. Women recruited through the database versus the support group did not differ systematically, and there were no statistically significant differences between the 22 women with CAIS and the matched controls for any psychological outcome. These findings argue against the need for two X chromosomes or ovaries to determine feminine-typical psychological development in humans and reinforce the important role of the androgen receptor in influencing masculine-typical psychological development. They also suggest that psychological outcomes in women with CAIS are similar to those in other women. However, additional attention to more detailed aspects of psychological well-being in CAIS is needed.

  17. Existence of an 16O-rich gaseous reservoir in the solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krot, Alexander N; McKeegan, Kevin D; Leshin, Laurie A; MacPherson, Glenn J; Scott, Edward R D

    2002-02-08

    Carbonaceous chondrite condensate olivine grains from two distinct petrographic settings, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) accretionary rims and amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), are oxygen-16 (16O) enriched at the level previously observed inside CAIs. This requires that the gas in the nebular region where these grains condensed was 16O-rich. This contrasts with an 16O-poor gas present during the formation of chondrules, suggesting that CAIs and AOAs formed in a spatially restricted region of the solar nebula containing 16O-rich gas. The 16O-rich gas composition may have resulted either from mass-independent isotopic chemistry or from evaporation of regions with enhanced dust/gas ratios, possibly in an X-wind environment near the young Sun.

  18. Climate Change Awareness among the High School Students: Case Study from a Climate Vulnerable Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.A. Rahman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is one the worst sufferers of climate change. Climate change awareness creation is pivotal to adaptation and mitigation strategies. Effective dissemination of knowledge among the citizens during high school years is crucial to that end. In Bangladesh, secondary school students follow common curricula which include entries on climate change. This paper investigates the role of the diverse demographic profiles and inherent scholastic background of students on their informedness. The research is based on responses from secondary schools students in Chittagong, Bangladesh. Based on their understanding of climate change, we have constructed the Climate Awareness Index (CAI. Then the relative roles of demographic determinants of the awareness have been compared using the CAI. The quality of schools, and grade, major and merit position of students have affected the CAI values. Besides, the study concluded that the religion, gender, parental education, occupation and income, etc. could affect students’ climate change informedness in Bangladesh.

  19. Experimental Investigation on Low-velocity Impact and Compression After Impact Properties of Three-dimensional Five-directional Braided Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The low-velocity impact and compression after impact (CAI properties of three-dimensional (3D five-directional carbon fiber/epoxy resin braided composites were experimentally investigated. Specimens prepared with different braiding angles were tested at the same impact energy level. Residual post-impact mechanical properties of the different configurations were characterized by compression after impact tests. Results show that the specimens with bigger braiding angle sustain higher peak loads, and smaller impact damage area, mainly attributes to a more compact space construction. The CAI strength and damage mechanism are found to be mainly dependent on the axial support of the braiding fiber tows. With the increase of braiding angle, the CAI strength decreases, and the damage mode of the composites is changed from transverse fracture to shear failure.

  20. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for hazardous chemical and mixed radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.; Hutchins, D.A.; Koenig, R.A.; Warner, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) is currently the only radioactive waste incineration facility in the US permitted to treat polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The CAI was developed in the mid-1970's as a demonstration system for volume reduction of transuranic (TRU) contaminated combustible solid wastes. It has since undergone additions and modifications to accommodate hazardous chemical wastes in response to a need within the Department of Energy (DOE) to treat mixed radioactive/chemical wastes. An overview of these additions which include a liquid feed system, a high intensity liquid injection burner, and an activated carbon adsorption unit is presented here. Also included is a discussion of the procedures required for Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitting of the CAI

  1. Novel matrix resins for composites for aircraft primary structures, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Edmund P.; Puckett, P. M.; Maynard, S.; Bishop, M. T.; Bruza, K. J.; Godschalx, J. P.; Mullins, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the contract is the development of matrix resins with improved processability and properties for composites for primarily aircraft structures. To this end, several resins/systems were identified for subsonic and supersonic applications. For subsonic aircraft, a series of epoxy resins suitable for RTM and powder prepreg was shown to give composites with about 40 ksi compressive strength after impact (CAI) and 200 F/wet mechanical performance. For supersonic applications, a thermoplastic toughened cyanate prepreg system has demonstrated excellent resistance to heat aging at 360 F for 4000 hours, 40 ksi CAI and useful mechanical properties at greater than or equal to 310 F. An AB-BCB-maleimide resin was identified as a leading candidate for the HSCT. Composite panels fabricated by RTM show CAI of approximately 50 ksi, 350 F/wet performance and excellent retention of mechanical properties after aging at 400 F for 4000 hours.

  2. A First Look at Harm Toward Animals by Bahamians in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Fielding

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first known study on childhood cruelty towards animals in The Bahamas. An internet survey involving 1,558 respondents allowed childhood cruelty, using the Children and Animals Inventory (CAI, to be investigated in the context of other violent behaviours in the child’s home. The homes of children who did no harm animals were less violent than the homes of children who harmed animals. Consistent with other studies, males were more likely to harm animals than females. Males were more likely than females to harm sentient animals. While the use of violence to train children was not associated with a higher CAI score, domestic violence and the presence of a gun in the home were associated with a higher CAI score. The implications of these findings as they relate to the treatment of living creatures are discussed.

  3. The Discriminant Validity Of The Culture Assessment Instrument: A Comparison Of Company Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willie Du Toit

    2003-11-01

    Die doel van die studie was om die diskriminante geldigheid van die ‘Culture Assessment Instrument’ (CAI te beoordeel; dit is om tussen gemiddelde kultuurtellings van verskillende ondernemings te onderskei. Die geleentheidsteekproef het bestaan uit 4066 respondente uit vyf verskillende ondernemings afkomstig uit verskeie industrieë. CAI-tellings van 56 items is op twee vlakke gefaktoranaliseer, gevolg deur iteratiewe itemontledings. Beduidende verskille tussen ondernemings se gemiddelde kultuurtellings is gevind, maar slegs ’n klein proporsie van die variansie in die tellings kon aan kultuurverskille toegeskryf word. Gebaseer op hierdie bevindinge, is daar tot die slotsom gekom dat die CAI in sy huidige vorm nie oor diskriminante geldigheid beskik nie. Daar is aanbeveel dat items gerig op dieper kultuurvlakke, gebaseer op Schein se drievlaktipologie, tot die instrument gevoeg word.

  4. A First Look at Harm Toward Animals by Bahamians in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fielding, William J.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first known study on childhood cruelty towards animals in The Bahamas. An internet survey involving 1,558 respondents allowed childhood cruelty, using the Children and Animals Inventory (CAI, to be investigated in the context of other violent behaviours in the child’s home. The homes of children who did no harm animals were less violent than the homes of children who harmed animals. Consistent with other studies, males were more likely to harm animals than females. Males were more likely than females to harm sentient animals. While the use of violence to train children was not associated with a higher CAI score, domestic violence and the presence of a gun in the home were associated with a higher CAI score. The implications of these findings as they relate to the treatment of living creatures are discussed.

  5. Cryptanalysis on a modified Baptista-type cryptosystem with chaotic masking algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yong; Liao Xiaofeng

    2005-01-01

    Based on chaotic masking algorithm, an enhanced Baptista-type cryptosystem is proposed by Li et al. to resist all known attacks [S. Li, X. Mou, Z. Ji, J. Zhang, Y. Cai, Phys. Lett. A 307 (2003) 22; S. Li, G. Chen, K.-W. Wong, X. Mou, Y. Cai, Phys. Lett. A 332 (2004) 368]. In this Letter, we show that the second class bit extracting function in [S. Li, X. Mou, Z. Ji, J. Zhang, Y. Cai, Phys. Lett. A 307 (2003) 22] still leak partial information on the current chaotic state and reduce the security of cryptosystem. So, this type bit extracting function is not a good candidate for the masking algorithm

  6. Using symptom and interference questionnaires to identify recovery among children with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rachel; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy

    2017-07-01

    Questionnaires are widely used in routine clinical practice to assess treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. This study was conducted to determine whether 2 widely used child and parent report questionnaires of child anxiety symptoms and interference (Spence Child Anxiety Scale [SCAS-C/P] and Child Anxiety Impact Scale [CAIS-C/P]) accurately identify recovery from common child anxiety disorder diagnoses as measured by a 'gold-standard' diagnostic interview. Three hundred thirty-seven children (7-12 years, 51% female) and their parents completed the ADIS-IV-C/P diagnostic interview and questionnaire measures (SCAS-C/P and CAIS-C/P) before (Time 1) and after (Time 2) treatment or wait-list. Time 2 parent reported interference (CAIS-P) was found to be a good predictor of absence of any diagnoses (area under the curve [AUC] = .81). In terms of specific diagnoses, Time 2 SCAS-C/P separation anxiety subscale (SCAS-C/P-SA) identified recovery from separation anxiety disorder well (SCAS-C-SA, AUC = .80; SCAS-P-SA, AUC = .82) as did the CAIS-P (AUC = .79). The CAIS-P also successfully identified recovery from social phobia (AUC = .78) and generalized anxiety disorder (AUC = .76). These AUC values were supported by moderate to good sensitivity (.70-.78) and specificity (.70-.73) at the best identified cut-off scores. None of the measures successfully identified recovery from specific phobia. The results suggest that questionnaire measures, particularly the CAIS-P, can be used to identify whether children have recovered from common anxiety disorders, with the exception of specific phobias. Cut-off scores have been identified that can guide the use of routine outcome measures in clinical practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Internet marketing directed at children on food and restaurant websites in two policy environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, M Potvin; Dubois, L; Kent, E A; Wanless, A J

    2013-04-01

    Food and beverage marketing has been associated with childhood obesity yet little research has examined the influence of advertising policy on children's exposure to food/beverage marketing on the Internet. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of Quebec's Consumer Protection Act and the self-regulatory Canadian Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CAI) on food manufacturer and restaurant websites in Canada. A content analysis of 147 French and English language food and restaurant websites was undertaken. The presence of child-directed content was assessed and an analysis of marketing features, games and activities, child protection features, and the promotion of healthy lifestyle messages was then examined on those sites with child-directed content. There were statistically no fewer French language websites (n = 22) with child-directed content compared to English language websites (n = 27). There were no statistically significant differences in the number of the various marketing features, or in the average number of marketing features between the English and French websites. There were no fewer CAI websites (n = 14) with child-directed content compared to non-CAI websites (n = 13). The CAI sites had more healthy lifestyle messages and child protection features compared to the non-CAI sites. Systematic surveillance of the Consumer Protection Act in Quebec is recommended. In the rest of Canada, the CAI needs to be significantly expanded or replaced by regulatory measures to adequately protect children from the marketing of foods/beverages high in fat, sugar, and sodium on the Internet. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  8. Role of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium in development of secondary calcium rise and early afterdepolarizations in long QT syndrome rabbit model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Cheng Chang

    Full Text Available L-type calcium current reactivation plays an important role in development of early afterdepolarizations (EADs and torsades de pointes (TdP. Secondary intracellular calcium (Cai rise is associated with initiation of EADs.To test whether inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR Ca2+ cycling suppresses secondary Cai rise and genesis of EADs.Langendorff perfusion and dual voltage and Cai optical mapping were conducted in 10 rabbit hearts. Atrioventricular block (AVB was created by radiofrequency ablation. After baseline studies, E4031, SR Ca2+ cycling inhibitors (ryanodine plus thapsigargin and nifedipine were then administrated subsequently, and the protocols were repeated.At baseline, there was no spontaneous or pacing-induced TdP. After E4031 administration, action potential duration (APD was significantly prolonged and the amplitude of secondary Cai rise was enhanced, and 7 (70% rabbits developed spontaneous or pacing-induced TdP. In the presence of ryanodine plus thapsigargin, TdP inducibility was significantly reduced (2 hearts, 20%, p = 0.03. Although APD was significantly prolonged (from 298 ± 30 ms to 457 ± 75 ms at pacing cycle length of 1000 m, p = 0.007 by ryanodine plus thapsigargin, the secondary Cai rise was suppressed (from 8.8 ± 2.6% to 1.2 ± 0.9%, p = 0.02. Nifedipine inhibited TdP inducibility in all rabbit hearts.In this AVB and long QT rabbit model, inhibition of SR Ca2+ cycyling reduces the inducibility of TdP. The mechanism might be suppression of secondary Cai rise and genesis of EADs.

  9. Intracellular calcium and the mechanism of anodal supernormal excitability in langendorff perfused rabbit ventricles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Boyoung; Park, Hyung-Wook; Maruyama, Mitsunori; Tang, Liang; Song, Juan; Han, Seongwook; Piccirillo, Gianfranco; Weiss, James N; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Anodal stimulation hyperpolarizes the cell membrane and increases the intracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(i)) transient. This study tested the hypothesis that the maximum slope of the Ca(i) decline (-(dCa(i)/dt)(max)) corresponds to the timing of anodal dip on the strength-interval curve and the initiation of repetitive responses and ventricular fibrillation (VF) after a premature stimulus (S(2)). We simultaneously mapped the membrane potential (V(m)) and Ca(i) in 23 rabbit ventricles. A dip in the anodal strength-interval curve was observed. During the anodal dip, ventricles were captured by anodal break excitation directly under the S(2) electrode. The Ca(i) following anodal stimuli is larger than that following cathodal stimuli. The S(1)-S(2) intervals of the anodal dip (203±10 ms) coincided with the -(dCa(i)/dt)(max) (199±10 ms, P=NS). BAPTA-AM (n=3), inhibition of the electrogenic Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger current (I(NCX)) by low extracellular Na(+) (n=3), and combined ryanodine and thapsigargin infusion (n=2) eliminated the anodal supernormality. Strong S(2) during the relative refractory period (n=5) induced 29 repetitive responses and 10 VF episodes. The interval between S(2) and the first non-driven beat was coincidental with the time of -(dCa(i)/dt)(max). Larger Ca(i) transient and I(NCX) activation induced by anodal stimulation produces anodal supernormality. The time of maximum I(NCX) activation is coincidental to the induction of non-driven beats from the Ca(i) sinkhole after a strong premature stimulation. All rights are reserved to the Japanese Circulation Society.

  10. Gait kinematics of subjects with ankle instability using a multisegmented foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, Roel; Willems, Tine; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Robinson, Mark; Pataky, Todd; Roosen, Philip

    2013-11-01

    Many patients who sustain an acute lateral ankle sprain develop chronic ankle instability (CAI). Altered ankle kinematics have been reported to play a role in the underlying mechanisms of CAI. In previous studies, however, the foot was modeled as one rigid segment, ignoring the complexity of the ankle and foot anatomy and kinematics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate stance phase kinematics of subjects with CAI, copers, and controls during walking and running using both a rigid and a multisegmented foot model. Foot and ankle kinematics of 77 subjects (29 subjects with self-reported CAI, 24 copers, and 24 controls) were measured during barefoot walking and running using a rigid foot model and a six-segment Ghent Foot Model. Data were collected on a 20-m-long instrumented runway embedded with a force plate and a six-camera optoelectronic system. Groups were compared using statistical parametric mapping. Both the CAI and the coper group showed similar differences during midstance and late stance compared with the control group (P foot segment showed a more everted position during walking compared with the control group. Based on the Ghent Foot Model, the rear foot also showed a more everted position during running. The medial forefoot showed a more inverted position for both running and walking compared with the control group. Our study revealed significant midstance and late stance differences in rigid foot, rear foot, and medial forefoot kinematics The multisegmented foot model demonstrated intricate behavior of the foot that is not detectable with rigid foot modeling. Further research using these models is necessary to expand knowledge of foot kinematics in subjects with CAI.

  11. Kinetic Compensations due to Chronic Ankle Instability during Landing and Jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Son, S Jun; Seeley, Matthew K; Hopkins, J Ty

    2018-02-01

    Skeletal muscles absorb and transfer kinetic energy during landing and jumping, which are common requirements of various forms of physical activity. Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is associated with impaired neuromuscular control and dynamic stability of the lower extremity. Little is known regarding an intralimb, lower-extremity joint coordination of kinetics during landing and jumping for CAI patients. We investigated the effect of CAI on lower-extremity joint stiffness and kinetic and energetic patterns across the ground contact phase of landing and jumping. One hundred CAI patients and 100 matched able-bodied controls performed five trials of a landing and jumping task (a maximal vertical forward jump, landing on a force plate with the test leg only, and immediate lateral jump toward the contralateral side). Functional analyses of variance and independent t-tests were used to evaluate between-group differences for lower-extremity net internal joint moment, power, and stiffness throughout the entire ground contact phase of landing and jumping. Relative to the control group, the CAI group revealed (i) reduced plantarflexion and knee extension and increased hip extension moments; (ii) reduced ankle and knee eccentric and concentric power, and increased hip eccentric and concentric power, and (iii) reduced ankle and knee joint stiffness and increased hip joint stiffness during the task. CAI patients seemed to use a hip-dominant strategy by increasing the hip extension moment, stiffness, and eccentric and concentric power during landing and jumping. This apparent compensation may be due to decreased capabilities to produce sufficient joint moment, stiffness, and power at the ankle and knee. These differences might have injury risk and performance implications.

  12. Prevalence of chronic ankle instability and associated symptoms in university dance majors: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Janet; Hall, Emily; Docherty, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations have established that dancers suffer a large number of injuries to the lower leg, foot, and ankle, with a portion of these being significant time loss injuries or in some cases career ending. Lateral ankle sprain is a common injury in dancers and can often lead to recurrent instability and repetitive injuries. Research in other active populations has linked ankle sprains to the development of chronic ankle instability (CAI). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of CAI and related symptoms of ankle sprain in a student dance population. Individuals were included if they were currently a modern or ballet dance major at the investigators' university (exclusion criterion: a history of fracture or surgery in the lower extremities). A self-reported demographic questionnaire and the Identification of Functional Ankle Instability survey were used to identify the presence and characteristics of CAI. A total of 83 questionnaires were collected, and after exclusions, 77 participants remained: 43 modern dancers and 34 ballet dancers (10 males and 67 females, mean age 19.61 ± 2.53 years, mean dance experience 13.61 ± 3.16 years). Of all dancers surveyed, 41 (53.2%) had CAI, and of those 24 (58.5%) were modern dancers, and 17 (41.5%) were ballet dancers. When looking only at those dancers who had a previous lateral ankle sprain, 75.9% were identified as having CAI. Chronic Ankle Instability can create long-term problems for anyone but especially female dancers, who place extreme stress on their feet and ankles from being en pointe or demi-pointe. It is important to educate dancers, instructors, and medical staff of the importance of recognizing CAI and seeking medical care for ankle sprains and their residual symptoms.

  13. [The application of new technologies to solving maths problems for students with learning disabilities: the 'underwater school'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Casas, A; Marco-Taverner, R; Soriano-Ferrer, M; Melià de Alba, A; Simó-Casañ, P

    2008-01-01

    Different procedures have demonstrated efficacy to teach cognitive and metacognitive strategies to problem solving in mathematics. Some studies have used computer-based problem solving instructional programs. To analyze in students with learning disabilities the efficacy of a cognitive strategies training for problem solving, with three instructional delivery formats: a teacher-directed program (T-D), a computer-assisted instructional (CAI) program, and a combined program (T-D + CAI). Forty-four children with mathematics learning disabilities, between 8 and 10 years old participated in this study. The children were randomly assigned to one of the three instructional formats and a control group without cognitive strategies training. In the three instructional conditions which were compared all the students learnt problems solving linguistic and visual cognitive strategies trough the self-instructional procedure. Several types of measurements were used for analysing the possible differential efficacy of the three instructional methods implemented: solving problems tests, marks in mathematics, internal achievement responsibility scale, and school behaviours teacher ratings. Our findings show that the T-D training group and the T-D + CAI group improved significantly on math word problem solving and on marks in Maths from pre- to post-testing. In addition, the results indicated that the students of the T-D + CAI group solved more real-life problems and developed more internal attributions compared to both control and CAI groups. Finally, with regard to school behaviours, improvements in school adjustment and learning problems were observed in the students of the group with a combined instructional format (T-D + CAI).

  14. Paradoxical effects of KB-R7943 on arrhythmogenicity in a chronic myocardial infarction rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Cheng; Wo, Hung-Ta; Lee, Hui-Ling; Wen, Ming-Shien; Chou, Chung-Chuan

    2015-07-01

    Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger blockade has been reported to be anti-arrhythmic in different models. The effects of KB-R7943, a Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger blocker, on arrhythmogenesis in hearts with chronic myocardial infarction (MI) remain unclear. Dual voltage and intracellular Ca(2+) (Cai) optical mapping was performed in nine rabbit hearts with chronic MI and four control hearts. Electrophysiology studies including inducibility of ventricular tachyarrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation dominant frequency, action potential, Cai alternans, Cai decay, and conduction velocity were performed. The same protocol was repeated in the presence of KB-R7943 (0.5, 1, and 5μM) after the baseline studies. KB-R7943 was effective in suppressing afterdepolarizations and spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias in hearts with chronic MI. Surprisingly, KB-R7943 increased the inducibility of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in a dose-dependent manner (11%, 11%, 22%, and 56% at baseline and with 0.5, 1, and 5μM KB-R7943, respectively, p=0.02). Optical mapping analysis revealed that the underlying mechanisms of the induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias were probably spatially discordant alternans with wave breaks and rotors. Further analysis showed that KB-R7943 significantly enhanced both action potential (p=0.033) and Cai (p=0.001) alternans, prolonged Cai decay (tau value) in a dose-dependent manner (p=0.004), and caused heterogeneous conduction delay especially at peri-infarct zones during rapid burst pacing. In contrast, KB-R7943 had insignificant effects in control hearts. In this chronic MI rabbit model, KB-R7943 has contrasting effects on arrhythmogenesis, suppressing afterdepolarizations and spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias, but enhancing the inducibility of tachyarrhythmias. The mechanism is probably the enhanced spatially discordant alternans because of prolonged Cai decay and heterogeneous conduction delay. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier

  15. Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: A Rare Case of Disorder of Sex Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsa Pizzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS could be considered as a disease that causes resistance to androgens actions, influencing both the morphogenesis and differentiation of the body structures, and systems in which this hormone exerts its effects. It depends on an X-linked mutations in the Androgen Receptor (AR gene that express a variety of phenotypes ranging from male infertility to completely normal female external genitalia. The clinical phenotypes of AIS could vary and be classified into three categories, as complete (CAIS, partial (PAIS, and mild (MAIS forms, according to the severity of androgen resistance. We will describe a case of CAIS in a 16-year-old patient.

  16. Impact Characteristics of Candidate Materials for Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SSTO) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Four fiber/resin systems were compared for resistance to damage and damage tolerance. One toughened epoxy and three toughened bismaleimide (BMI) resins were used., all with IM7 carbon fiber reinforcement. A statistical design of experiments technique was used to evaluate the effects of impact energy, specimen thickness and tup diameter on the damage area and residual compression-after-impact (CAI) strength. Results showed that two of the BMI systems sustained relatively large damage areas yet had an excellent retention of CAI strength.

  17. Controlled air incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume I. Rationale, process, equipment, performance, and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuls, A.S.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-11-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities

  18. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume I. Rationale, process, equipment, performance, and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuls, A.S.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawing, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities

  19. Recent developments on models and inclusion criteria for chronic ankle instability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songning; Zhang

    2012-01-01

    <正>In the most recent report of injury data on 15 sports from the U.S.National Collegiate Athletic Association(NCAA) Injury Surveillance System over a span of 16 years (1988-2004),ankle ligament sprains were the most common injury.Residual symptoms such as recurrent sprains,pain, instability,and giving way are common after an initial,acute ligament sprain.Chronic ankle instability(CAI) is one of these common problems,and has enjoyed increased interest in the recent literature.However,CAI remains a poorly-defined and understood condition.

  20. Lessons Learned from the ECML/PKDD Discovery Challenge on the Atherosclerosis Risk Factors Data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berka, Petr; Rauch, Jan; Tomečková, Marie

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2007), s. 329-344 ISSN 1335-9150 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014; GA ČR GA201/05/0325 Grant - others:GA VŠE(CZ) 25/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : atherosclerosis risk * data mining * discovery challenge Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.349, year: 2007 http://www.cai.sk/ojs/index.php/cai/article/view/313

  1. Controlled air incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design references manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-11-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities

  2. The computer aided education and training system for accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Kubota, Ryuji; Fujiwara, Tadashi; Sakuma, Hitoshi

    1999-01-01

    The education and training system for Accident Management was developed by the Japanese BWR group and Hitachi Ltd. The education and training system is composed of two systems. One is computer aided instruction (CAI) education system and the education and training system with computer simulations. Both systems are designed to be executed on personal computers. The outlines of the CAI education system and the education and training system with simulator are reported below. These systems provides plant operators and technical support center staff with the effective education and training for accident management. (author)

  3. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-10-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  4. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume I. Rationale, process, equipment, performance, and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuls, A.S.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawing, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0677 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0677 ref|NP_055456.2| mediator of DNA-damage checkpoint 1 [Homo sapien...tor with BRCT domains 1 emb|CAI17440.1| mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAI18195.1| mediator... of DNA damage checkpoint 1 [Homo sapiens] gb|EAX03321.1| mediator of DNA ...damage checkpoint 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAQ06814.1| mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAQ06770.1| mediator... of DNA damage checkpoint 1 [Homo sapiens] emb|CAQ07572.1| mediator of DNA damage checkpoi

  6. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  7. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume II. Engineering design reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-10-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawings, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities

  8. Damage tolerance of candidate thermoset composites for use on single stage to orbit vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Lance, D.; Hodge, A.

    1994-01-01

    Four fiber/resin systems were compared for resistance to damage and damage tolerance. One toughened epoxy and three toughened bismaleimide (BMI) resins were used, all with IM7 carbon fiber reinforcement. A statistical design of experiments technique was used to evaluate the effects of impact energy, specimen thickness, and impactor diameter on the damage area, as computed by C-scans, and residual compression-after-impact (CAI) strength. Results showed that two of the BMI systems sustained relatively large damage zones yet had an excellent retention of CAI strength.

  9. Steering committee for the management of the post-accidental phase of a nuclear accident or of a radiological situation (CODIRPA). Validated report of the 'Public reception and information Centre' work group - December 2011. Work document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    As previous works performed by the CODIRPA proposed the creation of Centres for public reception and information (CAIs) within the population protection area, and as local groups have been created in three districts (Vienne, Haut-Rhin, Drome) to work on the preparation of the implementation of such centres, this report proposes a synthesis of these previous works, examines the doctrine related to the support to victims of collective accidents by the ministry of interior and by the ministry of justice, and finally makes recommendations and proposals for the implementation of CAIs in a post-accidental situation

  10. Radioimmunoassay of rat carbonic anhydrases I and II. Application to central nervous system during ontogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limozin, Nicole; Filippi, Danielle; Dalmasso, Christiane; Laurent, Georgette

    1979-01-01

    A specific radioimmunoassay method for rat erythrocyte carbonic anhydrases I and II was developed using a double antibody system. Its sensitivity was in the nanogram range for each of the two isozymes. The method has been applied to the assay of cerebral carbonic anhydrase. Only CAII has been found in brain extracts of perfused rats. Accordingly, the assay of CAI in cerebral tissue can be used to quantify erythrocyte contamination on condition that the ratio CAII/CAI in blood had been worked out. The developmental change in the soluble and the Triton X-100 solubilized brain CAII from birth to adult is reported [fr

  11. La lógica interna y los dominios de acción motriz de las situaciones motrices de expresión (SME (The internal logic and action domain of motor skills in motor expression situations (MES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Coelho Bortoleto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: La expresión está presente en la cotidianeidad corporal (cuerpo vivenciado, en la codificación comunicativa (cuerpo lenguaje y su máxima especialización la constituyen las prácticas artísticas (cuerpo escénico. Luego, la dimensión expresiva está implícita en todas las prácticas motrices, y de forma explícita, es en las situaciones motrices de expresión donde la eficacia práxica de la acción queda supeditada a la eficacia expresiva de la misma. El presente ensayo tiene como objetivo desvelar los objetivos motores y los rasgos dominantes que caracterizan la lógica interna de las situaciones motrices de expresión2 (SME. Una vez reconocidos los rasgos estructurales que caracterizan esta familia de situaciones motrices nos proponemos ubicarlas en los distintos dominios de acción motriz (CAI propuestos por Parlebas (2001. Las reflexiones presentadas en esta ocasión indican que las SME se extienden desde aquellas en las que el objetivo es la forma pura del movimiento en sí misma, en que las propias acciones son El mensaje (función poética, hasta situaciones en que la forma remite a un tema, a una referencia externa (función referencial, abarcando un amplio abanico de prácticas que van desde la espontaneidad a la máxima codificación. Situaciones motrices que se caracterizan por una intencionalidad expresiva-comunicativa (de alteralidad. Observamos que las SME pueden tener una naturaleza psicomotriz y/o sociomotriz cooperativa, y pueden desarrollarse tanto en un medio estable como inestable (con incertidumbre informacional. Por lo tanto, estas prácticas pueden ocupar cuatro de los ocho subdominios de la clasificación parlebasiana de las prácticas motrices. Finalmente, vislumbramos la necesidad de conformar um subdominio específico para estas prácticas que permita agruparlas y distinguirlas de las demás, considerando su naturaleza expresiva.Abstract: Expression exists in everyday corporal action (live body, in

  12. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (16th, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, November 5-8, 1994). Volume 2: Research Papers, Oral Reports, and Posters (Continued).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshner, David, Ed.

    This PME-NA proceedings volume contains the full text of 41 research papers. In addition, brief usually one-page reports, are provided for 11 oral presentations and 13 poster sessions. The full research reports are as follows: "Cognitive Analysis of Chinese Students' Mathematical Problem Solving" (J. Cai and E. A. Silver); (2)…

  13. Using Virtual Reality with and without Gaming Attributes for Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jennifer J.; Greenwood-Ericksen, Adams; Cannon-Bowers, Jan; Bowers, Clint A.

    2006-01-01

    A subcategory of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), games have additional attributes such as motivation, reward, interactivity, score, and challenge. This study used a quasi-experimental design to determine if previous findings generalize to non simulation-based game designs. Researchers observed significant improvement in the overall population…

  14. JB_518_ESM.doc

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jian Zeng and Shunv Cai. J. Biosci. 42(1), March 2017 © Indian Academy of Sciences. Supplementary material. Supplementary figure 1. Overexpression of miR-7 enhanced A549 cell apoptosis in response to BVP (100 µM). A TUNEL assay was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions (Promega Corporation, ...

  15. The Motivational Effects of Types of Computer Feedback on Children's Learning and Retention of Relational Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour-Thomas, Eleanor; And Others

    The effects of different types of feedback in computer assisted instruction (CAI) on relational concept learning by young children were compared in this study. Subjects were 89 kindergarten students whose primary language was English, and whose performance on the Boehm Test of Basic Concepts was within the average range chosen from classes in a…

  16. Erratum: Back reaction, emission spectrum and entropy spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qing-Quan; Cai, Xu

    2012-06-01

    In our paper [Qing-Quan Jiang and Xu Cai, Back reaction, emission spectrum and entropy spectroscopy, JHEP 11 (2010) 066], there was an error in using the first law of black hole thermodynamic and the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule. In this erratum, we attempt to rectify them.

  17. Enhanced Thermal Transport of Surfaces with Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    resistance conferred by superhydrophobic fluorinated polyacrylate-silica composite coatings on cold-rolled steel. Journal of Applied Polymer Science... thiolates on metals as a form of nanotechnology. ChemInform. 2005:36. doi: 10.1002/chin.200532281. 9. Chen C-H, Cai Q, Tsai C, Chen C-L, Xiong G

  18. Plasmonic and Magnetically Responsive Gold ShellMagnetic Nanorod Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-10

    including bio -targeting/sensing,1,2 structural enhancement/health monitoring,3,4 and energy harvesting/storage.5,6 Typical approaches to achieve...Mirshahghassemi S, Ebner AD, Cai B, Lead JR, Application of high gradient magnetic separation for oil remediation using polymer-coated magnetic

  19. Effective methods of teaching and learning in anatomy as a basic science: A BEME systematic review: BEME guide no. 44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losco, C Dominique; Grant, William D; Armson, Anthony; Meyer, Amanda J; Walker, Bruce F

    2017-03-01

    Anatomy is a subject essential to medical practice, yet time committed to teaching is on the decline, and resources required to teach anatomy is costly, particularly dissection. Advances in technology are a potential solution to the problem, while maintaining the quality of teaching required for eventual clinical application. To identify methods used to teach anatomy, including those demonstrated to enhance knowledge acquisition and retention. PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC, Academic OneFile, ProQuest, SAGE journals and Scopus were search from the earliest entry of each database to 31 August 2015. All included articles were assessed for methodological quality and low quality articles were excluded from the study. Studies were evaluated by assessment scores, qualitative outcomes where included as well as a modified Kirkpatrick model. A total of 17,820 articles were initially identified, with 29 included in the review. The review found a wide variety of teaching interventions represented in the range of studies, with CAI/CAL studies predominating in terms of teaching interventions, followed by simulation. In addition to this, CAI/CAL and simulation studies demonstrated better results overall compared to traditional teaching methods and there is evidence to support CAI/CAL as a partial replacement for dissection or a valuable tool in conjunction with dissection. This review provides evidence in support of the use of alternatives to traditional teaching methods in anatomy, in particular, the use of CAI/CAL with a number of high quality, low risk of bias studies supporting this.

  20. KAPSE (Kernel ADA Programming Support Environment) Interface Team Public Report. Volume 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    terination of a child . It was pointed out, .howmver, that CAIS processes are closely analogous to Ada programs, which may include nwiny tasks, so this...NMlc)) - Write a single haractesr end cojp; end PM;/ 5.3.8.10 Easing a qualified area pr~zocedueRSEA( PORN : in ont PO TYP); Purposes This procedure