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Sample records for caesalpinia spinosa kuntze

  1. Ocurrencia de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa Meyrick (1909 (Lepidoptero: Tortricidae en Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina Kuntze Britton & Rose (1824

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    Hipólito Murga Orrillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Los derivados de las vainas de tara (Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina Kuntze Britton & Rose (1824, presentan crecientes demandas industriales. En octubre del 2015 en la provincia de San Marcos, región Cajamarca, se verificó la ocurrencia de ataque de Argyrotaenia aphaleropa Meyrick (1909 a vainas de tara, produciendo daños directos, interfiriendo en su desarrollo y crecimiento, depreciando comercialmente el producto, generando restricciones en las exportaciones; por lo que esta plaga demanda su manejo integrado para disminuir la incidencia y evitar el ingreso a otras regiones libres de ataques.

  2. In vitro propagation of Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. O. Kuntz from axillary buds of selected trees

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    Jenny E Núñez Núñez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Guarango or tara [Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. O. Kuntz] is a tree native to the Andes, with great economic importance and for reforestation programs. The aim of this work was to in vitro propagate this specie from axillary buds of selected trees. During in vitro establishment, the effect of sodium hypochlorite (3.0% with different times of disinfection (5.0, 10, 15 min, as well as the effect of 6-BAP on the in vitro response of buds were studied. For multiplication, different combination of 6-BAP with 0.1 mg l-1 ANA were tested. A free-growth regulator culture medium was used for rooting. The best results for in vitro establishment were achieved with a disinfection treatment with sodium hypochlorite 3.0% for 10 minutes and cultivation in a culture medium with 0.25 mg l-1 6-BAP, which 90% of buds in vitro established, with a length of 6.71 cm. The highest multiplication rate of shoot (2.88 per explant was obtained with 1.0 mg l-1 6-BAP and 0.1 mg l-1 ANA, after 60 days of culture. The 55% of these shoots developed roots in a half-strength basal salts MS culture medium free of regulators of growth.   Keywords: biodiversity, conservation, forest plant, guarango, tissue culture

  3. A gallotannin-rich fraction from Caesalpinia spinosa (Molina) Kuntze displays cytotoxic activity and raises sensitivity to doxorubicin in a leukemia cell line.

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    Castañeda, Diana M; Pombo, Luis Miguel; Urueña, Claudia Patricia; Hernandez, John Fredy; Fiorentino, Susana

    2012-04-10

    Enhancement of tumor cell sensitivity may help facilitate a reduction in drug dosage using conventional chemotherapies. Consequently, it is worthwhile to search for adjuvants with the potential of increasing chemotherapeutic drug effectiveness and improving patient quality of life. Natural products are a very good source of such adjuvants. The biological activity of a fraction enriched in hydrolysable polyphenols (P2Et) obtained from Caesalpinia spinosa was evaluated using the hematopoietic cell line K562. This fraction was tested alone or in combination with the conventional chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide, camptothecin and taxol. The parameters evaluated were mitochondrial depolarization, caspase 3 activation, chromatin condensation and clonogenic activity. We found that the P2Et fraction induced mitochondrial depolarization, activated caspase 3, induced chromatin condensation and decreased the clonogenic capacity of the K562 cell line. When the P2Et fraction was used in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs at sub-lethal concentrations, a fourfold reduction in doxorubicin inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) was seen in the K562 cell line. This finding suggested that P2Et fraction activity is specific for the molecular target of doxorubicin. Our results suggest that a natural fraction extracted from Caesalpinia spinosa in combination with conventional chemotherapy in combination with natural products on leukemia cells may increase therapeutic effectiveness in relation to leukemia.

  4. Textile wastewater biocoagulation by Caesalpinia spinosa extracts

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    Andrés Revelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/12/06 - Accepted: 2015/03/24The textile industry in Ecuador is still a matter of concern because of the inappropriate disposal of their effluents into the local water supply. The present research was carried out in Pelileo (Tungurahua-Ecuador where textile wastewaters are discharged into waterways. An environmentally friendly solution to treat highly contaminated organic textile wastewaters is herein evaluated: a remediation process of biocoagulation was performed using extracts from the Caesalpinia spinosa plant also known as guarango or tara. It was determined that using C. spinosa extracts to treat wastewater has the same statistical effect as when applying a chemical coagulant (polyaluminum chloride 15%. Activated zeolite adsorbed color residuals from treated water to obtain turbidity removal more than 90%. A mathematical model showed that turbidity removal between 50-90% can be obtained by applying 25-45 g/L of guarango extracts and zeolite per 700 mL of textile wastewater. The natural coagulation using C. spinosa extracts produced 85% less sludge than polyaluminum chloride, and removed high organic matter content in the wastewater (1050 mg/L by 52%.

  5. Efecto antibacteriano in vitro de diferentes concentraciones del extracto etan??lico de Caesalpinia spinosa (tara) frente a Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668

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    AUTOR: Centuri??n Villar, Karina Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el efecto antibacteriano in vitro del extracto etan??lico de Caesalpinia Spinosa (Tara) sobre Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668. La muestra estuvo conformada por 64 observaciones, distribuidas en 4 grupos de 4 placas Petri cada uno, en cada placa se coloc?? el porcentaje de concentraci??n de estudio, frente a tres controles: control positivo (Clorhexidina al 0.12%), control negativo (Etanol) y un porcentaje de concentraci??n similar (para comp...

  6. Estudio de factibilidad para la implementación de una finca productora de guaranga (Caesalpinia spinosa) en el sector San Guillermo, Imbabura, Ecuador 2014.

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    Arteaga Rodríguez, Byron Apolinario

    2015-01-01

    The Ecuador by geography is rich in flora fauna country, same to be exploited in different areas. The rich Ecuadorian soil is one of the key factors to promote the development of agricultural projects, benefiting sectors of popular economy, where agriculture is the main income source. The guarango (Caesalpinia spinosa) is a wild plant which are harvested pods and nuggets, which since ancient times they were used as plant input - natural in the method of tanning leather to waterproof Pondos...

  7. Cytogenetic characterization of Caesalpinia spinosafrom Tarma and Palca (Junín

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    Alberto López

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Caesalpinia spinosa (Feuillée ex Molina Kuntze, “Tara”, wild populations of Huinco and Palca (Junín regions were studied. The specie were diploid (2n=24. Chromosomes were small. The karyotypes showed the same chromosome number, they found differences in morphological parameters of the same, with the karyotype formula for the town of Huinco: 6m + 6 sm and the town of Palca: 5m + 7 sm.

  8. EFECTO INHIBIDOR DEL EXTRACTO ETANÓLICO DE CAESALPINIA SPINOSA (TAYA) EN COMPARACIÓN A HIDRÓXIDO DE CALCIO, PARAMONOCLOROFENOL ALCANFORADO Y CLORHEXIDINA EN GEL AL 2%, SOBRE CEPAS DE ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS. ESTUDIO IN VITRO

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    FLORES ARMAS, CINTYA LISET

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to compare the inhibitory effect in vitro of the etanolic extract Caesalpinia spinosa (taya) to calcium hidroxide, camphorated paramonochlorophenol, and 2% chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis. The susceptibility test was made, using the method of dissemination in discs. The strains os e. faecalis were sown in plates containing culture médium Mueller Hinton, and placed discs with differents concentrations of etanolic extract, calcium hidroxide...

  9. Biological aspects and control of a Gracillariidae (Gracillariidae: Lepidoptera in Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. Kuntze (1898, in Cajamarca, Peru

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    Hipólito Murga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Determine biological target, identify natural enemies, and establish appropriate periods of controlling a pest gracillariid tare. The biological aspects and natural enemies in field and laboratory were evaluated, appropriate control periods was determined by host-pest interaction. The results, egg lasts 7.8 days and measured 0.34x0.21 mm; presents four instars larvae and lasts 35.7 days, ranging from measures between 1st and the 4th instar from 0.09 to 0.65 mm diameter brain; the pupa lasts 14.3 days and measured 6.7mmx1.1mm; adult takes 7.5 days and measured 13.43 mm wingspan. Presents natural enemies, family Encyrtidae, Ichneumonidae, and genres Chelonus sp., Chrysoperla sp., Hemerobius sp., Cicloneda sp., Hippodamia sp., and Zelus spp. The best times control occur when the phenology of the tara is between R3.1 to R3.3 and R4 to R6.

  10. Efeito inibitório do extrato hexânico dos folíolos de Caesalpinia spinosa em Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329 Inhibitory effect of Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets crude extract on Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329

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    Júlio César Miranda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrato hexânico foi obtido dos folíolos do falso pau-brasil (Caesalpinia spinosa e incorporado em BDA (batata-dextrose-ágar, obtendo-se as concentrações de 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 e 16179 mg L-1. Foi avaliado o crescimento micelial de Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda. Os resultados mostraram o efeito inibitório do extrato em porcentagens variáveis de 3,95% a 32,20% para P. tarda e de 7,29% a 33,83% para F. solani, conforme as doses crescentes do extrato, cuja fungitoxidade evidencia seu potencial alternativo aos métodos físicos e químicos de controle da fusariose em vários cultivos e mancha de Phoma no cafeeiroIn order to evaluate the plant extract effect on the in vitro growth of Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda, hexane crude extract from spiny holdback (Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets was obtained and incorporated into potato-dextrose-agar (PDA at 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 and 16179 mg L-1 concentrations. The hexane crude extract inhibited mycelial growth at the range of 3,95% to 32,20% of P. tarda and 7,29% to 33,83% of F. solani, according to the extract concentration. It was demonstrated that the extract has antifungal activity and might be an alternative to physical or chemical control methods of fusariosis disease in several cultivations and of Phoma spot on coffee plant leaf

  11. Aspectos biológicos y control de un gracilláriido (Gracillariidae: Lepidóptera en Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. Kuntze (1898, en Cajamarca, Perú

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    Hipólito Murga Orrillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se tuvo por objetivo determinar aspectos biológicos, identificar enemigos naturales, y establecer periodos oportunos de control de un gracillariido plaga de tara. Los aspectos biológicos y los enemigos naturales se evaluaron en campo y en laboratorio, los periodos oportunos de control se determinó por interacción hospedero - plaga. Los resultados, el huevo dura 7,8 días y mide 0,34x0,21mm; la larva presenta 4 instares y dura 35,7 días, variando de medidas entre 1 o y 4 o instar de 0,09 a 0,65 mm de diámetro de encéfalo ; la pupa dura 14,3 días y mide 6,7mmx1,1mm ; el adulto dura 7,5 días y mide 13,43 mm de expansión alar. Presenta enemigos naturales, familias Encyrtidae, Ichneumonidae, y géneros Chelonus sp., Chrysoperla sp., Hemerobius sp., Cicloneda sp . , Hipodamia sp., y Zelus spp. Las mejores épocas de control ocurren cuando la fenología de la tara est á entre R3.1 a R4 y R3.3 a R6.

  12. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

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    María Gabriela Gallego; Gordon, Michael H.; Francisco Segovia; María Pilar Almajano Pablos

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts...

  13. Capparis spinosa

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    Chedraoui, Stephanie; Abi-Rizk, Alain; El-Beyrouthy, Marc; Chalak, Lamis; Ouaini, Naim; Rajjou, Loïc

    2017-01-01

    Caper ( Capparis spinosa L.) is a xerophytic shrub with a remarkable adaptability to harsh environments. This plant species is of great interest for its medicinal/pharmacological properties and its culinary uses. Its phytochemical importance relies on many bioactive components present in different organs and its cultivation can be of considerable economic value. Moreover, taxonomic identification of C. spinosa L. has been difficult due to its wide heterogeneity, and many authors fell into confusion due to the scarcity of genetic studies. The present review summarizes information concerning C. spinosa L. including agronomic performance, botanical description, taxonomical approaches, traditional pharmacological uses, phytochemical evaluation and genetic studies. This knowledge represents an important tool for further research studies and agronomic development on this indigenous species with respect to the emerging climatic change in the Eastern Mediterranean countries. Indeed, this world region is particularly under the threat of global warming and it appears necessary to rethink agricultural systems to adapt them to current and futures challenging environmental conditions. Capparis spinosa L. could be a part of this approach. So, this review presents a state of the art considering caper as a potential interesting crop under arid or semi-arid regions (such as Eastern Mediterranean countries) within the climate change context. The aim is to raise awareness in the scientific community (geneticists, physiologists, ecophysiologists, agronomists, …) about the caper strengths and interest to the development of this shrub as a crop.

  14. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

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    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H.; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food. PMID:27043638

  15. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties.

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    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-03-31

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa "Tara" (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  16. Quercetin triglycoside from Capparis spinosa.

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    Sharaf, M; el-Ansari, M A; Saleh, N A

    2000-02-01

    In addition to rutin, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-glucoside-7-O-rhamnoside, the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Capparis spinosa yielded the new flavonoid quercetin 3-O-[6'"-alpha-L-rhamnosyl-6"-beta-D-glucosyl]-beta-D-glucoside (1).

  17. Triterpenoid saponins from Argania spinosa.

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    Charrouf, Z; Wieruszeski, J M; Fkih-Tetouani, S; Leroy, Y; Charrouf, M; Fournet, B

    1992-06-01

    Five new oleanane saponins named arganine A, B, D, E and F and two known saponins: arganine C and mi-saponin A were isolated from the kernel of Argania spinosa. The structures of these saponins were elucidated by using 1H NMR, 1H-1H COSY NMR, 13C NMR, FAB mass spectrometry and chemical evidence.

  18. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

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    María Gabriela Gallego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p < 0.05. Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  19. Pharmacological Properties of Capparis spinosa Linn

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    Moufid A; Farid O; Eddouks, M

    2015-01-01

    Capparis spinosa Linn. (Capparaceae) was traditionally used for pharmacological purposes and has potential for use in modern cosmetics. This review aims to assess the current available knowledge of Capparis spinosa and its constituents for management of several diseases. Bibliographic investigation was carried out by scrutinizing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases (SCOPUS, PUBMED, SCIENCE DIRECT, Google Scholar...

  20. Dynamic assessment of Capparis spinosa buds on survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dynamic assessment of Capparis spinosa buds on survival of periodontal ligament cells using a real‑time cell analysis method. ... Results: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (control) and C. spinosa groups had significantly higher cell index values compared with the HBSS and light milk (P < 0.05). Although, C. spinosa ...

  1. Chemical Constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston

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    Song Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study targets the chemical constituents of Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston and investigates the bioactivities of the isolated compounds. Fourteen known compounds were isolated using column chromatography, and structural identification was performed by physical and spectral analyses. The biological activities of the compounds were also evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT and 2,2-diphenlyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assays. Emodin (6, baicalein (9, and apigenin (12 displayed antitumor activities against the MGC-803 cell line, while quercetin (2, rutin (5, baicalein (9, and epicatechin (13 showed stronger DPPH scavenging activities compared with ascorbic acid. Andrographolide (1, quercetin (2, bergenin (4, rutin (5, emodin (6, betulin (7, baicalein (9, polydatin (10, salicin (11, and apigenin (12, were obtained from C. decapetala (Roth Alston for the first time.

  2. El Arquitecto Juan de Madrazo y Kuntz

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    Navascués Palacio, Pedro

    1985-01-01

    En el panorama de la arquitectura isabelina y procedente de la primera promoción de la Escuela de Arquitectura de Madrid, ocupa un lugar destacado Juan de Madrazo y Kuntz (1829-1880), hijo de José de Madrazo y hermano de Federico, Pedro y Luis de Madrazo. Su vida y obra resultan exiguas, tanto por el corto número de años alcanzados como por los escasos proyectos que llegó a realizar. Mas aquí radica uno de los secretos de la singularidad de su obra, pues ésta deja ver siempre un grado de madu...

  3. Karyomorphology and karyotype asymmetry in the South American Caesalpinia species (Leguminosae and Caesalpinioideae).

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    Rodrigues, P S; Souza, M M; Corrêa, R X

    2014-10-20

    With the purpose of addressing the pattern of karyotype evolution in Caesalpinia species, chromosome morphology was characterized in five species from Brazil, and karyotypic asymmetry was analyzed in 14 species from South America. All accessions had the chromosome number 2n = 24, which was first described here for Caesalpinia laxiflora Tul. and Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. The karyotype formula of C. laxiflora, Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul., and C. macrophyllum was 12 m. The formula varies amongst the populations of Caesalpinia bracteosa Tul. (11 m + 1 sm) and Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (10 m + 2 sm and 9 m + 3 sm). The intra- and interspecific variations in chromosome length were significant (analysis of variance, P karyotype (AI = 10.52), whereas Caesalpinia paraguarienses (D. Parodi) Burkat. and Caesalpinia gilliesii (Hook.) Benth. had the most symmetrical karyotypes (AI = 0.91 and 1.10, respectively). There has been a trend to lower AI values for the Caesalpinia s.l. species assigned in Libidibia and intermediate values for those combined into Poincianella. On the other hand, the karyotypes of Erythrostemon species had extremely different AI values. This study confirms the existence of karyotype variability in Caesalpinia s.l. while revealing a possible uniformity of this trait in some of the new genera that are being divided from Caesalpinia s.l. More broadly, the 2n = 24 chromosome number is conserved. Metacentric chromosomes and low AI values predominate among Caesalpinia s.l. and Cenostigma.

  4. Pharmacological Effects of Capparis spinosa L.

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    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Maggi, Filippo; Daglia, Maria; Habtemariam, Solomon; Rastrelli, Luca; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Medicinal plants have been known as one of the most important therapeutic agents since ancient times. During the last two decades, much attention has been paid to the health-promoting effects of edible medicinal plants, because of multiple beneficial effects and negligible adverse effects. Capparis spinosa L. is one of the most common medicinal plants, used widely in different parts of the world to treat numerous human diseases. This paper aims to critically review the available scientific literature regarding the health-promoting effects of C. spinosa, its traditional uses, cultivation protocols and phytochemical constituents. Recently, a wide range of evidence has shown that this plant possesses different biological effects, including antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial effects. Phytochemical analysis shows that C. spinosa has high quantities of bioactive constituents, including polyphenolic compounds, which are responsible for its health-promoting effects, although many of these substances are present in low concentrations and significant changes in their content occur during processing. In addition, there is negligible scientific evidence regarding any adverse effects. Different health promotion activities, as well as tremendous diversity of active constituents, make C. spinosa a good candidate for discovering new drugs. However these findings are still in its infancy and future experimental and clinical studies are needed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Immunomodulatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds.

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    Shukla, Shruti; Mehta, Archana; John, Jinu; Mehta, Pradeep; Vyas, Suresh Prasad; Shukla, Savita

    2009-09-07

    Caesalpinia bonducella FLEMING (Caesalpiniaceae) is a plant well known for its medicinal value in Indian Ayurveda. However, to prove its efficiency for the clinical utilization, more experimental data will be beneficial. The present study involved the investigation of immunomodulatory activities of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds. Neutrophil adhesion test, haemagglutinating antibody (HA) titre, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, phagocytic activity and cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression were determined by in vivo experiments. The evaluation of immunomodulatory potential by oral administration of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (200-500 mg/kg) evoked a significant increase in percent neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibers as well as a dose-dependent increase in antibody titre values, and potentiated the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells. Also it prevented myelosuppression in cyclophosphamide drug treated rats and good response towards phagocytosis in carbon clearance assay. The results obtained in this study indicate that Caesalpinia bonducella possesses potential immunomodulatory activity and has therapeutic potential for the prevention of autoimmune diseases.

  6. A New Diterpenoid from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn

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    Yong-Jiang Xu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new cassane-type d iterpene, named Phangininoxy A (1 and one known Phanginin A (2 were isolated from the exact of seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR.

  7. Flavonoids content in extracts secang (Caesalpinia Sappan L. maceration method infundation analysis and visible ultraviolet spectrophotometer

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    Youstiana Dwi Rusita

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Secang (Caesalpinia sappan L has a component of a chemical compound essential oils, flavonoids, benzopyran, sapanin, brazilin, caesalpin S, caesalpin P, sapanon A, sapanon B. Flavonoids are chemical components that can be used in medical and industrial fields. This study aimed to determine the levels of flavonoids contained in extracts secang results maceration and extraction methods infundation. This study used quantitative and descriptive research design. This study using purposive sampling with two sample of Caesalpinia sappan L extract result of infundation and maceration. Analysis using univariate analysis. This study shows that there are types of flavonoids flavones, flavonols and flavanols on extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L results maceration method, and there are flavonoid types of flavones, flavonols and flavanols on extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L results infundation method. Flavonoid content test results showed that the levels of flavonoids in extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L results maceration 0.0539% whereas the levels of flavonoids in the extract of Caesalpinia sappan L results infundation methods 0.1902%. Necessary standardization of botanicals Caesalpinia sappan L to determine the levels of flavonoids using ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer, and the analysis of the levels of flavonoids in the extract of Caesalpinia sappan L using different solvents. As a follow-up is necessary to design the manufacture of dosage formulations of the active ingredient flavanoid compounds from the extract of Caesalpinia sappan L.

  8. Antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) pods in vitro and in model food emulsions.

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    Skowyra, Monika; Falguera, Víctor; Gallego, Gabriela; Peiró, Sara; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-03-30

    The successful replacement of some synthetic food antioxidants by safe natural antioxidants has fostered intensive search for new vegetable sources of antioxidants. In our study the phenol and flavonoid content of extracts of tara pods was determined. The antioxidant activity was also studied by three different analytical assays: the measurement of scavenging capacity against a radical ABTS⁺ , the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). All analyzed samples showed a good antioxidant capacity, but the use of a solution of ethanol 75% in a 1 h ultrasonic process allowed achieving the greatest quantity of phenolics (0.464 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g⁻¹ dry weight (DW) ) and the highest antioxidant activity measured by the ABTS⁺ and ORAC methods (10.17 and 4.29 mmol L⁻¹ Trolox equivalents (TE) g⁻¹ DW, respectively). The best method for efficient extraction of flavonoids (3.08 mg catechin equivalent (CE) g⁻¹ DW) was a 24 h maceration in cold water. Two extracts obtained with ethanol 75% and water were added to a model food system (oil-in-water emulsion) and the oxidative stability was studied during storage at 38 °C. Oxidation was monitored by determination of the peroxide value. The addition of 48 µg mL⁻¹ ethanol extract to the emulsion delayed oxidation to the same extent as 17.8 µg mL⁻¹ of Trolox, while water extract was only effective in the early stages of the oxidation process. The results of this study indicate that ethanolic tara extracts may be suitable for use in food, cosmetic and nutraceutical applications. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Test de germination des graines de Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La présente étude a pour objectif d'évaluer la germination des graines de deux provenances (Ouèdo/Bénin et Atakpamè/Togo) de Caesalpinia bonduc sur différents types de substrats (terreau chauffé, terreau traité aux fongicide et insecticide-nématicide et terreau non traité). Pour chacune des provenances, deux lots de ...

  10. Phenolic compounds and vitamin antioxidants of caper (Capparis spinosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Nizar; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Triki, Saida; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2010-09-01

    Capparis spinosa shows strong resistance to the adverse Mediterranean conditions and it has nutritional and medicinal value. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contents of total phenolic compounds, rutin, tocopherols, carotenoids and vitamin C in leaves and flower buds of C. spinosa from different locations in Tunisia. Results showed the richness of caper with these compounds, especially phenolic compounds. Interestingly, it was also found the presence of both α- and γ-tocopherol in buds. Moreover, C. spinosa contained an appreciable level of vitamin C. The significant amounts of these antioxidants confirm the nutritional and medicinal value of caper.

  11. A new antioxidant compound from Capparis spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Wang, Changhong; Liu, Hongjuan; Chou, Guixin; Cheng, Xuemei; Wang, Zhengtao

    2010-05-01

    An activity-directed fractionation and purification process was used to isolate 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH*) scavenging components from fruits of Capparis spinosa L. (Capparaeae). Ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions showed greater DPPH* scavenging activities compared to the petroleum ether fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to purification using column chromatography. A new antioxidant cappariside (4-hydroxy-5-methylfuran-3-carboxylic acid, 1), together with seven known organic acids (2-8) for the first time from plants of genus Capparis and four known organic acids (9-12) were isolated from C. spinosa. The structures were elucidated by extensive analysis of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic. In addition, compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, 9, 10 and 12 indicated strong scavenging capacity for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals with a SC(50) value of 0.204 +/- 0.002, 0.007 +/- 0.0, 0.011 +/- 0.0, 0.044 +/- 0.0016, 0.032 +/- 0.0, 0.090 +/- 0.001, and 0.350 +/- 0.017 mM, respectively.

  12. Occurrence of biflavones in leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis specimens

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    Marcus V. Bahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform partition of methanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis was submitted to different chromatographic procedures which afforded besides agathisflavone and taxifolin, the minor biflavones loniflavone, amentoflavone, 5'- hydroxyamentoflavone and podocarpusflavone A. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of NMR and MS data analysis. Besides, the content of biflavones of different specimens of C. pyramidalis, which are collected in different habitats of the Brazilian semi-arid region, was determinated by LC-APCI-MS analysis. These analysis demonstrated that only the specimens harvested in Bahia state showed collectively the presence of agathisflavone, amentoflavone, sequoiaflavone and podocarpusflavone A.

  13. Protective effect of Capparis spinosa on chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, A M; Cardile, V; Garufi, F; Puglia, C; Bonina, F; Ronsisvalle, G

    2005-09-30

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro chondroprotective effects of the lyophilised methanolic extract from flowering buds of Capparis Spinosa L (LECS). This plant, common to the Mediterranean basin, has been used by the traditional medicine for its diuretic and antihypertensive effects and also in certain pathological conditions related to uncontrolled lipid peroxidation. The extract contains many constituents, in particular some flavonoids (kaempferol and quercetin derivatives) and hydrocinammic acids with several known biological effects such as the anti-inflammatory and the antioxidant ones. In this study, we assayed the effect of LECS on human chondrocytes cultures stimulated by proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and we determined the production of key molecules released during chronic inflammatory events (nitric oxide, glycosaminoglycans, prostaglandins and reactive oxygen species). We observed that LECS was able to counteract the harmful effects induced by IL-1beta. This protection appeared to be greater than that elicited by indomethacin, which is usually employed in joint diseases. Since LECS possess a chondroprotective effect, it might be used in the management of cartilage damage during the inflammatory processes.

  14. Qualitative phytochemical screening of Hygrophila spinosa plant extract

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    S. Mandal

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to find out the phytochemicals present in Hygrophila spinosa plant extract. Fresh leaves and aerial parts of botanically identified plant was collected and were processed for preparation of plant extract using specified technique. The plant extract was then subjected for different qualitative chemical tests to investigate the chemical profile of H. spinosa extracts. Analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds and tannins in the extact as confirmed by implying different qualitative tests specified for these phytochemicals. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(8.000: 367-368

  15. Germination, carbohydrate composition and vigor of cryopreserved Caesalpinia echinata seeds

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    Rafael Fonsêca Zanotti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the germination and vigor of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood seeds stored at negative temperatures. Recently harvested seeds were cryopreserved at -18º or -196ºC and periodically evaluated for germination, seed vigor and carbohydrate composition. The temperatures did not influence the germination percentages or vigor. The germination percentage decreased from 88% in recently harvested seeds to 60% after 730 days of storage. The different temperature and storage times tested did not affect the vigor seed germination as indicated by the measures of plant growth and survival. The different temperatures used did not cause changes in the carbohydrate composition. The tegument cell walls were rich in lignin, arabinose and xylose. The cytoplasm of the cotyledons and embryos had high levels of glucose, fructose, and sucrose. The cryopreservation technique here presented was effective in the conservation of Brazilwood seeds for the medium term.

  16. On the antibacterial activity of roots of Capparis spinosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boga, Carla; Forlani, Luciano; Calienni, Rocco; Hindley, Teresa; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Tozzi, Silvia; Zanna, Nicola

    2011-02-01

    A decoction of Capparis spinosa L. roots, widely used in the traditional folk medicine of southern Italy, was prepared and submitted to antibacterial activity tests, which showed an interesting bacteriostatic activity on the growth of Deinococcus radiophilus. Heterocyclic compounds were also recovered from the chloroformic extract of the roots.

  17. The chemical constituents of Capparis spinosa of Jordanian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanfar, Monther A; Sabri, Salim S; Zarga, Musa H Abu; Zeller, Klaus-Peter

    2003-01-01

    Investigation of Capparis spinosa of Jordanian origin lead to isolation of two new compounds beta-sitosterylglucoside-6'-octadecanoate (1) and 3-methyl-2-butenyl-beta-glucoside (2). Linked Scan MS measurements were used to propose a mass fragmentation pattern for the alkaloid Cadabicine isolated here for the second time from nature.

  18. Antidiabetic properties of Capparis spinosa L. and its components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahid, Hamideh; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    An increasing line of evidence confirmed that apart from conventional hypoglycemic drugs, diet and medicinal plants have beneficial effects on diabetes. Capparis spinosa L. (Caper) is a perennial shrub in the Capparidaceae family. It grows in different regions of the world, particularly in Asian and African countries. A wide range of biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic effects have been reported for this plant. In this review, it is focused on beneficial effects of C. spinosa on diabetes. Several studies have showed the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of C. spinosa. The putative mechanisms involved in the antihyperglycemic effects of C. spinosa include reducing carbohydrate absorption from the small intestine, inhibiting gluconeogenesis in the liver, enhancing glucose uptake by tissues, and beta cell protection/regeneration. This plant also ameliorates cardiovascular disorders, liver damage, and nephropathy in animal models of diabetes, which are attributed to its antioxidant phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds, flavonoids, carotenoids, tocopherols, and terpenes. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of C. spinose, along with its beneficial effects on diabetic complications, make it a good candidate for the management of diabetes. Well-designed clinical trials are necessary to define the advantages and disadvantages of C. spinose for diabetic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Ethnoeconomical, ethnomedical, and phytochemical study of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrouf, Z; Guillaume, D

    1999-10-01

    Populations of the South-western part of Morocco traditionally use the fruits of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels to prepare an edible oil whose obtainment furnishes, as side product, a cake used to feed the cattle and complemented the forage furnished by the leaves and fruits of this same plant. However, the wood of A. spinosa is also used for fuel and the subsequent induced deforestation is nowadays accelerated since populations are generally eager to replace argan-groves by cultures of higher and immediate benefits. Recently, argan tree, that is particularly well adapted to grow in arid lands, has been proposed by several agencies to slow down the desert progress in Northern Africa. In order to promote argan tree reintroduction by the South-western Morocco dwellers, a program aimed to increase the industrial value of A. spinosa is currently carried out in Morocco. A phytochemical study is included in this program. Traditional knowledge as well as the most recent results concerning A. spinosa are described in this review.

  20. Discrimination analysis of ononis repens and ononis spinosa of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discrimination analysis of ononis repens and ononis spinosa of the British Isles. CE Stephens. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of the Ghana Association Vol. 2 (3) 1999: pp.88-94. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jgsa.v2i3.17997.

  1. Nitric oxide inhibitory activity of Strychnos spinosa (loganiaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The study was aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activity of fractions and extracts obtained from Strychnos spinosa leaves on a mediator of inflammation nitric oxide (NO). Materials and Methods: Leaves were extracted with acetone and separated into fractions with different polarities by solventsolvent ...

  2. Investigation of Argania spinosa L. (Skeels) polyphenols growing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Argania spinosa L. Skeels, belonging to the Argania genus of the Sapotaceae family, is a species native to Morocco and Algeria. Due to its perfect adaptation to soil and climate, this tree plays an important ecological role in a constantly threatened encroached desert region. To understand the biological role of polyphenols ...

  3. Investigation of Argania spinosa L. (Skeels) polyphenols growing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    micro

    2016-12-07

    Dec 7, 2016 ... Argania spinosa L. Skeels, belonging to the Argania genus of the Sapotaceae family, is a species native to Morocco and Algeria. Due to its perfect adaptation to soil and climate, this tree plays an important ecological role in a constantly threatened encroached desert region. To understand the biological ...

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of bark of Xeromphis spinosa

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    Biswa Nath Das

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The bark of Xeromphis spinosa extracted by a mixture of equal proportions of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol at an oral dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity when compared with control.

  5. Antiquorum sensing and antibiofilm potential of Capparis spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issac Abraham, Sybiya Vasantha Packiavathy; Palani, Agilandeswari; Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran; Shunmugiah, Karutha Pandian; Arumugam, Veera Ravi

    2011-11-01

    Emergence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens often leads to the failure of existing antibiotics to treat bacterial infections; thus, there is a need to seek alternative treatment measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) and antibiofilm potential of Capparis spinosa to prevent the onset of bacterial infections as an alternate to antibiotics. The methanolic extract of the dried fruits of C. spinosa was assessed for its activity in inhibiting QS-depedent phenomenon such as violacein pigment production in Chromobacterium violaceum, biosurfactant production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, swimming and swarming motility, exopolysaccharide production (EPS) and biofilm formation in Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens and PAO1. Extract of C. spinosa showed a higher degree of anti-QS activity in a dose dependent manner without affecting the bacterial growth. At 2 mg/mL, this extract significantly (p ≤0.005) inhibited the biofilm formation to 79, 75, 73, 70% and EPS production to 58, 46, 66 and 67% in S. marcescens, PAO1, E. coli and P. mirabilis, respectively. It also exhibited inhibition in swimming and swarming motility of bacterial pathogens. The non-enzymatic nature of the anti-QS compound in C. spinosa was confirmed by proteinase K and heat treatment. Because the methanolic extract of C. spinosa demonstrated anti-QS and antibiofilm activity at 0.5-2 mg/mL, it could be further exploited for novel molecules to treat the emerging infections of antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. Copyright © 2011 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of wound healing property of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Pradeep Bhaskar; Hegde, Shruti; Upadhya, Vinayak; Hegde, Ganesh R; Habbu, Prasanna V; Mulgund, Gangadhar S

    2016-12-04

    Caesalpinia mimosoides Lam. is one of the important traditional folk medicinal plants in the treatment of skin diseases and wounds used by healers of Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka state (India). However scientific validation of documented traditional knowledge related to medicinal plants is an important path in current scenario to fulfill the increasing demand of herbal medicine. The study was carried out to evaluate the claimed uses of Caesalpinia mimosoides using antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activities followed by detection of possible active bio-constituents. Extracts prepared by hot percolation method were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis followed by antimicrobial activity using MIC assay. In vivo wound healing activity was evaluated by circular excision and linear incision wound models. The extract with significant antimicrobial and wound healing activity was investigated for antioxidant capacity using DPPH, nitric oxide, antilipid peroxidation and total antioxidant activity methods. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined by Folin-Ciocalteu, Swain and Hillis methods. Possible bio-active constituents were identified by GC-MS technique. RP-UFLC-DAD analysis was carried out to quantify ethyl gallate and gallic acid in the plant extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed positive results for ethanol and aqueous extracts for all the chemical constituents. The ethanol extract proved potent antimicrobial activity against both bacterial and fungal skin pathogens compared to other extracts. The efficacy of topical application of potent ethanol extract and traditionally used aqueous extracts was evidenced by the complete re-epithelization of the epidermal layer with increased percentage of wound contraction in a shorter period. However, aqueous extract failed to perform a consistent effect in the histopathological assessment. Ethanol extract showed effective scavenging activity against DPPH and nitric

  7. Effects of nutrient omission in Caesalpinia echinata plants

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    Sergio Valiengo Valeri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth, the morphological alterations and the mineral composition of brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata plants caused by mineral nutrients omission in a green house experiment. The experimental units were distributed in the green house according to a completely random design. The treatments, each repeated five times, were the following : check (natural soil, complete (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Cu, Mn, and Zn and a complete solution but for the omission of one of the nutrients in parenthesis. Each plot was represented by a plant growing in a 7 dm3 vase filled with Quartzarenic Neosol. The analyzed variables were the following: visual nutritional deficiency symptoms, plant height, stem diameter, shoot dry matter, stem, branches and leaves included, and leaf nutrients level. The omission of nitrogen limited plant growth in height and shoot biomass production. The first visual deficiency symptoms were those due to N omission followed by those caused by P, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Mn omissions. Later on the K and B deficiency symptoms became visible. The omission of a nutrient always caused its level in the leaves to be significantly lower than that found when it was not omitted.

  8. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Caesalpinia ferrea

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    Sandrine Maria A. Lima

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. belongs to the family Fabaceae. Known as pau-ferro and jucá, it is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, as antipyretic and antirheumatic. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanol extract of the fruits of C. ferrea (EECf. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, EECf (50 mg/kg produced significantly inhibition of ear edema by 66.6% compared to control. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg showed inhibition of 83.9% compared to control. EECf (50 mg/kg inhibited of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and was also able to reduce of cell migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by thioglycolate. In the writhing test induced by acid acetic, EECf (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of contortions by 24.9, 46.9 and 74.2%, respectively. In the formalin test, EECf presented effects only in the second phase. The results provided experimental evidence for the effectiveness of the traditional use of C. ferrea in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  9. Biological activities and phenolic contents of Argania spinosa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maroc; 2004; pp 30-35. 3. Adlouni A. L'huile d'argan, de la nutrition à la santé. Phytothérapie 2010; 8: 89-97. 4. Fahmi F, Tahrouch S, Hatimi A. Geoclimatic influences on flavonoids contents of the leaves of the argan tree. Influences géoclimatiques sur la composition en flavonoides des feuilles de l'arganier Argania spinosa ...

  10. Filogeografía del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii: (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella Phylogeography of the Caesalpinia hintonii complex (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Sotuyo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar del crecido número de estudios que se ha realizado para explorar la estructura genética y filogeográfica en especies mexicanas, hay carencia de estudios para especies de selva baja, zonas con alto grado de endemismo. Para un mejor entendimiento de dichas áreas se realizó un estudio filogeográfico y el fechamiento de las especies del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii distribuido en la depresión del río Balsas y el valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán. Se determinó la estructura filogeográfica del complejo analizando las secuencias de 4 regiones de plastidio (intrón trnL, espaciador trnL-F, espaciador psbA-trnH y espaciador accD-psaI en todas las poblaciones disponibles. Se estimó la fecha del origen del complejo mediante un método no paramétrico (NPRS. Las diversidades haplotídicas (0.64-1 y las diferencias nucleotídicas (3.8-11.52 en todas las especies fueron altas respecto a valores registrados para otras plantas. Las poblaciones de C. oyamae, morfológicamente indistintas están genéticamente estructuradas y presentan 3 haplogrupos donde el flujo génico entre ellos es bajo y se consideraron entidades crípticas. Las poblaciones de C. hintonii son un grupo genéticamente homogéneo a pesar de ser morfológicamente distintas. Las poblaciones de C. macvaughii forman 2 linajes divergentes entre los que existe flujo génico (Nm=1.41. Los eventos de divergencia en 2 grandes linajes al este y oeste del río Balsas pueden explicarse por eventos geológicos. Los resultados indican que el complejo se encuentra bajo divergencia y en algunos casos radiación morfostática.Although many phylogeographic studies have been conducted to analyze the genetic and phylogeographic structure of Mexican species, such studies are nearly absent for plants of dry seasonal forest, precincts with high level of endemism. To better understand this areas, we undertook a phylogeographic study and dating were carried out on the Caesalpinia hintonii complex

  11. Capacidad antioxidante de poblaciones silvestres de “tara” (Caesalpinia spinosa de las localidades de Picoy y Santa Fe (Provincia de Tarma, departamento de Junín

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    Alberto López S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El Perú es el principal abastecedor de “tara”, gracias a que nuestro país posee una gran variedad de climas y tipos de suelos, haciendo posible la obtención de este cultivo durante la mayor parte del año. El departamento de Junín cuenta con poblaciones naturales de “tara” que aun no han sido caracterizadas bioquímica ni genéticamente, que podrían aprovecharse en beneficio de las comunidades locales. En este trabajo se reporta la capacidad antioxidante de “tara” provenientes de las localidades de Picoy y Santa Fe, ambas ubicadas en Tarma, Junín. Se utilizó la técnica del DPPH y del ABTS para valorar la capacidad antioxidante; para la determinación de fenoles y flavonoides se utilizó el reactivo de Folin-Ciocalteau según la técnica de Singleton. La muestra de Picoy reportó mayor cantidad de fenoles siendo de 563.70 mg/g de extracto seco, mientras que la cantidad de flavonoides fue de 0.664 mg/g. La capacidad antioxidante mostro una mejor respuesta en la muestra de Picoy, reportándose mediante el DPPH un IC50 1.244 mg/ml y con el ABTS un 35.3% de inhibición. Estos datos podrían aprovecharse para incrementar el valor agregado y mejorar la oferta de este recurso en dicha localidad debido a sus mejores características antioxidantes.

  12. Leaf anatomy of Odontonema strictum (Nees O. Kuntze (Acanthaceae

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    Maria Regina T. Boeger

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the leaf anatomy of Odontonema strictum (Nees O. Kuntze (Acanthaceae, with emphasis on cystoliths, which are very abundant in this species. Leaves fully expanded from five mature individuals were collected in the teaching garden of the “Setor de Ciências Biológicas” (UFPR and fixed in FAA 70. The cystoliths were located in the epidermal cells of the adaxial face (litocysths and also among the collenchyma cells of the midrib and petiole. The cystoliths were cylindrical, long, with several small projections. They sometimes occurred in pairs and varied greatly in size, with an average length of 163.4±68.8 µm and a density of 23±9.97 cystoliths.mm-2 (n=10. The foliar lamina presented a uniseriate epidermis, dorsiventral mesophyll, and palisade parenchyma, which was continuous along the lamina. In the midrib, arc-shaped vascular veins were surrounded by fundamental parenchyma. Glandular trichomes occurred on both faces of the leaf, while non-glandular trichomes and diacytic stomata were present only on the abaxial face. The great number and size of the cystoliths observed could be related to defenses against herbivory and to mechanisms of removal of excess calcium absorbed from the soil.

  13. Estudo FitoquÃmico de Geoffroea spinosa Jacq. (Leguminosae)

    OpenAIRE

    Elton Luz Lopes

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho descreve a identificaÃÃo de constituintes volÃteis das folhas e flores e o isolamento de constituintes fixos das cascas e lenho do caule e lenho da raiz de Geoffroea spinosa Jacq. Esta espÃcie, que ocorre nas margens de rios do Nordeste brasileiro, produz frutos que sÃo utilizados como alimento, e suas folhas, na forma de chÃ, combatem diarrÃia e distÃrbios menstruais. Apesar desta espÃcie ser de considerÃvel importÃncia para o povo nordestino, nenhum relato na literatura ...

  14. Triterpenoid saponins from the shells of Argania spinosa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Asma; Charrouf, Zoubida; Soufiaoui, Mohamed; Carbone, Virginia; Malorni, Antonio; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2002-07-31

    Two new oleanene saponins were isolated from the MeOH extract of the shell of Argania spinosa. They possess protobassic acid and 16alpha-protobassic acid as aglycons. The disaccharide moiety linked to C-3 of the aglycon is made up of two glucose units; the pentasaccharide moiety linked to C-28 is made up of arabinose, xylose, and three rhamnose units. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR experiments including (1)H-(1)H (DQF-COSY, 1D TOCSY, and 2D HOHAHA) and (1)H-(13)C (HSQC and HMBC) spectroscopy along with mass spectrometry.

  15. Environmental alterations in biofuel generating molecules in Zilla spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Hemmat; El Marid, Zeinab

    2017-03-01

    Now days, production of fuels and petrochemicals from renewable lignocellulosic biomass is an indispensable issue to meet the growing energy demand. Meanwhile, the changes in the climate and soil topography influence the growth and development as well as canopy level of the lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, Zilla spinosa Turr (Zilla) plants with similar age and size were collected from three main sectors (upstream, midstream, and downstream) of Wadi Hagul during spring (April) and summer (July) seasons. Environmental stresses evoked reduction in the energy trapping pigments concomitant with increments in chlorophyll fluorescence in summer harvested plants particularly at downstream. Furthermore, the biofuels generating compounds including carbohydrate, lignin, and lipid making the plant biomasses are greatly affected by environmental conditions. Greater amount of lignin was estimated in summer harvested Z. spinosa shoots particularly at downstream. Moreover, the total oil content which is a promising source of biodiesel was considerably decreased during summer season particularly at downstream. The physical properties of the lipids major constituent fatty acid methyl esters determine the biofuel properties and contribute in the adaptation of plants against environmental stresses. Hence, the analysis of fatty acid profile showed significant modifications under combined drought and heat stress displayed in the summer season. The maximum increase in saturated fatty acid levels including tridecanoic acid (C13:0), pentadeanoic acid (C15:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), and stearic acid (C18:0) were estimated in spring harvested Z. spinosa aerial portions particularly at midstream. In spite of the reduction in the total oil content, a marked increase in the value of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio and thereby the unsaturation index were achieved during the dry summer period. Henceforth, these seasonal and spatial variations in fatty acids profiles may

  16. [Advances on investigation of chemical constituents, pharmacological activities and clinical applications of Capparis spinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Yu-Qing; Wang, Chang-Hong; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, the chemical constituents, pharmacological activities and clinical applications of Capparis spinosa had been reviewed. The constituents of C. spinosa include the saccharides and glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids and volatile oils, fatty acids and steroides and so on. C. spinosa had many extensive pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory, odynolysis, antifungus, hepatoprotective effect, hypoglycemic activity, antioxidation, anti-hyperlipemia, anticoagulated blood, smooth muscle stimulation, anti-stress reaction, improve memory. It was used to treat arthrolithiasis, rheumarthritis and dermatosis in clinic in domestic, and it would have a broad application prospects.

  17. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Saravana Kumar, G.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-02-01

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%.

  18. Light as an indicator of ecological succession in brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mengarda,Liana H. G.; Souza,Rogério L. F. de; Campostrini, Eliemar; Reis,Fabrício O.; Vendrame,Wagner A.; Cuzzuol,Geraldo R. F.

    2009-01-01

    The ecophysiological behavior of brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.) plants was evaluated as affected by light quantity and quality. Nine-month-old plants were cultivated under 0%, 50%, and 80% artificial shading, and natural shading imposed by a closed canopy for a period of 392 days. At the end of that period growth parameters were measured, including relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), specific leaf mass (SLM) and root:shoot ratio (R:S). Highe...

  19. In Vitro Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Gallic Acid Isolated From Caesalpinia Decapetala Wood

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    Upendra Bhadoriya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antioxidant capacities and phenolic contents of Gallic Acid isolated from plant Caesalpinia decapetala were investigated. Caesalpinia decapetala is a plant used to treat burns, biliousness and stomach disorders. Methods: The antioxidant activity was estimated by the ABTS and DPPH methods. The total phenolic was measured using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Identification of isolated Gallic Acid was also performed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC using Cosmosil C18 column (150mm x 4.6mm, 5毺 m particle. The mobile phase was a mixture of ethyl acetate: ethanol: water (1:5:4, v/v/v delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. Results: The total phenolic content was found to be 4.31% (w/w. Isolation of Gallic Acid with optimum yield was performed using a mixture of solvents (Ethanol: Water 65:35. Isolated Gallic Acid showed significant in vitro free radical scavenging activity in both model; but in ABTS assay significant % inhibition of free radical was observed as compared to DPPH assay. Conclusions: Research concluded that Caesalpinia decapetala extract can be used as potent antioxidant which can play vital role against the diseases like neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation, viral infections and gastric ulcer

  20. Protective effect of saponins from Argania spinosa against free radical-induced oxidative haemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzal, H; Alaoui, K; Tok, S; Errachidi, A; Charof, R; Cherrah, Y; Benjouad, A

    2008-07-01

    Saponins from Argania spinosa at a non-haemolytic concentration diminish by 53.2% erythrocyte haemolysis induced by free radicals. 2 mM aspirin and acetaminophen diminish by 75% and 68% , respectively, erythrocyte haemolysis induced by free radicals, while 0.3 microM vitamin E shows no significant antioxidant activity. Interestingly, a combination of 1 mg/l of A. spinosa saponins and vitamin E at 0.3 microM resulted in a 68% level of protection against free radical-induced erythrocyte haemolysis, which may suggest that A. spinosa saponins enhance the antioxidant effect of vitamin E. In contrast, no synergic effect was observed for acetaminophen (2 mM) when in combination with vitamin E (0.3 microM). These results demonstrate the antioxidant properties of saponins from A. spinosa and their ability to potentate the antioxidant effect of vitamin E.

  1. The Environmental Fluctuations of some Bioactive Nutraceutical Compounds in Zilla spinosa Inhabiting Arid Habitats

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    Hemmat Ibrahim KHATTAB

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zilla spinosa is one of the dominated woody perennial shrubs widespread in the Egyptian Red sea coastal desert, belonging to family Brassicacea. Z. spinosa is used as a folk medicine and for heating by local people. Z. spinosa inhabits arid habitats exposed to adverse climatic changes which influence the production of the bioactive natural products. The natural secondary products have significant importance for plant acclimatization to the arid habitats beside their significant practical application in medicinal, nutritive and industrial purposes. The accumulation levels of some natural products including phenols, tannins, glucosinolates, flavonoids, saponins, proanthocyanidins and cardiac glycosides were measured in Z. spinosa inhabiting different locations of Wadi Hagul during spring and summer seasons. The results of the current study showed that Z. spinosa grown in the adverse environment has adapted to cope with extreme temperature, water deficit and geoclimate changes especially in summer, by enhancing the accumulation of some antioxidant compounds including phenols, tannins, glucosinolates, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, concomitant with increments in the total antioxidant capacity and PAL activity. Consequently, Z. spinosa shrubs inhabiting the arid environment is a promising new source of saponins, glucosinolates, cardiac glycosides, phenols and flavonoids which could participate in drug development and exploration of alternative strategies to increase productivity of wild plants.

  2. Glucosinolates and fatty acid, sterol, and tocopherol composition of seed oils from Capparis spinosa Var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. Var. canescens (Coss.) Heywood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Ozcan, Musa

    2005-09-07

    Seed oils of 11 samples of Capparis ovata and Capparis spinosa from different locations in Turkey were characterized with regard to the composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, and sterols as well as the content of glucosinolates. The oil content of the seeds ranged from 27.3 to 37.6 g/100 g (C. spinosa) and from 14.6 to 38.0 g/100 g (C. ovata). The dominating fatty acid of both species was linoleic acid, which accounted for 26.9-55.3% in C. ovata seed oils and for 24.6-50.5% in C. spinosa seed oils. Oleic acid and its isomer, vaccenic acid, were both found in the seed oils in concentrations between 10 and 30%, respectively. The seed oils of both species were rich in tocopherols with the following composition: gamma-tocopherol, 124.3-1944.9 mg/100 g; delta-tocopherol, 2.7-269.5 mg/100 g; and alpha-tocopherol, 0.6-13.8 mg/100 g. The concentration of total sterols ranged from 4875.5 to 12189.1 mg/kg (C. ovata) and from 4961.8 to 10009.1 mg/kg (C. spinosa), respectively. In addition to sitosterol, which amounted to approximately 60% of the total amount of sterols, campesterol and stigmasterol accounted for 16 and 10% of the total sterols, respectively. The seed oils showed remarkably high contents of Delta5-avenasterol (between 138.8 and 599.4 mg/kg). The total content of glucosinolates of C. ovata and C. spinosa samples was determined as 34.5-84.6 micromol/g for C. ovata and 42.6-88.9 micromol/g for C. spinosa, respectively, on a dry weight basis, with >95% as glucocapperin.

  3. In vitro establishment of Jacaratia spinosa (Aubl. ADC / Estabelecimento in vitro de Jacaratia spinosa (Aubl. ADC

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    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria

    2009-07-01

    manufactured by the company Cimplast Ltda and used by the industry Milênia Agro Ciência S.A. had been analyzed so that later, based in already carried trough studies in design, packing, ergonomics, anatomy and usability, a guide can be produce destined to the industries that produce this type of packing, so, by means of theoretical support , these companies can produce packing bottles that could adapt better to the user or could reformulate the existing models. For the production of the content of the guide some bibliographical references and technical norms directed to these packing bottles had been overcome. Later a research of field with the potential users was carried out, which it could confirm or refute the referring hypotheses to the usability raised initially. After the evaluation of the ergonomic problems presents in these packing bottles, tables of contents for better illustrate the research had been produced and, later, the data had been questioned based in the theoretical referential. The guide, which is the final product of this work, will bring important and scientifically based information, with simple and practical language, aiming to facilitate for the industries the process of production of the packing bottles, therefore although the data contained in it is available in literatures the companies make use of little time for research.Com o objetivo de desenvolver um protocolo para o estabelecimento in vitro de Jacaratia spinosa a partir de diferentes concentrações de 6-benzilaminopurina (6-BA, foram utilizados como explantes, ápices caulinares de plantas provenientes do campo, desinfestados com solução de Saniagri® 33% v/v, durante 15 minutos e posteriormente pulverizados com uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio 1% v/v. O meio utilizado foi o Murashige e Skoog com a concentração de sacarose reduzida para 5g L-1. As concentrações de 6-BA foram: 0,0 mg L-1, 0,5 mg L-1, 1,0 mg L-1, 1,5 mg L-1, 2,0 mg L-1. O delineamento experimental usado foi o

  4. Effect of Capparis spinosa L. on cognitive impairment induced by D-galactose in mice via inhibition of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Nergiz Hacer; Kara, Haki; Arslanbaş, Emre; Mert, Derya Güliz; Tepe, Bektaş; Güngör, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    To determine the phenolic acid levels and DNA damage protection potential of Capparis spinosa L. seed extract and to investigate the effect of the extract on cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in an Alzheimer disease mice model. Thirty BALB/c mice divided into 5 groups (control, D-galactose, D-galactose + C. spinosa 50, D-galactose + C. spinosa 100, D-galactose + C. spinosa 200) were used. Mice were administered an injection of D-galactose (100 mg/kg, subcutaneous) and orally administered C. spinosa (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) daily for 8 weeks. Syringic acid was detected and the total amount was 204.629 µg/g. Addition of 0.05 mg/mL C. spinosa extract provided significant protection against the damage of DNA bands. C. spinosa attenuated D-galactose-induced learning dysfunctions in mice and significantly increased memory retention. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activities decreased in the D-galactose group. C. spinosa (200 mg/kg body weight) significantly decreased MDA level and increased SOD, GPx, and CAT activities. These results show that C. spinosa has the potential in ameliorating cognitive deficits induced by D-galactose in mice and the antioxidant activity may partially account for the improvement of learning and memory function.

  5. [Acute and chronic toxicity of saponins from Argania spinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, K; Belabbes, M; Cherrah, Y; Hassar, M; Charrouf, Z; Amarouch, H; Roquebert, J

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the acute and chronic experimental toxicity of a water extract of saponins from Argania spinosa following oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice (Iops Ofa) and rats (Wistar). The DL50 obtained were 79 mg/kg for the i.p. route and 1,300 mg/kg for the oral route. For the chronic toxicity studies, we administred 100 and 200 mg/kg orally once a day during a 3 month period. There was a decrease in blood sugar in the third month of each therapy. Blood creatinine levels increased, thus evoking a renal pathology. A slight increase in transaminases levels was not significatif. Hematologic parameters were unchanged during the treatment and the histopathologic study showed hepatic glycogen decrease and a focal renal tube deterioration.

  6. The discovery of Capparis spinosa L. (Capparidaceae) in the Yanghai Tombs (2800 years b.p.), NW China, and its medicinal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong-En; Li, Xiao; Ferguson, David K; Wang, Yu-Fei; Liu, Chang-Jiang; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2007-09-25

    Seed clumps of Capparis spinosa L. together with shoots, leaves and fruits of Cannabis sativa L. were unearthed in the Yanghai Tombs, Turpan District in Xinjiang, China. This is the first time that plant remains of Capparis spinosa have been discovered in China and the eastern part of Central Asia. Based on the joint occurrence of Capparis spinosa and Cannabis sativa, and the pharmacological value of the seeds of Capparis spinosa, it is deduced that caper was utilized for medicinal purposes.

  7. Estudo do desenvolvimento do fruto de Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O. Kuntze: Palmae Development study of the Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O. Kuntze fruit, Palmae

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    Lana da Silva Sylvestre

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta os caracteres morfológicos do fruto de Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O. Kuntze e tenta esclarecer a origem das diversas partes que o compõe, através do estudo das várias fases do desenvolvimento da flor e fruto.This work shows the morphological characteres of the Allagoptera arenaria fruit and tries to clear up the origin of its various parts, throw the study of the differents stages of the flower and fruit development.

  8. Morphological Characteristics of Ectomycorrhizas on Merbau [Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) O. Kuntze

    OpenAIRE

    NUGROHO, JULIUS DWI; Mansur, Irdika; Purwito, Agus; Suhendang, Endang

    2010-01-01

    Merbau [Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) O. Kuntze] is one of valuable timber tree in south-east Asia which has been known having ectomycorrhizae (EcM) though being ignored. Identification of the ectomycorrizae is prime important for being basis of further studies. This study investigated the EcM fungi associated with Merbau by using both sporocarp morphology and EcM morphotypes. Morphological characters of sporocarps and basidiocarps of the fungi and EcM morphotypes obtained from seedlings and trees ...

  9. CONSERVAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE MAMÃOZINHO-DEVEADO (Jacaratia corumbensis O. Kuntze - CARICACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton de Brito Cavalcanti; Geraldo Milanez Resende

    2007-01-01

    Mamãozinho-de-veado (Jacaratia corumbensis O. Kuntze, Caricaceae) is used for food animal. The objective of this study was to determine a seed storage method for Jacaratia corumbensis to conserve seed viability and vigour. Seeds of Jacaratia corumbensis were put in paper (Kraft) and plastic bags (0.15 mm), and stored in three environmental conditions of temperature environment (22ºC and 65% relative humidity). The germination percentage, moisture content and vigour of seeds were evaluated at ...

  10. Capparis spinosa reduces Doxorubicin-induced cardio-toxicity in cardiomyoblast cells

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    Seyed Hadi Mousavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Doxorubicin (DOX is an effective anticancer drug but its clinical application is limited because it induces apoptosis in cardiomyocytes and leads to permanent degenerative cardiomyopathy and heart failure possibly due to oxidative stress. Recent studies showed that Capparis spinosa (C. spinoseexhibits potent antioxidant activity. So, in this study, we explored the protective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of C. spinosa against DOX-induced cytotoxicity in H9c2 cells. Materials and Methods: Cell viability was quantified by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak evaluation of DNA fragmentation following PI staining. Cells were cultured with 5 μM DOX for 24 hr to induce cell damage. H9c2 cells were pretreated with different concentrations (6-200 μg/ml of C. spinosa extract for 4 hr before DOX treatment in all trials. Results:  Pretreatment with 25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml of C. spinosa could increase the viability of H9C2 cells to 72.63 ± 2.8% (p< 0.05, 77.37 ± 1.8% (p< 0.05, 83.56 ± 2.6% (p< 0.001 and 90.9 ± 0.5% (p< 0.001 of control, respectively. Also, C. spinosa decreased apoptotic induction significantly, at the doses of 50 µg/ml (p

  11. Genetic diversity analysis of Capparis spinosa L. populations by using ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C; Xue, G P; Cheng, B; Wang, X; He, J; Liu, G H; Yang, W J

    2015-12-09

    Capparis spinosa L. is an important medicinal species in the Xinjiang Province of China. Ten natural populations of C. spinosa from 3 locations in North, Central, and South Xinjiang were studied using morphological trait inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers to assess the genetic diversity and population structure. In this study, the 10 ISSR primers produced 313 amplified DNA fragments, with 52% of fragments being polymorphic. Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis indicated that 10 C. spinosa populations were clustered into 3 geographically distinct groups. The Nei gene of C. spinosa populations in different regions had Diversity and Shannon's information index ranges of 0.1312-0.2001 and 0.1004-0.1875, respectively. The 362 markers were used to construct the dendrogram based on the UPGMA cluster analysis. The dendrogram indicated that 10 populations of C. spinosa were clustered into 3 geographically distinct groups. The results showed these genotypes have high genetic diversity, and can be used for an alternative breeding program.

  12. Cysteine Protease (Capparin from Capsules of Caper (Capparis spinosa

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    Yasar Demir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteases are enzymes that perform very important functions in organisms and are used for a variety of objectives in vitro. In recent years, proteases have been used for clinical, pharmaceutical (alimentary digestion, anti-inflammatory, etc. and industrial applications (cheese production, meat tenderizing, leather tanning. In this research, a protease has been purified from capsules of caper (Capparis spinosa and characterized. Caper plants have been used for food and medicine since ancient times. The plant grows abundantly in certain regions of Turkey. Ammonium sulphate fractionation and a CM Sephadex column were used for purification of the enzyme. The purification enzyme has an optimum pH=5.0 and its optimum temperature was 60 °C. The vmax and Km values determined by Lineweaver-Burk graphics were 1.38 μg/(L·min and 0.88 μg/L, respectively. The purification degree and the molecular mass of the enzyme (46 kDa were determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration chromatography. It was investigated whether the purified and characterized protease could cause milk to congeal or digest chicken and cow meat. The results show that protease can be used for industrial production.

  13. Effect of Leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala on Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

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    María Gabriela Gallego

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston (Fabaceae (CD is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. Lyophilized extracts of CD were added at concentrations of 0.002%, 0.02% and 0.2% into oil-in-water emulsions, which were stored for 30 days at 33 ± 1 °C, and then, oxidative stability was evaluated. The CD extract had high antioxidant activity (700 ± 70 µmol Trolox/g dry plant for the ORAC assay, mainly due to its phenolic components: gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. At a concentration of 0.2%, the extract significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of oil-in-water emulsions. The results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing CD as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation in the food and cosmetic industries.

  14. Effect of Leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala on Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Skowyra, Monika; Gordon, Michael H.; Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Almajano, María Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston (Fabaceae) (CD) is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae) were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Lyophilized extracts of CD were added at concentrations of 0.002%, 0.02% and 0.2% into oil-in-water emulsions, which were stored for 30 days at 33 ± 1 °C, and then, oxidative stability was evaluated. The CD extract had high antioxidant activity (700 ± 70 µmol Trolox/g dry plant for the ORAC assay), mainly due to its phenolic components: gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. At a concentration of 0.2%, the extract significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of oil-in-water emulsions. The results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing CD as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation in the food and cosmetic industries. PMID:28273843

  15. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S; Vivek, P; Saravana Kumar, G; Murugakoothan, P

    2015-02-25

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Substrate in the emergence and initial growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia pulcherrima

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    Magnólia Martins Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Caesalpinia pulcherrima is an exotic species belongs to the Fabaceae family commonly known as flamboyant-mirim, and widely used for urban forestry. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different substrates on the emergence and early seedlings growth of C. pulcherrima . The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse belonging to the Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal da Paraíba. The experimental design was completely randomized and treatments had 14 substrates: sand, vegetable soil, vermiculite, wood dust, carbonized rice straw, vegetable soil + sand 1:1, sand + wood dust 1:1, sand + carbonized rice straw 1:1, earth + wood dust 1:1, vegetable soil + carbonized rice straw 1:1, vermiculite + sand 1:1, vermiculite + wood dust 1:1, vermiculite + earth 1:1 and vermiculite + carbonized rice straw 1:1. Evaluation of the effect of the treatments was through the following determinations: percentage of emergency, first count, index of germination speed, length and dry weight of roots and shoots. The vermiculite, vegetable soil + sand 1:1, vermiculite + sand 1:1, vermiculite + saw dust 1:1, are suitable for emergence and early growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia pulcherrima . Substrates saw dust and carbonized rice straw were responsible for the worst performers on emergence and seedling development.

  17. Effect of Leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala on Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Skowyra, Monika; Gordon, Michael H; Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Almajano, María Pilar

    2017-03-04

    Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston (Fabaceae) (CD) is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae) were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Lyophilized extracts of CD were added at concentrations of 0.002%, 0.02% and 0.2% into oil-in-water emulsions, which were stored for 30 days at 33 ± 1 °C, and then, oxidative stability was evaluated. The CD extract had high antioxidant activity (700 ± 70 µmol Trolox/g dry plant for the ORAC assay), mainly due to its phenolic components: gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. At a concentration of 0.2%, the extract significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of oil-in-water emulsions. The results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing CD as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation in the food and cosmetic industries.

  18. Anti-arthritic active fraction of Capparis spinosa L. fruits and its chemical constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaolu; Lu, Jincai; Xin, Hailiang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuliang; Tang, Kexuan

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the anti-arthritic active fraction of Capparis spinosa L. (Capparidaceae) fruits and its chemical constituents. The adjuvant arthritic rat model was developed to evaluate the anti-arthritic effects of different fractions of ethanol extraction from C. spinosa L. The fraction eluted by ethanol-water (50:50, v/v) had the most significant anti-arthritic activity. The chemical constituents of this fraction were therefore studied; seven known compounds were isolated and identified as: P-hydroxy benzoic acid; 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural; bis(5-formylfurfuryl) ether; daucosterol; α-D-fructofuranosides methyl; uracil; and stachydrine.

  19. Ziziphus spinosa seeds for insomnia: A review of chemistry and psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shergis, Johannah Linda; Ni, Xiaojia; Sarris, Jerome; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Guo, Xinfeng; Xue, Charlie C; Lu, Chuanjian; Hugel, Helmut

    2017-10-15

    In Chinese medicine, Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chou is widely used for the treatment of insomnia. This paper summarises the chemistry, psychopharmacology, and compares the pharmaceutical effects of the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba plant, Ziziphus spinosa (ZS) seeds, with benzodiazepines. Whole extracts and constituent compounds have been evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies. ZS secondary metabolites modulate GABAergic activity and the serotonergic system. The actual therapeutic agents require further confirmation/identification so that new insomnia phytomedicines can be discovered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Actividad antiinflamatoria de flores y hojas de Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz Anti-inflammatory activity of flowers and leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Eduardo Matiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Partes aéreas de la planta Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz han sido usadas en medicina tradicional al sur del Departamento de Cundinamarca para el tratamiento de afecciones inflamatorias. Objetivo: Evaluar la actividad antiinflamatoria de flores, hojas y frutos verdes de Caesalpinia pulcherrima para cuantificar su actividad antiinflamatoria en modelos murinos de inflamación aguda y subcrónica. Metodología: Este estudio cuantificó la actividad antiinflamatoria de diferentes extractos de tejidos aéreos de esta especie encontrada en Colombia por dos modelos de inflamación aguda, el edema auricular inducido por TPA (acetato de 12-O-tetradecanoil-forbol y el edema plantar inducido por carragenina; así como el modelo de inflamación sub-crónico de granuloma inducido por pellet de algodón. Resultados: Los extractos de flores mostraron la mayor actividad antiinflamatoria en el modelo del TPA, en tanto que las hojas fueron más efectivas en disminuir el granuloma, en el modelo del pellet de algodón. No se observó ninguna actividad antiinflamatoria de ningún extracto en el modelo de carragenina. Los frutos verdes no mostraron actividad en ningún modelo. Conclusión: Los resultados demostraron la efectividad que el uso etnobotánico le atribuye a esta planta. Los extractos activos obtenidos mostraron el potencial uso de esta planta en la fabricación fitoterapéuticos efectivos. Salud UIS 2011; 43 (3: 281-287Introduction: Aerial parts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. (Swartz have been used in traditional medicine in southern Cundinamarca Department for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Objective: Evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of flowers, leaves and green fruits of the plant to quantify inflammatory activity of acute and subchronic murine inflammation models. Methodology: This study quantified the anti-inflammatory activity of different extracts of aerial tissues of this species for two models of acute

  1. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Capparis spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Riadh Ben; Jilani, Imtinen Ben Haj; Bouaziz, Mohammed; Gargouri, Bochra; Elloumi, Nésrine; Attia, Hamadi; Ghrabi-Gammar, Zeineb; Lassoued, Saloua

    2016-01-01

    Caper plant (Capparis spinosa) extracts have been associated with diverse biological activities including anti-oxidant properties. In this work, we characterized the hydro-ethanolic extract obtained from C. spinosa leaves [hydroethanolic extract of C. spinosa (HECS)] by analyzing the content in anti-oxidant compounds such as polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Further, we evaluated HECS antioxidant activities in vitro using bleaching of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and ABTS test as well as by pretreatment of HeLa cells exposed to Fe(2+) or H2O2. Our findings indicate that HECS contains high amount of total phenolic compounds and high levels of flavonoids and anthocyanins. Furthermore, HECS exhibited antioxidant activity in both chemical and biological tests. Specially, pretreatment of HeLa cells with different concentrations of the extract conferred protection against lipid peroxidation and modulated activities of two antioxidant enzymes, SOD and catalase. These results revealed HECS antioxidant effects and suggest that C. spinosa leaves are a potential source of natural antioxidant molecules with possible applications in industry and medicine.

  2. Capparis spinosa reduces Doxorubicin-induced cardio-toxicity in cardiomyoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Hosseini, Azar; Bakhtiari, Elham; Rakhshandeh, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective anticancer drug but its clinical application is limited because it induces apoptosis in cardiomyocytes and leads to permanent degenerative cardiomyopathy and heart failure possibly due to oxidative stress. Recent studies showed that Capparis spinosa (C. spinose) exhibits potent antioxidant activity. So, in this study, we explored the protective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of C. spinosa against DOX-induced cytotoxicity in H9c2 cells. Cell viability was quantified by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak) evaluation of DNA fragmentation following PI staining. Cells were cultured with 5 μM DOX for 24 hr to induce cell damage. H9c2 cells were pretreated with different concentrations (6-200 μg/ml) of C. spinosa extract for 4 hr before DOX treatment in all trials. Pretreatment with 25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml of C. spinosa could increase the viability of H9C2 cells to 72.63±2.8% (pspinosa decreased apoptotic induction significantly, at the doses of 50 µg/ml (pspinosa could exert cardioprotective effects against DOX-induced toxicity that might be mediated via its antioxidant activity.

  3. Capparis spinosa leaves extract: Source of bioantioxidants with nephroprotective and hepatoprotective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Nizar; Feriani, Anouar; Saadoui, Ezzeddine; Nasri, Nizar; Khaldi, Abdelhamid

    2017-03-01

    Capparis spinosa, Capparidaceae, is largely distributed all over the Mediterranean Basin and is traditionally used to treat many illnesses, such as liver and kidney diseases. The aim of the current study was to explore the antioxidant, nephroprotective and hepatoprotective effects of methanolic extract of Capparis spinosa leaves (MECS) associated with its phytochemical content. The levels of total phenolics, flavonoids and condensed tannins were 23.37mgGAE/g, 9.05mgQE/g and 9.35mgTAE/g, respectively. HPLC analysis revealed nine compounds, namely rutin, resveratrol, coumarin, epicatechin, luteolin, catechin, kaempferol, vanillic acid and gallic acid. The MECS showed interesting antioxidant capacity. The MECS-treatment significantly reduced the increased plasma levels of creatinine, urea and uric acid, reduced the elevated MDA levels, significantly reduced the antioxidant enzyme activities and restored the kidney damage, provoked by cisplatin-treatment. Furthermore, MECS-treatment significantly prevented the increase in serum ALT, AST and LDH levels in acute liver damage induced by CCl4, decreased the amount of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) formation and elevated the activities of SOD, CAT and GPx, and restored liver injury. This study supports the traditionally use of C. spinosa to cure kidney and liver diseases. The obtained results highlighted the possible use of C. spinosa as a source of phytochemical with important biological advantages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Tunisian Capparis spinosa L. extract on melanogenesis in B16 murine melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Kyoko; Villareal, Myra O; El Omri, Abdelfatteh; Han, Junkyu; Kchouk, Mohamed Elyes; Isoda, Hiroko

    2009-10-01

    The effect of Tunisian Capparis spinosa L. aromatic plant extract on melanogenesis regulation in B16 murine melanoma cells was investigated. B16 cells were treated with 0.0005, 0.005, and 0.05% (w/v) C. spinosa extract after which the melanin content and cell viability were measured. To clarify the mechanism behind melanogenesis regulation, the expression of tyrosinase was determined. Results showed that the extract had a significant stimulative effect on melanogenesis in B16 cells in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. Western blot analysis showed that expression of tyrosinase in cells treated with 0.03% (w/v) C. spinosa extract increased by 12.5- and 20-fold after 24 and 48 h of incubation, respectively, compared with untreated cells. HPLC analysis of the extract revealed the presence of 1% quercetin, a known melanogenesis stimulator, indicating that our findings may be attributed to quercetin; however, other compounds present in the extract may also have an effect on the overall ability of the extract to stimulate melanogenesis. We report here that Tunisian C. spinosa leaf extract can stimulate melanogenesis in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity by increasing tyrosinase protein expression and has the potential to be used as a possible tanning agent or as a treatment for hair depigmentation.

  5. Isolation and identification of an anti-inflammatory principle from Capparis spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Said, M S; Abdelsattar, E A; Khalifa, S I; el-Feraly, F S

    1988-09-01

    The homologous polyprenols cappaprenol-12 (1), cappaprenol-13 (2) and cappaprenol-14 (3) with 12, 13 and 14 isoprene units, respectively, could be isolated by preparative HPLC from alcoholic extracts of Capparis spinosa. Testing 2 for its anti-inflammatory activity an inhibition of the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats of 44 vs. 67% for the standard oxyphenbutazone was found.

  6. Amino phenolics from the fruit of the argan tree Argania spinosa (Skeels L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klika, D; Khallouki, Farid; Owen, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    A new phenolic-type compound containing a nitrogenous, heterocyclic-fused ring from the fruit of the argan tree, Argania spinosa (Skeels L.), is described. This and another already known compound also isolated in the course of the work belong to an obscure and rare class of natural products, the amino phenolics.

  7. Effect of water deficit on Argan tree seedlings (Argania spinosa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-03-17

    Mar 17, 2015 ... The Argan tree, Argania spinosa L., Skeels, is an endemic species in North-West Africa perfectly adapted to aridity and drought. It is in this context that we studied the physiological impact of water deficit on the Argan tree seedlings for eight weeks at a field capacity of 30%. The obtained results reveal.

  8. Effect of water deficit on Argan tree seedlings ( Argania spinosa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of water deficit on Argan tree seedlings ( Argania spinosa L. Skeels): Morphological and physiological aspect. ... Besides, the content of chlorophyll pigments has relatively decreased from the second week, a slight yellowing and leaf drop was observed. The seedlings have accumulated proteins in a very significant ...

  9. SOBRE LA PRESENCIA DE CONDALIA BUXIFOLIA (RHAMNACEAE Y MAYTENUS SPINOSA (CELASTRACEAE EN URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCHESI EDUARDO

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la revisión de muestras de herbarios y nuevos relevamientos florísticosconcluimos que Maytenus spinosa (Celastraceae, especie citada para la flora deUruguay, fue reiteradamente confundida con Condalia buxifolia (Rhamnaceae,cuya presencia en Uruguay pasó inadvertida durante casi un siglo. Maytenus spinosadebe ser excluida de la flora del Uruguay.

  10. Sobre la presencia de condalia buxifolia (rhamnaceae) y maytenus spinosa (celastraceae) en uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    MARCHESI, EDUARDO; GRELA, IVÁN A.

    2012-01-01

    A partir de la revisión de muestras de herbarios y nuevos relevamientos florísticosconcluimos que Maytenus spinosa (Celastraceae), especie citada para la flora deUruguay, fue reiteradamente confundida con Condalia buxifolia (Rhamnaceae),cuya presencia en Uruguay pasó inadvertida durante casi un siglo. Maytenus spinosadebe ser excluida de la flora del Uruguay.

  11. Hepatoprotective Potential of Caesalpinia crista against Iron-Overload-Induced Liver Toxicity in Mice

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    Rhitajit Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the ameliorating effect of Caesalpinia crista Linn. (CCME extract on iron-overload-induced liver injury. Iron overload was induced by intraperitoneal administration of iron dextran into mice. CCME attenuated the percentage increase in liver iron and serum ferritin levels when compared to control group. CCME also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and liver fibrosis. The serum enzyme markers were found to be less, whereas enhanced levels of liver antioxidant enzymes were detected in CCME-treated group. In presence of CCME, the reductive release of ferritin iron was increased significantly. Furthermore, CCME exhibited DPPH radical scavenging and protection against Fe2+-mediated oxidative DNA damage. The current study confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of CCME against the model hepatotoxicant iron overload and the activity is likely related to its potent antioxidant and iron-chelating property.

  12. Repellent Action of Carapa guianensis and Caesalpinia ferrea for flies species of Calliphoridae family

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    Ciciane Pereira Marten Fernandes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Myiases occur by the infestation of fly larvae in tissues of live vertebrate animals, resulting in economic loss. Phytotherapy is considered an important alternative in the control of insects, which may reduce the economic impacts . Carapa guianensis is a plant that has been studied as a repellent against mosquitoes and Caesalpinia ferrea is reported in tropical climates, and there are few studies about its repellent action. The present study was designed to evaluate the repellent action of s C. guianensis and C. ferrea plants on flies species of the Calliphoridae family. W.O.T. traps containing deteriorated bovine liver and herbs cream of at concentrations of 20 and 50% were used to catch the flies. It was reported that the creams containing C. ferrea at concentrations of 20 and 50% and C. guianensis at the concentration of 50% have repellent effect against species of Calliphoridae family.

  13. Antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc: An in vitro study

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    Kishalay Jana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the over production of reactive oxygen species is harmful for living organisms and it damages major cellular constituents such as DNA, protein, and lipid. At present, searching of new plant sources having free radical scavenging activity is an important field of research in phytomedicine as natural products are safe and relatively low cost. In this respect, attention has been focused to evaluate the antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc (Caesalpenacae using different in vitro models. To evaluate the antioxidant activity, extract was examined on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, and anti-lipid peroxidation activity by biochemical methods. Total phenol and flavonoids contents in the said extract were measured biochemically as per standard methods. Results were compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene and α-tocopherol. Results indicated that hydro-methanolic extract has strong scavenging activity on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical with IC 50 value 157.4 μg/ml, hydroxyl radical with IC 50 value 61.9 μg/ml and hydrogen peroxide with IC 50 value 64.32 μg/ml. Hydro-methanolic extract also showed notable inhibition in lipid peroxidation having IC 50 value 58.87 μg/ml. Phytochemical study focused that the extract is rich in phenolic compounds (24.66 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract and flavonoids (136.65 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract. Findings of the experiment indicated that the hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc is a source of natural antioxidants.

  14. Structure of a fragment of Atlantic Rainforest in regeneration with occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazil-wood

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    Liliane Baldan Zani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the phytosociological structure of a remaining fragment of Atlantic Rainforest undergoing regeneration in the town of Aracruz-ES in a forest board with natural occurrence of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. We installed 10 sample units (plots of 10 x 50m, sampling all individuals with DBH≥5cm and <10cm. Altogether, we sampled 500 individuals distributed into 181 species. The richest families were Leguminosae (35, Sapotaceae (18, and Myrtaceae (14. The most important species were Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Eugenia tinguyensis Cambess., and Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl. The Shannon index (H’ was 4.89 and the equability (J’ was 0.94. This area is one of the last remaining fragments with brazil-wood from the state of Espirito Santo and the population of this species is well preserved at the site, it occurs very frequently, emphasizing the importance of preserving small forest fragments to conserve biodiversity.

  15. Phylogeographic analyses strongly suggest cryptic speciation in the giant spiny frog (Dicroglossidae: Paa spinosa and interspecies hybridization in Paa.

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    Shupei Ye

    Full Text Available Species identification is one of the most basic yet crucial issues in biology with potentially far-reaching implications for fields such as conservation, population ecology, and epidemiology. The widely distributed but threatened frog Paa spinosa has been speculated to represent a complex of multiple species. In this study, 254 individuals representing species of the genus Paa were investigated along the entire range of P. spinosa: 196 specimens of P. spinosa, 8 specimens of P. jiulongensis, 5 specimens of P. boulengeri, 20 specimens of P. exilispinosa, and 25 specimens of P. shini. Approximately 1333 bp of mtDNA sequence data (genes 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA were used. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. BEAST was used to estimate divergence dates of major clades. Results suggest that P. spinosa can be divided into three distinct major lineages. Each major lineage totally corresponds to geographical regions, revealing the presence of three candidate cryptic species. Isolation and differentiation among lineages are further supported by the great genetic distances between the lineages. The bifurcating phylogenetic pattern also suggests an east-west dispersal trend during historic cryptic speciation. Dating analysis estimates that P. spinosa from Western China split from the remaining P. spinosa populations in the Miocene and that P. spinosa from Eastern China diverged from Central China in the Pliocene. We also found that P. exilispinosa from Mainland China and Hong Kong might have a complex of multiple species. After identifying cryptic lineages, we then determine the discrepancy between the mtDNA and the morphotypes in several individuals. This discrepancy may have been caused by introgressive hybridization between P. spinosa and P. shini.

  16. In vitro antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and total phenolic content in extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Caesalpiniaceae) pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhare, M R; Sivakumar, T; Udavant, P B; Dhake, A S; Surana, A R

    2012-04-01

    Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. Swartz (Caesalpiniaceae) is an ornamental plant also used as a common medicinal plant in India, Taiwan and South-East Asian countries. Majority of the diseases/disorders are mainly linked to oxidative stress due to free radicals. The aims of this study were to screen for phytochemical constituents, evaluate cytotoxicity, in vitro antioxidant activity and estimation of total phenolic content of extracts of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids. Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL) bioassay was used to investigate the cytotoxic effects. The LC50(microg mL(-1)) values obtained for extracts as 750 microg mL(-1) for petroleum ether extract, 800 microg mL(-1) for chloroform extract and 900 microg mL(-1) for methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the methanolic extract was 38.04% w/w, equivalent to gallic acid. Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanolic extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and standard ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of DPPH radical with an IC50 of 124.75, 112.08, 54.34 and 13.86 microg mL(-1), respectively. Methanolic extract was good scavenger of DPPH radical. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanolic extracts of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of nitric oxide radical with an IC50 of 93.32, 65.12, 54.83 and 12.59 microg mL(-1), respectively. Ethyl acetate soluble fraction was found to be good scavenger of nitric oxide radical. Our conclusion provides support that the crude extracts of C. pulcherrima is a probable source of natural antioxidants and this justified its uses in folkloric medicines.

  17. Morphological Characteristics of Ectomycorrhizas on Merbau [Intsia bijuga (Colebr. O. Kuntze

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    JULIUS DWI NUGROHO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Merbau [Intsia bijuga (Colebr. O. Kuntze] is one of valuable timber tree in south-east Asia which has been known having ectomycorrhizae (EcM though being ignored. Identification of the ectomycorrizae is prime important for being basis of further studies. This study investigated the EcM fungi associated with Merbau by using both sporocarp morphology and EcM morphotypes. Morphological characters of sporocarps and basidiocarps of the fungi and EcM morphotypes obtained from seedlings and trees from natural and plantation stands of merbau, as well as from nurseries were compared to the description of those resulted from baiting method. Only one species of ectomycorrhizal fungus was found associated with merbau [Intsia bijuga (Colebr. Kuntze] which has not been described yet. The fungus formed mycorrhizae with monopodial pinnate branching. The fungus was identified belonging to the genus of Scleroderma. The fungus was more common to occur beneath merbau seedlings than trees. The sporocarps may be yielded under greenhouse condition and could be cultured in MMN agar media, thus it facilitates to the production of inoculums used for further studies.

  18. Capparis Spinosa L. promotes anti-inflammatory response in vitro through the control of cytokine gene expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutia, Mouna; El Azhary, Khadija; Elouaddari, Anass; Al Jahid, Abdellah; Jamal Eddine, Jamal; Seghrouchni, Fouad; Habti, Norddine; Badou, Abdallah

    2016-08-02

    Capparis Spinosa L. is an aromatic plant growing wild in dry regions around the Mediterranean basin. Capparis Spinosa was shown to possess several properties such as antioxidant, antifungal, and anti-hepatotoxic actions. In this work, we aimed to evaluate immunomodulatory properties of Capparis Spinosa leaf extracts in vitro on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy individuals. Using MTT assay, we identified a range of Capparis Spinosa doses, which were not toxic. Unexpectedly, we found out that Capparis Spinosa aqueous fraction exhibited an increase in cell metabolic activity, even though similar doses did not affect cell proliferation as shown by CFSE. Interestingly, Capparis Spinosa aqueous fraction appeared to induce an overall anti-inflammatory response through significant inhibition of IL-17 and induction of IL-4 gene expression when PBMCs were treated with the non toxic doses of 100 and/or 500 μg/ml. Phytoscreening analysis of the used Capparis Spinosa preparations showed that these contain tannins; sterols, alkaloids; polyphenols and flavonoids. Surprisingly, quantification assays showed that our Capparis Spinosa preparation contains low amounts of polyphenols relative to Capparis Spinosa used in other studies. This Capparis Spinosa also appeared to act as a weaker scavenging free radical agent as evidenced by DPPH radical scavenging test. Finally, polyphenolic compounds including catechin, caffeic acid, syringic acid, rutin and ferulic acid were identified by HPLC, in the Capparis spinosa preparation. Altogether, these findings suggest that our Capparis Spinosa preparation contains interesting compounds, which could be used to suppress IL-17 and to enhance IL-4 gene expression in certain inflammatory situations. Other studies are underway in order to identify the compound(s) underlying this effect.

  19. Dynamic assessment of Capparis spinosa buds on survival of periodontal ligament cells using a real-time cell analysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozan, F; Özan, Ü; Oktay, E A; Toptas, O; Özdemir, H; KürÞat, Er

    2015-01-01

    Tooth avulsion is the most severe type of traumatic dental injuries and it results in the complete displacement of the tooth out of its socket in alveolar bone. Reimplantation of the tooth is considered to be a best treatment modality due to its biological and psychological advantages. Its prognosis depends on the extra alveolar time, the storage medium, and the patient's general health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Capparis spinosa (C. spinosa) in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells using a real-time cell analysis method. Periodontal ligament cells were obtained from healthy human third molars extracted for orthodontic purposes. The storage media tested were: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), C. spinosa, Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS), and light milk. A real-time cell analyzer system was used to evaluate cell viability. After seeding cell suspensions into the wells of the E-plate 96, PDL cells were treated with each of tested media and monitored for every 5 min for 26 h. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished using one-way analysis of variance complemented by the Tukey test. The level of significance was set at P spinosa groups had significantly higher cell index values compared with the HBSS and light milk (P spinosa showed better results than DMEM (control), but this difference was not found statistically significant. Capparis spinosa can be a suitable, alternative storage medium for avulsed teeth.

  20. Maturação de frutos de Caesalpinia echinata Lam., pau-brasil Maturation of fruits of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brasil wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se parâmetros indicativos da maturação de frutos de árvores de Caesalpinia echinata, visando determinar a melhor época de colheita para propagação. Foram utilizadas 10 plantas-matriz cultivadas em Mogi-Guaçu, SP, nas quais foram etiquetadas 250 inflorescências no pico da floração para acompanhamento da maturação. As coletas de frutos tiveram início a partir da 5ª semana após a antese, prolongando-se até a 9ª, com intervalos de sete dias. Em cada coleta, analisaram-se os parâmetros: comprimento, largura e teor de água dos frutos; teor de água das sementes (após três dias de exposição ao sol para deiscência do fruto e extração da semente; porcentagem de germinação e peso de matéria seca de frutos, sementes e plântulas. Observou-se, ainda, a coloração dos frutos como parâmetro visual de maturação das sementes. O experimento foi repetido por três anos. Os testes de germinação foram realizados em caixas Gerbox contendo vermiculita umedecida com água destilada. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em câmara regulada para 30 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições de 25 sementes por parcela, nos anos de 1991, 1992 e 1993. As leituras de germinação foram realizadas nos 4º e 8º dias após a semeadura. Pelos resultados, conclui-se que o momento ideal para coleta dos frutos de C. echinata é no estádio de pré-dispersão (entre a 8º e 9º após a antese visualizado através da coloração, quando estes mudam de verde para castanho.Several indicative parameters regarding fruit maturity of Caesalpinia echinata were studied in order to establish the ideal harvest time. Ten matrix plants were cultivated in Moji-Guaçu, SP (22°11' to 1022°18' S and 47°13' to 47°20' WG, altitude between 600m and 730m. The climate of the region is classified as Cwa. Two hundred and fifty blossoms were tagged during the the peak

  1. Potencial de rizobactérias no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH Epotential of rhizobacterias for the growth of seedlings of sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH

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    Jeane de Fátima Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial de isolados de rizobactérias na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides. Testaram-se os isolados pré-selecionados para eucalipto, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 e CIIB. Para tanto, amostras de substrato à base de vermiculita e casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1 foram tratados com 5 mL de uma suspensão de cada isolado (OD540= 0,2 A/ tubete de 55 cc de capacidade, correspondendo a cerca de 10 ufc/mL. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco repetições por tratamento, com 20 sementes cada. Aos 40 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação e a massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Verificou-se aumento significativo em matéria seca de raiz e da parte aérea para todos os isolados de rizobactérias testados, em relação à testemunha. Todos os isolados proporcionaram aumento significativo na germinação, à exceção do 3918 e CIIB que não diferiram da testemunha. Entre os isolados testados, quatro destacaram-se como os mais promissores (FL2, MF4, MF2 e CIIB. Os resultados obtidos mostram ganhos significativos na produção de mudas, sem nenhum ajuste no manejo ou na estrutura do viveiro. Além desse ganho direto, pode-se ter um melhor aproveitamento da estrutura física dos viveiros, ao se diminuir o tempo de formação das mudas, reduzindo-se o custo de produção.The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of growth-promoting rhizobacteria for seed germination and biomass of the root system and aerial part of seedlings of sibipiruna ( Caesalpinia Peltophoroides: . Isolates pre-selected for eucalyptus were used, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 and CIIB. Thus, samples of vermiculite-based substrate and carbonized rice hull (1:1 were treated with 5 mL of a suspension of each isolate (OD540= 0.2 A/ tubette of 55 cc capacity corresponding to around 10 ufc/mL. The experimental

  2. Influence of Capparis spinosa and Acacia arabica on certain biochemical haemolymph parameters of Biomphalaria alexandrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantawy, Mona M; Hamed, Manal A; Sammour, Elham M; Sanad, Mahmoud

    2004-08-01

    The work investigated the molluscicidal potency of dried Capparis spinosa and Acacia arabica leaves on selected biochemical parameters of Bionimphalaria alexandrina, in order to render them, physiologically, unsuitable for S. mansoni infection or at least disturb the life-cycle of the parasite within its respective snail host. The effect of the two plants on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 5'-nucleotidase, acid phosphatase (AP), aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST & ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose content were studied. This work was extended to evaluate the effect of these two plants on protein profile as well as total protein (TP) content of snail's in haemolymph after 24 hours and one week of snails plants feeding. The study revealed that both plants induced marked alteration in all the measured parameters, where LC50 of C. spinosa after fed one week showed the most potent effect.

  3. Beneficial Effects of Capparis Spinosa Honey on the Immune Response of Rats Infected with Toxoplasma Gundii

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    Ahmed Gaffer Hegazi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii is an intracellular opportunistic protozoan parasite that infects approximately one-third of the human population worldwide. Honey has long been used for treatment of many diseases in folk medicine. Honey has exhibited significant anthelmintic, nematicidal and anti-protozoal activities. This study was conducted to investigate the immunological patterns in rats infected with T. gondii who were treated orally with supplemented 15% Capparis spinosa honey (Saudi Arabia for a period of 28 days. Methods: Immunoglobulin M, immunoglobulin G, and cytokines were detected by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs. In addition, the mortality and the morbidity rates were assessed. Results: Oral administration of Capparis spinosa honey as a natural food additive was experimentally shown to increase the antibody titer; furthermore, compared with the rats in the control group,

  4. In vitro thermotherapy and shoot-tip culture to eliminate Caper latent virus in Capparis spinosa

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    Laura Tomassoli

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa plants in the Sicilian Islands, Italy, are frequently infected with Caper latent virus (CapLV. CapLV affects the vigour and longevity of caper plants and exacerbates the effect of other adverse biotic and abiotic factors. To have CapLV-free cuttings of caper for multiplication and new planting is therefore advantageous for a revival of this crop wherever it is cultivated. An improved procedure for the in vitro thermotherapy combined with the culture of the shoot tips of C. spinosa has been applied to caper material collected from Salina (Aeolian Archipelago and Pantelleria. More than of 60% (Salina and 90% (Pantelleria of the shoot tips survived, and 89–93% of the regenerated plantlets were CapLV-free when tested by RT-PCR. This is the first report on eliminating CapLV from caper plants.

  5. Development and structure of drought-tolerant leaves of the Mediterranean shrub Capparis spinosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopoulou, Sophia; Psaras, George K

    2003-09-01

    Capparis spinosa (caper), a winter-deciduous perennial shrub, is a consistent floristic element of Mediterranean ecosystems, growing from May to October, i.e. entirely during the prolonged summer drought. The internal architecture of young and fully expanded leaves was studied, along with certain physiological characteristics. Capparis spinosa possesses thick, amphistomatic and homobaric leaves with a multilayered mesophyll. The latter possesses an increased number of photosynthesizing cells per unit leaf surface, a large surface area of mesophyll cells facing intercellular spaces (Smes) and a low percentage of intercellular space per tissue volume. Smes and chlorophyll content attain their maximum values synchronously, slightly before full leaf expansion. Nitrogen investment is also completed before full leaf expansion. The structural features, in combination with the water status, could contribute to enhanced rates of transpiration and photosynthesis under field water shortage conditions.

  6. Some secrets of Argania spinosa water economy in a semiarid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Barradas, Mari Cruz; Zunzunegui, María; Esquivias, Mari Paz; Boutaleb, Said; Valera-Burgos, Javier; Tagma, Tarek; Ain-Lhout, Fátima

    2013-01-01

    Argania spinosa is an example of an avoider tree growing under semi-arid conditions in Morocco. To assess what are the physiological strategies of this species, different variables were measured through an annual cycle in two populations located in the species' main distribution area. Results show the expected decrease of leaf water potential (psi) with an increase of water-use efficiency (A/gs) with the onset of the dry season. In summer, leaf conductance (g(s)) was sensitive to vapour pressure deficit (VPD), and stomatal closure occurred over 30 mbar of VPD. Surprisingly, carbon isotope discrimination (delta13C) maintained very low values over the year, with almost no relationship with any physiological or morphological variable. Hence Argania spinosa presents a complex set of mechanisms to avoid water deficit, but delta13C cannot be used as an ecological tracer of long term WUE.

  7. Structural Investigation of Cell Wall Xylan Polysaccharides from the Leaves of Algerian Argania spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Kadda; Faugeron, Céline; Kaid-Harche, Meriem; Gloaguen, Vincent

    2016-11-21

    Xylan-type polysaccharides were isolated from the leaves of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels collected in the Tindouf area (southwestern Algeria). Xylan fractions were obtained by sequential alkaline extractions and purified on Sepharose CL-4B. The xylan structure was investigated by enzymatic hydrolysis with an endo-β(1→4)-xylanase followed by chromatography of the resulting fragments on Biogel P2, characterization by sugar analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS ). The results show that the A. spinosa xylan is composed of a β-(1→4)-d-xylopyranose backbone substituted with 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid and L-arabinose residues.

  8. Estudo morfo-anatômico de folhas de Jacaratia spinosa (Aubl. A.DC. (Caricaceae

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    Adelita A. Sartori Paoli

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos morfológicos e anatômicos da folha de Jacaratia spinosa (Aubl. A.DC. (Caricaceae foram estudados com detalhe. O limbo foliar possui organização dorsiventral, estômago anomocíticos, glândulas, laticíferos do tipo articulado anastomosado e epiderme papilosa na face abaxial. A venação é bronquidódroma terminando em alças no bordo foliar.Morphological and anatomical aspects of leaves of Jacaratia spinosa (Aubl. A.DC. (Caricaceae were studied in detail. The leaf blade shows a dorsiventral organization, anomocytic stomata, glands, laticifers of the articulated anastomosed type and a papillary abaxial epidermis. The venation is brochidodromous ending in rings at the leaf margins.

  9. Structural Investigation of Cell Wall Xylan Polysaccharides from the Leaves of Algerian Argania spinosa

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    Kadda Hachem

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Xylan-type polysaccharides were isolated from the leaves of Argania spinosa (L. Skeels collected in the Tindouf area (southwestern Algeria. Xylan fractions were obtained by sequential alkaline extractions and purified on Sepharose CL-4B. The xylan structure was investigated by enzymatic hydrolysis with an endo-β(1→4-xylanase followed by chromatography of the resulting fragments on Biogel P2, characterization by sugar analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS . The results show that the A. spinosa xylan is composed of a β-(1→4-d-xylopyranose backbone substituted with 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid and L-arabinose residues.

  10. Acute effect of Capparis spinosa root extracts on rat articular pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresca, Mario; Micheli, Laura; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo; Tenci, Barbara; Innocenti, Marzia; Khatib, Mohamad; Mulinacci, Nadia; Ghelardini, Carla

    2016-12-04

    Capparis spinosa L. originates from dry regions of Asia and Mediterranean basin. In traditional medicine of these areas, infusions from caper root are considered to be beneficial for the treatment of rheumatism, gout and against abdominal pains. To evaluate the pain relieving properties of a Syrian cultivar of Capparis spinosa roots in rat models of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Decoction (DEC) and hydroalcoholic extract (EtH2O) were obtained from powdered roots; the latter was further separated in CH2Cl2 and aqueous (H2O-Res) fractions. The extracts were characterized in terms of spermidine alkaloids by HPLC/DAD/MS and stachydrine by NMR. Different amount of free and glycosilated forms of capparispine and analogues (from 0.5% w/w for DEC up to 7.6% w/w for CH2Cl2 fraction) were detected. Rat models of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis were induced by the intra-articular administration of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) or monosodium iodoacetate (MIA), respectively. Fourteenth days after CFA or MIA injection, the different preparations of Capparis spinosa (3, 30, 100 and 300mgkg-1) were acutely administered p.o.. Powdered roots (300mgkg-1), DEC (100mgkg-1), and EtH2O (300mgkg-1) significantly reduced hypersensitivity to mechanical noxious stimuli as well as spontaneous pain evaluated as hind limb bearing alterations in both models. The CH2Cl2 and the H2O-Res (30mgkg-1) were the most potent in reverting pain threshold alterations despite the different content of free alkaloids. Capparis spinosa extracts relieved pain related to rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis after single administration. A synergistic effect due to a specific "phytochemical mixture" is suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Partial structural characterization of pectin cell wall from Argania spinosa leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Hachem, Kadda; Benabdesslem, Yasmina; Ghomari, Samia; Hasnaoui, Okkacha; Kaid-Harche, Meriem

    2016-01-01

    The pectin polysaccharides from leaves of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels, collected from Stidia area in the west coast of northern Algeria, were investigated by using sequential extractions and the resulting fractions were analysed for monosaccharide composition and chemical structure. Water-soluble pectic (ALS-WSP) and chelating-soluble pectic (ALS-CSP) fractions were obtained, de-esterified and fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography and characterized by sugar analysis combined with meth...

  12. Indoleacetic acid derivatives from the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Yu; Tsoi, Bun; Jin, Xiao-jie; He, Rong-Rong; Yao, Xiao-jun; Dai, Yi; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2014-12-01

    A pair of diastereoisomers, the N-glycosylated derivatives of dioxindole-3-hydroxy-3-acetic acid 1-2, and their conjugates with flavonoids 3-8, was isolated from the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa. Their structures were elucidated by NMR spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configurations were determined by circular dichroism method. Compounds 3-10 were evaluated for the antioxidant capacity, using the radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Flavone C-glycosides from seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke-xian; Zhao, Li-mei; Ji, Chang-jiu; Tan, Ning-hua

    2015-04-01

    Five flavone C-glycosides were isolated from the methanol extract of the degrease seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa though various column chromatography methods including silica gel, MPLC, and HPLC. The structures were elucidated as 6"-feruloyl- 6'''-vanillylspinosin(1), 6",6'"-diferuloylspinosin(2), spinosin(3), swertisin(4) and isoswertisin(5) based on the NMR and MS spectral data. 1 is a new compound.

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Capparis spinosa Extract on Pancreatic Alpha-Amylase Activity

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    Mostafa Selfayan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose level caused due to deficiency of insulin secretion or insulin function. The inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes such as α-amylase can be an important strategy for decrease postprandial blood glucose level in patients with type II diabetes. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Objectives The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of the ethanolic extract of Capparis spinosa on pancreatic α-amylase activities to find out the relevance of the plant in controlling blood sugar. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, root and leaves of C. spinosa were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations (1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/mL of extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the spectrometric method used for measure enzyme activity. Also acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Results Both root and leaves extracts showed inhibition of α-amylase (root = 97.31% and leaves = 98.92%. The root and leaves extracts of C. spinosa exhibited appreciable α-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 values 5.93 mg/mL and 3.89 mg/mL respectively, when compared with acarbose (IC50 value 0.038 mg/mL. Conclusions This study supports that root and leaves extracts of C. spinosa exhibit considerable α-amylase inhibitory activities. These results could be useful for developing functional foods by combination of plant-based foods for treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  15. The Effects of Capparis Spinosa Hydroalcoholic Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipids Serum in Diabetic and Normal Male Rats

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    M Negahdarizadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine disorders in the world which affects glucose metabolism in the body. Diabetes mellitus is due to lack of insulin secretion and/or failure in insulin action. Researches conducted in the last few decades on plants have reported anti-diabetic properties for some herbs and their traditional use for diabetes treatment. Capparis spinosa is one of these herbs which are used as an anti-diabetic treatment in tribal medicine. The objective of the present study was to examine the anti-diabetic effects of Capparis spinosa on blood glucose and serum lipids in streptozotocin induced diabetes in male rats. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study conducted at Yasouj University of Medical Sciences in 2010, five groups of animals were selected. Three groups out of five were administered with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to become diabetic. Group I were fed normal diet. Group II of animals received 20 mg/kg/day Capparis spinosa extract. Group III received no treatment (diabetic control and animals of groups IV and V were treated with capparis spinosa fruit extract 20 and 30 mg/kg body weight respectively for three weeks. Blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and body weight were measured in all animals. The collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using one-way ANOVA. Results: Treatment with the 30 mg/kg/body weight of capparis spinosa fruit extract showed a significant decrease in blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and a significant increase in HDL level. In addition, administration of 20 mg/kg/body weight of capparis spinosa extract decreased blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic rats. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the oral administration of capparis spinosa extract at the dose of 30 mg/kg/body weight has glucose and lipids lowering activity in diabetic rats.

  16. An examination of the function of male flowers in an andromonoecious shrub Capparis spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Tan, Dun-Yan

    2009-03-01

    The pollen donor and pollinator attractor hypotheses are explanations for the functions of the male flowers of andromonoecious plants. We tested these two hypotheses in the andromonoecious shrub Capparis spinosa L. (Capparaceae) and confirmed that pollen production and cumulative volume and sugar concentration of nectar do not differ between male and perfect flowers. However, male flowers produced larger anthers, larger pollen grains and smaller ovaries than perfect flowers. Observations on pollinators indicated that two major pollinators (Xylocopa valga Gerst and Proxylocopa sinensis Wu) did not discriminate between flower morphs and that they transferred pollen grains a similar distance. However, there were more seeds per fruit following hand pollination with pollen from male flowers than from perfect flowers. Individuals of C. spinosa with a larger floral display (i.e. bearing more flowers) received more pollen grains on the stigma of perfect flowers. Female reproductive success probably is not limited by pollen. These results indicate that male flowers of C. spinosa save resources for female function and that they primarily serve to attract pollinators as pollen donors.

  17. [Tissue culture and rapid propogation of seeds of Uyghur traditional herbal Capparis spinosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sheng-Jun; Lu, Ting; Zhang, Ai-Qin; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Ling

    2010-12-01

    To optimize the tissue culture and rapid proliferation techniques of seeds of Capparis spinosa for producing large scale seedlings. The seeds of Capparis spinosa were collected as explants and cultivated in different MS media, which were from Turpan in Xinjiang. The optimum media were selected by adjusting the combinations of different hormone and concentration. The best on institution of asepsis explants was rinsing for 8 hours and 0.1% HgCl2 for 12 minutes. The medium MS + 6-BA 0.6 mg/L + NAA 0.1 mg/L was suitable for primary and second culture. The medium MS + 6-BA 0.6 mg/L + 2,4-D 1.0 mg/L was suitable for proliferation, and the optimum medium of rooting was MS + IBA 0.8 mg / L + 300 mg/L activated carbon. The rapid proliferation technique of seeds of Capparis spinosa can be used for producing large scale seedlings.

  18. Structural investigation of hemicellulosic polysaccharides from Argania spinosa: characterisation of a novel xyloglucan motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Bimalendu; Loutelier-Bourhis, Corinne; Lange, Catherine; Condamine, Eric; Driouich, Azeddine; Lerouge, Patrice

    2004-01-22

    Hemicellulose polymers were isolated from Argania spinosa leaf cell walls by sequential extractions with alkali. The structure of the two main polymers, xylan and xyloglucan, was investigated by enzyme degradation with specific endoglycosidases followed by analysis of the resulting fragments by high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The results show that A. spinosa xylan is composed of a beta-(1-->4)-linked-D-xylopyranose backbone substituted with 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid residues. Xyloglucan oligosaccharide subunits were generated by treatment with an endo-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucanase of the xyloglucan-rich hemicellulosic fractions. MALDI-TOF mass spectra and HPAE-PAD chromatography of the pool of endoglucanase-generated xyloglucan oligomers indicated that A. spinosa cell wall contains a XXXG-type xyloglucan. In addition to XXXG, XXFG, XLXG/XXLG, XLFG fragments previously characterised in various plants, a second group of XXXG-type fragments was detected. The primary structure of the major subunit was determined by a combination of sugar analysis, methylation analysis, post-source decay (PSD) fragment analysis of MALDI-TOF MS and 1H NMR spectroscopy. This fragment, termed XUFG, contains a novel beta-D-Xylp-(1-->2)-alpha-D-Xylp side chain linked to C-6 of the second glucose unit from the nonreducing end of the cellotetraose sequence.

  19. Ziziphi spinosae lily powder suspension in the treatment of depression-like behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifang; Huang, Mei; Lu, Xinyi; Wei, Runze; Xu, Jinyong

    2017-04-28

    Depression is a chronic, recurring and potentially life-threatening illness. Current treatments for depression are characterized by a low success rate and associated with a wide variety of side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioral anti-depressant effect of a novel herbal compounds named ziziphi spinosae lily powder suspension, as well as to investigate its potential mechanisms. Except for body weight, depressive-like behaviors were also evaluated using forced swimming test, sucrose consumption test and open field test. In order to investigate the underlying potential mechanisms, serum 5-HT and brain 5-HIAA were measured using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Results showed that the herbal compounds ziziphi spinosae lily suspension could alleviate depressive symptoms in rat model of chronic depression. Biochemical analysis revealed that the herbal compounds elevated serum 5-HT and brain 5-HIAA. Ziziphi spinosae lily powder suspension could alleviate depressive behaviors in depression model animals. The underlying mechanisms may be related to the increase of serum 5-HT in peripheral blood and 5-HIAA in brain. The study provides important mechanistic insights into the protective effect of the herbal compounds against chronic depressive disorder and suggests that the herbal compounds may be a potential pharmacological agent for treatment of major depressive disorder.

  20. Avaliação do potencial toxicológico e farmacológico das folhas de Caesalpinia echinata Lam

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Sampaio Grangeiro, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Caesalpinia echinata Lam, popularmente conhecida como pau-brasil ou pernambuco, é uma árvore considerada de valor histórico e econômico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a toxicidade aguda e as atividades antinociceptiva, antiinflamatória e antitumoral frente ao Sarcoma 180 do extrato bruto etanólico das folhas de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. A toxicidade aguda foi avaliada através da metodologia da Organização para Cooperação Econômica e Desenvolvimento (OECD 423), que pr...

  1. Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanand M Kannur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy′s Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students′ ′t′ test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.

  2. Antitumor activity and antioxidant status of Caesalpinia bonducella against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Malaya; Mazumder, Upal Kanti; Kumar, Ramanathan Sambath; Sivakumar, Thangavel; Vamsi, Madgula Lakshmi Mohan

    2004-02-01

    The methanol extract of Caesalpinia bonducella FLEMING (Caesalpiniaceae) leaves (MECB) were evaluated for antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing Swiss albino mice. The extract was administered at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight per day for 14 days after 24 h of tumor inoculation. After the last dose and 18 h fasting, the mice were sacrificed. The present study deals with the effect of MECB on the growth of transplantable murine tumor, life span of EAC-bearing hosts, hematological profile, and biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities. MECB caused significant (P<0.01) decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume, and viable cell count; and it prolonged the life span of EAC-tumor bearing mice. Hematological profile converted to more or less normal levels in extract-treated mice. MECB significantly (P<0.05) decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and significantly (P<0.05) increased the levels of GSH, SOD, and CAT. The MECB was found to be devoid of conspicuous short-term toxicity in the mice when administered daily (i.p.) for 14 days at the doses of 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg. The treated mice showed conspicuous toxic symptoms only at 300 mg/kg. The results indicate that MECB exhibited significant antitumor and antioxidant activity in EAC-bearing mice.

  3. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties

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    Maria G. Gallego

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05 better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  4. Biological Effect of Leaf Aqueous Extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis in Goats Naturally Infected with Gastrointestinal Nematodes

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    Roberto Robson Borges-dos-Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were randomly divided into four groups (n=12: negative control (G1 (untreated, positive control (G2 (treated with doramectin, 1 mL/50 Kg b.w., and G3 and G4 treated with 2.5 and 5 mg/Kg b.w. of a leaf aqueous extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (CP. Fecal and blood samples were regularly collected for the evaluation of fecal egg count (FEC, hematological and immunological parameters to assess the anthelmintic activity. In treated animals with CP, there was noted a significant reduction of 54.6 and 71.2% in the mean FEC (P<0.05. An increase in IgA levels was observed in G3 and G4 (P<0.05, during the experimental period, suggesting that it was stimulated by the extract administration. In conclusion, the results showed that CP provoked a protective response in infected animals treated with them. This response could be partly explained by the CP chemical composition.

  5. PASS-Predicted Hepatoprotective Activity of Caesalpinia sappan in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats

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    Farkaad A. Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifibrotic effects of traditional medicinal herb Caesalpinia sappan (CS extract on liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA and the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in rats were studied. A computer-aided prediction of antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities was primarily performed with the Prediction Activity Spectra of the Substance (PASS Program. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by TAA administration (0.03% w/v in drinking water for a period of 12 weeks. Rats were divided into seven groups: control, TAA, Silymarin (SY, and CS 300 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg groups. The effect of CS on liver fibrogenesis was determined by Masson’s trichrome staining, immunohistochemical analysis, and western blotting. In vivo determination of hepatic antioxidant activities, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MPPS was employed. CS treatment had significantly increased hepatic antioxidant enzymes activity in the TAA-treated rats. Liver fibrosis was greatly alleviated in rats when treated with CS extract. CS treatment was noted to normalize the expression of TGF-β1, αSMA, PCNA, MMPs, and TIMP1 proteins. PASS-predicted plant activity could efficiently guide in selecting a promising pharmaceutical lead with high accuracy and required antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties.

  6. Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannur, Dayanand M.; Paranjpe, Mukta P.; Sonavane, Lalit V.; Dongre, Prerana P.; Khandelwal, Kishanchand R.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE) has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy's Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students’ ‘t’ test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23057003

  7. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Maria G; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco J; Almajano, María P

    2015-07-31

    In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w) concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  8. Hepatoprotective effect of Caesalpinia gilliesii and Cajanus cajan proteins against acetoaminophen overdose-induced hepatic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Maha Z; Aly, Hanan F; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M; Desoky, M M; Ibrahim, N; Younis, Eman A

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to evaluate two proteins derived from the seeds of the plants Cajanus cajan (Leguminosae) and Caesalpinia gilliesii (Leguminosae) for their abilities to ameliorate the toxic effects of chronic doses of acetoaminphen (APAP) through the determination of certain biochemical parameters including liver marker enzymes: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin. Also, total protein content and hepatic marker enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase were studied. Moreover, liver antioxidants, glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide, and lipid peroxides were determined in this study. Hepatic adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), adenylate energy charge (ATP, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, and inorganic phosphate), and phosphate potential, serum interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and myeloperoxidase were also examined in the present study. On the other hand, histopathological examination of intoxicated and liver treated with both proteins was taken into consideration. The present results show disturbances in all biochemical parameters and hepatic toxicity signs including mild vascular congestion, moderate inflammatory changes with moderate congested sinusoids, moderate nuclear changes (pyknosis), moderate centrilobular necrosis, fatty changes, nuclear pyknosis vascular congestion, and change in fatty centrilobular necrosis liver. Improvement in all biochemical parameters studied was noticed as a result of treatment intoxicated liver with C. gilliesii and C. cajan proteins either paracetamol with or post paracetamol treatment. These results were documented by the amelioration signs in rat's hepatic architecture. Thus, both plant protein extracts can upregulate and counteract the inflammatory process, minimize damage of the liver, delay disease progression, and reduce its complications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Caesalpinia echinata Lam. - BRAZILWOOD: THERMAL BEHAVIOR, STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND RESISTANCE TO BIODETERIORATION IN STATIC SYSTEMS

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    Ana Paula Pinto Pinheiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Wood is the best-known biological material used as a raw material since the dawn of mankind until present days. As a natural and renewable composite, its lifetime is limited by the degradation of its basic elements. This degradation can be caused by chemical reactions or by biological agents capable of accelerating the process of deterioration. In this work, the wear, thermal, and micro-structural characteristics, as also the bio-degradation behavior in static systems, of the wood species Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata were studied under laboratory conditions in order to use these woods in design. The results show that Brazilwood has a good visual performance after abrasion test, since it has not shown any representative roughness increase. In addition, Brazilwood has high level of crystallinity of, approximately, 68% and was almost insensitive to fungi attack, forming only 5.3 x 103 CFU/mL. Besides, its texture did not change due to exposure to water or sweat.

  10. Enhanced in vitro dissolution of Iloperidone using Caesalpinia Pulcherrima mucoadhesive microspheres

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    Pradum Pundlikrao Ige

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of Iloperidone. Microspheres containing Iloperidone were prepared by spray drying using mucilage extracted from seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The novelty of this work is that, the extraction of mucilage and its usage for preparation of drug loaded microspheres. The prepared microspheres were characterized by SEM, DSC, XRPD, FTIR, 1H-NMR, particle size, drug content, entrapment efficiency, in vitro dissolution and ex vivo mucoadhesion. Based on particle size, drug content, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release, the best formulation was optimized. Percent entrapment efficiency and mean particle size for optimized formulation was found to be 73.49 and 3.27 ± 1.23 μm, respectively. More precisely, mucilage of C. pulcherrima could be significant carrier of (drug and polymer ratio 1:5 microspheres for the development of oral drug delivery.

  11. Chemical constituents and toxicity of Agastache foeniculum (Pursh) kuntze essential oil against two stored-product insect pests Componentes químicos y toxicidad del aceite esencial de Agastachefoeniculum (Pursh) Kuntze contra dos plagas de insectos de productos almacenados

    OpenAIRE

    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2011-01-01

    The uncontrolled use of synthetic insecticides is a great hazard for the environment and consumers. Essential oils were introduced as low toxic agents against mammals and non-targeted insects. In this study, essential oil from aerial parts of blue giant hyssop (Agastache foeniculum [Pursh] Kuntze) (Lamiaceae) was isolated by the water steam distillation method with a Clevenger apparatus, and its chemical composition was studied by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The toxicity of A. foeni...

  12. Constituintes químicos voláteis das flores e folhas do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata, Lam.

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    Rezende Claudia M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents obtained from a static cryogenic headspace of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Leguminosae showed E-beta-ocimene as the major compound (57.2%, beside other monoterpenes, C6 derivatives like n-hexanal and (E-2-hexenal and nitrogen compounds such as indole and methyl anthranilate. From the essential oil of the leaves obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus, (E-3-hexen-1-ol was identified as the major constituent while phenolic compounds were the most representative class of secondary metabolites.

  13. Development of a UV/Vis spectrophotometric method for analysis of total polyphenols from Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth

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    Fernanda G. Bueno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia peltophoroides is a domesticated tree found in Brazil. It was necessary to develop an analytical method to determine the content of total polyphenols (TP in this herbal drug. The pre-analytical method was standardized for analysis time, wavelength, and the best standard to use. The optimum conditions were: pyrogallol, 760 nm, and 30 min respectively. Under these conditions, validation by UV/Vis spectrophotometry proved to be reliable for TP of the crude extract and semipurified fractions from C. peltophoroides. Standardization is required for every herbal drug, and this method proved to be linear, precise, accurate, reproducible, robust, and easy to perform.

  14. Propagação in vitro de Limonium latifolium Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae In vitro propagation of Limonium latifolium Kuntze (Plümbaginaceae

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    Claudimar Sidnei Fior

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Limonium latifoKum Kuntze é uma flor de corte cuja produção comercial de mudas é viabilizada através do cultivo de tecidos. Com o objetivo de aperfeiçoar o protocolo para a propagação clonal in vitro, fez-se uma sequência de estudos em que foram avaliados: viabilidade do uso de segmentos nadais do eixo da inflorescência imatura como explantes; tipos e concentrações de citocininas (cinetina-KIN e benzilaminopurina-BAP na regeneração; tipos e concentrações de auxinas (ácido naftalenoacético-ANA e ácido indolbutírico-AIB na fase de enraizamento in vitro; e técnicas de aclimatizaçao. Explantes oriundos de segmentos nadais da parte apical do eixo da inflorescência imatura são viáveis para a micropropagaçao de L. latifolium. Na fase de regeneração, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o uso de meio de cultivo MS com 0,7mg de BAP/l por 35 dias. A fase de enraizamento m vitro foi feita com a manutenção dos explantes por 30 dias em meio MS acrescido de 1mg de AIB/l , garantindo ótimo índice de sobrevivência após a transferência para in vivo. A aclimatiwção foi feita sob cobertura plástica, em bancada de casa de vegetação, à temperatura ambiente e com irrigação por nebulização. Utilizaram-se, como recipientes, bandejas multicelulares de isopor, com 242 células e aproximadamente 10cm³ cada, preenchidas com casca de arroz carbonizada e esterilizada. As mudas receberam, quinzenalmente, adubação líquida com 0,5g/l de um adubo comercial (15:5:l5+micronutrientes. O processo in vitro dura 100 a 120 dias e um explante origina 15 a 30 mudas.Limonium latifolium Kuntze is a cut flower commercialy propagated in vitro. To develop and improve the micropropagation protocol, a sequence of assays was developed to evaluate performance of node explants; effect of cytokinins concentration (kinetin-KlN and 6-benzyl-aminopurin-BA on the regeneration rate; the presence of BA during the multiplication phase; concentration of

  15. Antioxidant and diuretic activity of co-administration of Capparis spinosa honey and propolis in comparison to furosemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Guendouz, Soukaina; Al-Waili, Noori; Aazza, Smail; Elamine, Youssef; Zizi, Soumia; Al-Waili, Thia; Al-Waili, Ali; Lyoussi, Badiaa

    2017-10-01

    To study the antioxidant properties of Capparis spinosa (C. spinosa) honey and propolis and the effect of combined honey and propolis administration on urine volume and electrolytes in rats. C. spinosa honey [1000 mg/kg body weight (b.wt)], propolis (100 mg/kg b.wt), honey/propolis mixture (C. spinosa honey 1000 mg/kg b.wt/ propolis extract 100 mg/kg b.wt ), distilled water (1 mL/kg b.wt) and furosemide (10 mg/kg b.wt) were orally administered to five groups of rats for 21 d. Urine volume, blood and urine sodium, potassium and chloride were measured. The antioxidant activity of propolis and honey was assessed and their total phenols and flavonoids were determined. Propolis and C. spinosa honey contain polyphenols including flavonoids and propolis demonstrated higher antioxidant activities than honey. Honey significantly increased urine volume and urine electrolyte excretion. Propolis had no significant effect on urine volume, but co-administration of propolis and honey caused significant diuresis. No major changes were observed in plasma electrolytes with the use of honey, propolis or their combination. Honey and propolis have antioxidant activity and contain polyphenols including flavonoids that are more pronounced in propolis. Honey has a significant diuretic activity alone or in combination with propolis. This is the first study comparing the diuretic effect of co-administration of propolis and C. spinosa honey with furosemide. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the anti-malarial activity of Caesalpinia pluviosa

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    Eberlin Marcos N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To overcome the problem of increasing drug resistance, traditional medicines are an important source for potential new anti-malarials. Caesalpinia pluviosa, commonly named "sibipiruna", originates from Brazil and possess multiple therapeutic properties, including anti-malarial activity. Methods Crude extract (CE was obtained from stem bark by purification using different solvents, resulting in seven fractions. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. The CE and its fractions were tested in vitro against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7 and -resistant (S20 strains of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice. In vitro interaction with artesunate and the active C. pluviosa fractions was assessed, and mass spectrometry analyses were conducted. Results At non-toxic concentrations, the 100% ethanolic (F4 and 50% methanolic (F5 fractions possessed significant anti-malarial activity against both 3D7 and S20 strains. Drug interaction assays with artesunate showed a synergistic interaction with the F4. Four days of treatment with this fraction significantly inhibited parasitaemia in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of an ion corresponding to m/z 303.0450, suggesting the presence of quercetin. However, a second set of analyses, with a quercetin standard, showed distinct ions of m/z 137 and 153. Conclusions The findings show that the F4 fraction of C. pluviosa exhibits anti-malarial activity in vitro at non-toxic concentrations, which was potentiated in the presence of artesunate. Moreover, this anti-malarial activity was also sustained in vivo after treatment of infected mice. Finally, mass spectrometry analyses suggest that a new compound, most likely an isomer of quercetin, is responsible for the anti-malarial activity of the F4.

  17. Leishmanicidal compounds of Nectria pseudotrichia, an endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood

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    Betania Barros Cota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In a screen of extracts from plants and fungi to detect antileishmanial activity, we found that the ethyl acetate extract of the fungus Nectria pseudotrichia, isolated from the tree Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood, is a promising source of bioactive compounds. OBJECTIVES The aims of this study were to isolate and determine the chemical structures of the compounds responsible for the antileishmanial activity of the organic extract from N. pseudotrichia. METHODS Compounds were isolated by chromatographic fractionation using semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were determined by analytical and spectral data and by comparison with published data. The antileishmanial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis expressing firefly luciferase as reporter gene, and cytotoxicity was determined in Vero and THP-1 mammalian cell lines by MTT assay. FINDINGS Fractionation of the extract yielded seven compounds: 10-acetyl trichoderonic acid A (1, 6′-acetoxy-piliformic acid (2, 5′,6′-dehydropiliformic acid (3, piliformic acid (4, hydroheptelidic acid (5, xylaric acid D (6, and cytochalasin D (7. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 are reported here for the first time. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 were more active, with IC50 values of 21.4, 28.3, and 24.8 µM, respectively, and showed low toxicity to Vero and THP-1 cells. MAIN CONCLUSIONS N. pseudotrichia produces secondary metabolites that are more toxic to intracellular amastigote forms of L. (V. braziliensis than to mammalian cells.

  18. Carbon Sequestration of Caesalpinia platyloba S. Watt (Leguminosae) (Lott 1985) in the Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Gustavo, Norma; Martínez-Salvador, Martín; García-Hernández, José Luís; Norzagaray-Campos, Mariano; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia platyloba was evaluated as an alternative for the retention of atmospheric carbon and as a feasible and viable economic activity in terms of income for tropical deciduous forest (TDF) peasants in the carbon markets. A total of 110 trees of C. platyloba from plantations and a TDF in the Northwest of Mexico were sampled. Growth (increase in height, diameter, and volume curves) was adjusted to assess their growth. Growth of individuals (height, diameter at breast height [DBH], age, and tree crown cover) was recorded. The Schumacher model (H = β(0)e(β1 • E-1)), by means of the guided curve method, was used to adjust growth models. Information analysis was made through the non-linear procedure with the multivariate secant or false position (DUD) method using the SAS software. Growth and increase models revealed acceptable adjustments (pseudo R(2)>0.8). C. platyloba reaches >8m of height with 12 cm in diameter and 550 cm(3) of volume, presenting the highest increase at 11 years considered as basal age. Highest significant density of wood was in good quality sites (0.80 g • cm(-3)), with a carbon content (average of 99.15tC • ha(-1)) at the highest density of 2500 trees • ha(-1) (without thinning). Average incomes of US$483.33tC • ha(-1) are expected. The profitability values (NPW = US$81,646.65, IRR = 472%, and B/C = 0.82) for C. platyloba make its cultivation a viable and profitable activity, considering a management scheme of the income derived from wood selling and from carbon credits.

  19. Capparis spinosa Fruit Ethanol Extracts Exert Different Effects on the Maturation of Dendritic Cells

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    Azeguli Hamuti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa L. (C. spinosa has been used as food and traditional medicine and shows anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Here, we prepared the C. spinosa fruit ethanol extracts (CSEs using different procedures and investigated the effects of CSE on the maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. DC maturation and cytokine production were detected by flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. We obtained three different CSEs and dissolved in water or DMSO, named CSE2W, CSEMW, CSE3W, CSE2D, CSEMD, and CSE3D, respectively. These CSEs showed different effects on DC maturation. CSEMW and CSEMD significantly increased the expressions of CD40, CD80, and CD86, in a dose-dependent manner. CSE2W and CSE2D also showed a modest effect on DC maturation, which enhanced the expression of CD40. CSE3W and CSE3D did not change DC maturation but suppressed LPS-induced DC maturation characterized by the decreased levels of CD40 and CD80. CSE3W and CSE3D also significantly inhibited the secretions of IL-12p40, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α induced by LPS. CSE3W further increased the level of IL-10 induced by LPS. Moreover, CSE3D suppressed LPS-induced DC maturation in vivo, which decreased the expressions of CD40 and CD80. These results suggested that CSE3W and CSE3D might be used to treat inflammatory diseases.

  20. Capparis spinosa Fruit Ethanol Extracts Exert Different Effects on the Maturation of Dendritic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamuti, Azeguli; Li, Jinyu; Zhou, Fangfang; Aipire, Adila; Ma, Ji; Yang, Jianhua; Li, Jinyao

    2017-01-07

    Capparis spinosa L. (C. spinosa) has been used as food and traditional medicine and shows anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Here, we prepared the C. spinosa fruit ethanol extracts (CSEs) using different procedures and investigated the effects of CSE on the maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). DC maturation and cytokine production were detected by flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. We obtained three different CSEs and dissolved in water or DMSO, named CSE2W, CSEMW, CSE3W, CSE2D, CSEMD, and CSE3D, respectively. These CSEs showed different effects on DC maturation. CSEMW and CSEMD significantly increased the expressions of CD40, CD80, and CD86, in a dose-dependent manner. CSE2W and CSE2D also showed a modest effect on DC maturation, which enhanced the expression of CD40. CSE3W and CSE3D did not change DC maturation but suppressed LPS-induced DC maturation characterized by the decreased levels of CD40 and CD80. CSE3W and CSE3D also significantly inhibited the secretions of IL-12p40, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α induced by LPS. CSE3W further increased the level of IL-10 induced by LPS. Moreover, CSE3D suppressed LPS-induced DC maturation in vivo, which decreased the expressions of CD40 and CD80. These results suggested that CSE3W and CSE3D might be used to treat inflammatory diseases.

  1. Anti-diabetic effect of Capparis spinosa L. root extract in diabetic rats

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    Mostafa Kazemian Mansur Abad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorders with severe impact on quality of life. Reducing serum glucose levels and normalization of serum lipid is of great clinical importance for treating diabetes. To our knowledge, there are not any evidences about the anti-diabetic action of capparis spinosa root. In the present study the effects of the C. spinosa root extract on diabetic metabolic disorders have been studied in experimental diabetes. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into six groups: normal control (NC, diabetic control (DC, diabetic rats receiving 0.2, 0.4 g/kg of plant extract or 0.6 mg/kg glibenclamide (groups D0.2, D0.4 or DG respectively. A normal group of rats was also designed to receive 0.2 g/kg of plant extract (N0.2. Rats were rendered diabetic (streptozotocin 60 mg/kg, i.p. and treated with 0.2, 0.4 g/ kg of plant extract or glibenclamide for four weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood was drawn through heart puncture under deep anesthesia. Weight was measured weekly, glucose levels were measured at the first and fourth week and lipid profiles, insulin and liver enzymes at the end of the study. Results: Glucose levels significantly decreased after treating with plant extract (p=0.003. However, insulin levels did not increase in any treating groups. Plant extract could significantly raise HDL and reduce levels of LDL and liver enzymes (ALT and ALP. Conclusion: These results showed that C. spinosa rootextract could improve diabetic related metabolic derangement such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and elevated liver markers in an insulin-independent manner.

  2. Anti-diabetic effect of Capparis spinosa L. root extract in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemian, Mostafa; Abad, Mansur; Haeri, Mohammad Reza; Ebrahimi, Mansoor; Heidari, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorders with severe impact on quality of life. Reducing serum glucose levels and normalization of serum lipid is of great clinical importance for treating diabetes. To our knowledge, there are not any evidences about the anti-diabetic action of capparis spinosa root. In the present study the effects of the C. spinosa root extract on diabetic metabolic disorders have been studied in experimental diabetes. Rats were divided into six groups: normal control (NC), diabetic control (DC), diabetic rats receiving 0.2, 0.4 g/kg of plant extract or 0.6 mg/kg glibenclamide (groups D0.2, D0.4 or DG respectively). A normal group of rats was also designed to receive 0.2 g/kg of plant extract (N0.2). Rats were rendered diabetic (streptozotocin 60 mg/kg, i.p.) and treated with 0.2, 0.4 g/ kg of plant extract or glibenclamide for four weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood was drawn through heart puncture under deep anesthesia. Weight was measured weekly, glucose levels were measured at the first and fourth week and lipid profiles, insulin and liver enzymes at the end of the study. Glucose levels significantly decreased after treating with plant extract (p=0.003). However, insulin levels did not increase in any treating groups. Plant extract could significantly raise HDL and reduce levels of LDL and liver enzymes (ALT and ALP). These results showed that C. spinosa root extract could improve diabetic related metabolic derangement such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and elevated liver markers in an insulin-independent manner.

  3. (6S)-Hydroxy-3-oxo-alpha-ionol glucosides from Capparis spinosa fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliş, Ihsan; Kuruüzüm-Uz, Ayşe; Lorenzetto, Piergiorgio A; Rüedi, Peter

    2002-02-01

    Two new (6S)-hydroxy-3-oxo-alpha-ionol glucosides, together with corchoionoside C ((6S,9S)-roseoside) and a prenyl glucoside, were isolated from mature fruits of Capparis spinosa. The structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic, chiroptic and chemical evidence. In addition, the 13C-resonance of C-9 was found to be of particular diagnostic value in assigning the absolute configuration at that center in ionol glycosides. The alpha-ionol derivatives are metabolites of (+)-(S)-abscisic acid.

  4. Stachydrine and Volatile Isothiocyanates from the Unripe Fruit of Capparis spinosa L.

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    SULEIMAN AFSHARYPUOR AMIR AREFIAN JAZY

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The alkaloid stachydrine of the unripe fruit as well as other parts of Capparis spinosa var. mucronifolia was extracted by 80% methanol, purified by column chromatography and identified by 'H NMR and IR spectroscopic methods. Volatile isothiocyanates were prepared by hydro-distillation of the autolyzed plant material and studied by GC and GC/MS methods.The volatile oil of the unriupe fruit was composed mainly of methyl isothiocyanate (39.2%, isopropyl isothio-cyanate(21.4%, and sec-butyl isothiocyanate (6.4%.

  5. Antihepatotoxic activity of p-methoxy benzoic acid from Capparis spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgoli, C; Mishra, S H

    1999-08-01

    p-Methoxy benzoic acid isolated from the methanolic soluble fraction of the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa L. (Capparidaceae) was found to possess significant antihepatotoxic activity against carbontetrachloride and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in vivo and thioacetamide and galactosamine induced hepatotoxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes, using in vitro technique. The compound was characterized through physicochemical and spectral studies. Isolation, identification and antihepatotoxic activity of the compound is reported for the first time in the plant. HPTLC analysis of methanol soluble fraction indicated that the compound constitutes 33% w/w of the active fraction.

  6. Structure elucidation of three triterpene glycosides from the trunk of Argania spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulad-Ali, A; Kirchner, V; Lobstein, A; Weniger, B; Anton, R; Guillaume, D; Charrouf, Z

    1996-02-01

    The structures of three novel saponins from Argania spinosa, named arganines G, H, and J, have been elucidated by MS and NMR techniques as 3-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl- (1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylbayogenin (1), 3-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O-alpha- L- arabinopyranosylbayogenin (2), and 3-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-28-O- [beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-L - rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl]bayogenin (3), respectively.

  7. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Echinophora spinosa L. (Apiaceae Essential Oil

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    Jasmina M. Glamočlija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the chemical composition and effectiveness of the essential oil isolated from Echinophora spinosa on different bacterial and fungal species. Chemical analysis (GC/MS showed that δ³-carene (60,86 %, α-phellandrene (7,12%, p-cymene (6,22 %, myrcene (4,82 % and β-phellandrene (2,73 % were dominant components in this oil. Essential oil tested showed good antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial potential of this oil was higher than potential of commercial antimicrobial drugs tested, streptomycin, bifonozole and ketoconazole.

  8. Jacaratia corumbensis O. Kuntze a new vegetable source for milk-clotting enzymes

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    Ana Rodrigues Duarte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The partial characterization and purification of milk clotting enzyme obtained from the (root latex of Jacaratia corumbensis O. kuntze was studied, by fractional precipitation with ammonium sulphate and ion exchange chromatography. The ammonium sulphate precipitate showed five fractions (AS1- 0-20%; AS2 - 20-40%; AS3 - 40-60%; AS4 - 60-80%; AS5 - 80-100% and among the fractions obtained, the 40-60% fraction (AS3 showed the highest milk clotting activity with a purification factor of 1.2 fold in relation to the crude extract. This fraction when applied on Mono Q column yielded two protein peaks (p1 and p2, but p1 pool showed the best milk-clotting activity. The optimal pH for the crude and partially purified extract was 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. The maximum milk-clotting activity was at 55ºC for the both crude and partially purified extracts. The enzyme was inhibited by iodoacetic acid which suggested that this enzyme was a cysteine protease, with molecular weight of 33 kDa.A enzima coagulante de leite obtida de látex de raiz de Jacaratia corumbensis O. kuntze foi caracterizada parcialmente e purificada, por precipitação fracionária com sulfato de amônio e cromatografia de troca de íon. Foram utilizadas cinco frações de sulfato de amônio (AS1 - 0-20%; AS2 - 20-40%; AS3 - 40-60%; AS4 - 60-80%; AS5 - 80-100%, a fração 40-60% (AS3 mostrou alta atividade coagulante com um fator de purificação de 1,2 vezes em relação ao extrato bruto. Esta fração foi aplicada em coluna Mono Q obtendo dois picos de proteína (p1 e p2, o p1 mostrou melhor atividade coagulante. O pH ótimo para o extrato bruto e parcialmente purificado foi 6,5 e 7,0, respectivamente. A atividade coagulante foi atingida a 55ºC para ambos os extratos, bruto e parcialmente purificado. A enzima foi inibida por ácido iodoacético que sugere que esta enzima é uma cisteína protease, com peso molecular de 33 kDa.

  9. The polyphenolic profiles and antioxidant effects of Agastache rugosa Kuntze (Banga) flower, leaf, stem and root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desta, Kebede Taye; Kim, Gon-Sup; Kim, Yun-Hi; Lee, Won Sup; Lee, Soo Jung; Jin, Jong Sung; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shin, Ho-Chul; Shim, Jae-Han; Shin, Sung Chul

    2016-02-01

    Agastache rugosa Kuntze (Korean mint) is used as a spice and in folk medicine in East Asia. The present study identified a total of 18 polyphenols from the flower, leaf, stem and roots of this plant using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Fourteen of these compounds had not previously been identified in these plant tissues. Each polyphenol was validated in comparison with external calibration curves constructed using structurally related compounds, with determination coefficients >0.9993. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.092-0.650 and 0.307-2.167 mg/L, respectively. Recoveries of 61.92-116.44% were observed at two spiking levels, with 0.91-11% precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (except anthraquinone spiked at 10 mg/L). Hydroxycinnamic acid was the most abundant compound in the root, while the flowers showed the highest total flavonoid level. Antioxidant activities, determined in terms of reducing power, Fe(2+) chelating activity and the radical scavenging activities using α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl and 2-2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, increased in a concentration-dependent manner; the highest activity was identified in the stems, followed by leaves > flowers > roots. These findings indicate that A. rugosa is a good source of bioactive compounds and can be used as a functional food. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Triterpenoid saponins from Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Kuntze and their biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yin-Di; Hong, Jing-Yi; Bao, Feng-Da; Xing, Na; Wang, Ling-Tian; Sun, Zhong-Hao; Luo, Yun; Jiang, Hai; Xu, Xu-Dong; Zhu, Nai-Liang; Wu, Hai-Feng; Sun, Gui-Bo; Yang, Jun-Shan

    2017-09-11

    Four new ursane-type triterpenoid saponins, clinopoursaponins A-D (1-4), six new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, clinopodiside VII-XII (5-10), as well as eight known triterpene analogues (11-18), were isolated from the aerial parts of Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) O. Kuntze. The structures of the new compounds were determined based on extensive spectral analyses, including 1D ( 1 H and 13 C) and 2D NMR experiments (COSY, NOESY, HSQC, 2D TOCSY, HSQC-TOCSY and HMBC), HR-ESI-MS and chemical methods. Compounds 1-18 were evaluated for their protective effects against anoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis in H9c2 cells and cytotoxicities against murine mammary carcinoma cell line 4T1. Compounds 8, 9 and 18 exhibited significant protective effects, while compound 1 exhibited cytotoxic activity with IC 50 value of 7.4 μm compared to 7.6 μm for the positive control 10-hydroxycamptothecin.

  11. Characteristics of Tacca leontopetaloides L. Kuntze collected from An Giang in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Quan Thi Hong; Le, Phung Thi Kim; Vo, Huy Pham Hoang; Nguyen, Triet Thanh; Nguyen, Tam Kim Minh

    2017-09-01

    Tacca leontopetaloides L. Kuntze has been known as a remedy in folk medicine and also a staple food source in many tropical countries. Nonetheless, there are currently few literature and research on the potential pharmaceutical benefits of this herbal plant. In this study, the constituents of leaves, peels and peeled tubers as well as its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Tacca cultivated from mountainous regions in Tinh Bien, An Giang Province, Vietnam were investigated. The results indicated that the highest of total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were presented in leaves of Tacca which were 16.69 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalent)/g dried weight, 57.24 mg QE (quercetin equivalent)/g dried weight, respectively. Besides, the yield of flour recovery process from Tacca tuber estimated from 18%-20%. The chemical compositions of Tacca flour were 0.66 % total of nitrogen, 0.91% lipid, 0.05% ash and 85.7% starch content on dried weight. Furthermore, the extract of peels possessed potential antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis whilst the extract of others did not show any significant inhibition at the same concentration. As a results, with high starch content (nearly 20% in tuber) is a highly promising new starch for food and pharmaceutical excipient industry, while the usefullness of peel in treatment need further investigation.

  12. Pharmacognostical evaluation of Launaea sarmentosa (Willd.) schultz-bip.ex Kuntze root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Yusriyya; Harisha, C R; Shukla, Vinay J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2013-01-01

    Launaea sarmentosa (Willd) Schultz-Bip.ex Kuntze (Asteraceae), locally known as Kulhafila in the Maldives, is a creeping herb, native to tropical Indian coastlines. According to anecdotal evidence from locals in the Maldives, the roots of this plant are used as an ingredient of a popular medicinal preparation (Hilibeys) taken by mothers after childbirth. It is also used in various other ailments in different parts of the Maldives, as well as in India. So far, there has been no scientific documentation of this plant. The only source of information available is held by natives and traditional medical practitioners. The present study was conducted on the root of L. sarmentosa for its pharmacognostical and phytochemical characteristics as per Ayurvedic Pharmacopoea of India (API) parameters. The microscopic characteristics of the root show prismatic crystals, multiseriate medullary rays, laticiferous cells, and pitted parenchyma. Qualitative analyses, such as loss on drying, ash value, pH, etc., were conducted. Preliminary phytochemical screening shows the presence of alkaloids, tannin, steroids, etc.

  13. Extraction and free radical scavenging activity of polysaccharide from 'Anji Baicha' (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongshan; Wang, Xiaomei; Li, Jingfen; Wang, Guozhi; Mao, Genxiang

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the optimization of the extraction conditions of polysaccharide from 'Anji Baicha' (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) (AP) was investigated by response surface methodology (RSM). Three main independent variables (extraction temperature, time, ratio of water to raw material) were taken into consideration. And then the free radical scavenging activities of the sample were investigated including scavenging effects of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. The RSM analysis showed good correspondence between experimental and predicted values.. The optimal condition to obtain the highest yield of AP was determined as follows: temperature 76.79 °C, time 2.48 h, ratio of water to material 22.53 mL/g. For the free radical scavenging activity, the IC50 values of Vc and AP were 7.78 and 83.25 μg/mL. And for the scavenging effect on hydroxyl radical, that of AP and Vc were 1.80 and 1.69 mg/mL. AP showed excellent antioxidant activity. This exhibited AP had a good potential for antioxidant. The purification and structure needs to be study in further. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Epigallocatechin gallate from Camellia sinensis L. (Kuntze is a potential quorum sensing inhibitor in Chromobacterium violaceum

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    Joemar C. Taganna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem on the widespread occurrence of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria calls for novel methods of control of bacterial activity. One of the new viable alternatives to antibiotics is the use of substances that inhibit quorum sensing (QS – a bacterial communication system that has been known to regulate the expression of virulence genes during infection. In this study, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG from green tea, Camellia sinensis L. (Kuntze was tested for its ability to inhibit QS in a test organism, Chromobacterium violaceum. This microorganism produces a violet-colored substance, violacein, through QS. This study aimed to detect inhibition of QS-regulated violacein production in C. violaceum by EGCG and to determine the dynamics of QS inhibition relative to the concentration of EGCG. The effect of increasing concentration of EGCG on both violacein production and cell density of treated and untreated C. violaceum was determined in a 96-well-microplate format and read at 570nm and 620nm for violacein production and growth, respectively. The results show that addition of EGCG increased the growth of the organism while there is concentration-dependent decrease in the QS-controlled production of violacein. This study thus establishes that EGCG is a potential QS inhibitor and can be further studied and developed for its use as an anti-pathogenic but non-toxic drug.

  15. Antioxidant potential of bitter cumin (Centratherum anthelminticum (L. Kuntze seeds in in vitro models

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    Naidu Kamatham A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bitter cumin (Centratherum anthelminticum (L. Kuntze, is a medicinally important plant. Earlier, we have reported phenolic compounds, antioxidant, and anti-hyperglycemic, antimicrobial activity of bitter cumin. In this study we have further characterized the antioxidative activity of bitter cumin extracts in various in vitro models. Methods Bitter cumin seeds were extracted with a combination of acetone, methanol and water. The antioxidant activity of bitter cumin extracts were characterized in various in vitro model systems such as DPPH radical, ABTS radical scavenging, reducing power, oxidation of liposomes and oxidative damage to DNA. Results The phenolic extracts of bitter cumin at microgram concentration showed significant scavenging of DPPH and ABTS radicals, reduced phosphomolybdenum (Mo(VI to Mo(V, ferricyanide Fe(III to Fe(II, inhibited liposomes oxidation and hydroxyl radical induced damage to prokaryotic genomic DNA. The results showed a direct correlation between phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity. Conclusion Bitter cumin is a good source of natural antioxidants.

  16. Sida spinosa L., S. rhombifolia L., S. cordifolia L. en Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke adventief op lelievelden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijerse, Fons A.I.; Verrijdt, Toon A.L.A.I.

    2010-01-01

    In september 2005 werd Sida rhombifolia L. aangetroffen in een lelieveld. In de vier jaar daarna zijn in dergelijke velden ook drie andere Malvaceeën aangetroffen: Sida spinosa L., S. cordifolia L. en Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke. Deze vier soorten komen wijd verspreid voor in de

  17. [Species differentiation and quality assessment of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa based on the HPLC fingerprint and quantitative analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Wang, Jie; Guo, Li-Li; Cheng, Hui-Ping; Cui, Han-Ming; Wu, Ping; Dong, Yu; Huang, Shi-Jing

    2012-11-01

    To establish an HPLC method of a characteristical chemical fingerprint analysis in combination with simultaneous determination of four bioactive components for species differentiation and quality assessment of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent TC-C18 BDS (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and water in a linear gradient elution procedure. The evaporator tube temperature of ELSD was set at 110.5 degrees C with the nebulizing gas flow rate of 3.1 mL/min and the flow rate of mobile phase was 1.0 mL/min. The column was maintained at 30 degrees C. The injection volume was 20 microL. HPLC methodology for both chemical fingerprint analysis and quantitative determination of four active ingredients were validated, respectively. According to the contents of the four ingredients and the chemical fingerprints of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa using principal component analysis, Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa was different from the fake derived from the seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana. The developed HPLC method is exclusive and repetitive for the species identification and quality evaluation of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa.

  18. Protective effect of Chuquiraga spinosa extract on N-methyl-nitrosourea (NMU induced prostate cancer in rats

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    Jorge Arroyo-Acevedo

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Considering its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antigenotoxic effects, and important variations on biochemical and hematological parameters, including prostate-specific antigen of C. spinosa extract, we conclude that it has a protective effect on NMU-induced prostate cancer in rats and cytotoxicity in the DU-145 cell line.

  19. Growth-Inhibitory and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) on Fibrosarcoma Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Sineh Sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Yousefi, Bahman; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Khori, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Punica granatum L. var. granatum (Pomegranate), an herbaceous plant found in Iran, The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects, induction of apoptosis, and the mechanism of cell death of ethanol extract from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa on the mouse fibrosarcoma cell line, WEHI-164.

  20. Nematicidal activity of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylisothiocyanate from caper (Capparis spinosa) against Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Sarais, Giorgia; Aissani, Nadhem; Tocco, Graziella; Sasanelli, Nicola; Liori, Barbara; Carta, Annarosa; Angioni, Alberto

    2012-08-01

    New pesticides based on plant extracts have recently gained interest in the development of nontoxic crop protection chemicals. Numerous research studies are focused on the isolation and identification of new active compounds derived from plants. In this manuscript we report about the use of the Mediterranean species Capparis spinosa as a potent natural nematicidal agent against the root knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita. Leaves, stems, and caper buds of Capparis spinosa were used to obtain their methanol extracts (LME, SME, BME) that were successively in vitro tested against second stage nematode juveniles (J2). In terms of paralysis induction, the methanol extract of the stem part (SME) was found more effective against M. incognita and then the caper methanol buds and leaves extracts. The chemical composition analysis of the extracts carried out by GC/MS and LC/MS techniques showed that methylisothiocyanate was the main compound of SME. The EC50 for SME after 3 days of immersion was 215 ± 36 mg/L. The constituent components of SME such as 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylisothiocyanate were successively in vitro tested for their nematicidal activity against J2. Both compounds induced paralysis on root knot nematodes ranking first (EC50 = 7.9 ± 1.6, and 14.1 ± 1.9 mg/L respectively) for M. incognita. Moreover, 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde showed a strong fumigant activity.

  1. A novel pattern of leaf movement: the case of Capparis spinosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levizou, Efi; Kyparissis, Aris

    2016-09-01

    A novel type of heliotropic leaf movement is presented for Capparis spinosa L., a summer perennial shrub of Mediterranean and arid ecosystems. In contrast to plants that demonstrate uniform diaheliotropic and/or paraheliotropic movement for all their foliage, the alternate leaves of C. spinosa follow different movement patterns according to their stem azimuth and the side of the stem that they come from (cluster). Additionally, leaf movement for each cluster may not be uniform throughout the day, showing diaheliotropic characteristics during half of the day and paraheliotropic characteristics during the rest of the day. In an attempt to reveal the adaptive significance of this differential movement pattern, the following hypotheses were tested: (i) increase of the intercepted solar radiation and photosynthesis, (ii) avoidance of photoinhibitory conditions, (iii) amelioration of water-use efficiency and (iv) adjustment of the leaf temperature microenvironment. No evidence was found in support of the first two hypotheses. A slight difference toward a better water use was found for the moving compared with immobilized leaves, in combination with a better cooling effect. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Metabolomics analysis of the effect of dissolved oxygen on spinosad production by Saccharopolyspora spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunzhe; Yin, Jing; Zhao, Fanglong; Li, Feng; Lu, Wenyu

    2017-05-01

    Spinosad, a universal bio-pesticide, is obtained from the soil actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Dissolved oxygen, an important contributing factor in aerobic microbial fermentation, however, is not always available in sufficient amounts. To alleviate oxygen limitation in spinosad production, three different oxygen vectors, namely oleic acid, toluene, and n-dodecane, were added into early fermentation. Results indicated that n-dodecane was the optimal oxygen vector. Spinosad yield was increased by 44.2% compared to that in the control group in the presence of 0.5% n-dodecane, added after 120 h of incubation. Yields of the test group reached 6.52 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW), while that of the control group was limited to 4.52 mg/g DCW. Metabolomics analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was performed to demonstrate the metabolism mechanism in the presence and absence of oxygen vector. In total, 78 principal intracellular metabolites in S. spinosa were detected and quantified in the presence and absence of n-dodecane. Levels of some metabolites that were related to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and pentose phosphate pathway varied significantly. Aspartic acid and glucose-1-phosphate levels varied significantly and contributed most in the distinction of the fermentation conditions and phases. The above findings give new insights into the improvement and the metabolomic characteristics of industrial spinosad production.

  3. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the Moroccan endemic endangered species Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bahloul, Yasmina; Dauchot, Nicolas; Machtoun, Ikrame; Gaboun, Fatima; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the Moroccan endemic endangered species Argania spinosa with a combination of a typical library enrichment procedure and a 454 GS FLX Titanium–based high-throughput sequencing approach. • Methods and Results: A genomic DNA library was enriched and further screened using (GA)15, (GTA)8, and (TTC)8 biotin-labeled probes coupled with chemi-luminescence detection. To increase simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci number, an ultra-high-throughput sequencing-based approach was used. Evaluation of all primer pairs was performed with labeled dUTP on an ABI 3130xl sequencer. Eleven polymorphic SSR loci were selected out of 79 SSR regions and extensively characterized on 150 individuals from eight populations. Total alleles ranged from six to 19 alleles per locus while expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.618 to 0.869. • Conclusions: The SSRs developed here will be used to further characterize the genetic diversity of A. spinosa across its distribution range, mainly in the southern part of Morocco and southwestern Algeria. They may also be transferable to other Sapotaceae species. PMID:25202614

  4. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the Moroccan endemic endangered species Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bahloul, Yasmina; Dauchot, Nicolas; Machtoun, Ikrame; Gaboun, Fatima; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2014-04-01

    Microsatellite loci were developed for the Moroccan endemic endangered species Argania spinosa with a combination of a typical library enrichment procedure and a 454 GS FLX Titanium-based high-throughput sequencing approach. • A genomic DNA library was enriched and further screened using (GA)15, (GTA)8, and (TTC)8 biotin-labeled probes coupled with chemi-luminescence detection. To increase simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci number, an ultra-high-throughput sequencing-based approach was used. Evaluation of all primer pairs was performed with labeled dUTP on an ABI 3130xl sequencer. Eleven polymorphic SSR loci were selected out of 79 SSR regions and extensively characterized on 150 individuals from eight populations. Total alleles ranged from six to 19 alleles per locus while expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.618 to 0.869. • The SSRs developed here will be used to further characterize the genetic diversity of A. spinosa across its distribution range, mainly in the southern part of Morocco and southwestern Algeria. They may also be transferable to other Sapotaceae species.

  5. Profile of bioactive compounds of Capparis spinosa var. aegyptiaca growing in Egypt

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    Riham Omar Bakr

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was designed to investigate polyphenolic and sulphur contents of the aerial parts of Capparis spinosa var. aegyptia (Lam. Boiss., Capparaceae, wildly growing in Egypt. The chemical compositions of the water distilled essential oil were investigated by GC/MS analysis where the major constituent of the oil was methyl isothiocyanate (24.66%. Hydroethanolic extract was evaluated by LC-HRESI-MS–MS in both positive and negative modes. Forty-two compounds were identified including quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin derivatives in addition to myricetin, eriodictyol, cirsimaritin and gallocatechin derivatives. Quercetin tetrahexoside dirhamnoside as well as kaempferol dihexoside dirhamnoside have not been identified before in genus Capparis. Phenolic acids, such as quinic acid, p-coumaroyl quinic acid and chlorogenic acid were also identified. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity of hydroethanolic extract against three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; breast adenocarcinoma cells, Hep-G2; hepatocellular carcinoma cells and HCT-116; colon carcinoma using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay showed significant effect with IC50 values 24.5, 24.4 and 11 µg/ml, compared to Doxorubicin as a standard cytotoxic drug. C. spinosa revealed itself as a promising candidate for nutraceutical researches.

  6. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for the Moroccan Endemic Endangered Species Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae

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    Yasmina El Bahloul

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the Moroccan endemic endangered species Argania spinosa with a combination of a typical library enrichment procedure and a 454 GS FLX Titanium–based high-throughput sequencing approach. Methods and Results: A genomic DNA library was enriched and further screened using (GA15, (GTA8, and (TTC8 biotin-labeled probes coupled with chemi-luminescence detection. To increase simple sequence repeat (SSR loci number, an ultra-high-throughput sequencing-based approach was used. Evaluation of all primer pairs was performed with labeled dUTP on an ABI 3130xl sequencer. Eleven polymorphic SSR loci were selected out of 79 SSR regions and extensively characterized on 150 individuals from eight populations. Total alleles ranged from six to 19 alleles per locus while expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.618 to 0.869. Conclusions: The SSRs developed here will be used to further characterize the genetic diversity of A. spinosa across its distribution range, mainly in the southern part of Morocco and southwestern Algeria. They may also be transferable to other Sapotaceae species.

  7. Fecha de aplicación de fuego y diversidad de herbáceas en una sabana de Elionorus muticus (Spreng) O. Kuntze Date of prescribed fire and herbaceous diversity of an Elionorus muticus (Spreng.) O. Kuntze savanna

    OpenAIRE

    CARLOS KUNST; SANDRA BRAVO; FABIO MOSCOVICH; JULIO HERRERA; JOSÉ GODOY; SILVIA VÉLEZ

    2003-01-01

    RESUMEN El fuego es a la vez una perturbación natural y una herramienta agropecuaria en las sabanas de Elionorus muticus (Spreng) O. Kuntze de la región chaqueña argentina. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la fecha de aplicación de fuego sobre la diversidad de herbáceas de la sabana. Para ello se quemaron parcelas en cuatro fechas sucesivas, desde fines de julio hasta principios de octubre, en dos experimentos iniciados en 1993 y 1994, respectivamente. La riqueza y abundancia de espe...

  8. Antidiarrheal activities of isovanillin, iso-acetovanillon and Pycnocycla spinosa Decne ex.Boiss extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Ghanadian, M; Asghari, G; Azali, N

    2014-01-01

    Isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon are two phenolic components isolated from a number of plants including Pycnocycla spinosa. P. spinosa extract has antispasmodic and antidiarrheal activities. However, no comparative study has been done on antidiarrheal action of isovanillin and iso- acetovanillon, so far. The aim of this study was to investigate antidiarrheal action of isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon and their effects on small intestinal transit, for comparison with propantheline. Male mice (25-30 g), fasted over night with free access to water, were treated with test compounds or control (p.o.). Thirty min later castor oil (0.5 ml) was given orally to the animals. In another groups of animals MgSO4 (0.5 ml of 10% solution) was given first and half an hour later the test drugs were administered. Onset and number of wet defecations were recorded for each animal over 3.5 h after treatment with diarrhoea inducing agents. In another groups, intestinal transit of charcoal meal was determined following administration of the compounds. Isovanillin (2 mg/kg & 5 mg/kg), iso-acetovanillon (2 mg/kg & 5 mg/kg) and P. spinosa extract (5 mg/kg) delayed onset of diarrhoea and significantly reduced wet defecation induced by castor oil and MgSO4. They all had antidiarrheal effect similar to propantheline (5 mg/kg). Isovanillin, iso-acetovanillon and P. spinosa extract compared to control groups, significantly reduced small intestinal transit of charcoal meal. This study shows that antidiarrheal effect of P. spinosa extract is at least partially due to presence of two active compounds isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon.

  9. Efeitos da luminosidade no crescimento de mudas de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae Effects of luminosity on the growth seedlings of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Domingues Lima

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea é uma espécie muito utilizada como planta medicinal e na arborização e paisagismo urbano no estado do Amapá. Entretanto, informações ecofisiológicas a seu respeito são escassas. A luz é um importante fator ambiental que controla processos associados ao acúmulo de matéria seca, contribuindo assim para o crescimento vegetal. Diante disso, estudou-se o efeito de diferentes níveis de luminosidade sobre o crescimento de mudas desta espécie. Para tal, plântulas foram repicadas para sacos plásticos contendo mistura de solo e areia (2:1, sendo mantidas a pleno sol, sob sombreamento artificial com redução de 50% e 70% da luminosidade e sob sombreamento natural de um dossel fechado de floresta. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco repetições. Mudas submetidas ao sombreamento natural tiveram seu crescimento fortemente inibido. A pleno sol, as mudas apresentaram maiores taxas assimilatórias líquida (TAL, menor razão parte aérea/raiz (RPAR e menor razão de área foliar (RAF. Verificou-se pouca diferença no crescimento e alocação de biomassa entre mudas mantidas sob 50 e 70% de sombreamento, sendo que as mudas desses tratamentos atingiram valores mais altos de RPAR e RAF. Isto indica existência de plasticidade, o que reflete no aumento potencial da captura de luz, importante para manter o crescimento e a sobrevivência das mudas em baixa luminosidade. Em conjunto, os resultados mostraram ajustamento morfológico e fisiológico aos diferentes níveis de luminosidade em Caesalpinia ferrea.Caesalpinia ferrea is a species used a lot as a medicinal plant, for urban arborization and landscape design in the state of Amapa. Yet there is not much ecophysiological information available on it. Light is an important environment factor that controls processes associates with the accumulation of dry matter, contributing thus for plant growth. The object of this research was to study the effect of

  10. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Moluccella spinosa L. (Lamiaceae) collected wild in Sicily and its activity on microorganisms affecting historical textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Simona; Jemia, Mariem Ben; Riccobono, Luana; Bruno, Maurizio; Scandolera, Elia; Senatore, Felice

    2015-01-01

    In this study the chemical composition of the essential oil from aerial parts of Moluccella spinosa L. collected in Sicily was evaluated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of M. spinosa L. were α-pinene (26.6%), caryophyllene oxide (16.8%) and β-caryophyllene (8.6%). A comparison with other studied oils of genus Moluccella is made. Antibacterial and antifungal activities against some microorganisms infesting historical textiles were also determined.

  11. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the polyphenolic fractions isolated from the seed coat of Abrus precatorius and Caesalpinia crista.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobin, Lubna; Saeed, Syed Asad; Ali, Rashida; Saeed, Syed Ghufran; Ahmed, Rahil

    2017-09-26

    Crude seed coat extracts from Abrus precatorius and Caesalpinia crista were purified into four different fractions namely phenolic acids, flavonols, flavanols and anthocyanin which were then examined for their polyphenol contents and antimicrobial potentials. The fractions derived from seed coat of A. precatorius were found more potent with high phenolic and flavonoid contents as compared to C. crista fractions. The significant antibacterial activity was observed against all strain tested by the fractions of both samples apart from anthocyanin fraction. It was interesting to note that the phenolic acid fractions of both samples was found more active against gram-negative bacteria, while gram-positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive towards flavonol fractions. The phenolic acid and flavonol fractions being potent antibacterial were selected to demonstrate the antifungal capacity of two samples. Among them, phenolic acid fraction of both samples was found active towards all the fungal strain.

  12. Antioxidant and antitumor activities of Capparis spinosa L. and the related mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lei; Yang, Jinghui; Wang, Xin; Jiang, Bo; Sun, Yongxue; Ji, Yubin

    2017-01-01

    The 'ethnodrug' Capparis spinosa L. has several pharmacological activities. First, it was found in previous experiments that an ethyl acetate extract of Capparis spinosa L. (CSE) exhibited antioxidant activity. In order to further research this finding, the present study investigate the blood biochemical indices, injury, energy metabolism, oxidative damage and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) level of cardiac cells to study the effect of CSE on doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity. CSE had protective effects on the cardiac toxic effect of doxorubicin, and decreased the activity of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK). CSE increased the ability of myocardial tissue to scavenge free radicals, inhibited lipid peroxidation, increased recovery activity of antioxidant enzymes, adjusted the energy metabolism of myocardial tissue, inhibited the generation of a large number of ROS in the cells, raised the level of Δψm, and improved the metabolism of free radicals. CSE demonstrated protective effects on doxorubicin-induced myocardial damage. Second, the quaternary ammonium hydroxide of Capparis spinosa L. (CSQAH) was found to possess antitumor activity, such as antiproliferative and apoptosis-induced effects on HepG2 cells. We investigated the regulatory mechanism of HepG2 apoptosis induced by CSQAH. Laser scanning confocal microscope and Fluo-3/AM staining were utilized to detect the Ca2+ concentration in the HepG2 cells. A microplate reader was used to measure the changes in Ca2+-Mg2+-ATP enzyme. Then, flow cytometry was applied to analyze the activity of ROS and the expression levels of Bcl-2 and Bax. As a result, different concentrations of CSQAH increased the concentration of Ca2+ in the cytoplasm in a dosage-dependent manner. CSQAH decreased the Ca2+‑Mg2+‑ATPase activity in the HepG2 cells. The levels of ROS in the CSQAH groups were significantly higher than the level in the control group. Flow cytometric analysis showed that the Bcl-2

  13. Metabolomics analysis and biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid in Agastache rugosa Kuntze treated with methyl jasmonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Bok; Kim, Jae Kwang; Uddin, Md Romij; Xu, Hui; Park, Woo Tae; Tuan, Pham Anh; Li, Xiaohua; Chung, Eunsook; Lee, Jai-Heon; Park, Sang Un

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on metabolic profiles and rosmarinic acid (RA) biosynthesis in cell cultures of Agastache rugosa Kuntze. Transcript levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes, i.e., ArPAL, Ar4CL, and ArC4H, maximally increased 4.5-fold, 3.4-fold, and 3.5-fold, respectively, compared with the untreated controls, and the culture contained relatively high amounts of RA after exposure of cells to 50 µM MeJA. RA levels were 2.1-, 4.7-, and 3.9-fold higher after exposure to 10, 50, and 100 µM MeJA, respectively, than those in untreated controls. In addition, the transcript levels of genes attained maximum levels at different time points after the initial exposure. The transcript levels of ArC4H and Ar4CL were transiently induced by MeJA, and reached a maximum of up to 8-fold at 3 hr and 6 hr, respectively. The relationships between primary metabolites and phenolic acids in cell cultures of A. rugosa treated with MeJA were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In total, 45 metabolites, including 41 primary metabolites and 4 phenolic acids, were identified from A. rugosa. Metabolite profiles were subjected to partial least square-discriminate analysis to evaluate the effects of MeJA. The results indicate that both phenolic acids and precursors for the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, such as aromatic amino acids and shikimate, were induced as a response to MeJA treatment. Therefore, MeJA appears to have an important impact on RA accumulation, and the increased RA accumulation in the treated cells might be due to activation of the phenylpropanoid genes ArPAL, ArC4H, and Ar4CL.

  14. Metabolomics analysis and biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid in Agastache rugosa Kuntze treated with methyl jasmonate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Bok Kim

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of methyl jasmonate (MeJA on metabolic profiles and rosmarinic acid (RA biosynthesis in cell cultures of Agastache rugosa Kuntze. Transcript levels of phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes, i.e., ArPAL, Ar4CL, and ArC4H, maximally increased 4.5-fold, 3.4-fold, and 3.5-fold, respectively, compared with the untreated controls, and the culture contained relatively high amounts of RA after exposure of cells to 50 µM MeJA. RA levels were 2.1-, 4.7-, and 3.9-fold higher after exposure to 10, 50, and 100 µM MeJA, respectively, than those in untreated controls. In addition, the transcript levels of genes attained maximum levels at different time points after the initial exposure. The transcript levels of ArC4H and Ar4CL were transiently induced by MeJA, and reached a maximum of up to 8-fold at 3 hr and 6 hr, respectively. The relationships between primary metabolites and phenolic acids in cell cultures of A. rugosa treated with MeJA were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In total, 45 metabolites, including 41 primary metabolites and 4 phenolic acids, were identified from A. rugosa. Metabolite profiles were subjected to partial least square-discriminate analysis to evaluate the effects of MeJA. The results indicate that both phenolic acids and precursors for the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, such as aromatic amino acids and shikimate, were induced as a response to MeJA treatment. Therefore, MeJA appears to have an important impact on RA accumulation, and the increased RA accumulation in the treated cells might be due to activation of the phenylpropanoid genes ArPAL, ArC4H, and Ar4CL.

  15. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze Cultivated in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2016-03-01

    In Tunisia, Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is an exotic tree, which was introduced many years ago and planted as ornamental street, garden, and park tree. The present work reported, for the first time, the chemical composition and evaluates the allelopathic effect of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the different parts of this tree, viz., roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and pods gathered in the area of Sousse, a coastal region, in the East of Tunisia. In total, 86 compounds representing 89.9 - 94.9% of the whole oil composition, were identified in these oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was clearly distinguished for its high content in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (β-caryophyllene, 1 (44); 24.1% and germacrene D, 2 (53); 20.0%), while those obtained from pods, leaves, stems, and flowers were dominated by non-terpene hydrocarbons. The most important ones were n-tetradecane (41, 16.3%, pod oil), 1,7-dimethylnaphthalene (43, 15.6%, leaf oil), and n-octadecane (77, 13.1%, stem oil). The leaf oil was rich in the apocarotene (E)-β-ionone (4 (54); 33.8%), and the oil obtained from flowers was characterized by hexahydrofarnesylacetone (5 (81); 19.9%) and methyl hexadecanoate (83, 10.2%). Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into three groups and two subgroups, each characterized by the major oil constituents. Contact tests showed that the germination of lettuce seeds was totally inhibited by the root essential oil tested at 1 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect on the shoot and root elongation varied from -1.6% to -32.4%, and from -2.5% to -64.4%, respectively. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze SEEDS SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT STORAGE CONDITIONS AND ESCARIFICATION

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    Álvaro Valente Caçola

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze are recalcitrants and, therefore, they lose rapidly the viability after the harvest, limiting their use for nursery production of seedlings. This work was carried out to investigate the effects of cold storage duration, conservation method, and escarification on germination and vigour of seeds of Araucaria angustifolia. The seeds were cold stored (0-1oC/90-95% RH for 0, 60, 120, and 180 days, under normal air condictions (NA, modified atmosphere (MA, and controlled atmosphere (CA storage. For each cold storage duration, after removal from cold storage, the seeds were submitted or not to scarification (by cutting a small portion of the apical seed tegument, avoiding the damage of the endosperm, letting the germinate in a chamber with controlled environment, in plastic trays filled with vermiculite, for 60 days. The experiment followed the completely randomized factorial design (4x3x2, with four cold storage durations (0, 60, 120, and 180 days, three storage methods (NA, MA, and CA, with or without escarification, and four replicates. There was a good preservation of physiological quality for seeds submitted to different conservation methods in cold storage along the 180-day period. However, there was a faster germination and initial growth of seedlings for seeds left in cold storage for 60 days than in seeds assessed at harvest or left in cold storage for 120-180 days. The NA storage of seeds in perfurated plastic bags was as efficient as MA and CA storage to preserve seeds quality. Seeds scarification increased vigor and promoted seedlings initial growth of Araucaria angustifolia after being removed from cold storage.

  17. Antispasmodic effects of Pycnocycla spinosa seed and aerial part extracts on rat ileum and uterus smooth muscle contractions

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    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of study: Hydroalcoholic extract of Pycnocycla spinosa has a relaxant effect on ileum and inhibits castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice. However, effects of P. spinosa seed extracts on ileum and uterus hasn't been investigated.  The aim of this study was to investigate effect of P. spinosa seed and extracts of the aerial part on rat ileum and uterus smooth muscle contraction. Methods: A 70% ethanol extract of seed and aerial parts of P. spinosa was prepared by a percolation method. Uterine horns or ileum were dissected from non-pregnant female Wistar rats (200-230g and cut into longitudinal strips and mounted for isotonic recording under 1g tension in Tyrode's solution. Effects of the extracts were examined on tonic contractions induced by KCl (80mM on both tissues and on phasic spasm induced by oxytocin (0.002iu/ml on the uterus. Results: The aerial part extract inhibited rat ileum contractions induced by 80mM KCl (IC50=42±3.4mg/ml in a concentration dependent manner and it also inhibited rat uterus contraction induced by 80 mM KCl. However, its inhibitory effects were observed with higher concentration of the extract (IC50=420±90mg/ml and at concentration of 1.28mg/ml of the extract in the bath the response was 19±7%.  The aerial part extract (40-640mg/ml also reduced the evoked phasic response of uterus by oxytocin (IC50=71±17.3mg/ml. The seed extract reduced the uterus response to oxytocin in a concentration-dependent manner, and inhibited tissue response completely at 160mg/ml (IC50=27±4mg/ml.  Major conclusion: From this study it was concluded that the seed extract of P. spinosa have similar inhibitory properties on rat isolated uterus and ileum contractions, while the extract of the aerial part of P. spinosa is more selective inhibitor of ileum contraction, and at higher concentrations it also inhibits uterus spasm.

  18. Biochemical and molecular analysis of Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze tea from the selected P/11/15 clone

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    Samynathan Ramkumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is one of the most important beverages consumed across the world and it possesses various phytotherapeutics. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO activity, total polyphenols, catechins, amino acid content and enzymatic antioxidants are considered to be potential parameters in tea characterization. P/11/15 clone (Camellia sinensis (L O. Kuntze was chosen to analyze the biochemical characterization and to analyze the gene expression pattern. The selected P/11/15 clone (C. sinensis (L O. Kuntze possess potent Polyphenol oxidase (49.62 U/mg of protein, sufficient catechin (20.75%, Polyphenol (20.01%, Peroxidase (450.08 μM of O2 formed min−1 g−1 dry weight, Catalase (1.20 μM H2O2 reduced min−1 mg−1 protein and Super Oxide Dismutase (45.11 U/mg proteins. Flavonoid gene expression reveals ANR (1.66% and F3H (1.02% were up regulated in the selected P/11/15 clone. The results obtained suggest that P/11/15 clone showed adequate enzyme levels, thus an increased antioxidant activity.

  19. Capparis spinosa L. aqueous extract evokes antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

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    Mohamed Eddouks

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: As the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa (CS possess antidiabetic effect, he present study aims to reveal the possible  mechanism of action of CS in diabetic mice.Materials and Methods: Both single and repeated oral administrations of aqueous extract of CS were performed in multi-low dose streptozotocin-induced (MLDS diabetic mice. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was used in association with the endogenous glucose production (perfusion rate of 3-3H glucose to evaluate the effect of CS aqueous extract on insulin sensitivity.Results: Our study showed that aqueous extract of CS possess a potent hypoglycaemic activity in MLDS diabetic mice. Furthermore, the analysis perfusion of 3-3H glucose demonstrated  the parallel decrease of basal endogenous glucose production (EGP with the hypoglycaemic activity. EGP was lower in CS-Treated group when compared to the control group (p

  20. [Effect of Capparis spinosa on fibroblast proliferation and type I collagen production in progressive systemic sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yue-Lan; Li, Xin; Zheng, Min

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the effects of ethanolic extract from Capparis spinosa (ECS) on the fibroblast proliferation and type I collagen production in normal and progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). Cellular activity was determined by the MTT method. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry analysis of Annexin V-stained cells. The expression levels of type I collagen messenger RNA and protein were analyzed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. ECS could significantly inhibit the proliferation of fibroblast and reduced the expression of alpha2 (I) collagen mRNA and type I collagen protein in PSS in a dose-and time-dependent manner. ECS did not affect the proliferation of fibroblast and expression of type I collagen mRNA and protein in normal human. ECS could counteract the harmful effects on fibroblast by H2O2. ECS can effectively inhibit the fibroblast proliferation and type I collagen production in PSS.

  1. Climatic conditions and herbivory effects on morphological plasticity of Argania spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ain-Lhout, Fatima; Zunzunegui, María; Díaz Barradas, Mari Cruz; Jáuregui, Juan; Tagma, Tarik; Boutaleb, Said

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was to look into the morphological differentiation patterns and phenotypic plasticity in four populations of Argania spinosa with environmentally contrasted conditions. Mean response, magnitude and pattern of morphological intra- and inter-population plasticity indexes were measured and analyzed in order to identify which characters contribute the most to the acclimation of this species. Populations growing in the ecological optimum of the species presented the lowest plasticity, while those growing in the most stressed habitats showed an increased morphological variability. The study of four populations showed that human pressure seems to play an important function in the regulation of morphological characters. However, climatic conditions seem to play a significant role in the increase of morphological plasticity.

  2. Partial structural characterization of pectin cell wall from Argania spinosa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachem, Kadda; Benabdesslem, Yasmina; Ghomari, Samia; Hasnaoui, Okkacha; Kaid-Harche, Meriem

    2016-02-01

    The pectin polysaccharides from leaves of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels, collected from Stidia area in the west coast of northern Algeria, were investigated by using sequential extractions and the resulting fractions were analysed for monosaccharide composition and chemical structure. Water-soluble pectic (ALS-WSP) and chelating-soluble pectic (ALS-CSP) fractions were obtained, de-esterified and fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography and characterized by sugar analysis combined with methylation analysis and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The data reveal the presence of altering homogalacturonan (HG) and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) in both pectin fraction. The rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) are consisted of a disaccharide repeating unit [→ α-D-GalpA-1,2-α-L-Rhap-1,4 →] backbone, with side chains contained highly branched α-(1 → 5)-linked arabinan and short linear β-(1 → 4)-linked galactan, attached to O-4 of the rhamnosyl residues.

  3. Germination success and seedling development of Argania spinosa under different climatic conditions and browsing intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunzunegui, María; Jáuregui, Juan; Ain-Lhout, Fatima; Boutaled, Said; Alvarez-Cansino, Leonor; Esquivias, Maripaz

    2013-01-01

    The present study assesses whether the germination and establishment success of Argania spinosa seeds are affected by the environmental conditions under which the mother plant has grown. Seeds from three populations with different climatic conditions and herbivory intensity were collected and sown in the laboratory after different treatments. Our study suggests that the seed germination process and initial stages of seedling growth are adaptive. Seeds from the population of Agadir with the highest herbivory pressure and high air relative humidity in summer (due to the proximity to the sea) were stimulated by acid treatment, and showed a lower root/stem ratio, which allows them to take advantage of the atmospheric water resources. Seeds from the Mountain population, where the most arid environmental conditions were found, produced early-germinating seeds with the highest root/stem ratio that would facilitate seedling establishment when the harshest environmental conditions appear in summer.

  4. Composition of the essential oil of Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae) fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Said; Ghanmi, Mohamed; El Monfalouti, Hanae; Guillaume, Dominique; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2010-06-01

    The composition of the essential oil from the fresh and dried pulp of the fruit of Argania spinosa (Skeels) L. has been studied. Camphor was the major component in both oil types, but in addition, the fresh fruit oil had significant amounts of 1,8-cineole, endo-borneol, and 2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enyl)-propan-2-ol., and the dried pulp oil 3,5-dimethyl-4-ethylidene-cyclohex-2-ene-1-one, 1,8-cineole, and 2-methylbutanoic acid. The presence of camphor and 1,8-cineole in argan fruit essential oil suggests that it could be used locally as an insect repellent, offering an output for argan fruit pulp that is at present a waste product.

  5. Isolation and characterization of xylans from seed pericarp of Argania spinosa fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Youssef; Vignon, Michel R

    2005-05-23

    Hemicellulose-type polysaccharides were isolated from the pericarp of seeds of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels fruit by sequential alkaline extractions and fractionated by precipitation. Water soluble and water insoluble fractions were obtained, purified and characterized by sugar analysis and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The water soluble fractions were assumed to be (4-O-methyl-D-glucurono)-D-xylans, with 4-O-methyl-D-glucopyranosyluronic acid groups linked to C-2 of a (1-->4)-beta-D-xylan. The 1H NMR spectrum showed that the water soluble xylans have, on average, one non-reducing terminal residue of 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid for every seven xylose units. The water insoluble fractions consisted of a neutral xylan with linear (1-->4)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl units.

  6. Metabolites of the "smoke tree", Dalea spinosa, potentiate antibiotic activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belofsky, Gil; Carreno, Roberto; Lewis, Kim; Ball, Anthony; Casadei, Gabriele; Tegos, George P

    2006-02-01

    Two new 2-arylbenzofuran aldehydes (1 and 2) and three known phenolic compounds (3-5) were isolated from organic extracts of Dalea spinosa. These compounds were evaluated for their intrinsic antimicrobial activity and their ability to perform as multidrug-resistance inhibitors by potentiating the activity of known antimicrobials against a variety of pathogenic microorganisms. Compound 1 and its acetate derivative 6 exhibited no direct antimicrobial activity but enhanced the effect of the weak plant antimicrobial berberine when tested against Staphylococcus aureus. Additional potentiation assays with S. aureus overexpression and knockout isogenic efflux mutants for the NorA pump were done in order to assess whether the potentiating effects were associated with inhibition of this known pump mechanism.

  7. Saponin inventory from Argania spinosa kernel cakes by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Max; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Maldini, Mariateresa; Piacente, Sonia; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wiesław

    2013-01-01

    Argania spinosa kernel cakes, obtained from argan oil extraction process, are known to contain large amounts of saponins. Only a few have been characterised previously, due to the use of pure ethanol as extracting solvent. The use of aqueous 50% ethanol improved the extraction of more polar saponins. Identification of polar saponins in kernel cakes of Argania spinosa by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR techniques. Defatted kernel cakes were first extracted with ethanol and then twice with 50% aqueous ethanol. Individual crude extracts were analysed with an ion-trap mass spectrometer in negative mode electrospray MS and MS/MS modes. NMR experiments were run under standard conditions at 300 K on a Bruker DRX-600 spectrometer. The LC-MS base peak chromatogram of saponins from pure ethanol extract was dominated by 11 large and several small peaks but the UV chromatogram showed only two peaks, corresponding to the main neutral saponins found previously in Argania: arganine A and B. In 50% aqueous ethanol extracts, numerous other saponins were detected. Many of them were glucuronide oleanane-type triterpene carboxylic acid 3,28-O-bidesmosides (GOTCAB saponins). The assignments of (1) H- and (13) C-NMR spectra of the four most abundant GOTCAB saponins confirmed the MS results. Four GOTCAB saponins were structurally identified by NMR analysis in the 50% aqueous ethanol extract. Furthermore, LC-MS analyses showed the presence of at least 19 additional polar saponins in these kernel cakes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Insulin-sensitizing and anti-proliferative effects of Argania spinosa seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samane, Samira; Noël, Josette; Charrouf, Zoubida; Amarouch, Hamid; Haddad, Pierre Selim

    2006-09-01

    Argania spinosa is an evergreen tree endemic of southwestern Morocco. Many preparations have been used in traditional Moroccan medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses including diabetes. However, scientific evidence supporting these actions is lacking. Therefore, we prepared various extracts of the argan fruit, namely keel, cake and argan oil extracts, which we tested in the HTC hepatoma cell line for their potential to affect cellular insulin responses. Cell viability was measured by Trypan Blue exclusion and the response to insulin evaluated by the activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2), ERK kinase (MEK1/2) and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) signaling components. None of the extracts demonstrated significant cytotoxic activity. Certain extracts demonstrated a bi-phasic effect on ERK1/2 activation; low doses of the extract slightly increased ERK1/2 activation in response to insulin, whereas higher doses completely abolished the response. In contrast, none of the extracts had any significant effect on MEK whereas only a cake saponin subfraction enhanced insulin-induced PKB/Akt activation. The specific action of argan oil extracts on ERK1/2 activation made us consider an anti-proliferative action. We have thus tested other transformed cell lines (HT-1080 and MSV-MDCK-INV cells) and found similar results. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation was also associated with decreased DNA synthesis as evidenced by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation experiments. These results suggest that the products of Argania spinosa may provide a new therapeutic avenue against proliferative diseases.

  9. Reliance on deep soil water in the tree species Argania spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunzunegui, M; Boutaleb, S; Díaz Barradas, M C; Esquivias, M P; Valera, J; Jáuregui, J; Tagma, T; Ain-Lhout, F

    2017-12-07

    In South-western Morocco, water scarcity and high temperature are the main factors determining species survival. Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels is a tree species, endemic to Morocco, which is suffering from ongoing habitat shrinkage. Argan trees play essential local ecological and economic roles: protecting soils from erosion, shading different types of crops, helping maintain soil fertility and, even more importantly, its seeds are used by the local population for oil production, with valuable nutritional, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The main objective of this study was to identify the sources of water used by this species and to assess the effect of water availability on the photosynthetic rate and stem water potential in two populations: one growing on the coast and a second one 10 km inland. Stem water potential, photosynthetic rate and xylem water isotopic composition (δ18O) were seasonally monitored during 2 years. Trees from both populations showed a similar strategy in the use of the available water sources, which was strongly dependent on deep soil water throughout the year. Nevertheless, during the wet season or under low precipitation a more complex water uptake pattern was found with a mixture of water sources, including precipitation and soil at different depths. No evidence was found of the use of either groundwater or atmospheric water in this species. Despite the similar water-use strategy, the results indicate that Argania trees from the inland population explored deeper layers than coastal ones as suggested by more depleted δ18O values recorded in the inland trees and better photosynthetic performance, hence suggesting that the coastal population of A. spinosa could be subjected to higher stress. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Insulin-sensitizing and Anti-proliferative Effects of Argania spinosa Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Samane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Argania spinosa is an evergreen tree endemic of southwestern Morocco. Many preparations have been used in traditional Moroccan medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses including diabetes. However, scientific evidence supporting these actions is lacking. Therefore, we prepared various extracts of the argan fruit, namely keel, cake and argan oil extracts, which we tested in the HTC hepatoma cell line for their potential to affect cellular insulin responses. Cell viability was measured by Trypan Blue exclusion and the response to insulin evaluated by the activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2, ERK kinase (MEK1/2 and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt signaling components. None of the extracts demonstrated significant cytotoxic activity. Certain extracts demonstrated a bi-phasic effect on ERK1/2 activation; low doses of the extract slightly increased ERK1/2 activation in response to insulin, whereas higher doses completely abolished the response. In contrast, none of the extracts had any significant effect on MEK whereas only a cake saponin subfraction enhanced insulin-induced PKB/Akt activation. The specific action of argan oil extracts on ERK1/2 activation made us consider an anti-proliferative action. We have thus tested other transformed cell lines (HT-1080 and MSV-MDCK-INV cells and found similar results. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation was also associated with decreased DNA synthesis as evidenced by [3H]thymidine incorporation experiments. These results suggest that the products of Argania spinosa may provide a new therapeutic avenue against proliferative diseases.

  11. Evaluation of cytotoxic, analgesic, antidiarrheal and phytochemical properties of Hygrophila spinosa (T. Anders) whole plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellah, S M Faysal; Islam, Md Nur; Karim, Md Rezaul; Rahaman, Md Masudur; Nasrin, Mst Samima; Rahman, Md Atiar; Reza, A S M Ali

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic drugs are going to be replaced by plant-derived traditional drugs due to their cost effectiveness, relatively less harmfulness, and efficacy against multidrug resistance organisms. Hygrophila spinosa (Acanthaceae) has been used in a wide range of ailments including flatulence, diarrhea, dysentery, gonorrhea, and menorrhagia. Therefore, we investigated the cytotoxic, antinociceptive, and antidiarrheal effects of H. spinosa ethanol extract (EExHs). Preliminary phytochemical screening was accomplished by established methods modified in experimental protocol. EExHs was undertaken for cytotoxic assay by Brine shrimp lethality bioassay, antinociceptive action by acetic acid induced writhing test, and antidiarrheal activity by castor oil induced antidiarrheal test. Data were analyzed by GraphPad Prism 6.0 software using Dunnett's test for multiple comparisons. Reducing sugar, steroid, glycoside, tannin, alkaloid, saponins, and flavonoids were found to be present in EExHs. Lethal concentration (LC50) of EExHs for brine shrimps was 50.59 µg/mL which was relatively lower than that of the standard drug vincristine sulfate. In acetic acid induced writhing test, oral administration of EExHs at three different doses (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) decreased writhing in dose-dependent manner while the highest dose (500 mg/kg) achieved the maximum percentages of pain inhibition (58.8%). Diclofenac sodium (25 mg/kg) was used as a reference antinociceptive drug. The antidiarrheal action of EExHs was not found to be very promising for further use; however, the pure compounds from EExHs could be analyzed to justify the effects. This research demonstrates that the secondary metabolites guided cytotoxic and analgesic effects could be extensively studied in multiple models to confirm the effects.

  12. Phytochemical Characterizationand in vivo Anti-inflammatory and Wound-healing Activities of Argania spinosa (L. Skeels Seed Oil

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    Hadjira Dakiche

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The extracted oil of Argania spinosa (L. was investigated in regard to its fatty acid composition and polyphenols by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS and Ultra-high Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electro Spray Ionization-Quadruple Time Of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS, respectively. The reduction rate of topical inflammation of extracted oil was calculated using a mouse model. The skin toxicity of argan oil on intact and damaged skin was assessed using a rabbit model. The findings revealed a rich content of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and presence of phenolic acids. The oil exhibited a reduction of inflammation and facilitated a healing process without any irritation. The experimental study revealed that A. spinosa seed oil displays remarkable wound-healing and anti-inflammatory activities related to its chemical composition. Argan oil has positive potential for skin medicinal application.

  13. SENYAWA KIMIA DAN ARAH WARNA KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan Linn DAN GAMBIR (Uncaria gambir PADA BERBAGAI KONDISI EKSTRAKSI UNTUK PEWARNAAN BATIK

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    Titiek Pujilestari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKTumbuhan pembawa warna mengandung senyawa kimia yang berbeda beda baik jumlah maupun jenis senyawanya. Senyawa-senyawa dominan pembawa warna mempunyai ketahanan tertentu pada berbagai kondisi suhu . Suhu ekstraksi zat warna alam dari tumbuhan mempengaruhi arah warna. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan senyawa kimia dan arah warna kayu secang dan gambir. Ekstraksi zat warna alam dilakukan pada berbagai variasi suhu pemanasan yaitu 50 oC, 75 oC, 100 oC dan perendaman dalam alkohol selama 7 (tujuh hari pada suhu kamar. Zat warna alam yang diperoleh diaplikasikan untuk pewarna batik pada kain katun dan sutera. Arah warna ditentukan melalui fiksasi menggunakan tawas, kapur dan tujung. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa suhu ekstraksi berpengaruh pada senyawa kimia zat warna alam kayu secang dan gambir.  Jumlah senyawa zat warna alam pada kayu secang semakin berkurang seiring dengan peningkatan suhu ekstraksi.  Pada gambir jumlah senyawa zat warna paling banyak diperoleh pada suhu ekstraksi 75 oC. Senyawa zat warna dominan pada kayu secang adalah cyclohexanone sedang pada gambir  adalah methyl 3,4 dideutero 3 nonenoate 3. Arah warna kayu secang merah sampai merah kecoklatan dan pada gambir warna kecoklatan sampai coklat tua.ABSTRACTColor bearing plant contains chemical compounds that vary both the number and types of compounds. Compounds dominant color carriers having different resistance at various temperature conditions. The temperature of the extraction of natural dyes from plants affects the direction of color. This study aims to determine the content of chemical compounds and direction color of Caesalpinia sappan Linn and Uncaria gambir. Extraction of natural dyes made at various heating temperature is 50 ° C, 75 ° C, 100 ° C and soaking in alcohol for seven (7 days at room temperature. Natural dyes obtained is applied to dye batik on cotton and silk. Directions color is determined by fixation using alum, lime and

  14. Antispasmodic activity of isovanillin and isoacetovanillon in comparison with Pycnocycla spinosa Decne.exBoiss extract on rat ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Ghanadian, M; Asghari, G; Madadi, E

    2014-01-01

    Isovanillin and isoacetovanillon are two components found in P. spinosa Decne.exBoiss extract with no previously reported effect on ileum contractions. Spasmolytic effect of isovanillin and isoacetovanillon were examined on response to electrical field stimulation (EFS), acetylcholine (ACh) and 5-HT in strips of rat ileum. Longitudinal ileum strips were set up in an organ bath containing oxygenated Tyrode's solution. All strips that was contracted in response to EFS, acetylcholine or 5-HT showed relaxation in the presence of isovanillin (5-320 μg/ml), or isoacetovanillon (5-320 μg/ml). Isovanillin and isoacetovanillon inhibited the response to 5-HT with IC50 values of 356±50μM and 622±110μM respectively. They reduced the response to EFS without significantly affecting the acetylcholine response. P. spinosa extract (5-160 μg/ml) in a concentration dependent manner reduced the response to 5-HT, acetylcholine and EFS. This study demonstrated that isovanillin and isoacetovanillon are relaxant of ileum contractions induced by 5-HT and EFS and they have contribution to the relaxant effect of P. spinosa extract but other components are responsible for the inhibition of acetylcholine by the extract.

  15. Enraizamento e morfo-anatomia de estacas caulinares de Odontonema strictum kuntze (Acanthaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Christina Zuffellato-Ribas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Odontonema strictum Kuntze é uma espécie ornamental bastante utilizada no Brasil, cultivada em renques ou isoladamente, devido a coloração vermelha de suas inflorescências e seu porte arbustivo, podendo atingir cerca de dois metros de altura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o enraizamento e a morfoanatomia de estacas herbáceas de O. strictum plantadas em tubetes de enraizamento, utilizando vermiculita de granulometria fina e pó de casca de coco como substratos. O experimento foi conduzido em casade- vegetação na Universidade Federal do Paraná, em Curitiba - PR. As estacas foram preparadas com mcomprimento de 12 cm e duas folhas cortadas pela metade, na porção apical. Estas foram distribuídas em quatro parcelas com 10 estacas, num delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Após 44 dias da instalação do experimento, o enraizamento foi de 100% nos dois substratos estudados. O substrato vermiculita apresentou o maior número de raízes por estaca (22,49 raízes, enquanto o pó de casca de coco apresentou a maior média de comprimento das cinco maiores raízes por estaca (11,67 cm. Estruturalmente, as estacas de O. strictum se caracterizam por apresentar epiderme unisseriada, com paredes pouco espessadas; córtex composto de colênquima, parênquima e endoderme com estrias de Caspary; cilindro central em estrutura secundária, com periciclo apresentando grupos isolados de fibras, câmbio ativo e medula parenquimática. A região provável de origem das raízes adventícias é na periferia do floema. Os resultados indicam que esta espécie pode ser considerada de fácil enraizamento, não sendo necessária a aplicação de fitorreguladores. As características anatômicas das estacas facilitam a formação de raízes adventícias.

  16. Efeito da temperatura e do substrato na germinação de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae Effect of temperature and substrate on seed germination of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae

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    Juliana Domingues Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. é uma leguminosa arbórea tropical que ocorre na região amazônica, sendo muito utilizada como planta medicinal e na arborização e paisagismo urbanos. Para viabilizar a produção de mudas, determinaram-se a melhor temperatura e o melhor substrato para a germinação das sementes. Sementes recém-colhidas apresentaram teor médio de água de 7,46%, porcentagem de germinação de 3,33% e baixo ganho de água durante a embebição, mostrando dormência tegumentar. A escarificação mecânica com lixa nº 40 foi um método eficiente para superação da dormência, comprovado pela alta porcentagem de germinação e embebição de água em sementes escarificadas. A porcentagem de germinação dessas sementes foi influenciada pela temperatura, mas não pelo substrato. Com base no tempo médio de germinação, recomenda-se a temperatura de 30 ºC e areia como substrato para germinação mais rápida de sementes escarificadas.Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. is a tropical legume tree occurring in the Amazon region, commonly used as medicine plant and in urban landscaping. To make seedling production feasible the best temperature and substrate for seed germination were determined. Recently harvested seeds present 7.46% mean moisture content, 3.33% germination percentage and lower moisture gain during soaking, showing tegument dormancy. Mechanical scarification with 40 grit sandpaper was proven an efficient method to overcome the dormancy, resulting in higher germination percentage and water imbibition in scarified seeds. The germination percentage of scarified seeds was influenced by temperature, but not by substrate. Based on the mean germination time, it is recommended the temperature of 30ºC and sand like substrate for faster germination of scarified seeds.

  17. Pregnanes and other constituents of the roots of Macrosiphonia petraea (A. St.-Hil.) Kuntze (Apocynaceae); Pregnanos e outros constituintes das raizes de Macrosiphonia petraea (A. St.-Hil.) Kuntze (Apocynaceae)

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    Assis Junior, Luiz Roberto de; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia; Guterres, Zaira da Rosa [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Mundo Novo, MS (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    Macrosiphonia petraea (A. St.-Hil.) Kuntze is a plant popularly known as 'velame'. Its root infusion is used in the folk medicine of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Phytochemical investigation of the roots of this species led to the identification of 17 compounds belonging to four different classes: two pregnanes, 12{beta}-hydroxypregna-4,6,16-triene-3,20-dione, neridienone A, and 12{beta}-hydroxypregna-4,6-diene-3,20-dione, cybisterol, one hydroxylated fatty acid, 5-hydroxy-octadeca-6(E)-8(Z)-dienoic acid, two lignoids, pinoresinol and 8{alpha}-hydroxypinoresinol, ten pentacyclic triterpenoids, and two steroids. (author)

  18. Transition rates of selected metals determined in various types of teas (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) and herbal/fruit infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulzki, Grit; Nüßlein, Birgit; Sievers, Hartwig

    2017-01-15

    Teas and raw materials used as ingredients of herbal and fruit infusions (HFI) were analysed by means of ICP-MS for their content of aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and mercury in the dry product and in the infusion. Samples of tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) were selected to include different origins, types (black, green), leaf grades (whole leaf, broken, fannings, dust) and manufacturing techniques (orthodox, "crush, tear, curl"). The selected HFI raw materials (chamomile, elderberries, fennel, hibiscus, mate, peppermint, rooibos and rose hip) cover the most important matrices (flower, fruit, seed, herb, leaf) and reflect the economic significance of these HFI materials in trade. Infusions were prepared under standardised conditions representing typical household brewing. Transition rates for the investigated metals vary significantly but are mostly well below 100%. We propose default transition rates for metals to avoid overestimation of exposure levels from tea/HFI consumption. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood) and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fernanda Fraga; Sales Junior, Policarpo A; Romanha, Alvaro José; Araújo, Márcio S S; Siqueira, Ezequias P; Resende, Jarbas M; Alves, Tânia M A; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Santos, Vera Lúcia dos; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania Barros

    2015-02-01

    Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae). We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL) and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL), Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 μg/mL). Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 μg/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 μg/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 μg/mL (2.43 μM) in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay.

  20. Proposed mechanism of antibacterial mode of action of Caesalpinia bonducella seed oil against food-borne pathogens

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    Shruti Shukla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial mechanism of action of Caesalpinia bonducella seed oil on membrane permeability of Listeria monocytogenes NCIM 24563 (MIC: 2 mg/mL and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (MIC: 4 mg/mL was determined by measuring the extracellular ATP concentration, release of 260-nm absorbing materials, leakage of potassium ions and measurement of relative electrical conductivity of the bacterial cells treated at MIC concentration. Its mode of action on membrane integrity was confirmed by release of extracellular ATP (1.42 and 1.33 pg/mL, loss of 260-nm absorbing materials (4.36 and 4.19 optical density, leakage of potassium ions (950 and 1000 mmol/L and increase in relative electrical conductivity (12.6 and 10.5% against food-borne pathogenic bacteria L. monocytogenes and E. coli, respectively. These findings propose that C. bonducella oil compromised its mode of action on membrane integrity, suggesting its enormous food and pharmacological potential.

  1. Cytotoxic and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of Cassane Diterpenoids from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan in Cancer Cells

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    Han Bao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical study on the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan led to the isolation of five new cassane diterpenoids, phanginins R‒T (1–3 and caesalsappanins M and N (4 and 5, together with seven known compounds 6–12. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and HRESIMS analyses. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 4 were determined by the corresponding CD spectra. All the isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against ovarian cancer A2780 and HEY, gastric cancer AGS, and non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. Compound 1 displayed significant toxicity against the four cell lines with the IC50 values of 9.9 ± 1.6 µM, 12.2 ± 6.5 µM, 5.3 ± 1.9 µM, and 12.3 ± 3.1 µM, respectively. Compound 1 induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest in A2780 cells. Furthermore, compound 1 dose-dependently induced A2780 cells apoptosis as evidenced by Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V positive cells, the up-regulated cleaved-PARP and the enhanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. What’s more, compound 1 also promoted the expression of the tumor suppressor p53 protein. These findings indicate that cassane diterpenoids might have potential as anti-cancer agents, and further in vivo animal studies and structural modification investigation are needed.

  2. Effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on female reproductive system of albino rat: a focus on antifertility efficacy

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    Lilaram

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of oral administration of the ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on the reproductive system in Wistar female albino rat. Methods: The study was divided into four groups. The group I received distilled water and served as vehicle treated control. Groups II, III and IV were orally administered 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight dose of seed extract respectively, for 10 consecutive days and subsequently euthanized twenty four hours after the last dose. Results: The treatment prolonged the length of estrous cycle with significant increase in the duration of diestrus stage. The analysis of the principal hormones viz. LH, FSH, estradiol and progesterone showed significantly decreased levels in dose-dependant manner. Ovarian and uterine weight was significantly reduced as compared to that of the control group. Histoarchitectural observations revealed follicular atresia and degeneration of corpora lutea in ovary. Oviduct showed degeneration of mucosal folds and epithelium cells. Uterus showed evidence of degeneration of endometrial epithelium and endometrial glands. Lamina propria and muscularis layer of vagina were found slightly disorganized. Conclusions: It can be concluded that significant decrease in the hormone levels, reproductive organs weight and alterations in histoarchitecture of reproductive organs might be due to antiestrogenic nature of seed extract.

  3. The durative use of suspension cells and callus for volatile oil by comparative with seeds and fruits in Capparis spinosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yongtai; He, Yuchi; Liu, Wei; Gan, Lu; Fu, Chunhua; Jia, Haibo; Li, Maoteng

    2014-01-01

    Capparis spinosa is one of the most important eremophytes among the medicinal plants, and continued destruction of these plants poses a major threat to species survival. The development of methods to extract compounds, especially those of medicinal value, without harvesting the whole plant is an issue of considerable socioeconomic importance. On the basis of an established system for culture of suspension cells and callus in vitro, Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) was used for the volatile oil composition analyzing in seed, fruit, suspension cells and callus. Fatty acids were the major component, and the highest content of alkanes was detected in seed, with spinosa and provide a foundation for use of the C. spinosa suspension cells and callus as an ongoing medical resource.

  4. Patterns in Volatile Emission of Different Aerial Parts of Caper (Capparis spinosa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascrizzi, Roberta; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Giusti, Giulia; Pistelli, Luisa; Flamini, Guido

    2016-07-01

    We analyzed the spontaneous volatile emission of different aerial parts of the caper (Capparis spinosa L.) by HS-SPME-GC/MS. We identified 178 different compounds of which, in different proportions based on the sample type, the main ones were (E)-β-ocimene, methyl benzoate, linalool, β-caryophyllene, α-guaiene, germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, germacrene B, (E)-nerolidol, isopropyl tetradecanoate, and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone. The multivariate statistical analyses seem to point out that the parameter leading the emission patterns is the function of the analyzed sample; the flower samples showed differences in the emission profile between their fertile and sterile portions and between the other parts of the plant. The green parts emission profiles group together in a cluster and are different from those of seeds and fruits. We also hydrodistilled fully bloomed caper flowers, whose volatile oil showed significant differences in the composition from those of other parts of the plant reported. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  5. Carotenoid and tocopherol composition of leaves, buds, and flowers of Capparis spinosa grown wild in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Nizar; Nasri, Nizar; Saadaoui, Ezzeddine; Khaldi, Abdelhamid; Triki, Saida

    2009-06-24

    High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine carotenoids (beta-carotene, lutein, neoxanthin, and violaxanthin) and tocopherols of leaves, buds, and flowers of Tunisian Capparis spinosa. This plant shows strong resistance to hard environmental conditions, and it is one of the most commonly found aromatics in the Mediterranean kitchen. In this study, the means of the total carotenoids were 3452.5 +/- 1639.4, 1002 +/- 518.5, and 342.7 +/- 187.9 microg/g fresh weight (FW) in leaves, buds, and flowers, respectively. Lutein accounts for the high content. Violaxanthin provided the lowest portion of the total carotenoids. The principal form of tocopherol detected in leaves was alpha-tocopherol (20.19 +/- 10 mg/100 g FW). In buds and flowers, there were both alpha- (49.12 +/- 17.48 and 28.68 +/- 9.13 mg/100 g FW, respectively) and gamma-tocopherol (48.13 +/- 15.08 and 27.8 +/- 16.01 mg/100 g FW, respectively). The combined content of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E in capers encourages researchers to more explore and find developments for this plant.

  6. Antioxidant activity, phenolics content and total flavonoids of caper fruit (Caparis spinosa at different maturity stages

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    Z. Sharafi*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Capparis spinosa is a perennial herb belonging to the Capparidaceae family that is mainly distributed in arid and semi-arid regions of the tropical and subtropical world. The plant is a potential source of valuable nutrients that is valued for human food. The fruit of this plant, being a rich source of high-value components, is usually pickled and added to salads, sauces and jams. Different organs have different amounts of biochemical compounds. Maturity stages have important effects on fruit quality. In order to determine the best time for obtaining the maximum secondary metabolites (phenolics content, antioxidant activity and total flavonoids from caper fruits, three stages of maturity (unripe, ripe and over ripe fruits were studied. Methods: Measured factors were antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging property total flavonoids, flavones and flavonols content, total phenolic compounds (Folin reagent by calorimetric method, tannin content and carbohydrate content. Results: The results showed the significant effect of fruit maturity on most measured traits. Maturity decreased flavones and flavonoles (0.72, 0.34 and 0.22 mg quercetin/g respectively and total flavonoids content (7.20, 3.61 and 3.51 mg quercetin/g respectively while total phenolic and carbohydrate has increased during ripening. Antioxidant activity had not significant changed during ripening. Conclusion: Unripe fruits were the best samples for achieving the maximum flavonoids content that were assumed as major compound of Caper fruit.

  7. Capparis spinosa L. aqueous extract evokes antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddouks, Mohamed; Lemhadri, Ahmed; Hebi, Morad; El Hidani, Ahmed; Zeggwagh, Naoufel Ali; El Bouhali, Bachir; Hajji, Lhoussaine; Burcelin, Remy

    2017-01-01

    As the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa (CS) possess antidiabetic effect, he present study aims to reveal the possible mechanism of action of CS in diabetic mice. Both single and repeated oral administrations of aqueous extract of CS were performed in multi-low dose streptozotocin-induced (MLDS) diabetic mice. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was used in association with the endogenous glucose production (perfusion rate of 3-3H glucose) to evaluate the effect of CS aqueous extract on insulin sensitivity. Our study showed that aqueous extract of CS possess a potent hypoglycaemic activity in MLDS diabetic mice. Furthermore, the analysis perfusion of 3-3H glucose demonstrated the parallel decrease of basal endogenous glucose production (EGP) with the hypoglycaemic activity. EGP was lower in CS-Treated group when compared to the control group (p<0.001). The euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique demonstrated that CS treatment improves insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues. We conclude that the antihyperglycemic effet CS is probably due to the inhibition of basal endogenous glucose production and the improvement of insulin sensitivity in MLDS diabetic mice.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a lectin with potentially exploitable activities from caper (Capparis spinosa) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Sze Kwan; Han, Qi Feng; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2009-06-15

    A dimeric 62-kDa lectin exhibiting a novel N-terminal amino acid sequence was purified from caper (Capparis spinosa) seeds. The purification protocol involved anion-exchange chromatography, cation-exchange chromatography and, finally, gel filtration by FPLC on Superdex 75. Approx. 100-fold purification was achieved. The haemagglutinating activity of the lectin, which was stable in the pH range 1-12 and up to 40 degrees C, could be inhibited by D(+) galactose, alpha-lactose, raffinose and rhamnose at 1 mM concentration, by 25 mM L(+)-arabinose and by 100 mM D(+)GlcN (glucosamine). The lectin potently inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC50 of 0.28 microM and proliferation of both hepatoma HepG2 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells with an IC50 of approx. 2 microM. It induced apoptosis in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells. It manifested a weaker mitogenic activity on mouse splenocytes than ConA (concanavalin A). It inhibited mycelial growth in Valsa mali with an IC50 of 18 microM.

  9. Assessment of the antioxidant properties of the caper fruit (Capparis spinosa L. from Bahrain

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    Abdul Ameer A. Allaith

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa, a wild plant of the family Capparidaceae, is said to be native to the Mediterranean basin and found in many parts. This shrub can grow very well on dry heat and under intense sunlight and can tolerate low temperature. Caper berries from different locations of contrasting habitats were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities using several methods, including reduction of ferrictripiridyltriazine [Fe(III-TPTZ] (FRAP assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH assay, and [2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] scavenging (ABTS assay. Total free phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids were also examined. The mean mmol Trolox equivalent/kg fresh weight for FRAP was 9.059 ± 1.450, DPPH 6.131 ± 0.607, and ABTS 8.127 ± 2,017. Mean % DPPH scavenging activity was 37.67% ± 7.19 and mean % ABTS scavenging activity was 31.29% ± 7.76. Partitioning studies revealed a higher antioxidant–antiradical capacity in the seed as compared to the flesh, and these capacities were associated more with hydrophobic and not lipophilic constituents. Antioxidant capacities strongly correlated with the total free phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids. Findings of this study contribute to the recent increase in scientific interest of a wild fruit which should be re-considered for its antioxidant constituencies and characteristics.

  10. Capparis spinosa protects against oxidative stress in systemic sclerosis dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yue-Lan; Li, Xin; Zheng, Min

    2010-07-01

    High reactive oxygen species (ROS), Ha-Ras, and active ERK1/2 in fibroblasts play an essential role in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of the ethanol extract from fruits of Capparis Spinosa L. (ECS) on oxidative stress and ROS-ERK1/2-Ha-Ras signal loop in SSc dermal fibroblasts in vitro. Cultured dermal fibroblasts from three SSc patients and three normal controls were treated with ECS by different concentration (10, 50, 100 microg/ml). ECS significantly reduced the production of O2(-), H2O2, and ROS in SSc fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner. ECS effectively minimized the loss of cell viability and apoptosis induced by H2O2 in normal and SSc fibroblasts. Furthermore, the protective effect of ECS on SSc fibroblasts was more significant than on normal ones. ECS decreased the expression of P-ERK1/2 and Ha-Ras in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, ECS exhibits a notable activity in protecting against oxidative stress and interrupting of ROS-ERK1/2-Ha-Ras signal loop in SSc, suggesting its potential protective effects against skin sclerosis.

  11. Rutin from different parts of Capparis spinosa growing wild in Khuzestan/Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Zahra; Aghel, Nasrin; Keyghobadi, Hossein

    2008-03-01

    A qualitative and quantitative analysis of rutin from leaves, fruits and flowers of Capparis spinosa growing wild in Khuzestan was achieved. After soxhelet extraction of fats in diethyl ether, rutin was extracted by maceration using 50% EtOH. The ethanol extracts of these parts were separated by preparative TLC on silica gel precoated plate with a mixture of butanol: acetic acid (4:1, by volume) as the developing solvent. The spots were visualized under ultraviolet light (254 nm). Rutin was qualified by comparison of its R(f) value with that of standard. UV/Vis spectrum of separated rutin was also compared with those of standards and showed characteristic wavelengths at 260 and 360 nm. Purified rutin was quantified by UV/Vis spectrophotometric determination at 360 nm. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.156-2.5 microg mL(-1) with detection limit of 0.0731 microg mL(-1). The purity of extracted rutin from leave, flower and fruit determined by high performance liquid chromatography were 90.41, 87.25 and 64.56%, respectively. The amounts of rutin in leaves, fruits and flowers were 61.09, 6.03 and 43.72 mg per 100 g of dried powder, respectively. By analyzing the spiked samples of leave, flower and fruit the recovery of the UV/Vis method was in the range of 102-107.6%.

  12. Effect of Capparis spinosa extract on sutural ossification: A stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Muharrem Serif; Babacan, Hasan; Kara, M Isa; Gurler, Birol; Akgul, Hasan; Soyler, Durmus Ali

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the effects of systemically administered Capparis spinosa extract (CSE) on expanded sutures in rats via three dimensionally morphometric method (stereological method). Thirty-two Wistar rats were used. Subjects were divided into four groups, each with eight rats. Orthopaedic expansion force was applied for 5 days to maxillary incisors by attaching springs. Control-1 and CSE-1 waited 1 week for consolidation, and Control-2 and CSE-2 waited 2 weeks for consolidation. After the consolidation period, the subjects were sacrificed. Stereological examination was performed to determine the volume and area of new bone, connective tissue, and capillaries. New bone area, new bone volume, connective tissue space, and connective tissue volume were statistically different in CSE-1 compared to Control-1. But there were no statistically difference between CSE-2 and Control_2. In terms of the volume of blood vessels and vascular area, there were no statistically significant differences when comparing Groups CSE-1 and Control-1 or CSE-2 and Control-2. Systemic use of CSE accelerated fastened osteoblastic activity in the early period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The anticarcinogenic potential of essential oil and aqueous infusion from caper (Capparis spinosa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulisic-Bilusic, Tea; Schmöller, Ingrid; Schnäbele, Kerstin; Siracusa, Laura; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    The present study assessed the influence of essential oil and aqueous infusion from wild-grown caper (Capparis spinosa L.) on cell growth, NF-κB activation, apoptosis and cell cycle in the human colon carcinoma cell line, HT-29. Methyl isothiocyanate (92.06%), a degradation product of glucosinolate glucocapparin, was detected as major component of essential oil from caper leaves and flower buds. Aqueous infusion of caper showed an interesting and variegate compositional pattern containing several phenolic compounds, among which a flavonol glycoside, rutin (quercetin 3-O-rutinoside, 50.7%) and 5-caffeoyl-quinic acid (chlorogenic acid, 17.5%) were detected as dominant. Caper essential oil and aqueous infusion showed time- and dose-dependent high inhibitory effect on HT-29 cell proliferation. In addition, they induced the inhibition on nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity in a dose-dependent manner, while they did not show any effect on apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that treatment with caper essential oil and aqueous infusion resulted in G2/M cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Presented results suggest that caper contains volatile and non-volatile compounds which potentially can play an important role in colon cancer prevention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypolipidemic activity of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa L. in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddouks, M; Lemhadri, A; Michel, J-B

    2005-04-26

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of single and repeated oral administrations of the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa L. (CS) at a dose of 20mg/kg on lipid metabolism in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In normal rats, the aqueous extract of CS induced a significant decrease on plasma triglycerides concentrations 1 week (p<0.05) and 2 weeks (p<0.01) after once daily repeated oral administration. A significant decrease of plasma cholesterol levels was also observed 4 days (p<0.05) and 1 week (p<0.05) after repeated oral administration. In diabetic rats, CS treatment caused a significant decrease of plasma triglycerides levels after repeated oral administration. Four days after repeated oral administration of aqueous CS extract, the plasma cholesterol levels were significantly decreased (p<0.05) and still dropped after 2 weeks (p<0.01). On the other hand, the repeated oral administration of CS aqueous extract caused a significant decrease of body weight 4 days after repeated oral treatment in diabetic rats (p<0.05). We conclude that the aqueous extract of CS (20 mg/kg) exhibits a potent lipid lowering activity in both normal and severe hyperglycemic rats after repeated oral administration of CS aqueous extract.

  15. Antiviral and immunomodulatory effect of a lyophilized extract of Capparis spinosa L. buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, A; Bisignano, G; Pavone, B; Tomaino, A; Bonina, F P; Saija, A; Cristani, M; D'Arrigo, M; Trombetta, D

    2008-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are common human pathogens that in particular cases can also cause severe problems especially in immunodeficient patients. The present paper reports the antiviral and immunomodulatory properties of a methanolic extract of C. spinosa buds (CAP), rich in flavonoids, including several quercetin and kaempferol glycosides. In particular we have investigated whether the in vitro exposure of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to CAP might inhibit the replication of HSV-2 and modulate the induction kinetics of IL-12, TNF-alpha IFN-gamma. Our findings have shown that CAP treatment interferes with HSV-2 replication in PBMCs inhibiting the extracellular virus release upregulating their production of IL-12, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. One could speculate that CAP may contribute in improving immune surveillance of PBMCs toward virus infection by up-regulating expression of peculiar proinflammatory cytokines; it should thus be successfully employed for treatment of HSV-2 infections in immunocompromised hosts.

  16. Evaluation of extracts and isolated fraction from Capparis spinosa L. buds as an antioxidant source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanò, Maria Paola; De Pasquale, Rita; D'Angelo, Valeria; Catania, Stefania; Silvari, Virginia; Costa, Chiara

    2002-02-27

    The antioxidant activity of extracts from Capparis spinosa L. buds was evaluated using different in vitro tests: ascorbate/Fe(2+)-mediated lipid peroxidation of microsomes from rat liver; bleaching of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical; and autoxidation of Fe(2+) ion in the presence of bathophenanthroline disulfonate. The methanolic extract showed strong activities in all of these in vitro tests. The amount of total phenols was determined in the methanolic extract. In addition, the level of rutin was calculated as 0.39% (w/w) by HPLC analysis. Our findings indicate the following: (a) the antioxidant efficiency of the methanolic extract may be attributed to its phenolic content; and (b) the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract was maintained after removal of glucosinolates, confirming that these compounds do not interfere with the antioxidant properties of the extract. The results obtained from this study exalt the nutritional value of the flowering buds (capers) which are widely used as a source of flavor.

  17. Effect of Capparis spinosa Linn. extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ashish; Digvijaya; Garg, Arun; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive disorders in mankind are not uncommon. Apart from neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD), various stresses also affect cognitive functions. Plants are known to be potential source of compounds that ameliorate several diseases including cognitive impairment. Here, we evaluated effect of aqueous extract of caper (Capparis spinosa) buds on lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment in rats using two different oral doses i.e. 10 (pre-treatment) and 30 mg/rat(post-treatment) through assessment of behavioural (Morris Water maze test and Y maze test), biochemical (Cholinesterase assay) and histopathological (H&E staining) parameters. Lipopolysaccharide (from E. coli) administration resulted in an increased neurodegeneration and time taken to reach the platform (in Morris water maze). The increased neurodegeneration in CA1 region of hippocampus was significantly reduced in animals which received caper bud extract; they showed marked reduction in time taken to reach the platform at both the dose levels. The experiment demonstrated that caper bud extract exhibits potential protective effect against learning and memory damage induced by chronic administration of lipopolysaccharide (175 μg/kg) for 7 days. The results suggest that the caper bud extract could be explored for its use in the treatment of cognitive disorders.

  18. Cell wall carbohydrates from fruit pulp of Argania spinosa: structural analysis of pectin and xyloglucan polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboughe-Angone, Sophie; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Ghosh, Partha; Lerouge, Patrice; Ishii, Tadashi; Ray, Bimalendu; Driouich, Azeddine

    2008-01-14

    Isolated cell walls of Argania spinosa fruit pulp were fractionated into their polysaccharide constituents and the resulting fractions were analysed for monosaccharide composition and chemical structure. The data reveal the presence of homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) and rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) in the pectic fraction. RG-I is abundant and contains high amounts of Ara and Gal, indicative of an important branching in this polysaccharide. RG-II is less abundant than RG-I and exists as a dimer. Structural characterisation of xyloglucan using enzymatic hydrolysis, gas chromatography, MALDI-TOF-MS and methylation analysis shows that XXGG, XXXG, XXLG and XLLG are the major subunit oligosaccharides in the ratio of 0.6:1:1.2:1.6. This finding demonstrates that the major neutral hemicellulosic polysaccharide is a galacto-xyloglucan. In addition, Argania fruit xyloglucan has no XUFG, a novel xyloglucan motif recently discovered in Argania leaf cell walls. Finally, the isolation and analysis of arabinogalactan-proteins showed that Argania fruit pulp is rich in these proteoglycans.

  19. Hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic effect of argan oil (Argania spinosa L.) in Meriones shawi rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, H; Ettaib, A; Herrera Gonzalez, M D; Alvarez de Sotomayor, M; Bennani-Kabchi, N; Hmamouchi, M

    2003-11-01

    The potential health benefits of various dietary oils in relation to cardiovascular disease and cancer are recently receiving considerable attention. The main proposal of this study is to investigate the effect of dietary argan oil, obtained from seeds of Argania spinosa L. (Sapotaceae) endemic from Morocco, on serum lipids composition. Hyperlipidemia was induced by high calorie and cholesterol (HCC) diet administration in 16 rats (Meriones shawi, a rodent of the Gerbillideae family). Eight rats were treated with argan oil (1ml/100g weight) daily by oral route during 7 weeks (treated group). Control animals were also fed with HCC diet for 7 weeks. After 7-week treatment with argan oil, blood lipoproteins were significantly reduced. Total cholesterol decreased with 36.67% (P<0.01), low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol in 67.70% (P<0.001), triglycerides in 30.67% (P<0.05) and body weight in 12.7% (P<0.05). High density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration remained unaltered. These results indicate the beneficial effect of argan oil in the treatment of the hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia. This effect will be related with the polyunsaturated fatty acids and other constituents of studied oil.

  20. Anatomical structure and ultrastructure of the endocarp cell walls of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels (Sapotaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebaa, H S; Harche, M Kaid

    2014-12-01

    The anatomical and histochemical study of young and adult endocarps of Argania spinosa (sampled from Tindouf; Algeria) shows a general structure that is similar to that of majority of stone fruits. These samples consist of tissues that contain lignified and cellulosic cell walls. The majority of the tissues are composed of sclerenchyma cells; with very thick lignified cell walls and conducting tissues. Coniferyl lignins are abundant in the majority of the lignified tissues. However, the coniferyl lignins appear at the primary xylem during lignification. Syringyl lignins are present in small quantities. The electron microscopy observation of the sclerenchyma cell walls of the young endocarp shows polylamellate strates and, cellular microfibrils in arced patterns. This architecture is observed in the cell walls of the adult endocarp only after the incubation of the tissue in methylamine. These configurations (arcs) are the result of a regular and complete rotation with a 180° variation in the microfibril angle; the complete and symmetrical arcs show a helicoidal mode of construction. The observation of the sclerenchyma cells revealed the capacity of helicoidal morphogenesis to adjust itself under the influence of topological constraints, such as the presence of a large number of pit canals, which maintain symplastic transport. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Streptomyces marokkonensis sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere soil of Argania spinosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouizgarne, B; Lanoot, B; Loqman, S; Spröer, C; Klenk, H-P; Swings, J; Ouhdouch, Y

    2009-11-01

    The novel actinomycete strain Ap1(T) was isolated from rhizosphere soil of the argan tree (Argania spinosa L.) in the south of Morocco. Strain Ap1(T) has been reported as a novel producer of the pentaene polyene macrolide isochainin, which strongly inhibits the growth of pathogenic yeasts and phytopathogenic fungi. Strain Ap1(T) shows a greyish-white aerial mycelium with chains of smooth-surfaced spores of the Spiralis type and a cell wall containing ll-diaminopimelic acid. Based on chemotaxonomy and morphological features, strain Ap1(T) was identified as a member of the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities based on almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain Ap1(T) is closely associated with members of the Streptomyces violaceoruber species group (S. violaceoruber, S. coelescens, S. violaceorubidus, 'S. caesius', 'S. lividans', S. violaceolatus and S. humiferus) and others (Streptomyces aurantiogriseus, S. lienomycini, S. chattanoogensis, S. rubrogriseus and S. tendae). However, protein profiling, DNA-DNA hybridization and BOX-PCR fingerprinting proved a relationship above the species level. In addition, the phenotype also allowed for the differentiation of strain Ap1(T) from its closest neighbours. As a result of this polyphasic approach, we conclude that strain Ap1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces marokkonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Ap1(T) (=R-22003(T) =LMG 23016(T) =DSM 41918(T)).

  2. Polysaccharide of caper (Capparis spinosa L.) Leaf: Extraction optimization, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarei, Farzad; Jooyandeh, Hossein; Noshad, Mohammad; Hojjati, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Three-variable-three-level Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology (BBD-RSM) based on the single-factor experiments was used to optimize the extracting parameters of crude polysaccharides (CPSs) from the Capparis spinosa leaves (CSL) including extraction time (ETi, 60-120min), extraction temperature (ETe, 60-80°C), and the water/solid ratio (W/S, 6-16). The optimal process conditions in order to the highest yield (6.73%) of CSL-CPSs were 119.8min ETi, 72.84°C ETe, and 15.97:1W/S.Structure of polysaccharide extracted at the optimal operating point were identified by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). CSL-CPSs (50-300μg/L) revealed significantly scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)and OH free-radicals in vitro. A much more antimicrobial activity using this polysaccharide against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriaeandSalmonella typhi) was found than Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus panis and Staphylococcus aureus). CSL-CPSs can thus be used as anexcellent antioxidant and antimicrobial ingredient in food and medicinal preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Partial structural characterization of pectin cell wall from Argania spinosa leaves

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    Kadda Hachem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The pectin polysaccharides from leaves of Argania spinosa (L. Skeels, collected from Stidia area in the west coast of northern Algeria, were investigated by using sequential extractions and the resulting fractions were analysed for monosaccharide composition and chemical structure. Water-soluble pectic (ALS-WSP and chelating-soluble pectic (ALS-CSP fractions were obtained, de-esterified and fractionated by anion-exchange chromatography and characterized by sugar analysis combined with methylation analysis and 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The data reveal the presence of altering homogalacturonan (HG and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I in both pectin fraction. The rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I are consisted of a disaccharide repeating unit [→ α-D-GalpA-1,2-α-L-Rhap-1,4 →] backbone, with side chains contained highly branched α-(1 → 5-linked arabinan and short linear β-(1 → 4-linked galactan, attached to O-4 of the rhamnosyl residues.

  4. GERMINATION ET POTENTIALITES ORGANOGENES DES EMBRYONS D’ARGANIER (Argania spinosa L. Skeel CULTIVES IN VITRO

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    B LOTMANI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Les embryons d’argan (Argania spinosa (L. Skeels isolés de la graine et mis sur milieu de culture de Gamborg (B5 contenant des substances de croissance ANA/KIN et ANA/BAP peuvent évoluer en plants parfaitement constitués. Des pousses feuillées apparaissent après un mois de culture de microboutures constituées de bourgeons axillaires prélevées sur des vitroplants de la provenance de Mostaganem ou sur des plants élevés en pépinière pour la provenance de Tindouf sur milieu de culture de Gamborg (B5/2 additionné de deux équilibres hormonaux ANA/KIN et ANA/BAP aux concentrations de 0.5/0.5 mg L-1 pour les deux combinaisons. L’induction des racines sur les pousses nouvellement formées est possible mais difficile sur  l’écotype de Tindouf en présence d’ANA, alors que sur l’écotype de Mostaganem, elle est pratiquement impossible. A la base des boutures se développent des cals qui donneront parfois des racines sur l’écotype de Tindouf. Le pourcentage de survie après acclimatation est nul.

  5. Observations on Phallocryptus Spinosa (Branchiopoda, Anostraca Populations from the high Plateaus of Northeastern Algeria

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    Mounia Amarouayache

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phallocryptus spinosa (Thamnocephalidae is a small primitive crustacean which lives in temporary saline pools of the Palaearctic region called Chott, Sebkha, Garâa or Daya in North Africa. Data on its biology and life history are very scarce despite its ecological importance in wetlands. Four populations living in the Northeastern High Plateaus of Algeria, Garâas Guellif, El-Tarf, Ank Djemel and Sebkha Ez-Zemoul, have been studied in point of view of their morphmetry (13 parameters and their reproduction. The population of Sebkha Ez-Zemoul, living in higher salinities and in sympatry with Artemia salina was different from the 3 other populations that are close together. Its adults are the largest (21.77 ± 2.34 mm and 23.65 ± 2.36 mm for males and females respectively and produce more cysts 771.47±8.45 cysts/brood of 293.11±10.41 µm diameter. Associated carcinological fauna and some behavioral traits are also approached.

  6. Investigation on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of Randia spinosa (Thunb. Poir. and Dillenia pentagyna Roxb.

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    Irulandi Kokkaiah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of Randia spinosa (Thunb. Poir. and Dillenia pentagyna Roxb. leaf extracts against human pathogens such as Gram positive bacteria (Streptococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and Staphyllococcus aureus, Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a fungus Candida albicans. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the two plants against the human pathogens was investigated by agar well diffusion method, and qualitative phytochemical screening was conducted for the presence of phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, catechins, coumarins, flavonoids, phenols, quinones, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Results: The qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of diverse range of compounds like alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, steroids, tannins, terpenoids and saponins. The plants exhibited broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities against all the tested bacterial and fungal pathogens. The maximum zone of inhibition was observed in methanol extracts when compared with acetone and ethyl acetate extracts. The present study demonstrated that the selected plants had promising effect on the bacterial and fungal pathogens. Conclusions: The phytochemicals in the plants may be potentially responsible for the antimicrobial efficacy of these medicinal plants.

  7. Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Activities of Prunus spinosa Trigno Ecotype Extract on Human Cancer Cells

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    Stefania Meschini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to demonstrate that a natural compound, not-toxic to normal cells, has cytotoxic and sensitizing effects on carcinoma cells, with the final goal of combining it with chemotherapeutic drugs to reduce the overall dose. Prunus spinosa Trigno ecotype (PsT drupe extract with a nutraceutical activator complex (NAC made of amino acids, vitamins and mineral salt blends, has shown in vitro anticancer activity. The cytotoxic effect of (PsT + NAC® has been evaluated on human cancer cells, with an initial screening with colorectal, uterine cervical, and bronchoalveolar cells, and a subsequent focus on colon carcinoma cells HCT116 and SW480. The viability reduction of HCT116 and SW480 after treatment with (PsT 10 mg/mL + NAC® was about 40% (p < 0.05, compared to control cells. The cell’s survival reduction was ineffective when the drug vehicle (NAC was replaced with a phosphate buffer saline (PBS or physiological solution (PS. The flow cytometry evaluation of cancer cells’ mitochondrial membrane potential showed an increase of 20% depolarized mitochondria. Cell cycle analysis showed a sub G1 (Gap 1 phase peak appearance (HCT116: 35.1%; SW480: 11.6%, indicating apoptotic cell death induction that was confirmed by Annexin V assay (HCT116: 86%; SW480: 96%. Normal cells were not altered by (PsT + NAC® treatments.

  8. Argan tree (Argania spinosa L. skeels vegetative propagation by cutting and grafting

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    M.L. Metougui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The argan tree (Argania spinosa L. skeels is an endemic species of Morocco that plays an important socioeconomic role through the value of its oil. Despite the importance of the species, the main propagation method is still by seeds, which presents several disadvantages, including a long juvenile phase and high genetic variability between plants. The aim of this work is to study from one side the genotype and source of calcium (CaCl2 and Ca(NO32 effects on the cutting yield, and from the other side the effect of the rootstock and the graft genotype on the grafting method’s success and finally compare between the both methods for argan massive propagation. The results exhibited an important genotype effect on the cutting; in fact, each of the four propagated genotypes reacted differently to this propagation method. The calcium treatment did not improve the cutting rooting, whereas its disinfectant effect depended on the genotype. From the other side, the grafting success depended mainly on the graft/rootstock compatibility, but little on the graft genotype and not at all on the rootstock genotype. The comparison between the two propagation methods showed that grafting is more suitable for argan tree propagation. The highest success rate reached through the cutting was 66.7 % with the best genotype, whereas by grafting the best rate was off 95.8% attended by two of twelve graft/rootstock combinations tested.

  9. Preparative separation of bioactive compounds from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze using steam distillation extraction and one step high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yun; Du, Jilin; Lu, Yuanyuan

    2012-10-01

    In order to utilize and control the invasive weed, bioactive compounds from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze were studied. Steam distillation extraction and one step high-speed counter-current chromatography were applied to separate and purify the caryophyllene oxide, 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene, and caryophyllene from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The two-phase solvent system containing n-hexane/acetonitrile/ethanol (5:4:3, v/v/v) was selected for the one step separation mode according to the partition coefficient values (K) of the target compounds and the separation factor (α). The purity of each isolated fraction after a single high-speed counter-current chromatography run was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. A 3.2 mg of caryophyllene oxide at a purity of 92.6%, 10.4 mg of 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene at a purity of 99.1% and 5.7 mg of caryophyllene at a purity of 98.8% were obtained from 200 mg essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The chemical structures of these components were identified by GC-MS, (1) H-NMR, and (13) C-NMR. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Lazaro Benedito da; Santos, Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos; GASSON, PETER; Cutler, David

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP) e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas nos dois muni...

  11. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Lazaro Benedito da; Santos, Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos; GASSON, PETER; Cutler, David

    2009-01-01

    p.436-445 Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP) e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas ...

  12. Metabolomic study of wild and cultivated caper (Capparis spinosa L.) from different areas of Sardinia and their comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldini, Mariateresa; Foddai, Marzia; Natella, Fausta; Addis, Roberta; Chessa, Mario; Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Pintore, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Capparis spinosa L. (Capparidaceae), also known as caper, is widely known for its very aromatic flower buds (capers),that are largely employed as a flavouring in cooking. Capparis species are regarded as a potential source of important bioactive compounds, in fact, due to their botanical relationship with Brassica species; they contain glucosinolates, secondary plant metabolites, that have been studied for their potential anticarcinogenic properties. In addition, the presence of other numerous beneficial compounds such as polyphenols, alkaloids, lipids, vitamins and minerals have been reported. The aim of this study was to individuate and determinate the principal bioactive compounds occurring in different part (leaves, buds and flowers) of wild and cultivated C. spinosa collected from different area of Sardinia (Italy). Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole/linear ion trap tandem mass spectrometry methods were used for identification and simultaneous determination of 27 bioactive molecules. Analysis of different samples revealed qualitative and quantitative differences in the content of flavonoids, glucosinolates, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. In particular, glucocapparin resulted the most abundant with values ranging from 112 to 364 mg/100 g Fresh Weight (FW); followed by rutin with highest value of 126 mg/100 g FW, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin with highest value of 42 mg/100 g FW and isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside with highest value of 24 mg/100 g FW. Based on this metabolomic targeted approach, quantitative results were treated by principal component analysis to explore and visualise correlation and discrimination among collections of C. spinosa samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. First report of caper (Capparis spinosa serious infestation by Eurydema eckerleini in Cyclades Islands, Greece (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, Pentatomidae

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    Konstantinos B. Simoglou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The islands of Tinos and Syros in the Cyclades Archipelago, Greece, have a hilly terrain, a mild Mediterranean climate and vegetation adapted to drought conditions. Caper (Capparis spinosa L. is highly adapted to arid environments and grows successfully during the Mediterranean summer. In August 2015, we detected serious infestations on wild caper by Eurydema eckerleini (Pentatomidae, which was formerly considered a species endemic to Crete and the Peloponnese, with an isolated report in Turkey. This is the first record of the presence of E. eckerleini in the Cyclades.

  14. Ziziphus jujuba Mill. subsp. spinosa (Bunge Peng, Li & Li: a New Plant Record for the Indian Subcontinent

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    Chesfeeda Akhter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus jujuba Mill. subsp. spinosa (Bunge Peng, Li & Li has been recorded for the first time from the Kashmir Himalaya in India. The taxonomy of this taxon has been much debated. Very recently, however, it has been treated as a subspecies of Ziziphus jujuba Mill., to which it is closely related but differs markedly in having shrubby habit, longer and sharper spines, and in smaller, globose to ellipsoid drupe and stone. A differentiating key, taxonomic description, places of collection, and illustrations of the subspecies are provided to validate this new record.

  15. Actividad biológica de extractos crudos de Larrea divaricata Cav. y Capparis atamisquea Kuntze sobre Sitophilus oryzae (L. Biological activity of crude extracts of Larrea divaricata Cav. and Capparis atamisquea Kuntze on Sitophilus oryzae (L.

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    A.I. Viglianco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las propiedades repelentes y antialimentarias de extractos crudos de dos plantas difundidas en la provincia de Córdoba (Argentina, jarilla (Larrea divaricata Cav. y atamisqui (Capparis atamisquea Kuntze., sobre Sitophilus oryzae (L.. Se estudiaron los extractos crudos en etanol, cloroformo y hexano de ambas especies. Para cada extracto se determino el coeficiente de disuasión total. Para las pruebas de repelencia se utilizaron papeles de filtro separados en dos mitades iguales; se determinaron los porcentajes de repelencia de cada extracto. Se observó mayor efecto antialimentario de los extractos de atamisqui con respecto a los de jarilla, y de los de hojas o tallos sobre los de frutos. El extracto de mayor efecto antialimentario fue el etanólico de tallos de atamisqui (clase ++++ seguido por los extractos etanólico y clorofórmico de hojas de esta especie (clase +++. Se observó un moderado efecto de repelencia de los extractos de jarilla y atamisqui sobre S. oryzae, destacándose el de hojas de atamisqui en hexano como el de mayor efecto de repelencia (clase IV. El extracto clorofórmico de hojas de atamisqui, los tres de hoja de jarilla y los clorofórmicos de tallos y frutos de jarilla presentaron efecto de repelencia (clase III.Repellent and antifeedant properties of crude extracts of two plants widely distributed in the province of Córdoba (Argentina, jarilla (Larrea divaricata Cav. and atamisqui (Capparis atamisquea Kuntze on Sitophilus oryzae were studied. Crude extracts in ethanol, chloroform and hexane of both species were evaluated. The Total Deterrence Coefficient for each extract was determined. Repellence tests were conducted using filter paper separated in halves. Repellence percentages were determined for each extract. A greater antifeedant effect was observed in the atamisqui extracts than in the jarilla ones; the effect was also greater in extracts of leaves or twigs than in extracts of fruits. The extracts

  16. Efeitos biológicos da Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e da Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae Biological effects of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen and Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae

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    Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e da Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae são plantas nativas da região alagada das ilhas de Porto Rico, Paraná, Brasil. São utilizadas na medicina popular como tônico, afrodisíaco e antidiabético. O extrato bruto metanólico, obtido das raízes das duas espécies, foi utilizado para avaliar a atividade moluscicida de caramujos (Biomphalaria glabrata. Além disso, o potencial hipoglicemiante da Pfaffia glomerata foi investigado em ratos tratados com aloxana. As saponinas do extrato bruto metanólico da P. glomerata e da P. paniculata foram analisadas em cromatografia em camada delgada e foi determinado o índice hemolítico. O extrato bruto metanólico obtido da Pfaffia glomerata apresentou maior conteúdo de saponinas hemolíticas e maior atividade moluscicida em relação à Pfaffia paniculata. Todavia, o tratamento com extrato de Pfaffia glomerata não promoveu efeitos significativos sobre os níveis glicêmicos.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen. (Amaranthaceae and Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze are native plants found in the flooded area of the islands of Porto Rico, state of Paraná, Brazil. They are used in folk medicine as tonics, aphrodisiacs, and to treat diabetes. The methanolic extract obtained from roots of both species was used to evaluate the molluscicidal activity against the periwinkle Biomphalaria glabrata and the hypoglycemic activity of Pfaffia glomerata was investigated in rats with diabetes induced by alloxan. The saponins from the methanolic extract of P. glomerata and P. paniculata were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and scum and the hemolitic index was measured. The methanolic extract obtained from Pfaffia glomerata showed higher content of hemolytic saponin than Pfaffia paniculata and presented molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata from 200 ppm. However, the treatment with P. glomerata extract did not promote any significant effect on

  17. Preparation of demipermanent and semipermanent hair dyes gels from ethanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan L. using carbomer as gelling agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrawati, T.; Syahrin, A.; Irpan

    2017-07-01

    Caesalpinia sappan L. (Cs L) contains of essential oils, saponin, brazilin, brazilein, alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins that have a function as cationic natural dyes. The aim of this research was to prepare the ethanol extract of Cs L wood and to prepare demi-permanent and semi-permanent of hair dye gels by using Carbomer of 2 % and 1.5 % as gelling agent and Cs L extract as cationic dyes. The Extract of Cs L was macerated by using ethanol of 96 % as the solvent, and then thickened. Three formula of demi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 3 %, 6% and 9 %. Three formula of semi-permanent hair dye gels were made by using Cs L extract of 2.50 %, 7.00 % and 10.50 %. Those hair dyes gels were prepared by swelling and mixing methods. All products of hair dyes gels were evaluated with organoleptic test, homogeneity test, pH test, consistency test, rheological properties test and dyeing effect test. The demi-permanent hair dye gels products had brown to brown dark black colors, pH of 5.05-5.43, homogeny, specific Cs L odor, and had pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristic. The semi-permanent hair dye gels products had red color pH of 6.5-6.25, homogeny, Cs L odor, and have pseudoplastic thixotropic flow characteristics. The optimum formula of demi-permanent was formula gel that contained of 6 % extract of Cs L and the optimum formula of permanent hair dyes gel was formula that contained of 10.50 % extract of Cs L.

  18. Anisotropic Snowman-Like Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized byCaesalpinia sappanExtract andIn VitroAntibacterial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, You Jeong; Park, Youmie

    2018-06-01

    Anisotropic snowman-like silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using the extract of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood as a reducing agent in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Two surface plasmon resonance bands of the orange solution were observed at 446 nm and 539 nm in UV-visible spectra. High-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the face-centered cubic structure of the AgNPs. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images clearly revealed snowman-like AgNPs with an average size of 34.36 ± 11.44 nm. The C-O functional group was most likely involved in the synthesis of the AgNPs, which was demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared spectra. Most interestingly, the snowman-like AgNPs exhibited higher antibacterial activity than the spherical AgNPs and the extract alone. Among the tested strains, the snowman-like AgNPs showed the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 4.69 μg/mL for the extract and 0.443 μg/mL for the silver. The antibacterial activity of the snowman-like AgNPs increased 24-fold against S. aureus. These results strongly suggested that the snowman-like AgNPs synthesized from C. sappan extract have potential for treating infected disease caused by S. aureus when the antibacterial activity was combined from plant extract and AgNPs. To our knowledge, the present report is the first in which the snowman-like AgNPs synthesized using a plant extract as a reducing agent showed excellent In Vitro antibacterial activity.

  19. Comparative study on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts.

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    Ramesh, B N; Girish, T K; Raghavendra, R H; Naidu, K Akhilender; Rao, U J S Prasada; Rao, K S

    2014-04-01

    Amyloidosis, oxidative stress and inflammation have been strongly implicated in neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease. Traditionally, Caesalpinia crista and Centella asiatica leaf extracts are used to treat brain related diseases in India. C. crista is used as a mental relaxant drink as well as to treat inflammatory diseases, whereas C. asiatica is reported to be used to enhance memory and to treat dementia. The present study is aimed to understand the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of C. asiatica and C. crista leaf extracts. Phenolic acid composition of the aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were separated on a reverse phase C18 column (4.6 x 250 mm) using HPLC system. Antioxidant properties of the leaf extracts were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and the reducing potential assay. The anti-inflammatory activities of aqueous extracts of C. crista and C. asiatica were studied using 5-lipoxygenase assay. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) were isolated from blood by Ficoll-Histopaque density gradient followed by hypotonic lysis of erythrocytes. Gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic, chlorogenic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were the phenolic acids identified in C. crista and C. asiatica leaf aqueous extracts. However, gallic acid and ferulic acid contents were much higher in C. crista compared to C. asiatica. Leaf extracts of C. asiatica and C. crista exhibited antioxidant properties and inhibited 5-lipoxygenase (anti-inflammatory) in a dose dependent manner. However, leaf extracts of C. crista had better antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity compared to that of C. asiatica. The better activity of C. crista is attributed to high gallic acid and ferulic acid compared to C. asiatica. Thus, the leaf extract of C. crista can be a potential therapeutic role for Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.

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    Fernanda Fraga Campos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae. We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 μg/mL. Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 μg/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 μg/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 μg/mL (2.43 μM in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay.

  1. Antiallergic and antihistaminic effect of two extracts of Capparis spinosa L. flowering buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Domenico; Occhiuto, Francesco; Perri, Daniela; Puglia, Carmelo; Santagati, Natale A; De Pasquale, Anna; Saija, Antonella; Bonina, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    The antiallergic properties of two lyophilized extracts obtained from Capparis spinosa L. flowering buds (capers) by methanol extraction, carried out at room temperature (CAP-C) or with heating at 60 degrees C (CAP-H), were investigated. The protective effects of CAP-H and CAP-C, orally administered (14.28 mg[sol ]kg), were evaluated against Oleaceae antigen challenge-induced and histamine-induced bronchospasm in anaesthetized guinea-pigs. Furthermore, the histamine skin prick test was performed on humans, applying a gel formulation containing 2% CAP-C (the only extract able to protect against histamine-induced bronchospasm) on the skin for 1 h before histamine application and monitoring the erythema by reflectance spectrophotometry. The CAP-H showed a good protective effect against the bronchospasm induced by antigen challenge in sensitized guinea-pigs; conversely, a significant decrease in the responsiveness to histamine was seen only in CAP-C pretreated animals. Finally, the CAP-C gel formulation possessed a marked inhibitory effect (46.07%) against histamine-induced skin erythema. These two caper extracts displayed marked antiallergic effectiveness; however, the protective effect of CAP-H was very likely due to an indirect mechanism (for example, inhibition of mediator release from mast cells or production of arachidonic acid metabolites); conversely, CAP-C is endowed with direct antihistaminic properties. The different mechanisms of action of CAP-H and CAP-C may be related to a difference in the extraction procedure and, thus, in their qualitative[sol ]quantitative chemical profile. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Bacillus capparidis sp. nov., an endophytic bacterium isolated from roots of Capparis spinosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Fei; Li, Qiu-Li; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Xiao, Min; Zhou, Xing-Kui; Guo, Jian-Wei; Duan, Yan-Qing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-02-01

    A novel endophytic bacterium, designated strain EGI 6500252T, was isolated from the surface-sterilized roots of a medicinal plant (Capparis spinosa L.) collected from Urumqi city, Xinjiang, north-west China. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, aerobic, catalase- and oxidase-positive, rod-shaped and did not display spore formation. Strain EGI 6500252T grew at 10-40 °C (optimum 25-30 °C), at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-3 %). The major cellular fatty acids (>10 %) were identified as iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and summed feature 4. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, four unknown phospholipids, one unknown glycolipid and one unknown lipid. The dominant isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). The DNA G+C content was 39.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain EGI 6500252T belonged to the genus Bacillus, and exhibited a highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (96.2 %) that was lower than the suggested threshold (97.0 %) for separating bacterial species. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis, chemotaxonomic data and physiological characteristics, strain EGI 6500252T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus capparidis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EGI 6500252T (=CGMCC 1.12820T=KCTC 33514T).

  3. Streptomyces capparidis sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinobacterium isolated from fruits of Capparis spinosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Fei; Li, Qiu-Li; Xiao, Min; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Zhou, Xing-Kui; Narsing Rao, Manik Prabhu; Duan, Yan-Qing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2017-01-01

    A novel endophytic actinobacterial strain, designated EGI 6500195T, was isolated from fruits of Capparis spinosa. Growth occurred at 10-45 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 6-8 (optimum pH 7) and in the presence of 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain EGI 6500195T shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (97.74 %) with Streptomyces vitaminophilus DSM 41686T and less than 97 % sequence similarity with other members of the genus Streptomyces. The diagnostic amino acid in the peptidoglycan was ll-diaminopimelic acid. Whole-cell hydrolysates contained glucose, ribose, fructose and mannose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The polar lipid profile of strain EGI 6500195T included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylcholine, three unknown phospholipids, an unknown aminophospholipid and an unknown aminolipid. The cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 1ω9c, summed feature 4 (iso-C17 : 1 I and/or anteiso-C17 : 1 B) and iso-C17 : 1ω9c. The DNA G+C content of strain EGI 6500195T was 74.1 mol%. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain EGI 6500195T and Streptomyces. vitaminophilus DSM 41686T was 14.1±3.5 %. On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and DNA-DNA hybridization data, strain EGI 6500195T represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces capparidis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EGI 6500195T (=DSM 42145T=JCM 30089T).

  4. Argan (Argania spinosa) oil lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, Hicham; Alvarez de Sotomayor, Maria; Pérez-Guerrero, Concepción; Ettaib, Abdelkader; Hmamouchi, Mohamed; Marhuenda, Elisa; Herrera, Maria Dolores

    2004-12-01

    Traditionally hand-pressed argan oil, obtained from Argania spinosa seeds, is eaten raw in south-west Morocco; its rich composition of tocopherols, MUFA and PUFA make a study of its actions on risk factors for CVD, such as hypertension, interesting. The effects of 7 weeks of treatment with argan oil (10 ml/kg) on the blood pressure and endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were investigated. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured every week by the tail-cuff method and endothelial function was assessed by carbachol (10(-8) to 10(-4) M)-induced relaxations of aortic rings and small mesenteric arteries pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Argan-oil administration reduced the mean blood pressure of SHR after the fifth week of treatment (P<0.05) and increased (P<0.01) the endothelial responses of arteries from SHR. The NO synthase inhibitor, L-N-omega-nitroarginine (3 x 10(-5) M) revealed a greater participation of NO in the relaxant effect after the treatment. When cyclooxygenase (COX) was blocked with indomethacin (10(-5) M), an involvement of COX products in the endothelium-dependent response was characterized. Enzyme immunoassay of thromboxane B2 showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the release of thromboxane A2 in both aorta and small mesenteric artery after argan-oil treatment of SHR. Experiments in the presence of the thromboxane A2-prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist ICI 192,605 (10(-5) M) confirmed this result. Results after incubation with the antioxidants superoxide dismutase and catalase suggested that a decreased oxidative stress might contribute to explain the beneficial effects of argan-oil treatment.

  5. Phenolic composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the extracts from Prunus spinosa L. fruit

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    Veličković Jasmina M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L. is commonly used in food industry and phytotherapy. The contents of phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidative activity in extracts of blackthorn fruit were determined using spectrophotometric methods. The content of total phenol compounds varies from 15.33 to 20.94 mg GAE g-1 of fresh fruit. The content of total flavonoids is very low, and ranges from 0.419 to 1.31 mg QE g-1 of fresh fruits. Anthocyanins content lies between 0.112 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside/g of fresh sample in ethanol extract and 0.265 mg of cyanidin 3-glucoside g-1 of fresh blackthorn fruit in methanol-water 50/50 (v/v extract. The differences in total phenol compounds content depend on used extraction medium as a consequence of different polarity of used organic solvents and their mixtures, which selectively extract individual compounds. All explored extracts exhibited strong scavenging activity against DPPH radicals, which ranges from 32.05 to 89.10%. Phenolic acids (neochlorogenic and caffeic acids, flavonoids (quercetin and myricetin and anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, peonidin-3-O-glucoside were identified in investigated ethanol extracts by HPLC analysis. Ethanol extract shows significant antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Salmonella abony NCTC 6017 and antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Blackthorn fruit extract exhibits a high phenolic content and a high antioxidant activity, and can be used as an antioxidant in food and pharmaceutical industries.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172047

  6. Developmental effects of additional ultraviolet a radiation, growth regulators and tyrosine in Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze cultured in vitro

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    Nina Cláudia Barboza Silva

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Tissue cultures of Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze were treated with different growth regulators (Kinetin and 2,4-D, tyrosine and Ultraviolet A radiation (UV-A; 320 - 400 nm to investigate their effects on development and pigment production. Nodal segments of plantlets grown from seeds were inoculated in all tested media and different light conditions. After eight weeks, this material was used to evaluate biomass, chlorophyll and betacyanin production. The Murashige and Skoog (MS + kinetin medium resulted in development of approximately four shoots/explant. This medium plus white light was the best combination for micropropagation with the highest rooting percentage and betacyanin production. Plantlets grown under UV-A illumination reduced biomass accumulation and worse Chlorophyll a / Chlorophyll b ratio. Addition of 2,4-D resulted in inhibition of pigment production and growth of plantlets.Culturas de tecidos de Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze foram tratadas com diferentes reguladores de crescimento (Cinetina e 2,4-D, tirosina e com ultravioleta longo (UV-A; 320 -400 nm adicional com o intuito de observar seus efeitos no desenvolvimento e produção de pigmentos. Segmentos nodais de plantas crescidas a partir de sementes foram inoculados nos meios de cultura testados e mantidos sob os diferentes tipos de iluminação. Após 8 semanas este material foi utilizado para avaliação da produção de biomassa, clorofilas e betacianinas. O meio de Murashige and Skoog (MS + cinetina proporcionou plântulas com até 4 brotos/explante. Este meio iluminado com luz branca (tipo luz do dia foi a combinação mais adequada para micropropagação, pois apresenta maior porcentagem de enraizamento e maior produção de betacianinas. Plântulas crescidas sob iluminação com ultravioleta adicional tiveram diminuídas tanto a produção de biomassa quanto a relação Clor a/ Clor b. A adição de 2,4-D ao meio de cultura resultou na inibição da produ

  7. Estrutura de um fragmento de Floresta Atlântica em regeneração com ocorrência de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (pau-brasil

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    Liliane Baldan Zani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n4p75   Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a estrutura fitossociológica de um fragmento remanescente de Floresta Atlântica em regeneração no município de Aracruz-ES em uma floresta de tabuleiro com ocorrência natural de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Foram instaladas 10 unidades amostrais (parcelas de 10 x 50m sendo amostrados todos os indivíduos com DAP≥5cm e <10cm. Ao todo foram amostrados 500 indivíduos distribuídos em 181 espécies. As famílias com maior riqueza foram Leguminosae (35, Sapotaceae (18 e Myrtaceae (14. As espécies mais importantes foram Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Eugenia tinguyensis Cambess. e Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl. O índice de Shannon (H’ foi de 4,89 e a equabilidade (J’ foi de 0,94. Essa área é um dos últimos fragmentos remanescentes com pau-brasil nativo do estado do Espírito Santo e a população dessa espécie encontra-se bem preservada no local, ocorrendo com grande frequência, enfatizando a importância da preservação de pequenos fragmentos florestais para conservação da biodiversidade.

  8. Desempenho germinativo da invasora Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. e comparação com Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. e Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae Germination performance of the invader Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. compared to Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. and C. pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae

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    Nilson Gonçalves da Fonseca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso das plantas na colonização de novas áreas está fortemente relacionado ao comportamento germinativo das sementes nas condições ambientais locais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o desempenho germinativo da exótica invasora Leucaena leucocephala ao das leguminosas (Caesalpinia ferrea, nativa e C. pulcherrima, exótica não consideradas invasoras. Sementes não escarificadas foram expostas às temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 °C, sob um fotoperíodo de 12 horas, durante 100 dias. Tanto a porcentagem final quanto a velocidade de germinação apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as três espécies. C. ferrea teve baixo desempenho, com temperatura ótima para a germinação a 25°C, porcentagem de germinação de 59% e IVG de 0,68 sementes d-1. Já C. pulcherrima, apresentou altas porcentagens de germinação em todas as temperaturas testadas, com faixa ótima entre 20-40 °C. As sementes de L. leucocephala apresentaram as menores porcentagens de germinação e temperatura ótima de 35 °C. O desempenho germinativo desta exótica não se sobressai ao das demais espécies estudadas e fatores como a pressão de propágulos, escarificação natural e bom desempenho em outras fases da vida devem contribuir para seu perfil de invasora.Success in establishing and colonizing new areas is directly related to germination behaviour of seeds under local environmental conditions. This work aimed to compare germination performance of the exotic invader Leucaena leucocephala to two legumes (Caesalpinia ferrea, native, and C. pulcherrima, exotic which are not considered invasive. Non-scarified seeds were exposed to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40ºC, within a photoperiod of 12 hours, for 100 days. Both final germination percentage and germination speed showed significant differences among the three species. C. ferrea had low germination percentage, with optimal germination temperature at 25ºC, reaching

  9. Capparis spinosa L. in A Systematic Review: A Xerophilous Species of Multi Values and Promising Potentialities for Agrosystems under the Threat of Global Warming

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    Stephanie Chedraoui

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Caper (Capparis spinosa L. is a xerophytic shrub with a remarkable adaptability to harsh environments. This plant species is of great interest for its medicinal/pharmacological properties and its culinary uses. Its phytochemical importance relies on many bioactive components present in different organs and its cultivation can be of considerable economic value. Moreover, taxonomic identification of C. spinosa L. has been difficult due to its wide heterogeneity, and many authors fell into confusion due to the scarcity of genetic studies. The present review summarizes information concerning C. spinosa L. including agronomic performance, botanical description, taxonomical approaches, traditional pharmacological uses, phytochemical evaluation and genetic studies. This knowledge represents an important tool for further research studies and agronomic development on this indigenous species with respect to the emerging climatic change in the Eastern Mediterranean countries. Indeed, this world region is particularly under the threat of global warming and it appears necessary to rethink agricultural systems to adapt them to current and futures challenging environmental conditions. Capparis spinosa L. could be a part of this approach. So, this review presents a state of the art considering caper as a potential interesting crop under arid or semi-arid regions (such as Eastern Mediterranean countries within the climate change context. The aim is to raise awareness in the scientific community (geneticists, physiologists, ecophysiologists, agronomists, … about the caper strengths and interest to the development of this shrub as a crop.

  10. INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE AND EXAMINATION FINDINGS IN THREE SPECIES OF CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN TREE FROGS (CRUZIOHYLA CRASPEDOPUS, CRUZIOHYLA CALCARIFER, AND ANOTHECA SPINOSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Andrew C; Hausmann, Jennifer C; Miller, Paul E

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to describe intraocular pressure (IOP) and examination findings in three tree frog species (Cruziohyla craspedopus [fringe leaf frog], Cruziohyla calcarifer [splendid leaf frog], and Anotheca spinosa [spiny-headed or coronated tree frog]). Thirty-one C. craspedopus, four C. calcarifer, and five A. spinosa were weighed, sexed based on phenotype where possible, and examined using slit-lamp biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy. IOP was measured using the TonoVet and TonoLab rebound tonometers while the frogs were held two ways (unrestrained, then restrained). Statistical differences were determined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-tests. Mean ± SD IOP (TonoVet and TonoLab, respectively) was 15.1 ± 2.5 mmHg and 15.6 ± 4.1 mmHg in C. craspedopus; 14.8 ± 1.5 mmHg and 18.8 ± 3.1 mmHg in C. calcarifer; and 9.1 ± 2.1 mmHg and 10.8 ± 1.4 mmHg in A. spinosa. There was no significant difference in IOP in C. craspedopus by eye (Right vs Left), tonometer, or restraint method. IOP in female C. craspedopus was 1-3 mm Hg higher than in males with both devices (P frogs and A. spinosa for the TonoVet (P frogs.

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of caper (Capparis spinosa L.) fruit aqueous extract and the isolation of main phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haifeng; Jian, Renji; Kang, Jie; Huang, Xiaoling; Li, Yan; Zhuang, Changlong; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Lele; Fan, Xiao; Wu, Tong; Wu, Xianli

    2010-12-22

    Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) fruits have been used as food as well as folk medicine in the treatment of inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatism. The present study was carried out to study the anti-inflammatory activities of C. spinosa L. fruit (CSF) aqueous extract and to isolate main phytochemicals from its bioactive fractions. The CSF aqueous extract were separated into three fractions (CSF1-CSF3) by macroporous adsorption resins. The fractions CSF2 and CSF3 effectively inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. Systematic fractionation and isolation from CSF2+3 led to the identification of 13 compounds (1-13). Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) and literature comparisons. Major compounds found in the bioactive fraction CSF2+3 are flavonoids, indoles, and phenolic acids. To our knowledge, 8 of these 13 compounds (1-4, 6-7, 10, and 13) were identified from caper fruits for the first time. The anti-inflammatory effects of these purified compounds are currently under investigation.

  12. Effects of Tree Shelters on the Survival and Growth of Argania spinosa Seedlings in Mediterranean Arid Environment

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    Chamchelmaarif Defaa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The argan tree is endemic species of Morocco. It occupies an area of more than 8700 km2 and plays essential ecological and economical roles. In spite of their value, the argan woodlands are subject to rapid and uncontrolled degradation during the last decades, mainly due to overgrazing and systematic collection of argan nuts. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of two types of tree shelters on survival and growth of Argania spinosa seedlings planted in the southwest of Morocco in order to improve the results of reforestation programs which usually end by repeated failures. The experiment was conducted in the Mesguina forest for two growing seasons after transplantation in the field. After two years, the use of tree shelters significantly increased tree survival and allowed a gain of 20%. Height growth was positively affected by tree shelters. The use of tree shelters showed no significant decrease in basal diameter. In contrast, the height to diameter ratios of sheltered trees were much higher compared to the control. Thus, the use of the tree shelters could aid the early establishment and growth of Argania spinosa under conditions similar to those of the experiment.

  13. Effect of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa on biochemical and histological changes in paracetamol–induced liver damage in rats

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    R. J. M. Alnuaimy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study showed that paracetamol administration to male rats at 1 g /kg of body weight for 21 days resulted in significant increase in activities of serum alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase. There was an increase in the total bilirubin and creatinine levels. Paracetamol caused hepatic damage in appearance characterized with degeneration, necrosis and fatty changes in liver, as well as central vein congestion. Treatment of the damaged liver rats with 25, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight with aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa for 7, 14, 21 days led to a decrease in alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase activity, total bilirubin and creatinine levels, as well as an improve in the damaged liver tissues with increasing extract concentration. The results showed that treatment of the damaged liver rats with 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa for 14, 21 days gave protection against harmful effects of paracetamol.The protective effects of this extract determined by the rebound of the enzymes and biochemical variable levels to the pretreatment levels. High doses of this extract gave a decrease in harmful effects which resulted from the paracetamol in hepatic tissues.

  14. Conservação de sementes de marizeiro Geoffroea spinosa Jacq. utilizando diferentes embalagens e ambientes

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    Vênia Camelo de Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Geoffroea spinosa Jacq., commonly known as marizeiro in Brazil, is an important tree species, mainly because it is adapted to riparian forest conditions in semi-arid and associated ecosystems. The species occur in large areas of northeastern Brazil and in the São Francisco river valley, always restricted to seasonally flooded environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different types of packaging and storage periods, as well the influence of environments on the process of seed germination and vigor of Geoffroea spinosa. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Ecology - CCA/UFPB, following a completely randomized design. The seeds were distributed among two environments (natural conditions in the laboratory and cold room, packed in two types of packaging (paper bags and plastic bags for five periods of storage: 0; 15; 30; 60 and 90 days. Water content, the emergence velocity index, dry weight and length of seedlings were evaluated. The data were submitted to a polynomial regression analysis. In plastic packaging and the environment of the cold room there was less reduction of viability and vigor during storage. Seeds packed in paper bags and stored in a laboratory rapidly lost viability and vigor, after 30 days of storage.

  15. Chitosan-induced immunity in Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze against blister blight disease is mediated by nitric-oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Swarnendu; Chakraborty, Nilanjan; Panda, Koustubh; Acharya, Krishnendu

    2017-06-01

    Blister blight disease, caused by an obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen, Exobasidium vexans Massee is posing a serious threat for tea cultivation in Asia. As the use of chemical pesticides on tea leaves substantially increases the toxic risks of tea consumption, serious attempts are being made to control such pathogens by boosting the intrinsic natural defense responses against invading pathogens in tea plants. In this study, the nature and durability of resistance offered by chitosan and the possible mechanism of chitosan-induced defense induction in Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze plants against blister blight disease were investigated. Foliar application of 0.01% chitosan solution at 15 days interval not only reduced the blister blight incidence for two seasons, but also maintained the induced expressions of different defense related enzymes and total phenol content compared to the control. Defense responses induced by chitosan were found to be down regulated under nitric oxide (NO) deficient conditions in vivo, indicating that the observed chitosan-induced resistance is probably activated via NO signaling. Such role of NO in host defense response was further established by application of the NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), which produced similar defense responses accomplished through chitosan treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that increased production of NO in chitosan-treated tea plants may play a critical role in triggering the innate defense responses effective against plant pathogens, including that causing the blister blight disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanism of Fenpropathrin Resistance in Red Spider Mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Acarina: Tetranychidae), Infesting Tea [Camellia sinensis L. (O. Kuntze)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsalingam, Roobakkumar; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Sam, Nisha; Rahman, Vattakandy Jasin; Azariah, Babu

    2017-02-01

    Red spider mite (RSM), Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) (Acarina: Tetranychidae), has gained special attention in view of their widespread occurrence as a pest on tea [Camellia sinensis L. (O. Kuntze)]. The development of acaricide (fenpropathrin) resistance has been screened in field populations (FPs) of RSMs from different tea-growing regions of south India and compared with a laboratory-susceptible population (SP) based on toxicity bioassay, detoxifying enzyme activities, analysis of acetylcholine esterase gene (AChE, 2064 bp), and their expression pattern using semiquantitative RT-PCR. The increased resistance ratio (RR, 1.39 to 2.13) in LC 50 of fenpropathrin observed in field populations of RSM provides a baseline for screening the development of resistance to fenpropathrin. This resistance developed due to hyperexpression of detoxifying enzymes, i.e., esterase (RR of 1.43 to 2.53) and glutathione S-transferase (RR of 1.11 to 1.86), and overexpression of AChE gene at 1.4 to 2.7-fold. These results necessitate molecular studies and warrant the continuous monitoring of acaricide susceptibility and resistance pattern in order to analyze the usefulness of AChE gene as target for developing alternate pest control strategies and management of pesticide resistance in tea ecosystem.

  17. Effect of flavonoids rich extract of Capparis spinosa on inflammatory involved genes in amyloid-beta peptide injected rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohebali, Nazanin; Shahzadeh Fazeli, Seyed Abolhassan; Ghafoori, Hossein; Farahmand, Zeinab; MohammadKhani, Elham; Vakhshiteh, Faezeh; Ghamarian, Abdolreza; Farhangniya, Mansoureh; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein

    2018-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of neurodegenerative diseases. Despite vast ongoing researches focusing on the area, little is known about novel treatments. In this study, we aimed to survey the effects of Capparis spinosa (C. spinosa) extract on amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ)-injected rat. For this purpose, hydroalcoholic extracts of caper leaf and fruit were prepared. Total phenolic content, DPPH, and FRAP assay were accomplished to determine antioxidant activity of C. spinosa. HPLC analysis was conducted to measure rutin and quercetin content of selected parts of the plant. Higher levels of flavonoids were observed in leaves of the plant. Twelve male Wistar Aβ-induced rats were randomly divided in four groups of (1) Aβ-/DW+: Sham-operated group (2) Aβ+/DW+: Aβ-injected group (3) Aβ+/RU+: Standard rutin treatment (4) Aβ+/CS+: C. spinosa extract treatment. After 6 weeks of oral administration, real-time qPCR were conducted to determine APP, BACE-1, PSEN-1, and PSEN-2 genes expression in the hippocampus of rats. HPLC analysis showed high levels of rutin and quercetin in leaves of Capparis. Rutin was 16939.2 ± 0.01 and quercetin was 908.93 ± 0.01 µg/g fresh weight. In fruit, 1019.52 ± 0.01 rutin and 97.86 ± 0.01 µg/g FW quercetin were measured. Expression of BACE-1, APP, PSEN-1, and PSEN-2 genes in comparison with the control group showed significant down regulation. Results of the study demonstrated that C. spinosa has the potential to down regulate inflammation-involved genes in AD, due to its high levels of flavonoids and could be beneficial as a dietary complement in AD patients.

  18. An insight on the alkaloid content of Capparis spinosa L. root by HPLC-DAD-MS, MS/MS and (1)H qNMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Mohamad; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Innocenti, Marzia; Melani, Fabrizio; Mulinacci, Nadia

    2016-05-10

    The Capparis spinosa L. has a wide distribution in the Old World from South Europe, North and East Africa, Madagascar, Southwest and Central Asia to Australia and Oceania. The consolidated traditional use of C. spinosa root as remedy against different pains in human is well known since the antiquity. Various secondary metabolites have been found in caper plant, nevertheless, few studies have been focused to the analysis of root constituents. To date, several free and glycosilated spermidine alkaloids and a more polar alkaloid, the stachydrine, have been isolated from the root of C. spinosa. Aim of this work was to improve the knowledge on the alkaloid content of the root of a Syrian sample of C. spinosa by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) and to propose methods to quantify these molecules in different raw extracts. A decoction, an hydroalcoholic extraction and a fractionation process to selectively recover the spermidine alkaloids were applied. To our knowledge, this is the first HPLC-DAD-MS(n) profile that pointed out the co-presence of stachydrine, several isobaric forms of capparispine and/or capparisine in free and glycosylated forms and some isobars of isocodonocarpine or codonocarpine as monoglycosides in extracts of C. spinosa root. The determination by HPLC/DAD for the spermidine alkaloids expressed as p-OH-coumaric acid gave values up to 3.5mg/g dried root and the stachydrine evaluated by (1)H NMR was close to 12.5mg/g dried root. Overall, the total alkaloids were almost doubled in hydroalcoholic extract with respect to the decoction, and the stachydrine in the cortex was almost double than in the whole root. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Adaptive Mechanisms in Zilla spinosa and Leptadenia pyrotechnica Plants to Sever Aridity in the Egyptian Deserts

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    Fawzy Mahmoud SALAMA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study two species were selected based on their highest presence values to study the response to the severe drought conditions in desert: these were Zilla spinosa and Leptadenia pyrotechnica. The results showed that soil water content and organic matter of Wadi El-Assiuty were very low over the study period. The estimated pH values in the soil solution at the different studied stands tended to be slight alkaline. Total soluble salts were generally higher during summer versus winter. The water content in the studied plants increased significantly during summer. The selected species increased their content of chlorophyll a and b in summer. The stability index of chlorophyll a and b was significantly higher in summer than that estimated in winter. Calcium and magnesium were accumulated in considerable amounts. Ca+2 was the main accumulated cation whereas its concentration were higher than magnesium. Z. spinosa accumulated more sulphates in summer than in winter. Phosphates appeared in low amounts in all the investigated plants. In L. pyrotechnica tissue, Na+ concentration correlated negatively with those found in soil during summer. In winter Na+ and SO4 correlated positively and K+ correlated negatively in Z. spinosa. The studied species showed slightly increase in soluble sugars accumulation. Soluble protein content in Z. spinosa and L. pyrotechnica decreased significantly during winter season. Amino acids content was low and varied between the two investigated species. It seemed that the Z. spinosa is better adapted than L. pyrotechnica to drought conditions, prevailing in the area under study. This judgement can be concluded by the average metabolic potentiality in the species, whereas soluble metabolites (soluble sugars and soluble proteins were relatively much higher than in the case of L. pyrotechnica.

  20. Avaliação do uso da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius como suplemento nutricional de Fe, Mn e Zn Evaluation of the use of the fruit peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius as a nutritional supplement of Fe, Mn and Zn

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    Clelivaldo Santos da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais podem ser usadas como fontes alternativas de nutrientes minerais na dieta alimentar. Elementos como ferro, manganês e zinco apresentam biodisponibilidade variável em função de suas formas químicas (espécies presentes em um alimento. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o teor e a biodisponibilidade de ferro, manganês e zinco em extratos da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius por Espectrometria de Absorção Atômica com Chama (FAAS. Os agentes extratores testados foram as soluções de NaOH 0,05 mol. L-1, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH= 8, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH = 8 em dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS 1% (m/v, HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 e água quente (60 ºC. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius apresentaram níveis altos de ferro e manganês quando comparados aos de outras plantas medicinais. Os elementos estudados mostraram predominante associação com compostos de alta e baixa massa molecular, espécies solúveis e insolúveis em água. Dentre os elementos analisados, o ferro apresentou melhor biodisponibilidade na casca do fruto e nas folhas. Manganês e zinco se mostraram mais biodisponível nas folhas. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius podem ser uma fonte alternativa de ferro, manganês e zinco na dieta alimentar.Medicinal plants can be used as alternative sources of mineral nutrients in the alimentary diet. Elements such as iron, manganese, and zinc present variable bioavailability due to their chemical form (species present in foods. This work has the objective of evaluating the concentration and bioavailability of iron, manganese, and zinc in extracts of the peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS. The extraction agents tested were 0.05 mol.L-1 NaOH, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0 containing 1% (m/v sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS, 0.05 mol.L-1

  1. Innate immune and growth promoting responses to caper (Capparis spinosa) extract in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilen, Soner; Altunoglu, Yasemin Celik; Ulu, Ferhat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2016-10-01

    Cytokine responses, non-specific immune activity and growth promotion effect of dietary caper (Capparis spinosa) supplementation were examined in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Rainbow trout (12.04 ± 0.71 g) were fed diets containing three doses of caper methanolic extract [0 (Control), 0.1 and 0.5 g kg(-1) of feed] for 30 days. At the end of the feeding trial, expression levels of cytokine genes that included IL-1β, IL-8, TGF-β, IL-12p40, TNF-α1 and IL-10 in head kidney was analyzed using qRT-PCR, and blood and serum were collected to determine superoxide anion production (SAP), phagocytic, lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities. Expression levels of all cytokines, except TNF-α1 were elevated in the 0.1 g kg(-1) caper extract fed fish group compared to other groups. In 0.5 g kg(-1) caper extract treated fish, only IL-12p40 and IL-10 genes were up-regulated compared to control group fish. SAP was increased in both caper extract treated groups compared to the control, and the highest level was observed in the 0.1 g kg(-1) group. Phagocytic activity in both the caper extract treated groups was increased compared to control with no differences observed between those groups. Lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities were recorded to be the highest in the 0.1 g kg(-1) fed fish group compared to other groups. Growth promotion was affected positively when caper doses were increased. Survival rate was significantly higher in 0.1 and 0.5 g kg(-1) caper extract treated fish groups compared to control (P < 0.05) after challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. These results indicate that caper extract stimulates innate immunity through cytokine-mediated responses and promote growth in rainbow trout. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae, espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil Wood anatomy and basic density of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae, an endemic species of Northeast Brazil

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    Lazaro Benedito da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas nos dois municípios acima citados, em 2002. As análises das amostras seguiram os métodos usualmente empregados em estudo de anatomia de madeiras. Pelos parâmetros anatômicos do lenho e a elevada densidade básica (>0,84 g/cm³, concluiu-se que Caesalpinia pyramidalis revela grande quantidade de celulose e lignina, portanto apresentou perspectivas seguras para produção de álcool combustível e carvão vegetal. Pode-se propor o uso do lenho do tronco e dos galhos como combustível, desde a fase jovem da madeira, pela grande concentração de fibras, menor concentração de vasos e menor quantidade de parênquima, nos espécimes dos dois municípios.This work aimed to study the anatomy and basic density of Caesalpinia pyramidalis wood, used by local populations in the municipalities of Serra Talhada and Sertânia (Pernambuco, to assess the percentage of wood elements in the trunk and branches in both localities, and in the tree itself, in order to establish total wood potential for energy production. Samples of the trunk (dbh and of branches from six trees of the species were collected in 2002. Sample analysis followed the usual methods of wood anatomy studies. Based on the anatomical parameters of the trunk and the high basic density (>0.84 g/cm³, we conclude that Caesalpinia pyramidalis wood contains an enormous amount of cellulose and lignin. Due to these features, this species showed good perspectives for the production of alcohol and charcoal. The

  3. Transcriptomic analysis of the biosynthesis, recycling, and distribution of ascorbic acid during leaf development in tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Li; Wei Huang; Guang-Long Wang; Wen-Li Wang; Xin Cui; Jing Zhuang

    2017-01-01

    Ascorbic acid (AsA), known as vitamin C, is an essential nutrient for humans and mainly absorbed from food. Tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) leaves can be a dietary source of AsA for humans. However, experimental evidence on the biosynthesis, recycling pathway and distribution of AsA during leaf development in tea plants is unclear. To gain insight into the mechanism and distribution of AsA in the tea plant leaf, we identified 18 related genes involved in AsA biosynthesis and recy...

  4. Fecha de aplicación de fuego y diversidad de herbáceas en una sabana de Elionorus muticus (Spreng O. Kuntze Date of prescribed fire and herbaceous diversity of an Elionorus muticus (Spreng. O. Kuntze savanna

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    CARLOS KUNST

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El fuego es a la vez una perturbación natural y una herramienta agropecuaria en las sabanas de Elionorus muticus (Spreng O. Kuntze de la región chaqueña argentina. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la fecha de aplicación de fuego sobre la diversidad de herbáceas de la sabana. Para ello se quemaron parcelas en cuatro fechas sucesivas, desde fines de julio hasta principios de octubre, en dos experimentos iniciados en 1993 y 1994, respectivamente. La riqueza y abundancia de especies de gramíneas y latifoliadas se registraron antes del fuego; y después del mismo, al final de las tres estaciones de crecimiento siguientes. La información fue resumida en el índice de diversidad de Shannon-Wiener. Para el análisis estadístico se calculó DH', definida como la diferencia entre los índices H' antes y después del fuego. Esta variable fue sometida a un análisis de varianza, empleando la fecha de fuego, experimento, su interacción y año de observación como variables independientes, con un enfoque de medidas repetidas y en dos escalas de tiempo: a corto y largo plazo. Los resultados indican que el fuego, en general, produce un aumento de la diversidad de herbáceas. La fecha de aplicación del fuego modifica ese resultado de manera significativa, hecho que se atribuye a las condiciones ambientales de pre y post-quema específicas de cada fecha y al estado fenológico de las especies. Las fechas de fuego que causan un mayor incremento en la diversidad son agosto-septiembre, a mediados de la temporada de fuego, hecho que se atribuye a una mayor resistencia de las plantas al fuego y a las mejores condiciones climáticas post-fuego.Fire is both a natural disturbance and a range management tool in the savannas of Elionorus muticus (Spreng O. Kuntze, of the Chaco region of Argentina. Our objective was to assess the effect of different dates of fire application on the herbaceous diversity of the savanna. Plots were burn at random in

  5. Predação de sementes de Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O'Kuntze (Arecaceae por Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae Seed predation on Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O'Kuntze (Arecaceae by Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae

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    Viviane Grenha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A predação de sementes da palmeira Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O'Kuntze, 1891(Arecaceae por Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1972 foi avaliada de setembro de 2003 a setembro de 2005 no Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba (RJ. A biologia e o comportamento de P. nucleorum em A. arenaria e as taxas de predação de sementes foram descritas. Frutos encontrados sob 50 palmeiras foram coletados, mensalmente, em cada uma das duas áreas amostradas no PNRJ (mata de cordão arenoso e formação arbustiva aberta de Clusia Sclthdl, Clusiaceae. A avaliação dos cocos predados foi feita a partir da contagem dos orifícios de saída dos bruquíneos no campo, da emergência dos insetos no laboratório e da abertura dos frutos remanescentes. Através de observações e experimentos em 60 infrutescências, verificou-se que a oviposição de Pachymerus nucleorum em A. arenaria ocorre na infrutescência ainda em desenvolvimento diferentemente de registros na literatura em outras espécies de palmeiras, onde a oviposição ocorre nos frutos no chão. A predação dos frutos por P. nucleorum foi de 29,3% na área de mata de cordão arenoso e 20,6% na formação arbustiva aberta de Clusia. O ciclo de vida de P. nucleorum foi bastante longo e com amplitudes bem grandes dentro de uma mesma amostra, o que sugere uma possível diapausa em alguma fase do seu ciclo de vida.Seed predation on Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O'Kuntze, 1891(Arecaceae palm by Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1972 was evaluated from September 2003 to September 2005 at the Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba (PNRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The biology and behaviour of P. nucleorum on A. arenaria and predation rates were described. Fruits found beneath 50 palms were collected, monthly, for each one of the two sampled areas at PNRJ (ridge forest and Clusia Sclthdl (Clusiaceae open shrubland formation. The evaluation of preyed fruits was done by counting exit holes of Bruchinae in the field

  6. Chemical constituents and toxicity of Agastache foeniculum (Pursh kuntze essential oil against two stored-product insect pests Componentes químicos y toxicidad del aceite esencial de Agastachefoeniculum (Pursh Kuntze contra dos plagas de insectos de productos almacenados

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    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncontrolled use of synthetic insecticides is a great hazard for the environment and consumers. Essential oils were introduced as low toxic agents against mammals and non-targeted insects. In this study, essential oil from aerial parts of blue giant hyssop (Agastache foeniculum [Pursh] Kuntze (Lamiaceae was isolated by the water steam distillation method with a Clevenger apparatus, and its chemical composition was studied by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The toxicity of A. foeniculum essential oil against red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, and lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F. was evaluated by fumigation at 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. Estragole and 1,8-cineole were identified as major constituents of the A. foeniculum oil. Fumigation bioassays revealed that A.foeniculum oil had strong insecticidal activity on experimental insects. Rhyzopertha dominica was more susceptible than T. castaneum for all exposure times. Insecticidal activity varied with essential oil concentration and exposure time. Probit analysis showed that increased exposure time and essential oil concentration increased mortality. These results indicated that A. foeniculum essential oil can be applied in the management of stored-product insects to decrease the detrimental effects of synthetic insecticides.El uso incontrolado de los insecticidas sintéticos causa gran peligro para el medio ambiente y los consumidores. Los aceites esenciales se presentan como agentes tóxicos leves contra mamíferos e insectos no objetivo. En el presente estudio, el aceite esencial de las partes aéreas del hisopo gigante azul (Agastache Foeniculum [Pursh] Kuntze (Lamiaceae se aisló por el método de destilación al vapor de agua, utilizando un aparato de Clevenger y se estudió su composición química mediante cromatografía de gases y espectrometría de masas. La toxicidad del aceite esencial de A. foeniculum se evaluó por métodos de fumigación a las 24

  7. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxic profie of Chuquiraga spinosa Lessing on human tumor cell lines: A promissory plant from Peruvian flra

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    Oscar Herrera-Calderon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the phytochemical content, antioxidant activity in vitro and cytotoxicity of crude ethanol extract (CEE, n-hexane fraction (NHF, petroleum ether fraction (PEF, chloroform fraction (CLF and ethyl acetate fraction (EAF of aerial parts of Chuquiraga spinosa (C. spinosa Lessing. Methods: Phytochemical screening was developed by color and precipitated formation. The evaluation of antioxidant activity was assessed using hydroxyl and nitric oxide radical. Total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoids content (TFC were measured by using standard methods by spectrophotometry. The cytotoxic effect was determined on human tumor cell lines including MCF-7, H-460, HT-29, M-14, HUTU-80, K-562 and DU-145. Results: Phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of phenols, flavonoids in crude extract and its all fractions. The CEE showed the highest antioxidant activity, for OH and NO radical scavenging tests (IC50 = 15.16 ± 3.45 μg/mL and IC50 = 18.91 ± 1.13 μg/mL, respectively. TPC was found to be the highest in the CEE (121.36 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of dried extract compared to other fractions. The ranking order of NHF, PEF, CLF, EAF and CEE for TFC was 21.17 < 35.20 < 62.19 < 70.25 < 78.25 mg quercetin equivalent/g of dried extract. The crude ethanolic extract (μg/mL showed a high cytotoxicity on MCF-7 (IC50 = 9.25 ± 0.81, K-562 (IC50 = 7.34 ± 1.00, HT-29 (IC50 = 8.52 ± 2.69, H-460 (IC50 = 5.32 ± 1.05, M-14 (IC50 = 8.30 ± 0.60, DU-145 (IC50 = 7.09 ± 0.09, HUTU-80 (IC50 = 6.20 ± 0.50. Conclusions: The study showed that CEE of the aerial parts of C. spinosa can be measured as a natural source of antioxidant which might be effective towards preventing or slowing oxidative stress related to chronic diseases as well as cytotoxic agent.

  8. Total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of Meyna spinosa Roxb., an Indian medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Saikat; De, Biplab; Devanna, N; Chakraborty, Raja

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, and to evaluate the antioxidant potential of different leaf extracts of Meyna spinosa Roxb. ex Link, a traditional medicinal plant of India. Free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential of the methanol, ethyl acetate, and petroleum ether extracts of Meyna spinosa leaves were investigated using several in vitro and ex vivo assays, including the 2, 2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, superoxide anion scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, nitric oxide radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, metal chelating assay, and reducing power ability method. Total antioxidant activity of the extracts was estimated by the ferric thiocyanate method. Inhibition assay of lipid peroxidation and oxidative hemolysis were also performed to confirm the protective effect of the extracts. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extracts were estimated using standard chemical assay procedures. Methanol extracts showed the highest polyphenolic content and possessed the better antioxidant activity than the other two extracts. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the methanol extract were (90.08 ± 0.44) mg gallic acid equivalents/g and (58.50 ± 0.09) mg quercetin equivalents/g, respectively. The IC50 of the methanol extract in the DPPH(·), superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and metal chelating assays were (16.4 ± 0.41), (35.9 ± 0.19), (24.1 ± 0.33), (23.7 ± 0.09), (126.8 ± 2.92), and (117.2 ± 1.01) μg·mL(-1), respectively. The methanol extract showed potent reducing power ability, total antioxidant activity, and significantly inhibit lipid peroxidation and oxidative hemolysis which was similar to that of standards. The results indicated a direct correlation between the antioxidant activity and the polyphenolic content of the extracts, which may the foremost

  9. Variance, genetic control and spatial phenotypic plasticity of morphological and phenological traits in Prunus spinosa and its large fruited forms (P. x fruticans

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    Kristine Vander Mijnsbrugge

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prunus spinosa is a highly esteemed shrub in forest and landscape plantings. Shrubs with larger organs occur often and are considered either as large fruited forms of P. spinosa or as P. x fruticans, involving a hybridization process with the ancient cultivated P. insititia (crop-to-wild gene flow. As climate change may augment hybridization processes in the future, a hybrid origin is important to detect. In addition, studying crop-to-wild gene flow can give insights in putative consequences for the wild populations. We studied the P. spinosa – P. x fruticans group, focusing on morphology and phenology in three experimental plantations. Two plantings harbored cuttings of P. spinosa (clone plantations. A third plantation comprised of a half-sib offspring from a population with both P. spinosa and P. x fruticans (family plantation. Several results point to a hybridization process as the origin of P. x fruticans. The clone plantation revealed endocarp traits to be more genetically controlled than fruit size, while this was the opposite in the family plantation, suggesting the control of fruit size being derived from the putative P. insititia parent. Bud burst, flower opening and leaf fall were genetically controlled in the clone plantation, whereas in the family plantation intrafamily variability was remarkably large for the bud burst and leaf fall, but not for the flower opening. This suggests there is a reduced genetic control for the first two phenophases, possibly caused by historic hybridization events. Pubescence on the long shoot leaves in the family plantation deviated from the short shoot leaves on the same plants and from long and short shoot leaves in the clone plantation, suggesting again a P. insititia origin. Finally, we quantified spatial phenotypic plasticity, indicating how P. spinosa may react in a changing environment. In contrast to the bud burst and leaf fall, flower opening did not demonstrate plasticity. The fruit size was

  10. Woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of Caesalpinia echinata have high potential as alternative woods for bow makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly two hundred years, Caesalpinia echinata wood has been the standard for modern bows. However, the threat of extinction and the enforcement of trade bans have required bow makers to seek alternative woods. The hypothesis tested was that woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of C. echinata would have high potential as alternative woods for bows. Accordingly, were investigated Handroanthus spp., Mezilaurus itauba, Hymenaea spp., Dipteryx spp., Diplotropis spp. and Astronium lecointei. Handroanthus and Diplotropis have the greatest number of similarities with C. echinata, but only Handroanthus spp. showed significant results in actual bow manufacture, suggesting the importance of such key properties as specific gravity, speed of sound propagation and modulus of elasticity. In practice, Handroanthus and Dipteryx produced bows of quality similar to that of C. echinata.

  11. Germination possibilities of Capparis spinosa L. of naturally growing in Turkey at in vitro and in vivo conditions

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    Kamile ULUKAPI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Capparis spp. is the one of the important plants for Mediterranean countries because of its high tolerance to marginal environmental conditions as poor soil and high temperature. However, in the first year germination percentage is low due to seed coat dormancy. Effects of some pre-treatments (H2SO4 and GA3 on seed germination of Capparis spinosa L. were examined in this research. As a result of the research, 30 minutes H2SO4 + 600 ppm GA (%30.55 was found to be the best pre-treatment for in vivo conditions and 30 minutes H2SO4 + 200 ppm GA3 (%61.11 for in vitro conditions.

  12. Липиды листьев Capparis spinosa L

    OpenAIRE

    Асилбекова, Дания; Турсунходжаева, Феруза

    2009-01-01

    Исследован состав липидов листьев Capparis spinosa auct. (семейство Capparaceae). Охарактеризованы нейтральные и полярные липиды, а также их жирнокислотный состав.

  13. Identification of differentially expressed genes in dormant (banjhi) bud of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) using subtractive hybridization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaraj, Thirugnanasambantham; Gajjeraman, Prabu; Palanisamy, Senthilkumar; Subhas Chandrabose, Suresh Ramraj; Azad Mandal, Abul Kalam

    2011-06-01

    Growth regulation associated with dormancy is an essential element in plant's life cycle that leads to changes in expression of large number of genes. Forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries were developed to identify and characterize the genes associated with bud (banjhi) dormancy in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). Efficiency of subtraction was confirmed by comparing the abundance of β-actin gene. A total of 17 and 45 unique sequences were obtained from forward and reverse SSH library respectively. Many of the differentially regulated genes have unknown (41.1% and 26.7%) or hypothetical functions (11.7% and 2.2%) in forward and reverse SSH library respectively, while others have a role in cell growth and metabolism. Further, semi-quantitative RT-PCR was carried out for selected genes to validate the quality of ESTs from SSH library. Gene Ontology analysis identified a greater association of these ESTs in cellular metabolic pathways and their relevance to bud dormancy. Based on the EST data, the putative role of identified genes from tea is discussed in relation to dormancy, which includes various metabolic and signalling pathways. We demonstrated that SSH is an efficient tool for enriching up- and down-regulated genes related to bud dormancy in tea. This study represents an attempt to investigate banjhi dormancy in tea under field conditions, and the findings indicate that there is a potential to develop new approaches to modulate dormancy in this species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. C15083. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze Cultivated in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2016-02-10

    In Tunisia, Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is an exotic tree, which was introduced many years ago and planted as ornamental street, garden, and park tree. The present work reported, for the first time, the chemical composition and evaluates the allelopathic effect of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the different parts of this tree, viz., roots, stems, leaves, flowers and pods gathered in the area of Sousse, a coastal region, in the East of Tunisia. In total, 86 compounds representing 89.9-94.9% of the whole oil composition, were identified in these oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was clearly distinguished for its high content in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (β-caryophyllene, 1 (44); 24.1% and germacrene D, 2 (53); 20.0%), while those obtained from pods, leaves, stems and flowers were dominated by non-terpene hydrocarbons. The most important ones were n-tetradecane (41, 16.3%, pod oil), 1.7-dimethylnaphthalene (43, 15.6%, leaf oil), and n-octadecane (77, 13.1%, stem oil). The leaf oil was rich in the apocarotene (E)-β-ionone (4 (54); 33.8%), and the oil obtained from flowers was characterized by hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (5 (81); 19.9%) and methyl hexadecanoate (83, 10.2%). Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into 3 groups and 2 subgroups, each characterized by the major oil constituents. Contact tests showed that the germination of lettuce seeds was totally inhibited by the root essential oil tested at 1 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect on the shoot and root elongation varied from -1.6 to -32.4%, and from -2.5 to -64.4%, respectively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. THE SIZE OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze ENTERING INTO REPRODUCTIVE STAGES AS A BASIS FOR SEED MANAGEMENT PROJECTS

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    Giovani Festa Paludo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to plant parana-pines (Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze for seed production, as for any other forest management activity, planning is needed, especially because of the significant amount of waiting time between planting and seed collection. Consequently, there is a lack of basic ecological information. Several studies based on the demography of the A. angustifolia fail to divulge which sized individuals are reproductive. This paper investigated the relationship between the reproductive stage and the diameter at breast height (d.b.h., and attempted to establish a size where a great portion of the individuals had already begun their reproductive process, a considerable step for subsidizing technical projects for seed production. Five study sites located in four municipalities in the state of Santa Catarina composed a total sample area of 31.6 ha. All A. angustifolia individuals with a height greater than 1.5 m within the sampled area were measured and classified according to their reproductive phase. A total of 1,843 individuals were obtained: 383 were male, and 299 were female. There was a significant relationship between the d.b.h. and the sexual maturity of the individuals. The reproductive process begins inside the DAP class of 15-20 cm, but only 8% of the individuals reproducing. In order to find a greater number of individuals in reproduction, a minimum d.b.h. of 35.2 cm is required. In conclusion, projects that produce araucaria nuts should consider this d.b.h. size to commence production. This species has great potential for agroforestry systems within the Araucaria Forests. This basic ecological information is also important for the construction of projects that use this species, and consequently may contribute to the conservation of this forest. This can be used as a study case for other forest species and ecosystems to explore the potential production of non-timber forest products of native resources.

  16. Structural characterization of a homogalacturonan from Capparis spinosa L. fruits and anti-complement activity of its sulfated derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huijun; Wang, Hongwei; Shi, Songshan; Duan, Jinyou; Wang, Shunchun

    2012-08-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide CSPS-2B-2 with a molecular mass of 8.8 kDa, was obtained from the fruits of Capparis spinosa L. Chemical and NMR spectral analysis verified CSPS-2B-2 was a linear poly-(1-4)-α-D-galactopyranosyluronic acid in which 12.9±0.4% of carboxyl groups existed as methyl ester and 2.6±0.1% of D-GalpA residues were acetylated. A sulfated derivative Sul-2B-2 with a sulfation degree of 0.88±0.02 was prepared via the substitution of C-2 and/or C-3 of GalpA residues in CSPS-2B-2. Bioassay on the complement and coagulation system demonstrated that Sul-2B-2 (CH(50): 3.5±0.2 μg/mL) had a stronger inhibitory effect on the activation of complement system through the classic pathway than that of heparin (CH(50): 8.9±0.3 μg/mL). Interestingly, Sul-2B-2 at low dose even middle dose (for example 52 μg/mL) had no effect on coagulation system, which was totally different from heparin. Thus, our observation indicated that Sul-2B-2 was more efficient than heparin in inhibiting the activation of the complement system through classical pathway and exhibiting a relatively less anti-coagulant activity. These results suggested that the sulfated derivative Sul-2B-2 prepared from the homogalacturonan in the fruits of Capparis spinosa L, might be a promising drug candidate in case of necessary therapeutic complement inhibition.

  17. Quality analysis of commercial samples of Ziziphi spinosae semen (suanzaoren by means of chromatographic fingerprinting assisted by principal component analysis

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    Shuai Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the scarcity of resources of Ziziphi spinosae semen (ZSS, many inferior goods and even adulterants are generally found in medicine markets. To strengthen the quality control, HPLC fingerprint common pattern established in this paper showed three main bioactive compounds in one chromatogram simultaneously. Principal component analysis based on DAD signals could discriminate adulterants and inferiorities. Principal component analysis indicated that all samples could be mainly regrouped into two main clusters according to the first principal component (PC1, redefined as Vicenin II and the second principal component (PC2, redefined as zizyphusine. PC1 and PC2 could explain 91.42% of the variance. Content of zizyphusine fluctuated more greatly than that of spinosin, and this result was also confirmed by the HPTLC result. Samples with low content of jujubosides and two common adulterants could not be used equivalently with authenticated ones in clinic, while one reference standard extract could substitute the crude drug in pharmaceutical production. Giving special consideration to the well-known bioactive saponins but with low response by end absorption, a fast and cheap HPTLC method for quality control of ZSS was developed and the result obtained was commensurate well with that of HPLC analysis. Samples having similar fingerprints to HPTLC common pattern targeting at saponins could be regarded as authenticated ones. This work provided a faster and cheaper way for quality control of ZSS and laid foundation for establishing a more effective quality control method for ZSS. Keywords: Adulterant, Common pattern, Principal component analysis, Quality control, Ziziphi spinosae semen

  18. Superação da dormência em sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. var. ferrea de duas populações

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    Maria de Fatima Barbosa Coelho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 O objetivo no presente trabalho foi superar a dormência de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea. As sementes foram obtidas em duas populações no município de Acarape e no distrito de Antonio Diogo no Ceará. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições de 50 sementes. Os tratamentos usados foram a sementes de Acarape intactas, b sementes de Acarape escarificadas, c sementes de Antonio Diogo intactas e d sementes de Antonio Diogo escarificadas. A escarificação foi feita com desponte com tesoura de poda no tegumento do lado oposto ao hilo da semente. As características avaliadas foram porcentagem de emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento da parte aérea e da raiz principal das plântulas. O maior pico de emergência ocorreu aos sete dias após a semeadura. A porcentagem de emergência foi maior nas sementes de Acarape e Antonio Diogo escarificadas (58,25 e 58,50 respectivamente, enquanto as sementes não escarificadas apresentaram menos de 15% de emergência. O índice de velocidade de emergência foi maior nas sementes de Acarape e Antonio Diogo escarificadas (7,94 e 7,20 respectivamente. Os resultados comprovam a dormência tegumentar de sementes de Caesalpinia férrea, a eficiência da escarificação mecânica na superação da dormência e que há diferença no processo germinativo de sementes de diferentes populações Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE

  19. Crescimento inicial de mudas de pau ferro (Caesalpinia ferreaMart. ex Tul. var. leiostachya Benth. sob diferentes regimes hídricos Initial growth of wood iron (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex. Tul var. leiostachya Benth under different hydric regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Regina Lenhard

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este estudo avaliar o crescimento inicial de mudas de pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex. Tul. var. leiostachya Benth -Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae sob quatro regimes hídricos (alagamento, 70%, 40% e 12,5% de capacidade de campo. As mudas foram submetidas aos tratamentos aos 60 dias de idade. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de oito mudas por tratamento. Após 7 dias de permanência sob tratamento, iniciaram-se as avaliações. O diâmetro (6,5 mm, teor relativo de água (52,45%, área foliar específica (174,58 g cm², taxa de crescimento relativo (0,0160 g g-1, taxa assimilatória líquida (0,0004 g dm-2 dias-1 e peso específico de folha (0,0062 g cm² não variaram estatisticamente entre os tratamentos. As mudas sob 70% CC apresentaram maior altura (84,6cm, tamanho da raiz (28,9 cm, massa seca da raiz (6,24 g, área foliar (376,0 cm², massa seca da folha (1,98 g, massa seca da parte aérea (8,27 g e teor de clorofila (31,67 ìg cm². A razão de peso específico (0,2368 g g-1 e o teor de nitrogênio (0,37 g kg-1 foram maiores sob 12,5% CC. A razão de área foliar (35,09 g g-1 foi menor sob 12,5% CC. Dessa forma, a melhor condição para a produção das mudas é em 70% da capacidade de campo.The objective of this study was to evaluate the initial growth of Caesapinia ferrea Mart ex. Tul var. leiostachva Benth (Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae under four hidric regimes (overflow, 70, 40 and 12.5% of field capacity. The seedlings were submitted to the treatments after 60 days of age. The experimental delineation was completely randomized with four repetitions of eight seedlings for treatment. After 7 days of permanence under treatment, the evaluations had been initiated. The diameter (6,5 mm, relative water content (52.45%, specific foliar area (174.58 g cm², rate of relative growth (0.0160 g g-1, liquid assimilated rate (0.0004 g dm-2 days-1 and specific weight of leaf (0.0062 g

  20. The durative use of suspension cells and callus for volatile oil by comparative with seeds and fruits in Capparis spinosa L.

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    Yongtai Yin

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa is one of the most important eremophytes among the medicinal plants, and continued destruction of these plants poses a major threat to species survival. The development of methods to extract compounds, especially those of medicinal value, without harvesting the whole plant is an issue of considerable socioeconomic importance. On the basis of an established system for culture of suspension cells and callus in vitro, Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS was used for the volatile oil composition analyzing in seed, fruit, suspension cells and callus. Fatty acids were the major component, and the highest content of alkanes was detected in seed, with <1.0% in suspension cells and callus. Esters, olefins and heterocyclic compounds were significantly higher in fruit than in the other materials. The content of acid esters in the suspension cells and callus was significantly higher than in seed and fruit. This indicated that the suspension cells and callus could be helpful for increasing the value of volatile oil and replacing seeds and fruit partially as a source of some compounds of the volatile oil and may also produce some new medical compounds. The above results give valuable information for sustainable use of C. spinosa and provide a foundation for use of the C. spinosa suspension cells and callus as an ongoing medical resource.

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight pursuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of body...... between the consumption of a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and a reduction in body weight. © European Food Safety Authority, 2012...

  2. Synergisms in Alpha-glucosidase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. Ethanolic Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinholes, Juliana; Vizzotto, Márcia

    2017-01-01

    Camellia sinensis, the most consumed and popular beverages worldwide, and Eugenia uniflora, a Brazilian native species, have been already confirmed to have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, their potential acting together against an enzyme linked to this pathology has never been exploited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of individual and combined ethanolic extracts of the leaves of C. sinensis and E. uniflora over alpha-glucosidase, a key digestive enzyme used on the Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) control. In addition, their inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) and peroxyl radicals was also assayed. Enzyme inhibition and antioxidant potential were assessed based on in vitro assays. Total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophylls A and B were achieved using spectrophotometric methods. E. uniflora was almost 40 times more active on alpha-glucosidase than C. sinensis and combined extracts showed a significant synergistic effect with an obtained IC50 value almost 5 times lower than the theoretical value. C. sinensis extract was twice more active than E. uniflora concerning DPPH•, in contrast, E. uniflora was almost 10 times more effective than C. sinensis on inhibition of peroxyl radicals with a significant synergistic effect for combined extracts. The extracts activities may be related with their phytochemicals, mainly phenolic compounds, and chlorophylls. Combined C. sinensis and E. uniflora ethanolic extracts showed synergistic effect against alpha-glucosidase and lipid peroxidation. These herbal combinations can be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia and can also provide antioxidant defenses to patients with T2DM. Alfa-glucosidase and antioxidant Interaction between Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. ethanolic extracts was investigated.Extracts showed synergistic effect over alpha-glucosidase and peroxyl radicals.Total phenolic

  3. Synergisms in Alpha-glucosidase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. Ethanolic Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinholes, Juliana; Vizzotto, Márcia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Camellia sinensis, the most consumed and popular beverages worldwide, and Eugenia uniflora, a Brazilian native species, have been already confirmed to have beneficial effects in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, their potential acting together against an enzyme linked to this pathology has never been exploited. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of individual and combined ethanolic extracts of the leaves of C. sinensis and E. uniflora over alpha-glucosidase, a key digestive enzyme used on the Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) control. In addition, their inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) and peroxyl radicals was also assayed. Materials and Methods: Enzyme inhibition and antioxidant potential were assessed based on in vitro assays. Total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophylls A and B were achieved using spectrophotometric methods. Results: E. uniflora was almost 40 times more active on alpha-glucosidase than C. sinensis and combined extracts showed a significant synergistic effect with an obtained IC50 value almost 5 times lower than the theoretical value. C. sinensis extract was twice more active than E. uniflora concerning DPPH•, in contrast, E. uniflora was almost 10 times more effective than C. sinensis on inhibition of peroxyl radicals with a significant synergistic effect for combined extracts. The extracts activities may be related with their phytochemicals, mainly phenolic compounds, and chlorophylls. Conclusion: Combined C. sinensis and E. uniflora ethanolic extracts showed synergistic effect against alpha-glucosidase and lipid peroxidation. These herbal combinations can be used to control postprandial hyperglycemia and can also provide antioxidant defenses to patients with T2DM. SUMMARY Alfa-glucosidase and antioxidant Interaction between Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze and Eugenia uniflora L. ethanolic extracts was investigated.Extracts showed

  4. Effects of Lasia spinosa Thw. on growth rate and reproductive hormone of weaned Swamp buffalo and Murrah X Swamp buffalo calves

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    M. Kamonpatana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Lasia spinosa Thw. on growth rate and plasma Oestradiol 17- β (E2, Progesterone (P4 and Testosterone (T were studied in 16 male and female swamp (SS buffaloes and Murrah x Swamp buffalo crossbreeds (MS calves. The treatment group was fed with a concentrate supplemented with 30 g of dry powder of L. spinosa/head/d for 7 months. It was found that L .spinosa could have effect on male and female buffalo growth rate. The growth rate of male SS treated group were 130 g/d higher than control group. In female both SS and MS buffalo, the highest growth rate (830 to 840 g/d was found after the 2nd month of treatment while a reduction in growth rate (-1,030 to - 450 g/d was found in the 3rd month. After that the growth rate of SS and MS gradually increased until the last three months to 200 and 80 g/d in average, respectively. In female MS, plasma E2 in the treated group was lower than control group during Jan to Jul. Similar result was found in SS female, level of plasma E2 in treated group was lower than in control group in the first and last three month and there was no difference of plasma E2 in May. In MS male, the level of plasma E2 of treated group was higher than control group in Jan, Mar, Apr and Jul. In SS male, the level of plasma E2 of treated group was higher than control group in every month except in Jul. In female SS, L. spinosa could decreased plasma P4 through the experiment and could not have an effect on plasma P4 in female MS and plasma T in male buffalo calves. In conclusion, the addition to the concentrate of dry powder of L. spinosa 30 g/headl/d had an effect to increase growth rate in male SS and female MS buffalo calves, decrease plasma E2 in female both SS and MS and male SS and decrease plasma P4 in female SS.

  5. Effects of Kaolin (M-99-099) Application on Antioxidant and Phenolic Compounds in Tea Leaves (Camellia sinensis L.O. Kuntze).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Keziban; Goksu, Burcu

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the effects of kaolin (M-99-099) applications on the total phenolic and antioxidant contents of tea leaves (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) harvested in three different periods were investigated. For this purpose, four different strategies including standard fertilizer application (T), 3% kaolin+standard fertilizer application (Ka1), 6% kaolin+standard fertilizer application (Ka2), and control (C) (nothing applied) were used to compare the effects of these strategies on total phenolic content, FRAP values, and DPPH radical scavenging capacities of tea leaves. It has been proven that the kaolin applications, Ka1 and Ka2, increase the phenolic content and antioxidant contents of tea samples. While the kaolin applications have higher values at 1st harvest than those of T and C, they have the lowest values at 3rd harvest.

  6. Avaliação da incorporação de galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima em sorvetes e comparação com estabilizantes comerciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Ariana Camelo Passos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Com o mercado cada vez mais competitivo e consumidores mais exigentes é de suma importância buscar alternativas mais eficientes e diversificadas para a melhoria da qualidade de sorvetes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver sorvetes sabor goiaba utilizando galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima em substituição a estabilizantes, avaliar suas propriedades e comparar com dois estabilizantes comumente utilizados (goma xantana e super liga neutra. Para caracterizar os sorvetes foram feitas análises de overrun, resistência ao derretimento, umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos, sólidos totais e pH. A qualidade microbiológica foi investigada pelas análises de coliformes a 45 °C/g, Estafilococos coagulase positiva/g e Salmonella sp/25 g. Sensorialmente, foram avaliados a intenção de compra e os atributos sensoriais de cor, aroma, textura, sabor e impressão global. Foram realizadas três formulações de sorvetes, modificando o estabilizante empregado: super liga neutra (T1, galactomanana de C. pulcherrima (T2 e goma xantana (T3. A taxa de derretimento mostrou-se similar até 35 minutos para as três formulações, mostrando-se comportamentos lineares. As amostras de sorvetes apresentaram um bom valor de overrun. Nenhuma das variáveis físico-químicas apresentou diferença estatística entre si. Sensorialmente, a formulação T2 apresentou desempenho semelhante a T1 e T3. No entanto, o sorvete da formulação T3 apresentou no atributo textura uma nota melhor que o estabilizante super liga neutra (T1. Todas as formulações apresentaram altos índices de intenção de compra por parte dos provadores. Todos os sorvetes produzidos apresentaram-se de acordo com a legislação vigente demonstrando que a galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima pode ser utilizada como substituto aos estabilizantes convencionais.

  7. Investigating the effects of Capparis Spinosa on hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid content in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Mohammad Taha; Mohammadtaghvaei, Narges; Larky, Damoon Ashtary

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of administration of Capparis spinosa (CS) fruit aqueous extract on liver metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The aqueous extract of CS was orally administered at a dose of 20mg/kg for 28 consecutive days and then its effects on blood glucose, lipid and insulin levels in normal and STZ diabetic rats were comparatively investigated. Furthermore, the effects of CS on the activity and expression of the key enzymes of gluconeogenesis and hepatic lipid content were investigated. The results showed that administration of CS extract in the STZ diabetic rats significantly decreased blood glucose level, while no significant influence on the insulin level. In addition, CS significantly decreased blood and liver triglyceride and cholesterol content in STZ diabetic rats. Furthermore, CS administration significantly reduced the mRNA expression and enzyme activities of glucose-6- phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in liver tissues. Our findings demonstrated the beneficial effects of CS on blood glucose and lipid levels in an insulin- independent manner. This study also showed that CS improved the circulating levels of triglyceride and cholesterol. In addition, direct inhibition of gluconeogenesis in liver may be a probable mechanism of action of this plant. Since CS also decreased liver lipid content, we suggest that CS administration might be a beneficial therapeutic approach for metabolic syndrome and fatty liver. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A protein with antiproliferative, antifungal and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities from caper (Capparis spinosa) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Sze-Kwan; Ng, Tzi-Bun

    2009-05-01

    A protein exhibiting an N-terminal amino acid sequence with some similarity to imidazoleglycerol phosphate synthase was purified from fresh Capparis spinosa melon seeds. The purification protocol entailed anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and finally gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The protein was adsorbed using 20 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4) and desorbed using 1 M NaCl in the starting buffer from the DEAE-cellulose column and SP-Sepharose column. The protein demonstrated a molecular mass of 38 kDa in gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that it was monomeric. The protein inhibited proliferation of hepatoma HepG2 cells, colon cancer HT29 cells and breast cancer MCF-7 cells with an IC(50) of about 1, 40 and 60 microM, respectively. It inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with IC(50) of 0.23 microM. It inhibited mycelial growth in the fungus, Valsa mali. It did not exhibit hemagglutinating, ribonuclease, mitogenic or protease inhibitory activities.

  9. In vitro antioxidant and in vivo photoprotective effects of a lyophilized extract of Capparis spinosa L buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonina, F; Puglia, C; Ventura, D; Aquino, R; Tortora, S; Sacchi, A; Saija, A; Tomaino, A; Pellegrino, M L; de Caprariis, P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and in vivo photoprotective activities of a lyophilized extract of Capparis spinosa L. (LECS) obtained by methanolic extraction from the flowering buds of this plant. For the in vitro experiments, LECS was tested employing three different models: (a). bleaching of the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH test); (b). peroxidation, induced by the water-soluble radical initiator 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride, of mixed dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/linoleic acid unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) (LP-LUV test); and (c). UV-induced peroxidation of phosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicles (UV-IP test). The in vivo antioxidant/radical scavenger activity was assessed by determining the ability of topically applied LECS to reduce UVB-induced skin erythema in healthy human volunteers. From the results obtained in in vitro and in vivo tests, LECS showed a significant antioxidant effect. Furthermore, by chromatographic fractionation and spectroscopic methods, we identified the major constituents of LECS, and particularly some flavonols (kaempferol and quercetin derivatives) and hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid, p-cumaric acid, and cinnamic acid).

  10. Biflavonoids from Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) fruits and their effects in inhibiting NF-kappa B activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hai-Feng; Xie, Chenghui; Jian, Renji; Kang, Jie; Li, Yan; Zhuang, Chang-Long; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Le-Le; Lai, Long; Wu, Tong; Wu, Xianli

    2011-04-13

    Caper (Capparis spinosa L.) fruits have been widely used as food and folk medicine in the Mediterranean basin and in central and west Asia. In this study, two biflavonoids, isoginkgetin, and ginkgetin, together with three other flavonoids, were isolated from caper fruits. Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature. To our knowledge, isoginkgetin, ginkgetin and sakuranetin were identified in caper for the first time. Notably, it is also the first time that biflavonoids have ever been found in the Capparidaceae. Concentrations of the two biflavonoids were measured in caper fruits collected from four major growing areas in northwest China. The anti-inflammatory effects of the flavonoids from caper fruits were evaluated by secreted placental alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter assay, which was designed to measure nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Isoginkgetin and ginkgetin showed inhibitory effects in initial screen at 20 μM, while the effect of ginkgetin was much greater than that of isoginkgetin. In a dose-response experiment, the IC(50) value of ginkgetin was estimated at 7.5 μM, suggesting it could be a strong NF-κB inhibitor and worthy of study in vivo.

  11. Characterization and hepatoprotective effect of polysaccharides from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chou sarcocarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuan; Wu, Shuangchan; Zhang, Huifang; Zhang, Xuyan; Niu, Yunhui; Cao, Xiaoqin; Huang, Fuwei; Ding, Hong

    2014-12-01

    The polysaccharides from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chou sarcocarp (PWJS) is evaluated for the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effect. The characteristics of PWJS were determined by FT-IR spectral and HPLC analysis. The antioxidant activity was investigated using in vitro systems. An in vivo study of PWJS against CCl4 induced liver injury was also conducted. HPLC analysis showed that PWJS is an acidic heteropolysaccharide, rich in glucose (38.59%), arabinose (23.16%), galacturonic acid (17.64%) and galactose (10.44%). PWJS displayed strong antioxidant activity in vitro. In the in vivo study, PWJS treatment lowered the serum levels of ALT and AST in CCl4-intoxicated mice. Additionally, levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) and GSH were elevated in liver damage mice by PWJS intervention, while content of MDA was lessened. Meanwhile, PWJS reverses the suppression of Nrf2 nuclear translocation, and increases the protein expression of HO-1, GSTα and NQO1 in liver damage mice. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the condition of liver damage was mitigated. This study demonstrates that PWJS reverses hepatotoxicity in CCl4-intoxicated mice through the mechanisms of antioxidant activity, as well as an augmentation of the Nrf2 pathway in liver tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex

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    Chia-Hua Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilein, a natural, biologically active compound from Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells. This study verifies the antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of brazilein in skin cancer cells and is the first time to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana, and reduction of spontaneous movement in Anisakis simplex. Brazilein exhibits an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to scavenge DPPH• and ABTS•+ free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Brazilein inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, the master regulator of adipogenesis, suggesting that brazilein presents the antiobesity effects. The toxic effects of brazilein were evaluated in terms of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and the activity of caspase-3 in BCC cells. The inhibition of the growth of skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, and SCC25 by brazilein is greater than that of human skin malignant melanoma (A375 cells, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7 cells, and noncancerous cells (HaCaT and BNLCL2 cells. The anthelmintic activities of brazilein against Hymenolepis nana are better than those of Anisakis simplex.

  13. Caracterização físico-química e biológica do caule de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart.

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    A. P. Z. Frasson

    Full Text Available Visando estabelecer parâmetros para o controle da qualidade do caule de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. (Caesalpiniaceae, foram realizados testes preconizados pela Farmacopéia Brasileira IV e pela Organização Mundial da Saúde para a avaliação da pureza, através das determinações de materiais estranhos, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis em ácido, umidade, ensaios-limites de cloretos e sulfatos, além da pesquisa de contaminantes microbianos no material pulverizado. Para a caracterização dos constituintes, eventualmente presentes na droga vegetal, foram realizadas as determinações de taninos, dos índices de espuma, intumescimento e amargor e o teste de hemólise; também foi realizada a caracterização do extrato etanólico bruto e suas frações por cromatografia em camada delgada.

  14. Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chia-Hua; Chan, Leong-Perng; Chou, Tzung-Han; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Yen, Chuan-Min; Chen, Pin-Ju; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Lin, Rong-Jyh

    2013-01-01

    Brazilein, a natural, biologically active compound from Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells. This study verifies the antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of brazilein in skin cancer cells and is the first time to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana, and reduction of spontaneous movement in Anisakis simplex. Brazilein exhibits an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to scavenge DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Brazilein inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), the master regulator of adipogenesis, suggesting that brazilein presents the antiobesity effects. The toxic effects of brazilein were evaluated in terms of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and the activity of caspase-3 in BCC cells. The inhibition of the growth of skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, and SCC25) by brazilein is greater than that of human skin malignant melanoma (A375) cells, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7 cells), and noncancerous cells (HaCaT and BNLCL2 cells). The anthelmintic activities of brazilein against Hymenolepis nana are better than those of Anisakis simplex.

  15. Molecular characterization of Cryptococcus gattii genotype AFLP6/VGII isolated from woody debris of divi-divi (Caesalpinia coriaria), Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ferry; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Prakash, Anupam; Yntema, Jan-Bart; Meis, Jacques F

    2014-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus gattii is an emerging and primary pathogen. There is a lack of information about its environmental spread outside outbreak regions in Mediterranean Europe, North and South America. Environmental sampling for C. gattii and molecular characterization of the obtained isolates will provide an insight into the global spread of the various genotypes. Woody debris of native divi-divi (Caesalpinia coriaria) trees were sampled across Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean. Colonies suspected for Cryptococcus species were subjected to standard mycology investigations and identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Isolates identified as C. gattii were subjected to amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping, mating-type analysis and multi-locus sequence typing. Ten colonies of C. gattii were cultured from different trunk hollows of the same divi-divi tree. Molecular characterization showed that all isolates were genotype AFLP6/VGII and mating-type α. Multi-locus sequence typing revealed that all isolates were genetically indistinguishable from each other. C. gattii is present in the environment of Bonaire, which suggests that this yeast is likely to be present in the environment of other Caribbean islands. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. The Ethanol Extract of the Inner Bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul. Reduces Urinary Bladder Damage during Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis in Rats

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    Janaína P. Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC is a common side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy, which deserves new therapeutic strategies, such as those based on natural products. The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul. (EECp possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities as previously showed by our group. We have investigated the effect of EECp on the cyclophosphamide-induced HC. Cystitis was induced in male Wistar rats by the injection of cyclophosphamide. These animals were pretreated with EECp (100–400 mg/kg, vehicle, or mesna. Myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde formation were measured in urinary bladder and other tissues. Bladder edema and histopathological alterations and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration NOx- were also evaluated. Treatment with EECp (100–400 mg/kg or mesna impaired the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in urinary bladder and the serum NOx- induced by cyclophosphamide but did not reduce edema in this tissue, as did mesna. Total histological score was reduced by EECp (100 mg/kg. Lung myeloperoxidase activity, which was increased by cyclophosphamide, was decreased significantly by EECp (400 mg/kg. EECp also diminished the malondialdehyde formation in bladder, lung, and spleen, although these parameters were not affected by cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that EECp reduced urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced HC in rats.

  17. The Ethanol Extract of the Inner Bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) Reduces Urinary Bladder Damage during Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cystitis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Janaína P.; Pereira, Denyson S.; Matos, Alexandre S.; Santana, Danielle G.; Santos, Cliomar A.; Estevam, Charles S.; Fakhouri, Ricardo; de Lucca Junior, Waldecy; Camargo, Enilton A.

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is a common side effect of cyclophosphamide therapy, which deserves new therapeutic strategies, such as those based on natural products. The ethanol extract of the inner bark of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Tul.) (EECp) possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antioxidant activities as previously showed by our group. We have investigated the effect of EECp on the cyclophosphamide-induced HC. Cystitis was induced in male Wistar rats by the injection of cyclophosphamide. These animals were pretreated with EECp (100–400 mg/kg), vehicle, or mesna. Myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde formation were measured in urinary bladder and other tissues. Bladder edema and histopathological alterations and serum nitric oxide metabolites concentration NOx − were also evaluated. Treatment with EECp (100–400 mg/kg) or mesna impaired the increase of myeloperoxidase activity in urinary bladder and the serum NOx − induced by cyclophosphamide but did not reduce edema in this tissue, as did mesna. Total histological score was reduced by EECp (100 mg/kg). Lung myeloperoxidase activity, which was increased by cyclophosphamide, was decreased significantly by EECp (400 mg/kg). EECp also diminished the malondialdehyde formation in bladder, lung, and spleen, although these parameters were not affected by cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that EECp reduced urinary bladder damage during cyclophosphamide-induced HC in rats. PMID:24348180

  18. Biochemical Aspects of a Serine Protease from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood Seeds: A Potential Tool to Access the Mobilization of Seed Storage Proteins

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    Priscila Praxedes-Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proteins have been isolated from seeds of leguminous, but this is the first report that a protease was obtained from seeds of Caesalpinia echinata Lam., a tree belonging to the Fabaceae family. This enzyme was purified to homogeneity by hydrophobic interaction and anion exchange chromatographies and gel filtration. This 61-kDa serine protease (CeSP hydrolyses H-D-prolyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide (Km 55.7 μM in an optimum pH of 7.1, and this activity is effectively retained until 50∘C. CeSP remained stable in the presence of kosmotropic anions (PO4 3−, SO4 2−, and CH3COO− or chaotropic cations (K+ and Na+. It is strongly inhibited by TLCK, a serine protease inhibitor, but not by E-64, EDTA or pepstatin A. The characteristics of the purified enzyme allowed us to classify it as a serine protease. The role of CeSP in the seeds cannot be assigned yet but is possible to infer that it is involved in the mobilization of seed storage proteins.

  19. BIOMETRIA DE FRUTOS E SEMENTES E SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA DE JUCÁ (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul (LEGUMINOSAE - CAESALPINOIDEAE

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    Francisco Augusto Alves Câmara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to study the characteristics biometrics of the fruit and the effect of the physical and chemical scarification in the germination of seeds of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. Ripe fruits were collected in August of 2007 of existent trees in the campus of the Rural Federal University of the Semi-arid, Mossoró- RN. The evaluations were carried at the Laboratory of Analysis of Seeds of the Department of Vegetable Sciences of UFERSA. The germination test was constituted of witness and 4 treatments (types of common vinegar: vinegar of alcohol, vinegar of red wine and vinegar of white wine and hot water to 65ºC, with 4 repetitions of 50 seeds. The sowing was in containers plastic with dimensions of 32.5 x 24 x 4 cm (length, width and depth. The used substrates were sand washed sterilized previously and being irrigated with water distilled. The appraised characteristics were: mass of the fresh matter and matter dries of the seedling, germination percentage and index of emergency velocity. The immersion of the seeds in vinegar of white wine favors the germination, the index of germination velocity and the accumulation of fresh and dry matter of the juca seedlings.

  20. Characterization and Quantification of the Compounds of the Ethanolic Extract from Caesalpinia ferrea Stem Bark and Evaluation of Their Mutagenic Activity

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    Carlos César Wyrepkowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Martius has traditionally been used in Brazil for many medicinal purposes, such as the treatment of bronchitis, diabetes and wounds. Despite its use as a medicinal plant, there is still no data regarding the genotoxic effect of the stem bark. This present work aims to assess the qualitative and quantitative profiles of the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea and to evaluate its mutagenic activity, using a Salmonella/microsome assay for this species. As a result, a total of twenty compounds were identified by Flow Injection Analysis Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MSn in the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea. Hydrolyzable tannins predominated, principally gallic acid derivatives. The HPLC-DAD method was developed for rapid quantification of six gallic acid compounds and ellagic acid derivatives. C. ferrea is widely used in Brazil, and the absence of any mutagenic effect in the Salmonella/microsome assay is important for pharmacological purposes and the safe use of this plant.

  1. Fungos associados com sementes de flamboyant-mirim (Caesalpinia pulcherrima: incidência, efeito na germinação, transmissão e controle

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    José George Ferreira Medeiros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Most pathogens that cause diseases in crops can be transported and transmitted by seeds, with great economic significance. The objective of this work was to assess the incidence of pathogens and their effect in the germination and vigor of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. seeds. The seed sanity experiment was completely randomized with five treatments, and ten repetitions. The seeds were immersed in extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum. vulgare for five minutes, and the control was immersed in sterile water. For the germination test, 200 seeds were used, distributed in four replicates of 50 seeds per treatment. The vigor tests consisted of the first count and germination speed index. The evaluation of fungi transmission were performed during the germination test, by counting the symptoms in the primary root, hypocotyl and epicotyl. The treatments reduced the incidence of Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp. Rhizopus sp., Penicillium sp. Nigrospora sp and Pestalotiasp..It was also found the fungus Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. associated with the lesions in the seed integument. The treatments provided a higher percentage of germination of seedlings. Higher percentages of germination were observed when oil extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum vulgare were used.

  2. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites

    OpenAIRE

    Meegahakumbura, M. K.; M C Wambulwa; Thapa, K. K.; Li, M.M.; M. Möller; Xu, J. C.; J B Yang; B.Y. Liu; Ranjitkar, S; J Liu; Li, D. Z.; Gao, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea is the world?s most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic d...

  3. Studies in the liverwort genus Fossombronia (Metzgeriales from southern Africa. 8. F. elsieae and F. spinosa, two new Western Cape species with spinose spores

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    S. M. Perold

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species with spinose spores are described from the Western Cape.  F. elsieae Perold is quite a large plant, generally with almost entire leaves, its spores on the distal face having relatively few, rather coarse spines, which often appear broken and are occasionally linked to form abbreviated ridges.  F. spinosa Perold is a smallish plant with irregularly lobed leaves, its spores on the distal face having numerous, fine spines, which sometimes coalesce to form short ridges. A table which com­pares F. glenii Perold,  F. leucoxantha Lehm. and F. montaguensis S.W.Arnell with the two new species, is supplied.

  4. Biología reproductiva de los cangrejos ¨Araña¨Leurocyclus tuberculosus y Libinia spinosa (Brachyura, majoidea) del norte de Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    González Pisani, Ximena

    2011-01-01

    La presente tesis tiene por objetivo el estudio de la biología reproductiva de dos especies de Majoidea presentes en los golfos norpatagónicos (41°- 43°S, 64°-65° W), Leurocyclus tuberculosus y Libinia spinosa. Se describió la estrutura del sistema reproductor femenino y masculino mediante observaciones macroscópicas y bajo microscopía óptica y electrónica de barrido. En las hembras se observó la inserción oviducto-receptáculo seminal del tipo “intermedia” y los receptáculos presentaron difer...

  5. Changes in biochemical characteristics and Na and K content of caper (Capparis spinosa L. seedlings under water and salt stress

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    Hossein Sadeghi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of water and salt stress on caper (Capparis spinosa L. seedlings, a randomized complete block design with five replications was carried out in 2013 at Shiraz University, Iran. Water stress had three levels: 100 % (control, 75 %, and 5 % field capacity (FC, and five levels of salinity were applied: 0 (control, 4, 8, 12, and 18 dSm^(−1. The results indicated that salinity had a significantly negative effect on chlorophyll content of caper seedlings, while drought increased this content. The carotenoid content in caper seedlings under water and salinity stress was significantly increased. Proline and total protein content increased also under both salinity and water stress. Antioxidant enzyme activity; superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and ascorbate peroxidase (APX also increased in response of salinity and drought. Salinity stress significantly increased the content of Na^+ in cells but decreased K^+ content. It seems that caper seedlings could tolerate a salinity level up to 4–8 dSm^(−1 as well as water stress of 75 % FC, no significant differences were observed between these two salinity levels, the water stress level and the control. The interaction effect of water stress and salinity had a significant effect on biochemical characteristics of caper. The highest content of carotenoid, proline and total protein content were obtained in 50 % FC and 18 dSm^(−1.The results of biochemical characteristics and leaf content of K+ and Na+ suggest that caper plant is a very tolerant species to salinity and drought stress which make it a suitable crop for most arid and semi-arid regions of Iran.

  6. Analytical Profiling of Bioactive Phenolic Compounds in Argan (Argania spinosa) Leaves by Combined Microextraction by Packed Sorbent (MEPS) and LC-DAD-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercolini, Laura; Protti, Michele; Saracino, Maria Addolorata; Mandrone, Manuela; Antognoni, Fabiana; Poli, Ferruccio

    2016-01-01

    The argan tree (Argania spinosa) is an endemic species from south-western Morocco. Argan-based preparations have been widely used in Moroccan traditional medicine for their biological properties, as well as for several cosmetic purposes. Whereas kernel, pulp of fruit and trunk have been extensively studied for their nutritional and pharmacological effects, relatively little is known about argan tree leaves. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate and characterise the bioactive phenolic fractions in both crude and aqueous extracts derived from argan tree leaves. A qualitative profile of the antioxidant phenolic compounds in argan leaves was obtained by means of structural hypothesis based on UV spectra and mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns. Moreover, selected phenolics were quantified in argan leaves by using a fully validated method based on liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS/MS). All the extracts were purified by a fast and reliable microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) procedure, before analysing them by LC-MS/MS. Based on retention times, mass spectrometric fragmentation and UV spectra, 13 phenolic compounds were identified or tentatively elucidated from crude and aqueous extracts derived from Argania spinosa leaves, while seven compounds were quantified in both extracts. The obtained results could represent a first step towards a complete characterisation of the argan plant, its bioactive profiling and the valorisation of its by-products as a source of potentially beneficial bioactive molecules. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effects of ovule and seed abortion on brood size and fruit costs in the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii (Wall. ex Hook. D. Dietr

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    Ana Calviño

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For several plant species, brood size results from the abortion of ovules and seeds. However, these processes have rarely been studied together in wild plants. In some of the leguminous species studied, seed abortion has been found to depend on pollen quality and on the position of the ovule or fruit. The direct consequence for the mother plant is that fruit costs increase as the seed:ovule ratio decreases. However, because ovule abortion occurs earlier than does seed abortion, the former can reduce the biomass invested per seed (i.e., fruit costs more efficiently than does the latter. Here, the frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds were analyzed in relation to the type of pollination treatment (open pollination vs. hand cross-pollination and ovule/fruit position within pods of the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The influence of ovule and seed abortion on fruit costs was analyzed by comparing the pericarp mass per seed between fruits with different frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds. The rate of ovule abortion was similar between hand cross-pollinated and open-pollinated fruits but was higher than that of seed abortion in one- and two-seeded fruits, as well as in those at stylar positions and in distal fruits. Hand cross-pollination reduced seed abortion but did not increase the seed:ovule ratio. In addition, fruits that aborted ovules were found to be less costly than were those that aborted seeds. From the mother plant perspective, these results indicate that ovule abortion is a more efficient mechanism of reducing fruit costs than is seed abortion, because fertilization opportunities decrease with position, and show that brood size is significantly influenced by the fate of the ovule at the pre-zygotic stage.

  8. Synergy of aminoglycoside antibiotics by 3-Benzylchroman derivatives from the Chinese drug Caesalpinia sappan against clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, G Y; Han, Z Q; Hao, X Y; Han, J; Li, Z S; Wang, G C

    2014-06-15

    The in vitro antimicrobial activities of three 3-Benzylchroman derivatives, i.e. Brazilin (1), Brazilein (2) and Sappanone B (3) from Caesalpinia sappan L. (Leguminosae) were assayed, which mainly dealt with synergistic evaluation of aminoglycoside and other type of antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) by the three compounds through the Chequerboard and Time-kill curve methods. The results showed that Compounds 1-3 alone exhibited moderate to weak activity against methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and other standard strains by MICs/MBCs ranged from 32/64 to >1024/>1024 μg/ml, with the order of activity as 1>2>3. Chequerboard method showed significant anti-MRSA synergy of 1/Aminoglycosides (Gentamicin, Amikacin, Etimicin and Streptomycin) combinations with (FICIs)50 at 0.375-0.5. The combined (MICs)50 values (μg/ml) reduced from 32-128/16-64 to 4-8/4-16, respectively. The percent of reduction by MICs ranged from 50% to 87.5%, with a maximum of 93.8% (1/16 of the alone MIC). Combinations of 2 and 3 with Aminoglycosides and the other antibiotics showed less potency of synergy. The dynamic Time-killing experiment further demonstrated that the combinations of 1/aminoglycoside were synergistically bactericidal against MRSA. The anti-MRSA synergy results of the bacteriostatic (Chequerboard method) and bactericidal (time-kill method) efficiencies of 1/Aminoglycoside combinations was in good consistency, which made the resistance reversed by CLSI guidelines. We concluded that the 3-Benzylchroman derivative Brazilin (1) showed in vitro synergy of bactericidal activities against MRSA when combined with Aminoglycosides, which might be beneficial for combinatory therapy of MRSA infection. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Mobilização de reservas durante a germinação das sementes e crescimento das plântulas de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae Mobilization of the reserves during germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

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    Viviana Borges Corte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. durante a germinação e crescimento inicial das plântulas. As variações nas reservas de carbiodratos, lipídios e proteínas foram analisadas desde o período pré-germinativo (0 a 5 dias após a semeadura - DAS até a total senescência e abscisão dos cotilédones, aos 35 DAS, por meio de testes bioquímicos nos cotilédones das sementes. Os resultados indicaram que os lipídios constituem o principal composto de reserva nos cotilédones, contribuindo com cerca de 50% de massa seca. Carboidratos solúveis representaram 32%, as proteínas solúveis 7,7% e o amido 6,8% de massa seca dos cotilédones. Os lipídios sofreram marcante decréscimo entre 5 e 10 dias após a semeadura, período em que se observou elevada taxa de crescimento das plântulas. Carboidratos e proteínas solúveis exibiram tendência gradativa de queda, enquanto no amido, isso quase não foi detectado. A redução do peso de massa seca dos cotilédones foi bem correlacionada com o aumento da biomassa da plântula.This work aimed at studying the mobilization seed reserves during germination and initial growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. The variations in carbohydrate, lipid and protein reserves were analyzed from the pre-sprouting period (0 to 5 days after sowing -DAS to the total senescence and abscission of seeds. The results showed that lipids constitute the main reserve compound in the cotyledon, contributing with almost 50 % of its dry mass weight. Soluble carbohydrates represent 32 %, the soluble proteins 7.7 % and starch 6.8 % of the dry mass weight of cotyledons. Lipids showed a marked decrease between 5 and 10 days after sowing, period of a high seedling growth rate. Carbohydrates and soluble proteins showed a gradual tendency to decrease, while starch was almost non-detectable. The reduction in cotyledon dry mass of weight

  10. ALTERAÇÕES NA ARQUITETURA TÍPICA DE Tipuana tipu (Benth. O. Kuntze NA ARBORIZAÇÃO DE RUAS DE CURITIBA, PARANÁ

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    Rogério Bobrowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban structure and equipments can restrict the correct development of trees and its typical architecture. Tipuana tipu (Benth. O. Kuntze (rosewood has been pruned continuously for being a species of large size and for being the most planted tree in the city of Curitiba. Because of that, this work aimed to assess the changes in the typical architecture of Tipuana tipu on street trees of Curitiba through completely randomized design containing a check plot composed by 6 trees and a treatment with 6 trees under utility lines and another with 6 trees in streets without utility lines. From horizontal photographs of trees there were obtained dendrometric variables based on a metric scale attached at DBH. Thus, the morphometric indexes were calculated to describe dimensional relationships for the species on trees without pruning (check plot and on pruned trees (treatments. The results showed that raising pruning change typical architecture of rosewood modifying its outline and its form, in addition to harm its aesthetic effect. The indexes that can express changes significantly (p<0.05, were: range index, salience index, crown angle, crown proportion and relation RH/PH.

  11. Influence of cytokinins in combination with GA₃ on shoot multiplication and elongation of tea clone Iran 100 (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze).

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    Gonbad, Reza Azadi; Rani Sinniah, Uma; Aziz, Maheran Abdul; Mohamad, Rosfarizan

    2014-01-01

    The use of in vitro culture has been accepted as an efficient technique for clonal propagation of many woody plants. In the present research, we report the results of a number of experiments aimed at optimizing micropropagation protocol for tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) (clone Iran 100) using nodal segments as the explant. The effect of different combinations and concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGR) (BAP, TDZ, GA₃) on shoot multiplication and elongation was assessed. The influence of exposure to IBA in liquid form prior to transfer to solid media on rooting of tea microshoots was investigated. The results of this study showed that the best treatment for nodal segment multiplication in terms of the number of shoot per explant and shoot elongation was obtained using 3 mg/L BAP in combination with 0.5 mg/L GA₃. TDZ was found to be inappropriate for multiplication of tea clone Iran 100 as it resulted in hyperhydricity especially at concentrations higher than 0.05 mg/L. Healthy shoots treated with 300 mg/L IBA for 30 min followed by transfer to 1/2 strength MS medium devoid of PGR resulted in 72.3% of shoots producing roots and upon transferring them to acclimatization chamber 65% survival was obtained prior to field transfer.

  12. Influence of Cytokinins in Combination with GA3 on Shoot Multiplication and Elongation of Tea Clone Iran 100 (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

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    Gonbad, Reza Azadi; Mohamad, Rosfarizan

    2014-01-01

    The use of in vitro culture has been accepted as an efficient technique for clonal propagation of many woody plants. In the present research, we report the results of a number of experiments aimed at optimizing micropropagation protocol for tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) (clone Iran 100) using nodal segments as the explant. The effect of different combinations and concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGR) (BAP, TDZ, GA3) on shoot multiplication and elongation was assessed. The influence of exposure to IBA in liquid form prior to transfer to solid media on rooting of tea microshoots was investigated. The results of this study showed that the best treatment for nodal segment multiplication in terms of the number of shoot per explant and shoot elongation was obtained using 3 mg/L BAP in combination with 0.5 mg/L GA3. TDZ was found to be inappropriate for multiplication of tea clone Iran 100 as it resulted in hyperhydricity especially at concentrations higher than 0.05 mg/L. Healthy shoots treated with 300 mg/L IBA for 30 min followed by transfer to 1/2 strength MS medium devoid of PGR resulted in 72.3% of shoots producing roots and upon transferring them to acclimatization chamber 65% survival was obtained prior to field transfer. PMID:24605069

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of the biosynthesis, recycling, and distribution of ascorbic acid during leaf development in tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze).

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    Li, Hui; Huang, Wei; Wang, Guang-Long; Wang, Wen-Li; Cui, Xin; Zhuang, Jing

    2017-04-10

    Ascorbic acid (AsA), known as vitamin C, is an essential nutrient for humans and mainly absorbed from food. Tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) leaves can be a dietary source of AsA for humans. However, experimental evidence on the biosynthesis, recycling pathway and distribution of AsA during leaf development in tea plants is unclear. To gain insight into the mechanism and distribution of AsA in the tea plant leaf, we identified 18 related genes involved in AsA biosynthesis and recycling pathway based on the transcriptome database of tea plants. Tea plant leaves were used as samples at different developmental stages. AsA contens in tea plant leaves at three developmental stages were measured by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The correlations between expression levels of these genes and AsA contents during the development of tea plant leaves were discussed. Results indicated that the l-galactose pathway might be the primary pathway of AsA biosynthesis in tea plant leaves. CsMDHAR and CsGGP might play a regulatory role in AsA accumulation in the leaves of three cultivars of tea plants. These findings may provide a further glimpse to improve the AsA accumulation in tea plants and the commercial quality of tea.

  14. Healing mechanisms of the hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of green tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) on chronic gastric ulcers.

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    Borato, Débora Gasparin; Scoparo, Camila Toledo; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; da Silva, Luísa Mota; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Iacomini, Marcello; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko

    2016-03-01

    Green tea is an infusion of unfermented leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (Theaceae), traditionally used for the treatment of obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and gastric complaints. This study evaluated the mechanisms involved in the gastric ulcer healing of the hydroalcoholic extract from green tea (GEt), its ethyl acetate fraction, (GEAc) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) using the model of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The chronic gastric ulcer was induced by application of 80 % acetic acid on serosal mucosa of rats. After 7 days of oral treatment with GEt and GEAc, the ulcer area, mucin content, inflammatory parameters (MPO and NAG), and antioxidant system (GSH and LOOH levels, SOD and GST activities) were evaluated. In vitro, the scavenging activity of GEt and GEAc were also measured. The antisecretory action was studied on the pylorus ligature method in rats. Oral treatment with GEt and GEAc reduced significantly the gastric ulcer area induced by acetic acid. The gastric ulcer healing was accompanied by increasing of mucin content, restoration of GSH levels and SOD activity, and reduction of MPO and LOOH levels. In addition, GEt and GEAc reduced the DPPH free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, the oral treatment of animals with GEt and GEAc did not alter the gastric acid secretion or cause signs of toxicity. Collectively, these results showed that GEt had a pronounced antiulcer effect, possibly through maintenance of mucin content and reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress. In addition, the compounds present in its ethyl acetate fraction could be responsible for the extract activity.

  15. Bioactive components of caper (Capparis spinosa L.) from Sicily and antioxidant effects in a red meat simulated gastric digestion.

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    Tesoriere, L; Butera, D; Gentile, C; Livrea, M A

    2007-10-17

    An increasing body of evidence on the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and healthy status is being accumulated. Floral buds of Capparis spinosa L. are commonly used in the Mediterranean cuisine as flavoring for meat and other foods. The present study evaluated bioactive components and antioxidant activity of Sicilian capers stabilized in salt. Whereas alpha-tocopherol was absent, low levels of gamma-tocopherol and vitamin C were measured. With reference to one serving size (8.6 g of capers), rutin was 13.76 mg, isothiocyanates, recently acknowledged as anticarcinogen phytochemicals, were 42.14 micromol, total phenols were 4.19 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE), and the total antioxidant potential measured using the [2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] diammonium salt (ABTS) cation radical decolorization assay was 25.8 micromol of Trolox equivalents. The antioxidative activity of a caper hydrophilic extract was assessed in a number of assays. The extract at 3.5 and 7.0 microM GAE exhibited a dose-dependent peroxyl radical scavenging activity in a methyl linoleate methanol solution oxidized by azo initiator, and reduced hypervalent iron myoglobin species formed from met-Mb an H 2O 2, at 180 microM GAE. The hydrophilic extract, at 70-280 microM GAE, caused a dose-dependent inhibition of lipid autoxidation in heated red meat, incubated with simulated gastric fluid for 180 min. In the same model rutin tested at a concentration corresponding to its content in the extract was ineffective, and alpha-tocopherol at 25 microM was poorly effective. The hydrophilic extract (70 microM GAE) prevented the consumption of the co-incubated alpha-tocopherol, whereas lipid oxidation was inhibited for the experimental time, suggesting cooperative interactions between extract components and the vitamin. The findings encourage the use of caper with foods that contribute oxidizable lipids in view of the association between dietary oxidized lipids

  16. Feeding habits of the spider crab Libinia spinosa H. Milne Edwards, 1834 (Decapoda, Brachyura in Ubatuba bay, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Samara de Paiva Barros

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was the identification of the items of the diet of the L. spinosa, based on the stomach contents analysis. The crabs were obtained from Ubatuba region north-eastern shore of São Paulo State. In the laboratory, all the individuals were dissected, the stomach was retreated and fixed in 10% formaline. The alimentary items were identified under stereomicroscope and analysed by the method of Frequency of Occurrence. A total of 194 stomachs was analysed and nine alimentary items were obtained. Unindentified material was found in 98% of analysed stomach and poriferan were present in less then 1% of stomachs. These results pointed a diversified diet explored by this crab, as well as the employment of some different methods for food intake. This suggested that these crabs could occupy different position in the trophic chain.O objetivo deste trabalho é identificar os itens alimentares que compõem a dieta de L. spinosa, por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal. Os caranguejos foram coletados no litoral norte paulista (23º25’S-45º00’W. No laboratório, todos indivíduos foram dissecados, os estômagos foram retirados e fixados em formol 10%. Os itens alimentares foram identificados sob estereomicroscópio, sendo que para a análise foi utilizado o método Freqüência de Ocorrência. Foram analisados 194 estômagos, nos quais foram encontrados nove itens alimentares. A maior freqüência foi para material não identificado, ocorrendo em 98% dos estômagos analisados e Porifera foi o item com a menor freqüência, ocorrendo em menos de 1% dos estômagos. Com base nos resultados obtidos, sugere-se que o caranguejo L. spinosa apresenta uma dieta diversificada, sugerindo a utilização de diferentes métodos para a obtenção de alimento e por conseqüência podendo ocupar vários níveis na cadeia trófica.

  17. Comparative study of microflora in Rhizospheric soils of Argania spinosa and Acacia raddiana of the arid zone from Oued El Ma (Tindouf)

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    Tissouras, Fatiha; Habib, Semira; Missoum, Malika; Louacini, Braim Kamel

    2016-04-01

    Desert soils occupy a large area in Algeria (80Moreover, exploitation of the Saharan soil microorganisms has several interests and especially in maintaining the ecological equilibrium of ecosystems. Unfortunately, few of microbiological studies have been conducted so far about the Saharan soil Algerian, with the exception of some work done on the desert soils in the region of Beni Ounif. This work falls within the framework of Project CNEPRU F02320100009. The study focuses on an evaluation of the main germs rhizosphere soils from Argania spinosa and Acacia raddiana of the region of Oued El-ma (wilaya of Tindouf), located in southwest Algeria, followed by physicochemical analysis of some parameters (soil texture, pH, moisture content, organic matter). The results reveal that both rhizosphere soils have a sandy silt texture of alkali pH, with very low water content slightly different. Organic material of the rate varies from 0.2 to 1The type of vegetation influences positively the quantity and the dynamics of microbial population. Indeed, the two soils have an interesting microbial diversity, with densities of azotobacters, fungi, aerobic bacteria and actinomycetes are very high, followed germs ammonifiants, nitrifying and denitrifying. In the presence of Argania spinosa the microbial growth is most important (6.53 × 107 germs /g soil), compared with Acacia raddiana (3.13 × 107 germs /g). This shows the stimulating effect of the vegetation on the increase in the rate of these microorganisms in the soil. Well as the strong Fitness of adaptation the microbial biomass to drought. Keywords: Argania spinoza; Acacia raddiana; rhizospheric soil; microbiology evaluation.

  18. Changes of growth, photosynthesis and alteration of leaf antioxidative defence system of tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] seedlings under aluminum stress.

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    Mukhopadyay, Mainaak; Bantawa, Pranay; Das, Akan; Sarkar, Bipasa; Bera, Biswajit; Ghosh, Parthadeb; Mondal, Tapan Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is an aluminum (Al) hyperaccumulator plant and is commercially important due to its high content of antioxidants. Although Al induced growth is well-known for the plants growing in acid soil, yet the cause underlying the stimulatory effect of Al has not been fully understood. To investigate the possible role of Al in growth induction, we studied morphological, physiological as well as biochemical changes of tea plant under different Al concentrations (0-4,000 μM). In hydroponics, Al (15 μM), enhanced shoot and root growth, but at higher concentrations, it caused oxidative damage which culminated in a cascade of biochemical changes, Al content increased concurrently with the maturity of the leaf as well as stem tissues than their younger counterparts. Hematoxylin staining indicated that Al accumulation started after 6 h of exposure in the tips of young roots and accumulation was dose dependent. The physiological parameters such as pigments, photosynthetic rate, transpiration and stomatal conductance were declined due to Al toxicity. Alteration in activated oxygen metabolism was also evidenced by increasing lipid peroxidation, membrane injury, evolution of superoxide anions and accumulation of H(2)O(2). Contents of phenols initially exhibited an acceleration which gradually plummeted at higher levels whereas total sugar and starch contents decimated beyond 15 μM of Al concentration. Activities of antioxidant defense enzymes were increased with the elevated concentration of Al. Expression of citrate synthase gene was up-regulated in the mature leaves, young as well as old roots simultaneously with increased concentration of Al in those parts; indicating the formation of Al-citrate complex. These results cooperatively specified that Al concentration at lower level promoted growth but turned out to be a stressor at elevated stages indicating the sensitivity of the cultivar (T-78) to Al.

  19. Influence of phenolic compounds of Kangra tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O Kuntze] on bacterial pathogens and indigenous bacterial probiotics of Western Himalayas.

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    Sourabh, Aditi; Kanwar, S S; Sud, R G; Ghabru, Arti; Sharma, O P

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds of nutraceutical importance viz., catechins (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) were estimated in fresh green tea shoots of Camellia sinensis (L) O Kuntze cultivar. The total polyphenols and total catechins were in the range of 219.90 to 317.81 and 140.83 to 271.39 g/kg, respectively in monthly samples of tea. The values of C, EC, EGC, EGCG and ECG in tea powders as analyzed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were in the range of 1.560 to 3.661, 13.338 to 27.766, 26.515 to 39.597, 62.903 to 102.168 and 18.969 to 39.469 mg/g, respectively. Effect of tea extracts and standard flavanols against five pathogenic bacteria viz., Listeria monocytogenes (MTCC-839), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC-741), Bacillus cereus (MTCC-1272), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-96) and Escherichia coli (MTCC-443), and eleven indigenous potential bacterial probiotics belonging to genera Enterococcus, Bacillus and Lactobacillus spp. obtained from fermented foods of Western Himalayas, was investigated. EGCG, ECG and EGC exhibited antibacterial activity but, C and EC did not show this activity. Tea extracts having high concentrations of EGCG and ECG were more potent in antibacterial action against bacterial pathogens. Tea extracts and standard flavan-3-ols augmented viability of potential probiotics in an order of EGCG > EGC > ECG > EC > C. Tea extracts and standard flavanols had no antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (MTCC-443) but, in combination with probiotic culture supernatants, this activity was seen. The Kangra tea thus, exerts antibacterial effect on bacterial pathogens through EGCG, ECG and EGC constituents while stimulatory effect on growth of indigenous potential probiotics.

  20. Expression profile analysis of ascorbic acid-related genes in response to temperature stress in the tea plant, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze.

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    Li, H; Huang, W; Wang, G L; Wu, Z J; Zhuang, J

    2016-10-05

    Ascorbic acid (AsA), also known as ascorbate or vitamin C, is a natural organic compound in green plants that has antioxidant properties, and is an essential nutrient for humans. The tea plant, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze, is an important global economic crop. Here, the expression profiles of genes related to AsA biosynthesis and recycling were analyzed in tea plants in response to temperature stress. Eighteen genes involved in AsA biosynthesis and recycling pathways were identified based on the transcriptome database. The expression levels of CsPGI1 in two varieties of tea plants ('Yingshuang' and 'Huangjinya') increased, peaked at 4 h, and then decreased in response to cold stress. In 'Yingshuang', the genes involved in AsA biosynthesis pathway rapidly responded to heat stress and substantially increased their expression levels at 1 h. The expression levels of CsMDHAR, CsDHAR1, and CsDHAR2 increased sharply at 1 h in response to heat stress in 'Yingshuang'. In contrast, the expression levels of CsMDHAR, CsDHAR1, and CsDHAR2 in 'Huangjinya' gradually increased during heat treatment from 1 to 24 h. The expression trends of two DHAR isoforms differed in 'Huangjinya' during cold stress. The expression patterns of AsA-related genes differed in the different tea plant varieties and depended on temperature. The genes involved in AsA biosynthesis and recycling pathways were induced by heat and cold stress. Our study provides useful data with which to improve the resistance of tea plants to cold and heat stress.

  1. Atividade hepatoprotetora do extrato alcoólico da Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (chá-verde em ratos Wistar tratados com dietilnitrosamina

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    Wanderlei Onofre Schmitz

    Full Text Available O chá-verde (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze é utilizado por suas propriedades: antioxidante, quimioprotetora e antiinflamatória em varias situações patológicas, principalmente frente a compostos químicos cancerígenos. Para tanto se avaliou o efeito hepatoprotetor do extrato de chá verde (ECV sobre a lipoperoxidação e necrose provocada pelo agente cancerígeno Dietilnitrosamina (DEN no fígado de ratos machos Wistar. Os ratos foram expostos a dose única de 200 mg/kg de DEN via intra peritoneal e tratados por via oral de 120 mg/kg de ECV em diferentes momentos experimentais. Após 24 h em relação a exposição ao DEN, os animais foram sacrificados sendo avaliado: os níveis de AST/ALT no plasma, a lipoperoxidação por quantificação de TBARS e FOX no fígado e a ocorrência de necrose e hemorragia hepática através do estudo histopatológico. A ação quimioprotetora e a diminuição da lipoperoxidação foram verificadas pela diminuição das transaminases, TBARS, FOX e redução da necrose hepática. A avaliação confirmou a importância de se utiliza o chá verde como agente quimioprotetor, principalmente na forma preventiva.

  2. Morfologia foliar de indivíduos jovens e adultos de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. numa floresta semidecídua do Sul da Bahia Leaf morphology of saplings and adult individuals of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. in a semidecidual forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil

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    Maria Cristina Sanches

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae é uma espécie arbórea que ocorre naturalmente no interior da floresta e atinge os estratos superiores do dossel por meio de pequenas clareiras. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, comparar alguns aspectos da morfologia foliar entre indivíduos adultos, cujas folhas se encontravam em pleno sol e jovens no sub-bosque. O estudo foi realizado numa floresta semidecídua, localizada no Município de Jussari, Bahia. Inicialmente, foram localizados e marcados oito indivíduos adultos e oito jovens para cada adulto. Foram coletadas e analisadas oito folhas para cada adulto e três para cada jovem, em duas épocas (setembro/novembro de 2004 e abril de 2005. Em geral, as áreas das folhas, das ráquis e dos folíolos, o comprimento das ráquis, a largura das folhas, o número de pinas e a massa seca das folhas foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos jovens, ao passo que as massas específicas das folhas e dos folíolos foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos adultos. Tanto nos adultos quanto nos jovens, nas duas épocas de coleta foram verificadas relações altamente significativas entre a massa seca e a área das folhas. Os resultados indicaram que folhas de C. echinata apresentam características que maximizam a absorção de luz onde este recurso é limitante e, ao mesmo tempo, direcionam maior alocação de carbono para os tecidos de suporte. Tais resultados estão de acordo com o observado no estádio sucessional da espécie analisada e com a sua estratégia de ocupação dos espaços gerados pela formação de pequenas clareiras, em ambiente de mata semidecídua.Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae is a tree species that naturally regenerates in the forest understory and reaches the upper canopy through small gaps. We conducted a study with the objective of comparing some aspects of leaf morphology of adult individuals, in which the leaves were exposed to full sunlight, and saplings

  3. Histochemical aspects of reserves mobilization of Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae seeds during germination and seedlings early growth Estudo Histoquímico da mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae durante a germinação e crescimento inicial

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    Viviana Borges Corte

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate reserve mobilization in Caesalpinia peltophoroides seeds during germination and initial seedling growth. The variation in these compounds was analyzed from the pre-germination period (0 to 5 days after sowing - DAS to the total cotyledon senescence and abscission at 35 DAS. For this histochemical tests were made on cotyledons fixed in FAA50 or included in glycol-metacrylate. To follow the mobilization of the main reserve compounds, sudan III was used to detect total lipids, xylidine Ponceau to detect total proteins, lugol to detect starch and polarized light to visualize the crystals. The lipids, present in a great quantity in the cotyledon, gradually decreased in the period studied. A greater quantity of starch was observed on the 10th DAS than in the previous periods and it was totally consumed by 30 DAS. The distribution pattern and the morphology of the protein material were very modified by 10 DAS, a period during which it was intensely consumed, remaining only parietally fragments distributed, that practically disappeared at 25 DAS. The calcium oxalate druses were not consumed during the period studied, there was only crystal agglutination.Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. durante a germinação e crescimento inicial das plântulas. As variações nesses compostos foram analisadas desde o período pré-germinativo (0 a 5 dias após a semeadura - DAS até a total senescência e abscisão dos cotilédones, aos 35 DAS. Para isso, foram realizados testes histoquímicos em cotilédones fixados em FAA50 ou incluídos em glicol-metacrilato. Para acompanhamento da mobilização dos principais compostos de reserva, foi usado o sudan III para detecção de lipídios totais, xylidine Ponceau para proteínas totais, Lugol para amido e luz polarizada para visualização dos cristais. Os lipídios, presentes em maior

  4. Meios de cultura, reguladores de crescimento e fontes de nitrogênio na regulação da calogênese do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Culture media, growth regulators and nitrogen sources in callus formation regulation of Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.

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    Elias Terra Werner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A regulação da calogênese é o primeiro passo para a embriogênese somática indireta in vitro. Nesse sentido, foram investigados os efeitos de diferentes meios de cultura, reguladores de crescimento e fontes nitrogenadas no desenvolvimento de calos em tecidos foliares de Caesalpinia echinata (pau-brasil. Explantes foliares foram cultivados em meios de cultura MS, B5, White e WPM. Testou-se, também, o efeito dos compostos nitrogenados (NH4NO3, KNO3 e glutamina e a interação entre auxinas (2,4-D, AIA e AIB e citocininas (BAP e KIN na desdiferenciação celular indicado pela formação de calos. Os meios MS, B5 e White não foram significantemente diferentes e proporcionaram melhores resultados. Em meio MS contendo as fontes nitrogenadas 2,4 g L-1 NH4NO3 e 1,35 g L-1 glutamina + 4,11 g L-1 de KNO3 na presença de 1,0 mg L-1 2,4-D e 5,0 mg L-1 BAP ocorreu maior proliferação celular indicada pela massa fresca dos calos. As combinações dos reguladores 0,5 mg L-1 2,4-D + 5 mg L-1 BAP e 0,5 mg L-1 AIB + 5,0 mg L-1 BAP suplementado com 2,4 g L-1 NH4NO3 em meio MS estimularam o crescimento dos calos. De maneira geral, os calos apresentaram aspectos friáveis, não embriogênicos, com acúmulo de fenóis e presença de áreas meristemáticas (meristemóides.The regulation of callus formation is the first step to indirect somatic embryogenesis in vitro. Therefore, we investigated hormonal and nutrient factors on development of callus in leaf tissues of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood. Explants were cultivated in culture media MS, B5, WPM, and White. The effect of nitrogen sources (NH4NO3, KNO3 and glutamine and the interaction between auxins (2,4-D, IAA and IBA and cytokinins (BAP and KIN were also evaluated. Media MS, B5 and White were not significantly different and provided better results. MS medium containing 2.4 g L-1 NH4NO3, 1.35 g L-1 glutamine, and 4.11 g L-1 of KNO3 in the presence of 1 mg.L-1 2,4-D and 5 mg.L-1 BAP increased cellular

  5. Enraizamento de estacas de Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. tratadas com ácido indol butírico e ácido naftaleno acético Rooting cuttings of Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. treated with indole butyric acid and naphthalene acetic acid

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    Laurício Endres

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. tem grande valor cultural no Brasil e a sua propagação por sementes é dificultada pela rápida perda do poder germinativo delas. A estaquia pode ser usada para a produção de mudas de espécies florestais, principalmente quando existem algumas dificuldades de propagação por sementes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar o efeito de concentrações e fontes de auxinas sobre o enraizamento de estacas de pau-brasil. Estacas com cerca de 12cm de comprimento e de um a dois pares de folhas foram tratadas na base com ácido indol butírico (AIB, ácido naftaleno acético (ANA na forma líquida ou na forma de pó nas concentrações de 0, 1.250, 2.500, 5.000, 10.000mg L-1 ou mg Kg-1, respectivamente. As estacas foram transferidas para substrato contendo areia e mantidas sob nebulização (90-95% UR. Aos 120 dias de estaquia, foram avaliados a mortalidade, a retenção foliar, a formação de calo e a percentagem de estacas enraizadas. As estacas apresentaram índices de sobrevivência de até 70%. A formação de calos não foi relacionada com a concentração de auxinas utilizadas. O maior índice de enraizamento de estacas de pau-brasil, em torno de 16%, foi resgistrada com a utilização do ácido indolbutírico (AIB e do ácido naftalenoacético (ANA na concentração 2.500mg L-1. Os altos índices de sobrevivência e os baixos índices de enraizamento sugerem que as estacas devem permanecer por mais tempo sob nebulização, a fim de induzir o seu processo de enraizamento.The 'pau-brasil' tree (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. have a high cultural value in Brazil and its seed propagation is very difficult because of its rapid losses of germination potential. Cuttings propagation has been considered as alternative method to propagate forest species that seed propagation is poor. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA and naphthalene acetic (NAA acid on

  6. N-butanol extract of Capparis spinosa L. induces apoptosis primarily through a mitochondrial pathway involving mPTP open, cytochrome C release and caspase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yu-Bin; Yu, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Capparis spinosa L., a Uygur medicine, had been shown to have anti-tumor activity in our early experiments with an N-butanol extract (CSBE) as its active fraction. However, the mechanisms responsible for its effects are not clearly understood. Here, we report that treatment of SGC-7901 cells with CSBE resulted in dose-dependent reduction of cell viability and induction of apoptosis. To observe the inhibitory and killing effects of CSBE on SGC-7901, the SRB method was adopted, apoptosis being observed by electron microscopy. To clarify the mechanisms of apoptosis, Western blot and enzyme-labeled methods were used to examine the release of cytochrome c (Cyt c) and the activation of the caspase cascade. By electron microscopy, apoptotic morphologic changes were detectable after CSBE administration. In this study, it was also demonstrated that CSBE induced apoptosis in SGC-7901 cells by inhibiting mPTP open, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. The findings indicated that CSBE induces apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway.

  7. Capparis spinosa L. (Caper) fruit extract in treatment of type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huseini, Hassan Fallah; Hasani-Rnjbar, Shirin; Nayebi, Neda; Heshmat, Ramin; Sigaroodi, Farahnaz Khaliqi; Ahvazi, Maryam; Alaei, Behroz Abbasi; Kianbakht, Saeed

    2013-10-01

    Capparis spinosa L. (Caper) fruit is traditionally used as an anti-hyperglycemic food by Iranian diabetic patients. But yet, no controlled human study has determined its efficacy in treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients. The present study was undertaken to explore the possible anti-hyperglycemic effects of the caper fruit extract in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized clinical trial was conducted in 54 type 2 diabetic patients. Two groups 28 and 26 patients on standard anti-diabetic therapy, received 400mg caper fruit extract and placebo capsules three times a day respectively for two months. The patients fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipids levels, liver and renal function tests were determined at baseline and endpoint. Results showed significant decrease in fasting blood glucose levels (p=0.037) and glycosylated hemoglobin (p=0.043) in caper treated patients compared to control group at the end of the study. Triglyceride level also decreased significantly (p=0.29) in caper treated group at the end of the study compared to baseline. No liver, kidney and other side effects were observed in these two groups. Caper fruit extract may be a safe anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hypertriglyceridemic agent for type 2 diabetic patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative analysis of some biochemical parameters of argan pulp morphotypes (Argania spinosa (L) Skeels) during maturity and according to the continentality in Essaouira region (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhar, Nawal; Naamani, Khalid; Dihazi, Abdelhi; Jaiti, Fatima; El Keroumi, Abderrahim

    2016-07-01

    Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels is an endemic forest tree for Morocco. The phytochemical compounds evaluation of four different morphotypes of their fruit pulps was investigated. The total content of sugar, protein and phenolic compounds were monitored during three different stages of maturation in the semi-continental (Mejji) and littoral regions (R'zwa). Total sugars, proteins, phenolics increased up to the ripe stage of all argan fruit morphotypes in the two regions. Spherical shape had higher sugar and protein content than other morphotypes. A significant difference (p < 0.05), was demonstrated by Pearson's test, between the different morphotypes at three stages studied for all the phytochemicals compounds. Likewise, ANOVA test established that the variation of this compounds was influenced by the stage of maturation and/or region of development and/or their interaction according to fruit shape. Results from this study revealed that the increase of these parameters level take place for the most part during the last stages of maturity which synchronize with fruit softening. Furthermore, our results showed information about the richness of argan fruit pulp in carbohydrates compounds and secondary metabolites as the possibility of their contribution in nutritive forage value especially at ripe stage.

  9. Phytochemical analyses of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa seed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bao; Yang, Hongshun; Chen, Feng; Hua, Yanglin; Jiang, Yueming

    2013-11-21

    Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Z. jujuba) seeds have attracted much attention within the field of medicine due to their significant effects against disturbances of the central nervous system. Secondary metabolites composition is key to the influence of the pharmaceutical and commercial qualities of this plant. In this work, the phytochemical profile of Z. jujuba seeds was analysed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The UPLC-MS/MS information identified the main secondary metabolites in Z. jujuba seeds, including flavonoid C-glycosides, triterpene acids and unsaturated fatty acids. The leading chemical identified by UPLC-MS/MS was betulinic acid, and oleic acid was the leading volatile from the GC-MS results. All the samples tested showed similar phytochemical profiles, but levels of the chemical compounds varied. Principal component analysis revealed the principal secondary metabolites that could define the differences in quality. It was confirmed that the combination of UPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS was an effective technique to demonstrate the pharmaceutical quality of Z. jujuba seeds.

  10. Identification and characterization of flavonoids from semen zizyphi spinosae by high-performance liquid chromatography/linear ion trap FTICR hybrid mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chun-Yan; Wu, Cai-Sheng; Sheng, Yu-Xin; Zhang, Jin-Lan

    2010-04-01

    Semen zizyphi spinosae (SZS) has been used to treat insomnia and anxiety for thousands of years. In this paper, a novel high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with the photodiode array detector/linear ion trap-MS(n) (HPLC-PDA/LTQ-MS(n)) method was established to separate and identify flavonoids from the extract of SZS. Separation was performed on an HYPERSIL C(18) column by gradient elution using CH(3)CN/H(2)O-CH(3)COOH as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. UV spectral data, accurate molecular weights, and multi-stage MS/MS fragmentation information were obtained. Electrospray ionization/MS/MS fragmentation patterns were proposed. Nineteen flavonoid glycosides were identified or tentatively characterized based on their retention time, UV spectral data, accurate molecular weights, and mass fragmentation behavior. The method was useful for separation and identification of the flavonoid components from SZS and could be applied to other complex samples, especially for minor constituents.

  11. Comparative trial of moisturizer containing spent grain wax, Butyrospermum parkii extract, Argania spinosa kernel oil vs. 1% hydrocortisone cream in the treatment of childhood atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirabundansuk, Panaya; Ophaswongse, Suwirakorn; Udompataikul, Montree

    2014-08-01

    To compare an efficacy of a moisturizer containing spent grain wax, Butyrospermum parkii extract, Argania spinosa kernel oil (S) with 1% hydrocortisone cream (HC) for the treatment of mild to moderate atopic dermatitis. Twenty-nine patients, age between 2 and 15 years old with mild to moderate atopic dermatitis were enrolled The body was randomly divided to left and right side. One side was applied with S cream and the other side was applied with HC cream twice daily for four weeks. Observation of recurrence rate after remission was recorded. Clinical outcomes were analyzed by using the scoring ofAtopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) score. Statistical analysis was done by using descriptive statistics, pair t-test, one-way repeated ANOVA, and McNemar's test. It was demonstrated that both agents had improvement of SCORAD score after two weeks, with statistically significant difference (p0.05). Although the S cream side had higher remission rate than the HC cream side, there was no statistically significant difference (p> 0. 05). S cream was as effective as HC cream in the treatment and maintenance period of mild to moderate childhood atopic dermatitis.

  12. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae) Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ming-Li; Yin, Lin-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF). SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity.

  13. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions

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    Qian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF. SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity.

  14. KANDUNGAN KATEKIN DAN KUALITAS (WARNA AIR SEDUHAN, FLAVOR, KENAMPAKAN ENAM KLON TEH (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze DI KETINGGIAN YANG BERBEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyadi Mitrowihardjo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Catechins Content and Quality (Colour, Flavor, Appearance of Six Tea Clones (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze at Different Altitude Growings  ABSTRAK Penelitian bertujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi klon-klon yang dapat memberikan katekin dan kualitas hasil yang tinggi yang diharapkan bermanfaat sebagai arahan perbaikan dalam pengembangan tanaman teh ke depan. Ketinggian tempat tumbuh (1200 – 1300 m dari permukaan laut dan 700 – 900 m dari permukaan laut yang diduga berpengaruh terhadap kualitas hasil juga dievaluasi, karena terkait dengan ketersediaan lahan pengembangan. Analisis catechin (C, epicatechin (EC, epigallocatechin (EGC, epicatechin gallate (ECG, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG dilakukan dengan metode HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography, sedang evaluasi kualitas (warna air seduhan, flavor, kenampakan dilakukan oleh tiga orang tester teh bersertifi kat. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa total katekin yang tinggi diperlihatkan TRI 2025, PGL 10, GMB 9 di lokasi ketinggian 1200-1300 m dpl, dan total katekin tinggi juga diperlihatkan PGL 15, GMB 9, dan PGL 10 di lokasi ketinggian 700 – 900 m dpl. Skor warna air seduhan tidak menunjukkan perbedaan antar klon maupun antar lokasi, namun skor flavor GMB 7 dan PGL 15 unggul di lokasi atas maupun di lokasi bawah. Ada kecenderungan skor fl avor lebih unggul di lokasi bawah dibanding dengan lokasi atas. Skor kenampakan ampas setelah teh diseduh tinggi untuk PGL 15, TRI 2025, dan GMB 9 di lokasi atas, sedang TRI 2025 tinggi di lokasi bawah. Serupa dengan skor fl avor, skor kenampakan ampas teh berkecenderungan unggul di lokasi bawah. Kata kunci: Teh, ketinggian tempat, katekin, kualitas (warna air seduhan, fl avor, kenampakan  ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to fi nd out high catechins content and quality of six tea clones which might contribute to tea clone improvements in the future. Altitudes growing (1200 – 1300 m above sea level and 700 – 900 m above sea level which

  15. Evaluación in vitro de la actividad antimicrobiana del aceite esencial de sunfo (CLINOPODIUM NUBIGENUM (KUNTH) KUNTZE) frente a patógenos de enfermedades respiratorias (STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ATCC: 25923, STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES ATCC: 19615, STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE ATCC: 49619 Y STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS ATCC: 25175. /

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca Chasipanta, Evelyn Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Ecuador has a wide biodiversity of medicinal plants from different regions of the country, most of medicinal plants are used as such based on ancestral knowledge rather not have scientific knowledge of their medicinal properties although there are few studies on the Andean plants Ecuador, is not scientific information on the antibacterial activity of sunfo (Clinopodium nubigenum (Kunth) Kuntze.). In this experimental work the antimicrobial activity of essential oil sunfo. ...

  16. Distinctive patterns of callose deposition provide an early sign of ovule abortion1 in the andromonoecious shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii Patrones distintivos de deposición de calosa proveen evidencia temprana de aborto de óvulos en el arbusto andromonoico Caesalpinia gilliesii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Calviño

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ovule abortion may lead to the partial or complete reduction of the number of functional ovules in the ovary and then is the primary factor that determines the sexual expression of the plant. In different species, ovule abortion was associated with the presence of callose in advanced ovules. Based on these observations, we studied the pattern of ovule development and callose deposition in both perfect and staminate flowers of the andromonoecious shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The obtained results showed that all ovules reached the 8-nucleate stage of embryo sac development and exhibited callose deposition at advanced stages. Nevertheless, from the 2-nucleate stage, a distinct spatial pattern of callose deposition within the ovule was observed between perfect and staminate flowers. Differences in callose deposition suggest that not callose per se but its distribution pattern in the ovule tissues is the main factor that triggers ovule isolation and abortion and leads to flowers with non-functional pistils in this species. Furthermore, previous observed differential growth rates between perfect and staminate flowers support for resource depletion as the likely underlying mechanism of ovule fate in C. gilliesii.El aborto de óvulos puede llevar a la reducción parcial o completa de óvulos fértiles en el ovario, pudiendo ser entonces un factor primario que determine la expresión sexual de toda la planta. En diferentes especies de plantas, el aborto de los óvulos ha sido asociado con la presencia de calosa en estadios avanzados del desarrollo de los óvulos. Basado en estas observaciones, se estudiaron el desarrollo de los óvulos y el patrón de deposición de calosa tanto en flores perfectas como estaminadas en el arbusto andromonoico C. gilliesii. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que los sacos embrionarios alcanzan el estadio de desarrollo 8-nucleado en todos los óvulos, y que presentan deposición de calosa en los estadios avanzados. Sin

  17. Anti-inflammatory potential of Capparis spinosa L. in vivo in mice through inhibition of cell infiltration and cytokine gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Azhary, Khadija; Tahiri Jouti, Nadia; El Khachibi, Meryam; Moutia, Mouna; Tabyaoui, Imane; El Hou, Abdelhalim; Achtak, Hafid; Nadifi, Sellama; Habti, Norddine; Badou, Abdallah

    2017-01-31

    Several chronic inflammatory diseases are characterized by inappropriate CD4+ T cell response. In the present study, we assessed the ability of Capparis spinosa L. (CS) preparation to orientate, in vivo, the immune response mediated by CD4+ T cells towards an anti-inflammatory response. The in vivo study was carried out by using the contact hypersensitivity (CHS) model in Swiss mice. Then we performed a histological analysis followed by molecular study by using real time RT-PCR. We also realized a phytochemical screening and a liquid-liquid separation of CS preparation. Our study allowed us to detect a significantly reduced edema in mice treated with CS preparations relative to control. CS effect was dose dependent, statistically similar to that observed with indomethacin, independent of the plant genotype and of the period of treatment. Furthermore, our histology studies revealed that CS induced a significant decrease in immune cell infiltration, in vasodilatation and in dermis thickness in the inflammatory site. Interestingly, we showed that CS operated by inhibiting cytokine gene expression including IFNγ, IL-17 and IL-4. Besides, phytochemical screening of CS extract showed the presence of several chemical families such as saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids. One (hexane fraction) out of the three distinct prepared fractions, exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect similar to that of the raw preparation, and would likely contain the bioactive(s) molecule(s). Altogether, our data indicate that CS regulates inflammation induced in vivo in mice and thus could be a source of anti-inflammatory molecules, which could be used in some T lymphocyte-dependent inflammatory diseases.

  18. Assessment of genetic diversity and population structure of an endemic Moroccan tree (Argania spinosa L.) based in IRAP and ISSR markers and implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhrou, Ouafae; Medraoui, Leila; Yatrib, Chaimaa; Alami, Mohammed; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Belkadi, Bouchra

    2017-07-01

    Argan Tree is well known for its precious oil extracted from its seeds particularly used for the nutritional and cosmetic benefits. Because of the high international demand, the argan tree suffers from overexploitation and its cultivation is rare. Thus, the assessment of the genetic variation of this endemic tree is critically important for designing conservation strategies. In the present study and for the first time, genetic diversity of the global natural distribution of argan tree (Argania spinosa L.) in Morocco was assessed. Four IRAP (inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism) primer combinations and seven ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) primers amplified 164 and 248 scorable polymorphic bands respectively. Polymorphic information content (PIC = 0.27), resolving power (Rp = 15) and marker index (MI = 10.81) generated by IRAP primer combinations were almost identical to those generated by ISSR primers (PIC = 0.27, Rp = 9.16 and MI = 12). AMOVA analysis showed that 49% of the genetic variation was partitioned within populations which is supported by Nei's genetic differentiation (Gst = 0.5391) and the overall estimate of gene flow (Nm) being 0.4274. The STRUCTURE analysis, PCoA (principal coordinate analysis) and UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean) based on the combined data matrices of IRAP and ISSR divided the 240 argan genotypes into two groups. The strong differentiation observed might be due to the geographical distribution of argan tree. Our results provide crucial insight for genetic conservation programs of this genetic resource.

  19. Rapid characterization of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen by UPLC/Qtof MS with novel informatics platform and its application in evaluation of two seeds from Ziziphus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-xiang; Li, Min; Qiao, Li-rui; Yao, Zhi-hong; Li, Chang; Shen, Xiu-yu; Wang, Yu; Yu, Kate; Yao, Xin-sheng; Dai, Yi

    2016-04-15

    A strategy for rapid identification of target and non-target components from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) extracts were proposed by utilizing the UNIFI informatics platform for the computer-assisted UPLC/Qtof MS data analyses. Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS) contains various bioactive chemical ingredients, such as flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and terpenes. Currently, there is no method that allows rapid and comprehensive identification of these multiple components. The rapid identification of chemical components in ZSS was successfully achieved with this strategy. As a result, 60 target components were identified and 53 non-target components were characterized. Among them, chemical structures of 40 new components were deduced based on their characteristic MS fragmentation patterns. In addition, the chemical ingredients of Ziziphi Mauritianae Semen (ZMS), which is often used as substitution of ZSS, were also investigated with the same strategy. A total of 132 chemical components were identified from these two plants, including 7 additional non-target new components. It demonstrated that this strategy not only facilitated an efficient protocol for the screening and identification of target components, but also offered a new perspective on discovering non-target components in TCMs or other herbal medicines. Furthermore, 48 components were selected for semi-quantitative analyses to evaluate the difference in chemical ingredients between these two seeds of Ziziphus species. The results showed that ZSS enriched many saponins, while ZMS contained few saponins. On the contrary, many cyclopeptide alkaloids could be detected in ZMS with high content, but rare in ZSS. These results can be used for the differentiation between ZSS and its adulterant (ZMS), and also to set a scientific foundation for the establishment of quality control of ZSS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Drought Tolerance in Argan Tree (Argania spinosa) Populations: Potential for the Development of Improved Drought Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakhchar, Abdelghani; Haworth, Matthew; El Modafar, Cherkaoui; Lauteri, Marco; Mattioni, Claudia; Wahbi, Said; Centritto, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    The argan tree ( Argania spinosa ) occurs in a restricted area of Southwestern Morocco characterized by low water availability and high evapotranspirative demand. Despite the adaptation of the argan tree to drought stress, the extent of the argan forest has declined markedly due to increased aridity, land use changes and the expansion of olive cultivation. The oil of the argan seed is used for cooking and as the basis for numerous cosmetics. The identification of argan tree varieties with enhanced drought tolerance may minimize the economic losses associated with the decline of the argan forest and constrain the spread of desertification. In this study we collected argan ecotypes from four contrasting habitats and grew them under identical controlled environment conditions to investigate their response to drought. Leaf gas exchange analysis indicated that the argan ecotypes showed a high degree of adaptation to drought stress, maintaining photosynthetic activity at low levels of foliar water content and co-ordinating photosynthesis, stomatal behavior and metabolism. The stomata of the argan trees were highly sensitive to increased leaf to air vapor pressure deficit, representing an adaptation to growth in an arid environment where potential evapotranspiration is high. However, despite originating in contrasting environments, the four argan ecotypes exhibited similar gas exchange characteristics under both fully irrigated and water deficit conditions. Population genetic analyses using microsatellite markers indicated a high degree of relatedness between the four ecotypes; indicative of both artificial selection and the transport of ecotypes between different provinces throughout centuries of management of the argan forest. The majority of genetic variation across the four populations (71%) was observed between individuals, suggesting that improvement of argan is possible. Phenotypic screening of physiological responses to drought may prove effective in identifying

  1. Discovery of germacrene A synthases in Barnadesia spinosa: The first committed step in sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in the basal member of the Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trinh-Don; Faraldos, Juan A; Vardakou, Maria; Salmon, Melissa; O'Maille, Paul E; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2016-10-28

    The Andes-endemic Barnadesioideae lineage is the oldest surviving and phylogenetically basal subfamily of the Asteraceae (Compositae), a prolific group of flowering plants with world-wide distribution (∼24,000 species) marked by a rich diversity of sesquiterpene lactones (STLs). Intriguingly, there is no evidence that members of the Barnadesioideae produce STLs, specialized metabolites thought to have contributed to the adaptive success of the Asteraceae family outside South America. The biosynthesis of STLs requires the intimate expression and functional integration of germacrene A synthase (GAS) and germacrene A oxidase (GAO) to sequentially cyclize and oxidize farnesyl diphosphate into the advanced intermediate germacrene A acid leading to diverse STLs. Our previous discovery of GAO activity conserved across all major subfamilies of Asteraceae, including the phylogenetically basal lineage of Barnadesioideae, prompted further investigation of the presence of the gateway GAS in Barnadesioideae. Herein we isolated two terpene synthases (BsGAS1/BsGAS2) from the basal Barnadesia spinosa (Barnadesioideae) that displayed robust GAS activity when reconstituted in yeast and characterized in vitro. Despite the apparent lack of STLs in the Barnadesioideae, this work unambiguously confirms the presence of GAS in the basal genera of the Asteraceae. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the two BsGASs fall into two distinct clades of the Asteraceae's GASs, and BsGAS1 clade is only retained in the evolutionary closer Cichorioideae subfamily, implicating BsGAS2 is likely the ancestral base of most GASs found in the lineages outside the Barnadesioideae. Taken together, these results show the enzymatic capacities of GAS and GAO emerged prior to the subsequent radiation of STL-producing Asteraceae subfamilies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Efecto de distintos tratamientos de conservación en la actividad antirradicalaria de alcaparras (Capparis spinosa L. cultivadas en Santiago del Estero, Argentina

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    Evangelina Adela González

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa L. es un arbusto cuyos botones florales, conocidos con el nombre de alcaparras, tienen una amplia aplicación en la gastronomía. Las alcaparras se comercializan en distintas presentaciones de acuerdo a los tratamientos de conservación a los que son sometidas. Se estudiaron posibles variaciones en la actividad antirradicalaria de alcaparras argentinas, como resultado de diferentes métodos de procesamiento en relación con el contenido de flavonoides. Se analizaron botones conservados en vinagre y secados en sal, comparándose los valores obtenidos con los botones frescos y secados en estufa a 55 °C. Paralelamente, con el objetivo de explorar nuevas fuentes de sustancias antioxidantes, se analizaron también las hojas de la planta. Los resultados en cuanto a la determinación de flavonoides indicaron que el contenido total en botones frescos correspondió a 37 mg/g de materia seca mientras que en hojas frescas el valor fue de 23 mg/g de materia seca. El contenido de rutina en ambas muestras correspondió a un 86,5 y 95,6 % del contenido total de flavonoides, para botones y hojas frescas, respectivamente. La actividad antirradicalaria, determinada por el método de decoloración del radical 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidracilo, mostró correlación con el contenido de flavonoides, siendo mayor para botones frescos con un valor equivalente a 46,7 mg/g de muestra seca. En cuanto al efecto de los tratamientos de conservación sobre los botones florales, se observó que la actividad antirradicalaria decrece en el siguiente orden: botones frescos > conservados en vinagre > secados a 55 °C > secados en sal. La mayor retención de la actividad antirradicalaria se observó en el tratamiento de conservación en vinagre, correspondiendo a un 62 % respecto a la actividad del material fresco. Los resultados indicaron que los botones florales al igual que las hojas son una importante fuente de flavonoides, especialmente rutina, incluso despu

  3. Efecto de distintos tratamientos de conservación en la actividad antirradicalaria de alcaparras (Capparis spinosa L. cultivadas en Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina Adela González

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa L. es un arbusto cuyos botones florales, conocidos con el nombre de alcaparras, tienen una amplia aplicación en la gastronomía. Las alcaparras se comercializan en distintas presentaciones de acuerdo a los tratamientos de conservación a los que son sometidas. Se estudiaron posibles variaciones en la actividad antirradicalaria de alcaparras argentinas, como resultado de diferentes métodos de procesamiento en relación con el contenido de flavonoides. Se analizaron botones conservados en vinagre y secados en sal, comparándose los valores obtenidos con los botones frescos y secados en estufa a 55 °C. Paralelamente, con el objetivo de explorar nuevas fuentes de sustancias antioxidantes, se analizaron también las hojas de la planta. Los resultados en cuanto a la determinación de flavonoides indicaron que el contenido total en botones frescos correspondió a 37 mg/g de materia seca mientras que en hojas frescas el valor fue de 23 mg/g de materia seca. El contenido de rutina en ambas muestras correspondió a un 86,5 y 95,6 % del contenido total de flavonoides, para botones y hojas frescas, respectivamente. La actividad antirradicalaria, determinada por el método de decoloración del radical 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidracilo, mostró correlación con el contenido de flavonoides, siendo mayor para botones frescos con un valor equivalente a 46,7 mg/g de muestra seca. En cuanto al efecto de los tratamientos de conservación sobre los botones florales, se observó que la actividad antirradicalaria decrece en el siguiente orden: botones frescos > conservados en vinagre > secados a 55 °C > secados en sal. La mayor retención de la actividad antirradicalaria se observó en el tratamiento de conservación en vinagre, correspondiendo a un 62 % respecto a la actividad del material fresco. Los resultados indicaron que los botones florales al igual que las hojas son una importante fuente de flavonoides, especialmente rutina, incluso despu

  4. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegahakumbura, M K; Wambulwa, M C; Thapa, K K; Li, M M; Möller, M; Xu, J C; Yang, J B; Liu, B Y; Ranjitkar, S; Liu, J; Li, D Z; Gao, L M

    2016-01-01

    Tea is the world's most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking. Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and domestication history of cultivated tea in both China and India. Based on a total of 392 samples, high levels of genetic diversity were observed for all tea types in both countries. The cultivars clustered into three distinct genetic groups (i.e. China tea, Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea) based on STRUCTURE, PCoA and UPGMA analyses with significant pairwise genetic differentiation, corresponding well with their geographical distribution. A high proportion (30%) of the studied tea samples were shown to possess genetic admixtures of different tea types suggesting a hybrid origin for these samples, including the Cambod type. We demonstrate that Chinese Assam tea is a distinct genetic lineage from Indian Assam tea, and that China tea sampled from India was likely introduced from China directly. Our results further indicate that China type tea, Chinese Assam type tea and Indian Assam type tea are likely the result of three independent domestication events from three separate regions across China and India. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of genetic stocks, as well as future breeding programs.

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to L-theanine from Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (tea) and improvement of cognitive function (ID 1104, 1222, 1600, 1601, 1707, 1935, 2004, 2005), alleviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to L-theanine from Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (tea) and improvement of cognitive function, alleviation of psychological stress, maintenance of normal sleep and reduction of menstrual discomfort. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...

  6. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K Meegahakumbura

    Full Text Available Tea is the world's most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze. However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking.Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and domestication history of cultivated tea in both China and India. Based on a total of 392 samples, high levels of genetic diversity were observed for all tea types in both countries. The cultivars clustered into three distinct genetic groups (i.e. China tea, Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea based on STRUCTURE, PCoA and UPGMA analyses with significant pairwise genetic differentiation, corresponding well with their geographical distribution. A high proportion (30% of the studied tea samples were shown to possess genetic admixtures of different tea types suggesting a hybrid origin for these samples, including the Cambod type.We demonstrate that Chinese Assam tea is a distinct genetic lineage from Indian Assam tea, and that China tea sampled from India was likely introduced from China directly. Our results further indicate that China type tea, Chinese Assam type tea and Indian Assam type tea are likely the result of three independent domestication events from three separate regions across China and India. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of genetic stocks, as well as future breeding programs.

  7. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegahakumbura, M. K.; Wambulwa, M. C.; Thapa, K. K.; Li, M. M.; Möller, M.; Xu, J. C.; Yang, J. B.; Liu, B. Y.; Ranjitkar, S.; Liu, J.; Li, D. Z.; Gao, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea is the world’s most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and domestication history of cultivated tea in both China and India. Based on a total of 392 samples, high levels of genetic diversity were observed for all tea types in both countries. The cultivars clustered into three distinct genetic groups (i.e. China tea, Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea) based on STRUCTURE, PCoA and UPGMA analyses with significant pairwise genetic differentiation, corresponding well with their geographical distribution. A high proportion (30%) of the studied tea samples were shown to possess genetic admixtures of different tea types suggesting a hybrid origin for these samples, including the Cambod type. Conclusions We demonstrate that Chinese Assam tea is a distinct genetic lineage from Indian Assam tea, and that China tea sampled from India was likely introduced from China directly. Our results further indicate that China type tea, Chinese Assam type tea and Indian Assam type tea are likely the result of three independent domestication events from three separate regions across China and India. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of genetic stocks, as well as future breeding programs. PMID:27218820

  8. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of aqueous infusions from Capparis spinosa L. and Crithmum maritimum L. before and after submission to a two-step in vitro digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusa, Laura; Kulisic-Bilusic, Tea; Politeo, Olivera; Krause, Ingolf; Dejanovic, Branka; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2011-12-14

    This study investigated the phenolic composition and antioxidant activities of aqueous infusions from wild-grown caper (Capparis spinosa L.) and sea fennel (Crithmum maritimum L.) from the Dalmatia region (Croatia) before and after their submission to an in vitro digestion process. HPLC/UV-vis-DAD/ESI-MS analysis of the caper infusion identified rutin, kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside, and isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside as dominant flavonoids in the matrix together with a series of cinnamoylquinic acid derivatives, whereas in the sea fennel aqueous infusion chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid), its isomers, and higher derivatives were identified as almost the sole class of phenolics. Both infusions exhibited good and dose-dependent antioxidant activity before in vitro digestion by the DPPH method, the β-carotene bleaching method, and copper-induced oxidation of human LDL. The amount of total phenolics (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) strongly decreased in digested samples (from 3.0 and 2.2% in caper and sea fennel infusions, respectively, to <1.0%), as did their antioxidant activity as measured by the three aforesaid methods. The results showed that the majority of phenolic compounds detected in both infusions are not stable under applied simulated gastrointestinal conditions and that the stability of these secondary metabolites strongly depends on the nature of the corresponding matrix.

  9. Argania spinosa var. mutica and var. apiculata: variation of fatty-acid composition, phenolic content, and antioxidant and α-amylase-inhibitory activities among varieties, organs, and development stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Adib, Saifeddine; Aissi, Oumayma; Charrouf, Zoubida; Ben Jeddi, Fayçal; Messaoud, Chokri

    2015-09-01

    Argania spinosa includes two varieties, var. apiculata and var. mutica. These argan varieties were introduced into Tunisia in ancient times and are actually cultivated in some botanic gardens. Little is known about the chemical differentiation among these argan varieties. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the fatty-acid composition, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and the antioxidant and α-amylase-inhibitory activities of leaf, seed, and pulp extracts of both argan varieties harvested during the months of January to April. The fatty-acid distribution was found to depend on the argan variety, the plant organ, and the harvest time. Significant variations in the phenolic contents were observed between the investigated varieties as well as between leaves, pulps, and seeds of each variety. As expected, phenolic compounds were found to be contributors to the antioxidant and α-amylase-inhibitory activities of both argan varieties. The chemical differentiation observed among the two argan varieties, based mainly on the fatty-acid composition, might have some chemotaxonomic value. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. Pharmacological profile of Caesalpinia bonducella Flem | Ahmed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caesalpiniabonducella Flem. (local name: natalkanta, kutum kanta) isemployed tocure various disorders such as urinary disorders, diarrhoea, dysentery, leucorrhoea, piles, wounds, indolentulcers, skind iseases, leprosy, toothache. The present study was performed to investigate the scientific basis for the traditional uses of ...

  11. Elaboração e Caracterização de cookie com adição de farinha do mesocarpo do fruto do Marizeiro (Geoffroea spinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaciara D. Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available O Marizeiro (Geoffroea spinosa é uma planta originária do bioma Caatinga, vegetação características da Região Nordeste do Brasil, que já fora considerada uma boa fonte de alimento. O fruto do Marizeiro, Mari, possui boas fontes de proteínas e açucares e baixo teor de lipídios. Por suas características nutricionais, a farinha do mesocarpo do Mari desponta como ingrediente alimentar altamente desejável para enriquecer outros alimentos. O objetivo do nosso trabalho foi obter um biscoito tipo cookie enriquecido com a farinha do mesocarpo do fruto do Mari, avaliar suas características físico-químicas e microbiológicas. Os dados da caracterização físico-químico revelaram excelentes níveis proteicos para as amostras F2 com 5% e F3 com 10% de farinha do mesocarpo do fruto do Mari que variou, respectivamente, de 3,7 à 8,6%. Com relação às análises de acidez, umidade e cinzas todos os teores estão dentro dos padrões constantes na legislação brasileira. As análises microbiológicas indicaram não haver a presença de Salmonella sp e Estafilococos coagulase positiva, o crescimento de Coliformes a 35ºC encontraram-se dentro dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação vigente. Os biscoitos tipo cookie enriquecidos se caracterizaram como alimento funcional por serem ricos em minerais e proteínas devido aos ingredientes da formulação.

  12. Antiproliferative activity of Vallaris glabra Kuntze (Apocynaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Siu Kuin; Lim, Yau Yan; Ling, Sui Kiong; Chiang Chan, Eric Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background: Our earlier study on the antiproliferative (APF) activity of leaf extracts of ten Apocynaceae species showed that leaves of Vallaris glabra possessed strong and broad-spectrum properties. Materials and Methods: In this study, sequential extracts of leaves, flowers and stems, and fractions and isolated compounds from dichloromethane (DCM) leaf extract of V. glabra were assessed for APF activity using the sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay. Apoptotic effect of MDA-MB-231 cancer cells treated with DCM leaf extract of V. glabra was studied using Hoechst 33342 dye and caspase colorimetry. Results: Both DCM extracts of leaves and flowers possessed broad-spectrum APF activity against HT-29, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SKOV-3 cancer cells. From DCM leaf extract, stearic acid (SA) and ursolic acid (UA) were isolated by column chromatography, and identified by NMR and MS analyses. APF activity of SA from DCM leaf extract displayed weak inhibitory activity and scientific literature showed UA has anticancer properties against those cancer cells used in this study. MDA-MB-231 cancer cells treated with DCM leaf extract and stained with Hoechst 33342 dye provided evidence that the extract had an apoptotic effect on the cells. Caspase colorimetry showed that the apoptotic effect involved activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3, but not caspase-6. Conclusion: The potential of V. glabra as a candidate species for anticancer drugs warrants further investigation. PMID:24991097

  13. Anatomia foliar de Richterago Kuntze (Mutisieae, Asteraceae Leaf anatomy of Richterago Kuntze (Mutisieae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Flávia de A. Melo-de-Pinna

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura interna da folha de espécies de Richterago mostrou-se bastante variável em relação à organização do mesofilo e à distribuição dos estômatos. Como caráter de valor taxonômico, apenas o tipo de tricoma tector foi utilizado nas relações entre R. arenaria e R. lanata,R. conduplicata e R. radiata, cujas folhas são morfologicamente semelhantes. Caracteres relacionados com adaptações ao ambiente xérico, como a ocorrência de extensões da bainha das unidades vasculares e traqueídes terminais, foram encontrados em todas as espécies. Hidatódios foram observados apenas nas duas espécies ribeirinhas (R. polymorpha e R. riparia, sendo o primeiro registro de hidatódios em representantes da tribo Mutisieae.Leaf anatomy of Richterago species revealed rather variability concerning mesophyll organization and stomata arrangement. As a character of taxonomic value, only non-glandular thricomes were used to compare R. arenaria and R. lanata,R. conduplicata and R. radiata, whose leaves are morphologically similar. Anatomical xeromorphic characters, e.g. the bundles sheath extensions and terminal tracheids were observed in all species. The waterside species (R. polymorpha e R. riparia showed hydathodes in the leaves, which represent the first record in Mutisieae.

  14. Étude ethnobotanique et screening phytochimique de Caesalpinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    Yves-Alain BÉKRO1*, Janat A. MAMYRBEKOVA BÉKRO1, Boua B. BOUA1, Fézan H. TRA BI2 & Ehouan E. ÉHILÉ2. 1Laboratoire de Chimie Bioorganique et de ... extraits bruts des racines de Cb a révélé qu'elles renferment des stérols, polyterpènes, flavonoïdes, saponines, tannins, sucres réducteurs, coumarines et des ...

  15. Étude ethnobotanique et screening phytochimique de Caesalpinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En effet, sur les quinze (15) espèces de plantes médicinales (réparties entre 14 familles) utilisées pour le traitement de diverses pathologies liées aux troubles de ... extraits bruts des racines de Cb a révélé qu\\'elles renferment des stérols, polyterpènes, flavonoïdes, saponines, tannins, sucres réducteurs, coumarines et des ...

  16. Does Caesalpinia bonducella ameliorate genotoxicity? An in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Md. Sultan Ahmad

    2013-06-10

    Jun 10, 2013 ... intermittent fevers, and for expelling intestinal worms. In Cey- lon, they are applied for toothache, ... chromosomal damage at metaphase stage gives a more precise and detailed picture of the clastogenic ... Utmost care was taken to avoid a cut across the esophagus or the intestine, which could otherwise ...

  17. ENRAIZAMENTO DE ESTACAS DE CAESALPINIA ECHINATA LAM. EM HIDROPONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Valiengo Valeri

    2012-01-01

    ethanol solution containing 0, 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg L-1 of IBA during 5 seconds. The cuttings were maintained in the hydroponic system for 90 days and, for additional 90 days in plastic bags containing substrate (Plantmax® under intermittent mist. After 90 and 180 days of rooting, the percentage of cuttings that survived, the rooting percentage and the number and length of adventious root were evaluated. Cuttings should be treated with IBA at 100 mg L-1 for 14 hours and placed to root in a hydroponic system.

  18. Does Caesalpinia bonducella ameliorate genotoxicity? An in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antimutagenic and antigenotoxic potential of alcoholic extracts of C. bonducella against methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) induced genotoxicity. In this experiment we have used in vitro method i.e., human lymphocyte culture and in vivo method in bone marrow cells of albino mice, ...

  19. Somatic Embryogenesis in Parana Pine (Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze

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    Santos André Luis Wendt dos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenic cultures of Araucaria angustifolia were induced from dominant and non-dominant zygotic embryos excised from immature seeds proceeding from three different genotypes and five harvest dates. Zygotic embryos were inoculated in inductive culture medium LP and BM supplemented with or without plant growth regulators 2,4-D (5 µM, BA (2 µM and Kin (2 µM. The genotype of the mother tree and the developmental explant stage affected the induction frequency. In the maintenance phase, embryogenic cultures were maintained at continuous repetitive cell cycles every 20 days in semi-solid or liquid medium. In the maturation phase the culture medium was supplemented with different types and levels of growth regulators, osmotic agents, carbohydrates and derived. Embryogenic cultures inoculated in culture medium supplemented with PEG 3350 (6 and 9%, maltose (6 and 9%, plus BA and Kin (1 µM each resulted in the progression of somatic embryos to globular and torpedo developmental stages.

  20. VEGETATIVE RESCUE AND CUTTINGS PROPAGATION OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivar Wendling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian pine or araucaria (Araucaria angustifolia is a coniferous tree with great economic, social and environmental importance in southern Brazil, being exploited for both wood production and for its edible pine nuts. However, no efficient cloning techniques are available and, therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of vegetative rescue methods for cuttings propagation of the species. Shoots/cuttings were generated in two ways: 26 years old trees underwent coppicing and 20 years old trees had the primary branches on the upper third of crown pruned at 2, 20 and 50 cm from the main trunk. Orthotropic shoots were rooted after application of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA at 0, 2, 4 and 6 g.L-1. Coppicing produced 47 cuttings per plant with 90% orthotropic shoots, while pruning resulted in 182 cuttings per plant with 44% orthotropic shoots. Rooting success indexes were low with no influence of IBA, although they are slightly superior to the ones available in the literature for the species, ranging from 12 to 30% for the coppice shoots and from 0 to 28% for the branches shoots. We conclude that both vegetative rescue techniques are viable and have potentially important applications. Coppicing is recommended for the propagation aiming the production of wood, while shoots derived from the side branches of the crown are more appropriate for seeds orchards formation.

  1. Investigation of Argania spinosa L. (Skeels) polyphenols growing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    micro

    2016-12-07

    Dec 7, 2016 ... 2Laboratoire de recherche en sciences végétales, Université Toulouse, France. ... E-mail: djiedsouad@gmail.com, souad.djied@univ-usto.dz ..... des flavonoïdes. Chim. Anal. Fr. 49(7):375-383. Lybbert TJ (2007).Patente disclosure requirements and benefit sharing: A counterfactual case of Morocco's ...

  2. Triterpenoids from Argania spinosa: 20 years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafchaouni-Moussaoui, Imane; Charrouf, Zoubida; Guillaume, Dom

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades, the argan tree has been the subject of intensive phytochemical investigation. If argan oil is the most known argan derivative, argan saponins are frequently considered as molecules presenting a strong economic potential. This review presents an update of the current research efforts on argan saponins from around the world. Research evidence suggests that arganine C can be considered as a lead compound for new antivirals.

  3. Dynamic assessment of Capparis spinosa buds on survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-05

    Nov 5, 2014 ... Materials and Methods: Periodontal ligament cells were obtained from healthy human third molars extracted for orthodontic purposes. .... for 12 h by using a Soxhlet device (Gerhardt EV 14C;. Gerhardt Inc., Brackley ... The electronic impedance of sensor electrodes is measured to allow monitoring and ...

  4. Dynamic assessment of Capparis spinosa buds on survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-05

    Nov 5, 2014 ... Materials and Methods: Periodontal ligament cells were obtained from healthy ... Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished using one‑way ..... xCELLigence impedance analysis of the cytotoxicity of dental composite.

  5. Biological activities and phenolic contents of Argania spinosa L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by methyl-thiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results: The results revealed abundant polyphenols and flavonoids (221.39 ± 5.70 μg GAEq/1 g and 66.86 ± 3.36 μg CAEq/1 g, respectively) in the leaf extract. UPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS profiling showed the presence of ...

  6. Histochemical and ultrastructural study of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae seeds Estudo histoquímico e ultraestrutural de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Borges Corte

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to correlate data on light microscopy observations through histochemical analysis and polarized light techniques and investigations in transmission electron microscopy (TEM to characterize the reserve materials in C. peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae cotyledons, popularly known as "sibipiruna", a tropical tree species with wide distribution in Brazil. The cotyledon mesophyll, especially in the abaxial face, is rich in unsaturated neutral lipids contained in numerous lipid bodies dispersed in the cytoplasm. Proteins, more concentrated in the adaxial face of the cotyledons, occur in all the mesophyll and are stored in protein bodies containing globoids, with variable number and size, responsible for accumulation of mineral reserves. Calcium oxalate druses have distribution restricted to the cotyledons adaxial face and are associated with protein bodies. Starch, also distributed all over the cotyledon mesophyll, occurs in small amounts in plastids with developed lamellar system. Secretory cavities rich in phenolic compounds occur among procambial strands.Este trabalho procurou correlacionar dados de observações em microscopia de luz através de técnicas histoquímicas e de luz polarizada e investigações em microscopia eletrônica de transmissão para caracterizar os materiais de reserva em cotilédones de C. peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae, conhecida popularmente como sibipiruna, ou falso pau-brasil, uma espécie tropical com ampla distribuição no Brasil. O mesofilo cotiledonar, especialmente na face abaxial, apresenta-se rico em lipídios neutros, insaturados, contidos em numerosos corpos lipídicos dispersos no citoplasma. As proteínas, mais concentradas na face adaxial dos cotilédones, ocorrem em todo o mesofilo e são armazenadas em corpos proteicos contendo globoides, com número e tamanho variáveis, responsáveis pelo acúmulo de reservas minerais. Drusas de oxalato de cálcio têm distribuição restrita à face adaxial dos cotilédones e estão associadas aos corpos proteicos. O amido, também distribuído por todo o mesofilo cotiledonar, ocorre em pequena quantidade em plastídios, com sistema lamelar desenvolvido. Entre os cordões procambiais ocorrem cavidades secretoras ricas em compostos fenólicos.

  7. Superação da dormência em sementes de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul Overcoming dormancy of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Ursulino Alves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécies florestais com sementes duras freqüentemente apresentam consideráveis problemas para os viveiristas, porque seus tegumentos duros e impermeáveis à água dificultam e retardam a germinação. Por isso, desenvolveu-se este experimento em casa de vegetação no Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, com o objetivo de determinar metodologias para superar a dormência de sementes de catingueira. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes. As sementes foram submetidas a 12 tratamentos: testemunha - sementes intactas (T1, escarificação mecânica feita manualmente com lixa nº. 80 (T2, desponte - pequeno corte na região oposta à micrópila (T3, imersão no ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 6, 8 e 10 min (T4, T5 e T6, respectivamente, imersão em água nas temperaturas de 60, 70 e 80 ºC por 1 min (T7, T8 e T9, respectivamente e imersão em água fria por 24, 48 e 72 h (T10, T11 e T12, respectivamente. As sementes foram semeadas em bandejas plásticas com areia umedecida esterilizada. Através de avaliações diárias durante 21 dias, verificaram-se as características de porcentagem de emergência, primeira contagem de emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento e massa seca das plântulas. Os resultados evidenciaram que os tratamentos pré-germinativos promoveram a germinação das sementes de catingueira, e a escarificação manual com lixa, imersão em ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 8 e 10 min e imersão em água a 80 ºC por 1 min revelaram ser os métodos mais efetivos.Forest species with hard seeds often cause important problems for nursery managers because their hard and water impermeable seed coats hinder and delay germination. For this reason, an experiment was carried out to determine methodologies for overcoming dormancy of catingueira seeds, under greenhouse conditions, in the Center for Agricultural Sciences, of the Federal University of Paraíba. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design, with four replicates of 25 seeds/treatment. Seeds were subjected to 12 treatments: control - intact seeds (T1, mechanical scarification using fine sandpaper nº. 80 (T2, coating cutting in the opposite side of micropylar region (T3, immersion in sulfuric acid (98% for 6, 8 and 10 minutes (T4, T5 and T6, respectively, immersion in water at 60, 70 and 80ºC for one minute (T7, T8 and T9, respectively, immersion in water at room temperature for 24, 48 and 72 hours (T10, T11 and T12, respectively. The seeds were sown in plastic trays with sterilized humidified sand. Daily evaluations were carried out during 21 days observing characteristics of emergence percentage, emergence first count, emergence velocity index, height and dry matter weight of seedlings. The results demonstrated that germinative pre-treatments increased seed germination of catingueira seeds, and higher values were observed with manual scarification with sandpaper, immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid during eight and ten minutes and immersion in water at 80ºC for one minute were the most effective methods.

  8. Estudo químico e atividade antibacteriana do caule de Aristolochia esperanzae kuntze (Aristolochiaceae Chemical study and antibacterial activity of stem of Aristolochia esperanzae Kuntze (Aristolochiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison G. Pacheco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ethanolic extract of the stem of A. esperanzae ethyl and methyl fatty acid esters, fatty acids, aristolochic I and II acids, and β-cubebin were isolated. In addiction asarinin, populifolic and 2-oxo-populifolic acids, aristolactams AIa and AII, and sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were also isolated and firstly described in the species. Asarinin and β-cubebin showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and aristolochic acid I against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocitogenes.

  9. Chemical study and antibacterial activity of stem of Aristolochia esperanzae Kuntze (Aristolochiaceae); Estudo quimico e atividade antibacteriana do caule de Aristolochia esperanzae Kuntze (Aristolochiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Alison G.; Silva, Thiago M.; Manfrini, Rozangela M.; Sallum, William S.T.; Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Pilo-Veloso, Dorila; Alcantara, Antonio F. de C., E-mail: aalcantara@zeus.qui.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Knupp, Vagner F. [Fundacao Centro Tecnologico de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    From the ethanolic extract of the stem of A. esperanzae ethyl and methyl fatty acid esters, fatty acids, aristolochic I and II acids, and {beta}-cubebin were isolated. In addiction asarinin, populifolic and 2-oxo-populifolic acids, aristolactams AIa and AII, and sitosterol 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside were also isolated and firstly described in the species. Asarinin and {beta}-cubebin showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and aristolochic acid I against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocitogenes. (author)

  10. Kinetics of solute leachate from imbibing Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood seeds

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    Nestor Martini Neto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity of leachates from imbibing seeds has been used as a vigor test for several species. The adaptation of this methodology to different species requires knowledge on the leaching kinetics of electrolytes. For Brazilwood seeds, the classic method was not satisfactory and rapid tests are essential because they have low storage capacity at room temperature. Leaching kinetics during seed imbibition is a function of physiological quality, presence or absence of seed coat, imbibing temperature and the initial moisture content of seed. In this study, the electrolyte leaching rate of six different categories of seeds, from two regions, was evaluated in seeds with and without seed coat and incubated with different moisture contents and at different temperatures. The results showed that the electrolyte leaching rate in Brazilwood seeds is independent of the physiological quality, the presence or absence of seed coat and imbibition temperature, but these factors changed the total amount of electrolytes leached. The leaching rate increased in the first few minutes of imbibition, suggesting that the adjustment of the methodology must consider the reduction in imbibition time, reduction in temperature, use of a controlled and slower pre-imbibition, and replacement of the imbibition solution after the first few minutes.

  11. Caracteristicas anatomicas y propiedades fisicas de la madera de Caesalpinia gaumeri Greenm en Dzan, Yucatan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Interian-Ku, Victor Manuel; Borja de la Rosa, Maria Amparo; Valdez-Hernandez, Juan Ignacio; Garcia-Moya, Edmundo; Romero-Manzanares, Angelica; Vaquera-Huerta, Humberto

    2011-01-01

    .... Con la finalidad de contribuir al conocimiento tecnologico de sus atributos y proponer usos potenciales de la madera de esta especie, se describieron sus caracteristicas anatomicas y propiedades fisicas...

  12. Synthesis and characterization of natural red dye from Caesalpinia sappan linn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulyanto, Subur, E-mail: subur.mulyanto@poltekba.ac.id [Graduate Program of Mechanical Engineering, SebelasMaret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Polytechnic of Balikpapan, Jl. Soekarno-Hatta Km.8 Balikpapan (Indonesia); Suyitno,, E-mail: suyitno@uns.ac.id; Rachmanto, Rendy Adhi, E-mail: rendy.ar@gmail.com; Hidayat, Lullus Lambang Govinda, E-mail: lulus-l@yahoo.com; Hadi, Syamsul, E-mail: syamsulhadi@ft.uns.ac.id [Department of Mechanical Engineering, SebelasMaret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia); Wibowo, Atmanto Heru, E-mail: aheruwibowo@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, SebelasMaret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    The study reports the synthesis and characterization of natural red dye. The dyes were extracted from woods of Caesalpiniasappanlinn at varied temperatures of 70, 80, 90, and 100°C for three hours. The dry wood chips and water at a ratio of 6:1 were immersed in the reactor of 150 liters. The absorbance spectra of the natural red dyes were measured by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the functional groups of the natural red dyes. In addition, the basic production cost was calculated and the fastness property towards cotton fabrics was investigated according to the Indonesia national standard of 105-C06:2010, 105-B01:2010, and 0288-2008. The results showed that the functional groups found the extracted red dyes indicated the complex bond of brazilein with peak absorbance at a wavelength of 538-540 nm. The extraction temperature also changed the functional group of brazilein. From the color, the absorbance peak, the functional groups, and the main production cost, the best parameter to synthesize the natural red dyes from Caesalpiniasappanlinn was at a temperature of 80°C for two hours. Moreover, the natural red dyes has the fastness to wash resistance, light resistance, and scrub resistance by 4-5, 4, and 3-4, respectively. However, further studies for synthesis the natural red dyes by using a continuous reactor are required to identify the naturally complex compounds in brazilein for improving the fastness properties and for reducing the cost.

  13. ESSENTIAL OIL OF Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden IN STIMULATING MYCORRHIZAL SIBIPIRUNA SEEDLINGS (Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Bemfica Steffen; Zaida Inês Antoniolli; Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen; Rodrigo Ferreira da Silva

    2012-01-01

    RESUMO Os metabólitos secundários extraídos de espécies florestais formadoras de ectomicorrizas podem estimular a simbiose entre fungos ectomicorrízicos e espécies florestais nativas do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o efeito do óleo essencial de eucalipto na formação de associação ectomicorrízica e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna, em condições de casa de vegetação. Plântulas de sibipiruna foram submetidas a quatro tratamentos constituídos pela presença e au...

  14. Improved method for isolation of coupled mitochondria of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze

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    André Bellin Mariano

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A method for the isolation of coupled mitochondria from the callus of Araucaria angustifolia is described for the first time. Mitochondria were isolated from embryogenic callus of A. angustifolia. They were metabolically active, able to sustain oxidative phosphorylation as shown by respiratory control ratio values, which were about 2.4 when respiring on succinate as substrate. Oxygen uptake experiments, using freeze-thawed disrupted mitochondria, showed the presence of alternative rotenone-insensitive NAD(PH dehydrogenases, which were stimulated by Ca2+. The procedure now described for the isolation of A. angustifolia mitochondria is an important new tool, allowing the investigation of mitochondrial bioenergetics and metabolism and physiology of plants.Um procedimento de isolamento de mitocôndrias funcionalmente intactas de calos embriogênicos de Araucaria angustifolia foi desenvolvido pela primeira vez em nosso laboratório. Mitocôndrias isoladas por este método são metabolicamente ativas, capazes de sustentar fosforilação oxidativa como mostrado pelo controle respiratório de aproximadamente 2,4, respirando na presença de succinato como substrato. Através de experimentos de consumo de oxigênio com mitocôndrias rompidas em nitrogênio líquido foi demonstrada a presença de NAD(PH desidrogenases alternativas, insensíveis à rotenona e estimuladas por Ca2+. O isolamento de mitocôndrias de A. angustifolia é um novo e importante instrumento para estudar plantas, permitindo a execução de múltiplas investigações a respeito da bioenergética mitocondrial e fisiologia vegetal.

  15. Subcellular Localization of Galloylated Catechins in Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze Assessed via Immunohistochemistry

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    Huanhuan eXu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Galloylated catechins, as the main secondary metabolites in the tea plant, including (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate and (--epicatechin-3-gallate, comprise approximately three-quarters of all the tea plant catechins and have stronger effects than non-galloylated catechins, both on the product quality in tea processing and the pharmacological efficacy to human beings. The subcellular localization of galloylated catechins has been the primary focus of studies that assess biosynthesis and physiological functions. Classical histochemical localization staining reagents can not specifically detect galloylated catechins; thus, their subcellular localization remains controversial. In the present study, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb against galloylated catechins, which can be used for the subcellular localization of galloylated catechins in the tea plant by immunohistochemistry. Direct ELISA and ForteBio Octet Red 96 System assay indicated the mAb could recognize the galloylated catechins with high specificities and affinities. In addition, tea bud was ascertained as the optimal tissue for freezing microtomic sections for immunohistochemistry. What’s more, the high quality mAbs which exhibited excellent binding capability to galloylated catechins were utilised for the visualization of them via immunohistochemistry. Our findings demonstrated that vacuoles were the primary sites of localization of galloylated catechins at the subcellular level.

  16. Subcellular Localization of Galloylated Catechins in Tea Plants [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] Assessed via Immunohistochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Huanhuan; Wang, Ya; Chen, Yana; Zhang, Pan; Zhao, Yi; Huang, Yewei; Wang, Xuanjun; Sheng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Galloylated catechins, as the main secondary metabolites in the tea plant, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, comprise approximately three-quarters of all the tea plant catechins and have stronger effects than non-galloylated catechins, both on the product quality in tea processing and the pharmacological efficacy to human beings. The subcellular localization of galloylated catechins has been the primary focus of studies that assess biosynthesis and physio...

  17. Assessment of the physiological potential of spinach seeds (Tetragonia tetragonoides (Pall.) Kuntze)

    OpenAIRE

    Lodo,Maria Angélica; Lopes,Magnólia de Mendonça; Soares,Bruna Resende Ribeiro; Vieira,Roberval Daiton

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of vigor tests in assessing the physiological potential of seeds depends on their standardization for different species. In this context, the research aimed to study specific methodologies to evaluate the vigor of spinach seeds (Tetragonia tetragonoides). For this purpose, five lots of spinach seed cv. New Zealand were submitted to germination, first count of germination, seedling emergence in the field, accelerated aging (with and without use of saturated solution of NaCl at 4...

  18. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Agastache rugosa Kuntze and its synergism with ketoconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S; Kang, C-A

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the fungitoxic activity of the essential oil of Agastache rugosa alone and to determine its combination effect with ketoconazole against Blastoschizomyces capitatus. The antifungal activities of the essential oil of A. rugosa and its main constituent estragole were investigated using the broth microdilution, disk diffusion methods and checkerboard microtitre assay. Both estragole and the essential oil exhibited strong activities against the tested fungi and showed synergism with ketoconazole against B. capitatus. Both estragole and the essential oil of A. rugosa have significant growth-inhibiting activities against B. capitatus showing strong synergistic effect with ketoconazole. The essential oil of A. rugosa, combined with ketoconazole, may be particularly useful against B. capitatus, a rare pathogenic fungus documented to cause severe and fatal mycoses in immunocompromised patients.

  19. Ontomorphogenesis of Agastache rugosa (Fisch. et C.A. Mey.) O. Kuntze ex situ

    OpenAIRE

    Galina O. Rudik

    2013-01-01

    The peculiarities of ontomorphogenesis of Agastache rugosain conditions of O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden have been studied. It has been determined that in the first year of life the plants had three periods of ontomorphogenesis – latent, virginile and generative.

  20. Ontomorphogenesis of Agastache rugosa (Fisch. et C.A. Mey. O. Kuntze ex situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina O. Rudik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarities of ontomorphogenesis of Agastache rugosain conditions of O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden have been studied. It has been determined that in the first year of life the plants had three periods of ontomorphogenesis – latent, virginile and generative.

  1. Effect of inhibition on tyrosinase and melanogenesis of Agastache rugosa Kuntze by lactic acid bacteria fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Young; Kwon, Hee Souk; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2017-09-01

    This work presents the first report that A. rugosa could have tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibition and that its activities also be improved by fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei. It was found that the tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibition was correlated with antioxidant activity of acacetin, the major biologically active substances in A. rugosa. we pursued an improvement in tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibition of A. rugosa extract by fermentation process. A. rugosa was extracted by lactic acid fermentation process; we measured antioxidant activities and tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibition of A. rugosa extracts. In particular, reducing power of the extract from fermentation process (FE) was measured as 0.562 (O.D.), whereas reducing power of the extracts from 70% ethanol extraction (EE) was lower than the FE as 0.496 (O.D.). Polyphenols and flavonoids in the FE were higher than the EE: 69.3 mg/g vs. 60.5 mg/g, and 187 mg/g vs. 138 mg/g. The FE was estimated as 51.04% tyrosinase inhibition and 41.88% for the EE. Similarly, melanin inhibition in melanocyte B16F10 was observed as 66.60% vs. 42.23% for the FE and EE. The increase in tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibition activity was confirmed by high elution of acacetin through fermentation process such as 289.97 mg/100 g vs. 198.04 mg/100 g in the FE and EE. These results indicate that tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibition activities of the extracts should be associated with antioxidant activity because acacetin is known to have strong antioxidant activity, which can also positively affect whitening activities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. CONSERVATION OF THE VIABILITY AND VIGOR OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze SEEDS DURING THE STORAGE

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    Cristhyane Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of Araucaria seeds is widely compromised in function of their recalcitrant feature, which hampers the planning of recovery actions of the degraded populations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to monitor the physiological changes in Araucaria seeds under controlled storage conditions, in order to get insights as to the viability and vigor conservation. The physiological quality of freshly harvested seeds was evaluated and every 60 days throughout the 180 days-storage period in laboratory ambient without thermal control, refrigerator (5 ° C, and freezer (-18 ° C until the final period of 180 days. After each sampling period, the seed viability (germination and tetrazolium tests and vigor (artificial aging, germination speed index – IVG and electrical conductivity were assessed. A reduction in the normal seedlings percentage was noticed over the period of storage of Araucaria seeds. The conservation in freezer and the lack of thermal control caused a complete loss of the seed viability at 60 and 180 days of storage, respectively. However, the refrigerator storage promoted the conservation of seed viability, with 64% germination after 180 days of storage, an event associated with the reduction of the metabolic activity of seeds. Based on the viability and vigor tests, it was concluded that storage in refrigerator provided longer storage periods to Araucaria seeds in comparison to the other storage conditions herein studied.

  3. Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

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    Poonam Lodhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5 mg/kg bw and 10 mg/kg bw of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and nonenzymatic markers (cholesterol and triglycerides, lipid peroxidation contents, malondialdehyde (MDA, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and decreased the activities of total proteins, albumin, and cellular antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD. The elevation and reduction in these biochemical enzymes caused the damage in hepatocytes histologically due to the high production of ROS, which retards the antioxidant defense capacity of cell. AQGTE was capable of recovering the level of these markers and the damaged hepatocytes to their normal structures. These results support the suggestion that AQGTE was able to enhance hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in vivo against ethanol-induced toxicity.

  4. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes involved in Blister Blight defense in Tea (Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaswall, Kuldip; Mahajan, Pallavi; Singh, Gagandeep; Parmar, Rajni; Seth, Romit; Raina, Aparnashree; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Shankar, Ravi; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2016-07-01

    To unravel the molecular mechanism of defense against blister blight (BB) disease caused by an obligate biotrophic fungus, Exobasidium vexans, transcriptome of BB interaction with resistance and susceptible tea genotypes was analysed through RNA-seq using Illumina GAIIx at four different stages during ~20-day disease cycle. Approximately 69 million high quality reads were assembled de novo, yielding 37,790 unique transcripts with more than 55% being functionally annotated. Differentially expressed, 149 defense related transcripts/genes, namely defense related enzymes, resistance genes, multidrug resistant transporters, transcription factors, retrotransposons, metacaspases and chaperons were observed in RG, suggesting their role in defending against BB. Being present in the major hub, putative master regulators among these candidates were identified from predetermined protein-protein interaction network of Arabidopsis thaliana. Further, confirmation of abundant expression of well-known RPM1, RPS2 and RPP13 in quantitative Real Time PCR indicates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, possibly induce synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, required to overcome the virulence of E. vexans. Compendiously, the current study provides a comprehensive gene expression and insights into the molecular mechanism of tea defense against BB to serve as a resource for unravelling the possible regulatory mechanism of immunity against various biotic stresses in tea and other crops.

  5. Influences of various factors on hairy root induction in Agastache foeniculum (Pursh Kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elnaz NOUROZI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium rhizogenes is known as a natural tool of genetic engineering in many plant species. For the first time, hairy root induction in Agastache foeniculum using A. rhizogenes, rosmarinic acid content and the effect of different culture media and inoculation methods on hairy root growth rate were investigated. Hairy root culture of A. foeniculum was established by inoculation of the 1-month-old leaf explant with A4 strain of A. rhizogenes and the effectiveness of light – dark conditions and two inoculation methods (immersion and injection were tested. Furthermore, in immersion method, the effects of inoculation time (3, 5 and 7 min on root induction were investigated. In the second part of the study, the hairy root culture of A. foeniculum was studied using different basal culture media (MS, 1/2 MS and B5. Rosmarinic acid content in hairy roots and non- transformed roots was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. There was no significant difference between various inoculation methods in the ability of hairy roots induction. Observations showed that percentage of hairy root induction was higher when the explants were immersed for 5 min in bacterial suspension. Light conditions displayed the highest hairy root induction rates compared with dark condition. Various culture media are different in terms of types and amounts of nutrients and have influence on growth rate. The maximum growth rate (1.61 g fr wt/50 ml of hairy roots were obtained in 1/2 MS medium. Rosmarinic acid content in transformed roots (213.42 µg/g dry wt was significantly higher than non-transformed roots (52.28 µg/ g dry wt.

  6. Antioxidant and Antigenotoxic Activities of the Brazilian Pine Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze

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    Márcia O. Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are natural products with recognized potential in drug discovery and development. We aimed to evaluate the polyphenolic profile of Araucaria angustifolia bracts, and their ability to scavenge reactive species. The antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of A. angustifolia polyphenols in MRC5 human lung fibroblast cells were also explored. The total polyphenol extract of A. angustifolia was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and the chemical composition was confirmed by HPLC. Reactive oxygen species’ scavenging ability was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method and superoxide dismutase- and catalase-like activities. The protective effect of the extract in MRC5 cells was carried out by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method and the determination of oxidative lipids, protein, and DNA (alkaline and enzymatic comet assay damage. Total phenolic content of the A. angustifolia extract was 1586 ± 14.53 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g of bracts. Catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, and apigenin were the major polyphenols. The extract was able to scavenge DPPH radicals and exhibited potent superoxide dismutase and catalase-like activities. Moreover, A. angustifolia extract significantly protected MRC5 cells against H2O2-induced mortality and oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA. Therefore, A. angustifolia has potential as a source of bioactive chemical compounds.

  7. Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Dichrocepala integrifolia (L.f O. kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye Mohammed

    2012-02-01

    Conclusion and Recommendation: In general the antimicrobial activity of the plant observed here support the tradition therapeutic claim of the society. Further study should be conducted in further evaluating its antimicrobial effectiveness and also purification of the active chemical constituents that could be responsible for its biological activity. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 30-34

  8. Anti-adenovirus activity, antioxidant potential, and phenolic content of black tea (Camellia sinensis Kuntze) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ali; Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Alidadi, Somayeh; Hashemi, Leila

    2016-12-01

    BackgroundAdenovirus (ADV) causes a number of diseases in human, and to date, no specific antiviral therapy is approved against this virus. Thus, searching for effective anti-ADV agents seems to be an urgent requirement. Many studies have shown that components derived from medicinal plants have antiviral activity. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate in vitro anti-ADV activity and also antioxidant potential and total phenolic compounds of black tea (Camellia sinensis) crude extract. MethodsIn this study, the hydroalchoholic extract of black tea was prepared and its anti-ADV activity was evaluated on HEp2 cell line using MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay. The 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) and 50 % cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) of the extract were determined using regression analysis. Its inhibitory effect on adsorption and/or post-adsorption stages of the virus replication cycle was evaluated. To determine antioxidant activity, total phenol content, and flavonoids content of the extract, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, Folin-Ciocalteu method, and aluminum chloride colorimetric method were used, respectively. ResultsThe CC50 and the IC50 of the extract were 165.95±12.7 and 6.62±1.4 µg/mL, respectively, with the selectivity index (SI) of 25.06. This extract inhibited ADV replication in post-adsorption stage. The IC50 of DPPH radical was 8±1.41 μg/mL, compared with butylated hydroxytoluene, with IC50 of 25.41±1.89 μg/mL. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were 341.8±4.41 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram and 21.1±2.11 mg/g, respectively. ConclusionsHaving SI value of 25.06 with inhibitory effect on ADV replication, particularly during the post-adsorption period, black tea extract could be considered as a potential anti-ADV agent. The antiviral activity of this extract could be attributed to its phenolic compounds.

  9. Antioxidant and Antigenotoxic Activities of the Brazilian Pine Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Márcia O; Branco, Cátia S; Sene, Juliane; DallAgnol, Rafaela; Agostini, Fabiana; Moura, Sidnei; Salvador, Mirian

    2014-01-06

    Polyphenols are natural products with recognized potential in drug discovery and development. We aimed to evaluate the polyphenolic profile of Araucaria angustifolia bracts, and their ability to scavenge reactive species. The antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of A. angustifolia polyphenols in MRC5 human lung fibroblast cells were also explored. The total polyphenol extract of A. angustifolia was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the chemical composition was confirmed by HPLC. Reactive oxygen species' scavenging ability was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and superoxide dismutase- and catalase-like activities. The protective effect of the extract in MRC5 cells was carried out by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method and the determination of oxidative lipids, protein, and DNA (alkaline and enzymatic comet assay) damage. Total phenolic content of the A. angustifolia extract was 1586 ± 14.53 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g of bracts. Catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, and apigenin were the major polyphenols. The extract was able to scavenge DPPH radicals and exhibited potent superoxide dismutase and catalase-like activities. Moreover, A. angustifolia extract significantly protected MRC5 cells against H₂O₂-induced mortality and oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA. Therefore, A. angustifolia has potential as a source of bioactive chemical compounds.

  10. Antioxidant and antifungal activities of Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze leaves obtained by different forms of production

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    L. E. A. Camargo

    Full Text Available Abstract The antioxidant and anticandidal activities of leaves obtained from Camellia sinensis by non-fermentation (green and white teas, semi-fermentation (red tea and fermentation method (black tea were investigated. It was evaluated the total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau assay; antioxidant capacities were evaluated in vitro using DPPH and ABTS radicals, hypochlorous acid and superoxide anion scavenger assays, induced hemolysis, lipid peroxidation by conjugated diene formation and myeloperoxidase activity. Anticandidal activity was performed on three strains of Candida spp. The results showed that non-fermented teas have a higher concentration of phenolic compounds, and then presented the best inhibitory activity of AAPH-induced hemolysis, the best inhibition of conjugated diene formation and more pronounced antioxidant activity in all tests. The highest anticandidal activity was obtained from fermented tea, followed by non-fermented tea. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity demonstrated has no direct relation with the anticandidal activity.

  11. Karyotypic studies of Cratylia argentea (Desv.) O. Kuntze and C. mollis Mart. ex Benth. (Fabaceae - Papilionoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, S M; Torres, G A; Sobrinho, F S; Pereira, A V; Davide, L C

    2007-09-30

    Cratylia argentea and C. mollis (Fabaceae-Papilionoideae) are legume shrubs native to the Cerrado and Caatinga, respectively. Both species show great resistance to drought and high nutritive value, which makes them a valuable forage resource in tropical regions. Cytogenetic studies were carried out on accessions of C. argentea and C. mollis from Germplasm Banks of Embrapa Gado de Leite (Juiz de Fora, MG) and Embrapa Semi-Arido (Petrolina, PE), respectively. Root tips were treated with 3 mM 8-hydroxyquinoline and slides were made using the air-dry technique. Karyotype description for each accession took into account the following features: chromosome number; total length, relative length and arm ratio of each chromosome; haploid set length, and degree of asymmetry. Mitotic metaphases in both species showed 2n = 22 chromosomes, where this is the first report of diploid number for C. mollis. Chromosome length was also quite similar for the two species, ranging from 5.08 to 2.50 microm in C. argentea and 5.12 to 2.51 microm in C. mollis, with haploid sets of equal size, measuring 38.10 and 37.85 microm, respectively. However, they did not show the same karyotypic formula, which was 5 m + 4 sm + 2 st for C. argentea and 7 m + 2 sm + 2 st for C. mollis. This indicates the occurrence of rearrangements within chromosomes I and VI. Both karyotypes showed a tendency for asymmetry.

  12. Cloning and expression of embryogenesis-regulating genes in Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze (Brazilian Pine

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    Paulo Sérgio Schlögl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiosperm and gymnosperm plants evolved from a common ancestor about 300 million years ago. Apart from morphological and structural differences in embryogenesis and seed origin, a set of embryogenesis-regulating genes and the molecular mechanisms involved in embryo development seem to have been conserved alike in both taxa. Few studies have covered molecular aspects of embryogenesis in the Brazilian pine, the only economically important native conifer in Brazil. Thus eight embryogenesis-regulating genes, viz.,ARGONAUTE 1, CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1, WUSCHEL-related WOX, S-LOCUS LECTIN PROTEIN KINASE, SCARECROW-like, VICILIN 7S, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1, and REVERSIBLE GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE 1, were analyzed through semiquantitative RT-PCR during embryo development and germination. All the eight were found to be differentially expressed in the various developmental stages of zygotic embryos, seeds and seedling tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on embryogenesis-regulating gene expression in members of the Araucariaceae family, as well as in plants with recalcitrant seeds.

  13. Effectiveness of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Kuntze against diarrhea-inducing bacteria

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    R. Mallmann

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Leaves and roots of Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae have been used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments including diarrhea, skin diseases, blennorrhagia, dyspepsia, parasitic worms and malaria. The aim of study was to characterize the chemical profiles of the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves and roots of A. australe, and to evaluate their antimicrobial activities against diarrhea-inducing bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Shigella dysenteriae and Yersinia enterocolitica, as well as their cytotoxic properties. Aqueous leaf extracts were obtained by infusion, while aqueous root extracts were obtained by decoction. The hydroalcoholic leaf and root extracts were prepared by maceration in 90% ethanol for 3 days. Antimicrobial activity was assessed using standard techniques and cytotoxicity was evaluated using Chinese hamster ovary cells CHO-K1. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, saponins and phenolic compounds in the extracts. Although root extracts were not effective against E. faecalis, leaf extracts at concentrations of 20 mg/mL exhibited bactericidal activities against this microorganism. The hydroalcoholic root extract was unique in presenting a bactericidal effect against S. dysenteriae. None of the extracts showed bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities against Y. enterocolitica. The results presented herein demonstrate that the Gram-positive E. faecalis and the Gram-negative S. dysenteriae were susceptible to A. australe extracts, although bacteriostatic/bactericidal activities were only observed at concentrations considered too high for clinical application. Our results support the ethnopharmacological use of A. australe in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, particularly diarrhea caused by infectious bacteria, although further studies are required to determine the anti-diarrhea effects and the toxicities of the extracts in vivo.

  14. SAZONALIDADE E SOLUÇÕES NUTRITIVAS NA MINIESTAQUIA DE Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze

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    Patricia Pires

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da sazonalidade e de soluções nutritivas na produção, sobrevivência, enraizamento e vigor radicial de miniestacas juvenis de Araucaria angustifolia, bem como o hábito de crescimento das mudas formadas. As minicepas foram manejadas em minijardim sob sistema semi-hidropônico, em que foram aplicadas duas soluções nutritivas, com diferentes concentrações de nutrientes, fornecidas por gotejamento, durante as quatro estações do ano. Após 11 coletas, as minicepas apresentaram 100% de sobrevivência. A maior produção ocorreu no verão, com 1.356 miniestacas.m-2.ano-1, e a menor no inverno, com 429 miniestacas.m-2.ano-1. As coletas de inverno apresentaram os melhores resultados de enraizamento, com média de 83% em casa de sombra, contra 31% das demais estações. O maior vigor radicial ocorreu nas coletas de primavera e verão e o menor, no inverno. A solução nutritiva mais concentrada propiciou maior produção de miniestacas e melhor vigor radicial, e todas as mudas resultantes da miniestaquia apresentaram hábito ortotrópico de crescimento. A técnica de miniestaquia com propágulos vegetativos de origem seminal mostrou-se potencial para a produção de mudas de araucária, sendo significativamente influenciada pela época do ano e pelas soluções nutritivas empregadas.

  15. Diverse Colletotrichum species cause anthracnose of tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Hao, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Lu; Bin Xiao; Wang, Xin-Chao; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum is one of the most severe diseases that can afflict Camellia sinensis. However, research on the diversity and geographical distribution of Colletotrichum in China remain limited. In this study, 106 Colletotrichum isolates were collected from diseased leaves of Ca. sinensis cultivated in the 15 main tea production provinces in China. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis coupled with morphological identification showed that the collected isolates belonged to 11 species, including 6 known species (C. camelliae, C. cliviae, C. fioriniae, C. fructicola, C. karstii, and C. siamense), 3 new record species (C. aenigma, C. endophytica, and C. truncatum), 1 novel species (C. wuxiense), and 1 indistinguishable strain, herein described as Colletotrichum sp. Of these species, C. camelliae and C. fructicola were the dominant species causing anthracnose in Ca. sinensis. In addition, our study provided further evidence that phylogenetic analysis using a combination of ApMat and GS sequences can be used to effectively resolve the taxonomic relationships within the C. gloeosporioides species complex. Finally, pathogenicity tests suggested that C. camelliae, C. aenigma, and C. endophytica are more invasive than other species after the inoculation of the leaves of Ca. sinensis. PMID:27782129

  16. Improvement of the lactic acid fermentation of capers through an experimental factorial design (Capparis spinosa L

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    Errachidi, F.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the caper fermentation process through an experiment factorial plan allows us to determine a function ƒ such that (Y= ƒ(X1, X2, …, Xn existing between magnitude Y which is the decrease of pH (called response, and variables Xi , which are brine, lactic acid, citric acid and lactic ferment (called factors. A complete factorial plan 24 was made in order to determine the factors and the interactions among the factors which have a statistically significant influence on the studied response. Brine, lactic acid and citric acid have a significant effect on the fall of pH; by contrast, lactic ferment does not have a significant effect. On the other hand, the interactions between brine and lactic acid, between brine and lactic ferment , between lactic acid with citric acid and between lactic acid with lactic ferment have significant effects on the fall of pH (p El estudio del proceso de fermentación mediante un diseño factorial nos permitió determinar una función ƒ (Y= ƒ(X1, X2, …, Xn que existe entre la magnitud Y que es la disminución del pH (llamada respuesta, y las variables X, que son la salmuera, ácido láctico, ácido cítrico y los fermentos lácticos (llamados factores. Un completo plan factorial 24 fue hecho con objeto de determinar los factores y las interacciones entre los factores que tienen una influencia estadísticamente significativa en la respuesta estudiada. La salmuera, ácido láctico y ácido cítrico tienen un efecto significativo en la caída del pH; por el contrario, los fermentos lácticos no tienen efecto significativo. Por otra parte, las interacciones entre salmuera y ácido láctico, salmuera y fermentos lácticos, ácido láctico y ácido cítrico, y ácido láctico y fermentos lácticos tuvieron un efecto significativo en la caída del pH (p < 0.0001. La fermentación fue hecha en el laboratorio de investigación de la Sociedad Marocapres-Fez líder Internacional en la transformación de alcaparras, a una temperatura de aproximadamente 30°C entre los meses de junio y julio.

  17. Tocopherols and saponins derived from Argania spinosa exert, an antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drissi, A; Bennani, H; Giton, F; Charrouf, Z; Fiet, J; Adlouni, A

    2006-10-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of tocopherols obtained from alimentary virgin argan oil extracted from the endemic argan tree of Morocco and of saponins extracted from argan press cake on three human prostatic cell lines (DU145, LNCaP, and PC3). The results were compared to 2-methoxyestradiol as antiproliferative drug candidates. Cytotoxicity and antiproliferative effects were investigated after cells' treatment with tocopherols and saponins compared to 2-Methoxyoestradiol as the positive control. Tocopherols and saponins extracted from argan tree and 2-methoxyestradiol exhibit a dose-response cytotoxic effect and an antiproliferative action on the tested cell lines. The best antiproliferative effect of tocopherols is obtained with DU145 and LNCaP cell lines (28 microg/ml and 32 microg/ml, respectively, as GI50). The saponins fraction displayed the best antiproliferative effect on the PC3 cell line with 18 microg/ml as GI50. Our results confirm the antiproliferative effect of 2-methoxyestradiol and show for the first time the antiproliferative effect of tocopherols and saponins extracted from the argan tree on hormone-dependent and hormone-independent prostate cancer cell lines. These data suggest that argan oil is of potential interest in developing new strategies for prostate cancer prevention.

  18. Evidence of hypolipemiant and antioxidant properties of argan oil derived from the argan tree (Argania spinosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drissi, Anas; Girona, Josefa; Cherki, Mounia; Godàs, Gemma; Derouiche, Abdelfettah; El Messal, Mariame; Saile, Rachid; Kettani, Anass; Solà, Rosa; Masana, Luis; Adlouni, Ahmed

    2004-10-01

    Virgin argan oil is of interest in cardiovascular risk prevention due to its fat composition and antioxidant compounds. We investigated with Moroccan subjects the effect of regular virgin argan oil consumption on lipid profile and antioxidant status and the in vitro effect of argan oil minor compounds (tocopherols, sterols and polyphenols) on LDL peroxidation. Healthy subjects (20 men, 76 women) were studied. Sixty-two were regular consumers of argan oil and 34 were non-consumers. Fasting plasma lipids, antioxidant vitamins and LDL oxidation susceptibility were analyzed. In vitro LDL oxidation by phenolic and apolar compounds of virgin argan oil were performed. Diet composition of argan oil consumers has a higher significant content of polyunsaturated fatty acids than that of non-consumers (8.8 +/- 1.0 vs. 6.6 +/- 0.9 g, P < 0.05). Subjects consuming argan oil have lower levels of plasma LDL cholesterol (12.7%, P < 0.05) and Lp(a) (25.3%, P < 0.05) compared with the non-consumers. In argan oil consumers, plasma lipoperoxides were lower (58.3%, P < 0.01) and molar ratio alpha-tocopherol/total cholesterol (21.6%, P < 0.05) and alpha-tocopherol concentration (13.4%, P < 0.05) were higher compared with the non-consumers group. In spite of higher levels of plasma antioxidant and lower levels of lipoperoxides in argan oil consumers, LDL oxidation susceptibility remained fairly similar. A strong positive correlation was observed between increasing phenolic extract, sterol and tocopherol concentrations and the LDL-Lag phase (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest for the first time that regular consumption of virgin argan oil induces a lowering of LDL cholesterol and has antioxidant properties. This oil offers an additional natural food to reducing cardiovascular risk.

  19. Activated carbons from KOH-activation of argan (Argania spinosa) seed shells as supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmouwahidi, Abdelhakim; Zapata-Benabithe, Zulamita; Carrasco-Marín, Francisco; Moreno-Castilla, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    Activated carbons were prepared by KOH-activation of argan seed shells (ASS). The activated carbon with the largest surface area and most developed porosity was superficially treated to introduce oxygen and nitrogen functionalities. Activated carbons with a surface area of around 2100 m(2)/g were obtained. Electrochemical measurements were carried out with a three-electrode cell using 1M H(2)SO(4) as electrolyte and Ag/AgCl as reference electrode. The O-rich activated carbon showed the lowest capacitance (259 F/g at 125 mA/g) and the lowest capacity retention (52% at 1A/g), due to surface carboxyl groups hindering electrolyte diffusion into the pores. Conversely, the N-rich activated carbon showed the highest capacitance (355 F/g at 125 mA/g) with the highest retention (93% at 1A/g), due to its well-developed micro-mesoporosity and the pseudocapacitance effects of N functionalities. This capacitance performance was among the highest reported for other activated carbons from a large variety of biomass precursors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure and Oligomers Distribution of Commercial Tara (Caesalpina spinosa Hydrolysable Tannin

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    Samuele GIOVANDO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extracted commercial Tara tanninextract have been examined by Matrix Assisted LaserDesorption/Ionisation Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOFmass spectrometry and by High Pressure LiquidChromatography (HPLC. The Tara extract has beenfound to be composed of a series of oligomers ofpolygallic acid attached by an ester link to one quinicacid. They constitute the oligomers in higherproportion in the extract. Other polygallic chains linkedto one only or two repeating units such as caffeic acidand methylated quinic, methylated gallic andmethylated caffeic acids are also present. Negativeion mode MALDI-TOF showed that somecarbohydrate residues appear to still be present,linked to the polyphenolic material of the extract buttheir proportion is very low as would be expected of asolvent extracted tannin.

  1. Quality of Cosmetic Argan Oil Extracted by Supercritical Fluid Extraction from Argania spinosa L.

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    Chouaa Taribak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Argan oil has been extracted using supercritical CO2. The influence of the variables pressure (100, 200, 300, and 400 bar and temperature (35, 45, 55°C was investigated. The best extraction yields were achieved at a temperature of 45°C and a pressure of 400 bar. The argan oil extracts were characterized in terms of acid, peroxide and iodine values, total tocopherol, carotene, and fatty acids content. Significant compositional differences were not observed between the oil samples obtained using different pressures and temperatures. The antioxidant capacity of the argan oil samples was high in comparison to those of walnut, almond, hazelnut, and peanut oils and comparable to that of pistachio oil. The physicochemical parameters of the extracted oils obtained by SFE, Soxhlet, and traditional methods are comparable. The technique used for oil processing does not therefore markedly alter the quality of argan oil.

  2. [Optimization of culture conditions for in vitro rooting of argan (Argania spinosa L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousselmame, F; Kenny, L; Chlyah, H

    2001-11-01

    The root system produced of in vitro organ plantlets is of poor quality and not efficient for the transfer to out-door conditions. To overcome such problems, experimentation was undertaken where the effects of growth regulators, nitrogen, sugar, activated charcoal and coconut fiber were tested on root induction and elongation. Modified Murashige and Skoog with half strength salt was used as a basal medium. Root induction (85%) with a mean of 16 roots per explant was obtained when shoots were grown, under dark conditions for 14 days, with a combination of two auxins (IBA and NNA), added at equal concentrations (5 mg.L-1). Secondary roots, 10 cm long, were initiated in 12% of the cultures in presence of 5 g.L-1 activated charcoal. Further improvements in the growth of the primary and secondary roots were obtained when semi-solid medium was substituted with a substrate composed of coconut fibers (80 g) mixed with semi-solid medium (35 mL) and agar (2.5 g.L-1).

  3. ANTI-OXIDANT PROPERTY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CATUNAREGAM SPINOSA THUNB

    OpenAIRE

    SHRIVASTAVA SURABHI; S LEELAVATHI

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress may be one of the factors which play a role in the development of chronic and degenerative diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and neuronal degeneration. Fruits, nuts, and vegetables have long been considered high in antioxidants. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels are affected by a wide array of factors, such as cultivar, growing conditions, harvesting, food processing and preparation, sampling, and analytical procedures. The ethanolic leaf extract of Catunaregam s...

  4. Leaf antioxidant fluctuations and growth responses in saplings of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (brazilwood) under an urban stressing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbovas, Patricia; de Moraes, Regina Maria; Spasiani Rinaldi, Mirian Cilene; Luiza Cunha, Adriana; Carvalho Delitti, Welington Braz; Domingos, Marisa

    2010-05-01

    We intended to establish how efficient the leaf antioxidant responses of C. echinata are against oxidative environmental conditions observed in an urban environment and their relations to growth and biomass parameters. Plants were grown for 15 months in four sites: Congonhas and Pinheiros, affected by pollutants from vehicular emissions; Ibirapuera, affected by high O(3) concentrations; and a greenhouse with filtered air. Fifteen plants were quarterly removed from each site for analysis of antioxidants, growth and biomass. Plants growing in polluted sites showed alterations in their antioxidants. They were shorter, had thicker stems and produced less leaf biomass than plants maintained under filtered air. The fluctuations in the levels of antioxidants were significantly influenced by combined effects of climatic and pollution variables. The higher were the antioxidant responses and the concentrations of pollutant markers of air contamination in each site the slower were the growth and biomass production. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions...

  6. Rainfall interception by two arboreal species in urban green area

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    Luzia Ferreira da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall interception by the two most usual species in forest urban spaces was analysed by measuring of interception (I or interception losses, through fall (Th, stem flow (St and gross precipitation (Pg. The chosen species were Caesalpinia pluviosa DC. (Fabaceae: Caesalpinoideae or sibipiruna, and Tipuana tipu O. Kuntze (Fabaceae: Faboideae or tipuana. The individuals analysed were more than 50 years old, with three separate individuals and three individuals in each studied group of species at the campus of ”Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture (University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba. The experiments were carried out from January to February 2007. Water was collected using seven-litre pails, in the edges and in the centre of the canopies. A high correlation of Th with Pg was observed on the centre of the crow of tipuana and by the edges of sibipiruna. St and I had low correlation with Pg for both species. The average of rain interception was greater in the edges of the crow of sibipiruna individuals, 60.6%, and in the centre of tipuana crow, 59.40%. Thus, both species intercepted up to 60% of the water rainfall, which indicates a great potential of both species for arborisation in urban environments.

  7. Avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de espinafre (Tetragonia tetragonoides (Pall.) Kuntze)

    OpenAIRE

    Lodo, Maria Angélica; Lopes, Magnólia de Mendonça; Soares, Bruna Resende Ribeiro; Vieira, Roberval Daiton

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of vigor tests in assessing the physiological potential of seeds depends on their standardization for different species. In this context, the research aimed to study specific methodologies to evaluate the vigor of spinach seeds (Tetragonia tetragonoides). For this purpose, five lots of spinach seed cv. New Zealand were submitted to germination, first count of germination, seedling emergence in the field, accelerated aging (with and without use of saturated solution of NaCl at 4...

  8. Tratamento de sementes de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze com substâncias potencialmente repelentes à fauna consumidora

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guilherme O. S. Ferraz de Arruda; Frederico Dimas Fleig; Ricardo Trezzi Casa

    2007-01-01

    .... The experiment was realized at Phytopatology and Plant Physiology Laboratory of Center of Agroveterinary Sciences, University of Santa Catarina State Brazil, from june to december, 2004. The Paraná...

  9. CONSERVAÇÃO DA VIABILIDADE E VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze DURANTE O ARMAZENAMENTO

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    Cristhyane Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of Araucaria seeds is widely compromised in function of their recalcitrant feature, which hampers the planning of recovery actions of the degraded populations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to monitor the physiological changes in Araucaria seeds under controlled storage conditions, in order to get insights as to the viability and vigor conservation. The physiological quality of freshly harvested seeds was evaluated and every 60 days throughout the 180 days-storage period in laboratory ambient without thermal control, refrigerator (5 ° C, and freezer (-18 ° C until the final period of 180 days. After each sampling period, the seed viability (germination and tetrazolium tests and vigor (artificial aging, germination speed index – IVG and electrical conductivity were assessed. A reduction in the normal seedlings percentage was noticed over the period of storage of Araucaria seeds. The conservation in freezer and the lack of thermal control caused a complete loss of the seed viability at 60 and 180 days of storage, respectively. However, the refrigerator storage promoted the conservation of seed viability, with 64% germination after 180 days of storage, an event associated with the reduction of the metabolic activity of seeds. Based on the viability and vigor tests, it was concluded that storage in refrigerator provided longer storage periods to Araucaria seeds in comparison to the other storage conditions herein studied.

  10. Tratamento de sementes de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze com substâncias potencialmente repelentes à fauna consumidora.

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    Guilherme O. S. Ferraz de Arruda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A semente de Araucaria angustifolia, o pinhão, é comumente utilizada como alimento e propágulo para regeneração da espécie. A intensa predação das sementes pela fauna silvestre, que ocorre em áreas recém-plantadas por semeadura direta e em viveiros florestais, é um dos fatores adversos e desestimulantes à propagação da espécie. Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar possíveis efeitos fitotóxicos de algumas substâncias naturais e sintéticas potencialmente repelentes à fauna silvestre, em sementes de Araucaria angustifolia "in vitro". O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Fitopatologia e Fisiologia Vegetal do CAV / UDESC, no período de junho a dezembro de 2004. As sementes, após preparadas e tratadas com substâncias de origem vegetal e sintéticas, foram semeadas em bandejas plásticas com substrato constituído por vermiculita e colocadas em câmara de crescimento com temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, umidade do substrato e períodos de luz controlados. Foi adotado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, contendo 15 tratamentos, com 4 repetições de 10 pinhões. As substâncias testadas, isoladas ou em misturas, foram: extratos alcoólicos de fruto de pimenta vermelha, raiz de salsa tempero e, da parte aérea de losna, óleo essencial de eucalipto, óleo de linhaça, óleo de mamona, breu, oxicloreto de cobre, sulfato de cobre, enxofre e tinta látex PVA. Emissão de raiz, emissão da parte aérea, comprimento da raiz principal e da parte aérea foram avaliados 76 dias após a semeadura. As análises possibilitaram concluir que não houve efeitos fitotóxicos das substâncias testadas "in vitro" sobre as variáveis analisadas e que tais substâncias podem ser utilizadas nos experimentos de campo para testes de repelência aos animais consumidores de pinhões.

  11. EFECTO DEL MEDIO DE CULTIVO EN EL DESARROLLO DE Suillus granulatus (L. Roussel y S. brevipes (Pk. Kuntze

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    Dulce Ma. Murrieta-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La tasa de crecimiento micelial de los hongos ectomicorrícicos Suillus granulatus y S. brevipes, se evaluó en tres medios de cultivo (PDA, BAF y MNM con dos valores de pH (4.8 y 5.8, con el fin de seleccionar el mejor medio de cultivo. Las cepas se aislaron de esporomas colectados en el bosque de Pinus hartwegii del Parque Nacional Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, México. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (Tukey, P ≤ 0.05 en el área de crecimiento de ambas especies; los valores más altos se registraron en el medio PDA. Respecto a los valores de pH evaluados, no hubo diferencias significativas. Cada uno de los medios evaluados se puede utilizar para el cultivo de las cepas S. granulatus y S. brevipes dependiendo de los objetivos. El medio PDA fue el mejor sustrato para el crecimiento de las cepas. Se sugiere utilizar el medio BAF para la producción masiva de micelio para inóculo y el medio MNM se recomienda ya sea para el mantenimiento de las cepas o para pruebas de micorrización.

  12. Genetic integrity of somaclonal variants in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O Kuntze) as revealed by inter simple sequence repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jibu; Vijayan, Deepu; Joshi, Sarvottam D; Joseph Lopez, S; Raj Kumar, R

    2006-05-17

    Adoption of inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) technique to analyze the genetic variability of somatic embryo derived tea plants was evaluated. Morphological characterisation of the field grown plants revealed no identical character aligning with the parent, UPASI-10. Out of 40 primers, 15 exhibited concurrent polymorphism were selected for the study. Genetic variability of somaclones derived from single line cotyledonary culture ranged from 33.0 to 55.0%. A unique fragment of 1.2Kb was visible in majority of the accessions whereas the fragments below the length of 0.6Kb were noticed only in 50% of the variants. Out of 120 interactions attempted using Pearson's coefficient correlation, only 9.2% of somaclones exhibited significant similarity at genetic level. Dendrogram constructed based on simple matching coefficient revealed a distance of 2.257-3.317 between the final clusters. This strengthens the existence of wide genetic variation among the somaclones.

  13. Caracterização dendrométrica de Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. em povoamento de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze

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    Daniela Biondi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its history of exploitation and intensive use in landscaping, the Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. (Dicksoniaceae is currently one of the Brazilian flora endangered species. The Paraná State laws prohibit its extraction; however, there is no research to support future management plans. This work characterized the natural occurrence of D. Sellowiana in an Araucaria angustifolia stand in the municipality of Rio Negro, Paraná State, using dendrometric variables after silvicultural intervention (clipping. D. sellowiana individuals (714 taller than the commercial height of 0.50 m were randomly sampled and assigned to the following treatments: plots with unclipped plants (T0, plots with plants clipped in the measurement (T1, and plots with plants clipped two years before in the measurement (T2. The variables analyzed were: density of the individuals/ha and plots, total and commercial caudex height (m, crown height (m, base diameter, crown (cm and frond (m, diameters, individual and total commercial volume. It was found significant difference between T1 and T2 for total height; between T2 and T0 and between T2 of T1 for crown and from diameters, individual commercial volume; between T0 and T1 and between TO and T2 for total commercial volume. The variables that characterized better the silvicultural interventions were the density of individuals and the total height. The occurred interventions revealed its importance for the management of the D. sellowiana because it favors the regeneration of the young plants for the conservation of the species, and benefits the development of the adult plants for its commercial exploitation.

  14. Radial variation of basic density and wood cells dimensions of Cariniana legalis (Mart. O. Kuntze depending on the provenance

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    Israel Luiz de Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Provenance tests can provide information about the silvicultural behavior and wood quality for the exploration of variability and conservation of genetic material for future use. This study aims to investigate the effect of provenances on some wood properties of the Cariniana legalis. Seedlings of three provenances (Porto Ferreira, Piracicaba and Campinas were planted in Luiz Antonio-SP using randomized block design with six replicates. After 26 years of planting, eighteen trees, six of each provenance, were felled. The properties studied were basic density and the cellular dimensions. The results revealed that the basic density, fiber length, fiber wall thickness, vessel element length, vessel diameter, uniseriate ray height and width were influenced by the provenances. A good positive relationship was found among the fiber length, fiber wall thickness, vessel element length; vessel diameter and multiseriate ray height with radial position and a negative relation between vessel frequency with the radial position.

  15. Glutathione improves early somatic embryogenesis in Araucaria angustifolia (Bert) O. Kuntze by alteration in nitric oxide emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Leila do Nascimento; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; de Freitas Fraga, Hugo Pacheco; Dos Santos, André Luis Wendt; Steinmacher, Douglas André; Schlogl, Paulo Sérgio; Silveira, Vanildo; Steiner, Neusa; Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

    2012-10-01

    In this work, it was observed a straight relationship between the manipulation of the reduced glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio, nitric oxide emission and quality and number of early somatic embryos in Araucaria angustifolia, a Brazilian endangered native conifer. In low concentrations GSH (0.01 and 0.1mM) is a potential NO scavenger in the culture medium. Furthermore, it can increase the number of early SE formed in cell suspension culture media in a few days. However, the maintenance in this low redox state lead to a loss of early somatic embryos polarization. In gelled culture medium, high levels of GSH (5mM) allows the development of globular embryos presenting a high NO emission on embryo apex, stressing its importance in the differentiation and cell division. Taken together these results indicate that the modification of the embryogenic cultures redox state might be an effective strategy to develop more efficient embryogenic systems in A. angustifolia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. TIVIDADE RESPIRATÓRIA DE MERISTEMAS APICAIS DE RAMOS PLAGIOTRÓPICOS DE Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze

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    Gabriely Pinto Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia decreases its growth ratio during the fall and winter in response to adverse environmental conditions such as in temperate fruits where bud dormancy as a survival startegy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of the respiratory activity of apical meristems of plagiotropic branches of Araucaria angustifolia . To determine the respiratory activity, samples with 0.4 g of apical buds of plagiotropic branches of young and adult plants were collected. These buds were maintained during two hours in 5 mL of 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (1.2% in a growth room at 25 °C. Then, it was maintained during one hour in 4 mL of absolute ethyl alcohol and then the absorbance was determined by reading in spectrophotometer at 560 nm. The respiratory activity of apical meristems of plagiotropic branches of Araucaria angustifolia changed during the year, reducing in mid-spring and become lower in the winter in both young and adult plants. Adult plants remained with lower respiratory activity for a longer period, until the beginning of summer.

  17. New Sample Preparation Method for Quantification of Phenolic Compounds of Tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze: A Polyphenol Rich Plant

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    P. A. Nimal Punyasiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of the Sri Lankan tea (Camellia sinensis, L. germplasm would immensely contribute to the success of the tea breeding programme. However, the polyphenols, particularly catechins (flavan-3-ols, are readily prone to oxidation in the conventional method of sample preparation. Therefore, optimization of the present sample preparation methodology for the profiling of metabolites is much important. Two sample preparation methodologies were compared, fresh leaves (as in the conventional procedures and freeze-dried leaves (a new procedure, for quantification of major metabolites by employing two cultivars, one is known to be high quality black tea and the other low quality black tea. The amounts of major metabolites such as catechins, caffeine, gallic acid, and theobromine, recorded in the new sampling procedure via freeze-dried leaves, were significantly higher than those recorded in the conventional sample preparation procedure. Additionally new method required less amount of leaf sample for analysis of major metabolites and facilitates storage of samples until analysis. The freeze-dried method would be useful for high throughput analysis of large number of samples in shorter period without chemical deterioration starting from the point of harvest until usage. Hence, this method is more suitable for metabolite profiling of tea as well as other phenol rich plants.

  18. Metabolic Changes of Caffeine in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) as Defense Response to Colletotrichum fructicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Qian, Wen-Jun; Li, Na-Na; Hao, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Lu; Xiao, Bin; Wang, Xin-Chao; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2016-09-07

    Tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is one of the most economically valuable crops in the world. Anthracnose can affect the growth of leaves and cause serious yield losses of tea. Tea plants are rich in secondary metabolites; however, their roles in resistance to anthracnose are unclear. Herein we compared the contents of total phenolics, catechins, and caffeine in two cultivars with different resistances to anthracnose during Colletotrichum fructicola infection. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), (+)-catechin (C), caffeine, and critical regulatory genes were induced in C. fructicola-resistant tissues. In vitro antifungal tests showed that caffeine more strongly inhibited mycelial growth than tea polyphenols and catechins. Both electron microscopy and bioactivity analysis results showed that caffeine can affect mycelial cell walls and plasma membranes. Through promoter sequences analysis, a number of stress response-related cis-acting elements were identified in S-adenosylmethionine synthetase and tea caffeine synthase. These results demonstrated that (-)-EGCG, (+)-C, and caffeine may be involved in the resistance of tea plants to anthracnose.

  19. Transcriptome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the NAC Gene Family in Tea Plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Xin; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Zhi-Jun; Li, Hui; Zhuang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    In plants, the NAC (NAM-ATAF1/2-CUC) family of proteins constitutes several transcription factors and plays vital roles in diverse biological processes, such as growth, development, and adaption to adverse factors. Tea, as a non-alcoholic drink, is known for its bioactive ingredients and health efficacy. Currently, knowledge about NAC gene family in tea plant remains very limited. In this study, a total of 45 CsNAC genes encoding NAC proteins including three membrane-bound members were identified in tea plant through transcriptome analysis. CsNAC factors and Arabidopsis counterparts were clustered into 17 subgroups after phylogenetic analysis. Conserved motif analysis revealed that CsNAC proteins with a close evolutionary relationship possessed uniform or similar motif compositions. The distribution of NAC family MTFs (membrane-associated transcription factors) among higher plants of whose genome-wide has been completed revealed that the existence of doubled TMs (transmembrane motifs) may be specific to fabids. Transcriptome analysis exhibited the expression profiles of CsNAC genes in different tea plant cultivars under non-stress conditions. Nine CsNAC genes, including the predicted stress-related and membrane-bound genes, were examined through qRT-PCR (quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction) in two tea plant cultivars, namely, 'Huangjinya' and 'Yingshuang'. The expression patterns of these genes were investigated in different tissues (root, stem, mature leaf, young leaf and bud) and under diverse environmental stresses (drought, salt, heat, cold and abscisic acid). Several CsNAC genes, including CsNAC17 and CsNAC30 that are highly orthologous to known stress-responsive ANAC072/RD26 were identified as highly responsive to abiotic stress. This study provides a global survey of tea plant NAC proteins, and would be helpful for the improvement of stress resistance in tea plant via genetic engineering.

  20. Varietal identification of tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] Kuntze) using nanofluidic array of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apart from water, tea is the world’s most widely consumed beverage. Tea is produced in more than 50 countries with an annual production of approximately 4.7 million tons. The market segment for specialty tea has been expanding rapidly owing to increased demand, resulting in higher revenues and profi...

  1. Essential oil of Kurzamra pulchella (Clos) Kuntze (Lamiaceae, Nepetoideae, Mentheae, Menthinae): relationship with chemotype groups in the subtribe Menthinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverría, Javier; Niemeyer, Hermann M

    2017-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Kurzamra pulchella (Lamiaceae) was determined. Twelve compounds were identified, with isomenthone (60.6%) and pulegone (37.1%) predominating. Chemotaxonomical considerations were discussed.

  2. The Effect of Black Tea (Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze) on Pediatrics With Acute Nonbacterial Diarrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doustfatemeh, Sareh; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi; Mohagheghzade, Abdolali; Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Torkamani, Zahra; Yousefi, Gholamhossein; Farahangiz, Saman; Salehi, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of black tea in pediatric patients with acute nonbacterial diarrhea. This single-blind randomized clinical trial study was performed on 2 to 12-year-old patients, with acceptable criteria for acute nonbacterial diarrhea in Shiraz, Iran. In total, 120 patients took part in this study. Blocked randomization method was used to allocate them into 2 groups of intervention (black tea tablet + standard treatment) and control group (standard treatment; 60 patients in each). Frequency of defecation, volume, and consistency of stool were registered on arrival and 24 hours later. We used χ2 test, t test, and Mann-Whitney U test. After a 24-hour follow-up, the proportion of patients with formed stool was higher in the intervention group when compared with the control group (P < .001). There was a significant difference between the mean number of defecations per 24 hours in both groups, after treatment (P < .001). We found a possible antidiarrheal effect of black tea. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Study of rheology and friction factor of natural food hydrocolloid gels

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    Vojtěch Kumbár

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the rheology and friction factor of natural food hydrocolloid gels were studied in this paper. The practical importance of the knowledge of the rheological parameters is quite evident. The experimental data were carried out using a concentric cylinder rotary viscometer. It was prepared 1% hydrocolloid solutions (hydrogels. Hydrogels of the natural gums extracted from the seeds of the plants and plant tubers have been used - carob gum (from the seeds of Ceratonia siliqua, guar gum (from the seeds of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba and tara gum (from the seeds of Caesalpinia spinosa. Rheological behaviour has non-Newtonian pseudoplastic character and the flow curves were fitted using the Otswald - de Waele (power law model and Herschel - Bulkley model. The hydrogels exhibit shear thinning behaviour. The meaning of the rheological parameters on the friction factors during flow of hydrocolloid gels in the tube has been shown. Information on time dependent behaviour of tested liquids has been also obtained. Time dependent curves were fitted by the Gaussian model. Preliminary results obtained for a constant shear rate showed the thixotropic and time-dependent behaviour of the hydrogels. These parameters can be especially used in much software dealing with a numerical simulation of the flow problems.

  4. Multifunctional T Lymphocytes Generated After Therapy With an Antitumor Gallotanin-Rich Normalized Fraction Are Related to Primary Tumor Size Reduction in a Breast Cancer Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urueña, Claudia; Gomez, Alejandra; Sandoval, Tito; Hernandez, John; Li, Shaoping; Barreto, Alfonso; Fiorentino, Susana

    2015-09-01

    Natural compounds are promising sources for anticancer therapies because of their multifunctional activity and low toxicity. Although the host immune response (IR) is clearly implicated in tumor control, the relationship between natural therapies and IR has not yet been elucidated. The present work evaluates IR induction after treatment with a gallotannin-rich fraction from Caesalpinia spinosa (P2Et). Breast tumor 4T1 cells were used to evaluate antitumor properties and IR activation. Apoptosis and expression of immunogenic cell death (ICD) markers were assessed in vitro, whereas IR and postvaccination tumor evolution were assessed in vivo. P2Et fraction induced apoptotic cell death, displaying phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation. ICD markers such as calreticulin, high-mobility group box 1 translocation from nuclei to cytoplasm, and ATP secretion were observed. Primary tumor control was improved by vaccination with P2Et-pretreated 4T1 cells (t-P2Et), yielding long-lasting ex vivo multifunctional CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes (interleukin [IL]-2(+), tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α(+), interferon [IFN]-γ(+)) that secrete IL-2, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-γ after specific 4T1 cell stimulation. The present study constitutes the first demonstration of a long-lasting antitumor IR induction and primary tumor reduction induced by a complex natural fraction. These data reveal the potential use of this fraction as an adjuvant in breast cancer treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Registro de novos hospedeiros de Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis (Coleoptera, Platypodidae no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil (Nota Científica. A register of new hosts of Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis (Coleoptera, Platypodidae in the State of São Paulo (Scientific Note.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Borges CONFORTI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis éespécie nativa da América do Sul e é pragaprimária de espécies arbóreas exóticas e nativas.No município de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo,durante pesquisa realizada nos anos de 2004,2005 e 2006, visando descobrir a causa damortalidade de árvores que compõem o dossel defragmentos de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual noBosque dos Jequitibás e na Mata Santa Genebra,foi coletado material associado a várias espéciesarbóreas ainda não registradas na literatura.Schizolobium parahyba (Vel l . S. F. Bl ake,Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong,Livistona chinensis (Jacq. R. Br., Caesalpiniapluviosa (Benth. DC., Pittosporum undulatumVent., Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook Raf.,Mangifera indica L., Croton floribundus Spreng.,Croton piptocalyx Müll. Arg., Cariniana legalis(Mart. Kuntze, Luetzelburgia guaissaraToledo, Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart. J. F.Macbr., Ficus benjamina L., Platypodium elegansVogel, Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi Kuntze,Machaerium stipitatum (DC. Vogel, Centrolobiumtomentosum Guillemin ex Benth., Pachira aquaticaAubl., Inga cf. vera Willd. ssp. affinis (DC. T.D.Penn., são registradas pela primeira vez comohospedeiros de M. mutatus no stado de São Paulo,Brasil. Plantas hospedeiras referidas em bibliografiatambém são relacionadas.Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis isnative from South America and it is a primary pestof native and exotic trees. In the county ofCampinas, state of São Paulo, during researchcarried out in the years of 2004, 2005 and 2006aiming at to discover the cause of the mortality oftrees that compose the canopy of fragments ofSemideciduous Forest in the Bosque dos Jequitibásand Mata Santa Genebra, was collected materialassociated with some species still not recorded inthe literature. Schizolobium parahyba (Vel l . S.F. Bl ake, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.Morong, Livistona chinensis (Jacq. R. Br.,Caesalpinia pluviosa (Benth. DC., Pittosporumundulatum Vent., Delonix

  6. Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Capparis Spinosa Fruit on Blood Sugar and Lipid Profile of Diabetic and normal Rats

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    Rasool Rahmani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common disorder of endocrine glands worldwide. Caper as a medicinal plant has anti-oxidant properties and has been used traditionally to cure diabetes. The aim of present research was to evaluate the effect of 200 and 800 mg/kg of caper fruit extract on blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin and lipid profile in diabetic and normal male rats.Materials & Methods: In this experimental study 60 rats were divided into 6 groups randomly, in which three diabetic groups received distilled water (control and 200 and 800 mg/kg caper fruit extract respectively and three normal groups were treated as diabetic groups. The animals were received orally either water or fruit extract by gavages for 28 days. To measure the level of blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile, blood samples of animals were collected at the beginning and the end of experiment and p<0.05 was considered as significant.Results: The blood sugar decreased in all groups receiving fruit extract compare to control groups and the decrease in blood sugar was dose dependent. Blood triglycerides decreased in all diabetic groups receiving extract compare to control but in normal rats the changes were not significant. The changes in glycated hemoglobin was not significant. Other blood metabolites that were measured in the present study were not changed significantly.Conclusion: The results of present study showed that consumption of Caper fruit extract lead to a significant decrease in blood sugar and also a considerable decrease in blood triglycerides in diabetic rats, therefore it seems that Caper fruit consumption may has beneficial effects on blood sugar and lipid profile.

  7. Isolation, identification and determination of the biological activity of candidate fruit volatile components from Argania spinosa L. (Sapotacea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakri, A., E-mail: bakri@ucam.ac.m [University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco). Fac. of Science Semlalia. Insect Biological Control Unit; Dueben, B.D.; Proveaux, A.T.; Heath, R.R., E-mail: rheath@saa.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/REE-ARS), Miami, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service

    2006-07-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  8. Chemical study, antimalarial and antioxidant activities, and cytotoxicity to human breast cancer cells (MCF7) of Argania spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Babili, Fatiha; Bouajila, Jalloul; Fouraste, Isabelle; Valentin, Alexis; Mauret, Severine; Moulis, Claude

    2010-02-01

    In our work, we evaluate the potential antioxidant, antimalarial activity and also activity against human breast cancer cells (MCF7) of Argan fruit extracts using in vitro models to validate the traditional use of this plant. Its chemical composition was also studied to begin the understanding of its activities, waiting to find the structure-activity relationship. Polyphenols (89.4-218.5 eqGallic acid (mg/g dry)), tannins (39.3-214.0 eqCatechin (mg/g dry)), flavonoids (3.4-11.1 eqQuercetin (mg/g dry)) and anthocyanins (0.74-10.92 eqCyanindin (mug/g dry)) were quantified. A good (ethyl acetate and decoction) and moderate (petroleum ether) antioxidant activity were obtained for DPPH (IC(50) 32.3-600.8 microg/ml) and ABTS (IC(50) 11.9-988.8 microg/ml) assays. In addition, we found a good antimalarial activity (IC(50) 35 to >100 microg/ml) and human breast cancer cells activity (IC(50) 42 to >100 microg/ml). The ethyl acetate extract and the decoction show interesting antimalarial and antioxidant activities. The results indicate a good correlations between anthocyanins quantitiy and the potential antioxidant (R(2)=0.9867) and also to antimalarial activity (R(2)=0.8175). Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Antiatherogenic activity of extracts of Argania spinosa L. pericarp: beneficial effects on lipid peroxidation and cholesterol homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, Hicham; Cherki, Mounia; Koumbadinga, Geremy Abdull; Isabelle, Maxim; Douville, Jasmin; Spino, Claude; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2007-09-01

    Prevention of lipoprotein oxidation by natural compounds may prevent atherosclerosis via reducing early atherogenesis. In this study, we investigated for the first time the beneficial properties of methanolic extract of argania pericarp (MEAP) towards atherogenesis by protecting human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) against oxidation while promoting high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux. By measuring the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and conjugated diene as well as the lag phase and the progression rate of lipid peroxidation, the MEAP was found to possess an inhibitory effect. In addition, MEAP reduced the rate of disappearance of alpha-tocopherol as well as the apoB electrophoretic mobility in a dose-dependent manner. These effects are related to the free radical scavenging and copper-chelating effects of MEAP. In terms of cell viability, MEAP has shown a cytotoxic effect (0-40 microg/mL). Incubation of 3H-cholesterol-loaded J774 macrophages with HDL in the presence of increasing concentrations of MEAP enhanced HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux independently of ABCA1 receptor pathways. Our findings suggest that argania seed pericarp provides a source of natural antioxidants that inhibit LDL oxidation and enhance cholesterol efflux and thus can prevent development of cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Evaluation of the phenotypic variation in a caper (Capparis spinosa L. population growing in south of Tehran using multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic variation among 100 caper (Capparis spinose L. plants growing naturally in south of Tehran. Plant samples were taken randomly from three different regions of southern Tehran. The number of 29 phenotypic traits were studied on selected plants. Data were subsequently subjected to multivariate analysis. Results showed that fruit yield was significantly correlated with the number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, fruit length, fruit diameter, plant canopy, the number of thorns in every 50 cm of stem, thorn length and the number of flowers per plant (NFP. Also, there was a negative correlation between fruit length and the number of branches per each main stem. Stepwise multiple linear regression revealed that the number of main stems per plant, leaf width, petiole length, peduncle length and NFP were added to the model and hence had the greatest impact on fruit yield. Principle component analysis showed that the first two components accounted for 41.1% of the total variation. The first component was related to the fruit yield and its related traits, while the second component was related to the vegetative growth and showed competition between reproductive and vegetative functions. Cluster analysis of genotypes using Ward method and squared Euclidian distance criteria classified the samples into ten different groups. The results of this study suggested that crossing between samples 17 and 81 may produce useful recombinants.

  11. Isolation, Structural Characterization, and Valorization of Pectic Substances from Algerian Argan Tree Leaves (Argania spinosa (L. Skeels

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    Kadda Hachem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectic polysaccharides were solubilized from Algerian argan tree leaves by sequential extraction with water at 100°C (water-soluble pectin; AL-WSP and EDTA solution at 80°C (chelating-soluble pectin; AL-CSP. Both AL-WSP and AL-CSP were rich in arabinose (28% and 74.5%, resp. and had a high content of uronic acid (38.5% and 21.5%, resp.. Pectic substances were deesterified and fractionated by anion exchange chromatography, giving five fractions for each extract. Most of the fractions were characterized by methylation analysis and then analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that AL-WSP consisted of rhamnogalacturonan type I, with arabinan and galactan branching at the O-4 position of the main rhamnose chain, while AL-CSP consisted of rhamnogalacturonan type I and a block of homogalacturonan. Antioxidant activities of AL-WSP and AL-CSP were evaluated by electronic spin resonance. The results showed that the antioxidant potential of AL-WSP (8.1% and AL-CSP (−1.2% was significantly lower than that of vitamin E.

  12. Molecular characterization of Cryptococcus gattii genotype AFLP6/VGII isolated from woody debris of divi-divi (Caesalpinia coriaria), Bonaire, Dutch Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen, F.; Chowdhary, A.; Prakash, A.; Yntema, J.B.; Meis, J.F.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus gattii is an emerging and primary pathogen. There is a lack of information about its environmental spread outside outbreak regions in Mediterranean Europe, North and South America. Environmental sampling for C. gattii and molecular characterization

  13. Forest restoration in a fog oasis: evidence indicates need for cultural awareness in constructing the reference.

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    Luís Balaguer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the Peruvian Coastal Desert, an archipelago of fog oases, locally called lomas, are centers of biodiversity and of past human activity. Fog interception by a tree canopy, dominated by the legume tree tara (Caesalpinia spinosa, enables the occurrence in the Atiquipa lomas (southern Peru of an environmental island with a diverse flora and high productivity. Although this forest provides essential services to the local population, it has suffered 90% anthropogenic reduction in area. Restoration efforts are now getting under way, including discussion as to the most appropriate reference ecosystem to use. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genetic diversity of tara was studied in the Atiquipa population and over a wide geographical and ecological range. Neither exclusive plastid haplotypes to loma formations nor clear geographical structuring of the genetic diversity was found. Photosynthetic performance and growth of seedlings naturally recruited in remnant patches of loma forest were compared with those of seedlings recruited or planted in the adjacent deforested area. Despite the greater water and nitrogen availability under tree canopy, growth of forest seedlings did not differ from that of those recruited into the deforested area, and was lower than that of planted seedlings. Tara seedlings exhibited tight stomatal control of photosynthesis, and a structural photoprotection by leaflet closure. These drought-avoiding mechanisms did not optimize seedling performance under the conditions produced by forest interception of fog moisture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both weak geographic partitioning of genetic variation and lack of physiological specialization of seedlings to the forest water regime strongly suggest that tara was introduced to lomas by humans. Therefore, the most diverse fragment of lomas is the result of landscape management and resource use by pre-Columbian cultures. We argue that an appropriate reference ecosystem for

  14. Forest restoration in a fog oasis: evidence indicates need for cultural awareness in constructing the reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, Luís; Arroyo-García, Rosa; Jiménez, Percy; Jiménez, María Dolores; Villegas, Luís; Cordero, Irene; Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Fernández-Delgado, Raúl; Ron, María Eugenia; Manrique, Esteban; Vargas, Pablo; Cano, Emilio; Pueyo, José J; Aronson, James

    2011-01-01

    In the Peruvian Coastal Desert, an archipelago of fog oases, locally called lomas, are centers of biodiversity and of past human activity. Fog interception by a tree canopy, dominated by the legume tree tara (Caesalpinia spinosa), enables the occurrence in the Atiquipa lomas (southern Peru) of an environmental island with a diverse flora and high productivity. Although this forest provides essential services to the local population, it has suffered 90% anthropogenic reduction in area. Restoration efforts are now getting under way, including discussion as to the most appropriate reference ecosystem to use. Genetic diversity of tara was studied in the Atiquipa population and over a wide geographical and ecological range. Neither exclusive plastid haplotypes to loma formations nor clear geographical structuring of the genetic diversity was found. Photosynthetic performance and growth of seedlings naturally recruited in remnant patches of loma forest were compared with those of seedlings recruited or planted in the adjacent deforested area. Despite the greater water and nitrogen availability under tree canopy, growth of forest seedlings did not differ from that of those recruited into the deforested area, and was lower than that of planted seedlings. Tara seedlings exhibited tight stomatal control of photosynthesis, and a structural photoprotection by leaflet closure. These drought-avoiding mechanisms did not optimize seedling performance under the conditions produced by forest interception of fog moisture. Both weak geographic partitioning of genetic variation and lack of physiological specialization of seedlings to the forest water regime strongly suggest that tara was introduced to lomas by humans. Therefore, the most diverse fragment of lomas is the result of landscape management and resource use by pre-Columbian cultures. We argue that an appropriate reference ecosystem for ecological restoration of lomas should include sustainable agroforestry practices that

  15. POLLINATION ECOLOGY OF TARENNA ASIATICA (L. KUNTZ EX. K. SCHUM. (RUBIACEAE, A KEYSTONE EVERGREEN SHRUB SPECIES IN THE EASTERN GHATS FOREST - ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA

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    A. Jacob Solomon Raju

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tarenna asiatica flowers throughout the year with profuse flowering during december-april. the flowers are hermaphroditic, self- and cross-compatible, protandrous, nectariferous and entomophilous. the mating system is facultatively xenogamous with highest fruit set in xenogamy. The protandry facilitates autonomous selfing. Bees and butterflies effect both self- and cross-pollinations. Fruits mature within a short period and the fallen seeds germinate following monsoon rains in June-July. a dearth of floral resources exists during december-april period; T. asiatica with profuse flowering during this period plays a key role to provide pollen and nectar for the probing flower foragers and hence is considered to be a keystone species in the eastern Ghats forest

  16. POLLINATION ECOLOGY OF TARENNA ASIATICA (L.) KUNTZ EX. K. SCHUM. (RUBIACEAE), A KEYSTONE EVERGREEN SHRUB SPECIES IN THE EASTERN GHATS FOREST - ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    A. Jacob Solomon Raju; M. Mallikarjuna Rao

    2016-01-01

    Tarenna asiatica flowers throughout the year with profuse flowering during december-april. the flowers are hermaphroditic, self- and cross-compatible, protandrous, nectariferous and entomophilous. the mating system is facultatively xenogamous with highest fruit set in xenogamy. The protandry facilitates autonomous selfing. Bees and butterflies effect both self- and cross-pollinations. Fruits mature within a short period and the fallen seeds germinate following monsoon rains in June-July. a de...

  17. Tratamento de sementes de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze com substâncias potencialmente repelentes à fauna consumidora.

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme O. S. Ferraz de Arruda; Frederico Dimas Fleig; Ricardo Trezzi Casa

    2010-01-01

    RESUMO A semente de Araucaria angustifolia, o pinhão, é comumente utilizada como alimento e propágulo para regeneração da espécie. A intensa predação das sementes pela fauna silvestre, que ocorre em áreas recém-plantadas por semeadura direta e em viveiros florestais, é um dos fatores adversos e desestimulantes à propagação da espécie. Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar possíveis efeitos fitotóxicos de algumas substâncias naturais e sintéticas potencialmente repelentes à fauna silvestr...

  18. Morphological structure of inflorescences of Agastache breviflora (A. Gray Epling, A. rugosa (Fisch. & C.A. Mey. Kuntze, and A. rupestris (Greene Standl. (family Lamiaceae ex situ

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    Galina O. Rudik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of comparative analysis of morphological structure of inflorescences Agastache breviflora, A. rugosa, and A. rupestris introduced in the O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden are represented. It has been established that the common morphological characteristics for inflorescences of these plants are: the type of inflorescence (thyrs, its location on the shoot (terminal, type of the growth of main and lateral axes (monopodial growth of the main axis and sympodial growth of lateral axes on which are formed the partial inflorescences – cymoids, the structure of the partial inflorescences (system of dichasia. Differences are determined by the linear dimensions of inflorescences, quantity and size of flowers in partial inflorescences, orientation of the main axis and flowers in space, presence or absence of bracts and bracteoles.

  19. Enhanced resistance to blister blight in transgenic tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze) by overexpression of class I chitinase gene from potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H Ranjit; Deka, Manab; Das, Sudripta

    2015-07-01

    Tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world. A crop loss of up to 43 % has been reported due to blister blight disease of tea caused by a fungus, Exobasidium vexans. Thus, it directly affects the tea industry qualitatively and quantitatively. Solanum tuberosum class I chitinase gene (AF153195) is a plant pathogenesis-related gene. It was introduced into tea genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) gene conferring hygromycin resistance as plant selectable marker. A total of 41 hygromycin resistant plantlets were obtained, and PCR analysis established 12 plantlets confirming about the stable integration of transgene in the plant genome. Real-time PCR detected transgene expression in four transgenic plantlets (T28, C57, C9, and T31). Resistance to biotrophic fungal pathogen, E. vexans, was tested by detached leaf infection assay of greenhouse acclimated plantlets. An inhibitory activity against the fungal pathogen was evident from the detached leaves from the transformants compared with the control. Fungal lesion formed on control plantlet whereas the transgenic plantlets showed resistance to inoculated fungal pathogen by the formation of hypersensitivity reaction area. This result suggests that constitutive expression of the potato class I chitinase gene can be exploited to improve resistance to fungal pathogen, E. vexans, in economical perennial plantation crop like tea.

  20. Biologia reprodutiva de Cordiera macrophylla (K. Schum. Kuntze (Rubiaceae, espécie dioica da região sudoeste do Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil

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    Simone Santos de Oliveira Cobra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O gênero Cordiera (Rubiaceae possui aproximadamente 25 espécies e ampla distribuição no Brasil. Seus representantes são árvores ou arbustos dioicos, com flores funcionalmente unissexuadas. Este estudo foi realizado em dois fragmentos de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual, no município de Tangará da Serra, MT. Foram investigadas a fenologia reprodutiva, a razão sexual, a morfologia e a biologia floral, o sistema e o sucesso reprodutivo. Cordiera macrophylla floresceu de julho a setembro, durante a estação seca, com pico sincrônico entre flores pistiladas e estaminadas. Flores estaminadas florescem antecipadamente e por um período mais prolongado que as pistiladas. A antese das flores pistiladas apresentou maior longevidade. A razão sexual foi de 1:1. Flores estaminadas são dispostas em inflorescências umbeliformes e as pistiladas são unifloras, ambas semelhantes morfologicamente. Os frutos são bagas verrucosas, polispérmicas. A taxa de formação de frutos por polinização natural foi de 95%, evidenciando a dependência dos polinizadores para a manutenção da espécie. O sucesso reprodutivo também foi alto, confirmando que a associação entre morfologia e biologia floral favoreceu a espécie nas áreas estudadas.

  1. Starch Product of Wild Plants Species Jalawure (Tacca leontopetaloides L.) Kuntze as The Source of Food Security in The South Coastal West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardah; Sambas, E. N.; Ridwan; Ariani, D.

    2017-04-01

    Majority of people of South coast of West Java, from Sukabumi, Cianjur, Garut are fishermen. Natural conditions are very dry and the area of land for agriculture, particularly rice cultivation is minimal. So that the condition of the society is more directed to high enough levels of food insecurity. Because coastal areas tend to have a longer dry season from rainfall. Results of research conducted in the years 2013 - 2016 in the area of Pelabuhan Ratu, Cidaun (Cianjur), Coastal area of Jayanti, Ranca Buaya, Mekar Mukti, and along the coast until Pameungpeuk, Leuweung Sancang, is known that jalawure plant which grows wild at South-coast region of West Java is precisely the alternative solution to address food insecurity. The results of the starch flour is a source of carbohydrate that is high enough to be used as a substitute for rice and wheat. Another potential source of jalawure nutrition is also recommended for diabetics consumption.

  2. Aktivitas Polifenol Teh Hijau (Camellia sinensis (L O. Kuntze Sebagai Imunomodulator melalui Respons Supresi Imunoglobulin E (IgE pada Rinitis Alergika

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    Yusni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory condition of the nasal mucosa caused by interactions between allergens and immunoglobulin E (IgE. Immunomodulatory is an important part of the treatment of allergic rhinitis. One of the medicinal plants that have immunomodulatory activities is green tea (Camellia sinensis L., specifically polyphenols. The purpose of this study was to analyze the activity of green tea’s polyphenols as an immunomodulator in patients with allergic rhinitis. This study was conducted in June to December 2011 in the laboratory of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine Unsyiah with the IgE examinations conducted in private laboratories. This study is a pretest-postest quasi experimental study with control group design. Subjects were 12 patients with allergic rhinitis; 6 people were included in the control group (placebo and 6 in the treatment group (green tea’s polyphenols 2x350 mg/day, for 14 days. Analysis of the data was performed using the normality test, homogeneity test, and t-test (p<0.05. The results showed that the levels of immunoglobulin E after the administration of green tea’s polyphenols in the treatment group was lower than the control group (1.475.2±940.7 vs 494.3±366.5 IU, but not significantly (p=0.05. In conclusion, the administration of green tea’s polyphenols can insignificantly decrease the secretion of IgE. Hence, further research is required.

  3. Skin Wound Healing Potential and Mechanisms of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Leaves and Oleoresin of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. Kuntze in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gushiken, Lucas Fernando Sérgio; Hussni, Carlos Alberto; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp; Rozza, Ariane Leite; Beserra, Fernando Pereira; Vieira, Ana Júlia; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Lemos, Marivane; Polizello Junior, Maurilio; da Silva, Jonas Joaquim Mangabeira; Nóbrega, Rafael Henrique; Martinez, Emanuel Ricardo Monteiro; Pellizzon, Cláudia Helena

    2017-01-01

    The wound healing is a complex process which, sometimes, can be a problem in public health because of the possibility of physical disability or even death. Due to the lack of a gold standard drug in skin wound treatment and aiming at the discovery of new treatments in skin repair and the mechanisms involved in the process, we used oleoresin (OR) from Copaifera langsdorffii and hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves (EH) to treat rat skin wounds. For that, male Wistar rats were divided into groups (n = 8): Lanette, Collagenase, 10% EH, or 10% OR and, after anesthesia, one wound of 2 cm was made in the back of animals. The wounds were treated once a day for 3, 7, or 14 days and the wound areas were measured. The rats were euthanized and skin samples destined to biochemical, molecular, and immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed a macroscopic retraction of the wounds of 10% EH and 10% OR creams and both treatments showed anti-inflammatory activity. Molecular and immunohistochemical results demonstrated the activity of Copaifera langsdorffii creams in angiogenesis, reepithelialization, wound retraction, and remodeling mechanisms.

  4. Skin Wound Healing Potential and Mechanisms of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Leaves and Oleoresin of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. Kuntze in Rats

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    Lucas Fernando Sérgio Gushiken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The wound healing is a complex process which, sometimes, can be a problem in public health because of the possibility of physical disability or even death. Due to the lack of a gold standard drug in skin wound treatment and aiming at the discovery of new treatments in skin repair and the mechanisms involved in the process, we used oleoresin (OR from Copaifera langsdorffii and hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves (EH to treat rat skin wounds. For that, male Wistar rats were divided into groups (n=8: Lanette, Collagenase, 10% EH, or 10% OR and, after anesthesia, one wound of 2 cm was made in the back of animals. The wounds were treated once a day for 3, 7, or 14 days and the wound areas were measured. The rats were euthanized and skin samples destined to biochemical, molecular, and immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed a macroscopic retraction of the wounds of 10% EH and 10% OR creams and both treatments showed anti-inflammatory activity. Molecular and immunohistochemical results demonstrated the activity of Copaifera langsdorffii creams in angiogenesis, reepithelialization, wound retraction, and remodeling mechanisms.

  5. Construction of cDNA library and preliminary analysis of expressed sequence tags from tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phukon, Munmi; Namdev, Richa; Deka, Diganta; Modi, Mahendra K; Sen, Priyabrata

    2012-09-10

    Tea is the most popular non-alcoholic and healthy beverage across the world. The understanding of the genetic organization and molecular biology of tea plant, which is very poorly understood at present, is required for quantum increase in productivity and efficient use of germplasm for either cultivation or breeding program. Single-pass sequencing of randomly selected cDNA clones is the most widely accepted technique for gene identification and cloning. In the present study, a good quality cDNA library was constructed and preliminary analysis of ESTs was carried out. The titers of unamplified and amplified libraries were 1.4 × 10(6)pfu/ml and 5.27 × 10(8)pfu/ml respectively. A total of 210 cDNA clones from the constructed cDNA library were sequenced and analyzed. A total of 84 high quality Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) were generated, among which 71 ESTs had significant homology with sequences in NCBI non-redundant protein database by BLAST X analysis. About 80% ESTs had poly (A) tail at 3' end indicating that the cDNAs were full length. The database-matched ESTs were classified into putative cellular roles, viz. energy-related category (corresponding to 20% of total BLAST X matched ESTs), Transcription (14.2%), protein synthesis (14.2%) cell growth and division (8.6%), cell structure (5.7%), signal transduction (5.7%), transporters (2.9%), disease and defenses (2.9%), secondary metabolism (2.9%) and gene regulation (2.9%). This study provides an overview of the mRNA expression profile and first hand information of gene sequence expressed in tender leaves and apical buds of tea plant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of genetic diversity of cultivated tea clones (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze in the eastern black sea coast by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRS

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    Beris Fatih S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most globally consumed drink after spring water and an important breeding plant with high economical value in Turkey. In half a century, various kinds of tea cultivars have been bred in Turkey to improve the quality and yield of tea plants. Since tea reproduces sexually, tea fields vary in quality. Thus, determining the genetic diversity and relationship of the plants to support breeding and cultivation is important. In this study we aimed to determine the genetic diversity of tea cultivars breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey and the genetic relationship between them, to verify whether the qualitative morphological designations of the clones are genetically true by the ISSR markers. Herein, the genetic diversity and relationships of 18 Turkish tea cultivars were determined using 15 ISSR markers with sizes ranging from 250 to 3000 base pairs. The similarity indices among these cultivars were between 0.456 and 0.743. Based on cluster analysis using UPGMA, some of tea cultivars originating from the same geographical position were found to be clustered closely. Our data provide valuable information and a useful basis to assist selection and cloning experiments of tea cultivars and also help farmers to find elite parental clones for tea breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  7. Evaluation of genetic diversity of cultivated tea clones (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) in the eastern black sea coast by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRS)

    OpenAIRE

    Beris Fatih S.; Pehlivan Necla; Kac Melike; Haznedar Ayhan; Coşkun Fatih; Sandalli Cemal

    2016-01-01

    Tea is the most globally consumed drink after spring water and an important breeding plant with high economical value in Turkey. In half a century, various kinds of tea cultivars have been bred in Turkey to improve the quality and yield of tea plants. Since tea reproduces sexually, tea fields vary in quality. Thus, determining the genetic diversity and relationship of the plants to support breeding and cultivation is important. In this study we aimed to det...

  8. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Biosynthesis and Deactivation of Gibberellin-Dioxygenases Gene Family in Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze

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    Cheng Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellins (GAs, a class of diterpenoid phytohormones, play a key role in regulating diverse processes throughout the life cycle of plants. Bioactive GA levels are rapidly regulated by Gibberellin-dioxygenases (GAox, which are involved in the biosynthesis and deactivation of gibberellin. In this manuscript, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis was carried out to find all GAox in Camellia sinensis. For the first time in a tea plant, 14 CsGAox genes, containing two domains, DIOX_N (PF14226 and 2OG-FeII_Oxy, were identified (PF03171. These genes all belong to 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases (2-ODD, including four CsGA20ox (EC: 1.14.11.12, three CsGA3ox (EC: 1.14.11.15, and seven CsGA2ox (EC: 1.14.11.13. According to the phylogenetic classification as in Arabidopsis, the CsGAox genes spanned five subgroups. Each CsGAox shows tissue-specific expression patterns, although these vary greatly. Some candidate genes, which may play an important role in response to external abiotic stresses, have been identified with regards to patterns, such as CsGA20ox2, CsGA3ox2, CsGA3ox3, CsGA2ox1, CsGA2ox2, and CsGA2ox4. The bioactive GA levels may be closely related to the GA20ox, GA3ox and GA2ox genes. In addition, the candidate genes could be used as marker genes for abiotic stress resistance breeding in tea plants.

  9. Identification and evaluation of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xinyuan; Horvath, David P; Chao, Wun S; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Xinchao; Xiao, Bin

    2014-12-02

    Reliable reference selection for the accurate quantification of gene expression under various experimental conditions is a crucial step in qRT-PCR normalization. To date, only a few housekeeping genes have been identified and used as reference genes in tea plant. The validity of those reference genes are not clear since their expression stabilities have not been rigorously examined. To identify more appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR studies on tea plant, we examined the expression stability of 11 candidate reference genes from three different sources: the orthologs of Arabidopsis traditional reference genes and stably expressed genes identified from whole-genome GeneChip studies, together with three housekeeping gene commonly used in tea plant research. We evaluated the transcript levels of these genes in 94 experimental samples. The expression stabilities of these 11 genes were ranked using four different computation programs including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ∆CT method. Results showed that the three commonly used housekeeping genes of CsTUBULIN1, CsACINT1 and Cs18S rRNA1 together with CsUBQ1 were the most unstable genes in all sample ranking order. However, CsPTB1, CsEF1, CsSAND1, CsCLATHRIN1 and CsUBC1 were the top five appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in complex experimental conditions.

  10. Identification and expression profiling of the auxin response factors (ARFs) in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) under various abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-Xia; Mao, Juan; Chen, Wei; Qian, Ting-Ting; Liu, Sheng-Chuan; Hao, Wan-Jun; Li, Chun-Fang; Chen, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Auxin response factor (ARF) proteins are a multigene family of regulators involved in various physiological and developmental processes in plants. However, their modes of action in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified 15 members of the tea ARF gene family, using the public information about C. sinensis, both in our laboratory, as well as in other laboratories, and analyzed their phylogenetic relationships, conserved domains and the compositions of the amino acids in the middle region. A comprehensive expression analysis in different tissues and organs revealed that many ARF genes were expressed in a tissue-specific manner, suggesting they have different functions in the growth and development processes of the tea plant. The expression analysis under three forms of auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, naphthylacetic acid) treatment showed that the majority of the ARF genes were down-regulated in the shoots and up-regulated in the roots, suggesting opposite action mechanisms of the ARF genes in the shoots and roots. The expression levels of most ARF genes were changed under various phytohormone and abiotic stresses, indicating the ARF gene family plays important roles in various phytohormone and abiotic stress signals and may mediate the crosstalk between phytohormones and abiotic stresses. The current study provides basic information for the ARF genes of the tea plant and will pave the way for deciphering the precise role of ARFs in tea developmental processes and breeding stress-tolerant tea varieties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparo e caracterização de tinturas das folhas de chá verde [Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze] Theaceae

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    C.B. Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tinturas preparadas com as folhas de Camellia sinensis (chá verde, foram caracterizadas visando a obtenção de extratos enriquecidos em polifenóis. As tinturas foram obtidas por meio de maceração estática da droga pulverizada, com diferentes misturas de 60, 70, 80 e 94,5% de etanol em água. Em seguida foram filtradas e, após 8 dias de extração, realizaram-se as analises: organoléptica, pH, densidade, determinação do resíduo seco, perfil cromatográfico por camada delgada, e teor de polifenóis. Os resultados demonstraram que o solvente (mistura hidroalcoólica a 60 ou 70% extraiu a maior quantidade de constituintes químicos do chá verde; também foi o mais seletivo ao extrair, especificamente os polifenóis. Estes dados sugerem que a utilização de álcool etílico a 60 ou 70% conduz à obtenção de tinturas mais ricas em polifenóis, a partir das folhas do chá verde (C. sinensis.

  12. Alcohol Induced Hepato Cardiotoxicity and Oxidative Damage in Rats: The Protective Effect of n-butanol Extract of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, Amel; Boubekri, Nassima; Lassad, Somia; Zama, Djamila; Benayache, Fadil; Benayache, Samir

    2017-07-04

    The principal aim of this study was to investigate the oxidative effects of acute alcohol consumption on the functions of the heart and the liver and the possible modification of this effect by phenolic compounds from n-butanol extract of Camellia sinensis supplementation. Three experimental groups of rats were used: control, ethanol-exposed (40% v/v, 5 g/kg per oral every 12 hours for 3 doses, binge model), and ethanol-exposed plus n-butanol extract of Camellia sinensis (100 mg/kg once a day for three days before and simultaneously with ethanol administration). Serum transaminases, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipid peroxidation (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were estimated to assess organs damage. n-butanol extract of Camellia sinensis at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight exhibited a significant reversal effect in all biochemical parameters measured such as extent of lipid peroxidation, GSH, lipid profile, and serum aminotransferase activities. These results suggest that n-butanol extract of Camellia sinensis protected the heart and the liver from binge ethanol induced injury through attenuating oxidative stress. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Identification and evaluation of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a commonly used technique for measuring gene expression levels due to its simplicity, specificity, and sensitivity. Reliable reference selection for the accurate quantification of gene expression under various experimental conditions is a...

  14. Avaliação da atividade larvicida de saponinas triterpênicas isoladas de Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd. Kuntze (Fabaceae e Cordia piauhiensis Fresen (Boraginaceae sobre Aedes aegypti

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    G.M.P. Santiago

    Full Text Available A atividade larvicida de quatro saponinas monodesmosídicas (1-4 isoladas de Pentaclethra macroloba e de uma saponina bidesmosídica (5 isolada de Cordia piauhiensis foi avaliada sobre larvas de estágio 3 de Aedes aegypti. As larvas foram expostas a várias concentrações (500, 250, 100, 50, 25 e 12,5 mg/mL das saponinas por um período de 24 h. Os resultados indicam que somente as saponinas 1-3 mostraram alta atividade larvicida, com CL50 variando de 18,6 a 27,9 mg/mL. Estes resultados ressaltam as potencialidades destas saponinas como possíveis agentes larvicidas naturais.

  15. Atividade respiratória de meristemas apicais de ramos plagiotrópicos e enraizamento de estacas de Aracária angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Gabriely Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A Araucaria angustifolia apresenta diminuição da taxa de crescimento durante o outono e o inverno, podendo ser resposta às condições ambientais desfavoráveis, como ocorre nas frutíferas temperadas, que apresentam dormência de gemas como forma de sobrevivência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a dinâmica da atividade respiratória de meristemas apicais de ramos plagiotrópicos de A. angustifolia e o enraizamento dos ramos. Para a avaliação da atividade respiratória, foram coletadas ...

  16. Plant Growth Variation At Combined Progeny And Provenance Of 5-Year-Old Intsia Bijuga (Colebr. O.Kuntze In Sobang, Banten

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    Hamdan Adma Adinugraha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate plant growth of Intsia bijuga at 5 years old in Sobang, Banten for supplying good genetic material in the future. Establishment of the trial was conducted in 2007 using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD that consisted of 6 blocks, 100 families nested in 10 provenances, 4 treeplot for each family with a spacing of 4 x4 m. Measurements were taken periodically every year on the survival percentage, total height and stem diameter at the breast height or dbh. At the age of 5 years showed that the significant differences among provenance in survival percentage that ranged from 41.61 to 65.11 %,  average of plant height were 1.04 to 2.82 m and dbh 1.24 to 1.59 cm. The growth variation families also showed significant differences in height and diameter. The survival rate ranged from 12.5-91.67 %, average plant height were 0.52-2.55 m and dbh 0.90-2.44 cm. Individual tree heritability estimate for height was height (0.344 while that of diameter was moderate (0.259. Family heritabilities for height and diameter was considered moderate, namely 0.573 and 0.491 respectively. Genetic correlation between height and diameter growth was positive and high (0.834.

  17. Physicochemical properties of seeds of Capparis species growing wild in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Erman; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2014-04-01

    While Capparis spinosa var. herbaceace (2009) seeds collected from the Mardin-midyat region contains the highest protein (22.25%), C. spinosa var. spinosa seeds (2009) collected from the Muğla-Milas region contained the lowest protein (18.25%). In addition, oil contents of C. spinosa and Capparis ovata seeds changed between 27.74 to 31.09 and 28.66 to 31.40%, respectively. Crude cellulose contents of C. spinosa and C. ovata seeds were found as 28.24 and 29.67%, respectively. It was found that ash content of C. spinosa and C. ovata seeds were found between 2.13 and 2.23%, respectively. Phenolic matter content of C. spinosa and C. ovata were found between 1.98 mg (GAE) and 1.76 mg (GAE), respectively. Radical activity values of C. spinosa and C. ovata were determined as 83.432 and 83.718%, respectively.

  18. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of Artistolochia esperanzae O.Kuntze on development of Sesamum indicum L. seedlings Efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de Aristolochia esperanzae O.Kuntze sobre desenvolvimento de plântulas de Sesumum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Gatti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aristolochia esperanzae is a climbing plant that occurs in the savanna regions of Brazil. The aim of this work was to identify the effects of aqueous extracts of A. esperanzae on germination, root growth and xylem cell development of sesame seedlings. Leaf and shoot extracts were prepared at concentrations of 1.5 and 3%. Extracts caused marked changes in germination and seedling growth with greatest inhibition produced by root extracts. Morphological changes and decreased growth and development of seedlings were also observed. The extracts of A. esperanzae caused a reduction of 50% in the size of root xylem cells and marked changes in the primary root and in the number of secondary roots.Aristolochia esperanzae é uma trepadeira que ocorre no cerrado do sudeste do Brasil. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram de identificar os efeitos dos extratos aquosos de A. esperanzae sobre a germinação, crescimento da raiz e de células do xilema de plântulas de gergelim. Extratos de folhas, caule e raiz foram preparados nas concentrações de 1,5 e 3,0%. Os extratos causaram alterações na germinação e no crescimento das plântulas com inibição maior causada pelos extratos de raízes. Observou-se mudanças morfológicas e decréscimo no crescimento e desenvolvimento das plântulas de gergelim. Os extratos de A. esperanzae causaram uma inibição de até 50% no tamanho das células do xilema das raízes e mudanças na raiz primária e no número de raízes secundárias.

  19. Conservação pós-colheita de pinhões [sementes de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertoloni Otto Kuntze] armazenados em diferentes temperaturas Postharvest preservation of 'pinhões' [seeds of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertoloni Otto Kuntze] stored at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O pinhão (semente de Araucaria angustifolia representa importante fonte de renda aos produtores rurais e uma opção a mais de alimento característico a ser oferecido aos turistas e à população em geral na região Sul do Brasil. A temperatura e a umidade de armazenamento são os principais determinantes da preservação pós-colheita de pinhões. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da temperatura de armazenamento nas taxas respiratórias e de evolução de etileno, bem como na perda de massa fresca e na germinação pós-colheita de pinhões destinados para consumo alimentar humano. Seguiu-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com seis temperaturas de armazenamento (2, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50°C e quatro repetições, cada repetição correspondendo a amostras contendo cerca de 300g de pinhões. Pinhões armazenados nas diferentes temperaturas não apresentaram produção de etileno (em níveis detectáveis através de cromatografia gasosa, com sensibilidade de 1ppm. A taxa respiratória aumentou substancialmente com o aumento na temperatura, com um Q10 @ 2,5 na faixa de temperatura de 2 a 37,1°C. Houve redução substancial da respiração com o aumento na temperatura de 37,1 para 50°C. A maior germinação dos pinhões foi verificada na temperatura de 20°C (~55% dos pinhões germinados aos 26 dias de armazenamento, reduzindo em temperaturas menores (~1% e 21% de germinação nas temperaturas de 2 e 10°C, respectivamente ou maiores (9% e The seeds ('pinhões' of Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia represent an important sorce of income to the rural comunities and also an additional food product to be offered to the tourists and population in Southern Brazil. Temperature and humidity in the storage environment are the mais factors affecting 'pinhões' postharvest preservation. This work was carried out to evaluate the effects of storage temperature on postharvest respiration and ethylene production, as well as on fresh mass loss and germination of 'pinhões' intended for human consumption. The experiment followed a completely randomized design with six storage temperatures (2, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50°C and four replicates, each replicate with about 300g of 'pinhões'. 'Pinhões' stored at the different temperatures did not exhibit ethylene production (at levels detectable by gas chromatography, with a sensibility of 1ppm. The respiratory rates increased substancialy in the range from 2°C to 37.1°C, with a Q10 @ 2.5. The respiration decreased substantialy by increasing the temperature from 37.1°C to 50°C. The higher germination rate was achieved for 'pinhões' stored at 20°C (~55% germination after 26 days storage. The germination reduced for 'pinhões' stored at temperatures lower (~1% and 21% of germination for 'pinhões' left at 2 and 10°C, respectively or higher (9% and <1% of germination for 'pinhões' left at 30°C and 40-50°C, respectively than 20°C. These results show the importance of 'pinhões' storage at temperatures close to 0°C to reduce the metabolic ativity, especially the respiration, and, therefore, to preserve the product quality and to reduce fresh mass loss and seed germination.

  20. Gene : CBRC-PHAM-01-1800 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a [Deinopis spinosa] 1e-121 58% MLVMSPLAKHRQMGAEQILCRYGCRCGCRLCVGVGAGMGAVVGTAVCSGVGTGVGAGMGAGVGIGVCSGVGAGMGAGMGAGVGAGVGAGVDAGMGAGV...GAGVDAGVDAGMGAGMGAGVGAGVDAGVGAGMGAAVDAGVDAGMGAGVGAGVGAGLCAGVVAGMGAGVGAGVGTGLCAGVGAGMGAGVDAGVGAGVGAGLCAGV...VAGMGAGVDAGVGTGLCAGVGAGMGAGVDAGMGAGVDAGVGTGLCAGVGAGVGAGVGAGLCAGVVAGMGAGVGAGVGTGLCAGV...GAGMGAGVDAGVVAGMGAGVDAGVGTGLCAGVGAGVGAGMGTGVDAGMGAGVGAGVGAGLCAGVGAGVGAGVDAGMAAGMGAGVGAGVGAGLCAGVGAGMGAGMGAGVDAGIGTGVGAGVGTGLCAGVGAGMGAGVGWWRAR ...

  1. Optimised method for the analysis of phenolic compounds from caper (Capparis spinosa L.) berries and monitoring of their changes during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesca, Nicola; Barbera, Marcella; Martorana, Alessandra; Saiano, Filippo; Gaglio, Raimondo; Aponte, Maria; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2016-04-01

    In this work, an ad hoc method to identify and quantify polyphenols from caper berries was developed on high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation source/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The method was applied during fermentation carried out with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13 (Trial S) and without starter (Trial C). A total of five polyphenols were identified. All samples contained high concentrations of rutin. Epicatechin was found in untreated fruits, on the contrary quercetin was detected during fermentation. Trial S was characterised by a more rapid acidification and lower levels of spoilage microorganisms than Trial C. L. pentosus dominated among the microbial community of both trials and the highest biodiversity, in terms of strains, was displayed by Trial C. Aureobasidium pullulans was the only yeast species found. The analytical method proposed allowed a high polyphenolic compound recovery from untreated and processed caper berries in short time. The starter culture reduced the bitter taste of the final product. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenolic-extract from argan oil (Argania spinosa L.) inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and enhances cholesterol efflux from human THP-1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, Hicham; Cloutier, Martin; Isabelle, Maxim; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2006-02-01

    Argan oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherol and phenolic compounds. These protective molecules make further study of its cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) action interesting. Furthermore, no previous study has explored the antioxidant activity of argan oil in comparison with olive oil. The present study was conducted to evaluate the beneficial properties of Virgin argan oil phenolic extracts (VAO-PE) towards CVD by: (A) protecting human (low-density lipoprotein, LDL) against lipid peroxidation and (B) promoting high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux. Human LDLs were oxidized by incubation with CuSO(4) in the presence of different concentrations of VAO-PE (0-320mug/ml). LDL lipid peroxidation was evaluated by conjugated diene and MDA formation as well as Vitamin E disappearance. Incubation of LDL with VAO-PE significantly prolonged the lag-phase and lowered the progression rate of lipid peroxidation (P<0.01) and reduced the disappearance of Vitamin E in a concentration-dependent manner. Incubation of HDL with VAO-PE significantly increased the fluidity of the HDL phospholipidic bilayer (P=0.0004) and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages. These results suggest that Virgin argan oil provides a source of dietary phenolic antioxidants, which prevent cardiovascular diseases by inhibiting LDL-oxidation and enhancing reverse cholesterol transport. These properties increase the anti-atherogenic potential of HDL.

  3. High level of genetic differentiation for allelic richness among populations of the argan tree [Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels] endemic to Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mousadik, A; Petit, R J

    1996-05-01

    Genetic diversity at nine isozyme loci was surveyed in an endangered tree species, the argan tree, endemic to south-western Morocco. The species is highly diverse (3.6 alleles/locus) with populations strongly differentiated from each other (F ST=0.25). This example is used to illustrate a method for standardizing measures of allelic richness in samples of unequal sample sizes, which was developed for the estimation of the number of species and relies on the technique of rarefaction. In addition, it is shown that the measure of subdivision, θ ST, obtained when allelic richness is used in place ofh (Nei's index of diversity), is much larger than the F ST [e.g. θ ST(40)=0.52, where (40) indicates the specified sample used to estimate the allelic richness]. This suggests that rare alleles (which strongly influence measures of allelic richness) have a more scattered distribution than more frequent ones, a result which raises special conservation issues for the argan tree.

  4. Etude de l'activité antioxydante des flavonoïdes de: Ecballium elaterium (L.), Capparis spinosa (L.) et Limoniastrumfeei (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    EL-HACI, Imad Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    Limoniastrumfeei Rjsumé L'utilisation des molécules antioxydantes de synthèse est actuellement remise en cause, en raison des risques toxicologiques potentiels. Désormais, de nouvelles sources végétales d'antioxydants naturels sont recherchées. En effet, les flavonoïdes, composés naturels largement répondus dans le règne végétal, sont reconnus pour leur activité antioxydante et demeurent, à ce jour, peu exploités par l'industrie aussi bien pharmaceutique qu'alimentaire./ ...

  5. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder-Numan, Jeannette

    1999-01-01

    After his work on the Neotropical species of Caesalpinia (Lewis, 1994; PhD thesis) Lewis was able to recognise broad morphological groups within Caesalpinia s.l. He carried out a preliminary cladistic analysis to show the evolutionary relationships within this complex group (Lewis & Schrire, 1995).

  6. Trap and soil monolith sampled edaphic spiders (arachnida: araneae) in Araucaria angustifolia forest Aranhas (arachnida: araneae) edáficas amostradas por armadilhas e monólitos de solo em florestas com Araucaria angustifolia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dilmar Baretta; Antonio Domingos Brescovit; Irene Knysak; Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira Cardoso

    2007-01-01

    Forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze trees are endangered in Brazil, and information on the diversity of soil spider families associated to these environments is practically inexistent...

  7. Trap and soil monolith sampled edaphic spiders (arachnida: araneae) in Araucaria angustifolia forest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baretta, Dilmar; Brescovit, Antonio Domingos; Knysak, Irene; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2007-01-01

    Forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze trees are endangered in Brazil, and information on the diversity of soil spider families associated to these environments is practically inexistent...

  8. Use of fog water to the initial establishment of tree species under conditions of barren Lomas in the Quebrada Topará, Chincha-Perú

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, A.; Cabrera, R.; Bederski, K.; Orellana, A.

    2010-07-01

    The Quebrada Topara is located in the Peruvian coastal desert (13012'L.S, 76009'L.W.) and is influenced by the fog during the winter months, these conditions of high humidity allows its use to achieve the establishment of a permanent vegetation cover Huaquina hill, which is representative at the place of study. Uncounted fog water can be captured and used for irrigation of plants. Also due to the absence of any tree species coverage in this region is not known which or which could have a better performance under these environmental conditions, We used to native species Caesalpinia spinosa "tara" and Schinus molle "molle" also introduced species Casuarina equisetifolia "Casuarina", as these could have a better adaptation. Soil analysis determined a high salinity and nitrogen poverty, preventing water infiltration into the soil and is not used by the plant so that the saline soil difficult to establish plants. This research can be considered an exploratory phase, the objectives were: to determine the potential for fog water harvesting to capture in the study area, to assess for 20 months the initial performance of the species tara, molle and casuarina, and profit incorporation in the final sowing of organic matter and soil amendments to facilitate a better development of plants. 3 standard fog collector (SFC) proposed by Schemenauer and Cereceda (1993) were installed and we evaluated the capture water during 31 months, from June 2007 to December 2009, finding much water collected in the winter months, the average annual in the 3 SFC was similar (1.1, 1.2 and 1.1 L m -2 day-1) which allows us to plan according to necessary the best way to harness and store water to supply the plants. It was found that native species, tara and molle were more adaptable to extreme conditions of the place that introduced casuarina species. The tara does grow faster in height and stem diameter, also achieves a good coverage to intercept fog water itself making it more viable and capable

  9. Essential Oil from Clove Bud (Eugenia aromatica Kuntze) Inhibit Key Enzymes Relevant to the Management of Type-2 Diabetes and Some Pro-oxidant Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rats Pancreas in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Sanni, David M; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V; Olasehinde, Tosin A; Oyeleye, Sunday I

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of enzymes involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates is considered a therapeutic approach to the management of type-2 diabetes. This study sought to investigate the effects of essential oil from clove bud on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Essential oil from clove bud was extracted by hydrodistillation, dried with anhydrous Na2SO4 and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of the essential oil on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were investigated. The antioxidant properties of the oil and the inhibition of Fe(2+) and sodium nitroprusside-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rats pancreas homogenate were also carried out. The essential oil inhibited α-amylase (EC50=88.9 μl/L) and α-glucosidase (EC50=71.94 μl/L) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the essential oil inhibited Fe(2+) and SNP-induced MDA production and exhibited antioxidant activities through their NO*, OH*, scavenging and Fe(2+)- chelating abilities. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the essential oil were 12.95 mg/g and 6.62 mg/g respectively. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of α-pinene, β-pinene, neral, geranial, gamma terpinene, cis-ocimene, allo ocimene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, borneol, myrcene and pinene-2-ol in significant amounts. Furthermore, the essential oils exhibited antioxidant activities as typified by hydroxyl (OH) and nitric oxide (NO)] radicals scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating abilities. The inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, inhibition of pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas and antioxidant activities could be possible mechanisms for the use of the essential oil in the management and prevention of oxidative stress induced type-2 diabetes.

  10. Avaliação da Atividade Acaricida de Óleos Essenciais de Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) O. Kuntze, Casearia sylvestris Sw e Pothomorphe umbellata (L.) Miq., em Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Carolina

    2008-01-01

    O uso de compostos químicos sintéticos para o controle de pragas é amplamente utilizado no cultivo de plantas, os quais desfavorecem a estabilidade ecológica de sistemas naturais. Por serem menos agressivos e possuírem mais de um princípio ativo, os pesticidas naturais de origem vegetal podem minimizar as conseqüências indesejadas. Avaliou-se no presente trabalho o potencial acaricida dos óleos essenciais das espécies vegetais Acanthospermum australe, Casearia sylvestris e Pothomorphe umbella...

  11. Avaliação agronômica da rebrota, dinâmica de decomposição e liberação de nutrientes de flemingia (Flemingia macrophylla (Willd. Kuntze ex Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Porto Salmi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Flemingia macrophylla é uma leguminosa arbustiva, de origem asiática, pouco explorada no Brasil. Em vista disso, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a biomassa da rebrota da espécie, a acumulação de nitrogênio na parte aérea e a decomposição e liberação de nutrientes de folhas e caules de flemingia. Para ambos os experimentos, o delineamento adotado foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. A espécie apresenta excelente capacidade de rebrotar, sendo que os cortes executados a 1,2 m do nível do solo produziram mais de 34 Mg de matéria seca em nove cortes, realizados durante o experimento, equivalendo a 804 kg N ha-1, superando os demais tratamentos, que consistiam em cortes a 0,6 m de altura que produziram 29 Mg MS ha-1, acumulando 691 kg N ha-1, seguido dos cortes a 0,3 m com 18 Mg MS ha-1 , acumulando 329 kg N ha-1 e por fim o corte a 0,0 m, ou seja, ao nível do solo, que produziu 16 Mg MS ha-1, com acúmulo de 211 kg N ha-1. O tempo de meia vida (T1/2 da decomposição foi de 91, 95 e 97 dias para folha, caule, e, caule mais folha, respectivamente. A liberação de N, P, Ca e Mg seguiu o mesmo padrão da decomposição; já o K foi liberado em taxa mais acelerada.

  12. Insights into the Genetic Relationships and Breeding Patterns of the African Tea Germplasm (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze Based on nSSR Markers and cpDNA Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianming Gao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Africa is one of the key centres of global tea production. Understanding the genetic diversity and relationships of cultivars of African tea is important for future targeted breeding efforts for new crop cultivars, specialty tea processing and to guide germplasm conservation efforts. Despite the economic importance of tea in Africa, no research work has been done so far on its genetic diversity at a continental scale. Twenty-three nSSRs and three plastid DNA regions were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relationships and breeding patterns of tea accessions collected from eight countries in Africa. A total of 280 African tea accessions generated 297 alleles with a mean of 12.91 alleles per locus and a genetic diversity (HS estimate of 0.652. A STRUCTURE analysis suggested two main genetic groups of African tea accessions which corresponded well with the two tea types Camellia sinensis var. sinensis and C. sinensis var. assamica respectively, as well as an admixed mosaic group whose individuals were defined as hybrids of F2 and BC generation with high proportion of C. sinensis var. assamica being maternal parents. Accessions known to be C. sinensis var. assamica further separated into two groups representing the two major tea breeding centres corresponding to southern Africa (Tea Research Foundation of Central Africa, TRFCA and East Africa (Tea Research Foundation of Kenya, TRFK. Tea accessions were shared among countries. African tea has relatively lower genetic diversity. C. sinensis var. assamica is the main tea type under cultivation and contributes more in tea breeding improvements in Africa. International germplasm exchange and movement among countries within Africa was confirmed. The clustering into two main breeding centres, TRFCA and TRFK, suggested that some traits of C. sinensis var. assamica and their associated genes possibly underwent selection during geographic differentiation or local breeding preferences. This study represents the first step towards effective utilization of differently inherited molecular markers for exploring the breeding status of African tea. The findings here will be important for planning the exploration, utilization, and conservation of tea germplasm for future breeding efforts in Africa.

  13. Insights into the Genetic Relationships and Breeding Patterns of the African Tea Germplasm (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) Based on nSSR Markers and cpDNA Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lianming Gao; Moses Cheloti Wambulwa; Moses Cheloti Wambulwa; Moses Cheloti Wambulwa; Moses Cheloti Wambulwa; Moses Cheloti Wambulwa; Muditha Kasun Meegahakumbura; Muditha Kasun Meegahakumbura; Muditha Kasun Meegahakumbura; Muditha Kasun Meegahakumbura; Samson Kamunya; Alice Muchugi; Michael Möller; Jie Liu; Jian-Chu Xu

    2016-01-01

    Africa is one of the key centres of global tea production. Understanding the genetic diversity and relationships of cultivars of African tea is important for future targeted breeding efforts for new crop cultivars, specialty tea processing and to guide germplasm conservation efforts. Despite the economic importance of tea in Africa, no research work has been done so far on its genetic diversity at a continental scale. Twenty-three nSSRs and three plastid DNA regions were used to investigate t...

  14. Mineral contents of seed and seed oils of Capparis species growing wild in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, Erman; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa

    2014-01-01

    The mineral contents of seed and seed oils of Capparis species growing wild in Turkey were established by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Capparis spinosa var. spinosa (2010) and Capparis ovata var. canescens variety (2009) were determined to be rich in terms of mineral matter as 19,514.60 and 16,995.92 ppm as a total, respectively. C. spinosa var. spinosa collected from Muğla-Milas region (2009) had the highest amount of Ca with 1,010.67 ppm in C. spinosa species and in C. ovata species. C. ovata var. canescens collected from Ankara-Beypazarı (2010) region had the highest amount of Ca with 833.92 ppm Ca amount in C. spinosa var. spinosa, inermis, herbaceae seeds decreased in 2010. C. spinosa var. inermis collected from Antalya-Serik (2010) in C. spinosa species had rich amount of Ca with 123.78 ppm and C. ovata var. palaestina seed oils collected from Mardin-Savur region (2009) had rich amount of Ca with 253.71 ppm in C. ovata species. The oil of C. spinosa var. herbaceae variety collected from Mardin-Midyat region (2010) was determined to have the highest major mineral matter (Ca, K, Mg, Na, and P) with 1,424.37 ppm in C. spinosa species. It was also determined that as a result, caper seed and oils were found to be important sources of nutrients and essential elements.

  15. Screening of antibacterial potentials of some medicinal plants from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyperus rotundus, Caesalpinia bonducella, Tinospora cordifolia, Gardenia gummifera, Ailanthus excelsa, Acacia arabica, Embelia ribes and Ventilago maderspatana from Melghat forest were screened for their antibacterial potential against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, ...

  16. Characterization of flavonoid metabolites in rat plasma, urine, and feces after oral administration of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae extract by HPLC-diode-array detection (DAD) and ion-trap mass spectrometry (MS(n)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Kang-De; Li, Ping; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Hui-Jun; Yi, Ling; Wang, Wei; Wang, Ya-Qiong

    2009-02-01

    A highly specific and sensitive method using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection and ion-trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)) was developed for study of the constituents of flavonoid extract of jujube seeds and the metabolites in rat plasma, urine, and feces samples after oral administration of flavonoid extract of jujube seeds. Two major flavonoids (spinosin and 6'''-feruloylspinosin) with content >60% in the flavonoid extract of jujube seeds were detected and confirmed by comparison with the reference standards. Furthermore, five metabolic components in plasma, seven in urine, and four in feces were detected and elucidated. The scientific and plausible biotransformation pathways of the main components in flavonoid extract of jujube seeds were also proposed, together with presentation of clues for potential bioactive mechanisms. This convenient HPLC-DAD-MS(n) method could be used to identify the chemical components of flavonoid extract of jujube seeds as well as their metabolites, and to reveal their possible metabolic mechanism of action in vivo.

  17. Characteristics of ten tropical hardwoods from certified forests in Bolivia. Part I, Weathering characteristics and dimensional change

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams; Regis Miller; John Gangstad

    2001-01-01

    Ten tropical hardwoods from Bolivia were evaluated for weathering performance (erosion rate, dimensional stability, warping, surface checking, and splitting). The wood species were Amburana cearensis (roble), Anadenanthera macrocarpa (curupau), Aspidosperma cylindrocarpon (jichituriqui), Astronium urundeuva (cuchi), Caesalpinia cf. pluviosa (momoqui), Diplotropis...

  18. In vitro propagation via seeds of Capparis ovata Desf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unicornis

    2013-05-22

    Capparis spinosa L.) seeds.J.Hortic.Sci. 58:267-270. Soyler D, Arslan N (1999). Effect of heat, light and dark treatments on seed germination of capers (Capparis spinosa L.). Anadolu 9: 63-75. Soyler D, Khawar KM (2006). Effects ...

  19. Phenolic components, antioxidant activity, and mineral analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to being consumed as food, caper (Capparis spinosa L.) fruits are also used in folk medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatism. C. spinosa L. is rich in phenolic compounds, making it increasingly popular because of its components' potential benefits to human health. We analyzed a number of ...

  20. Electrolyte ions and glutathione enzymes as stress markers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying Argania spinosa responses to drought stress is essential for its regeneration and domestication. Toward that end, an integrative study of tolerance responses to drought stress in four A. spinosa ecotypes (2 contrasting coastal ecotypes (Adm and Rab) and 2 contrasting inland ...

  1. Anticestodal Efficacy of Folklore Medicinal Plants of Naga Tribes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moderate activity was recorded for the leaves of Clerodendrum colebrookianum, Lasia spinosa and Centella asiatica, while Curcuma longa, Cinnamomum cassia, Gynura angulosa, Lasia spinosa (stem) and Aloe vera revealed a negligible degree of anticestodal activity. Key Words: Anticestodal Efficacy, Naga Tribes, India, ...

  2. Evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of leaves of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-08-21

    Aug 21, 2013 ... The crude methanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit and Emex spinosa leaves were examined for antimicrobial and antioxidant potentialities. The phytochemical analysis revealed presence of some bioactive principles, such as alkaloids, flavonoids and anthraquinones for E. spinosa and saponin,.

  3. Pollen morphology of Rubiaceae Juss. species occurring in an area of caatinga (dryland) vegetation in Bahia State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira Júnior,Cristiano Eduardo Amaral; Saba,Marileide Dias; Jardim, Jomar Gomes

    2012-01-01

    The palynology of the following 16 species of Rubiaceae, from Brejinho das Amestistas, was investigated: Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC., Cordiera rigida Kuntze, Coutarea hexandra K.Schum., Declieuxia fruticosa Kuntze, Diodella apiculata (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Delprete, D. radula (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Delprete, D. teres Small., Emmeorhiza umbellata K.Schum., Leptoscela ruellioides Hook. f., Mitracarpus baturitensis Sucre., Mitracarpus villosus Cham. & Schltdl., Pal...

  4. Pollen morphology of Rubiaceae Juss. species occurring in an area of caatinga (dryland) vegetation in Bahia State, Brazil Morfologia polínica de espécies de Rubiaceae ocorrentes em uma área de caatinga no estado da Bahia, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Eduardo Amaral Silveira Júnior; Marileide Dias Saba; Jomar Gomes Jardim

    2012-01-01

    The palynology of the following 16 species of Rubiaceae, from Brejinho das Amestistas, was investigated: Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC., Cordiera rigida Kuntze, Coutarea hexandra K.Schum., Declieuxia fruticosa Kuntze, Diodella apiculata (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Delprete, D. radula (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Delprete, D. teres Small., Emmeorhiza umbellata K.Schum., Leptoscela ruellioides Hook. f., Mitracarpus baturitensis Sucre., Mitracarpus villosus Cham. & Schltdl., Palicourea rigi...

  5. Estudios en las Apocynaceae neotropicales IX: Mandevilla antioquiana, sp. nov. y lectotipificación de Echites comosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales, J. Francisco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Mandevilla antioquiana, a new species from the Antioquia Department, Colombia, is described and illustrated, and its taxonomic relationships are discussed. A lectotype is designated for Echites comosa Kuntze.Se describe e ilustra Mandevilla antioquiana, una nueva especie endémica del Departamento de Antioquia, Colombia, y se discuten sus relaciones con especies afines. También se designa un lectótipo para Echites comosa Kuntze.

  6. Trincas nas calçadas e espécies muito utilizadas na arborização: comparação entre Sibipiruna ( Caesalpinia pluviosa Dc.) e Falsa-murta (Murraya paniculata (L.) Jacq.), no município de Piracicaba/SP

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Volpe-Filik

    2009-01-01

    A arborização urbana oferece diversos benefícios para a população, e sua necessidade vem aumentando com o crescimento das cidades. Mas como qualquer outro equipamento urbano, existe custo de implantação, manutenção e, também, prejuízos. Dentre os potenciais prejuízos da arborização urbana, estão os danos em calçamentos e estruturas de construção civil. Este trabalho objetivou identificar quais os parâmetros que influenciam esses danos e, auxiliar na definição de políticas públicas para a arbo...

  7. An unusual giant pycnogonid (Pycnogonida-Colossendeidae) Decolopoda qasimi sp. nov. from Antarctic waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayasree, V.; Sreepada, R.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Five specimens of benthic pycnogonids collected from the Southern Ocean are described. Of these, two are identified as Nymphon australis (Hodgson) and two as Ecleipsotherma spinosa (Hodgson). One specimen under the class Colossendeidae, is described...

  8. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 9, No 22 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sterol composition of caper (Capparis spinosa) seeds · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. N Tlili, N Nasri, E Saadaoui, A Khaldi, S Triki, 3328-3333 ...

  9. Glucosinolate composition of young shoots and flower buds of capers (Capparis species) growing wild in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, Bertrand; Ozcan, Musa

    2002-12-04

    The content and glucosinolate composition of young shoots and raw flower buds of Capparis spinosa var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens at three different sizes (x 13 mm) were investigated by HPLC with UV detection. Samples were harvested in August 2001 in Turkey. Twelve different glucosinolates were identified in the young shoots and buds of both species. Total content of glucosinolates ranged from 6.55 micromol/g (large buds of C. spinosa) to 45.56 micromol/g (young shoots of C. ovata). The main glucosinolate was glucocapperin, which amounted to approximately 90% of the total glucosinolates. In both species the total glucosinolate content varied in dependence on the bud size, whereas a greater variability was given for buds from C. spinosa.

  10. Occurrence and biogenesis of seco-triterpenoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida Robles, Aldo Ricardo

    in distantly related plant families hints that seco-triterpenoid pathways may result from convergent evolution. The hypothesis that seco-triterpenoids pathways evolve convergently was tested by studying the α-onocerin pathway in Ononis spinosa and Lycopodium clavatum. These led to the characterization of two...... OSCs in O. spinosa (OsONS1 and OsONS2) which both are able to produce α-onocerin. Contrary to the α-onocerin pathway in L. clavatum in which two different cyclases are needed for α-onocerin synthesis. Moreover, an OSC phylogenetic analysis indicated the onocerin synthases of O. spinosa arose from...... a different evolutionary route than those in L. clavatum. In addition, two squalene epoxidases (SQEs) of O. spinosa specialized for onocerin production were described and named OsSQE1 and OsSQE2. These SQEs displayed protein-protein interactions with OsONS1 and proved to boost the onocerin production of Os...

  11. flora and fauna of Wadi Isla and Hebran, St Katherine Protectorate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francis

    The highest number of species recorded were Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Keywords: Biodiversity .... Zygophyllum album, Reaumuria hirtella, Acacia tortilis raddiana, date palms Phoenix dactylifera, and wild ... are Fagonia tristis, Capparis spinosa, Acacia tortilis raddiana, Raetam raetam, Cleome droserifolia, Phoenix ...

  12. Prospeção da diversidade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em 2 espécies agrícolas (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vicia faba L.) e 2 espécies nativas (Teline maderensis Webb & Berthel e Genista tenera (Jacq. Ex Murray) Kuntze) da Madeira

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Maria Cristina Ornelas

    2016-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Microbiologia Aplicada, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2016 O Filo Glomeromycota compreende um grupo de fungos que se considera no geral serem biotróficos obrigatórios e que se associam a cerca de 80% das plantas. O fungo e a planta formam uma associação simbiótica conhecida como micorriza arbuscular. Desta associação, o fungo absorve entre 5 a 20% do carbono fotossintetizado pela planta e por outro lado a planta pode beneficiar do aumento da absorção de n...

  13. AcEST: DK958110 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available tr|B2BXR9|B2BXR9_9ROSI PutRNAbp29 OS=Cleome spinosa PE=4 SV=1 161 4e-38 tr|P93396|P93396_TOBAC Transformer-S...B2BXR9|B2BXR9_9ROSI PutRNAbp29 OS=Cleome spinosa PE=4 SV=1 Length = 338 Score = 161 bits (407), Expect = 4e-

  14. URBAN TREE SURVEY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BRASILIA CAMPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Luis Kurihara

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A census of all the trees on 111 ha was conducted at the University of Brasilia campus. A total of 5,011 trees with DBHover 5 cm were identified and their DBH, diameter at 30 cm on ground level, diameter under the bifurcation point, height up to the firstbifurcation and the total height of the tree were measured. Phenological observation was also carried out. A great diversity of treeswas found composed of 49 botanical families and 154 species. The main species are Acrocomia aculeata, Syagrus oleracea, Ingamarginata, Pterogyne nitens, Caesalpinia ferrea, Caesalpinia pluviosa, Peltophorum dubium, Pachira aquatica, Syzygium cuminiand Tabebuia impetiginosa.

  15. Atividade moluscicida de alguns produtos naturais sobre Biomphalaria glabrata Molluscicide activity of some natural products on Biomphalaria glabrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada, em laboratório, a ação moluscicida de extratos aquosos (macerado e fervido, hexânico e etanólico de Aristolochia brasiliensis, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Delonix regia, Spathodea campanulata e Tibouchina scrobiculata. As soluções dos extratos obtidos foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório, nas concentrações de 1, 10, 20, 200 e 1000ppm. Dos extratos testado o mais ativo foi o etanólico das flores da D. regia (flamboyant que apresentou atividade moluscicida sobre caramujos adultos na concentração de 20ppm.The molluscicide activity of aqueous (macerated and boiled, hexamic and ethylic extracts of Aristolochia brasiliensis, Caesalpinia peltophoroides, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Delonix regia, Spathodea campanulata and Tibouchina scrobiculata was evaluated in the laboratory. The solutions obtained from those extracts were tested on adults and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata reared in the laboratory at 1, 10, 20, 100 and 1000ppm concentrations. The most active of the extracts studied was D. regia flowers' (flamboyant ethylic extracts which presented molluscicidal activity on adult snails at 20ppm.

  16. MACROSCOPICAL AND MICROSCOPICAL STUDIES ON THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caesalpinia crista leaves are bipinnate of about six pairs with alternate leaflets while the stem us fibrous, cylindrical hollow and prickly. Microscopical examination revealed the presence of strained cuticle, straight-walled epidermal cells, paracytic stomata, unicellular covering trichomes, fibres, prisms as well as cluster of ...

  17. Caesalpiniaceae (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding; Larsen, K.; Larsen, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    In Malesia the family contains 25 indigenous genera and 8 genera with only introduced species, as follows (in brackets the number of native and/or introduced species in Malesia): Acrocarpus (1), Afzelia (2), Amherstia (1), Bauhinia (69), Brownea (4), Caesalpinia (22), Cassia (4), Chamaecrista (5),

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekeanyanwu, RC. Vol 6, No 3 (2010) - Articles Vulnerability and adaptations of Niger-delta coast to sea level rise. Abstract · Vol 6, No 3 (2010) - Articles Phytochemical characteristics and in vitro antibacterial activity of caesalpinia pulcherrima stem bark extracts against some clinical isolates. Abstract. ISSN: 0794-4713.

  19. Antitumor and antioxidant potential of Tragia Plukenetii R.Smith on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... ... Mazumder UK, Sambath Kumar R, Sivakumar T, Mohan vamsi ML (2004). Antitumor Activity and Antioxidant Status of. Caesalpinia bonducella Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Swiss. Albino Mice. J. Pharmacol. Sci. 94: 177-184. Hogland HC (1982). Hematological complications of cancer chemothe-.

  20. Identification of Compounds and Insecticidal Activity of the Root of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Caesalpiniaceae) is an ornamental plant with several ethnomedicinal uses. The present study was designed to investigate the brine shrimp cytotoxicity and insecticidal activity of oil obtained from C. pulcherrima root. The powdered root was extracted with methanol and then defatted with petroleum ...