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Sample records for caesalpinia spinosa kuntze

  1. Six new cassane diterpenes from the twigs and leaves of Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongyang; Li, Yuanping; Tang, Hongbo; Ma, Ruijing; Li, Xiaonian; Wang, Liqin

    2015-09-01

    Six new cassane diterpenes, isoneocaesalpin H (1), caespinosin A (2), caespinosin B (3), a cassane diterpene with unique 6/6/7 carbon rings, and caespinosins C-E (4-6) were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze). The absolute configuration of isoneocaesalpin H (1) was determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compound 3 represents a class of rare natural cassane diterpene bearing unique 6/6/7 carbon rings. Their structures were identified by 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. Cassane diterpenes were firstly reported from Tara. Compounds 1-5 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity on HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW-480 human cancer cell lines, but they were inactive.

  2. Textile wastewater biocoagulation by Caesalpinia spinosa extracts

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    Andrés Revelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/12/06 - Accepted: 2015/03/24The textile industry in Ecuador is still a matter of concern because of the inappropriate disposal of their effluents into the local water supply. The present research was carried out in Pelileo (Tungurahua-Ecuador where textile wastewaters are discharged into waterways. An environmentally friendly solution to treat highly contaminated organic textile wastewaters is herein evaluated: a remediation process of biocoagulation was performed using extracts from the Caesalpinia spinosa plant also known as guarango or tara. It was determined that using C. spinosa extracts to treat wastewater has the same statistical effect as when applying a chemical coagulant (polyaluminum chloride 15%. Activated zeolite adsorbed color residuals from treated water to obtain turbidity removal more than 90%. A mathematical model showed that turbidity removal between 50-90% can be obtained by applying 25-45 g/L of guarango extracts and zeolite per 700 mL of textile wastewater. The natural coagulation using C. spinosa extracts produced 85% less sludge than polyaluminum chloride, and removed high organic matter content in the wastewater (1050 mg/L by 52%.

  3. Comparison of tanning with flour Caesalpinia Spinosa, with mineral tanning with skins chrome sulphate chervines

    OpenAIRE

    Hidalgo Almeida, Luis Eduardo; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2016-01-01

    In the lab of tannery skins of the FCP, the ESPOCH was the comparison of tanning with extract of plant polyphenols in Caesalpinia Spinosa, with a mineral tanning of sulfate of chromium for goat skins, i.e. 2 treatments with 7 repetitions each one, and in two consecutive runs a total of 28 experimental units were modeled under a completely randomized design in bivariate array. The results indicate that the most suitable tanning was to use plant polyphenols Caesalpinia Spinosa, (tara), since it...

  4. TARA (Caesalpinia spinosa): the sustainable source of tannins for innovative tanning processes

    OpenAIRE

    Castell Escuer, Joan Carles

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers the fruit of the tara tree (Caesalpinia spinosa) as a sustainable source for tanning agents and proposes alternatives to the commercial mineral salts and vegetable extracts to comply with an increasing demand that concerns lower carbon footprint and health safety. Taxonomy of the tree is described and the substances contained in the fruit are chemically characterized in order to justify that tara farm forestry is economically viable and to secure a potential worth. The v...

  5. Cytogenetic characterization of Caesalpinia spinosafrom Tarma and Palca (Junín

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    Alberto López

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Caesalpinia spinosa (Feuillée ex Molina Kuntze, “Tara”, wild populations of Huinco and Palca (Junín regions were studied. The specie were diploid (2n=24. Chromosomes were small. The karyotypes showed the same chromosome number, they found differences in morphological parameters of the same, with the karyotype formula for the town of Huinco: 6m + 6 sm and the town of Palca: 5m + 7 sm.

  6. Effect of Temperature, Light and Water Stress on Caesalpinia spinose Kuntze Seed Germination%温度、光照和水分胁迫对塔拉(Caesalpinia spinose Kuntze)种子萌发特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包松莲; 李志国; 张建云; 郑书星

    2012-01-01

    The effects of seed germination of Caesalpinia spinose Kuntze was studied by control experiments which were different temperature gradients, light and PEG-6000 simulations of water stress. The results showed that: (i) the suitable temperature range for seed germination was 15 -30℃. Germination rate was above 90% . Average rate of germination was less than 7 days. Average rate of germination took 2. 77d at optimum temperature 25℃ , and Tara seed finished germination in 5 days and the germination rate was over 99 %. In low temperature conditions, Tara seed germination was very difficult. The germination rates was only 32. 5 % within one month at 5℃ , but the germination rate could be 90. 83 % after transferred to thermostat at 25℃ after 5 days. High temperature above 30℃ also was not suitable for seed germination. The germination rate was lower, embryo root was yellowed, and it was difficult for normal growth; (ii) the effect of light on Tara seed was not obvious. The light 12 hours every day or shading condition had better effect; (iii) Tara seed germination rate and average germination rate in PEG-6000 concentration 15% following water stress had no significant changes. The germination rate could be above 87. 5% . When strengthening water stress, the germination rate sharply fell. When PEG-6000 percent was 20% , the germination rate was 70 %. When PEG-6000 percent was 25 9% , the germination rate was only 16 % . The seeds did not germinate in PEG-6000 30%. Tara seeds could tolerate a certain level of water stress. The water potential at 25% PEG-6000 could be the critical value for Tara seeds germination.0 pe%采用控制实验研究了不同温度梯度、光照和采用PEG-6000模拟水分胁迫对塔拉(Caesalpinia spinose Kuntze)种子萌发的影响.结果表明:①15~30℃为塔拉种子萌发的适宜温度范围,萌发率在90%以上,平均发芽速率在7d以内,但最适宜的发芽温度为25℃,平均发芽速率仅需2.77 d,5d内

  7. EFECTO INHIBIDOR DEL EXTRACTO ETANÓLICO DE CAESALPINIA SPINOSA (TAYA) EN COMPARACIÓN A HIDRÓXIDO DE CALCIO, PARAMONOCLOROFENOL ALCANFORADO Y CLORHEXIDINA EN GEL AL 2%, SOBRE CEPAS DE ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS. ESTUDIO IN VITRO

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to compare the inhibitory effect in vitro of the etanolic extract Caesalpinia spinosa (taya) to calcium hidroxide, camphorated paramonochlorophenol, and 2% chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis. The susceptibility test was made, using the method of dissemination in discs. The strains os e. faecalis were sown in plates containing culture médium Mueller Hinton, and placed discs with differents concentrations of etanolic extract, calcium hidroxide...

  8. Efeito inibitório do extrato hexânico dos folíolos de Caesalpinia spinosa em Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329 Inhibitory effect of Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets crude extract on Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i2.1329

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    Júlio César Miranda

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrato hexânico foi obtido dos folíolos do falso pau-brasil (Caesalpinia spinosa e incorporado em BDA (batata-dextrose-ágar, obtendo-se as concentrações de 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 e 16179 mg L-1. Foi avaliado o crescimento micelial de Fusarium solani e Phoma tarda. Os resultados mostraram o efeito inibitório do extrato em porcentagens variáveis de 3,95% a 32,20% para P. tarda e de 7,29% a 33,83% para F. solani, conforme as doses crescentes do extrato, cuja fungitoxidade evidencia seu potencial alternativo aos métodos físicos e químicos de controle da fusariose em vários cultivos e mancha de Phoma no cafeeiroIn order to evaluate the plant extract effect on the in vitro growth of Fusarium solani and Phoma tarda, hexane crude extract from spiny holdback (Caesalpinia spinosa leaflets was obtained and incorporated into potato-dextrose-agar (PDA at 2204 mg L-1, 4460 mg L-1, 6370 mg L-1, 7644 mg L-1 and 16179 mg L-1 concentrations. The hexane crude extract inhibited mycelial growth at the range of 3,95% to 32,20% of P. tarda and 7,29% to 33,83% of F. solani, according to the extract concentration. It was demonstrated that the extract has antifungal activity and might be an alternative to physical or chemical control methods of fusariosis disease in several cultivations and of Phoma spot on coffee plant leaf

  9. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    OpenAIRE

    María Gabriela Gallego; Michael H. Gordon; Francisco Segovia; María Pilar Almajano Pablos

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts...

  10. The rheological properties of tara gum (Caesalpinia spinosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanbei; Ding, Wei; Jia, Lirong; He, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    The rheological properties of tara gum, as affected by concentration, temperature, pH and the presence of salts and sucrose, were investigated by using steady and dynamic shear measurements and atomic force microscope observation. Tara gum exhibited non-Newtonian, pseudoplastic behaviour without thixotropy at tested concentrations (0.2-1.0%, w/v). Salts (CaCl2 and NaCl) led to a viscosity reduction, which was more sensitive to Ca(2+) than to Na(+). The gum had stable viscosity over a wide pH range (pH 3-11), and the influence of sucrose was concentration dependent. Increasing temperature from 20°C to 80°C decreased the gum viscosity. Frequency sweeps indicated that tara gum (1.0% w/v) behaved as a liquid at low frequency, and acted more like a gel at high frequency. With the decrease of concentration, tara gum may show a viscous property rather than an elastic one. These results are potentially useful for the application of tara gum in food processing.

  11. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-03-31

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa "Tara" (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  12. Hygrophila spinosa : A comprehensive review

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    A D Kshirsagar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygrophila spinosa T Ander, belonging to the family Acanthaceae, is a promising medicinal plant with great economic potential. The medicinal value of H. spinosa has been appreciated in the ancient medical literature. The plant contains terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, and is traditionally known as an aphrodisiac, renal tonic, and for its health-promoting properties. The plant is cultivated throughout India. However, systematic information on the different aspects of this species is not available. In this review, an attempt has been made to present this information.

  13. Antioxidant potential of hydrolyzed polyphenolic extracts from tara (Caesalpinia spinosa) pods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambi, F.; Chirinos, R.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant potential of tara pod extracts rich in gallotannins submitted to chemical hydrolysis was evaluated. The increase in the release of gallic acid from the tara pod extracts during the hydrolysis process reached a maximum ratio of free gallic acid/total phenolics of 94.1% at 20 h, at thi

  14. Phytochemical Investigations of Caesalpinia digyna Root

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    R. Srinivasan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical examination of petroleum ether extract of Caesalpinia digyna root resulted in the isolation of four compounds namely, friedelin, hexacosanoic acid, β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. These compounds have been characterized on basis of physical and spectral data. All the four compounds are being reported for the first time from this plant

  15. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

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    María Gabriela Gallego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p < 0.05. Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  16. Cistein proteaza (kaparin) iz kapara (Capparis spinosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Yasar; Güngör, Azize Alayli; Duran, Elif Duygu; Demir, Nazan

    2008-01-01

    Proteaze su enzimi koji imaju vrlo važnu funkciju u organizmu i razne mogućnosti primjene in vitro. Posljednjih se godina sve više primjenjuju u medicini, farmaciji (u liječenju probavnih tegoba, raznih upala i dr.) i industriji (u proizvodnji sira, mekšanju mesa i štavljenju kože). U ovom je radu opisan postupak pročišćavanja i karakterizacije proteaze iz kapara (Caparis spinosa). Kapare se od davnine koriste kao hrana i u medicinske svrhe, a obilato rastu u nekim dijelovima Turske. Pročišća...

  17. A New Diterpenoid from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn

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    Yong-Jiang Xu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new cassane-type d iterpene, named Phangininoxy A (1 and one known Phanginin A (2 were isolated from the exact of seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR.

  18. Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze: o ginseng-brasileiro

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    Fernando de Oliveira

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available O autor efetua, revisão sobre os conhecimentos farmacognósticos de Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze incluindo considerações sobre a química e o uso da espécie. Chama a atenção para a diferença existente entre o ginseng-brasileiro e os ginseng importados.

  19. Antimalarial diterpene alkaloids from the seeds of Caesalpinia minax.

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    Ma, Guoxu; Sun, Zhaocui; Sun, Zhonghao; Yuan, Jingquan; Wei, Hua; Yang, Junshan; Wu, Haifeng; Xu, Xudong

    2014-06-01

    Two new diterpene alkaloids, caesalminines A (1) and B (2), possessing a tetracyclic cassane-type furanoditerpenoid skeleton with γ-lactam ring, were isolated from the seeds of Caesalpinia minax. Their structures were determined by different spectroscopic methods and ECD calculation. The plausible biosynthetic pathway of caesalminines A and B was proposed. The anti-malarial activity of compounds 1 and 2 is presented with IC50 values of 0.42 and 0.79 μM, respectively.

  20. Cassane diterpenes from the seed kernels of Caesalpinia sappan.

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    Nguyen, Hai Xuan; Nguyen, Nhan Trung; Dang, Phu Hoang; Thi Ho, Phuoc; Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi; Van Can, Mao; Dibwe, Dya Fita; Ueda, Jun-Ya; Awale, Suresh

    2016-02-01

    Eight structurally diverse cassane diterpenes named tomocins A-H were isolated from the seed kernels of Vietnamese Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Their structures were determined by extensive NMR and CD spectroscopic analysis. Among the isolated compounds, tomocin A, phanginin A, F, and H exhibited mild preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells under nutrition-deprived condition without causing toxicity in normal nutrient-rich conditions.

  1. Ethnoeconomical, ethnomedical, and phytochemical study of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels.

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    Charrouf, Z; Guillaume, D

    1999-10-01

    Populations of the South-western part of Morocco traditionally use the fruits of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels to prepare an edible oil whose obtainment furnishes, as side product, a cake used to feed the cattle and complemented the forage furnished by the leaves and fruits of this same plant. However, the wood of A. spinosa is also used for fuel and the subsequent induced deforestation is nowadays accelerated since populations are generally eager to replace argan-groves by cultures of higher and immediate benefits. Recently, argan tree, that is particularly well adapted to grow in arid lands, has been proposed by several agencies to slow down the desert progress in Northern Africa. In order to promote argan tree reintroduction by the South-western Morocco dwellers, a program aimed to increase the industrial value of A. spinosa is currently carried out in Morocco. A phytochemical study is included in this program. Traditional knowledge as well as the most recent results concerning A. spinosa are described in this review.

  2. Biflavonoids and other phenolics from Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Fabaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahia, Marcus V.; Santos, Jamile B. dos; David, Jorge M. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; David, Juceni P. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia

    2005-11-15

    The chloroform extract of the leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (Caesalpinioidea, Fabaceae) yielded the new biflavonoid named caesalflavone, as well as podocarpusflavone A, agathisflavone, apigenin and kaempferol. The chloroform extract of the trunk wood gave 4,4'-dihydroxy-2'-methoxychalcone, (-)-syringaresinol, and methyl gallate. Biflavonoids were not found in trunk wood. Until now, C. pyramidalis is the first species in the genus to present biflavonoids. The structural elucidation of the isolated compounds and their derivatives were based on MS, IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR spectral analyses. (au)

  3. Occurrence of biflavones in leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis specimens

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    Marcus V. Bahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform partition of methanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis was submitted to different chromatographic procedures which afforded besides agathisflavone and taxifolin, the minor biflavones loniflavone, amentoflavone, 5'- hydroxyamentoflavone and podocarpusflavone A. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of NMR and MS data analysis. Besides, the content of biflavones of different specimens of C. pyramidalis, which are collected in different habitats of the Brazilian semi-arid region, was determinated by LC-APCI-MS analysis. These analysis demonstrated that only the specimens harvested in Bahia state showed collectively the presence of agathisflavone, amentoflavone, sequoiaflavone and podocarpusflavone A.

  4. Taxonomy and morphology of Salvia spinosa L. (Lamiaceae in Iran

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    Navaz Kharazian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy and morphology of 42 Salvia spinosa L. accessions (Lamiaceae were studied in Iran. This species had a high morphological diversity which was related to the hair frequency and indumentum of base and surface of stem, form of leaf, leaf margin and leaf apex, leaf indumentum, form of bracts margin, dimension and color of bracteole, calyx length, style length, form and color of nutlet. Using the cluster analysis based on Euclidian Distance Coefficient and SPSS V.11.5 software the infra-specific relationships were determined. The results of cluster analysis showed diversity among the accessions of this species. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that the morphological variability in this species might be due to the polymorphism, hybridization and new varieties. Consequently, the morphological characters of Iranian accessions of Salvia spinosa have been described and designed in details.

  5. The anamorphic state of Leveillula taurica recorded on Cleome spinosa in north-eastern Brazil

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    Carlos AC

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The anamorphic state of Leveillula taurica was found causing a powdery mildew disease on Cleome spinosa in north-eastern Brazil. Its chasmothecial state was not observed on the collected samples. The fungus is illustrated and described. This report represents the first record of this fungus on Cleome spinosa in Brazil.

  6. Pollination Ecology of Caesalpinia crista (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIShi-Jint; ZHANGDian-Xiang; LILin; CHENZhong-Yi

    2004-01-01

    The flowering phenology, pollination ecology and breeding system of Caesa/pinia crista L.were studied in Dinghushan Nature Reserve, Guangdong, China. The species started blooming in Februaryor March, then last till late April. It took about one week from first flower appearance to its full blooming,which lasted for 2-4 d. The pollen-ovule ratio was 18 000~500. The breeding system was self-incompatible,and protogynous xenogamy. Hymenoptera constituted the major group of pollinators. The pollination typeis ambophily, the species could be pollinated by wind if the pollinators were unavailable: this is the firstrecord of ambophily in the genus Caesalpinia. The floral structure adaptation to the pollinating behavior ofcarpenter bees was described. The influences of artificial treatments in pollination biological studies onthe flowering and fruiting of the plants were also discussed.

  7. Two new diterpenes from the seeds of Caesalpinia minax Hance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Lian; Li, Xiao-Bin; Yuan, Jiu-Zhi; Cheng, Li; Wu, Zhao-Hua; Gao, Hui-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Molecules with diterpene skeletons often possess valuable medicinal properties. Two new diterpenes 1α,6α,7β-triacetoxy-5α-hydroxy-14β-ethyl-O-vouacapane (1) and 2α-acetoxy-14,15-cyclopimara-7β,16-diol (2) were isolated from the seeds of Caesalpinia minax Hance. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1D, and 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, NOESY) methods. The stereochemical structure of 1 was confirmed via the circular dichroism spectrum and calculated ECD experiment. The inhibitory activity of nitric oxide production of RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated by lipopolysaccharide of compounds 1 and 2 was evaluated, and compound 1 was found to show significant inhibitory effect.

  8. A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CAESALPINIA PULCHERRIMA

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    Nainwal Pankaj

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine has become a popular form of healthcare. Even though several differences exist between herbal and conventional pharmacological treatments, herbal medicine can be tested for efficacy using conventional trial methodology. Several specific herbal extracts have been demonstrated to be efficacious for specific conditions. Even though the public is often misled to believe that all natural treatments are inherently safe, herbal medicines do carry risks. Ultimately, we need to know which herbal remedies do more harm than good for which condition. Because of the current popularity of herbal medicine, research in this area should be intensified Caesalpinia pulcherrima, a plant widely used in the traditional medicinal systems of India has been reported to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer and immunosuppressive activities. This review highlights some of the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of the plant which has been searched during their detailed study.

  9. Estudo FitoquÃmico de Geoffroea spinosa Jacq. (Leguminosae)

    OpenAIRE

    Elton Luz Lopes

    2008-01-01

    O presente trabalho descreve a identificaÃÃo de constituintes volÃteis das folhas e flores e o isolamento de constituintes fixos das cascas e lenho do caule e lenho da raiz de Geoffroea spinosa Jacq. Esta espÃcie, que ocorre nas margens de rios do Nordeste brasileiro, produz frutos que sÃo utilizados como alimento, e suas folhas, na forma de chÃ, combatem diarrÃia e distÃrbios menstruais. Apesar desta espÃcie ser de considerÃvel importÃncia para o povo nordestino, nenhum relato na literatura ...

  10. Identification and quantification of flavonoids from Chuquiraga spinosa (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Amaya; Casado, Raquel; Calvo, M Isabel

    2009-10-01

    Nine flavonol glycosides (quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, kaemperol-3-O-glucuronide, kaemperol-3-O-rutinoside, kaempherol-3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucuronide, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside) were isolated from the aerial parts of Chuquiraga spinosa (R. et P.) D. Don (Asteraceae). The identification of the compounds was carried out by HPLC/DAD, HPLC/MS and NMR analysis. These compounds may be useful in the chemotaxonomy of the genus and species.

  11. Environmental alterations in biofuel generating molecules in Zilla spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Hemmat; El Marid, Zeinab

    2017-03-01

    Now days, production of fuels and petrochemicals from renewable lignocellulosic biomass is an indispensable issue to meet the growing energy demand. Meanwhile, the changes in the climate and soil topography influence the growth and development as well as canopy level of the lignocellulosic biomass. In this study, Zilla spinosa Turr (Zilla) plants with similar age and size were collected from three main sectors (upstream, midstream, and downstream) of Wadi Hagul during spring (April) and summer (July) seasons. Environmental stresses evoked reduction in the energy trapping pigments concomitant with increments in chlorophyll fluorescence in summer harvested plants particularly at downstream. Furthermore, the biofuels generating compounds including carbohydrate, lignin, and lipid making the plant biomasses are greatly affected by environmental conditions. Greater amount of lignin was estimated in summer harvested Z. spinosa shoots particularly at downstream. Moreover, the total oil content which is a promising source of biodiesel was considerably decreased during summer season particularly at downstream. The physical properties of the lipids major constituent fatty acid methyl esters determine the biofuel properties and contribute in the adaptation of plants against environmental stresses. Hence, the analysis of fatty acid profile showed significant modifications under combined drought and heat stress displayed in the summer season. The maximum increase in saturated fatty acid levels including tridecanoic acid (C13:0), pentadeanoic acid (C15:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), and stearic acid (C18:0) were estimated in spring harvested Z. spinosa aerial portions particularly at midstream. In spite of the reduction in the total oil content, a marked increase in the value of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio and thereby the unsaturation index were achieved during the dry summer period. Henceforth, these seasonal and spatial variations in fatty acids profiles may

  12. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Caesalpinia ferrea

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    Sandrine Maria A. Lima

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. belongs to the family Fabaceae. Known as pau-ferro and jucá, it is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, as antipyretic and antirheumatic. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanol extract of the fruits of C. ferrea (EECf. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, EECf (50 mg/kg produced significantly inhibition of ear edema by 66.6% compared to control. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg showed inhibition of 83.9% compared to control. EECf (50 mg/kg inhibited of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and was also able to reduce of cell migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by thioglycolate. In the writhing test induced by acid acetic, EECf (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of contortions by 24.9, 46.9 and 74.2%, respectively. In the formalin test, EECf presented effects only in the second phase. The results provided experimental evidence for the effectiveness of the traditional use of C. ferrea in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  13. Galactomannan: a versatile biodegradable seed polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Jani, Girish K; Moradiya, Naresh G; Randeria, Narayan P; Nagar, Bhanu J; Naikwadi, Nikhil N; Variya, Bhavesh C

    2013-09-01

    Polysaccharides have been finding, in the last decades, very interesting and useful applications in the biomedical and, specifically, in the biopharmaceutical field. Galactomannans are a group of storage polysaccharides from various plant seeds that reserve energy for germination in the endosperm. There are four major sources of seed galactomannans: locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), tara (Caesalpinia spinosa Kuntze), and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.). Through keen references of reported literature on galactomannans, in this review, we have described occurrence of various galactomannans, its physicochemical properties, characterization, applications, and overview of some major galactomannans.

  14. Selection of Reference Genes in Saccharopolyspora Spinosa for Real-Time PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张传波; 薛超友; 申月琪; 卢文玉

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative PCR(RT-qPCR)combined with the published genome information of Saccharopolyspora spinosa can allow sophisticated studies about S. spinosa, including studying the regulation of spinosyn biosynthesis, finding new target genes for engineering, and discovering and exploiting other macrolide secondary metabolites. Studies have demonstrated that appropriate internal control is needed to normalize target genes at transcription levels. However, many studies have shown that no single reference gene is universal for all strains under all experimental conditions. Thus, eight candidate reference genes of three different S. spinosa strains in two different cultures were studied to find suitable reference gene(s). The number of amplification cycles of these candidate genes was calculated by BestKeeper, NormFinder and geNorm. The results indicated that the most suitable reference genes for normalization during the fermentation of S. spinosa were 16S rRNA and rbL13.

  15. Capacidad antioxidante de poblaciones silvestres de “tara” (Caesalpinia spinosa de las localidades de Picoy y Santa Fe (Provincia de Tarma, departamento de Junín

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    Alberto López S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El Perú es el principal abastecedor de “tara”, gracias a que nuestro país posee una gran variedad de climas y tipos de suelos, haciendo posible la obtención de este cultivo durante la mayor parte del año. El departamento de Junín cuenta con poblaciones naturales de “tara” que aun no han sido caracterizadas bioquímica ni genéticamente, que podrían aprovecharse en beneficio de las comunidades locales. En este trabajo se reporta la capacidad antioxidante de “tara” provenientes de las localidades de Picoy y Santa Fe, ambas ubicadas en Tarma, Junín. Se utilizó la técnica del DPPH y del ABTS para valorar la capacidad antioxidante; para la determinación de fenoles y flavonoides se utilizó el reactivo de Folin-Ciocalteau según la técnica de Singleton. La muestra de Picoy reportó mayor cantidad de fenoles siendo de 563.70 mg/g de extracto seco, mientras que la cantidad de flavonoides fue de 0.664 mg/g. La capacidad antioxidante mostro una mejor respuesta en la muestra de Picoy, reportándose mediante el DPPH un IC50 1.244 mg/ml y con el ABTS un 35.3% de inhibición. Estos datos podrían aprovecharse para incrementar el valor agregado y mejorar la oferta de este recurso en dicha localidad debido a sus mejores características antioxidantes.

  16. Leaf anatomy of Odontonema strictum (Nees O. Kuntze (Acanthaceae

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    Maria Regina T. Boeger

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the leaf anatomy of Odontonema strictum (Nees O. Kuntze (Acanthaceae, with emphasis on cystoliths, which are very abundant in this species. Leaves fully expanded from five mature individuals were collected in the teaching garden of the “Setor de Ciências Biológicas” (UFPR and fixed in FAA 70. The cystoliths were located in the epidermal cells of the adaxial face (litocysths and also among the collenchyma cells of the midrib and petiole. The cystoliths were cylindrical, long, with several small projections. They sometimes occurred in pairs and varied greatly in size, with an average length of 163.4±68.8 µm and a density of 23±9.97 cystoliths.mm-2 (n=10. The foliar lamina presented a uniseriate epidermis, dorsiventral mesophyll, and palisade parenchyma, which was continuous along the lamina. In the midrib, arc-shaped vascular veins were surrounded by fundamental parenchyma. Glandular trichomes occurred on both faces of the leaf, while non-glandular trichomes and diacytic stomata were present only on the abaxial face. The great number and size of the cystoliths observed could be related to defenses against herbivory and to mechanisms of removal of excess calcium absorbed from the soil.

  17. In vitro establishment of Jacaratia spinosa (Aubl. ADC / Estabelecimento in vitro de Jacaratia spinosa (Aubl. ADC

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    Ricardo Tadeu de Faria

    2009-07-01

    manufactured by the company Cimplast Ltda and used by the industry Milênia Agro Ciência S.A. had been analyzed so that later, based in already carried trough studies in design, packing, ergonomics, anatomy and usability, a guide can be produce destined to the industries that produce this type of packing, so, by means of theoretical support , these companies can produce packing bottles that could adapt better to the user or could reformulate the existing models. For the production of the content of the guide some bibliographical references and technical norms directed to these packing bottles had been overcome. Later a research of field with the potential users was carried out, which it could confirm or refute the referring hypotheses to the usability raised initially. After the evaluation of the ergonomic problems presents in these packing bottles, tables of contents for better illustrate the research had been produced and, later, the data had been questioned based in the theoretical referential. The guide, which is the final product of this work, will bring important and scientifically based information, with simple and practical language, aiming to facilitate for the industries the process of production of the packing bottles, therefore although the data contained in it is available in literatures the companies make use of little time for research.Com o objetivo de desenvolver um protocolo para o estabelecimento in vitro de Jacaratia spinosa a partir de diferentes concentrações de 6-benzilaminopurina (6-BA, foram utilizados como explantes, ápices caulinares de plantas provenientes do campo, desinfestados com solução de Saniagri® 33% v/v, durante 15 minutos e posteriormente pulverizados com uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio 1% v/v. O meio utilizado foi o Murashige e Skoog com a concentração de sacarose reduzida para 5g L-1. As concentrações de 6-BA foram: 0,0 mg L-1, 0,5 mg L-1, 1,0 mg L-1, 1,5 mg L-1, 2,0 mg L-1. O delineamento experimental usado foi o

  18. A New Cassane-type Diterpene from the Seed of Caesalpinia sappan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai Xuan; Nguyen, Nhan Trung; Dang, Phu Hoang; Thi, Phuoc Ho; Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi; Can, Mao Van; Dibwe, Dya Fita; Ueda, Jun-Ya; Matsumoto, Kinzo; Awale, Suresh

    2016-06-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the CH2Cl2 extract of the Vietnamese medicinal plant Caesalpinia sappan Linn resulted in the isolation of a new cassane-type diterpene named tomocin I (1). Its chemical structure was determined by NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analysis.

  19. Filogeografía del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii: (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella Phylogeography of the Caesalpinia hintonii complex (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae: Poincianella

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    Solange Sotuyo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar del crecido número de estudios que se ha realizado para explorar la estructura genética y filogeográfica en especies mexicanas, hay carencia de estudios para especies de selva baja, zonas con alto grado de endemismo. Para un mejor entendimiento de dichas áreas se realizó un estudio filogeográfico y el fechamiento de las especies del complejo Caesalpinia hintonii distribuido en la depresión del río Balsas y el valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán. Se determinó la estructura filogeográfica del complejo analizando las secuencias de 4 regiones de plastidio (intrón trnL, espaciador trnL-F, espaciador psbA-trnH y espaciador accD-psaI en todas las poblaciones disponibles. Se estimó la fecha del origen del complejo mediante un método no paramétrico (NPRS. Las diversidades haplotídicas (0.64-1 y las diferencias nucleotídicas (3.8-11.52 en todas las especies fueron altas respecto a valores registrados para otras plantas. Las poblaciones de C. oyamae, morfológicamente indistintas están genéticamente estructuradas y presentan 3 haplogrupos donde el flujo génico entre ellos es bajo y se consideraron entidades crípticas. Las poblaciones de C. hintonii son un grupo genéticamente homogéneo a pesar de ser morfológicamente distintas. Las poblaciones de C. macvaughii forman 2 linajes divergentes entre los que existe flujo génico (Nm=1.41. Los eventos de divergencia en 2 grandes linajes al este y oeste del río Balsas pueden explicarse por eventos geológicos. Los resultados indican que el complejo se encuentra bajo divergencia y en algunos casos radiación morfostática.Although many phylogeographic studies have been conducted to analyze the genetic and phylogeographic structure of Mexican species, such studies are nearly absent for plants of dry seasonal forest, precincts with high level of endemism. To better understand this areas, we undertook a phylogeographic study and dating were carried out on the Caesalpinia hintonii complex

  20. Furoquinoline alkaloids of Ertela (Monnieria) trifolia (L.) Kuntze from the Suriname rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shugeng; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J; Brodie, Peggy; Wisse, Jan H; Moniz, Etienne; Malone, Stan; Kingston, David G I

    2008-01-01

    7-(2'-Hydroxy-3'-chloroprenyloxy)-4,8-dimethoxyfuroquinoline (1) and 6-(2'-hydroxy-3'-chloroprenyloxy)-4,7-dimethoxyfuroquinoline (2), together with ten known compounds, have been isolated from the aerial parts of Ertela (Monnieria) trifolia (L.) Kuntze. All the isolates were tested for antiproliferative activity against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line.

  1. Capparis spinosa reduces Doxorubicin-induced cardio-toxicity in cardiomyoblast cells

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    Seyed Hadi Mousavi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Doxorubicin (DOX is an effective anticancer drug but its clinical application is limited because it induces apoptosis in cardiomyocytes and leads to permanent degenerative cardiomyopathy and heart failure possibly due to oxidative stress. Recent studies showed that Capparis spinosa (C. spinoseexhibits potent antioxidant activity. So, in this study, we explored the protective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of C. spinosa against DOX-induced cytotoxicity in H9c2 cells. Materials and Methods: Cell viability was quantified by MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were determined using flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak evaluation of DNA fragmentation following PI staining. Cells were cultured with 5 μM DOX for 24 hr to induce cell damage. H9c2 cells were pretreated with different concentrations (6-200 μg/ml of C. spinosa extract for 4 hr before DOX treatment in all trials. Results:  Pretreatment with 25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml of C. spinosa could increase the viability of H9C2 cells to 72.63 ± 2.8% (p< 0.05, 77.37 ± 1.8% (p< 0.05, 83.56 ± 2.6% (p< 0.001 and 90.9 ± 0.5% (p< 0.001 of control, respectively. Also, C. spinosa decreased apoptotic induction significantly, at the doses of 50 µg/ml (p

  2. Phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Hygrophila spinosa T. anders

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    Arjun Patra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Acanthaceae is described in Ayurvedic literature as Ikshura, Ikshugandha and Kokilasha "having eyes like Kokila or Indian cuckoo", common in moist places on the banks of tanks, ditches, paddy fields etc., widely distributed throughout India from Himalayas to Ceylon, Srilanka, Burma, Malaysia and Nepal. Seeds, whole plant, leaves, roots and ash of the plant are predominantly used for the treatment of various ailments. The compounds identified in H. spinosa are mainly phytosterols, fatty acids, minerals, polyphenols, proanthocyanins, mucilage, alkaloids, enzymes, amino acids, carbohydrates, hydrocarbons, flavonoids, terpenoids, vitamins and glycosides. Some of the reported phytoconstituents are lupeol, lupenone, 25-oxo-hentriacontanyl acetate, stigmasterol, betulin, β- carotene, hentriacontane, apigenin-7-O-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, 3-methylnonacosane, 23-ethylcholesta-11(12, 23(24-dien-3β-ol, luteolin, asteracanthine, asteracanthicine, luteolin-7-rutinoside, methyl-8-n-hexyltetracosanoate, β--sitosterol, histidine, phenylalanine, lysine, ascorbic acid, nicotinic acid, n-triacontane, glucose, mannose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, maltose, myristic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid etc. Ethanolic extract of the fruits, hydroalcoholic extract of whole plant and crude petroleum ether extract of the plant are having anticancer activity. Antibacterial activity was exhibited by the chloroform and methanol extract of the whole plant, and methanolic extract of the leaves. Antifungal activity against Aspergillus tamari, Rhizopus solani, Mucor mucedo and Aspergillus niger is due to the proteins and peptides present in the plant. Potential in treating liver diseases of the aerial parts, roots and whole plant was studied by various models viz. carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity, paracetamol and thioacetamide intoxication, and galactosamine induced liver dysfunction in rats. Seeds

  3. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Saravana Kumar, G.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-02-01

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%.

  4. PROPAGATION OF CLEOME SPINOSA JACQ. THROUGH TISSUE CULTURE

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    Cuiqin Yang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The tissue culture and rapid propagation of Cleome spinosa Jacq. was explored by investigating the effects of different plant growth regulators on callus induction, bud differentiation, and root formation of three types of explants. The results showed that hypocotyls and stem segments regenerated buds directly on growth regulator-free Murashige and Skoog (MSmedium. The highest callus induction rates of hypocotyls, stem segments, and leaves reached 100% and were obtained on the culture medium of MS + (1.0 to 2.0 mg/L kinetin (KT + 0.02 mg/L α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, on which the leaves produced the best quality of calluses. The leaf-derived calluses were subcultured on MS + 0.5 mg/L KT +0.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and achieved the highest differentiation rate of 100%, producing an average of 7.5 buds per explant. Inoculation with MS + 0.5 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA resulted in the production of a number of thick roots by 66.7% of the regenerated buds. After transplanting, plantlets with more roots survived easily and grew well.

  5. Efeitos da luz, temperatura e estresse de água na germinação de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Caesalpinoideae Effects of light, temperature and water stress on seed germination in Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. Caesalpinoideae

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    Fernanda Gollo A. Ferraz-Grande

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides absorvem água rapidamente e após 9 horas acumulam o conteúdo de 56% de água e perdem mais lentamente, necessitando de cerca de 20 horas para perder completamente a água absorvida. As sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides germinam na faixa de temperaturas de 15 a 25 °C, e não possuem fotossensibilidade independentemente dos tratamentos luminosos e das temperaturas testadas. Verificou-se que com a diminuição do potencial de água, ocorre nas sementes uma redução na germinabilidade e na velocidade de germinação sob luz branca. Sob condições de estresse de água, observa-se fotossensibilidade, em sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides, sendo a germinação inibida pela luz branca mediada pelo pigmento fitocromo.Seeds of Caesalpinia peltophoroides absorb water and reach rapidly 56% of their water content after 9 hours. They lose water slowly, requiring 20 hours to completely lose imbibed water. Seeds of Caesalpinia peltophoroides germinated in the temperature range 15 to 25ºC. They did not show light sensitivity under different light types. We observed that low water potential reduced the germinability and germination rate. Under water stress those seeds were inhibited by white light mediated by phytochrome.

  6. Chemical Constituents from the Seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var. Spinosa (Bunge) Hu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Mei LI; Xun LIAO; Shu-Lin PENG; Li-Sheng DING

    2005-01-01

    To search for new and bioactive minor components from traditional Chinese medicines, a new compound, named jujuphenoside (1), was isolated from the seeds of Ziziphusjujuba var. spinosa (Bunge)Hu. The structure of jujuphenoside was elucidated by spectral and chemical methods, particularly twodimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Together with the new compound, 22 known compounds were also isolated and identified from the seeds of Z. jujuba var. spinosa, among which, epiceanothic acid (2) was first obtained from natural resources, whereas compounds 7-16 were first obtained from this plant.

  7. Isolation and Structural Identiifcation of Herbicidal Active Substance from Root of Flaveria bident (L.) Kuntze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Jing-qian; XING Ji-hong; ZHANG Li-hui; KANG Zhan-hai; ZHANG Jin-lin

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the composition and structure of herbicidal active substance from the root of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze, the isolation and structural identiifcation were researched in this paper. The crude extract from the root of F. bidentis (L.) Kuntze was extracted by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and water saturation of n-butyl alcohol, respectively, and the extraction lfuid was separated by using the method of TLC, then the main fraction was separated by HPLC, and the structure of the herbicidal active substance was analyzed by LC-MS, elemental analysis and 1H-NMR. The results showed that the petroleum extraction had the strongest herbicidal activity, and the purple blue stripe separated by TLC had the strongest effect on Digitaria sanguinalis. The herbicidal active substance was identiifed as α-terthienyl according to the data of LC-MS, elemental analysis and 1H-NMR.

  8. Amino phenolics from the fruit of the argan tree Argania spinosa (Skeels L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klika, D; Khallouki, Farid; Owen, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    A new phenolic-type compound containing a nitrogenous, heterocyclic-fused ring from the fruit of the argan tree, Argania spinosa (Skeels L.), is described. This and another already known compound also isolated in the course of the work belong to an obscure and rare class of natural products, the amino phenolics.

  9. Bioactivity-guided isolation of spasmolytic components of Pycnocycla spinosa Decne ex Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G; Behzad, S

    2011-07-01

    Hydroalcoholic extract of Pycnocycla spinosa has spasmolytic effect in vitro and antidiarrhoeal action in vivo. The aim of this research was to separate fractions of total hydroalcoholic extract of P. spinosa guided by their spasmolytic activity. Aerial parts of P. spinosa were extracted with ethanol. The concentrated extract was subjected to column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Initially four fractions were obtained (F1, F2, F3, and F4) and their spasmolytic activities were determined on ileum contraction induced by KCl (80 mM). The more active fraction was subjected to further isolation and tested to find its most active components. The active component was phytochemically characterized using phytochemical methods including ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. spinosa (10-320 μg/ml) in a concentration dependent manner inhibited ileum contraction with the IC(50) value of 47 ± 8.1 μg/ml (mean ± S.E.M., n=6). Fraction F2 was the most potent inhibitor of ileum contraction (IC(50)= 3.4 ± 0.33 μg/ml). From five sub-fractions separated from fraction F2 (F2a, F2b, F2c, F2d, and F2e, respectively), F2c was a more active component with the IC(50) value of 2.6 ± 0.27 μg/ml. The primary results of target fraction (F2c) showed sugar moiety in its structure or in one of its components. In this research we have isolated pharmacological active fraction which is most likely responsible for antispasmodic action of P. spinosa hydroalcoholic extract.

  10. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Organic Extracts from Cleome spinosa Jaqc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ana P. Sant'Anna; Nascimento da Silva, Luís C.; Martins da Fonseca, Caíque S.; de Araújo, Janete M.; Correia, Maria T. dos Santos; Cavalcanti, Marilene da Silva; Lima, Vera L. de Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Due to the use of Cleome spinosa Jacq. (Cleomaceae) in traditional medicine against inflammatory and infectious processes, this study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial potential and phytochemical composition of extracts from its roots and leaves. From leaves (L) and roots (R) of C. spinosa different extracts were obtained (cyclohexane: ChL and ChR; chloroform: CL and CR; ethyl acetate: EAL and EAR, methanol: ML and MR). The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution method to obtain the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and microbicidal (MMC) concentrations against 17 species, including bacteria and yeasts. Additionally, antimicrobial and combinatory effects with oxacillin were assessed against eight clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. All C. spinosa extracts showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, as they have inhibited all tested bacteria and yeasts. This activity seems to be related to the phytochemicals (flavonoid, terpenoids and saponins) detected into the extracts of C. spinosa. ChL and CL extracts were the most actives, with MIC less than 1 mg/mL against S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Micrococcus luteus. It is important to note that these concentrations are much lower than their 50% hemolysis concentration (HC50) values. Strong correlations were found between the average MIC against S. aureus and their phenolic (r = −0.89) and flavonoid content (r = −0.87), reinforcing the possible role of these metabolite classes on the antimicrobial activity of C. spinosa derived extracts. Moreover, CL and CR showed the best inhibitory activity against S. aureus clinical isolates, they also showed synergistic action with oxacillin against all these strains (at least at one combined proportion). These results encourage the identification of active substances which could be used as lead(s) molecules in the development of new antimicrobial drugs. PMID:27446005

  11. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Analysis of Organic Extracts from Cleome spinosa Jaqc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ana P Sant'Anna; Nascimento da Silva, Luís C; Martins da Fonseca, Caíque S; de Araújo, Janete M; Correia, Maria T Dos Santos; Cavalcanti, Marilene da Silva; Lima, Vera L de Menezes

    2016-01-01

    Due to the use of Cleome spinosa Jacq. (Cleomaceae) in traditional medicine against inflammatory and infectious processes, this study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial potential and phytochemical composition of extracts from its roots and leaves. From leaves (L) and roots (R) of C. spinosa different extracts were obtained (cyclohexane: ChL and ChR; chloroform: CL and CR; ethyl acetate: EAL and EAR, methanol: ML and MR). The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the broth microdilution method to obtain the minimum inhibitory (MIC) and microbicidal (MMC) concentrations against 17 species, including bacteria and yeasts. Additionally, antimicrobial and combinatory effects with oxacillin were assessed against eight clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. All C. spinosa extracts showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, as they have inhibited all tested bacteria and yeasts. This activity seems to be related to the phytochemicals (flavonoid, terpenoids and saponins) detected into the extracts of C. spinosa. ChL and CL extracts were the most actives, with MIC less than 1 mg/mL against S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Micrococcus luteus. It is important to note that these concentrations are much lower than their 50% hemolysis concentration (HC50) values. Strong correlations were found between the average MIC against S. aureus and their phenolic (r = -0.89) and flavonoid content (r = -0.87), reinforcing the possible role of these metabolite classes on the antimicrobial activity of C. spinosa derived extracts. Moreover, CL and CR showed the best inhibitory activity against S. aureus clinical isolates, they also showed synergistic action with oxacillin against all these strains (at least at one combined proportion). These results encourage the identification of active substances which could be used as lead(s) molecules in the development of new antimicrobial drugs.

  12. Evaluation of the toxicity of the methanolic extract of Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, subjected to gamma radiation, compared to saline artemias; Avaliacao da toxicidade do extrato metanolico de Caesalpinia Pyramidalis, submetido a radiacao gama, frente a artemias salinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Juanna G.; Santos, Mariana L.O.; Costa, Michelle C.A.; Siqueira, Williams N.; Silva, Luanna R.S.; Cabral, Daniela L.V.; Amancio, Francisco F.; Melo, Ana M.M.A., E-mail: marianasantos_ufpe@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the possible effect of irradiation of 60 Co in methanol extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (catingueira) with function of reducing the toxicity of the extract at concentrations of 1000, 500, 250 and 125 ppm irradiating them with doses of 5 kGy 7 kGy and 10 kGy, using lethality tests with saline Artemias.

  13. A new steroidal compound (β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl isolated from Caesalpinia gilliesii flowers

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    Samir Mohamed Osman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of total extracts from leaves, flowers and pods of Caesalpinia gilliesii (Fabaceae, Caesalpinoideae. In addition, a detailed phytochemical investigation of flower extracts was carried out to isolate and elucidate the structures of the bioactive compounds. Flower extract was the most cytotoxic against MCF7 and HepG2 cancer cells with IC50 values of 10 and 15.6 µg/mL, respectively. A new β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl was isolated from dichloromethane fraction of flowers together with another known sterol (daucosterol, and two flavonoids (isorhamnetin and isorhamnetin 3-O-rhamnoside. β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl was the most active compound against both HepG2 and MCF7 cells with IC50 values of 13.1 and 14.4 µg/mL, respectively. Isorhamnetin possesses a moderate antioxidant activity with an IC50 value 370 µg/mL as determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay.Industrial relevance. β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl and the other phytosterols are responsible for the cytotoxicity of the extracts which would correlate with the known abortifacient, antimalarial and anthelmintic properties, which can provide a cheap alternative drug.Keywords. Cytotoxicity, antioxidant; Caesalpinia gilliesii; β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl; daucosterol; isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnoside

  14. Substrate in the emergence and initial growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia pulcherrima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnólia Martins Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Caesalpinia pulcherrima is an exotic species belongs to the Fabaceae family commonly known as flamboyant-mirim, and widely used for urban forestry. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different substrates on the emergence and early seedlings growth of C. pulcherrima . The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse belonging to the Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade Federal da Paraíba. The experimental design was completely randomized and treatments had 14 substrates: sand, vegetable soil, vermiculite, wood dust, carbonized rice straw, vegetable soil + sand 1:1, sand + wood dust 1:1, sand + carbonized rice straw 1:1, earth + wood dust 1:1, vegetable soil + carbonized rice straw 1:1, vermiculite + sand 1:1, vermiculite + wood dust 1:1, vermiculite + earth 1:1 and vermiculite + carbonized rice straw 1:1. Evaluation of the effect of the treatments was through the following determinations: percentage of emergency, first count, index of germination speed, length and dry weight of roots and shoots. The vermiculite, vegetable soil + sand 1:1, vermiculite + sand 1:1, vermiculite + saw dust 1:1, are suitable for emergence and early growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia pulcherrima . Substrates saw dust and carbonized rice straw were responsible for the worst performers on emergence and seedling development.

  15. IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES EVALUATION OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CAESALPINIA PULCHERRIMA FLOWERS

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    Fahad Hussain

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to prove ethno medicinal value of the plant, investigating anti-microbial, antioxidant, and total phenolic content of crude methanolic extract of flowers of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The methanolic extract revealed narrow spectrum antimicrobial activity at the concentration of 400 µg/ disc. The results obtained were compared with standard ciprofloxacin of 5µg/ disc. The extract exhibited moderate amount of total phenolic compound (44.0 ± 0.08 mg/g of gallic acid equivalent. In DPPH free radical scavenging test, IC50 value of the crude extract was found fairly significant (41.59 ± 0.05 μg/ml while compared to that of the reference standards butylated hydroxyl toluene (21.90 ± 0.05 μg/ml. Since, the plant, Caesalpinia pulcherrima got cabalistic antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities, other phytochemical and pharmacological studies can be carried out to justify its traditional uses, as the plant is available and being used traditionally in the rural areas of Bangladesh.

  16. Effect of Leaves of Caesalpinia decapetala on Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Skowyra, Monika; Gordon, Michael H.; Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Almajano, María Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth) Alston (Fabaceae) (CD) is used in folk medicine to prevent colds and treat bronchitis. This plant has antitumor and antioxidant activity. The antioxidant effects of an extract from Caesalpinia decapetala (Fabaceae) were assessed by storage of model food oil-in-water emulsions with analysis of primary and secondary oxidation products. The antioxidant capacity of the plant extract was evaluated by the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Lyophilized extracts of CD were added at concentrations of 0.002%, 0.02% and 0.2% into oil-in-water emulsions, which were stored for 30 days at 33 ± 1 °C, and then, oxidative stability was evaluated. The CD extract had high antioxidant activity (700 ± 70 µmol Trolox/g dry plant for the ORAC assay), mainly due to its phenolic components: gallic acid, quercetin, catechin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid. At a concentration of 0.2%, the extract significantly reduced the oxidative deterioration of oil-in-water emulsions. The results of the present study show the possibility of utilizing CD as a promising source of natural antioxidants for retarding lipid oxidation in the food and cosmetic industries. PMID:28273843

  17. Multiple Suppressive Effects of a Protein from Caesalpinia minax on Murine Melanoma Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余旭亚; 谢莉萍; 张勇; 王洪钟; 李重华; 陈朝银; 张荣庆

    2002-01-01

    Caesalpinia minax has a long history of use as a Chinese traditional herb medicine in Yunnan Province, China, for the treatment of skin-related diseases. A potent melanoma inhibitor, purified from the seeds of C. minax and termed Caesalpinia minax protein (CMP), is a protein with a relative molecular mass of 19.8×103. Experiments were conducted to assay the inhibitive effects of CMP on the proliferation, migration, and adhesion of murine melanoma cell line K1735M2. The results showed that cell proliferation was suppressed by about 60% with treatment of 22 μg/mL CMP. Furthermore, the migration of K1735M2 cells was inhibited by 30% in the presence of 22 μg/mL CMP. The results also demonstrated that the inhibitive effect of CMP on the migration was dose-dependent. Although low-doses of CMP had no obvious inhibitive effect on the adhesion of K1735M2, 22 μg/mL CMP inhibited the adhesion of K1735M2 by 50%. These results suggest that CMP might be a potential medicine for melanoma therapy.

  18. 苏木复方抑菌效果研究%Study on Antimicrobial Effects of Caesalpinia sappan Compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 林国卫; 王艾平; 周丽明; 乐贞; 邱昌将

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial effects of Caesalpinia sappan L. compound were investigated and it can provide references for producing high effective bacteriostasis. Inhibition zone diameters and MIC of extracts from Caesalpinia sappan L. compound and Caesalpinia sappan L., Eriobotrya japonica leaf, Sanguisorba officinalis L., Caulis spatholobi inhibiting S. aureus, B. thuringiensis, B. subtilis and E. coli were determined by filter paper disc method and tube double dilution method. The antimicrobial actions were evaluated and compared. The results showed that Caesalpinia sappan L. compound and four kinds of Chinese herbal medicine had different antimicrobial actions to four kinds of bacteria in different degree. The antimicrobial effects of Caesalpinia sappan L. compound were higher than four kinds of Chinese herbal medicine generally.%研究苏木复方的抑菌效果为生产高效抑菌剂提供参考.采用滤纸片法和试管二倍稀释法测定苏木复方提取液与单味中草药苏木、枇杷叶、地榆、鸡血藤提取液对金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphyloccocus aureus)、苏云金芽孢杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis)、枯草芽孢杆菌(B.subtilis)、大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)的抑菌圈直径和最小抑菌浓度,比较其抑菌能力.结果表明,苏木复方提取液和4种单味中草药提取液对4种微生物有不同程度的抑制作用,苏木复方提取液的抑菌效果整体强于4种单味中草药提取液.

  19. Inhibitory Effect of Capparis spinosa Extract on Pancreatic Alpha-Amylase Activity

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    Mostafa Selfayan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose level caused due to deficiency of insulin secretion or insulin function. The inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes such as α-amylase can be an important strategy for decrease postprandial blood glucose level in patients with type II diabetes. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Objectives The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of the ethanolic extract of Capparis spinosa on pancreatic α-amylase activities to find out the relevance of the plant in controlling blood sugar. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, root and leaves of C. spinosa were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations (1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/mL of extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the spectrometric method used for measure enzyme activity. Also acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Results Both root and leaves extracts showed inhibition of α-amylase (root = 97.31% and leaves = 98.92%. The root and leaves extracts of C. spinosa exhibited appreciable α-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 values 5.93 mg/mL and 3.89 mg/mL respectively, when compared with acarbose (IC50 value 0.038 mg/mL. Conclusions This study supports that root and leaves extracts of C. spinosa exhibit considerable α-amylase inhibitory activities. These results could be useful for developing functional foods by combination of plant-based foods for treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  20. Comparative reproductive effort and fecundity in the spider crabs, Leurocyclus tuberculosus and Libinia spinosa (Majoidea, Brachyura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pisani, Ximena; Greco, Laura López

    2014-04-01

    A comparative analysis of reproductive effort, fecundity, and egg weight was conducted in two species of spider crabs, Leurocyclus tuberculosus and Libinia spinosa, during one-year period. Ovigerous females were collected from Patagonia-Argentina (42°56'S, 64°21'W) and were measured (CW = carapace width). Each egg brood was weighed, dried and the number of eggs (F = fecundity) counted. Scatterplots of relative fecundity (RF = F/CW) were submitted to regression analyses. Mean F and RF was calculated for each season to assess seasonal variation of reproductive intensity. Mean F was 35,000 eggs in L. tuberculosus and 30,000 eggs in L. spinosa, with these values being intermediate in comparison with other Majoidea. The RF was approximately 18% higher in L. tuberculosus that presented an average dry weight egg 45% less than L. spinosa. Although in both species F showed a positive correlation with CW, less than the 20% of the variation in the number of eggs could be explained by female's size, suggesting there are other factors that influence F. The proportion of body energy devoted to reproduction (reproductive effort), exhibited significant differences between species. In Leurocyclus tuberculosus reproductive activity is significantly different along the 12-month suggesting that the conditions for 'optimal' egg production change throughout the year. In Libinia spinosa mean fecundity did not reveal significant differences over seasons. These results are central in studies of life-history theory and in the development of life history models, as it is directly related to energy allocation and partitioning.

  1. An Examination of the Function of Male Flowers in an Andromonoecious Shrub Capparis spinosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Zhang; Dun-Yan Tan

    2009-01-01

    The pollen donor and pollinator attractor hypotheses are explanations for the functions of the male flowers of andromonoecious plants. We tested these two hypotheses in the andromonoecious shrub Capparis spinosa L. (Capparaceae) and confirmed that pollen production and cumulative volume and sugar concentration of nectar do not differ between male and perfect flowers. However, male flowers produced larger anthers, larger pollen grains and smaller ovaries than perfect flowers. Observations on pollinators indicated that two major pollinators (Xylocopa valga Gerst and Proxylocopa sinensis Wu) did not discriminate between flower morphs and that they transferred pollen grains a similar distance. However, there were more seeds per fruit following hand pollination with pollen from male flowers than from perfect flowers. Individuals of C. spinosa with a larger floral display (i.e. bearing more flowers) received more pollen grains on the stigma of perfect flowers. Female reproductive success probably is not limited by pollen. These results indicate that male flowers of C. spinosa save resources for female function and that they primarily serve to attract pollinators as pollen donors.

  2. Isolation and identification of bioactive antibacterial components in leaf extracts of Vangueria spinosa (Rubiaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soroj Kumar Chatterjee; Indranil Bhattacharjee; Goutam Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The column chromatographic fraction of ethyl acetate (EA1, EA2, EA3, EA4 and EA5) leaf extracts of Vangueria spinosa (V. spinosa) were screened for antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis. Methods: EA3 fraction was isolated and identified by column chromatography, thin layer chromatography, spectral data analysis and phytochemical screening were used for analysis. Results: EA3 fraction was significantly active at 4 to 64 mg/L against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with minimum inhibitory concentration of 1.5625 to 3.1250 mg/mL. The active fraction (EA3) revealed the presence of flavonoid with retention factor value (Rf) of 0.39. The active antibacterial agent in the most potent fraction (EA3) was isolated and identified as flavonoid (-)-epicatechin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and phytochemical screening. EA1 and EA2 show inhibitory activity at 4 to 64 mg/L against Staphylococcus aureus only where as fraction EA4 and EA5 do not shows any inhibitory activity within that range of concentration against any bacteria. Conclusions: The results support the ethnomedicinal use of leaf of V. spinosa for the treatment of bacterial diseases.

  3. 紫外分光光度法测定酸枣仁中总黄酮的含量%Quantitative Determination of Total Flavonoids in Semen Ziziphi Spinosae by UV Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会军; 李萍

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To determine the total flavonoids in Semen Ziziphi Spinosae.METHOD: Using detection wavelength at 335 nm and spinosin as standard, a simple and reproducible UV spectrophotometry was developed to determine total flavonoids in Semen Ziziphi Spinosae from different sources. CONCLUSION: This method proved to be feasible for evaluating the quality of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae.

  4. The Development of SEMEN ZIZIPHI SPINOSAE Yoghourt%酸枣仁酸奶的研制

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    云月英; 王国泽; 柳青; 王文龙

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The research aimed to develop a yoghourt drink of SEMEN ZIZIPHI SPINOSAE. [ Method] A yoghourt drink was developed and produced with SEMEN ZIZIPHI SPINOSAE and fresh milk as main raw materials and Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in a 1:1 volume ratio as mixed fermentation strains, the optimum technological parameters of which were determined through studies on processing techniques. [Result] The optimum process was as follows: serous fluids were prepared from SEMEN ZIZIPHI SPINOSAE and its 6 volumes of water, and then mixed with fresh milk in a 1:4 volume ratio as fermentation broth. After adding 9% granulated sugar, 5% milk powder and 4% starter, Let it ferment at 42 ℃ until fermentation broth was made into curds, and then the milk products were obtained. [ Conclusion] SEMEN ZIZIPHI SPINOSAE yoghourt of high quality could be developed under the optimum conditions.%[目的]研制(SEMEN ZIZIPHI SPINOSAE)酸枣仁酸奶饮品.[方法]以酸枣仁、鲜牛奶为主要原材料,以保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌1:1为混合发酵菌种,对生产工艺进行研究,确定最佳的工艺参数.[结果]酸枣仁酸奶最佳工艺流程为:酸枣仁与6倍体积的水混合后打浆得到的酸枣仁浆液,酸枣仁浆液与鲜牛奶混合比例为1:4(WV)得待发酵液.此时加入砂糖、乳粉和发酵剂,砂糖的添加量为9%,乳粉的加入量为5%,接种量为4%,42℃下发酵至其凝乳,得酸乳产品.[结论]在最佳工艺条件下可得到品质优良的酸枣仁酸奶.

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of an ethanolic Caesalpinia sappan extract in human chondrocytes and macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengqian Q; Otero, Miguel; Unger, Frank M; Goldring, Mary B; Phrutivorapongkul, Ampai; Chiari, Catharina; Kolb, Alexander; Viernstein, Helmut; Toegel, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Caesalpinia sappan is a common remedy in Traditional Chinese Medicine and possesses diverse biological activities including anti-inflammatory properties. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with an inflammatory component that drives the degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix. In order to provide a scientific basis for the applicability of Caesalpinia sappan in arthritic diseases, the present study aimed to assess the effects of an ethanolic Caesalpinia sappan extract (CSE) on human chondrocytes and macrophages. Materials and Methods Primary human chondrocytes were isolated from cartilage specimens of OA patients. Primary cells, SW1353 chondrocytes and THP-1 macrophages were serum-starved and pretreated with different concentrations of CSE prior to stimulation with 10 ng/ml of interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Following viability tests, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were evaluated by Griess assay and ELISA, respectively. Using validated real-time PCR assays, mRNA levels of IL-1ß, TNF-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were quantified. SW1353 cells were cotransfected with a COX-2 luciferase reporter plasmid and nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-κB) p50 and p65 expression vectors in the presence or absence of CSE. Results CSE dose-dependently inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and TNF-α in IL-1ß-stimulated chondrocytes and LPS-stimulated THP-1 macrophages. CSE further suppressed the synthesis of NO in primary OA chondrocytes by blocking iNOS mRNA expression. The inhibition of COX-2 transcription was found to be related with the CSE inhibition of the p65/p50-driven transactivation of the COX-2 promoter. Conclusions The present report is first to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of CSE in an in vitro cell model of joint inflammation. CSE can effectively abrogate the IL-1ß-induced over-expression of

  6. Repellent Action of Carapa guianensis and Caesalpinia ferrea for flies species of Calliphoridae family

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    Ciciane Pereira Marten Fernandes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Myiases occur by the infestation of fly larvae in tissues of live vertebrate animals, resulting in economic loss. Phytotherapy is considered an important alternative in the control of insects, which may reduce the economic impacts . Carapa guianensis is a plant that has been studied as a repellent against mosquitoes and Caesalpinia ferrea is reported in tropical climates, and there are few studies about its repellent action. The present study was designed to evaluate the repellent action of s C. guianensis and C. ferrea plants on flies species of the Calliphoridae family. W.O.T. traps containing deteriorated bovine liver and herbs cream of at concentrations of 20 and 50% were used to catch the flies. It was reported that the creams containing C. ferrea at concentrations of 20 and 50% and C. guianensis at the concentration of 50% have repellent effect against species of Calliphoridae family.

  7. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic potential of Caesalpinia decapetala in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits

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    Liaqat Hussain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic, kidney and hepatoprotective potential of Caesalpinia decapetala were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. The plant extract showed concentration dependant significant (p<0.001 therapeutic potential in diabetic rabbits revealing improvement in lipid profile and liver and kidney functions. 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg oral extract were able to reduce average blood glucose levels from 250.6 mg/dL to 204.2 mg/dL and 188.2 mg/dL respectively during 14 days period, in comparison to 183.8 mg/dL of glibenclamide. There was no significant synergistic effect found, upon co-administration of both drug and extract representing the competitive binding to sulphonyl urea (SUR1, revealing possible mechanism of action for compounds in extract. Extract was found to be nephroprotective, hepatoprotective and improved lipid profile of alloxan-treated rabbits.

  8. Screening of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn Flowers for Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities

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    S S Patel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The flowers of Caesalpinia pulcherrima were extracted with methanol to determine their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Intraperitoneal administration of methanolic extract (75, 150 and 225 mg/kg produced significant analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced writhing, tail immersion test and hot plate tests and anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced paw edema in experimental animals. Industrial relevance: The herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of inflammation because of the side effect of the current therapy used to treat those inflammation using synthetic drugs. Herbal medicines have less side effects and less costly when compared to the synthetic drugs. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug with less side effect, less costly affordable and more effective in the treatment of pain and inflammation. Finally the phytochemical screening or elucidation of the bioactive compounds from the plant would be effective drug against pain and inflammation.

  9. Antidiabetic activity of alcoholic root extract of Caesalpinia digyna in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Kumar; DK Patel; SK Prasad; K Sairam; S Hemalatha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation deals with evaluation of antidiabetic (Type 2) activity of standardized alcoholic root extracts of Caesalpinia digyna in STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Methods: Alcoholic root extract of Caesalpinia digyna (ACD), obtained from Soxhlet extractor was standardized by HPLC. Type 2 diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) followed by streptozotocin (65 mg/kg). Diabetic rats ware administered ACD at doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg (p.o.) and different parameters such as normoglycemic and oral glucose tolerance test were evaluated. The study also included estimations of blood plasma glucose, lipid profile, liver glycogen, body weight and anti-oxidant status in normal and diabetic rats. Results: Normoglycemic rats did not reduce the blood glucose level, whereas oral glucose tolerance test showed better tolerance of glucose in treated rats. The alcoholic extract showed a dose dependent reduction in fasting blood glucose level i.e. more pronounced at 750 mg/kg (P<0.05). ACD showed significant reduction in plasma lipid like triglycerides, total cholesterol and improvement in high density lipo-protein cholesterol (HDL-C) in treated groups. The decrease in lipid peroxides and increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver clearly showed the antioxidant potential while rat hemi-diaphragm glucose uptake study revealed increases in peripheral glucose uptake of treated rats. Conclusions: Results showed that standardized alcoholic extract of C. digyna possessed significant antidiabetic activity which may be attributed to increase in glycogen storage, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity thus, rationalizing its traditional use.

  10. Storage sites in seeds of Caesalpinia echinata and C. ferrea (Leguminosae with considerations on nutrients flow

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    Simone de Pádua Teixeira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Caesalpinia echinata and C. ferrea behaved as typical endospermic seeds, despite their different morphological classification (exendospermic seeds were described for C. echinata and endospermic seeds for C. ferrea. Then, the aim of this work was to compare, under ultrastructural and histochemical terms, the nature of the storage substances and their accumulation sites, as well as the nutrient flow in seeds of these species. Cotyledons in C. echinata accumulate carbohydrates, lipids and proteins, which are mobilized from the outer to the inner parts as revealed by the position of plasmodesmata. Endosperm in C. ferrea accumulates carbohydrates and in C. echinata accumulates substances during the initial embryogenic phases. Such tissue develops a chalazal haustorium that is responsible for the transport of substances into the endosperm itself and from it into the embryo, confirmed by the presence of transference cells.As sementes de Caesalpinia echinata e C. ferrea comportam-se como endospérmicas, apesar de descritas na literatura como exendospérmicas e endospérmicas, respectivamente. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar, em termos ultra-estrutural e histoquímico, a natureza das substâncias de reserva e seus tecidos acumuladores, bem como o fluxo de nutrientes nas sementes destas espécies. Os cotilédones em C. echinata acumulam carboidratos, lipídios e proteínas, mobilizados da periferia para o centro, como visto pelo posicionamento dos plasmodesmas. O endosperma em C. ferrea acumula carboidratos e lipídios, e em C. echinata, acumula substâncias nos estádios iniciais da embriogênese. Este tecido desenvolve um haustório calazal agressivo, que transporta substâncias para o endosperma propriamente dito e deste para o embrião, fato confirmado pela presença de células de transferência no endosperma.

  11. A New Octadecenoic Acid Derivative from Caesalpinia gilliesii Flowers with Potent Hepatoprotective Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Samir M.; El-Haddad, Alaadin E.; El-Raey, Mohamed A.; Abd El-Khalik, Soad M.; Koheil, Mahmoud A.; Wink, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Caesalpinia gilliesii Hook is an ornamental shrub with showy yellow flowers. It was used in folk medicine due to its contents of different classes of secondary metabolites. In our previous study, dichloromethane extract of C. gilliesii flowers showed a good antioxidant activity. Aim of the Study: Isolation and identification of bioactive hepatoprotective compounds from C. gilliesii flowers dichloromethane fraction. Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective activity of dichloromethane fraction and isolated compounds were studied in CCl4-intoxicated rat liver slices by measuring liver injury markers (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutathione [GSH]). All compounds were structurally elucidated on the basis of electron ionization-mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: A new 12,13,16-trihydroxy-14(Z)-octadecenoic acid was identified in addition to the known β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl, daucosterol, isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnoside, luteolin-7,4’-dimethyl ether, genistein-5-methyl ether, luteolin-7-O-rhamnoside, isovanillic acid, and p-methoxybenzoic acid. Dichloromethane fraction and isorhamnetin were able to significantly protect the liver against intoxication. Moreover, the dichloromethane fraction and the isolated phytosterols induced GSH above the normal level. Conclusion: The hepatoprotective activity of C. gilliesii may be attributed to its high content of phytosterols and phenolic compounds. SUMMARY Bioactive Hepatoprotective phytosterols and phenolics from chloroform extract of Caesalpinia gilliesii Abbreviations used: ALT: Alanine Aminotransferase; AST: Aspartate aminotransferase; GSH: Glutathione; SC50: Scavenging Capacity 50 (SC 50); COSY: Correlation spectroscopy; NMR: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance; CC: Column chromatography; EI-MS: Electron-impact mass spectrometry; HSQC: Heteronuclear single-quantum correlation. PMID:27563221

  12. Inhibitory Effects of Gallic Acid Isolated from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk on Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Lines and Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanata, Narintorn; Klaynongsruang, Sompong; Daduang, Sakda; Tavichakorntrakool, Ratree; Limpaiboon, Temduang; Lekphrom, Ratsami; Boonsiri, Patcharee; Daduang, Jureerut

    2016-01-01

    Gallic acid was isolated from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk and the structure s identified based on spectroscopic analysis and comparison with authentic compound. In this study we compared the ability of natural gallic acid (nGA) and commercial gallic acid (cGA) to inhibit the proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (M213, M214) and foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella spp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides). Both nGA and cGA had the same inhibitory effects on cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis of cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. In addition, nGA inhibited growth of foodborne pathogenic bacteria in the same manner as cGA. Our results suggest that nGA from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk is a potential anticancer and antibacterial compound. However, in vivo studies are needed to elucidate the specific mechanisms involved.

  13. In vitro antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and total phenolic content in extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Caesalpiniaceae) pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbhare, M R; Sivakumar, T; Udavant, P B; Dhake, A S; Surana, A R

    2012-04-01

    Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. Swartz (Caesalpiniaceae) is an ornamental plant also used as a common medicinal plant in India, Taiwan and South-East Asian countries. Majority of the diseases/disorders are mainly linked to oxidative stress due to free radicals. The aims of this study were to screen for phytochemical constituents, evaluate cytotoxicity, in vitro antioxidant activity and estimation of total phenolic content of extracts of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, steroids and alkaloids. Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL) bioassay was used to investigate the cytotoxic effects. The LC50(microg mL(-1)) values obtained for extracts as 750 microg mL(-1) for petroleum ether extract, 800 microg mL(-1) for chloroform extract and 900 microg mL(-1) for methanol extract. The total phenolic content of the methanolic extract was 38.04% w/w, equivalent to gallic acid. Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanolic extracts of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and standard ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of DPPH radical with an IC50 of 124.75, 112.08, 54.34 and 13.86 microg mL(-1), respectively. Methanolic extract was good scavenger of DPPH radical. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate soluble fraction of methanolic extracts of pods of Caesalpinia pulcherrima and ascorbic acid were found to be scavenger of nitric oxide radical with an IC50 of 93.32, 65.12, 54.83 and 12.59 microg mL(-1), respectively. Ethyl acetate soluble fraction was found to be good scavenger of nitric oxide radical. Our conclusion provides support that the crude extracts of C. pulcherrima is a probable source of natural antioxidants and this justified its uses in folkloric medicines.

  14. Biologia floral e mecanismos reprodutivos do Mussambê (Cleome spinosa Jacq) com vistas ao melhoramento genético

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Douglas de Almeida; Brito, Ana Carla; Amaral,Cláudio Lúcio Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    O Gênero Cleome, da família Capparaceae, compreende plantas economicamente utilizadas como medicinais e ornamentais. Foi objetivo deste trabalho estudar a biologia floral e os mecanismos reprodutivos de C. spinosa com vistas ao melhoramento genético. A antese ocorre entre 17h30 às 18h30 e está intimamente relacionado com as condições climáticas. Os principais polinizadores foram abelhas (Apis, Bombus), mariposas e morcegos (Glossophaga). Cleome spinosa apresenta sistema de cruzamento misto, o...

  15. Anti-diabetic effect of Capparis spinosa L. root extract in diabetic rats

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    Mostafa Kazemian Mansur Abad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorders with severe impact on quality of life. Reducing serum glucose levels and normalization of serum lipid is of great clinical importance for treating diabetes. To our knowledge, there are not any evidences about the anti-diabetic action of capparis spinosa root. In the present study the effects of the C. spinosa root extract on diabetic metabolic disorders have been studied in experimental diabetes. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into six groups: normal control (NC, diabetic control (DC, diabetic rats receiving 0.2, 0.4 g/kg of plant extract or 0.6 mg/kg glibenclamide (groups D0.2, D0.4 or DG respectively. A normal group of rats was also designed to receive 0.2 g/kg of plant extract (N0.2. Rats were rendered diabetic (streptozotocin 60 mg/kg, i.p. and treated with 0.2, 0.4 g/ kg of plant extract or glibenclamide for four weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood was drawn through heart puncture under deep anesthesia. Weight was measured weekly, glucose levels were measured at the first and fourth week and lipid profiles, insulin and liver enzymes at the end of the study. Results: Glucose levels significantly decreased after treating with plant extract (p=0.003. However, insulin levels did not increase in any treating groups. Plant extract could significantly raise HDL and reduce levels of LDL and liver enzymes (ALT and ALP. Conclusion: These results showed that C. spinosa rootextract could improve diabetic related metabolic derangement such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and elevated liver markers in an insulin-independent manner.

  16. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Echinophora spinosa L. (Apiaceae Essential Oil

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    Jasmina M. Glamočlija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the chemical composition and effectiveness of the essential oil isolated from Echinophora spinosa on different bacterial and fungal species. Chemical analysis (GC/MS showed that δ³-carene (60,86 %, α-phellandrene (7,12%, p-cymene (6,22 %, myrcene (4,82 % and β-phellandrene (2,73 % were dominant components in this oil. Essential oil tested showed good antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial potential of this oil was higher than potential of commercial antimicrobial drugs tested, streptomycin, bifonozole and ketoconazole.

  17. Atividade antiinflamatoria da Chuquiraga spinosa subsp. Huamanpinta em ratos e camundongos

    OpenAIRE

    Sabino Julio Sotelo Cordova

    1998-01-01

    Resumo: A Chuquiraga spinosa Lessing subsp. Huamanpinta Ezcurra, conhecida no Peru como "Huamanpinta" é utilizada na medicina popular como diurético, antiinflamatório e antitTeumático. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a atividade antiinflamatória do,' extrato bruto hidroalcoólico (EBH) e suas frações (orgânica e aquosa) em modelos experimentais de inflamação aguda em ratos e camundongos. o EBH da Huamanpinta (250, 500 e 1000 mglkg, v.o.), quando adtpinistrado uma hora antes da indução de inflamaçã...

  18. Observations on Phallocryptus Spinosa (Branchiopoda, Anostraca) Populations from the high Plateaus of Northeastern Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mounia Amarouayache

    2014-01-01

    Phallocryptus spinosa (Thamnocephalidae) is a small primitive crustacean which lives in temporary saline pools of the Palaearctic region called Chott, Sebkha, Garâa or Daya in North Africa. Data on its biology and life history are very scarce despite its ecological importance in wetlands. Four populations living in the Northeastern High Plateaus of Algeria, Garâas Guellif, El-Tarf, Ank Djemel and Sebkha Ez-Zemoul, have been studied in point of view of their morphmetry (13 parameters) and thei...

  19. Maturação de frutos de Caesalpinia echinata Lam., pau-brasil Maturation of fruits of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brasil wood

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    Francismar Francisco Alves Aguiar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se parâmetros indicativos da maturação de frutos de árvores de Caesalpinia echinata, visando determinar a melhor época de colheita para propagação. Foram utilizadas 10 plantas-matriz cultivadas em Mogi-Guaçu, SP, nas quais foram etiquetadas 250 inflorescências no pico da floração para acompanhamento da maturação. As coletas de frutos tiveram início a partir da 5ª semana após a antese, prolongando-se até a 9ª, com intervalos de sete dias. Em cada coleta, analisaram-se os parâmetros: comprimento, largura e teor de água dos frutos; teor de água das sementes (após três dias de exposição ao sol para deiscência do fruto e extração da semente; porcentagem de germinação e peso de matéria seca de frutos, sementes e plântulas. Observou-se, ainda, a coloração dos frutos como parâmetro visual de maturação das sementes. O experimento foi repetido por três anos. Os testes de germinação foram realizados em caixas Gerbox contendo vermiculita umedecida com água destilada. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em câmara regulada para 30 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições de 25 sementes por parcela, nos anos de 1991, 1992 e 1993. As leituras de germinação foram realizadas nos 4º e 8º dias após a semeadura. Pelos resultados, conclui-se que o momento ideal para coleta dos frutos de C. echinata é no estádio de pré-dispersão (entre a 8º e 9º após a antese visualizado através da coloração, quando estes mudam de verde para castanho.Several indicative parameters regarding fruit maturity of Caesalpinia echinata were studied in order to establish the ideal harvest time. Ten matrix plants were cultivated in Moji-Guaçu, SP (22°11' to 1022°18' S and 47°13' to 47°20' WG, altitude between 600m and 730m. The climate of the region is classified as Cwa. Two hundred and fifty blossoms were tagged during the the peak

  20. Potencial de rizobactérias no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH Epotential of rhizobacterias for the growth of seedlings of sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides BENTH

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    Jeane de Fátima Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o potencial de isolados de rizobactérias na germinação de sementes e no crescimento de mudas de sibipiruna (Caesalpinia peltophoroides. Testaram-se os isolados pré-selecionados para eucalipto, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 e CIIB. Para tanto, amostras de substrato à base de vermiculita e casca de arroz carbonizada (1:1 foram tratados com 5 mL de uma suspensão de cada isolado (OD540= 0,2 A/ tubete de 55 cc de capacidade, correspondendo a cerca de 10 ufc/mL. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC com cinco repetições por tratamento, com 20 sementes cada. Aos 40 dias, avaliaram-se a porcentagem de germinação e a massa seca de raízes e da parte aérea. Verificou-se aumento significativo em matéria seca de raiz e da parte aérea para todos os isolados de rizobactérias testados, em relação à testemunha. Todos os isolados proporcionaram aumento significativo na germinação, à exceção do 3918 e CIIB que não diferiram da testemunha. Entre os isolados testados, quatro destacaram-se como os mais promissores (FL2, MF4, MF2 e CIIB. Os resultados obtidos mostram ganhos significativos na produção de mudas, sem nenhum ajuste no manejo ou na estrutura do viveiro. Além desse ganho direto, pode-se ter um melhor aproveitamento da estrutura física dos viveiros, ao se diminuir o tempo de formação das mudas, reduzindo-se o custo de produção.The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of growth-promoting rhizobacteria for seed germination and biomass of the root system and aerial part of seedlings of sibipiruna ( Caesalpinia Peltophoroides: . Isolates pre-selected for eucalyptus were used, Ca, FL2, MF2, MF4, RC3, R1, 3918, S1, S2 and CIIB. Thus, samples of vermiculite-based substrate and carbonized rice hull (1:1 were treated with 5 mL of a suspension of each isolate (OD540= 0.2 A/ tubette of 55 cc capacity corresponding to around 10 ufc/mL. The experimental

  1. Optimization of extraction process and investigation of antioxidant effect of polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense Kuntze

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the extraction technology for polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense (Girard) Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae and evaluate the antioxidant capacity of polysaccharides from L. sinense (LSEP) Materials and Methods : One-singer factor and response surface methodology(RSM) were established to extract the polysaccharides from L. sinense. Then, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, hydroxyl radical(.OH), and 2,2′-Azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) ...

  2. Sida spinosa L., S. rhombifolia L., S. cordifolia L. en Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke adventief op lelievelden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijerse, Fons A.I.; Verrijdt, Toon A.L.A.I.

    2010-01-01

    In september 2005 werd Sida rhombifolia L. aangetroffen in een lelieveld. In de vier jaar daarna zijn in dergelijke velden ook drie andere Malvaceeën aangetroffen: Sida spinosa L., S. cordifolia L. en Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke. Deze vier soorten komen wijd verspreid voor in de (sub)trop

  3. Growth-Inhibitory and Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) on Fibrosarcoma Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Sineh Sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Yousefi, Bahman; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, Meghdad; Khori, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Punica granatum L. var. granatum (Pomegranate), an herbaceous plant found in Iran, The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic effects, induction of apoptosis, and the mechanism of cell death of ethanol extract from Punica granatum L. var. spinosa on the mouse fibrosarcoma cell line, WEHI-164.

  4. Profile of bioactive compounds of Capparis spinosa var. aegyptiaca growing in Egypt

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    Riham Omar Bakr

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was designed to investigate polyphenolic and sulphur contents of the aerial parts of Capparis spinosa var. aegyptia (Lam. Boiss., Capparaceae, wildly growing in Egypt. The chemical compositions of the water distilled essential oil were investigated by GC/MS analysis where the major constituent of the oil was methyl isothiocyanate (24.66%. Hydroethanolic extract was evaluated by LC-HRESI-MS–MS in both positive and negative modes. Forty-two compounds were identified including quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin derivatives in addition to myricetin, eriodictyol, cirsimaritin and gallocatechin derivatives. Quercetin tetrahexoside dirhamnoside as well as kaempferol dihexoside dirhamnoside have not been identified before in genus Capparis. Phenolic acids, such as quinic acid, p-coumaroyl quinic acid and chlorogenic acid were also identified. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity of hydroethanolic extract against three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; breast adenocarcinoma cells, Hep-G2; hepatocellular carcinoma cells and HCT-116; colon carcinoma using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay showed significant effect with IC50 values 24.5, 24.4 and 11 µg/ml, compared to Doxorubicin as a standard cytotoxic drug. C. spinosa revealed itself as a promising candidate for nutraceutical researches.

  5. Metabolomics analysis of the effect of dissolved oxygen on spinosad production by Saccharopolyspora spinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunzhe; Yin, Jing; Zhao, Fanglong; Li, Feng; Lu, Wenyu

    2017-02-02

    Spinosad, a universal bio-pesticide, is obtained from the soil actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa. Dissolved oxygen, an important contributing factor in aerobic microbial fermentation, however, is not always available in sufficient amounts. To alleviate oxygen limitation in spinosad production, three different oxygen vectors, namely oleic acid, toluene, and n-dodecane, were added into early fermentation. Results indicated that n-dodecane was the optimal oxygen vector. Spinosad yield was increased by 44.2% compared to that in the control group in the presence of 0.5% n-dodecane, added after 120 h of incubation. Yields of the test group reached 6.52 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW), while that of the control group was limited to 4.52 mg/g DCW. Metabolomics analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was performed to demonstrate the metabolism mechanism in the presence and absence of oxygen vector. In total, 78 principal intracellular metabolites in S. spinosa were detected and quantified in the presence and absence of n-dodecane. Levels of some metabolites that were related to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and pentose phosphate pathway varied significantly. Aspartic acid and glucose-1-phosphate levels varied significantly and contributed most in the distinction of the fermentation conditions and phases. The above findings give new insights into the improvement and the metabolomic characteristics of industrial spinosad production.

  6. Protective effect of Hygrophila spinosa against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in rats

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    Kundan G Ingale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the nephroprotective effect of methanolic extract of Hygrophila spinosa (HSME (Acanthaceae in (CP-induced acute renal failure in rats. Materials and Methods: HSME (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight, were administered orally to male wistar albino rats.CP was used to induce acute renal failure. The parameters studied included blood urea and serum creatinine and malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD and GSH peroxidase activities. Histopathological examination was also carried out. Results: The results revealed that HSME pretreatment signiϋcantly reduced blood urea and serum creatinine levels elevated by CP administration. Furthermore, HSME signiϋcantly attenuated CP-induced increase in MDA and decrease in reduced GSH, and CAT and SOD and GSH peroxidase activities in renal cortical homogenates. Additionally, histopathological examination showed that HSME markedly ameliorated CP-induced renal tubular necrosis. Conclusion: The results indicate that the aerial parts of H. spinosa are endowed with nephroprotective activity.

  7. Propagação in vitro de Limonium latifolium Kuntze (Plumbaginaceae In vitro propagation of Limonium latifolium Kuntze (Plümbaginaceae

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    Claudimar Sidnei Fior

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Limonium latifoKum Kuntze é uma flor de corte cuja produção comercial de mudas é viabilizada através do cultivo de tecidos. Com o objetivo de aperfeiçoar o protocolo para a propagação clonal in vitro, fez-se uma sequência de estudos em que foram avaliados: viabilidade do uso de segmentos nadais do eixo da inflorescência imatura como explantes; tipos e concentrações de citocininas (cinetina-KIN e benzilaminopurina-BAP na regeneração; tipos e concentrações de auxinas (ácido naftalenoacético-ANA e ácido indolbutírico-AIB na fase de enraizamento in vitro; e técnicas de aclimatizaçao. Explantes oriundos de segmentos nadais da parte apical do eixo da inflorescência imatura são viáveis para a micropropagaçao de L. latifolium. Na fase de regeneração, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o uso de meio de cultivo MS com 0,7mg de BAP/l por 35 dias. A fase de enraizamento m vitro foi feita com a manutenção dos explantes por 30 dias em meio MS acrescido de 1mg de AIB/l , garantindo ótimo índice de sobrevivência após a transferência para in vivo. A aclimatiwção foi feita sob cobertura plástica, em bancada de casa de vegetação, à temperatura ambiente e com irrigação por nebulização. Utilizaram-se, como recipientes, bandejas multicelulares de isopor, com 242 células e aproximadamente 10cm³ cada, preenchidas com casca de arroz carbonizada e esterilizada. As mudas receberam, quinzenalmente, adubação líquida com 0,5g/l de um adubo comercial (15:5:l5+micronutrientes. O processo in vitro dura 100 a 120 dias e um explante origina 15 a 30 mudas.Limonium latifolium Kuntze is a cut flower commercialy propagated in vitro. To develop and improve the micropropagation protocol, a sequence of assays was developed to evaluate performance of node explants; effect of cytokinins concentration (kinetin-KlN and 6-benzyl-aminopurin-BA on the regeneration rate; the presence of BA during the multiplication phase; concentration of

  8. Antidiarrheal activities of isovanillin, iso-acetovanillon and Pycnocycla spinosa Decne ex.Boiss extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, H; Ghanadian, M; Asghari, G; Azali, N

    2014-01-01

    Isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon are two phenolic components isolated from a number of plants including Pycnocycla spinosa. P. spinosa extract has antispasmodic and antidiarrheal activities. However, no comparative study has been done on antidiarrheal action of isovanillin and iso- acetovanillon, so far. The aim of this study was to investigate antidiarrheal action of isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon and their effects on small intestinal transit, for comparison with propantheline. Male mice (25-30 g), fasted over night with free access to water, were treated with test compounds or control (p.o.). Thirty min later castor oil (0.5 ml) was given orally to the animals. In another groups of animals MgSO4 (0.5 ml of 10% solution) was given first and half an hour later the test drugs were administered. Onset and number of wet defecations were recorded for each animal over 3.5 h after treatment with diarrhoea inducing agents. In another groups, intestinal transit of charcoal meal was determined following administration of the compounds. Isovanillin (2 mg/kg & 5 mg/kg), iso-acetovanillon (2 mg/kg & 5 mg/kg) and P. spinosa extract (5 mg/kg) delayed onset of diarrhoea and significantly reduced wet defecation induced by castor oil and MgSO4. They all had antidiarrheal effect similar to propantheline (5 mg/kg). Isovanillin, iso-acetovanillon and P. spinosa extract compared to control groups, significantly reduced small intestinal transit of charcoal meal. This study shows that antidiarrheal effect of P. spinosa extract is at least partially due to presence of two active compounds isovanillin and iso-acetovanillon.

  9. Embryology of the spider crabs Leurocyclus tuberculosus (H. Milne-Edwards & Lucas 1842) and Libinia spinosa (H. Milne-Edwards 1834) (Brachyura, Majoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pisani, Ximena; Gaspar Dellatorre, Fernando; López-Greco, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The embryonic development of the spider crabs Leurocyclus tuberculosus and Libinia spinosa was divided into five periods based on the differentiation of: (I) cleavage, (II) embryonic primordium, III) optic lobes, (IV) optic lobes pigmented and (V) chromatophores presence. Different traits such as spines, setae and telson morphology distinguish the two species from period III until hatching. Egg volume was greater in Leurocyclus tuberculosus than in Libinia spinosa. The duration of each period was different during development. Whereas in Leurocyclus tuberculosus period II (morphogenesis) is the longest, in Libinia spinosa the period IV is the longest. Complete embryonic development at 14'C lasted 36.7 +/- 3.1 days in Leurocyclus tuberculosus and 57.4 +/- 4.4 days in Libinia spinosa.

  10. Using the pER8:GUS reporter system to screen for phytoestrogens from Caesalpinia sappan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wan-Chun; Wang, Hui-Chun; Chen, Guan-Yu; Yang, Juan-Cheng; Korinek, Michal; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Wu, Chih-Chung; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2011-08-26

    Arabidopsis thaliana pER8:GUS, a low-cost, highly efficient, and convenient transgenic plant system, was used to assay the estrogen-like activity of 30 traditional Chinese medicines. The MeOH extract of Caesalpinia sappan exhibited significant bioactivity in this assay, and subsequent bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of one new compound, (S)-3,7-dihydroxychroman-4-one (1), and 10 known compounds. Both the plant pER8:GUS and in vitro estrogen response element reporter assays were used to evaluate the estrogenic activity of the isolated compounds, and these two systems produced comparable results. Compounds 6, 8, and 11 showed significant estrogenic activity comparable to genistein. These active compounds were determined to be nontoxic new sources of phytoestrogens. In addition, compounds 2 and 3 inhibited ERE transcription induced by 17β-estradiol. A docking model revealed that compounds 6, 8, and 11 showed high affinity to the estrogen receptor. The pER8:GUS reporter system was demonstrated to be a useful and effective technique in phytoestrogen discovery.

  11. PASS-Predicted Hepatoprotective Activity of Caesalpinia sappan in Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats

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    Farkaad A. Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifibrotic effects of traditional medicinal herb Caesalpinia sappan (CS extract on liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA and the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in rats were studied. A computer-aided prediction of antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities was primarily performed with the Prediction Activity Spectra of the Substance (PASS Program. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by TAA administration (0.03% w/v in drinking water for a period of 12 weeks. Rats were divided into seven groups: control, TAA, Silymarin (SY, and CS 300 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg groups. The effect of CS on liver fibrogenesis was determined by Masson’s trichrome staining, immunohistochemical analysis, and western blotting. In vivo determination of hepatic antioxidant activities, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MPPS was employed. CS treatment had significantly increased hepatic antioxidant enzymes activity in the TAA-treated rats. Liver fibrosis was greatly alleviated in rats when treated with CS extract. CS treatment was noted to normalize the expression of TGF-β1, αSMA, PCNA, MMPs, and TIMP1 proteins. PASS-predicted plant activity could efficiently guide in selecting a promising pharmaceutical lead with high accuracy and required antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties.

  12. Evaluation of Caesalpinia pulcherrima endospermic gum as affinity matrices for galactose-binding lectins interaction

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    Renata Chastinet Braga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Lectins are proteins or glycoproteins able to bind, specifically and reversibly carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. Considering this ability, the utilization of Caesalpinia pulcherrima seeds polysaccharides as an affinity matrix was tested. The endospermic gum were solubilized in distinct concentrations of NaOH and treated with different amounts of epichlorohydrin (ECH forming affinity gels with variable capacity for interaction with galactose- binding lectins. The gel with an ECH/gum ration of 6.0mmol/g was selected as the best affinity matrix. The matrix presented different efficiencies in terms of isolating galactose-binding lectins. C. pulcherrima endospermic galactomannans were purified by ethanol precipitation and the purified galactomannan was crosslinked with the best formulation of gel. The Artocarpus incisa, Ricinus communis and Abrus precatorius lectins showed interactions of 11.5, 17.7 and 47.2mg of retained protein in 1g of gel, respectively; the Artocarpus integrifolia lectin showed the highest affinities (79.7mg/g. The heamaglutination assays confirmed the activity and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis confirmed the isolation of the lectins in a single-step procedure.

  13. Biological Effect of Leaf Aqueous Extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis in Goats Naturally Infected with Gastrointestinal Nematodes

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    Roberto Robson Borges-dos-Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were randomly divided into four groups (n=12: negative control (G1 (untreated, positive control (G2 (treated with doramectin, 1 mL/50 Kg b.w., and G3 and G4 treated with 2.5 and 5 mg/Kg b.w. of a leaf aqueous extract of Caesalpinia pyramidalis (CP. Fecal and blood samples were regularly collected for the evaluation of fecal egg count (FEC, hematological and immunological parameters to assess the anthelmintic activity. In treated animals with CP, there was noted a significant reduction of 54.6 and 71.2% in the mean FEC (P<0.05. An increase in IgA levels was observed in G3 and G4 (P<0.05, during the experimental period, suggesting that it was stimulated by the extract administration. In conclusion, the results showed that CP provoked a protective response in infected animals treated with them. This response could be partly explained by the CP chemical composition.

  14. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius leaf extract in streptozotocininduced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherien; Kamal; Hassan; Nermin; Mohammed; El-Sammad; Amria; Mamdouh; Mousa; Maha; Hashim; Mohammed; Abd; el; Razik; Hussein; Farrag; Amani; Nassir; Eldin; Hashim; Victoria; Werner; Ulrike; Lindequist; Mahmoud; Abd; El-Moein; Nawwar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant ef ects of aqueous ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia ferrea(C. ferrea) leaf in normal and streptozotocin(STZ) induced diabetic rats.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 6 groups of 6 rats each were assigned into diabetic and non-diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced in rats by single intraperitoneal administration of STZ(65 mg/kg body weight). C. ferrea extract at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight was orally administered to both diabetic and non-diabetic animals for a period of 30 days. After completion of experimental duration serum, liver and pancreas were used for evaluating biochemical and histopathological changes.Results: Oral administration of C. ferrea leaf extract significantly reduced elevated serum glucose, α-amylase, liver function levels and signii cantly increased serum insulin, total protein and body weight as well as improved lipid proi le due to diabetes. Furthermore, the treatment resulted in a marked increase in glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione, and diminished levels of lipid peroxidation in liver and pancreas of diabetic rats. Histopathological studies demonstrated the reduction in the pancreas and liver damage and coni rmed the biochemical i ndings.Conclusions: From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. ferrea leaf extract ef ectively improved hyperglycaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Hence, it can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  15. Bioefficacy of Caesalpinia bonducella extracts against tobacco cutworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Backiyaraj Muthusamy; Elumalai Arumugam; Kasinathan Dhamodaran; Mathivanan Thangarasu; Krishnappa Kaliyamoorthy; Elumalai Kuppusamy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Indian medicinal plant, Caesalpinia bonducella (C. bonducella) at different concentrations against Lepidopteran agricultural field pest Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied using leaf disc no-choice method and oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities were also assessed by adapting the standard protocols. Results: The antifeedant activity of C. bonducella showed significant antifeedant activity in methanol extract. Oviposition deterrency is higher in methanol extract than the other solvent extracts. Similarly, maximum egg mortality was observed in methanol leaf extract of C. bonducella Lethal concentration, LC50 value of benzene, diethylether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. bonducella were 470.02, 469.00, 465.47, 460.52 and 443.87 mg/L respectively. The Chi-square values are significant at P< 0.05 level. Among five solventextracts, the methanol extract was responsible for strong lethal activity observed against selected pest species. Conclusions: Results of this study show that the selected Indian medicinal plant C. bonducella could be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal agent against the field pest Helicoverpa armigera.

  16. Bioefficacy of Caesalpinia bonducella extracts against tobacco cutworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hub. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    Backiyaraj Muthusamy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Indian medicinal plant, Caesalpinia bonducella (C. bonducella at different concentrations against Lepidopteran agricultural field pest Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied using leaf disc nochoice method and oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities were also assessed by adapting the standard protocols. Results: The antifeedant activity of C. bonducella showed significant antifeedant activity in methanol extract. Oviposition deterrency is higher in methanol extract than the other solvent extracts. Similarly, maximum egg mortality was observed in methanol leaf extract of C. bonducella Lethal concentration, LC50 value of benzene, diethylether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. bonducella were 470.02, 469.00, 465.47, 460.52 and 443.87 mg/L respectively. The Chi-square values are significant at P< 0.05 level. Among five solvent extracts, the methanol extract was responsible for strong lethal activity observed against selected pest species. Conclusions: Results of this study show that the selected Indian medicinal plant C. bonducella could be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal agent against the field pest Helicoverpa armigera.

  17. Antifertility potential of the ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn. leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Kumar; Jitender Singh; Anupama Baghotia; Vineet Mehta; Vikas Thakur; Manjusha Choudhary; Surender Verma; Dinesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the antifertility activity of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn (C. pulcherrima) leaves in albino female mice. Methods: Acute toxicity study of the extract was carried out in adult albino mice. The antifertility activity of the extract at dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) was evaluated in two experimental animal models i.e. antiimplantation and esterogenic/antiestrogenic activity in female mice by observing no. of implants, estrus cycle, vaginal cornification, uertus weight and cholesterol content. Results: The extract was found to be safe up to a dose of 4 000 mg/kg body weight when administered orally. A good antiimplantation (66.66 %) activity in female mice was observed at the tested dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally). The extract further showed more significant (P<0.05) increase in uterine weight and cholesterol content in immature mice. Simultaneous administration of extract alongwith ethinyl estradiol showed significant estrogenic activity. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanolic extract of C. pulcherrima leaves possess significant antifertility activity, therefore, justifying the traditional use of this plant in fertility regulation.

  18. Enhanced in vitro dissolution of Iloperidone using Caesalpinia Pulcherrima mucoadhesive microspheres

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    Pradum Pundlikrao Ige

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of Iloperidone. Microspheres containing Iloperidone were prepared by spray drying using mucilage extracted from seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The novelty of this work is that, the extraction of mucilage and its usage for preparation of drug loaded microspheres. The prepared microspheres were characterized by SEM, DSC, XRPD, FTIR, 1H-NMR, particle size, drug content, entrapment efficiency, in vitro dissolution and ex vivo mucoadhesion. Based on particle size, drug content, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release, the best formulation was optimized. Percent entrapment efficiency and mean particle size for optimized formulation was found to be 73.49 and 3.27 ± 1.23 μm, respectively. More precisely, mucilage of C. pulcherrima could be significant carrier of (drug and polymer ratio 1:5 microspheres for the development of oral drug delivery.

  19. Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of Caesalpinia bonduc (linn Roxb seeds

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    V. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate phytochemical properties, antimicrobial activity and trace metal concentrations of Caesalpinia bonducella. The phytochemical screening of the extracts of leaves of C. bonducella revealed the presence of bioactive compounds such as Steroid, Triterpenoids, Reducing Sugar(A, Reducing Sugar(B, Sugars, Flavonoids, Saponin, Amino acids with absence of Alkaloids, Phenolic Compounds, Catachins, Tannins, Anthroquinones.  The ethanol solvent was used for extraction and was used to screen the antimicrobial activity of C. bonducella leaves against certain pathogens by disc diffusion method. In the antimicrobial study, in bacteria, the test sample was most effective against Escherichia coli NCIM 2931 (B2 while smaller effect was noticed from Staphylococcus aureus NCIM 5021 (B3. In fungi, this was effective against Epidermophyton floccosum var. nigricans MTCC 613 (F2 whereas smaller effect was observed in Candida glabrata MTCC 3984 (F1. All the microbial strains depict higher sensitivity to the higher concentration (1.2 mg / disc for the test sample when compared to the positive control except bacterial strains such as Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2920 (B1 and Staphylococcus aureus NCIM 5021 (B3.  The result was supported the view that C. bonducella is a potent antimicrobial agent compared with the conventional antibiotic. The concentrations of trace metals in plants were not cross the standard level. Hence, it is signified that Aloe vera plant extract is safe to be used as an antimicrobial agent.

  20. Caesalpinia echinata Lam. - BRAZILWOOD: THERMAL BEHAVIOR, STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS, AND RESISTANCE TO BIODETERIORATION IN STATIC SYSTEMS

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    Ana Paula Pinto Pinheiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Wood is the best-known biological material used as a raw material since the dawn of mankind until present days. As a natural and renewable composite, its lifetime is limited by the degradation of its basic elements. This degradation can be caused by chemical reactions or by biological agents capable of accelerating the process of deterioration. In this work, the wear, thermal, and micro-structural characteristics, as also the bio-degradation behavior in static systems, of the wood species Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata were studied under laboratory conditions in order to use these woods in design. The results show that Brazilwood has a good visual performance after abrasion test, since it has not shown any representative roughness increase. In addition, Brazilwood has high level of crystallinity of, approximately, 68% and was almost insensitive to fungi attack, forming only 5.3 x 103 CFU/mL. Besides, its texture did not change due to exposure to water or sweat.

  1. TRATAMENTOS PRÉ-GERMINATIVOS EM SEMENTES DE Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. - LEGUMINOSAE

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    LUCICLÉIA MENDES DE OLIVEIRA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. is an exotic species of Leguminoseae commonly known as flamboyant-mirim, and largely used for unban arborization. The objective of this study was to evaluate methods for overcome dormancy of seeds of flamboyant mirim. The work was developed at the Laboratory of Seed Analysis and green house of Centro de Ciências Agrárias at Universidade Federal da Paraíba, campus II, Areia, PB. The experimental procedure used was completely randomized with 14 treatments (control (intact seeds (T1; scarification with sandpaper opposite number 80 in the region to hilum soaking in water for 0; 12; 24; 36 and 48 h (T2, T3, T4, T5 e T6 at 30 ºC; immersion in hot water at temperatures 70 and 80 °C (T7 and T8; sulfuric acid scarification by immersion 5; 10; 15; 20; 25 and 30 minutes(T9, T10, T11, T12, T13 e T14 and four repetitions. The variable obtained were percentage emergency, first count emergency and emergency speed index (IVE. Daily count of the seedlings was carried out during 25 days. The seeds immerged in sulfuric acid for 30 minutes presented smaller of seedlings emergency. The mechanical scarification of the seed tegument followed by immersion in water for 12 and 24 h are the most effective method for to overcome dormancy of seeds of flamboyant.

  2. Influência da temperatura de armazenamento na qualidade das sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (sibipiruna

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    Pontes Claudia Aparecida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da temperatura de armazenamento na porcentagem de germinação e no vigor das sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (sibipiruna, por meio de testes fisiológicos. O teor de água aumentou nas sementes armazenadas a 5 degreesC e reduziu naquelas a 20 degreesC. A porcentagem de germinação das sementes mantidas a 5 e 20 degreesC apresentou redução aos 220 e 120 dias, respectivamente. O índice de velocidade de germinação decresceu de maneira similar. A condutividade elétrica não foi alterada nas sementes armazenadas a 5 degreesC e aumentou nas que permaneceram a 20 degreesC. O envelhecimento acelerado nos períodos de 24, 48 e 72 horas detectou redução significativa na qualidade das sementes em ambos os ambientes de armazenamento. A redução da porcentagem de germinação e do vigor foi maior nas sementes armazenadas a 20 degreesC.

  3. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties

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    Maria G. Gallego

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05 better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  4. Jacaratia corumbensis O. Kuntze a new vegetable source for milk-clotting enzymes

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    Ana Rodrigues Duarte

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The partial characterization and purification of milk clotting enzyme obtained from the (root latex of Jacaratia corumbensis O. kuntze was studied, by fractional precipitation with ammonium sulphate and ion exchange chromatography. The ammonium sulphate precipitate showed five fractions (AS1- 0-20%; AS2 - 20-40%; AS3 - 40-60%; AS4 - 60-80%; AS5 - 80-100% and among the fractions obtained, the 40-60% fraction (AS3 showed the highest milk clotting activity with a purification factor of 1.2 fold in relation to the crude extract. This fraction when applied on Mono Q column yielded two protein peaks (p1 and p2, but p1 pool showed the best milk-clotting activity. The optimal pH for the crude and partially purified extract was 6.5 and 7.0, respectively. The maximum milk-clotting activity was at 55ºC for the both crude and partially purified extracts. The enzyme was inhibited by iodoacetic acid which suggested that this enzyme was a cysteine protease, with molecular weight of 33 kDa.A enzima coagulante de leite obtida de látex de raiz de Jacaratia corumbensis O. kuntze foi caracterizada parcialmente e purificada, por precipitação fracionária com sulfato de amônio e cromatografia de troca de íon. Foram utilizadas cinco frações de sulfato de amônio (AS1 - 0-20%; AS2 - 20-40%; AS3 - 40-60%; AS4 - 60-80%; AS5 - 80-100%, a fração 40-60% (AS3 mostrou alta atividade coagulante com um fator de purificação de 1,2 vezes em relação ao extrato bruto. Esta fração foi aplicada em coluna Mono Q obtendo dois picos de proteína (p1 e p2, o p1 mostrou melhor atividade coagulante. O pH ótimo para o extrato bruto e parcialmente purificado foi 6,5 e 7,0, respectivamente. A atividade coagulante foi atingida a 55ºC para ambos os extratos, bruto e parcialmente purificado. A enzima foi inibida por ácido iodoacético que sugere que esta enzima é uma cisteína protease, com peso molecular de 33 kDa.

  5. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Moluccella spinosa L. (Lamiaceae) collected wild in Sicily and its activity on microorganisms affecting historical textiles.

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    Casiglia, Simona; Jemia, Mariem Ben; Riccobono, Luana; Bruno, Maurizio; Scandolera, Elia; Senatore, Felice

    2015-01-01

    In this study the chemical composition of the essential oil from aerial parts of Moluccella spinosa L. collected in Sicily was evaluated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of M. spinosa L. were α-pinene (26.6%), caryophyllene oxide (16.8%) and β-caryophyllene (8.6%). A comparison with other studied oils of genus Moluccella is made. Antibacterial and antifungal activities against some microorganisms infesting historical textiles were also determined.

  6. Constituintes químicos voláteis das flores e folhas do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata, Lam.

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    Rezende Claudia M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents obtained from a static cryogenic headspace of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Leguminosae showed E-beta-ocimene as the major compound (57.2%, beside other monoterpenes, C6 derivatives like n-hexanal and (E-2-hexenal and nitrogen compounds such as indole and methyl anthranilate. From the essential oil of the leaves obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus, (E-3-hexen-1-ol was identified as the major constituent while phenolic compounds were the most representative class of secondary metabolites.

  7. EVALUATION OF ANTI- TUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF CAESALPINIA BONDUCELLA F. IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED COUGH IN MICE

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    Sanjay Jain*, Rakesh Barik, Nidhi Yadav and Shivpal Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cough is a natural reflex expulsive defense mechanism of the body, for clearing excess secretions, mucous, inhaled irritants, toxins or foreign substance in the respiratory tract. It is the most common symptom of respiratory disease. When cough becomes serious, opioids are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, constipation, some addiction liability and also compromise the respiratory function. Therefore, there is a need to have effective anti-tussive agent which do not have respiratory suppressant activity. The present study was carried out to evaluate anti-tussive activity of leaves of Caesalpinia bonducella in ammonium hydroxide induced cough model in mice.

  8. Antispasmodic effects of Pycnocycla spinosa seed and aerial part extracts on rat ileum and uterus smooth muscle contractions

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    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of study: Hydroalcoholic extract of Pycnocycla spinosa has a relaxant effect on ileum and inhibits castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice. However, effects of P. spinosa seed extracts on ileum and uterus hasn't been investigated.  The aim of this study was to investigate effect of P. spinosa seed and extracts of the aerial part on rat ileum and uterus smooth muscle contraction. Methods: A 70% ethanol extract of seed and aerial parts of P. spinosa was prepared by a percolation method. Uterine horns or ileum were dissected from non-pregnant female Wistar rats (200-230g and cut into longitudinal strips and mounted for isotonic recording under 1g tension in Tyrode's solution. Effects of the extracts were examined on tonic contractions induced by KCl (80mM on both tissues and on phasic spasm induced by oxytocin (0.002iu/ml on the uterus. Results: The aerial part extract inhibited rat ileum contractions induced by 80mM KCl (IC50=42±3.4mg/ml in a concentration dependent manner and it also inhibited rat uterus contraction induced by 80 mM KCl. However, its inhibitory effects were observed with higher concentration of the extract (IC50=420±90mg/ml and at concentration of 1.28mg/ml of the extract in the bath the response was 19±7%.  The aerial part extract (40-640mg/ml also reduced the evoked phasic response of uterus by oxytocin (IC50=71±17.3mg/ml. The seed extract reduced the uterus response to oxytocin in a concentration-dependent manner, and inhibited tissue response completely at 160mg/ml (IC50=27±4mg/ml.  Major conclusion: From this study it was concluded that the seed extract of P. spinosa have similar inhibitory properties on rat isolated uterus and ileum contractions, while the extract of the aerial part of P. spinosa is more selective inhibitor of ileum contraction, and at higher concentrations it also inhibits uterus spasm.

  9. Capparis spinosa L. aqueous extract evokes antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

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    Mohamed Eddouks

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: As the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa (CS possess antidiabetic effect, he present study aims to reveal the possible  mechanism of action of CS in diabetic mice.Materials and Methods: Both single and repeated oral administrations of aqueous extract of CS were performed in multi-low dose streptozotocin-induced (MLDS diabetic mice. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was used in association with the endogenous glucose production (perfusion rate of 3-3H glucose to evaluate the effect of CS aqueous extract on insulin sensitivity.Results: Our study showed that aqueous extract of CS possess a potent hypoglycaemic activity in MLDS diabetic mice. Furthermore, the analysis perfusion of 3-3H glucose demonstrated  the parallel decrease of basal endogenous glucose production (EGP with the hypoglycaemic activity. EGP was lower in CS-Treated group when compared to the control group (p

  10. Composition of the essential oil of Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae) fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Said; Ghanmi, Mohamed; El Monfalouti, Hanae; Guillaume, Dominique; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2010-06-01

    The composition of the essential oil from the fresh and dried pulp of the fruit of Argania spinosa (Skeels) L. has been studied. Camphor was the major component in both oil types, but in addition, the fresh fruit oil had significant amounts of 1,8-cineole, endo-borneol, and 2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enyl)-propan-2-ol., and the dried pulp oil 3,5-dimethyl-4-ethylidene-cyclohex-2-ene-1-one, 1,8-cineole, and 2-methylbutanoic acid. The presence of camphor and 1,8-cineole in argan fruit essential oil suggests that it could be used locally as an insect repellent, offering an output for argan fruit pulp that is at present a waste product.

  11. Hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic effect of argan oil (Argania spinosa L.) in Meriones shawi rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, H; Ettaib, A; Herrera Gonzalez, M D; Alvarez de Sotomayor, M; Bennani-Kabchi, N; Hmamouchi, M

    2003-11-01

    The potential health benefits of various dietary oils in relation to cardiovascular disease and cancer are recently receiving considerable attention. The main proposal of this study is to investigate the effect of dietary argan oil, obtained from seeds of Argania spinosa L. (Sapotaceae) endemic from Morocco, on serum lipids composition. Hyperlipidemia was induced by high calorie and cholesterol (HCC) diet administration in 16 rats (Meriones shawi, a rodent of the Gerbillideae family). Eight rats were treated with argan oil (1ml/100g weight) daily by oral route during 7 weeks (treated group). Control animals were also fed with HCC diet for 7 weeks. After 7-week treatment with argan oil, blood lipoproteins were significantly reduced. Total cholesterol decreased with 36.67% (Pargan oil in the treatment of the hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia. This effect will be related with the polyunsaturated fatty acids and other constituents of studied oil.

  12. The allelopathy of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze, an invasive weed species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao XU; Wenehao XU; Yajun YANG; Bu TAO; Jinlin ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    To identify the allelopathic effect of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze (F, bMenti) on other plants, the effects of different extracts from F. bidentis on the growth of sev-eral plants were studied by bioassay. Results showed that the water extracts inhibited the growth of corn (Zea mays L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), cotton (Gassypium Hirsutum L.), soybean (Glycine hispida L.), peanut (Arachi shypogaea L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.) and rigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), with the most reactive indexes found in root and stem of cotton at -0.85 and -0.88, respectively, at a concentration growth of rice. In addition, the reactive indexes of the extracts of petroleum ether chloroform, ethyl acetate, acet and alcohol were higher than that of the water extracts, and that of the acet extracts was the highest. The melting point of the refined acetone extract ranged from 192.5℃ to 193.5℃, and its maximum absorbing wavelength was 220 nm. This extract was found to be herbicide-active and played an inhibitory role in the growth of crabgrass and

  13. Epigallocatechin gallate from Camellia sinensis L. (Kuntze is a potential quorum sensing inhibitor in Chromobacterium violaceum

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    Joemar C. Taganna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem on the widespread occurrence of antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria calls for novel methods of control of bacterial activity. One of the new viable alternatives to antibiotics is the use of substances that inhibit quorum sensing (QS – a bacterial communication system that has been known to regulate the expression of virulence genes during infection. In this study, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG from green tea, Camellia sinensis L. (Kuntze was tested for its ability to inhibit QS in a test organism, Chromobacterium violaceum. This microorganism produces a violet-colored substance, violacein, through QS. This study aimed to detect inhibition of QS-regulated violacein production in C. violaceum by EGCG and to determine the dynamics of QS inhibition relative to the concentration of EGCG. The effect of increasing concentration of EGCG on both violacein production and cell density of treated and untreated C. violaceum was determined in a 96-well-microplate format and read at 570nm and 620nm for violacein production and growth, respectively. The results show that addition of EGCG increased the growth of the organism while there is concentration-dependent decrease in the QS-controlled production of violacein. This study thus establishes that EGCG is a potential QS inhibitor and can be further studied and developed for its use as an anti-pathogenic but non-toxic drug.

  14. The Effect of Limonium sinense (Girard Kuntze on Fatigue and Recovery after Exercise

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    Yanxia Cao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the physical and chemical properties of polysaccharides from selenium-rich tea and the effects of these polysaccharides on swimming performance and recovery from swimming-induced fatigue in mice. By setting up a 5-week endurance exercise model in mice and the mice were given by oral gavage different doses of Limonium sinense (Girard Kuntze (LSK. The swimming exhaustion time of mice was recorded and the concentrations of blood glucose, Blood Ureanitrogen (BUN, Blood Lactic Acid (BLA and the contents of hepatic glycogen and Malonaldehyde (MDA as well as the activity of Hepatic Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured immediately and at 24 h after exhaustive exercise. LSK were Se-binding glycoproteins and could prolong the swimming exhaustion time, improve the carbohydrate metabolism, significantly increase the activity of GSH-Px and reduce the content of MDA in liver tissue of mice. LSK have an anti-fatigue effect in mice and the underlying mechanism is related to regulating the carbohydrate metabolism and improving tissue lipid peroxidation caused by excessive exercise.

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Piper gaudichaudianum Kuntze and Its Synergism with Different Antibiotics

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    Benedito Prado Dias Filho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the oldest forms of medical practice is the use of plants for the treatment and prevention of diseases that affect humans. We have studied the antimicrobial activity and synergism of Piper gaudichaudianum Kuntze with different antibiotics. The crude extract from the leaves of P. gaudichaudianum was submitted to chromatographic separation, resulting in five fractions. Fraction F3 contained a chromone (2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxycroman-4-one, and fraction F2 contained isomers that are prenylated derivatives of benzoic acid [4-hydroxy-(3',7'-dimethyl-1'-oxo-octa-E-2'-6'-dienylbenzoic acid and 4-hydroxy-(3',7'-dimethyl-1'-oxo-octa-2'-Z-6'-dienyl benzoic acid]. The chemical structures of both compounds were determined by analysis of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COZY, DEPT, HMQC, and HMBC spectral data, and by comparison with data in the literature. The crude extract, fraction F2, and fraction F3 showed good activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Candida tropicalis. The two benzoic acid derivatives only showed activity against S. aureus and B. subtilis. The bioauthographic analysis showed an inhibition zone only in fraction F2. Fractions F2 and F3 showed synergism in combination with ceftriaxone, tetracycline, and vancomycin. Morphological changes in form and structure were found by scanning electron microscopy in S. aureus treated with the combination of fraction F2 with vancomycin.

  16. Insulin-sensitizing and Anti-proliferative Effects of Argania spinosa Seed Extracts

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    Samira Samane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Argania spinosa is an evergreen tree endemic of southwestern Morocco. Many preparations have been used in traditional Moroccan medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses including diabetes. However, scientific evidence supporting these actions is lacking. Therefore, we prepared various extracts of the argan fruit, namely keel, cake and argan oil extracts, which we tested in the HTC hepatoma cell line for their potential to affect cellular insulin responses. Cell viability was measured by Trypan Blue exclusion and the response to insulin evaluated by the activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2, ERK kinase (MEK1/2 and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt signaling components. None of the extracts demonstrated significant cytotoxic activity. Certain extracts demonstrated a bi-phasic effect on ERK1/2 activation; low doses of the extract slightly increased ERK1/2 activation in response to insulin, whereas higher doses completely abolished the response. In contrast, none of the extracts had any significant effect on MEK whereas only a cake saponin subfraction enhanced insulin-induced PKB/Akt activation. The specific action of argan oil extracts on ERK1/2 activation made us consider an anti-proliferative action. We have thus tested other transformed cell lines (HT-1080 and MSV-MDCK-INV cells and found similar results. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation was also associated with decreased DNA synthesis as evidenced by [3H]thymidine incorporation experiments. These results suggest that the products of Argania spinosa may provide a new therapeutic avenue against proliferative diseases.

  17. Insulin-sensitizing and anti-proliferative effects of Argania spinosa seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samane, Samira; Noël, Josette; Charrouf, Zoubida; Amarouch, Hamid; Haddad, Pierre Selim

    2006-09-01

    Argania spinosa is an evergreen tree endemic of southwestern Morocco. Many preparations have been used in traditional Moroccan medicine for centuries to treat several illnesses including diabetes. However, scientific evidence supporting these actions is lacking. Therefore, we prepared various extracts of the argan fruit, namely keel, cake and argan oil extracts, which we tested in the HTC hepatoma cell line for their potential to affect cellular insulin responses. Cell viability was measured by Trypan Blue exclusion and the response to insulin evaluated by the activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2), ERK kinase (MEK1/2) and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) signaling components. None of the extracts demonstrated significant cytotoxic activity. Certain extracts demonstrated a bi-phasic effect on ERK1/2 activation; low doses of the extract slightly increased ERK1/2 activation in response to insulin, whereas higher doses completely abolished the response. In contrast, none of the extracts had any significant effect on MEK whereas only a cake saponin subfraction enhanced insulin-induced PKB/Akt activation. The specific action of argan oil extracts on ERK1/2 activation made us consider an anti-proliferative action. We have thus tested other transformed cell lines (HT-1080 and MSV-MDCK-INV cells) and found similar results. Inhibition of ERK1/2 activation was also associated with decreased DNA synthesis as evidenced by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation experiments. These results suggest that the products of Argania spinosa may provide a new therapeutic avenue against proliferative diseases.

  18. A multi-centric double blind homoeopathic pathogenetic trial of Hygrophila spinosa

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    G Rakshit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was conducted to elicit the pathogenetic response of Hygrophila spinosa in homoeopathic potencies on healthy human volunteers. Methodology: The drug Hygrophila spinosa was proved by the Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH through randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled method. The proving was conducted at three centres viz. Central Research Institute (H, [CRI (H] Noida, Drug Proving Unit [DPU], Bhubaneswar and Regional Research Institute (H [RRI (H], Kolkata. The drug was proved in two potencies (6C and 30C on 48 apparently healthy volunteers who were selected after conducting pre-trial medical examinations by the medical specialists and routine laboratory investigations. 32 of them where kept on interventional drug trial and remaining took placebo. At CRI (H, NOIDA, 56 dose schedule (i.e. 56 doses of drug/placebo were consumed in each batch was followed while at DPU, Bhubaneswar and at RRI (H, Kolkata, 12 dose schedule (i.e. 12 doses of drug/placebo were to be consumed in each batch was followed. The symptoms generated during the trial period were noted by the volunteers and elaborated by the Proving Masters which were compiled at Homoeopathic Drug Proving-cum-Data Processing cell of CCRH headquarters after decoding. Results: Out of 32 provers who were on interventional drug trial, only 14 manifested symptoms. The drug was able to produce symptoms in both the potencies. 92 symptoms appeared during the drug trial from various locations. Conclusion: The drug pathogenesis evolved indicates its therapeutic use for urticaria, frontal sinusitis, conjunctivitis, stomatitis, gastroenteritis, nausea (morning sickness, intermittent fever etc.

  19. Antimicrobial activity and bioautographic study of antistaphylococcal components from Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull.

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    Antonio Marcos Saraiva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of dry methanol and ethyl acetate extracts for the leaves, bark of the stem, peel of the root, flower, fruit and seed of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull. (catingueira was performed against seventeen isolates of Staphylococcus aureus MRSA multiresistant strains, which included two isolates of S. aureus MSSA and two ATCC strains. The antimicrobial activity was tested by the agar diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was determined. The dry methanol extract of the root showed good antimicrobial activity with a MIC of less than 0.5 mg.mL-1. The dry ethyl acetate extracts exhibited lower antimicrobial activity, which might be explained by solubility problems and less diffusion in the agar medium. Results of the bioautographies also confirmed inhibition halos corresponding to the active substances present in the leaves, as well as in the flower of C. pyramidalis. The phytochemical study of the leaves, bark of the stem, peel of the root, flower and fruit of extracts from C. pyramidalis confirmed the presence of a number of known antimicrobial agents including ursolic acid, quercetin, catechin, ellagic acid, sitosterol, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and gallic acid.A determinação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos metanólicos e em acetato de etila da folha, casca do caule, casca da raiz, flor, fruto e semente de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tull. foi realizada frente a dezessete isolados de Staphylococcus aureus MRSA multirresistentes, dois isolados de S. aureus MSSA e duas cepas padrão, pelas técnicas de poço/difusão em ágar e determinação das CMI pelo método de diluição em agar/multiinoculador de Stears. O extrato metanólico de casca da raiz indicou uma boa atividade, com CMI inferior a 0.5 mg.mL-1. Os extratos secos por extração em acetato de etila apresentaram menor atividade que se poderia explicar por problemas de solubilidade e menor difusão no meio de cultura em ágar. Resultados

  20. Phytochemical Characterizationand in vivo Anti-inflammatory and Wound-healing Activities of Argania spinosa (L. Skeels Seed Oil

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    Hadjira Dakiche

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The extracted oil of Argania spinosa (L. was investigated in regard to its fatty acid composition and polyphenols by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS and Ultra-high Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electro Spray Ionization-Quadruple Time Of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS, respectively. The reduction rate of topical inflammation of extracted oil was calculated using a mouse model. The skin toxicity of argan oil on intact and damaged skin was assessed using a rabbit model. The findings revealed a rich content of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and presence of phenolic acids. The oil exhibited a reduction of inflammation and facilitated a healing process without any irritation. The experimental study revealed that A. spinosa seed oil displays remarkable wound-healing and anti-inflammatory activities related to its chemical composition. Argan oil has positive potential for skin medicinal application.

  1. MODELAGEM DE OCORRÊNCIA DE COORTES NA ESTRUTURA DIAMÉTRICA DA Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze

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    Ebling,Ângelo Augusto; Netto, Sylvio Péllico

    2015-01-01

    Estudos referentes à estrutura diamétrica das florestas nativas são essenciais para o entendimento do desenvolvimento, fornecer parâmetros do crescimento e produção suficientes para gerar estimativas que subsidiem o manejo sustentado. No entanto, a modelagem matemática de funções probabilísticas, como as de densidade, tornam-se de difícil aplicação em distribuições multimodais. A espécie Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze, de importância social, ambiental e econômica, apresenta padrão de...

  2. In vitro and in vivo assessment of the anti-malarial activity of Caesalpinia pluviosa

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    Eberlin Marcos N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To overcome the problem of increasing drug resistance, traditional medicines are an important source for potential new anti-malarials. Caesalpinia pluviosa, commonly named "sibipiruna", originates from Brazil and possess multiple therapeutic properties, including anti-malarial activity. Methods Crude extract (CE was obtained from stem bark by purification using different solvents, resulting in seven fractions. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cells. The CE and its fractions were tested in vitro against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7 and -resistant (S20 strains of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo in Plasmodium chabaudi-infected mice. In vitro interaction with artesunate and the active C. pluviosa fractions was assessed, and mass spectrometry analyses were conducted. Results At non-toxic concentrations, the 100% ethanolic (F4 and 50% methanolic (F5 fractions possessed significant anti-malarial activity against both 3D7 and S20 strains. Drug interaction assays with artesunate showed a synergistic interaction with the F4. Four days of treatment with this fraction significantly inhibited parasitaemia in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of an ion corresponding to m/z 303.0450, suggesting the presence of quercetin. However, a second set of analyses, with a quercetin standard, showed distinct ions of m/z 137 and 153. Conclusions The findings show that the F4 fraction of C. pluviosa exhibits anti-malarial activity in vitro at non-toxic concentrations, which was potentiated in the presence of artesunate. Moreover, this anti-malarial activity was also sustained in vivo after treatment of infected mice. Finally, mass spectrometry analyses suggest that a new compound, most likely an isomer of quercetin, is responsible for the anti-malarial activity of the F4.

  3. Brazilin from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood and its pharmacological activities:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nilesh P Nirmal; Mithun S Rajput; Rangabhatla GSV Prasad; Mehraj Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia sappan L. (CS) is a plant of Leguminosae family, commonly known as Brazil or Sappan wood. CS is distributed in Southeast Asia and its dried heartwood has been used as traditional ingredient of food or beverages and has a wide variety of medicinal properties. Higher extraction yield of CS wood was achieved with 95% ethanol for 2 h. Chemical constituent’s investigation of sappan wood resulted in the isolation of various structural types of phenolic components including one xanthone, one coumarin, three chalcones, two flavones three homoisoflavonoids and brazilin. Brazilin [(6a S-cis)-7, 11b-dihydrobenz[b]indeno[1,2-d] pyran-3,6a,9,10(6H)-tetrol], a major and active compound found in CS heartwood. Most of the folkloric uses of brazilin were validated by the scientific studies such as antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-photoaging, hypoglycemic, vasorelaxant, hepatoprotective and anti-acne activity. CS heartwood extract is safe and did not produce any acute or subacute toxicity in both male and female rats. Brazilin is the safe natural compound having potential to develop as a medicinal compound with application in food, beverage, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries to screen its clinical use in modern medicine. The information gained could provide the important and potential approach for pharmaceutical researcher to implicate the knowledge of brazilin in the formulation of new drug and to reveal therapeutic and gaps requiring future research opportunities. More studies are needed to evaluate the potential application of brazilin as preservative and coloring agent in food processing industries.

  4. Carbon Sequestration of Caesalpinia platyloba S. Watt (Leguminosae) (Lott 1985) in the Tropical Deciduous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Gustavo, Norma; Martínez-Salvador, Martín; García-Hernández, José Luís; Norzagaray-Campos, Mariano; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia platyloba was evaluated as an alternative for the retention of atmospheric carbon and as a feasible and viable economic activity in terms of income for tropical deciduous forest (TDF) peasants in the carbon markets. A total of 110 trees of C. platyloba from plantations and a TDF in the Northwest of Mexico were sampled. Growth (increase in height, diameter, and volume curves) was adjusted to assess their growth. Growth of individuals (height, diameter at breast height [DBH], age, and tree crown cover) was recorded. The Schumacher model (H = β0eβ1•E-1), by means of the guided curve method, was used to adjust growth models. Information analysis was made through the non-linear procedure with the multivariate secant or false position (DUD) method using the SAS software. Growth and increase models revealed acceptable adjustments (pseudo R2>0.8). C. platyloba reaches >8m of height with 12cm in diameter and 550cm3 of volume, presenting the highest increase at 11 years considered as basal age. Highest significant density of wood was in good quality sites (0.80g•cm-3), with a carbon content (average of 99.15tC•ha-1) at the highest density of 2500 trees•ha-1 (without thinning). Average incomes of US$483.33tC•ha-1 are expected. The profitability values (NPW = US$81,646.65, IRR = 472%, and B/C = 0.82) for C. platyloba make its cultivation a viable and profitable activity, considering a management scheme of the income derived from wood selling and from carbon credits. PMID:25992905

  5. Carbon Sequestration of Caesalpinia platyloba S. Watt (Leguminosae) (Lott 1985) in the Tropical Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Gustavo, Norma; Martínez-Salvador, Martín; García-Hernández, José Luís; Norzagaray-Campos, Mariano; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-01-01

    Caesalpinia platyloba was evaluated as an alternative for the retention of atmospheric carbon and as a feasible and viable economic activity in terms of income for tropical deciduous forest (TDF) peasants in the carbon markets. A total of 110 trees of C. platyloba from plantations and a TDF in the Northwest of Mexico were sampled. Growth (increase in height, diameter, and volume curves) was adjusted to assess their growth. Growth of individuals (height, diameter at breast height [DBH], age, and tree crown cover) was recorded. The Schumacher model (H = β(0)e(β1 • E-1)), by means of the guided curve method, was used to adjust growth models. Information analysis was made through the non-linear procedure with the multivariate secant or false position (DUD) method using the SAS software. Growth and increase models revealed acceptable adjustments (pseudo R(2)>0.8). C. platyloba reaches >8m of height with 12 cm in diameter and 550 cm(3) of volume, presenting the highest increase at 11 years considered as basal age. Highest significant density of wood was in good quality sites (0.80 g • cm(-3)), with a carbon content (average of 99.15tC • ha(-1)) at the highest density of 2500 trees • ha(-1) (without thinning). Average incomes of US$483.33tC • ha(-1) are expected. The profitability values (NPW = US$81,646.65, IRR = 472%, and B/C = 0.82) for C. platyloba make its cultivation a viable and profitable activity, considering a management scheme of the income derived from wood selling and from carbon credits.

  6. Chemical Composition and Allelopathic Potential of Essential Oils from Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze Cultivated in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayeb-Zakhama, Asma; Sakka-Rouis, Lamia; Bergaoui, Afifa; Flamini, Guido; Jannet, Hichem Ben; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2016-03-01

    In Tunisia, Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is an exotic tree, which was introduced many years ago and planted as ornamental street, garden, and park tree. The present work reported, for the first time, the chemical composition and evaluates the allelopathic effect of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the different parts of this tree, viz., roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and pods gathered in the area of Sousse, a coastal region, in the East of Tunisia. In total, 86 compounds representing 89.9 - 94.9% of the whole oil composition, were identified in these oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The root essential oil was clearly distinguished for its high content in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (β-caryophyllene, 1 (44); 24.1% and germacrene D, 2 (53); 20.0%), while those obtained from pods, leaves, stems, and flowers were dominated by non-terpene hydrocarbons. The most important ones were n-tetradecane (41, 16.3%, pod oil), 1,7-dimethylnaphthalene (43, 15.6%, leaf oil), and n-octadecane (77, 13.1%, stem oil). The leaf oil was rich in the apocarotene (E)-β-ionone (4 (54); 33.8%), and the oil obtained from flowers was characterized by hexahydrofarnesylacetone (5 (81); 19.9%) and methyl hexadecanoate (83, 10.2%). Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses separated the five essential oils into three groups and two subgroups, each characterized by the major oil constituents. Contact tests showed that the germination of lettuce seeds was totally inhibited by the root essential oil tested at 1 mg/ml. The inhibitory effect on the shoot and root elongation varied from -1.6% to -32.4%, and from -2.5% to -64.4%, respectively.

  7. PHYSIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze SEEDS SUBMITTED TO DIFFERENT STORAGE CONDITIONS AND ESCARIFICATION

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    Álvaro Valente Caçola

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze are recalcitrants and, therefore, they lose rapidly the viability after the harvest, limiting their use for nursery production of seedlings. This work was carried out to investigate the effects of cold storage duration, conservation method, and escarification on germination and vigour of seeds of Araucaria angustifolia. The seeds were cold stored (0-1oC/90-95% RH for 0, 60, 120, and 180 days, under normal air condictions (NA, modified atmosphere (MA, and controlled atmosphere (CA storage. For each cold storage duration, after removal from cold storage, the seeds were submitted or not to scarification (by cutting a small portion of the apical seed tegument, avoiding the damage of the endosperm, letting the germinate in a chamber with controlled environment, in plastic trays filled with vermiculite, for 60 days. The experiment followed the completely randomized factorial design (4x3x2, with four cold storage durations (0, 60, 120, and 180 days, three storage methods (NA, MA, and CA, with or without escarification, and four replicates. There was a good preservation of physiological quality for seeds submitted to different conservation methods in cold storage along the 180-day period. However, there was a faster germination and initial growth of seedlings for seeds left in cold storage for 60 days than in seeds assessed at harvest or left in cold storage for 120-180 days. The NA storage of seeds in perfurated plastic bags was as efficient as MA and CA storage to preserve seeds quality. Seeds scarification increased vigor and promoted seedlings initial growth of Araucaria angustifolia after being removed from cold storage.

  8. Biochemical and molecular analysis of Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze tea from the selected P/11/15 clone

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    Samynathan Ramkumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is one of the most important beverages consumed across the world and it possesses various phytotherapeutics. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO activity, total polyphenols, catechins, amino acid content and enzymatic antioxidants are considered to be potential parameters in tea characterization. P/11/15 clone (Camellia sinensis (L O. Kuntze was chosen to analyze the biochemical characterization and to analyze the gene expression pattern. The selected P/11/15 clone (C. sinensis (L O. Kuntze possess potent Polyphenol oxidase (49.62 U/mg of protein, sufficient catechin (20.75%, Polyphenol (20.01%, Peroxidase (450.08 μM of O2 formed min−1 g−1 dry weight, Catalase (1.20 μM H2O2 reduced min−1 mg−1 protein and Super Oxide Dismutase (45.11 U/mg proteins. Flavonoid gene expression reveals ANR (1.66% and F3H (1.02% were up regulated in the selected P/11/15 clone. The results obtained suggest that P/11/15 clone showed adequate enzyme levels, thus an increased antioxidant activity.

  9. Argan (Argania spinosa) oil lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, Hicham; Alvarez de Sotomayor, Maria; Pérez-Guerrero, Concepción; Ettaib, Abdelkader; Hmamouchi, Mohamed; Marhuenda, Elisa; Herrera, Maria Dolores

    2004-12-01

    Traditionally hand-pressed argan oil, obtained from Argania spinosa seeds, is eaten raw in south-west Morocco; its rich composition of tocopherols, MUFA and PUFA make a study of its actions on risk factors for CVD, such as hypertension, interesting. The effects of 7 weeks of treatment with argan oil (10 ml/kg) on the blood pressure and endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were investigated. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured every week by the tail-cuff method and endothelial function was assessed by carbachol (10(-8) to 10(-4) M)-induced relaxations of aortic rings and small mesenteric arteries pre-contracted with phenylephrine. Argan-oil administration reduced the mean blood pressure of SHR after the fifth week of treatment (Pargan-oil treatment of SHR. Experiments in the presence of the thromboxane A2-prostaglandin H2 receptor antagonist ICI 192,605 (10(-5) M) confirmed this result. Results after incubation with the antioxidants superoxide dismutase and catalase suggested that a decreased oxidative stress might contribute to explain the beneficial effects of argan-oil treatment.

  10. Observations on Phallocryptus Spinosa (Branchiopoda, Anostraca Populations from the high Plateaus of Northeastern Algeria

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    Mounia Amarouayache

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phallocryptus spinosa (Thamnocephalidae is a small primitive crustacean which lives in temporary saline pools of the Palaearctic region called Chott, Sebkha, Garâa or Daya in North Africa. Data on its biology and life history are very scarce despite its ecological importance in wetlands. Four populations living in the Northeastern High Plateaus of Algeria, Garâas Guellif, El-Tarf, Ank Djemel and Sebkha Ez-Zemoul, have been studied in point of view of their morphmetry (13 parameters and their reproduction. The population of Sebkha Ez-Zemoul, living in higher salinities and in sympatry with Artemia salina was different from the 3 other populations that are close together. Its adults are the largest (21.77 ± 2.34 mm and 23.65 ± 2.36 mm for males and females respectively and produce more cysts 771.47±8.45 cysts/brood of 293.11±10.41 µm diameter. Associated carcinological fauna and some behavioral traits are also approached.

  11. Assessment of the antioxidant properties of the caper fruit (Capparis spinosa L. from Bahrain

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    Abdul Ameer A. Allaith

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa, a wild plant of the family Capparidaceae, is said to be native to the Mediterranean basin and found in many parts. This shrub can grow very well on dry heat and under intense sunlight and can tolerate low temperature. Caper berries from different locations of contrasting habitats were evaluated for their antioxidant capacities using several methods, including reduction of ferrictripiridyltriazine [Fe(III-TPTZ] (FRAP assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH assay, and [2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] scavenging (ABTS assay. Total free phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids were also examined. The mean mmol Trolox equivalent/kg fresh weight for FRAP was 9.059 ± 1.450, DPPH 6.131 ± 0.607, and ABTS 8.127 ± 2,017. Mean % DPPH scavenging activity was 37.67% ± 7.19 and mean % ABTS scavenging activity was 31.29% ± 7.76. Partitioning studies revealed a higher antioxidant–antiradical capacity in the seed as compared to the flesh, and these capacities were associated more with hydrophobic and not lipophilic constituents. Antioxidant capacities strongly correlated with the total free phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids. Findings of this study contribute to the recent increase in scientific interest of a wild fruit which should be re-considered for its antioxidant constituencies and characteristics.

  12. Effect of Caesalpinia sappan L. extract on physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Ha, So-Ra; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of extract from heart wood of Caesalpinia sappan on the physico-chemical properties and to find the appropriate addition level in the emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage. The pH of treatments with C. sappan extract was significantly lower than control and T1 during cold storage periods (Psausages containing C. sappan extract were decreased compared to control. Inclusion of the C. sappan extract in sausages resulted in lower lightness and higher yellowness, chroma and hue values. However, the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, and volatile basic nitrogen in the emulsion-type pork sausages with C. sappan extract showed increased quality characteristics during cold storage. In conclusion, the proper addition level of C. sappan extract was 0.1% on the processing of emulsion-type pork sausage.

  13. Determination of Total Diterpenes of Caesalpinia minax%苦石莲中总二萜的含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩瑞亭; 万国盛; 孙博航; 霍晓灵; 高慧媛

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立苦石莲中总二萜的含量测定方法,优化总二萜的提取工艺,并进行含量测定.方法:采用可见分光光度法,以5%香草醛/冰乙酸-高氯酸为显色剂,化合物caesalpinins K为对照品,在530 nm处测定其吸光度值,利用回归方程计算苦石莲中总二萜含量.结果:Caesalpinins K对照品溶液质量浓度在2.0~6.1 mg·L-1,线性关系良好,r =0.999 5(n=5),平均回收率为101.8% (RSD 2.3%).结论:该方法简便、准确、重复性好,可以为苦石莲的质量控制提供依据.%Objective: To establish quantitative methods of total diterpene in Caesalpinia minax and optimization of extraction process. Method; The content of total diterpene was determined at 530 nm by vis-spectrophotometry using caesalpinins K as standard and using the color reaction with 5% vanillina-glacial acetic acid and perchloric acid. Result; Linear relationship of caesalpinins K reference solution was good in the range of 2. 0-6.1 mg·L-1 (r = 0. 999 5) , the average recovery was 101. 8% ( RSD 2. 3% ). Conclusion: The present methods are simple, accurate with good reproducibility, and could be used to control the quality of Caesalpinia minax.

  14. Pregnanes and other constituents of the roots of Macrosiphonia petraea (A. St.-Hil.) Kuntze (Apocynaceae); Pregnanos e outros constituintes das raizes de Macrosiphonia petraea (A. St.-Hil.) Kuntze (Apocynaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis Junior, Luiz Roberto de; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues; Garcez, Walmir Silva, E-mail: walmir.garcez@ufms.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia; Guterres, Zaira da Rosa [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Mundo Novo, MS (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    Macrosiphonia petraea (A. St.-Hil.) Kuntze is a plant popularly known as 'velame'. Its root infusion is used in the folk medicine of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Phytochemical investigation of the roots of this species led to the identification of 17 compounds belonging to four different classes: two pregnanes, 12{beta}-hydroxypregna-4,6,16-triene-3,20-dione, neridienone A, and 12{beta}-hydroxypregna-4,6-diene-3,20-dione, cybisterol, one hydroxylated fatty acid, 5-hydroxy-octadeca-6(E)-8(Z)-dienoic acid, two lignoids, pinoresinol and 8{alpha}-hydroxypinoresinol, ten pentacyclic triterpenoids, and two steroids. (author)

  15. 云实化学成分研究进展%Advances on Chemical Constituents and Bioactivities of Caesalpinia decapetala(Roth) Alston

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏小华

    2012-01-01

    Caesalpinia decapetala(Roth) Alston was perennial climbing shrub of the Leguminosea and was the traditional Chinese medicine widely used in folk medicine for a long time,which distributed abroad and had extensive use in folk medicine,treated for chronic bronchitis and cured the cold.The biological studies revealed that some compounds showed significant antimalarial activity for falciparum malaria(Plasmodium falciparum).Recent progress on the chemical compents of Caesalpinia decapetala(Roth) Alston was reviewed.%中药云实(Caesalpinia decapetala(Roth)Alston)是豆科(Leguminosae)多年生攀援灌木。云实分布广泛,在我国大部分地区均有分布,而且在我国传统中药中亦广泛应用,是治疗老年慢性支气管炎、预防和医治流行性感冒的良药。药理研究表明,云实不但具有良好的抗疟疾活性,还具有抗病毒等生物活性。本文综述了云实化学成分的研究概况。

  16. Differential display-mediated identification of three drought-responsive expressed sequence tags in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priti Sharma; Sanjay Kumar

    2005-03-01

    There is no information on drought-modulated gene(s) in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze], a woody and perennial plant of commercial importance. Using differential display of mRNA, three drought-modulated expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified. Northern and BLAST analysis revealed that clone dr1 (droughtresponsive), induced only by drought but not by ABA, showed significant scores with PR-5 (pathogenesis related) family of PR-protein gene. Another clone dr2, repressed by drought but not by ABA, had nucleotide repeats for polyasparate that are also present in chicken calsequestrin-like mRNA. Clone dr3, responded similarly to clone dr2 but did not show significant homology with the reported genes, hence appears to be novel. Identification of these ESTs is an initial step to clone the full length genes and their promoters.

  17. Pregnanos e outros constituintes das raízes de Macrosiphonia petraea (A. St.-Hil. Kuntze (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto de Assis Junior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrosiphonia petraea (A. St.-Hil. Kuntze is a plant popularly known as "velame". Its root infusion is used in the folk medicine of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Phytochemical investigation of the roots of this species led to the identification of 17 compounds belonging to four different classes: two pregnanes, 12β-hydroxypregna-4,6,16-triene-3,20-dione, neridienone A, and 12β-hydroxypregna-4,6-diene-3,20-dione, cybisterol, one hydroxylated fatty acid, 5-hydroxy-octadeca-6(E-8(Zdienoic acid, two lignoids, pinoresinol and 8a-hydroxypinoresinol, ten pentacyclic triterpenoids, and two steroids.

  18. Transition rates of selected metals determined in various types of teas (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) and herbal/fruit infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulzki, Grit; Nüßlein, Birgit; Sievers, Hartwig

    2017-01-15

    Teas and raw materials used as ingredients of herbal and fruit infusions (HFI) were analysed by means of ICP-MS for their content of aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and mercury in the dry product and in the infusion. Samples of tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze) were selected to include different origins, types (black, green), leaf grades (whole leaf, broken, fannings, dust) and manufacturing techniques (orthodox, "crush, tear, curl"). The selected HFI raw materials (chamomile, elderberries, fennel, hibiscus, mate, peppermint, rooibos and rose hip) cover the most important matrices (flower, fruit, seed, herb, leaf) and reflect the economic significance of these HFI materials in trade. Infusions were prepared under standardised conditions representing typical household brewing. Transition rates for the investigated metals vary significantly but are mostly well below 100%. We propose default transition rates for metals to avoid overestimation of exposure levels from tea/HFI consumption.

  19. Effect of population size on genetic variation levels in Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae detected by RAPDs

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    Houshang Nosrati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The population size of plants affects on population genetic variation. Materials and Methods: We studied the impact of population size on genetic variation in populations of Capparis spinosa (caper, Capparaceae using RAPDs in East Azerbaijan (Iran. Within-population genetic diversity was estimated based on Nei`s and Shanonn`s diversity using Popgen, and genetic similarity among the populations was studied from a UPGMA dendrogram based the matrix of Nei’s distances obtained through SHAN. Difference in the level genetic variation between small-sized and large-sized populations was tested using Mann-Whitney U test, and correlation between geographical and genetic distances among populations was examined by Pearson test (SPSS, 11.3. Total genetic variation was partitioned into within and among populations based on AMOVA using Arlequin. Results: The polymorphism levels of RAPDs bands among the populations ranged from 48.8% to 81.4%, and within-population Nei’s diversity varied from 0.1667 to 0.2630. Genetic variation in small-sized populations (0.1667 to 0.1809 was significantly lower than the variations in large-sized populations (0.2158 -0.2630 (N= 7, P0.674, Pearson correlation test. Conclusions: Population size has a dramatic impact on its genetic diversity. The results revealed that fragmentation of caper population in the study region has most likely occurred recently. The low genetic diversity revealed within caper populations indicates high risk of extinction and suggests that urgent conservation action is needed to recover diversity in these populations.

  20. Composition and antioxidant properties of fresh and frozen stored blackthorn fruits (Prunus spinosa L.

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    Elżbieta Sikora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Aim. Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L. is quite widespread bush occurring in Poland. Its fruits are easily available food products. The aim of this study was to investigate the basal chemical composition, especially antioxidant compounds in fresh and frozen stored blackthorn fruits. Material  and methods. Research material consisted of blackthorn fruits collected from the wild grown bushes, near Łącko. In the wash-out, dried and stone-loss fruits, the content of dry matter, protein, simple sugars, dietary fibre and ash was determined. The amount of antioxidant compounds was also tested: β-carotene, vitamin C, polyphenols,in this anthocyannins,as well as  antioxidantactivity expressed as an ability to quench free radical ABTS. Analyses were repeated in fruits stored in frozen state for three months. Results.  On the basis of the obtained results, it was observed that concerning basal chemical composition, the blackthorn fruits do not single out among other fruits from Rosaceae family. It was also reported that blackthorn fruits are rich in polyphenolic  compounds, as well as in vitamin C, and those compounds, most probably contribute to their high antioxidant activity, being at the level of 43.6 μmol Trolox/g f.m. Storage in the freezing state reduced the contents of water, fat, dietary fiber and ash, but did not have significant impact on the other compounds. Conclusions. Blackthorn fruits may constitute valuable source for preparations (tincture, wines, and teas, as well as an additive to other fruit processing, as a product of great pro-healthy properties. Freezing process and storage in that state did not significantlyinfluence on nutritive and antioxidant compounds of blackthorn fruits. It may be therefore observed that several months of frozen storage is a good way to make them avail- able for fruit processing and for the consumers, also the off-season.  

  1. 酸枣仁总皂苷抗抑郁作用的实验研究%Antidepressant effect of total saponins from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵启铎; 舒乐新; 王颖; 牟佳佳; 宋志国; 李金梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the antidepressant effect of total saponins from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae in mice.Methods To investigate the antidepressant activity of total saponins from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae by the forced swimming test and tail suspension test, with the immobility time of behavioral despair mice as the indicator. Results Different dose groups of total saponins from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae significantly reduced the immobility time of the mice during the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test (P<0. 05, P<0. 01). Conclusion The total saponins from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae have antidepressant effect.%目的 研究酸枣仁总皂苷对行为绝望小鼠抑郁模型的影响.方法 采用小鼠强迫游泳实验和悬尾实验抑郁模型,小鼠行为绝望的不动时间作为指标,考察酸枣仁总皂苷抗抑郁活性.结果 酸枣仁总皂苷中、高剂量组均能减少小鼠强迫游泳和悬尾不动时间,与空白对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 酸枣仁总皂苷具有一定的抗抑郁作用.

  2. Studies on the Cytotoxic Activities of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) Extract on Prostate Cell Line by Induction of Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sineh Sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Khori, Vahid; Shahneh, Fatemeh Zare

    2012-01-01

    The Punica granatum L. var. granatum (pomegranate) has been demonstrated to exert antitumor effects on various types of cancer cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the medicinal herbs Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (apple punice) that are native to Iran. This study was determined to test the possible cytotoxic activity and induction of apoptosis on human prostate cell lines. The effect of ethanol extracts of the herbs on the inhibition of cell proliferation was assessed by MTT colorimetric assay. PC3 cell lines treated with the extracts were analyzed for the induction of apoptosis by cell death detection (ELISA) and TUNEL assay. Dye exclusion analysis was performed for viability rate. Our results demonstrated that the Punica granatum L. var. spinosa extract dose dependently suppressed the proliferation of PC3 cells (IC(50)= 250.21 μg/mL) when compared with a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug (Toxol) (Vesper Pharmaceuticals) with increased nucleosome production from apoptotic cells. The Punica granatum L. var. spinosa extract attenuated the human prostate cell proliferation in vitro possibly by inducing apoptosis. The Punica granatum L. var. spinosa is likely to be valuable for the treatment of some forms of human prostate cell line.

  3. Effects of Tree Shelters on the Survival and Growth of Argania spinosa Seedlings in Mediterranean Arid Environment

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    Chamchelmaarif Defaa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The argan tree is endemic species of Morocco. It occupies an area of more than 8700 km2 and plays essential ecological and economical roles. In spite of their value, the argan woodlands are subject to rapid and uncontrolled degradation during the last decades, mainly due to overgrazing and systematic collection of argan nuts. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of two types of tree shelters on survival and growth of Argania spinosa seedlings planted in the southwest of Morocco in order to improve the results of reforestation programs which usually end by repeated failures. The experiment was conducted in the Mesguina forest for two growing seasons after transplantation in the field. After two years, the use of tree shelters significantly increased tree survival and allowed a gain of 20%. Height growth was positively affected by tree shelters. The use of tree shelters showed no significant decrease in basal diameter. In contrast, the height to diameter ratios of sheltered trees were much higher compared to the control. Thus, the use of the tree shelters could aid the early establishment and growth of Argania spinosa under conditions similar to those of the experiment.

  4. Effect of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa on biochemical and histological changes in paracetamol–induced liver damage in rats

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    R. J. M. Alnuaimy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study showed that paracetamol administration to male rats at 1 g /kg of body weight for 21 days resulted in significant increase in activities of serum alanine amino transferase and aspartate amino transferase. There was an increase in the total bilirubin and creatinine levels. Paracetamol caused hepatic damage in appearance characterized with degeneration, necrosis and fatty changes in liver, as well as central vein congestion. Treatment of the damaged liver rats with 25, 50, 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight with aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa for 7, 14, 21 days led to a decrease in alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase activity, total bilirubin and creatinine levels, as well as an improve in the damaged liver tissues with increasing extract concentration. The results showed that treatment of the damaged liver rats with 100, 200 mg/kg of body weight of aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa for 14, 21 days gave protection against harmful effects of paracetamol.The protective effects of this extract determined by the rebound of the enzymes and biochemical variable levels to the pretreatment levels. High doses of this extract gave a decrease in harmful effects which resulted from the paracetamol in hepatic tissues.

  5. Conservação de sementes de marizeiro Geoffroea spinosa Jacq. utilizando diferentes embalagens e ambientes

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    Vênia Camelo de Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Geoffroea spinosa Jacq., commonly known as marizeiro in Brazil, is an important tree species, mainly because it is adapted to riparian forest conditions in semi-arid and associated ecosystems. The species occur in large areas of northeastern Brazil and in the São Francisco river valley, always restricted to seasonally flooded environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different types of packaging and storage periods, as well the influence of environments on the process of seed germination and vigor of Geoffroea spinosa. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratory of Plant Ecology - CCA/UFPB, following a completely randomized design. The seeds were distributed among two environments (natural conditions in the laboratory and cold room, packed in two types of packaging (paper bags and plastic bags for five periods of storage: 0; 15; 30; 60 and 90 days. Water content, the emergence velocity index, dry weight and length of seedlings were evaluated. The data were submitted to a polynomial regression analysis. In plastic packaging and the environment of the cold room there was less reduction of viability and vigor during storage. Seeds packed in paper bags and stored in a laboratory rapidly lost viability and vigor, after 30 days of storage.

  6. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure for the Conservation of Giant Spiny Frog (Quasipaa spinosa) Using Microsatellite Loci and Mitochondrial DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danna YU; Rongquan ZHENG; Qinfang LU; Guang YANG; Yao FU; Yun ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    The giant spiny frog (Quasipaa spinosa) is an endangered species with a relatively small distribution limited to southern China and Northern Vietnam. This species is becoming increasingly threatened because of over-exploitation and habitat degradation. This study provides data on the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of the giant spiny frog to facilitate the further development of effective conservation recommendations for this economically important but threatened species. We examined 10 species-specific microsatellite loci and Cyt b genes (562 bp) collected from 13 wild populations across the entire range of this species. Results of 10 microsatellite loci analysis showed a generally high level of genetic diversity. Moreover, the genetic differentiation among all 12 populations was moderate to large (overall FST= 0.1057). A total of 51 haplotypes were identified for Cyt b, which suggests high haplotype nucleotide diversities. Phylogeographic and population structure analyses using both DNA markers suggested that the wild giant spiny frog can be divided into four distinct major clades, i.e., Northern Vietnam, Western China, Central China, and Eastern China. The clades with significant genetic divergence are reproductively isolated, as evidenced by a high number of private alleles and strong incidence of failed amplification in microsatellite loci. Our research, coupled with other studies, suggests that Q. spinosa might be a species complex within which no detectable morphological variation has been revealed. The four phylogenetic clades and some subclades with distinct geographical distribution should be regarded as independent management units for conservation purposes.

  7. Preparative separation of bioactive compounds from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze using steam distillation extraction and one step high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yun; Du, Jilin; Lu, Yuanyuan

    2012-10-01

    In order to utilize and control the invasive weed, bioactive compounds from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze were studied. Steam distillation extraction and one step high-speed counter-current chromatography were applied to separate and purify the caryophyllene oxide, 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene, and caryophyllene from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The two-phase solvent system containing n-hexane/acetonitrile/ethanol (5:4:3, v/v/v) was selected for the one step separation mode according to the partition coefficient values (K) of the target compounds and the separation factor (α). The purity of each isolated fraction after a single high-speed counter-current chromatography run was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. A 3.2 mg of caryophyllene oxide at a purity of 92.6%, 10.4 mg of 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene at a purity of 99.1% and 5.7 mg of caryophyllene at a purity of 98.8% were obtained from 200 mg essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The chemical structures of these components were identified by GC-MS, (1) H-NMR, and (13) C-NMR.

  8. Temperatura, luz e substrato para germinação de sementes de Pau-Brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae Temperature, light and substrate for germination of seeds of Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam., Leguminosae - Caesalpinioideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Iura de Oliveira Mello

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Programas de preservação de Caesalpinia echinata, espécie considerada em risco de extinção, incluem a conservação ex situ, que poderia ser ainda mais intensificada pelo armazenamento, no longo prazo, de suas sementes. Embora já se tenha desenvolvido tecnologia suficiente para preservar a germinabilidade dessas sementes por até dois anos, ainda são insuficientes as informações acerca das condições adequadas para a germinação, mormente as referentes a temperatura, luz e substrato. Este trabalho visou avaliar os efeitos de temperaturas constantes de 10 a 45 °C em presença ou ausência de luz e o tipo (papel, areia e vermiculita e umidade do substrato sobre a germinação das sementes de pau-brasil. Concluiu-se que a semeadura deve ser realizada em rolo de papel, umedecido na relação 1:2,5 a 1:3,0 (substrato:água, em massa, e na temperatura de 25 °C, sem necessidade de luz.Preservation of the Brazilian endangered tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. include the ex situ conservation that could be enhanced by the long term storage of its seeds. In despite of having enough technology to preserve brazilwood seed viability for at least two years, there is scarce information on the optimal conditions for germination, mainly concerning temperature, light and substrate. This research aimed to study the effects of the constant temperatures (10 to 45°C, the presence or absence of light and the moisture content of three substrates (paper, sand and vermiculite on the germination of C. echinata seeds. The results suggested that these seeds should be sowed on paper roll moistened at the ratio 1:2.5 or 1:3.0 (substrate:water, w/w at 25°C, no need for light.

  9. Atividades biológicas e enzimáticas do extrato aquoso de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart., Leguminosae Biological and enzymatic activities of aqueous extract of seeds from Caesalpinia ferrea Mart., Leguminosae

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    Mariana G. Cavalheiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. (jucá ou pau-ferro é uma espécie da família Leguminosae cuja ocorrência estende-se da região Nordeste ao Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Trata-se de uma espécie bastante utilizada na medicina popular pelas suas inúmeras propriedades terapêuticas tais como antiinflamatória, analgésica, antimicrobiana e antitérmica as quais indicam a presença de compostos de interesse farmacológico. Contudo, muitos estudos em plantas também investigam a presença de compostos de interesse industrial. Com base nas propriedades terapêuticas e atividades já descritas para essa espécie, esse trabalho objetivou pesquisar atividades biológicas no extrato de sementes de C. ferrea na busca por compostos de interesse industrial e farmacológico. Os resultados indicaram a presença das atividades celulásica, amilásica, anticoagulante e larvicida contra A. aegypti no extrato aquoso das sementes de C. ferrea, entretanto, não foram observadas as atividades tóxica aguda, hemolítica, heparinásica, antibacteriana e antifúngica.Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. is a species belonging to Leguminosae family commonly known in Brazil as "jucá" or "pau-ferro". It occurs in Brazil from the Northeast Region to the State of Rio de Janeiro and it is widely utilized in folk medicine due to its several therapeutic properties such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial and antithermic, which indicate the presence of compounds of pharmacological interest. Besides, many studies with plants look for the presence of compounds with industrial applications. Based upon the therapeutic and bioactive properties described for this species so far, this work aimed to investigate several biological activities in the water extract of C. ferrea seeds. The results indicated the presence of the following activities: cellulase, amylase, anticoagulant and larvicide against A. aegypti in the water extract of C. ferrea seeds. Nevertheless, the extract did not show the

  10. Efeito da temperatura e do substrato na germinação de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae Effect of temperature and substrate on seed germination of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. (Leguminosae, Caesalpinoideae

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    Juliana Domingues Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. é uma leguminosa arbórea tropical que ocorre na região amazônica, sendo muito utilizada como planta medicinal e na arborização e paisagismo urbanos. Para viabilizar a produção de mudas, determinaram-se a melhor temperatura e o melhor substrato para a germinação das sementes. Sementes recém-colhidas apresentaram teor médio de água de 7,46%, porcentagem de germinação de 3,33% e baixo ganho de água durante a embebição, mostrando dormência tegumentar. A escarificação mecânica com lixa nº 40 foi um método eficiente para superação da dormência, comprovado pela alta porcentagem de germinação e embebição de água em sementes escarificadas. A porcentagem de germinação dessas sementes foi influenciada pela temperatura, mas não pelo substrato. Com base no tempo médio de germinação, recomenda-se a temperatura de 30 ºC e areia como substrato para germinação mais rápida de sementes escarificadas.Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. is a tropical legume tree occurring in the Amazon region, commonly used as medicine plant and in urban landscaping. To make seedling production feasible the best temperature and substrate for seed germination were determined. Recently harvested seeds present 7.46% mean moisture content, 3.33% germination percentage and lower moisture gain during soaking, showing tegument dormancy. Mechanical scarification with 40 grit sandpaper was proven an efficient method to overcome the dormancy, resulting in higher germination percentage and water imbibition in scarified seeds. The germination percentage of scarified seeds was influenced by temperature, but not by substrate. Based on the mean germination time, it is recommended the temperature of 30ºC and sand like substrate for faster germination of scarified seeds.

  11. An insight on the alkaloid content of Capparis spinosa L. root by HPLC-DAD-MS, MS/MS and (1)H qNMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Mohamad; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Innocenti, Marzia; Melani, Fabrizio; Mulinacci, Nadia

    2016-05-10

    The Capparis spinosa L. has a wide distribution in the Old World from South Europe, North and East Africa, Madagascar, Southwest and Central Asia to Australia and Oceania. The consolidated traditional use of C. spinosa root as remedy against different pains in human is well known since the antiquity. Various secondary metabolites have been found in caper plant, nevertheless, few studies have been focused to the analysis of root constituents. To date, several free and glycosilated spermidine alkaloids and a more polar alkaloid, the stachydrine, have been isolated from the root of C. spinosa. Aim of this work was to improve the knowledge on the alkaloid content of the root of a Syrian sample of C. spinosa by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) and to propose methods to quantify these molecules in different raw extracts. A decoction, an hydroalcoholic extraction and a fractionation process to selectively recover the spermidine alkaloids were applied. To our knowledge, this is the first HPLC-DAD-MS(n) profile that pointed out the co-presence of stachydrine, several isobaric forms of capparispine and/or capparisine in free and glycosylated forms and some isobars of isocodonocarpine or codonocarpine as monoglycosides in extracts of C. spinosa root. The determination by HPLC/DAD for the spermidine alkaloids expressed as p-OH-coumaric acid gave values up to 3.5mg/g dried root and the stachydrine evaluated by (1)H NMR was close to 12.5mg/g dried root. Overall, the total alkaloids were almost doubled in hydroalcoholic extract with respect to the decoction, and the stachydrine in the cortex was almost double than in the whole root.

  12. Pollination Ecology of Caesalpinia crista (Leguminosae:Caesalpinioideae)%华南云实传粉生态学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世晋; 张奠湘; 李琳; 陈忠毅

    2004-01-01

    The flowering phenology, pollination ecology and breeding system of Caesalpinia crista L.were studied in Dinghushan Nature Reserve, Guangdong, China. The species started blooming in February or March, then last till late April. It took about one week from first flower appearance to its full blooming,which lasted for 2-4 d. The pollen-ovule ratio was 18 000+500. The breeding system was self-incompatible,and protogynous xenogamy. Hymenoptera constituted the major group of pollinators. The pollination type is ambophily, the species could be pollinated by wind if the pollinators were unavailable: this is the first record of ambophily in the genus Caesalpinia. The floral structure adaptation to the pollinating behavior of carpenter bees was described. The influences of artificial treatments in pollination biological studies on the flowering and fruiting of the plants were also discussed.%在广东鼎湖山,华南云实(Laesalpinia crista L.)始花期从2月或3月开始,开花后约1周达到盛花期,盛花期持续2~4 d,花期可持续到4月底.华南云实基本繁育系统为雌蕊先熟、自交不亲和的异花受精.华南云实传粉方式为风虫媒.其主要传粉者为膜翅目昆虫,该种是云实属植物中首次报道的可行风媒传粉的种类.描述并探讨了华南云实花的结构与其主要传粉者木蜂之间的互动适应,并讨论了传粉生物学实验中的一些处理方法对华南云实开花过程的影响.

  13. Actividad biológica de extractos crudos de Larrea divaricata Cav. y Capparis atamisquea Kuntze sobre Sitophilus oryzae (L. Biological activity of crude extracts of Larrea divaricata Cav. and Capparis atamisquea Kuntze on Sitophilus oryzae (L.

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    A.I. Viglianco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las propiedades repelentes y antialimentarias de extractos crudos de dos plantas difundidas en la provincia de Córdoba (Argentina, jarilla (Larrea divaricata Cav. y atamisqui (Capparis atamisquea Kuntze., sobre Sitophilus oryzae (L.. Se estudiaron los extractos crudos en etanol, cloroformo y hexano de ambas especies. Para cada extracto se determino el coeficiente de disuasión total. Para las pruebas de repelencia se utilizaron papeles de filtro separados en dos mitades iguales; se determinaron los porcentajes de repelencia de cada extracto. Se observó mayor efecto antialimentario de los extractos de atamisqui con respecto a los de jarilla, y de los de hojas o tallos sobre los de frutos. El extracto de mayor efecto antialimentario fue el etanólico de tallos de atamisqui (clase ++++ seguido por los extractos etanólico y clorofórmico de hojas de esta especie (clase +++. Se observó un moderado efecto de repelencia de los extractos de jarilla y atamisqui sobre S. oryzae, destacándose el de hojas de atamisqui en hexano como el de mayor efecto de repelencia (clase IV. El extracto clorofórmico de hojas de atamisqui, los tres de hoja de jarilla y los clorofórmicos de tallos y frutos de jarilla presentaron efecto de repelencia (clase III.Repellent and antifeedant properties of crude extracts of two plants widely distributed in the province of Córdoba (Argentina, jarilla (Larrea divaricata Cav. and atamisqui (Capparis atamisquea Kuntze on Sitophilus oryzae were studied. Crude extracts in ethanol, chloroform and hexane of both species were evaluated. The Total Deterrence Coefficient for each extract was determined. Repellence tests were conducted using filter paper separated in halves. Repellence percentages were determined for each extract. A greater antifeedant effect was observed in the atamisqui extracts than in the jarilla ones; the effect was also greater in extracts of leaves or twigs than in extracts of fruits. The extracts

  14. Efeitos biológicos da Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e da Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae Biological effects of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen and Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae

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    Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen e da Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze (Amaranthaceae são plantas nativas da região alagada das ilhas de Porto Rico, Paraná, Brasil. São utilizadas na medicina popular como tônico, afrodisíaco e antidiabético. O extrato bruto metanólico, obtido das raízes das duas espécies, foi utilizado para avaliar a atividade moluscicida de caramujos (Biomphalaria glabrata. Além disso, o potencial hipoglicemiante da Pfaffia glomerata foi investigado em ratos tratados com aloxana. As saponinas do extrato bruto metanólico da P. glomerata e da P. paniculata foram analisadas em cromatografia em camada delgada e foi determinado o índice hemolítico. O extrato bruto metanólico obtido da Pfaffia glomerata apresentou maior conteúdo de saponinas hemolíticas e maior atividade moluscicida em relação à Pfaffia paniculata. Todavia, o tratamento com extrato de Pfaffia glomerata não promoveu efeitos significativos sobre os níveis glicêmicos.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen. (Amaranthaceae and Pfaffia paniculata (Martius Kuntze are native plants found in the flooded area of the islands of Porto Rico, state of Paraná, Brazil. They are used in folk medicine as tonics, aphrodisiacs, and to treat diabetes. The methanolic extract obtained from roots of both species was used to evaluate the molluscicidal activity against the periwinkle Biomphalaria glabrata and the hypoglycemic activity of Pfaffia glomerata was investigated in rats with diabetes induced by alloxan. The saponins from the methanolic extract of P. glomerata and P. paniculata were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and scum and the hemolitic index was measured. The methanolic extract obtained from Pfaffia glomerata showed higher content of hemolytic saponin than Pfaffia paniculata and presented molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata from 200 ppm. However, the treatment with P. glomerata extract did not promote any significant effect on

  15. Estudo morfoanatômico preliminar do caule e da folha de Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Kuntze (Asteraceae-Heliantheae A preliminary morphological and anatomical study of the stem and leaf of Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Kuntze (Asteraceae-Heliantheae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia R. Rocha Martins

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrições morfoanatômicas preliminares do caule e da folha de Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Kuntze foram realizadas a partir de material vegetal fresco e fixado. Secções transversais e paradérmicas, coradas com safranina/azul de astra e azul de toluidina foram analisadas ao microscópio. As superfícies do caule e da folha foram observadas através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A. australe apresenta, tanto no caule quanto na folha, tricomas tectores pluricelulares, unisseriados e de extremidades afiladas, e glandulares discóides, com pedúnculo curto unicelular, no qual se prendem cinco séries de células. A folha é anfiestomática e os estômatos são do tipo anomocítico, levemente proeminentes em relação ao nível das demais células epidérmicas. O caule apresenta crescimento secundário inicial, destacando-se os ductos secretores no parênquima cortical e medular.Preliminary morphological and anatomical descriptions of stem and leaf of Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Kuntze were made in fresh and fixed material. Cross and superficial sections, stained with safranin/astra blue and Toluidine blue were analyzed at the light microscopic and the images were acquired by means the program Image Pro-Plus, version 4.0 (Media Cybertecnics. The surface of the stem and leaf were observed through scanning electronic microscopy. The species presents in the stem and leaf surface multicellular nonglandular trichome, uniseriate with a pointed edge and multicellular glandular trichome like a disk with a unicellular peduncle, in which is attached a series of five cells. The leaf presents anomocytic stomata in both surfaces a little prominent in relation to the level of the epidermal cells. The stem presents an initial secondary growth with evident secretory ducts in the cortex and pith.

  16. Fabrication and evaluation of oral tablets using natural mucoadhesive agent from seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. SW

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    Jeevanandham S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucoadhesive sustained drug delivery systems of salbutamol sulfate were formulated using an isolated natural agent from the seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The isolated material was evaluated for various parameters, such as, melting point, viscosity, pH, elemental analysis, swelling index, phytochemical constituents, and solubility studies. The mucoadhesive characters of the isolated substance were identified by a comparative study with hydroxyl propyl cellulose and sodium alginate, by various in vitro methods, such as, Shear stress measurement, Wilhelmy′s method, Falling sphere method, and Detachment force measurement. Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive oral tablets of salbutamol sulfate (100 mg, using isolated natural materials in different proportions, and in vitro release studies, were carried out for three different formulations according to the U.S.P apparatus two (paddle method. Each 100 mg tablet was taken in 900 ml of acid buffer 1.2 and maintained at 37˚C. After two hours the filtrate was collected and replaced in buffer 7.4. In vitro releases of three different formulations for nine hours were studied, which showed the sustained action of drug release with increasing the concentration of the isolated natural mucoadhesive agent in the formulations.

  17. Cytotoxic and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of Cassane Diterpenoids from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan in Cancer Cells

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    Han Bao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical study on the seeds of Caesalpinia sappan led to the isolation of five new cassane diterpenoids, phanginins R‒T (1–3 and caesalsappanins M and N (4 and 5, together with seven known compounds 6–12. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR and HRESIMS analyses. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 4 were determined by the corresponding CD spectra. All the isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against ovarian cancer A2780 and HEY, gastric cancer AGS, and non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. Compound 1 displayed significant toxicity against the four cell lines with the IC50 values of 9.9 ± 1.6 µM, 12.2 ± 6.5 µM, 5.3 ± 1.9 µM, and 12.3 ± 3.1 µM, respectively. Compound 1 induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest in A2780 cells. Furthermore, compound 1 dose-dependently induced A2780 cells apoptosis as evidenced by Hoechst 33342 staining, Annexin V positive cells, the up-regulated cleaved-PARP and the enhanced Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. What’s more, compound 1 also promoted the expression of the tumor suppressor p53 protein. These findings indicate that cassane diterpenoids might have potential as anti-cancer agents, and further in vivo animal studies and structural modification investigation are needed.

  18. Developmental effects of additional ultraviolet a radiation, growth regulators and tyrosine in Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze cultured in vitro

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    Nina Cláudia Barboza Silva

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Tissue cultures of Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze were treated with different growth regulators (Kinetin and 2,4-D, tyrosine and Ultraviolet A radiation (UV-A; 320 - 400 nm to investigate their effects on development and pigment production. Nodal segments of plantlets grown from seeds were inoculated in all tested media and different light conditions. After eight weeks, this material was used to evaluate biomass, chlorophyll and betacyanin production. The Murashige and Skoog (MS + kinetin medium resulted in development of approximately four shoots/explant. This medium plus white light was the best combination for micropropagation with the highest rooting percentage and betacyanin production. Plantlets grown under UV-A illumination reduced biomass accumulation and worse Chlorophyll a / Chlorophyll b ratio. Addition of 2,4-D resulted in inhibition of pigment production and growth of plantlets.Culturas de tecidos de Alternanthera brasiliana (L. Kuntze foram tratadas com diferentes reguladores de crescimento (Cinetina e 2,4-D, tirosina e com ultravioleta longo (UV-A; 320 -400 nm adicional com o intuito de observar seus efeitos no desenvolvimento e produção de pigmentos. Segmentos nodais de plantas crescidas a partir de sementes foram inoculados nos meios de cultura testados e mantidos sob os diferentes tipos de iluminação. Após 8 semanas este material foi utilizado para avaliação da produção de biomassa, clorofilas e betacianinas. O meio de Murashige and Skoog (MS + cinetina proporcionou plântulas com até 4 brotos/explante. Este meio iluminado com luz branca (tipo luz do dia foi a combinação mais adequada para micropropagação, pois apresenta maior porcentagem de enraizamento e maior produção de betacianinas. Plântulas crescidas sob iluminação com ultravioleta adicional tiveram diminuídas tanto a produção de biomassa quanto a relação Clor a/ Clor b. A adição de 2,4-D ao meio de cultura resultou na inibição da produ

  19. Variance, genetic control and spatial phenotypic plasticity of morphological and phenological traits in Prunus spinosa and its large fruited forms (P. x fruticans

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    Kristine Vander Mijnsbrugge

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prunus spinosa is a highly esteemed shrub in forest and landscape plantings. Shrubs with larger organs occur often and are considered either as large fruited forms of P. spinosa or as P. x fruticans, involving a hybridization process with the ancient cultivated P. insititia (crop-to-wild gene flow. As climate change may augment hybridization processes in the future, a hybrid origin is important to detect. In addition, studying crop-to-wild gene flow can give insights in putative consequences for the wild populations. We studied the P. spinosa – P. x fruticans group, focusing on morphology and phenology in three experimental plantations. Two plantings harbored cuttings of P. spinosa (clone plantations. A third plantation comprised of a half-sib offspring from a population with both P. spinosa and P. x fruticans (family plantation. Several results point to a hybridization process as the origin of P. x fruticans. The clone plantation revealed endocarp traits to be more genetically controlled than fruit size, while this was the opposite in the family plantation, suggesting the control of fruit size being derived from the putative P. insititia parent. Bud burst, flower opening and leaf fall were genetically controlled in the clone plantation, whereas in the family plantation intrafamily variability was remarkably large for the bud burst and leaf fall, but not for the flower opening. This suggests there is a reduced genetic control for the first two phenophases, possibly caused by historic hybridization events. Pubescence on the long shoot leaves in the family plantation deviated from the short shoot leaves on the same plants and from long and short shoot leaves in the clone plantation, suggesting again a P. insititia origin. Finally, we quantified spatial phenotypic plasticity, indicating how P. spinosa may react in a changing environment. In contrast to the bud burst and leaf fall, flower opening did not demonstrate plasticity. The fruit size was

  20. Ecología, etnobotánica y etnofarmacología del argán (Argania spinosa)

    OpenAIRE

    López Sáez, José Antonio; Alba Sánchez, Francisca

    2009-01-01

    Argania spinosa es una especie leñosa endémica del suroeste de Marruecos que ha jugado un papel fundamental, desde un punto de vista etnobotánico, en la economía local de los pueblos bereberes. El aceite de argán se extrae de manera artesanal de los frutos de esta planta siguiendo un modelo etnográfico de gran interés. En el presente trabajo se sintetizan, mediante una profunda revisión bibliográfica, los conocimientos referidos a la ecología, etnobotánica y etnofarmacología del argán y se de...

  1. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Lazaro Benedito da; Santos,Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos; Gasson, Peter; Cutler, David

    2009-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP) e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas nos dois muni...

  2. Anatomia e densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (Fabaceae), espécie endêmica da caatinga do Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Lazaro Benedito da; Santos,Francisco de Assis Ribeiro dos; Gasson, Peter; Cutler, David

    2009-01-01

    p.436-445 Este trabalho objetivou estudar a anatomia e a densidade básica da madeira de Caesalpinia pyramidalis utilizada pelas comunidades locais, ocorrente na caatinga de Pernambuco, nos municípios de Serra Talhada e Sertânia, assim como comparar a percentagem dos elementos do lenho no tronco e nos galhos, na própria árvore, a fim de estabelecer o potencial total do lenho para produção de energia. As amostras do lenho do tronco (DAP) e de ramos de seis árvores da espécie foram coletadas ...

  3. Primary and secondary metabolites of an European edible mushroom and its nutraceutical value: Suillus bellinii (Inzenga) Kuntze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Alessandro; Frezza, Claudio; Sciubba, Fabio; Serafini, Mauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2016-12-26

    In this work, we report the study on the composition in primary and secondary metabolites of the polar and less-polar fractions obtained from the fruiting bodies of Suillus bellinii (Inzenga) Kuntze collected from Central Italy. Thirteen compounds were identified through a series of classical chromatographic methods and through spectroscopic techniques (nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS)), namely suillin (1), ergosterol (2), glutamic acid (3), isoleucine (4), leucine (5), threonine (6), tyrosine (7), valine (8), D-mannitol (9), sucrose (10), D-sorbitol (11), fumaric acid (12) and alanine (13). These results allowed us to make specific considerations about the possible applications of this mushroom, which vary from medicine, due to the high cytotoxic and antitumor properties of suillin (1), to nutritional values, due to the presence of essential nutrients as amino acids and pre-vitamin D2 (ergosterol), together with low-calories sweeteners, confirming the close association between the identified components and the health-promoting properties of this species.

  4. Optimization of extraction process and investigation of antioxidant effect of polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense Kuntze

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    Xinhui Tang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To optimize the extraction technology for polysaccharides from the root of Limonium sinense (Girard Kuntze, Plumbaginaceae and evaluate the antioxidant capacity of polysaccharides from L. sinense (LSEP Materials and Methods : One-singer factor and response surface methodology(RSM were established to extract the polysaccharides from L. sinense. Then, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, hydroxyl radical(.OH, and 2,2′-Azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt free radical assays were established to measure the antioxidant capacity of the LSEP in vitro. Results: According to analysis, extraction temperature significantly affected extraction yield. The optimum extraction conditions for LSEP were as follows: extraction temperature, 95°C; ultrasonic time 50 minutes; and dosage liquor ratio, 1: 12. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of crude LSEP was 12.80±0.19% which was well matched with the predicted models. The antioxidant capacity data suggested that LSEP has strong antioxidant activity. Conclusion: One-singer factor and RSM were used to extract of LSEP are simple and feasible and LSEP could be developed as a nutraceutical agent for itsstrong antioxidant activity.

  5. Herança e ligação em locos isoenzimáticos de Caesalpinia echinata L. (pau-brasil. Inheritance and linkage in isozyme loci of Caesalpinia echinata L. (pau-brasil.

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    João del GIUDICE-NETO

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o estudo davariação isoenzimática em Caesalpinia echinata L.(pau-brasil. Onze sistemas enzimáticos (ACP,DIA, EST, G6PDH, GOT, LAP, MDH, PGI, PRX,SKDH e 6PGDH codificando dezoito locos (Acp-1,Est-3, Dia-1, G6pdh-1, Got-1, Lap-1, Mdh-1,Mdh-2, Mdh-3, Pgi-1, Pgi-2, Prx-1, Prx-2, Prx-3,Prx-4, Skdh-1, 6pgdh-1 e 6pgdh-2 foraminvestigados. Entre esses locos, Pgi-1 e Got-1foram detectados como monomórficos. Três locos(Mdh-2, G6pdh-1 e 6pgdh-1 não tiveram suaherança analisada devido à ausência de progênies deárvores heterozigotas na amostra. A herançamendeliana simples foi confirmada para dez locos(Acp-1, Dia-1, Est-3, Lap-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-3, Prx-1,Prx-3, Skdh-1 e 6pgdh-2. Três locos (Pgi-2, Prx-2e Prx-4 apresentaram desvios altamentesignificativos (P < 0,01 para a hipótese desegregação regular 1:1. As relações dedesequilíbrios de ligações foram avaliadas em 120pares de locos isoenzimáticos. Seis pares de locosapresentaram ligação: Mdh-3:Dia-1, Mdh-3:Prx-3,6pgdh-1:Pgi-2, 6pgdh-1:Prx-1, 6pgdh-2:Prx-3 ePgi-2:Prx-4.This article presents a study of isozymevariation in Caesalpinia echinata L. (brazilwood.Eleven isozyme systems (ACP, DIA, EST,G6PDH, GOT, LAP, MDH, PGI, PRX, SKDH and6PGDH codifying eighteen loci (Acp-1, Est-3,Dia-1, G6pdh-1, Got-1, Lap-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-2,Mdh-3, Pgi-1, Pgi-2, Prx-1, Prx-2, Prx-3, Prx-4,Skdh-1, 6pgdh-1 and 6pgdh-2 were investigated.Among these loci, Pgi-1 and Got-1 weremonomorphic. Three loci (Mdh-2, G6pdh-1 and6pgdh-1 were not evaluated for inheritance duethe lack of families from heterozygous mothertrees in the sampling. Mendelian inheritance wasconfirmed for ten allozyme loci (Acp-1, Dia-1,Est-3, Lap-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-3, Prx-1, Prx-3, Skdh-1,and 6pgdh-2. Three loci (Pgi-2, Prx-2 and Prx-4showed significant deviations (P < 0.01 from expectedsegregation 1:1 hypothesis. Linkage relationshipswere examined for 120 pairs of allozyme loci.Six pairs of loci showed linked: Mdh-3:Dia-1,Mdh-3:Prx-3, 6

  6. 用肉荚云实代替进口塔拉工业化生产没食子酸的研究%Study on Industrial Production of Gallic Acid by Caesalpinia digyna Instead of Imported Tara

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代欣; 叶世芸; 何顺志; 孙庆文

    2011-01-01

    目的 首次用国产肉荚云实作为工业化生产没食子酸的原料.方法 用与进口塔拉生产没食子酸的相同生产工艺的单耗与得率进行比较.结果 肉荚云实作为原料工业化生产没食子酸的单耗相当于或低于塔拉,其单宁酸含量、纯度及水解没食子酸的产率均优于进口塔拉.结论 国产肉荚云实可以代替进口塔拉作为工业化生产没食子酸的原料.%Objective With Caesalpinia digyna as the raw material of industrial production of gallic acid for the first time. Methods Compare the unit consumption and yield in the same production process of gallic acid between Caesalpinia digyna and imported Tara. Results The unit consumption of production with Caesalpinia digyna as raw material was less than that of Tara, and the purity and yield of gallic acid was better.Conclusion Caesalpinia digyna could be used to produce gallic acid instead of imported Tara.

  7. Pollination ecology of the Gray Nicker Caesalpinia crista (Caesalpiniaceae a mangrove associate at Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India

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    P.S. Raju

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia crista L., commanly known as Gray Nicker, is an oligohaline mangrove associate confined to landward marginal areas of the Coringa Mangrove Forest, Andhra Pradesh, India. The flowering occurs during the wet season from June to November. The flowers are hermaphroditic, self-compatible and exhibit a mixed breeding system. The floral characteristics that constitute melittophilous pollination syndrome include diurnal anthesis, slight fragrance, zygomorphy, yellow petals, with a flag petal displaying a conspicuous nectar guide, and the presence of nectar with a high sugar concentration. Extra-floral nectar along the rachis is an additional attractant and is easily perceivable by bees. The plant is pollinated almost exclusively by bees, especially carpenter bees. The floral characteristics such as free petals, fully exposed stamens with dry and powdery pollen grains and hairy stigma facilitate anemophily which is effective due to high winds during the rainy season. The prolific growth and near synchronous flowering at population level contribute to pollen availability in huge quantities and enable anemophily as an effective mode of pollination. The functionality of melittophily and anemophily together constitutes ambophily. Hand-pollination experiments indicated that the plant is principally out-crossing. The natural fruit set does not exceed 10%; this lowest percentage could be partly due to flower-feeding by the beetle, Mylabris phalerata. The fruits are indehiscent, 1-seeded, which are buoyant and are not dispersed far away from the parental sites. The viable seeds produce new plants in the vicinity of parental plants during the rainy season. This plant builds up its population as small patches or in pure stands and hence is important in building landward mangrove cover.

  8. Neurite Outgrowth and Neuroprotective Effects of Quercetin from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk. on Cultured P19-Derived Neurons

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    Napat Tangsaengvit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin has been isolated for the first time from ethyl acetate extract of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk. C. mimosoides Lamk. (Fabaceae or Cha rueat (Thai name is an indigenous plant found in mixed deciduous forest in northern and north-eastern parts of Thailand. Thai rural people consume its young shoots and leaves as a fresh vegetable, as well as it is used for medicinal purposes.The antioxidant capacity in terms of radical scavenging activity of quercetin was determined as IC50 of 3.18 ± 0.07 µg/mL, which was higher than that of Trolox and ascorbic acid (12.54 ± 0.89 and 10.52 ± 0.48 µg/mL, resp.. The suppressive effect of quercetin on both purified and cellular acetylcholinesterase (AChE enzymes was investigated as IC50 56.84 ± 2.64 and 36.60 ± 2.78 µg/mL, respectively. In order to further investigate the protective ability of quercetin on neuronal cells, P19-derived neurons were used as a neuronal model in this study. As a result, quercetin at a very low dose of 1 nM enhanced survival and induced neurite outgrowth of P19-derived neurons. Furthermore, this flavonoid also possessed significant protection against oxidative stress induced by serum deprivation. Altogether, these findings suggest that quercetin is a multifunctional compound and promising valuable drugs candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease.

  9. Bioactive endophytic fungi isolated from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood and identification of beauvericin as a trypanocidal metabolite from Fusarium sp.

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    Fernanda Fraga Campos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to identify new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites, we isolated 82 endophytic fungi from stems and barks of the native Brazilian tree Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Fabaceae. We tested their ethyl acetate extracts in several in vitro assays. The organic extracts from three isolates showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli [minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC 32-64 μg/mL]. One isolate inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhimurium (MIC 64 μg/mL and two isolates inhibited the growth of Klebsiella oxytoca (MIC 64 μg/mL, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis (MIC 64-128 μg/mL. Fourteen extracts at a concentration of 20 μg/mL showed antitumour activities against human breast cancer and human renal cancer cells, while two isolates showed anti-tumour activities against human melanoma cancer cells. Six extracts were able to reduce the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, indicating some degree of selective toxicity. Four isolates were able to inhibit Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and one isolate inhibited Trypanosoma cruzi by at least 40% at 20 μg/mL. The trypanocidal extract obtained from Fusarium sp. [KF611679] culture was subjected to bioguided fractionation, which revealed beauvericin as the compound responsible for the observed toxicity of Fusarium sp. to T. cruzi. This depsipeptide showed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 1.9 μg/mL (2.43 μM in a T. cruzi cellular culture assay.

  10. The New Technology of the Rana spinosa David Artificial Propagation and Cultivation%棘胸蛙人工繁育新技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑宝成

    2011-01-01

    在模拟棘胸蛙的野生态环境情况下,通过人工控制养殖池水的水温和酸碱度,根据棘胸蛙的生活特性,合理进行亲蛙选育、蝌蚪培育、幼蛙饲养和病害防治的技术改良,可以达到棘胸蛙年产卵次数达6~7次,年产卵量达1935粒,蛙卵孵化率达96.1%,蝌蚪变态率达96.5%,幼蛙成活率达96.8%的养殖效果。%We simulate the environment of the wild Rana Spinosa David,so that we can control temperature,basicity and acidity of the water.According to the living characteristic of Rana Spinosa David,we choose the parents of froggy,bring tadpole and little froggy up,make prevention of disease in improving technology rationally,the Rana Spinosa David can spawn 6~7 times with 1935 spawns every year,the frog incubation rate can reach as high as 96.1%,the tadpole metamorphosis rate 96.5%,the young frog survival rate 96.8%.

  11. The durative use of suspension cells and callus for volatile oil by comparative with seeds and fruits in Capparis spinosa L.

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    Yongtai Yin

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa is one of the most important eremophytes among the medicinal plants, and continued destruction of these plants poses a major threat to species survival. The development of methods to extract compounds, especially those of medicinal value, without harvesting the whole plant is an issue of considerable socioeconomic importance. On the basis of an established system for culture of suspension cells and callus in vitro, Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS was used for the volatile oil composition analyzing in seed, fruit, suspension cells and callus. Fatty acids were the major component, and the highest content of alkanes was detected in seed, with <1.0% in suspension cells and callus. Esters, olefins and heterocyclic compounds were significantly higher in fruit than in the other materials. The content of acid esters in the suspension cells and callus was significantly higher than in seed and fruit. This indicated that the suspension cells and callus could be helpful for increasing the value of volatile oil and replacing seeds and fruit partially as a source of some compounds of the volatile oil and may also produce some new medical compounds. The above results give valuable information for sustainable use of C. spinosa and provide a foundation for use of the C. spinosa suspension cells and callus as an ongoing medical resource.

  12. Isolation and characterization of stigmast-5-en-3β-ol (β-sitosterol from the leaves of Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders

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    Arjun Patra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Acanthaceae commonly known as ‘Talmakhana’ in Hindi contains a number of phytoconstituents viz. alkaloids, phytosterols, glycosides, amino acids, proteins, phenolic acids, enzymes, vitamins, sugars, minerals, flavonoids, gums & ucilage, terpenoids etc. The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize phytoconstituents(s from the chloroform extract of Hygrophila spinosa leaves. Methods: Chloroform extract was subjected to column chromatography and eluted with solvent mixtures of increasing polarity, composed of petroleum ether, benzene and chloroform to isolate phytoconstituents. The structure of the isolated compound was established on the basis of elemental analysis and spectroscopic evidences (IR, UV, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, MS. Results: A sterol, stigmast-5-en-3β-ol was isolated from the chloroform extract of the leaves of the plant. The yield of the compound was 0.0046% w/w, m.p. 136- 1380C, λmax in EtOH: 206 nm, Rf value 0.72 in Toluene: Ether: Cyclohexane (5:2:1. Conclusions: Hygrophila spinosa contains β-sitosterol which may be responsible for various pharmacological activities of the plant.

  13. Predação de sementes de Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O'Kuntze (Arecaceae por Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae Seed predation on Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O'Kuntze (Arecaceae by Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Grenha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A predação de sementes da palmeira Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O'Kuntze, 1891(Arecaceae por Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1972 foi avaliada de setembro de 2003 a setembro de 2005 no Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba (RJ. A biologia e o comportamento de P. nucleorum em A. arenaria e as taxas de predação de sementes foram descritas. Frutos encontrados sob 50 palmeiras foram coletados, mensalmente, em cada uma das duas áreas amostradas no PNRJ (mata de cordão arenoso e formação arbustiva aberta de Clusia Sclthdl, Clusiaceae. A avaliação dos cocos predados foi feita a partir da contagem dos orifícios de saída dos bruquíneos no campo, da emergência dos insetos no laboratório e da abertura dos frutos remanescentes. Através de observações e experimentos em 60 infrutescências, verificou-se que a oviposição de Pachymerus nucleorum em A. arenaria ocorre na infrutescência ainda em desenvolvimento diferentemente de registros na literatura em outras espécies de palmeiras, onde a oviposição ocorre nos frutos no chão. A predação dos frutos por P. nucleorum foi de 29,3% na área de mata de cordão arenoso e 20,6% na formação arbustiva aberta de Clusia. O ciclo de vida de P. nucleorum foi bastante longo e com amplitudes bem grandes dentro de uma mesma amostra, o que sugere uma possível diapausa em alguma fase do seu ciclo de vida.Seed predation on Allagoptera arenaria (Gomes O'Kuntze, 1891(Arecaceae palm by Pachymerus nucleorum Fabricius, 1972 was evaluated from September 2003 to September 2005 at the Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba (PNRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The biology and behaviour of P. nucleorum on A. arenaria and predation rates were described. Fruits found beneath 50 palms were collected, monthly, for each one of the two sampled areas at PNRJ (ridge forest and Clusia Sclthdl (Clusiaceae open shrubland formation. The evaluation of preyed fruits was done by counting exit holes of Bruchinae in the field

  14. Chemical constituents and toxicity of Agastache foeniculum (Pursh kuntze essential oil against two stored-product insect pests Componentes químicos y toxicidad del aceite esencial de Agastachefoeniculum (Pursh Kuntze contra dos plagas de insectos de productos almacenados

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    Asgar Ebadollahi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The uncontrolled use of synthetic insecticides is a great hazard for the environment and consumers. Essential oils were introduced as low toxic agents against mammals and non-targeted insects. In this study, essential oil from aerial parts of blue giant hyssop (Agastache foeniculum [Pursh] Kuntze (Lamiaceae was isolated by the water steam distillation method with a Clevenger apparatus, and its chemical composition was studied by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The toxicity of A. foeniculum essential oil against red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst, and lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F. was evaluated by fumigation at 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. Estragole and 1,8-cineole were identified as major constituents of the A. foeniculum oil. Fumigation bioassays revealed that A.foeniculum oil had strong insecticidal activity on experimental insects. Rhyzopertha dominica was more susceptible than T. castaneum for all exposure times. Insecticidal activity varied with essential oil concentration and exposure time. Probit analysis showed that increased exposure time and essential oil concentration increased mortality. These results indicated that A. foeniculum essential oil can be applied in the management of stored-product insects to decrease the detrimental effects of synthetic insecticides.El uso incontrolado de los insecticidas sintéticos causa gran peligro para el medio ambiente y los consumidores. Los aceites esenciales se presentan como agentes tóxicos leves contra mamíferos e insectos no objetivo. En el presente estudio, el aceite esencial de las partes aéreas del hisopo gigante azul (Agastache Foeniculum [Pursh] Kuntze (Lamiaceae se aisló por el método de destilación al vapor de agua, utilizando un aparato de Clevenger y se estudió su composición química mediante cromatografía de gases y espectrometría de masas. La toxicidad del aceite esencial de A. foeniculum se evaluó por métodos de fumigación a las 24

  15. Desempenho germinativo da invasora Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. e comparação com Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. e Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae Germination performance of the invader Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. compared to Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. and C. pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae

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    Nilson Gonçalves da Fonseca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso das plantas na colonização de novas áreas está fortemente relacionado ao comportamento germinativo das sementes nas condições ambientais locais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o desempenho germinativo da exótica invasora Leucaena leucocephala ao das leguminosas (Caesalpinia ferrea, nativa e C. pulcherrima, exótica não consideradas invasoras. Sementes não escarificadas foram expostas às temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 °C, sob um fotoperíodo de 12 horas, durante 100 dias. Tanto a porcentagem final quanto a velocidade de germinação apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as três espécies. C. ferrea teve baixo desempenho, com temperatura ótima para a germinação a 25°C, porcentagem de germinação de 59% e IVG de 0,68 sementes d-1. Já C. pulcherrima, apresentou altas porcentagens de germinação em todas as temperaturas testadas, com faixa ótima entre 20-40 °C. As sementes de L. leucocephala apresentaram as menores porcentagens de germinação e temperatura ótima de 35 °C. O desempenho germinativo desta exótica não se sobressai ao das demais espécies estudadas e fatores como a pressão de propágulos, escarificação natural e bom desempenho em outras fases da vida devem contribuir para seu perfil de invasora.Success in establishing and colonizing new areas is directly related to germination behaviour of seeds under local environmental conditions. This work aimed to compare germination performance of the exotic invader Leucaena leucocephala to two legumes (Caesalpinia ferrea, native, and C. pulcherrima, exotic which are not considered invasive. Non-scarified seeds were exposed to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40ºC, within a photoperiod of 12 hours, for 100 days. Both final germination percentage and germination speed showed significant differences among the three species. C. ferrea had low germination percentage, with optimal germination temperature at 25ºC, reaching

  16. Effects of Lasia spinosa Thw. on growth rate and reproductive hormone of weaned Swamp buffalo and Murrah X Swamp buffalo calves

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    M. Kamonpatana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Lasia spinosa Thw. on growth rate and plasma Oestradiol 17- β (E2, Progesterone (P4 and Testosterone (T were studied in 16 male and female swamp (SS buffaloes and Murrah x Swamp buffalo crossbreeds (MS calves. The treatment group was fed with a concentrate supplemented with 30 g of dry powder of L. spinosa/head/d for 7 months. It was found that L .spinosa could have effect on male and female buffalo growth rate. The growth rate of male SS treated group were 130 g/d higher than control group. In female both SS and MS buffalo, the highest growth rate (830 to 840 g/d was found after the 2nd month of treatment while a reduction in growth rate (-1,030 to - 450 g/d was found in the 3rd month. After that the growth rate of SS and MS gradually increased until the last three months to 200 and 80 g/d in average, respectively. In female MS, plasma E2 in the treated group was lower than control group during Jan to Jul. Similar result was found in SS female, level of plasma E2 in treated group was lower than in control group in the first and last three month and there was no difference of plasma E2 in May. In MS male, the level of plasma E2 of treated group was higher than control group in Jan, Mar, Apr and Jul. In SS male, the level of plasma E2 of treated group was higher than control group in every month except in Jul. In female SS, L. spinosa could decreased plasma P4 through the experiment and could not have an effect on plasma P4 in female MS and plasma T in male buffalo calves. In conclusion, the addition to the concentrate of dry powder of L. spinosa 30 g/headl/d had an effect to increase growth rate in male SS and female MS buffalo calves, decrease plasma E2 in female both SS and MS and male SS and decrease plasma P4 in female SS.

  17. Evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of two different extracts of Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze

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    K. Shanmugapriya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: White tea is the mildest tea made from new young leaves of the tea plant Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze belonging to the family Theaceae. Objective: To compare the efficacy for phytochemical, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of methanol and acetone extracts of White tea. Methodology: The methanolic and acetone extracts of the white tea leaves were screened for all pharmacological activities. The four bacterial strains and one fungal species were investigated for antimicrobial activity of white tea. Phytochemical screening, Nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant activity was analysed by standard methods. The prevention of hypotonicity induced HRBC membrane lysis was taken a measure of anti-inflammatory activity. The compounds were identified by GC-MS analysis. Results: The methanolic extracts showed higher activity against four of the bacterial organisms and one fungus than acetone extracts. The methanolic extract of white tea has a high level of total phenolic content and reducing power than acetone extracts. Antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of white tea was higher than acetone extracts for all methods expect by Ferric reducing antioxidant power methods. It showed anti-inflammatory activity in terms of percent prevention of lysis of 40% and 38% for 100μl of methanolic and acetone extracts. The compounds present in both extracts were identified using GC-MS analysis. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate compounds isolated from methanolic and acetone extracts of White tea possesses pharmacological properties. Therefore, they could be used as natural potential compounds of natural origin for pharmaceuticals plant-based products industry.

  18. Avaliação do uso da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius como suplemento nutricional de Fe, Mn e Zn Evaluation of the use of the fruit peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius as a nutritional supplement of Fe, Mn and Zn

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    Clelivaldo Santos da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As plantas medicinais podem ser usadas como fontes alternativas de nutrientes minerais na dieta alimentar. Elementos como ferro, manganês e zinco apresentam biodisponibilidade variável em função de suas formas químicas (espécies presentes em um alimento. Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o teor e a biodisponibilidade de ferro, manganês e zinco em extratos da casca do fruto e das folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius por Espectrometria de Absorção Atômica com Chama (FAAS. Os agentes extratores testados foram as soluções de NaOH 0,05 mol. L-1, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH= 8, tampão Tris-HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 (pH = 8 em dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS 1% (m/v, HCl 0,05 mol.L-1 e água quente (60 ºC. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius apresentaram níveis altos de ferro e manganês quando comparados aos de outras plantas medicinais. Os elementos estudados mostraram predominante associação com compostos de alta e baixa massa molecular, espécies solúveis e insolúveis em água. Dentre os elementos analisados, o ferro apresentou melhor biodisponibilidade na casca do fruto e nas folhas. Manganês e zinco se mostraram mais biodisponível nas folhas. A casca do fruto e as folhas de Caesalpinia ferrea Martius podem ser uma fonte alternativa de ferro, manganês e zinco na dieta alimentar.Medicinal plants can be used as alternative sources of mineral nutrients in the alimentary diet. Elements such as iron, manganese, and zinc present variable bioavailability due to their chemical form (species present in foods. This work has the objective of evaluating the concentration and bioavailability of iron, manganese, and zinc in extracts of the peel and leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS. The extraction agents tested were 0.05 mol.L-1 NaOH, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0, 0.05 mol.L-1 Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0 containing 1% (m/v sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS, 0.05 mol.L-1

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to L-theanine from Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (tea) and improvement of cognitive function (ID 1104, 1222, 1600, 1601, 1707, 1935, 2004, 2005), alleviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to L-theanine from Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (tea) and improvement of cognitive function, alleviation of psychological stress, maintenance of normal sleep and reduction of menstrual discomfort. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States...... in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food/constituents that are the subject of the health claims are Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (tea) and L-theanine. The Panel considers that while Camellia sinensis (L.......) Kuntze (tea) is not sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effects, L-theanine from Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (tea) is sufficiently characterised....

  20. Study on Chemical Constituents of Caesalpinia minax%苦石莲的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建军; 周英; 王华林; 宋玮娟

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究苦石莲的化学成分.方法:利用硅胶柱色谱、重结晶等技术对苦石莲进行分离、纯化,通过波谱数据对化合物进行结构解析.结果:从苦石莲中分离纯化得到16个化合物,分别鉴定为caffeine(1)、β-谷甾醇(2)、十八烷酸(3)、熊果酸(4)、齐墩果酸(5)、β-胡萝卜苷(6)、3,5,7-三羟基-4'-甲氧基二氢黄酮醇(7)、neocaesalpin L(8)、neocaesalpin L1 (9)、neocaesalpin K(10)、minaxin C(11)、阿魏酸(12)、咖啡酸(13)、没食子酸(14)、12c-ethoxyl-1α,6α,7β-triacetoxy-5α,14β-dihydroxy-cass-13(15)-en-16,12-olide(15)、stigmasta-5,22 (E)-dien-3-beta-ol(16).结论:化合物5,6,7,12,13,16均首次从该植物中分离得到,化合物7首次从豆科植物中分离得到.%Objective; To study the liver protecting chemical constituents of Caesalpinia minax. Method; The compounds were isolated and purified by silica gel columns, and recrystallization, and the structures of these compounds were identified by MS and NMR. Result; A total of 16 kinds of compounds were obtained. They were identified as caffeine (1) , β-sitosterol (2 ) , octadecanoic acid (3 ) , ursolic acid ( 4 ) , oleanolic acid ( 5 ) , β-daucosterol ( 6 ) , 3, 5, 7-3-hydroxy-4'-methoxy dihydroflavonol ( 7 ) , neocaesalpin L ( 8 ) , neocaesalpin L1 (9), neocaesalpin K (10), minaxin C (11), ferulic acid (12), caffeic acid (13), gallic acid (14), 12α-ethoxyl-lα, 6α, 7β-triacetoxy-5α, 14β3-dihydroxy-cass-13 (15) -en-16, 12-olide (15) and stigmasta-5, 22 (E) -dien-3-beta-ol (16). Conclusions; Compound 5, 6, 7, 12, 13, 16 were isolated from C. minax for the first time, and compound 7 was first obtained from the Leguminosae.

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight pursuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of body...... between the consumption of a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and a reduction in body weight. © European Food Safety Authority, 2012...

  2. Investigation on antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening ofRandia spinosa (Thunb.) Poir. and Dillenia pentagyna Roxb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irulandi Kokkaiah; Geetha Sethupandian; Mehalingam Palanichamy

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity ofRandia spinosa (Thunb.) Poir. andDillenia pentagyna Roxb. leaf extracts against human pathogens such as Gram positive bacteria (Streptococcus faecalis,Bacillus subtilis andStaphyllococcus aureus), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli,Klebsiella pneumoniae andPseudomonas aeruginosa), and a fungusCandida albicans. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the two plants against the human pathogens was investigated by agar well diffusion method, and qualitative phytochemical screening was conducted for the presence of phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, catechins, coumarins, flavonoids, phenols, quinones, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Results: The qualitative phytochemical analysis showed the presence of diverse range of compounds like alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, steroids, tannins, terpenoids and saponins. The plants exhibited broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities against all the tested bacterial and fungal pathogens. The maximum zone of inhibition was observed in methanol extracts when compared with acetone and ethyl acetate extracts. The present study demonstrated that the selected plants had promising effect on the bacterial and fungal pathogens. Conclusions: The phytochemicals in the plants may be potentially responsible for the antimicrobial efficacy of these medicinal plants.

  3. Quality analysis of commercial samples of Ziziphi spinosae semen (suanzaoren by means of chromatographic fingerprinting assisted by principal component analysis

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    Shuai Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the scarcity of resources of Ziziphi spinosae semen (ZSS, many inferior goods and even adulterants are generally found in medicine markets. To strengthen the quality control, HPLC fingerprint common pattern established in this paper showed three main bioactive compounds in one chromatogram simultaneously. Principal component analysis based on DAD signals could discriminate adulterants and inferiorities. Principal component analysis indicated that all samples could be mainly regrouped into two main clusters according to the first principal component (PC1, redefined as Vicenin II and the second principal component (PC2, redefined as zizyphusine. PC1 and PC2 could explain 91.42% of the variance. Content of zizyphusine fluctuated more greatly than that of spinosin, and this result was also confirmed by the HPTLC result. Samples with low content of jujubosides and two common adulterants could not be used equivalently with authenticated ones in clinic, while one reference standard extract could substitute the crude drug in pharmaceutical production. Giving special consideration to the well-known bioactive saponins but with low response by end absorption, a fast and cheap HPTLC method for quality control of ZSS was developed and the result obtained was commensurate well with that of HPLC analysis. Samples having similar fingerprints to HPTLC common pattern targeting at saponins could be regarded as authenticated ones. This work provided a faster and cheaper way for quality control of ZSS and laid foundation for establishing a more effective quality control method for ZSS.

  4. Flavor improvement of Rana spinosa enzymatic hydrolysate%石蛙的酶解液化及风味改良

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞君

    2012-01-01

    Rana spinosa meat was hydrolyzed by papain and neutral protease. Lactic acid bacteria and rice wine yeasts were used to improve the flavor of the hydrolysate. Results indicate that neutral protease is superior to papain. The amount of amino nitrogen included in fermentation broth fermented by lactic acid bacteria is higher. The fermenting liquor from lactic acid bacteria flavor is better than that from rice wine yeast.%在酶适宜的环境条件下,利用木瓜蛋白酶与中性蛋白酶酶解石蛙肉及利用乳酸菌、黄酒酵母对酶解液进行风味改良。结果表明,中性蛋白酶对石蛙的水解效果较好,乳酸菌发酵液中氨态氮含量较高,乳酸菌发酵液风味改良效果优于黄酒酵母。

  5. Morphology and function of the reproductive tract of the spider crab Libinia spinosa (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majoidea): pattern of sperm storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sal Moyano, M. P.; Gavio, M. A.; Cuartas, E. I.

    2010-09-01

    Morphology and function of the male reproductive tract, female spermatheca and patterns of sperm storage were assessed in the crab Libinia spinosa using histological methods. Testes are characterized by the presence of peripheral spermatogonia and different sequences of sperm maturity. Spermatophores begin to be packed in the last portion. The vas deferens consists of three sections: anterior, with undeveloped spermatophores and free sperm; median, with well-developed spermatophores; and posterior with granular secretions. Female spermathecae are of the ventral type, with a velum separating dorsal and ventral chambers. Live individuals were kept in the laboratory and arranged in pairs. An experiment was conducted toward the end of the reproductive season, in which males with the right gonopod excised were placed with receptive females. After mating, females were killed and the spermathecae dissected for histological study and observation of the pattern of sperm storage. Spermatozoa were found forming discrete sperm packages. New ejaculates can fill the entire spermatheca or be restricted to the ventral chamber; sperm are rounded, with a distinguishable acrosomal core. Old ejaculates are restricted to the dorsal chamber and are of irregular shape and larger size; an acrosomal core was not distinguishable. The secretions produced by the glandular epithelium of the dorsal chamber of the spermathecae are likely to have a role in the removal of dead sperm.

  6. A complete enzymatic recovery of ferulic acid from corn residues with extracellular enzymes from Neosartorya spinosa NRRL185.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun-Dong; McClendon, Shara; Le, Tien; Taylor, Frank; Chen, Rachel Ruizhen

    2006-12-20

    An economic ferulic acid recovery from biomass via biological methods is of interest for a number of reasons. Ferulic acid is a precursor to vanillin synthesis. It is also a known antioxidant with potential food and medical applications. Despite its universal presence in all plant cell wall material, the complex structure of the plant cell wall makes ferulic acid recovery from biomass a challenging bioprocess. Previously, without pretreatment, very low (3-13%) recovery of ferulic acid from corn residues was achieved. We report here the discovery of a filamentous fungus Neosartorya spinosa NRRL185 capable of producing a full complement of enzymes to release ferulic acid and the development of an enzymatic process for a complete recovery of ferulic acid from corn bran and corn fibers. A partial characterization of the extracellular proteome of the microbe revealed the presence of at least seven cellulases and hemicellulases activities, including multiple iso-forms of xylanase and ferulic acid esterase. The recovered ferulic acid was bio-converted to vanillin, demonstrating its potential application in natural vanillin synthesis. The enzymatic ferulic acid recovery accompanied a significant release of reducing sugars (76-100%), suggesting much broader applications of the enzymes and enzyme mixtures from this organism.

  7. Characterization and hepatoprotective effect of polysaccharides from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chou sarcocarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuan; Wu, Shuangchan; Zhang, Huifang; Zhang, Xuyan; Niu, Yunhui; Cao, Xiaoqin; Huang, Fuwei; Ding, Hong

    2014-12-01

    The polysaccharides from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chou sarcocarp (PWJS) is evaluated for the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effect. The characteristics of PWJS were determined by FT-IR spectral and HPLC analysis. The antioxidant activity was investigated using in vitro systems. An in vivo study of PWJS against CCl4 induced liver injury was also conducted. HPLC analysis showed that PWJS is an acidic heteropolysaccharide, rich in glucose (38.59%), arabinose (23.16%), galacturonic acid (17.64%) and galactose (10.44%). PWJS displayed strong antioxidant activity in vitro. In the in vivo study, PWJS treatment lowered the serum levels of ALT and AST in CCl4-intoxicated mice. Additionally, levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) and GSH were elevated in liver damage mice by PWJS intervention, while content of MDA was lessened. Meanwhile, PWJS reverses the suppression of Nrf2 nuclear translocation, and increases the protein expression of HO-1, GSTα and NQO1 in liver damage mice. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the condition of liver damage was mitigated. This study demonstrates that PWJS reverses hepatotoxicity in CCl4-intoxicated mice through the mechanisms of antioxidant activity, as well as an augmentation of the Nrf2 pathway in liver tissue.

  8. Woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of Caesalpinia echinata have high potential as alternative woods for bow makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Longui

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly two hundred years, Caesalpinia echinata wood has been the standard for modern bows. However, the threat of extinction and the enforcement of trade bans have required bow makers to seek alternative woods. The hypothesis tested was that woods with physical, mechanical and acoustic properties similar to those of C. echinata would have high potential as alternative woods for bows. Accordingly, were investigated Handroanthus spp., Mezilaurus itauba, Hymenaea spp., Dipteryx spp., Diplotropis spp. and Astronium lecointei. Handroanthus and Diplotropis have the greatest number of similarities with C. echinata, but only Handroanthus spp. showed significant results in actual bow manufacture, suggesting the importance of such key properties as specific gravity, speed of sound propagation and modulus of elasticity. In practice, Handroanthus and Dipteryx produced bows of quality similar to that of C. echinata.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of α-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl-ω-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl polymethylene from caesalpinia bonducella (L. flem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Kavitha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The compound, α-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropyl-w-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-en-1-ylpolymethylene, isolated from ethyl acetate leaf extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (L. Flem. was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus citrus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp. using agar diffusion method. The compound exerted inhibitory zone at all concentrations and revealed the concentration-dependent activity against all tested bacterial and yeast strains comparable to standards streptomycin sulphate and gentamycin for bacteria and fluconazole and griseofulvin for Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp. The inhibition zones were wider and clear for C. albicans and Rhodotorula sp. (IZ >20 mm and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. vulgaris and E. coli zones were greater than standards tested, whereas, zones for Klebsiella sp. and S. aureus were similar to standards.

  10. A novel diterpene from Caesalpinia minax%喙荚云实中一个新二萜类化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆华

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究喙荚云实Caesalpinia minax的化学成分.方法 采用多种色谱方法分离纯化,依据理化性质、波谱数据分析进行结构鉴定.结果 从喙荚云实的95%乙醇溶液回流提取物中分离鉴定了一个呋喃二萜类化合物minaxin A,并利用MTT法研究这个化合物对人肝癌细胞HepG2的生长抑制作用.结论 该化合物为新化合物,药理活性实验结果表明minaxin A对人肝癌细胞HepG2具有一定的生长抑制作用.

  11. Avaliação da atividade cicatrizante do jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. var. ferrea em lesões cutâneas de caprinos Evaluation of the Brazilian ironwood (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. var. ferrea healing activity on cutaneous lesions of goats

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    A.F. Oliveira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi demonstrar os efeitos do tratamento tópico do jucá (Caesalpinia ferrea em feridas cutâneas. Quinze caprinos machos sem raça definida foram divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com o pós-cirúrgico (7º, 14º e 21º dias. As feridas experimentais foram tratadas com a pomada composta pela casca da Caesalpinia ferrea em pó misturada com a vaselina estéril e as do grupo controle apenas com a vaselina esterilizada. A aplicação diária da pomada e da vaselina estéril foi realizada sobre ferida circular padronizada de 16 cm² de área na região torácica de cada animal. As avaliações das feridas foram feitas do ponto de vista clínico, bacteriológico, morfométrico e histopatológico nos períodos pré-determinados (7º, 14º e 21º dias. Morfometricamente, as feridas do controle apresentaram áreas cirúrgicas menores e grau de contração maior que as do grupo tratado, entretanto, histologicamente, houve completa epitelização das feridas tratadas no 21º dia, enquanto que as feridas do grupo controle necessitavam de mais tempo para resolução do processo cicatricial. No exame microbiológico realizado no momento da produção da ferida, não se observou crescimento bacteriano e no momento das biópsias, identificou-se a presença de bactérias da família Enterobacteriaceae e Staphylococcus aureus, sendo que a partir do 14º dia observou-se Staphylococcus aureus apenas no grupo controle. A utilização tópica da pomada de Caesalpinia ferrea apresentou eficiência significativa no auxílio da reparação cicatricial de feridas cutâneas de caprinos.The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of the topical treatment with Brazilian ironwood (Caesalpinia ferrea on cutaneous wounds. Fifteen male mongrel goats were divided into 3 groups according to the postoperative period ((7th, 14th and 21st days. The experimental wounds were treated with an ointment composed of Brazilian wood powder bark mixed with

  12. HPLC quantification of uncarine D and the anti-plasmodial activity of alkaloids from leaves of Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiot, Julien; Baghdikian, Béatrice; Boyer, Laurent; Mahiou, Valérie; Azas, Nadine; Gasquet, Monique; Timon-David, Pierre; Balansard, Guy; Ollivier, Evelyne

    2005-01-01

    An efficient system for the analysis of the total alkaloids extracted from leaves of Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze (Rubiaceae) by HPLC using a reversed-phase column is described. The chromatographic conditions allowed the separation of indole and oxindole alkaloids in leaf extracts, and the quantification of uncarine D in samples collected in Burkina Faso and Mali. The HPLC method described was validated for its specificity, linearity and precision using an internal standard (naphthalene). The concentrations of uncarine D in various extracts were compared with their in vitro anti-plasmodial activity. The anti-proliferative activity on chloroquine-resistant strain (W2) of Plasmodium falciparum was not correlated with the concentration of uncarine D in leaves.

  13. Separation and purification of isorhamnetin 3-sulphate from Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze by counter-current chromatography comparing two kinds of solvent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qianqian; Yin, Li; Zhang, Guoliang; Wei, Yun

    2012-01-01

    The first preparative separation of a flavonoid sulphate isorhamnetin 3-sulphate from Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze by counter-current chromatography (CCC) was presented. Two kinds of solvent systems were used. A conventional organic/aqueous solvent system n-butanol-ethyl acetate-water (4:1:5, v/v) was used, yielding isorhamnetin 3-sulphate 2.0 mg with a purity of 93.4% from 83 mg of pre-enriched crude extract obtained from 553 mg ethanol extract by macroporous resin. A one-component organic/salt-containing system composed of n-butanol-0.25% sodium chloride aqueous solution (1:1, v/v) was also used, and the LC column packed with macroporous resin has been employed for desalination of the target compound purified from CCC. As a result, 2.1 mg of isorhamnetin 3-sulphate with a purity of over 97% has been isolated from 402 mg of crude extract without pre-enrichment. Compared with the conventional organic/aqueous system, the one-component organic/salt-containing aqueous system was more suitable for the separation of isorhamnetin 3-sulphate, and purer target compound was obtained from the crude extract without pre-enrichment using the new solvent system. The chemical structure was confirmed by ESI-MS and (1)H, (13)C NMR. In summary, our results indicated that CCC using one-component organic/salt-containing aqueous solution is very promising and powerful for high-throughput purification of isorhamnetin 3-sulphate from Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze.

  14. Hplc-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the water-soluble extract from Ziziphi spinosae semen and its ameliorating effect of learning and memory performance in mice

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    Yanqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS, the seed of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa (Bunge Hu ex H. F. Chow., is a traditional herb for insomnia and anxiety in eastern Asia. However, few researches have been concerned with its effect on ameliorating memory and learning performance. Objective: To investigate the constituents of ZSS water soluble extract and its ameliorating learning and memory in mice. Materials and Methods: A new high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed and validated to determine the main constituents in the extract. The effect of ZSS water soluble extract on memory and learning performance was investigated in mice by Y-maze and passive avoidance test. Results: The extract could significantly decrease the number of errors (NOE, and increase the transfer latency time (TLT and electrical stimuli time (EST. In addition, spinosin, jujuboside A (JuA and jujuboside B (JuB were simultaneously identified and quantified in the extract. Their contents in the extract were as followed: Spinosin (223.51mg/g, JuA (63.76mg/g and JuB (26.29mg/g. Conclusion: The extract played a promising role in ameliorating memory in mice with alcohol induced memory retrieval disorders, and might help to improve learning capacity to some extent. Spinosin, JuA and JuB were the predominant constituents, which might be mainly responsible for the definite activity.

  15. Avaliação da incorporação de galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima em sorvetes e comparação com estabilizantes comerciais

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    Antonia Ariana Camelo Passos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Com o mercado cada vez mais competitivo e consumidores mais exigentes é de suma importância buscar alternativas mais eficientes e diversificadas para a melhoria da qualidade de sorvetes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver sorvetes sabor goiaba utilizando galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima em substituição a estabilizantes, avaliar suas propriedades e comparar com dois estabilizantes comumente utilizados (goma xantana e super liga neutra. Para caracterizar os sorvetes foram feitas análises de overrun, resistência ao derretimento, umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, carboidratos, sólidos totais e pH. A qualidade microbiológica foi investigada pelas análises de coliformes a 45 °C/g, Estafilococos coagulase positiva/g e Salmonella sp/25 g. Sensorialmente, foram avaliados a intenção de compra e os atributos sensoriais de cor, aroma, textura, sabor e impressão global. Foram realizadas três formulações de sorvetes, modificando o estabilizante empregado: super liga neutra (T1, galactomanana de C. pulcherrima (T2 e goma xantana (T3. A taxa de derretimento mostrou-se similar até 35 minutos para as três formulações, mostrando-se comportamentos lineares. As amostras de sorvetes apresentaram um bom valor de overrun. Nenhuma das variáveis físico-químicas apresentou diferença estatística entre si. Sensorialmente, a formulação T2 apresentou desempenho semelhante a T1 e T3. No entanto, o sorvete da formulação T3 apresentou no atributo textura uma nota melhor que o estabilizante super liga neutra (T1. Todas as formulações apresentaram altos índices de intenção de compra por parte dos provadores. Todos os sorvetes produzidos apresentaram-se de acordo com a legislação vigente demonstrando que a galactomanana de Caesalpinia pulcherrima pode ser utilizada como substituto aos estabilizantes convencionais.

  16. 青藏高原地区刺山柑解剖特征研究%Anatomical Characteristics of Capparis spinosa L.in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 马淼

    2012-01-01

    To further explore the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau plant distinctive physiology structure and its environmental adaptability, the anatomical structures of Capparis spinosa L. from 4 000 m altitude of Zhada in Tibet were studied by the methods of paraffin section. The results showed that the anatomical structure was highly adapted to its environment of mountain desert grassland: periderm of secondary root is developed, the cork is thicker, there is a larger proportion of secondary xylem; There are epidermal hairs and obvious cuticle on the epidermis of stems, and also developed collenchyma tissue, pith is narrow in stems; The leaf is isobilateral with multilayer palisade tissues. Dense stomata exists and significant cuticles are existed in epidermis; Corolla is larger with white petals, which is suitable for insect pollination; Parietal placentation with much ovules in each locule, ex-tine is thicker which can resistant to corrosion, acid and alkaline. All of the characteristics of C. spinosa L. described above result from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau stresses of extremely ecological conditions, such as high irradi-ance, cold temperature, low air pressure in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, as well as the adaptations of the C. spinosa L. to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau environments.%采用石蜡切片法对分布于海拔4000 m的西藏札达的刺山柑解剖结构进行研究,进一步探讨青藏高原植物独特生理结构及其与环境的适应性.结果表明刺山柑具有适应高山荒漠草原环境的典型结构特征:次生根周皮发达,具有较厚的木栓层和发达的次生木质部;茎具表皮毛和角质层,皮层较厚,厚角组织发达,髓较小;叶具角质层,气孔密集,栅栏组织多层,为双栅型等面叶;花冠较大,白色花瓣,适于虫媒传粉;侧膜胎座,子房多室,胚珠多数,花粉外壁较厚,具较强的抗腐蚀及抗酸碱性能.刺山柑形成上述结构特征是青藏高原特殊综合生态环境长期作用的结果.同时也

  17. Feeding habits of the spider crab Libinia spinosa H. Milne Edwards, 1834 (Decapoda, Brachyura in Ubatuba bay, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Samara de Paiva Barros

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was the identification of the items of the diet of the L. spinosa, based on the stomach contents analysis. The crabs were obtained from Ubatuba region north-eastern shore of São Paulo State. In the laboratory, all the individuals were dissected, the stomach was retreated and fixed in 10% formaline. The alimentary items were identified under stereomicroscope and analysed by the method of Frequency of Occurrence. A total of 194 stomachs was analysed and nine alimentary items were obtained. Unindentified material was found in 98% of analysed stomach and poriferan were present in less then 1% of stomachs. These results pointed a diversified diet explored by this crab, as well as the employment of some different methods for food intake. This suggested that these crabs could occupy different position in the trophic chain.O objetivo deste trabalho é identificar os itens alimentares que compõem a dieta de L. spinosa, por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal. Os caranguejos foram coletados no litoral norte paulista (23º25’S-45º00’W. No laboratório, todos indivíduos foram dissecados, os estômagos foram retirados e fixados em formol 10%. Os itens alimentares foram identificados sob estereomicroscópio, sendo que para a análise foi utilizado o método Freqüência de Ocorrência. Foram analisados 194 estômagos, nos quais foram encontrados nove itens alimentares. A maior freqüência foi para material não identificado, ocorrendo em 98% dos estômagos analisados e Porifera foi o item com a menor freqüência, ocorrendo em menos de 1% dos estômagos. Com base nos resultados obtidos, sugere-se que o caranguejo L. spinosa apresenta uma dieta diversificada, sugerindo a utilização de diferentes métodos para a obtenção de alimento e por conseqüência podendo ocupar vários níveis na cadeia trófica.

  18. Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex

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    Chia-Hua Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilein, a natural, biologically active compound from Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells. This study verifies the antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of brazilein in skin cancer cells and is the first time to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana, and reduction of spontaneous movement in Anisakis simplex. Brazilein exhibits an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to scavenge DPPH• and ABTS•+ free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Brazilein inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ, the master regulator of adipogenesis, suggesting that brazilein presents the antiobesity effects. The toxic effects of brazilein were evaluated in terms of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and the activity of caspase-3 in BCC cells. The inhibition of the growth of skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, and SCC25 by brazilein is greater than that of human skin malignant melanoma (A375 cells, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7 cells, and noncancerous cells (HaCaT and BNLCL2 cells. The anthelmintic activities of brazilein against Hymenolepis nana are better than those of Anisakis simplex.

  19. Brazilein from Caesalpinia sappan L. Antioxidant Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation and Induces Apoptosis through Caspase-3 Activity and Anthelmintic Activities against Hymenolepis nana and Anisakis simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chia-Hua; Chan, Leong-Perng; Chou, Tzung-Han; Chiang, Feng-Yu; Yen, Chuan-Min; Chen, Pin-Ju; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Lin, Rong-Jyh

    2013-01-01

    Brazilein, a natural, biologically active compound from Caesalpinia sappan L., has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells. This study verifies the antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of brazilein in skin cancer cells and is the first time to elucidate the inhibition mechanism of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana, and reduction of spontaneous movement in Anisakis simplex. Brazilein exhibits an antioxidant capacity as well as the ability to scavenge DPPH(•) and ABTS(•+) free radicals and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Brazilein inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells and suppressed the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ ), the master regulator of adipogenesis, suggesting that brazilein presents the antiobesity effects. The toxic effects of brazilein were evaluated in terms of cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and the activity of caspase-3 in BCC cells. The inhibition of the growth of skin cancer cells (A431, BCC, and SCC25) by brazilein is greater than that of human skin malignant melanoma (A375) cells, mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage (RAW 264.7 cells), and noncancerous cells (HaCaT and BNLCL2 cells). The anthelmintic activities of brazilein against Hymenolepis nana are better than those of Anisakis simplex.

  20. BIOMETRIA DE FRUTOS E SEMENTES E SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA DE JUCÁ (Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul (LEGUMINOSAE - CAESALPINOIDEAE

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    Francisco Augusto Alves Câmara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to study the characteristics biometrics of the fruit and the effect of the physical and chemical scarification in the germination of seeds of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. Ripe fruits were collected in August of 2007 of existent trees in the campus of the Rural Federal University of the Semi-arid, Mossoró- RN. The evaluations were carried at the Laboratory of Analysis of Seeds of the Department of Vegetable Sciences of UFERSA. The germination test was constituted of witness and 4 treatments (types of common vinegar: vinegar of alcohol, vinegar of red wine and vinegar of white wine and hot water to 65ºC, with 4 repetitions of 50 seeds. The sowing was in containers plastic with dimensions of 32.5 x 24 x 4 cm (length, width and depth. The used substrates were sand washed sterilized previously and being irrigated with water distilled. The appraised characteristics were: mass of the fresh matter and matter dries of the seedling, germination percentage and index of emergency velocity. The immersion of the seeds in vinegar of white wine favors the germination, the index of germination velocity and the accumulation of fresh and dry matter of the juca seedlings.

  1. Characterization and Quantification of the Compounds of the Ethanolic Extract from Caesalpinia ferrea Stem Bark and Evaluation of Their Mutagenic Activity

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    Carlos César Wyrepkowski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Martius has traditionally been used in Brazil for many medicinal purposes, such as the treatment of bronchitis, diabetes and wounds. Despite its use as a medicinal plant, there is still no data regarding the genotoxic effect of the stem bark. This present work aims to assess the qualitative and quantitative profiles of the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea and to evaluate its mutagenic activity, using a Salmonella/microsome assay for this species. As a result, a total of twenty compounds were identified by Flow Injection Analysis Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MSn in the ethanolic extract from the stem bark of C. ferrea. Hydrolyzable tannins predominated, principally gallic acid derivatives. The HPLC-DAD method was developed for rapid quantification of six gallic acid compounds and ellagic acid derivatives. C. ferrea is widely used in Brazil, and the absence of any mutagenic effect in the Salmonella/microsome assay is important for pharmacological purposes and the safe use of this plant.

  2. Caracterização físico-química e biológica do caule de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart.

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    A. P. Z. Frasson

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Visando estabelecer parâmetros para o controle da qualidade do caule de Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. (Caesalpiniaceae, foram realizados testes preconizados pela Farmacopéia Brasileira IV e pela Organização Mundial da Saúde para a avaliação da pureza, através das determinações de materiais estranhos, cinzas totais, cinzas insolúveis em ácido, umidade, ensaios-limites de cloretos e sulfatos, além da pesquisa de contaminantes microbianos no material pulverizado. Para a caracterização dos constituintes, eventualmente presentes na droga vegetal, foram realizadas as determinações de taninos, dos índices de espuma, intumescimento e amargor e o teste de hemólise; também foi realizada a caracterização do extrato etanólico bruto e suas frações por cromatografia em camada delgada.

  3. Fungos associados com sementes de flamboyant-mirim (Caesalpinia pulcherrima: incidência, efeito na germinação, transmissão e controle

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    José George Ferreira Medeiros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Most pathogens that cause diseases in crops can be transported and transmitted by seeds, with great economic significance. The objective of this work was to assess the incidence of pathogens and their effect in the germination and vigor of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. seeds. The seed sanity experiment was completely randomized with five treatments, and ten repetitions. The seeds were immersed in extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum. vulgare for five minutes, and the control was immersed in sterile water. For the germination test, 200 seeds were used, distributed in four replicates of 50 seeds per treatment. The vigor tests consisted of the first count and germination speed index. The evaluation of fungi transmission were performed during the germination test, by counting the symptoms in the primary root, hypocotyl and epicotyl. The treatments reduced the incidence of Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp. Rhizopus sp., Penicillium sp. Nigrospora sp and Pestalotiasp..It was also found the fungus Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. associated with the lesions in the seed integument. The treatments provided a higher percentage of germination of seedlings. Higher percentages of germination were observed when oil extracts of Allamanda cathartica, Momordica charantia and Foenicullum vulgare were used.

  4. Preparation of A Health Jelly using Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and Poria Cocos%酸枣仁、茯神营养果冻的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪; 李和平; 李云芳

    2011-01-01

    Using Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and Poria cocos as the main raw material, the preparation of a heath jelly was studied. The best processing conditions were as follows: 4.8% of beanjuice, 0.4% of konjak, 0.1% of agar, l 5% of white sugar, and 0.1% of citric acid, under which the produdct showed a special refreshing flavor with comprehensive nutrition of semen ziziphi spinosae and poria cocos health jelly. The products was delicious with a milky white appearance and without any artificial pigment.%以酸枣仁和茯神为主要原料,辅以白砂糖、食用胶凝剂和柠檬酸等研制出果冻.通过实验确定营养果冻的最佳配方为:卡拉胶0.4%,海藻酸钠0.2%,白砂糖12%,蛋白糖1%,酸枣仁、茯神提取液15%,柠檬酸0.2%,柠檬酸钠0.1%,乳粉8%.生产产品香味特别,风味爽口,营养全面且具有较好保健功能的酸枣仁茯神果冻.产品呈乳白色,酸甜可口,不含防腐剂,不添加色素、香精,是值得信赖的健康食品.

  5. Research Progress of Spinosad Produced by Saccharopolyspora spinosa%刺糖多孢菌生产多杀菌素的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡恒; 王燕; 万红贵; 蒋导航; 王汉领; 赵宗松

    2011-01-01

    The spinosad, produced by Saccharopolyspora spinosa, is an new-style microbiological insecticide. Spinosad with the properties of both safety of biological pesticide and fast effect of agrochemical, has a weak toxicity towards mammalian, natural enemies of insects and environment. Thus, it has obtained permission and used in many countries. At present the research of spinosad in our country is still in the laboratory, and the lower yields of spinosad limited its industrial production. The structure of spinosad and its biosynthesis were summarized. The fermentation medium optimization, breeding of high spinosad producing strains, and its derivatives were reviewed.%多杀菌素(spinosacl)是由放线菌刺糖多孢菌(Saccharopolyspora spinosa)发酵产生的新型生物杀虫剂.多杀菌素由于具有生物农药的安全性,化学合成农药的速效性,以及对哺乳动物、昆虫天敌和环境安全等特点,已在多个国家获准使用.目前我国多杀菌素的研究尚处于实验室阶段,产量相对较低,尚不具备工业化生产的条件.对多杀菌素的结构、生物合成途径、发酵培养基优化、高产菌株的选育及其衍生物等进行了综述.

  6. Comparative study of microflora in Rhizospheric soils of Argania spinosa and Acacia raddiana of the arid zone from Oued El Ma (Tindouf)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissouras, Fatiha; Habib, Semira; Missoum, Malika; Louacini, Braim Kamel

    2016-04-01

    Desert soils occupy a large area in Algeria (80Moreover, exploitation of the Saharan soil microorganisms has several interests and especially in maintaining the ecological equilibrium of ecosystems. Unfortunately, few of microbiological studies have been conducted so far about the Saharan soil Algerian, with the exception of some work done on the desert soils in the region of Beni Ounif. This work falls within the framework of Project CNEPRU F02320100009. The study focuses on an evaluation of the main germs rhizosphere soils from Argania spinosa and Acacia raddiana of the region of Oued El-ma (wilaya of Tindouf), located in southwest Algeria, followed by physicochemical analysis of some parameters (soil texture, pH, moisture content, organic matter). The results reveal that both rhizosphere soils have a sandy silt texture of alkali pH, with very low water content slightly different. Organic material of the rate varies from 0.2 to 1The type of vegetation influences positively the quantity and the dynamics of microbial population. Indeed, the two soils have an interesting microbial diversity, with densities of azotobacters, fungi, aerobic bacteria and actinomycetes are very high, followed germs ammonifiants, nitrifying and denitrifying. In the presence of Argania spinosa the microbial growth is most important (6.53 × 107 germs /g soil), compared with Acacia raddiana (3.13 × 107 germs /g). This shows the stimulating effect of the vegetation on the increase in the rate of these microorganisms in the soil. Well as the strong Fitness of adaptation the microbial biomass to drought. Keywords: Argania spinoza; Acacia raddiana; rhizospheric soil; microbiology evaluation.

  7. Separation of isorhamnetin 3-sulphate and astragalin from Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze using macroporous resin and followed by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Nusrat; Yin, Li; Gu, Yanxiang; Rwigimba, Eric; Xie, Qianqian; Wei, Yun

    2015-06-01

    D4020 resin offered the best dynamic adsorption and desorption capacity for total flavonoids based on the research results from ten kinds of macroporous resin. A column packed with D4020 resin was used to optimize the separation of total flavonoids from Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze extracts. The content of flavonoids in the product was increased from 4.3 to 30.1% with a recovery yield of 90%. After the treatment with gradient elution on D4020 resin, the contents of isorhamnetin 3-sulfate and astragalin were increased from 0.49 to 8.70% with a recovery yield of 74.1% and 1.16 to 30.8%, with a recovery yield of 92.2%, respectively. Further purification was carried out by one-run high-speed countercurrent chromatography yielding 4.5 mg of isorhamnetin 3-sulfate at a high purity of 96.48% and yielding 24.4 mg of astragalin at a high purity of over 98.46%.

  8. The Effect of Drought Stress on the Essential Oil Content and Some of the Biochemical Characteristics of Anise Hyssop (Agastache foeniculum [Pursh] Kuntze

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    Sajedeh Saeedfar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plot trials were carried out in a research field in Tehran (Iran to determine the effect of drought stress on the essential oil content and some of the plant biochemical characteristics of Anise Hyssop (Agastache foeniculum [Pursh] Kuntze, which is a valuable medicinal plant. Drought stress was conducted at different levels including: well-water (100% FC, mild drought stress (85% FC, moderate drought stress (70% FC, severe drought stress (55% FC, 100% FC (vegetative stage 85% FC (reproductive stage, 100% FC (vegetative stage 70% FC (reproductive stage, and 85% FC (vegetative stage 100% FC (reproductive stage. The experiment was arranged as a RCBD with three replications. The output results showed that, water deficit stress significantly (P≤0.05 increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione Peroxidase as well as Essential Oil yield and Abscisic Acid content. Lipid and protein oxidation (malondialdehyde and dityrosine contents also increased significantly under severe water deficit stress. According to the results, severe drought conduction (55% FC is the optimum level of soil moisture to plant Anise Hyssop under water deficit stress.

  9. ALTERAÇÕES NA ARQUITETURA TÍPICA DE Tipuana tipu (Benth. O. Kuntze NA ARBORIZAÇÃO DE RUAS DE CURITIBA, PARANÁ

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    Rogério Bobrowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The urban structure and equipments can restrict the correct development of trees and its typical architecture. Tipuana tipu (Benth. O. Kuntze (rosewood has been pruned continuously for being a species of large size and for being the most planted tree in the city of Curitiba. Because of that, this work aimed to assess the changes in the typical architecture of Tipuana tipu on street trees of Curitiba through completely randomized design containing a check plot composed by 6 trees and a treatment with 6 trees under utility lines and another with 6 trees in streets without utility lines. From horizontal photographs of trees there were obtained dendrometric variables based on a metric scale attached at DBH. Thus, the morphometric indexes were calculated to describe dimensional relationships for the species on trees without pruning (check plot and on pruned trees (treatments. The results showed that raising pruning change typical architecture of rosewood modifying its outline and its form, in addition to harm its aesthetic effect. The indexes that can express changes significantly (p<0.05, were: range index, salience index, crown angle, crown proportion and relation RH/PH.

  10. Comparative Studies on the Allelopathic Effects of Ulva pertusa Kjellml, Corallina pilulifera Postl et Ruprl, and Sargassum thunbergii Mertl O. Kuntze on Skeletonema costatum (Grev.) Cleve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-Jun Wang; Hui Xiao; Pei-Yu Zhang; Liang Qu; Heng-Jiang Cai; Xue-Xi Tang

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the allelopathic effects of three macroalgae, namely Ulva pertusa Kjellml,Corallina pilulifera Postl et Ruprl, and Sargassum thunbergii Mertl O. Kuntze, on the growth of the microalga Skeletonema costatum (Grev.) Creve using culture systems in which the algae coexisted. The effects of the macroalgal culture medium filtrate on S. costatum were also investigated. Moreover, isolated co-culture systems were built to confirm the existence of allelochemicals and preclude growth inhibition by direct contact. The coexistence assay data demonstrated that the growth of S. costatum was strongly inhibited when fresh tissues, dry powder and aqueous extracts were used; the allelochemicals were lethal to S.costatum at relatively higher concentrations. The effects of the macroalgal culture medium filtrate on the microalga showed both species specificity and complexity. The inhibitory effect of fresh macroalgal tissue and culture medium filtrate on the microalga was due to the alleochemicals released by the macroalgae.The results of the present study show that the allelopathic effects of macroalgae on the microalga are complex. The present study could shed light onto the basis of the interaction between macro- and microalgae.

  11. Study on the antidepressant effect of total flavonoids from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae%酸枣仁总黄酮抗抑郁作用的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵启铎; 舒乐新; 王颖; 牟佳佳; 宋志国; 李金梅

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究酸枣仁总黄酮对行为绝望小鼠抑郁模型的影响.[方法]采用小鼠强迫游泳实验和悬尾实验等抑郁模型,小鼠行为绝望的不动时间作为指标,考察酸枣仁总黄酮抗抑郁活性.[结果]酸枣仁总黄酮低、中、高剂量组均能减少小鼠强迫游泳和悬尾不动时间,与空白组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);与阳性药组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),[结论]酸枣仁总黄酮具有显著的抗小鼠实验性抑郁作用.%[Objective] To observe the antidepressant effect of total flavonoids from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae in mice. [Methods] To inves tigate the antidepressant activity of total Flavonoids from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae by the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test, with behavioral despair mice in the immobility time as an indicator. [Results] Different dose groups of total flavonoids from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae could significantly reduce the immobility time of mice during the forced swimming test and the tail Suspension test, compared with that of the control group (P<O.05); compared with that of the positive group (P<O.05). [Conclusion] The total flavonoids from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae possess had significant antidepressant effects.

  12. Using a Caesalpinia echinata Lam. protease inhibitor as a tool for studying the roles of neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and proteinase 3 in pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Silva, Ilana; Neuhof, Christiane; Gozzo, Andrezza Justino; Nunes, Viviane Abreu; Hirata, Izaura Yoshico; Sampaio, Misako Uemura; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia; Neuhof, Heinz; Araújo, Mariana da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by neutrophil infiltration and the release of proteases, mainly elastase (NE), cathepsin G (Cat G) and proteinase 3 (PR3), which can be controlled by specific endogenous inhibitors. However, inhibitors of these proteases have been isolated from different sources, including plants. For this study, CeEI, or Caesalpinia echinata elastase inhibitor, was purified from C. echinata (Brazil-wood) seeds after acetone fractionation, followed by ion exchange and reversed phase chromatographic steps. Characterization with SDS-PAGE, stability assays, amino acid sequencing and alignment with other protein sequences confirmed that CeEI is a member of the soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor family. Like other members of this family, CeEI is a 20 kDa monomeric protein; it is stable within a large pH and temperature range, with four cysteine residues forming two disulfide bridges, conserved amino acid residues and leucine-isoleucine residues in the reactive site. CeEI was able to inhibit NE and Cat G at a nanomolar range (with K(i)s of 1.9 and 3.6 nM, respectively) and inhibited PR3 within a micromolar range (K(i) 3.7 μM), leading to hydrolysis of specific synthetic substrates. In a lung edema model, CeEI reduced the lung weight and pulmonary artery pressure until 180 min after the injection of zymosan-activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils. In experiments performed in the presence of a Cat G and PR3, but not an NE inhibitor, lung edema was reduced only until 150 min and pulmonary artery pressure was similar to that of the control. These results confirm that NE action is crucial to edema establishment and progression. Additionally, CeEI appears to be a useful tool for studying the physiology of pulmonary edema and provides a template for molecular engineering and drug design for ALI therapy.

  13. Effects of ovule and seed abortion on brood size and fruit costs in the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii (Wall. ex Hook. D. Dietr

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    Ana Calviño

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For several plant species, brood size results from the abortion of ovules and seeds. However, these processes have rarely been studied together in wild plants. In some of the leguminous species studied, seed abortion has been found to depend on pollen quality and on the position of the ovule or fruit. The direct consequence for the mother plant is that fruit costs increase as the seed:ovule ratio decreases. However, because ovule abortion occurs earlier than does seed abortion, the former can reduce the biomass invested per seed (i.e., fruit costs more efficiently than does the latter. Here, the frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds were analyzed in relation to the type of pollination treatment (open pollination vs. hand cross-pollination and ovule/fruit position within pods of the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The influence of ovule and seed abortion on fruit costs was analyzed by comparing the pericarp mass per seed between fruits with different frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds. The rate of ovule abortion was similar between hand cross-pollinated and open-pollinated fruits but was higher than that of seed abortion in one- and two-seeded fruits, as well as in those at stylar positions and in distal fruits. Hand cross-pollination reduced seed abortion but did not increase the seed:ovule ratio. In addition, fruits that aborted ovules were found to be less costly than were those that aborted seeds. From the mother plant perspective, these results indicate that ovule abortion is a more efficient mechanism of reducing fruit costs than is seed abortion, because fertilization opportunities decrease with position, and show that brood size is significantly influenced by the fate of the ovule at the pre-zygotic stage.

  14. Mobilização de reservas durante a germinação das sementes e crescimento das plântulas de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae Mobilization of the reserves during germination of seeds and growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinoideae

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    Viviana Borges Corte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. durante a germinação e crescimento inicial das plântulas. As variações nas reservas de carbiodratos, lipídios e proteínas foram analisadas desde o período pré-germinativo (0 a 5 dias após a semeadura - DAS até a total senescência e abscisão dos cotilédones, aos 35 DAS, por meio de testes bioquímicos nos cotilédones das sementes. Os resultados indicaram que os lipídios constituem o principal composto de reserva nos cotilédones, contribuindo com cerca de 50% de massa seca. Carboidratos solúveis representaram 32%, as proteínas solúveis 7,7% e o amido 6,8% de massa seca dos cotilédones. Os lipídios sofreram marcante decréscimo entre 5 e 10 dias após a semeadura, período em que se observou elevada taxa de crescimento das plântulas. Carboidratos e proteínas solúveis exibiram tendência gradativa de queda, enquanto no amido, isso quase não foi detectado. A redução do peso de massa seca dos cotilédones foi bem correlacionada com o aumento da biomassa da plântula.This work aimed at studying the mobilization seed reserves during germination and initial growth of seedlings of Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. The variations in carbohydrate, lipid and protein reserves were analyzed from the pre-sprouting period (0 to 5 days after sowing -DAS to the total senescence and abscission of seeds. The results showed that lipids constitute the main reserve compound in the cotyledon, contributing with almost 50 % of its dry mass weight. Soluble carbohydrates represent 32 %, the soluble proteins 7.7 % and starch 6.8 % of the dry mass weight of cotyledons. Lipids showed a marked decrease between 5 and 10 days after sowing, period of a high seedling growth rate. Carbohydrates and soluble proteins showed a gradual tendency to decrease, while starch was almost non-detectable. The reduction in cotyledon dry mass of weight

  15. Total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of Meyna spinosa Roxb., an Indian medicinal plant%Total phenolic,total flavonoid content,and antioxidant capacity of the leaves of Meyna spinosa Roxb.,an Indian medicinal plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saikat Sen; Biplab De; N Devanna; Raja Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    AIM:The objective of the present study was to determine the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents,and to evaluate the antioxidant potential of different leaf extracts of Meyna spinosa Roxb.ex Link,a traditional medicinal plant of India.METHODS:Free radical scavenging and antioxidant potential of the methanol,ethyl acetate,and petroleum ether extracts of Meyna spinosa leaves were investigated using several in vitro and ex vivo assays,including the 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging,superoxide anion scavenging,hydroxyl radical scavenging,nitric oxide radical scavenging,hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity,metal chelating assay,and reducing power ability method.Total antioxidant activity of the extracts was estimated by the ferric thiocyanate method.Inhibition assay of lipid peroxidation and oxidative hemolysis were also performed to confirm the protective effect of the extracts.Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extracts were estimated using standard chemical assay procedures.RESULTS:Methanol extracts showed the highest polyphenolic content and possessed the better antioxidant activity than the other two extracts.Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in the methanol extract were (90.08 ± 0.44) mg gallic acid equivalents/g and (58.50 ± 0.09) mg quercetin equivalents/g,respectively.The IC50 of the methanol extract in the DPPH,superoxide anion,hydroxyl radical,nitric oxide radical,hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and metal chelating assays were (16.4 ± 0.41),(35.9 ± 0.19),(24.1 ± 0.33),(23.7 ± 0.09),(126.8 ± 2.92),and (117.2 ± 1.01) μg·mL-1,respectively.The methanol e.xtract showed potent reducing power ability,total antioxidant activity,and significantly inhibit lipid peroxidation and oxidative hemolysis which was similar to that of standards.CONCLUSION:The results indicated a direct correlation between the antioxidant activity and the polyphenolic content of the extracts,which may the foremost contributors to the

  16. Influence of phenolic compounds of Kangra tea [Camellia sinensis (L O Kuntze] on bacterial pathogens and indigenous bacterial probiotics of Western Himalayas

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    Aditi Sourabh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds of nutraceutical importance viz., catechins (C, (--epicatechin (EC, (--epigallocatechin (EGC, (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG and (--epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG were estimated in fresh green tea shoots of Camellia sinensis (L O Kuntze cultivar. The total polyphenols and total catechins were in the range of 219.90 to 317.81 and 140.83 to 271.39 g/kg, respectively in monthly samples of tea. The values of C, EC, EGC, EGCG and ECG in tea powders as analyzed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were in the range of 1.560 to 3.661, 13.338 to 27.766, 26.515 to 39.597, 62.903 to 102.168 and 18.969 to 39.469 mg/g, respectively. Effect of tea extracts and standard flavanols against five pathogenic bacteria viz., Listeria monocytogenes (MTCC-839, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC-741, Bacillus cereus (MTCC-1272, Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-96 and Escherichia coli (MTCC-443, and eleven indigenous potential bacterial probiotics belonging to genera Enterococcus, Bacillus and Lactobacillus spp. obtained from fermented foods of Western Himalayas, was investigated. EGCG, ECG and EGC exhibited antibacterial activity but, C and EC did not show this activity. Tea extracts having high concentrations of EGCG and ECG were more potent in antibacterial action against bacterial pathogens. Tea extracts and standard flavan-3-ols augmented viability of potential probiotics in an order of EGCG > EGC > ECG > EC > C. Tea extracts and standard flavanols had no antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (MTCC-443 but, in combination with probiotic culture supernatants, this activity was seen. The Kangra tea thus, exerts antibacterial effect on bacterial pathogens through EGCG, ECG and EGC constituents while stimulatory effect on growth of indigenous potential probiotics.

  17. Phylogeographic Structure of a Tethyan Relict Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae Traces Pleistocene Geologic and Climatic Changes in the Western Himalayas, Tianshan Mountains, and Adjacent Desert Regions

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    Qian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex geological movements more or less affected or changed floristic structures, while the alternation of glacials and interglacials is presumed to have further shaped the present discontinuous genetic pattern of temperate plants. Here we consider Capparis spinosa, a xeromorphic Tethyan relict, to discuss its divergence pattern and explore how it responded in a stepwise fashion to Pleistocene geologic and climatic changes. 267 individuals from 31 populations were sampled and 24 haplotypes were identified, based on three cpDNA fragments (trnL-trnF, rps12-rpl20, and ndhF. SAMOVA clustered the 31 populations into 5 major clades. AMOVA suggests that gene flow between them might be restricted by vicariance. Molecular clock dating indicates that intraspecific divergence began in early Pleistocene, consistent with a time of intense uplift of the Himalaya and Tianshan Mountains, and intensified in mid-Pleistocene. Species distribution modeling suggests range reduction in the high mountains during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM as a result of cold climates when glacier advanced, while gorges at midelevations in Tianshan appear to have served as refugia. Populations of low-altitude desert regions, on the other hand, probably experienced only marginal impacts from glaciation, according to the high levels of genetic diversity.

  18. 槌果藤提取物治疗硬皮病动物模型的研究%Efficacy of Capparis Spinosa extracts in the treatment of scleroderma:an experimental study in animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米新陵; 李凡; 惠艳; 华伟; 杨克俭

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察槌果藤乙酸乙酯提取物、乙醇提取物对硬皮病小鼠模型真皮厚度、Ⅰ型、Ⅲ型胶原合成及转化生长因子-β1表达的影响.方法 用博莱霉素致小鼠硬皮病模型,给予槌果藤乙酸乙酯提取物、乙醇提取物外用治疗;2、4、6周末皮肤病理观察真皮厚度变化,免疫组化观察Ⅰ型、Ⅲ型胶原及转化生长因子-β1的合成表达.结果 硬皮病小鼠模型外用槌果藤乙酸乙酯提取物、乙醇提取物2、4、6周后,与未用药的模型组比较,真皮厚度明显减少(F=12.99,P<0.01),Ⅰ型胶原(F=7.47,P<0.01)及转化生长因子-β1表达降低(F=11.76,P<0.01),对Ⅲ型胶原影响不大.结论 槌果藤乙酸乙酯提取物、乙醇提取物具有抗皮肤纤维化作用.%Objective To observe the effect of ethanol extract and ethyl acetate extract of Capparis Spinosa on the thickness of dermis,synthesis of collagen type Ⅰ,type Ⅲ,and expression of transforming growth factor-β1 in mouse models of scleroderma.Methods Mouse models of scleroderma were established through local injection of bleomycin on the back once a day for 4 weeks.After confirmation of model establishment,72 mouse models were equally and randomly divided into three groups.Two groups received topical treatment with ethanol extract of Capparis Spinosa and ethyl acetate extract of Capparis Spinosa,respectively,no treatment was given to the rest of the control group.After 2-,4-,6-week treatment,8 mice were sacrificed and tissue samples were obtained from the back,and subiected to the measurement of dermal thickness by HE staining,as well as to the analysis of expression of collagen type Ⅰ,collagen type Ⅲ and transforming growth factor-β1 by immunohistochemical staining.Results On week 2,4,6,the thickness of dermis was 23.22,24.94,19.97 μm respectively in mice treated with ethanol extract of Capparis Spinosa,27.66.26.15,22.13 μm respectively in those treated with ethyl acetate extract of

  19. Study of Composition of Amino Acids in Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and Its Nutritive Evaluation%酸枣仁氨基酸组成分析及营养评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 李贞; 刘海英

    2016-01-01

    以酸枣仁为原料,分别采用凯氏定氮法和氨基酸自动分析仪法测定酸枣仁的蛋白质含量和氨基酸组成,以WHO/FAO的必需氨基酸模式为标准,应用氨基酸模糊识别法和氨基酸比值系数法对其营养价值进行综合评价。结果表明:酸枣仁蛋白质含量高达40%(干重),酸枣仁蛋白质中含有18种常见氨基酸,谷氨酸含量最高,占总氨基酸的30.95%,蛋氨酸含量最低,占总氨基酸的0.37%;必需氨基酸(EAA)含量占总氨基酸的23.60%,赖氨酸是酸枣仁第一限制性氨基酸。氨基酸模糊识别法和氨基酸比值系数法计算得出酸枣仁蛋白质与标准蛋白(鸡蛋)的贴近度为0.5609,氨基酸比值系数法计算酸枣仁氨基酸比值系数分仅为22.78,酸枣仁蛋白质中氨基酸比例不够均衡。%Kjeldahl fixed nitrogen and amino acid automatic analyzer method were used to determinate protein content and amino acid composition of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae. Using the essential amino acid pattern of WHO/FAO as the standard, the nutritional value was evaluated by using the method of fuzzy recognition and amino acid ratio coefficient. The results showed that protein of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae content as high as 40%(dry weight), protein of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae contains 18 kinds of amino acid, glutamic acid content was the highest, 30.95%of total amino acids, methionine content was the lowest, 0.37%of total amino acids. The con-tent of essential amino acids(EAA) accounted for 23.60%of total amino acid, lysine is the first limiting amino acid in suanzaoren. Amino acid fuzzy recognition and ratio coefficient of amino acid (AA) calculated protein of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae with the standard protein(eggs) of closeness degree for the 0.560 9 and ratio coefficient of amino acid (calculation of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae ratio coefficient of amino acid score was just 22.78, pro-tein of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae in the amino acid ratio was

  20. 维吾尔族民间草药波里克果中脂肪和蛋白质组分的研究%Study on Fat and Protein Components of Uygur Folk Medicine-Capparis spinosa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    努尔买买提·依力亚斯; 库尔班江·巴拉提

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To explore fat and protein components of Uygur folk medicine-Capparis spinosa L.. [ Method] Using Capparis spinosa L. As tested materials, contents and components of fatty acids were tested by GC-MS analysis. Semi -micro Kjeldahl and grading method were respectively employed to determine the content of crude protein and isolate protein. Furthermore, amino acid components of protein were also studied. [ Result] Oil content of Capparis spinosa L. Was up to 21.2% , among which unsaturated fatty acid was the main component. Content of lin-oleic acid was the highest at 57. 21% , followed by oleic acid, palmitic acid, linolenic acid and stearic acid. Content of crude protein was 18. 31% , in which globulin was the highest at 42.2% , followed by glutelin at 37.2% , and the least in albumin, gliadin and residue protein. 18 amino acids were identified from Capparis spinosa L. Occupying more than 80% , in which content of aspartic acid was the highest at 17.8% , followed by glutamic acid at 11.7%. Besides, Capparis spinosa L. Was rich in essential amino acid that accounted for 25.83% of all amino acids. [Conclusion] The study could provide theoretical basis for comprehensive exploitation of Xinjiang wild resource of Capparis spinosa L..%[目的]探讨维吾尔族民间草药波里克果中脂肪和蛋白质组分.[方法]采用气相色谱-质谱法测定波里克果油脂中脂肪酸的含量及组分;采用半微量定氮法和分级提取法测定粗蛋白和分离蛋白,并对蛋白质中的氨基酸组分进行了分析.[结果]新疆波里克果的含油率为21.2%,以不饱和脂肪酸为主要成分,其中以亚油酸最高为57.21%,其次是油酸、粽榈酸、亚麻酸、硬脂酸.波里克果中粗蛋白质含量平均为18.31%,其中以球蛋白含量最高,为42.2%,谷蛋白为37.2%,清蛋白、醇溶蛋白和残渣蛋白含量比较低.蛋白质氨基酸含量丰富,18种氨基酸含量在80%以上,其中天冬氨酸含量最高,占蛋白质的17

  1. Analysis on the Content of Reducing Sugar and Total Sugar in the Fruits of Capparis spinosa L.%刺山柑果实中还原糖及总糖含量的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凤艳

    2012-01-01

    [目的]分析刺山柑果实中还原糖及总糖的含量.[方法]采用3.5-二硝基水杨酸法对刺山柑果实中还原糖及总糖的含量进行测定.[结果]应用水提法(100℃)提取的刺山柑果实中还原糖的含量在11.6%左右,提取温度对提取结果有明显影响;刺山柑果实中的总糖含量在24.5%左右.[结论]刺山柑果实中还原糖和总糖含量相对较高,具有较好的开发前景.%[ Objective] To analyze the content of reducing sugar and total sugar in the fruits of Capparis spinosa L. . [ Method] 3. 5-two nitro salicylic acid method was chosen to test the content of reducing sugar and total sugar in the fruits of Capparis spinosa L. . [ Result ] Results showed that the content of reducing sugar extracted by hot-water( 100 ℃) was about 11. 6% and temperature of water had obvious effect to the results. The content of total sugar was about 24. 5%. [ Conclusion] The reducing sugar and the total sugar were all relatively higher in the fruits of Capparis spinosa L. , which indicated that they would have a good development perspective.

  2. Morfologia foliar de indivíduos jovens e adultos de Caesalpinia echinata Lam. numa floresta semidecídua do Sul da Bahia Leaf morphology of saplings and adult individuals of Caesalpinia echinata Lam. in a semidecidual forest of Southern Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Sanches

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae é uma espécie arbórea que ocorre naturalmente no interior da floresta e atinge os estratos superiores do dossel por meio de pequenas clareiras. Objetivou-se, neste estudo, comparar alguns aspectos da morfologia foliar entre indivíduos adultos, cujas folhas se encontravam em pleno sol e jovens no sub-bosque. O estudo foi realizado numa floresta semidecídua, localizada no Município de Jussari, Bahia. Inicialmente, foram localizados e marcados oito indivíduos adultos e oito jovens para cada adulto. Foram coletadas e analisadas oito folhas para cada adulto e três para cada jovem, em duas épocas (setembro/novembro de 2004 e abril de 2005. Em geral, as áreas das folhas, das ráquis e dos folíolos, o comprimento das ráquis, a largura das folhas, o número de pinas e a massa seca das folhas foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos jovens, ao passo que as massas específicas das folhas e dos folíolos foram significativamente superiores nos indivíduos adultos. Tanto nos adultos quanto nos jovens, nas duas épocas de coleta foram verificadas relações altamente significativas entre a massa seca e a área das folhas. Os resultados indicaram que folhas de C. echinata apresentam características que maximizam a absorção de luz onde este recurso é limitante e, ao mesmo tempo, direcionam maior alocação de carbono para os tecidos de suporte. Tais resultados estão de acordo com o observado no estádio sucessional da espécie analisada e com a sua estratégia de ocupação dos espaços gerados pela formação de pequenas clareiras, em ambiente de mata semidecídua.Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae is a tree species that naturally regenerates in the forest understory and reaches the upper canopy through small gaps. We conducted a study with the objective of comparing some aspects of leaf morphology of adult individuals, in which the leaves were exposed to full sunlight, and saplings

  3. Meios de cultura, reguladores de crescimento e fontes de nitrogênio na regulação da calogênese do pau-brasil (Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Culture media, growth regulators and nitrogen sources in callus formation regulation of Brazilwood (Caesalpinia echinata Lam.

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    Elias Terra Werner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A regulação da calogênese é o primeiro passo para a embriogênese somática indireta in vitro. Nesse sentido, foram investigados os efeitos de diferentes meios de cultura, reguladores de crescimento e fontes nitrogenadas no desenvolvimento de calos em tecidos foliares de Caesalpinia echinata (pau-brasil. Explantes foliares foram cultivados em meios de cultura MS, B5, White e WPM. Testou-se, também, o efeito dos compostos nitrogenados (NH4NO3, KNO3 e glutamina e a interação entre auxinas (2,4-D, AIA e AIB e citocininas (BAP e KIN na desdiferenciação celular indicado pela formação de calos. Os meios MS, B5 e White não foram significantemente diferentes e proporcionaram melhores resultados. Em meio MS contendo as fontes nitrogenadas 2,4 g L-1 NH4NO3 e 1,35 g L-1 glutamina + 4,11 g L-1 de KNO3 na presença de 1,0 mg L-1 2,4-D e 5,0 mg L-1 BAP ocorreu maior proliferação celular indicada pela massa fresca dos calos. As combinações dos reguladores 0,5 mg L-1 2,4-D + 5 mg L-1 BAP e 0,5 mg L-1 AIB + 5,0 mg L-1 BAP suplementado com 2,4 g L-1 NH4NO3 em meio MS estimularam o crescimento dos calos. De maneira geral, os calos apresentaram aspectos friáveis, não embriogênicos, com acúmulo de fenóis e presença de áreas meristemáticas (meristemóides.The regulation of callus formation is the first step to indirect somatic embryogenesis in vitro. Therefore, we investigated hormonal and nutrient factors on development of callus in leaf tissues of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood. Explants were cultivated in culture media MS, B5, WPM, and White. The effect of nitrogen sources (NH4NO3, KNO3 and glutamine and the interaction between auxins (2,4-D, IAA and IBA and cytokinins (BAP and KIN were also evaluated. Media MS, B5 and White were not significantly different and provided better results. MS medium containing 2.4 g L-1 NH4NO3, 1.35 g L-1 glutamine, and 4.11 g L-1 of KNO3 in the presence of 1 mg.L-1 2,4-D and 5 mg.L-1 BAP increased cellular

  4. Caracterização de alfagalactosidase e sua relação com a germinação das sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae Alphagalactosidase characterization and its relationship with seed germination of Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Legumonosae Caesalpinioideae

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    Eduardo Euclydes de Lima e Borges

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae - sibipiruna - foram colocadas para embebição por 144 h, sendo retiradas amostras para análise de proteína, quantificações da atividade de alfagalactosidase e de açúcares presentes na micrópila. A germinação iniciou-se com 96 h de embebição, sem que fossem detectadas modificações na parede celular da micrópila. Nesta, observou-se maior proporção de arabinose, que mostrou tendência de aumento com o decorrer da embebição. A atividade específica da alfagalactosidase foi detectada em sementes secas, tanto no eixo embrionário quanto nos cotilédones, aumentando no primeiro a partir de 24 h de embebição. O aumento da atividade nos cotilédones foi mais lento, sendo mais acentuado a partir de 120 h de embebição. O teor de proteína decresceu continuamente no eixo embrionário a partir de 24 horas de embebição, enquanto se manteve estável nos cotilédones. A atividade da alfagalactosidase foi máxima nas temperaturas de 55 e 50 ºC para o eixo embrionário e para os cotilédones, respectivamente. O pH que mais estimulou a atividade da enzima foi na faixa de 5,5 a 6,0 para o eixo embrionário e na de 4,5 a 5,0 para os cotilédones. As alfagalactosidase do eixo embrionário e dos cotilédones foram inibidas por SDS, CuSO4, galactose e melibiose. Não houve efeito estimulante sobre a atividade da alfagalactosidase do eixo embrionário por nenhum dos efetores, enquanto o mercaptoetanol estimulou a atividade da enzima dos cotilédones. Os K M para o substrato ro-NPGal para a alfagalactosidase do eixo embrionário e dos cotilédones foram de 1,74 e 2,64 mM, respectivamente.Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae Caesalpinioideae seeds were soaked in water for 144 hours. Samples were taken for protein analysis, quantification of alphagalactosidase activity and micropyle sugar composition. Germination began after 96 hours of imbibition, with no modifications in

  5. Histochemical aspects of reserves mobilization of Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae seeds during germination and seedlings early growth Estudo Histoquímico da mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides (Leguminosae durante a germinação e crescimento inicial

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    Viviana Borges Corte

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate reserve mobilization in Caesalpinia peltophoroides seeds during germination and initial seedling growth. The variation in these compounds was analyzed from the pre-germination period (0 to 5 days after sowing - DAS to the total cotyledon senescence and abscission at 35 DAS. For this histochemical tests were made on cotyledons fixed in FAA50 or included in glycol-metacrylate. To follow the mobilization of the main reserve compounds, sudan III was used to detect total lipids, xylidine Ponceau to detect total proteins, lugol to detect starch and polarized light to visualize the crystals. The lipids, present in a great quantity in the cotyledon, gradually decreased in the period studied. A greater quantity of starch was observed on the 10th DAS than in the previous periods and it was totally consumed by 30 DAS. The distribution pattern and the morphology of the protein material were very modified by 10 DAS, a period during which it was intensely consumed, remaining only parietally fragments distributed, that practically disappeared at 25 DAS. The calcium oxalate druses were not consumed during the period studied, there was only crystal agglutination.Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da mobilização de reservas de sementes de Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth. durante a germinação e crescimento inicial das plântulas. As variações nesses compostos foram analisadas desde o período pré-germinativo (0 a 5 dias após a semeadura - DAS até a total senescência e abscisão dos cotilédones, aos 35 DAS. Para isso, foram realizados testes histoquímicos em cotilédones fixados em FAA50 ou incluídos em glicol-metacrilato. Para acompanhamento da mobilização dos principais compostos de reserva, foi usado o sudan III para detecção de lipídios totais, xylidine Ponceau para proteínas totais, Lugol para amido e luz polarizada para visualização dos cristais. Os lipídios, presentes em maior

  6. An Assessment of Genetic Diversity and Drought Tolerance in Argan Tree (Argania spinosa) Populations: Potential for the Development of Improved Drought Tolerance

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    Chakhchar, Abdelghani; Haworth, Matthew; El Modafar, Cherkaoui; Lauteri, Marco; Mattioni, Claudia; Wahbi, Said; Centritto, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    The argan tree (Argania spinosa) occurs in a restricted area of Southwestern Morocco characterized by low water availability and high evapotranspirative demand. Despite the adaptation of the argan tree to drought stress, the extent of the argan forest has declined markedly due to increased aridity, land use changes and the expansion of olive cultivation. The oil of the argan seed is used for cooking and as the basis for numerous cosmetics. The identification of argan tree varieties with enhanced drought tolerance may minimize the economic losses associated with the decline of the argan forest and constrain the spread of desertification. In this study we collected argan ecotypes from four contrasting habitats and grew them under identical controlled environment conditions to investigate their response to drought. Leaf gas exchange analysis indicated that the argan ecotypes showed a high degree of adaptation to drought stress, maintaining photosynthetic activity at low levels of foliar water content and co-ordinating photosynthesis, stomatal behavior and metabolism. The stomata of the argan trees were highly sensitive to increased leaf to air vapor pressure deficit, representing an adaptation to growth in an arid environment where potential evapotranspiration is high. However, despite originating in contrasting environments, the four argan ecotypes exhibited similar gas exchange characteristics under both fully irrigated and water deficit conditions. Population genetic analyses using microsatellite markers indicated a high degree of relatedness between the four ecotypes; indicative of both artificial selection and the transport of ecotypes between different provinces throughout centuries of management of the argan forest. The majority of genetic variation across the four populations (71%) was observed between individuals, suggesting that improvement of argan is possible. Phenotypic screening of physiological responses to drought may prove effective in identifying

  7. Rapid characterization of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen by UPLC/Qtof MS with novel informatics platform and its application in evaluation of two seeds from Ziziphus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng-xiang; Li, Min; Qiao, Li-rui; Yao, Zhi-hong; Li, Chang; Shen, Xiu-yu; Wang, Yu; Yu, Kate; Yao, Xin-sheng; Dai, Yi

    2016-04-15

    A strategy for rapid identification of target and non-target components from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) extracts were proposed by utilizing the UNIFI informatics platform for the computer-assisted UPLC/Qtof MS data analyses. Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS) contains various bioactive chemical ingredients, such as flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids and terpenes. Currently, there is no method that allows rapid and comprehensive identification of these multiple components. The rapid identification of chemical components in ZSS was successfully achieved with this strategy. As a result, 60 target components were identified and 53 non-target components were characterized. Among them, chemical structures of 40 new components were deduced based on their characteristic MS fragmentation patterns. In addition, the chemical ingredients of Ziziphi Mauritianae Semen (ZMS), which is often used as substitution of ZSS, were also investigated with the same strategy. A total of 132 chemical components were identified from these two plants, including 7 additional non-target new components. It demonstrated that this strategy not only facilitated an efficient protocol for the screening and identification of target components, but also offered a new perspective on discovering non-target components in TCMs or other herbal medicines. Furthermore, 48 components were selected for semi-quantitative analyses to evaluate the difference in chemical ingredients between these two seeds of Ziziphus species. The results showed that ZSS enriched many saponins, while ZMS contained few saponins. On the contrary, many cyclopeptide alkaloids could be detected in ZMS with high content, but rare in ZSS. These results can be used for the differentiation between ZSS and its adulterant (ZMS), and also to set a scientific foundation for the establishment of quality control of ZSS.

  8. 酸枣叶多糖抗氧化性研究%Study on Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharides from the Leaves of Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迎进; 闫军; 周俊丽; 孔丽霞; 张海容

    2013-01-01

    The polysaccharides from the leaves of Zizyphus jujuba cv. spinosa were extracted with ultrasonic method, meanwhile, the antioxidant activities of the crude polysaccharides (CP) and deproteinated polysaccharides (DP) were investigated in vitro by determining the scavenging effects on·OH, O2-·, DPPH·, ABTS·and reducing capacity. The results showed that both CP and DP exhibited strong scavenging effects on ·OH, O2-·, DPPH·, ABTS·and reducing capacity, the antioxidant activities of CP were higher than that of DP. The dose-effect relationship was obviously. The polysaccharide is an excellent natural antioxidant and scavenging reagent on radicals, and has a broad development prospects.%  采用超声波法提取酸枣叶多糖,考察酸枣叶粗多糖(CP)和脱蛋白多糖(DP)对·OH、O2-·、DPPH·和ABTS·的清除作用及还原能力。结果表明,CP和DP均具有较强的清除·OH、O2-·、DPPH·和ABTS·作用和还原能力,CP抗氧化活性高于DP;并且清除率与浓度之间存在明显量效关系。酸枣叶多糖是一种优良的天然抗氧化剂和自由基清除剂,具有广泛的开发前景。

  9. 鼠尾藻多酚提取纯化及其抗果蔬病原菌活性研究%Study on the phlorotannins of Sargassum thunbeergii Kuntze against fruit and vegetable pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘尊英; 毕爱强; 王晓梅; 王明珠

    2007-01-01

    为了获得具有抗菌活性的天然海洋生物活性物质,利用褐藻门马尾藻属的鼠尾藻(Sargassum thunbeergii Kuntze)乙醇提取物,通过对Botrytis cinerea和Penicillium expansum的抑制率来评价其抗菌活性.结果表明,鼠尾藻提取物有很强的抗果蔬病原菌活性,抑制Botrytis cinerea和Penicillium expansum生长的最小抑菌浓度(MIC)分别为16mg/mL和12mg/mL.采用10mg/mL多酚处理的草莓,其发病率和病斑直径分别比对照低28.4%和47.6%.

  10. Separation of patuletin-3-O-glucoside, astragalin, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin from Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze by elution-pump-out high-performance counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yun; Xie, Qianqian; Fisher, Derek; Sutherland, Ian A

    2011-09-09

    Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze is an annual alien weed of Flaveria Juss. (Asteraceae) in China. Bioactive compounds, mainly flavonol glycosides and flavones from F. bidentis (L.) Kuntze, have been studied in order to utilize this invasive weed, Analytical high-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC) was successfully used to separate patuletin-3-O-glucoside, a mixture of hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-galactoside) and 6-methoxykaempferol-3-O-galactoside, astragalin, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin using two runs with different solvent system. Ethyl acetate-methanol-water (10:1:10, v/v) was selected by analytical HPCCC as the optimum phase system for the separation of patuletin-3-O-glucoside, a mixture of hyperoside and 6-methoxykaempferol-3-O-galactoside, and astragalin. A Dichloromethane-methanol-water (5:3:2, v/v) was used for the separation of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin. The separation was then scaled up: the crude extract (ca 1.5 g) was separated by preparative HPCCC, yielding 12 mg of patuletin-3-O-glucoside at a purity of 98.3%, yielding 9 mg of a mixture of hyperoside and 6-methoxykaempferol-3-O-galactoside constituting over 98% of the fraction, and 16 mg of astragalin (kaempferol-3-O-glucoside) at a purity of over 99%. The pump-out peaks are isorhanetin (98% purity), kaemferol (93% purity) and quercitin (99% purity). The chemical structure of patuletin-3-O-glucoside and astragalin were confirmed by MS and ¹H, ¹³C NMR.

  11. Effective components of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae for sedative-hypnotic based on receptor ligand binding assay%基于受体配体结合技术研究酸枣仁镇静催眠活性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳虹; 高瑞萍; 王军业; 叶晓琼; 潘雪刁; 臧林泉; 唐旗羚; 郭纪全; 王其友; 祝曙光; 王有娣; 杨晨; 高思远; 刘金泳

    2016-01-01

    Aim To determine the effective compo-nents of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae for sedative-hypnotic and its mechanism. Methods The extraction of Se-men Ziziphi Spinosae and the rat brain homogenates were prepared. High concentrations of Diazepam com-petitively replaced the ligand compounds of Semen Ziz-iphi Spinosae combining BDZ receptor in brain tissue, and all the compounds with sedative and hypnotic effects were collected and identified by HPLC and LC-MS technique, as the compounds extracted from the brain tissue were administered with Semen Ziziphi Spi-nosae. The brain tissue was administered with Diaze-pam, and with Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and Diazepam. Results The HPLC chromatograms show that the peak time of BDZ receptor ligand compounds was 2. 71 min and 46. 87min, when compared with Diazepam. And the LC-MS chromatograms display the relative molecu-lar weight of the ligand compounds was 274. 28 m/z, 453. 34 m/z,496. 34 m/z and 608. 38 m/z respective-ly. According to the fingerprint of Semen Ziziphi Spi-nosae, these compounds may be fatty acid substances and lupine pill triterpene compounds. Conclusions On the basis of the principle of receptor ligand bind-ing, we established a way to quickly analyze and iden-tify the role of natural products in the same drug target compounds. The method not only can clearly define the effective components of natural products, but also clar-ify the mechanism of action of the compounds. The ac-tive ingredient of calm hypnosis in Semen Ziziphi Spi-nosae may be fatty acid substances Palmitic acid ( C16 H32 O2 ) and lupine pill triterpene compounds Alphitolic acid( C30 H48 O4 ) and Spinosin( C28 H32 O15 ) . They exert their sedative and hypnotic effects by combining with BDZ receptor, and the research has laid a theoretical foundation for the further study about mechanism of Se-men Ziziphi Spinosae.%目的:利用受体配体结合法探索酸枣仁中镇静催眠的活性成分,以及该成分的镇静催眠作用机制与苯二氮卓

  12. 野西瓜化学成分提取分离及抗氧化活性测定%Extraction and antioxidant activity of chemical compositions in Capparis spinosa L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于蕾; 贺春朋; 张小敏; 于娜; 谢乐琼

    2011-01-01

    Chemical compositions in Capparis spinosa L. Fruit were extracted and separated, to further explore chemical compositions with antioxidant activity in Capparis spinosa L. Fruit. Capparis spinosa L. Fruit meal was extracted The petroleum ether, ethyl aetate, butanol and water were extracted repeated respectively. Antioxidant activity of extracts were determined by DPPH · cleaning experiment. Identified antioxidant extract was separated by silica gel column, gel column with TLC, iodine vapor reagent, fluorescenrt color and universal reagent. Antioxidant compounds were got through DPPH · Experiment. The eliminating ability of every extact was ethyl acetate > water position > n - butanol > chloroform parts > petroleum ether. Three compouds were isolated from ethyl acetate extract : 1 kalanchoe glycosides, 2 succinate, 3 methyl stachydrine. Kalanchoe glycosides showed strong elimination ability while the other two showed low elimination ability. Ethyl acetate extract was the antioxidant active part of Capparis spinosa L. , and kalanchoe glycosides was one of the antioxidant compounds in ethyl acetate extract.%对野西瓜Capparis spinosa L.果实中化学成分进行提取分离,进一步探索野西瓜抗氧化活性成分,为野西瓜的充分开发利用提供科学依据,取野西瓜果实粗粉,采用95%乙醇回流提取,分别用石油醚、氯仿、乙酸乙酯、正丁醇、水萃取3次,反复萃取得各个部位,再用DPPH·清除实验比较各部位抗氧化活性,然后针对所确定抗氧化活性部位,经硅胶柱、凝胶柱分离,结合薄层层析、碘蒸气显色、荧光显色、通用显色剂显色等方法,得到单体化合物.最后,采用DPPH·清除实验测定各单体化合物的抗氧化活性.野西瓜各萃取部位的消除能力大小为:乙酸乙酯部位>水部位>正丁醇部位>氯仿部位>石油醚部位;从野西瓜活性部位-乙酸乙酯部位分离得到3个化合物,即化合物1

  13. KANDUNGAN KATEKIN DAN KUALITAS (WARNA AIR SEDUHAN, FLAVOR, KENAMPAKAN ENAM KLON TEH (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze DI KETINGGIAN YANG BERBEDA

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    Suyadi Mitrowihardjo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Catechins Content and Quality (Colour, Flavor, Appearance of Six Tea Clones (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze at Different Altitude Growings  ABSTRAK Penelitian bertujuan untuk mendapatkan informasi klon-klon yang dapat memberikan katekin dan kualitas hasil yang tinggi yang diharapkan bermanfaat sebagai arahan perbaikan dalam pengembangan tanaman teh ke depan. Ketinggian tempat tumbuh (1200 – 1300 m dari permukaan laut dan 700 – 900 m dari permukaan laut yang diduga berpengaruh terhadap kualitas hasil juga dievaluasi, karena terkait dengan ketersediaan lahan pengembangan. Analisis catechin (C, epicatechin (EC, epigallocatechin (EGC, epicatechin gallate (ECG, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG dilakukan dengan metode HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography, sedang evaluasi kualitas (warna air seduhan, flavor, kenampakan dilakukan oleh tiga orang tester teh bersertifi kat. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa total katekin yang tinggi diperlihatkan TRI 2025, PGL 10, GMB 9 di lokasi ketinggian 1200-1300 m dpl, dan total katekin tinggi juga diperlihatkan PGL 15, GMB 9, dan PGL 10 di lokasi ketinggian 700 – 900 m dpl. Skor warna air seduhan tidak menunjukkan perbedaan antar klon maupun antar lokasi, namun skor flavor GMB 7 dan PGL 15 unggul di lokasi atas maupun di lokasi bawah. Ada kecenderungan skor fl avor lebih unggul di lokasi bawah dibanding dengan lokasi atas. Skor kenampakan ampas setelah teh diseduh tinggi untuk PGL 15, TRI 2025, dan GMB 9 di lokasi atas, sedang TRI 2025 tinggi di lokasi bawah. Serupa dengan skor fl avor, skor kenampakan ampas teh berkecenderungan unggul di lokasi bawah. Kata kunci: Teh, ketinggian tempat, katekin, kualitas (warna air seduhan, fl avor, kenampakan  ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to fi nd out high catechins content and quality of six tea clones which might contribute to tea clone improvements in the future. Altitudes growing (1200 – 1300 m above sea level and 700 – 900 m above sea level which

  14. Efecto de distintos tratamientos de conservación en la actividad antirradicalaria de alcaparras (Capparis spinosa L. cultivadas en Santiago del Estero, Argentina

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    Evangelina Adela González

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa L. es un arbusto cuyos botones florales, conocidos con el nombre de alcaparras, tienen una amplia aplicación en la gastronomía. Las alcaparras se comercializan en distintas presentaciones de acuerdo a los tratamientos de conservación a los que son sometidas. Se estudiaron posibles variaciones en la actividad antirradicalaria de alcaparras argentinas, como resultado de diferentes métodos de procesamiento en relación con el contenido de flavonoides. Se analizaron botones conservados en vinagre y secados en sal, comparándose los valores obtenidos con los botones frescos y secados en estufa a 55 °C. Paralelamente, con el objetivo de explorar nuevas fuentes de sustancias antioxidantes, se analizaron también las hojas de la planta. Los resultados en cuanto a la determinación de flavonoides indicaron que el contenido total en botones frescos correspondió a 37 mg/g de materia seca mientras que en hojas frescas el valor fue de 23 mg/g de materia seca. El contenido de rutina en ambas muestras correspondió a un 86,5 y 95,6 % del contenido total de flavonoides, para botones y hojas frescas, respectivamente. La actividad antirradicalaria, determinada por el método de decoloración del radical 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidracilo, mostró correlación con el contenido de flavonoides, siendo mayor para botones frescos con un valor equivalente a 46,7 mg/g de muestra seca. En cuanto al efecto de los tratamientos de conservación sobre los botones florales, se observó que la actividad antirradicalaria decrece en el siguiente orden: botones frescos > conservados en vinagre > secados a 55 °C > secados en sal. La mayor retención de la actividad antirradicalaria se observó en el tratamiento de conservación en vinagre, correspondiendo a un 62 % respecto a la actividad del material fresco. Los resultados indicaron que los botones florales al igual que las hojas son una importante fuente de flavonoides, especialmente rutina, incluso despu

  15. Efecto de distintos tratamientos de conservación en la actividad antirradicalaria de alcaparras (Capparis spinosa L. cultivadas en Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina Adela González

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Capparis spinosa L. es un arbusto cuyos botones florales, conocidos con el nombre de alcaparras, tienen una amplia aplicación en la gastronomía. Las alcaparras se comercializan en distintas presentaciones de acuerdo a los tratamientos de conservación a los que son sometidas. Se estudiaron posibles variaciones en la actividad antirradicalaria de alcaparras argentinas, como resultado de diferentes métodos de procesamiento en relación con el contenido de flavonoides. Se analizaron botones conservados en vinagre y secados en sal, comparándose los valores obtenidos con los botones frescos y secados en estufa a 55 °C. Paralelamente, con el objetivo de explorar nuevas fuentes de sustancias antioxidantes, se analizaron también las hojas de la planta. Los resultados en cuanto a la determinación de flavonoides indicaron que el contenido total en botones frescos correspondió a 37 mg/g de materia seca mientras que en hojas frescas el valor fue de 23 mg/g de materia seca. El contenido de rutina en ambas muestras correspondió a un 86,5 y 95,6 % del contenido total de flavonoides, para botones y hojas frescas, respectivamente. La actividad antirradicalaria, determinada por el método de decoloración del radical 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidracilo, mostró correlación con el contenido de flavonoides, siendo mayor para botones frescos con un valor equivalente a 46,7 mg/g de muestra seca. En cuanto al efecto de los tratamientos de conservación sobre los botones florales, se observó que la actividad antirradicalaria decrece en el siguiente orden: botones frescos > conservados en vinagre > secados a 55 °C > secados en sal. La mayor retención de la actividad antirradicalaria se observó en el tratamiento de conservación en vinagre, correspondiendo a un 62 % respecto a la actividad del material fresco. Los resultados indicaron que los botones florales al igual que las hojas son una importante fuente de flavonoides, especialmente rutina, incluso despu

  16. Effect of vegetable oils on the growth and spinosad biosynthetic potency of Saccharopolyspora spinosa%植物油对刺糖多孢菌生长及其合成多杀菌素能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马坤; 裘娟萍; 赵春田

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of vegetable oils on the growth and spinosad biosynthetic potency of Saccharopolyspora spinosa and explore new methods to improve the yield of spinosad,six kinds of vegetable oils,including sunflower oil,peanut oil,soybean oil,sesame oil, olive oil and rapeseed oil were screened. To study their influence on the growth,the lipase activity and the spinosad synthetic potency of S. spinosa,different vegetable oils were added to the fermentation medium as partial carbon sources,respectively. In addition,the temporal transcriptional profiles of the lipase gene and some selected genes in the spinosad biosynthetic pathway were examined by RT-PCR. The results indicated that the effects of different vegetable oils on the growth of S. spinosa and the production of spinosad varied significantly,which were that rapeseed oil ﹥olive oil ﹥peanut oil ﹥sesame oil ﹥sunflower oil ﹥soybean oil. The rapeseed oil was conducive to the induction of lipase expression,the delay of the decline phase of S. spinosa and the extension of the spinosad synthetic period. And the lipase activity,the biomass and the yield of spinosad were improved by 310. 09%, 8. 97% and 33. 94%,respectively. The transcriptional intensity of lipase gene and spinosad synthetic genes were also promoted. Thus the rapeseed oil was the optimal candidate of auxiliary carbon sources among the selected vegetable oils.%为研究不同种类植物油对刺糖多孢菌生长及其合成多杀菌素能力的影响,探索提高多杀菌素产量的方法,在发酵培养基中分别添加葵花油、花生油、大豆油、芝麻油、橄榄油和菜籽油,研究了其对菌体生长、脂肪酶活性和多杀菌素产量的影响,并利用RT-PCR对脂肪酶基因及多杀菌素合成相关基因的转录水平进行分析。结果表明:6种供试植物油对菌体生长和多杀菌素产量的影响程度不同,依次为菜籽油﹥橄榄油﹥花生油﹥芝麻油﹥

  17. 基于均匀设计法对酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分的配伍研究%Uniform Designed Research on the Active Ingredients Assembling of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae for Anti-depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭蕾

    2014-01-01

    Objective To screen out the optimized compatibility proportion of three active ingredients of semen ziziphi spinosae foranti-depression.Methods Groups were ar anged fol owing uniform design. The forced swimming test,tail suspension test were car ied out to determine theanti-depressantactivity in mice.Mice immobility duration in forced swimming test and tail suspension test were observed.Results The optimized dosage of total fat y oil was 10mg/kg,total flavonoids was 100mg/kg and total saponins was 10mg/kg.Conclusion It would be possible to use uniform design combined with pharmacodynamics method in defining the optimized compatibility of active ingredients of semen ziziphi spinosae.%目的优选酸枣仁中3种抗抑郁有效组分的最佳配伍比例。方法根据均匀设计法进行分组,采用小鼠强迫游泳实验和悬尾实验,用小鼠不动时间作为药效学评价指标。结果酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分的最优配伍为总脂肪油10mg/Kg,总黄酮100mg/Kg,总皂苷10mg/Kg。验证实验证明,酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分的最佳配伍组合抗抑郁疗效确切。结论应用均匀设计法与药效学相结合确定酸枣仁活性组分配伍的方法是可行的。

  18. 酸枣仁汤对DL-4-氯苯基丙氨酸所致失眠的药效学研究%The Research into Efficacy of Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae in Treating Insomnia due to DL-4-chlorobenzene alanine of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军武; 田凡; 邹文信; 张亚宁; 张胜威

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the pharmacological action mechanism of Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae in treating insomnia due to DL-4-chlorobenzene alanine of rats.Methods:Fifty rats were randomly divided into the normal control group,the model group,the diazepam group,the group of large-dosage Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae,and the group of small-dosage Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae,with 10 cases in each group.They were fed adaptively for 2 days,then given medicine and their mass was measured each day.The ones in the group of large-dosage Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae were given 12 g · kg-1 of Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae for gavage,while the ones in the group of small-dosage Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae were given 6 g·kg-1 of Decoction of Semen Zizipbi Spinosae,the ones in the diazepam group were given 1 mg · kg-1 of diazepam,the ones in the normal control group,the model group were given the same volume of distilled water through administration by gavage according to body mass.The model of rats' insomnia due to DL-4-chlorobenzene alanine was established.Then the influence of Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae on the number of independent activities of rats with insomnia was observed.The contents of 5-HT,5 HIAA,GABA,GLU,NA of the brain were detected by using Elisa method.Results:Compared with the model group,the number of independent activities of rats in the diazepam group,the group of large-dosage Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae,and the group of small-dosage Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae,was higher than that of the model control group,but there were no significant differences between them (P>0.05).The contents of 5-HT,5 HIAA,GABA,GLU,NA of the brain in the group of large-dosage Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae,and the group of small-dosage Decoction of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae had obvious changes,but compared with the model group,the differences between them had statistical significance (P<0.05).Conclusion:The group

  19. Studies on the phlorotannins of Sargassum thunbeergii Kuntze against bacteria and fungi%鼠尾藻多酚提取纯化及其抗菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘尊英; 王晓梅; 梁晓红; 张建婷

    2007-01-01

    为了获得具有抗菌活性的天然海洋生物活性物质,利用褐藻门马尾藻属的鼠尾藻(Sargassum thunbeergii Kuntze)乙醇提取物,通过对靶菌Escherichia coli,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Bacillus subtilis,Stapgylococcus aureus,Botrytis cinerea和Penicillium expansum的抑制率来评价其抗菌活性.结果表明,鼠尾藻提取物有很强的抗细菌和抗真菌活性,抑制Escherichia coli,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Bacillus subtilis和Staphylococcus aureus生长的最小抑菌浓度(MIC)为5~12 mg·m-1,抑制Botrytis cinerea和Penicillium expansum真菌生长的MIC为12~16 mg·mL-1.采用10 mg·mL-1的多酚处理草莓,其发病率和病斑直径分别比对照低28.4%和47.6%.

  20. Study on Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis for Extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae%酸枣仁提取物定性定量分析方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕福钧; 林彤; 江英桥

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish thin layer chromatography(TLC)method for identifying the extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, and to develop a method of high performance liquid chromatography- evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD)for the simultaneous determination of jujuboside A,jujuboside B and spinosin in the extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae. Methods N-butanol saturated with water was used as solvent system and silica gel G was used as stationary phase for the identification of extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae. HPLC-ELSD method was adopted for the quantitative analysis. The analysis was performed on a Kromasil C18 column(200 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm)with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile(A)-water(B)by gradient elution(0~15 min,20 %A→40 %A;15~22 min,40 %A;22~24 min,40 % A→80 % A;24~30 min,80 % A→100 % A;30~40 min,100 % A) at 25 ℃ with a flow rate of 1.0 mL·min-1. The evaporative light scattering detector was set at 50 ℃,and the decay gradient was set at 6. Results The TLC method was good for the identification of extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae. The linear range was 0.105~1.68 μg (r=0.9998)for jujuboside A ,0.0743~1.1885 μg(r=0.9995)for jujuboside B,and 0.2972~4.757μg (r=0.9992)for spinosin. The average recoveries(n=6) of three components were 97.6 %,99.9% and 104.8 % and RSD was 1.2 %,1.9 %and 1.0 %,respectively. Conclusion The TLC method is rapid and stable. The HPLC-ELSD method is accurate and reproducible. The established methods are suitable for the identification and quantitative determination of the extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae.%目的:建立酸枣仁提取物薄层色谱鉴别方法及高效液相色谱-蒸发光散射检测法(HPLC-ELSD)同时测定酸枣仁皂苷A、B和斯皮诺素含量的方法。方法以水饱和正丁醇为展开剂,采用硅胶G板进行定性鉴别;采用HPLC-ELSD法进行定量测定,Kromasil C18色谱柱(200 mm×4.6 mm,5μm);流动相为乙腈(A)-水(B),梯度洗脱(0

  1. Determination of the contents of gallic acid and rutin in Capparis spinosa L .seeds by HPLC%HPLC法测定维药刺山柑种子中没食子酸和芦丁的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静; 美丽万·阿不都热依木

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立刺山柑种子中没食子酸和芦丁的含量测定方法。方法采用Phnomenex色谱柱(250 mm ×4.6 mm ,5μm),以乙腈-2 mL · L -1磷酸溶液为流动相,流速为1.0 mL · min-1,检测波长为254 nm ,梯度洗脱。结果没食子酸在1.4~14.0μg、芦丁在1.4~28.0μg范围内呈良好的线性关系,没食子酸平均回收率为99.9%,RSD为2.0%;芦丁平均回收率为100.6%, RSD为1.3%。结论 HPLC法测定没食子酸和芦丁的含量,方法简便可行,重复性和分离效果好,可为刺山柑的进一步开发利用及质量控制提供依据。%Objective To determine of the contents of gallic acid and rutin in Capparis spinosa L .seeds .Methods The separation was performed on a Phnomennex ODS(250 mm × 4 .6 mm ,5 μm) chromatographic column ,with acetonitrile-2 mL · L -1 phosph-pric acid solution as the mobile phase .The flow rate was 1 .0 mL · min-1 ,the detection wavelength was 254 nm ,and the column temperature was 30 ℃ .Results The linear ranges of gallic acid and rutin were 1 .4-14 .0μg ,1 .4-28 .0μg with the correlation coef-ficient 0.999 5(n=6) ,0 .999 7(n=7) ,and the average recoveries were 99 .9% (RSD=2 .0% ) ,100 .6% (RSD=1 .3% ) ,respective-ly .Conclusion The method is simple and reproducible ,and could be used for C .spinosa L .further development ,utilization and quality control .

  2. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegahakumbura, M. K.; Wambulwa, M. C.; Thapa, K. K.; Li, M. M.; Möller, M.; Xu, J. C.; Yang, J. B.; Liu, B. Y.; Ranjitkar, S.; Liu, J.; Li, D. Z.; Gao, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea is the world’s most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and domestication history of cultivated tea in both China and India. Based on a total of 392 samples, high levels of genetic diversity were observed for all tea types in both countries. The cultivars clustered into three distinct genetic groups (i.e. China tea, Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea) based on STRUCTURE, PCoA and UPGMA analyses with significant pairwise genetic differentiation, corresponding well with their geographical distribution. A high proportion (30%) of the studied tea samples were shown to possess genetic admixtures of different tea types suggesting a hybrid origin for these samples, including the Cambod type. Conclusions We demonstrate that Chinese Assam tea is a distinct genetic lineage from Indian Assam tea, and that China tea sampled from India was likely introduced from China directly. Our results further indicate that China type tea, Chinese Assam type tea and Indian Assam type tea are likely the result of three independent domestication events from three separate regions across China and India. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of genetic stocks, as well as future breeding programs. PMID:27218820

  3. Alterações na arquitetura típica de Tipuana tipu (Benth. O. Kuntze na arborização de ruas de Curitiba, Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Bobrowski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509810540A estrutura e os equipamentos urbanos podem restringir o correto desenvolvimento das árvores e de sua arquitetura típica. A Tipuana tipu (Benth. O. Kuntze (tipuana tem sido podada de forma contínua por ser uma espécie de grande porte e por estar entre as mais plantadas na cidade de Curitiba. Por conta disso, o presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a alteração da arquitetura típica de Tipuana tipu na arborização de ruas de Curitiba, por meio de delineamento inteiramente casualizado contendo uma parcela testemunha composta por 6 árvores, um tratamento com 6 árvores sob fiação e outro com 6 árvores em ruas livres de fiação. A partir de fotografias horizontais das árvores foram obtidas variáveis dendrométricas, tendo por base uma escala métrica acoplada à altura do DAP. Assim, foram calculados índices morfométricos para descrever relações interdimensionais para a espécie, em árvores sem poda (testemunha e em árvores podadas (tratamentos. Os resultados demonstraram que as podas de elevação alteram a arquitetura típica da tipuana modificando seu contorno e sua forma, além de prejudicar seu efeito estético. Os índices que podem expressar as alterações, de forma significativa (p<0,05, foram: índice de abrangência, índice de saliência, ângulo de copa, proporção de copa e relação HR/HP.

  4. Research Progress in Caffeine Metabolism and Low Caffeine Content Germplasm Breeding of Tea Plants ( Camellia sinenesis (L.) O.Kuntze)%茶树咖啡碱代谢及低咖啡碱茶树育种研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴华玲; 陈栋; 李家贤

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine is one of the most important secondary metabolic products in tea plants (Camellia sinenesis (L.)0. Kuntze), which makes up 2-5% of the dry weight of fresh tea leaves broadly. Caffeine acts as a stimulant to nerves to get rid of fatigue, and to improve cardiovascular system. But high intake of caffeine can lead to adverse effects on human health. So, it is important to study the molecular mechanism of caffeine metabolism pathway in tea plants and to breed low caffeine content tea germplasm. In this study, the advances of research on tea caffeine were summarized from metabolic pathway and low caffeine content tea germplasm breeding. Finally, the problems and possible directions for these research areas were discussed.%咖啡碱是茶树中最重要的次生代谢产物之一,一般为茶叶干物质重的2%~5%.咖啡碱具有兴奋神经、祛除疲劳及增加心血管系统活动等保健功能,但摄入过高含量咖啡碱也会引起副作用,因此,研究茶树咖啡碱 代谢途径及其分子机理,培育低咖啡碱茶树品种具有非常重要的意义.本文综述了茶树咖啡碱的合成与分解代谢及其关键酶、以及近年来低咖啡碱茶树育种等方面的研究进展,并对这些研究领域目前存在的问题和今后努力的方向进行了讨论和展望.

  5. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea extracts and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Cyprus, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea extracts and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of body weight, is a beneficial physiological effect for overweight subjects. One human intervention study from which no conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim was provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea extracts and a reduction in body weight.

  6. A NEW ANGULAR FURANOFLAVONOL RHAMNOSIDE FROM SEEDS OF ZIZIPHUS JUJUBA VAR.SPINOSA(BUNGE) HU%酸枣仁中一个新的角型呋喃黄酮苷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少敏; 毕志明; 李萍; 叶文才; 易玲

    2005-01-01

    A new flavonol rhamnoside was isolated from the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba var.spinosa(Bunge) Hu.The process was as follows:70% EtOH extract of the seeds of this plant was successively partitioned with petroleum ether,ethyl acetate and n-BuOH;then the ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to silica gel column chromatography followed by Sephadex LH 20 column chromatography,to afford the compound.On the basis of spectral analysis and acid hydro-lysis,the structure was confirmed to be an angular furanoflavonol rhamnoside,which is a novel compound,named spinorhamnoside.%对鼠李科植物酸枣仁的化学成分进行了研究,分离得到一个新的角型呋喃黄酮苷类化合物.研究流程如下:药材的70%乙醇提取物依次用石油醚、乙酸乙酯和正丁醇萃取,乙酸乙酯部分再经过反复硅胶柱层析后得到一个黄酮苷类化合物.经酸水解和波谱分析,其结构确证为一个新的角型呋喃黄酮鼠李糖苷,命名为spinorhamnoside.

  7. Purificação parcial de inibidores de tripsina de sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea e Swartzia polyphylla e o efeito dos extratos protéicos sobre fungos fitopatogênicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bariani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sementes de leguminosas apresentam alta concentração de inibidores de tripsina; estas proteínas estão envolvidas no metabolismo celular e também em mecanismos de defesa vegetal. A fim de confirmar ou não, a possível ação fungicida destas proteínas a partir de extratos de sementes de leguminosas arbóreas, o objetivo deste estudo foi detectar inibidores de tripsina em sementes de Caesalpinia ferrea (CfTI e Swartzia polyphylla (SpTI e testar os extratos contra os fungos fitopatogênicos Colletotrichum guaranicola, Corynespora cassiicola, Fusarium oxysporum e Sclerotium rolfsii, avaliando o crescimento micelial e a esporulação. Para tanto, amostras do material biológico vegetal, sementes finamente pulverizadas, foram submetidas à extração em NaCl 150 mM. Os extratos protéicos foram parcialmente purificados em coluna Sephadex G-100, submetidos à detecção dos inibidores e SDS-PAGE (12,5% e, utilizados nos bioensaios contra os fungos. O perfil eletroforético revelou uma única banda em CfTI e oito bandas em SpTI. Os extratos de C. ferrea e S. polyphylla exibiram efeito na diminuição da esporulação dos fungos testados, mas S. rolfsii foi inibido apenas por C. ferrea. Quanto ao crescimento micelial, os dois extratos tiveram efeito sobre F. oxysporum e S. rolfsii, ao passo que C. guaranicola foi inibido apenas por S. polyphylla, e C. cassiicola por C. ferrea. Concluiu-se que sementes de C. ferrea e S. polyphylla apresentam inibidores de tripsina. Além disso, os resultados sugerem que estas espécies de leguminosas arbóreas são promissoras no que concerne à prospecção de fungicidas naturais, uma vez que os extratos diminuíram o crescimento micelial e a esporulação de C. guaranicola, C. cassiicola, F. oxysporum e S. rolfsii.

  8. Direct Seeding Afforestation of Leucaena leucocephala, Caesalpinia sappan and Dodonaea viscose in Rocky Desertification Areas%石漠化地区银合欢、苏木、车桑子直播造林试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯远瑞; 申文辉; 黄宏珊; 黄春妮; 庞世龙; 何琴飞

    2015-01-01

    对银合欢、苏木、车桑子3个树种进行直播造林试验研究,结果表明,不同树种的树高、胸径、单株材积和造林保存率差异显著。其中银合欢生长量最大,树高年平均生长量达1.2 m以上,年平均胸径大于0.9 cm,保存率高达100%。不同树种林下枯落物总蓄积量及有效拦蓄量也差异较大,其中银合欢林下枯落物总蓄积量最多,为5.07 t/hm2,车桑子的有效拦蓄量最大,为4.39 t/hm2,银合欢与车桑子的有效拦蓄量相近,为4.34 t/hm2。综合认为银合欢在石漠化地区直播造林效果较好,可推广应用。%Direct seeding afforestation experiments were conducted in karst desertification areas with three tree spe-cies, namely Leucaena leucocephala, Caesalpinia sappan and Dodonaea viscose.The result showed that there were significant differences among the species in tree height , diameter at breast height ( DBH) , individual volume and survival ratio .L.leucocephala had the highest growth , with average annual height increment >1.2 m, average annual DBH increment >0.9 cm, and survival ratio up to 100%.There were great variations among the species in understory litter volumes and effective retaining contents ( ERC ) . L.leucocephala had the most litter volume (5.07 t/hm2), D.viscose had the highest ERC (4.39 t/hm2), while L.leucocephala had a slightly lower ERC (4.34 t/hm2 ) .Comprehensive evaluation showed that direct seeding of L.leucocephala had better impacts on the rocky desertification area .

  9. ExperimentaI Study of the Hypnotic Effect of the CompatibiIity of Sedum aizoon L.and Semen Ziziphus Spinosa by Increase-decrease BaseIine Geometric Proportion Design Method%基于基线等比增减法的养心草配伍酸枣仁安神药效的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙; 林珠灿; 张睿卓; 郭素华

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT:OBJECTIVE To study the optimal proportion of the compatibility of Sedum aizoon L .and Semen Ziziphus Spinosa on hypnotic effect .METHODS According to the increase-decrease baseline geometric proportion design method , different proportion compatibility of Sedum aizoon L .and Semen Ziziphus Spinosa were optimized through observing the pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice.RESULTS Compared with the control group,prescrip-tions 3,4 could extent the sleep time significantly and increased the sleep rate (P<0.01),and the prescriptions 3 was best.CONCLUSION Prescriptions 3 is the best proportion of the compatibility of Sedum aizoon L .and Semen Ziziphus Spinosa.on hypnotic effects.%目的:优选养心草与酸枣仁配伍安神作用的最佳配比。方法采用基线等比增减法拟定养心草与酸枣仁不同比例配伍,观察其对小鼠协同戊巴比妥钠睡眠实验的影响。结果与空白组相比,处方3,4能显著延长小鼠的睡眠时间和增加小鼠入睡率(P<0.01),且以处方3药效最佳。结论处方3为养心草配伍酸枣仁安神作用的最佳比例。

  10. Study on Displacement Control of Flaveria bidentis Kuntze with Alfalfa and Sunflower%紫花苜蓿和向日葵对黄顶菊的替代控制机理分析

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    张瑞海; 付卫东; 张国良; 张衍雷

    2012-01-01

    黄顶菊是2001年新发现的外来入侵杂草,替代控制是控制其蔓延的主要途径之一.为探寻对黄顶菊有替代控制作用的植物,该研究通过室内和大田试验,分析了紫花苜蓿Medicago sativa和向日葵Helianthus annuus对黄顶菊Flaveria bidentis的竞争效应.结果表明:黄顶菊水浸提液对2种植物的种子萌发无抑制作用;而紫花苜蓿水浸提液对黄顶菊的种子萌发具有抑制作用,体积质量分数为0.1g/mL时,黄顶菊种子发芽率降低到32%;紫花苜蓿产生的化感物质主要抑制黄顶菊种子胚根的生长.向日葵水浸提液对黄顶菊种子萌发影响不明显.向日葵与低密度紫花苜蓿和黄顶菊混种,能够使黄顶菊株高、分枝数和生物量受到明显的抑制,并能使每平方米黄顶菊植株数量显著地降低.%Flaveria bidentis Kuntze is a new invasive weed discovered in 2001 in China, and displacement control is a main approach to checking its spread. In a study reported in this paper, the effect of competition between F. bidentis and alfalfa or sunflower was investigated in the lab and in the field. The results showed that the germination of alfalfa and sunflower seeds treated with the aqueous extract of F. bidentis was not inhibited, but the germination of F. bidentis seeds was suppressed by the extract of alfalfa. F. bidentis seeds treated with alfalfa extract at 0. lg/mL gave a germination rate of 32% only. Further investigation revealed that the allelopathic substance produced by alfalfa retarded the growth of the radicle of F. bidentis while the extract of sunflower had no such effect. Branch number, plant height, biomass and plant density of F. bidentis were markedly restrained by low density alfalfa and sunflower planted in the field.

  11. 均匀设计法优选酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分配伍研究%Compatibility of Effective Antidepressant Components of semen Ziziphi spinosae Based on Uniform Design Method

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    赵启铎; 舒乐新; 高岚

    2014-01-01

    Objective To optimize the best compatibility of effective antidepressant components (total fat oil, total flavonoids, total saponins) of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae. Methods 90 mice were randomly divided into 9 groups, the control group and administration A -H groups by the uniform design method. The mice forced swimming and the tail suspension test in each group were observed. With the immobility time at latter 4 min within 6 min as the evaluating index, the best compatibility of effective antidepressant components was screened. The pharmaceutical effects of obtained optimal compatibility of the effective components were to be proved by the comparison and verification experiment. Results The immobility time of mice during the forced swimming test in the administration A, B, C, F, H groups were significantly less than those in the control group( P < 0. 05); the immobility time of mice during the tail suspension test in the administration A, B, D, E, F, H groups were significantly less than those in the control group( P < 0. 05, P < 0. 01). After the multivariate statistical analysis, the optimal compatibility of effective antidepressant components of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae was total fat oil 10 mg / kg, to-tal flavonoids 100 mg / kg and total saponins 10 mg / kg. Conclusion The compatibility of effective components determined by the combina-tion of the uniform design, mathematical statistics and pharmacodynamics is feasible, the pharmaceutical effect of optimized active component compatibility reaches or surpasses that of the original medicinal materials.%目的:优选酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分(总脂肪油、总黄酮、总皂苷)的最佳配伍。方法采用均匀设计法将90只小鼠随机分为9组,分别为对照组及给药 A ~ H 组,观察各组小鼠强迫游泳和悬尾试验情况,以小鼠在6 min 中后4 min 内不动时间为评价指标,筛选酸枣仁抗抑郁有效组分的最佳配伍,对所得有效组分最佳配伍的药效进

  12. 旱生植物刺山柑不同种群茎叶的解剖学研究%Anatomy of stem and leaf in different populations of Capparis spinosa in China

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    刘静; 赵红艳; 马淼

    2011-01-01

    刺山柑常分布于极端干旱的戈壁与砾石山坡,然而其适应干旱环境的解剖学机理却未见报道.对分布于新疆石河子、新疆库尔勒以及西藏札达的3个刺山柑种群茎、叶材料进行了比较解剖学研究.结果表明:不同种群材料均具有适应旱生环境的典型结构特征:茎表皮有表皮毛和发达的角质层,皮层较厚,维管组织发达,髓明显;叶为双栅型等面叶,上、下表皮均有气孔分布,气孔密集,但以下表皮气孔数目为多,角质层、栅栏组织、输导组织十分发达.随着生境干旱程度的加剧,其茎、叶的旱生结构特征也愈加显著.由于库尔勒的刺山柑种群分布于干旱石质山坡的阳坡,年降水量只有50 mm,而夏季岩石表面温度却高达80℃.因此,该种群植株的茎、叶比其它种群具有更为显著的旱生结构.%Capparis spinosa often lives on extremely arid Gobi desert or arid stony mountain, but there were few works about the relationship between its anatomical structure and its adaptation to arid living condition. In this paper, anatomical structures of stem and leaf of the cappers in different populations(Shihezi,Korla in Xinjiang,and Zha-da in Tibet)were studied. The results showed that the anatomical structure was highly adapted to its arid environment: there were epidermal hairs and obvious cuticle on the epidermis of stems,and also developed cortex, pith and vascular tissue in stems. The leaf was isobilateral with double palisade tissue. Dense stomata existed on both upper and lower epidermis,there were significant cuticle,palisade tissue and conducting tissue in leaf. Its characteristics of xerophil were more obvious as available water condition in soil became worse in natural habitats. C. Spinosa in Korla population was of much significant xeromorphic traits than that in other populations because of its severe arid habitat.

  13. 胸腔镜下胸交感干并旁路纤维切断术治疗原发性手汗症29例%Twenty-nine cases primary palmar hyperhidrosis treatment by thoracoscopic thoracic sympathetic trunk and kuntz beam cut off

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    张东东; 洪丰; 江春苗

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨胸腔镜下胸交感干并旁路纤维切断术治疗原发性手汗症的疗效和预防术后并发症的措施.方法:回顾性分析29例原发性手汗症手术,对相关临床资料进行比较分析.结果:全组无手术死亡和严重并发症,术后手掌多汗症状消失,无复发病例,术后有2例出现轻度代偿性出汗,1例出现中度代偿性出汗,无重度代偿性出汗病例.结论:胸腔镜下胸交感干并旁路纤维切断术是治疗原发性手汗症安全有效的微创方法.%Aim: Explore the treatment of primary palmar hyperhidrosis efficacy and prevention of postoperative complications by thoracoscopic thoracic sympathetic trunk and kuntz beam amputation. Methods; Twenty-nine cases of primary palmar hyperhidrosis symptoms underwent surgery and clinical data were analysed. Results; No operative death and serious complications, palm hyperhidrosis symptoms disappeared postoperatively, no recurrence, 2 cases of mild compensatory sweating, 1 case of moderate compensatory sweating, no severe compensatory sweating cases. Conclusion:Thoracoscopic thoracic sympathetic trunk and kuntz beam amputation is safe and effective minimal invasive method for the treatment of primary palmar hyperhidrosis.

  14. 维药野西瓜对佐剂性关节炎小鼠治疗效果及机制研究%Research on anti-inflammatory mechanism on the adjuvant arthritis mouse model by Uighur medicine Capparis Spinosa L

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    周文涛; 顾仁艳; 王家平; 张秋梅; 刘辉; 陈蓉; 何佳颖

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is to observe the anti-inflamatory effect of Uighur Medicine Capparis Spinosa L.on adjuvant ar-thritis(AA) in mice and to explore its mechanism.Methods 40 male Kunming mice were randomly divided into blank control group, model group, Tripterygium wilfordii group ( Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycoside 0.01mg/kg) and Capparis Spinosa L. group.The mice in every group except blank control group were made into AA models by complete Freund's adju-vant.Blank control group and model group were given normal saline by intragastric administration, and Tripterygium wilfordii group and Capparis Spinosa L.group were given respective drugs by intragastric administration.The changes of ankle swelling, pathology of anklebone and the level of IL-6 and TNF-αin serum in the mice were observed after 25 days’ intragastric administra-tion.Results After 25 days'intervention with the drugs, compared with model group, ankle swelling, pathology of anklebone of the mice in Tripterygium wilfordii group and Capparis Spinosa L.group were all improved (P<0.05), there was no signifi-cant difference between the two groups.Conclusion Capparis Spinosa L.has good antiarthritic effects on AA in the mice, the mechanism may be associated with its significantly decreasing effect on the levels of IL-6 and TNF-αin serum.%目的:观察维药野西瓜治疗佐剂性关节炎(AA)小鼠的效果及机制。方法将40只雄性昆明鼠随机分为空白对照组、模型组、雷公藤组(雷公藤多甙片0.01mg/kg)及野西瓜组。除空白对照组外,其余均采用完全弗氏佐剂制作AA小鼠模型,空白对照组及模型组灌胃生理盐水,雷公藤组和野西瓜组分别灌胃相应药物,连续灌胃25d后,观察各组小鼠足肿胀、足踝关节组织病理变化及血清中白细胞介素-6(IL-6)、肿瘤坏死因子α(TNF-α)表达情况。结果药物干预25d后,与模型组比较,雷公藤组及野西瓜组小鼠足趾肿胀

  15. Antiproliferative activity of Vallaris glabra Kuntze (Apocynaceae

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    Siu Kuin Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our earlier study on the antiproliferative (APF activity of leaf extracts of ten Apocynaceae species showed that leaves of Vallaris glabra possessed strong and broad-spectrum properties. Materials and Methods: In this study, sequential extracts of leaves, flowers and stems, and fractions and isolated compounds from dichloromethane (DCM leaf extract of V. glabra were assessed for APF activity using the sulphorhodamine B (SRB assay. Apoptotic effect of MDA-MB-231 cancer cells treated with DCM leaf extract of V. glabra was studied using Hoechst 33342 dye and caspase colorimetry. Results: Both DCM extracts of leaves and flowers possessed broad-spectrum APF activity against HT-29, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SKOV-3 cancer cells. From DCM leaf extract, stearic acid (SA and ursolic acid (UA were isolated by column chromatography, and identified by NMR and MS analyses. APF activity of SA from DCM leaf extract displayed weak inhibitory activity and scientific literature showed UA has anticancer properties against those cancer cells used in this study. MDA-MB-231 cancer cells treated with DCM leaf extract and stained with Hoechst 33342 dye provided evidence that the extract had an apoptotic effect on the cells. Caspase colorimetry showed that the apoptotic effect involved activation of caspase-8, -9 and -3, but not caspase-6. Conclusion: The potential of V. glabra as a candidate species for anticancer drugs warrants further investigation.

  16. In Vitro Evaluation of Salt Tolerance of Ziziphus jujuba Mill.and Z.spinosa (Bunge) Hu%利用组织培养技术研究枣和酸枣耐盐性

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    徐呈祥; 马艳萍; 尚旭岚; 徐锡增

    2011-01-01

    以“金丝小枣”、“泗洪大枣”和酸枣枣头枝为试材,研究了基本培养基含NaCl 0、25、75mmol/L对它们初代培养、继代培养、生根培养效果的影响及多代转接培养后的耐盐性变化.结果表明,培养基中NaCl含量为25 mmol/L对3种试材微茎段组培繁殖效果影响甚微,但NaCl含量达75 mmol/L则产生显著抑制作用;抑制作用的主要表现在不同培养阶段有所不同,总体上对根系生长发育的影响大于对地上部分的影响;无论在何种培养阶段,3种试材的耐盐性均为酸枣>金丝小枣>泗洪大枣;盐胁迫下随培养代数增多,3种试材的耐盐性均表现出增强趋势,耐盐性提升幅度枣大于酸枣,耐盐性弱的泗洪大枣的提升幅度大于耐盐性强的金丝小枣.%Developing shoot segments of two famous cultivars of Chinese date, 'Jinsixiaozao' and 'Si-hongdazao', and sour date were used for in vitro investigation of the responses of Chinese date Ziz-iphus jujuba MilL and sour date Z. Spinosa (Bunge) Hu to salt stress and the influences of multi-generations of subcultures under salt stress on their salt tolerance. The basic media (MS medium) were added with NaCl at concentrations of 0, 25,75 mmol/L and used in primary cultures, sub-cultures and rooting cultures. The results indicated that the addition of 25 mmol/L of NaCl did not show significant effects on in vitro propagation of the three species, but 75 mmol/L NaCl exerted significant growth inhibitory effects which varied with the in vitro propagation stages. In general, root development was more significantly affected by salt than that of the upper parts. It was shown that the salt tolerance of the three materials in all stages of culture was as follows: sour date>' Jinsixiaozao' >'Sihongdazao'. In addition, the salt tolerance of the three materials tended to increase with more generations of sub-culture under salt-stress, and the increase was higher in Chinese date than in sour

  17. Anatomia foliar de Richterago Kuntze (Mutisieae, Asteraceae Leaf anatomy of Richterago Kuntze (Mutisieae, Asteraceae

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    Gladys Flávia de A. Melo-de-Pinna

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura interna da folha de espécies de Richterago mostrou-se bastante variável em relação à organização do mesofilo e à distribuição dos estômatos. Como caráter de valor taxonômico, apenas o tipo de tricoma tector foi utilizado nas relações entre R. arenaria e R. lanata,R. conduplicata e R. radiata, cujas folhas são morfologicamente semelhantes. Caracteres relacionados com adaptações ao ambiente xérico, como a ocorrência de extensões da bainha das unidades vasculares e traqueídes terminais, foram encontrados em todas as espécies. Hidatódios foram observados apenas nas duas espécies ribeirinhas (R. polymorpha e R. riparia, sendo o primeiro registro de hidatódios em representantes da tribo Mutisieae.Leaf anatomy of Richterago species revealed rather variability concerning mesophyll organization and stomata arrangement. As a character of taxonomic value, only non-glandular thricomes were used to compare R. arenaria and R. lanata,R. conduplicata and R. radiata, whose leaves are morphologically similar. Anatomical xeromorphic characters, e.g. the bundles sheath extensions and terminal tracheids were observed in all species. The waterside species (R. polymorpha e R. riparia showed hydathodes in the leaves, which represent the first record in Mutisieae.

  18. 麦芽糖转运相关基因的表达对刺糖多孢菌生长及多杀菌素合成的影响%Effects of Expression of Maltose Transport Related Genes on Cell Growth and Spinosad Production in Saccharopolyspora spinosa

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    黄颖; 赵晨; 张求学; 宋渊; 张晓琳

    2015-01-01

    多杀菌素(spinosad)为土壤放线菌刺糖多孢菌(Saccharopolyspora spinosa)经有氧发酵产生的次级代谢产物,是一种广谱、高效、低毒的生物杀虫剂,已在农药、兽药和卫生用药领域得到广泛应用.刺糖多孢菌对长效碳源淀粉的利用能力很低,这给多杀菌素的工业化发酵带来了困难.本研究在刺糖多孢菌高产菌株ASAGF73中表达阿维链霉菌(Streptomyces avermitilis)的麦芽糖转运系统基因(maltose transporter gene)malE、malF和malG,以提高菌株利用淀粉的能力.将整合型载体pSET 152∷malEFG通过接合转移转化ASAGF73,获得的转化子成功表达了malEFG基因.单一碳源发酵实验结果表明,转化子利用糊精和麦芽糖的能力显著提高.以糊精或麦芽糖为单一碳源的条件下,malEFG的表达显著促进了菌体生物量的提高,进而提高多杀菌素的产量.本研究对于以淀粉为主要碳源发酵生产多杀菌素的工艺研究具有理论指导意义及应用价值.

  19. ENRAIZAMENTO DE ESTACAS DE CAESALPINIA ECHINATA LAM. EM HIDROPONIA

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    Sérgio Valiengo Valeri

    2012-01-01

    ethanol solution containing 0, 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg L-1 of IBA during 5 seconds. The cuttings were maintained in the hydroponic system for 90 days and, for additional 90 days in plastic bags containing substrate (Plantmax® under intermittent mist. After 90 and 180 days of rooting, the percentage of cuttings that survived, the rooting percentage and the number and length of adventious root were evaluated. Cuttings should be treated with IBA at 100 mg L-1 for 14 hours and placed to root in a hydroponic system.

  20. Somatic Embryogenesis in Parana Pine (Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze

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    Santos André Luis Wendt dos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryogenic cultures of Araucaria angustifolia were induced from dominant and non-dominant zygotic embryos excised from immature seeds proceeding from three different genotypes and five harvest dates. Zygotic embryos were inoculated in inductive culture medium LP and BM supplemented with or without plant growth regulators 2,4-D (5 µM, BA (2 µM and Kin (2 µM. The genotype of the mother tree and the developmental explant stage affected the induction frequency. In the maintenance phase, embryogenic cultures were maintained at continuous repetitive cell cycles every 20 days in semi-solid or liquid medium. In the maturation phase the culture medium was supplemented with different types and levels of growth regulators, osmotic agents, carbohydrates and derived. Embryogenic cultures inoculated in culture medium supplemented with PEG 3350 (6 and 9%, maltose (6 and 9%, plus BA and Kin (1 µM each resulted in the progression of somatic embryos to globular and torpedo developmental stages.

  1. VEGETATIVE RESCUE AND CUTTINGS PROPAGATION OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze

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    Ivar Wendling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian pine or araucaria (Araucaria angustifolia is a coniferous tree with great economic, social and environmental importance in southern Brazil, being exploited for both wood production and for its edible pine nuts. However, no efficient cloning techniques are available and, therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of vegetative rescue methods for cuttings propagation of the species. Shoots/cuttings were generated in two ways: 26 years old trees underwent coppicing and 20 years old trees had the primary branches on the upper third of crown pruned at 2, 20 and 50 cm from the main trunk. Orthotropic shoots were rooted after application of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA at 0, 2, 4 and 6 g.L-1. Coppicing produced 47 cuttings per plant with 90% orthotropic shoots, while pruning resulted in 182 cuttings per plant with 44% orthotropic shoots. Rooting success indexes were low with no influence of IBA, although they are slightly superior to the ones available in the literature for the species, ranging from 12 to 30% for the coppice shoots and from 0 to 28% for the branches shoots. We conclude that both vegetative rescue techniques are viable and have potentially important applications. Coppicing is recommended for the propagation aiming the production of wood, while shoots derived from the side branches of the crown are more appropriate for seeds orchards formation.

  2. Effects of Herbal Pair of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and Albizia Julibrissin Flower on Quality of Life among Elderly Patients with Depression%对药酸枣仁-合欢花对老年抑郁症患者生活质量的影响

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    施学丽; 郭超峰; 范丽丽; 张永全; 黄克南; 蒋春雷

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察对药酸枣仁-合欢花对老年抑郁症患者生活质量的影响。方法:收集老年抑郁症病例70例,随机分为中药组和西药组,各35例。中药组服用酸枣仁-合欢花汤剂;西药组服用盐酸文拉法辛缓释片。两组分别于治疗前及治疗8周后进行HAMD抑郁量表、生活质量综合评定问卷(GQOLI-74)和副作用量表(TESS)评分。结果:治疗后两组间临床疗效无显著差异;生活质量综合评定方面:中药组患者躯体功能维度、心理功能维度及生活质量总分高于西药组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。物质生活维度、社会功能维度与西药组无显著差异;治疗后两组患者的HAMD评分、躯体功能维度、心理功能维度、社会功能维度、生活质量总分均高于治疗前,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。中药组TESS评分低于西药组,其不良反应主要为恶心呕吐。结论:酸枣仁-合欢花汤剂具有抗抑郁功效,能够改善老年抑郁患者的生活质量。%This study was aimed to observe the effects of herbal pair of Semen ziziphi spinosae (SZS) and A lbizia julibrissin flower (AJF) on the quality of life (QOL) among elderly patients with depression. A total of 70 elderly patients with depression were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. The Chinese medicine group (with 35 cases) was given SZS-AJF decoction, and the western medicine group (with 35 cases) was given venlafaxine hydrochloride sustained-release tablets. The HAMD scale score, QOL Assessment Questionnaire (GQOLI-74), and the Side-Effects Scale Score (TESS) were detected 8 weeks before and after the treatment. The results showed that there was no significant difference on the clinical efficacy between two groups. On the comprehensive assessment of QOL, the physical function dimension, mental function dimension and QOL total score of Chinese medicine group were higher than the western medicine group

  3. 对药酸枣仁-合欢花对抑郁患者认知功能及血清BDNF水平的影响%Effects of Herbal Pair of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and Albizia Julibrissin Flower on Cognitive Function and Serum BDNF among Depression Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施学丽; 郭超峰; 蒋春雷; 张永全

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to observe effects of herbal pair of semen Ziziphi Spinosae (SZS) and A lbizia Julib-rissin flower (AJF) on cognitive function and serum BDNF among depression patients. A total of 60 depression pa-tients were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. In the SZS-AJF group, 30 patients were administered with SZS-AJF decoction. In the control group, 30 patients were administered with venlafaxine hydrochloride sus-tained-release tablets. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the serum-brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were detected before treatment and after six weeks of treatment. The results showed that there were no significant differences on the HAMD score, WCST (Response Administered (Ra), Categories Completed (Cc), Correct Responses (Cr), Perseverative Errors (Pe), Non-perseverative Errors (Npe)), serum BDNF before and after treatment between two groups. Compared with pretreatment, HAMD score, Ra, Cc, Cr, serum BDNF were increased after treatment in both groups. The Pe and Npe were decreased after treatment. There was sta-tistical significance between pretreatment and posttreatment (P< 0.05, or P< 0.01). It was concluded that the herbal pair of SZS-AJF has anti-depressant effect. It can improve cognitive function of depression patients. The anti-de-pressant mechanism of herbal pair of SZS-AJF may be related to the increasing of serum BDNF level.%目的:观察对药酸枣仁-合欢花对抑郁症患者认知功能及血清脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)水平的影响。方法:收集抑郁症患者60例,随机分为两组。酸枣仁-合欢花组30例,服用酸枣仁-合欢花汤剂;盐酸文拉法辛组30例,口服盐酸文拉法辛缓释片。两组分别于治疗前及治疗6周后进行汉密顿抑郁量表(HAMD量表)评分、威斯康星卡片分类(WCST)测试及血清BDNF检测。结果:治疗前后两组间HAMD评分、WCST(总应答数、完成分

  4. IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITY OF ARGAN OIL (ARGANIA SPINOSA L

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    Youcef Necib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunomodulatory activity of Argan oil was evaluated on phagocytic activity by carbon clearance test. Adult Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, while animals of treatment group were given Argan oil at dose of: 2.5, 5 and 10 mL kg-1 by gavage respectively 10 days before injected the carbon ink suspension. In carbone clearance test, Argan oil exhibited significantly phagocytic index dose-dependent against control group, indicating stimulation of the reticulo-endothelial system. Present study thus reveals that argan oil holds promise as immunomodulatory agent, which act by stimulating dose dependent phagocytic function.

  5. Triterpenoids from Argania spinosa: 20 years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafchaouni-Moussaoui, Imane; Charrouf, Zoubida; Guillaume, Dom

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades, the argan tree has been the subject of intensive phytochemical investigation. If argan oil is the most known argan derivative, argan saponins are frequently considered as molecules presenting a strong economic potential. This review presents an update of the current research efforts on argan saponins from around the world. Research evidence suggests that arganine C can be considered as a lead compound for new antivirals.

  6. Superação da dormência em sementes de Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul Overcoming dormancy of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul

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    Edna Ursulino Alves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécies florestais com sementes duras freqüentemente apresentam consideráveis problemas para os viveiristas, porque seus tegumentos duros e impermeáveis à água dificultam e retardam a germinação. Por isso, desenvolveu-se este experimento em casa de vegetação no Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, com o objetivo de determinar metodologias para superar a dormência de sementes de catingueira. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes. As sementes foram submetidas a 12 tratamentos: testemunha - sementes intactas (T1, escarificação mecânica feita manualmente com lixa nº. 80 (T2, desponte - pequeno corte na região oposta à micrópila (T3, imersão no ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 6, 8 e 10 min (T4, T5 e T6, respectivamente, imersão em água nas temperaturas de 60, 70 e 80 ºC por 1 min (T7, T8 e T9, respectivamente e imersão em água fria por 24, 48 e 72 h (T10, T11 e T12, respectivamente. As sementes foram semeadas em bandejas plásticas com areia umedecida esterilizada. Através de avaliações diárias durante 21 dias, verificaram-se as características de porcentagem de emergência, primeira contagem de emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento e massa seca das plântulas. Os resultados evidenciaram que os tratamentos pré-germinativos promoveram a germinação das sementes de catingueira, e a escarificação manual com lixa, imersão em ácido sulfúrico concentrado por 8 e 10 min e imersão em água a 80 ºC por 1 min revelaram ser os métodos mais efetivos.Forest species with hard seeds often cause important problems for nursery managers because their hard and water impermeable seed coats hinder and delay germination. For this reason, an experiment was carried out to determine methodologies for overcoming dormancy of catingueira seeds, under greenhouse conditions, in the Center for Agricultural Sciences, of the Federal University of Paraíba. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design, with four replicates of 25 seeds/treatment. Seeds were subjected to 12 treatments: control - intact seeds (T1, mechanical scarification using fine sandpaper nº. 80 (T2, coating cutting in the opposite side of micropylar region (T3, immersion in sulfuric acid (98% for 6, 8 and 10 minutes (T4, T5 and T6, respectively, immersion in water at 60, 70 and 80ºC for one minute (T7, T8 and T9, respectively, immersion in water at room temperature for 24, 48 and 72 hours (T10, T11 and T12, respectively. The seeds were sown in plastic trays with sterilized humidified sand. Daily evaluations were carried out during 21 days observing characteristics of emergence percentage, emergence first count, emergence velocity index, height and dry matter weight of seedlings. The results demonstrated that germinative pre-treatments increased seed germination of catingueira seeds, and higher values were observed with manual scarification with sandpaper, immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid during eight and ten minutes and immersion in water at 80ºC for one minute were the most effective methods.

  7. Estudo químico e atividade antibacteriana do caule de Aristolochia esperanzae kuntze (Aristolochiaceae Chemical study and antibacterial activity of stem of Aristolochia esperanzae Kuntze (Aristolochiaceae

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    Alison G. Pacheco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ethanolic extract of the stem of A. esperanzae ethyl and methyl fatty acid esters, fatty acids, aristolochic I and II acids, and β-cubebin were isolated. In addiction asarinin, populifolic and 2-oxo-populifolic acids, aristolactams AIa and AII, and sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were also isolated and firstly described in the species. Asarinin and β-cubebin showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and aristolochic acid I against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocitogenes.

  8. Morfodiagnose da anatomia foliar e caulinar de Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze, Theaceae Leaf and stem anatomical morpho-diagnosis of Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze, Theaceae

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    Márcia R. Duarte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Camellia sinensis é um arbusto ou árvore de pequeno porte, de origem asiática, denominado de chá-da-índia, chá-verde ou chá-preto. Possui atividades antioxidante, antiinflamatória, antimicrobiana e hepatoprotetora. A comercialização dessa espécie é relevante, como droga farmacognóstica e insumo na indústria de bebidas. O presente trabalho trata da caracterização estrutural de folha e caule, de modo a contribuir na morfodiagnose para o controle de qualidade. Amostras do material vegetal foram fixadas, seccionadas e coradas com azul de astra e fucsina básica. Testes microquímicos usuais foram realizados. A folha apresenta estômatos anomocíticos na face abaxial, tricomas tectores unicelulares em ambas as superfícies, mesofilo dorsiventral, drusas de oxalato de cálcio, nervura central biconvexa e pecíolo plano-convexo, ambos percorridos por feixe vascular colateral. O caule, no nível analisado, possui epiderme unisseriada, camada subepidérmica de células colabadas, bainha esclerenquimática, estrato de células com paredes espessadas em U, organização vascular colateral e medula com células parenquimáticas e esclerenquimáticas. Esclereídes são encontradas na folha e no caule.Camellia sinensis is a shrub or small tree, of Asian origin and commonly called Chinese tea, green tea or black tea. This species has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and hepatic protective activities. Its trade is relevant, either as pharmacognostic drug or raw material in food industry. This work has dealt with the structural diagnosis of the leaf and stem, in order to contribute to its quality control. Samples of the botanical material were fixed, sectioned and stained with astra blue and basic fuchsine. Microchemical tests were also conducted. The leaf has anomocytic stomata on the abaxial side, unicellular non-glandular trichomes on both surfaces, dorsiventral mesophyll, calcium oxalate druses, biconvex midrib and plain-convex petiole, both traversed by a collateral vascular bundle. The stem, on the level analysed, shows uniseriate epidermis, sub-epidermal layer of dehydrated cells, sclerenchymatic sheath, strand of cells with U-thickened walls, collateral vascular organization and pith consisting of parenchymatic and sclerenchymatic cells. Sclereids are found in the leaf and stem.

  9. Chemical study and antibacterial activity of stem of Aristolochia esperanzae Kuntze (Aristolochiaceae); Estudo quimico e atividade antibacteriana do caule de Aristolochia esperanzae Kuntze (Aristolochiaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Alison G.; Silva, Thiago M.; Manfrini, Rozangela M.; Sallum, William S.T.; Duarte, Lucienir Pains; Pilo-Veloso, Dorila; Alcantara, Antonio F. de C., E-mail: aalcantara@zeus.qui.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Knupp, Vagner F. [Fundacao Centro Tecnologico de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    From the ethanolic extract of the stem of A. esperanzae ethyl and methyl fatty acid esters, fatty acids, aristolochic I and II acids, and {beta}-cubebin were isolated. In addiction asarinin, populifolic and 2-oxo-populifolic acids, aristolactams AIa and AII, and sitosterol 3-O-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside were also isolated and firstly described in the species. Asarinin and {beta}-cubebin showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and aristolochic acid I against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocitogenes. (author)

  10. Kinetics of solute leachate from imbibing Caesalpinia echinata Lam. (Brazilwood seeds

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    Nestor Martini Neto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity of leachates from imbibing seeds has been used as a vigor test for several species. The adaptation of this methodology to different species requires knowledge on the leaching kinetics of electrolytes. For Brazilwood seeds, the classic method was not satisfactory and rapid tests are essential because they have low storage capacity at room temperature. Leaching kinetics during seed imbibition is a function of physiological quality, presence or absence of seed coat, imbibing temperature and the initial moisture content of seed. In this study, the electrolyte leaching rate of six different categories of seeds, from two regions, was evaluated in seeds with and without seed coat and incubated with different moisture contents and at different temperatures. The results showed that the electrolyte leaching rate in Brazilwood seeds is independent of the physiological quality, the presence or absence of seed coat and imbibition temperature, but these factors changed the total amount of electrolytes leached. The leaching rate increased in the first few minutes of imbibition, suggesting that the adjustment of the methodology must consider the reduction in imbibition time, reduction in temperature, use of a controlled and slower pre-imbibition, and replacement of the imbibition solution after the first few minutes.

  11. Protease Inhibitors Extracted from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Affect Kinin Release during Lung Inflammation

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    Ilana Cruz-Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an essential process in many pulmonary diseases in which kinins are generated by protease action on kininogen, a phenomenon that is blocked by protease inhibitors. We evaluated kinin release in an in vivo lung inflammation model in rats, in the presence or absence of CeKI (C. echinata kallikrein inhibitor, a plasma kallikrein, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3 inhibitor, and rCeEI (recombinant C. echinata elastase inhibitor, which inhibits these proteases and also neutrophil elastase. Wistar rats were intravenously treated with buffer (negative control or inhibitors and, subsequently, lipopolysaccharide was injected into their lungs. Blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, and lung tissue were collected. In plasma, kinin release was higher in the LPS-treated animals in comparison to CeKI or rCeEI groups. rCeEI-treated animals presented less kinin than CeKI-treated group. Our data suggest that kinins play a pivotal role in lung inflammation and may be generated by different enzymes; however, neutrophil elastase seems to be the most important in the lung tissue context. These results open perspectives for a better understanding of biological process where neutrophil enzymes participate and indicate these plant inhibitors and their recombinant correlates for therapeutic trials involving pulmonary diseases.

  12. The representation of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood in Sixteenth-and-Seventeenth-Century Maps

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    Yuri T. Rocha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilwood was the first product found in Terra de Santa Cruz, and the first explored by Portuguese colonization of Brazil. This study aims at the Occidental Cartography and the historical files represented by Portugal's interest on mapping the marketed product found in Brazil. There presentation of Brazilwood in maps was possible due to scientific advancements, new land discoveries, and technological improvement during the 15th century, which all have taken cartography to a whole new period, stressing Portuguese hegemony in Asia and in the New World. The goal of this research was to identify and analyze maps from 16th and 17th centuries that represented the geographical distribution of Brazilwood, and its trade. Brazilwood was represented in many maps by illumination and detailed by different cartographers. The maps and other evidence for this research were found in historical files held in both Brazil and Portugal.O pau-brasil foi o primeiro produto encontrado na Terra de Santa Cruz e o primeiro a ser explorado pela colonização portuguesa no Brasil. Este estudo enfocou a Cartografia Ocidental e os arquivos históricos que representassem o interesse de Portugal em mapear esse produto comercial encontrado no Brasil. A representação do pau-brasil nos mapas foi possível devido aos avanços científicos, aos descobrimentos de novas terras e aos avanços tecnológicos alcançados durante o século XV, os quais deram à cartografia um papel de destaque no novo período, enfatizando a hegemonia Portuguesa na Ásia e no Novo Mundo. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar e analisar os mapas dos séculos XVI e XVII que representassem a distribuição geográfica do pau-brasil e seu comércio. O pau-brasil foi representado em muitos mapas por iluminuras e detalhes feitos por diferentes cartógrafos. Os mapas e outras fontes presentes nesta pesquisa foram encontrados nos arquivos históricos sediados em ambos os países, Brasil e Portugal.

  13. PEMUNGUTAN BRAZILIN DARI KAYU SECANG (Caesalpinia sappan L DENGAN METODE MASERASI DAN APLIKASINYA UNTUK PEWARNAAN KAIN

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    Dewi Selvia Fardhyanti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pembuatan zat warna alami dilakukan dengan metode maserasi dengan menggunakan pelarut etanol dan aquades, variasi volume pelarut yang digunakan 75, 150, dan 250 ml. Variasi waktu perendaman 6, 12, 24, dan 48 jam. Serbuk zat warna alami Brazilin dianalisis dengan FTIR dan diaplikasikan pada kain. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan semakin lama waktu ekstraksi dan volume pelarut yang digunakan, maka rendemen yang dihasilkan semakin banyak. Rendemen serbuk brazilin maksimal sebesar 6,316% pada waktu ekstraksi 48 jam menggunakan volume pelarut etanol 250 ml. Gugus fungsi brazilin memiliki ikatan tertentu diantaranya C-H, O-H, C-O, C=O, C=C alkena. Adanya gugus fungsi –OH menunjukkan adanya senyawa brazilin. Serbuk brazilin diaplikasikan pada kain dengan teknik celup, zat pengikat seperti tawas, kapur, dan tunjung mempengaruhi kenampakan warna yang dihasilkan pada kain.Kata kunci : zat warna, ekstraksi, maserasi, brazilin, teknik celup. A production of natural dyes can be done by maceration method with using ethanol solvent and distilled water (aquadest, variations of solvent volumes which used were 75, 150, and 250 ml. Soaking times variations were 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours. Brazilin natural dye powder was analyzed by FTIR and applied to industry. The research results showed the longer of the extraction time and the volume of the used solvents, resulted in the higher yield. Yield of Brazilin powder maximum was 6.316% on the extraction time during 48 hours with using ethanol solvent of 250 ml. Functional groups of Brazilin have specific bond among CH, OH, CO, C = O, C = C alkenes. The existence of the functional groups -OH indicates the brazilin compound. Brazilin powder was applied to industry with dye techniques, binding agents such as alum, lime, and lotus (tunjung which affected the appearance of the fabric color.Keyword : natural dyes, extraction, maceration, brazilin, dye technique.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of natural red dye from Caesalpinia sappan linn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyanto, Subur; Suyitno, Rachmanto, Rendy Adhi; Hidayat, Lullus Lambang Govinda; Wibowo, Atmanto Heru; Hadi, Syamsul

    2016-03-01

    The study reports the synthesis and characterization of natural red dye. The dyes were extracted from woods of Caesalpiniasappanlinn at varied temperatures of 70, 80, 90, and 100°C for three hours. The dry wood chips and water at a ratio of 6:1 were immersed in the reactor of 150 liters. The absorbance spectra of the natural red dyes were measured by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate the functional groups of the natural red dyes. In addition, the basic production cost was calculated and the fastness property towards cotton fabrics was investigated according to the Indonesia national standard of 105-C06:2010, 105-B01:2010, and 0288-2008. The results showed that the functional groups found the extracted red dyes indicated the complex bond of brazilein with peak absorbance at a wavelength of 538-540 nm. The extraction temperature also changed the functional group of brazilein. From the color, the absorbance peak, the functional groups, and the main production cost, the best parameter to synthesize the natural red dyes from Caesalpiniasappanlinn was at a temperature of 80°C for two hours. Moreover, the natural red dyes has the fastness to wash resistance, light resistance, and scrub resistance by 4-5, 4, and 3-4, respectively. However, further studies for synthesis the natural red dyes by using a continuous reactor are required to identify the naturally complex compounds in brazilein for improving the fastness properties and for reducing the cost.

  15. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities of Caesalpinia ferrea Martius leaf extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Sherien Kamal Hassan

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. ferrea leaf extract effectively improved hyperglycaemia while inhibiting the progression of oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Hence, it can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  16. Subcellular Localization of Galloylated Catechins in Tea Plants [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] Assessed via Immunohistochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Huanhuan; Wang, Ya; Chen, Yana; Zhang, Pan; Zhao, Yi; Huang, Yewei; Wang, Xuanjun; Sheng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Galloylated catechins, as the main secondary metabolites in the tea plant, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, comprise approximately three-quarters of all the tea plant catechins and have stronger effects than non-galloylated catechins, both on the product quality in tea processing and the pharmacological efficacy to human beings. The subcellular localization of galloylated catechins has been the primary focus of studies that assess biosynthesis and physio...

  17. Subcellular Localization of Galloylated Catechins in Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze Assessed via Immunohistochemistry

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    Huanhuan eXu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Galloylated catechins, as the main secondary metabolites in the tea plant, including (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate and (--epicatechin-3-gallate, comprise approximately three-quarters of all the tea plant catechins and have stronger effects than non-galloylated catechins, both on the product quality in tea processing and the pharmacological efficacy to human beings. The subcellular localization of galloylated catechins has been the primary focus of studies that assess biosynthesis and physiological functions. Classical histochemical localization staining reagents can not specifically detect galloylated catechins; thus, their subcellular localization remains controversial. In the present study, we generated a monoclonal antibody (mAb against galloylated catechins, which can be used for the subcellular localization of galloylated catechins in the tea plant by immunohistochemistry. Direct ELISA and ForteBio Octet Red 96 System assay indicated the mAb could recognize the galloylated catechins with high specificities and affinities. In addition, tea bud was ascertained as the optimal tissue for freezing microtomic sections for immunohistochemistry. What’s more, the high quality mAbs which exhibited excellent binding capability to galloylated catechins were utilised for the visualization of them via immunohistochemistry. Our findings demonstrated that vacuoles were the primary sites of localization of galloylated catechins at the subcellular level.

  18. Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

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    Poonam Lodhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5 mg/kg bw and 10 mg/kg bw of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and nonenzymatic markers (cholesterol and triglycerides, lipid peroxidation contents, malondialdehyde (MDA, and glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and decreased the activities of total proteins, albumin, and cellular antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD. The elevation and reduction in these biochemical enzymes caused the damage in hepatocytes histologically due to the high production of ROS, which retards the antioxidant defense capacity of cell. AQGTE was capable of recovering the level of these markers and the damaged hepatocytes to their normal structures. These results support the suggestion that AQGTE was able to enhance hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in vivo against ethanol-induced toxicity.

  19. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Candidate Genes involved in Blister Blight defense in Tea (Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaswall, Kuldip; Mahajan, Pallavi; Singh, Gagandeep; Parmar, Rajni; Seth, Romit; Raina, Aparnashree; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Shankar, Ravi; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2016-07-01

    To unravel the molecular mechanism of defense against blister blight (BB) disease caused by an obligate biotrophic fungus, Exobasidium vexans, transcriptome of BB interaction with resistance and susceptible tea genotypes was analysed through RNA-seq using Illumina GAIIx at four different stages during ~20-day disease cycle. Approximately 69 million high quality reads were assembled de novo, yielding 37,790 unique transcripts with more than 55% being functionally annotated. Differentially expressed, 149 defense related transcripts/genes, namely defense related enzymes, resistance genes, multidrug resistant transporters, transcription factors, retrotransposons, metacaspases and chaperons were observed in RG, suggesting their role in defending against BB. Being present in the major hub, putative master regulators among these candidates were identified from predetermined protein-protein interaction network of Arabidopsis thaliana. Further, confirmation of abundant expression of well-known RPM1, RPS2 and RPP13 in quantitative Real Time PCR indicates salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, possibly induce synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, required to overcome the virulence of E. vexans. Compendiously, the current study provides a comprehensive gene expression and insights into the molecular mechanism of tea defense against BB to serve as a resource for unravelling the possible regulatory mechanism of immunity against various biotic stresses in tea and other crops.

  20. Patterns of genetic diversity in southern and southeastern Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze relict populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and a decrease in population size may lead to a loss in population genetic diversity. For the first time, the reduction in genetic diversity in the northernmost limit of natural occurence (southeastern Brazil) of Araucaria angustifolia in comparison with populations in the main area of the species continuous natural distribution (southern Brazil), was tested. The 673 AFLPs markers revealed a high level of genetic diversity for the species (Ht = 0.27), despite anthropogenic influence throughout the last century, and a decrease of H in isolated populations of southeastern Brazil (H = 0.16), thereby indicating the tendency for higher genetic diversity in remnant populations of continuous forests in southern Brazil, when compared to natural isolated populations in the southeastern region. A strong differentiation among southern and southeastern populations was detected (AMOVA variance ranged from 10%-15%). From Bayesian analysis, it is suggested that the nine populations tested form five “genetic clusters” (K = 5). Five of these populations, located in the northernmost limit of distribution of the species, represent three “genetic clusters”. These results are in agreement with the pattern of geographic distribution of the studied populations. PMID:21637518

  1. [Textual research on Amara (Mangifera Indica Linn), Butea monsperma (Lam) Kuntze, and Ferula asatoitida L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhaohua; Wang, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    In the Buddhist canons, there are lots of medicines imported from abroad recorded. The dictionary works of such Buddhist canons give detailed annotations and explanations to all these foreign medicines, from which we can investigate the features of all these medicines. It is also clear that these three medicines were imported into China no later than the Tang Dynasty. Amara was originally grown in the xi yu (Western Region) , now called Mango. Its form and connotation appeared no later than the eastern Han Dynasty, and the explanation of this medicine appears in the A Great Modern Dictionary of Chinese is wrong. While its explanation for Butea monsperma should be supplemented. There are two kinds of asafoitida, herbaceous and woody. Only the former one is used for medical purpose, and the annotation appeared in A Great Modern Dictionary of Chinese is problematic.

  2. Antioxidant and Antigenotoxic Activities of the Brazilian Pine Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia O. Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are natural products with recognized potential in drug discovery and development. We aimed to evaluate the polyphenolic profile of Araucaria angustifolia bracts, and their ability to scavenge reactive species. The antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of A. angustifolia polyphenols in MRC5 human lung fibroblast cells were also explored. The total polyphenol extract of A. angustifolia was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and the chemical composition was confirmed by HPLC. Reactive oxygen species’ scavenging ability was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method and superoxide dismutase- and catalase-like activities. The protective effect of the extract in MRC5 cells was carried out by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method and the determination of oxidative lipids, protein, and DNA (alkaline and enzymatic comet assay damage. Total phenolic content of the A. angustifolia extract was 1586 ± 14.53 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g of bracts. Catechin, epicatechin, quercetin, and apigenin were the major polyphenols. The extract was able to scavenge DPPH radicals and exhibited potent superoxide dismutase and catalase-like activities. Moreover, A. angustifolia extract significantly protected MRC5 cells against H2O2-induced mortality and oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA. Therefore, A. angustifolia has potential as a source of bioactive chemical compounds.

  3. CONSERVATION OF THE VIABILITY AND VIGOR OF Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze SEEDS DURING THE STORAGE

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    Cristhyane Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of Araucaria seeds is widely compromised in function of their recalcitrant feature, which hampers the planning of recovery actions of the degraded populations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to monitor the physiological changes in Araucaria seeds under controlled storage conditions, in order to get insights as to the viability and vigor conservation. The physiological quality of freshly harvested seeds was evaluated and every 60 days throughout the 180 days-storage period in laboratory ambient without thermal control, refrigerator (5 ° C, and freezer (-18 ° C until the final period of 180 days. After each sampling period, the seed viability (germination and tetrazolium tests and vigor (artificial aging, germination speed index – IVG and electrical conductivity were assessed. A reduction in the normal seedlings percentage was noticed over the period of storage of Araucaria seeds. The conservation in freezer and the lack of thermal control caused a complete loss of the seed viability at 60 and 180 days of storage, respectively. However, the refrigerator storage promoted the conservation of seed viability, with 64% germination after 180 days of storage, an event associated with the reduction of the metabolic activity of seeds. Based on the viability and vigor tests, it was concluded that storage in refrigerator provided longer storage periods to Araucaria seeds in comparison to the other storage conditions herein studied.

  4. Cloning and expression of embryogenesis-regulating genes in Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze (Brazilian Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Schlögl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiosperm and gymnosperm plants evolved from a common ancestor about 300 million years ago. Apart from morphological and structural differences in embryogenesis and seed origin, a set of embryogenesis-regulating genes and the molecular mechanisms involved in embryo development seem to have been conserved alike in both taxa. Few studies have covered molecular aspects of embryogenesis in the Brazilian pine, the only economically important native conifer in Brazil. Thus eight embryogenesis-regulating genes, viz.,ARGONAUTE 1, CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1, WUSCHEL-related WOX, S-LOCUS LECTIN PROTEIN KINASE, SCARECROW-like, VICILIN 7S, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1, and REVERSIBLE GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE 1, were analyzed through semiquantitative RT-PCR during embryo development and germination. All the eight were found to be differentially expressed in the various developmental stages of zygotic embryos, seeds and seedling tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on embryogenesis-regulating gene expression in members of the Araucariaceae family, as well as in plants with recalcitrant seeds.

  5. Influences of various factors on hairy root induction in Agastache foeniculum (Pursh Kuntze

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    Elnaz NOUROZI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium rhizogenes is known as a natural tool of genetic engineering in many plant species. For the first time, hairy root induction in Agastache foeniculum using A. rhizogenes, rosmarinic acid content and the effect of different culture media and inoculation methods on hairy root growth rate were investigated. Hairy root culture of A. foeniculum was established by inoculation of the 1-month-old leaf explant with A4 strain of A. rhizogenes and the effectiveness of light – dark conditions and two inoculation methods (immersion and injection were tested. Furthermore, in immersion method, the effects of inoculation time (3, 5 and 7 min on root induction were investigated. In the second part of the study, the hairy root culture of A. foeniculum was studied using different basal culture media (MS, 1/2 MS and B5. Rosmarinic acid content in hairy roots and non- transformed roots was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. There was no significant difference between various inoculation methods in the ability of hairy roots induction. Observations showed that percentage of hairy root induction was higher when the explants were immersed for 5 min in bacterial suspension. Light conditions displayed the highest hairy root induction rates compared with dark condition. Various culture media are different in terms of types and amounts of nutrients and have influence on growth rate. The maximum growth rate (1.61 g fr wt/50 ml of hairy roots were obtained in 1/2 MS medium. Rosmarinic acid content in transformed roots (213.42 µg/g dry wt was significantly higher than non-transformed roots (52.28 µg/ g dry wt.

  6. Anti-adenovirus activity, antioxidant potential, and phenolic content of black tea (Camellia sinensis Kuntze) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ali; Moradi, Mohammad-Taghi; Alidadi, Somayeh; Hashemi, Leila

    2016-12-01

    BackgroundAdenovirus (ADV) causes a number of diseases in human, and to date, no specific antiviral therapy is approved against this virus. Thus, searching for effective anti-ADV agents seems to be an urgent requirement. Many studies have shown that components derived from medicinal plants have antiviral activity. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate in vitro anti-ADV activity and also antioxidant potential and total phenolic compounds of black tea (Camellia sinensis) crude extract. MethodsIn this study, the hydroalchoholic extract of black tea was prepared and its anti-ADV activity was evaluated on HEp2 cell line using MTT [3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay. The 50 % inhibitory concentration (IC50) and 50 % cytotoxicity concentration (CC50) of the extract were determined using regression analysis. Its inhibitory effect on adsorption and/or post-adsorption stages of the virus replication cycle was evaluated. To determine antioxidant activity, total phenol content, and flavonoids content of the extract, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, Folin-Ciocalteu method, and aluminum chloride colorimetric method were used, respectively. ResultsThe CC50 and the IC50 of the extract were 165.95±12.7 and 6.62±1.4 µg/mL, respectively, with the selectivity index (SI) of 25.06. This extract inhibited ADV replication in post-adsorption stage. The IC50 of DPPH radical was 8±1.41 μg/mL, compared with butylated hydroxytoluene, with IC50 of 25.41±1.89 μg/mL. The total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were 341.8±4.41 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram and 21.1±2.11 mg/g, respectively. ConclusionsHaving SI value of 25.06 with inhibitory effect on ADV replication, particularly during the post-adsorption period, black tea extract could be considered as a potential anti-ADV agent. The antiviral activity of this extract could be attributed to its phenolic compounds.

  7. Molecular regulation of catechins biosynthesis in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Arti; Singh, Kashmir; Ahuja, Paramvir S; Kumar, Sanjay

    2012-03-10

    Catechins are bioprospecting molecules present in tea and any effort towards metabolic engineering of this important moiety would require knowledge on gene regulation. These are synthesized through the activities of phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways. Expression regulation of various genes of these pathways namely phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (CsPAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (CsC4H), p-coumarate:CoA ligase (Cs4CL), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (CsF3H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (CsDFR) and anthocyanidin reductase (CsANR) was accomplished previously. In depth analyses of the remaining genes namely, chalcone synthase (CsCHS), chalcone isomerase (CsCHI), flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (CsF3'5'H) and anthocyanidin synthase (CsANS) were lacking. The objective of the work was to clone and analyze these genes so as to generate a comprehensive knowledge on the critical genes of catechins biosynthesis pathway. Gene expression analysis was carried out in response to leaf age and external cues (drought stress, abscisic acid, gibberellic acid treatments and wounding). A holistic analysis suggested that CsCHI, CsF3H, CsDFR, CsANS and CsANR were amongst the critical regulatory genes in regulating catechins content.

  8. Diverse Colletotrichum species cause anthracnose of tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Hao, Xin-Yuan; Wang, Lu; Bin Xiao; Wang, Xin-Chao; Yang, Ya-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum is one of the most severe diseases that can afflict Camellia sinensis. However, research on the diversity and geographical distribution of Colletotrichum in China remain limited. In this study, 106 Colletotrichum isolates were collected from diseased leaves of Ca. sinensis cultivated in the 15 main tea production provinces in China. Multi-locus phylogenetic analysis coupled with morphological identification showed that the collected isolates belonged to 11 species, including 6 known species (C. camelliae, C. cliviae, C. fioriniae, C. fructicola, C. karstii, and C. siamense), 3 new record species (C. aenigma, C. endophytica, and C. truncatum), 1 novel species (C. wuxiense), and 1 indistinguishable strain, herein described as Colletotrichum sp. Of these species, C. camelliae and C. fructicola were the dominant species causing anthracnose in Ca. sinensis. In addition, our study provided further evidence that phylogenetic analysis using a combination of ApMat and GS sequences can be used to effectively resolve the taxonomic relationships within the C. gloeosporioides species complex. Finally, pathogenicity tests suggested that C. camelliae, C. aenigma, and C. endophytica are more invasive than other species after the inoculation of the leaves of Ca. sinensis. PMID:27782129

  9. Improved method for isolation of coupled mitochondria of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze

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    André Bellin Mariano

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A method for the isolation of coupled mitochondria from the callus of Araucaria angustifolia is described for the first time. Mitochondria were isolated from embryogenic callus of A. angustifolia. They were metabolically active, able to sustain oxidative phosphorylation as shown by respiratory control ratio values, which were about 2.4 when respiring on succinate as substrate. Oxygen uptake experiments, using freeze-thawed disrupted mitochondria, showed the presence of alternative rotenone-insensitive NAD(PH dehydrogenases, which were stimulated by Ca2+. The procedure now described for the isolation of A. angustifolia mitochondria is an important new tool, allowing the investigation of mitochondrial bioenergetics and metabolism and physiology of plants.Um procedimento de isolamento de mitocôndrias funcionalmente intactas de calos embriogênicos de Araucaria angustifolia foi desenvolvido pela primeira vez em nosso laboratório. Mitocôndrias isoladas por este método são metabolicamente ativas, capazes de sustentar fosforilação oxidativa como mostrado pelo controle respiratório de aproximadamente 2,4, respirando na presença de succinato como substrato. Através de experimentos de consumo de oxigênio com mitocôndrias rompidas em nitrogênio líquido foi demonstrada a presença de NAD(PH desidrogenases alternativas, insensíveis à rotenona e estimuladas por Ca2+. O isolamento de mitocôndrias de A. angustifolia é um novo e importante instrumento para estudar plantas, permitindo a execução de múltiplas investigações a respeito da bioenergética mitocondrial e fisiologia vegetal.

  10. Cloning and expression of embryogenesis-regulating genes in Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze (Brazilian Pine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlögl, Paulo Sérgio; dos Santos, André Luis Wendt; Vieira, Leila do Nascimento; Floh, Eny Iochevet Segal; Guerra, Miguel Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Angiosperm and gymnosperm plants evolved from a common ancestor about 300 million years ago. Apart from morphological and structural differences in embryogenesis and seed origin, a set of embryogenesis-regulating genes and the molecular mechanisms involved in embryo development seem to have been conserved alike in both taxa. Few studies have covered molecular aspects of embryogenesis in the Brazilian pine, the only economically important native conifer in Brazil. Thus eight embryogenesis-regulating genes, viz., ARGONAUTE 1, CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1, WUSCHEL-related WOX, S-LOCUS LECTIN PROTEIN KINASE, SCARECROW-like, VICILIN 7S, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1, and REVERSIBLE GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE 1, were analyzed through semi-quantitative RT-PCR during embryo development and germination. All the eight were found to be differentially expressed in the various developmental stages of zygotic embryos, seeds and seedling tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on embryogenesis-regulating gene expression in members of the Araucariaceae family, as well as in plants with recalcitrant seeds. PMID:22481892

  11. Anatomia da madeira e casca do maricá, Mimosa bimucronata (DC. O. Kuntze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 São descritos os caracteres gerais, macroscópicos e microscópicos da madeira de Mimosa bimucronata (DC. O. Kutze, bem como a estrutura de sua casca. A anatomia da madeira é comparada com referências da literatura para espécies afins. Os caracteres observados incluem placa de perfuração simples em vasos, pontuados alternos, pontuações ornamentadas, parênquima paratraqueal, fibras libriformes, raios homogêneos de células procumbentes e ausência de estratificação. Na estrutura da casca destacam-se o líber duro em faixas tangenciais descontínuas, envolvidas por células parenquimáticas geralmente cristalíferas, o curso irregular dos raios na casca interna e a formação de cunhas de parênquima na casca mediana.

  12. ANATOMIA DA MADEIRA E CASCA DO MARICÁ, Mimosa bimucronata (DC. O. Kuntze

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    José Newton Cardoso Marchiori

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available São descritos os caracteres gerais, macroscópicos e microscópicos da madeira de Mimosa bimucronata (DC. O. Kutze, bem como a estrutura de sua casca. A anatomia da madeira é comparada com referências da literatura para espécies afins. Os caracteres observados incluem placa de perfuração simples em vasos, pontuados alternos, pontuações ornamentadas, parênquima paratraqueal, fibras libriformes, raios homogêneos de células procumbentes e ausência de estratificação. Na estrutura da casca destacam-se o líber duro em faixas tangenciais descontínuas, envolvidas por células parenquimáticas geralmente cristalíferas, o curso irregular dos raios na casca interna e a formação de cunhas de parênquima na casca mediana.

  13. Flavonoids with acetylated branched glycans and bioactivity of Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Manal S; Elgindi, Omaima D; Bakr, Reham O

    2014-01-01

    The new acetylated kaempferol tetraglycoside, kaempferol-3-O-[2″(4-acetylrhamnopyranosyl)-3″-galactopyranosyl] robinobioside (1), was isolated from the aqueous methanolic leaf extract of Tipuana tipu Benth. The known kaempferol 3-[2″-(4-acetyl-rhamnosyl)] robinobioside (2), kaempferol 3-O-2″-rhamnopyranosylrutinoside (3), rutin (4), kaempferol 3-O-rutinoside (5), kaempferol 3-O-glucopyranoside (6), kaempferol 3-O-galactopyranoside (7), quarcetin 3-O-glucopyranoside (8), kaempferol (9) and quercetin (10) together with the chlorogenic acid (11) were also isolated and characterised. Structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analysis including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, 2D NMR and ESI-MS. The methanol extract exhibited moderate antioxidant activity, IC50 28.96 μg/mL, compared with ascorbic acid (1.83 μg/mL) and tertiary-butylhydroquinone (1.92 μg/mL). The methanol and chloroform extracts exhibited potent cytotoxic activity; the former was found to be active against larynx and liver cell lines, while the latter being active against intestine and liver cell lines.

  14. Grafting of Araucaria angustifolia (BERTOL. kuntze through the four seasons of the year

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    Flávio Zanette

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia is an endangered conifer species of South America that has been over exploited for timber. To incentivize Araucaria angustifolia planting is essential and may play a key role on the conservation of this species and the ecosystems that depend on it. Hence, techniques that allow the production of seedlings with attributes that may entice farmers to plant A. angustifolia trees are very important. Grafting may permit the selection of female trees and the production of precocious plants that will produce high quality seeds. The aim of this study was to determine the best season of the year to graft. Three-year-old seedlings were used as rootstock and orthotropic branches of young plants were used for scion collection. The technique used for the grafting was the bark patch. This procedure was carried out in the beginning of each season in 2007 and 2008, with a total of 160 grafted plants. Grafting carried out in the beginning of autumn had a 50 % success rate. Grafting success was negligible for all remaining seasons. In conclusion, grafting through bark patching is a viable technique for the production of A. angustifolia seedlings. Future research should be carried out to produce grafted seedlings in large-scale.

  15. Do leaf surface characteristics affect Agrobacterium infection in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O Kuntze]?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitish Kumar; Subedar Pandey; Amita Bhattacharya; Paramvir Singh Ahuja

    2004-09-01

    The host range specificity of Agrobacterium with five tea cultivars and an unrelated species (Artemisia parviflora) having extreme surface characteristics was evaluated in the present study. The degree of Agrobacterium infection in the five cultivars of tea was affected by leaf wetness, micro-morphology and surface chemistry. Wettable leaf surfaces of TV1, Upasi-9 and Kangra jat showed higher rate (75%) of Agrobacterium infection compared to Upasi-10 and ST-449, whereas non-wettable leaves of A. parviflora showed minimum (25%) infection. This indicated that the leaves with glabrous surface having lower (larger surface area covered by water droplet), higher phenol and wax content were more suitable for Agrobacterium infection. Caffeine fraction of tea promoted Agrobacterium infection even in leaves poor in wax (Upasi-10), whereas caffeine-free wax inhibited both Agrobacterium growth and infection. Thus, study suggests the importance of leaf surface features in influencing the Agrobacterium infection in tea leaf explants. Our study also provides a basis for the screening of a clone/cultivar of a particular species most suitable for Agrobacterium infection the first step in Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation.

  16. Antioxidant and antifungal activities of Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze leaves obtained by different forms of production

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    L. E. A. Camargo

    Full Text Available Abstract The antioxidant and anticandidal activities of leaves obtained from Camellia sinensis by non-fermentation (green and white teas, semi-fermentation (red tea and fermentation method (black tea were investigated. It was evaluated the total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau assay; antioxidant capacities were evaluated in vitro using DPPH and ABTS radicals, hypochlorous acid and superoxide anion scavenger assays, induced hemolysis, lipid peroxidation by conjugated diene formation and myeloperoxidase activity. Anticandidal activity was performed on three strains of Candida spp. The results showed that non-fermented teas have a higher concentration of phenolic compounds, and then presented the best inhibitory activity of AAPH-induced hemolysis, the best inhibition of conjugated diene formation and more pronounced antioxidant activity in all tests. The highest anticandidal activity was obtained from fermented tea, followed by non-fermented tea. These results indicate that the antioxidant activity demonstrated has no direct relation with the anticandidal activity.

  17. DIOECY EFFECT ON GROWTH OF PLANTED Araucaria angustifolia Bert. O. Kuntze TREES

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    Afonso Figueiredo Filho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of dioecy on the growth in diameter at breast height (DBH, individual basal area, total height and individual volume of planted Araucaria angustifolia trees. The data came from 60 trees (30 male trees and 30 female trees sampled from a 30-year-old plantation in Paraná State. Complete stem analysis was used to recover historical tree growth. The Chapman-Richards model was fitted in order to represent the growth and yield of the dendrometric variables for female and male Araucaria trees. Weighted non-linear least squared method was used in the fitting process and the inverse variance was used as weight to solve the problem of heteroscedasticity. The test to verify the equality of parameters and the identity of non-linear regression models proposed by Regazzi (2003 was used to test the influence of dioecy on growth. Dioecy significantly influenced the growth of Araucaria, and female trees have higher growth in diameter, individual basal area and individual volume, while male trees showed better height development. The asymptotic coefficient of the Chapman-Richards model showed that male trees have a higher asymptotic height than female trees.

  18. Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Dichrocepala integrifolia (L.f O. kuntze

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    Tesfaye Mohammed

    2012-02-01

    Conclusion and Recommendation: In general the antimicrobial activity of the plant observed here support the tradition therapeutic claim of the society. Further study should be conducted in further evaluating its antimicrobial effectiveness and also purification of the active chemical constituents that could be responsible for its biological activity. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 30-34

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: A deep Chandra ACIS survey of M51 (Kuntz+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Long, K. S.; Kilgard, R. E.

    2016-11-01

    This deep study of M51 is composed of 107ks of archival Chandra observations, to which we have added another 745ks of observations. All of the observations were made with the ACIS-S array. M51 has been observed extensively with HST. In particular, essentially all of M51 and its companion NGC 5195 was imaged with Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) in V, R, and I (F435W, F555W, F814W) and Hα (F658N) as a Hubble Legacy Project (Proposal ID 10452, PI: S. Beckwith). (4 data files).

  20. Quality of Cosmetic Argan Oil Extracted by Supercritical Fluid Extraction from Argania spinosa L.

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    Chouaa Taribak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Argan oil has been extracted using supercritical CO2. The influence of the variables pressure (100, 200, 300, and 400 bar and temperature (35, 45, 55°C was investigated. The best extraction yields were achieved at a temperature of 45°C and a pressure of 400 bar. The argan oil extracts were characterized in terms of acid, peroxide and iodine values, total tocopherol, carotene, and fatty acids content. Significant compositional differences were not observed between the oil samples obtained using different pressures and temperatures. The antioxidant capacity of the argan oil samples was high in comparison to those of walnut, almond, hazelnut, and peanut oils and comparable to that of pistachio oil. The physicochemical parameters of the extracted oils obtained by SFE, Soxhlet, and traditional methods are comparable. The technique used for oil processing does not therefore markedly alter the quality of argan oil.

  1. Prescriptions of Chinese medicinal herbs in Switzerland: the example of suan zao ren (Ziziphi Spinosae Semen)

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Sabine; Becker, Simon; Wolf, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Introduction According to the Swiss Health Survey 2007, 1.7% of the adult population use traditional Chinese medicine (including Chinese herbal medicine, but excluding acupuncture). In contrast to conventional drugs, that contain single chemically defined substances, prescriptions of Chinese herbs are mixtures of up to 40 ingredients (parts of plants, fungi, animal substances and minerals). Originally they were taken in the form of decoctions, but nowadays granules are more popular. Medium...

  2. Improvement of the lactic acid fermentation of capers through an experimental factorial design (Capparis spinosa L

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    Errachidi, F.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the caper fermentation process through an experiment factorial plan allows us to determine a function ƒ such that (Y= ƒ(X1, X2, …, Xn existing between magnitude Y which is the decrease of pH (called response, and variables Xi , which are brine, lactic acid, citric acid and lactic ferment (called factors. A complete factorial plan 24 was made in order to determine the factors and the interactions among the factors which have a statistically significant influence on the studied response. Brine, lactic acid and citric acid have a significant effect on the fall of pH; by contrast, lactic ferment does not have a significant effect. On the other hand, the interactions between brine and lactic acid, between brine and lactic ferment , between lactic acid with citric acid and between lactic acid with lactic ferment have significant effects on the fall of pH (p El estudio del proceso de fermentación mediante un diseño factorial nos permitió determinar una función ƒ (Y= ƒ(X1, X2, …, Xn que existe entre la magnitud Y que es la disminución del pH (llamada respuesta, y las variables X, que son la salmuera, ácido láctico, ácido cítrico y los fermentos lácticos (llamados factores. Un completo plan factorial 24 fue hecho con objeto de determinar los factores y las interacciones entre los factores que tienen una influencia estadísticamente significativa en la respuesta estudiada. La salmuera, ácido láctico y ácido cítrico tienen un efecto significativo en la caída del pH; por el contrario, los fermentos lácticos no tienen efecto significativo. Por otra parte, las interacciones entre salmuera y ácido láctico, salmuera y fermentos lácticos, ácido láctico y ácido cítrico, y ácido láctico y fermentos lácticos tuvieron un efecto significativo en la caída del pH (p < 0.0001. La fermentación fue hecha en el laboratorio de investigación de la Sociedad Marocapres-Fez líder Internacional en la transformación de alcaparras, a una temperatura de aproximadamente 30°C entre los meses de junio y julio.

  3. Tocopherols and saponins derived from Argania spinosa exert, an antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drissi, A; Bennani, H; Giton, F; Charrouf, Z; Fiet, J; Adlouni, A

    2006-10-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of tocopherols obtained from alimentary virgin argan oil extracted from the endemic argan tree of Morocco and of saponins extracted from argan press cake on three human prostatic cell lines (DU145, LNCaP, and PC3). The results were compared to 2-methoxyestradiol as antiproliferative drug candidates. Cytotoxicity and antiproliferative effects were investigated after cells' treatment with tocopherols and saponins compared to 2-Methoxyoestradiol as the positive control. Tocopherols and saponins extracted from argan tree and 2-methoxyestradiol exhibit a dose-response cytotoxic effect and an antiproliferative action on the tested cell lines. The best antiproliferative effect of tocopherols is obtained with DU145 and LNCaP cell lines (28 microg/ml and 32 microg/ml, respectively, as GI50). The saponins fraction displayed the best antiproliferative effect on the PC3 cell line with 18 microg/ml as GI50. Our results confirm the antiproliferative effect of 2-methoxyestradiol and show for the first time the antiproliferative effect of tocopherols and saponins extracted from the argan tree on hormone-dependent and hormone-independent prostate cancer cell lines. These data suggest that argan oil is of potential interest in developing new strategies for prostate cancer prevention.

  4. IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITY OF ARGAN OIL (ARGANIA SPINOSA L)

    OpenAIRE

    Youcef Necib; Ahlem Bahi; Sakina Zerizer; Cherif Abdennour; Mohamed Salah Boulakoud

    2013-01-01

    Immunomodulatory activity of Argan oil was evaluated on phagocytic activity by carbon clearance test. Adult Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, while animals of treatment group were given Argan oil at dose of: 2.5, 5 and 10 mL kg-1 by gavage respectively 10 days before injected the carbon ink suspension. In carbone clearance test, Argan oil exhibited significantly phagocytic index dose-dependent against control group, indicating stimu...

  5. Structure and Oligomers Distribution of Commercial Tara (Caesalpina spinosa Hydrolysable Tannin

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    Samuele GIOVANDO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extracted commercial Tara tanninextract have been examined by Matrix Assisted LaserDesorption/Ionisation Time-of-Flight (MALDI-TOFmass spectrometry and by High Pressure LiquidChromatography (HPLC. The Tara extract has beenfound to be composed of a series of oligomers ofpolygallic acid attached by an ester link to one quinicacid. They constitute the oligomers in higherproportion in the extract. Other polygallic chains linkedto one only or two repeating units such as caffeic acidand methylated quinic, methylated gallic andmethylated caffeic acids are also present. Negativeion mode MALDI-TOF showed that somecarbohydrate residues appear to still be present,linked to the polyphenolic material of the extract buttheir proportion is very low as would be expected of asolvent extracted tannin.

  6. Rainfall interception by two arboreal species in urban green area

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    Luzia Ferreira da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall interception by the two most usual species in forest urban spaces was analysed by measuring of interception (I or interception losses, through fall (Th, stem flow (St and gross precipitation (Pg. The chosen species were Caesalpinia pluviosa DC. (Fabaceae: Caesalpinoideae or sibipiruna, and Tipuana tipu O. Kuntze (Fabaceae: Faboideae or tipuana. The individuals analysed were more than 50 years old, with three separate individuals and three individuals in each studied group of species at the campus of ”Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture (University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba. The experiments were carried out from January to February 2007. Water was collected using seven-litre pails, in the edges and in the centre of the canopies. A high correlation of Th with Pg was observed on the centre of the crow of tipuana and by the edges of sibipiruna. St and I had low correlation with Pg for both species. The average of rain interception was greater in the edges of the crow of sibipiruna individuals, 60.6%, and in the centre of tipuana crow, 59.40%. Thus, both species intercepted up to 60% of the water rainfall, which indicates a great potential of both species for arborisation in urban environments.

  7. Atividade alelopática de extratos de diferentes orgãos de Caesalpinia ferrea na germinação de alface Allelopathic activity of extracts from different organs of Caesalpinia ferrea on lettuce germination

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    Andreya Kaliana de Oliveira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A alelopatia pode afetar muitos aspectos da ecologia das plantas, incluindo a ocorrência, crescimento, sucessão de plantas, estrutura das comunidades, dominância, diversidade e produtividade. Neste trabalho, o objetivo foi avaliar o potencial alelopático de diversos órgãos de jucá (Caesalpinea ferrea sobre a germinação de sementes e desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface (Lactuca sativa. Foi usado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado no esquema fatorial 2x5, com dois métodos de extração (25 e 100°C e cinco concentrações do extrato bruto (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% para cada órgão avaliado: folhas, cascas e vagens maduras de C. ferrea, em quatro repetições de 25 sementes da alface 'Mônica SF FI'. As características avaliadas foram porcentagem de germinação (PG, índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG, porcentagem de plântulas normais (PN e anormais (PA, comprimentos da parte aérea (CPA e da raiz (CR de plântulas de alface. Os extratos de folhas e de vagens de C. ferrea obtidos a quente (100°C reduziram a porcentagem de germinação de L. sativa em relação à testemunha (0%. Nas maiores concentrações dos extratos de todos os órgãos, houve alta PA (atrofiamento da raiz, queima e escurecimento da radícula, encurvamento do caulículo, geotropismo negativo e menor CPA e CR, comparado à testemunha. Os extratos dos diferentes órgãos de C. ferrea apresentam atividade alelopática inibindo o desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface.Allelopathy can affect many aspects of plant ecology, including the occurrence, growth, plant succession, community structure, dominance, diversity and productivity of plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of various organs of jucá (Caesalpinea ferrea on seed germination and seedling development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. It was used in a completely randomized 2x5 factorial arrangement, with two extraction methods (25 and 100°C and concentrations of crude extract (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% for each organ evaluated: leaves, stem bark and mature pods of C. ferrea in four replications of 25 seeds of lettuce 'Monica SF FI'. The characteristics evaluated were germination percentage (PG, germination speed index (IVG, percentage of normal seedlings (PN and abnormal (PA, shoot length (CPA and root length (CR of lettuce seedlings. The extracts of leaves and pods of C. ferrea obtained the hot (100°C reduced the germination percentage of L. sativa compared to control (0%. At higher concentrations of the extracts of all organs were high PA (atrophy of the root, burning and darkening of the radicle, the bending caulículo, negative geotropism and lower CPA and CR compared to control. The extracts of different organs of C. ferrea show allelopathic activity affecting the development of lettuce seedlings.

  8. Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. and Sapium glandulosum (L. Morong from Northeastern Brazil

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    Carlos Henrique Tabosa Pereira da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to quantify the phenolic content and evaluate the antioxidant potential of extracts from the bark and leaves of C. pyramidalis and S. glandulosum. The total phenolic content (TPC and total tannin content (TTC were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, and the total flavonoids content (TFC was measured via complexation with aluminum chloride. The antioxidant activity was evaluated with DPPH (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and FIC (ferrous ion chelating assays. The TPC ranged between 135.55 ± 9.85 and 459.79 ± 11.65 tannic acid equivalents (TAE in mg/g material (mg TAE/g. The leaves of both species contained high levels of tannins and flavonoids. The crude ethanol extracts (CEE from the bark of C. pyramidalis showed high antioxidant activity when compared to ascorbic acid and rutin, whereas the CEE from the leaves was more efficient in chelating ferrous ions. C. pyramidalis had very high phenolic content and anti-radical activity, which indicates a need for further studies aimed at the purification and identification of compounds responsible for the antioxidant activity.

  9. Purification and Partial Characterization of β-Glucosidase from Fresh Leaves of Tea Plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye-Yun LI; Chang-Jun JIANG; Xiao-Chun WAN; Zheng-Zhu ZHANG; Da-Xiang LI

    2005-01-01

    β-Glucosidases are important in the formation of floral tea aroma and the development of resistance to pathogens and herbivores in tea plants. A novel β-glucosidase was purified 117-fold to homogeneity,with a yield of 1.26%, from tea leaves by chilled acetone and ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion exchange chromatography (CM-Sephadex C-50) and fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC; Superdex 75, Resource S). The enzyme was a monomeric protein with specific activity of 2.57 U/mg. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be about 41 kDa and 34 kDa by SDS-PAGE and FPLC gel filtration on Superdex 200, respectively. The enzyme showed optimum activity at 50 ℃ and was stable at temperatures lower than 40 ℃. It was active between pH 4.0 and pH 7.0, with an optimum activity at pH 5.5, and was fairly stable from pH 4.5 to pH 8.0. The enzyme showed maximum activity towards pNPG, low activity towards pNP-Galacto, and no activity towards pNP-Xylo.

  10. Genetic diversity of UPASI tea clones (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) on the basis of total catechins and their fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, M; Maria John, K M; Raj Kumar, R; Pius, P K; Sasikumar, R

    2005-03-01

    Tea leaf catechins and the ratio of dihydroxylated to trihydroxylated catechin fractions were analysed to identify the genetic diversity of 26 UPASI released tea clones. Principal component analysis (PCA) based on regression factor separated tea clones into five groups according to their jats (Jats are region based rays for e.g., Assam, China and Cambod origin) as well as their quality constituents (such as total polyphenols, total catechins, amino acids in the green leaves and liquor characteristics of black tea), particularly the catechins. Group 1 represented medium quality (quality of the final produce) clones, such as UPASI-10, UPASI-12 and UPASI-15 and drought tolerant clones like UPASI-1, UPASI-2, UPASI-9 and UPASI-10. Group 2 contained purely "China" cultivars while group 3 possessed high quality tea cultivars. "Assam" (group 5) teas had the lowest ratio of dihydroxylated to trihydroxylated catechin fractions (1:4) than the "Chinery" (group 2) teas (1:5). This biochemical differentiation indicated that there is a vast genetic diversity in UPASI released tea clones in terms of catechin fractions, even though the majority of them were selected from one tea estate located in the Nilgiris.

  11. Concentraciones de elementos minerales en partes aéreas e infusiones de Margyricarpus pinnatus (Lam.) Kuntze (perlilla)

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Gloria Cristina; Pellerano, Roberto Gerardo; del Vitto, Luis Angel; Mazza, Silvia Matilde; Marchevsky, Eduardo Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la "perlilla" o “yerba de la perdiz” es un subarbusto que habita en Sudamérica de donde es nativo. Las infusiones de las partes aéreas: hojas y tallos, se utilizan en la medicina popular, fundamental para el tratamiento de diversas afecciones urinarias. No se encontraron estudios sobre el contenido mineral de las partes aéreas ni de las infusiones de esta especie. Objetivos: determinar la concentración de elementos minerales en partes aéreas e infusiones de Margyricarp...

  12. CONSERVAÇÃO DA VIABILIDADE E VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. O. Kuntze DURANTE O ARMAZENAMENTO

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    Cristhyane Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of Araucaria seeds is widely compromised in function of their recalcitrant feature, which hampers the planning of recovery actions of the degraded populations. Therefore, the objective of this study was to monitor the physiological changes in Araucaria seeds under controlled storage conditions, in order to get insights as to the viability and vigor conservation. The physiological quality of freshly harvested seeds was evaluated and every 60 days throughout the 180 days-storage period in laboratory ambient without thermal control, refrigerator (5 ° C, and freezer (-18 ° C until the final period of 180 days. After each sampling period, the seed viability (germination and tetrazolium tests and vigor (artificial aging, germination speed index – IVG and electrical conductivity were assessed. A reduction in the normal seedlings percentage was noticed over the period of storage of Araucaria seeds. The conservation in freezer and the lack of thermal control caused a complete loss of the seed viability at 60 and 180 days of storage, respectively. However, the refrigerator storage promoted the conservation of seed viability, with 64% germination after 180 days of storage, an event associated with the reduction of the metabolic activity of seeds. Based on the viability and vigor tests, it was concluded that storage in refrigerator provided longer storage periods to Araucaria seeds in comparison to the other storage conditions herein studied.

  13. Do NERICA rice cultivars express resistance to Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth. and Striga asiatica (L.) Kuntze under field conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Jonne; Cissoko, Mamadou; Kayeke, Juma; Dieng, Ibnou; Khan, Zeyaur R; Midega, Charles A O; Onyuka, Enos A; Scholes, Julie D

    2015-01-01

    The parasitic weeds Striga asiatica and Striga hermonthica cause high yield losses in rain-fed upland rice in Africa. Two resistance classes (pre- and post-attachment) and several resistant genotypes have been identified among NERICA (New Rice for Africa) cultivars under laboratory conditions (in vitro) previously. However, little is known about expression of this resistance under field conditions. Here we investigated (1) whether resistance exhibited under controlled conditions would express under representative Striga-infested field conditions, and (2) whether NERICA cultivars would achieve relatively good grain yields under Striga-infested conditions. Twenty-five rice cultivars, including all 18 upland NERICA cultivars, were screened in S. asiatica-infested (in Tanzania) and S. hermonthica-infested (in Kenya) fields during two seasons. Additionally, a selection of cultivars was tested in vitro, in mini-rhizotron systems. For the first time, resistance observed under controlled conditions was confirmed in the field for NERICA-2, -5, -10 and -17 (against S. asiatica) and NERICA-1 to -5, -10, -12, -13 and -17 (against S. hermonthica). Despite high Striga-infestation levels, yields of around 1.8 t ha(-1) were obtained with NERICA-1, -9 and -10 (in the S. asiatica-infested field) and around 1.4 t ha(-1) with NERICA-3, -4, -8, -12 and -13 (in the S. hermonthica-infested field). In addition, potential levels of tolerance were identified in vitro, in NERICA-1, -17 and -9 (S. asiatica) and in NERICA-1, -17 and -10 (S. hermonthica). These findings are highly relevant to rice agronomists and breeders and molecular geneticists working on Striga resistance. In addition, cultivars combining broad-spectrum resistance with good grain yields in Striga-infested fields can be recommended to rice farmers in Striga-prone areas.

  14. Protective Effect of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) against Prostate Cancer: From In Vitro Data to Algerian Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassed, Somia; Deus, Cláudia M.; Djebbari, Radja; Dahdouh, Abderrezak; Benayache, Fadila; Benayache, Samir

    2017-01-01

    Green tea (GT) has been studied for its effects as antioxidant and cancer-preventive agent. Epidemiological studies showed that GT consumption decreases the risk for prostate cancer (PC). To investigate whether erythrocyte oxidative stress (OS) is associated with PC and whether daily consumption of GT improves the oxidative phenotype, we performed a study in a group of Algerian PC patients, preceded by an in vitro study to characterize composition and antioxidant/antiproliferative activities of the GT used. This contained a high content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, demonstrating in vitro antioxidant activity and significant antiproliferative effect on human prostate cancer PC-3 cell line. Seventy PC patients and 120 age-matched healthy subjects participated in the study, with glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and catalase activity evaluated before and after GT consumption. The results showed a reduced GSH and catalase activity and a high level of MDA in erythrocytes from PC patients. The consumption of 2-3 cups per day of GT during 6 months significantly increased GSH concentration and catalase activity and decreased MDA concentration. In conclusion, GT significantly decreased OS in Algerian PC patients. Regular consumption of GT for a long period may prevent men from developing PC or at least delay its progression. PMID:28133488

  15. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activities of the Essential Oil of Clinopodium chinense (Benth.) Kuntze Aerial Parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng Yu; Liu, Xin Chao; Chen, Xu Bo; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long

    2015-10-01

    Water-distilled essential oil from Clinopodium chinense (Labiatae) aerial parts at the flowering stage was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty-five compounds, accounting for 99.18% of the total oil, were identified, and the main components of the essential oil of C. chinense were spathulenol (18.54%), piperitone (18.9%), caryophyllene (12.04%), and bornyl acetate (8.14%). Based on bioactivity-directed fractionation, bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone were identified from the essential oil. The essential oil possessed fumigant toxicity against booklice (Liposcelis bostrychophila) with a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) value of 423.39 μg/liter, while the isolated constituents, bornyl acetate and piperitone, had LC50 values of 351.69 and 311.12 μg/liter against booklice, respectively. The essential oil also exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with an LC50 value of 215.25 μg/cm(2). Bornyl acetate, caryophyllene, and piperitone exhibited acute toxicity against booklice with LC50 values of 321.42, 275.00, and 139.74 μg/cm(2), respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil and its isolated constituents have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants for control of insects in stored grains.

  16. Tratamento de sementes de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze com substâncias potencialmente repelentes à fauna consumidora.

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    Guilherme O. S. Ferraz de Arruda

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A semente de Araucaria angustifolia, o pinhão, é comumente utilizada como alimento e propágulo para regeneração da espécie. A intensa predação das sementes pela fauna silvestre, que ocorre em áreas recém-plantadas por semeadura direta e em viveiros florestais, é um dos fatores adversos e desestimulantes à propagação da espécie. Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar possíveis efeitos fitotóxicos de algumas substâncias naturais e sintéticas potencialmente repelentes à fauna silvestre, em sementes de Araucaria angustifolia "in vitro". O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Fitopatologia e Fisiologia Vegetal do CAV / UDESC, no período de junho a dezembro de 2004. As sementes, após preparadas e tratadas com substâncias de origem vegetal e sintéticas, foram semeadas em bandejas plásticas com substrato constituído por vermiculita e colocadas em câmara de crescimento com temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, umidade do substrato e períodos de luz controlados. Foi adotado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, contendo 15 tratamentos, com 4 repetições de 10 pinhões. As substâncias testadas, isoladas ou em misturas, foram: extratos alcoólicos de fruto de pimenta vermelha, raiz de salsa tempero e, da parte aérea de losna, óleo essencial de eucalipto, óleo de linhaça, óleo de mamona, breu, oxicloreto de cobre, sulfato de cobre, enxofre e tinta látex PVA. Emissão de raiz, emissão da parte aérea, comprimento da raiz principal e da parte aérea foram avaliados 76 dias após a semeadura. As análises possibilitaram concluir que não houve efeitos fitotóxicos das substâncias testadas "in vitro" sobre as variáveis analisadas e que tais substâncias podem ser utilizadas nos experimentos de campo para testes de repelência aos animais consumidores de pinhões.

  17. New Sample Preparation Method for Quantification of Phenolic Compounds of Tea (Camellia sinensis L. Kuntze: A Polyphenol Rich Plant

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    P. A. Nimal Punyasiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of the Sri Lankan tea (Camellia sinensis, L. germplasm would immensely contribute to the success of the tea breeding programme. However, the polyphenols, particularly catechins (flavan-3-ols, are readily prone to oxidation in the conventional method of sample preparation. Therefore, optimization of the present sample preparation methodology for the profiling of metabolites is much important. Two sample preparation methodologies were compared, fresh leaves (as in the conventional procedures and freeze-dried leaves (a new procedure, for quantification of major metabolites by employing two cultivars, one is known to be high quality black tea and the other low quality black tea. The amounts of major metabolites such as catechins, caffeine, gallic acid, and theobromine, recorded in the new sampling procedure via freeze-dried leaves, were significantly higher than those recorded in the conventional sample preparation procedure. Additionally new method required less amount of leaf sample for analysis of major metabolites and facilitates storage of samples until analysis. The freeze-dried method would be useful for high throughput analysis of large number of samples in shorter period without chemical deterioration starting from the point of harvest until usage. Hence, this method is more suitable for metabolite profiling of tea as well as other phenol rich plants.

  18. Caracterização dendrométrica de Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. em povoamento de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Biondi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its history of exploitation and intensive use in landscaping, the Dicksonia sellowiana Hook. (Dicksoniaceae is currently one of the Brazilian flora endangered species. The Paraná State laws prohibit its extraction; however, there is no research to support future management plans. This work characterized the natural occurrence of D. Sellowiana in an Araucaria angustifolia stand in the municipality of Rio Negro, Paraná State, using dendrometric variables after silvicultural intervention (clipping. D. sellowiana individuals (714 taller than the commercial height of 0.50 m were randomly sampled and assigned to the following treatments: plots with unclipped plants (T0, plots with plants clipped in the measurement (T1, and plots with plants clipped two years before in the measurement (T2. The variables analyzed were: density of the individuals/ha and plots, total and commercial caudex height (m, crown height (m, base diameter, crown (cm and frond (m, diameters, individual and total commercial volume. It was found significant difference between T1 and T2 for total height; between T2 and T0 and between T2 of T1 for crown and from diameters, individual commercial volume; between T0 and T1 and between TO and T2 for total commercial volume. The variables that characterized better the silvicultural interventions were the density of individuals and the total height. The occurred interventions revealed its importance for the management of the D. sellowiana because it favors the regeneration of the young plants for the conservation of the species, and benefits the development of the adult plants for its commercial exploitation.

  19. POTENCIAL FITOTÓXICO DE Pterodon polygalaeflorus BENTH (LEGUMINOSAE SOBRE Acanthospermum australe (LOEFL. O. KUNTZE E Senna occidentalis (L. LINK

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    VALDENIR JOSÉ BELINELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were synthesize and characterize the allelopatic activity of 6a,7bdi-hydroxyvouacapan-17b-oic acid derivatives, isolated from seeds of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth (Leguminosae. The compound characterization processes involve in infrared spectrometry (IR and hydrogen and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR including experiments in double dimensions (COSY 1H 1H, HMQC and HMBC. Allellopathic effects were evaluated by bioassays, carried out at controlled 25 °C temperature and photoperiod (12h light/12h dark, during 72 hours. Sample concentrations of 1,0, 100,0 and 1000,0 mg.L-1 were tested. Senna occidentalis (fedegoso and Acanthospermum australe (carrapichinho were used as the target weed plants. Was observed that the allelopatic effect of the compounds increased as a function of the enhancement of concentration, thus showing a relation dose dependence. The N-ethyl-6a-acethoxy- 7b-hydroxyvouacapan-17b-amide and N,N-diethyl-6a-acethoxy-7b-hydroxyvouacapan 17b-amide were the derivatives that present the biggest inhibitory effect on seed germination and root growth of fedegoso and carrapichinho. Therefore, these compounds represent the most allelochemical potential against these weeds.

  20. Mitochondria and redox homoeostasis as chemotherapeutic targets of Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze in human larynx HEp-2 cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Cátia dos Santos; de Lima, Émilin Dreher; Rodrigues, Tiago Selau; Scheffel, Thamiris Becker; Scola, Gustavo; Laurino, Claudia Cilene Fernandes Correia; Moura, Sidnei; Salvador, Mirian

    2015-04-25

    Natural products are among one of the most promising fields in finding new molecular targets in cancer therapy. Laryngeal carcinoma is one of the most common cancers affecting the head and neck regions, and is associated with high morbidity rate if left untreated. The aim of this study was to examine the antiproliferative effect of Araucaria angustifolia on laryngeal carcinoma HEp-2 cells. The results showed that A. angustifolia extract (AAE) induced a significant cytotoxicity in HEp-2 cells compared to the non-tumor human epithelial (HEK-293) cells, indicating a selective activity of AAE for the cancer cells. A. angustifolia extract was able to increase oxidative damage to lipids and proteins, and the production of nitric oxide, along with the depletion of enzymatic antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the tumor cell line. Moreover, AAE was able to induce DNA damage, nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation. A significant increase in the Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF), Bax, poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3 cleavage expression were also found. These effects could be related to the ability of AAE to increase the production of reactive oxygen species through inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I activity and ATP production by the tumor cells. The phytochemical analysis of A. angustifolia, performed using High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) in MS and MS/MS mode, showed the presence of dodecanoic and hexadecanoic acids, and phenolic compounds, which may be associated with the chemotherapeutic effect observed in this study.

  1. Radial variation of basic density and wood cells dimensions of Cariniana legalis (Mart. O. Kuntze depending on the provenance

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    Israel Luiz de Lima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Provenance tests can provide information about the silvicultural behavior and wood quality for the exploration of variability and conservation of genetic material for future use. This study aims to investigate the effect of provenances on some wood properties of the Cariniana legalis. Seedlings of three provenances (Porto Ferreira, Piracicaba and Campinas were planted in Luiz Antonio-SP using randomized block design with six replicates. After 26 years of planting, eighteen trees, six of each provenance, were felled. The properties studied were basic density and the cellular dimensions. The results revealed that the basic density, fiber length, fiber wall thickness, vessel element length, vessel diameter, uniseriate ray height and width were influenced by the provenances. A good positive relationship was found among the fiber length, fiber wall thickness, vessel element length; vessel diameter and multiseriate ray height with radial position and a negative relation between vessel frequency with the radial position.

  2. CHOLESTEROL ESTERASE ENZYME INHIBITORY AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF LEAVES OF CAMELLIA SINENSIS (L. KUNTZE. USING IN VITRO MODELS

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    Pradeep Kumar et al.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to evaluate the in vitro cholesterol esterase enzyme inhibitory and in vitro antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of the leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.. Phytochemical screening of the extract shows the presence of flavonoids, phenolics and terpenoids. The extract shows ability to inhibit the enzyme with IC50 (82.46±0.74µg/ml where as that of standard, Orlistat (24.15±0.59µg/ml. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity were also assessed by using the methods, IC50 values for Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (396.83±0.83µg/ml, whereas for standard curcumin (260.38±0.66µg/ml, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (47.04±2.26µg/ml and for quercetin (70.99±1.31µg/ml. Moreover, the extract was found to scavenge the superoxide with 50% inhibition at 308.17±23.25µg/ml and standard ascorbic acid at 225.08±2.44µg/ml, IC50 for ferrous chelating ability assay (44.12±4.63µg/ml and of ascorbic acid (47.25±.89µg/ml. Total content of flavonoids present in 1mg of extract was 19.8±0.11 µg quercetin equivalents/mg. Results indicated that the extract shows potential bioactive compounds which might have a beneficial impact on diseases related to cholesterol synthesis and showed potential antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities.

  3. Enzymatic and chemical oxidation of polygalactomannans from the seeds of a few species of leguminous plants and characterization of the oxidized products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlini, Luca; Boccia, Antonella Caterina; Mendichi, Raniero; Galante, Yves M

    2015-03-20

    Plant polysaccharides are used in a growing number of applications, in their native or in chemically and/or biochemically modified forms. In the present work, we compare TEMPO-mediated oxidation with laccase of polygalactomannans (PGM) from different species of plant leguminous to chemical oxidation with NaClO/NaBr/TEMPO. We have investigated the gums from: locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua), tara (Caesalpinia spinosa), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus), sesbania (Sesbania bispinosa) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum). Upon laccase/TEMPO oxidation, PGM viscosity and concentration of reducing groups increased up to five-fold and structured, elastic, stable gels were formed, which could be degraded by hydrolysis with β-mannanase. Conversely, chemical oxidation with NaClO/NaBr/TEMPO caused a rapid, intermediate transition of the gum solutions to compact gels, that immediately reverted to liquid, with a lower viscosity than at the start and an increased concentration of reducing groups, similar to the reaction with laccase. We interpret the above as due to, in the case of laccase, oxidation of primary hydroxyl groups to aldehydes, able to form stable hemiacetalic bonds with free hydroxyl groups. While upon chemical oxidation, primary OH's are only transiently oxidized to aldehydes, followed by rapid oxidation of all carbonyl groups to carboxylates. In either cases, TEMPO appeared to cause a limited splitting of glycosidic bonds of PGM. Native and oxidized PGM were further characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and by rheology.

  4. Immune-system-dependent anti-tumor activity of a plant-derived polyphenol rich fraction in a melanoma mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Cadena, A; Urueña, C; Prieto, K; Martinez-Usatorre, A; Donda, A; Barreto, A; Romero, P; Fiorentino, S

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that part of the anti-tumor effects of several chemotherapeutic agents require an intact immune system. This is in part due to the induction of immunogenic cell death. We have identified a gallotannin-rich fraction, obtained from Caesalpinia spinosa (P2Et) as an anti-tumor agent in both breast carcinoma and melanoma. Here, we report that P2Et treatment results in activation of caspase 3 and 9, mobilization of cytochrome c and externalization of annexin V in tumor cells, thus suggesting the induction of apoptosis. This was preceded by the onset of autophagy and the expression of immunogenic cell death markers. We further demonstrate that P2Et-treated tumor cells are highly immunogenic in vaccinated mice and induce immune system activation, clearly shown by the generation of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) producing tyrosine-related protein 2 antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Moreover, the tumor protective effects of P2Et treatment were abolished in immunodeficient mice, and partially lost after CD4 and CD8 depletion, indicating that P2Et's anti-tumor activity is highly dependent on immune system and at least in part of T cells. Altogether, these results support the hypothesis that the gallotannin-rich fraction P2Et's anti-tumor effects are mediated to a great extent by the endogenous immune response following to the exposure to immunogenic dying tumor cells. PMID:27253407

  5. The ethogram and activity rhythm of capative Paa spinosa during breeding period%人工环境下棘胸蛙(Paa spinosa)繁殖期的行为谱及活动节律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞宝根; 叶容晖; 郑荣泉; 周妍; 刘春涛; 陈希

    2008-01-01

    2007年4月,利用红外线摄像设备记录人工环境下的棘胸蛙行为活动,采用扫描取样法和目标动物取样法对录像资料进行分析,对人工环境下棘胸蛙的个体行为和活动节律进行了研究.结果表明:人工环境下的棘胸蛙行为主要包括静止行为(休息、对视);社会行为(打斗、追逐);运动行为(游泳、鸣叫、跳跃);捕食行为;繁殖行为(求偶鸣唱、侵占、驱赶、撕咬,摔跤、抱对、错抱、拒绝行为、产卵)等.日变化规律变化表明:棘胸蛙的静止行为占了多数,其余多数行为集中在夜间,在凌晨03:00~05:00间出现一个最高峰,与此不同的是棘胸蛙的打斗行为在白天06:00~07:00、08:00~09:00、11:00~12:00多次出现高峰,而在夜间17:00~24:00打斗行为时间分配很少.鸣叫行为在06:00~07:00,13:00~14:00出现两个高峰,而在夜间17:00~01:00鸣叫行为时间分配很少.棘胸蛙的繁殖行为也主要发生在夜间,在凌晨02:30~04:30为高峰,其间抱对行为占到67%,其次为摔跤17%,撕咬15%,而其余所占很少.在行为描述的基础上,对棘胸蛙的有关行为机制进行了探讨.

  6. Registro de novos hospedeiros de Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis (Coleoptera, Platypodidae no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil (Nota Científica. A register of new hosts of Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis (Coleoptera, Platypodidae in the State of São Paulo (Scientific Note.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Borges CONFORTI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis éespécie nativa da América do Sul e é pragaprimária de espécies arbóreas exóticas e nativas.No município de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo,durante pesquisa realizada nos anos de 2004,2005 e 2006, visando descobrir a causa damortalidade de árvores que compõem o dossel defragmentos de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual noBosque dos Jequitibás e na Mata Santa Genebra,foi coletado material associado a várias espéciesarbóreas ainda não registradas na literatura.Schizolobium parahyba (Vel l . S. F. Bl ake,Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell. Morong,Livistona chinensis (Jacq. R. Br., Caesalpiniapluviosa (Benth. DC., Pittosporum undulatumVent., Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook Raf.,Mangifera indica L., Croton floribundus Spreng.,Croton piptocalyx Müll. Arg., Cariniana legalis(Mart. Kuntze, Luetzelburgia guaissaraToledo, Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart. J. F.Macbr., Ficus benjamina L., Platypodium elegansVogel, Cariniana estrellensis (Raddi Kuntze,Machaerium stipitatum (DC. Vogel, Centrolobiumtomentosum Guillemin ex Benth., Pachira aquaticaAubl., Inga cf. vera Willd. ssp. affinis (DC. T.D.Penn., são registradas pela primeira vez comohospedeiros de M. mutatus no stado de São Paulo,Brasil. Plantas hospedeiras referidas em bibliografiatambém são relacionadas.Megaplatypus mutatus (Chapuis isnative from South America and it is a primary pestof native and exotic trees. In the county ofCampinas, state of São Paulo, during researchcarried out in the years of 2004, 2005 and 2006aiming at to discover the cause of the mortality oftrees that compose the canopy of fragments ofSemideciduous Forest in the Bosque dos Jequitibásand Mata Santa Genebra, was collected materialassociated with some species still not recorded inthe literature. Schizolobium parahyba (Vel l . S.F. Bl ake, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.Morong, Livistona chinensis (Jacq. R. Br.,Caesalpinia pluviosa (Benth. DC., Pittosporumundulatum Vent., Delonix

  7. Isolation, Structural Characterization, and Valorization of Pectic Substances from Algerian Argan Tree Leaves (Argania spinosa (L. Skeels

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    Kadda Hachem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectic polysaccharides were solubilized from Algerian argan tree leaves by sequential extraction with water at 100°C (water-soluble pectin; AL-WSP and EDTA solution at 80°C (chelating-soluble pectin; AL-CSP. Both AL-WSP and AL-CSP were rich in arabinose (28% and 74.5%, resp. and had a high content of uronic acid (38.5% and 21.5%, resp.. Pectic substances were deesterified and fractionated by anion exchange chromatography, giving five fractions for each extract. Most of the fractions were characterized by methylation analysis and then analyzed by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that AL-WSP consisted of rhamnogalacturonan type I, with arabinan and galactan branching at the O-4 position of the main rhamnose chain, while AL-CSP consisted of rhamnogalacturonan type I and a block of homogalacturonan. Antioxidant activities of AL-WSP and AL-CSP were evaluated by electronic spin resonance. The results showed that the antioxidant potential of AL-WSP (8.1% and AL-CSP (−1.2% was significantly lower than that of vitamin E.

  8. Field evaluation in Thailand of spinosad, a larvicide derived from Saccharopolyspora spinosa (Actinomycetales) against Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavara, Usavadee; Tawatsin, Apiwat; Asavadachanukorn, Preecha; Mulla, Mir S

    2009-03-01

    Two formulations of spinosad, direct application tablet (DT) and 0.5% granules (GR), at 3 dosages (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/l) in 200-liter earthen jars were evaluated against the larvae of Aedes aegypti. Two water regimens were used in the jars: jar full all the time and a full jar in which half the volume of the water was removed and replaced at each assessment interval. All treatments and controls were replicated 4 times and challenged with cohorts of 25 third-instar larvae of Ae. aegypti at weekly intervals during the study. The number of pupal skins (indicating successful emergence of adults) in the treated and control regimens were counted 7 days post-addition and they were used to calculate inhibition of emergence (% IE) based on the original number of larvae used. The DT formulation at the highest concentration (1.0 mg/l) yielded 79-100% IE for 34 days in the full jars, efficacy declining beyond this period. However, the longevity of this dosage was much longer with 90-100% IE for 62 days post-treatment in the water exchange regimen. The target and manufacturer-recommended concentration of 0.5 mg/l of DT gave good control (92-100% IE) for 20 days, declining below 92% IE thereafter in full jars. This dose also yielded good control with IE of 97-100% for 27 days in the water exchange regimen. The 0.5% GR formulation at all 3 dosages showed higher efficacy and greater longevity in the jars than the DT. In the full jars, all 3 dosages produced IE of 76-100% for 55 days post-treatment. In the water exchange regimen, the efficacy and longevity were increased by about one week, up to 62 days post-treatment. It is clear that the DT formulation can be used effectively against Ae. aegypti larvae at a target dose of 0.5 mg/l in 200-liter jars. This dose can be increased to 1.0 mg/l if slightly longer residual activity is desired. In containers where water is consumed and more water added, the longevity of efficacy will be longer for the DT than in jars which remain full all the time. GR (0.5%) gave longer control than DT. GR (0.5%) floated on the surface and produced scum and an oily film, features not desirable in stored water.

  9. Isolation, identification and determination of the biological activity of candidate fruit volatile components from Argania spinosa L. (Sapotacea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakri, A., E-mail: bakri@ucam.ac.m [University Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech (Morocco). Fac. of Science Semlalia. Insect Biological Control Unit; Dueben, B.D.; Proveaux, A.T.; Heath, R.R., E-mail: rheath@saa.ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/REE-ARS), Miami, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service

    2006-07-01

    This study provides detailed information on the diversity, abundance, guilds, host plant and host fly ranges, distribution, and taxonomic status of hymenopterous parasitoid species associated with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Anastrepha spp. (A. fraterculus (Wiedemann) and A. schultzi Blanchard) in Argentina. Moreover, the article also argues future needs regarding the use of some parasitoid species as an alternative tool in fruit fly management programs of the National Fruit Fly Control and Eradication Program (PROCEM-Argentina). Data used for this work were obtained from numerous old and recent published articles on fruit fly parasitoids in Argentina. (author)

  10. Forest restoration in a fog oasis: evidence indicates need for cultural awareness in constructing the reference.

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    Luís Balaguer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the Peruvian Coastal Desert, an archipelago of fog oases, locally called lomas, are centers of biodiversity and of past human activity. Fog interception by a tree canopy, dominated by the legume tree tara (Caesalpinia spinosa, enables the occurrence in the Atiquipa lomas (southern Peru of an environmental island with a diverse flora and high productivity. Although this forest provides essential services to the local population, it has suffered 90% anthropogenic reduction in area. Restoration efforts are now getting under way, including discussion as to the most appropriate reference ecosystem to use. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genetic diversity of tara was studied in the Atiquipa population and over a wide geographical and ecological range. Neither exclusive plastid haplotypes to loma formations nor clear geographical structuring of the genetic diversity was found. Photosynthetic performance and growth of seedlings naturally recruited in remnant patches of loma forest were compared with those of seedlings recruited or planted in the adjacent deforested area. Despite the greater water and nitrogen availability under tree canopy, growth of forest seedlings did not differ from that of those recruited into the deforested area, and was lower than that of planted seedlings. Tara seedlings exhibited tight stomatal control of photosynthesis, and a structural photoprotection by leaflet closure. These drought-avoiding mechanisms did not optimize seedling performance under the conditions produced by forest interception of fog moisture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both weak geographic partitioning of genetic variation and lack of physiological specialization of seedlings to the forest water regime strongly suggest that tara was introduced to lomas by humans. Therefore, the most diverse fragment of lomas is the result of landscape management and resource use by pre-Columbian cultures. We argue that an appropriate reference ecosystem for

  11. Congenital malformations and other reproductive losses in goats due to poisoning by Poincianella pyramidalis (Tul.) L.P. Queiroz (=Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Dos Reis, Suélen Dias; de Oliveira, Ricardo Santana; Correia Marcelino, Sóstenes Apolo; Silva Almeida E Macêdo, Juliana Targino; Riet-Correa, Franklin; da Anunciação Pimentel, Luciano; Ocampos Pedroso, Pedro Miguel

    2016-08-01

    In the semiarid region of Brazil, in areas with vegetation composed mainly of Poincianella pyramidalis, several cases of congenital malformation and reproductive losses were observed in goats and sheep from 2012 to 2014. To determine the teratogenic effect of P. pyramidalis, two groups of eight goats each were used. Goats from Group 1 received fresh P. pyramidalis, harvested daily, as the only roughage during the whole breeding and pregnancy period. Goats in Group 2 (control) received Cynodon dactylon (tifton) hay free choice. Ultrasound examination for pregnancy diagnosis was performed every 28 days. Four goats from Group 1 were pregnant on day 28 but not on day 56, suggesting embryonic death or abortion. Another goat from Group 1 died at day 70 of pregnancy, and the fetuses exhibited micrognathia. The other three goats bore six kids, three of which showed bone malformations in the limbs, spine, ribs, sternum, and head, including arthrogryposis, scoliosis and micrognathia. One kid also showed hypoplasia of the left pulmonary lobes. In the control group, all goats bore a total of 13 kids and none of them exhibited malformations. These results demonstrated that P. pyramidalis causes congenital malformations and other reproductive losses in goats.

  12. 喙荚云实种子中的新二萜%New diterpene from the seeds of Caesalpinia minax Hance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆华; 王立波; 高慧媛; 孙博航; 黄健; 吴立军

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究喙荚云实的化学成分.方法 采用多种色谱方法分离纯化,依据理化性质、波谱数据分析进行结构鉴定.结果 从喙荚云实的体积分数为95%的乙醇回流提取物中分离鉴定了1个二萜类化合物.结论 此二萜类化合物为新化合物.

  13. Variation of Photosynthesis, Fatty Acid Composition, ATPase and Acid Phosphatase Activities, and Anatomical Structure of Two Tea (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze Cultivars in Response to Fluoride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. X. Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of photosynthetic parameters, water use efficiency (WUE, fatty acid composition, chlorophyll (Chl content, malondialdehyde (MDA content, ATPase and acid phosphatase activities, fluoride (F content, and leaf anatomical structure of two tea cultivars, “Pingyangtezao” (PY and “Fudingdabai” (FD, after F treatments were investigated. The results show that net photosynthetic rate (, stomatal conductance (, and transpiration rate (E significantly decreased in both cultivars after 0.3 mM F treatment, but FD had higher , , and WUE and lower E than PY. Chl content in PY significantly decreased after 0.2 and 0.3 mM F treatments, while no significant changes were observed in FD. The proportions of shorter chain and saturated fatty acids increased and those of longer chain and unsaturated fatty acids decreased in both cultivars under F treatments. The contents of MDA increased after F treatments but were higher in PY than in FD. In addition, F treatments decreased the activities of ATPase and acid phosphatase and increased F content in both cultivars; however, compared with PY, FD showed higher enzymatic activities and lower F content in roots and leaves. Leaf anatomical structure in FD indicated that cells in leaf midrib region were less injured by F than in PY.

  14. Effect of Acetylation on Stability to Retrogradation of Starch Extracted from Wild Polynesian Arrowroot (Tacca leontopetaloides (L. Kuntze for Utilization as Adhesive on Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Abba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch was isolated from T. leontopetaloides tubers, chemically modified by acetylation with varying amounts of acetic anhydride. Monolayer of the ten acetylated and control starch powders was exposed on roof top for five weeks and pastes of both exposed and unexposed (control samples were prepared with distilled water (1 : 3 w/w. The effects of acetylation, degree of substitution (DS, and exposure to sunlight were investigated to evaluate the retrogradation tendency of the adhesive pastes from changes in syneresis, tack strength, optical clarity, viscosity, gelation time, and drying time. The results obtained showed that all the adhesive properties studied were affected by both DS and exposure to sunlight. While tack strength, viscosity, and drying time were found to increase with increase in DS, syneresis, optical clarity, and gelation time were found to decrease with increase in DS. Increase in tack strength and reduction in syneresis imply that the acetylation treatment has made T. leontopetaloides starch more suitable for use in remoistenable adhesive applications. The reduction in syneresis, optical clarity, and gelation time with increase in DS was attributed to the strengthening of the bonds between the amylose and amylopectin molecules, preventing water leaching out of the starch granules.

  15. Ökologischer Landbau in Sri Lanka - unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Tee-Anbausystemen (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    OpenAIRE

    Williges, Ute

    2005-01-01

    In Sri Lanka the agricultural structure of smallholder production has changed with population growth and land reforms. In former days a farm family could life from the production of their home garden through subsistence farming and barter economy. Additional income was achieved by selling surplus products like spices on the local markets. Today living standards and life style have changed and monetary needs for housing, schooling, electricity, telephone, household goods and transport faciliti...

  16. Aktivitas Polifenol Teh Hijau (Camellia sinensis (L O. Kuntze Sebagai Imunomodulator melalui Respons Supresi Imunoglobulin E (IgE pada Rinitis Alergika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is an inflammatory condition of the nasal mucosa caused by interactions between allergens and immunoglobulin E (IgE. Immunomodulatory is an important part of the treatment of allergic rhinitis. One of the medicinal plants that have immunomodulatory activities is green tea (Camellia sinensis L., specifically polyphenols. The purpose of this study was to analyze the activity of green tea’s polyphenols as an immunomodulator in patients with allergic rhinitis. This study was conducted in June to December 2011 in the laboratory of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine Unsyiah with the IgE examinations conducted in private laboratories. This study is a pretest-postest quasi experimental study with control group design. Subjects were 12 patients with allergic rhinitis; 6 people were included in the control group (placebo and 6 in the treatment group (green tea’s polyphenols 2x350 mg/day, for 14 days. Analysis of the data was performed using the normality test, homogeneity test, and t-test (p<0.05. The results showed that the levels of immunoglobulin E after the administration of green tea’s polyphenols in the treatment group was lower than the control group (1.475.2±940.7 vs 494.3±366.5 IU, but not significantly (p=0.05. In conclusion, the administration of green tea’s polyphenols can insignificantly decrease the secretion of IgE. Hence, further research is required.

  17. Identification and evaluation of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a commonly used technique for measuring gene expression levels due to its simplicity, specificity, and sensitivity. Reliable reference selection for the accurate quantification of gene expression under various experimental conditions is a...

  18. Morphological structure of inflorescences of Agastache breviflora (A. Gray Epling, A. rugosa (Fisch. & C.A. Mey. Kuntze, and A. rupestris (Greene Standl. (family Lamiaceae ex situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina O. Rudik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of comparative analysis of morphological structure of inflorescences Agastache breviflora, A. rugosa, and A. rupestris introduced in the O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden are represented. It has been established that the common morphological characteristics for inflorescences of these plants are: the type of inflorescence (thyrs, its location on the shoot (terminal, type of the growth of main and lateral axes (monopodial growth of the main axis and sympodial growth of lateral axes on which are formed the partial inflorescences – cymoids, the structure of the partial inflorescences (system of dichasia. Differences are determined by the linear dimensions of inflorescences, quantity and size of flowers in partial inflorescences, orientation of the main axis and flowers in space, presence or absence of bracts and bracteoles.

  19. Evaluation of genetic diversity of cultivated tea clones (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze in the eastern black sea coast by inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beris Fatih S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea is the most globally consumed drink after spring water and an important breeding plant with high economical value in Turkey. In half a century, various kinds of tea cultivars have been bred in Turkey to improve the quality and yield of tea plants. Since tea reproduces sexually, tea fields vary in quality. Thus, determining the genetic diversity and relationship of the plants to support breeding and cultivation is important. In this study we aimed to determine the genetic diversity of tea cultivars breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey and the genetic relationship between them, to verify whether the qualitative morphological designations of the clones are genetically true by the ISSR markers. Herein, the genetic diversity and relationships of 18 Turkish tea cultivars were determined using 15 ISSR markers with sizes ranging from 250 to 3000 base pairs. The similarity indices among these cultivars were between 0.456 and 0.743. Based on cluster analysis using UPGMA, some of tea cultivars originating from the same geographical position were found to be clustered closely. Our data provide valuable information and a useful basis to assist selection and cloning experiments of tea cultivars and also help farmers to find elite parental clones for tea breeding in the Eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey.

  20. Plant Growth Variation At Combined Progeny And Provenance Of 5-Year-Old Intsia Bijuga (Colebr. O.Kuntze In Sobang, Banten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Adma Adinugraha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate plant growth of Intsia bijuga at 5 years old in Sobang, Banten for supplying good genetic material in the future. Establishment of the trial was conducted in 2007 using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD that consisted of 6 blocks, 100 families nested in 10 provenances, 4 treeplot for each family with a spacing of 4 x4 m. Measurements were taken periodically every year on the survival percentage, total height and stem diameter at the breast height or dbh. At the age of 5 years showed that the significant differences among provenance in survival percentage that ranged from 41.61 to 65.11 %,  average of plant height were 1.04 to 2.82 m and dbh 1.24 to 1.59 cm. The growth variation families also showed significant differences in height and diameter. The survival rate ranged from 12.5-91.67 %, average plant height were 0.52-2.55 m and dbh 0.90-2.44 cm. Individual tree heritability estimate for height was height (0.344 while that of diameter was moderate (0.259. Family heritabilities for height and diameter was considered moderate, namely 0.573 and 0.491 respectively. Genetic correlation between height and diameter growth was positive and high (0.834.

  1. 刺山柑雄全同株性系统的适应意义%Adaptive significances of sexual system in andromonoecious Capparis spinosa (Capparaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 谭敦炎

    2008-01-01

    对分布于新疆北部干旱荒漠区的刺山柑Capparisspinosa性系统进行了研究.结果表明:(1)该物种具有典型的雄全同株性系统.雄花和两性花的雄蕊均正常发育,且有长短之分;两性花的雌蕊发育正常,而雄花的雌蕊败育,只行使雄性功能.(2)居群间每天开放的雄花和两性花比率、两性花的长短雄蕊数及雄花短雄蕊的花丝与花药长等存在极显著差异(P0.05).(3)单花花期为15-16 h,每天18:00时左右开始开放,有强烈的气味和花蜜产生.植株每天产生的雄花和两性花数是随机的,可形成短时的雄花与两性花异株,但居群内雄花数比两性花数多.(4)三个居群两性花的P/O值分别为1.57×104、1.65×104和1.71×104.居群内雄花和两性花的花粉数及长、短雄蕊花药的花粉数均无显著差异(P>0.05),居群间雄花和两性花的花粉数、两性花的胚珠数及P/O值差异也不显著(P>0.05).(5)各居群雄花和两性花长短雄蕊的花粉活力动态变化曲线相似,花粉寿命为18-20 h,两性花雌蕊柱头的可授期为16-18h.(6)访花昆虫为膜翅目Hymenoptera和鳞翅目Lepidoptera昆虫,3个居群共有7种访花昆虫,其活动受天气影响很大.(7)两性花不存在无融合生殖现象,授自花花粉、同株异花花粉和异株异花花粉后均可结实,属于混合交配系统.刺山柑的雄全同株性系统可能是在长期与荒漠环境相适应的过程中由遗传和环境共同作用的结果.雄花的出现不仅增加了花粉数和P/O值,提高了植株的雄性适合度,同时增加了花的数量、对传粉昆虫的吸引力以及两性花柱头接受异花花粉的机会,提高了异交率和雌性适合度,保障其在荒漠极端环境中繁殖成功.

  2. Phenolic-extract from argan oil (Argania spinosa L.) inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and enhances cholesterol efflux from human THP-1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrougui, Hicham; Cloutier, Martin; Isabelle, Maxim; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2006-02-01

    Argan oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherol and phenolic compounds. These protective molecules make further study of its cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) action interesting. Furthermore, no previous study has explored the antioxidant activity of argan oil in comparison with olive oil. The present study was conducted to evaluate the beneficial properties of Virgin argan oil phenolic extracts (VAO-PE) towards CVD by: (A) protecting human (low-density lipoprotein, LDL) against lipid peroxidation and (B) promoting high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mediated cholesterol efflux. Human LDLs were oxidized by incubation with CuSO(4) in the presence of different concentrations of VAO-PE (0-320mug/ml). LDL lipid peroxidation was evaluated by conjugated diene and MDA formation as well as Vitamin E disappearance. Incubation of LDL with VAO-PE significantly prolonged the lag-phase and lowered the progression rate of lipid peroxidation (Pargan oil provides a source of dietary phenolic antioxidants, which prevent cardiovascular diseases by inhibiting LDL-oxidation and enhancing reverse cholesterol transport. These properties increase the anti-atherogenic potential of HDL.

  3. 酸枣仁与黑胡椒的组方研究%Study of Prescription Composition of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen and Black Pepper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛琳; 周丽娟; 张俊清; 王勇; 刘明生

    2012-01-01

    研究酸枣仁与黑胡椒不同配比及用量对改善睡眠作用的影响.酸枣仁水煎液喷雾干燥得到粉末与黑胡椒的细粉分别按药材量1∶5、1∶10、1∶15比例混合均匀后进行改善睡眠功能实验,筛选最佳配比;进而筛选最佳用量.3种配比均能延长戊巴比妥钠诱导的小鼠睡眠时间和缩短入睡潜伏期,以1∶10的比例混合效果更突出,按拟定剂量实验得到较好的效果.酸枣仁与黑胡椒的组方在改善睡眠方面其最佳配比为1∶10,在此基础上所拟定的剂量是适宜的.

  4. Optimised method for the analysis of phenolic compounds from caper (Capparis spinosa L.) berries and monitoring of their changes during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesca, Nicola; Barbera, Marcella; Martorana, Alessandra; Saiano, Filippo; Gaglio, Raimondo; Aponte, Maria; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Settanni, Luca

    2016-04-01

    In this work, an ad hoc method to identify and quantify polyphenols from caper berries was developed on high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation source/mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). The method was applied during fermentation carried out with Lactobacillus pentosus OM13 (Trial S) and without starter (Trial C). A total of five polyphenols were identified. All samples contained high concentrations of rutin. Epicatechin was found in untreated fruits, on the contrary quercetin was detected during fermentation. Trial S was characterised by a more rapid acidification and lower levels of spoilage microorganisms than Trial C. L. pentosus dominated among the microbial community of both trials and the highest biodiversity, in terms of strains, was displayed by Trial C. Aureobasidium pullulans was the only yeast species found. The analytical method proposed allowed a high polyphenolic compound recovery from untreated and processed caper berries in short time. The starter culture reduced the bitter taste of the final product.

  5. Gene : CBRC-PHAM-01-1800 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a [Deinopis spinosa] 1e-121 58% MLVMSPLAKHRQMGAEQILCRYGCRCGCRLCVGVGAGMGAVVGTAVCSGVGTGVGAGMGAGVGIGVCSGVGAGMGAGMGAGVGAGVGAGVDAGM...GAGVGAGVDAGVDAGMGAGMGAGVGAGVDAGVGAGMGAAVDAGVDAGMGAGVGAGVGAGLCAGVVAGMGAGVGAGVGTGLCAGVGAGMGAGVDAGVGAGVGAGLCAGVVAGM...GAGVDAGVGTGLCAGVGAGMGAGVDAGMGAGVDAGVGTGLCAGVGAGVGAGVGAGLCAGVVAGMGAGVGAGVGTGLCAGVGAGM...GAGVDAGVVAGMGAGVDAGVGTGLCAGVGAGVGAGMGTGVDAGMGAGVGAGVGAGLCAGVGAGVGAGVDAGMAAGMGAGVGAGVGAGLCAGVGAGMGAGMGAGVDAGIGTGVGAGVGTGLCAGVGAGMGAGVGWWRAR ...

  6. Radial variation of tracheid features, specic gravity and growth rings in Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze planted in Cunha-SP. Variação radial das características das traqueídes, densidade aparente e anéis de crescimento em Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze plantadas em Cunha-SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Moura SANTOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated wood features along growth rings of Araucaria angustifolia trees planted between November and December of 1980 in Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar in Cunha, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Our goal was to determine radial variation of the tracheid features and specific gravity. For these analyses, we employed the usual methodologies for determining the tracheid dimensions by maceration. Based on the relationship between weight/volume of samples and growth rings, specific gravity was determined after discs were polished. Following the Typical Radial Pattern – (TRP, we observed a significant increase in length, diameter and wall thickness of tracheids toward the bark. Positive relationships were observed between all tracheid features and specific gravity, showing that the increase in length and, especially, wall thickness contributed to the increase in specific gravity toward the bark. Neste estudo, investigamos os anéis de crescimento e a variação radial das traqueídes na madeira de árvores de Araucaria angustifolia plantadas entre novembro e dezembro de 1980 no Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar em Cunha, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Nosso objetivo foi determinar a variação das características das traqueídes e densidade aparente. Nessas análises, empregamos metodologias usuais para estabelecer as dimensões das traqueídes pelo método de maceração. Com base na relação massa/volume das amostras e anéis de crescimento, a densidade aparente foi determinada após o polimento dos discos. De acordo com o Típico Padrão Radial – (TRP, observamos aumento significativo no comprimento, diâmetro e espessura da parede das traqueídes em direção à casca. Relações positivas foram observadas entre todas as características das traqueídes e a densidade aparente, mostrando que o aumento do comprimento e, especialmente, da espessura de suas paredes contribuem positivamente para o aumento da densidade aparente em direção à casca.

  7. Avaliação da atividade larvicida de saponinas triterpênicas isoladas de Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd. Kuntze (Fabaceae e Cordia piauhiensis Fresen (Boraginaceae sobre Aedes aegypti Evaluation of larvicidal activity of triterpenoid saponins isolated of Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd. Kuntze (Fabaceae and Cordia piauhiensis Fresen (Boraginaceae against Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M.P. Santiago

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A atividade larvicida de quatro saponinas monodesmosídicas (1-4 isoladas de Pentaclethra macroloba e de uma saponina bidesmosídica (5 isolada de Cordia piauhiensis foi avaliada sobre larvas de estágio 3 de Aedes aegypti. As larvas foram expostas a várias concentrações (500, 250, 100, 50, 25 e 12,5 mg/mL das saponinas por um período de 24 h. Os resultados indicam que somente as saponinas 1-3 mostraram alta atividade larvicida, com CL50 variando de 18,6 a 27,9 mg/mL. Estes resultados ressaltam as potencialidades destas saponinas como possíveis agentes larvicidas naturais.The larvicidal activity of the four monodesmoside saponins (1-4 isolated from Pentaclethra macroloba and one bidesmoside saponin (5 from Cordia piauhiensis was evaluated on 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The larvae were exposed to serial concentrations (500, 250, 100, 50, 25 and 12.5 mg/mL saponins for a period of 24 h. The results indicate that, only the saponins 1-3 showed high larvicidal activity, with LC50 ranging of 18,6-27,9 mg/mL. These results suggest that these can be used as natural larvicidal agents.

  8. Determinação de compostos fenólicos em amostras comerciais de chás verde e preto - Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze, Theaceae = Determination of phenolic componds in commercial samples of green and black tea - Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze, Theaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Vicente Pereira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O chá de Camellia sinensis é rico em compostos fenólicos antioxidantes, responsáveis por efeitos benéficos à saúde humana. Neste trabalho, foram realizadas as determinações da concentração de fenóis totais e flavonoides de sete amostras comerciais dos chás preto e verde. Os teores de fenóis totais variaram de 4,80 a 26,60 mg de pirogalol g-1 de amostra e os de flavonoides, de 0,46 a 1,10 mg de quercetina g-1 de amostra. A análise anatômica do conteúdo das amostras permitiu caracterizar a autenticidade dos produtos,observando-se os marcadores anatômicos típicos da espécie (estômatos anomocíticos, tricomas tectores unicelulares, mesofilo dorsiventral, drusas de oxalato de cálcio e esclereides.The tea from Camellia sinensis (green tea and black tea is rich in antioxidant phenolic compounds, responsible for beneficial effects to human health. In this work, determinations were carried out on theconcentration of total phenols and flavonoids in seven commercial samples of black tea and green tea. The samples presented concentrations of total phenols varying between 4.80 and 26.60 mg of pyrogallol g-1 and concentrations of flavonoids from 0.46 to 1.10 mg of quercetin g-1. With the purpose of characterizing the authenticity of the product contained in the sachets, the samples were fixed for histological studies. The samples presented the typical anatomical markers of the species (anomocytic stomata, unicellular non-glandulartrichomes, dorsiventral mesophyll, calcium oxalate druses and sclereids.

  9. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of Artistolochia esperanzae O.Kuntze on development of Sesamum indicum L. seedlings Efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de Aristolochia esperanzae O.Kuntze sobre desenvolvimento de plântulas de Sesumum indicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Gatti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aristolochia esperanzae is a climbing plant that occurs in the savanna regions of Brazil. The aim of this work was to identify the effects of aqueous extracts of A. esperanzae on germination, root growth and xylem cell development of sesame seedlings. Leaf and shoot extracts were prepared at concentrations of 1.5 and 3%. Extracts caused marked changes in germination and seedling growth with greatest inhibition produced by root extracts. Morphological changes and decreased growth and development of seedlings were also observed. The extracts of A. esperanzae caused a reduction of 50% in the size of root xylem cells and marked changes in the primary root and in the number of secondary roots.Aristolochia esperanzae é uma trepadeira que ocorre no cerrado do sudeste do Brasil. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram de identificar os efeitos dos extratos aquosos de A. esperanzae sobre a germinação, crescimento da raiz e de células do xilema de plântulas de gergelim. Extratos de folhas, caule e raiz foram preparados nas concentrações de 1,5 e 3,0%. Os extratos causaram alterações na germinação e no crescimento das plântulas com inibição maior causada pelos extratos de raízes. Observou-se mudanças morfológicas e decréscimo no crescimento e desenvolvimento das plântulas de gergelim. Os extratos de A. esperanzae causaram uma inibição de até 50% no tamanho das células do xilema das raízes e mudanças na raiz primária e no número de raízes secundárias.

  10. Atividade alelopática de extratos aquosos de Aristolochia esperanzae O. Kuntze na germinação e no crescimento de Lactuca sativa L. e Raphanus sativus L. Allelopathic activity of aqueous extracts of Aristolochia esperanzae O. Kuntze in the germination and growth of Lactuca sativa L. and Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Gatti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os efeitos de extratos aquosos de diferentes órgãos de Aristolochia esperanzae na germinação e no crescimento de alface e rabanete. Todos os extratos preparados obedeceram à proporção de 100g de material vegetal fresco para 300mL de água destilada, que produziu o extrato considerado 100% concentrado. A partir deste, foram feitas diluições com água destilada para 75, 50 e 25%. Nos testes de germinação foram avaliados os efeitos dos extratos obtidos de folha, caule, raiz, fruto e flor a 100, 75, 50 e 25%. Para o teste de crescimento foram utilizados extratos de folha, caule e raiz na concentração de 100 e 50%. Nos testes de germinação foram utilizadas quatro repetições de 30 sementes distribuídas em placas de Petri forradas com duas folhas de papel de filtro umedecidas com 5 mL dos referidos extratos, secas durante 12h e reumedecidas com 4,5mL de água destilada. No primeiro teste avaliou-se a percentagem e a velocidade de germinação das sementes. No teste de crescimento, as sementes foram previamente germinadas (2-4mm de radícula e depois transferidas para caixas plásticas contendo os substratos de papel de filtro e fibra de coco umedecidos com os respectivos extratos. Avaliou-se a altura da parte aérea, o comprimento radicular, a massa seca das plântulas e a presença de anormalidades nas plântulas. Os testes foram mantidos à temperatura constante de 27ºC. Através dos resultados obtidos pode-se concluir que os extratos de folha foram os que mais afetaram a percentagem de germinação e que todos os extratos e as diferentes concentrações retardaram a germinação de sementes de alface e de rabanete. Quanto ao teste de crescimento, pode-se verificar que os extratos de caule e de raiz causaram anormalidades nas plântulas. As plântulas crescidas no substrato papel de filtro apresentaram maior inibição do crescimento, em relação àquelas crescidas no substrato fibra de coco. A concentração dos extratos foi a principal responsável pelo estímulo ou inibição causada no crescimento das plântulas de alface e rabanete.This work analyzed the effects of aqueous extractsof Aristolochia esperanzae organs in the germination and initial growth of lettuce and radish. All the extracts were prepared using 100g of plant fresh material + 300mL of distilled water to produce the extract 100% concentrated. This extract was diluted with distilled water to produce a final concentrations of 75, 50 and 25%. The germination was evaluated by tests using the extracts of leaf, stem, root, fruit and flower, with concentration of 100, 75, 50, and 25%. In the seedlings growth, the extracts of leaf, stem, and root were used in the concentration of 100 and 50%. In the germination tests, four replicates of 30 seeds were distributed in Petri dishes with two filter paper moistened with 5mL of the extracts, dried during 12 hours and moistened again with 4,5mL of distilled water. In the first test, the rate and germination percentage were evaluated. In the growth test, the seeds were previously germinated (2-4mm radicle length and transferred for plastic boxes containing the filter paper or coconut fiber, moistened with the extracts. The shoot height, radicle length, dry mass and the presence of abnormalities in the seedlings were evaluated. Both tests were maintained at constant temperature (27ºC. The results showed that the leaf extracts affected strongly the germination percentage and all the extract, in different concentrations, delayed the germination of lettuce and radish seeds. In the growth tests could be verified that the stem and root extracts caused abnormality in the seedlings. The seedlings grown in filter paper presented bigger growth inhibition in relation to seedlings from coconut fiber. The extract concentration was the main responsible for the promotion or inhibition caused on lettuce and radish seedlings growth.

  11. Conservação pós-colheita de pinhões [sementes de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertoloni Otto Kuntze] armazenados em diferentes temperaturas Postharvest preservation of 'pinhões' [seeds of Araucaria angustifolia (Bertoloni Otto Kuntze] stored at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O pinhão (semente de Araucaria angustifolia representa importante fonte de renda aos produtores rurais e uma opção a mais de alimento característico a ser oferecido aos turistas e à população em geral na região Sul do Brasil. A temperatura e a umidade de armazenamento são os principais determinantes da preservação pós-colheita de pinhões. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da temperatura de armazenamento nas taxas respiratórias e de evolução de etileno, bem como na perda de massa fresca e na germinação pós-colheita de pinhões destinados para consumo alimentar humano. Seguiu-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com seis temperaturas de armazenamento (2, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50°C e quatro repetições, cada repetição correspondendo a amostras contendo cerca de 300g de pinhões. Pinhões armazenados nas diferentes temperaturas não apresentaram produção de etileno (em níveis detectáveis através de cromatografia gasosa, com sensibilidade de 1ppm. A taxa respiratória aumentou substancialmente com o aumento na temperatura, com um Q10 @ 2,5 na faixa de temperatura de 2 a 37,1°C. Houve redução substancial da respiração com o aumento na temperatura de 37,1 para 50°C. A maior germinação dos pinhões foi verificada na temperatura de 20°C (~55% dos pinhões germinados aos 26 dias de armazenamento, reduzindo em temperaturas menores (~1% e 21% de germinação nas temperaturas de 2 e 10°C, respectivamente ou maiores (9% e The seeds ('pinhões' of Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia represent an important sorce of income to the rural comunities and also an additional food product to be offered to the tourists and population in Southern Brazil. Temperature and humidity in the storage environment are the mais factors affecting 'pinhões' postharvest preservation. This work was carried out to evaluate the effects of storage temperature on postharvest respiration and ethylene production, as well as on fresh mass loss and germination of 'pinhões' intended for human consumption. The experiment followed a completely randomized design with six storage temperatures (2, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50°C and four replicates, each replicate with about 300g of 'pinhões'. 'Pinhões' stored at the different temperatures did not exhibit ethylene production (at levels detectable by gas chromatography, with a sensibility of 1ppm. The respiratory rates increased substancialy in the range from 2°C to 37.1°C, with a Q10 @ 2.5. The respiration decreased substantialy by increasing the temperature from 37.1°C to 50°C. The higher germination rate was achieved for 'pinhões' stored at 20°C (~55% germination after 26 days storage. The germination reduced for 'pinhões' stored at temperatures lower (~1% and 21% of germination for 'pinhões' left at 2 and 10°C, respectively or higher (9% and <1% of germination for 'pinhões' left at 30°C and 40-50°C, respectively than 20°C. These results show the importance of 'pinhões' storage at temperatures close to 0°C to reduce the metabolic ativity, especially the respiration, and, therefore, to preserve the product quality and to reduce fresh mass loss and seed germination.

  12. The Growth and Species-by-site Interaction of 18 Central American Multipurpose Tree Species Grown at 15 Tropical Sites World-wide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From a world-wide plant introduction trial series utilising 25 central American species planted at over 100 sites in nearly 60 countries, eighteen species planted at 15 sites in the tropics were chosen for further study of the factors determining site productivity and site by species interactions. The species were Acacia pennatula, Acacia farnesiana, Albizia guachapele, Ateleia herbert-smithii, Caesalpinia coriaria, Caesalpinia eriostachys, Caesalpinia velutina, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Gliricidia sepi...

  13. Use of fog water to the initial establishment of tree species under conditions of barren Lomas in the Quebrada Topará, Chincha-Perú

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, A.; Cabrera, R.; Bederski, K.; Orellana, A.

    2010-07-01

    The Quebrada Topara is located in the Peruvian coastal desert (13012'L.S, 76009'L.W.) and is influenced by the fog during the winter months, these conditions of high humidity allows its use to achieve the establishment of a permanent vegetation cover Huaquina hill, which is representative at the place of study. Uncounted fog water can be captured and used for irrigation of plants. Also due to the absence of any tree species coverage in this region is not known which or which could have a better performance under these environmental conditions, We used to native species Caesalpinia spinosa "tara" and Schinus molle "molle" also introduced species Casuarina equisetifolia "Casuarina", as these could have a better adaptation. Soil analysis determined a high salinity and nitrogen poverty, preventing water infiltration into the soil and is not used by the plant so that the saline soil difficult to establish plants. This research can be considered an exploratory phase, the objectives were: to determine the potential for fog water harvesting to capture in the study area, to assess for 20 months the initial performance of the species tara, molle and casuarina, and profit incorporation in the final sowing of organic matter and soil amendments to facilitate a better development of plants. 3 standard fog collector (SFC) proposed by Schemenauer and Cereceda (1993) were installed and we evaluated the capture water during 31 months, from June 2007 to December 2009, finding much water collected in the winter months, the average annual in the 3 SFC was similar (1.1, 1.2 and 1.1 L m -2 day-1) which allows us to plan according to necessary the best way to harness and store water to supply the plants. It was found that native species, tara and molle were more adaptable to extreme conditions of the place that introduced casuarina species. The tara does grow faster in height and stem diameter, also achieves a good coverage to intercept fog water itself making it more viable and capable

  14. Calliandra haematocephala Hassk.、 Caesalpinia pulcherrima (Linn.)Sw.、 Cassia fistula Linn.、Tamarindus indica Linn%朱缨花、金凤花、腊肠树、酸豆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈定如

    2007-01-01

    半落叶灌木,高1~2m。分枝多而柔韧,皮褐色,具明显皮孔。株冠半球形。叶互生或近对生,二回偶数羽状复叶,羽片1对,总叶柄长3-6cm,被柔毛,基部膨大;每羽片有小叶5~9对,小叶斜披针形,长1~6cm,宽0.5~1、5cm。顶端钝,基部不对称,全缘,下侧稍弯,每羽片基部内侧的小叶较小:基生3脉,长短不一,主脉偏上侧;近无柄;嫩叶淡紫色至紫红色。

  15. Antioxidant Capacity of Polyphenol Extracts from Different Parts of Limonium sinense (Girard) Kuntze%补血草不同部位多酚提取物的抗氧化能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炳华; 张婧; 黄慧; 陈莺莺; 李均

    2013-01-01

    采用多种体外评价体系研究了补血草不同部位多酚提取物的抗氧化能力,结果表明:在4种不同的检测体系中,补血草根、根茎、叶和花的多酚提取物表现出不同的抗氧化能力水平.还原力从大至小依次为根>根茎>叶>花;FRAP值和TEAC值大小顺序依次分别为根>根茎≈叶>花,根≈根茎≈叶>花;而对β-胡萝卜素-亚油酸漂白的抑制作用大小为花>叶>根>根茎.光谱分析显示,根、根茎和叶提取物及花提取物的主要组分分别为原花色素类和黄酮类.在不同评价体系中,补血草不同部位多酚提取物的抗氧化能力与原花色素含量(R2 =0.5450~0.9201),与黄酮含量(R2 =0.7764~0.9993)均呈显著正相关.可见,补血草多酚提取物具有很强的体外抗氧化能力,且活性强弱与其原花色素和黄酮含量的高低密切相关.%The antioxidant capacities of polyphenol extracts from different parts of Limonium sinense were evaluated by several in vitro systems of assay. The result showed that the polyphenol ex tracts from different parts had different levels of antioxidant capacity in the four systems tested. The reducing power of polyphenol extracts from different parts was in the order of root > rhizome > leaf > flower, the ranking order of the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power ( FRAP) value and the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity ( TEAC) value was root > rhizome≈leaf > flower, root ≈ rhizome ≈ leaf >flower, respectively, while the β- carotene-linoleate bleaching inhibition was flower > leaf > root > rhizome. Spectrum displayed that the main constituents in polyphenol extracts from root, rhi zome and leaf, and flower was proanthocyanin and flavonoid, respectively. Linear correlation be tween antioxidant capacities of various parts in different assays and proanthocyanin content (R2 = 0. 545 0 ~ 0. 920 1) , and total flavonoid (R2 = 0. 776 4 ~ 0. 999 3) was observed. Therefore, it could be concluded that polyphenol extracts from different parts of L. sinense have strong antioxidant activity in vitro, in which, high content of proanthocyanin and total flavonoid in polyphenol extracts closely correlates with the antioxidant activity in different parts.

  16. Produção de biomassa no corte raso em plantio de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze de 27 anos de idade em Quedas do Iguaçu, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Valdir Schumacher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study, conducted in a 27-year-old Araucaria angustifolia stand in the municipality of Quedas do Iguaçu (PR county, aimed to estimate tree components, understory and accumulated litter biomasses. Biomass was estimated through regression equation adjustments, with 21 trees felled, distributed among 7 diametric classes, and with litter and understory based on known sample unit areas. Total stand biomass was 241.92 Mg ha-1, with 82.2% composed of Araucaria angustifolia, 9.6% composed of understory and 8.2% composed by litter. Considering only Araucaria angustifolia, the biomass was of 198.62 Mg ha-1, composed of wood (51.5%, bark (14.7%, roots (13.0%, lives branches (11.8%, aciculated branches (6.6% and dead branches (0.5%. Relative biomass production for the wood component may be low, when compared to other forest species, mainly due to the high allocation in the bark component.

  17. Determinação de compostos fenólicos em amostras comerciais de chás verde e preto - Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze, Theaceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i2.6233

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O chá de Camellia sinensis é rico em compostos fenólicos antioxidantes, responsáveis por efeitos benéficos à saúde humana. Neste trabalho, foram realizadas as determinações da concentração de fenóis totais e flavonoides de sete amostras comerciais dos chás preto e verde. Os teores de fenóis totais variaram de 4,80 a 26,60 mg de pirogalol g-1 de amostra e os de flavonoides, de 0,46 a 1,10 mg de quercetina g-1 de amostra. A análise anatômica do conteúdo das amostras permitiu caracterizar a autenticidade dos produtos, observando-se os marcadores anatômicos típicos da espécie (estômatos anomocíticos, tricomas tectores unicelulares, mesofilo dorsiventral, drusas de oxalato de cálcio e esclereides.

  18. Repelência de substâncias naturais e sintéticas aos mamíferos silvestres consumidores de sementes de Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze em semeadura no campo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme O. S. Ferraz de Arruda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at testing some natural and synthetic substances, not phytotoxics and not lethal for the fauna, to verify the repellence action for the consuming wild animals of Parana-Pine seeds, in two direct sowing experiments in the field. In experiment I, there was the direct application of the treatments in the Parana-Pine seeds and, in the experiment II, there was the application of the treatments only in the surface of the plantation hollows, after the sowing of Parana-Pine seeds. The Parana-Pine seeds and the treatments were prepared at Laboratory of Center of Agroveterinary Sciences, University of Santa Catarina State, at Lages city, Brazil. The experiments were carried to a native-antropic field area at Lages city. It was adopted the experimental design of randomized blocks for both experiments. Experiment I was composed of 15 treatments, 10 seeds per treatment, with 4 replications, and experiment II was composed of 11 treatments, 10 seeds per treatment, with 4 replications. The tested substances, isolated or in mixtures, were: fruit of red pepper, root of parsley, stem and leaf of wormwood herb, lemon scented gum essential oil, linseed oil, castor bean oil, rosin, copper oxychloride, copper sulphate, sulphur, látex ink and calcium lignosulfonate. Through the periodic inspections, during 167 and 165 days respectively for the experiments I and II, data were collected and organized through the attacked and not attacked Paraná-Pine seeds, being submitted to statistical analysis later. The predation rates were considered high for both experiments: 86,7% in experiment I and 84,3% in experiment II. In the experiment with treated Parana-Pine seeds, the longer time for the beginning of the predation was 104 days after the sowing, while, in the experiment with treatment in the environment (hollows, it was 64 days after the sowing. Solution of rosin and alcohol + lemon scented gum oil, applied in the seeds, presented potential for reduction of the predation level. The treatments with linseed oil presented changeable behaviors, equally to the treatments with latex ink, in the experiment with treated Parana-Pine seeds. In the experiment with treated hollows, the lignosulfonate of calcium in mixture with extracts of pepper, with root of parsley and with wormwood herb presented significant effect of reduction on the predation. The solution of linseed with red pepper extracts and with root of parsley extract also had significant effect for reduction of the predation of these seeds, in the experiment with treated hollows

  19. Differentially Expression of Tual, a Tubulin-encoding Gene,during Flowering of Tea Plant Camellia sinensis(L.)O.Kuntze Using cDNA Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Ping FANG; Chang-Jun JIANG; Mei YU; Ai-Hua YE; Zhao-Xia WANG

    2006-01-01

    The complementary DNA (cDNA) amplified fragment length polymorphism technique was used to isolate transcript-derived fragments corresponding to genes involved in the flowering of tea plant. Comparative sequence analysis of an approximately 300 bp differential fragment amplified by primer combination E11M11 revealed 80%-84% similarity to the corresponding part of an α-tubulin gene of other species. The complete cDNA sequence of this α-tubulin was cloned by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique; its full length is 1537 bp and contains an open reading frame of 450 amino acid residues with two Nglycosylation sites and four protein kinase C phosphorylation sites. The deduced amino acid sequences did show significant homology to the α-tubulin from other plants that has been reported to be a pollen-specific protein and could be correlated with plant cytoplasm-nucleus-interacted male sterility. We named this complete cDNA Tual. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence data of Tual have been recorded in the GenBank sequence database with the accession No. DQ340766. This Tual gene was cloned into the pET-32a expression system and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21trxB(DE3). The molecular weight of expressed protein was deduced to be approximately 49 kDa. Western blot analysis was used to identify the temporal expression of Tual in tea plant. Further studies of the effect of Tual protein on pollen tube growth indicated the Tual solution obviously promoted the growth of tea pollen tube.

  20. Parâmetros fisiológicos e bioquímicos durante a embriogênese zigótica e somática de Auracaria angustifolia (BERT.) O. KUNTZE

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Neusa

    2005-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Agrárias. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Recursos Genéticos Vegetais. A embriogênese somática é uma técnica biotecnológica amplamente utilizada para propagação massal e conservação de diversas espécies de coníferas como é o caso da Araucaria angustifolia. Além disso, esta técnica se configura como um modelo referência para estudos da biologia do desenvolvimento in vitro. A principal limitação da embriogênese...

  1. Insights into the Genetic Relationships and Breeding Patterns of the African Tea Germplasm (Camellia sinensis (L. O. Kuntze Based on nSSR Markers and cpDNA Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianming Gao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Africa is one of the key centres of global tea production. Understanding the genetic diversity and relationships of cultivars of African tea is important for future targeted breeding efforts for new crop cultivars, specialty tea processing and to guide germplasm conservation efforts. Despite the economic importance of tea in Africa, no research work has been done so far on its genetic diversity at a continental scale. Twenty-three nSSRs and three plastid DNA regions were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relationships and breeding patterns of tea accessions collected from eight countries in Africa. A total of 280 African tea accessions generated 297 alleles with a mean of 12.91 alleles per locus and a genetic diversity (HS estimate of 0.652. A STRUCTURE analysis suggested two main genetic groups of African tea accessions which corresponded well with the two tea types Camellia sinensis var. sinensis and C. sinensis var. assamica respectively, as well as an admixed mosaic group whose individuals were defined as hybrids of F2 and BC generation with high proportion of C. sinensis var. assamica being maternal parents. Accessions known to be C. sinensis var. assamica further separated into two groups representing the two major tea breeding centres corresponding to southern Africa (Tea Research Foundation of Central Africa, TRFCA and East Africa (Tea Research Foundation of Kenya, TRFK. Tea accessions were shared among countries. African tea has relatively lower genetic diversity. C. sinensis var. assamica is the main tea type under cultivation and contributes more in tea breeding improvements in Africa. International germplasm exchange and movement among countries within Africa was confirmed. The clustering into two main breeding centres, TRFCA and TRFK, suggested that some traits of C. sinensis var. assamica and their associated genes possibly underwent selection during geographic differentiation or local breeding preferences. This study represents the first step towards effective utilization of differently inherited molecular markers for exploring the breeding status of African tea. The findings here will be important for planning the exploration, utilization, and conservation of tea germplasm for future breeding efforts in Africa.

  2. 茶树花青素还原酶的酶学特性研究%Research on Enzymatic Characteristics of Anthocyanin Reductase of Tea Plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琴; 赵磊; 刘亚军; 刘莉; 王云生; 高丽萍; 夏涛

    2013-01-01

    Anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of proanthocyanidins(PAs), which catalyzes anthocyanidins into the corresponding 2, 3-cis-flavan-3-ols. For researching enzymatic characteristics of the enzyme, this study was carried out to express and purify the protein by prokaryotic expression and Cobalt ion affinity column purification. The optimal conditions of CsANR1 were observed at 40℃ and pH 6.5. The more substrate preference of CsANR1 was showed on cyanidin over delphinidin. Moreover, Cu2+, Co2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Hg2+inhibited the enzyme activity and the enzyme activity decreased 50% after storing 15 days.%  茶树花青素还原酶(CsANR)作为原花青素生物合成途径中的关键酶,催化花青素为相应的2,3-顺式-黄烷-3-醇。为了研究该酶的酶学特性,本文采用原核表达及钴离子亲和柱纯化技术,表达并纯化出目的蛋白;重点对 CsANR1酶学特性进行研究分析。结果表明,CsANR1的最适反应温度为40℃,最适 pH 值为6.5;对底物矢车菊色素的亲和力高于飞燕草色素。Cu2+、Co2+、Fe2+、Mn2+、Zn2+和 Hg2+等金属离子对酶有抑制作用,存放15 d 后酶活下降50%。

  3. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial strain-mediated induced systemic resistance in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) through defense-related enzymes against brown root rot and charcoal stump rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A K; Morang, P; Deka, M; Nishanth Kumar, S; Dileep Kumar, B S

    2014-09-01

    Induction of systemic resistance in host plants through microbes and their bioactive metabolites are attaining popularity in modern agricultural practices. In this regard, individual application of two strains of Pseudomonas, RRLJ 134 and RRLJ 04, exhibited development of induced systemic resistance in tea plants against brown root rot and charcoal stump rot under split root experiments. The experimental findings also confirmed that the cuttings treated with fungal test pathogen and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains survived longer as compared with pathogen-alone-treated cuttings. The enzyme level studies revealed that the presence of PGPR strains reduced the viscosity loss of cellulose and pectin by both the pathogens to a significant level. The activity of defense-related enzymes like L-phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase were also recorded higher in tea cuttings treated with PGPR strains in presence of pathogen. Crude bioactive metabolites isolated from these strains also showed in vitro antagonism against the test pathogens besides reducing the number of diseased plants under gnotobiotic conditions. These findings confirm the utilization of these two strains for induction of systemic resistance against two major root diseases in tea plants under plantation conditions.

  4. Essential Oil from Clove Bud (Eugenia aromatica Kuntze) Inhibit Key Enzymes Relevant to the Management of Type-2 Diabetes and Some Pro-oxidant Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rats Pancreas in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Sanni, David M; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V; Olasehinde, Tosin A; Oyeleye, Sunday I

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of enzymes involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates is considered a therapeutic approach to the management of type-2 diabetes. This study sought to investigate the effects of essential oil from clove bud on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Essential oil from clove bud was extracted by hydrodistillation, dried with anhydrous Na2SO4 and characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of the essential oil on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities were investigated. The antioxidant properties of the oil and the inhibition of Fe(2+) and sodium nitroprusside-induced malondialdehyde (MDA) production in rats pancreas homogenate were also carried out. The essential oil inhibited α-amylase (EC50=88.9 μl/L) and α-glucosidase (EC50=71.94 μl/L) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the essential oil inhibited Fe(2+) and SNP-induced MDA production and exhibited antioxidant activities through their NO*, OH*, scavenging and Fe(2+)- chelating abilities. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the essential oil were 12.95 mg/g and 6.62 mg/g respectively. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of α-pinene, β-pinene, neral, geranial, gamma terpinene, cis-ocimene, allo ocimene, 1,8-cineole, linalool, borneol, myrcene and pinene-2-ol in significant amounts. Furthermore, the essential oils exhibited antioxidant activities as typified by hydroxyl (OH) and nitric oxide (NO)] radicals scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating abilities. The inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities, inhibition of pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas and antioxidant activities could be possible mechanisms for the use of the essential oil in the management and prevention of oxidative stress induced type-2 diabetes.

  5. Capacities of Candidate Herbaceous Plants for Phytoremediation of Soil-based TNT and RDX on Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    installations and distribution of Sida spinosa...Lehi, UT • Forb seeds from three vendors as follows: redroot pigweed (Amaran- thus retroflexus), morning glory (Ipomoea lacunosa), and prickly sida ... Sida spinosa) from Azlin Seed Service, Leland, MS; common milk- weed (Asclepias syriaca) from Prairiemoon Nursery, Winona, WI; common purslane

  6. Typification of Statice dichotoma Cav. (Plumbaginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrer-Gallego, P. Pablo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A lectotype and an epitype are here designated for Statice dichotoma Cav. (Plumbaginaceae, an endemic taxon from the central part of the Iberian Peninsula, which is currently named Limonium dichotomum (Cav. KuntzeSe designan un lectótipo y un epítipo para Statice dichotoma Cav. (Plumbaginaceae, un taxon endémico del centro de la península Ibérica, actualmente denominado Limonium dichotomum (Cav. Kuntze.

  7. Ethnoarchaeological Investigations of the Mountain Creek Area, North Central Texas. Volume 2. Historic Farming on the Hogwallow Prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Carya illinoensis Wangh. Pecan .6 4.2 Carya spp. Hickory 1.1 Aralia spinosa L. Prickly Ash Ulnus rubra Muhl. Slippery Elm Zanthoxylum clava-heralis L...Cercis canadensis L. Redbud .6 Juglans spp. Walnut 1.6 Carya illinoensis Wangh. Pecan .9 4.8 1.6 4.8 Carya spp. Hickory Aralia spinosa L. Prickly Ash...Walnut 3.4 2.1 Carya illinoenis Wangh. Pecan 1.2 10.2 3.6 4.2 5.7 1.4 7.1 Carya spp. Hickory 2.2 Aralia spinosa L. Prickly Ash Ulnus rubra Muhl

  8. An unusual giant pycnogonid (Pycnogonida-Colossendeidae) Decolopoda qasimi sp. nov. from Antarctic waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayasree, V.; Sreepada, R.A.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Five specimens of benthic pycnogonids collected from the Southern Ocean are described. Of these, two are identified as Nymphon australis (Hodgson) and two as Ecleipsotherma spinosa (Hodgson). One specimen under the class Colossendeidae, is described...

  9. Isolation of Endophytic Fungi from Limonium bicolor (Bge.)Kuntze and Their Microbial Inhibition Activities%药用植物二色补血草内生真菌分离及其抑菌活性初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕江涛; 潘润霞; 黄盼盼; 吕雯; 关晓庆

    2012-01-01

    The endophytic fungi were isolated from root,stem and leaf of the host by tissue inoculation culture and five pathogenic fungi and four bacteria strains used as targeting microbes to test microbial inhibition activity by agar plate antagonistic action and modified agar gel diffusion methods. The results indicated that: (1)Eighteen fungal endophytic strains were isolated from the host. Most of them came from leaf,then root and stem,and the isolated strains attribute to four genera,two families,and two orders based on morphological characteristics. (2)For the isolated strains,ten of them were found to have some microbial inhibition activities against two or more pathogenic fungi,making up 55. 6% of the total isolates,and eight isolated fungi strains showed inhibition activities against one or more bacteria, respectively, reaching up to 44. 4% of the total isolates in number. The strain LBEFL001 and LBEFL006 had evident antifungal activities against 5 pathogenic fungal strains. They ascribed to Aspergillus sp. and Penicilium sp. individually. The strain LBEFR006 and LBEFS002 showed evident antibacterial activities to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , respectively. They both ascribed to Fusidium sp.. The strain LBEFL004 expressed evident antibacterial activities to Bacillus subtilis and S. aureus, belonging to Aspergillus sp. . It was found that the medicinal plant Limonium bicolor had relatively abundant fungal endophytic resource, and the isolatded endophytic fungi had evident inhibition activities against plant pathogens and showed relatively broad spectrum,and meanwhile the isolates as a whole had a certain of selectivity for bacterial inhibition, and inclined to be more antagonistic to S. aureus in general.%对药用植物二色补血草内生真菌进行分离,以番茄灰霉病菌、黄瓜枯萎病菌、枸杞黑果病菌、黄瓜立枯病菌、小麦全蚀病菌、枯草芽孢杆菌、大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌和铜绿假单胞菌为靶标菌,采用对峙法和改进的菌块法进行抗菌活性初步筛选.结果表明:(1)从二色补血草根、茎、叶组织器官中分离出18株内生真菌,其中以叶部最多,根部和茎部次之;经形态学初步鉴定归于2目,2科,4属.(2)有10株内生真菌对2种或多种植物病原真菌有不同程度的抑制作用,占分离菌株总数的55.6%;8株内生真菌对1种或多种供试细菌具有不同程度的抑制作用,占分离菌株总数的44.4%;菌株LBEFL001和LBEFL006分别对5种供试真菌具有明显抑制作用,属于曲霉属和青霉属;菌株LBEFR006、LBEFS002分别对金黄色葡萄球菌和铜绿假单胞菌2种供试细菌具有明显抑制作用,属于梭孢霉属;菌株LBEFL004对枯草芽胞杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌2种供试细菌具有明显抑制作用,属于曲霉属.研究发现,二色补血草具有较为丰富的内生真菌资源,对植物病原真菌具有明显的抑菌活性,且抑菌范围较宽;对病原细菌抑制作用具有一定的选择性,总体上对金黄色葡萄球菌抑制作用明显.

  10. Prospeção da diversidade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em 2 espécies agrícolas (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e Vicia faba L.) e 2 espécies nativas (Teline maderensis Webb & Berthel e Genista tenera (Jacq. Ex Murray) Kuntze) da Madeira

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Maria Cristina Ornelas

    2016-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Microbiologia Aplicada, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2016 O Filo Glomeromycota compreende um grupo de fungos que se considera no geral serem biotróficos obrigatórios e que se associam a cerca de 80% das plantas. O fungo e a planta formam uma associação simbiótica conhecida como micorriza arbuscular. Desta associação, o fungo absorve entre 5 a 20% do carbono fotossintetizado pela planta e por outro lado a planta pode beneficiar do aumento da absorção de n...

  11. Molecular Cloning and Expression of CaM Family Gene CsCaMs Under Cold Stress in Tea Plant[Camellia sinensis (L.) O.Kuntze]%茶树钙调素基因CsCaMs的克隆及其低温胁迫下的表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄玉婷; 钱文俊; 王玉春; 曹红利; 王璐; 郝心愿; 王新超; 杨亚军

    2016-01-01

    钙调素(CaM)是植物钙离子信号通道的主要参与者,参与低温胁迫下多种植物的抗寒生理作用.本研究根据钙调素基因相关表达序列标签(EST)序列,借助RACE-PCR技术,获得CsCaM1和CsCaM2两条cDNA全长序列,GenBank登录号分别为KT238971和KT238972,长度分别为693 bp和841 bp,均包含450 bp的完整开放阅读框(ORF),编码149个氨基酸,两条氨基酸序列仅一个氨基酸有差异,且均含有4个植物CaM家族的共同特征手型结构EF (EF-hand).采用实时荧光定量PCR(qRT-PCR)分析CsCaMs在茶树低温胁迫下各种处理中的表达模式.结果表明,CsCaMs无组织表达特异性,低温胁迫处理和CaCl2均能诱导CsCaMs的表达,而钙调素拮抗剂W7与钙离子通道抑制剂LaCl3则会抑制其表达.本研究结果对阐明茶树抗寒性的分子机理有一定理论意义,为茶树的抗寒性育种提供参考.

  12. URBAN TREE SURVEY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BRASILIA CAMPUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Luis Kurihara

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A census of all the trees on 111 ha was conducted at the University of Brasilia campus. A total of 5,011 trees with DBHover 5 cm were identified and their DBH, diameter at 30 cm on ground level, diameter under the bifurcation point, height up to the firstbifurcation and the total height of the tree were measured. Phenological observation was also carried out. A great diversity of treeswas found composed of 49 botanical families and 154 species. The main species are Acrocomia aculeata, Syagrus oleracea, Ingamarginata, Pterogyne nitens, Caesalpinia ferrea, Caesalpinia pluviosa, Peltophorum dubium, Pachira aquatica, Syzygium cuminiand Tabebuia impetiginosa.

  13. 整合UHPLC-Q Exactive轨道肼高分辨质谱与HPLC-CL技术分析酸枣叶中抗氧化活性成分%Integrated strategy of UHPLC-Q Exactive Orbitrap-HRMS and HPLC-CL to study with constituents in Ziziphi Spinosae Folium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫艳; 杜晨晖; 冯红霞; 戚进; 秦雪梅

    2016-01-01

    目的 整合UHPLC-Q Exactive轨道肼高分辨质谱与HPLC-CL技术分析酸枣叶中主要化学成分,追踪其抗氧化活性成分.方法 采用UHPLC-Q Exactive轨道肼高分辨质谱鉴定酸枣叶中化学成分;并建立不同产地酸枣叶样品HPLC-UV指纹图谱;利用HPLC-CL方法对8个不同产地的酸枣叶指纹图谱进行抗氧化活性评价.结果 酸枣叶中共鉴定10个化合物,均为黄酮苷类化合物,8批不同产地的酸枣叶相似度均大于0.9,并最终确定其中6种物质(eriodictyol-7-O-rutinoside、quercetin-3-O-robinobioside、quercetin-3-O-rutinoside、quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside、quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside、quercetin-3-O-β-L-arabinosyl-(1-2)-α-L-thamnoside)清除自由基能力强.结论 酸枣叶中富含大量的黄酮类成分,且具有较好的抗氧化活性.酸枣叶可为市场提供一种新型绿色的、可持续的抗氧化剂来源.

  14. 对药酸枣仁-合欢花对抑郁患者生活质量及神经-内分泌-免疫网络的影响%Effects of herb pair of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae (SZS) and Albizia julibrissin flower (AJF) on the life quality and NEI of patients with depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施学丽; 夏猛; 冯秋瑜; 张永全; 蒋春雷

    2016-01-01

    目的 观察对药酸枣仁-合欢花对抑郁症患者生活质量及神经-内分泌-免疫网络的影响.方法 收集抑郁症病例100例,随机分为中药组和西药组,各50例,中药组服用酸枣仁-合欢花汤剂;西药组服用盐酸文拉法辛缓释片.两组分别于治疗前及治疗6周后进行HAMD抑郁量表评分、生活质量综合评定问卷(GQOLI-74)评分及及血清5-HT、CRH、IL-6检测.结果 治疗后两组间临床疗效没有显著差异(P>0.05);生活质量评定方面:中药组患者躯体功能维度、心理功能维度、总体生活质量因子得分显著高于西药组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组患者血清5-HT、CRH含量上升,IL-6含量下降,与治疗前相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01,P<0.05).结论 酸枣仁-合欢花汤剂具有抗抑郁功效,并能够改善抑郁患者的生活质量,其作用机制可能与调节神经-内分泌-免疫网络有关.

  15. A study on the effects of compound oil of semen spinosa, semen orientalis, and jasminoides on soothing nerves and improving mental capacities in mice%棘仁柏仁栀子油配方的安神与益智作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高枫; 符兆英; 李宝莉

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨棘仁、柏仁和栀子配伍组方的安神与益智作用.方法:将棘仁、柏仁和栀子的活性部位棘仁油、柏仁油和栀子油按3:2:I配成复方制剂,灌胃给药,观察其对小鼠自主活动和学习记忆的影响.结果:棘仁柏仁栀子油可使小鼠自主活动减少且无耐受现象,并可缩短小鼠水迷宫登台潜伏期.结论:棘仁柏仁栀子油配方有镇静安神和增强学习记忆的作用.

  16. [Analysis on medication rules of state medical master yan zhenghua's prescriptions that including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis based on data mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-rui; Guo, Wei-xian; Zhang, Xiao-meng; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Bing; Zhao, Meng-di; Sheng, Xiao-guang

    2014-11-01

    The prescriptions including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis that built by Pro. Yan were collected to build a database based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) inheritance assist system. The method of association rules with apriori algorithm was used to achieve frequency of single medicine, frequency of drug combinations, association rules between drugs and core drug combinations. The datamining results indicated that in the prescriptions that including Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, the highest frequency used drugs were parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Ostreae Concha, Ossis Mastodi Fossilia, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Paeoniae Rubra Radix, and so on. The most frequent drug combinations were "Polygoni Multiflori Caulis-parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen", "Ostreae Concha-Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", and "Polygoni Multiflori Caulis-Ossis Mastodi Fossilia". The drug association rules of confidence coefficient 1 were "Ostreae Concha-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", "Poria-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", "parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis", and "Paeoniae Alba Radix-->Polygoni Multiflori Caulis". The core drug combinations in the treatment of insomnia were Ossis Mastodi Fossilia, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Ostreae Concha, Polygalae Radix, Margaritifera Concha, Poria, and parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. And the core drug combinations in the treatment of obstruction of Qi in chest were Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix Et Rhizoma, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Trichosanthis Fructus, Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus, and Paeoniae Rubra Radix.

  17. Caesalpiniaceae (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding; Larsen, K.; Larsen, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    In Malesia the family contains 25 indigenous genera and 8 genera with only introduced species, as follows (in brackets the number of native and/or introduced species in Malesia): Acrocarpus (1), Afzelia (2), Amherstia (1), Bauhinia (69), Brownea (4), Caesalpinia (22), Cassia (4), Chamaecrista (5), C

  18. Environ: E00125 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00125 Sappan wood (JP16) Crude drug Calcium oxalate [CPD:C17478], Brazilin [CPD:C0...9920], alpha-Phellandrene [CPD:C09875], Ocimene [CPD:C09873] Caesalpinia sappan [TAX:483143] Same as: D06754 Fabaceae (pea family) Sappan wood Major component: Brazilin [CPD:C09920] ...

  19. A new cassane diterpenoid lactone from the seed of Caesalptma minax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Cheng; Li Yan Ma; Jian Hua Miao; Xu Dong Xu; Jing Quan Yuan; Jun Shan Yang

    2009-01-01

    A new cassane diterpenoid lactone was isolated from the seed of Caesalpinia minax.On the basis of spectral evidences,its structure was established as 12α-methoxyl,5α,14β-dihydroxy-1α,6α,7β-triacetoxycass-13(15)-en-16,12-olide.

  20. Dates of Botanical Publications 1788-1792

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, F.A.

    1963-01-01

    Questions of priority often necessitate a search for precise dates of publication. Much research of this kind has already been done, for instance by Britten and Woodward in their “Bibliographical notes” published in the Journal of Botany, by O. Kuntze in his Revisio generum plantarum, by W. T. Stear

  1. Identification of the varietal origin of loose leaf tea based on analysis of a single leaf by SNP nanofluidic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O Kuntze] is an economically important crop cultivated in more than 50 countries. Production and marketing of premium specialty tea products provides opportunities for tea growers, the tea industry and consumers. Rapid market segmentation in the tea industry has resulted ...

  2. Pteridologische aantekeningen, 4, De bastaarden van het Dryopteris spinulosa-complex in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segal, S.

    1971-01-01

    Hybrids of the Dryopteris spinulosa complex in the Netherlands Kuntze ex Druce (= D. carthusiana X D. cristata) and D. x deweveri Dryopteris x uliginosa (Joh. Jansen) J. & W. ( = D. carthusiana X D. dilatata) have been recorded from several places in the Netherlands. Fern hybrids, generally speaking

  3. Isolation and characterization of the genomic region from Drosophila kuntzei containing the Adh and Adhr genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppentocht, JE; van Delden, W; van de Zande, L

    2002-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of the Adh and Adhr genes of Drosophila kuntzei were derived from combined overlapping sequences of clones isolated from a genomic library and from cloned PCR and inverse-PCR fragments. Only a proximal promoter was detected upstream of the Adh gene, indicating that D. kuntze

  4. Expert Assessment of Stigmergy: A Report for the Department of National Defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Inspiration for optimization from social insect behaviour. Nature, 406:39-42, July 2000. [13] Eric Bonabeau, Sylvain Guerin, Dominique Snyers, Pascale Kuntz...February 2002. [107] Vitorino Ramos, Fernando Muge, and Pedro Pina . Self-organized data and image retrieval as a consequence of inter-dynamic synergistic

  5. Notes on some fungi of Michigan—I. ‘Cyhellaceae’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reid, Derek A.

    1964-01-01

    This paper is based largely on collections made by the author in Michigan, U.S.A. The genera represented among these collections are Flagelloscypha Donk (with 1 species), Lachnella Fr. emend. Donk (1), Cyphellopsis Donk (1), Merismodes Earle (1), Henningsomyces O. Kuntze (1), Calathella Reid, gen. n

  6. Freezing tolerance and the histology of recovering nodes in St. Augustinegrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Augustinegrass [Stenataphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] is a coarse-textured turfgrass commonly utilized for its excellent shade tolerance. However, inferior cold tolerance in comparison to other warm-season grasses limits its range primarily to the southeastern U. S., The objectives of this stu...

  7. Iridoid glycosides from Alonsoa meridionalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Lamberto; Serafini, Mauro; Foddai, Sebastiano; Ventrone, Antonio; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    A new iridoid glucoside has been isolated from the Chilean native Alonsoa meridionalis (L.f.) Kuntze. Its structure has been assigned as 6'-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-8-O-acetylharpagide (1) by using spectroscopic methods. Harpagoside (2), laterioside (3) and verbascoside (4) were also identified.

  8. Meiotic behavior of wild Caricaceae species potentially suitable for papaya improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelli Narducci da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the meiotic behavior and determine the meiotic index and pollen viability of representative plants of the wild species V. goudotiana, V. quercifolia and J. spinosa. Meiotic analysis confirmed that the species are diploid and have 18 chromosomes. Meiosis was partially normal, since some abnormalities, e.g, sticky and lagging chromosomes, precocious segregation, lack of synchrony, and disturbances in the spindle fibers were observed. These abnormalities resulted in post-meiotic products (monads, dyads, triads, and polyads that probably contributed to the meiotic index of 85.7 % (V. goudotiana to 95.9 % (J. spinosa; significant variation was observed in the species V. goudotiana. The pollen viability of 68.0% (V. goudotiana to 96.0 % (J. spinosa was reasonably good in these wild species. Crossings in breeding programs involving V. goudotiana should therefore be carefully planned, since part of the gametes of this species is unviable.

  9. Breeding of New Tea Cultivar Camellia sinensis cv.E-Cha No.11%茶树新品种鄂茶11选育报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵彩云; 贾尚智; 金孝芳; 陈勋; 石亚亚; 毛迎新

    2011-01-01

    A new tea variety Camellia sinensis(L.) 0. Kuntze cv. E-Cha No.ll (Original code 20-3-2) was derived from the natural crossing progenies of Camellia sinensis (L.) 0. Kuntze cv. Longjing No.43 by means of individual selection, vegetative propagation and variety comparative test. The results showed that it belonged to an early-sprouting variety, and its sprouting period was two days earlier than C. Sinensis (L.) 0. Kuntze cv. Fuding Dabaicha (control). In addition, C. Sinensis (L.) 0. Kuntze cv. E -Cha No. 11 had strong flushing ability, good shoot tenderness and growth vigor. The yield was increased by 72.1% compaired with the control. The content of amino acid was 4.1%. It had good quality of green tea manufacturing, high transplanting survival rate and strong resistance.%以龙井43[ Camellia sinensis (L.)O.Kuntze cv.Longjing No.43]自然杂交后代为育种材料,采用单株选择、无性繁殖、品比试验方法育成了茶树新品种鄂茶11[C.sinensis (L.)O.Kuntze cv.E-Cha No.11,原代号20-3-2],经多年的品比鉴定及区域试种,结果表明,该品种属早生种,春茶1芽1叶期比对照品种福鼎大白茶[C.sinensis (L.)O.Kuntze cv.Fuding Dabaicha]早2d,育芽能力强、持嫩性较强,生长势旺,鲜叶产量比对照品种增产72.1%,氨基酸含量为4.1%,制绿茶品质优良;移栽成活率高抗性强.

  10. Efficacy of Some Botanical Extracts against Trogoderma granarium in Wheat Grains with Toxicity Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to find alternative control methods for stored products insects, extracts of seven plant species (Cassia senna, Caesalpinia gilliesii, Thespesia populnea var. acutiloba, Chrysanthemum frutescens, Euonymus japonicus, Bauhinia purpurea, and Cassia fistula) were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their ability to protect wheat (Triticum spp.) grains against Trogoderma granarium insect. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried to identify t...

  11. Oil-bearing plants of Zaire. III. Botanical families providing oils of relatively high unsaturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngiefu, C.K.; Paquot, C.; Vieux, A.

    1977-01-01

    Data are tabulated on the seed oil composition of 16 species of Leguminosae (including Albizia lebbeck, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and Delonix regia), 6 species of Euphorbiaceae (including Aleurites moluccana, Hevea brasiliensis and Jatropha curcas) and 1 species (Kigelia africana) of Bignoniaceae. The most interesting for food and industrial purposes appear to be Afzelia bella, Adenanthera pavonina and Pentaclethra macrophylla, in addition to A. moluccana and H. brasiliensis.

  12. Suitability of novel galactomannans as edible coatings for tropical fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Cerqueira, M. A.; Lima, A. M. P.; Teixeira, J. A.; Moreira, R. A.; Vicente, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to determine the optimal composition of edible coatings in view of their application to extend the shelf life of several tropical fruits. Coatings constituted by galactomannans from different sources (Caesalpinia pulcherrima and Adenanthera pavonina) and glycerol were characterized as coatings for five tropical fruits: acerola (Malpighia emarginata), cajá (Spondias lutea), mango (Mangifera indica), pitanga (Eugenia uniflora) and seriguela (Spondias purpurea...

  13. Vigna yadavii (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae, a new species from Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayajirao Gaikwad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Vigna Savi, subgenus Ceratotropis (Piper Verdc., Vigna yadavii S.P. Gaikwad, R.D. Gore, S.D. Randive & K.U. Garad, sp. nov. is described and illustrated here. It is morphologically close to Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze Verdc. but differs in its underground obligate cleistogamous flowers on positively geotropic branches, hairy calyx, small corolla, linear style beak and dimorphic seeds with shiny seed coat.

  14. Overcoming dormancy in seeds of cotton-silk tree

    OpenAIRE

    Irinaldo Lima do Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Cotton-silk tree Ceiba glaziovii (kuntze) k. Schu belongs to family Bombacaceas and is locally known as barriguda. It is widely used in landscaping and reforestation, neverdeless seed dormancy affects reproduction in this species. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods to overcome dormancy in the germination process. Treatments included mechanical scarification with 85-grit sandpaper, chemical scarification with concentrated sulfuric acid for 5, 10,...

  15. Smodirignium dermatitis: the intercellular secretory canals of the aerial axis and their relationship to this toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Ellis

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available Smodingium argutum E. Mey. ex Sond., closely related to the American poison-ivy,  Toxicodendron radicans (L. Kuntze, is the only known indigenous member of the Anacardiaceae in South Africa causing dermatitis. The sap of the intercellular secretory canals of the stem, petiole and leaf of both plants, is responsible for this toxicity. These secretary canals are described, illustrated and compared for both species, and their formation and the function of the canals and sap, are briefly discussed.

  16. [Urology of the XIX century in the life of a famous painter. Federico de Madrazo and his medical, historic, and artistic environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Cuerpo, E

    1996-10-01

    The life Federico de Madrazo y Kuntz, a prominent figure in the history of Spanish Art, is briefly described, highlighting some biographical information about the painter, his contemporaries (Francisco de Goya, whose 250 th anniversary is being celebrated this year; Juan de Villanueva, the architect who designed the Prado Museum), the famous physicians of his paintings, doctors and urologists who treated him for different ailments, one of which was lithiasis.

  17. Fungi and their role in corals and coral reef ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Ravindran, J.

    diversity in healthy, bleached (Bourne et al. 2008) and diseased 3 corals (Sekar et al. 2008, Sunagawa et al. 2009), and as a response to various pollutants (Kuntz et al. 2005, Smith et al. 2008), has been reported. It is hypothesized that environmental... stressors that affect the host physiology will have impact on microbial community (Ainsworth et al. 2010). Diversity of cyanobacteria in healthy and diseased corals is also known to a certain extent (Frias-Lopez et al. 2003). Archaeal diversity associated...

  18. INFLUÊNCIA DE VARIÁVEIS AMBIENTAIS SOBRE O PADRÃO ESTRUTURAL E FLORÍSTICO DO COMPONENTE ARBÓREO, EM UM FRAGMENTO DE FLORESTA OMBRÓFILA MISTA MONTANA EM LAGES, SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Higuchi

    2012-01-01

    to a total basal area of 36.45 m2, distributed in 37 botanical families, 63 genera and 92 species. The three species with the highest values of VI were Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. Kuntze, Lithraea brasiliensis Marchand and Jacaranda puberula Cham. The variables that showed the higher correlation with the tree component structure and floristic composition were the pH, the plot highest declivity and the Mg content.

  19. Novel Application of ALMANAC: Modelling a Functional Group, Exotic Warm-season Perennial Grasses

    OpenAIRE

    Kiniry, J. R.; Johnson, M. V. V.; Venuto, B. C. (deceased); Burson, B. L.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine the efficacy of the ALMANAC model in simulating leaf canopy growth and biomass production of a plant functional group, specifically “exotic warm-season perennial grasses,” represented by buffelgrass [Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link] and “Old World Bluestems” (Bothriochloa Kuntze, Capillipedium Stapf, and Dichanthium Willemet). Study Design: Leaf area index (LAI) over the growing season, the light extinction coefficient (k) for Beer's Law, and the rad...

  20. Effect of microorganisms on the plutonium oxidation states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksiene, Benedikta, E-mail: bena@ar.fi.lt [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Druteikiene, Ruta [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Peciulyte, Dalia [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos street 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania); Baltrunas, Dalis; Remeikis, Vidmantas [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu ave 231, LT-02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Paskevicius, Algimantas [Nature Research Centre, Akademijos street 2, LT-08412 Vilnius (Lithuania)

    2012-03-15

    Particular microbes from substrates at the low-level radioactive waste repository in the Ignalina NPP territory were exposed to {sup 239}Pu (IV) at low pH under aerobic conditions. Pu(III) and Pu(IV) were separated and quantitatively evaluated using the modified anion exchange method and alpha spectrometry. Tested bacteria Bacillus mycoides and Serratia marcescens were more effective in Pu reduction than Rhodococcus fascians. Fungi Paecillomyces lilacinus and Absidia spinosa var. spinosa as well as bacterium Rhodococcus fascians did not alter the plutonium oxidation state. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particular microbes from low-level radioactive waste repository were exposed to Pu (IV). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Some tested bacteria induced slight Pu (IV) reduction at low pH under aerobic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tested fungi did not show peculiarities to alter Pu oxidation state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modified radiochemical method was applied to differentiate Pu oxidation states.

  1. Description of two new species of the genus Automate De Man, 1888 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Rong; Sha, Zhong-Li

    2017-03-02

    Three species of the genus Automate De Man, 1888 are described herein, including two new species: A. anacanthopusoides sp. nov. and A. spinosa sp. nov.. Automate anacanthopusoides sp. nov. can be easily identified by the presence of a rostrum, the notch on the lower margin of the major chela, the stout minor cheliped and the cutting edge of the pollex not dentate, and by the absence of spines on the ventral margin of the propodus of the third and fourth pereiopod. Automate spinosa sp. nov. can be easily identified by the nearly straight anterior margin of the carapace, and the presence of spines on the ventral margin of the propodus of third and fourth pereiopod. A key of all species of the Automate is provided.

  2. Storage quality in different brines of pickled capers (Capparis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan, Musa

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Middle sized buds of Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa and Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss. Heywood collected from wild plants were pickled for two months. The buds after the fermentation were processed in 10% and 20% brines. Storage stability of the fermented capers was determined by physical, chemical and microbiological analysis at certain interval in 10 and 20% old or fresh brines 180 days. Storaged in 10% and 20% old or fresh brines for 180 days of pickled buds of both species maintained the product quality in all samples. Acidity was higher in old brine during storage. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB growth was observed only in 10% fresh brine, it decreased from initial and 30 days at C. ovata and C. spinosa, respectively. C. spinosa, compared with C. ovata was desirable due to low sediment and more firm texture. During storage of buds in fresh brines, sediment and off-flavour were not observed for both species. Pickled products can be stored in fresh brine long-term containing at least 10% salt concentration.

    Se encurtieron durante dos meses botones florales de tamaño intermedio de Capparis spinosa L. var. spinosa y Capparis ovata Desf. var. canescens (Coss recogidos de plantas silvestres. Las alcaparras después de la fermentación se conservaron en salmueras del 10% y 20%. Las alcaparras fermentadas fueron mantenidas durante 180 días en salmueras usadas o recién preparadas (frescas del 10 y 20%, determinándose a intervalos la estabilidad durante la conservación por análisis físicos, químicos y microbiológicos. La calidad del producto se mantuvo en todas las muestras de alcaparras fermentadas durante los 180 días, tanto en 10% como en 20% y en salmueras usadas o frescas. La acidez durante la conservación fue mayor en salmueras usadas. El crecimiento de bacterias del ácido láctico se observó sólo en salmueras frescas del 10

  3. Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffa, M J; Ferraro, G; Wagner, M L; Calcagno, M L; Campos, R H; Cavallaro, L

    2002-03-01

    Methanolic extracts from Achyrocline satureioides (Dc.) Lam, Aristolochia macroura Gomez, Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl., Schinus molle L., unlike those from Celtis spinosa Spreng, Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Petiveria alliacea L., and Plantago major L. showed cytotoxic activity against a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep G2. Schinus molle L. was the most active (IC50=50+/-7 microg/ml). These results call for further studies of these extracts.

  4. Susceptibility of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Spinosad (Tracer®) as a Eco-friendly Biopesticide

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Sadeghi; Asgar Ebadollahi

    2015-01-01

    Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) are internal feeder of various stored grains and introducted as major stored product insect pests. Due to the resistance by insect pests and negative effects of synthetic pesticides to the environment, it is necessary to use novel and suitable compounds in insect pest’s management. Spinosad is a bio-insecticide that is derived from fermentation of a bacterium Saccharopolyspora spinosa Mertz and Yao. In the present study, the toxicity of Tra...

  5. Distribution, Genetic Characterization, and Life History of the James spinymussel, Pleurobema collina (Bivalvia: Unionidae), in Virginia and North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Petty, Melissa A.

    2005-01-01

    Three spined, mussel species occur in the United States along the Atlantic slope; James spinymussel (Pleurobema collina), Tar spinymussel (Elliptio steinstansana), and Altamaha spinymussel (E. spinosa). The James spinymussel was listed as endangered in 1988, and was until recently considered to be endemic to the James River basin (Clarke and Neves 1984; USFWS 1990). Biologists with the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) discovered spinymussel populations in the Dan and Mayo...

  6. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of seven Medicinal plants species from Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Isabel Josefa

    2015-01-01

    Seven plant species, used as traditional medicine, from two regions of Ecuador have been subjected to qualitative and cuantitative phytochemistry screening in order to provide information about possible chemical compounds present in these species that will contribute to future researchs. Chuquiraga jussieui J.F. Gmel., Pseudognaphalium elegans (Kunth) Kartesz (Asteraceae), Gustavia pubescens Ruiz & Pav. ex Berg (Lecythidaceae), Aeghiphila alba Moldenke (Lamiaceae), Cleome spinosa Jacq. (Cleom...

  7. Meiotic behavior of wild Caricaceae species potentially suitable for papaya improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuelli Narducci da Silva; Monique Freitas Neto; Pereira,Telma N. S.; Pereira,Messias G

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the meiotic behavior and determine the meiotic index and pollen viability of representative plants of the wild species V. goudotiana, V. quercifolia and J. spinosa. Meiotic analysis confirmed that the species are diploid and have 18 chromosomes. Meiosis was partially normal, since some abnormalities, e.g, sticky and lagging chromosomes, precocious segregation, lack of synchrony, and disturbances in the spindle fibers were observed. These abnormalities...

  8. Chemotaxonomy and flavonoid diversity of Salvia L.(Lamiaceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navaz Kharazian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the chemotaxonomic status and chemical diversity of Salvia L. species in Iran using leaf flavonoid profiles. From natural habitats in the country, we collected samples of 14 species of the genus: S. spinosa L.; S. macrosiphon Boiss.; S. reuterana Boiss.; S. sharifii Rech.f. & Esfand.; S. nemorosa L.; S. virgata Jacq.; S. syriaca L.; S. mirzayanii Rech.f. & Esfand.; S. atropatana Bunge; S. limbata C. A. Mey; S. sclarea L.; S. ceratophylla L.; S. multicaulis Vahl.; and S. hydrangea Dc. ex Benth. Two-dimensional maps of these species were created with thin-layer chromatography. In order to study the taxonomic position of these species and 37 accessions, cluster analysis was applied. The results of the cluster analysis showed that S. spinosa was distinct from S. reuterana. Despite considerable morphological similarity between S. nemorosa and S. virgata, those two species are definitely distinguished. In addition, S. spinosa and S. macrosiphon were roughly grouped, whereas S. ceratophylla and S. multicaulis composed two separate groups. In the 14 species collected, the flavonoids identified were flavones, flavonols, flavanones, isoflavones, dihydroflavonols and chalcones. We found that flavonoids are appropriate indicators to determine the taxonomic position of Salvia species.

  9. [Study on medication regularity of grand master of traditional Chinese medicine YAN Zheng-hua's Ostreae Concha-containing prescriptions based on data mining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Rui; Guo, Wei-Xian; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Bing

    2014-07-01

    In this study, prescriptions were collected to establish a database based on the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system (TCMISS). Such data-mining methods as software's statistical statement module, data analysis module and apriori algorithm were used to analyze the frequency of single drug, the frequency of drug combination, the association rules and the core drug combinations of ostreae concha-containing prescriptions. The results showed that Ostreae Concha-containing prescriptions were frequently used to treat insomnia, vertigo, stomach-ache and other syndromes. The frequently used drugs included Ossis Mastodi Fossilia, Parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, Polygoni Multiflori Caulis, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix and Paeoniae Rubra Radix. The frequently used drug combinations included "Ostreae Concha and Ossis Mastodi Fossilia", "Ostreae Concha and Parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen", and "Ostreae Concha and Polygoni Multiflori Caulis". The drug association rules with the confidence coefficient of more than 0. 95 included "Ossis Mastodi Fossilia-->Ostreae Concha", "Cocos Poria-Ossis Mastodi Fossilia-Ostreae Concha", "Ossis Mastodi Fossilia-Parched Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-->Ostreae Concha", and "Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix-Ossis Mastodi Fossilia--Ostreae Concha".

  10. Research on the Capsule of Ganoderma lucidum and Zizhiphi spinozae Improving the Sleep in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Li Dang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more and more people are suffering from insomnia with difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum and Ziziphi spinosae (Z. Spinosae are conventional herbal drugs in traditional Chinese medicine and they have been used lonely for the treatment of insomnia. In the present study, G. lucidum and Z. spinosae were combined and the active fractions were extracted to make the capsule. Furthermore, their effect on improving sleep in mice was investigated. The functional compositions of the capsule were polysaccharide, total flavone, spinosin and triterpenoid, with the content being 12.08, 1.35, 0.67 and 1.50 g/100 g, respectively. The effect of the capsule on improving sleep in mice was studied. Results showed no effects on the sleep induced directly in mice assessed with the loss-of-righting reflex even at the high dose of 450, 1350 mg/kg/day. However, the capsule significantly decreased sleep latency and increased sleeping time and prolonged sleeping time induced by pentobarbital sodium at high doses. In conclusion, the capsule of G. lucidum and Z. spinozae combined had the function of improving sleep

  11. Application of RAPD for molecular characterization of plant species of medicinal value from an arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, I A; Bakir, M A; Khan, H A; Al Farhan, A H; Al Homaidan, A A; Bahkali, A H; Al Sadoon, M; Shobrak, M

    2010-11-09

    The use of highly discriminatory methods for the identification and characterization of genotypes is essential for plant protection and appropriate use. We utilized the RAPD method for the genetic fingerprinting of 11 plant species of desert origin (seven with known medicinal value). Andrachne telephioides, Zilla spinosa, Caylusea hexagyna, Achillea fragrantissima, Lycium shawii, Moricandia sinaica, Rumex vesicarius, Bassia eriophora, Zygophyllum propinquum subsp migahidii, Withania somnifera, and Sonchus oleraceus were collected from various areas of Saudi Arabia. The five primers used were able to amplify the DNA from all the plant species. The amplified products of the RAPD profiles ranged from 307 to 1772 bp. A total of 164 bands were observed for 11 plant species, using five primers. The number of well-defined and major bands for a single plant species for a single primer ranged from 1 to 10. The highest pair-wise similarities (0.32) were observed between A. fragrantissima and L. shawii, when five primers were combined. The lowest similarities (0) were observed between A. telephioides and Z. spinosa; Z. spinosa and B. eriophora; B. eriophora and Z. propinquum. In conclusion, the RAPD method successfully discriminates among all the plant species, therefore providing an easy and rapid tool for identification, conservation and sustainable use of these plants.

  12. Species choice, provenance and species trials among native Brazilian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumond, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Six papers from the conference are presented. Drumond, M.A., Potential of species native to the semi-arid tropics, 766-781, (Refs. 18), reports on Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa species, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Spondias tuberosa, Ziziphus joazeiro, Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus, Bursera leptophleos (leptophloeos), Tabebuia impetiginosa, Astronium urundeuva, and Mimosa caesalpinia. Monteiro, R.F.R., Speltz, R.M., Gurgel, J.T. do A.; Silvicultural performance of 24 provenances of Araucaria angustifolia in Parana, 814-824, (Refs. 8). Pires, C.L. da S., Kalil Filho, A.N., Rosa, P.R.F. da, Parente, P.R., Zanatto, A.C.S.; Provenance trials of Cordia alliodora in the State of Sao Paulo, 988-995, (Refs. 9). Nogueira, J.C.B., Siqueira, A.C.M.F., Garrido, M.A.O., Gurgel Garrido, L.M. do A., Rosa, P.R.F., Moraes, J.L. de, Zandarin, M.A., Gurgel Filho, O.A., Trials of some native species in various regions of the State of Sao Paulo, 1051-1063, (Refs. 9) describes Centrolobium tomentosum, Peltophorum dubium, Tabebuia vellosoi, Cariniana legalis, and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Batista, M.P., Borges, J.F., Franco, M.A.B.; Early growth of a native species in comparison with exotics in northeastern Para, Brazil, 1105-1110, (Refs. 3). Jacaranda copaia is compared with Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea various hondurensis, Eucalyptus deglupta, and E. urophylla. Lima, P.C.F., Souza, S.M. de, Drumond, M.A.; Trials of native forest species at Petrolina, Pernambuco, 1139-1148, (Refs. 8), deals with Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Piptadenia obliqua, Pithecellobium foliolosum, Astronium urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Cassia excelsa, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Parkia platycephala, Pseudobombax simplicifolium, Tabebuia impetiginosa, Caesalpinia ferrea, and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. 18 references.

  13. Mosquito larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent properties of botanical extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, M; Mathivanan, T; Elumalai, K; Krishnappa, K; Anandan, A

    2011-08-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as eggs, larvae, and adult. The larvicidal, ovicidal, and repellent activities of crude benzene and ethyl acetate extracts of leaf of Ervatamia coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in benzene extract of E. coronaria against the larvae of Anopheles Stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus with the LC(50) and LC(90) values were 79.08, 89.59, and 96.15 ppm and 150.47, 166.04, and 174.10 ppm, respectively. Mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed 48 h posttreatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. The leaf extract of E. coronaria was found to be most effective than Caesalpinia pulcherrima against eggs/egg rafts of three vector mosquitoes. For E. coronaria, the benzene extract exerted 300, 250, and 200 ppm against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. The results of the repellent activity of benzene and ethyl acetate extract of E. coronaria and Caesalpinia pulcherrima plants at three different concentrations of 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm(2) were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the

  14. Purpose of Introduction as a Predictor of Invasiveness among Introduced Shrubs in Rwanda

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    Jean Leonard Seburanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduced shrub flora in Rwanda was analyzed and the risk of invasion was assessed based on the species’ purposes of introduction. The results showed that more than half of invasive alien shrubs in Rwanda were introduced as ornamentals. They include Agave americana L., Bryophyllum proliferum Bowie ex Hook., Caesalpinia decapetala (Roth Alston, Lantana camara L., and Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsley A. Gray. However, these represented only 3.16% of the total number of introduced ornamental shrubs. At the time when the study was conducted, no introduced food crop had become invasive. Species introduced for purposes other than food or culinary use showed higher likelihood of becoming invasive.

  15. Preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908 (Hymenoptera, formicidae a diferentes espécies florestais, em condições de laboratório.

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    Otávio Peres Filho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a preferência de saúva limão, Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel, 1908, para 41 espécies florestais nativas e exóticas, em condições de laboratório. As espécies mais transportadas foram gmelina (Gmelina arborea, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala, pau-ferro (Caesalpinia ferrea, albizia (Albizia lebbeck e orelha-de-negro (Enterolobium contortisiliquum e as menos transportadas foram eucalipto (Eucalyptus grandis, jequitibá (Cariniana strellensis e mutamba (Guazuma tomentosa.

  16. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, J.A. [Universidad de Panama, Centro de Investigaciones con Tecnicas Nucleares/Depto. de Quimica (Panama); Garcia de Saldana, E.; Hernandez, C. [Universidad de Panama, Maestria en Ciencias Quimicas (Panama)

    1999-11-15

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  17. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, J. A.; García de Saldaña, E.; Hernández, C.

    1999-11-01

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe2+ and Fe3+) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  18. Comparative study on Anthelmintic property of Medicinal Plants

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    Asha Devi. S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For the present study Acacia catechu, Euphorbia heterophylla, Corallocarpus epigaeus and Caesalpinia bonducella plant parts were chosen to evaluate the comparative analysis on anthelmintic activity. Different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, 100mg/ml of methanolic extracts of these plant parts were used. The evaluation parameters involved the determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worms. Piperazine citrate was used as standard drug at 10 mg/ml concentration and saline as control. The results obtained showed that Corallocarpus epigaeus showed the highest anthelmintic activity with death time of 9 minutes at 100 mg/ml concentration.

  19. Crecimiento, arquitectura y anatomía de especies forestales en una selva baja caducifolia del sur de Yucatán

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Caesalpinia gaumeri Greenm y Gymnopodium floribundum Rolfe, son especies forestales importantes para los Mayas de Yucatán, que se utilizan en las construcciones rurales y para la producción apícola respectivamente. El propósito de este trabajo es conocer el crecimiento en diámetro, arquitectura, morfometría y anatomía de C. gaumeri y la arquitectura y morfometría de G. floribundum. En C. gaumeri la tasa anual de crecimiento aumentó de las categorías menores a las mayor...

  20. Pollen morphology of Rubiaceae Juss. species occurring in an area of caatinga (dryland vegetation in Bahia State, Brazil Morfologia polínica de espécies de Rubiaceae ocorrentes em uma área de caatinga no estado da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Eduardo Amaral Silveira Júnior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The palynology of the following 16 species of Rubiaceae, from Brejinho das Amestistas, was investigated: Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC., Cordiera rigida Kuntze, Coutarea hexandra K.Schum., Declieuxia fruticosa Kuntze, Diodella apiculata (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. radula (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. teres Small., Emmeorhiza umbellata K.Schum., Leptoscela ruellioides Hook. f., Mitracarpus baturitensis Sucre., Mitracarpus villosus Cham. & Schltdl., Palicourea rigida Kunth, Psyllocarpus asparagoides Mart., Richardia grandiflora Steud., Staelia aurea K. Schum., and Staelia galioides DC. The pollen grains were acetolysed to and their morphological characters were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy. They varied in size from small to large; were suboblate to subprolate; inaperturate (P. rigida, colpate and colporate in the remaining species, with an aperture number that varied from three to several. The exines were microreticulate in most species, reticulate (C. hirsutum, C. rigida and P. rigida, bireticulate (D. fruticosa, microechinate-perforated (C. hexandra, echinate-granulate (R. grandiflora, echinate-granulate-perforate (D. apiculata and D. teres, and psilate (P. asparagoides. Based on the results, palynological data can be used to distinguish these species.Rubiaceae foi representada na flora de Brejinho das Ametistas por dezesseis espécies, as quais foram tratadas palinologicamente no presente estudo: Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC., Cordiera rigida Kuntze, Coutarea hexandra K.Schum., Declieuxia fruticosa Kuntze, Diodella apiculata (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. radula (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. teres Small., Emmeorhiza umbellata K.Schum., Leptoscela ruellioides Hook. f., Mitracarpus baturitensis Sucre., Mitracarpus villosus Cham. & Schltdl., Palicourea rigida Kunth, Psyllocarpus asparagoides Mart., Richardia grandiflora Steud., Staelia aurea K. Schum., Staelia galioides

  1. Distribución temporal y espacial del polen de Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae) en Misiones, Argentina.

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre, Fabiana; Alarcón, Pamela Cecilia; Fassola, Hugo Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze es una especie nativa de alto valor comercial que ha sido explotada indiscriminadamente; actualmente está en peligro crítico. Este trabajo inicia un programa de investigación aerobiológica sobre su fenología reproductiva en Misiones (Argentina). Se utilizaron muestreadores volumétricos continuos: uno fijo y otro portátil, variando la ubicación de este último entre 6 puntos de muestreo en dirección de los vientos predominantes. El período principal de po...

  2. Chemical composition of Tipuana tipu, a source for tropical honey bee products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Pereira, Alberto; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler

    2003-01-01

    Tipuana tipu (Benth.) Kuntze is a tree from the leguminosae family (Papilionoideae) indigenous in Argentina and extensively used in urbanism, mainly in Southern Brazil. The epicuticular waxes of leaves and branch, and flower surface were studied by high temperature high resolution gas chromatography. Several compounds were characterized, among which the aliphatic alcohols were predominant in branch, leaves and receptacle. Alkanes were predominant only in the petals and the aliphatic acids were predominant in stamen. In branches and leaf epicuticular surfaces, six long chain wax esters series were characterized, as well as lupeol and b-amyrin hexadecanoates.

  3. Can environmental variation affect seedling survival of plants in northeastern Mexico?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Jaime F.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of global warming increase the frequency and intensity of many climate events such as rainfall. We evaluated the effects of environmental conditions on early stage seedling survival of the native thorn scrub species Caesalpinia mexicana A. Gray, Celtis pallida Torr., Cordia boissieri A. DC., and Ebenopsis ebano (Berland. Barneby and J.W. Grimes, during the summer of 2009 and 2010. The experimental design had two factors, two levels of rainfall and three microhabitats of thorn scrub: (i open interspace, (ii thorn scrub edge and (iii under the canopy of dense thorn scrub. In dense thorn scrub, seedling survival was higher for Caesalpinia mexicana and Celtis pallida, and for Cordia boissieri and Ebenopsis ebano seedling survival was higher in dense thorn scrub and thorn scrub edge. The effect of rainfall on seedling survival depended on the year. Rainfall in 2010 and dense thorn scrub increased seedling survival of native species. For survival, the limiting factors of microhabitats appear to change across the years. Besides rainfall events, biological aspects like competition and mycorrhiza effects would need to be considered in models of plant establishment.

  4. EFFECTS OF EXTRACTIVES AND DENSITY ON NATURAL RESISTANCE OF WOODS TO TERMITE Nasutitermes corniger

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    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the natural resistance of wood to wood-destroying organisms is of fundamental importance in the choice of species to be used in buildings and furniture industry. Thus, the effects of extractives and wood density on biological resistance of Acacia mangium, Casuarina equisetifolia, Corymbia torelliana, Eucalyptus cloeziana, Tectona grandis and Caesalpinia echinata woods to the xylophagous termite Nasutitermes corniger was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Test samples, with dimensions of 2.00 x 2.54 x 0.64 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal in four positions in pith-bark direction (internal heart, intermediate heart, outer heart and sapwood were taken. The woods were exposed to termite action for 28 days in no-choice feeding test. The samples not selected for the termite test were turned into sawdust and the extractive contents were obtained using the shavings that passed through the sieve of 40 and were retained in the sieve of 60 mesh. The wood natural resistance, within the pith-bark positions, for the studied species, is not correlated with the density and extractive content. However, among the woods, those with higher density and extractive content are more resistant. The woods with greater biological resistance to the termite Nasutitermes corniger (smaller mass loss, waste and survival time of insects are Corymbia torelliana and Caesalpinia echinata and of less resistance is Casuarina equisetifolia.

  5. The introduced tree Prosopis juliflora is a serious threat to native species of the Brazilian Caatinga vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Nascimento, Clóvis Eduardo; Tabarelli, Marcelo; da Silva, Carlos Alberto Domingues; Leal, Inara Roberta; de Souza Tavares, Wagner; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-05-15

    Despite its economic importance in the rural context, the Prosopis juliflora tree species has already invaded millions of hectares globally (particularly rangelands), threatening native biodiversity and rural sustainability. Here we examine seedling growth (leaf area, stem diameter, plant height) and seedling mortality across five native plant species of the Caatinga vegetation in response to competition with P. juliflora. Two sowing treatments with 10 replications were adopted within a factorial 2 × 5 randomized block design. Treatments consisted of P. juliflora seeds sowed with seeds of Caesalpinia ferrea, Caesalpinia microphylla, Erythrina velutina, Mimosa bimucronata and Mimosa tenuiflora (one single native species per treatment), while seeds of native species sowed without P. juliflora were adopted as controls. Overall, our results suggest that P. juliflora can reduce seedling growth by half and cause increased seedling mortality among woody plant species. Moreover, native species exhibit different levels of susceptibility to competition with P. juliflora, particularly in terms of plant growth. Such a superior competitive ability apparently permits P. juliflora to establish monospecific stands of adult trees, locally displacing native species or limiting their recruitment. The use of less sensitive species, such as C. ferrea and M. tenuiflora, to restore native vegetation before intensive colonization by P. juliflora should be investigated as an effective approach for avoiding its continuous spread across the Caatinga region.

  6. Phylogenetic and Systematic Value of Leaf Epidermal Characteristics in Some Members of Nigerian Fabaceae

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    Gbenga Olorunshola Alege

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken at the Botanical Garden of Biological Sciences Department, Kogi State University, Anyigba with the aim of assessing the systematic and phylogenetic relevance of leaf epidermal attributes in the 10 selected species of Fabaceae. Stomata, trichomes and epidermal cell attributes were taken from adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. Results obtained in this study revealed that all the 10 plant species considered possess hypo-amphistomatic leaf condition, paracytic stomata type, polygon and irregular shape epidermal cells(on the abaxial surface which points to their common ancestry. All the analyzed leaf epidermal traits considered on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces showed significant variations among the 10 studied plant species which indicates that genetic diversity exists among members of Fabaceae for their delimitation. It was also observed that all the plants with tree habit considered in this study (i.e Delonix regia, Parkia biglobosa, Senna siamea, Daniella oliveri and Caesalpinia pulcherrima lack stomata on the adaxial surfaces which strongly suggest that absence of stomata on the adaxial surface may be peculiar to Legumes with such habit. Cluster analysis revealed 2 major clusters and 2 sub-clusters with the first cluster comprising only Senna siamea and Caesalpinia pulcherrima which confirms their close phylogenetic relationship. Variations in trichomes, stomata and epidermal attributes were obvious and could be used to resolve systematic and phylogenetic problems in this family.

  7. GROWTH AND NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS OF TREE SPECIES IN CONTAMINATED SUBSTRATE BY LEACHABLE HERBICIDES

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    Rebecca de Araújo Fiore

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ecosystems contamination by residues of pesticides requires special attention to the herbicides subject to leaching. The objective was to select tree species to rhizodegradation contaminated by residues of 2,4-D and atrazine and to recompose riparian areas to agricultural fields, then reducing the risk of contamination of water courses. A total of 36 treatments consisted of the combinations of forest species were evaluated [Inga marginata (Inga, Schizolobium parahyba (guapuruvu, Handroanthus serratifolius (ipê amarelo, Jacaranda puberula (carobinha, Cedrela fissilis (cedro, Calophyllum brasiliensis (landin, Psidium mirsinoides (goiabinha, Tibouchina glandulosa (quaresmeira, Caesalpinia férrea (pau-ferro, Caesalpinia pluviosa (sibipiruna, Terminalia argêntea (capitão and Schinopsis brasiliensis (braúna] and three solutions simulating leachate compound (atrazine, 2,4-D and water - control, with four replicates each. The characteristics measured were plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area and dry biomass, and foliar nutrition. Forest species survived the herbicide application, and most showed an increase in macronutrients even under an herbicide application, and the Inga had the highest tolerance regarding growth analysis. It is recommended to use species that are more tolerant to Atrazine and 2,4-D in field experiments to confirm previous results of this simulation.

  8. A search for natural bioactive compounds in Bolivia through a multidisciplinary approach. Part IV. Is a new haem polymerisation inhibition test pertinent for the detection of antimalarial natural products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baelmans, R; Deharo, E; Bourdy, G; Muñoz, V; Quenevo, C; Sauvain, M; Ginsburg, H

    2000-11-01

    The search for new antimalarial agents in plant crude extracts using traditional screening tests is time-consuming and expensive. New in vitro alternative techniques, based on specific metabolic or enzymatic process, have recently been developed to circumvent testing of antimalarial activity in parasite culture. The haem polymerisation inhibition test (HPIA) was proposed as a possible routine in vitro assay for the detection of antimalarial activity in natural products. A total of 178 plant extracts from the Pharmacopeia of the Bolivian ethnia Tacana, were screened for their ability to inhibit the polymerisation of haematin. Five extracts from Aloysia virgata (Ruíz & Pavón) A.L. Jussieu (Verbenaceae), Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae), Caesalpinia pluviosa D.C. (Caesalpiniaceae), Mascagnia stannea (Griseb) Nied. (Malpighiaceae) and Trichilia pleenea (Adr. Jussieu) (Meliaceae) demonstrated more than 70% inhibition of haematin polymerisation at 2.5 mg/ml. The extracts were also tested for antimalarial activity in culture against F32 strain (chloroquine-sensitive) and D2 strain (chloroquine-resistant) of Plasmodium falciparum and in vivo against P. berghei. The extract from Caesalpinia pluviosa was the only one that showed activity in HPIA and in the classical test in culture. The accuracy and pertinence of HPIA, applied to natural products is discussed.

  9. Produção e distribuição de biomassa de espécies arbóreas no semi-árido brasileiro Production and distribution of biomass of tree species in the Brazilian semi-arid area

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    Marcos Antônio Drumond

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a produção e distribuição de biomassa de algumas espécies arbóreas de múltiplo uso em condições de sequeiro do submédio do São Francisco, instalou-se um experimento no Campo Experimental da Caatinga da Embrapa Semi-Árido, Município de Petrolina, PE. Foram realizadas medições de altura e diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP de 16 árvores centrais, em três parcelas de cada espécie: Leucaena diversifolia, Caesalpinia velutina, Caesalpinia coriaria, Mimosa tenuiflora e Ateleia herbert-smithii. A biomassa foi estimada com base na árvore de altura média de cada parcela, avaliando-se, separadamente, cada componente (folhas, galhos, cascas e lenho. A biomassa nos diferentes componentes arbóreos das espécies foi distribuída na seguinte ordem: folhaThe objective of the study was to quantify the production and biomass distribution of some potential arboreal species of multiple uses, under dry land conditions, in the Brazilian Semi-arid. The study was developed in the Experimental Station of Caatinga, of Embrapa Semi-Árido, Petrolina-PE, Brazil. Plant height and diameter at breast height (DBH of 16 central trees of each plot, from three replicates, were measured. The following species were studied: Leucaena diversifolia, Caesalpinia velutina, Caesalpinia coriaria, Mimosa tenuiflora and Ateleia herbert-smithii. Biomass was estimated based on the medium height tree in each plot, evaluating each component separately: leaf, bark, branch, root and log, except for A. herbert-smithii that produced more leaf than bark. Total biomass production was superior for C. velutina (51.6 kg ha-1, followed by L. diversifolia (36.6 kg ha-1, A. herbert-smithii (26.4 kg ha-1, Caesalpinia coriaria (23.0 kg ha-1 and Mimosa tenuiflora (21.6 kg ha-1 However, leaf dry matter, the main potential component of forage species, was higher for C. velutina y A. herbert-smithii (2.8 kg ha-1 and C. coriaria (2.2 kg ha-1, L. diversifolia (2.0 kg

  10. Five New Records of Orchidaceae from Hainan, China%海南兰科植物新记录5种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田怀珍; 董全英; 李星霖

    2012-01-01

    Five orchid species:Aphyllorchis caudata Rolfe ex Downie,Didymoplexis vietnamica Ormerod,Pinalia amica (H.G.Reichenbach) Kuntze,Zeuxine agyokuma Fukuyama and Z.sakagutii Tuyama.are newly recorded from Hainan Island.Aphyllorchis caudata and Didymoplexis vietnamica are saprophytic,Pinalia amica is epiphytic and Zeuxine agyokuana and Z.sakagutii are terrestrial orchids.All specimens are deposited at the Herbarium of East China Normal University (HSNU).%报道了5个海南兰科植物新记录种:尾萼无叶兰(Aphyllorchis cuadata Rolfe ex Downie)、中越双唇兰(Didymoplexis vietnamica Ormerod)、粗茎苹兰[Pinalia amica(H.G.Reichenbach)Kuntze]、绿叶线柱兰(Zeuxine agyokuana Fukuyama)和黄唇线柱兰(Z.sakagutii Tuyama.).其中尾萼无叶兰和中越双唇兰为腐生兰,粗茎苹兰为附生兰,绿叶线柱兰与黄唇线柱兰为地生种类.凭证标本均保存于华东师范大学生物学系植物标本馆(HSNU).

  11. SPORISORIUM POLLINIANUM,A SMUT SPECIES NEW TO CHINA%黄金茅孢堆黑粉菌新记录种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭林

    2000-01-01

    Sporisorium pollinianum(Zundel)Vhnky & Shivas on Eulalia quadrinervis(Hack.)Kuntze is new to China,which was collected from Sichuan province.%寄生在四脉金茅[Eulalia quadrinervis(Hack.)Kuntze]植物上的黄金茅孢堆黑粉菌(Sporisorium pollinianum(Zundel)Vanky & Shivas)新记录种,其孢子堆生在全部小穗中,外有白色包被包围.中轴单个,弯曲.孢子团黑褐色,半粘结.黑粉孢子球形,近球形,卵圆形或椭圆形,10~12.5×8.5~10.51μm,黄褐色;壁厚均匀,0.5~0.8μm,有刺或瘤.不育细胞球形,近球形,卵圆形或椭圆形,10~20×8.5~16.5μm,无色,光滑.

  12. Taxonomic considerations among and within some Egyptian taxa of Capparis and related genera (Capparaceae as revealed by RAPD fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Bous, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic considerations among and within some Egyptian taxa of Capparis and related genera (Capparaceae as revealed by RAPD fingerprinting.- This investigation was carried out to assess the taxonomic relationships among eight taxa of the Egyptian members of Capparaceae based on random amplified polymorphic DNA markers, and to compare the results with those obtained from morphological studies. A total of 46 bands were scored for three RAPD primers corresponding to an average of 15.3 bands per primer. The three primers (A03, A07 and A09 revealed eight polymorphic RAPD markers among the studied taxa ranging in size from 200 bp to 1000 bp. Jaccard’s coefficient of similarity varied from 0.28 to 0.84, indicative of high level of genetic variation among the genotypes studied. UPGMA cluster analysis indicated three distinct clusters, one comprised Cleome amblyocarpa and Gynandropsis gynandra, while another included two clusters at 0.74 phenon line; one for Capparis decidua, and the other for Capparis sinaica and all varieties of Capparis spinosa. The four varieties of Capparis spinosa were segregated at 0.84 phenon line. However, one of these varieties was more closely related to Capparis sinaica than to the other three varieties of C. spinosa. The RAPD analysis reported here confirms previous studies based on morphological markers.Consideraciones taxonómicas sobre algunos taxones egipcios de Capparis y géneros relacionados (Capparaceae a partir de RAPDs.- El objetivo de este trabajo es investigar las relaciones taxonómicas entre ocho taxones pertenecientes a las Capparaceae en base a marcadores de tipo RAPD, y comparar los resultados con los obtenidos previamente en estudios morfológicos. Se han contabilizado un total de 46 bandas para tres pares de cebadores, con una media de 15,3 bandas por cebador. Los tres pares de cebadores (A03, A07 y A09 revelan ocho marcadores polimórficos entre los taxones estudiados, de entre 200 y 1000 pares de

  13. HPLC identification and determination of myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and total flavonoids in herbal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Kulevanova

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available A new and rapid HPLC method for identification and determination of myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and total flavonoids in ten herbal drugs of Macedonian origin is presented. Preparation of samples (Uvae ursi folim, Pruni spinosae flos, Sambuci flos, Betulae folim, Primulae flos, Herniariae herba, Centaurii herba, Tiliae flos, Robiniae pseudoacaciae flos, Bursae pastoris herba included hydrolysis of glycosides and extraction of total aglycones with ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis with UV-diode array detection was carried out on RP C18 column, using 5% acetic acid and acetonitrile in agradient elution mode and column temperature of 30 o C. The monitoring of the elution is performed in the whole UV-range and the acquisition of data for quantitative analysis at 367 nm. Screening of the extracts showed presence of quercetin in nine, kaempferol in seven and myricetin in only one sample. The quantitative analysis showed that the content of quercetin ranged from 0.026-0.506 % (m/m, while for kaempferol it was from traces to 1.246 %. Uvaeursi folium and Pruni spinosae flos were rich in content of quercetin (0.482 % and 0.506 %, respectively, while Pruni spinosae flos and Robiniae pseudoaccaciae flos contained the highest amounts of kaempferol (1.246 % and 0.892 %, respectively. Myricetin was identified and determined only in Betulae folium (0.102 %. The content of total flavonoids in the investigated samples expressed in terms of quercetin ranged from 0.040 to 1.680 %. The proposed HPLC method is convenient for use in routine analysis of myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, as well as for estimation of total flavonoids content in herbal drugs.

  14. Note e recensioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autori Vari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Adriano Ardovino, Raccogliere il mondo. Per una fenomenologia della rete [Angela Maiello] • Clive Bell, L’Arte [Filippo Focosi] • Alessandro Bertinetto, Il pensiero dei suoni. Temi di filosofia della musica [Domenica Lentini] • Terrence Deacon, Incomplete Nature. How Mind Emerged From Matter [Mariagrazia Portera] • Roger Scruton, La bellezza. Ragione ed esperienza estetica [Filippo Focosi] • Miriam Bratu Hansen, Cinema and Experience. Sigfried Kracauer, Walter Benjamin and Theoder W. Adorno [Domenico Spinosa] • Lawrence Barsalou, scritti sulla “Grounded Cognition” [Gialuca Consoli] • Dis-forme, Università degli Studi di Palermo, 28-29 maggio 2012 [Michele Bertolini e Pietro Conte

  15. Spinosad affects chemical communication in the German cockroach, Blatella germanica (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbachi, Wafa; Bensafi, Hanene; Adjami, Yasmine; Ouakid, Mohamed L; Farine, Jean-Pierre; Everaerts, Claude

    2009-12-01

    Spinosad is a biopesticide, derived from fermentation by the soil-dwelling actinomycete, Saccharopolyspora spinosa, which is used to control a variety of insects. Spinosad kills a wide range of insect pests when ingested or topically applied, by overexciting the nervous system, yet is harmless to mammals and many predatory insects. Other modes of action of this insecticide have not been documented. Here, we report that a non-lethal dose of spinosad causes adult male and female German cockroach, Blattella germanica, to exhibit altered responses to their aggregation pheromone as well as to have a changed cuticular hydrocarbon profile.

  16. Archaeological Salvage Excavations at the Tibbee Creek Site (22Lo600) Lowndes County, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    chenopod and amaranth . Amaranthus spinosas (spiny amaranth ) was one of the first plants to appear in the cleared areas around the Tibbee Creek site during...time and get an impression of the overall site layout. I i W - - - - - - -- - ~ ______ 23 oII oil ON Rom T U. o - Of’ 024 o 0 n 01? 0 FS 0 0 FIO F7...extent that the long axis of the artifact is apparent but it has no refinement . These artifacts are generally asymmetrical and may not be bifacially

  17. Pickling process of capers (Capparis spp. flower buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan, Musa

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Middle sized (8 < x < 13 mm buds of Capparis spinosa var. spinosa and C. ovata var. canescens from June in brines containing 5,10,15 and 20% salt and from August in brines of 15% salt, and three different size (x < 8 mm, 8 < x < 13 mm, x > 13 mm buds of C. . ovata var. canescens from June in brines of 15% salt were pickled for two months fermentation. Some chemical and microbiological analyses were done in brines during fermentation. Most suitable salt concentration for lactic acid bacteria (LAB activity were 5% and partly 10%. Acidity, LAB activity, sedimentation and hardness were reduced by increasing bud size in C. ovata. Small buds of C. ovata for pickling product had advantage for colour and flavour, however, more sediment and partly softening showed disadvantage. For both species, pickling time was determined as 40 to 50 days in regard of end-product flavour and odour, brine acidity and pH, and LAB activity.

    Se encurtieron durante dos meses botones florales de tamaño medio (8 < x < 13 mm de Capparis spinosa var. spinosa y C. ovata var. canescens, los recolectados en Junio en salmueras conteniendo 5, 10, 15 y 20% de sal, y los de Agosto en salmueras de 15% de sal; y tres tamaños diferentes (x < 8 mm, 8 < x < 13 mm, X > 13 mm de C. ovata var. canescens de Junio en salmueras de 15% de sal. Se realizaron algunos análisis químicos y microbiológicos durante la fermentación. Las concentraciones de sal más adecuadas para la actividad de las bacterias del ácido láctico (LAB fueron 5% y parcialmente 10%. Acidez, actividad de LAB, sedimentación y firmeza (hardness se redujeron al incrementar el tamaño de las alcaparras de C. ovata. Los tamaños pequeños de C. ovata presentaron en el producto encurtido ventajas en color y sabor, pero desventajas por más sedimento y ablandamiento parcial. El tiempo de encurtido para ambas

  18. Plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Z; Dafni, A; Friedman, J; Palevitch, D

    1987-01-01

    In an extensive ethnobotanical survey (130 informants) of the medicinal plants of Israel, 16 species were found to be used for hypoglycaemic treatments. The list includes Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) Sch.-Bip, Ammi visnaga (L.) Lam, Atriplex halimus L., Capparis spinosa L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Cleome droserifolia (Forssk.) Del., Eryngium creticum Lam., Inula viscosa (L.) Ait., Matricaria aurea (Loefl.) Sch.-Bip, Origanum syriaca L., Paronychia argentea Lam, Prosopis farcta (Banks et Sol.) Macbride, Salvia fruticosa Mill., Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Sp., and Teucrium polium L.; eight of them (marked with an asterisk) are first recorded here as used for this purpose.

  19. EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA FUNGI INOCULATION ON TEAK (Tectona grandis Linn. F AT CIKAMPEK, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragil S.B. Irianto

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the effect of Arbuscular Mycorhiza Fungi (AMF on the early growth of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F plantation. Teak seedlings were inoculated with Glomus aggregatum or Mycofer (mixing of four Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi (AMF : G. margarita, G. manihotis, G. etunicatum and Acalospora spinosa at the time of transplantation. At  three months old the seedlings were planted in Cikampek experimental forest. Results showed that application of G. aggregatum or mycofer to teak could accelerate height and diameter growth by up to 61%and4 7%, respectively, after three months in the field.

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U03781-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 136 3e-31 EU736254_1( EU736254 |pid:none) Absidia spinosa strain FSU552 tran... 136 3e-31 EU257537_1( EU257537 |pid:none) Tilletia...e) Oxymonadida environmental sample c... 133 2e-30 EU257525_1( EU257525 |pid:none) Tilletia secalis voucher ... AK100658 |pid:none) Oryza sativa Japonica Group cDNA c... 132 3e-30 EU257552_1( EU257552 |pid:none) Tilletia

  1. A revision of the Chinese species of Cyamophiliopsis (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Psyllidae) associated with Spiraea (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xinyu; Li, Fasheng; Cai, Wanzhi

    2015-03-20

    Cyamophiliopsis is a small genus restricted to the Palaearctic Region and associated with Spiraea spp. (Rosaceae). In the present work, following five species are recognized in China: C. pseudofasciata sp. nov., C. sarmatica, C. spinosa sp. nov., C. xinjiangana sp. nov. and C. zaisani. Cyamophiliopsis is diagnosed, redescribed in detail, and its phylogenetic relationships are discussed. All the species are described or redescribed, and the fifth instar immature of C. zaisani is described for the first time. Nomenclatorial problems are discussed concerning the Far East Russian Psylla spiraee which is transferred to Cyamophiliopsis as C. spiraee comb. nov.

  2. A review of the genus Parapachymorpha Brunner von Wattenwyl (Phasmatodea: Phasmatidae) from China, with descriptions of two new species%中国副厚(螩)属分类研究及二新种记述((螩)目:(螩)科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何维俊

    2014-01-01

    本文对中国副厚(螩)属Parapachymorpha Brunner yon Wattenwyl,1893进行了分类研究,其中包括2新种——道英副厚(螩)Parapachymorpha daoyingi sp.nov.和西双版纳副厚(螩)Parapachymorpha xishuangbannaensis sp.nov.,以及1中国新记录种——刺副厚(螩)Parapachymorpha spinosa Brunner von Wattenwyl,1893.新种模式标本保存于上海昆虫博物馆.

  3. Study of Penetration Kinetics of Sodium Hydroxide Aqueous Solution into Wood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomír Lapčík

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of unidirectional penetration of NaOH aqueous solution into rectangular samples of wood oriented parallel to a stern axis were studied. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, European larch (Larix decidua, blackthorn (Prunus spinosa, white willow (Salix alba, and horse-chestnut wood (Aesculus hippocastanum were studied in this work. The time dependence of liquid incorporation was measured by the volumetric method as a change of total volume of coexisting liquid (NaOH/H2O phase. The total thickness of the swollen surface layer d and mean value of the apparent diffusion coefficient of aqueous NaOH solution at 22 °C were determined.

  4. [Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of saponins of Argania spinoza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, K; Lagorce, J F; Cherrah, Y; Hassar, M; Amarouch, H; Roquebert, J

    1998-01-01

    We studied analgesic and antiinflammatory actions of saponins of Argania spinosa cakes in mice and rats. With oral doses of 50 to 300 mg/kg, we found peripheric analgesic actions equivalent to the acetyl salicylic acid ones. The maximum protection was obtained with 500 mg/kg per os. There is no morphine-like central analgesic effect. Antiinflammatory studies were done in vivo using oedema due to carrageenine or experimental trauma in rats. There was a decrease in the paw swelling at doses of 10 mg/kg per os. At doses of 50 to 100 mg/kg per os, the antiinflammatory effect was similar to the one of indomethacin at doses of 10 to 20 mg/kg per os. In vitro, there was an inhibition of beef synovial fluid degradation by OH. radicals. The inhibition action is evaluated with an IC20 > or = 6 microM. Argania spinosa saponins have also an antiradical action against DPPH (IC25 = 85 mM) and against OH. radicals (IC25 = 0.56 M). Since they do not have any inhibition effect on PGE2 synthesis, their antiinflammatory activity can be explained by their action on leucotriens in the metabolic pathway of arachidonic acid.

  5. The advertisement calls of Quasipaa shini (Ahl, 1930) (Anura: Dicroglossidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shen Shen; Zheng, Rong Quan; Zhang, Qi Peng

    2016-12-04

    The genus Quasipaa (Family Dicroglossidae) is currently composed of 11 species distributed in China and Southeast Asia: Quasipaa acanthophora (Dubois & Ohler 2009), Q. boulengeri (Günther 1889), Q. courtoisi (Angel 1922), Q. delacouri (Angel 1928), Q. exilispinosa (Liu & Hu, 1975), Q. fasciculispina (Inger 1970), Q. jiulongensis (Huang & Liu, 1985), Q. shini (Ahl 1930), Q. spinosa (David 1875), Q. verrucospinosa (Bourret 1937), Q. yei (Chen, Qu & Jiang 2002) (Frost 2016). These species are morphologically similar, and their taxonomy is subject to controversy (Che et al. 2009). Analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial genes suggest the genus likely encompass additional cryptic species (Ye et al. 2013). Bioacoustics has contributed to studies on the taxonomy of the genus (Ye et al. 2013; Shen et al. 2015), however, to date, only the advertisement calls of Q. spinosa are known (Yu & Zheng 2009; Chen et al. 2012; Shen et al. 2015). Here, we describe the advertisement calls of Q. shini, which inhabits streams in the southern part of central China(Guizhou, Hunan, Guangxi and Jiangxi) and is characterized by the presence of keratinized skin spines on the lateral surfaces of the body.

  6. Diverse patterns of cell wall mannan/galactomannan occurrence in seeds of the Leguminosae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, João Francisco; Mazzaro, Irineu; de Almeida Silva, Lia Magalhães; de Azevedo Moreira, Renato; Ferreira, Marília Locatelli Correa; Reicher, Fany; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira

    2013-01-30

    Endosperms from seeds of different subfamilies of Leguminosae were submitted to sequential aqueous and alkaline aqueous extractions. The extractions from species belonging to the Mimosoideae and Faboideae subfamilies yielded galactomannans with constant Man:Gal ratios, whereas the extractions from Caesalpinioideae seeds gave rise to galactomannans with increasing values of the Man:Gal ratio. The presence of a family of galactomannans within the same species may be a trait found only in Caesalpinioideae subfamily. The final insoluble residues that were obtained after the removal of galactomannans from the Caesalpinioideae and Faboideae subfamilies are composed of pure mannans and do not contain cellulose, while those from the Mimosoideae subfamily are composed of cellulose. A mannan was isolated from the unripe endosperm of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, suggesting no developmental relationship between galactomannan and mannan. These results are consistent with the presence of a distinctive cell wall pattern in the endosperms of Leguminosae species.

  7. Potencial energético de tres espécies florestais da regiao semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Ghislaine

    2013-01-01

    A caatinga, vegetação característica da região semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil, possui potencial de utilização restrito devido seu porte arbóreo-arbustivo. Buscando ampliar a abrangência das aplicações tecnológicas desta vegetação, procurou-se estudar a viabilidade da transformação em carvão vegetal de três espécies que ocorrem nesta região: a exótica leucena (Leucaena leucocephala Lam) e as nativas catingueira (Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul) e pereiro (Aspidosperma pyrifolium Mart). As tr...

  8. Monitoring environmental pollution of trace elements in tree-rings by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-TXRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: Silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Brienza, Sandra Maria B. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil) Faculdade de Ciencias Matematicas, da Natureza e de Tecnologia da Informacao]. E-mail: sbrienza@unimep.br; Medeiros, Jean Gabriel S.; Tomazello Filho, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz]. E-mail: jeangm@esalq.usp.br; mtomazel@esalq.usp.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims to study the environmental pollution in the tree development, as a manner to evaluate its use as bioindicator in urban and country sides. The sample collecting was carry out in Piracicaba city, Sao Paulo State, that presents high level of environmental contamination of the water, soil and air, due industrial activities, vehicles combustion, sugar-cane leaves burning in the harvesting, etc. It was selected the Caesalpinia peltophoroides ('Sibipiruna') specie because its very used in urban arborization. It was employed the analytical technique named total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) to identify and quantify the elements and metals of nutritional and toxicological importance in the wood samples. The analysis was done in the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, using a white beam for excitation and a Si(Li) detector for characteristic X-ray detection. It was quantified the P, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Sr, Ba e Pb elements. (author)

  9. Etnoconhecimentos de Espécies Forrageiras no Semi-árido da Paraíba, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Carneiro Souto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Caatinga, bioma with restricted occurrence to Brazil, is characterized by a xerophilous vegetation, with herb, shrub and tree components and high species diversity. The objective of this work was to study with participative forage species of the caatinga and establish a order of importance of the species as forage value at different altidudes. The collection of data was done through the use of questionnaires with rural workers of two ecoregion in Santa Luzia, Paraíba State: Borborema plateau and “sertaneja” Depression setentrional. The altitude affected the crude protein content of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd Poiret (jurema preta, Cnidoscollus phyllacanthus Muel. Arg. Pax et. K. Hoffm. (faveleira, Caesalpinia pyramidalis Tul. (catingueira, Capparis flexuosa L. (feijão bravo and Bauhinia cheilantha Bong. (mororó forage, was higher than the minimum demanded by ruminants in the dormant period.

  10. Current status of Indian medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju Patil; Ravindra Patil; Bharati Ahirwar; Dheeraj Ahirwar

    2011-01-01

    In India, indigenous remedies have been used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus since the time of Charaka and Sushruta. Plants have always been an exemplary source of drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from them. The ethnobotanical information reports that about 800 plants may possess anti-diabetic potential. Out of several Indian medicinal plants 33 plants were reviewed. The most effective antidiabetic Indian medicinal plants are Acacia arabica, Aegle marmelose, Agrimonia eupatoria, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Azadirachta indica, Benincasa hispida, Beta vulgaris, Caesalpinia bonducella, Citrullus colocynthis, Coccinia indica, Eucalyptus globules, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Hibiscus rosasinesis, Ipomoea batatas, Jatropha curcus, Mangifera indica, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Mucuna pruriens, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Punica granatum, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum. A wide array of plant derived active principles representing numerous chemical compounds has demonstrated activity consistent with their possible use in the treatment of diabetes.

  11. Antibacterial properties of some plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanís, A D; Calzada, F; Cervantes, J A; Torres, J; Ceballos, G M

    2005-08-22

    Antibacterial properties of aqueous and methanolic extracts of 26 medicinal plants used in Mexico to treat gastrointestinal disorders were tested against eight different species of enteropathogens: two Escherichia coli species; two Shigella sonnei species; two Shigella flexneri species; and two Salmonella sp. species. The results showed that all crude extracts exhibited antibacterial activity, at least against one of the microorganisms tested, at concentrations of 8 mg/mL or lower. The extracts from Caesalpinia pulcherria, Chiranthodendron pentadactylon, Cocos nucifera, Geranium mexicanum (aerial parts and roots), Hippocratea excelsa, and Punica granatum possessed strong antibacterial activity against most of the pathogens tested. In general, methanolic extracts were more active than aqueous extracts. Their activity was higher than chloramphenicol but did not exceed that of trimethoprim. Shigella sonnei species showed the highest susceptibility to both extracts. This is the first evaluation of these plants against bacterial pathogen isolates, which cause diarrhea and dysentery in Mexican population.

  12. Anti-bacterial activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; de Souza Luna, Josiane; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; de Andrade, Maria Cristina Caño; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Genet, Jean-Pierre; Marquez, Béatrice; Neuville, Luc; Moreau, Nicole

    2006-04-21

    Extracts from various organs of 25 plants of Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed with respect to their anti-bacterial activities against Escherichia coli, a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus and two resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus harbouring the efflux pumps NorA and MsrA. Amongst the 49 extracts studied, 14 presented anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, including the ethanolic extracts from the rhizome of Jatropha elliptica, from the stem barks of Schinus terebinthifolius and Erythrina mulungu, from the stems and leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis and Serjania lethalis, and from the stem bark and leaves of Lafoensia pacari. The classes of compounds present in the active extracts were determined as a preliminary step towards their bioactivity-guided separation. No extracts were active against Escherichia coli.

  13. Relationship between galactomannan structure and physicochemical properties of films produced thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, V R F; Souza, B W S; Teixeira, J A; Vicente, A A; Cerqueira, M A

    2015-12-01

    In this work five sources of galactomannans, Adenanthera pavonina, Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Ceratonia siliqua and Sophora japonica, presenting mannose/galactose ratios of 1.3, 1.7, 2.9, 3.4 and 5.6, respectively, were used to produce galactomannan-based films. These films were characterized in terms of: water vapour, oxygen and carbon dioxide permeabilities (WVP, O 2 P and CO 2 P); moisture content, water solubility, contact angle, elongation-at-break (EB), tensile strength (TS) and glass transition temperature (T g ). Results showed that films properties vary according to the galactomannan source (different galactose distribution) and their mannose/galactose ratio. Water affinity of mannan and galactose chains and the intermolecular interactions of mannose backbone should also be considered being factors that affect films' properties. This work has shown that knowing mannose/galactose ratio of galactomannans is possible to foresee galactomannan-based edible films properties.

  14. In vitro evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against Pestalotiopsis mangiferae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, M K

    1996-01-01

    A serious leaf-spot disease of Mangifera indica was noted during the last 10 years in Satpura plateau of India. On the basis of characteristic symptoms and cultural characters, the pathogen was identified as Pestalotiopsis mangiferae which is hitherto not reported from Satpura plateau of India. Screening of 17-medicinal plants against the test pathogen revealed 14 antimycotic whereas 3-plants, viz., Argemone mexicana, Caesalpinia bonducella, and Casia fistula acclerated the growth of the pathogen. The maximum activity was shown by Eucalyptus globulus (88%) and Catharanthus roseus (88%) followed by Ocimum sanctum (85.50%), Azadirachta indica (84.66%), Ricinus communis (75%) and Lawsonia inermis (74.33%) while the minimum activity was exhibited by Jatropha curcas (10%).

  15. Evaluación de la calidad del aceite de once semillas de leguminosas del desierto sonorense

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    Ortega-Nieblas, M.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to generate information that lead to an efficient and diversifícate use of the natural resources that the Sonoran Desert offers, as it is the great variety of Leguminosae or Fabaceae plants, oils from seeds or Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, Cercidium floridium (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tesota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepehuaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, and Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo were analyzed. The oils were extracted from each seed with hexane, and their physicochemical characteristics were evaluated. The oil content varied from 9 to 16% in the different seeds. Their indexes of acidity, peroxides and free fatty acid content were low and within the accepted values. Fatty acids separated by gas chromatography predominating indicate the oleic and linoleic. All analyzed crude oils were of good quality, comparable to commercial and oils of wild legume seeds from the same region.

    A fin de generar información que conduzca a un uso eficiente y diversificado de los recursos naturales que ofrece el Desierto Sonorense, como es la gran variedad de plantas de la familia Leguminosae ó Fabaceae, se analizaron los aceites de las semillas: Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis velutina (mezquite, (palo azul, Cercidium praecox (palo de brea, Acacia constricta (vinorama, Acacia cymbyspina (chirahui, Acacia occidentalis (tésota, Acacia mcmurphy (tepeguaje, Desmanthus palmeri (mezquitillo, Caesalpinia caladenia (palo dorado, y Caesalpinia pumila (palo piojo. Los aceites de cada semilla fueron extraídos con hexano, se evaluaron las características fisico-químicas de calidad y la cuantificación de ácidos grasos por cromatografía de gases. El contenido de

  16. A UPLC/MS/MS method for determination of protosappanin B in rat plasma and its application of a pharmacokinetic and bioavailability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ying; Zhou, Xian-Zhen; Wu, Li-Lan; Wu, Yun-Shan; Wang, Shu-Mei; Liu, Bo; Guo, De-An

    2016-12-14

    Caesalpinia sappan L. is a traditional medicinal plant which is used for promoting blood circulation and cerebral apoplexy therapy in China. Previous reports showed that the extracts of Caesalpinia sappan L. could exert vasorelaxant activity and anti-inflammation activity. Protosappanin B is a major constituent of C. sappan L., and showed several important bioactivities. The separation was achieved by an Acquity UPLC BEH Symmetry Shield RP18 column (1.7 μm, 2.1 × 100 mm) column with the gradient mobile phase consisting of 5 mm ammonium acetate aqueous solution and acetonitrile. Detection was carried out by using negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry via multiple reaction monitoring. Plasma samples were preprocessed by an extraction with ethyl acetate, and apigenin was used as internal standard. The current UPLC-MS/MS assay was validated for linearity, accuracy, intraday and interday precisions, stability, matrix effects and extraction recovery. After oral and intravenous administration, the main pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: peak concentrations, 83.5 ± 46.2 and 1329.6 ± 343.6 ng/mL; areas under the concentration-time curve, 161.9 ± 69.7 and 264.9 ± 56.3 μg h/L; and half-lives, 3.4 ± 0.9 and 0.3 ± 0.1 h, respectively. The absolute bioavailability in rats of protosappanin B was 12.2%. The method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic and bioavailability study of protosappanin B in rats.

  17. Influence of several plant extracts on the oviposition behaviour of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae in the laboratory Influência de diversos extratos vegetais sobre o comportamento de oviposição de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae em laboratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available Whole, ethanolic, hexanic, lyophilized extracts of several plants and anacardic acid tested in respect of their influence on the oviposition behavior of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz at 100, 10 and 1 ppm concentrations. Extracts of Allium stivum, Jatropha curcas, Mikania schenkii, Poinciana regia and Spatodea campanulata had a repulsive effect (α=0.05 on females at 100 ppm, those of Anacardium occidentale, Bidens segetum and Caesalpinia peltophoroides were also repelent at 10 ppm. Extracts of Coriandrum sativum (100, 10 and 1 ppm, Chara Zeylanica (10 ppm, Cupressus sempervirens (10 ppm, Foeniculum vulgare (10 ppm and Spatodea campanulata (1 ppm were attractive to the females; 13 (52.0% of the extracts tested, did not influence the oviposition behavior.Extratos brutos, etanólicos, hexânicos, liofilizados de diversos vegetais e ácido anacárdico foram testados quanto a sua influência sobre o comportamento de oviposição das fêmeas de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz, nas concentrações de 100, 10 e 1 ppm. Os estratos de Allium sativum, jatropha curcas. MiKania schenkii, Poinciana regia s Spatodea campanulata mostraram-se repelentes (α = 0,05 para as fêmeas na concentração de 100 ppm e os de Anacardium occidentale, Bidens segetum e Caesalpinia peltophoroides também na de 10 ppm. Os extratos Coriandrum stivum (100, 10 e 1 ppm, chara zeylanica (10 ppm, Cupressus sempervirens (10 ppm, Foeniculum vulgare (10 ppm e Spatodea campanulata (1 ppm atrairam a oviposição das fêmeas; 13 (52,0% dos extratos testados foram indiferentes as fêmeas nas concentrações utilizadas.

  18. Ensaios preliminares em laboratório para verificar a ação moluscicida de algumas espécies da flora brasileira Preliminary laboratory tests of the molluscicide activity of some species of Brazilian flora

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    Nelymar Martineli Mendes

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se em laboratório a atividade moluscicida de 68 extratos de 23 plantas brasileiras. As soluções em água desclorada dos extratos hexânicos e etanólico, nas concentrações de 1, 10 e 100 ppm, foram testadas sobre caramujos adultos e desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata, criados em laboratório. As plantas que demonstraram ação moluscicida na concentração de 100 ppm foram: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G.Don., Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L.,Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell,Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham, e Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L., e Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.The molluscicide activity of sixty-eight extracts from twenty-three Brazilian plants was studied in the laboratory. The solutions, in dechlorinated water, of hexanic and ethylic extracts at 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations, were tested on adult snails and egg masses of Biomphalaria glabrata, reared in the laboratory. The plants with molluscicide activity on adult snails and/or egg masses at 100 ppm concentration were: Arthemisia verlotorum Lamotte, Caesalpinia peltophoroides Benth, Cassia rugosa G. Don, Eclipta alba Hassk, Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd, Euphorbia splendens Bojer, Joannesia princeps Vell, Leonorus sibiricus L., Macrosiphonia guaranitica Muell, Nerium oleander L., Palicourea nicotianaefolia Cham. and Schlech., Panicum maximum M., Rumex crispus L., Ruta graveolens L. and Stryphnodendron barbatiman M.

  19. Adaptability of some legume trees on quartz tailings of a former tin mining area in Bangka Island, Indonesia

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    B H Narendra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tin mining activities in Bangka Island, besides their important role in contributing to state revenues, also caused damage to the environment, among others in the form of quartz tailings overlay. To rehabilitate this land, in addition to the necessary efforts to improve soil conditions, success is also determined by the selection of appropriate plant species. This study was aimed to determine the adaptability of some legume trees grown on the quartz tailings in land rehabilitation trials in the post tin mining areas of Bangka Island. The legume trees tested were Calliandra calothyrsus Meisn., Caesalpinia sappan L., Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq. Griseb., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp., Delonix regia ( Hook. Raf., and Cassia siamea Lamk. Treatments of growing media applied  in  the field were medium I (a mixture of 20% organic material, 20% top soil, 1% NPK fertilizer, 5% calcium, and 54% quartz tailings, media II (a mixture of 25%organic material, 25%top soil, 2% NPK fertilizer, 6% calcium, 42% quartz tailings, and media III (a mixture of 30% organic material, 30% top soil, 3% NPK fertilizer, 7% calcium, and 30% quartz tailings. The observation was done by measuring the height and diameter of the stem of the plants, as well as the viability of one year after planting. Analysis of the results of measurements of stem height and diameter showed their diversity. Enterolobium cyclocarpum had the largest dimensions, while the lowest was Caesalpinia sappan. At the age of one year in the field, Gliricida sepium and Enterolobium cyclocarpum showed the average ability of the high life of up to 100%, whereas Calliandra calothyrsus was totally death. In general, the types of legumes selected in this trial showed good adaptability, except for of Calliandra calothyrsus

  20. Separation and Identification of Fatty Acid in the Seed Oils of Two New Species of Celosia Cristata L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Debao; WANG Haifeng

    2002-01-01

    The seed oils of two new species of Celosia cristata L., C. Argentea L. Var. Crispa Kuntze (Yellow flower) and C. Cristata L. Cv. Spicata ( Red flower), were extracted with organic solvent and the fatty acides (Fas) in seed oils were separated and identificated by gas chromatography (GC). They all contained 10 kinds of FA including 4 trace Fas, respectively. Two new Fas of odd number of carbons in the seed oils, pentadecanoic acid( C15:0) and heptadecenoic acid (C17:1 ), were found. The compositions of main Fas in the seed oils were palmitic 20.61%, 23.50%; stearic 1.87 %; 2.39 %; oleic 20.77 %, 19.93% ;linoleic 51.39%, 45.99%; linolenic 1.54%, 1.86% and arachidonic 3.20%, 3.42%, respectively.

  1. New Records of Lamiaceae from Guangxi,China%广西唇形科植物新记录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严克俭; 农云开; 杨平; 屈信成

    2015-01-01

    该文首次报道了唇形科5种植物在广西的新记录——簇序属(Craniotome Reichenb.)及簇序草[Craniotome furcata (Link) Kuntze]、西南水苏[Stachys kouyangensis (Vaniot) Dunn]、海南深红鸡脚参[Orthosiphon rubicundus (D.Don) Benth.var.hainanensis Sun ex C.Y.Wu]、黄花香薷[Elsholtzia flava(Benth.)Benth.]、滨海白绒草[Leucas chinensis (Retz.)R.Br.].引证标本均存放于广西中医药研究院标本馆(GXMI).

  2. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India

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    SHAKOOR AHMAD MIR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 6-11. Habitat diversity, elevation, cloud cover, rainfall, seasonal and temperature variations have created many ideal sites for the luxuriant growth of pteridophytes in the Kashmir valley, yet all the regions of the valley have not been surveyed. In Kashmir valley the family Dryopteridaceae is represented by 31 species. During the recent extensive field surveys of Shopian district four more species viz., Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris blanfordii subsp. nigrosquamosa (Ching Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris pulvinulifera (Bedd. Kuntze and Polystichum Nepalense (Spreng C. Chr. have been recorded for the first time from the valley. The taxonomic description, synonyms, distribution and photographs of each species are given in this article.

  3. Effects of intercropping with persimmon on the rhizosphere environment of tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Haiyan; LIU Zhongde; WANG Changrong; ZHONG Zhangcheng

    2006-01-01

    The rhizosphere environment of tea (Camelllia sinensis Kuntze) intercropped with persimmon (Diospyros kaki) differs from monocultures of tea.A trial was conducted to determine the effects of intercropping with persimmon on root exudates and soil nutrient condition of tea.Amino acid exuded in intercropping was three times higher than that in monoculture.Phenol,phenol/amino acid ration,dissolved sugar,and total organic acid were also lower in intercropping.The value of pH in soil was higher,and soil nutrient condition of rhizosphere,especially available nutrient,was not as well in intercropping as that in tea grown alone.While soil nutrient of non-rhizosphere was better than that in monoculture,tea quality and soil nutrient condition were better in intercropping ecosystem.

  4. Fenologia do florescimento e frutificação de espécies nativas dos Campos = Flowering phenology and fruit set of native species of the Campos ecosystem

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    Antonio Carlos Batista

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a fenologia de 12 espécies ocorrentes no ecossistema de Campos no Estado do Paraná. A pesquisa foi realizada no Campus III, da Universidade Federal do Paraná, na cidade de Curitiba. As espécies selecionadas para a avaliação fenológica foram: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H. Rob., Lessingianthus glabratus (Less. H. Rob. (Asteraceae, Eryngium sanguisorba Cham. &Schtdl. (Apiaceae, Moritzia dusenii Johnston (Boraginaceae, Petunia linoides Sendtn. (Solanaceae, Senna neglecta (Vogel H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae, Tibouchina gracilis (Bonpl. Cogn. (Melastomataceae e Verbena rigida Spreng (Verbenaceae. A metodologiautilizada foi a avaliação qualitativa dos dados fenológicos (floração e frutificação, observados quinzenalmente, durante o ano de 2004. As variáveis climáticas: temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, precipitação e fotoperíodo foram obtidas diariamente para verificar sua relação com as fenofases. Os resultados indicaram que, das espécies estudadas, seis tiveram fase fenológica reprodutiva entre janeiro e agosto, enquanto as demais tiveram a interrupção do período reprodutivo durante o inverno, com exceção de Aspilia montevidensis que apresentou floração e frutificação durante todo o ano.The aim of this work is to study the phenology of twelve species that occur in “Campos” ecosystem in Paraná state. This research was carried out at the Universidade Federal do Paraná, Campus III, in Curitiba city. The selected species for phenologic evaluation were: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H. Rob

  5. Fenologia do florescimento e frutificação de espécies nativas dos Campos - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.478 Flowering phenology and fruit set of native species of the Campos ecosystem - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i3.478

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Batista

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a fenologia de 12 espécies ocorrentes no ecossistema de Campos no Estado do Paraná. A pesquisa foi realizada no Campus III, da Universidade Federal do Paraná, na cidade de Curitiba. As espécies selecionadas para a avaliação fenológica foram: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H. Rob., Lessingianthus glabratus (Less. H. Rob. (Asteraceae, Eryngium sanguisorba Cham. & Schtdl. (Apiaceae, Moritzia dusenii Johnston (Boraginaceae, Petunia linoides Sendtn. (Solanaceae, Senna neglecta (Vogel H. S. Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae, Tibouchina gracilis (Bonpl. Cogn. (Melastomataceae e Verbena rigida Spreng (Verbenaceae. A metodologia utilizada foi a avaliação qualitativa dos dados fenológicos (floração e frutificação, observados quinzenalmente, durante o ano de 2004. As variáveis climáticas: temperatura, umidade relativa do ar, precipitação e fotoperíodo foram obtidas diariamente para verificar sua relação com as fenofases. Os resultados indicaram que, das espécies estudadas, seis tiveram fase fenológica reprodutiva entre janeiro e agosto, enquanto as demais tiveram a interrupção do período reprodutivo durante o inverno, com exceção de Aspilia montevidensis que apresentou floração e frutificação durante todo o ano.The aim of this work is to study the phenology of twelve species that occur in “Campos” ecosystem in Paraná state. This research was carried out at the Universidade Federal do Paraná, Campus III, in Curitiba city. The selected species for phenologic evaluation were: Aspilia montevidensis (Sprengel Kuntze, Cacalia cognata (Less. Kuntze, Campovassouria bupleurifolia (DC. R. M. King & H. Rob., Campuloclinium macrocephalum (Less. DC., Chromolaena ascendens (Sch. Bip. ex. Baker R. M. King & H

  6. Antioxidant capacities, phenolic compounds and polysaccharide contents of 49 edible macro-fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ya-Jun; Deng, Gui-Fang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Wu, Shan; Li, Sha; Xia, En-Qin; Li, Fang; Chen, Feng; Ling, Wen-Hua; Li, Hua-Bin

    2012-11-01

    Edible macro-fungi are widely consumed as food sources for their flavors and culinary features. In order to explore the potential of macro-fungi as a natural resource of bioactive compounds, the antioxidant properties and polysaccharide contents of 49 edible macro-fungi from China were evaluated systematically. A positive correlation between antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content indicated that phenolic compounds could be main contributors of antioxidant capacities of these macro-fungi. Furthermore, many bioactive compounds such as gallic, homogentisic, protocatechuic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were identified and quantified. The macro-fungi species Thelephora ganbajun Zang, Boletus edulis Bull., Volvariella volvacea Sing, Boletus regius Krombh, and Suillus bovinus Kuntze displayed the highest antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents, indicating their potential as important dietary sources of natural antioxidants.

  7. An improved method for thin layer chromatographic analysis of saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om P; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram; Bhat, Tej K

    2012-05-01

    Analysis of saponins by thin layer chromatography (TLC) is reported. The solvent system was n-butanol:water:acetic acid (84:14:7). Detection of saponins on the TLC plates after development and air-drying was done by immersion in a suspension of sheep erythrocytes, followed by washing off the excess blood on the plate surface. Saponins appeared as white spots against a pink background. The protocol provided specific detection of saponins in the saponins enriched extracts from Aesculusindica (Wall. ex Camb.) Hook.f., Lonicera japonica Thunb., Silene inflata Sm., Sapindusmukorossi Gaertn., Chlorophytum borivilianum Santapau & Fernandes, Asparagusadscendens Roxb., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Agave americana L., Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze. The protocol is convenient, inexpensive, does not require any corrosive chemicals and provides specific detection of saponins.

  8. Anatomía foliar y caulinar en especies de Stemodia (Scrophulariaceae Foliar and caulinar anatomy in species of Stemodia (Scrophulariaceae

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    Maria De Las Mercedes Sosa

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la estructura anatómica foliar y caulinar en el género Stemodia. Son consideradas siete especies: S. ericifolia (Kuntze K. Schum., S. hyptoides Cham. & Schltdl., S. lanceolata Benth., S. lobelioides Lehm., S. palustris A. St.-Hil., S. stricta Cham. & Schltdl. y S. verticillata (Mill. Hassl. Se hallaron diferencias en la epidermis foliar, donde hay variación en el tipo de estomas y de tricomas, y en la forma de las papilas epidérmicas; también en la estructura del mesofilo. Se describen e ilustran cuatro tipos de tricomas considerando si son o no glandulares y el número de células que lo conforman. El estudio de la anatomía caulinar mostró diferencias en cuanto a la presencia de aerénquima cortical y de laguna medular, y el porcentaje de espacios en el aerénquima cortical.Comparative anatomical studies of the leaves and stems on the genus Stemodia are presented. Seven species are considered: S. ericifolia (Kuntze K. Schum., S. hyptoides Cham. & Schltdl., S. lanceolata Benth., S. lobelioides Lehm., S. palustris A. St.-Hil., S. stricta Cham. & Schltdl. and S. verticillata (Mill. Hassl. There are variation in the stomatal and trichome types, form of the papillae and mesophyll structure. Four trichome types are described and illustrated considering if they are glandular or non-glandular and the number of cells. The stems present a quite homogeneous anatomical structure. Some differences in the amount and distribution of the aerenchyma and the size of the intercellular spaces are observed.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars

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    Raquel Lourdes Faria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of mouthwashes containing Calendula officinalis L., Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate on the adherence of microorganisms to suture materials after extraction of unerupted third molars. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen patients with unerupted maxillary third molars indicated for extraction were selected (n=6 per mouthwash. First, the patients were subjected to extraction of the left tooth and instructed not to use any type of antiseptic solution at the site of surgery (control group. After 15 days, the right tooth was extracted and the patients were instructed to use the Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis or chlorhexidine mouthwash during 1 week (experimental group. For each surgery, the sutures were removed on postoperative day 7 and placed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Next, serial dilutions were prepared and seeded onto different culture media for the growth of the following microorganisms: blood agar for total microorganism growth; Mitis Salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar for mutans group streptococci; mannitol agar for Staphylococcus spp.; MacConkey agar for enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp., and Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol for Candida spp. The plates were incubated during 24-48 h at 37ºC for microorganism count (CFU/mL. RESULTS: The three mouthwashes tested reduced the number of microorganisms adhered to the sutures compared to the control group. However, significant differences between the control and experimental groups were only observed for the mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. CONCLUSIONS: Calendula officinalis L. and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze presented antimicrobial activity against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures but were not as efficient as chlorhexidine digluconate.

  10. Dynamics and evolution of tree populations and soil-vegetation relationships in Fogscapes: Observations over a period of 14 years at the experimental sites of Meija (Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbitano, F.; Calamini, G.; Certini, G.; Ortega, A.; Pierguidi, A.; Villasante, L.; Caceres, R.; Coaguila, D.; Delgado, M.

    2010-07-01

    The Fogscapes, i.e. fog-dependent landscapes, and the sub mountain drylands of the Pacific Coast from Ecuador to Northern Chile are amongst the most fragile regions of the planet. The so-called "Lomas" (i.e. Hills) ecosystems are characterised by pre-desertic flora and vegetation where the plant phenological pattern coincides with the fog season from June to December every year. The occurance of ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) affects these ecosystems inducing, occasionally, a sudden change in the characteristics of the vegetation. Relics of low-density woodlands dominated by Caesalpinea spinosa and scattered trees of the same species (which during the fog season appear as savannah-like ecosystems) are still present but becoming increasingly rare due to past and present overgrazing In the experimental site of Las Cuchillas, located on the coastal hills close to Meija (Dept. Arequipa, South Peru) trees of native species (Caesalpinaea spinosa and Prosopis pallida) and exotic species (Acacia saligna, Casuarina equisetifolia, Parkinsonia aculeata) were planted in 1996, in order to look at the rehabilitation potential of the degraded "lomas" ecosystems. This paper deals with the results observed over a period of 14 years’ of tree growth patterns and the related results concerning the soil and habitat dynamics. Among indigenous species Caesalpinea spinosa shows the heighest rate of survival even if the height increment is low and the tree crowns tend to dry out at a height of approximately two metres, followed by the appearance of new shoots produced during the course of the seasons. The exotic Acacia saligna shows the maximum height, diameter and crown volume increments. The habitat conditions, both in term of diversity / frequency of plant and animal populations, and plant cover (LAI estimated by processing fish-eye lens images) have changed substantially over the years. A number of samples from the top mineral soil and random samples from the forest floor were

  11. Screening and production study of microbial xylanase producers from Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Prado, Heloiza Ferreira; Pavezzi, Fabiana Carina; Leite, Rodrigo Simões Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia; Sette, Lara Durães; Dasilva, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Hemicelluloses are polysaccharides of low molecular weight containing 100 to 200 glycosidic residues. In plants, the xylans or the hemicelluloses are situated between the lignin and the collection of cellulose fibers underneath. The xylan is the most common hemicellulosic polysaccharide in cell walls of land plants, comprising a backbone of xylose residues linked by beta-1,4-glycosidic bonds. So, xylanolytic enzymes from microorganism have attracted a great deal of attention in the last decade, particularly because of their biotechnological characteristics in various industrial processes, related to food, feed, ethanol, pulp, and paper industries. A microbial screening of xylanase producer was carried out in Brazilian Cerrado area in Selviria city, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. About 50 bacterial strains and 15 fungal strains were isolated from soil sample at 35 degrees C. Between these isolated microorganisms, a bacterium Lysinibacillus sp. and a fungus Neosartorya spinosa as good xylanase producers were identified. Based on identification processes, Lysinibacillus sp. is a new species and the xylanase production by this bacterial genus was not reported yet. Similarly, it has not reported about xylanase production from N. spinosa. The bacterial strain P5B1 identified as Lysinibacillus sp. was cultivated on submerged fermentation using as substrate xylan, wheat bran, corn straw, corncob, and sugar cane bagasse. Corn straw and wheat bran show a good xylanase activity after 72 h of fermentation. A fungus identified as N. spinosa (strain P2D16) was cultivated on solid-state fermentation using as substrate source wheat bran, wheat bran plus sawdust, corn straw, corncob, cassava bran, and sugar cane bagasse. Wheat bran and corncobs show the better xylanase production after 72 h of fermentation. Both crude xylanases were characterized and a bacterial xylanase shows optimum pH for enzyme activity at 6.0, whereas a fungal xylanase has optimum pH at 5.0-5.5. They were

  12. Australian gall-inducing scale insects on Eucalyptus: revision of Opisthoscelis Schrader (Coccoidea, Eriococcidae and descriptions of a new genus and nine new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nate Hardy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We revise the genus Opisthoscelis Schrader, and erect the genus Tanyscelis gen. n. with Opisthoscelis pisiformis Froggatt as its type species. Species of both genera induce sexually dimorphic galls on Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae in Australia, with Opisthoscelis subrotunda Schrader also in Papua New Guinea. We synonymise the following taxa (junior synonym with senior synonym: Opisthoscelis fibularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis spinosa Froggatt; Opisthoscelis recurva Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis maculata Froggatt; Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, syn. n. (= Opisthoscelis ruebsaameni Lindinger with Opisthoscelis convexa Froggatt; and Opisthoscelis mammularis Froggatt, syn. n. with Opisthoscelis verrucula Froggatt. We transfer seven Opisthoscelis species to Tanyscelis as Tanyscelis conica (Fuller, comb. n., Tanyscelis convexa (Froggatt, comb. n., Tanyscelis maculata (Froggatt, comb. n., Tanyscelis maskelli (Froggatt, comb. n., Tanyscelis pisiformis (Froggatt, comb. n., Tanyscelis spinosa (Froggatt, comb. n., and Tanyscelis verrucula (Froggatt, comb. n. We redescribe and illustrate the adult female of each named species of Opisthoscelis for which the type material is known, as well as the first-instar nymph of the type species of Opisthoscelis (Opisthoscelis subrotunda and Tanyscelis (Opisthoscelis pisiformis. We describe four new species of Opisthoscelis: Opisthoscelis beardsleyi Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis thurgoona Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Opisthoscelis tuberculata Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Opisthoscelis ungulifinis Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and five new species of Tanyscelis: Tanyscelis grallator Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanuscelis megagibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis mollicornuta Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., Tanyscelis tripocula Hardy & Gullan, sp. n., and Tanyscelis villosigibba Hardy & Gullan, sp. n. We designate lectotypes for Opisthoscelis convexa, Opisthoscelis fibularis, Opisthoscelis globosa Froggatt, Opisthoscelis

  13. The advancement of biological research in amphibian culture in China%中国养殖的两栖动物生物学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘焕亮

    2004-01-01

    综合论述了中国养殖的6种主要两栖动物:虎纹蛙Rana tigrina rugulosa Wiegmann、棘胸蛙Rana spinosa David、中国林蛙Rana temporaria chensinensis David、牛蛙Rana catesbeiana Shaw、猪蛙Rana grylio和中国大鲵Megalobatrachus davidianus Blanchara的生物学研究成果,包括养殖种类与地理分布,栖息习性,对盐度、温度、湿度、溶解氧、pH值的适应,摄食方式与食物组成,生长与繁殖生物学;展望了其生物学研究前景.

  14. 黄瓜苗根围拮抗细菌X3的分子鉴定%Identification on an antagonistic rhizobacterium X3 from rhizosphere of cucumber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈爱华; 张炳欣; 李斌; 沈立荣; 喻景权

    2003-01-01

    采用生理生化、Biolog和16S rDNA分子鉴定3种不同方法,对抑制黄瓜苗期猝倒病病原真菌的细菌菌株X3进行了鉴定.生理生化鉴定显示该菌株为Pseudomonas aeruginosa;而Biolog鉴定显示其为P.spinosa;进一步对该菌株作16S rDNA基因的测定与分析,表明其与已报道的P.aeruginosa 16S rDNA 具有93.7%的同源性,二者在所建系统发育树中处于同一分枝,据此确定该菌株为P aeruginosa.

  15. Note e recensioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autori Vari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Volumi Kendall L. Walton, Mimesi come far finta [Chiara Bisignano] • Nick Zangwill, La metafisica della bellezza [Filippo Focosi] • Dominic McIver Lopes, A Philosophy of Computer Art [Elisa Caldarola] • Jacques Rancière, Béla Tarr, le temps d’après [Domenico Spinosa] • Stefano Marino, Un intreccio dialettico. Teoresi, estetica, etica e metafisica in Theo­dor W. Adorno [Marco Jacobsson] • Antonio Somaini, Ejzenštejn. Il cinema, le arti, il montaggio [Marie Rebecchi] • Aa.Vv., Alla fine delle cose. Contributi a una storia critica delle immagini [Marie Rebecchi]Convegni Merleau-Ponty et l’esthétique aujourd-hui, Università degli Studi di Milano, 5-6 maggio 2011 [Pietro Conte

  16. Shrub-inhabiting insects of the 200 Area Plateau, southcentral Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    This study characterizes the insects (including spiders) associated with major shrubs of the 200 Area Plateau on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), rabbitbrush (Chrysothamnus sp.) and hopsage (Grayia spinosa) were the three shrubs included in the study. Hemiptera (true bugs) and homoptera (bugs) were the two groups most abundant on sagebrush. Homoptera and Araneida (spiders) were the common inhabitants of rabbitbrush, and Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Coleoptera (beetles), and Araneida the taxa most frequently collected from hopsage. A discussion of the effects of insects on western native shrubs is included. None of the insect populations appeared to threaten the stability of shrub stands, which is important because of the erodability of 200 Area soils.

  17. Nomenclatural changes in Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae and Delphacidae (Homoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Dmitriev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available New replacement names are proposed for seven species of the subfamily Typhlocybinae; one new synonym is recognized in the family Delphacidae. The following changes are proposed: Empoasca (Empoasca angustata nom.nov. for Empoasca angusta Linnavuori & DeLong (not Dworakowska; Empoasca (Empoasca chilensis nom.nov. for Empoasca diversa Linnavuori & DeLong (not Vilbaste; Austroasca verdensis nom.nov. for Empoasca artemisiae Lindberg (not Lethierry; Kropka vidanoi Dworakowska for Erythroneura unipunctata Dlabola (not Cerutti; Zyginella vietnamica nom.nov. for Zyginella melichari Dworakowska (not Kirkaldy; Eupteryx (Eupteryx dlabolai nom.nov. for Eupteryx octonotata Dlabola (not Hardy; Baaora ahmedi nom.nov. for Baaora spinosa (Ahmed (not Beamer; Paradelphacodes insolitus Dmitriev is synonymized with Paradelphacodes gvosdevi (Mitjaev, syn.nov.

  18. A study of the genus Protosticta Selys, 1855, with descriptions of four new species from Vietnam (Odonata: Platystictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Quoc Toan; Kompier, Tom

    2016-04-07

    The genus Protosticta Selys, 1855 from Vietnam is revised. Four new species, P. ngoai spec. nov., P. socculus spec. nov., P. pseudocuriosa spec. nov., and P. spinosa spec. nov. are described; detailed morphological structures of four species P. beaumonti Wilson, 1997 (dark form), P. caroli van Tol, 2008, P. grandis Asahina, 1995, and P. satoi Asahina, 1997, are provided. P. beaumonti is newly recorded for Vietnam. The female of P. caroli is described for the first time. P. linnaei van Tol, 2008, is also listed here, based on the original description and visual inspection of the type specimens. The occurrence of P. khaosoidaoensis Asahina, 1984, in Vietnam is reviewed and rejected. A total of nine Protosticta species have now been recorded for Vietnam.

  19. Bunias orientalis L. as a natural overwintering host OF Turnip mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kobyłko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A virus was isolated, using mechanical inoculation, from hill mustard (Bunias orientalis L. plants exhibiting yellow mottling and blistering on leaves, which were frequently accompanied by asymmetric leaf narrowing. It systemically infected certain plants from the family Brassicaceae (Brassica rapa, Bunias orientalis, Hesperis matronalis, Sinapis alba as well as Cleome spinosa and Nicotiana clevelandii, and locally Atriplex hortensis, Chenopodium quinoa, Ch. amaranticolor, N. tabacum. In the sap, it maintained infectivity for 3-4 days and lost it after heating for 10 min. at a temperature of 55 - 60oC or when diluted with water at 10-3. Virus particles were thread- like with a length of 675 - 710 nm. Based on an analysis of biological properties of the pathogen, serological response, particle morphology and data from field observations, it was identified as an isolate of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV, and hill mustard was recognised as a natural overwintering host for this pathogen.

  20. Ascidian recruitment patterns on an artificial reef in Eilat (Red Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkar, Noa; Zeldman, Yael; Loya, Yossi

    2008-01-01

    Although ascidians are conspicuous members of the fouling community not much is known regarding their recruitment patterns in coral reefs. A 1-year study was carried out along the Red Sea coast of Israel to examine the effects of season and spatial distribution on ascidian recruitment to artificial marine structures. In general, autumn and spring were characterized by higher coverage with a significantly higher percentage of cover of Didemnum granulatum in autumn and higher numbers of Herdmania momus in spring. These species contributed the most to similarity between treatments consequently setting the pattern for each group (colonial and solitary). Halocynthia spinosa had significantly higher numbers during winter and Phallusia nigra was absent in spring and winter. H. momus showed a preference for horizontal surfaces. P. nigra and Ascidia cannelata showed a preference for floating units. It is concluded that the ascidian recruitment patterns are species-specific and vary between seasons, orientation and position on the substrata and in the water column.

  1. Habitat and nest site preferences of Red-backed Shrike (Lanius collurio) in western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jannie K.; Sell, Henrik; Bøcher, Peder Klith;

    2015-01-01

    In this study we evaluate nest site and habitat preferences of Red-backed Shrike (Lanius collurio) in the national park Mols Bjerge, Denmark. In total, 28 nests were found during 2010 and 2011. To determine nesting site preferences, the species composition of vegetation in scrub used for nesting...... was compared to that of nearest unused scrub. To evaluate habitat preferences, a Resource Selection Probability Function (RSPF) was modelled based on presence/absence data. The habitat factors were represented by Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) derived measures of vegetation height and topographic wetness...... as well as distance to nearest road/path, as an indicator of human disturbance. Scrub used as nesting sites were characterized by thorny shrub species such as Prunus spinosa and Rubus fruticosus. RSPF showed that shrike presence was positively correlated with vegetation heterogeneity and high topographic...

  2. Physicochemical characteristics, nutritional properties, and health benefits of argan oil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abbassi, Abdelilah; Khalid, Nauman; Zbakh, Hanaa; Ahmad, Asif

    2014-01-01

    The argan tree (Argania spinosa L. Skeels), an endemic tree in Morocco, is the most remarkable species in North Africa, due to its botanical and bioecologic interest as well as its social value. Argan oil is traditionally well known for its cardioprotective properties and it is also used in the treatment of skin infections. This paper gives an overview of scientific literature available on nutritional and pharmacologic properties of argan oil. Owing to its unique organoleptic properties associated with its cardioprotective properties, argan oil has found, recently, its place in the highly competitive international edible oil market. This success is a very positive sign for the preservation of the argan tree, the argan forests and, therefore, in general, the biodiversity.

  3. Oxidative stability of cosmetic argan oil: a one-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharby, Said; Harhar, Hicham; Kartah, Badr; Guillaume, Dominique; Chafchaouni-Moussaoui, Imane; Bouzoubaa, Zakia; Charrouf, Zoubida

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the chemical stability of cosmetic argan oil (INCI: Argania spinosa kernel oil). The methodology involves the repeated measurement over a 1-year period of the quality metrics used in the cosmetic industry: acid and peroxide value and specific absorbance. During this year, storage is performed at 40° or 25°C to assess the importance of temperature. In this latter case, oil samples have been either protected or exposed to sunlight. In addition, sterol and fatty acid composition is determined to attest argan oil chemical integrity over 1 year. Storage of argan oil at 40°C results in a rapid loss of quality. Stored at 25°C and protected from sunlight, argan oil quality is still satisfactory after 12 months according to the official Moroccan norm, but storage should not be longer than 6 months to fulfill industrial standards.

  4. ANTAGONISTIC BACTERIA AGAINST SCHIZOPHYLLUM COMMUNE FR. IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTARJO DIKIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophyllum commune Fr., is one of the important fungi, causes brown germ and seed rot of oil palm. Biodiversity of antagonistic bacteria from oil palm plantations in Peninsular Malaysia is expected to support in development of biopesticide. Isolation with liquid assay and screening antagonistic bacteria using dual culture assay were carried out in the bioexploration. A total of 265 bacterial isolates from plant parts of oil palm screened 52 antagonistic bacterial isolates against 5. commune. Bacterial isolates were identified by using Biolog* Identification System i.e. Bacillus macroccanus, B. thermoglucosidasius, Burkholderia cepacia, B. gladioli, B. multivorans, B pyrrocinia, B. spinosa, Corynebacterium agropyri, C. misitidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Microbacterium testaceum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. citronellolis, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Serratia ficaria, Serratia sp., S. marcescens, Staphylococcus sciuri, Sternotrophomonas maltophilia.

  5. A review on chemical and medicobiological applications of capparidaceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are the nature′s gift to human being to make disease free healthy life. It plays a vital role to preserve our health. Capparidaceae family comprises various important medicinal properties distributed in tropical and subtropical India, whose medicinal usage has been reported in the traditional systems of medicine such as Ayurvedha, Siddha and Unani. Plants belongs to the Capparidaceae family has been described as a rasayana herb and has been used extensively as an adaptogen to increase the non specific resistance of antioxidant and immunostimulant effects. The C. sepiaria, C. spinosa, C. tomentosa and C. zeylanica etc., belongs to this family is reported as used in traditional medicine. The diverse phytoconstituents and various medicobiological uses of the plants belonging to this family were reviewed here.

  6. Short-term effects of a spinosyn's family insecticide on energy metabolism and liver morphology in frugivorous bats Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TS Amaral

    Full Text Available A new class of insecticide derived from fermentation of Sacharopolyspora spinosa - spinosad, has been indicated as being of low toxicity and a natural alternative to classical pesticides. In order to elucidate several aspects related to the morphophysiological changes induced by spinosad in Artibeus lituratus, the effects of a seven-day administration on plasma glucose, glycogen, protein and lipid concentrations were evaluated, and possible changes in liver cells were examined by histological analysis. Animals were fed with spinosyn-contaminated fruit through immersion in a solution. Data reporting on metabolism revealed a decrease in hind limb muscle lipid concentration in the treated group. Morphological analysis indicated a significant increase in liver cell diameter in treated animals compared to the control group. This study indicates that spinosyn, used at its recommended dose, does not affect general energy metabolism in A. lituratus but may affect some ultrastructural characteristics of liver cells.

  7. Utility of cyclodextrins in the formulation of genistein part 1. Preparation and physicochemical properties of genistein complexes with native cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daruházi, Agnes Emma; Szente, Lajos; Balogh, Balázs; Mátyus, Péter; Béni, Szabolcs; Takács, Mária; Gergely, András; Horváth, Péter; Szoke, Eva; Lemberkovics, Eva

    2008-11-04

    Isoflavones are suitable guest molecules for inclusion complex formation with cyclodextrins (CDs). The molecular encapsulation with CDs results in a solid, molecularly dispersed form and in a significantly improved aqueous solubility of isoflavones. Genistein, a key isoflavone constituent of Ononidis spinosae radix was found to form a supramolecular, non-covalent inclusion complex with both beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and gamma-cyclodextrin (gamma-CD), while it did not form a stable complex with alpha-CD. The guest genistein was found to spatially located in the less polar cavity of cyclodextrin. The isolated binary genistein/CD complexes appeared novel crystalline lattices. The in vitro dissolution of genistein entrapped into both beta- and gamma-CD, significantly surpassed that of the plain isoflavone.

  8. The greater sense of involvement - literary festivals and cultural entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbeshausen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Innovative projects of a cultural nature provide value for those who organize and participate in them. However, for the politician in charge of the culture file, such projects gain value only when they deliver economic or social impact. Turning culture and art into an economic instrument...... is not a new idea in the politics of culture. The entrepreneur, the arts manager, and the administrator of cultural institutions become key figures when the cultural sector is professionalized and made into an economic engine. Starting from the thesis that economic values are helpful in advancing some social...... or economic purpose, I attempt to liberate the entrepreneur from the role and task of orchestrating economic logic. Using two literature festivals in Berlin and Copenhagen respectively, I seek to illustrate ”how entrepreneurs contribute to reconfiguring the practices of their society” (Spinosa, Flores...

  9. 杰氏涡虫属一新种及中国一新纪录种(扁形动物门,单肠目,达氏科)%A NEW SPECIES AND ONE NEWLY RECORDED SPECIES OF THE GENUS GIEYSZTORIA FROM CHINA (PLATYHELMINTHES, RHABDOCOELA, DALYELLIIOIDA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪安泰; 邓利

    2006-01-01

    报道中国杰氏涡虫属1新种:丽杰氏涡虫Gieysztoria pulchra sp.nov.,标本采于广东省梅州市郊区鱼塘,对新种涡虫的形态特征作了详细描述,并与杰氏涡虫属所有物种进行了比较;中国1新纪录亚种:大变杰氏涡虫九刺亚种Gieysztoria macrovariata 9-spinosa Luther,1955,标本分别采自安徽芜湖市和湖北省武汉市东湖.所有标本保存在深圳大学生命科学学院形态学研究室.

  10. Maqui berry vs Sloe berry--liquor-based beverage for new development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    "Pacharin" is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.) that has been produced in northern Spain. On the other hand, maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a common edible berry from Chile, and currently under study because of its multiple beneficial effects on health. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry, as an industrial alternative to a traditional alcoholic product with bioactive berries. The characterization of its composition, compared with the traditional "Pacharin", and its evolution during maceration (6 and 12 months) showed that the new maqui liquor had significantly-higher anthocyanin retention over time. More studies on the organoleptic properties and bioactivity are underway.

  11. Emergência de plantas daninhas em solo coberto com palha de cana-de-açúcar Weed emergence in soil covered with sugarcane harvest straw residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Correia

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da cobertura do solo, com 0, 5, 10 e 15 t ha-1 de palha de cana-de-açúcar da variedade SP 79 2233, sobre a emergência de seis espécies de plantas daninhas (Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria horizontalis, Sida spinosa, Ipomoea grandifolia, Ipomoea hederifolia e Ipomoea quamoclit, foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Fitossanidade da Universidade Estadual Paulista, campus de Jaboticabal, SP. Cada unidade experimental foi constituída por um vaso plástico com 21,50 cm de diâmetro e capacidade para quatro litros de solo. Foram semeados 0,112 g de sementes de D. horizontalis, 2,12 g sementes de I. quamoclit e 50 sementes das demais espécies, por vaso. Foram contabilizadas as plântulas emersas aos 6 e 32 dias após a semeadura (DAS sob a palha e aos 30, 60 e 90 dias após a remoção da palha (DARP. Constatou-se que a cobertura do solo com 5, 10 e 15 t ha-1 de palha de cana inibiu a emergência de plântulas das espécies B. decumbens e S. spinosa, sendo o mesmo observado para D. horizontalis submetida a 10 e 15 t ha-1 de palha. No entanto, para I. grandifolia e I. hederifolia o número de plantas emersas não diferiu entre as quantidades de palha. Por outro lado, a presença da cobertura morta com palha de cana incrementou a emergência de plântulas de I. quamoclit. Não foram verificados, após a remoção da palha, fluxos expressivos na emergência de plântulas das espécies estudadas.An experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to study the effects of soil coverage with sugarcane harvest straw residue (0, 5, 10 and 15 ton ha-1 on the emergence of six weed species (Brachiaria decumbens, Digitaria horizontalis, Sida spinosa, Ipomoea grandifolia, Ipomoea hederifolia and Ipomoea quamoclit at the Department of Phytosanitation of Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal-SP, Brazil. Each experimental unit consisted of one plastic pot (diameter = 21.50 cm; total

  12. Large branchiopods (Branchiopoda: Anostraca, Notostraca and Spinicaudata from the salt lakes of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudjéma SAMRAOUI

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a survey of large branchiopods (Crustacea, Branchiopoda of the major salt lakes of Algeria, particularly those of the eastern Hauts Plateaux. The aim of the survey was to complement a previous survey that focused on the freshwater habitats of Numidia, northeast Algeria. The study revealed 8 species, with one taxon new to Algeria and North Africa (Chirocephalus salinus. Data on the status, phenology and habitats of collected and previously known species are presented for 19 taxa. The distribution of many species has been greatly extended and the co-occurrence of Artemia tunisiana and Branchinella spinosa has been recorded. The studied salt lakes, owing to a large production of fairy shrimps, support a great number of wintering and breeding waterbirds, but are subject to increasing human pressure.

  13. Comparative Study of Heavy Metals in Soil and Selected Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential and nonessential heavy metals like iron (Fe, nickel (Ni, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, and lead (Pb were analyzed in four selected medicinal plants such as Capparis spinosa, Peganum harmala, Rhazya stricta, and Tamarix articulata by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS. These medicinal plants are extensively used as traditional medicine for treatment of various ailments by local physicians in the area from where these plants were collected. The concentration level of heavy metals in the selected plants was found in the decreasing order as Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Cd > Pb. The results revealed that the selected medicinal plants accumulate these elements at different concentrations. Monitoring such medicinal plants for heavy metals concentration is of great importance for physicians, health planners, health care professionals, and policymakers in protecting the public from the adverse effects of these heavy metals.

  14. Impact des coopératives féminines sur la préservation et la valorisation de l’arganeraie : cas de la coopérative Tafyoucht (confédération des Ait Baamrane, Anti-Atlas, Maroc)

    OpenAIRE

    FAOUZI, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    L'arganier (Argania spinosa) est un arbre qui pousse principalement au Maroc. Les arganeraies occupent environ 800 000 hectares au sud-ouest du pays. Dans ces zones semi-arides et arides, 1,3 million de personnes sont concernées par l’exploitation de systèmes agroforestiers traditionnels reposant sur l’arganier. L'aire de l’arganier se dégrade d’année en année sous l’effet conjugué de la croissance démographique et du surpâturage. En moins d'un siècle, plus d'un tiers de la forêt a disparu. D...

  15. Impact des coopératives féminines sur la préservation et la valorisation de l’arganeraie : cas de la coopérative Tafyoucht (confédération des Ait Baamrane, Anti-Atlas, Maroc) Impacto das cooperativas de mulheres sobre a preservação e valorização do argan: o caso da cooperativa Tafyoucht (Confederação de AitBaamrane, Anti-Atlas, Marrocos) Impact of women’s cooperatives on the conservation and enhancement of the argan tree: case of the Tafyoucht cooperative (confederation of the Ait Baamrane, Anti-Atlas, Morocco)

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Faouzi

    2012-01-01

    L'arganier (Argania spinosa) est un arbre qui pousse principalement au Maroc. Les arganeraies occupent environ 800 000 hectares au sud-ouest du pays. Dans ces zones semi-arides et arides, 1,3 million de personnes sont concernées par l’exploitation de systèmes agroforestiers traditionnels reposant sur l’arganier. L'aire de l’arganier se dégrade d’année en année sous l’effet conjugué de la croissance démographique et du surpâturage. En moins d'un siècle, plus d'un tiers de la forêt a disparu. D...

  16. Sternaspidae (Annelida, Sedentaria) from Vietnam with description of three new species and clarification of some morphological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhadan, Anna E; Tzetlin, Alexander B; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2017-01-25

    Five sternaspid species were found near Vietnam shores: Sternaspis britayevi sp. nov., S. costata von Marenzeller, 1879, S. nana sp. nov., S. papillosa sp. nov., and S. spinosa Sluiter 1882. Sternaspis britayevi is described from the shallow water in Vietnam inhabiting soft bottoms; it resembles S. spinosa described from Java and S. thorsoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 described from the Persian Gulf, but differs in having a medially projected and markedly ribbed fan of the ventro-caudal shield and nearly parallel, distally widened and rounded branchial plates. Sternaspis nana sp. nov. is described from Nha Trang Bay; it differs from the other known species by the combination of the following characters: small size, evenly distributed micropapillae and regular rows of long cirriform papillae; posterior chaetal fascicles consisting of single thick chaeta; a ventral shield with smooth integument, without ribs and usually without concentric lines. Sternaspis papillosa sp. nov. is also described from Nha Trang Bay; it resembles S. africana Augener, 1918 and S. andamanensis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 by having similar ventro-caudal shields but differs by body papillation and details of the ventro-caudal shield. Based upon observations of different species some morphological features are clarified: 1) notochaetae are present in introvert chaetigers as delicate capillaries; 2) peg-chaetae are really a dense group of more than 100 thin individual chaetae, embedded in a fibrous matrix, and covered by a common sheath; 3) the pharynx is an eversible, lobed, axial non-muscular proboscis with a ciliated surface; 4) the body cavity is divided by three septa in the anterior body region, and there are no other septa; and 5) an eversible anal peduncle is confirmed, as has been shown by early taxonomists.

  17. Univariate and Multivariate Analysis of Agronomical Traits of Preselected Argan Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima AIT AABD

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A collection of thirty argan trees (Argania spinosa (L. Skeels, representing the Aoulouz provenance in southwest of Morocco were used to study genetic variability and selection for three years. In this study, the genetic diversity of thirty genotypes (tree mothers of argan (Argania spinosa collected from Aoulouz was evaluated using agro-morphological characters. The main objective of the study was to assess and describe with multivariate analysis the genetic diversity in order to select good candidate trees for a future breeding program. The results obtained showed a large variation for all the traits examined. Analysis of variance using general linear model provided a significant variation between genotypes. Furthermore, genotypic and phenotypic variances for quantitative traits, particularly for seed length, seed width, almond length and oil content were higher. Phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than genotypic coefficient of variation for all the characters. High heritability was recorded for oil content (97.90%, seed width (72.68% and seed length (57.55% respectively, indicating the additive gene action. In addition, a three dimensional plot based on principal coordinate analysis method was used to evaluate the performance genotypes as to the production of oil for three years. The genotypes ‘Ao-12R’, ‘Ao-7R’, ‘Ao-4R’, ‘Ao-4V’, ‘Ao-11R’, ‘Ao-8V’ and ‘Ao-7V’ were found to be the best for high oil content. Identification and selection with superior agronomic traits may be an effective method for genetic improvement of argan trees, and a first step for further breeding studies.

  18. Biominerals doped nanocrystalline nickel oxide as efficient humidity sensor: A green approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kennedy, L. [Materials Division, School of Advanced Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT) Chennai, Chennai 600 048, Tamil Nadu (India); Magesan, P. [Department of Chemistry, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India); Judith Vijaya, J. [Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Loyola College (Autonomous), Chennai 600 034, Tamil Nadu (India); Umapathy, M.J. [Department of Chemistry, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India); Aruldoss, Udaya, E-mail: udayaevs@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemistry, College of Engineering Guindy, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A new resistive type of sensor was prepared by green synthesis. • The mineral oxide from seed part of Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (HST) plant is chosen as a dopant in NiO. • The HST plant is found abundantly and commercially available in many countries. • The band gap of NH2 (Ni:HST of 0.5:0.5 weight ratio) sample is greater than prepared bulk NiO due to quantum effects. • The NH2 sample shows remarkable changes in the humidity sensing properties. - Abstract: The simple and green method is adopted for the preparation of biominerals (derived from the Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders plant seeds) doped nanocrystalline NiO. The prepared samples were subjected to instrumental analysis such as XRD, FT-IR, HR-SEM, EDX, UV–vis–DRS techniques. The surface area of all the samples was calculated from the Williamson–Hall's plot. The humidity sensitivity factor (S{sub f}) of the prepared samples was evaluated by two probe dc electrical resistance method at different relative humidity levels. The change in the resistance was observed for the entire sensor samples except pure NiO (NH0). Compared to all the other composition, HST of 0.5% in NiO (NH2 sample) enhances the sensitivity factor (S{sub f}) of about 90,000. The NH2 sample exhibited good linearity, reproducibility and response and recovery time about 210 ± 5 s and 232 ± 4 s, respectively. It is found that the sensitivity largely depends on composition, crystallite size and surface area.

  19. A PIXE and ICP-MS analysis of metallic atmospheric contaminants in tree bark tissues, a basis for biomonitoring uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, Sophie; El Alaoui-Faris, Fatima Ezzahra; Asta, Juliette; Tissut, Michel; Daudin, Laurent; Mariet, Clarisse; Ravanel, Patrick; Gaudry, André; Cherkaoui, Rajaa

    2007-05-01

    The qualitative and quantitative metallic content of tree barks of Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels were studied. Argania spinosa is an endemic species in Morocco. This tree is adapted to semi-arid climates and exposed to specific conditions of relative humidity, temperature, wind, and particle transport. Three sites were sampled in Morocco: the large town of Rabat, the harbor of Agadir, and Aït Baha, a countryside location exposed to continuous desert wind. The methodologies included (1) in situ microanalysis with proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and (2) trace element determinations by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-MS) associated with extraction procedures. Both methods allowed detection of elements coming from different bark compartments. The profile of airborne contaminants in the barks was typical of the sampling sites. The level of lead in barks sampled in Rabat reached 100 ng cm(-2), or higher, while it varied between 3 and 35 ng cm(-2) in Aït Baha. The in situ study of the microscopic structure of the bark provided the location of major and minor elements at various depths inside the bark. A differential between free deposit on the bark surface and penetrated content was found for the major and trace elements. The free deposit on the bark surface was suspected to be mostly the result of recent contamination. Part of the contaminants spread out on the surface penetrated the superficial suber. This long-term accumulation affected mostly Pb. In deeper levels, airborne elements at low concentrations and elements resulting from root uptake were concurrently present and resulted in a complex situation, as noted for zinc.

  20. Reserve carbohydrates and lipids from the seeds of four tropical tree species with different sensitivity to desiccation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Iura de Oliveira Mello

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of water content for the conservation and storage of seeds, and the involvement of soluble carbohydrates and lipids for embryo development, a comparative study was carried out among the seeds of Inga vera (ingá, Eugenia uniflora (pitanga, both classified as recalcitrant, and Caesalpinia echinata (brazilwood and Erythrina speciosa (mulungu, considered as orthodox seeds. Low concentrations of cyclitols (0.3-0.5%, raffinose family oligosaccharides (ca. 0.05% and unsaturated fatty acids (0-19% were found in the seeds of ingá and pitanga, while larger amounts of cyclitols (2-3% and raffinose (4.6-13% were found in brazilwood and mulungu, respectively. These results, in addition to higher proportions of unsaturated fatty acids (53-71% in orthodox seeds, suggested that sugars and lipids played important role in water movement, protecting the embryo cell membranes against injuries during dehydration.Os compostos de reserva das sementes, além de suprirem energia para o desenvolvimento embrionário, desempenham importantes funções relacionadas à proteção celular contra secagem e congelamento. Considerando a importância do teor de água para a conservação e para o armazenamento de sementes de espécies arbóreas e o envolvimento dos carboidratos solúveis e de lipídios nesses processos, foi realizada uma análise comparativa desses compostos em sementes de Inga vera (ingá e Eugenia uniflora (pitanga, consideradas recalcitrantes, e em Caesalpinia echinata (pau-brasil e Erythrina speciosa (mulungu, com comportamento ortodoxo. Baixas concentrações de ciclitóis (0,3-0,5%, de oligossacarídeos da série da rafinose (0,05% e de ácidos graxos insaturados (0-19% foram encontradas em sementes de ingá e pitanga, enquanto maiores quantidades de ciclitóis (2-3% e de rafinose (4,6-13% foram encontradas nas sementes de pau-brasil e mulungu, respectivamente. Estes resultados, juntamente com as altas proporções de